and Diversity Issues
149th Online Issue 

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-2013


October 14, 1947 Long Beach, CA Santa Fe Work Crew
Third in from the left is Cris Villasenor's Father.
Courtesy of the Garcia Family Photo Archives
Click for more history on this photo.

Table of Contents 
February 2013

New P.O. Box # 415
Midway City, CA 

United States
Witness to Heritage
Erasing Historic Reality 
Action Item
Hispanic Leaders
National Issues
Health Issues 


Latino Patriots
Early Latino Patriots

Family History
Orange County, CA
Los Angeles, CA
Northwestern US
Southwestern US
Middle America

East Coast
Puerto Rico
Central & South America


"Memory is a moral obligation, all the time." - J. Derrida 

     Somos Primos staff      
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Roberto Calderon, Ph,D.
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman, Ph.D
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal

   Contributors to Issue   
Mike Acosta
Nancy Lee Acosta Acevedo Adamson
Virginia Alanis 
Elroy Archuleta
Daniel D. Arreola 
David Bacon
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Larry Bystran
Jaime Cader 
Eddie Calderon, Ph.D. 
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Bill Carmena 
Angel Cervantes 
Gus Chavez
Sylvia Contreras 
Michael Curtis
Alejandro De La Garza
Linda Dishman
Fidencio Duran 
Maria Embry
Angelo Falcon
Ellen Fernandez-Sacco, Ph.D. 
Dennis O. Freytes
Mary Jo Galindo, Ph.D.
Dr. Lino García, Jr 
Wanda Garcia 
Joaquin Gracida
Debbie Gurtler
Maria-Diana Gutierrez 
Odell Harwell 
José Angel Hernández
Sergio Hernandez
Carlos Martín Herrera de la  Garza 
Patty Homo 
Paul Trejo 
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Molly Long
Ann-Marie Longenecker
José Antonio López
Charlie Lyon
Juan Marinez
Eddie Martinez 
Frank Medina
Sonia Meza Morales
Anne Mocniak
Richard Montanez. 
Dorinda Moreno
Paul Newfield III 
Lorenzo & Julia Lopez
Rafael Ojeda
Guillermo Padilla Origel 
John Palacio
Tte. Corl. Ricardo R. Palmerín Cordero.
Devon G. Peña, Ph.D. 
Jose M. Pena
Richard Perry

Annie Perez 
Marilyn Poole 
Oscar Ramirez
Sandra Ramos O'Briant 
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Armando Rendón,
Robert Renteria 
Judy Riffel 
Marc A. Rodriguez
Tom Saenz 
Benicio Samuel Sanchez
Joe Sanchez 
Tony Santiago
Javier Tobon
Paul Trejo 
August Uribe
Ernesto Uribe 
Oscar Uribe
Sal Valadez 
Val Valdez Gibbons 
Gustavo Vergara
Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr. 
Yomar Villarreal Cleary 
Cris Villasenor
Kirk Whisler 
George Yepes

Letters to the Editor

Thank You!!! for your hard work and insight to
the Hispanic culture in America and elsewhere
in the world.

My father would have been proud to know that
there was so many who would take up the
banner for the Hispanic culture, struggles of
the people and their history.

May all of you and yours be blessed, not
just this year but all of those to come.

Nancy Lee Acosta Acevedo Adamson

Hi Ms. Lozano!

A friend sent me the link to your 'Somos Primos' publication and I would so appreciate it if you could add me to the monthly notification email list.
It is wonderful to have a resource such as yours and I have enjoyed reading the articles. I am a Genealogist who is still learning and I have found It very challenging at times to research Spanish genealogy from the United States. I live in Nashville, TN and am researching Galicia, Spain, Cuba, Islas Canarias / Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
Thanks for making this publication available to so many Spanish family descendants.

Blessings, Marilyn Poole





  "Mending the Nation" by John McNaughton
   PBS Series"Latino Americans, Six-Hour Documentary Features, Premieres   Fall 2013
  Save the date:  NCLR National Conference, July 20-23, New Orleans, LA
  American History: Moving Map: "Growth of a Nation"
  Song: "God Bless America"
  Changing Process of Awarding Highest Medal
  Hispanic Breaking Barriers by Mercy Bautista-Olvera
  Tony Santiago Receives Recognition from the Wikimedia Foundation  
  Robert Renteria to Receive Two Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Awards
  11 States Now have More People on Welfare than they do Employed!
  Distribution of Foreign Aid is Very Complicated
  US Companies Layoffs and Closings, & Layoffs, Dec 28 thru Jan 7
Wal-Mart Business Know How 

"Mending the Nation" by John McNaughton

What will it take to mend and rebuild America? 
Each family member featured in "Mending the Nation" represents a different value: 


McNaughton says those five are the 
keys to rebuilding America: 

"Each value is required to make it work. 
Remove one and the whole system fails."


Landmark Six-Hour Documentary Features Interviews with Nearly 100 Latinos
and More Than 500 Years of History, Premieres Fall 2013


Benjamin Bratt, narrator
Credit: Matt Carr/Getty Images

PASADENA, CA; JANUARY 14, 2013 — Today at the Television Critics Association meeting, PBS announced actor Benjamin Bratt will narrate LATINO AMERICANS, a landmark three-part, six-hour documentary series that is set to air nationally on PBS in the fall of 2013. It is the first major documentary series for television to chronicle the rich and varied history and experiences of Latinos, who have helped shape the United States over the last 500-plus years and have become, with more than 50 million people, the largest minority group in the U.S.

Bratt, the son of a Peruvian mother and a German-English father, and a multi-award winner for his work on television’s “Law & Order” and in such films as Pinero and Traffic, will narrate LATINO AMERICANS, which is led by Emmy Award-winning series producer Adriana Bosch. A team of filmmakers will document the evolution of a new “Latino American” identity from the 1500s to the present day, with interviews with close to 100 Latinos from the worlds of politics, business and pop culture, as well as deeply personal portraits of Latinos who lived through key chapters in American history.

“It is time the Latino American history be told,” said Bosch, a Cuban-born filmmaker whose previous PBS projects include LATIN MUSIC U.S.A. and documentaries for the series AMERICAN EXPERIENCE on Presidents Dwight Eisenhower, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan and Cuban leader Fidel Castro. “Latinos are an integral part of the U.S., and this series shares the stories of a rich collection of people coming from so many different countries and backgrounds. It is the story of Latinos, and it is the story of America.”

LATINO AMERICANS features interviews with an array of individuals, including entertainer Rita Moreno, the Puerto Rican star of West Side Story and a winner of Academy, Tony, Grammy and Emmy Awards; labor leader and 2012 Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient Dolores Huerta, who in the 1960s co-founded with César Chávez the National Farm Workers Association, which later became United Farm Workers of America; Mexican-American author and commentator Linda Chávez, who became the highest-ranking woman in the Reagan White House; and Cuban singer and entrepreneur Gloria Estefan, who has sold more than 100 million solo and Miami Sound Machine albums globally.

Interview subjects also include journalist María Elena Salinas, co-anchor of “Noticiero Univision,” the nightly newscast most watched by American Latinos; columnist Juan Gonzalez, author of Harvest of Empire: A History of Latinos in America and co-founder of the Young Lords Organization, a Puerto Rican nationalist movement; Rep. Charles Gonzalez, a retired Texas congressman who from 1999-2012 served in the House of Representatives for the district that his father, Henry B. Gonzalez, represented for nearly four decades; and Herman Badillo, the Bronx politician who, in 1970, became the first Puerto Rican elected to the House of Representatives and ran six times for Mayor of New York.

The diversity of the Latino American experience is reflected in both the on-camera interview subjects and the filmmaking staff.  The production team, most of who are Latino Americans, includes individuals who are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadoran and Dominicans heritage, among others. In addition to Bratt as the narrator, award-winning composer and classical guitarist Joseph Julián González will compose the musical score for LATINO AMERICANS, and the acclaimed singer-songwriter Lila Downs will serve as the featured artist for the series, performing the closing song in LATINO AMERICANS.

González has scored films and television programs for more than 20 years. Of Mexican farm laborer origins in California’s Central Valley, González has worked with symphonies around the world and artists as varied as Quentin Tarantino, Britney Spears and Slash, and conducted orchestras at Carnegie Hall and the Sydney Opera House. “I’m excited to create the score for this series,” González said. “It’s an important project to be a part of, and it allows me to draw on the multi-faceted musical heritages of many cultures, much like the history told in LATINO AMERICANS.”

Downs, born in Oaxaca, Mexico, began performing traditional Mexican rancheras as a girl, and singing with mariachis.She has toured the world and released seven studio albums with songs in Spanish, English and several native Mexican languages, and is the winner of two Latin Grammy Awards and other industry recognition. “The importance of music as a form of cultural expression to Latinos cannot be understated,” Downs said. “It’s a privilege to have our music be a part of this series, building on that rich tradition.”

LATINO AMERICANS relies on historical accounts and personal experiences to vividly tell the stories of early settlement, conquest and immigration; of tradition and reinvention; of anguish and celebration; and of the creation of this new American identity with an influx of arrivals from Mexico, Spain, Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic and countries in Central and South America.

The series is broken into the following six chronological segments that cover the 1500s to the present day:

1. “Strangers in Their Own Land” (w.t.) spans the period from 1500-1880, as the first Spanish explorers enter North America, the U.S. expands into territories in the Southwest that had been home to Native Americans and English and Spanish colonies, and as the Mexican-American War strips Mexico of half its territories by 1848.
2. “The Pull and the Push” (w.t.) documents how the American population begins to be reshaped by the influx of people that began in 1880 and continues into the 1940s, as Cubans, Mexicans and Puerto Ricans begin arriving in the U.S. and start to build strong Latino-American communities in South Florida, Los Angeles and New York.
3. “War and Peace” (w.t.) moves into the World War II years and those that follow, as Latino Americans serve their new country by the hundreds of thousands — but still face discrimination and a fight for civil rights.
4. “The New Latinos” (w.t.) highlights the swelling immigration from Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Dominican Republic that stretches from the post-World War II years into the early 1960s as the new arrivals seek economic opportunities.
5. “Pride and Prejudice” (w.t.) details the creation of the proud “Chicano” identity, as labor leaders organize farm workers in California, and as activists push for better education opportunities for Latinos, the inclusion of Latino studies and empowerment in the political process.
6. “Peril and Promise” (w.t.) takes viewers through the past 30 years, with a second wave of Cubans arriving in Miami during the Mariel exodus and with hundreds of thousands Salvadorans, Nicaraguans and Guatemalans fleeing civil wars, death squads and unrest to go north into a new land — transforming the United States along the way. The debate over undocumented immigrants flares up, with a backlash that eventually includes calls for tightened borders, English-only laws and efforts to brand undocumented immigrants as felons. Simultaneously, the Latino influence is booming in music, sports, media, politics and entertainment. The largest and youngest growing sector of the American population, Latino Americans will determine the success of the United States in the 21st century.

Beyond the Broadcast
LATINO AMERICANS will be supported by a major bilingual public education campaign, a bilingual website with user-generated digital content, social media platforms and the development of a school-based curriculum. The production team will work with local public broadcasting stations and other groups and organizations to engage the public in the themes and history featured in the series.

LATINO AMERICANS will also include a companion book by Ray Suarez, Senior Correspondent for PBS NEWSHOUR. The book will be published by Celebra, an imprint of Penguin Group (USA), and will be released in conjunction with the broadcast premiere.

LATINO AMERICANS is a production of WETA Washington, DC; Bosch and Co., Inc.; and Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB). The series executive producers are Jeff Bieber and Dalton Delan for WETA, and Sandie Viquez Pedlow for LPB. The series producer is Adriana Bosch. The supervising producer is Salme Lopez. The producers are Nina Alvarez, Dan McCabe, Ray Telles and John Valadez. The associate producers are Sabrina Avilés, Yvan Iturriaga and Monika Navarro. For the re-enactment sequences, the producer is Cathleen O’Connell and the directors are David Belton and Sonia Fritz.

Major funding for LATINO AMERICANS is provided by Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB), Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), Ford Foundation, National Endowment for the Humanities, The Rockefeller Foundation, The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations, Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB) and The Summerlee Foundation.

Sent by Juan Marinez 


The 2013 NCLR Annual Conference, with over fifty workshops along 11 different topic tracks, four town halls, five key meal events including the Latinas Brunch and the NCLR Awards Gala, and multiple networking events is poised to be our biggest Conference yet! At the same time, NCLR is excited to bring the National Latino Family Expo® to New Orleans, a free event for everyone in the community. The National Latino Family Expo is the ideal family fair that offers educational experiences for every member of the household as well as the most cutting-edge games, prizes, live entertainment, product samples, health screenings, and more at various themed pavilions. Join us for four incredible days in New Orleans, LA, July 20–23 at the Morial Convention Center! 

Somos Primos is happy to announce that we will have a booth at at the 2013 at NCLR National Latino Family Expo® .  If you live in the New Orleans area, we would really appreciate help in manning the booth. It is quite an encouragement for residents to see locals that have done their family history research.  There is no cost.  The Latino Family Expo is open to the public for free.  Just let me know what days and hours you are available.  I guarantee you will have fun. Bring your family history to share.  You might find a cousin.


American History: Moving Map: "Growth of a Nation"  

This “moving” map of the country, showing it from the beginning of the 13 states and going through the present.  It includes the acquisitions from England and Spain, the Slave states, the Free states, a segment on the Civil war, it includes some mentions of Central and South America, etc. Click on each State for further info. 

One of the things I especially liked was showing the Indian Nations as they were during the Indian Wars: Modac, Miwok, Mujave, Nez Perce, Flat Head, Crow, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Navajo, Apache, Dakota, Sioux, Kiowa, Wichita and Comanche.

I know you'll enjoy this site, especially if you enjoy American history, but have forgotten a lot of what was learned in school. Turn on your sound, as the narration is a significant portion of the presentation.  The presentation is 10 minutes  and well worth the time, very clear visuals.   Click on the next line... (When it opens, do not click on Go at the bottom ..... click on Play at the top.)  

Sent by Bill Carmena 


The link below will take you to a video showing the very first public singing of "GOD BLESS AMERICA". 
But before you watch, you should also know the story of the song. The time was 1940. America was still in a terrible economic depression. Hitler was taking over Europe and Americans were afraid we'd have to go to war. It was a time of hardship and worry for most Americans. 

This was the era just before TV, when radio shows were HUGE, and American families sat around their radios in the evenings, listening to their favorite entertainers, and no entertainer of that era was bigger than Kate Smith.
Kate was also large in size, and the popular phrase still used today is in deference to her, "Ain't over till the fat lady sings". Kate Smith might not have made it big in the age of TV, but with her voice coming over the radio, she was the biggest star of her time. 

Kate was also very patriotic. It hurt her to see Americans so depressed and afraid of what the next day would bring. She had hope for America, and faith in her fellow Americans. She wanted to do something to cheer them up, so she went to the famous American song-writer, Irving Berlin (also wrote "White Christmas") and asked him to write a song that would make Americans feel good again about their country.

When she described what she was looking for, he said he had just the song for her. He went to his files and found a song that he had written, but never published, 22 years before - way back in 1917. He gave it to Kate Smith and she worked on it with her studio orchestra. She and Irving Berlin were not sure how the song would be received by the public, but both agreed they would not take any profits from God Bless America. Any profits would go to the Boy Scouts of America. Over the years, the Boy Scouts have received millions of dollars in royalties from this song.

This video starts out with Kate Smith coming into the radio studio with the orchestra and an audience. She introduces the new song for the very first time, and starts singing. After the first couple verses, with her voice in the background still singing, scenes are shown from the 1940 movie, "You're In The Army Now." At the 4:20 mark of the video you see a young actor in the movie, sitting in an office, reading a paper; it's Ronald Reagan.
Frank Sinatra considered Kate Smith the best singer of her time, and said when he and a million other guys first heard her sing "God Bless America" on the radio, they all pretended to have dust in their eyes as they wiped away a tear or two.

To this day, God Bless America stirs our patriotic feelings and pride in our country. Back in 1940, when Kate Smith went looking for a song to raise the spirits of her fellow Americans, I doubt she realized just how successful the results would be for her fellow Americans during those years of hardship and worry, and for many generations of Americans to follow. Now that you know the story of the song, I hope you will enjoy it and treasure it even more.



Peralta case an example of modern methods interfering with witness accounts, vets say
By John Wilkens  San Diego Union Tribune
Sunday, December 23, 2012

When it comes to the Medal of Honor, the nation's highest award for battlefield bravery, the standard has long been the same: Two eyewitnesses.  San Diego Marine Sgt. Rafael Peralta had seven eye witnesses.

His nomination, though, was rejected earlier this month by the Pentagon for the second time in four years, raising questions about whether modern sensibilities - CSI meets G.I. Joe - will forever alter how combat heroes are evaluated and rewarded.

On one hand are the witnesses, who reported seeing Peralta, already on the ground with a gunshot wound to the head, pull a live grenade to his body and shield his squad mates from the blast during combat with insurgents in Fallujah.

On the other hand are forensic experts who doubt whether he could have consciously smothered the grenade and say the evidence shows it exploded next to his body, not under.

The two sides can't both be right.
The ongoing debate has riled some active and retired military, who see the Peralta decision as bureaucrats mucking with a time-tested, boots-on-the-ground culture that inherently trusts the word of those who were there.
"It's such a travesty," said Doug Sterner, a Vietnam-era Army veteran who now runs "Home of the Heroes," a combat-valor website. "I don't know what business a pathologist has deciding who gets the Medal of Honor."

Some also see the decision as part of a troubling pattern that has brought comparatively few of the top medals to service members fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan - 10 in 10 years. World War II, by contrast, resulted in 467 medals in four years, although it also had about 16 times as many Americans fighting in it.

"The urban warfare they're doing over there is some of the most difficult combat there is," said retired Marine Col. Robert Modrzejewski, a Tierrasanta resident who received the Medal of Honor for actions in Vietnam in 1966. "It seems to me there should have been a lot more 

Medals of Honor by now."
To other observers, the case may be an example of the combat-valor process catching up with the outside world, where a wide body of research and a string of criminal-case exonerations have challenged the reliability of eyewitness testimony.

"Combat is extremely stressful, and in extremely stressful situations, eyewitnesses - even multiple eyewitnesses - can make mistakes," said Elizabeth Loftus, a UC Irvine professor and a leading expert on memory.

'An unselfish act'
Peralta, 25, wasn't supposed to be part of the eight-man Marine squad going house-to-house in Fallujah on Nov. 15, 2004, searching for insurgents. The platoon scout volunteered because the squad was short-handed.

At about 8:30 a.m., moving through their seventh house of the day, they pushed open a door to a backroom and were greeted by muzzle flashes. The Marines shot back. Caught in the crossfire, Peralta went down, shot accidentally behind the left ear by a round - possibly a ricochet - from a Marine's M-16.

According to other Marines who were there, the insurgents fled, but not before tossing a fragmentation grenade through the doorway. The Marines said it landed near Peralta's head, and he reached over and pulled it to his body.

When it exploded, it wasn't as loud as it usually is, buttressing the idea that it had been smothered, several of the Marines reported. Three were injured by the shrapnel. When they went to check on Peralta, he was dead. A piece of the grenade fuse was embedded in his flak jacket.

Almost immediately, efforts began to memorialize the slain sergeant's actions. "As soon as we were done fighting that day, I sat down with all my guys and we had a moment of silence," Sgt. Nicholas Jones said in a 2007 U-T interview. "I told them, 'Don't ever forget what just happened. Don't forget what he did for us. It's something that will be in the history books.'?"

The Marines wrote statements about what they saw and did. "Sgt. Peralta saved a lot of lives by taking as much of the blast from the grenade as he could," one of them wrote.

"If Sgt. Peralta was still alive," wrote another, "I would thank him a million times. It was an unselfish act. He didn't have to do what he did but he loved us."

There were some discrepancies in the eyewitness accounts. Several said Peralta pulled in the grenade with his right hand; some said it was his left. Some said he fell with his right cheek resting on the ground; others said it was his left.
But Loftus, the memory expert, said differences in the "peripheral details" are common in highly stressful situations like combat, traffic accidents and violent crimes.

What's more important to consider, she said, is whether the seven Marines who reported seeing Peralta grab the grenade arrived at their accounts independently. Did they share impressions in the immediate aftermath, inadvertently contaminating each other's stories?
Her research and that of others has shown how malleable the memory is - and, in certain cases, how wrong it can be. DNA testing has cleared dozens of people convicted of crimes based largely on eyewitness testimony that turned out to be false.

In the Peralta case, there was a suggestion by one Marine that a sergeant had pressured the others into adopting the grenade story, according to the medal-nomination paperwork. The sergeant was interviewed and denied leaning on the others. Investigators "found nothing to corroborate" the allegation.

The nomination made its way through the process, approved by the Marine commandant and the secretary of the Navy. And then it was sent to the Pentagon.

'Margin of doubt'

Earning a Medal of Honor, according to military regulations, requires an act of personal bravery or self-sacrifice that is conspicuously above and beyond the call of duty. It has to involve the risk of death. Historically, smothering a grenade qualifies.

The evidence is supposed to be incontestable, with "no margin of doubt," and that's where Peralta's nomination ran into trouble.
The medical examiner who did the autopsy questioned whether the head wound rendered Peralta incapable of recognizing and reaching for the grenade. The Marines, though, had statements from two Naval neurosurgeons and a Naval neurologist in San Diego who said that despite his injury, Peralta could have done what the witnesses said he did.

There were also questions about where the grenade was when it exploded, with the autopsy indicating it was probably a couple of feet to the left of Peralta's left knee, not under his body. To which the Marines asked: If that was true, how come the others in the house weren't more seriously injured?

Concerned about the contradictory evidence, then-Defense Secretary Robert Gates appointed an independent, five-person panel to vet the case. Lt. Cmdr. Nate Christensen, a Defense Department spokesman, said outside analysts are used on a variety of issues to assist the secretary. But it's apparently the first time one has been convened for a Medal of Honor nomination.

The panel included a retired commanding general from the Iraq War; a civilian neurosurgeon and two civilian forensic pathologists, all retired military; and a retired Army helicopter pilot who received the Medal of Honor during the Vietnam War.

According to a Pentagon "information paper" on the panel, each member reviewed the medical reports and eyewitness accounts and interviewed various experts before independently concluding that the evidence did not support giving Peralta the medal.
Among their findings:

There was no discernible "star pattern" of burning on the flak jacket or gear vest, indicating the grenade was some distance away when it detonated.

There were fragmentation injuries to Peralta's arms, hands, legs and face, but none to his internal organs.
The gunshot injury to the brain probably left Peralta unconscious and at least partially blind, and the absence of bleeding in certain areas of his head indicates he was dead before the grenade went off.

"None of these findings in isolation precludes the possibility that Sgt. Peralta performed a heroic action," according to the information paper. "However, the totality of the medical evidence clearly places a 'margin of doubt' on his neurological ability to perform this voluntary act."
But forensic science, like eyewitness testimony, has its limitations. Not every pathologist agrees on what the evidence says - a fact familiar to anyone who has watched high-profile murder trials and their parades of dueling experts.

After Gates denied Peralta the Medal of Honor in 2008 - he was awarded the Navy Cross instead - an attorney representing the slain Marine's family asked Vincent Di Maio, the former chief medical examiner of San Antonio, to review the case.
His conclusion: Peralta grabbed the grenade.

"No vital area such as the brain stem and basal ganglia were injured," he wrote. "Unless a vital area is injured, one should be extremely careful in giving the opinion that an individual was absolutely unable to perform an action."
A precedent?

Rep. Duncan Hunter, a former Marine who has been pushing for four years for Peralta to get the Medal of Honor, said he has heard from military leaders concerned about what the process used in this case says about the future.

"When you take the burden of proof off the eyewitnesses who are there in theater, in combat, in the room, literally in this case the men whose lives were saved - when you take that away and say let's put it to a panel back here in the States, that's not a good thing," Hunter said.
"The people who are fearful of what this may portend are former combat guys. They have four stars on their collars. They are worried about what this means for the award process when you can second-guess the guys in theater - not just second-guess, but disprove through a panel what they say happened."

Christensen, the Pentagon spokesman, said no precedent has been set.

"Each case must be evaluated on its own merit," he said. "The fact that this case included an independent review infers no change in the way Medal of Honor packages will be reviewed in the future."

He added, "Two separate secretaries of defense (first Gates, then Leon Panetta) have now personally reviewed the case, clearly showing that the decision process is not taken lightly."

Hunter said he plans to ask President Barack Obama to intervene next year. There's a precedent for that. When Jimmy Carter was in the White House, he overruled the Pentagon and awarded the Medal of Honor to Anthony Casamento for actions 38 years earlier on Guadalcanal during World War II.

The military had recommended the Navy Cross, arguing that Casamento lacked what has long been the standard for the top award: eyewitnesses. They had all died in combat.

Sent by Gus Chavez 


Second Volume, 14th Issue

By Mercy Bautista-Olvera  

The 14th issue in the series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” focuses on contributions of Hispanic leadership in United States government. Their contributions have improved not only the local community but the country as well. Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example; illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.

Ted Cruz: United States Senator, Texas  
Marie Lopez Rogers:
 Mayor of Avondale, Arizona and President of the National League of Cities
Bob Archuleta:  Member of the United States Military Academy Board of Visitors.
Joseph K. Cervantes: 
United States, New Mexico State Senator, 31st District  
Jessie Ulibarri:  
Colorado State Senator, 21st District

Ted Cruz  

Last November Ted Cruz was elected to the U.S. Senate for the state of Texas.

Rafael Edward “Ted” Cruz is a Cuban American. He was born in Calgary, Canada,   his parents Rafael Ruiz and Eleanor Darrah worked in the petroleum business in Canada. His parents returned to Houston, Texas, when Ted was four years old. 

Cruz’ father came to United States after fighting in the Cuban Revolution. His mother Eleanor, an American was raised in a family of Irish and Italian descent, in Delaware.    

He is married to Heidy Nelson, the couple have two daughters; Caroline and Catherine. Cruz’ wife, currently works for the Investment Management Division of Goldman, Sachs & Co. She previously worked in the White House for former U.S. Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice.  

Cruz attended high school at Faith West Academy in Katy, Texas and graduated from Second Baptist High School in Houston. In 1992, he earned a Bachelor of Arts Degree from Princeton University and in 1995, a Jurist Degree, magna cum laude, from Harvard Law School.  

Cruz served as law clerk to William Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the United States and J. Michael Luttig of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. He was the first Hispanic to clerk for a Chief Justice of the United States.  

During the George W. Bush administration campaign, Cruz served as Domestic Policy Advisor.  

In a 1999, “Newsweek” magazine issue Cruz was selected as one of the “20 Young Hispanic Americans on the Rise”, and in a 2008 issue of “National Law Journal” as one of the “50 Most Influential Minority Lawyers in America.” 

From 2004 to 2009, Cruz served as an Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Texas School of Law in Austin, Texas.  He taught U. S. Supreme Court litigation.

From 2003 to May 2008, Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott appointed Cruz to serve as Solicitor General. He was the first Hispanic Solicitor General in Texas, the youngest and the longest tenure in Texas.    

Cruz previously served as the Director of the Office of Policy Planning at the Federal Trade Commission, and an Associate Deputy Attorney General at the United States Department of Justice 

On November 14, 2012, Cruz was appointed Vice-chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee.  

Marie Lopez- Rogers  

After a vote at the National League of Cities (NLC) annual conference in Boston, Massachusetts Marie Lopez-Rogers, the mayor of Avondale, Arizona, (Maricopa County) was named   president of the National League of Cities, the organization which seeks to help city leaders build better communities. Lopez-Rogers, is the first Latina in history to lead the organization, and the second Latino since former San Antonio Mayor, Henry Cisneros in 1986.

Lopez-Rogers is married and the mother of three sons, and grandmother of six children.

Marie Lopez-Rogers spent her childhood growing up in labor camps and picking cotton alongside her migrant farm worker parents and grandparents in the Arizona desert. It was in those cotton fields that Marie's father would tell her, 'If you don't want to be working in this heat, you better stay in school” and she did.  

From 2001 to 2003 she served in the National League of Cities Board of Directors and was elected as the organization’s Second Vice President in 2010.

In July 2011, President Obama brought Lopez-Rogers up as example of the American Dream while addressing the National Council of La Raza’s annual conference in Washington D.C. President Obama stated,  "because of the tireless, backbreaking work of her parents, because of their willingness to struggle and sacrifice so that one day their children wouldn't have to, Marie became the first in her family to go to college, and, interestingly, she now works at the very site where she used to pick cotton, except now City Hall sits there and Marie is the town's mayor."  

The National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials (NALEO) also lauded Lopez Rogers for understanding what can be accomplished through hard work.

In her speech Lopez-Rogers stated: "I am deeply honored to be chosen to help lead NLC for the coming year." She further stated in a written statement. "There has never been a more important time for our nation's cities and towns. Our communities are constantly evolving and we as leaders must be increasingly more innovative, flexible, and resourceful.”  

The National League of Cities’ announcement about her selection stated, “In the yearlong post of president, Lopez-Roger’s duties will include shaping the organization's agenda and overseeing advocacy and other NLC activities.”  

Lopez-Rogers was recently elected to lead the Maricopa Association of Governments   (the regional planning agency for the Maricopa region).

“One important priority will be for us to identify the corridor’s key economic drivers and find ways to grow those opportunities,” stated Lopez-Rogers after she was named new head of the Association. “One key area of focus for us will be working to improve our trade relations with Mexico and Canada and enhance the flow of commerce into Arizona.”


Bob Archuleta  

Mayor Pro Tem and City Council member Bob Archuleta of Pico Rivera, California has been appointed by President Obama to serve as board member in the United States Military Academy Board of Visitors.

He is married with five children, and has seven grandchildren. He is a proud father of two sons who have graduated from West Point. His son Brandon graduated as class President of 2005, and is currently serving as captain in the U.S. Army. His son Mathew graduated as Vice President, class of 2010, and is currently serving as a 1st Lieutenant in the U.S. Army.

From 1953 to 1966, Bob Archuleta served in the Army. He was a reserve Police Officer with the Montebello Police Department (1988-1998). He is a former Vietnam veteran who   served with the 82nd Airborne Division. He has continued to represent the interests of millions of veterans throughout Los Angeles County and around the nation.  

Archuleta attended Rio Hondo College and graduated from the College Police Academy. In March 2007, Archuleta was elected to the Pico Rivera City Council. This was his first elected local government position. For 17 years, Archuleta has served as a Los Angeles County Commissioner of Military Veteran’s Affairs and currently holds the position of commission Chairman. He also served as chairman of the U.S. Small Business Administration Advisory Committee on Veterans Business affairs. Currently Archuleta is the Director of Business development and Operations with Prudential California Realty and board member with the Montebello Board of Realtors.

Pico Rivera Mayor Pro Tem Bob Archuleta regularly emceed the Dignity Memorial Vietnam Wall Ceremonies at the Rose Hills Cemetery in Whittier, California.

Congresswoman Grace Flores Napolitano, (38th District) was pleased to announce, in conjunction with President Barrack Obama, the appointment of Bob J. Archuleta to the United States Military Academy Board of Visitors. “I commend the President for recognizing such a respected leader of our community. Bob’s dedication to recruiting our brightest youngsters, and continued leadership for our veterans will be a welcome addition to the Board of Visitors. I congratulate Bob and with him much success in his new role.”   

In his acceptance speech Bob Archuleta stated: “I am so proud, and honored to be selected as a presidential appointee. I receive it on behalf of all the veterans of our nation and the men and women serving our country today. I’m looking forward to working with the President and his Administration to improve the education and training at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.” He further stated, “I would like to thank everyone who supported me in this appointment. I thank God for the opportunity to serve our country and the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.” 

The Board of Visitors is an oversight board comprised of 15 individuals, four U.S. Senators, five U.S. Representatives, and six individuals who are personally appointed by the President. The Board makes recommendations on the operations of the Military Academy, including curriculum, morale, equipment, fiscal affairs, and all other matters related to the academy. Archuleta is the first Hispanic-American to be appointed to the prestigious Board of Visitors since its inception in 1972.

Archuleta is the recipient of a “Congressional Recognition” Award, and has received proclamations for his service to the nation’s veterans from the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. His efforts have also been acknowledged by the Vietnam Veterans of America, Brothers of Vietnam, the Hispanic Airborne Association, Veterans of Foreign Wars, and the 11th Airborne Division Association.


Joseph K. Cervantes  

Joseph K. Cervantes was elected as New Mexico State Senator.  

Joseph K. Cervantes was born in Las Cruces, New Mexico. He and his wife Jennifer; have three daughters; Alexandra, Isabella, and Juliana.

In 1983, Cervantes earned a Bachelor’s Degree of Art Degree from the University of New Mexico. In 1985, he earned a Master’s Degree in Architecture from California Polytechnic University, and in 1991, a Jurist Doctorate from the University of New Mexico.  

In 1988, Cervantes was elected as National Delegate for the Democratic National Convention. In 1991, Cervantes worked for Modrall Sperling Roehl Harris & Sisk Law firm in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In 1998, Cervantes was first elected to public office to serve as County Commissioner, and in 2000, he served as State Democrat Party Treasurer.  

In 2001, Cervantes was appointed to the U.S. House of Representing, New Mexico’s 52nd District, and re-elected in five successive campaigns through 2012 and Congress  was appointed as Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, Vice Chairman of the House rules Committee, and Chairman of the Interim Water & Natural Resources committee. Cervantes is a member of the New Mexico State Bar, the ABA Litigation Section and is a former member of the Inn of Courts.  

In 2012, Cervantes announced he would seek the New Mexico Senate seat vacated by the retirement of state Senator Cynthia Nava.

In his 20 year career Cervantes has become an accomplished business owner, and lawyer representing hundreds of cases before the state’s Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals.

Jessie Ulibarri

Jessie Ulibarri is the newly elected Colorado State Senator for the 2nd District.  

Born in Commerce City, Colorado, and raised in Denver, Colorado.

He is a 3rd generation Adams County resident, and a working dad raising two kids. “I know the struggles facing our community. I have worked in nonprofit advocacy for the last decade, advancing economic policies that build opportunity for all people in Colorado and I want to continue that work in the State Senate,” stated Ulibarri.

Jessie has a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Spanish (business translation/interpretation), and Ethnic Studies from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He served as a Legislative Director of the Colorado University Student Union.  

Ulibarri has served for the Joint Voluntary Agency (JVA) for 11years, nonprofit management organizations to provide the highest level of service. He worked with the organization helping with their needs and offers suggestions for growth. He also provides training and capacity building related to nonprofit advocacy, civic engagement, community organizing, and strategic communication.

From 2010 to 2011 Jessie Ulibarri served as Public Policy Director for the American Civil Liberties Union. He has also served as a board member for One Colorado’s Political Action Committee, the Colorado Latino Forum, and the Colorado Democratic Party’s State Central Committee.  

Ulibarri states that “the top issues are Building economic self-sufficiency for all Colorado residents, enhancing educational opportunities and reforming our state Constitutional fiscal policies,” stated Ulibarri.

Ulibarri previously served as the chair of the Board for Colorado Progressive Coalition. He is a member of the board for Colorado Jobs with Justice, the Community Relations Advisory Board for the city and county of Denver.



Tony Santiago Receives Recognition from the Wikimedia Foundation 

One day, I asked myself, "Who are we, as Puerto Ricans? What contributions have we made to society?" That's when I decided to become a writer. When I was growing up in some of the rougher parts of New York City, the history books usually failed to mention Hispanic people. Because of that, children like me lacked role models and heroes, or a sense of our own history.  

Wikipedia has provided me with a tool to help. Actually, it was my son who first got me interested in Wikipedia; I helped him on a few articles, and then I started writing my own. To date, I've authored more than 600 articles on Puerto Rican statesmen, religious leaders, political activists, business people, visual artists, military figures, inventors and more.


When I was younger, I used to wonder with my friends why some of us Boricua had Irish and Italian last names. It didn’t make sense. Then I did some research and I found out about immigration in the 19th century to Puerto Rico, so I shared that knowledge on Wikipedia.  

One of my articles has been viewed more than 14,000 times in the past 30 days. When I think about the hundreds and thousands of people reading and learning, it makes me proud of my work on Wikipedia. I feel like I'm making a difference.  

I hear from people, too. I've received so many letters from students and college professors. I've been consulted for documentaries. I was recognized in a speech by Luis Fortuño, the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico before the United States Congress (now the governor of Puerto Rico). I even met a former president of the United States! It’s just me in front of the computer — think about that! But to be honest, I write for the love of it. For the love of my people, and for the love of writing.  

On Wikipedia, you've got to present a balanced view in your article. You can't be biased, and you can only use reliable sources. Wikipedia helps people get to the truth of things.  

I can appreciate this. I'm a father, and a grandfather. I hope Wikipedia will give my children and grandchildren a chance to use what they've learned, and to make this world a better one.   

Thank you, Tony Santiago

Antonio Santiago now lives in Phoenix, Arizona. He and his wife have three children and four grandchildren. He served in the US Marine Corps from 1969 to 1971, and in the reserves until 1975; his service earned him the nickname “Tony the Marine,” and inspired his writings on soldiers and military history. He also writes for El Boricua and Somos Primos, monthly cultural magazines.

Find out how you can contribute, go to:   


Robert Renteria to Receive Two Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Awards 

Chicago Civic Leader Robert Renteria to Receive Two, Distinguished Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Awards 
Illinois civic leader, Robert Renteria has been selected to receive two Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., awards for excellence in his work in anti-violence education, youth initiatives and community change. Renteria will be honored by Reverend Jesse Jackson's coalition, PUSH Excel on January 15, 2013 at 8 a.m. at the UIC Forum, 725 W. Roosevelt Road, Chicago, Illinois. 

On Saturday, January 26, 2013, he is scheduled to receive his second Dr. King award from Chicago's Illinois Commission on Diversity and Human Relations (ICDHR). The event will take place at Chicago Hilton and Towers, 720 S. Michigan Avenue at 7 p.m.

PUSH Excel and the Illinois Commission on Diversity and Human Relations cite community leadership and diversity as major characteristics of their respective recipients.

Robert Renteria is said to be the first Latino to be the recipient of two prestigious Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., awards at the national level for many selfless accomplishments. 

He has been instrumental in expanding youth and anti-violence initiatives while contributing to the work of many other proponents. He is also being recognized for his effectiveness to transcend culture by reaching youth from different backgrounds and countries. 

The civic leader is also the author of the “2012 Best Graphic Novel”, Mi Barrio. His inspirational and hard-hitting comic book addresses youth issues in Latin America, Spain and the United States. 

"Robert Renteria has been noticed and as a staunch believer in education," stated 
Michero B. Washington, President of the Illinois Commission on Diversity and Human Relations. "He is joining a list of illustrious leaders throughout the country, and based upon your work in education and community change, we will be honoring him with the Martin Luther King, Jr., Excellence in Educational Leadership and Reform. Dr. King would be proud."
Renteria addresses youth issues through his Barrio Foundation and uses Barrio book series and school-based and faith-based curricula to inspire, motivate and teach teens and at-risk youth how to make better choices. He says the Barrio movement will help to change the landscape by offering The Barrio Project’s effective teaching tools.
His books and comprehensive non-generic bilingual programs have impacted hundreds of thousands of youth across America and in 14 other countries.

"We're honoring Robert Renteria at this historic occasion because of the outstanding civil and human rights work he has done in the tradition of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr." 

-PUSH Excel Organization
"I am truly humbled. It is a great honor to receive two awards from two prestigious organizations. Our kids are victims to broken systems," stated Renteria. "The Barrio Movement is helping to change the landscape for youth across America by offering Barrio as teaching tools. A large part of our mission is social emotional learning. 
“I am throwing down the gauntlet and am calling on community leaders, politicians and corporations to help the Barrio Foundation exchange From the Barrio to the Classroom and the Barrio books for all the guns, knives, drugs, needles, booze and even the cigarettes,” he concluded.

For additional information about Robert Renteria or The Barrio Project, visit , email robert@fromthebarrio(dot)com  or call 312-933-5619.

11 States Now have More People on Welfare than they do Employed!



These 11 States now have More People on Welfare than they do Employed!

Sent by 
Yomar Villarreal Cleary
and Oscar Ramirez


Editor:  The  information below is a compilation of items sent by different readers, unfortunately,  I neglected to transfer in the contributors as I was gathering it.  Sorry and thank you, at least you know that it is being shared.

The U.S. is notorious for giving foreign aid. One of the ways the U.S. tries to get other countries to get in line with our preferred policies is thru foreign aid.

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) states that its function is to provide "economic, development and humanitarian assistance around the world in support of the foreign policy goals of the United States." Nevertheless, the effectiveness of foreign aid remains up for debate, 

U.S. aid, which acquired an increasingly military flavor during the Regan years, is now concentrated on a relatively small number of countries of special political importance.

In 1970, the world’s richest countries agreed to give 0.7% of their GNI (Gross National Income) as official international development aid, annually. Since that time, despite billions given each year, rich nations have rarely met their actual promised targets. For example, the US is often the largest donor in dollar terms, but ranks amongst the lowest in terms of meeting the stated 0.7% target.

Foreign Aid knowledge is out of my league but there is very interesting dialogue on-line. We all know what all the Negative Nellies on Fox News say about aid to other countries but below are some thoughts from other Americans on the subject. Seems that doing away with 1% in Humanitarian aid would not balance our budget.

Foreign aid is only about 1% of our total budget. There are some very intricately interwoven subtleties in foreign policies and diplomacies to which many of us are not privy. The largest recipients are strategic allies such as Egypt, Israel, Russia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq. 

The U.S. was the largest single donor in a global campaign that eradicated smallpox from the world by 1977. 

The U.S. provided funding for a program to prevent river blindness in West Africa. As a result of these efforts, 18 million children now living in the program’s region are free from the risk of river blindness…..great humanitarian effort ! 

It may seem like a lot but the U.S. only gives about 25 cents per American per year in foreign aid !!! 

 If the U.S. didn’t give foreign aid, someone else would step in and take over. Witness China's investments in Africa, where they're helping to build dams for irrigation and drinking water. If the US withheld all foreign aid, dictators from other countries could step in and begin offering their help ….. thus gaining allies.

Money and aid is given to impoverished nations who are unable to pay it back. That is then used as leverage by the money manipulators and the global corporations. 

Foreign aid is more like a foreign investment. · There are several functions of foreign aid: 
it may be given as a signal of diplomatic approval
to strengthen a military ally
to reward a government for behavior desired by the donor
to extend the donor's cultural influence
to provide infrastructure needed by the donor for resource extraction from the recipient country or to gain other kinds of commercial access. Humanitarianism and altruism are, nevertheless, significant motivations for the giving of aid. 

Today the country that is the largest recipient of U.S. aid is Iraq, followed by Israel. 
1. Israel, $2.4 billion
2. Egypt, $1.7 billion
3. Pakistan, $798 million
4. Jordan, $688 million
5. Kenya, $586 million
6. South Africa, $574 million
7. Mexico, $551 million
8. Colombia, $541 million
9. Nigeria, $491 million
10. Sudan, $479 million

*According to Heater & Berridge, Israel has been receiving 12-13% of all American charitable foreign aid since 1979. Could it be its strategic location???

2012 total budget $3.729 trillion

1% foreign aid $37.29 billion

300 million people in U.S. thus approximately $124 for every person,  
                thus about 500 times more than the wrongly reported >  $0.25 



Let’s put some of these “ENTITLEMENTS” on the table and call them what they are and put a cap on them. 
Salary of retired US Presidents .............$180,000 FOR LIFE .
Salary of House/Senate .......................$174,000 FOR LIFE. 
Salary of Speaker of the House .............$223,500 FOR LIFE! 
Salary of Majority/Minority Leader ...... $193,400 FOR LIFE! 

Average Salary of a teacher ............... $40,065. 
Average Salary of Soldier DEPLOYED IN AFGHANISTAN .......$38,000. 

Nancy Pelosi will retire as a Congress Person at $174,000 Dollars a year for LIFE. 
She has retired as SPEAKER at $223,500 a year. 
PLUS she will receive an additional $193,400 a year as Minority Leader. 
That’s $803,700 Dollars a year for LIFE including FREE medical which is not available to US...the taxpayers?

Sent by Odell Harwell 


US Companies Layoffs and  Closings, & Layoffs, Dec 28 thru Jan 7
All companies listed includes a hyperlinks to click on and get more information.

Closings: January 7 , 2013
Andrew's Hallmark a long-time fixture in Moses Lake WA

Update: The Cottage Exchange in Dixon CA

Merial Select Berlin MD Plant

The Golden Guernsey plant in Waukesha WI

Mills Hardware in Perrysburg Ohio

Ben and Jerry’s, 5 S. Main St. in Pittsfield

Layoffs  January 6 , 2013
St. Rose Dominican Hospitals - 100

Columbia River Mental Health Service - 16

G&T Conveyor Co. Operations in Tavares FL

The Cupcake Spot bakery shop has shuttered its South MacDill Avenue location FL?

Solano AIDS Coalition Thrift Store CA

Takk for Maten Café on East Superior Street in Duluth MN

Kids World located near Shopko at Northeast Bend River Mall Drive Bend Oregon

Ruby's Diner on Seal Beach CA

Charly's Market in Eau Claire WI

Lloyd's Hallmark store in the Barracks Road Shopping Center Charlottesville VA

Grant Family Farms

Layoffs January 5 , 2013
Hospice of Siouxland IA - 28

The Everett Herald - 6

SC Dept. HEC - 45

St. Tammany Parish Office La - 14

Extreme Networks - 85 Layoffs Possible

NY State Thurway - Warns of Layoffs

Havertys Furniture in Roanoke VA Closing May 31

Northview Senior Living Center in Johnstown Ohio

Breakell Inc in Roanoke VA

Lord’s Department Store in Medfield MA

2 Warner Robins day care centers GA

Arico’s Hallmark Shop at 12410 Seal Beach Blvd CA

Florida Institute for Neurologic Rehabilitation
Avery Air Inc - Chapter 7

Layoffs January 4 , 2013
Accuray - 13% of Workforce

US Public Schools - 11,000 in Dec.

Alpha Natural Resources - 1,200

United Space Alliance - 111 Today

Russell Athletic #9 Mill Alex City AL - 180+

Washington Times - 20 Layoffs Today

BlueScout Technologies - 9

Update: Belmont County DJFS - 15

Miami-Dade prisons FL - Layoffs Coming?

Hatteras Yachts New Bern NC - 105

Santander Bank ( International ) 3,000

Spain's Parador hotel Chain - 350

The Henry Lee Willis Center in Worchester Mass. - 158 layoffs

Lincolnton Furniture Company

Zazios Italian Restaurant & Bar in Birmingham MI

Henredon Furniture is closing an upholstered furniture plant in Mount Airy NC

The Hobby Craft Etc. at 819 N. Main St. in Corsicana

H3 Pet Supply in Shelton CT

Blair’s Hallmark in Bolivar MO

BabyBuzz to Close Los Gatos CA Store

TiGeorges’ Chicken in Downtown LA

The Cottonwood Cinema in Cottonwood AZ?

Burger's Market Louisville KY

Brown's TV and Appliance in Northborough MA

The Burns Studio in Boise ID

Cub Foods Closing Trotwood Store Ohio

Frosty Sparkling Beverages in Fall River Mass.

The Staples Canada Inc. store at Downsview Mall in Lower Sackville ( Canada )

Layoffs  January 3 , 2013
City of La Quinta CA - OK's 22 layoffs

SN Servicing Corporation - 16

Tendril Networks Inc. - 59

Liberty Medical - More Layoffs Coming

Ralcorp Holdings, Inc. is closing its Silver Creek and Dunkirk manufacturing Facilities NY - 375 layoffs

H&M Closing 2 Rochester NY - Greece Ridge and Eastview mall stores

Macy - Closing 6 Stores

Mockingbird restaurant in Staunton VA

The Eddie Bauer Outlet at the Valley Mall Plaza WA?

The HomeGoods store on Richmond Highway VA

Larmon Photo, the camera store in downtown Wayne

Update: Steel Parts Manufacturing Inc in Indiana?

Jitters Doughnut Shop 417 Pearl St in Sioux City IA

P&P Garden and Hardware Center on North Slappey in Albany GA

FYE Music Store in North Beverly Plaza - Announced Dec 14th

The US post office on the grounds of Napa State Hospital

MicroPhage Inc.

Layoffs January 2 , 2013
Richmond County HR Dept. GA - 7

NREIS - 215

Update: Camden PD - Layoff Plan Approved

Christmas Place Properties TN - 40

Update: 12 Hudson Valley Catholic schools NY - Thurs Deadline Plan , Or will Close

Macy's is closing its Downtown St. Paul store

Mother Nurture Store in Lexington Ky

Friendly’s Restaurant in Sangertown Square New Hartford NY

Update: 37 Philadelphia Public Schools May Close in June

Groff Tire in Welland ( International )

National Real Estate Information Services in Pittsburgh

Justice IGA, in Grayson, Ky

4 Her Boutique in Wyandotte MI

Soccer Plus Stores in Palatine and Libertyville IL

Beaumont Club in Westport

Appalachian Tire on Princeton Avenue Bluefield Store in W.V

Coldwater Creek is closing its store at Bayshore Town Center, in Glendale WI

Hannah House in Lebanon, N.H

Butler Business School and two sister schools in the state. Bridgeport CT

Savvy Spaces in Charlotte NC

The Piggly Wiggly, at 500 2nd Loop Road, in Florence SC

Yahoo ended its online services in South Korea

Sinclair’s gift store on Water Street St George ( International )

G&R Feed and Grain Co.

Layoffs January 1 , 2013
Detroit - 500 Layoffs Loom

Illinois Dept.of FPR - 18 Layoffs

Molly’s Bistro in Downtown Midland MI

Bruce Variety in Bethesda MD

Ezzell’s Breakfast House in Wilmington NC

Barnes & Noble book store in Woodland Hills at 6100 Topanga Canyon Blvd CA

Carmody's Restaurant at 421 Main St. Bennington. VT?

Kmart store on Peters Creek Parkway NC

The Manassas News & Messenger - Prints Final Edition

Baltimore Behavioral Health Inc

LodgeNet Interactive Corp.


Layoffs December 31 , 2012
Evaluations Solutions - 50

Halifax Irving Shipyard ( Canada) - 32

Gramercy Gallery in Medina Ohio

The Great Harvest Bread Co. in New Albany

Grisanti Hardware in Atascadero CA

Update: Philadelphia School District Plans to Close Dozens of Schools

Llewellyn’s Office Furniture in New Philadelphia Ohio

Closings December 30 , 2012
Herb's Hobbies and Crafts in Doylestown PA

Ponderosa Steakhouse in the Park Hills Plaza PA

Gulistan Carpet is closing its operations in Aberdeen and Wagram NC - 400 Job Cuts

Shoppe Flare in Paoli PA - Moving to Online Store

Six-0-One Donut Shop in Pittsburg KS?

Porricelli Food Mart in Trumbull CT

Wanda’s Sugar Shack in Milford CT

Closings December 29 , 2012
Staples the office supply store at 789 E. Lancaster Ave. in Villanova PA

Gmelin Flowers, in the Preston area of Cambridge ( International )

Clovis gun store in Clovis Cali.

The Restoration Hardware store at Mayfair mall in Wauwatosa

Layoffs December 28 , 2012
Commerce Corp - Some Layoffs Reported
Lebanon County PA - Approves 48 Layoffs

East Cleveland Ohio PD - 15 to 19

Huron Township PD - Some Layoffs

Update: Omnicare Inc Closing Waukesha Facility - 78 Jobs Lost

Office of Motor Vehicles building in Algiers La.

Crass Couture in Knoxville Tenn.

Chianti Italian Restaurant in Conyers GA

My Aunt’s House in Winston Salem NC

US Post Office in Crestwood Mall MO

Sent by Odel Harwell



Wal-Mart Business Know How 

Checked with snopes that says fairly accurate.

1. Americans spend $36,000,000 at Wal-Mart Every hour of every day.
2. This works out to $20,928 profit every minute!
3. Wal-Mart will sell more from January 1 to St. Patrick's Day (March 17th) than Target sells all year.
4. Wal-Mart is bigger than Home Depot + Kroger + Target +Sears + Costco + K-Mart combined.
5. Wal-Mart employs 1.6 million people, is the world's largest private employer. 
6. Wal-Mart is the largest company in the history of the world.
7. Wal-Mart now sells more food than Kroger and Safeway combined, and keep in mind they did this in only fifteen years.
8. During this same period, 31 big supermarket chains sought bankruptcy.
9. Wal-Mart now sells more food than any other store in the world.
10. Wal-Mart has approx 3,900 stores in the USA of which 1,906 are Super Centers; this is 1,000 more than it had five years ago.
11. This year 7.2 billion different purchasing experiences will occur at Wal-Mart stores. (Earth's population is about 6.5 Billion.)
12. 90% of all Americans live within fifteen miles of a Wal-Mart.

You may think that I am complaining, but I am really laying the ground work for suggesting that MAYBE we should hire the guys who run Wal-Mart to fix the economy.  Only 8% of the current Cabinet have business background. MAYBE that is the problem.

Sent by Anne Mocniak 


The Note by Wanda Garcia
An Illustrative Past: E is for Entertainment, Education and Eddie 
Hispanic Medal of Honor Society's 50 foot exhibit at LULAC National Conference, 
       Las Vegas June 21-23
As Sundance Kicks Off, Gael Garcia Bernal Stands Up for the Undocumented 

Wanda Garcia

Last week I received the surprise of my life. I was going through the mail. Included with the rest of the bills was a small note size letter. Hmm I thought! Another invitation to a financial planning seminar. But the paper felt good quality, and I put down my bills to take a closer look. I noticed a frank on the envelope read William G. Clinton. So I opened the letter with trembling hands and was delighted beyond belief when I saw the below letter. 

President Clinton wrote to me about an article I wrote in October appearing in the Corpus Christi Caller Times about President Clinton and my father, Dr. Hector P. Garcia. The Caller Times added a big picture of Mr. Clinton at the Democratic convention delivering his famous speech followed by my article. Needless to say, I was not reserved about getting the letter from President Clinton, but ran up and down the street to show my neighbors. 

When I calmed down some, I proceeded to phone my friends and brag…one of them was Mimi Lozano. I am still elated and deeply touched by Mr. Clinton’s beautiful tribute to my Papa. 

What more can I say except mil gracias Senor El Presidente! President Clinton, I am so grateful and you made my day!



The Durango Herald

An Illustrative Past: E is for Entertainment, Education and Eddie

by John Peel

After a successful career as an illustrator that included work for Walt Disney, Eddie Martinez is looking to “pay it forward.” His ongoing work on Mesoamerican cultures bridges archaeology, history and writing as well as traditional and digital artwork.

Eddie Martinez is fascinated with Mesoamerican culture – the Chacoans, the Aztecs, the Mayans.

Photo: Josh Stephenson/Durango Herald


One of Eddie Martinez’s greatest thrills was getting to paint Walt Disney as part of a 55-foot-long, 6-foot-high oil mural at Disneyland. This is just a portion of the mural titled “The Fifth Freedom” that featured famous Americans.

He can talk to you about it, he can write about it and he can definitely draw it.

But what he really wants to do is teach. He wants people, particularly his fellow Latinos, to know about their ancestors’ role in pre-Columbian America. After a career in the entertainment biz, including work as an illustrator for Walt Disney, he also knows how tricky that is.

“If I say I’m going to talk history, everybody goes to sleep. But if I say I’m going to talk about ‘Raiders of the Lost Ark,’ then they go, ‘Ooh, I wanna hear about it.’”

So the Los Angeles native, who now lives in the hills outside Bayfield, is excited about the task he has created for himself. He’s eager to finish his illustrated historical novel. And he’s jazzed about the possibility, however slight, that his book Search for Don Juan and Aztlán, three-plus decades in the making, could become something big.

“I would love Disney to say, ‘Eddie, we’re gonna make a movie and money’s no object,’” Martinez says with a chuckle in his second-floor artist’s studio. “But that’s never going to happen. So I figure if I step into it as a book, it’ll maybe gain some interest.”

He lets the thought hang briefly.

Whatever happens with the book is gravy. Martinez has already had an enviable, fascinating career, which began about the time his mom was teaching him the ABCs. She’d show him an “M,” and he’d say “it’s a bird.” The “D” was a watermelon slice.

“To me it was always picture language,” he said. “I guess I just started drawing very early.”

One of his first graphic art jobs was in an outdoor sign shop, but the lack of creative opportunity frustrated him. Fortunately, he had a more pragmatic, left-brained wife. “The yin and yang,” Jessie Martinez describes them. While she maintained a steady income for the family, which eventually included five children, Eddie made the financially painful transition to the movie and TV business, working as a scenic artist.

After a couple years of establishing his credentials, his talent caught the attention of production designer John DeCuir, whom Martinez helped earn an Academy Award for “Hello, Dolly.”

Martinez yearned to work for Disney. He was trying desperately to land a position at WED Enterprises, the company formed by Walter Elias Disney to create theme parks.

“I couldn’t even get past the receptionist,” he said, until one day he got a call from DeCuir, who was working on the Hall of Presidents at the soon-to-be-opened Disney World in Florida. DeCuir asked Martinez: Are you available? Can you come for a meeting?

“Whatever he’d say, I’d just automatically say ‘yeah!’” Martinez laughs.

Martinez spent much of 1969 and 1970 at Disney, painting murals that illustrate the history of the U.S. It was the “pre-show” at the Hall of Presidents, which features talking animatronic figures of presidents.

After that, Martinez says, “the doors just flew wide open.”

On the stairway to his studio in Bayfield, Martinez introduces his guests to framed portraits and drawings, many of his treasured works. One is a colorful portrait of Walt Disney and Mickey Mouse; it’s a copy of a small portion of a 55-foot-long, 6-foot-high mural of famous Americans he painted and installed at Disneyland in 1975.

“It was an honor to paint Walt,” Martinez said,“to have the opportunity. This is something I could never have imagined.”

Still to come was perhaps his most challenging project – designing Mexico’s pavilion for EPCOT Center at Disney World. Martinez’s services were sought when the original plan had “too many piñatas,” according to one complaint. He worked on it for three years, and it opened in 1982.

If you’ve been to the Forum Shops at Caesars Palace on the Las Vegas strip, you’ve seen Martinez’s work in action. In the early 1990s, he was the architectural theme designer of the highly successful 636,000-square-foot luxury mall and designed the Festival Fountain Show at the mall’s west end. The show features laser lights and animatronic Roman statues of Bacchus, Apollo, Pluto and Venus conversing. (Martinez says it hasn’t been maintained well and should be scrapped.)

He retired in 2002. He and Jessie moved soon after to Bayfield, where a daughter had settled.

Now, he says, he wants to “pay it forward,” to create opportunities for others and to teach. He’s hoping Search for Don Juan and Aztlán is that vehicle that spurs interest in Mesoamerican culture, that shows Latinos how their ancestors created impressive societies before European explorers arrived.ugs

Among his fans are Andrew Gulliford, a professor of history at Fort Lewis College, and Stephen Lekson, curator of anthropology at the University of Colorado’s Museum of Natural History and author of the newly released A History of the Ancient Southwest. They marvel at his illustrations of Chaco Canyon’s Casa Riconada.

“I think his thinking and his presentation is masterful,” Lekson said. “Really fun to look at.”

The U.S.-Mexican border has inadvertently led to erroneous conclusions about how Mesoamericans, including Aztecs, moved around North America, some archaeologists such as Lekson now suggest.

“The Mexican border is fiction,” Gulliford said. “Eddie is one of those real creative individuals for whom the border doesn’t exist, and he is helping the rest of us see that.”

So Martinez continues to work on his book.

“It’s a spoonful of sugar. It’s content,” Martinez says. “So it’s the double E. It’s entertainment and education. Trying to reach young minds.” It’s not easy. But Martinez has proved he knows what it takes to get it done. Stay tuned. John Peel writes a weekly human-interest column.

Sent by Eddie Martinez
For more of Eddie's art, please go to: 

Editor:  Eddie uses his art to express his patriotism, support of his heritage, and love of history. Please click to a poster created by Eddie in support of the Dream Act

Hispanic Medal of Honor Society to display 50 foot exhibit at LULAC 
National Conference, Las Vegas June 21-23

Somos Primos has been invited to share the Hispanic Medal of Honor Society booth at the National conference of the League of United Latin American Citizens. The conference will be held in Las Vegas June 21-23.
The Hispanic Medal of Honor Society booth recognizes the contributions of outstanding Hispanics serving in the U.S. military. Forty-four Hispanics have received the highest recognition in the nations for their singular acts of bravery.
The booth is over 50 feet long and attracts considerable attention. This will be the 4th time that SHHAR has been hosted by the Hispanic Medal of Honor Society to display and distributed family history information at their booth.
For more information, please contact Mimi Lozano,


As Sundance Kicks Off, 
Gael Garcia Bernal Stands Up for the Undocumented

By Steve Pond, The Wrap

Source: National Association of Latino Independent Producers

The first film to screen at this year's Sundance Film Festival was a documentary -- director Mark Silver's and producer Gael Garcia Bernal's "Who Is Dayani Cristal?"

Screening off the beaten track at the Marc Theatre in the late afternoon, it may not have had a glamorous opening night vibe of "Crystal Fairy," which was unveiled three hours later at the larger Eccles Theatre -- but it officially kicked off a frigid Sundance 2013, and nobody who knows Sundance could argue that a non-fiction film shouldn't have gotten the leadoff spot.

For all of its reputation as a dealmakers' mecca and a launching pad for indies like the current Best Picture nominee "Beasts of the Southern Wild," Sundance has long been enormously rich in docs, both as a place to debut them and a place to develop them in the Sundance Institute's Documentary Film Program and fund.

In fact, in an introductory press conference on Thursday afternoon, fest founder Robert Redford pointed to Sundance's early championing of documentaries as one of its key elements.

The fest, now in its 29th year, is indeed a non-fiction powerhouse: Four of the five nominees in the Academy's current Best Documentary Feature category -- "Searching for Sugar Man," "The Invisible War," "5 Broken Cameras" and "How to Survive a Plague" -- debuted at last year's Sundance. And the only one that didn't, "The Gatekeepers," is in the program this year.

More impressively, 11 of the 15 films on the Oscar doc shortlist were Sundance entries.

The bar was raised pretty high for "Who Is Dayani Cristal?" After all, two docs played in the opening-night lineup last year: "Sugar Man," the closest thing to a favorite in the tightly contested Oscar race, and "The Queen of Versailles," the seventh-highest grossing doc of 2012.

Both of those were slick and entertaining; "Who Is Dayani Cristal?" is darker and tougher, a devastating look at the plight of undocumented workers told through a poignant single case study: The corpse of a man that was found in the Arizona desert, his only identifying mark a large tattoo that read "Dayani Cristal."

By the end of the movie we know the answer to the question the title poses, but the trip there is as powerful and graceful as the conclusion.

British director Silver delves into the U.S. medical examiners and Mexican officials who try against hope to identify the remains that have become more and more common in the last decade.

Overburdened by unidentified bodies that pile up at the rate of 200 a year in the Arizona desert, forensic anthropologist Bruce Anderson puts it bluntly: "The American people need to admit that it is to our benefit to have a blue-collar workforce with brown skins."

He also follows the story from the other end, revealing what we know about the man and what drove him to make 14 border crossings.

Bernal, meanwhile, makes a trip of his own through Central America and Mexico, retracing the man's steps as if he, too, were looking to enter the U.S. without documents.

The other travelers on that same road treat him like he's one of them, though the fact that he's a famous actor and he was accompanied by a camera crew no doubt meant that they were in on the whole thing.

Asked during a post-screening Q&A why the other men trying to sneak into the country were willing to be filmed, Bernal said it was simple: "They wanted to be on camera," he said. "They wanted their families to see what they were doing, because some of them might not make it."


CAIR chief claims Muslims discovered America first
Editor:  Beyond the neglect of U.S. historians, it appears that we are being called upon to expand our activities in defense of the historic contributions of our ancestors, by another group . . . . CAIR chief claims Muslims discovered America first.  

Do not dismiss these claims lightly, even though no documents have been presented by them to support their claims.   Books are being written based on these claims and presented to libraries across the country.  

To counter the claims of Muslims, that Chinese Muslims beat Columbus to our shores, we need to point out that our ancestors did not just set a foot on the ground, they stayed and planted, brought horses and cattle, pigs, goats, and built homes, cities, churches, mills, roads, schools, some of which still today . . .  and we descendants are living proof our historic presence.   

Please go to The Middle East Media Research Institute for some excerpts from an interview with CAIR Executive Director, Nihad Awad, which aired on Iqra TV on December 27, 2012.  Awad claims that Muslims discovered the Americas long before Columbus in 1492.  The head of a D.C.-based Islamic lobbying group told a Saudi TV station Dec. 27.  

"After 9/11, we saw great interest among the American public in becoming better acquainted with Islam by studying and reading about it. We found that very few books on Islam were available in the public libraries, which are frequented by many Americans, and that most of these books were misleading or anti-Islamic. Therefore, we decided to publish several books on Islam, written by Muslims and non-Muslims. We decided to send them free-of-charge to the American public libraries.

There are 16,200 public libraries in the US, serving 300 million Americans. We managed to provide this collection, free-of-charge, to half of these libraries."

“There are historical accounts according to which the Muslims preceded Columbus, who is said to have discovered the U.S.,” claimed Nihad Awad, the co-founder of the Council on American Islamic Relations.

“Some documents and accounts indicate that Muslim seafarers were the first to reach the U.S., [so] the bottom line is that Islam played a part in the establishment and development of the U.S.,” Awad told the Saudi interviewer, in an interview in a New York studio.

CAIR did not respond to The Daily Caller’s request for an explanation of Awad’s comments, which were recorded by the Middle East Media Research Institute.

Awad’s group bills itself as a “civil rights” group, but five of its former employees have been jailed or deported for terror offenses, and FBI officials refuse to meet Awad because of his ties to jihadi groups, such as Hamas.

Awad’s claim was made during an interview in which he argued that Muslims can settle in the U.S. without violating Islam’s myriad Sharia rules about religion, diet, speech, friendships, work and political loyalty.

“Islam flourishes in an atmosphere of freedom, and [it] spreads freedom, justice, and equality,” he claimed. “Every day I live as an American-Muslim citizen, I rediscover the firm bonds between the humane system that the U.S. created for its people, and the values advocated by Islam,” he claimed.

However, Islam’s Sharia laws curb religious freedom, speech, and political activism, and also subordinate non-Muslims and women to orthodox Muslim men. Sharia is enforced in Saudi Arabia, Iran, much of Afghanistan and increasingly in Egypt, Turkey, Tunisia and Libya, all of which were recently governed by secular laws.

Awad’s claim is part of a broader campaign by Islamist groups to encourage Muslims to settle in the United States and Europe. From 610 to 632, Islam’s founder, Mohammad, reputedly urged his followers to spread Islam by both conquest and emigration. 

CAIR chief claims Muslims discovered America first /  / 


California Birthday Project:  An Update from the Past by Galal Kernahan

Men who met in Monterey's  Colton Hall schoolhouse more than 160 years ago drafted a California Birth Certificate Constitution. The State they designed was born November 13, 1849.  That was the day Californians ratified it 12,872 to 811 and elected their first state officers.  California entered the Union as the 31st State on November 9, 1850.

What were California's State Founding Fathers like?  Some were old and some were young. Some grew up speaking Spanish and some English.  They came from all over the United States, as well as from out of the country.  We had a founding father born in each of the following countries, France, Ireland, Scotland, Spain, and Switzerland.  

The activities concerning the California Birthday Project was started ten years.  The text was published in the first issue of 
Somos Primos online, January 2000.    

To commemorate the ratification, by election, of the California Constitution on November 13, 1849, a Symposium was organized by Los Amigos of Orange County, the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, in cooperation with the programs of Chicano-Latino and Latin American studies, the department of Spanish and Portuguese and the vice Chancellor, Student Affairs of the University of California, Irvine. The event was held exactly 150 years later, on November 13, 1999. Attended by historians, professors, teachers, students, legislators, and early California descendants, it was the only event held in the state of California celebrating the birth of the state of California. Neither was the date included in The Associated Press' daily listing of important historical events.

Project 150 is trying to locate descendants of the signers of the California constitution Descendants are being asked to register with Project 150 and show their historical heritage connection to their Mexican/Spanish colonial roots. The results of this effort will benefit all Californians, and the nation also. In the 1990 Census, California and Texas together represent almost 75 % (74.4) of the Mexican-heritage population. Yet neither state has ever elected a Hispanic surname U.S. Federal Senator. New Mexico, who did not become a state until 1912, has had three. (Texas statehood, 1845. California statehood, 1850)

The relationship between the United States government and Hispanics living in the states of New Mexico, California, Texas is historically very different. Although New Mexico did not become a state until 1912, in contrast to Texas and California, New Mexico had a national political presence since the mid 1850s. Their political connections and small population helped Latinos in New Mexico to maintained their unique identity. The results is that Southwest Hispanics have been viewed through the filter of the New Mexican culture, which historically is very different from the Hispanic culture which developed in California and Texas. National understanding of the Southwest centers on the historical, political and cultural aspects of the state of New Mexico; however, twenty times more Mexican-heritage individuals live in California.

The lack of understanding of the history and strength of Mexican-heritage individuals in California is continuing to perpetuate through national projects of preservation, restoration, archeological, anthropological, humanities, etc.

The Smithsonian in Washington D.C. has a southwest display which is specifically New Mexico. In addition, of the eight family stories included in the newly published My History Is America's History by the National Endowment for the Humanities, two are Hispanic, one is a New Mexico family, Madrid, and the other a Colorado family, Romero.

Understanding Hispanic/Latinos in California historically will generate needed awareness and understanding. The following graph are California State Constitutional forefathers. The graph was compiled by Galal Kernahan for Los Amigos of Orange County California. The first column identifies the number of years in residence in pre-California statehood. The graph clearly reveals the power structure and political changes taking place in California during the mid 1850s.

If you know anyone that has California lines, please put them in touch with the Project 150 committee, either: 
Galal Kernahan,  or your editor, Mimi Lozano,  .

Of the forty-eight (48) Constitutional forefathers, only six (6) had been born in California.
All six had Spanish surnames. 
Thirty-four (34) had lived in California less than 10 years.
Fourteen (14) had lived in California three years or less.
Thirteen (13) had lived in California one year or less.

Years	Name 		Age	Birthplace 	City		Occupation
53	Jose Antonio Carrillo	53	California		Los Angeles	Labrador
46	Manuel Dominguez	46	California		Los Angeles	Banker
42	Mariano G. Vallejo	42	California		Sonoma		Military
40	M. B. Covarrubias	40	California		San Luis Obispo	
40	Antonio M. Pico	40	California		San Jose		Agriculturalist
36	P. de la Guerra	36	California		Santa Barbara	
36	Jacinto Rodriguez	51	California		Santa Barbara	Agriculturalist
20	Abel Stearns	51	Mass.		Los Angeles	Merchant
16	Thomas O. Larkin	47	Mass.		Monterey		Trader
16	Hugo Reid    	38	Scotland	                Los Angeles	Farmer
12	Miguel de Pedroena	41	Spain		San Diego		Merchant
11	Pedro Sensavaine	31	France		San Jose		Negociant
10	Julian Hanks	39	Connecticut   	San Jose		Farmer
10	J.A. Sutter		47	Switzerland	Sacramento	Farmer
6	L.W. Hastings	30	Ohio		Sacramento	Lawyer
5	R. Semple	                42	Kentucky		Sonoma		Printer
4	Rodman Price	30	New York		San Francisco	U.S. Navy
4	Jacob R. Snyder	34	Pennsylvania	Sacramento	Surveyor
3/5m     Benjamin S. Lippincott	34	New York		San Joaquin	Trader
3	Joseph Aram	39	New York		San Jose		Farmer
3	Elam Brown	52	New York		San Jose		Farmer
3	Lewis Dent	26	Massachusetts	Monterey		Lawyer
3	Kimball H. Dimmick	34	New York		San Jose		Lawyer
3	Stephen C. Foster	28	Maine		Los Angeles	Agriculturalist
3	H.W. Halleck	32	New York		Monterey		Engineer
3	J.M. Hollingsworth	25	Maryland		San Joaquin	Lt. Volunteers
3	J.D. Hoppe	35	Maryland	    	San Jose		Merchant
3	W.E. Shannon	27	Ireland		Sacramento	Lawyer
3	Thomas L. Vermeule	35	New Jersey	San Joaquin	Lawyer
2/7m	Francis J. Lippitt	37	Rhode Island	San Francisco	Lawyer
2/6m	A.J. Ellis		33	New York		San Francisco	Merchant
2/6m	Edward Gilbert	27	New York		San Francisco	Printer
1/5m	Henry Hill		33	Virginia		San Diego		U.S. Army
1/4m	Ch.T. Botts	40	Virginia		Monterey		Atty. at Law
1/1m	J.P. Walker	52	Virginia		Sonoma		Farmer
1	M.M. McCarver	42	Kentucky		Sacramento	Farmer
1	B. F. Moore	28	Florida		San Joaquin	Leisure
1	Myron Norton	27	New York		San Francisco	Lawyer
1	W.M. Steuart	29	Maryland		San Francisco	Atty. at Law
8m	Pacificus Ord	34	Maryland		Monterey		Lawyer
7m	K.O. Crosby	34	New York		Sacramento	Lawyer
7m	John McDougall	32	Ohio		Sacramento	Merchant
5m	Joseph Hobson	39	Maryland		San Francisco	Merchant
4m	W. M. Gwin	44	Tennessee	San Francisco	Farmer
4m	J. M. Jones	25	Kentucky		San Joaquin	Atty. at Law
4m      Winfield B. Sherwood	32	New York		Sacramento	Lawyer
4m	Henry A. Taft	26	New York		San Luis Obispo	Lawyer
4m	O. M. Wozencraft	34	Ohio		San Joaquin	Physician



Legendary Attorney Arturo C. González Passes Away at 104 Years Old
Notable Latinos and Latin Americans who Died in 2012, compiled by By Angelo Falcón

Role Model for All, Legendary Attorney Arturo C. González Passes Away at 104 Years Old  
By Diana R. Fuentes

(October 4, 1908 – December 21, 2012)  

Eagle Pass Business Journal
Del Rio News-Herald  
27 December 2012  


When attorney Arturo C. Gonzalez died Friday, December 21, 2012, many mourned the loss of the legal community icon.  

“He did so much for Del Rio,” said Mayor Bobby Fernandez. “He was a pacesetter, way ahead of his time — a role model for us all.” Gonzalez turned 104 in October.   And, as always, he was quick to add, “I’m 104 years young.”   “I’m not old,” he would say. “We’re just as good as we think we are, as our mind thinks we are. I’m young.”  

Among his many accomplishments, Gonzalez helped start the Housing Authority of the City of Del Rio and secured the construction of the international bridge connecting Del Rio and Acuña.  

Housing Authority: In an interview with the Del Rio News-Herald earlier this year, he recalled going to Washington in 1940 to secure a $450,000 federal grant to get the Housing Authority started.  

Not everyone supported the cause. “They said, ‘Arturo, just leave it alone. We don’t need it.’ I said, ‘You do need it. You do need housing. These people don’t have any rooms, they don’t have anything to eat. No, no, no – we have to correct the situation between the Anglo people and the Mexican people,” Gonzalez recalled. “So this (the Housing Authority) started it. They’ve done a good job, opening up housing for people that didn’t have any housing.”  

His role in getting the international bridge was perhaps not as well known as some of his other deeds, which is the way he wanted it. When talks were breaking down between U.S. and Mexican officials, Gonzalez stepped in. Already well known on both sides of the border, he was able to facilitate the discussion and everything came together.  

“We got it done,” he said. Fernandez noted that Gonzalez was one of the first Hispanic attorneys in the Del Rio area. “He gave us opportunities to be successful,” the mayor said. “He was always working behind the scenes to make the community a better place. He was a true leader.”  

Madrina’s support: Gonzalez always gave credit to his godmother, Petra Martinez, the woman who raised him after his mother died when he was a young boy. “She didn’t know how to read and she didn’t know how to write,” he said in the interview. “But she had a very bright mind. She taught me a lot of good things. She taught me never to get mad. She taught me never to fight with other people. “To her, her life was very simple: thinking good and doing good. And that’s what I have done.”  

The story of how he started to learn to be a lawyer through a correspondence course is legend. He told it often and gave credit to Judge Brian Montague of the 63rd State Judicial District.  

“He asked me, ‘Arthur, do you want to be a good attorney?’ I told him, ‘Judge, the good part is already in my heart … I do want to be an attorney.’ So he appointed me as court interpreter for Del Rio, Eagle Pass, Edwards County and Kinney County.” Montague also allowed him free use of his law library and office to continue his studies.  

Gonzalez then took a college entrance exam, which was required by the state because he didn’t have a high school diploma, and passed it. He then took the State Bar in October 1934. In February 1935, he was advised he had passed that test, too. But he had to wait until he could get $20 to actually get his law license. Judge Montague again came to his rescue, he said, and paid the $20 to get Gonzalez his license.  

Fond memories: “It’s beautiful to think about old times,” Gonzalez said during the two-hour interview. In addition to his law career and work creating the Housing Authority and the International Bridge, Gonzalez also was involved in radio and in baseball. At one point, he and his partner Ramon Bosquez owned XERF, based in Acuña, which helped make DJ Wolfman Jack famous as it boomed its airwaves across North America.  

Gonzalez also started the Gonzalez Baseball System, which owned five baseball teams. He was particularly proud of his team in Decatur, Ill., because it was among the first to break the color barrier in the minor leagues when it hired Jim Freeman, a black ball player, in 1952.  

“Arturo Gonzalez and his wife flew to Decatur on the Gonzalez Baseball plane to attend the game and the Decatur Review featured a photo of the owner and his lovely wife in their box seat on the third base line,” reads an account by baseball historian Stephen Chicoine in the Illinois Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Spring 2003.  

“Gonzalez recalls as to prejudice in Decatur, ‘I didn’t notice any difference at all and I didn’t expect any.’ ”  

Love at first sight:  As much as he enjoyed his professional careers, Gonzalez also spoke frequently about his love for his family, starting with his wife, Blanca.  

During the interview earlier this year, he recalled their whirlwind courtship. “I remember the day I met her. It was May 4, 1946,” he said. “A Del Rio rancher told me, ‘Let’s go to Cuba.’ I had just come out of the Army and I said, ‘OK. Let’s go to Cuba.” The woman who would be his wife was working at the Cuban embassy, where Gonzalez and the rancher had gone to get the proper travel permits.  

“She was a beautiful woman,” he said. “I fell in love with her immediately. I thought, ‘This one isn’t going to get away.’ ” They had a wonderful life together, he said. She died in March 1988.

“She was watching a Mexican novella, and that was it,” he said. “She was gone. It was peaceful.”

The couple had five children, including County Court-at-Law Judge Sergio Gonzalez and Blanca Larson, manager of Plaza del Sol, who live in Del Rio with their families; and Daisy, Cathy and Arthur, who live out of town with their families.

This article was originally published in The Del Rio News-Herald on December 23, 2012.

Arturo C. Gonzalez  
Obituary Posted: Sunday, December 23, 2012

Arturo C. Gonzalez, 104 years young, went to be with Our Lord Jesus Christ Friday December 21, 2012. He passed away suddenly at his home. The family is celebrating his life and that he is now in the presence of Our Lord Jesus Christ. He was born in Del Rio, Texas on October 4, 1908 to Sergio Gonzalez, Sr., and Genoveva Castro of Monte Morelos Nuevo Leon and Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico.  

Arturo was raised by his godmother/madrina Macrina next to the family home on Las Vacas Street. He attended Guadalupe Catholic School and went on to Del Rio High School where he was a member of the Wildcats Baseball Club. He held a number of jobs including selling and unloading gas and working for Mr. and Mrs. Stool at The Guarantee. On December 31, 1931 he needed $5 to pay his voting poll tax and he asked his sister Eloisa if he could clean an empty lot she owned on Las Vacas Street. In March of 1932 after piling all the trash, mesquite trees, and weeds, he was preparing to burn all the trash when he noticed an old magazine, Mid-Week Pictorial where he saw an ad of the American Correspondence School of Law. This, he would say “was the beginning of a pleasant, truthful and joyful profession.” In 1933 Judge Brian Montague appointed him as Interpreter of the Court and he would go to court every day and sit in on trials and listen to all criminal and civil cases. “I learned from the school of actual experiences, from practical experience.”

 Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
and Dorinda Moreno



National Institute for Latino Policy List of 

Notable Latinos and Latin Americans
Who Died in 2012
January 1, 2013
Compiled by By Angelo Falcón

As we looked back on 2012, we thought we would get a jump on those articles that totally or largely ignore Latinos in the end-of-the year lists of notable deaths. These lists not only imply that there are no or very few notable Latinos, but also that not many of us die at all (which could be a good thing if it were true). We were also motivated by the In Memoriam segment of the Oscars where I spend most of the time yelling out, "I didn't know he (or she) died this year!"

Anyway, NiLP's crack team of Obituarians got to work. As a result, we have come up with a pretty extensive list of notable Latinos and Latin Americans who passed away this past year. It is, of course, not complete, but we think it's better than anything you are going to find in the media and elsewhere. To add to the creepiness of the list, we included, where we could, the cause of death, which involved such things as "explosion," "strangled," "hit and run," "shooting," "stabbing" and, my favorite, "bludgeoning."

For Latinos, we witnessed the high profile deaths of Mexican-American singer-actress "la diva de la banda" Jenni Rivera and legendary Puerto Rican boxer Hector "Macho" Camacho. As the year came to a close, the horrific school shootings in the Newtown, Connecticut brought to the nation a deep sadness and focused Latinos on the deaths of two Puerto Ricans, 6-year-old Ana Marquez-Greene and 27-year-old heroic teacher Victoria Soto. The world of letters lost the frighteningly talented writer Carlos Fuentes, as well as pioneers in the making of the Chicano Movement like Juan Valdez, Ben Lujan and Frank P. Hernandez. Mexican-American actress and artistic institution, Lupe Ontiveros, along with Puerto Rico's path breaking politician and singer, Ruth Fernandez, also died. In the Puerto Rican community, the deaths of amazing guitarist and longtime NiLP friend Yomo Toro, community leader Raquel Creitoff, and the "Puerto Rican Beyoncé," Lorena Escalera, were heartfelt by many. Religious pioneers like Archbishop Robert Fortune Sanchez and Cardinal Luis Aponte Martinez also left us in 2012.

As you review the list below, you will observe the simple truth that there are many notable Latinos in many fields where they have achieved excellence. Hey, we even threw in a few drug lords as well as some "honorary" Latinos like the guy who played Epstein, the Puerto Rican Jew, in the TV sitcom, "Welcome Back Kotter."

If you see omissions or errors in the list below, please let us know, with the possibility that we may publish an update.

Editor:  This is a valuable collection of Latinos who are recognized for their accomplishments.  
Great idea, with thanks to Angelo Falcon.  I hope it will become an annual compilation.

Notable Latino Deaths in 2012

Roy Bryce-Laporte, 78, American sociologist.
Fabián Estapé, 88, Spanish economist.
Agustín García Calvo, 86, Spanish academic, respiratory failure.
Eduardo Morales Miranda, 102, Chilean educator, co-founder of the Universidad  Austral de Chile.
Leopoldo García-Colín, 81, Mexican physicist.
Mara Negrón, 51, professor at University of Puerto Rico's Women and Gender Studies Program.
Alejandro Rodriguez, 93, American psychiatrist and academic.
Arturo Andrés Roig, 89, Argentine philosopher.

Actors and Entertainers

Joel Barcellos, 76, Brazilian actor.
Hebe Camargo, 83, Brazilian television presenter, cardiac arrest.
Rafael Corporán de los Santos, 71, Dominican television producer, host, and politician.
Regina Dourado, 59, Brazilian actress, breast cancer.
Lorena Escalera (aka La'reina Xtravaganza), 25, New York entertainer know as the "Puerto Rican Beyoncé."
César Fernández Ardavín, 89, Spanish film director (El Lazarillo de Tormes).
Juan Luis Galiardo, 72, Spanish actor (Anthony and Cleopatra,Tango), lung cancer.
Lucy Gallardo, 82, Argentine-born Mexican film and telenovelaactress (How the   Garcia Girls Spent Their Summer), chronic obstructive
       pulmonary disease.
Silvana Gallardo, 58, American actress.
Juan Carlos Gené, 82, Argentine actor and playwright.
Sancho Gracia, 75, Spanish actor, lung cancer.
Robert Hegyes, 60, New Jersey-born actor who played Jewish Puerto-Rican wheeler-dealer Juan Luis Pedro Phillipo de Huevos Epstein on
        the 1970s classic TV sitcom Welcome Back Kotter.
Joaquín Martínez, 81, Mexican-born American actor (Jeemiah Johnson, Die  Another Day), pancreatic cancer.
Carmen Martínez Sierra, 108, Spanish actress.
Patricia Medina, 92, British actress, natural causes.
Yolanda Mérida, 82, Mexican actress.
Oscar Núñez, 83, Argentine actor (Good Life Delivery), cancer.
Lupe Ontiveros, 69, American actress (Desperate Housewives,Selena, The  Goonies), liver cancer
Pepe Rubio, 80, Spanish actor.
Manola Saavedra, 76, Spanish-born Mexican actress.
José Luis Uribarri, 75, Spanish television presenter and director (Televisión  Española), cerebral hemorrhage.


Frank Braña, 77, Spanish film actor, respiratory failure.
Gerardo Chavez, 94, Peruvian artist.
Isaac Díaz Pardo, 91, Spanish artist.
Pedro E. Guerrero, 95, American photographer, cancer.
Nicolás Moreno, 88, Mexican landscape painter.
Édgar Negret, 92, Colombian sculptor, cancer and heart failure.
Spain Rodriguez, 72, American underground cartoonist, cancer.
Antoni Tàpies, 88, Spanish painter.

Athletes - Latin America and Spain

Marcos Alonso Imaz, 78, Spanish football player (Real Madrid).
Alex Alves, 37, Brazilian footballer (Hertha BSC), leukemia.
Víctor Cabedo, 23, Spanish racing cyclist, road accident.
Miguel Calero, 41, Colombian footballer, cerebral thrombosis.
Félix, 74, Brazilian footballer, 1970 FIFA World Cup winner, cardiac arrest.
Fidélis, 68, Brazilian footballer (Bangu Atlético Clube), cancer.
Diego Mendieta, 32, Paraguayan footballer, viral infection.
Juan Francisco Lombardo, 86, Argentine football player.
Alfonso Montemayor, 90, Mexican footballer (Club León).
Ladislao Nerio, 35, Salvadoran football player (C.D. Águila), strangled.
Pépito Pavon, 71, Spanish footballer (Olympique de Marseille).
Manuel Peña Escontrela, 46, Spanish footballer (Real Zaragoza, Real Valladolid), cancer.
Manuel Preciado Rebolledo, 54, Spanish football player and coach (Sporting Gijón, Racing Santander), heart attack.
Salvador Reyes Monteón, 76, Mexican footballer *Club Deportivo Guadalajara Salvador Reyes), colon cancer
Sansón, 87, Spanish football player.
Ramón Sota, 74, Spanish golfer, pneumonia.
Raúl Valencia, 36, Spanish footballer, following a long illness.
Azumir Veríssimo, 77, Brazilian footballer.
Luis Aloy Vidal, 82, Spanish football player (FC Barcelona, Real Oviedo).
José María Zárraga, 81, Spanish footballer and manager.
Estanislao Basora, 85, Spanish footballer.
Jordan da Costa, 79, Brazilian footballer (Flamengo), diabetes.
Paulo Rodrigues da Silva, 25, Brazilian footballer, car crash.
Juan Escudero, 91, Spanish footballer.
MS-1, 55, Mexican professional wrestler, car accident.
Felipe Fernández, 74, Argentine basketball player.
Juan Carlos Pérez López, 66, Spanish footballer.
Roberto Mieres, 87, Argentine racing driver.

Athletes - United States and Puerto Rico

Rogelio Álvarez, 74, Cuban-born American baseball player (Cincinnati Reds), complications of kidney disease.
Pedro Borbón, 65, Dominican Republic-born American baseball player (Cincinnati Reds), cancer.
Héctor Camacho, 50, Puerto Rican boxer, injuries from gunshot.
Tom Martinez, 66, American football coach, heart attack.
Sergio Oliva, 71, Cuban-born American bodybuilder, Mr. Olympia (1967-1969).
Pascual Pérez, 55, Dominican baseball player (Atlanta Braves, Montreal Expos, New York Yankees), bludgeoning.
Eusebio Razo, Jr., 46, Mexican-born American jockey, explosion.
Roberto Rodríguez, 70, Venezuelan baseball player (Kansas City/Oakland Athletics, San Diego Padres, Chicago Cubs), heart attack.
Raul Rojas, 70, American boxer.
Johnny Tapia, 45, American boxer.

Athletes - Olympic Medalists

Daniel Alba, 71, Mexican Olympic wrestler.
Carlos Figueroa, 80, Spanish Olympic equestrian.
Ruy de Freitas, 95, Brazilian Olympic bronze medal-winning (1948) basketball player, multiple organ failure.
Julio César González, 35, Mexican Olympic boxer, injuries from a hit and run.
Arnaldo Mesa, 45, Cuban Olympic silver medal-winning (1996) boxer, stroke.
Iñaki Lejarreta, 29, Spanish Olympic (2008) mountain biker, traffic collision.
Nelson Prudêncio, 68, Brazilian Olympic silver (1968) and bronze (1972) medal-winning triple jumper, complications from lung cancer.

Community Leaders

Ruben Acosta, 52, Cuban-born Michigan attorney and community leader, malignant brain tumor
Nilda Alvarez, 79, Puerto Rican community leader in Brentwood, New York, longtime coordinator of Pronto of Long Island, massive stroke she
        suffered after dancing at a wedding,
Eva Calderon, 65, Mexican parent leader in Chicago, breast cancer
Raquel Creitoff, 91, Puerto Rican community leader in New York City.
Pedro Juan Herrera, 89, known as "Mr. Baseball," co-founded the Roberto Clemente Baseball League in Buffalo, NY.
Nélida Gómez de Navajas, 76, Argentine human rights activist (Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo).
Daniel Jara, 61, of Hackensack, NJ, Peruvian-born businessman who led the Statewide Hispanic Chamber of Commerce of New Jersey.
Esther Medina, 76, San Jose, California community leader of Mexican American Community Services Agency (MACSA).
Silvia Rodriguez, 71, social work leader in Porterville, Washington.
Juan Valdez, 74, land grant activist who fired first shot during 1967 New Mexico courthouse raid that grabbed international attention and
         helped spark the Chicano Movement.
Vidal Vega, 48, Paraguayan peasant leader, shooting.


Pedro Arroyo, 60, Spanish Broadcasting System executive and founder of National Salsa Day in Puerto Rico, respiratory arrest.
María Teresa Castillo, 103, Venezuelan journalist and activist, founder of the Caracas Athenaeum.
Raquel Correa, 78, Chilean journalist, cerebral damage followed by heart failure.
Eduardo J. Corso, 92, Uruguayan journalist and lawyer.
Manuel Salvat Dalmau, 86, Spanish publisher.
Luis Javier Garrido, 71, Mexican political analyst.
Julio Ghigliotty Matos, 62, veteran Puerto Rican journalist who worked for The Associated Press and other organizations.
Mingote, 93, Spanish cartoonist, writer, and journalist.
Andrew Viglucci, 84, the longtime editor of Puerto Rico's San Juan Star,  early colleague of Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist William Kennedy.
Michael J. Ybarra, 45, American journalist and author, climbing accident.


Mario Arturo Acosta Chaparro, 70, Mexican army general, shot.
Carlos Büsser, 84, Argentine admiral, led the 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands, heart attack.
Albano Harguindeguy, 85, Argentine general.
Juan Manuel Montero Vázquez, 64, Spanish military surgeon.
Ítalo Piaggi, 77, Argentine army officer (Battle of Goose Green).
José Martins Ribeiro Nunes, 85, Brazilian naval pilot.


Carmélia Alves, 89, Brazilian baião singer, multiple organ seizure.
Emilio Aragón Bermúdez, 83, Spanish clown, accordionist, and singer.
Luisito Ayala, 60, Puerto Rican vocalist and percussionist, cerebral hemorrhage.
José Roberto Bertrami, 66, Brazilian pianist and keyboardist (Azymuth).
Roland Bautista, 60, American guitarist (Earth, Wind & Fire).
Augusto Bracca, 94, Venezuelan songwriter, respiratory arrest.
Cali Carranza, 59, American Tejano musician, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Federico A. Cordero, 84, Puerto Rican classical guitarist.
Charles Flores, 41, Cuban-born American jazz bassist, throat cancer.
Junior Gonzalez, 63, Puerto Rican salsa singer.
Zenaida Manfugás, 90, Cuban-born American pianist.
Rafael Rincón González, 89, Venezuelan musician.
Jenni Rivera, 43, American-born Mexican banda and norteñosinger, plane crash.
Yomo Toro, 78, legendary Puerto Rican cuatro guitarist.
Chavela Vargas, , Costa Rican-born Mexican singer/

Musical Composers

Bernardo Bonezzi, 48, Spanish film music composer.
Altamiro Carrilho, 87, Brazilian musician and composer, lung cancer.
Luis de los Cobos, 85, Spanish composer.
Ed Lincoln, 80, Brazilian composer and musician, respiratory failure.
Maestro Reverendo, 57, Spanish musician and composer, cancer.
Chavela Vargas, 93, Costa Rican-born Mexican singer-songwriter, respiratory arrest.

Public Officials - United States and Puerto Rico

Ruben Ayala, 89, American politician, California State Senator (1974-1998), first elected Mayor of Chino, California (1964-1966).
Juan H. Cintrón García, 93, Puerto Rican politician.
Margarita Esquiroz, 67. former Miami-Dade Judge Circuit who served 28 years on the bench and was among the first Hispanic jurists elected
         in South Florida, complications from cancer.
Ruth Fernández, 92, Puerto Rican singer and politician, Senator (1973-1981).
Tom Fuentes, 63, American political leader, Orange County Republican Party chairman (1985-2004), liver cancer.
Mario Gallegos, Jr., 62, American politician, Texas State Senator (since 1995), complications of liver disease.
Frank P. Hernandez, 73, the first Hispanic to be appointed a judge in Dallas County, Texas, part of the Commission on Mexican-American
         Affairs ("the Dirty Dozen").
Ben Luján, 77, American politician, member of the New Mexico House of Representatives (since 1975), Speaker (since 2001), lung cancer.
Samuel B. Nunez, Jr., 81, American politician, President of the Louisiana State Senate (1983-1988; 1990-1996).
Mercedes Otero, Puerto Rican politician, member of Senate (1993 to 2001).
Roberto Rexach Benítez, 82, Puerto Rican politician, President of the Senate (1993-1996).
Pedro Toledo, 69, Puerto Rican public official, Superintendent of the Puerto Rico Police Department (1993-2001, 2005-2009), cardiac arrest.

Public Officials - Latin America and Spain

Adolfo Calero, 80, Nicaraguan businessman, leader of the Democratic Force, pneumonia and kidney failure.
Santiago Carrillo, 97, Spanish politician, veteran of the Spanish Civil War.
Catarina Castor, 32, Guatemalan Patriotic Party Congresswoman, crash of private plane.
Eduardo Castro Luque, 48, Mexican politician, shooting.
María Eugenia Cordovez, Ecuadorian First Lady (1984-1988), former wife of León Febres Cordero, cardiac arrest.
Miguel de la Madrid, 77, Mexican politician, President (1982-1988), complications of pulmonary emphysema
Héctor Cornejo Chávez, 93, Peruvian politician.
Antonio Cubillo, 82, Spanish politician, founder of Canary Islands Independence Movement.
Sergio Marqués Fernández, 65, Spanish politician, President of the Principality of Asturias (1995-1999).
Edgardo Mercado Jarrín, 92, Peruvian politician, Prime Minister (1973-1975).
Manuel Fraga Iribarne, 89, Spanish politician, President of the Xunta of Galicia (1990-2005), founder of the People's Party, heart failure.
José Merino del Río, 63, Costa Rican politician, kidney cancer.
Édgar Morales Pérez, Mexican politician, mayor-elect of Matehuala, shooting.
Israel Nogueda Otero, 77, Mexican politician and economist, Governor of Guerrero (1971-1975), heart attack.
Alfonso Orueta, 82, Chilean politician and football manager.
Gregorio Peces-Barba, 74, Spanish politician and jurist, renal failure.
Juan Pereda, 81, Bolivian military leader, President (1978).
Abel Salinas, 82, Peruvian politician.
Enrique Silva Cimma, 93, Chilean politician, Foreign Minister (1990-1994), bronchial obstruction.
Txillardegi, 82, Basque writer and politician.
Pedro Vázquez Colmenares, 74, Mexican politician, Governor of Oaxaca (1980-1985).
Rodolfo Félix Valdés, 86, Mexican politician, Governor of Sonora (1985-1991).
Jorge Salvador Lara, 85, Ecuadorian historian and politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs (1966, 1976-1977).
Carlos Soria, 63, Argentine politician, Secretary of Intelligence (2002), Governor of Río Negro (since 2011), shot.
Oscar Valentín Leal Caal, 41, Guatemalan politician, Congressman (since 2008), shot.
Carlos Escarrá, 57, Venezuelan politician, Attorney General (since 2011), heart attack.
Ronaldo Cunha Lima, 76, Brazilian poet and politician, Governor of Paraíba (1991-1994), lung cancer.
Jaime Serrano Cedillo, 45, Mexican politician, stabbing.
Héctor Tizón, 82, Argentinian writer and diplomat.

Religious Leaders - United States and Puerto Rico

Luis Aponte Martinez, 89, the second Puerto Rican to be ordained a bishop and the only Puerto Rican cardinal, after a long illness.
Ada Maria Isasi-Diaz, 69, American theologian, cancer.
Hermano Pablo, 90, American evangelist and broadcaster.
Agustin Roman, 83, Cuban-born American Roman Catholic prelate, Auxiliary Bishop of Miami (1979-2003), heart attack.
Robert Fortune Sanchez, 77, the nation's first Hispanic archbishop, died in Albuquerque of complications from Alzheimer's disease.
Juan Fremiot Torres Oliver, 86, Puerto Rican Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Ponce (1964-2000).

Religious Leaders - Latin America and Spain

Jerónimo Tomás Abreu Herrera, 81, Dominican Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Mao-Monte Cristi (1978-2006).[
Eladio Acosta Arteaga, 95, Colombian Roman Catholic prelate, Archbishop of Santa Fe de Antioquia (1988-1992).
José Alves da Costa, 73, Brazilian Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Corumbá (1991-1999).
Ramón Búa Otero, 78, Spanish Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Tarazona (1982-1989) and Calahorra y La Calzada-Logroño (1989-2003).
José Cerviño Cerviño, 91, Spanish Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Tui-Vigo (1976-1996).
Lucas Luis Dónnelly, 91, Argentine Roman Catholic prelate.
Manuel Eguiguren Galarraga, 82, Spanish-born Bolivian Roman Catholic prelate, Auxiliary Vicar Apostolic of El Beni (1981-2007).
José Freire de Oliveira Neto, 83, Brazilian Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Mossoró (1984-2004).
Ireneo García Alonso, 89, Spanish Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Albacete (1968-1980).
Luiz Gonzaga Bergonzini, 76, Brazilian Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Guarulhos (1991-2011).
Eduardo Herrera Riera, 85, Venezuelan Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Carora (1994-2003), cancer.
Eduardo Koaik, 86, Brazilian Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Piracicaba (1984-2002), cancer.
Aloysio José Leal Penna, 79, Brazilian Roman Catholic prelate, Archbishop of Botucatu (2000-2008).
Luíz Eugênio Pérez, 84, Brazilian Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop Jales (1970-1981) Jaboticabal (1981-2003), complications from surgery.
Rodolfo Quezada Toruño, 80, Guatemalan Roman Catholic cardinal, Archbishop of Guatemala (2001-2010), intestinal blockage.
Pedro Reginaldo Lira, 97, Argentinian Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of San Francisco in Argentina (1961-1965), and Auxiliary Bishop of  
         Salta (1967-1978).[
José Rodrigues de Souza, 86, Brazilian Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Juazeiro (1975-2003).[
Odorico Leovigildo Sáiz Pérez, 100, Spanish-born Peruvian Roman Catholic prelate, Vicar Apostolic of Requena (1973-1987).[
Faustino Sainz Muñoz, 75, Spanish Roman Catholic prelate, Apostolic Nuncio to Great Britain (2004-2010), cancer .
Alcides Mendoza Castro, 84, Peruvian Roman Catholic prelate, Archbishop of Cuzco (1983-2003).
Joviano de Lima Júnior, 70, Brazilian Roman Catholic prelate, Archbishop of Ribeirão Preto (since 2006).
José Sótero Valero Ruz, 76, Venezuelan Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Guanare (2001-2011).
Felipe Fernández García, 76, Spanish Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Ávila (1976-1991) and San Cristóbal de La Laguna o Tenerife


Miguel Arteche, 86, Chilean poet and novelist.
Antonio Cisneros, 69, Peruvian poet, lung cancer.
Jayne Cortez, 76, American poet and performance artist.
Millôr Fernandes, 87, Brazilian cartoonist, humorist, and playwright, multiple organ failure.
Carlos Fuentes, 83, Panamanian-born Mexican novelist, internal hemorrhage.
Claude-Anne Lopez, 92, American author and scholar, Alzheimer's disease.
Pedro Medina Avendaño, 96, Colombian poet.
Carmen Naranjo, 83, Costa Rican novelist, poet and essayist, cancer.
Décio Pignatari, 85, Brazilian poet, essayist and translator, respiratory failure.
Antonio Segura, 64, Spanish comics writer.
Horacio Vázquez-Rial, 65, Argentine-born Spanish writer, cancer.


Francisco Fernández Fernández, 111, Spanish supercentenarian, oldest in country and oldest man in Europe.
Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano, 37, Mexican drug lord (Los Zetas), shooting.
María Amalia Lacroze de Fortabat, 90, Argentine business executive and philanthropist.
Ana Marquez-Greene, 6, killed in Newtown, Connecticut school shooting.
Eloy Gutiérrez Menoyo, 77, Spanish-born Cuban dissident (Alpha 66), heart attack.
Warren Morrow, 34, an Mexico-born advocate for Latino businesses, CEO and Founder of Coopera in Iowa.
Oswaldo Payá, 60, Cuban dissident, recipient of the 2002 Sakharov Prize, traffic collision.
Victoria Soto, 27, Puerto Rican teacher who died as a hero in the tragic shooting at an elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut.
Manuel Torres Félix, 58, Mexican drug trafficker for the Sinaloa Cartel, shooting.
Griselda Blanco, 69, Colombian drug trafficker known as The Cocaine Godmother, notorious in the 1970s and 1980s for her substantial cocaine business in Queens, New York, and drug-related brutality in Miami known as the Cocaine Cowboy Wars, shot twice in the head in a motorcycle assassination


The Menudo Report
Map: Range of US aid being countries
Video: Non-partisan Explaining US Fiscal Problems
Youtube: Great Britain" On Gun Control
Areas of Cartel Influence in Mexico
Firearms Protection Act
Rebellion by Charlie Lyon, January 14, 2013
A Little Gun History to Learn From

This new site seems to have a great variety of Breaking News, Politics and Information Impacting the Latino/Hispanic Community.
Color-coded map showing the range of US aid being countries by the U.S   Quite a variance.
Sent by Jose M. Pena
This is a non-partisan video produced by an accountant, Hal Mason, retired after 27 years with IBM.  He looks at the budget, its revenues and expenses, and simply illustrates the problem.
Sent by Jose M. Pena
The Once "Great Britain" On Gun Control - YouTube

Click here: Mexico's Drug War: Persisting Violence and a New President | Stratfor

We should learn from history.
Sent by Elroy Archuleta

In 1911, Turkey established gun control. From 1915 to 1917, 1.5 million Armenians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
In 1929, the Soviet Union established gun control. >From 1929 to 1953, about 20 million dissidents, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
In 1935, China established gun control. From 1948 to 1952, 20 million political dissidents, unable to defend themselves were rounded up and exterminated.

In 1938, Germany established gun control and from 1939 to 1945, a total of 13 million Jews and others who were unable to defend themselves were rounded up and exterminated.
In 1956, Cambodia established gun control. From 1975 to 1977, one million educated people, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.

In 1964, Guatemala established gun control. From 1964 to 1981, 100,000 Mayan Indians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
In 1970 Uganda established gun control . From 1971 to 1979, 300,000 Christians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.

Rebellion by Charlie Lyon, January 14, 2013

"As in every country where centralized government control has been tried, millions must necessarily be massacred to instill the essential fear to control the remaining feeble masses.

No one in civil society wants to think about this possibility. But if we, like the founders, understand history and human nature then we must also, like them pledge our lives, fortunes and sacred honor to fuel the flames of freedom! And, while there is still time, we need to continue to send that message to our elected officials -- we are the land of the Brave! We do know the price of liberty, and we are more than willing to pay it!

While it is still a land of the rule of law we must hold the highest accountable for their decisions. I suggest that we, in every state, urge our state legislators to begin the outcry and legal avenues available to bring impeachment proceedings if by Executive Order the president even attempts to infringe upon our unalienable rights to keep and bear arms!

The greatest difficulty for proponents of centralized government is not just the armed citizenry but the makeup of our local governments. It is essential that we begin forming associations of the free in our families, neighborhoods and communities to 1) study & teach the founding principles of the USA and 2) come up with plans to resist tyranny, as well as showing up at school, township and county boards to hold our elected officials accountable and send the message that we will be free!"

Firearms Protection Act

Texas state representative Steve Toth is filing legislation for a "Firearms Protection Act" similar to that which we saw in Wyoming. This law will make "any federal law banning semi-automatic handguns or limiting the size of gun magazines unenforceable within the state's boundaries."

Not only will this put Texas shoulder-to-shoulder with Wyoming in making it a felony for anyone--including federal agents--to try to enforce new gun control, but according to the Tenth Amendment Center it is in perfect harmony with the actions of Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott, "who has already filed over twenty-three lawsuits against the federal government."

More good news--representative Toth is newly elected, which means he isn't wasting any time. He is taking it to the gun-grabbers instead of sitting back to see what happens next. Toth puts it this way: "We can no longer depend on the Federal Government and this Administration to uphold a Constitution they no longer believe in."

The message is simple: "Don't Mess With Texas," and particularly, with Texas' gun laws. 

Medical Issues 

Long Term Results of Criminalization of Marijuana on the Latino Community
Have you heard of a Medical Excise Tax?
Hospital Medicare admittance has just changed

Criminalization of Marijuana

Cow shoes used by Moonshiners in the Prohibition days to disguise their footprints, 1922

Alerted by the smell of a broken bottle of liquor, Federal Agents inspect a "lumber truck". Los Angeles, 1926

Although it has a long history of cultural and spiritual significance, its association with Mexicans during a time of great political tensions intersecting with racism led to its criminalization and unjust prohibition. This, in turn, created a series of laws that placed cannabis regulation and control as a strategy to mask racist and profit-mongering motives. After almost ten thousand years of agricultural, industrial, medicinal, and recreational use all over the world, and with a total lack of reliable science, it was made illegal in the United States for reasons entirely due to racism and greed.

For the rest of the post, please go to: 

I believe the time is well past for the nation-wide decriminalization, indeed legalization, of marijuana. Texas is one of the worst states and has so far incarcerated more than 1 million since prohibition started in the 1920s. Texas averages 77,000 arrests per year for possession (2009) with an average 180 sentence, $2000 fine, and a record that can prevent people from voting or receiving student loans. Not surprisingly, Latina/os and Blacks are more than half of those arrested in Texas.

Devon G. Peña, Ph.D.

"Memory is a moral obligation, all the time."   J. Derrida




Medical Excise Tax

Hospital Medicare admittance changed under Obama Care

Cabela's Official Website -
Quality Hunting, Fishing, Camping and Outdoor Gear 
Yvonne Villarreal Cleary

You must be admitted by your primary Physician in order for Medicare to pay for it! If you are admitted by an emergency room doctor it is treated as outpatient care where hospital costs are 
not covered. This is only the tip of the iceberg for Obama Care. Just wait to see what happen in 2013 & 2014!

Obama Care Highlighted by Page Number, THE CARE BILL HB 3200 

Judge Kithil of Marble Falls, TX - highlighted the most egregious pages of HB3200
Please read this....... especially the reference to pages 58 & 59.  She wrote: 

** Page 50/section 152: The bill will provide insurance to all non-U.S. residents, even if they are here illegally. 

** Page 58 and 59: The government will have real-time access to an individual's bank account and will have the authority to make electronic fund transfers from those accounts. 

** Page 65/section 164: The plan will be subsidized (by the government) for all union members, union  retirees and for community organizations (such as the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now  - ACORN). 

** Page 203/line 14-15: The tax imposed under this section will not be treated as a tax. 

** Page 241 and 253: Doctors will all be paid the same regardless of specialty, and the government will set all doctors' fees. 

** Page 272. section 1145: Cancer hospital will ration care according to the patient's age. 

** Page 317 and 321: The government will impose a prohibition on hospital expansion; however, communities may petition for an exception. 

** Page 425, line 4-12: The government mandates advance-care planning consultations. Those on Social Security will be required to attend an "end-of-life planning" seminar every five years. (Death counseling..) 

** Page 429, line 13-25: The government will specify which doctors can write an end-of-life order. 
FINALLY Judge Kithil then goes on to identify: It is specifically stated that this bill will not apply to members of Congress.


Extracts: Braceros No More by Devon G. Peña, Ph.D.
A 2007 report from the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC),
2013 NHBWA Educational Scholarship application window is now open!
NHBWA offering Students free membership
Javier Palomarez named by BBC as one of "Ten Latinos Who Made History in 2012"
Extracts:  Braceros No More . .  
Devon G. Peña, Ph.D.
The Bracero Program and the restructuring of U.S. agribusiness. Graph by Richard Vogel 
I have a dear friend who is the son of a Bracero. He was born in the United States in the 1960s but his father never became a citizen, even after he married into a family with deep roots north of the border – a family heritage that predates the existence of the United States by several millennia at least.

His mother, who passed away in 1987, was Navajo and Mexican. Like many people her age, she came to identify, defensively, as “Spanish American,” especially after the family moved to Pueblo, Colorado where her bracero husband got a job as a manual laborer at the steel mill. Of course, she was not Spanish, but that’s a different story for another time.

The widower is now in his 80s and retired, but not in the United States. He could not retire here even though he worked and lived in the United States starting around 1955. After his wife died, and with his three children all grown up, he decided that – since he had no social security funding – that he would return to his origin village in Michoacán to live out his remaining years with his Mexican family. This was not an easy choice but he refused to burden his working-class children with having to care for an elder with failing eyesight, an exhausted heart, and a lack of access to health care through Medicare (which he lost upon his wife’s passing).

Braceros (strong arms) in 1963. Bettmann/Corbis Archives 

My friend’s father was a Bracero – a guest-worker imported from Mexico to be used only as temporary migrant labor in agriculture and industry. He never felt welcome by the government or his employers and he was not allowed to join labor unions, even if he considered himself a working-class radical whose family included members of the labor brigades of the 1910 Revolution.

His son once told me what I take was to become the epitaph on his father’s gravestone:  
Trabajó duro. Siempre con dignidad.
                Nunca abajado.
[He worked hard. Always with dignity. 
                 Never downtrodden.]

I do know that the son, like his father, could have resented the exclusion of braceros from the labor unions. Instead, he thought it tragic rather than vicious because the ‘American’ [qua Anglo] workers’ movements lost the benefit of the knowledge, tenacity, and militancy that ran in that Mexican bloodline.

However, he did resent the government for failing to extend a less formidable path to citizenship to his father, who never learned English and was not able to read very well. He was embarrassed to take citizenship classes and so was never encouraged to seek legal status. His son felt the government could have done more to extend a hand to men like his dad who gave so much in the war years and aftermath, and then went on to raise productive and healthy children with U.S. citizen women. He did everything except learn English and since he had to work from the age of ten he had never learned to read or write. How does one deny an opportunity to such a soul, clearly rooted in the new country?
A 2007 report from the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), Close to Slavery, Guest-worker Programs in the United States, suggests that things have not improved; they have worsened. The SLPC report summarizes the conditions faced by the new braceros. Under the current system, called the H-2 program, employers brought about 121,000 guest-workers into the United States in 2005 — approximately 32,000 for agricultural work and another 89,000 for jobs in forestry, seafood processing, landscaping, construction and other non-agricultural industries:  These workers, though, are not treated like “guests.”  For the report, go to: 

Bracero retirees protest at the Mexican Consulate, seek help obtaining unpaid wages owed for decades. 

Credit: LA Weekly 

Press for this honorable and fundamental demand: You want our labor? We get to live and work here as long as we want to. We will only work under full protection of expanded and enforced workplace health and safety and hourly wage standards including the right to organize and strike. This a democracy, right? Well, from our vantage, that starts in the workplace and not the voting booth. We can choose to become citizens. None of this is negotiable. We will build a democratic future together, but only with the conditions that we exercise our full dignity and rights as co-workers, future citizens, and fellow human beings.

The 2013 NHBWA Educational Scholarship application window is now open!

Program Description: The National Hispanic Business Women Association (NHBWA) Educational Scholarship Program has awarded 108 educational scholarships to deserving students since the program inception. This achievement has been possible thanks to the support of our members, corporate sponsors and donors. 

Applicants Must Meet The Following Criteria: Be a student with permanent residence in Orange County, California
Attending or planning to attend any accredited college in the USA U.S. Citizen or student who is in the process of obtaining U.S. citizenship:
Student with a demonstrated record of service to the Latina community 
Pursue an undergraduate or graduate degree
Is in need of educational financial assistance
Be a student in good standing with at least a 3.0 GPA or higher 

Go to the home page for more information: 

This opportunity brought to you by  NHBWA
Patty Homo, NHBWA Director
2024 N. Broadway, Suite 100
Santa Ana, CA 92706   Main: 714.836.4042  Direct: 949.636.7800  Fax: (714) 836-4209
Twitter: @NHBWA


NHBWA offering Students free membership

The National Hispanic Business Women Association (NHBWA), the leading Hispanic business women association, is pleased to announce the availability of individual and student level yearly memberships at no cost. Effective January 1, 2013, this membership access is made possible by our sponsors and supporters.  JOIN HERE!

About NHBWA: The National Hispanic Business Women Association (NHBWA) is a 501 (c) (3) non-profit organization established in Orange County, California in 1997. The mission of the organization is to encourage women to develop their business and professional endeavors by promoting business growth through education, mutual support, the sharing of information, business referrals and networking.


Since its inception, the NHBWA has awarded 108 educational scholarships to deserving students. This achievement has been possible thanks to the support of our members, corporate sponsors and donors.


To learn more about the NHBWA visit,    


Javier Palomarez named one of "Ten Latinos Who Made History in 2012" by BBC

Dear Members and Friends of the US Hispanic Chamber of Commerce,

At the close of this remarkable year, it is a pleasure for me to share with you some fantastic news about our organization's President & CEO:  As he continues to elevate the USHCC on the national stage, the larger world is also taking notice.  This week, Javier Palomarez was named one of the "Ten Latinos Who Made History in 2012" by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), a truly global media outlet.

This is not only great news for the USHCC, but also recognition from an increasingly broad audience that our Hispanic business constituency is a formidable economic and political force in America today. 

 Javier is in the distinguished company of Univision anchor and journalist Jorge Ramos, Congressman Luis Gutierrez and actor/activist Rosario Dawson.

Thank you again for all your support over the past year, and with yet another reason to celebrate...Here's to a banner year in 2013!

Best wishes, Marc A. Rodriguez
Chairman of the Board



Art:  Mr. President Pass the Dream Act by Eddie Martinez


Cartoon: Cholo Samurai, the ultimate fighter
Rita Hayworth at her dancing best
New Committee Will Review Kennedy Center Honors Selection Process

Some Japanese youth have embraced Low riding and the look of the cholo, music and life style...this is the next logical step...
Sergio Hernandez,


You are going to absolutely love this! Rita Hayworth, Fred Astaire, Gene Kelly and others dancing to the Bee Gees' Stayin' Alive. Syncing at its brilliant best !!!!!!   For those that do not know Rita Hayworth is Mexican heritage.  She was discovered dancing on Olvera Street.
Sent by Val Valdez Gibbons  


New Committee Will Review Kennedy Center Honors Selection Process
By David Montgomery, The Washington Post

The Kennedy Center has formed a committee of artists and community leaders to review the heretofore opaque process by which winners of the annual Kennedy Center Honors are selected.

“While the center has a strong track record of diversity throughout its other performance, education and arts education programs, it is important to undertake this review process to ensure the Honors reflect the diversity of those who have contributed to American culture,” Michael M. Kaiser, president of the Kennedy Center, said in a statement released Monday.

The 11-member artist advisory panel will have its second meeting this month, Kennedy Center spokesman John Dow said.

Its formation late last year — though only announced Monday — is part of a series of steps the center has taken in response to a controversy that erupted in September over the lack of Latino honorees.

Since the Honors were created in 1978, two of the 186 honorees have been Hispanic: Placido Domingo, the Spanish tenor, in 2000; and Chita Rivera, the actress, singer and dancer of Puerto Rican descent, in 2002.

The omission had been a sore spot for Latino activists for a number of years, but the issue burst onto a broader cultural radar after Kaiser directed a vulgarity at Felix R. Sanchez, chairman of the National Hispanic Foundation for the Arts, who at the time was pressing Kaiser on the issue in a telephone conversation.

Kaiser apologized for his choice of words, and the center’s board of trustees created a subcommittee to look into the selection process. Kaiser acknowledged that the process by which honorees are designated lacked transparency. The new advisory panel will have a broad mandate to consider reforms, Dow said.

The move “emphasizes their willingness to do business differently,” Sanchez said. “And that was what we had really wanted, that the Latino community is and should be a part of the American mosaic.”

Janet Murguia, president and chief executive of the National Council of la Raza, added: “This is an important acknowledgment that they do want to reflect the entirety and diversity of American culture. It has been highly offensive that we haven't seen more representation by the Hispanic community .?.?. in those awards.”

The members of the new panel are:
Gabriel Abaroa, president/CEO of Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences
Debbie Allen, actress
Roberto Bedoya, executive director of Tucson Pima Arts Council
Maria de Leon, executive director of the National Association of Latino Arts and Culture
Raul Esparza, Broadway actor
Yo-Yo Ma, cellist
Norman Y. Mineta, former congressman and Cabinet secretary
Joseph W. Polisi, president of The Juilliard School
Thomas A. Saenz, president and general counsel of MALDEF
Carlton Turner of Alternate ROOTS
Damian Woetzel, dancer/member of President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities

The center also plans to create a separate Latino Advisory Committee that will focus on cultivating diversity at the center beyond the Honors and forging stronger communication with the Latino community, Dow said.


Libros para Latinos
The 2013 International Latino Book Awards by Annie Perez
Latino Children Seldom See Themselves In Books Written For Young Readers
Update of Somos en escrito Magazine for Nov.-Dec. 2012
Myths and Facts about South Texas Spanish by Dr. Lino García, Jr.
The Magic of Javier Marías By Marcia Facundo
Top Ten Best Books by Latino Authors in 2012

Dear Editor, 

Edward James Olmos & I founded Latino Literacy Now more than a decade ago to help spread the word about books aimed at Latinos. The Latino Book & Family Festival (51 festivals & over 800,000 attendees over the past 15 years) and the International Latino Book Awards have been two of the outcomes. 

The book awards have grown to become the largest Latino book awards in the USA. Last year 148 authors and publishers were honored. This year the awards will again be held in New York City and we are anticipating a very large number of entries. I hope you can find room in your publication for the enclosed article about the Awards. If any of you would like to be considered to be a judge in these awards, please email me at

Nuestro programa Libros pra Latinos te proporciona artículos sobre los libros que creemos podrían ser de interés para tus lectores. Favor de considerar incluir este artículo en un ejemplar futuro de tu publicación. 

Our Libros para Latinos program provides you with articles about books that we feel your readers will want to know about. Please consider running this article in an upcoming issue of your publication. 

Recuerda que hay fotos y versiones en Word de los artículos al final de este correo electrónico. 

Please remember that there are photos and word document versions of the article at the end of this email.

Gracias, Kirk Whisler 

The 2013 International Latino Book Awards

By Annie Perez

Once a year the eyes of the Latino community and publishing insiders turn to the International Latino Book Awards honoring the best in Latino Literature. Latino Literacy Now is currently accepting submissions for their 15th Annual International Latino Book Awards. The awards, one of the oldest Latino literary award competitions and by far the largest, honored 148 authors and publishers during the 2012 awards.

The event, which is presented by Latino Literacy Now, begins with the call for submissions from Latino/Latina authors from around the world and culminates in the presentation of awards in New York City during BookExpo America.

Founded in 1997, Latino Literacy Now is a California 501c3 non-profit organization that promotes literacy and literary excellence in the Latino community. In addition to the International Latino Book Awards, the organization hosts the Latino Books into Movies Awards, the Latino Literacy Now Lifetime Achievement Award for excellence in publishing and, in association with Edward James Olmos, noted actor, director and community activist, the Latino Book & Family Festival series.

In the past few years the International Latino Book Awards has grown to include more submissions and categories. This year over 20 new categories have been added including best Latino focused books, inspirational books, books in Portuguese, best sports/recreation books, a category for graphic novels, Fantasy/Sci-Fi, best books by multi authors and a category for best translations.

Last year also saw more judges than ever before including Pulitzer Prize winners, heads of national organizations, noted educators, media professionals, and past winners.

Once again the event will take place at the prestigious Instituto Cervantes at 211 E. 49th Street in New York City, with its theatre seating and wide screen projector, the evening of May 30, 2013. It is presented in conjunction with Las Comadres para las Americas and BookExpo America. A reception follows.

All entries must be received no later than February 15, 2013. For more information about the awards, please go to Finalists will be announced the week of April 22, 2013 prior to the awards ceremony. The awards are overseen by Kirk Whisler with assistance from Nora Comstock, Annie Perez, and Jim Sullivan. For more information on sponsoring the awards contact Jim Sullivan by emailing .


Latino Children Seldom See Themselves In Books Written For Young Readers 

Hispanic students now make up nearly a quarter of the nation’s public school enrollment, according to an analysis of census data by the Pew Hispanic Center, and are the fastest-growing segment of the school population. Yet nonwhite Latino children seldom see themselves in books written for young readers.

The Cooperative Children’s Book Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education, which compiles statistics about the race of authors and characters in children’s books published each year, found that in 2011, just over 3 percent of the 3,400 books reviewed were written by or about Latinos, a proportion that has not changed much in a decade 

Kids Poverty Rates Soar : Over a third of single-parent families with children are poor, compared to only seven percent (7%) of married families. Overall, children in married families are Eighty two percent (82%) less likely to be poor than are children of single parents.

Most poor children live in single-parent families. Seventy-one percent (72%) of poor families with children are headed by single parents, mostly single mothers. Among Latinos, unmarried parent families are roughly three times as likely to be poor as married families. Tragically, over half of Latino children born today are born outside of marriage. The rate has increased from less than forty percent (40%) in the 1990s to more than half—nearly fifty three percent (53%)—today. 

Source: US Census and 

WHAT'S NEW? Los Kitos LOVE Engineering! STEM Parent Toolkit and a Los Kitos game

In celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month, the SHPE Foundation works with SHPE student and professional chapters across the United States to coordinate a STEM outreach national campaign -- SHPE Noche de Ciencias. Noche de Ciencias was first hosted in 2008 and is a series of awareness events presented to K – 12 students to promote knowledge and interest about science and engineering as well as scholarship and college opportunities. 

Grade appropriate hands-on activities are hosted during the 3-hour event. In addition to the Noche de Ciencias sponsored by the SHPE Foundation in 2012, the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) is sponsoring 50 Noche de Ciencias across the United States to strengthen the STEM pipeline connecting high school students, university students, and STEM professionals in industry, government, and academia. Over the next three years, NAVSEA is committed to funding 150 Noche de Ciencias and providing engineering professionals as speakers to highlight soaring engineering careers and opportunities. You can always support by contacting 

This message was sent to by: Los Kitos
7444 E. Chapman Avenue, Suite B
Orange, CA 92860
(714) 542-7787

Update of Somos en escrito Magazine for Nov.-Dec. 2012

November and December 2012 brought diverse and tasty literary tidbits for our readers to savor: a new novelist out of San Diego, the first part of a scathing essay by longtime New Mexican educators on their state’s centennial, another essay that reveals the terrible legacy of America that lies behind the Sandy Hook school tragedy, three short stories that make great holiday reading, a “Love” poem, the review of a Chicano poet’s obras out of “America’s heartland,” and a ground-breaking biography in Spanish of the rebellious and tumultuous life of Chicano activist, Jose Ángel Gutierrez.

Go to the site for links and short blurbs for each item: 
Armando Rendón, Editor
Somos en escrito Magazine
510-219-9139 Cell

Myths and Facts about South Texas Spanish By Dr. Lino García, Jr.

Dr. Lino García, Jr., has just donated his works on colonial Spanish history to the UT-Pan American library. (File photo: RGG/Steve Taylor)  EDINBURG, January 1 - Columnist Lino García, Jr., has penned an op-ed for Guardian readers this holiday period about South Texas Spanish.

[Dr.García holds the chair of Professor Emeritus of Spanish Literature at the University of Texas-Pan American. His works on colonial Spanish history have just been added to the UTPA library. Details on this are posted at the end of the op-ed. Here, though, is his op-ed: 

García: Myths and Facts about South Texas Spanish
Throughout the decades, this author has been subjected to a variety and multiple miss-interpretations of “South Texas Spanish,” a term I enjoy and accept to describe, to understand, and to value the splendid use of the Spanish language by Rio Grande Valley residents. Terms which I deem demeaning and designed to ridicule, as well as to devalue South Texas Spanish are: Tex-Mex, Pocho, Border Spanish, and Spanglish, none of which truly explains the linguistic phenomena that is close to the reality of this language first brought here by a crew of Spanish soldiers who landed on Texas soil on November 6, 1528.

Before I venture into a more detailed essay, kindly allow me to state a few facts related to any language spoken in this world we all inhabit.

First of all no language presently in use is devoid of intrusion by other languages, all suffer from the same mixture caused by invasions, by the mingling of cultures, and of the genes between humans that have occurred since the beginning of time. Thus, take away all the Greek, Latin, French, German words out of the present English language, and what we have left is words from the Anglo-Saxon linguistic trail. Since time has cemented the use of these words loaned to the English language, no one bothers to call it anything else but: English. 

The Spanish language was first developed in Spain from the common use of ordinary Latin spoken by the multitude, as opposed to the Classical Latin, spoken by the learned. This emerging Spanish, which occurred during the 10th Century, A.D., was also invaded by the Greek, Visigoth, Celtic, Hebrew, Basque, and Arabic languages as these groups also made their way into Spain, and thus what we now have is really a mixture of various languages brought to Spain before and during the Middle Ages when different ethnic groups penetrated the Iberian Peninsula, B.C. and A. D., with Latin being the predominant source. The Spanish language spoken in Spain during the time of the conquest and colonization of America in the 16th Century is what was brought to South Texas and other areas where this language is spoken. In this area we can still hear remnants of certain words that formed part of 16th Century Spanish lexicon, words that did not suffer certain evolutionary steps. They are archaic words long since disappeared. However, some still creep into normal Spanish conversation: such as: vide> vi ; ansina>así; truje>traje; muncho>mucho; and others. In certain areas of South Texas where Hispanic individuals of long generational standing reside we also sometimes hear certain Spanish sounds similar to ones still used in Spain. The reason is that while certain linguistic evolution occurred in the Spanish language in other parts of the world, it took a long time arriving here. 

Myth: Residents of South Texas speak a non-acceptable language that is not at all close to the real Spanish, especially one called Castilian Spanish that is spoken in Spain. They are not truly bi-lingual because many do not know the grammar or how to properly write the Spanish language.

Fact: Random College Dictionary states (page 135): bilingual: “… able to speak two languages…”; and nothing is said about writing the language nor knowledge of grammar. Furthermore, all Spanish spoken anywhere in the world is standard Spanish and should be accepted as such. Secondly there is no such linguistic activity known as Castilian Spanish. It is purely an invention by individuals who sometimes lacked real knowledge of the Spanish language, and are prone to consider it more elegant than the Spanish spoken in the Americas. Obviously and due to locations far from the mother language, and influence by other languages, regions have developed regional words spoken or used only in certain areas or parts of the world, and that via time have become part of ordinary standard Spanish. This linguistic phenomenon is true of all languages, and can also be applied to the English spoken in England, in the south, in New York, and in South Texas, and all have a regional usage, a sort of variety peculiar to the area. In fact, via many years of living in this area, and being sensitive to the use of languages, I have noticed a certain Spanish rhythm sometimes applied to the English used here by non-Hispanics. Simply living in an environment where Spanish is all around impacts the English language also. Does that make English any different from other parts, and should we call it anything else but English? Absolutely NOT! Both the English and Spanish languages are traveling via a normal linguistic patterns strictly established by users everywhere in the world since the beginning of time.

Myth: All Hispanics in the Southwest USA speak what some individuals call Tex-Mex or Spanglish. Some people, especially those who have little knowledge of Spanish make this illogical, misinformed, and totally negative assumption and nothing is farther from the truth.

Fact: In South Texas there are various levels of Spanish linguistic abilities, similar to any other language spoken in the world. The Spanish spoken in South Texas is mostly a speaking/comprehension ability, since there are few occasions to write anything in Spanish; and the speaking /comprehension component is done at various levels of performance reflecting the person’s level of education, awareness, and immersion. Thus, one can meet someone with a high level, a middle or a low level of speaking Spanish. Other levels include individuals who possess all abilities , again at different levels of performance such as : comprehension, reading, and writing abilities. Throughout the years I have taught countless classes in Spanish Composition and Grammar at UTPA to a great number of South Texas students, the great percentage of whom have succeeded, and have shown excellent ability to write decent paragraphs, and long essays in the standard Spanish. In fact I have compared some of our M.A. thesis to several written in Spain’s universities, and I have found that our UTPA students do well or above expectations using the Spanish language. Having been born and raised in South Texas, I also count myself as having written both my M.A. thesis at the University of North Texas, and my Ph.D dissertation at Tulane University, both works entirely in Spanish, and accepted by eminent professors at these highly respected institutions of higher learning.

Myth: Some South Texas parents of Hispanic origin want their children to learn Spanish first and then English as a second language.

Fact: Not so! The majority of people who have school age children are demanding that their children be taught the language of the USA as the primary language. The reason? Gone are the days when Hispanic parents merely dreamed of having their sons and daughters finish high school. Twenty first century Hispanic parents are demanding that their children be well prepared for professions as teachers, medical doctors, specialists, attorneys, engineers, pharmacists, and other high paying professions, and these same parents know and understand fully that a perfect knowledge of the English language is essential for a successful professional life in the USA. One would demand the same were we living in France, as knowledge of the French language is then essential for success in that country. However, knowledge of the Spanish language, especially in South Texas, is of the upmost importance and highly necessary. One can achieve both, if schools impart them at an early age in the student’s academic life.

Myth: We should teach only an acceptable Spanish that reflects what is spoken in Spain and other countries where the real Spanish is used.

Fact: There is no real or acceptable good Spanish. We can only hope to approach a certain level of excellence, due to the fact that the everyday struggles of language usage insists that we attain a certain level of acceptability depending always on the situation at hand, on how we deal with the give and take of language, and of being true to certain models offered to us as linguistic guides. All is standard Spanish with various tinges of regional words, phrases, and intonations developed via many years of contact with other cultures. Every language known has traveled via this historical road for centuries. Let’s accept what the student brings to the classroom, built on that linguistic ability, develop it, and teach various levels of language abilities, depending on the situation that the student will meet along his/her path. Prepare the student for all eventualities in his/her encounters with life, but never diminishing any aspect or level of any language that is already built into the student’s repertoire. 

Myth: Only Hispanic individuals speak openly the Spanish language.

Fact: Not so! Many non-Hispanics of long generational status, especially in South Texas, openly and proudly speak Spanish at all levels. This was particularly true around 1825 and after when the authorities in Mexican controlled Texas invited northerners to settle in this state by offering them four thousand acres of land to bring their families, with the provision that all learn and speak the Spanish language. The “empresario” Esteban F. Austin himself not only spoke Spanish fluently, and signed his name as Esteban, but insisted that all of his colonists that he brought into this state in 1824 learn the Spanish language as essential for living in Texas. Thus, the historical circle has met its point of origin, since Hispanics are poised to become an eminent force in the social, cultural, and political arenas during the 21st Century, they will bring to its fruition a true , an essential, and proud bilingual society, where both the English and Spanish languages are equally given the status they both deserve.  Proceed!

Brownsville native Dr. Lino García, Jr., is an eighth generation Tejano. He holds the chair of Professor Emeritus of Spanish Literature at UTPA and can be reached at : LGarcia@UTPA.Edu  

The Magic of Javier Marías  By Marcia Facundo

Spanish author Javier Marías has become one of Europe's most sensational writers. His stunning storytelling style, which has led him to be called "the postmodern Proust," has contributed to the best-seller status of his books and the translation of his works into more than 30 languages.  

Marias' seductive charm can be savored in the new editions of four of his novels released by Vintage Español: Todas las almas (All Souls, 1989), Corazón tan blanco (A Heart So White, 1992), Mañana en la batalla piensa en mi (Tomorrow in the Battle, 1994) and Negra espalda del tiempo (Dark Back of Time, 1998). For dessert, they also included the collection of stories Cuando fui mortal (When I was mortal, 1996).  

For the titles of his books Marías likes to borrow verses from Shakespeare. Some years ago, the author told me that "in my case, the presence of Shakespeare is almost innate." Shakespeare's obvious influence in Marías' writings is not limited to the cover of his books; it is also present throughout his narratives with evident Shakespearean references. Although he writes with a modern fast-paced style, he is equally obsessed with themes that preoccupied Shakespeare; passion, ambition, and desire.  His stories are full of mystery and a sense of timelessness. His narrative oscillates between the tragic and the comic.  

Verses from Shakespeare's plays are also used by Marías to relate his novels with each other and establish a dialogue between them. Although each book is not necessarily a sequel of the previous one, its protagonists sustain a dialogue between them to give meaning to the stories.  

Todas las almas, set in the ambience of academic myopia and departmental power politics at Oxford, recounts the two-year lectureship of its narrator, a visiting Spanish scholar. Corazón tan blanco is a startling picture of two generations, two marriages, and of how secrecy and suspicion can gradually tint people's hearts. Mañana en la batalla piensa en mi, begins with the death of the narrator's lover and reflects on deception and forgetfulness, while Negra espalda del tiempo is, in the words of the author himself, a "false novel", which begins with the history of the publication of Todas las almas, a book that induced readers to confuse fiction with reality.  

Marías has also said he admires Shakespeare because "in his narrative there is always mystery" and that only literature that retains some of its mystery can be fertile. If this is true, after reading the stories of secrecy, treachery and intrigue in these five books the reader will surely verify the intense fertility of Marías' work.  

About the author:  Javier Marías was born in Madrid in 1951. He has published 10 novels, two collections of short stories and several volumes of essays. He has won several literary awards, including the prestigious IMPAC Dublin. He is a member of the Royal Spanish Academy.  For photos and  more information on Javier Marias, 
Sent by Kirk Whisler  
Latino Print Network | 3445 Catalina Dr. | Carlsbad | CA | 92010


Top Ten Best Books by Latino Authors in 2012


1) This is How You Lose Her by Junot Díaz.
This is a selection of short stories depicting love, relationships, and heartbreak. Mr. Díaz uses his skill of writing to bring his characters to life.

2) A Wedding in Haiti by Julia Alvarez.
A memoir depicting the author’s relationship with a Haitian farmer named Piti. It captures things that are witnessed during her unusual relationship with this farmer as well as how her trips to this place impact and affect her.

3) Have You Seen Marie? by Sandra Cisneros.
This book captures the quest of a girl in search of her cat right after the death of her mother. The search creates an internal transformation of the character Sandy. The beautiful poetic writing brings the book to life.
4) The Distance Between Us by Reyna Grande.
A memoir depicting the author’s early years as she and her siblings are left behind with their grandparents in Mexico while the parents enter the United States illegally. It is a heartfelt story.

5) The Sandoval Sisters’ Secret of Old Blood by Sandra Ramos O’Briant.

A brilliantly told story of the Sandoval Sisters and their life journeys during the mid 1800s. The author excellently interweaves much history of the United States and Mexico during that time. The book is written with great skill and talent.

6) We the Animals by Justin Torres.
As you read this book, you may think you are reading “The House on Mango Street” by Sandra Cisneros; although, this book is about a dysfunctional family whereas Ms. Cisneros’ book is not. The book is written with the same style and flavor and uses a vignette structure to tell the story. The author is quick witted and uses a very clever style of writing.

7) All That Glitters by Alisa Valdes-Rodriguez.

A powerful story bringing two unlikely characters together through which a bond and friendship is developed. In this friendship they find strength, love, and success.

8) Killing the American Dream: How Anti-Immigration Extremists are Destroying the Nation by Pilar Marerro.
This is a book that should be read by everyone interested in the immigration issues of the United States. The author skillfully and objectively captures the problems of immigration today omitting much of the political and technical jargon.

9) Secret Saturdays by Torrey Maldonado.

This story captures the life of an inner city kid and gets into the minds and souls of how they think and feel. Although the story is fiction, it is so real.



10) Looking for Esperanza by Adriana Páramo.
This is an excellent book depicting the hidden world of undocumented female farmworkers 
and the struggles that they endure
Sent by Sandra Ramos O'Briant 


Boy, a Burrito, and a Cookie, From Janitor to Executive by Richard Montanez.
Mexican American Colonization during the 19th Century by Jose Angel Hernandez
Reyna Grande, National Book Critics Circle Award nominees
Bad Indians, a Tribal Memoir by Deborah A. Miranda
Postcards from the Río Bravo Border: Picturing the Place, Placing the Picture,
1900s-1950s by Daniel D. Arreola
If you want to see the latest methods for promoting a new book, do check Richard Montanez marketing for A Boy, a Burrito, and a Cookie, From Janitor to Executive by Richard Montanez.  

You can purchase as a paperback, 124 pages - $10.99 OR as an eBook download. Welcome to the world of eBooks where instead of receiving a physical paper book in the mail, you will receive access to the eBook file for this complete book. Within minutes you can be reading this book on your computer, PDA, cellphone or a stand-alone eBook reader—at a reduced cost! Unless otherwise noted, all eBooks are in the PDF format which is compatible with most eBook readers including Sony Reader, Nook, Kindle 2, iPad, and iPhone 4. Click th "Order Online" button below to purchase this eBook download today!  $9.99 (digital download) 

When on the above website, Click on the book cover and it will take you to a sites set up to promote A Boy, a Burrito, and a Cookie,  on Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, Digg, Buzz, and email. 

José Angel Hernández
University of Massachusetts-Amherst
Department of History
161 President's Drive
Herter Hall, 624
Amherst, MA 01003
(413) 545-4337!/


National Book Critics Circle Award nominees

Reyna Grande at the 
                        2012 Texas Book Festival 

Reyna Grande has just been nominated for a National Book Critics Circle Award in the category of Autobiography. Awards will be announced in February. There is nothing like curling up with a book on a cold winter’s night. It’s what January evenings are made for. .

The National Book Critics Circle Award judges have just confirmed what we already know about Reyna— that she has written a substantive autobiography to share with the world. Reyna is an inspiration to young girls. In particular young Hispanic girls who have embraced her coming-of-age story with a renewed sense of hope that the American dream is alive and well for those who work hard to achieve it.

It warms my heart that Reyna Grande’s THE DISTANCE BETWEEN US has been so well received. It would not surprise me to see it up on the silver screen in the near future. Reyna has written a big story that is both specific and universal. THE DISTANCE BETWEEN US resonates with readers yearning for growth who want to feel understood and that they are not alone.

Reyna will be in town on March 19th as the keynote speaker for the Faye C. Goostree Women's Symposium at Texas Wesleyan University.

“The Distance Between Us.” By Reyna Grande. $25; Atria Books; 336 pages.
Reyna Grande pictured in 2006 wrote the first 80 pages of her debut novel, Across a Hundred Mountains (2006), as her senior project at UCSC. (Photo by Ibarionex R. Perello)

Across a Hundred Mountains

I learn by talking with friends and watching films. And occasionally, I run across a book that brings it all together. Last week, I finally picked up Across a Hundred Mountains, a book I bought a year ago when I met the author, Reyna Grande, at a writers' conference. As unfortunate as it was that I let it sit on the shelf for a year, the path I've been on recently, receiving much more input from and about the struggles of brown people, prepared me better to be open to this novel about being Mexican on both sides of the border.

When I came out of the sweat lodge in Tlxacalancingo last year and got hosed down, someone thrust an orange into my hands and before I knew it, I had eaten at least two, maybe three. I was ravenous for the sweet juicy pulp.

My mind reacted to Grande's book much like my body reacted to those oranges. I woke up to it and went to bed with it at night until it was finished, thinking about it during the day while I craved to see what the next chapter would bring.

Publishers Weekly calls it, "A topical and heartbreaking border story...Two stories cross and re-cross in unexpected ways, driving toward a powerful conclusion."   Here's a taste:

"Is El Otro Lado far away, Papi?" Juana heard the girl and paid attention.

"It's on the other side of the border, mi'ja," the father said. "When we get to Tijuana, a coyote will help us cross the border."

"What's the border, Papi?"

"Hills," her father whispered. "Hills and bushes, that's all it is. But we must walk across it."

"Papi, if it's just land, why can't we take the bus all the way there? Why must we walk across?"

"Because we don't have papers, Carmen. And even though it is just land, it represents a wall. We must go like thieves."

Reyna Grande is going to be an important writer. Go buy yourself a copy of Across a Hundred Mountains and find out why.
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 

Virginia Alanis 

by Deborah A. Miranda

The book integrates California Mission Indian tribal history, family and oral histories and also features a genealogy based on her mother's work that traces her Ohlone/Costanoan-Essalen ancestors A powerful account of loss and survival, Miranda reassembles the shards of her people's past in this groundbreaking book. 

Deborah A. Miranda is an enrolled member of the Ohlone Costanoan Esselen Nation of California, and is also of Chumash and Jewish ancestry. The author of two poetry collections – Indian Cartography, which won the Diane Decorah Award for First Book from the Native Writer's Circle of the Americas, and The Zen of La Llorona, nominated for the Lambda Literary Award – she also has a collection of essays, The Hidden Stories of Isabel Meadows and Other California Indian Lacunae, forthcoming from the University of Nebraska Press. Miranda is an associate professor of English at Washington and Lee University and says reading lists for her students include as many books by 'bad Indians' as possible.
2013 by Deborah A. Miranda
Paperback, 6 x 9, 240 pagesISBN: 978-1-59714-201-4

Copyright © 2012 by Kathryn M. Doyle
California Genealogical Society Library
2201 Broadway, Suite LL2
Oakland, California 94612
For more information on Deborah

Posted by Kathryn M. Doyle
Sent by Ellen Fernandez-Sacco, Ph.D. Vice-President, California Genealogy Society and Library

Postcards from the Río Bravo Border: 
Picturing the Place, 
Placing the Picture, 1900s-1950s 

Daniel D. Arreola

244 pp., 193 b&w photos, 6 maps
ISBN: 978-0-292-75280-1
$40.00, hardcover
Austin: UT Press, August 2013

Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Preface and Acknowledgments

Places and Postcards
1. Río Bravo Border Towns
2. Postcards
II. Postcard Views
Businesses and Landmarks
Everyday Life
II. Sight into Site
View of the Place, Place of the View
Appendix: Postcard Writings

A desirable image is one that celebrates and enlarges the present while making connections with past and future.—Kevin Lynch, What Time Is This Place? (1976)

The past is never dead. It’s not even past.—William Faulkner, Requiem for a Nun (1950)

Every landscape tells a story.—Christopher Salter (2006)

Postcards from the Río Bravo Border engages the relationship among photographic image, past place, and landscape. Photographs are part of what is called “visual culture,” a term that emerged first in the art world of the 1970s and that is now understood as an umbrella expression for imagery in general and its relationship to cultures. Visual culture through photographs is central to the particular goals of this story. Visual culture is examined in its association with travel and tourism as cultural processes because the tourist was the primary audience for the picture postcard, the principal visual medium explored in this project. Further, the work investigates representations of border places in the past and the production of images by period photographers because towns were the subjects of the postcard photographs. Critically, the story is told by reading the landscape of postcard imagery to construct a visual narrative about Río Bravo border towns between 1900s and 1950s.


Villa Acuña, Coahuila, México  

August 4-5, 1928

Postcards that connect picture and place are called “view cards.” The popularity of postcards in the early decades of the twentieth century revolutionized our relationship to places. The availability of popular imagery including view postcards fundamentally transformed American engagement with place. Imagery elevated place beyond direct experience and the written word. Travelers—both armchair and tourist alike—could now consume place through imagery, and the simple postcard view was a critical entree in that process.  


“Place” is a term that might seem innocent to the lay reader. Places are, however, complex human creations, and how pictures of place have influenced the geographical imagination is an emerging field in cultural geography. Critical to this project is an understanding of how picture postcards shaped place. It is argued that picture postcards became part of the script of a visitor experience, most especially places that lacked attention through traditional travel books, the historic and popular means that communicated about nineteenth- and twentieth-century travel. Picture postcards were not the places themselves; rather, they were representations of a place: the scene of the seen. Postcards, therefore, both represented and narrated place for visitors. They were collected to remember place, yet they could stimulate a desire to visit place. Further, postcards of a place analyzed systematically create an understanding of place that may be unique as a form of visual culture. For example, postcards can be used to compare changes in a place through rephotography, which illustrates the place at two different times, or they can be arranged serially for a particular place to visualize change through time.

Landscape, like place, can appear to be a naïve term suggesting an area or field of view. It is most certainly that, but theoretically it can be examined as a socially constructed space that includes many visible and invisible clues to a culture’s preference for making place. In this way, landscapes can be read like a text, and in this project landscape is both the view in a postcard image and the unraveling of that view to make it understandable as a product of people, place, and time.

Photography as part of visual culture is considered modern. As a technical achievement, photographic reproduction generates credibility by the fact of capturing a person or place, fixing it for posterity. Today, it strains us to imagine that this is somehow novel, yet until the early nineteenth century representing something visually was chiefly the domain of the arts, and the arts were largely linked to affluence, especially powerful individuals and institutions. By the early twentieth century, photographic representation became accessible. This “massification,” or the ease with which image reproduction circulated, changed our relationship with image. No longer the province of elites, images became widely produced and reproduced.

Scholarly exploration of visual culture through tourism has chiefly ignored historical reflection in favor of contemporary experience. Classic sociological treatises such as Dean MacCannell’s study of tourist behavior or John Urry’s investigation of the tourist gaze have been almost exclusively contemporary analyses. While it is asserted that photography in the nineteenth century structured the tourist gaze, it is admitted that much speculation about the relationship between tourism and photography has yielded little empirical investigation into their connections. Even more rare is any serious attempt to interpret the relationship among image, tourism, and places in the past. Postcards from the Río Bravo Border is foremost an exploration of that relationship, one pivoted on the photographic postcard and the tourist visitor experience to Río Bravo Mexican border towns between the 1900s and the 1950s. That first half of the twentieth century was when Mexican border towns emerged as popular destinations for American visitors.

Anatomy of the Tourist Path: Merging Postcard Image and Place

Capturing postcard images of border towns required some knowledge of places within and around those towns to be photographed. To be sure, this production was a selective process because not all places in a town were of interest to a photographer, and certainly, the universe of 


Public Market – Matamoros, 
Tamaulipas, México

places to see was limited and appreciated as well by the visitor who was the consumer-purchaser of the postcard. As a result, what gets shown in postcard views very quickly becomes a narrow range of places, some perhaps well-known even to first-time visitors because the site has notoriety from previous circulated images. Other locations are hardly recognized or known about in advance, and a very few places visited may well be quite exotic to even the most seasoned traveler.


In 1957, cultural landscape historian John Brinckerhoff Jackson published an essay about a fictitious encounter that a visitor might have with an American town. Jackson called that experience “the stranger’s path.” The path was the street-level route into the American downtown, a space that was increasingly alien to travelers during the so-called urban removal period of that era, when middle-class populations were fleeing to suburbs away from city centers, which were becoming abandoned and leveled, creating a patchwork of empty lots in our urban cores. The process also described Jackson’s discoveries on entering many an American small town, places that were coming to a similar phase of abandonment as generations once resident in those emptied communities relocated to the cities. According to Jackson, these paths, once well-worn corridors of access and egress to Americans of an earlier generation, had become lonely and forgotten with the construction of interstate highways and the growing popularity of bypass travel. They were, therefore, strange in a way that suggested the unfamiliar, the uneasy, and the derelict, landscapes out of step with the expanding suburbanization that became rampant during the 1960s–1970s. The stranger’s path was populated with broken sidewalks, potholed streets, pawnshops, single room occupant hotels, tacky motels and roadside eateries, and abandonment. Yet Jackson found this landscape alluring and full of lessons about how American places came to be, how they survived, changed, and adapted and the particular populations of the urban and small-town scene. Jackson’s stranger’s path is a metaphor for the path journeyed by visitors to the Río Bravo border towns.

Visitors to Mexican border towns during the 1900s–1950s experienced their own strange paths, routes through towns that may have seemed exotic to many. In fact, the stranger’s path, or tourist route, was a very calculated and highly orchestrated promenade meant to expose visitors to specific sites in border communities with nary a single detour. This framework was likely the result of the photographer entrepreneur’s awareness of selected locations that had become popular with visitors. Deviation from this programmed experience was not impossible, but more often the postcard views themselves helped navigate the route, acting as signposts of the sites that were most popular.

In many, perhaps most, instances it was likely that the route was relived through the sequence of postcards accumulated and not mailed during the visit. This may in part explain why so many postcards found in private collections today are not messaged or posted. Like guidebooks that were templates to the tourist experience of place, postcards typically structured the tourist path, reinforcing the established sites to be seen in a place. In this way, visitor encounters with Mexican border towns followed a common thread known by traveler tourists around the world for generations.

The peculiar anatomy of the Mexican border cities shaped the stranger’s path and also the kinds of views of places represented in postcards. Mexican border towns in large part are truncated on their northern reaches by the international boundary, creating a need to formally enter the town from the neighboring U.S. town. This situation creates both a gateway landscape and a crossing experience. Postcard photographers were keenly aware of this condition. All border crossings were, therefore, dramatic entry points represented by forms of transport across the boundary including infrastructures like bridges and gateway facilities that monitored and controlled access to the border town visited and beyond. In fact, essentially every border town was a doorway to the interior of Mexico, and visitor entry was sometimes transitory if the destination was a location far beyond the border. In this way, every gateway acted as an entrêpot, a point of passage to a hinterland that extended well south of the international boundary at a specific border town. Regardless, the gateway and crossing were the first exposure of travelers-visitors to the Mexico of their imagination. The gateway landscape, therefore, is the first station of the stranger’s path, a threshold that becomes cemented in the mind of the visitor through the anxiety of the experience but also through the memory of the postcards that represent the place.

Once visitors cross successfully through a gateway they are typically dumped onto a single street that launches them along the path. These main streets are usually linear alignments that run perpendicular to the international boundary and act like a spine to the anatomy of a town. In some places this is a set of zigzag streets or even a curving path away from the gateway toward the center of the border town. Unlike a spine that suggests rigid linearity, the string, as this other main street has been called, can be a circuitous route, creating heightened anxiety for visitors who expect the border town to unfold easily for them after navigating the crossing. These street landscapes, or streetscapes, are often the principal retail strips of the border towns lined with curio shops, eateries, bars, and other attractions appealing to tourist visitors. Whether spine or string, these spaces were a second station or arrangement on the path, and postcard photographers documented the blocks of businesses, the activities and traffic—pedestrian and automotive—along and sometimes in the streets, thereby capturing the commercial vitality that marked every border town. For some visitors, these streets were the extent of their interaction with the town, wanting only to shop, eat, drink, and return to the safety of the U.S. side of the boundary.

The plaza has been called the heart and soul of any Mexican town. It is a rectangular space typically created with the founding of a community, and border towns, like towns across Mexico, each feature a plaza and sometimes several plazas. The plaza or plazas are usually the destination of the spine or string street described above. In some towns, the plaza is offset from this main street, and at other times the plaza actually sits as a buffer between the gateway and the spine. This space is a pedestrian oasis typically studded with plants and trees, walk paths, benches, a fountain, and a bandstand. Here visitors can mingle with local residents who use the plaza as a physical respite in their daily activities or a gathering spot for special events. Plazas conventionally boast the town’s largest public buildings, especially the church and municipal palace, and collectively they showcase the architectural splendor of a community. The plaza is a prime location for postcard photographers, and virtually every town is represented by postcard views of its plaza. It is, therefore, the third station of the path and in some ways the most popular and actively sought center of the town for visitor and resident alike.

Beyond the central space of the plaza, border town visitors were drawn to a number of sites that I call “attractions” because each has a particular function and/or attraction that a visitor moves into and out of, and typically the space accommodated larger crowds than a single point like a business establishment. An attraction can be many different kinds of public or private spaces but for the purposes of this project include markets and arenas. All border towns had public markets and bullfighting arenas, and these spaces in some towns were major tourist attractions. They were typically situated away from the gateway, main street, and plaza, but visitors, with local assistance, could find their way to those locations, and they became sites captured visually by postcard photographers. Attractions thus became a fourth type of station for visitors, expanding the lure of the border town beyond the commonly recognized loci described above.

Another category of spaces captured by postcard photographers is businesses and landmarks. These were specific locations in the building fabric of the border town, for example, a bar, curio store, or public building. Unlike plazas or attractions, businesses were common along streets and side streets in a town, multiple in number, and frequented by visitors as part of their wanderings along the path. These sites, not surprisingly, were also fodder for postcard photographers, and typically were the primary dispensing locations for postcard sales. Specific buildings and spaces, however, were popular landmarks to the tourist, and visualized by postcard photographers. Businesses and landmarks were critical stops, de rigueur pauses along the tourist path.

The Río Bravo border towns, like all places in Mexico, contain aspects of everyday life alluring to visitors and therefore postcard photographers. Domestic scenes varied by particular location but could include almost anything off the tourist path. Residences, street vendors, washerwomen, special celebrations, peculiarities—any event or circumstance that marked everyday life of the river border town seemed fair game for photographers. These scenic detours were quite exotic to most visitors, and postcard photographers found them potentially endearing images that made for the perfect curious postcard mirroring border town life.


Del Rio, Texas

Postcards from the Río Bravo Border is organized in three parts: “Places and Postcards,” “Postcard Views,” and “Sight into Site.” The chapters in these sections present the story of how the Mexican border towns of the Río Bravo visually came to represent Mexico for thousands of visitors. Early chapters contextualize the border towns and postcards while later chapters assess the border town landscapes as visual culture.  


Chapters 1 and 2 introduce the border towns and postcards. Chapter 1 contextualizes the historical geography of Río Bravo towns, setting a framework to understand how places came to be and how they expanded geographically through phases of growth spurred by social and economic events of the 1900s through 1950s. Places strategic to the tourist experience are mapped and described for each town, and selected panoramic postcard images illustrate views of each town at two separate time periods to suggest how postcards came to represent places. Chapter 2 moves the story to an explanation of postcards as forms of visual culture and postcard photography, especially individual photographers and postcard companies that produced images of the Río Bravo border towns. This chapter also discusses how Mexican places have been visually represented in the past and how those representations compare to postcard views. Postcards of Mexico are shown to be a continuum of earlier forms of popular imagery, socially constructed and framed to tell a particular story about people and place.

Chapters 3–6 are assembled to follow a common template for the stations of the path encountered by tourist visitors and captured visually by postcard photographers. In each chapter, a short introductory essay frames the views being presented, drawing on historical materials to create a context for seeing the postcard views. The postcard images are then paired to a description that distills the essence of that representation as part of the larger fabric of the theme. What unfolds is less a treatise in dense prose about each station of the path than a visual exploration of place as revealed by postcard views. In addition to paired text and image, I use vignettes to elaborate particular themes that are part of the stations of the path being shown. These vignettes are intended to vary the overall narrative using selected towns to illustrate a theme. In this way, a reader can select and engage from within the chapters particular arrangements or places of interest or to move out of sequence as one’s attention is drawn to one or another theme or town. I hope that in this manner, the work becomes valuable to readers who desire the complete story as well as those who might be interested only in pieces of the whole.

Chapters 7 and 8 are organized as essays with gallery images to illustrate the examples of businesses, landmarks, and everyday life for the river border towns. An introductory essay briefly explains the themes, which are followed by a portfolio of images drawn from the border towns of the study and linked to extended captions. The presentation is thus thematic and graphic without restriction to any particular town.

Chapter 9 summarizes the findings from this project and distills larger conclusions about the relationship between visual culture and place. The lessons learned in this exploration can expand our ways of seeing places in the past, creating applications that enhance understanding of landscapes beyond the Río Bravo border towns.


The path is the thread that joins place and postcard imagery in this project. Thematically, the stations of the path—including gateways, streets, plazas, and attractions, along with businesses, landmarks, and everyday life—are swatches of fabric that sewn together create a quilt of visual representation of Río Bravo border towns. I term these swatches “viewscapes,” combining the postcard photographer’s view of place with the geographer’s habit of using landscape as a medium to understand how places are made. Viewscapes enable us to both visualize and interpret locations along the path followed by so many visitors to these towns. In this way, I seek to engage the reader to become that tourist visitor, seeing the pieces of the mosaic that constitute the Río Bravo Mexican border town through time.

Chapter 3, titled “Gateways,” introduces viewscapes of the crossing spaces that were the first places visitors encountered in their journey along the path through a Río Bravo Mexican border town. In the first half of the twentieth century, crossings from the United States to Mexico took place by boat, railroad, mule car, streetcar, auto, and, of course, by foot. This chapter draws examples from the towns to examine the variation in transport forms and landscapes created by and for these modes of conveyance and revealed by postcard images. Two vignettes then detail how specific border towns were especially promoted based on the nature of their gateways. Matamoros, before railroad and auto bridges joined it to Brownsville, was unusual because of the peculiar nature of getting from the American shore via watercraft and then changing to mule cars—later streetcars—on the Mexican shore for the long ride into the center of town. This gateway was very popular to postcard photographers who seemed fascinated with this dual transport experience where visitors moved by boat and mule car or streetcar to the central plaza of the town. A second vignette spotlights Nuevo Laredo’s important gateway function through the sequence of bridges erected across the Rio Grande/Río Bravo. Both rail and auto bridges were built and rebuilt over the first five decades of the twentieth century. Destructive floods along the river interrupted and inundated Nuevo Laredo as well as other towns. Later, when Nuevo Laredo–Laredo became the border portal for the Pan American Highway—the first paved road connecting the United States and the interior of Mexico—bridges there were celebrated for their arching function, which linked hinterlands far beyond the international boundary. Postcard photographers capitalized on the importance of these changing connections where simple access was elevated to visual icon and reproduced many times for a consuming public.

In Chapter 4, “Streets,” the reader is introduced to the linear spaces of the path that point the visitor to the center of the Río Bravo border town experience. These arteries connect the gateway to the commercial, social, and entertainment activities strung along the main streets of the border towns like pearls on a necklace. The chapter first describes the variety of street forms for the Río Bravo towns, then illustrates some of that diversity with postcard images. Two vignettes again expand the view of these spaces for particular towns. Calle Zaragoza is the main street of Piedras Negras opposite Eagle Pass, Texas. It is positioned beyond the town’s main plaza, which greets a visitor after exiting the gateway. Calle Zaragoza is crowded with the principal businesses of the town, and it continues on to become the major highway out of town. That situation made it the most attractive street in Piedras Negras. Bustling with people and activity, Calle Zaragoza proved a strategic viewscape, ripe for the eye of the postcard photographer. Avenida Guerrero, Nuevo Laredo’s commercial spine, is explored in a second vignette. More than any other Río Bravo border town main street, Guerrero is the prototypical retail strip. Unlike Calle Zaragoza in Piedras Negras, Avenida Guerrero explodes from its entry gate without interruption. It has been the main street of the town since Nuevo Laredo’s founding in the middle nineteenth century. Its centrality in the landscape anatomy of the border town is reinforced by its function as the principal highway that leads south to the interior of Mexico, a route that became institutionalized with the opening of the Pan American Highway in 1939. Along Guerrero are Nuevo Laredo’s main plazas, positioned like alternate spaces on a checkerboard. Commercial businesses are posted along the street between these public squares like chess pieces lined up ready for play. The primacy of this street was an allure to postcard photographers over many generations, and it is no exaggeration to suggest that Avenida Guerrero is the iconic Mexican border town main street. Consequently, it may also be one of the best-recognized border town stations of the path.

Chapter 5 showcases “Plazas,” perhaps the most central and focused station along the path and a fundamental fix for postcard photographers. These social hubs graced every Río Bravo border town. In the larger towns, multiple plazas were part of the townscape. In other towns, a single plaza mayor or plaza principal (main or principal plaza) was the social nexus. This chapter presents an overview about border town plazas drawing examples from all towns to suggest the variety of views and activities that were snapped through the shutter of the postcard photographer’s camera. Two vignettes are used to elaborate particular plazas. Reynosa’s Plaza Hidalgo became the subject of the postcard photographer’s lens from the 1920s through the 1950s. Situated at the end of a string street linked to the crossing, the plaza was the central focus of the town’s commercial and social activities. Plaza Hidalgo in Reynosa became a postcard fix during Prohibition as thousands of Texans and others were lured to its bars and entertainment outlets. During the 1940s, its church, retail businesses, hotels, and curio stores made the space a celebrated venue for locals and outsiders alike. As a consequence, it was repeatedly featured in postcard images of Reynosa, disproportionate to other stations of the path in the town. High image density enables a reconstructed serial view of this space that is unusual among all border towns. Villa Acuña’s Plaza Benjamín Canales is the chapter’s second vignette. Unlike Reynosa’s Plaza Hidalgo, Villa Acuña’s social center is slightly off the path, behind the main commercial streets of the town. The social space is several blocks from Acuña’s entertainment spine along Calle Hidalgo. Nevertheless, postcard photographers feature the plaza in selected images, if not to the same degree that they documented Reynosa’s plaza. Views of the church, principal public buildings, and the peaceful nature of the square present Villa Acuña’s plaza as a local space, known by tourists and occasionally visited, but chiefly a quiet place oriented to residents because it was away from the action of the town’s main drag. Categorically, it is a station on the path, but practically, it illustrates how postcard photographers diverted from that path to feature a space they recognized as fundamental to the identity of the town regardless its location.

Chapter 6, “Attractions,” visits other private and public spaces in the Río Bravo border towns. Train and bus stations, aduanas, or customs houses, and other spaces that might attract a congregation of patrons were recognized gathering sites. This chapter highlights two such locations: markets, or mercados, and bullrings—so called plazas de toros. Markets were large public spaces where goods of every imaginable type could be vended and attracted resident and visitor alike. Bullrings were, like plazas, common to every border town. As seasonal entertainment spaces, they attracted both residents and visitors. These spaces are described in general for all Río Bravo border towns and then inspected through case study vignettes. The Mercado in Matamoros is explored as the first vignette for the chapter. Located several blocks from the main plaza yet centrally positioned in the town, the market became a popular station stop along the tourist path and thereby a subject for postcard photographers. The market transformed over the period from 1900 to 1950, first serving exclusively locals and later tourists as well as residents. The market physically transformed over the years, but the indoor-outdoor nature of the space made for intimate interiors as well as aisle street-like views. That quality especially made it viable for postcard photographers who made fewer images of other border town markets that were essentially enclosed structures. Perhaps the most famous bullring of the Río Bravo border towns was La Macarena in Villa Acuña, the chapter’s second vignette. Called a “West Texas custom,” visiting the town’s plaza de toros was more than sporting entertainment: it was a packaged experience that could include a meal and drinks at La Macarena Café adjoining the bullring. Situated only a few short blocks from the gateway and but one block off Villa Acuña’s main street, Calle Hidalgo, La Macarena was a recognized station of the path, and a venue for many forms of entertainment beyond its famous blood sport. Not surprising, postcard photographers had a ringside seat for events and celebrations at La Macarena, and its legendary status was no doubt enshrined, in part, through postcards.

Chapter 7 examines through essay and portfolio “Businesses and Landmarks” that captivated postcard photographers and thus were part of the visitor path. These include bars, restaurants, curio stores, public and private buildings, and even cemeteries. Each of these locations was a specific and precise stop but generically important as a type of space. Unlike attractions that were large gathering sites and few in number, businesses were numerous and spread across the urban fabric, while landmarks were architecturally unique yet common to each town. They merit attention because all were the repeated subject of the postcard photographer’s fancy, and all types were arguably critical to any visitor’s experience. Every border town had bars and restaurants, the mainstays of any tourist locale. Particular establishments, nevertheless, gained notoriety and therefore became captured in postcards for visitors. Postcards showing the exteriors and interiors of these businesses were a form of advertising, creating familiarity in the minds of present and future patrons. Curio stores were another staple of the Río Bravo border town visitor experience, and every town included this type of retail. These businesses became especially popular after Prohibition and the Mexican national government’s ban on casino gambling in the late 1930s. Examples are drawn from several towns to suggest the kinds of views common to the postcard image. Chapter 7 also includes selected examples of specialized places like historic landmarks, customs houses, radio broadcast facilities that patronized American audiences, and cemeteries, the latter especially attractive because of their distinctive architecture.

“Everyday Life” through essay and gallery images is the subject of Chapter 8. Scenes of local living were selectively attractive detours to tourist visitors and postcard photographers. Street scenes of domesticity were invariably subject to visitor curiosity, and this chapter illustrates selected examples of domestic life in the Río Bravo border towns captured by postcard photographers. Daily labor, shopkeepers, residential types, work spaces, entertainment venues, public spaces, schools, families, the home, and celebrations are examples of everyday life captured in postcards. Vendors, for example, have been part of the urban scene for as long as there have been towns. Along the Río Bravo, a particular form of street peddler—the barrilero, or water cart vendor—was a fixture of every town before permanent water delivery systems were common. During the early decades of the twentieth century, barrileros, so-called because of the barrels that held the water that was captured at river’s edge and mounted to simple mule- or horse-drawn carts, roamed the residential and business streets dispensing their essential commodity. To visitors and postcard photographers alike this exotic form of water delivery had nearly disappeared from the American urban scene by the 1900s, as water delivery systems became public and standardized. The prosaic that was readily visible in the Mexican border environment made for popular imagery.

Finally, Chapter 9 summarizes the findings for the book and draws conclusions about the relationship between postcard image and place engagement in the Río Bravo border towns.


Please see attached catalog announcement for my forthcoming book on Río Bravo border towns seen through postcards: URL:
I'm already working toward a second volume that will explore the Sonoran border towns.  
--Daniel D. Arreola
School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5302


Latino soldiers
 Cebu, Phillipines, WW II


So much better than a "MUSEUM'
Evolution of Foreign Language Instruction 
Walmart Stores Inc, plans to hire more than 100,000 veterans 
Honra a Nuestros Caídos/ Honoring our latest 36 Fallen Heroes
HenryGerlach Bazurto by Mercy Bautista Olvera
Grant County 's last survivor of World War II's Bataan Death March laid to rest.

So much better than a "MUSEUM'

Walmart Stores Inc, plans to hire more than 100,000 veterans 
So much better than a "MUSEUM'     . . . ... Incredible coverage.

Sent by Odell Harwell 

Interesting article on the evolution of foreign language instruction in the US and the national security case for enhance forging language learning

Civilian Language Education in America: How the Air Force and Academia Can Thrive Together 

Sent by Juan Marinez

Walmart Stores Inc, the world's largest retailer, said it plans to hire more than 100,000 veterans in the United States over the next five years, a move supported by First Lady Michelle Obama.

Most of the veterans will be placed in the company's stores and clubs, and some will be employed in distribution centers, Walmart U.S. Chief Executive Bill Simon said in a speech to be to delivered on Tuesday at the National Retail Federation conference.

The retailer will start issuing job offers to veterans from Memorial Day in May. The catch: The offers will be given to any honorably discharged veteran within his or her first 12 months off active duty.

Honra a Nuestros Caídos/ Honoring our latest 36 Fallen Heroes

Honra a Nuestros Caídos/ Honoring our latest 36 Fallen Heroes. (A total of  695 Heroes.)
List compiled by Rafael Ojeda Tacoma WA  RSNOJEDA@AOL.COM

Please see Somos Primos Archives for FEB 2009, 2010 and 2011 for 659 other names.

Rank          Name       Age     Branch    Hometown   Date of Death        Location

PFC  Cesar Cortex,,  24  Army   Ocean Side CA   FEB 11,2012  Helmand , Afghanistan (AFG)  
SPC  Edward J Acosta, 21  Army  Hespcria, OR MAR 5, 2012 (La Jolla CA from injuries on  DEC 3, 2011 in AFG  
CPL  Michael J Palacio,  23  Marines  LK Elsinore IND   MAR 29,2012   Kapahar AFG 
CPL  Roberto Cazarez,  24  Marines   Harbor City  RI  MAR 30, 2012  Lagalman  AFG  
CPL  Alex Martienez, 21  Marines  Elgin OK   APR 5,2012  Logar, AFG  
SPEC  Manuel J Vasquez, 22  West Sacramento CA  APR 24,2012  Helmand   AFG
SPEC  MOISES J Gonzalez, 29  Army  Huntington Hawaii   APR 25, 2012  Helmand   AFG
SSGT  Israel  P Nuanes, 38  Army Las Cruces NM   MAY 10, 2012  MAY 10, 2012  Kandarhar AFG  
1st  LT Alejo R Thompson, 30 Army Yuma AZ   May 11, 2012  Bagram AFG
Petty Officer 2nd CL  Jorge L Velasquez, 35 Navy Houston TX   MAY 13,2012 Manama Bahrain AFG
2nd LT Travis A Morgado, 25  Army San Jose CA   MAY 23, 2012  Zharay AFG
SSGT Roberto Loeza , 28  Army  El Paso TX  MAY 25, 2012  Charkh Logar Prov AFG  
SPC  Vilmar Galarza Henandez,  21 Army  Salina CA  May 26,2012 Zharay  AFG  
CPL  Nicolas H Olivas, 23 Army  Fairfiled OH  MAY 30, 2012  Zharay  AFG
SPEC  Gerado Campos, 23  Army  Miami FL  JUN 2, 2012  Maiwand  AFG  
SGT Jose Rodriguez, 22  Army  Gustine CA  JUN 19, 2012  Kandarhar AFG  
SSGT  Raul M Guerra, 37  Army Union City NJ   JUL 6, 2012  Spin Boldak  AFG
CPL  Juan P Navarro, 23  Army  Austin TX  JUL 7, 2012  Kandarhar AFG
PFC  Alejandro J. Pardo, 21 Army  Porterville CA  JUL 8, 2012  Wardak AFG  
SSGT Ricardo Seija, 31  Army  Tampa FL  JUL 8, 2012  Wardak AFG  
SPEC  Sergio E Perez, Jr, 21  Army  Crown Point IND   JUL 16, 2012  Wali Kot District  AFG
SGT  Jose J Reyes, 24  Army  San Lorenzo PR  JUL 18, 2012  Pul-E-Alam  AFG  
PFC  Daniel  Rodrigues,  28   Army  Baltimore MD   JUL 18, 2012  Ghazn City  AFG
PFC  Brenden N Salazar, 20  Army  Chuluota FL  JUL 22, 2012  Pul-E-Alam  AFG  
PFC  Jose Oscar Belmontes, 28  Army  La Verne CA  JUL 28, 2012  Wardak  AFG  
PFC  Jesus J Lopez, 23  Army  San Bernardino CA  AUG 1, 2012   Paktika AFG  

LCPL  Curtis J Duarte, 22  Marines  Covina CA   AUG 1, 2012  Helmand Prov  AFG
CPL Richard A Rivera,Jr,  20 Marines  Ventura CA   AUG 10 2012  Helmand AFG
SGT Luis Olivar Galbreath, 41  Army  San Juan PR   AUG  16, 2012  Kandarhar AFG  
SGT Louis R Torres, 23 Army  Obellin OH  AUG 22, 2012 (in San  Antonio , TX from injuries on AUG 6, 2012 in                                                                                                                                                                               Kandarhar AFG 
PFC Shane Cantu, 20  Army  Corunna MI  AUG 28, 2-12 (posted  AUG 6)  Charkh AFG
CWO2  Thalie S Ramirez, 28  Army San Antonio TX  SEP 5, 2012  Logar Prov  AFG
CWO2  Joese L Montenegro , Jr,  Army Houston TX   SEP 5,2012 Logar Prov AFG
PFC  Genaro Bedoy, 20 Army  Amarillo TX  SEP 16,2012  Zabul Prov  AFG  
SGT Clinton Ruiz, 22 Army Murrieta CA  OCT 25 2012 Khas Uruzgan Oruzgan AFG  
SGT Enrique Mondragon, 23  Army  The Colony TX  DEC 24, 2012 Baraki Barak AFG

This information was compiled from the following web sites:  
Please note the Washington post has change its web site to:



Henry Gerlach Bazurto  

Mercy Bautista Olvera

The daughter of Henry Gerlack Bazurto, Merelou Bazurto-Binning, and I began corresponding about four years ago. Merelou is the daughter of Henry Gerlach Bazurto. Eventually Merelou informed me that her father, Henry served during WWII in the First Special Service Force. Henry Bazurto as I would later learn enjoyed my articles that Merelou shared with him, and became a regular reader of “Somos Primos” and just prior to his passing had planned to contribute information on his experiences in the Special Force and recollections from his life to be published in “Somos Primos": It is to his memory and his family that the following article is dedicated.  

His daughter Merelou message to me: Thank You, my father was moved by your writing in the Somos Primos. He enjoyed your articles that I shared with him, over the years. He was hoping to meet you in person but, he understood that he living in Tucson it would be impossible.  


Henry Gerlach Bazurto

1918 – 2012

Special Forces Hero in the “Devil’s Brigade”   

By Mercy Bautista-Olvera

The history of the “First Special Service Force” began when American Lieutenant Colonel Robert T. Frederick was summoned to England where he was authorized by Admiral Louis Mountbatten to train a force of American and Canadian military personnel for commando operations.

All modern day U.S. Special military operations and forces, even those that ultimately caught and killed Osama-Bin-Laden, are descended from the 1942 “First Special Service Force” whose mission was to create an elite commando unit, capable of penetrating enemy lines.

Henry Gerlach Bazurto had no idea of what he was getting himself into when he left Mexico to pursue baseball with his Mexican teammates in the United States. Instead he joined the service during WWII. He joined the U.S. First Special Service Force, soon thereafter the troop joined a Canadian troop.

Henry Bazurto was born on February 6, 1918 in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. He was the son of Ramon Bazurto (Mexican born) and Margarita Mae Gerlach-Bazurto of German ancestry.  

Maria Ysabel Jimenez and Henry Bazurto

Henry Bazurto married Maria Ysabel Jimenez on January 14, 1943 in Nogales, Arizona. The couple had two sons, Bill and Robert; and one daughter; Merelou. The family moved to Chico, California in 1961, where Henry owned an auto parts store. The marriage ended in divorce. Bazurto remarried, he was the father of 10 children from two marriages, two sons joined the military; Henry Jr., (deceased), and Bill.

As a young man Bazurto traveled by train from the city of Obregón, Sonora, Mexico with his baseball team “Los Cardenales de Nogales” to the United States with only one suitcase, and the most precious things for him; a baseball, a glove, and a baseball cap. His dream was to play with the St. Louis Cardinals. He played his first U.S. game with his team on November 20, 1940; two days later he joined the armed forces. 

Henry Bazurto began his military service at Ft. William Henry Harrison School in Helena, Montana; he recalled that within only five days from jumping from a plane, he became a paratrooper on the First Special Service’s Force, which the Germans later named, “The Devils Brigade.” These 800 soldiers included United States and Canadian military men, and six Mexicans who enlisted in the United States forces; Henry Bazurto was one of them.

On April 15, 1943, after the initial training period in Montana, the First Special Service Force relocated to Camp Bradford, Virginia, soon thereafter it relocated again to Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont.

The First Special Service Force history began when American Lieutenant Colonel Robert T. Frederick was authorized to train a commando force of both American and Canadian troops for operations in Norway. Friction immediately resulted when the “rag tag group of American misfits” encountered the Canadian troops. However, Frederick, to his credit as a leader, was able to dissolve national differences and molded the Special Service into a highly trained commando force. 

On a summer day in 1943, the First Special Force sailed force for the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. It was part of the invasion of Kiska, fortunately, the island was recently evacuated by Japanese forces. The force re-embarked and left ship at Camp Stoneman, California and returned to Forth Ethen Allen, arriving on September 9, 1943.

On November 19, 1943, the First Special Service Force arrived in Casablanca and moved to the Italian front, where Bazurto and his comrades demonstrated the value of their skills and training.

On December 5, 1944, the First Special Service Force dispersed in a field near Menton, France encountering a village that proved to be one of the most difficult to capture.

Bazurto was awarded with the Purple Heart, the Bronze Star, and the Silver Star. He was recognized with 15 other awards. Bazurto never regretted joining the military; he stated it was his duty to have served.

In 1945, Bazurto returning from military service, worked in an office for the Armed Forces in Nogales, Arizona.  Bazurto was always proud of where he came from; he mentioned his Mexican heredity to his comrades, superiors, and friends. Although he obtained citizenship, Bazurto considered himself Mexican.

The 1966 book, the “Devil’s Brigade” by Robert H. Adleman and George Walton, recounts the stories, battles, and key personalities of the First Special Services unit. Pictured on the front cover of the book is Henry Bazurto. He is pictured on the lower right corner.

The 1968 movie, “The Devil’s Brigade” was based on the book of the same title.     


Above photos: The 60th Reunion Memorial exhibit in Montana (2006)

    In 2006, in an interview for the local Tucsón newspaper, “La Estrella de Tucsón” Bazurto stated: “It was an unforgettable experience for me to have joined the army. I was wounded seven different times. In 1944, wounded, thinking that I would die, I prayed to Our Lady of Guadalupe, I pleaded to our Lady to have me return to my country, and I promised to visit La Basilica [Church].  It took me 30 years, but eventually [I] visited La Basilica.” He further stated, “I lost good friends during the war, it was not in vain, WWII was a good cause, with that being said, many countries were not invaded by the Germans.”  

In another interview Bazurto stated, “I never experienced racism while I was in the service. General Robert T. Frederick treated me, and my Mexican comrades like any other men in the service. There was no racism; all of us were the same with the same goal - to stop Germany from invading other countries. I don’t regret for joining in the Army, it was my duty to serve.”

“If I hadn’t joined the Army, I would have liked to be involved in baseball, which is my passion, but with seven wounds in my elbow, as well as my right leg, my ability to move my arms, and legs were not easy as before I joined the military, it became impossible to practice my favorite sport. I decided to become a children’s baseball coach in Phoenix, Arizona, I was able to train children with disabilities, it was extraordinary and a wonderful experience, and the best decision I made. This, I would never forget,” stated Bazurto.


Above plaque located on Interstate 15 between Helena and Great Falls in Montana

In September 1999, Alberta Highway 4 and Interstate 15 in Montana, the main highway between the cities of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada and Helena, Montana  was renamed the “First Special Service Force Memorial Highway.” This highway was chosen because it was the route taken in 1942 by the First Special Service Force soldiers who trained at Fort Harrison in Helena, Montana.

The force is also memorialized on a commemorative plaque outside a Protestant Cemetery in Rome and another plaque at the U.S. Embassy in Rome.  

Prior to his death Bazurto wrote “Bajo Tres Banderas.” The unpublished book honors the soldiers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada who were members of this Special Force.  Additionally, he details his experiences during WWII and his life.       

Unfortunately Henry Bazurto didn’t get to see his book published. He passed away on February 29, 2012 in Tucson, Arizona. He is survived by his second wife, nine grown children, many grandchildren, and a sister from Nogales, Arizona.

Henry Gerlach Bazurto was very proud of his service to his adoptive country and of his two sons, who served in the military during the Viet Nam War.




Currently before Congress are two bills nominating “First Special Service Force” veterans to receive the “Congressional Gold Medal.”  

Readers are encouraged to contact their local Congressional/Senate representatives and express their support of for two bills; HR 3767 and Senate Bill 1460.

For additional information on the First Special Service Force Association please contact Secretary/Treasurer Bill Woon, P.O. Box 202, Helena, MT 59624-0202.



Grant County 's last survivor of World War II's Bataan Death March laid to rest.

SILVER CITY -- A moving ceremony made its way to several locations Friday as Grant County 's last survivor of World War II's tragic Bataan Death March was laid to rest.

Pablo P. Gutierrez died on Dec. 17 at age 93. He had suffered a long illness, but had lived a longer, full life that touched many.

Gutierrez experienced the full horror of war as a soldier in the National Guard 200th/515th Coast Artillery, deployed to the Philippines during WW II. The United States was focused chiefly on winning the European front of the war as the 1,800 soldiers from New Mexico were fighting for their lives on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines . On April 9, 1942, U.S. and Filipino forces were surrendered. This began the horrific "Bataan Death March" along the peninsula to the survivors' eventual imprisonment. Soldiers were beaten, starved and executed, with as many as 10,000 perishing along the way. 

Gutierrez survived the unimaginable cruelty and was one of the 900 New Mexican soldiers to return home from the mission.
When he did, he met his future life and spent the rest of his days as a dutiful, giving family man. It was this second part of his life that filled much of Friday's ceremonies.

The grand interior of the Our Lady Fatima Catholic Church in Bayard held a solemn but hopeful service in honor of a man who gave so much. The many rows of pews were nearly filled with family, friends, veterans and other supporters at the funeral service.

The air was filled with mournful notes from a trio of Spanish guitars. The three men behind the strings sang hymns of remembrance, some in English and some in Spanish.

Father Paulus Kao officiated the service, though he was ill throughout, and gave a no-nonsense sermon, focusing on prayers for the deceased veteran.

"I am not going to tell you all he is in Heaven, because I do not know," Kao said. "Instead, our job is to pray for the soul of this man. That is what we can do."  Pray they did. After a full funeral mass, the coffin was taken from the church by soldiers from the Army National Guard's 1200 Infantry Battalion out of Las Cruces to a snow-dusted Fort Bayard National Cemetery . These official pallbearers are in the Army National Guard Honor Guard program of New Mexico . Most of the men volunteered for the mission.

"It is a huge honor for us to be a part of this celebration," said Sgt. Judas Perea, coordinator for the National Guard Honor Guard Program of New Mexico's southwestern region, who was among the Guard today.

After the funeral, the Honor Guard escorted the coffin and the congregation to Ft. Bayard National Cemetery , where a military ceremony was waiting.

Gutierrez received high honors for his service, with a final gun salute tribute, flag folding and speeches from Col. Tim Paul and Gutierrez’s daughter Rosemary C. Gutierrez.  Paul gave "freedom, fear and promise" as the chief reasons to remember the fallen hero.

He listed many American freedoms, like women being able to live the life they choose and voting for the candidate they believe in, saying that Gutierrez was one of the reasons Americans still enjoy those freedoms.  

He then said that Gutierrez didn't face fear in battle, but danger.  "The difference between fear and danger is that fear is a choice and danger is a reality," Paul said. "If you ask me, this man faced danger without fear."

Paul also said that Gutierrez lived in an honorable fashion and that those present needed to make a "promise to live in his image."
Paul's speech touched veterans from all branches present.

"It was a honor and privilege for us to be there," said Frank Donohue, of the Gaffney-Oglesby Detachment 1328 of the Marine Corps League. "Even though we were Marines, we are all veterans here and many of us are combat veterans. We don't have a clue as to what those gentlemen suffered during those four years in a POW camp. It was very brutal and those were brave souls who went through that for all of us. It's a brotherhood of men and women."

After his speech, Paul presented both a flag -- folded in military fashion -- and the podium to Gutierrez's daughter and longtime caregiver, Rosemary.  Rosemary approached the podium and began a speech she called "Like Father, Like Daughter".

She talked about how clean and respectable a man her father had been throughout her lifetime -- how she had never heard him use profanity, how he had quit drinking alcohol when he found out she was going to be born and cigarettes when Rosemary's daughter was coming into the world.

She thanked his caregivers who had done so well by her father, their family members who had dropped everything when they heard Gutierrez had died, and members of Our Lady Fatima for all the help they provided.

Lastly, she thanked her Father for being her hero and her friend.

Rosemary spent the last few years taking care of her revered father and has no regrets. 
"I would do it all again," she said. "I would do it again in a second."

Sent by Maria Embry 


Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr. Receives 2012 Presidio La Bahia Book Award
February 2, 2013 2-4 p.m. Presidio La Bahia, Goliad, Texas
Donativo List Found for Presidio La Bahia
Texas Before the Alamo: Domingo Ramon Entrada to Texas
Nearly a century after death, Civil War soldier's grave dedicated
Book: Gallant Creoles by Michael Marshall
The American Revolution would never have happened with gun control

From left to right: David Hanover, KSJ President General of the Sons of the Republic of Texas, SRT, Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr., & O. Scott Dunbar, KSJ Past President General of SRT.  
Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr. 
Receives 2012 Presidio La Bahia Book Award

On December 1, 2012, the 2012 Presidio La Bahia Award was presented to Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr. at the Presidio La Bahia in Goliad, Texas for his book Tejano Patriots of the American Revolution 1776-1783. The award is presented by the Sons of the Republic of Texas to promote the suitable preservation of relics, appropriate dissemination of data, and research into our Texas heritage, with particular attention to the Spanish Colonial period. 

After three years of research, author Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr., has written and published a book titled TEJANO PATRIOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1776-1783 This book, through collections of first person accounts and compilations of other historical documents, including complete rosters, provides a spotlight on a critical period in Texas.
The American Revolution was a monumental event in our nation that continues to reverberate over the world even today. We stand in awe of those brave and dedicated individuals who held steadfast to their beliefs of independence, individual freedom, and self-government. We are all familiar with the more famous revolutionaries such as Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Lafayette, Rochambeau, Von Steuben, Pulaski, Kosciuszko, and many others. We should remember, also, that Tejano names like Hernández, Carvajal, Menchaca, Rodríguez, Martínez, Cazorla, Curbelo, etc., were also contributors in the successful outcome of this struggle. These were Spanish surnames of presidial soldiers, ranchers, vaqueros, citizens, and American Indians who lived in that part of New Spain known as Texas. We ask ourselves: Who all were they and what were their names? What was their daily life like? How did they help the American Revolution?

Details of Tejano Patriots of the American Revolution 1776-1783 are listed below:

1. It's a story about Tejanos in Goliad and San Antonio de Bexar who aided General Bernardo de Galvez by providing cattle to feed his troops fighting in the campaign against the British along the 
Gulf Coast between 1779-1782. The cattle drives to New Orleans were driven by the soldiers, vaqueros and Indians. In all, there were 12 of these cattle drives and totaled about 9,000 cattle. The soldiers and civilians that aided in the American Revolution are in the Census of 1779 (Presidio San Antonio de Bexar) and 1780 (Presidio La Bahia del Espiritu Santo). Also, The King of Spain, Carlos III, issued a decree on August 17, 1780, that "all Subjects in the Americas were to donate money." 
He stated that Spanish citizens would donate 2 pesos and the Indians, one peso, toward the war effort. The research with the Census of Goliad and San Antonio de Bexar shows who these people and soldiers were at the time of the American Revolution that contributed those (donativos) or donations. 

2. This book is already being used as a Genealogy reference for anyone wanting to connect to the soldiers or general population and is available at the DAR library in Washington, D. C. and in the SAR library in Louisville, Ky. 

3. Tejano Patriots of the American Revolution 1776-178, contains historical accounts of Mr. Villarreal's ancestors and includes several of his great- grandfathers mentioned throughout the book. A ninth generation Tejano, he descends from the first soldiers who arrived and settled in San Antonio de Bexar in 1718. His ancestors include members of the Canary Islanders who established the Villa de San Fernando de Bexar in 1731 and also some of the first ranchers of Texas who later provided cattle for the troops of General Bernardo de Galvez during the American Revolution. 

After three years of research, author Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr., has written and published a book titled TEJANO PATRIOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1776-1783 This book, through collections of first person accounts and compilations of other historical documents, including complete rosters, provides a spotlight on a critical period in Texas.

This publication is now available for $20.00 plus $3.00 shipping. Please address requests to:

Mr. Jesse O. Villarreal, Sr.
P.O. Box 152977
Austin, TX 78715 


Presidio La Bahia, Goliad, Texas

February 2, 2013
2:00 - 4:00 p.m.

Presidio La Bahía’s Connection to the American Revolution

It’s a well-known fact that Presidio La Bahía and Presidio San Antonio de Béxar were instrumental in providing the vital cattle that kept Governor Bernardo de Gálvez’s troops nourished during the American Revolution.  Many of our Tejano ancestors provided the beef and also went on the cattle drives to move the beef to where the troops needed food. This effort helped win the war against England. A lesser known fact and one not yet found in history books is that our Tejano ancestors also provided monetary donations at the request of King Carlos III to aid in the war effort.

This list of La Bahía soldiers (donativos) who donated to the American Revolution war effort has just been discovered! Please join us for an informative meeting and learn the names of the soldiers who donated to the American Revolution.

Who should attend: Descendants of Spanish soldiers serving at La Bahía during 1776-1783, historians, DAR, SAR, genealogists, genealogy groups and lineage organizations interested in the role of Spanish soldiers during the American Revolution. This list not only has historical significance but also may qualify people for membership in genealogical groups such as the SAR and DAR.


Jesse O. Villarreal Sr., Author & Historian

A special message from Judge Robert H. Thonhoff, Author & Historian
Lorenzo & Julia Lopez: on finding the donativo list and what it means for the future

Please contact Julia Lopez at with questions. 

For information on Presidio La Bahia:
Sent by Lorenzo & Julia Lopez

Donativo List Found for Presidio La Bahia

Exciting news!!!
The list of “donativos” (soldiers) from La Bahía has recently been discovered in the Béxar Archives!
This list contains the names of the Spanish soldiers who donated money to the American Revolution war effort at the request of King Carlos III as well as the amount donated by each soldier. This list provides proof positive that the Spanish soldiers are American patriots!
Please join us for an informative meeting on Saturday, February 2nd at 2:00 p.m. at Presidio La Bahía in Goliad, Texas to learn the significance of this list and what it means both for the descendants of the soldiers and the untold history of these Spanish soldiers. The names of the soldiers will be read aloud as a tribute to their service.
Attached is a flyer detailing the meeting on February 2nd – please forward to anyone who might have interest in this special event, especially descendants of Spanish soldiers from Goliad, Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution, historians, promoters and preservers of American and Texas history including educators, genealogists, and lineage organizations.
Seating is limited. Please plan to attend.
Apologies in advance - many of you on numerous email groups will receive multiple copies of this email in an effort to invite various organizations. This email is being sent to the Presidio La Bahia Chapter of Daughters of the Republic of Texas, the Tejano Genealogical Society of Austin, Daughters of the American Revolution Spanish Task Force, friends, family members, and others we thought might like to hear the news regarding the missing donativo list.
Lorenzo & Julia Lopez
lorenzo lopez <>





Domingo Ramon Entrada to Texas
San Pedro Springs (present day San Antonio)
May 14, 1716

The Domingo Ramón Diary of his 1716 Expedition into the Province of los Tejas

paraphrased excerpts beow from Capt. Ramón's Diary, in his own words (translated from Spanish)… 

[April 25] "This day all the religious arrived at the Presidio San Jan Bautista and everything necessary was gathered for the Entrada. I started my journey, and in this manner the train left camp for Texas with a total of seventy-five people. I, Captain Domingo Ramón; Second Lieutenant, Diego Ramón (my brother); Father Friar Isidro Félix de Espinosa; other lay Brothers and Soldiers accompany my chief convoy Captain Louis St. Denis; Juan de Medar; and Pedro Larjen, all three of whom are from France. In addition, there are women, a six year old boy, a four year old girl,  two Indian guides, and three in charge of the goats.  [May 14] "This day I marched in a northeasterly direction seven leagues through some mesquite brush with plenty of pasturage, crossing two dry arroyos, and we arrived at a spring on level land which we named San Pedro. This is sufficient to support a city. We entered a beautiful amenity of walnuts, grapevines, willows, elms, and other variety of trees, more than a quarter of a league from the San Antonio River. We were able to cross said river, which is large, but not deep, as it reaches our stirrups. We arrived upstream to look for a resting place and we found a good one, because it had a nice camping area with good trees and pasturage. We found the source of the San Antonio river. "

The Domingo Ramón 1716 Expedition into Texas is one of the lead items exhibited on Wall of History at The Alamo, a vivid reminder of the first settlement at San Pedro Springs in the area now known as San Antonio.


Fray Isidro de Espinosa diary:

[May 14, 1716] We set out from the aforesaid river in the direction of east-northeast through hills and dales all covered with very green gramagrass. Some flint stones were found all along the way to the Arroyo de Leon, which is three leagues [7.8 mi.] distant from the river. In this stream there are pools of water. From thence by northeast we entered the plain at the San Antonio River. At the end of the plain is a small forest of sparse mesquite, and some oaks. To it suceeds the water of the San Pedro; sufficient for a mission. Along the banks of the latter, which has a thicket of all kinds of wood, and by an open path we arrived at the River San Antonio.  This river is very desirable (for settlement) and favorable for its pleasantness, location, abundance of water, and multitude of fish. It is surrounded by very tall nopals [prickly-pear cactus], poplars, elms, grapevines, black mulberry trees, laurels, strawberry vines, and genuine fan-palms. There is a great deal of flax and wild hemp, and abundance of maiden-hair fern and many medicinal herbs.



Nearly a century after death, Civil War soldier's grave dedicated
by Gail Burkhardt

PEÑITAS — Ninety-five years after his death, Sgt. Ignacio Zamora was finally given his military honors thanks to the work of his great-grandson.

Peñitas resident Eloy Zamora spent about eight years looking up information about his great-grandfather after discovering that he had served in the Union Army during the Civil War.

After gathering all of the needed documentation, he requested and received a military headstone from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Now Sgt. Zamora’s headstone sits next to his relatives’ graves in the small Peñitas Cemetery.

“I’m a veteran myself and it’s very important we recognize and honor all those that served,” said Zamora, who served in the Army in West Berlin in 1971 and 1972.

Eloy Zamora, an unemployment insurance consultant, said his mother told him in Spanish that her grandfather had fought in the Guerra Civil, the Civil War, but he assumed she meant the Mexican Revolution. Later through a search on the Internet, he found out it was actually the U.S. Civil War. 
"It was really a surprise for all of us to find out,” he said.
Zamora said he can trace his family back to 1749, the year Reynosa was founded. During the next century, the Rio Grande Valley changed from being part of the New Spain territory, to Mexico, to the Republic of Texas, to the United States, Zamora said.

"We've been Spaniards, then Mexicans, then Texans, then Americans,” he said.

Zamora said he found it interesting to learn about the many Mexican-Americans who had served in the war, particularly in the Union Army in a Confederate state.

About 2,550 Mexican-Texans fought for the Confederacy during the Civil War and about 950 fought in the Union Army, according to the book Vaqueros in Blue and Gray by Jerry D. Thompson. An estimated 9,500 Mexican-Americans fought in the U.S. Civil War throughout the country.

About 90,000 Texans fought in the Civil War, according to the Texas State Historical Association.

Sgt. Zamora, a cowboy, enlisted with the Union Army 2nd Regiment Texas Cavalry Company in Brownsville in 1864, according to records Eloy Zamora found. Ignacio Zamora was 26 when he enlisted and served until November 1865. He died in 1917 at the age of 82.

Eloy Zamora found several records including a report of a skirmish Sgt. Zamora fought in near Santa Rosa, , and his discharge papers.

Melissa Beall, the president of the Palo Alto Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, works with the descendents of Confederate and Union soldiers to find similar documentation in order to receive honors from Veterans Affairs.

“It’s amazing where you can find the clues,” Beall said of her research.

Beall said she and others comb through online records and old newspapers to find proof. While they mostly look for Confederate soldiers they’ve also helped relatives of former Union Soldiers including those of Jose Maria Loya, whose gravestone sits near Zamora’s.

In November, United Daughters of the Confederacy dedicated a headstone of Abraham Rutledge, the great-grandfather of former Hidalgo County Republican Chairman Hollis Rutledge. Abraham Rutledge enlisted in the Confederate Army in 1862.

The local United Daughters of the Confederacy chapter also is working to procure a tombstone for Confederate veterans in Starr County and the city of Hidalgo. Earlier this year, they dedicated the grave of a Confederate colonel south of Donna, Beall said.

“I think it’s very important no matter which side they fought on for them to be remembered and for their graves to be marked,” she said.

Beall said she hopes when people see such grave markers “it may spark a little bit of interest for them to go back and research and take more interest in history.”

Eloy Zamora, who held a dedication ceremony in October, said he is proud of his great-grandfather, who chose to serve his country during a very difficult time. The headstone serves as a reminder of the family’s American heritage.

“It’s just an awesome and great feeling to know that someone in our family fought in the Civil War, which was the bloodiest war and most horrific war we’ve had in the U.S.,” he said.

Gail Burkhardt covers Mission, western Hidalgo County, Starr County and general assignments for The Monitor. She can be reached at and (956) 683-4462.
Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera


"An obvious labor of love, Michael Marshall's history of the Donaldsonville Battery Volunteer Artillery leaves absolutely no source unturned. . . . It is a welcome contribution to anyone's Civil War library." ~ Chris Calkins, author of !e Appomattox Campaign and !e Battles of Appomattox

"Michael Marshall paints a detailed and intimate portrait of a group of young men who left their homes on the Mississippi River and Bayou Lafourche to try and make good on the Confederacy's claims of independence. !ese rugged gunners faced the shot and shell thrown at Lee's Army of Northern Virginia with pluck and nerve, all the while standing to their duty-and their guns-resolved to see this chore through to its end.  When the smoke cleared, a battle tested remnant returned to the Pelican State confident they had done their duty.A great story, well told". 
~ Donald S. Frazier, author of Fire in the Cane Fields, and !under Across the Swamp

Thoroughly researched, rich in detail, Michael Marshall's Gallant Creoles is a stunning tribute to a little known artillery unit from southeast Louisiana - Le Canonniers de Donaldsonville. Marshall's mastery in chronicling the history of this colorful group of artillerists who faithfully served in the Army of Northern Virginia is a must read for any Civil War enthusiast. 
~ Christopher G. Peña, author of Scarred By War: Civil War in Southeast Louisiana

Composed of Creoles and Cajuns citizen-soldiers, the Donaldsonville Cannoniers were originally organized as a militia company in 1837 and were one of the most active and highly regarded Louisiana units during the American Civil War. Known as the Donaldsonville Artillery during the conflict, the Cannoniers were a conspicuous part of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, participating in a number of skirmishes, artillery duels, and battles, including: Yorktown, Williamsburg, Seven Pines, Richmond's Seven Days' Battles, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, North Anna, Second Cold Harbor, the Siege of Petersburg, and the Battle of Appomattox Station.
!e Canonniers reorganized in July 1875 and were eventually accepted into Federal service during the Spanish-American War, before disbanding for good in November 1898.

MICHAEL MARSHALL is a retired New Orleans Police Department detective and sergeant. He holds a Bachelor's Degree from the University of Southeastern Louisiana.  He is also a former World History and Publications high school teacher and U.S. Marine. His interest in the Civil War began at a very young age during the conflict's Centennial Commemorations and family visits to battlefield parks.  He is the proud father of two sons, he currently resides in Hammond, Louisiana with his wife.

Sent by Bill Carmena who writes: "My Great Grandfather Anthony Sanchez was a 2nd Lt. in this unit and his picture and biography will be in the book."   



The American Revolution would never have happened with gun control.

"Those who hammer their guns into plows will plow for those who do not. “     Thomas Jefferson

"When you remove the people's right to bear arms, you create slaves."

Sent by Gerald Frost 


La Familia Tobón Gónima y sus dscendientes - 2013
The Medieval Families Unit worked in the old Ancestral File 


El fundador de la familia Tobón en Antioquia fue el Alférez don Francisco Antonio Tobón y Zarza, natural de Jerez de la Frontera, España. Sus padres fueron don Benito Sánchez de Tobón y doña Juana Gutiérrez Colmenero. Contrajo matrimonio en Medellín con doña Antonia de Mesa. De este enlace nacieron Francisco, Jerónimo, Leonor, Petronila, María Ignacia y Juan.   Libro fuente: Genealogías de Antioquia y Caldas de Gabriel Arango Mejía.

Por el lado materno, el apellido Gónima lo llevó a Colombia don Rafael Gónima y Llanos, quien emprendió viaje a América el 3 de Marzo de 1783, desde el puerto de Cádiz. Se casó con doña María de la Encarnación Gómez de Ureña.

Se puede ver enseguida el documento correspondiente que aparece en el Archivo General de Indias.


El árbol genealógico de sus padres es el siguiente:

Medieval Families Unit from FamilySearch Wiki 

The Medieval Families Unit worked in the old Ancestral File (1985-1995) on royalty and nobility to the present and all pre-1500 families, which was an enormous task. The pre-1500 portion alone had approximately 250,000 individuals.

Our main objective was to make sure linkage was correct and then as time permitted go back and adjust dates. Many of the dates are not actual birth dates so we used "abt" before them to signify the date when the individual might have been born. If we had an age at an event we used "Cal" for calculated date (example: age 8 in 1208 we would enter "Cal 1200" for the birth date).

The Medieval Families Unit was closed in 1996 and so the task of adjusting all the dates never came to pass.

Unfortunately many patrons over the years have downloaded our data and re-submitted it as their own.

The main problem when adjusting "about" dates on one family is that doing so can have a ripple effect that causes other families to have date problems. Most of the people in the Medieval time period did not have an actual birth or death date recorded, only a date when they were mentioned in some kind of document. We use the "abt" date to put individuals in a time period. We know the dates can be way off as generations may be missing or connections may be incorrect. When dealing with large files, "about" dates can be very problematic and at times cannot be resolved.

Once the new system is available for corrections, we can begin the task of adjusting "about" dates. This task will take years as we have to look at many families and generations to see if we have made a correct adjustment.

We suggest that no information be used from Ancestral File or Pedigree Resource File at this time. Wait for the data we are preparing which will have source citations and notes. This information will be available on the Internet in the near future. This data will not have all of the dates adjusted in the beginning, but over time we plan to have most of these issues worked out.

Benicio Samuel Sanchez
Genealogista e Historiador Familiar

Office (81) 8393 0011 
Cellphone 811+513+8354 


Marcomir, Rey de los Francos n. a. 340.


Marcomir, Rey de los Francos y No Conocida, procrearon a: Faramundo, Rey de los Francos Salios n. a. 370, m. 428.


Faramundo, Rey de los Francos Salios y No Conocida, procrearon a:Clodion, Rey de los Francos Salios n. a. 390, m. 448.


Clodion, Rey de los Francos Salios y No Conocida, procrearon a: Meroveo, Rey de los Francos Salios n. a. 411.


Meroveo, Rey de los Francos Salios y No Conocida, procrearon a: Childerico I, Rey de los Francos Salios n. a. 436.


Childerico I, Rey de los Francos Salios se casó con Basina de Turingia, procreando a: Clodoveo I, Rey de los Francos


Clodoveo I, Rey de los Francos se casó con Santa Clotilde, procreando a: Clotario I, Rey de los Francos n. 497.


Clotario I, Rey de los Francos se casó con Arnegonda, procreando a: Chilperico I n. 539, m. 584.


Chilperico I se amancebó con Fredegunda, procreando a: Clotario II, Rey de los Francos n. 584, m. 629 

Clotario II, Rey de los Francos se casó con Bertrude, procreando a:Dagoberto I n. 603, m. 639


Dagoberto I se casó con Nantilde, procreando a: Clodoveo II n. 634, m. 657.


Clodoveo II se casó 648 con Batilda de Ascania, procreando a:Teodorico III n. 652, m. 691


Teodorico III se casó 675 con Cleotilde, procreando a: Bertrada a Velha


Conde de Laon se casó con Bertrada a Velha. Su descendencia la refiero en el árbol de los LAON: en el capítulo La Realeza Rumbo a Reynosa.


My father, George De La Garza, marks his 80th birthday by Alejandro De La Garza
Oscar's Ecuadorian sojourn is just about over by grandfather Ernesto Uribe 
Twinkies vs pan dulce Mike Acosta 

Today, January 14, my father, George De La Garza, marks his 80th birthday. 
Alejandro De La Garza

As I stated last month when my mother turned 80, that’s still a remarkable accomplishment. My father was born and raised in Dallas; the middle of seven children. On his father’s side, our ancestry dates back to late 16th century Texas; something we’d known about for years, but which he’s confirmed through his extensive genealogical research.

As you might expect, my father is kind of old school. He comes from an era when family was sacred and hard work was revered. 

People took care of themselves and their loved ones in his day, and they didn’t play the victim when things didn’t work out just right. He worked hard – too hard – all his life and, along with my mother, built a comfortable middle class lifestyle. He also a typical dad; doing things that only a father would do. When I was about three months old, my parents ran out of baby formula just as a major ice storm hit Northeast Texas. 

My father simply got dressed and walked a couple of blocks to a nearby convenience store. He thought nothing of it; what else was he supposed to do? He also thought nothing of standing on his feet several hours a day, slaving over hot printing presses in a dingy shop in downtown Dallas for more than 40 years. He’s paid for it with bad knees and gnarled toes. But, that’s what men of his generation did. They worked hard and took care of their own without question. Society doesn’t seem to produce men like my father anymore – at least not in great numbers.

My father and I, Easter Sunday 1967.

Like most Hispanics growing up in old East Dallas, he had it tough. Classified as “other,” he was occasionally complimented with comments about his fair skin and good looks, as if that made him different, or better. He told me he once actually got into a fight with a dog in the neighborhood – and won; returning home with a tiny piece of the dog’s ear hanging from the corner of his mouth. I didn’t know whether or not to believe him – as if I had any reason to doubt him, knowing how mean he could be – until his mother and oldest sister confirmed the story several years ago. That’s one of those ‘only-my-dad’ type of stories.

So, here’s to my father! Happy Birthday! You mean old Mexican!

My father on his 16th birthday, 
in a picture he gave to his mother.


My father on his 16th birthday, in a picture he gave to his mother. 
To connect with primo George, 


Oscar's Ecuadorian sojourn is just about over 
by grandfather Ernesto Uribe 

Editor:  I was privileged to receive a series of  communications and asked permission to share in Somos Primos.  It made me both proud and happy to see so much in this "happening". . . family, trust, generations, challenge, faith, bravery, strength of character.  
I think you will all feel the same.
To just family and a few friends..
As some of you already know, our son Augie goes mountain climbing in the South American Andes every year between Christmas and New Year's.
This year he took his older son Oscar, 17 with him to do his two acclimatization climbs in Ecuador before he goes to Argentina to climb Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the Americas at 22,837.3 ft.


Dad August writes:  
Oscar was a real trooper and accompanied me on two acclimatization climbs.  The last one was Cayambe (18,997 ft) and we stayed on the mountain for three days and two nights. The last night we did some high altitude camping on a glacier that we hiked to with all of our gear.

Grandfather Ernesto writes:
Oscar is in his junior year in high school and still not ready for that 22,837 ft. climb so he will be flying back to the US by himself tomorrow and will be visiting with us in Northern Virginia for a few days before going back home to NYC.

Grandson Oscar Uribe's introduction to mountain climbing in the Andes faired well in the two acclimation climbs in Ecuador.  He returned home on New Year's eve while his father Augie went on to Argentina to climb Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere.  Here is Augie's brief report on a successful climb:  

Just a brief note to let you know that Abraham Chuquimarca and I got down from the mountain yesterday afternoon and we are now back in Mendoza. I depart for NY tomorrow.
Love to everyone, A

Augie stands on the summit of Mt. Aconcagua, Argentina. 

Aerial shot taken by airplane of Mt. Aconcagua, highest mountain in the Western hemisphere
I think both my boys, Ernesto, 51, and August 50 picked up their love for the Andes while growing up in Latin America. Augie was born in Guayaquil, Ecuador.
We lived in three Andean countries while the boys and their sister Anne were growing up in Ecuador, Colombia and Bolivia.
In all three Andean countries we did some mountain climbing, but it was my kind of climbing and that was only as as high as my four-wheel drive vehicle would take us. We mostly did a lot of camping, hunting and fishing in the mountains and Augie was always looking up at the mountain tops wishing he could climb them.
On mountain climbing and safety, Augie always goes with his Ecuadorian friend who is also a professional climbing guide and who is now with him in Argentina for this Aconcagua Mountain climb... and I am sure they are on the way up that mountain as I write this.
We picked Oscar up at Dulles airport late last night and his cheeks are sunburned but otherwise very fit and eager to go with his dad next year.
Augie works hard as senior VP with Sotheby's in NYC and plays hard climbing mountains. He has climbed every major peak that is not an active volcano in Ecuador and has climbed Mt. Fuji in Japan, and several mountains in France and Mexico. Most of his climbs outside Ecuador he has managed while on business trips to Mexico, France and Japan.. He just takes his climbing gear and takes a couple of days off after he finishes his business.
I think a story in Somos Primos would be really great! 
Happy New Year,
August O. Uribe (Augie to family and friends) has a very fascinating history, including serving as auctioneer for the very prominent Sotheby's in New York. Currently he serves as their Senior Vice-President of Impressionist and Modern Paintings.  
His background includes
curator for The Wray Collections, Trustee for the Archives of American Art Smithsonian Institution
and Board Member for Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions.  

Mr. Uribe has worked in a variety of roles since 1991. Utilizing his strong background in Latin American art, Mr. Uribe has lectured and participated in panel discussions at numerous institutions both nationally and internationally, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York, the Caracas Museum of Contemporary Art, Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Monterrey, Denver Art Museum, and the San Diego Museum of Art. Mr. Uribe also serves as a Trustee for the Archives of American Art at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

From 1998 to 2002, he served on the Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibition's Board of Directors. Mr. Uribe was on the Mexican Cultural Institute Advisory Board to the Consul General of Mexico in New York from 1993 to 1998. Prior to that, he was curator of The Wray Collections in Scottsdale, where he oversaw a collection of more than 10,000 objects and paintings ranging from prehistoric Native American art to modern Latin American work. Uribe received his B.A. from Princeton University in 1985.!search/profile/person?personId=14474946&targetid=profile

We are very proud of Augie. He just turned 50 in December. What is most important is that he is also a good husband, and father to both his sons, ages 14 and 16.


Twinkies vs pan dulce

Dec 31, 2012, Mike Acosta mikea@WINFIRST.COM 

There was a time when Mexicans in Mexico served white wonder type bread for dinner. This airy bread gave cultural presence that a family had become a new member of middle class society. And here in the u.s., many mimicking Chicano families followed suit believing that, "what's good for the Mexican, must be good for the Chicano." and no one mimicked neo middle class values more than my good looking aunt Julia. But she didn't stop at insisting that we serve her wonder bread, she also made sure there was always skim milk on the dining table whenever she visited. Julia was a bit fresh even at age
forty, and no doubt felt that the tasteless spongy bread and non-fat chalky tasting milk preserved her knockout figure. 

Yes I had a little crush on her, kind of an oedipus-mex thing. 
But even more impressive about her was the fact she would always bring Twinkies to give to me and my sweet-toothed
siblings. I know that some may be tempted to call me a vendido for preferring Twinkies to traditional pan dulce at that time. But there was a reason for this preference, namely a street tunnel to Chayo's panaderia. reckless drivers on the street between the area where I lived and Chayo's made crossing the street dangerous any time of day or night. 
And for our convenience the city had built an underground tunnel thru which we could cross to the other side of the street in "safety." But here's the catch; homeless winos used this tunnel as their private urinal and by the time any of us crossed to the other side our sense of smell was usually wasted; and
the upshot to me was that in preferring tunnel-safety, my olfactory ability to enjoy the wonderful aromas of chayo's pan dulce offerings suffered.

Associations as everyone knows are hard to break and for a long time I couldn't stop associating pan dulce with that awful tunnel crossing . Twinkies on the other hand I associated with the freshness of aunt Julia's visit. Feliz anyo Nuevo y Viva la raza.

Comment by Devon Pena, Ph.D.
Yes Mike, food, culture and memory are intertwined in very deeply felt and often unexpected ways.  Your comment remind me of the first time I saw people going into a Taco Bell in Mexico City - I thought thus was a sign of the end of la cocina mexicana - but all of the patrons were middle class. Same with McDonalds - it was considered a symbol of prestige to be able to eat American fast food.



Notarial records: Adding cultural context to your family tree
by Debbie Gurtler (English) and Sonia Meza Morales (Spanish)
March 21-23, Rootstech Conference, Salt Lake City,
Free Interactive Pedigree Chart
More Peruvian records added to Family Search Database
Free Family History and Genealogy Records

Notarial records: Adding cultural context to your family tree  

By Debbie Gurtler and Sonia Meza Morales

TARASANTCHI, Ruth Sprung. "Minha descoberta de Pedro Weingärtner", in Pedro Weingärtner 1853-1929: um artista entre o Velho e o Novo Mundo. São Paulo: Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, 2009, p.152. 

Notarial records are not very well known by beginning genealogists but they are a very valuable resource for genealogical information and cultural context for your family and their community. In many communities the notary was second only to the parish priest in the knowledge of the happenings of the town. Notaries were and still are employed to write and record legal documents not only in Spain but in most countries in the world. The documents recorded by a public notary ranged from land transactions to wills and from marriage contracts to death inventories, as well as many others too numerous to mention here.

 In Spain there were several types of notaries.

·        Royal notaries (escribanos reales) who served the monarchy and other governmental organizations.

·        Provincial or criminal notaries (escribanos de provincia o de criminal) who served various courts in judicial functions.

·        Ecclesiastic and Apostolic notaries (escribanos eclesiásticos y apostólicos) who served the Catholic Church.

·        Public Notaries (escribanos públicos o de número) who served the general public.

Of these four types of notaries the ones whose documents are used most often in genealogical research are those of the public notary. A public notary served in a town or a large city.

Determining the name of the notary where your ancestors might have gone to have their legal documents recorded is an important first step in beginning to use notarial records. If your ancestors lived in a small town, there may have been only one notary or they may have had to travel to a nearby town because their town had no notary. If your ancestors lived in a large city, you may have to determine if they went to a notary near their home or if they went to one that had strong connections to their family but whose office may not have been close by. Most provincial and notarial archives where the records are kept have created catalogues identifying the notaries in the area and the years of their service.

Once you’ve determined the name of the local notary for the time period you wish to search, you will want to begin examining the records. The records are generally found in large books or bundles of loose leaf pages called legajos. Usually one legajo contained one year but in smaller towns there might have been more than one year per legajo or in a large city there may have been more than one legajo per year. Some notaries included indexes with the names of the main parties involved in the transactions at the front of the legajo. Other legajos have no indexes and a page by page examination of the documents is a must.

Given the legal nature of the documents most follow a standard format. Once you learn to recognize the format, reading the documents becomes easier. Just as in wills from other countries testamentos in Spain almost always begin with the words “In the name of God amen” or “En el nombre de Dios amen.” The most important types of documents to consider are testaments, marriage contracts, death inventories, donations, partitions of goods, letters of payment, and transfers of land, with the latter two being less important than those preceding them.

Recently while doing research in the province of Navarra there was a gap in the parish books during the time period when the couple being researched should have married. Although an ecclesiastical marriage record was not located, several notarial documents mentioned the marriage. Among them was a letter of payment acknowledging receipt of marital goods received by the bride and groom from the bride’s parents. The document referenced the name of another notary, from a nearby town where the couple had married, who had recorded the marriage contract.

Wills generally list all the names of the heirs of the deceased. Sometimes you might also find among the many requests for religious rites the names of relatives who predeceased the testator. Death inventories often list heirs. One of the fascinating aspects of death inventories and marriage contracts are the long lists of items owned by the deceased or given to the couple. They provide a fascinating glimpse into the life and everyday activities during the time period adding a rich cultural background to your family tree.

Notarial records are most often found in historical provincial archives. Some however, may be found in notarial, municipal, or local archives. A good guide to the collections of various archives in Spain can be found at the PARES site using their Censo-Guía de Archivos. For more information about notarial records in Spain, please read this article Archivos Históricos Notariales Memorial Documental de España. Use Google translate to help you read the article if you do not understand Spanish.

Most of these records must be viewed onsite in an archive because not many have been microfilmed as of the writing of this article. Some archives are in the process of digitizing their notarial records and placing them online. 

Spain, Cadiz, Testaments, 1550-1920,
Cadiz, San Fernando, Emilio Casas Montero (1872), Protocol 468, 1872, image578

The following are just a few that we know of. If you are aware of more, we’d love to hear about them.

Records online:

El Archivo Histórico de Protocolos de Guipúzcoa

Spain, Cádiz, Testaments, 1550-1920

Archives specializing in notarial documents

Archivo Histórico de Protocolos de Madrid

Archivo de Protocolos de Granada

Archivos de Protocolos de Sevilla

Archivo Histórico de Protocolos de Barcelona

For more information about notarial records, see Chapter 12 “Notarial Records” in Tracing Your Hispanic Heritage by George R. Ryskamp (Riverside, CA: Hispanic Family History Research, 1984)

Los registros notariales
: Agregando un entorno cultural a su árbol genealógico

Por Debbie Gurtler y Sonia Meza Morales

Los archivos notariales no son demasiado conocidos por los genealogistas principiantes, pero son un recurso muy valioso para la información genealógica y el entorno cultural de su familia y su comunidad. En muchas comunidades, el notario sólo fue superado por el párroco en el conocimiento de los acontecimientos de la ciudad. Los notarios eran y siguen siendo requeridos para escribir y registrar documentos legales no sólo en España sino en la mayoría de los países del mundo. Los documentos registrados por un notario público variaron entre las transacciones de tierras a los de testamentos y de contratos matrimoniales a los inventarios de la muerte, así como muchos otros que serían largos enumerar aquí.

En España existen varios tipos de notarios.

·        Escribanos reales que servían a la monarquía y otras organizaciones gubernamentales.
Escribanos de provincia o de criminal que servían a varias cortes en las funciones judiciales.
Escribanos eclesiásticos y apostólicos que servían a la Iglesia Católica.
Escribanos públicos o escribanos de número que servían al público en general.

De estos cuatro tipos de notarios aquellos cuyos documentos se utilizan con mayor frecuencia en la investigación genealógica son los del notario público. Un notario público sirvió en un pueblo o una ciudad grande.

Determinar el nombre del notario donde sus ancestros podrían haber ido a tener sus documentos legales registrados es fundamental para empezar a utilizar los registros notariales. Si sus antepasados ​​vivían en un pueblo pequeño, puede haber sido sólo un notario o pueden haber tenido que viajar a una ciudad cercana, porque su pueblo no tenía ningún notario. Si sus antepasados ​​vivieron en una ciudad grande, es posible que tenga que determinar si fueron a un notario cerca de su casa o si iban a uno que tenía relación con la familia, pero cuya oficina puede no haber sido cercana. La mayoría de los archivos históricos provinciales y archivos notariales donde se guardan los registros han creado catálogos de identificación de los notarios en el área y los años de su servicio.

Una vez que haya determinado el nombre del notario local para el período de tiempo que desea buscar, usted querrá empezar a examinar los registros. Los registros se encuentran generalmente en grandes libros o paquetes de páginas de hojas suelta llamadaslegajos”. Por lo general, un legajo abarcaba un año, pero en los pueblos pequeños no podrían haber sido más de un año por cada legajo o en una gran ciudad puede haber habido más de un legajo anual. Algunos notarios incluyeron índices con los nombres de los participantes principales involucrados en los documentos en el frente del legajo. Otros legajos no tienen ningún índice y el examen página por página de los documentos es una necesidad.

Por la naturaleza jurídica de los documentos se sigue un formato estándar. Una vez que aprenda a reconocer el formato, la lectura de los documentos se hará más fácil. Al igual que en los testamentos de otros países los testamentos en España casi siempre comienzan con las palabras "En el Nombre de Dios Amén." Los tipos de mayor importancia de los documentos a considerar son testamentos, contratos matrimoniales, inventarios de muerte, donaciones, particiones de bienes, cartas de pago y ventas de tierra, los dos últimos siendo menos importantes que los anteriores.

Recientemente mientras hacía una investigación en la provincia de Navarra habían libros parroquiales extraviados durante el período de tiempo en que la pareja investigada debería haberse casado. A pesar de que ningún  acta de matrimonio eclesiástico fue localizado, varios documentos notariales mencionaron el matrimonio. Entre ellos se encontraba una carta de recibo de pago de los bienes conyugales recibidos por la novia y el novio de los padres de la novia. En el documento se hace referencia al nombre de otro notario, de un pueblo cercano, donde la pareja se había casado, que había registrado el contrato de matrimonio.

Spain, Cadiz, Testaments, 1550-1920,
Cadiz, San Fernando, Emilio Casas Montero (1872), Protocol 468, 1872, image578

Los testamentos generalmente nombran todos los herederos de la persona fallecida. A veces también se puede encontrar entre las numerosas solicitudes de los ritos religiosos los nombres de los familiares que murieron antes que el testador. Inventarios de muerte a menudo nombran a herederos. Uno de los aspectos más fascinantes de los inventarios de  muerte y de los contratos matrimoniales son las largas listas de elementos que fueron propiedad del difunto o que fueron dados a la pareja. Ellos proporcionan una visión fascinante de la vida y las actividades diarias durante el período de tiempo y agregan un fondo cultural rico a su árbol genealógico.

Los registros notariales se encuentran más frecuentemente en los archivos históricos provinciales. Algunos, sin embargo, se pueden encontrar en los archivos notariales, municipales o locales. Una buena guía para las colecciones de distintos archivos en España se puede encontrar en el sitio PARES utilizando su Censo-Guía de Archivos. Para obtener más información acerca de los registros notariales en España, por favor, lea este artículo Archivos Notariales Históricos Memorial Documental de España. Se puede usar Google Translate para ayudarle a leer el artículo, si usted no entiende español.

La mayoría de estos registros deben ser vistos en un archivo del lugar porque no muchos se han microfilmado cuando se escribió este artículo. Algunos archivos están en el proceso de digitalización  y publicación en línea de registros notariales. Los siguientes son sólo algunos que conocemos. Si usted sabe más, nos encantaría poder saberlo.

Registros en línea

El Archivo Histórico de Protocolos de Guipúzcoa

Spain, Cádiz, Testaments, 1550-1920

Archivos especializados en documentos notariales

Archivo Histórico de Protocolos de Madrid

Archivo de Protocolos de Granada

Archivos de Protocolos de Sevilla

Archivo Histórico de Protocolos de Barcelona

Para más información sobre registros notariales, vea capítulo 12 “Notarial Records” en Tracing Your Hispanic Heritage por George R. Ryskamp (Riverside, CA: Hispanic Family History Research, 1984). Texto en inglés.

Debbie Gurtler,AG®

Latin America Research Consultant

Family History Library

Salt Lake City, Utah

Office: 801-240-2732


The 3rd annual RootsTech conference offers new and exciting resources for individuals of all skill levels, including a New! Getting Started track and Developer Day, more exciting Classes & Workshops, and a 40% bigger Expo Hall.  

Where Families Connect: RootsTech is an opportunity unlike any other to discover the latest family history tools and techniques, connect with experts to help you in your research, and be inspired in the pursuit of your ancestors. Learn how to find, organize, preserve and share your family's connections and history. Read More... 


Free Interactive Pedigree Chart
This free ancestor pedigree chart records the ancestors from whom you directly descend--with additional room for one generation of descendants. You can fill it in right from your browser or on your computer, and then save or print.


More Peruvian records added to Family Search database

Family Search continues to digitize records from all over the world.  Volunteers are very much in need to index the records.  You will be trained and welcomed to how many hours you devote to this monumental task, which benefits the WHOLE world.  
Peru, Amazonas, Civil Registration, 1939-1995
Peru, Huánuco, Civil Registration, 1889-1997 
Peru, Puno, Civil Registration, 1890-2005 
Peru, Lima, Civil Registration, 1874-1996 

Free Family History and Genealogy Records

Search Results from User Submitted Trees subcollection_ id%3AMM95-8JG



Feb 23: New Mexico DNA and  Iberian Peninsula DNA Projects 
Research solves 220 year mystery of Louis XVI

Saturday, February 23, 2013, 2:00 PM
Angel Cervantes 
Albuquerque Special Collections Library (Botts Hall) 
423 Central Ave. NE, Albuquerque NM 

The New Mexico DNA Project and the Iberian Peninsula DNA Project present Ángel de Cervantes
Who will discuss the Anthropological Genetic Genealogy:
The Hisatsinom's (Anasazi) connection to New Mexican Families Mt-DNA Haplogroup B

In Part XIII of an ongoing series, Mr. Cervantes will explore the connection between certain New Mexican families and the Hisatsinom. Mr. Cervantes will show a short film that will trace the history of these people. He will discuss which families show the markers that are most identified with this ancient civilization. Ángel de Cervantes is a History Instructor and the Project Administrator of the New Mexico DNA Project. For more information about the New Mexico DNA Project, visit their website online at:  

This program is free and open to the public. 
For more information about our program, please contact the New Mexico DNA Project at  

Research solves 220 year mystery of Louis XVI remains in calabash
Handkerchief dipped in blood of beheaded king kept in gourd since 1793

Scientists compared DNA in gourd with mummified head of king's ancestor
By James Rush  1 January 2013

For years researchers have been trying to verify the claim that an ornately decorated calabash contained a blood sample of the king, who was guillotined in Paris on January 21, 1793. On that day Parisian Maximilien Bourdaloue joined the crowds as they dipped a handkerchief into the blood left at the scene of the decapitation.

Beheading: Louis XVI was killed in 1793, as depicted in this painting of him being led to the guillotine by Charles Benazech
Beheading: Louis XVI was killed in 1793, as depicted in this painting 
of him being led to the guillotine by Charles Benazech

The blood was compared to DNA of this mummified skull of Henri IV which found a genetic link

The gourd from which King Louis XVI's blood sample was taken

Blood found in the gourd, right, was compared to DNA of the mummified skull of Henri IV, left, which found a genetic link

Two years ago, analysis of DNA taken from traces of blood found inside the gourd revealed a likely match for someone of Louis' description, including his blue eyes.

But a team of experts from France and Spain, which has published its findings in the journal Forensic Science International, have conducted further research using genetic material from another gruesome artefact - a mummified head believed to belong to Louis' 16th century predecessor, Henri IV.

Their research has uncovered a rare genetic signature shared by two men separated by seven generations, and managed to provide evidence for the authenticity of both sets of remains in the process. French forensic pathologist Philippe Charlier said: 'This study shows that (the owners of the remains) share a genetic heritage passed on through the paternal line.


Sent by John Inclan 



Saturday, Feb 9th: John Palacio, Searching Newspapers for Family Research, SHHAR 
Santa Ana Canyon Work Crew by Cris Villasenor  
Saturday, March 2, 2013: All Day Genealogy Event at Huntington Beach Central Library

John Palacio
February 9th, 10 a.m. 

Searching Newspapers for Family Research 
 Orange Family History Center, 
674 S. Yorba St., Orange, CA

How to use print media i.e.; newspapers, newsletters, magazines, bulletins, flyers, books, etc., to document family history. Newspapers in particular have often been described as the first draft of history. They can be an excellent source for chronicling the lives of our ancestors. Birth announcements, marriages, social columns, obituaries, sports, legal notices, advertisements, community activities and events are all found in newspapers along with other information that can be very valuable to genealogists Newspapers are particularly useful in countries and times where government records are thin to nonexistent.

John Palacio
714-856-5214 cell

All SHHAR monthly meetings are held at the Orange Multi-Regional Family History Center, 674 S. Yorba St., Orange, CA
9:00-10:00 Hands-on Computer Assistance for Genealogical Research
10:00-10:15 Welcome and Introductions
10:15-11:30 Speaker and/or Special Workshop

Society of Hispanic Historical & Ancestral Research holds its monthly meetings at Orange County Multi-regional Family History Center.  Its facility is staffed with volunteers and computers to help anyone interested in pursuing their personal family history research.   There is no membership requirement, or cost for using the facility.   Open to the public: Monday-Thursday, 9 am to 9 pm, & Friday-Saturday 9 am to 5 pm.  Don Garcia, a SHHAR Board members is on staff, Wednesdays afternoon.

Santa Ana Canyon Work Crew by Cris Villasenor

While I was recently reading the 2012 July issue of Somos Primos, Orange County section ;  I was amazed to see my Dad in a picture. My family has a similar photo of him with the same railroad crew. Our picture is dated October 14, 1947 in Long Beach, CA. He is the third person in from left in both pictures. The article was written by Albert Vela Ph.D., and entitled: On The Tracks To The Westminster Mexican Barrio, 1870 - 1940, Part 1 of 6.  Third person in from the left of the picture of the work crew in Santa Ana Canyon, is my Dad, Antonio Garcia Lozano,   at the age of 22.  

Santa Fe Mexican Crew in Santa Ana Canyon 1950s, Section Foreman Jasper Dyer.
Mexicans Rarely Promoted to Foreman, majority of foremen were Anglo.
 (Courtesy Stephen E Donaldson)

He hails from General Zuazua, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. This ranch was formerly a section of Marin, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico in 1945. He moved to my Mom's hometown Laredo, Texas in 1946, and came out to California the latter of 1946 working on the railroad. 

Initially, they lived in railroad housing in Sunset Beach, and moved inland to Barber City (now incorporated as Westminster). They then moved to Olive Street and lived in a little house on the corner of Maple and Olive behind the Castillo's. They moved to Santa Paula Street in Anaheim, now known as Stanton. In 1959 they moved back to Westminster next to the high school. He was a late comer to the area in 1946 but lived here for most of his life.  

He passed at the age of 84.  On his off time he worked in the fields of Orange County. He left the railroad to work in construction and was a member of the Laborer's Union Local 507 in Long Beach, CA for over fifty years. He had a handyman business after he retired.  He worked hard and always took pride in a job well done. He never went to school, and always had the right answer of my algebra homework. He was a math genius.  He read the morning newspaper and insisted on taking his driver's test in English. 

He totally lived the American Dream and accomplished a lot. He owned a primary home in Westminster, and a retirement ranch in San Antonio, Texas.  He also had a house in General Zuazua, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He was the only one of eleven siblings who came to the U.S. They lovingly called him the Malinche of the family for leaving.  All my relatives are there. Growing up my family had the best vacations.  I am now working on my family genealogy project,  and reconnecting with all of my cousins and now; their kids. He was married for 64 years, and was Dad to five children. The last child, was my brother Antonio, the only boy and Dad's namesake. My brother Antonio earned his Ph.D. in comparative literature at Princeton.



Saturday, March 2, 2013: 
All Day Genealogy Event at Huntington Beach Central Library
Orange County California Genealogical Society (OCCGS), will be celebrating their 50th Anniversary
by hosting  an inaugural “Genealogy BASH and Book Faire” 

Below is information about an all day genealogy event sponsored by the Orange Co. CA Genealogical Society. There is also a flyer attached with additional details, including names of speakers and titles of talks.

Ten of Southern California’s best family history speakers will give talks on subjects ranging from how the Internet is changing genealogical research to DNA testing for genealogy. There will be 20 lectures in four sessions from which to choose. There is a wide range of subjects that will be of interest to anyone who is researching their family roots. Seating is guaranteed if pre-registered on their website  There is a fee to attend the lectures. Parking is free in the large library lot.

Those just beginning their quest for their family’s history will have the opportunity to learn from professionals in free classes also held throughout the day. Free sign-ups are on the organization’s website. 

There are two title sponsors for the event, Findmypast and FamilySearch. Both will have company representatives available to discuss their products. There will also be additional exhibitors in attendance that is open to the public.

OCCGS manages the 20,000 volume Genealogy collection at the Huntington Beach Central Library. The public is invited to visit the collection and have a guided tour.

There will be a Book Faire for people who want to add to their personal genealogical library. Prices for the books and other genealogical materials at the Book Faire are at bargain basement prices. The Book Faire is free and open to the public.

The Huntington Beach Central Library is located at 7111 Talbert Ave., Huntington Beach, CA 92648.
Doors open at 8:00 AM and the first session starts at 9:15 AM. See the OCCGS website, , and click on the BASH button for  full details and registration information.

Sue Roe

Sent by Tom Saenz 


Boyle Heights: Arte Vida y Amor
Best Indescribable Wall Art - Best of Los Angeles, George Yepes
Googie Style, Reflections on a Southern California Style
And the Annex Presents: The Love Show: Hearts & Flowers, by Nancy Romero
Los Angeles Conservancy
A Bit of Downtown History: Tour of the Subway Terminal Area by Tom Wetzel 
March 21st: La Plaza de Cultura Y Artes present The City of Dreams Tribute Dinner

The Avenue 50 Studio and the Violence Intervention Program Forensic Center and Community-based Assessment and Treatment Center at the LAC+USC Medical Center Outpatient Department (VIP) are proud to present our third and last exhibition at the Medical Village

Boyle Heights:  Arte Vida y Amor

a selection of work by artists who have lived, loved, worked and played in Boyle Heights

Co-Curated by Abel Salas of Brooklyn & Boyle and Kathy Gallegos

Opening Night reception: 
 Friday, January 25, 2013 from 6-8 pm

Boyle Heights continues through March 30, 2013

LAC+USC—The Medical Village

2010 Zonal Avenue
Los Angeles, CA  90033

Barbara Carrasco, David Botello, Fabian Debora, Frank Romero, George Yepes, Gronk, Jon Measures, Jose Ramirez, John Carlos De Luna, Linda Arreola, Margaret Garcia, Ofelia Esparza, Oscar Castillo, Poli Marichal, Rafael Cardenas, Ramon Ramirez, Raoul De la Sota, Ricardo Mendoza, Richard Duardo, Roberto Gutierrez, Wayne Healy, Wenceslao Quiroz

For more information, please call (323) 258-1435

This exhibition was commissioned by the Civic Art Program of the Los Angeles County Arts Commission

Avenue 50 Studio is supported in part by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors through the Los Angeles County Arts Commission; the California Community Foundation; the Department of Cultural Affairs; the California Council for the Humanities; and The James Irvine Foundation



Ménage à trois at LunaSol Gallery and Avenue 50 Gallery Exhibit at LAC • USC.

"Muralist and Painter Yepes is Los Angeles' greatest living Baroque artist".  Marc B. Haefele, Writer LA WEEKLY

"When it comes to sheer touch that combines beautiful control over line and brushwork, yet seemingly spontaneous expression, George Yepes is among the best. His darkly romantic excess can't help but make you think he would have been Dante Gabriel Rossetti's (1828 - 1882, London, England), equal among the Pre-Raphaelites. But these saints and sinners are hardly a throwback. Yepes' painting has a visual density and suggestiveness that is as tantalizing to the intellect as it is arresting for the eye".
~ ArtScene:  The Guide to over 450 Los Angeles Art Galleries and Museums

"Like Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto (1518 - 1594, Venice, Italy), GeorgeYepes has the ability to pull down from heaven the designs which God has for humans and paint them so people can discover through the paintings what they are deaf to in words".
~ Dr. David Carrasco, Professor - Historian of Religions
Editor-in-Chief, Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures
Director, Moses Mesoamerican Archive and Research Project
Neil L. Rudenstine Professor of the Study of Latin America
Divinity School - Harvard University

Ménage à trois at LunaSol Gallery

Exhibit Open from February 8, 2013 through March 8, 2013 

Featured Artists: 
George Yepes, East Los Angeles, California
Maria Kilcha Kane, San Antonio, Texas
Julie Zarate, Houston, Texas

Event Location:
6711 Bright Avenue
Historic Uptown Whittier
(at Bailey Ave. and Philladelphia Ave.)
Whittier, California 90601 USA
Phone: (562) 201- 9415  Email:

This exhibition was commissioned by the Civic Art Program of the Los Angeles County Arts Commission
Avenue 50 Gallery Exhibit at LAC • USC • (VIP)   Exhibit Open from January 25, 2013 through March 30, 2013

Featured Artists: 

Event Location: LAC • USC
Los Angeles County
University of Southern California
2010 Zonal Avenue
Los Angeles, California 9033 USA
For more information call: (323) 258-1435

Exhibit Open from January 25, 2013 through March 30, 2013

This Exhibition is Co-Curated by Abel Salas of Brooklyn & Boyle Art Center and Kathy Gallegos of Avenue 50 Studio
Avenue 50 Studio is supported in part by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors through the Los Angeles County Arts Commission; the California Community Foundation; the Department of Cultural Affairs; the California Council for the Humanities; and the James Irvine Foundation. 

Sent by George Yepes 


Googie Style
Reflections on a Southern California Style
Armando Arreola, Mixed Media Works on Board

Opening Night Reception: 
Saturday, February 9, 2013 from 7-10 pm
Exhibt to run until through March 3, 2013

Architecture in the US has has an interesting history. Since the 1800’s we've seen the Victorian, Italianate and craftsman style immigrate from England. 

Googie Style sprouted from our very own LA City streets during the wild and crazy decade of rock and roll, LA developed a totally local style coined Googie in 1952 by Douglas Haskell of "House and Home" magazine.
This period of time -- the beginnings of space exploration, the rise of post war capitalism, and the coining of another term, “teenagers”, symbolize the era. Googie Style mirrors the excess of post World War II US exuberance; a period of time when US capitalism was on the rise, and we were king of the jungle.

Armando Arreola, observant artist of all things peculiarly different decided to sink his teeth into the past and recover from it a piece of history in need of reconsideration. A child of the 50's himself, a west side chanticleer of disrespected art historical instances, Armando elevates Googie Style buildings into signature portraits where form overpowers a proper mannered taste.

Please join us on Saturday, February 9 from 7-10 pm for an artist reception where you can confront the artist with questions of classism. The Avenue 50 Studio considers this exhibit one of important cross-class revelation. Who does architecture serve -- the masses or the elite? Please join us in an animated discussion of architectural relevance.

And the Annex Presents

The Love Show: Hearts & Flowers, 
Nancy Romero

Beth Peterson
Cola Smith
Emilia Garcia
Isabel Martinez
Jackie Jefferies
Lili Bernard

Linsley Lambert
Margaret Garcia
Mavis Leahy
Pat Gomez
Pat Payne
Pola Lopez
Nancy Romero
Sonia Romero
Sophia Gasparian
Tina Gulotta-Miller
Yana Nirvana
Zeal Harris
Opening Night Reception: Saturday, February 9, 2013 from 7-10 pm

Love, an important life source of all things biological will be explored in our February exhibit. With the imminent arrival of spring, ribald thoughts of carnival and our desire to warm up, what better way to celebrate the season than to hold a valentine feast.    Warm up with the Avenue 50 Studio this February 9, from 7-10pm for our look into love. 

February 9, 2013 through March 3, 2013
Avenue 50 Studio, Inc.
a 501(c)(3) non-profit art gallery
131 North Avenue 50
Highland Park, CA 90042

Los Angeles Conservancy

Dear Mimi,

The Conservancy works to promote win-win strategies to ensure landmarks adapt to the ever-evolving city around them. Vintage postcard courtesy Roadsidepictures on flickr. Contemporary photo by Larry Underhill.

Can you still visit that landmark and share the experience with friends and family? Or can you see it only through your memories and photographs because it no longer exists?

The Los Angeles Conservancy’s preservation advocacy efforts and education programs span all 88 cities in Los Angeles County – and we want to guarantee that no more favorite landmarks are needlessly lost to the wrecking ball.

We hope you will support our efforts this year by becoming a member or by donating to our Preservation Advocacy Fund. Your support matters!

Thank you!
Sincerely, Linda Dishman
Executive Director

Los Angeles Conservancy  |  523 W. Sixth St. Suite 826  |  Los Angeles, CA 90014
213-623-2489  | www.

Preservation Advocacy Fund: Preservation in Action

The Preservation Advocacy Fund was established in 1996 in the wake of one our most controversial, costly, and ultimately successful preservation battles: halting the demolition of the 1876 former Cathedral of St. Vibiana and preserving its landmark status.           Former Cathedral of St. Vibiana. Photo by Gary Leonard.

A Bit of Downtown History: Tour of the Subway Terminal Area by Tom Wetzel 
Editor: Lots of important action being taken to preserve the history of Los Angeles.  If you have a heritage connection to Los Angeles, like I have, you may want to search out the many websites concentrating on different time periods in the history of the city of Los Angeles.  I was
really pleased to  do check their website and see what has already been done, and what still needs to be done. Little is left of the Bunker Hill homes, an area where many newly arrived Mexicans, fleeing the Mexican revolution, made their homes.  The large, two and three story homes became rentals to many families who rented rooms in those large mansions, as my grandfather and mother. Just browsing the sites and photos reawakened many memories.

Came across this website which, in addition to wonderful photos has a great map identifying the locations of stores, businesses, government buildings.  It shows exactly where Bunker Hill and Angel's Flight, Grand Central Market, Pershing Square, Million Dollar Theater,  and other sites are located.   
Part 1: Copyright © 1999 (revised 2006) Tom Wetzel
Pershing Square

Main Street Station
Grand Central Public Market
Part 2:
Angels' Flight
Court Hill
Bunker Hill
What caused the decline of the downtown?
Into the early 1950s the Subway Terminal in downtown Los Angeles was a major transportation hub. Because of its historical importance, the Subway Terminal is a convenient starting point for a dig into bits of downtown L.A. history. In this tour we look at the area within walking distance of the subway terminal. In the map below, circa 1950-53, the Subway Terminal Building is marked in red.


Subway Terminal Area Circa 1950



March 21st: La Plaza de Cultura Y Artes present The City of Dreams Tribute Dinner

Sent by Tom Saenz 


Stepping Stones Through Genealogy by Sylvia Contreras  - Part 2
February 21-23rd California Historian Symposium
March 16: San Diego Opera presents: Cruzar la Cara de la Luna
Huell Howser, KCET’s California Gold passed away January 7, 2013.
Historic Artifact Stolen from the Oakland Museum of California

by Sylvia Contreras
Part 2

Dominguez Rancho Adobe Museum 

Sometimes, one can find family connections through the most obscure and improbable places.  Patience is truly a virtue because one should not expect instant gratification in genealogy.  However, keeping a sharp mind for possible clues is a big part of the genealogy quest game that can lead to treasures and rewards for one’s efforts.   

In the small unincorporated industrial city of Rancho Dominguez lies a gem of early California history, Dominguez Rancho Adobe Museum.  It is an 1826 adobe built on a hilltop, a place of such calm and peace, one can easily forget they are in heavily populated Los Angeles County.  So hidden is the Rancho, that after several years, I visited the historical landmark late 2009, only three miles from home.  Upon my first visit, as I traveled up the long driveway, it felt as if the place made my heart stop, taking my breath away and gasping for air.  On my third tour with a veteran docent, I was signed up right on the spot to join the February 2010 docent training.  Me – a museum docent?  HA, what a laugh!  Even my friends and family found my newfound interest so unlike me.  Today, January 2013, I am now one of the veteran docents too.   

In 1784, a Spanish soldier, Juan Jose Dominguez, is granted the first Southern California land grant of 75,000 acres known as Rancho San Pedro.  The Spanish soldier traveled with Junipero Serra in the 1769 Expedition to “Alta” California that departed from La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. (Serra, the priest associated with the California Missions).  The 1826 adobe was built by the soldier’s great-nephews. The one who lived in it with his family was Manuel Dominguez.  

In May 2011, a pang overwhelmed me to locate my estranged father.  I found his home in Wilmington, CA, formerly part of the original 1784 land grant.  I was too late.  I met his widow.  She confirmed her neighbor’s comment to me of my father’s passing.  It was February 6, 2006.  Still, in that one conversation with his widow, I learned a lot about him.  Such as, the wallet-sized October 1961 photo of my father, Efrain Ojeda, I had in my purse, was hanging in his living room wall, recently enlarged and colorized.  I think I stole my father’s photo from my mother’s belongings in the 1970’s.  That he was from San Antonio, Baja California Sur.   

At the time, my docent partner shared her book, “Historic Torrance” because she thought I would like to read it.  It was time to return the book.  At the owner’s insistence, I kept it a while longer.  Good thing too.  That book was my crucial stepping stone through genealogy.  

A couple of days after the conversation with my father’s widow, I continued reading the book focusing on the Dominguez family chapter.  I read that the 1769 Expedition troop departed from La Paz, BCS, with Juan Jose Dominguez, an unknown detail to me then. My heart felt pounding against my chest as my mind raced.  Knowing that San Antonio, BCS was near La Paz, could it be possible – that somehow my family lineage is connected to that expedition?  

As I turned the page, there on the top right corner, was a small picture of a 1773 payroll document. The excerpt stated the document named Juan Jose Dominguez.  That the document was located in the archives at California State Dominguez Hills.  I made an appointment to attain a full-size copy.  Still learning how to read Old Spanish, eventually the name “Gabriel de Oxeda” came to light in that 1773 document.  And so, the quest for my genealogy began at full steam ahead, to find Jose Gabriel Ojeda, the Spanish 1700’s soldier.  You see, my maiden name is Sylvia Ojeda.  I had a gut feeling that the soldier is my paternal great-great-…grandfather.


Join us in San Diego for our February Symposium!
February 21-23rd
(Registration Deadline is February 12th) 
Sent by Tom Saenz

March 16, 2 pm and 7pm
San Diego Opera presents: Cruzar la Cara de la Luna
Featuring Mariachi Vargas de Tecalitlán

You've got to come see the world's first mariachi opera, featuring the best mariachi in the world and music by Pepe Martinez. This is truly a historic piece of music, and everyone is thrilled that the San Diego Opera is bringing it to San Diego. Let's make it a hit!

Huell Howser, television personality best known for KCET’s California Gold passed away January 7, 2013.

Howser retired in November and had recently left his personal archive to Chapman University.

Longtime Southern California television host Huell Howser, who used his folksy interviewing style to introduce viewers to little-known Golden State locales and residents, died Monday at age 67.

Howser, a native Tennessean with a twang to match, died in Palm Springs at 2:35 a.m. of natural causes, according to the Riverside County coroner's office. Howser's spokesman, Ryan Morris, told City News Service that Howser died at his home following a long illness.

Morris, who declined to give details on Howser's illness, said there would be no public or private services. "He was very against any sort of tribute or funeral," Morris said, adding that Howser would joke, "We all have to die."  He declined to list survivors, saying Howser's family requested privacy.

Howser, who retired from KCET in November, was best known for hosting the series California's Gold, which ran for 19 years on PBS stations, including KCET in Southern California.

"We are deeply saddened by the news of Huell's passing," according to a statement by KCET President/CEO Al Jerome. "This is a tremendous personal and professional loss to his friends and colleagues, as well as his legions of fans. Huell elevated the simple joys and undiscovered nuggets of living in our great state. ... Huell was able to brilliantly capture the wonder in obscurity. From pastrami sandwiches and artwork woven from lint to the exoticism of cactus gardens and the splendor of Yosemite -- he brought us the magic, the humor and poignancy of our region. We will miss him very much."

Howser, often lampooned for his accent and wide-eyed wonder at roadside attractions, became so well-known while hosting California's Gold that his character was incorporated into two episodes of The Simpsons.

Howser started his television career at WSM in Nashville after working for U.S. Sen. Howard Baker and serving in the U.S. Marine Corps. The University of Tennessee graduate whose unusual first name is a combination of his parents' -- Harold and Jewell -- became a well-known television personality in Nashville for his human interest stories.

He later hosted a magazine-style series at WCBS in New York City before moving to Los Angeles in 1981 to work for KCBS-TV. He later served a stint as a weekend Entertainment Tonight host (1982-83) and eventually joined KCET in 1985.

At KCET, he started Videolog, short programs featuring people's unique stories. The series later became California's Gold.

Howser quietly retired late last year, amid rumors of failing health. Morris told the Los Angeles Times in November that Howser would stop filming new shows, saying he "is just trying to get away from television and enjoy some free time."

Morris told City News Service that Howser donated his work to Chapman University in Orange. He donated episodes of California's Gold and all his other public television shows to Chapman in 2011 so they can be digitized, put on the Internet and "made available free to a worldwide online audience," according to Chapman's website.

Howser, who had lived in the El Royale Apartments in Los Angeles, also once owned an unusual Newberry Springs home known as "The Volcano House."

The KCET show SoCal Connected plans to air special segment on Howser at 5:30 p.m. Monday, then again at 10 p.m.

Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa called Howswer "a Los Angeles treasure and California icon."

"Although he was originally from Tennessee, Huell loved California more than most natives," the mayor said. "His long-running television program, California's Gold, shared with audiences the best our state has to offer.

"Huell would travel anywhere to show viewers the beauty and variety of the Golden State, from its most famous landmarks to the least known sights. And his boundless enthusiasm and curiosity was infectious, making us all see these places with the same amazement he did," Villaraigosa said. "His death is a loss that will be felt throughout Los Angeles and California. He will be greatly missed."

City Councilman Tom LaBonge also hailed Howser, saying the state had "lost a great one."

"Noboby comes near Huell in his love of people, his love of California, his love of a manhole cover, a street light, an art deco building," according to LaBonge, who was sworn into office by Howser in 2001.

"... If he ran for governor, there would be never another election," LaBonge added.  
City News Service    
Sent by Sylvia Contreras 


Historic Artifact Stolen from the Oakland Museum of California

Historic Gold Rush-Era Quartz and Gold Box Stolen During Break-In

(OAKLAND, CA)--The Oakland Museum of California today announced the theft of a historical Gold Rush-era quartz and gold-encrusted jewel box from its permanent collection. The rare box, an invaluable historical object for the state of California, depicts scenes of early pioneer life and is part of the Museum's holdings of California history. 
The Museum is offering a $12,000 reward for the safe recovery of the stolen object. The reward is subject to certain terms and conditions required by the insurer, including that the reward claimant not have any involvement in the theft or any previous or post theft complicity.    

"The rare Gold Rush-era box stolen in Monday's burglary at the Oakland Museum of California is an invaluable historical object depicting the pioneer history of our state," stated OMCA Director Lori Fogarty. "The museum's collection is held in public trust by the city and people of Oakland, and we hope that everyone in our community and those further afield will help us recover this precious object for the people of California."

The investigation is ongoing and anyone with information is asked to contact the Oakland Police Department's Major Crimes Section at (510) 238-3951 or the TIP LINE at 777-2805.

The Oakland Museum of California (OMCA) brings together collections of art, history and natural science under one roof to tell the extraordinary stories of California and its people. OMCA's groundbreaking exhibits tell the many stories that comprise California with many voices, often drawing on first-person accounts by people who have shaped California's cultural heritage. Visitors are invited to actively participate in the Museum as they learn about the natural, artistic and social forces that affect the state and investigate their own role in both its history and its future. With more than 1.8 million objects, OMCA is a leading cultural institution of the Bay Area and a resource for the research and understanding of California's dynamic cultural and environmental heritage.

 Sent by Jaime Cader 


Photo: Japanese family returns home from a relocation center camp in Hunt, Idaho
Reno Magazine 

A Japanese family returning home (Seattle, Washington) from a relocation center camp in Hunt, Idaho on May 10, 1945


By David Bacon, Oxnard, CA


Lucrecia Camacho comes from Oaxaca, and speaks Mixteco, one of the indigenous languages and cultures of Mexico that were hundreds of years old before the arrival of the Spaniards.  Today she lives in Oxnard, California.  Because of her age and bad health, she no longer works as a farm worker, but she spent her life in Oxnard's strawberry fields, and before that, in the cotton fields of northern Mexico.  She told her story to David Bacon.

I was born in a little town called San Francisco Higos, Oaxaca.  I've worked all of my life.  I started to work in Baja California when I was a little girl.   I've worked in the fields all of my life, because I don't know how to read or write.  I never had an opportunity to go to school.  I didn't even know what my own name was until I needed my birth certificate for the immigration amnesty paperwork after I'd come to the U.S.   
   Lucrecia Camacho. (Photo: David Bacon)

When I was seven, my mother, stepfather and I hitchhiked from Oaxaca to Mexicali, and I lived there for two years.  I spent my childhood in Mexicali during the bracero years.  I would see the braceros pass through on their way to Calexico, on the U.S. side.  I would beg in the streets of Calexico and they would throw me bread and canned beans on their way back home.  I also begged in Tijuana.  I'm not ashamed to share that because that is how I grew up.
I began working when I was nine years old.   In Culiacan I picked cotton, then I went to work in Ciudad Obregon, Hermosillo and Baja California.  I would get three pesos a day. From that time on, I have spent my entire life working.

Lucrecia Camacho
When I was thirteen my mother sold me to a young man and I was with him for eight months. I soon was pregnant.  After I started having children they were always with me.  In Culiacan I would tie my young children to a stake in the dirt while I worked.  I tried to work very fast, so that the foreman would give me an opportunity to nurse my child.  After I came to the U.S. I did the same thing.  I took them to the fields with me and built them a little shaded tent on the side of the field.  Every time I completed a row, I would move them closer to me and watch them while I worked.  I nursed them during lunch and they would fall asleep while I worked.  It was always like that.

In Baja California we didn't even have a home.  But my mother also was always with me.  It was like I was the man and she was the woman.  I gave her all my wages.  In Mexico my children struggled in school, because we never stayed in one place too long.  I would take them out of school one or two months and them put them back in when we returned.  It wasn't until we arrived here in Oxnard that they went to school regularly.  So not all of them were able to go to school.  My oldest son never did.

I come from a Mixteco town in Oaxaca, but I didn't know how to speak Mixteco when I was young.  I learned it later.  As a child I spoke Spanish.  Two years after my father passed away I came to the U.S., in 1985.  I'd borrowed a lot of money for my father's burial and couldn't pay it back.  I didn't want to come to the U.S. because I didn't want to leave my children, but my mother convinced me.   I left the kids with her.  I became a legal resident in the amnesty program.

My employers in Arizona and Gilroy gave me the employment proof I needed, and my two youngest children and I were able to file our paperwork. They became legal residents first and I completed my paperwork in 1989.

I didn't want to leave my mother alone, so I brought her in 1994.  My mother died seven years ago, but she was always with me in good times and bad.  I had children and she cared for them.  She wanted to die in her hometown, so I had to grant her that last wish. I even have great grandchildren now.

I began working here in the fields in Oxnard when I first arrived in 1985 and worked until last year.  I already had seven children by the time I got here.  At first they stayed behind with my mother in our little town.  Then I brought them in 1989 by paying a "coyote."  I have a sister who lives in Tijuana and first I brought them from Oaxaca to her home.  I'd go to Tijuana every week or two to take them money for food.  From there I brought each of them across, one by one.  In those times, it cost $1,600 for each one.

Now they charge $7,000, which is nearly impossible to pay because we don't make that much money.  It's a sad situation.  We want a better life, so we come here.  We earn a living, but with a lot of hard work and sweat.   It was very hard for me because I have ten children and have always been their mother and father.

I've always been alone, a single mother of ten children.  When I got here I traveled with other illegal workers just like myself.  I came
here because people said money was literally for the taking, but it wasn't true.  It was hard to find work in 1985, and immigration authorities
picked me up sometimes twice a week.  But it was easier to cross the border back then.  We were dropped off in San Ysidro, but we just crossed the border again, and were back at work in three days.  It wasn't very expensive either.  It became more expensive to cross the border in 1987 and 1988.

Lucrecia Camacho and three of her grandchildren:
Timoteo, Aron and Genesis. 
(Photo: David Bacon)
I first began to work illegally, but I couldn't get steady work.   I earned $80 a week in those days.  It was difficult to find a place to live.  We lived in a small trailer that was rented by many of us, so we literally slept side by side.  We would bathe outside, wherever we could find water.

From Oxnard I went to work in Arizona in 1986 because we heard work was bountiful.  We struggled a lot, because we didn't have food and lived out of our old car in the orchards where we were working.  I earned $7 a day then, but was charged $3 for rent and 50 cents for drinks.  We cut asparagus in bunches of 32 and placed them in boxes.  If the boxes weren't the required weight, they told us to do them again.  They hardly paid us anything.

From there I went to work in the green onions.  I had to go to work at 2:00 AM, but we couldn't begin to pick until the dew on the
plants had dried, which often meant we didn't start work until 11:00.  But we still had to leave at 2:00 AM. or others would be hired in our place.  If we arrived later, we wouldn't get a job.  So we'd get in line and build a fire to keep warm and wait for 11:00.  I'd work from 11:00 until 1:30, and only earn $3 a day.  What am I going to do with $3?  Nothing.  I sometimes earned $2.

I came back to work in Oxnard after that, in January of 1987, and I couldn't find work.  I went to Gilroy, where I was lucky to find a good boss, who rented us a small house.  There we harvested bell peppers.  He took good care of us, because immigration officials were everywhere. We began work at 5:00 AM and worked until 9:00, which is when they usually came around.  We came back to work at two in the afternoon, once they were gone.  We were able to work a lot, and didn't go to bed hungry.

I've always worked the strawberry harvest here in Oxnard.  I'd finish that in July and go to Gilroy to work the jalapeño peppers, bell peppers and cherry tomatoes, in July.   I brought my oldest daughter and son with me, and the three of us worked there.  They would get out of school in June and worked July and August with me to earn money for their school clothes.  They went back to school the 15th of September, so they worked with me 40 days.  I would bring them back to Oxnard to start school, which is why I couldn't just leave my Oxnard apartment.  I'd pay $775 rent for my children to stay in Oxnard, and then $600 for myself in Gilroy.  I never had any money left after that, but I had to do it.

I'd take my kids back to Oxnard for school, and return to Gilroy to work all of September and October.  I lived in a large room that was divided into smaller rooms.  It had a stove and outdoor bathroom.  We were paid piecrate, not by the hour.  They paid 80 cents for a bucket of jalapeños.  Jalapeños with the stem were paid at $1.10 a bucket.  I was able to fill 38 to 40 a day.  I'd get back to Oxnard in the middle of November, rest a bit, and then start the strawberry harvest again about January 20th.  I worked a long time in Gilroy, starting in 1985.  It's been six to eight years that I haven' gone.  I couldn't find housing one year, and after that they wouldn't hire me any more.  

 Hieronyma Hernandez
(Photo: David Bacon)

In the strawberries they also paid piece rate in April, May and June.  The other months they paid by the hour.  When I first started, it was $3 an hour, and the piecerate was eighty cents a box.  The year before last I was paid $8.25 an hour. The regular box rate was $1.25, the little box was $1 and the two-pound box was $1.50.  If I was able to fill 40 boxes, it was a good day.  The younger faster men can pick 70 or 80 boxes a day.

The strawberry harvest looks easy enough, but once you try it, it's hard.  I don't wish that kind of work on my worst enemy.  When you're young, you work hard and get tired, but once you get home and take a shower you're fine.  Now that I'm old, I deal with arthritis and osteoporosis. My feet hurt and they swell.  Many workers have been permanently injured. I have a nephew who hurt his back working in the strawberries, and a cousin who died of pneumonia because we work in the mud when it's raining.

We ate bean, potato and egg tacos.  No beef or chicken.  We couldn't afford to buy meat. At times we ate vegetables from the fields that had been sprayed with pesticides.  We just washed them and ate them anyway.  When I was working in the pepper harvest, I would make delicious salsas for my potato and egg tacos.

The fruit that brings the most money here is the strawberry crop, but they pay us a wage that barely allows us to make a living.  Then they turn around and sell each box of strawberries for $18 or $20.  If we pick eighty boxes, how much do you think they make from that?

You'd think the owners would have enough money to pay workers higher wages, but they pay it to the foreman instead.  The foreman has a brand new car every year and the worker doesn't get anything. Every year I see foremen driving around in those brand new cars and I ask myself why.

The foremen now choose workers who can pick 100 to 130 boxes per day.  I know one who only hires immigrants without papers because she says legal residents complain too much.  They tell the ones without papers they're going to call immigration officials or fire them if they complain.  These workers try and stay on the foreman's good side by bringing her homemade tortillas, mole and even Chinese food.  I'm not going to bring her anything, I don't get paid enough.

If the foreman doesn't like you, he makes you redo the work.  In the strawberry fields you're always worried that the foreman is going
to send you back and tell you to redo your box because it's not full enough.  In the morning as soon as I get to the field, I pick four boxes so
that I can have extras in case they tell me I have to redo some of the boxes during the day. 

It's always based on if they like you or not.  We just have to put our heads down and work quietly.  There were many times I stayed quiet
and didn't defend a fellow co-worker, but one time I did speak up.  I had a woman foreman who spoke to us disrespectfully. When I asked her why she told me to give her my tools and fired me.

Hieronyma Hernandez, Mixteca immigrant strawberry picker in Santa Maria.  (Photo: David Bacon)
 I told her I didn't understand why I was being treated that way, but the other foreman grabbed me by the arm and told me to leave.

Our work and life is hard here, and we don't see many benefits.  When the cost of living was low, our wages were low.  When our wages went up, it was only because of the increased cost of living.  Have you seen the current gas prices? Before we had to work an hour to cover our cost of gas, and now we have to work two hours.  We don't have anything left.  The more we earn, the more they take away.  We can't move forward.

If you want to get ahead here, you have to live in cramped quarters.  Here, the rich even have rooms for their pets, but we have no room for ourselves.  When we first moved here, there were about twenty people living in this house. Now that my kids have moved on, there are ten now.  We needed to share the cost of rent as much as we could.  We can pay more now because some of us get decent wages.  My daughter gets $12 an hour.  She speaks English, Spanish and other languages.

I tell my kids how much I've struggled. When I worked the strawberry harvest, if I didn't work fast I was fired immediately.  I'm old now, so the last four years I was told I worked too slowly.  But it's difficult to work in the rain and mud.  At times you're lucky and find a good foreman who gives you waterproof ponchos.  Other places charge for them, twenty-five dollars for ponchos and twenty-five dollars for rain boots.

All my life I've worked in the fields, but the work is harder for me now.  I felt so strong when I was younger.  I could work 24 hours.  When I was young picking cotton in Mexico I could easily lift 50 kilos [120 punds].   I don't know if it's old age or my diabetes, but I work a lot slower now.  The machine in the strawberry fields goes very fast and it's frustrating to get left behind.  I can't fill the amount of boxes I used to.  I feel nauseas and get headaches.

A checker weighs a basket of strawberries to see if he will credit the picker for the box.    (Photo: David Bacon)

They won't give me a job anymore.  If the foreman doesn't like you, then you aren't hired. They always choose the pretty women and family
members first.  As a woman working in the fields, if you didn't have a good foreman, you were treated badly.  You had to ask for permission to take a day off, but you were given a ticket. After accumulating three tickets, you were fired. I've also heard complaints of sexual harassment from women.  Sometimes women don't want to speak up.  There are a lot who have lived through it, but are afraid to say something for fear that they'll be reported to immigration officials.

In Culiacan, when I was young, I had a foreman who always sought out women to be alone with.  He told me he liked me, but I told him I knew he had a wife and mistress.  He told me that if I let him do what he wanted to me, I would still have a job.  If not, I needed to look for another job.  I told him he would not see me there the next morning.  Some of us women don't take that kind of abuse, but many do what they feel necessary to keep their jobs, even if it means being in the hands of the foreman.  My daughter tells me of her factory job and how that still happens there.  The women that let the foremen do what they want move up in position. Those that don't stay in their same position.
As long as women accept this, there isn't much that can be done.  We need someone to help us and provide us with support.  There are only a few of us in Lideres Campesinas.  If I had a hidden camera, it would be so easy to show others what we face.  Without that people don't believe what we're saying.  When I worked in a plastics factory, a coworker had a doctor's note saying she needed to work in a sitting position.  The foreman fired her and then fired me for speaking up and defending her.  I think a union would  help, but it's been difficult for one to get organized in the Oxnard area.  When I began to wear my Lideres Campesinas tee shirt, I was told there wasn't work for me anymore.  I've been working here for many years and all of a sudden there wasn't work for me. I've been looking for work ever since.
Aron Martinez, Lucrecia Camacho's grandson.
(Photo: David Bacon)

When I came here I didn't expect a better life.  I knew I would have to earn my living with physical labor.  I was happy living in Mexico, but I didn't have money even to clothe my  children.  Here I live better.  I have the basics and I thank this country for giving me that.  I hope to retire soon and go back to Mexico.  I don't plan on staying here.  I'll leave neither rich nor poor. The only thing I'll take with me is aches and pains, because it' s not like I have any money to take with me.

Thanks to Farmworker Justice and Lideres Campesinas for their support in making this article possible.
Coming in 2013 from Beacon Press: The Right to Stay Home:  Ending Forced Migration and the Criminalization of Immigrants
David Bacon talks with Solange Echevarria of KWMR about growers push for guest worker programs. 88 minutes for interview.  David Bacon talks with Kris Welch about Right-to-Work-for Less.  for interview. 
See also Illegal People -- How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants (Beacon Press, 2008)
Recipient: C.L.R. James Award, best book of 2007-2008 

See also the photodocumentary on indigenous migration to the US Communities Without Borders (Cornell University/ILR Press, 2006) 

See also The Children of NAFTA, Labor Wars on the U.S./Mexico Border (University of California, 2004) 

Entrevista de David Bacon con activistas de #yosoy132 en UNAM Interview of David Bacon by activists of #yosoy132 at UNAM (in Spanish) 

Two lectures on the political economy of migration by David Bacon 

For more articles and images, see 
David Bacon, Photographs and Stories
Editor:  Thanks to David for sharing with
Somos Primos.
See also Illegal People -- How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants (Beacon Press, 2008)
Recipient: C.L.R. James Award, best book of 2007-2008
See also the photodocumentary on indigenous migration to the US
Communities Without Borders (Cornell University/ILR Press, 2006)
See also The Children of NAFTA, Labor Wars on the U.S./Mexico Border (University of California, 2004)
Two lectures on the political economy of migration by David Bacon
Entrevista de David Bacon con activistas de #yosoy132 en UNAM
Interview of David Bacon by activists of #yosoy132 at UNAM (in Spanish)
For more articles and images, see
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 



From The Barrio Foundation
Le Comité des Archives de la Louisiane
'Gun Culture' -- What About the 'Fatherless Culture'? by Larry Elder


From The Barrio Foundation


Illinois civic leader Robert Renteria has been selected to receive two Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., awards for excellence in his work in anti-violence, education, youth initiatives and community change. Renteria will be honored by Reverend Jesse Jackson's coalition, PUSH Excel on January 15, 2013 at 8 a.m. at the UIC Forum, 725 W. Roosevelt Road, Chicago, Illinois

On Saturday, January 26, 2013, he is scheduled to receive his second Dr. King award from Chicago's Illinois Commission on Diversity and Human Relations (ICDHR). The event will take place at the Chicago Hilton and Towers, 720 S. Michigan Avenue at 7 p.m.

PUSH Excel and the Illinois Commission on Diversity and Human Relations cite community leadership and diversity as major characteristics of their respective recipients.

Robert Renteria is said to be the first Latino to be the recipient of two prestigious Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., awards at the national level for many selfless accomplishments.

He has been instrumental in expanding youth and anti-violence initiatives while contributing to the work of many other proponents.  He is also being recognized for his effectiveness to transcend culture by reaching youth from different backgrounds and countries.

The civic leader is also the author of the "2012 Best Graphic Novel", Mi Barrio.  His inspirational and hard-hitting comic book addresses youth issues throughout Latin America, Spain and the United States.

"Robert Renteria has been noticed and as a staunch believer in education," stated Michero B. Washington, President of the Illinois Commission on Diversity and Human Relations. "He is joining a list of illustrious leaders throughout the country, and based upon your work in education and community change, we will be honoring him with the Martin Luther King, Jr., Excellence in Educational Leadership and Reform. Dr. King would be proud."

Renteria addresses youth issues through his Barrio Foundation and uses the Barrio book series and school-based and faith-based curricula to inspire, motivate and teach teens and at-risk youth how to make better choices.  He says the Barrio Project will help to change the landscape by offering The Barrio Project's effective teaching tools.
His books and comprehensive bilingual non-generic programs have impacted hundreds of thousands of youth across America and in 14 other countries.

"We're honoring Robert Renteria at this historic occasion because of the outstanding civil and human rights work he has done in the tradition of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr."
-PUSH Excel Organization

"I am truly humbled. It is a great honor to receive two awards from two prestigious organizations. Our kids are victims to broken systems," stated Renteria. "The Barrio Movement is helping to change the landscape for youth across America by offering Barrio as teaching tools. A large part of our mission is social emotional learning.
"I am throwing down the gauntlet and am calling on community leaders, politicians and corporations to help the Barrio Foundation exchange From the Barrio to the Classroom and the Barrio books for all the guns, knives, drugs, needles, booze and even the cigarettes," he concluded.

For additional information about Robert Renteria or The Barrio Project, visit, email or call (312) 933-5619. You can also google Robert Renteria to learn more about The Barrio Movement.

Le Comité des Archives de la Louisiane


Judy Riffel is a professional genealogist in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. She is an officer in a statewide genealogical group, Le Comité des Archives de la Louisiane, and edits their quarterly journal, Le Raconteur. She reported extensively on the impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita to the state’s historical records.  The In-Depth Genealogist 


'Gun Culture' -- What About the 'Fatherless Culture'? 
Larry Elder
Jan 17, 2013

The face of gun violence is not Sandy Hook. It is Chicago.

In 2012, President Barack Obama's adopted hometown had 506 murders, including more than 60 children. Philadelphia, a city that local television newscasters frequently call 'Killadelphia," saw 331 killed last year. In Detroit, 386 people were murdered.

Since 1966, there have been 90 school shootings in the U.S., with 231 fatalities. Yes, Sandy Hook shocked us. But the odds of a child being killed at a school shooting are longer than the odds of being struck by lightning.

Of the 11,000 to 12,000 gun murders each year, more than half involve both black killers and black victims, mostly in urban areas and mostly gang-related. The No. 1 cause of preventable death for young black men is not auto accidents or accidental drowning, but homicide.

Rapper/actor Ice T ("Cop Killer") and I attended the same high school. In the 1991 John Singleton film "Boyz n the Hood," the teenagers attend that school, and car-cruise the South Central Los Angeles boulevard after which the school is named.

Crenshaw High opened in 1968. By the time Ice-T left, less than a decade later, Crenshaw had become, in the rapper's words, "a Crip school" -- meaning one controlled by that street gang. Because of the school's reputation for violence, Time Magazine called it "Fort Crenshaw." A powerhouse in basketball and football, the school lost its accreditation 2005, before getting it back in 2006 on a short-term basis.

In 1970, I was part of the second graduating class in the new school's history. Some kids, who started with me in the 10th grade, did not finish. But it was the exception rather than the rule. By 2012, only 51 percent of Crenshaw's students graduated.

What happened?

Dads disappeared. Or, more precisely, to use Bill Cosby's term, the number of "unwed fathers" exploded.

In 1965, Daniel Patrick Moynihan wrote "The Negro Family: A Case for National Action." At the time, 25 percent of blacks children were born out of wedlock, a number Moynihan called alarming. Fast forward to the present, 72 percent of black children are now born out of wedlock. In fact, 36 percent of white children are born out of wedlock. Of Hispanic children, 53 percent are born outside of marriage.

In "Boyz n the Hood," Tre, played by Cuba Gooding Jr., has an active father in his life. Doughboy, played by Ice Cube, was raised without a father. His mother resents him because she dislikes his father. On the other hand, Gooding's hardworking, responsible father, played by Laurence Fishburne, stays on his son. He warns him against hanging out with the wrong people and that becoming a street criminal was a trap. He lectures his son that "any fool with a (penis) can make a baby, but only a real man can raise his children."

Studies show that children of divorced parents can have outcomes as positive as those coming from intact homes, provided the father remains financially supportive and active in his children's lives.

But what happens without dads in the 'hood?

In 1979, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth found that fatherless kids were twice as likely to drop out of school and that girls who grew up without dads were 2.5 times more likely to become pregnant teenagers.

Rutgers University sociology professor David Popenoe published "Life Without Father" in 1996, where he describes the "massive erosion" of fathers in America. Popenoe concluded that boys raised without fathers were more likely to have problems with drugs, alcohol, behavior and social interactions. Several studies during the '90s found that disruption in family structures was a predictor of children's gang involvement.

Many on the left dismiss the importance of fathers as "right-wing," blame-the-victim propaganda. Well, the late rapper Tupac Shakur, in the posthumously released documentary "Resurrection," said: "I know fora fact that had I had a father, I'd have some discipline. I'd have more confidence." He admits that he starting hanging out with gangs because he wanted to belong to a family structure, and it offered structure, support and protection -- the kind of thing we once expected home and family to provide.

The formula for achieving middle-class success is simple: Finish high school; don't have a child before the age of 20; and get married before having the child. Preparing for the future requires dedication. It requires deferring gratification, precisely the kind of "discipline" that Tupac admitted he lacked because he grew up without a father.

Doing what you want to do is easy. Doing what you have to do is hard. Dads, by getting up and going to work each day, send a powerful message every day to their children: Hard work wins. There are no short cuts. The outcome is unknowable. But the effort is entirely within your control.

For more information go to:

Sent by Odell Harwell


Social activist honored at State History Museum By Mary Jo Galindo, Ph.D.
Here are some little known, very interesting facts about Texas
Gutiérrez de Lara brought Texas its first taste of independence
By José Antonio López
Heaven and Earth, Mexican American Cultural Center
Social activist honored at State History Museum

Social activist honored at State History Museum

By Mary Jo Galindo, Ph.D. 
| 26 de diciembre de 2012


San Antonio.- San Antonio’s María Látigo de Hernández is featured in the new exhibit at the Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum, “Women Shaping Texas in the 20th Century.” The exhibit opened a few weeks ago and includes a silver Aztec sun calendar that Mexican President Lázaro Cárdenas presented to Hernández in 1939 when she traveled as a goodwill ambassador representing a coalition of local groups.

Hernández (1896-1986) was a pioneer radio and television personality, as well as a tireless civil rights leader who campaigned passionately for better education, access to healthcare, and social opportunities for the Mexican-American community. Her family fled the Mexican Revolution in 1914, and she and her husband, Pedro Hernández Barrera, moved to San Antonio in 1918 after he was drafted for World War I. Armistice was declared before he shipped out, and instead they opened a grocery store and bakery on the city’s Westside where they raised their family.

She became a midwife in 1927 and delivered babies in the community until the 1940s. Hernández established La Asociación Protectora de Madres and raised money to build a maternity clinic that provided free prenatal care. In 1929 she and her husband founded La Orden Caballeros de América, one of Texas’ earliest civic and civil rights organizations. They were close friends with Lic. Alonso Perales, who founded LULAC, and worked with Eleuterio Escobar and La Liga de Defensa Escolar to document the deplorable condition of schools for Mexican-American children. On the patio of Sidney Lanier High School in 1934, she rallied a crowd to protest the unequal treatment of San Antonio’s children and helped persuade the state government to intervene and improve the schools.

An inspirational orator, Hernández hosted one of the earliest Spanish-language radio programs on KABC in San Antonio during the 1930s. Her work continued in the late 1960s when she hosted a weekly program on KWEX television. She and her husband, representing La Orden Caballeros de América, testified before the U.S. Commission on Human Rights in 1968. She also supported the Raza Unida Party in the 1970s and spoke at a meeting in the Astrodome. She was honored posthumously during National Women’s History Week in 1986, and the San Marcos Independent School District named an elementary school after her in 1995.

For more information about the exhibit, which runs until May 2013:


Here are some little known, very interesting facts about Texas

1. Beaumont to El Paso : 742 miles
2. Beaumont to Chicago : 770 miles
3. El Paso is closer to California than to Dallas
4. World's first rodeo was in Pecos , July 4, 1883.
5. The Flagship Hotel in Galveston is the only hotel in North America built over water.
6. The Heisman Trophy ws named after John William Heisman who was the first full-time coach at Rice University in Houston .
7. Brazoria County has more species of birds than any other area in North America .
8. Arkansas Wildlife Refuge is the winter home of North America 's only remaining flock of whooping cranes.
9. Jalapeno jelly originated in Lake Jackson in 1978.
10. The worst natural disaster in U.S . history was in 1900, a hurricane, in which over 8,000 lives were lost on Galveston Island .
11. The first word spoken from the moon, July 20, 1969, was " Houston .."
12. King Ranch in South Texas is larger than Rhode Island .
13. Tropical Storm Claudette brought a U.S. rainfall record of 43" in 24 hours in and around Alvin in July of 1979.
14. Texas, only state to enter the U.S. by TREATY, (known as Constitution of 1845 by the Republic of Texas to enter the Union)
       instead of by annexation, allows the Texas Flag to fly at same height as U.S. Flag, and may divide into 5 states.
15. A Live Oak tree near Fulton is estimated to be 1500 years old.
16. Caddo Lake is the only natural lake in the state.
17. Dr Pepper was invented in Waco in 1885. There is no period in Dr Pepper.
18. Texas has had six capital cities: Washington-on-the Brazos , Harrisburg , Galveston , Velasco, West Columbia and Austin .
19. The Capitol Dome in Austin is the only dome in the U.S. taller than the Capitol Building in Washington DC (by 7 feet).
20. The name " Texas " comes from the Hasini Indian word "tejas" meaning friends. Tejas is not Spanish for Texas .
21. The State Mascot is the Armadillo (an interesting bit of trivia about the armadillo is they always have four babies. They have
       one egg, which splits into four, and they either have four males or four females.).
22. The first domed stadium in the U.S. was the Astrodome in Houston .

Gutiérrez de Lara brought Texas its first taste of independence By José Antonio López

 (File photo: RGG/Steve Taylor)

SAN ANTONIO, January 1 - In sharing with others the beauty of early Texas history, there is an increasing positive response from South Texas folks in particular.  

They have found inspiration and a sense of wonder as they learn about long-forgotten pre-1836 people, places, and events.  Most especially after reading tidbits of information in my article, “Seven Flags of the Rio Grande Valley,” based on the grand opening of the Weslaco Visitor Center, readers are eager to rediscover the bicultural and bilingual roots of Texas. Many are reminded of oral history lessons they have heard since infancy from their parents and grandparents. Hence, one particular question is asked more often than any other. “What purpose has it served mainstream Texas historians to ignore these wonderful early chapters of Texas history?”  

That most of the Texas story has a noticeable Anglicized Manifest Destiny pitch is not debatable. So, the quick answer to the question is one of convenience. Simply stated, the test for inclusion is as follows: If Spanish Mexican-descent Texas history doesn’t fit the Sam Houston mold, it is conveniently left out. Doing so, mainstream historians have built a literary fence that acts like an impenetrable barrier, hiding pre-1836 historically significant details from the public’s view.  

With few exceptions, most history books have been written to make readers believe that fundamental Texas history begins in 1836 with the arrival from the U.S. of Anglos and other non-Hispanic white immigrants of Northern European descent. Nowhere else is this more frustrating than in the classroom curriculum where students with Spanish Mexican-roots, and descendants of the first citizens of Texas, are made to feel like foreigners in their own homeland.  

That doesn’t mean that conventional historians omit all Spanish-surnamed personalities from Texas history. Mainstream historians do mention a few Tejano names, albeit cursorily. Alas, a small group of Tejanos is included only because they supported Sam Houston. They are de Zavala, Seguin, Navarro, Losoya, Esparza, and Ruiz. Historians fail to mention that most of these patriots have a direct connection to Don Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara and the first Texas Revolution (1812-1813). For example, after the Battle of Medina, entire San Antonio families (Navarro, Leal, Losoya, Ruiz, among others) were forced to flee to Louisiana by the pursuing Spanish Army. Many were cut down by Spanish swords on the Camino Real before they reached sanctuary. Such is the price that early Texas families paid for daring to dream of liberty and independence before 1836. Additional key early Texas history details are provided below.  

While Lorenzo de Zavala is a bona-fide 1836 Texas Revolution hero, the following proves the old adage that politics make “strange bedfellows,” De Zavala was born in Yucatán, and rose in political affairs to be a senator and then the governor of the state of Mexico. In the period of unrest following the 1821 independence of Mexico, de Zavala joined none other than Antonio López de Santa Anna in a coup-de-tat plot to remove the freely elected president and install Vicente Guerrero as President. Later, when his co-conspirator Santa Anna forcefully assumed the Presidency, the political intrigue was too much for de Zavala. His survival instincts kicked in and he fled to the U.S. He then re-entered Mexico in 1835. While in Texas, he befriended Sam Houston, a recent immigrant to Mexico from the U.S. and served as his Spanish interpreter. It was then that de Zavala joined the Anglo-led rebellion against the central government in Mexico City.  

As for Juan Seguín, the sanitized version of his story is known by most Texas history fans. Militarily, no one can top his Texas independence heroism, especially leading his all-Tejano cavalry in decisive charges at the Battle of San Jacinto. (In my view, their superb military-style horse riding skills qualify these early Tejanos as the Cossacks of Texas.) However, some sad details regarding Seguin’s life after 1836 are not well known.  

Enjoying what turned out to be a very short honeymoon with the Anglos after 1836; Spanish-surnamed patriots like Juan Seguín suddenly became personas non grata in Texas. Adding to the problem was the tsunami of angry, surly Anglos from the U.S. who treated Spanish Mexican Tejanos with utmost disdain and conducted several ethnic-cleansing drives. Seguín was accused of treason and charged with other false claims. He was chased out of Texas and forced to resettle with family in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He died there, across the Rio Grande from his beloved Texas. In 1974, about 120 years later, the citizens of Seguin, Texas and his descendants asked Mexico for the return of his remains and reburied them where they always belonged – his hometown.  

The José Antonio Navarro family suffered a similar fate. Hounded out of San Antonio, almost the entire family was forced southward. Upon reaching the Rio Grande, my ancestors in the Dolores (& San Ygnacio), Texas area convinced the Navarros to stay on this side of the river, which is where they began a new life. Shortly after Zapata County was organized, José Antonio Navarro, Jr., became its first official County Judge. At least two of the judge’s brothers also became Zapata County officials. (By the way, when I was born, my Grandfather Ignacio Sánchez, himself a Zapata County Judge and Sheriff, asked my parents to name me José Antonio in honor of José Antonio Navarro, Jr.)  

This brings us to the hero who is finding new aficionados, Lt. Colonel José Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara, the first President of Texas (1813). As they build on their renewed motivation to learn more, some readers find it disappointing that Don Bernardo’s coverage in history books is scant and not always positive. They want to know why.  

Bluntly, Don Bernardo’s incredible story of valor is too awkward for mainstream historians to handle. He brought to the citizens of Texas their first taste of independence on April 1-2, 1813, when he led his army in capturing the Regional Capital of San Antonio. Shortly after, he completed his revolution by declaring that Texas was now an independent province (state).  

As regards thoughts of liberty, freedom, and justice for all in Texas, Sam Houston took over a work in progress. Equally important, many Tejanos who supported Sam Houston in 1836 received their military OJT fighting for Don Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara in the first Texas independence (1812-1813)!  

Still, Don Bernardo’s legacy has been deliberately left out as the architect of Texas liberty. His many feats of courage deserve better in the recording of Texas history. His role as Texas independence trailblazer must no longer be denied. It is for that reason that many of us now push for presenting Texas history in a seamless manner from the arrival of the Spanish in 1519 to the present. The Tejano Monument in Austin, Texas, is a great start. If you haven’t visited it yet, I highly recommend that you do.  

Finally, due to the ever-increasing interest in our state’s pre-1836 history, future articles will follow dealing with little known facts of this great place we call Texas. Meanwhile, in the words of my good friend and fellow Laredoan Walter Herbeck, “Más, later!”

José Antonio (Joe) López was born and raised in Laredo, Texas, and is a USAF Veteran. He now lives in Universal City, Texas. He is the author of two books: “The Last Knight (Don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara Uribe, A Texas Hero),” and “Nights of Wailing, Days of Pain (Life in 1920s South Texas).” Lopez is also the founder of the Tejano Learning Center, LLC, and, a Web site dedicated to Spanish Mexican people and events in U.S. history that are mostly overlooked in mainstream history books. 

Jose M. Pena


Heaven and Earth, Mexican American Cultural Center 

Jan. 19 to March 30, 
Cuervo Tradicional Mural Project
We enjoyed a wonderful public reception yesterday for my solo exhibit, Heaven and Earth at the Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center in Austin, TX. The exhibit runs through March 30. Here's a wonderful piece about the show by Robert Faires of the Austin Chronicle at: 

It also has a link for the online voting of the Cuervo Tradicional Mural Project at: My work Domingo Tradicional represents northern California. Have a great afternoon.

Fidencio Duran 





Mexico is becoming a Brazil-beater
Mexican Drug Gangs Dig into Mining Industry by John Holman
Nuevo León: Causas Criminales 1600 a 1900
Arts of Colonial Arts - The Lost of Retablo of Mérida Cathedral
Un Blog de Burgos
Research of Tte. Corl. Intdte. Ret. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero:
    Matrimonio de Don Juan José Castellano y Doña María Paula Ecay Muzquiz.
    Libros de Bautismos y de Matrimonios de la Villa d Muzquiz, Coah.
    Don Andres Antonio de la Mata y Cos, Ancestros de la Villa de Santiago del Saltillo
Algunos Personjaes Importante Radicados en la Ciudad de Guadalajara, Jalisco by 
    Guillermo Padilla Origel
Research by Papa del Pato
    Marcomir, Rey de los Francos
    Eusebio Espetillo
Todos Los Gobernantes de Mexico desde Los Aztecas


Mexico is becoming a Brazil-beater
Economists predict: Cheaper than China and with credit and oil about to start flowing, Mexico is becoming a Brazil-beater. By the end of this decade Mexico will probably be among the world’s ten biggest economies; a few bullish forecasters think it might even become the largest in Latin America.

Mexican Drug Gangs Dig 
into Mining Industry 
By John Holman

7 January 2013


The Zetas cartel, one of Mexico's most violent groups, has moved into coal mining as it's "more lucrative than drugs". By paying low wages, gangsters are making large profits from unregulated mines in Coahuila state [AFP/GettyImages]

On October 7, Mexican marines swooped in on one of the most powerful men in organized crime. But as the navy triumphantly announced the death of Heriberto Lazcano, leader of the Zetas gang, there was puzzlement over where he had been found. Far from the Zeta's strongholds and practically unprotected, he had been watching a baseball game in the small mining village of Progreso.

Theories abounded as to what exactly Lazcano had been doing in Progreso, a one horse town in the wide open spaces of the Southern state of Coahuila. Humberto Moreira, ex-governor of Coahuila says that he has the answer: "Heriberto Lazcano changed from being a killer, kidnapper and drug dealer to something still more lucrative: mining coal. That’s why he lived in the coal region, in a little village called Progreso."

Speaking to Al Jazeera, Moreira says that the Zetas gang is fast discovering that illegal mining is an even more lucrative venture than drug running.

"They discover a mine, extract the coal, sell it at $30, pay the miners a miserable salary... It's more lucrative than selling drugs."

"The Zetas are interested in any type of illegal business, from prostitution to extorting business, to mining coal. They’re capable of analyzing where they can earn money from any type of illicit dealings."  

- Samuel Gonzalez, former Chief of Mexico's Anti-Organized Crime Unit

 Moreiras remarks have sparked a host of claims and counter claims. He is used to controversy. The ex-governor of Coahuila (his brother recently took on the post) was one of the most powerful figures in Mexican politics until allegations of huge financial irregularities during his government brought him down. After his son was killed by organized crime, he began speaking of government corruption and impunity in the state he had once governed.  

'Narco coal'  
His accusations have been borne out by the federal government, which also announced that it has found evidence of criminal infiltration in Coahuila's mines. Two hundred government inspectors are heading to the region to investigate mines it suspects are tied to organized crime. The state government has also been tarred by the accusations. A Coahuila government body (PRODEMI) buys coal from the companies and then sells it to the state electricity company. Now the country's attorney general is investigating its links with companies thought to have sold "Narco coal".

The State of Coahuila presents a tempting target for any organized crime group looking to diversify from drug smuggling, kidnapping and extortion. It produces 95 percent of Mexico's coal, churning out 15 million tons a year. Unregulated "pozos", small roadside mines which are often little more than a hole in the road, abound; easy targets for those looking to make quick money.

An investigation by Mexican daily Reforma estimated that criminals were making half a million dollars a week off of these small unregulated mines, selling the coal on to legal businesses. The Zetas criminal group, dominant in Coahuila, is well structured to take advantage of the "Black Gold" rush.

Mexico's other criminal powerhouse, the Sinaloa Cartel, deals almost exclusively with running drugs, Samuel Gonzalez, former Chief of Mexico's Anti-Organized Crime Unit, says that the Zetas are keen to sniff out new business opportunities wherever they lie.

Blurred lines  
"The Zetas are interested in any type of illegal business, from prostitution to extorting business, to mining coal. They’re capable of analyzing where they can earn money from any type of illicit dealings," Gonzalez said.

As the line blurs between organized crime and legal business in Coahuila, these are nervous times for state's mining establishment. On the weekend before Al Jazeera travelled to the area, a mine owner was killed, and his finger cut off, a sign that he was being punished for speaking out against criminals. Senior mining figures refused to speak to Al Jazeera on the record. They did, however, confirm that organized crime has infiltrated their industry.

As mining executives sweat, and the investigations continue, human rights organizations say that little has changed for those at the bottom of the mine.

Coahuila's pits have an unenviable safety history, the lowest point of which came in the death of sixty five workers in an accident in 2006. Even before Moreira's revelations, Mexico's federal human rights agency said that the infiltration of organized crime was stripping workers of even the basic safety protocols they enjoyed under legitimate businesses. Raul Vera, the Bishop of Saltillo, has long campaigned for miners' rights.

"Here those in poverty are forced to seek work where they can and there's little difference in terms of work safety for them between the way that organized crime and a legal owner of a mine treat them."

As criminals and business interests continue to profit from Coahuila's coal, hope still seems slim that the rewards will trickle down to those finding in the depths of the earth.1079

Sent by Roberto Calderon,

Nuevo Leon Crime Book 
Nuevo León: Causas Criminales 1600 a 1900
Review by Crispin Rendon

This book is 568 pages without an index but could have been 200 with some judicious formatting changes.
This book is a listing of criminal cases from the Mexican State of Nuveo Leon.

A total of 1,106 criminal cases dating from Nov 23, 1621 to Apr 19 1897
1600s(186 cases)
1700s(456 cases)
1800s(464 cases)

Each case is laid out in the follow data fields:  Fondo, Seccion de Fondo, Serie, Titulo, Lenga, Luga, Fecha, Fojas, Coleccion, Volumen, Expediente, Folio, Notas, Descipcion.

All of the Lenga fields have "ESPAÑOL" and all of Coleccion fields have "CAUSAS CRIMINALES". (Word Bloat?) 
24 records have no title or description given.  Inconsistent use of accents marks make a pdf reader Search feature a hit or miss. 
If you search for Valle de PILON your search will miss VALLE DEL PILÓN

Descriptions are short and may be identical to the title field. The large Genealogia logo watermark found centered on each page is sure to annoy most readers.  This book could benefit from some more editing.

Why is this book important?  I see it as a valuable resource. Today, we learn about crime from newspapers, television and radio. Why is it presented to us at all?  I think it is because we want to know about it! If daily crime is not enough for us, we read crime novels.

I read the whole book in two days. That is more crime than you will every find in a crime novel. There is little or no genealogy information in this book but I found some of the people presented in this book also in my genealogy database. Some were criminals and others victims. 

One women, appearing in this book also will be found in my soon to appear "Families of Salinas Victoria" book. She beat her servant to death.  Juliana de las Casas, who is an ancestor to thousands of people in my database, appears as a victim. There are few other cases of people found in my records.

The bottom line is if you want to know more about any of these crimes you have the details in the book for how to find it in the archives.

Best Regards, Crispin Rendon

Sent by Jose M. Pena 

ARTS OF COLONIAL MEXICO - The Lost Retablo of Mérida Cathedral

During the infamous noche triste of September 24, 1915, an anticlerical mob inflamed by revolutionary zeal burst into Mérida cathedral and set about destroying its priceless contents.

These included the gilded 17th century main altarpiece, which was ripped from its supports in the cathedral apse, stripped of its gold leaf, crudely dismembered, then carried out into the street and burned, along with several other side altars. 

Happily, two polychrome relief panels survived the holocaust. Both panels, beautifully crafted from local mahogany and finished in exquisite estofado style, have been recently restored and illustrate scenes from the Nativity of Christ.

One panel, depicting the Adoration of the Shepherds, is currently on display in the new Mérida City Museum. Although the infant Christ has sadly lost his head, the other rustic figures are expressively portrayed.

Exploring Colonial Mexico 
Richard Perry

Adoration of the Shepherds

Un Blog de Burgos

Por Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza

Estimada señora Mimí Lozano, Quiero participarle mi colaboración de febrero a su revista con una noticia que de seguro a usted también le sorprenderá. Le platico que, un relato mío que publicó Somosprimos 
en el mes de julio de 2008   fue tomado por una página de internet llamada Burgospedia, de España y publica el texto "Burgos, Tamaulipas, Crónica de un viaje": /

Lo que me parece más interesante es que esta publicación en BURGOSPEDIA ha despertado el afán de saber genealogía, y podría dar ejemplo para el establecimiento de talleres de construcción de genealogías, para cada pueblo en específico.

En la coda de esta publicación se ha desarrollado un Blog, Messenger, o Red Social, donde  hasta hoy 124 participantes han aportado interesantes datos de sus familias, y con todos juntos se nos da una idea de las genealogías del pueblo.

Que bonito es descubrir que somos ignición para que la gente platique la historia de sus familias.
Que se reencuentran los que no se habían visto, y que se encuentran familiares no conocidos.
Bueno será, hacer una Red intermunicipal para que gente de otros lugares venga con sus historias.

Sin más preámbulo aquí está el contenido de la publicación.

La presencia de BURGOS EN MÉXICO (provincia de Tamaulipas) viene a la sección -Burgos Curioso- de Burgospedia, de la mano del burgalés Miguel Vivanco. Él es el que aparece en la imagen superior en la plaza mayor de Burgos, España (y aparece una imagen del susodicho enarbolando una bandera conmemorativa de los festejos de 250 años de Burgos, Tamaulipas), después de haber visitado en el año 1998 este pueblo de Centroamérica (sic), y el que además nos hace conocer mejor la localidad y su historia a través del relato de Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza; persona en busca de sus orígenes y de la genealogía de su apellido en nuestro país.

A continuación se incluyen las participaciones de comentarios a la publicación en referencia
OTROS BURGOS: BURGOS (provincia Tamaulipas) México.
Posted on diciembre 19, 2009  124 comentarios

Editor Mimi:  If you have roots in Tamaulipas, you'll have fun reading through these comments, and maybe make some connections.

Las Memorias de Oralia
(historias de Burgos, Tamaulipas)
enviado por Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza

Este sitio internet esta muy bueno porque es la historia que escribió una abuelita que de niña vivió en Burgos, es la señora Oralia de la Garza de la Garza; ella escribía en cuadernos los recuerdos de su vida de principios de Siglo XX; al morir doña Oralia una de sus bisnietas encuentra en un empolvado baúl esos cuadernos y se ocupa de transcribirlos para publicar Las Memorias de Oralia; son unos relatos tan hermosos que te lleva entre paisajes y personajes de manera que te embelece la lectura; está rico, léanlo, no me dejarán mentir.

Matrimonio de Don Juan José Castellano y Doña María Paula Ecay Muzquiz.
Fuentes. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días.
Tte. Corl. Ricardo R. Palmerín Cordero.


Márgen izq. Mayo 6 de 1841. Dn. Juan Jose Castellano con Da. Maria Paula Ecay Muzquiz. No.28

En el Valle de Santa Rosa Maria del Sacramento a los seis dias del mes de Mayo de mil ochocientos cuarenta y uno. Yo el Presbitero Juan Nepomuceno de Ayala, Cura interino de esta y su jurisdiccion. Habiendo presedido las diligencias por derecho dipuestas y habiendo amonestado tres dias festivos inter misarum solemnia. Segun disposicion conciliar y despues de haverse confesado pasadas veinte y cuatro horas de leida la ultima amonestacion, Case y vele infacie eclesie a Dn. Juan Jose Castellano de esta vecindad, viudo en primeras nupcias de Da. Juana Berain, cuyo cuerpo esta sepultado en el Cementerio de esta Santa Yglesia Parroquial hace seis meses: con Da. Maria Paula Ecay Muzquiz, originaria y vecina de este Valle hija legitima de Dn. Juan Muzquiz ya difunto y de Da. Mariana Davila, y fueron testigos al verlos casar su padrino Dn. Antonio Ximenez y Dn. Pedro Vidaurre todos vecinos de esta y para que conste lo firmo. Juan Nepomuceno de Ayala.

Investigó y paleografió.
Tte. Corl. Ricardo R. Palmerín Cordero.
Investigador de Genealogía e Historia.
Miembro de Genealogía de México.


Muchas felicidades amigas y amigos para el año 2013 y siempre.

Envío a Ud.(s), dos registros de bautismos y un matrimonio efectuados en Múzquiz, Coah.
1.- Bautismo de Don Ysaac Múzquiz Castellano. año 1883.
2.- Bautismo de Don Felipe Múzquiz Aldape. año 1883.
3.- Matrimonio de Don Miguel Múzquiz Peña y Doña Emilia Rodriguez de Hoyos. año 1905.

Bautismo de Don Ysaac Múzquiz Castellano. año 1883.
Márgen izq. 96. Ysaac Muzquiz. Villa.

En Santa Rosa de Muzquiz, a los 2 días de Abril de 1883 yo el Pbro. Francisco de P. Andres, Cura interino bautizé solemnemente á Ysaac. de 8 meses de nacido, hijo legitimo de Juan José Muzquiz y Guadalupe Castellano. Fueron padrinos: Augusto Elizondo y Santos Cortinas. Y para que conste lo firme. Francisco de P. Andres.
Bautismo de Don Felipe Múzquiz Aldape. año 1883.
Márgen der. 152. Felipe Muzquiz. Villa.

En Santa Rosa de Muzquiz á los 23 dias de Junio de 1883 yo el Pbro. Francisco de P. Andres, Cura interino, bautizé solemnemente á Felipe de 4 meses de nacido, hijo legitimo de Felipe Muzquiz y Ma. Refugio Aldape. Fueron sus padrinos: Manuel Long y Refugio Muzquiz. Y para que conste lo firmo. Francisco de P. Andres.

Contrajo matrimonio en 2as. nupcias con Felícitas González en esta Parroquia el 29 de Octubre de 1943.- testigos: Arsenio González y Francisco R. Treviño. Ntrio. P. Castro G.
Matrimonio de Don Miguel Múzquiz Peña y Doña Emilia Rodriguez de Hoyos. año 1905.
Márgen izq. 70. Diciembre 30. Miguel Muzquiz y Emilia Rodriguez.

En la Parroquia de Sta. Rosa de la Villa de Múzquiz á los treinta dias del mes de Diciembre de mil novecientos cinco yo el Pbro. Francisco de P. Andres Cura interino practicadas las diligencias matrimoniales y hechas las amonestaciones en los dias, doce y y diecisiete de Diciembre, no habiendo resultado impedimento alguno, casé infacie Eclesiae á mis feligreses Miguel Múzquiz. hijo legitimo de Miguel Múzquiz Peña y Anselma Rodriguez originario y vecino de esta soltero de veintitres años de edad y Emilia Rodriguez hija de José del Refugio 

Rodriguez y de Hoyos originaria y vecina de esta celibe de años de edad. Fueron sus testigos Luis Alberto Guajardo y Octaviano de Leon. Francisco de P. Andres.

Año de 1906.

Fuentes. Family Search. Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días.
Investigó y paleografió.
Tte. Corl. Ricardo R. Palmerín Cordero.
Presidente de la Sociedad de Genealogía de Nuevo Leon.


Mis ancestros de la Villa de Santiago del Saltillo

 Tte. Corl. Intdte. Ret.  Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero

El pasado día 28 de Diciembre me dijo mi esposa  la Sra. Gloria Martha Pérez Tijerina de Palmerín, “mira en la computadora para que veas lo que te localizé, observo la pantalla y miro el registro de bautismo de Don Andrés Antonio de la Mata y Cos”, este peninsular que  a su llegada a la Nueva España se estableció en la Villa de Santiago del Saltillo,  dedicándose  a las actividades del comercio como la mayoría de sus paisanos,  obtuvo   una gran fortuna y desempeñó los cargos de:  Regidor Alcalde  Provincial, Alcalde de primer voto y  Subdelegado de las cuatro causas.

Su registro de bautismo se encuentra en el  Archivo Diocesano de Santander, España,  en Treceño provincia de Cantabria y dice lo siguiente: -  Andres Antonio=

En la Yglesia parroquial de la villa de Trezeño a diez y ocho días del mes de Diziembre de mil setecientos y treinta y un años, yo Dn. Andres Gonzalez Mobellan cura de ella baptize y puse los Santos Olios y Chrisma a un niño que se dijo haver nazido el día veinte y nueve de Noviembre de dho. año llamose Andres Antonio hijo legitimo de Don Fernando Andres de la Mata y Cos y de Doña Maria Antonia de la Torre vecinos de dha. Villa fueron sus padrinos Dn. Andres de Barreda Yebra, y Doña Thereza de la Mata Linares, vecinos de dha. Villa y del lugar de Caranzeja del Valle de Cabezon, a quienes adberti de su obligación asi bien declararon ser sus abuelos paternos Don Phelipe Francisco de la Mata y Cos, y Doña Thereza de la Mata Linares y los maternos, Don Antonio de la Torre y Doña Ypolita de Barreda Yebra vecinos de dha. Villa, y del lugar de Ygollo del Valle de Camargo y se adbierte que la madrina toco al niño al tiempo que se le echo el agua siendo testigos Don Francisco de Mobellon Clerigo de menores, Juan Gomez de Dozal y Agustin Gutierrez de Caniades vecinos de dha. Villa y para que conste lo firmo con el padrino y uno de los testigos=

Don Andres Glz. Mobellon. Don Andres de Barreda Yebra. Don Juan Gomez de Dozal.
Don Andrés Antonio se casó en la Villa de Santiago del Saltillo el año de 1751, enseguida transcribo su registro.
Dn. Andres Antonio de la Mata y Cos y Da. Maria Leonor Gomez de Selis casados y velados.


En la Parrochia de la villa de Santiago del Saltillo en veinte y dos días del mes de Abril de setecientos, y cinquenta y un años, case y vele infatie ecletie: en tiempo debido a Dn. Andres Antonio de la Mata y Coz, originario de la Villa de Treseño de los Reinos de Castilla, en el Obispado de Burgos, y vesino de esta villa de un año a esta parte, hijo legitimo de Dn. Fernando de la Mata y Coz y de Da. Maria Antonia de la Torre, con Da. Maria Leonor Gomez de Zeliz española originaria y vesina de esta villa, hija legitima de Dn. Juan Gomez de Selis y de Da. Maria Guadalupe Sanchez de Tagle habiendo precedido despacho del Sr. Provisor y vicario general de este Obispado, de dos de Abril de este presente año en que les dispenso las proclamas, y ultramarino, confesaron y comulgaron, y fueron testigos a la celebridad de dho. matrimonio Dn. Manuel Quixano y Dn. Thorivio Casaferniza y lo firmo.= B. Phelipe Juan Estrada.

La hija de Don Andres Antonio y Doña María Leonor de nombre Ysabel María contrajo matrimonio el año de 1774 en la Villa del Saltillo con el peninsular Don Phelipe Calzado Robledo y Rabago originario de Tresabuela, montañas de Santander.



Dn. Phelipe Calzado, y Da. Ysabel Maria de la Mata. Casados y velados.

En la Yglesia Parrochial de la Villa de el Saltillo en ocho días de el mes de Noviembre de mil setecientos setenta y quatro años, El Br. Dn. Ygnacio de los Santos Coy, mi theniente, cassó y veló infatie eclesie a Dn. Phelipe Calzado, natural de los Reinos de Castilla, y vecino de esta villa tiempo de un año poco mas a esta parte, hijo lexmo. de Dn. Domingo Calzado y de Da. Lorenza Robledo y Rabago: y a Da. Ysabel Maria de la Mata y Coz, asi mismo española originaria y vecina de esta dha. Villa, hija lexima. de Dn. Andres Antonio de la Mata y Coz, y de Da. Leonor Gomez de Selis, difunta, de esta vecindad, habiendo dado ynformacion bastante de su libertad y soltura y de ello no les resulto impedimento ninguno, obtuvieron dispenzacion de las tres proclamas que dispone el Sto. Concilio de Trento que benignamente les concedió su Señoria Yllma. y Revma. El Obispo mi Señor de este Obispado, como consta de superior decreto expedido en la Ciudad de Guadalaxara el día catorce de Junio de este presente año. el que queda protocolado en el archivo, de este juzgado, se confesaron antes y fueron testigos Dn. Juan Antonio Bracho, Joachin de el Castillo y otros muchos y lo firmé= Br. Augustin de Acosta.

Al fallecer Doña María Leonor el día 6 de Noviembre de 1796, cuatro años después don Phelipe Calzado contrae segundas nupcias con Doña María del Carmen Treviño Treviño en  el Valle de la Pesquería Grande hoy  Cd. García, N.L.



110. EL Capn. Dn. Felipe Calzado y Da. Ma. del Carmen Treviño casados y belados.

En veinte y nueve días del mes de Octubre de mil ochocientos  el Br. D. Juan José de la Garza Cura Rector, ynterino del Sagrario de la Sta. Yglesia de Monterrey en esta su ayuda de parroquia del Valle de Pesquería Grande previas las diligencias en derecho devidas y dispensadas lexitimamente las tres moniciones en el Sto. Concilio Tridentino dispuestas por el Sor. Dr. Dn. Miguel Ygo. de Garate Vicario capitular por el M. y Ve. Sor. Dean y Cavildo Govor. En sede vacante casó y beló solemnemente enfacie eclesie ál Capn. D. Felipe Calzado Español, Hijo Dalgo de los Reynos de Castilla en las Montañas de Santander viudo en primeras nuncias de Da. Ysabel Ma. de la Mata cuyo cuerpo se haya sepultado en la Villa del Saltillo según lo comprobó con documento autentico: con Da. Ma. del Carmen Treviño Española originaria de este Valle hija lexa. y de lexitimo matrimonio de D. Antonio de Treviño ya difunto y Da. Ma. Leonor de Treviño cuyo consentimiento se manifestó con arreglo á la Real pragmática siendo testigos D. José Espiridión de Treviño y Dn. Mathias Garcia de esta vecindad= y para su constancia lo firmé.  Br. Juan Jph. Garza.


Don Andrés Antonio de la Mata y Cos falleció y fué sepultado en la Yglesia Parroquial de la Villa del Saltillo el día 2 de Mayo de 1805.

El Capitán Don Felipe Calzado falleció  y fué sepultado en  la Pesquería Grande el día 16 de Abril de 1810.


Mi abuelo materno Don José Guadalupe Cordero Calzado era hijo de  Don Apolinar Cordero Delfín  y de Doña María del Refugio Calzado Flores originaria de Bustamante, N.L. e hija de Don Cecilio Calzado hijo del Capitán  Don Felipe Calzado y de Doña Ysabel María de la Mata y Cos Gomez de Zelis.

Fuentes.  Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días. Family Search.  Investigó la información de los Archivos Diocesanos de Santander, mi esposa Sra. Gloria Martha Pérez Tijerina de Palmerín.

Los demás registros  fueron investigados y paleografiados  por el que esto escribe los cuales transcribo   conforme a  su original  escritura.

                                                  San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. a 6 de Enero de 2013 
Tte. Corl.  Intendente Ret. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín  Cordero 
Presidente de la Sociedad de Genealogía de Nuevo León                                                                                    E  
Integrante  del Patronato del Museo de la Batalla de la Angostura, de Saltillo, Coah. A.C.



 Guillermo Padilla Origel  


Don Juan Fernández de Híjar, don Alonso de Ávalos, radicado en Sayula, don Vicente Saldívar, don Álvaro Bracamonte, don Luís de Ahumada, en 1545 latifundista en la región de Ameca, don Juan González de Apodaca, iniciador del latifundio de “Cuisillos”, don Francisco López de Salazar, en la región de “Magdalena”, don Diego Porres Baranda, amo y señor del valle de “Cocula” en 1581, don Juan Gutiérrez de Medina, dueño de la “Sauceda “ en 1615.

En 1575, sobresalieron también las siguientes familias Españolas:

Fernández de Híjar, Orendain, Miravalle, Zaldívar y Mendoza, Dávalos,  Oñate, Topete, Altamirano, Río de la Loza.


Los Rincón Gallardo, con la extensa hacienda de “Ciénega de Mata”, don Francisco Gregorio de Villaseñor, en Huejotitán, don Gaspar González de Castañeda, con las haciendas de “Milpillas” y “la Trasquila” ( hoy San Ignacio Cerro Gordo), don Ginés Gómez Valdés, con dos haciendas en Autlán, don Manuel Calixto de Cañedo y Jiménez, originario del real de Pánuco, Sinaloa, con posesión de las haciendas de “El Cabezón”, “La Vega”, “Buenavista” y “la Calera”, don Diego de Robles, alcalde del ayuntamiento de Guadalajara, dueño de la hacienda de “Zapotepec” y “labor de Trigo”, cerca de Tlajomulco, don Miguel Portillo y Zurita, en el valle de Toluquilla, don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila, alcalde ordinario de Guadalajara, y propietario de la hacienda de “San José de Buenavista”, don Pedro Enríquez Topete, varias tierras en el valle de Ameca.


Don Joseph de Herrera, don Gregorio de Castro, don Pedro de Echegaray, don Bartolomé de Mestas, don Nicolás de Iriarte, don Juan de Gárate, don Agustín de Arzubialde, don Alonso de la Bárcena, don Juan Fernández de Ubiarco, don Domingo de las Cavadas, don Manuel Arce, don Juan José Mallén, don Francisco Javier Vizcarra, (Marqués de Pánuco), adquirió las haciendas de “La Sauceda “ y “Toluquilla”, familia Sánchez Leñero, Moreno de Tejada, Fernández Barrena, Basauri, Corcuera, Murúa, Villaseñor, García Sancho, García de Quevedo, etc.


Don José Antonio Tuñón, don Miguel López del Rivero, don Silvestre Rubín de Celis, don Manuel López Cotilla, don José Monasterio, don Juan Antonio del Mazo, don Antonio Pacheco Calderón, don Manuel Frayle, don Juan José Cambero, don José Antonio Bobadilla, don Francisco Goysueta, don Manuel Lavín, don Manuel del Capetillo, etc.


Algunos Panameños, Chilenos y Guatemaltecos

Don Joaquín Echauri, don Sotero Prieto, don Salvador Batrés, don Pedro Juan Olasagarre, don José Antonio Pinto, don Manuel Luna, etc.


Don Jesús Ascencio, don julio Vallarta, don Manuel Somellera, don José María Castaños.

En 1840, se fundó la industria textil  denominada “La Escoba”, en los terrenos de la hacienda de “La Magdalena” a 5 leguas de Guadalajara, adyacente a una bella finca estilo Inglés, los primeros dueños fueron: Don Francisco Vallejo, don Sotero Prieto, Don Manuel Olasagarre, don Manuel Escandón, don Julio Moyssard; también en ese año se fundó la fábrica de papel denominada “El Batán” y posteriormente  la industria textil : “Prosperidad Jalisciense” ó  “Atemajac”, cuyos socios iniciadores fueron: don Francisco Martínez Negrete, don José Palomar, don Manuel López Cotilla, don José Justo Corro, don Norberto Vallarta, don Pedro Matute, don Ignacio Cañedo, don Nicolás Remus, don Antonio Mercado, don Nicolás de la Peña, don Ignacio Morfín, don Ignacio González Tinajero,  y Don Manuel Parra.


Don Amado Lyon, don Juan Bernet, don Carlos Duprat, don José Pascal, don Clemente Gondoulf, don Pedro Leautaud.


Don Gregorio Dávila, don Pedro Ogazón, don Miguel Aedo, don José María Vigil, don Miguel Contreras Medellín, don Emeterio Robles Gil, don Ignacio L. Vallarta, don Aurelio L. Gallardo y don Antonio Rosales.


Familias: Fernández Somellera, Fernández del Valle, don Manuel Riebeling, don Enrique Heinz, don Eugenio Beraud, don Federico Newton, don Luís Centroni, don Ricardo Lancaster Jones, don José Cortina, don Carlos Basave, don Julio Blume, don Jesús Camarena, familia: López Portillo, don Juan Francisco Velarde (apodado el Burro de Oro) con hacienda en La Barca, Jalisco.  

Fuente: libro: La Oligarquía de Guadalajara, escrito por don Jaime Olveda.



Estimados amigos,

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La lista de Grupo con su respectiva cuenta de correo
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Genealogia de Mexico
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"Haz tu Arbol Genealogico...El Arbol mas Hermoso de la Creacion"
Por medio de la historia familiar descubrimos el árbol más hermoso de la creación: nuestro árbol genealógico. Sus numerosas raíces se remontan a la historia y sus ramas se extienden a través de la eternidad. La historia familiar es la expresión extensiva del amor eterno; nace de la abnegación y provee la oportunidad de asegurarse para siempre una unidad familiar”.  (Élder J. Richard Clarke, Liahona julio de 1989, pág.69)

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Marcomir, Rey de los Francos  n. a. 340.

Papa del Pato

Cuando publicaste la genealogia anterior te respindi sobre el asunto de las familiar medievales.
Claro el correo estaba en Ingles.

Basicamente decia:  "Si estas buscando genealogias cuyas fechas sean anteriores a 1500, recurras al departamento de Familias Medievales que tiene una base de datos de mas de 250,000 personas bien identificadas en arboles geneañlogicos"
y que tuvieras cuidado ya que algunos han tomado parte de esa informacion y luego la DONAN nuevamente a FamilySearch creando duplidados y modificando con errores la base de datos".

En caso de que sea cierto que buscas los padres de... (a menos que sea un titulo para odentificar tus publicaciones.

Para acceder a esa informacion puedes hacerlo facilmente por ejemplo MARCOMIR HAY 2  la otra via es desde RootsMagic (no la version gratuita)

El 11 de enero de 2013 02:22, Papá del Pato <> escribió:

Marcomir, Rey de los Francos  n. a. 340.

Marcomir, Rey de los Francos y No Conocida, procrearon a: Faramundo, Rey de los Francos Salios n. a. 370, m. 428.

Faramundo, Rey de los Francos Salios y No Conocida, procrearon a: Clodion, Rey de los Francos Salios n. a. 390, m. 448.

Clodion, Rey de los Francos Salios y No Conocida, procrearon a: Meroveo, Rey de los Francos Salios n. a. 411.

Meroveo, Rey de los Francos Salios y No Conocida, procrearon a: Childerico I, Rey de los Francos Salios n. a. 436.

Childerico I, Rey de los Francos Salios se casó con Basina de Turingia, procreando a: Clodoveo I, Rey de los Francos

Clodoveo I, Rey de los Francos se casó con Santa Clotilde, procreando a: Clotario I, Rey de los Francos n. 497.

Clotario I, Rey de los Francos se casó con Arnegonda, procreando a: Chilperico I n. 539, m. 584.

Chilperico I se amancebó con Fredegunda, procreando a: Clotario II, Rey de los Francos n. 584, m. 629

Clotario II, Rey de los Francos se casó con Bertrude, procreando a: Dagoberto I n. 603, m. 639

Dagoberto I se casó con Nantilde, procreando a: Clodoveo II n. 634, m. 657.

Clodoveo II se casó 648 con Batilda de Ascania, procreando a: Teodorico III n. 652, m. 691 

Teodorico III se casó 675 con Cleotilde, procreando a: Bertrada a Velha

Conde de Laon se casó con Bertrada a Velha. Su descendencia la refiero en el árbol de los LAON: en el capítulo La Realeza Rumbo a Reynosa. 

Papá del Pato os desea, que tengas un maravilloso día, y arriba los Broncos !abur! 

Eusebio Espetillo
Papa del Pato

Eusebio Espetillo

n. a. 1760 posiblemente en Veracruz.


Eusebio Espetillo se casó con Maria Teresa Mexias, procreando


Ramon Espetillo Mexias {español/ comerciante}

n. a. 1790 Veracruz


Ramon Espetillo Mexias se casó 7 agosto 1811 Puebla {film 227717/ imagen 129/ casamientos 1808-1820/ testigos Ygnacio Monroy y Tomas Flores} con Maria Manuela Monroy y Bermeo (hija de Jose Ygnacio Monroy y Josefa Bermeo), procreando


Joseph Miguel Nicanor Espetillo Monroy

n. 10 enero 1814, b. 10 enero 1814 sagrario metropolitano Puebla {film 227569/ imagen 179/ foja 159/

bautismos 1812-1816/ padrino, Manuel Monroy}


Joseph Miguel Nicanor Espetillo Monroy se casó con Maria Guadalupe Davalos, procreando


Jose Francisco Homobono Ignacio de la Luz Monroy Davalos

b. 13 noviembre 1832 Puebla, {film 227579/ imagen 389/ padrinos Ignacio Monroy y Maria de la
Soledad Monroy}

Jose Bernardo Sebastian Monroy Davalos

b. 20 enero 1835 Puebla, {film 227581}

Maria de Jesus Nazaria Monroy Davalos

b. 28 julio 1837 Puebla, {film 227583}

Manuela Guadalupe Julia Monroy Davalos

b. 12 abril 1839 Puebla, {film 227583}

Jose Rafael Justo Monroy Davalos

b. 6 agosto 1841 Puebla, {film 227585}

Miguel Celso de los Dolores Monroy Davalos

n. 6 abril 1843, b. 7 abril 1843 Puebla y {film 227586/ imagen 81/ foja 70/ bautismos 1842-1844/ padrinos, Mariano

Falcon y Maria Dolores Veraza}

Jose Antonio Lauro Miguel Espello Davalos

n. 18 agosto 1846, b. 19 agosto 1846 Puebla, {film 227587/ imagen 472/ foja 181v/ bautismos 1844-1847/

padrinos, Antonio y Ysabel Duret}

Papá del Pato os desea, que tengas un maravilloso día, y arriba los Broncos !abur!



Sent by Joaquin Gracida who received this list from from his friend, Gustavo Vergara. 
"We were school mates in Puebla. Gustavo now lives in Overland, Kansas," shared Joaquin.

163 GOBERNANTES en 693 años, de 1325 a 2018
1. 1325-1376 Tenoch (Tuna de Piedra) Fundador de Tenochtitlán
2. 1377-1389 Acamapichtli (El que empuña la caña) Primer Señor Mexica
3. 1390-1410 Huitzilíhuitl (Pluma de colibrí) Segundo Señor Mexica
4. 1418-1427 Chimalpopoca (Escudo que humea) Tercer Señor Mexica
5. 1427-1436 Izcóatl (Serpiente de pedernal) Cuarto Señor Mexica
6. 1440-1464 Moctezuma Ilhuicamina (Flechador del cielo) Quinto Señor Mexica
7. 1469-1481 Axayácatl (Cara en el agua) Sexto Señor Mexica
8. 1481-1486 Tizóc (Pierna enferma) Séptimo Señor Mexica
9. 1486-1502 Ahuízotl (Perro del agua) Octavo Señor Mexica
10. 1502-1520 Moctezuma Xocoyotzin (Señor joven y sañudo) Noveno Señor Mexica
11. 1520 Cuitláhuac (Excremento seco) Décimo Señor Mexica
12. 1520-1521 Cuauhtémoc (Águila que cae) Décimo primer Señor Mexica
1. 1519-1524 Hernán Cortés
2. 1524-1527 Alfonso de Estrada-Luis Ponce de León-Marcos de Aguilar
3. 1527-1535 Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán-Gonzalo de Salazar-Sebastián Ramírez de Fuenleal
Virreyes de la Nueva España durante el Gobierno de la Casa de Austria con Carlos I
1. 1535-1550 1º virrey Antonio de Mendoza
2. 1550-1564 2º virrey Luis de Velasco (padre)
Virreyes de la Nueva España durante el Gobierno de la Casa de Austria con Felipe II
3. 1566-1568 3º virrey Gastón de Peralta
4. 1568-1580 4º virrey Martín Enríquez de Almanza
5. 1580-1583 5º virrey Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza
6. 1584-1585 6º virrey Pedro Moya de Contreras
7. 1585-1590 7º virrey Álvaro Manrique de Zúñiga
8. 1590-1595 8º virrey Luis de Velasco (hijo)
9. 1595-1603 9º virrey Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo
Virreyes de la Nueva España durante el Gobierno de la Casa de Austria con Felipe III
10. 1603-1607 10º virrey Juan de Mendoza y Luna
11. 1607-1611 11º virrey Luis de Velasco (hijo)
12. 1611-1612 12º virrey Fray García Guerra
13. 1612-1621 13º virrey Diego Fernández de Córdoba
Virreyes de la Nueva España durante el Gobierno de la Casa de Austria con Felipe IV
14. 1621-1624 14º virrey Diego Carrillo de Mendoza y Pimentel
15. 1624-1635 15º virrey Rodrigo Pacheco y Osorio
16. 1635-1640 16º virrey Lope Díez de Armendáriz
17. 1640-1642 17º virrey Diego López Pacheco Cabrera y Bobadilla
18. 1642 18º virrey Juan Palafox y Mendoza
19. 1642-1648 19º virrey García Sarmiento de Sotomayor
20. 1648-1649 20º virrey Marcos Torres y Rueda
21. 1650-1653 21º virrey Luis Enríquez de Guzmán
22. 1653-1660 22º virrey Francisco Fernández de la Cueva
23. 1660-1664 23º virrey Juan de Leyva de la Cerda
24. 1664 24º virrey Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas
25. 1664-1672 25º virrey Sebastián de Toledo Molina y Salazar
Virreyes de la Nueva España durante el Gobierno de la Casa de Austria con Carlos II
26. 1672 26º virrey Pedro Nuño Colón de Portugal
27. 1672-1680 27º virrey Fray Payo Enríquez de Rivera
28. 1680-1686 28º virrey Antonio de la Cerda y Aragón
29. 1686-1688 29º virrey Melchor Portocarrero y Lasso de la Vega
30. 1688-1696 30º virrey Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y Mendoza
31. 1696 31º virrey Juan Ortega y Montañés
32. 1696-1701 32º virrey José Sarmiento y Valladares
Virreyes de la Nueva España durante el Gobierno de la Casa de Borbón con Felipe V
33. 1701-1702 33º virrey Juan Ortega y Montañés
34. 1701-1711 34º virrey Francisco Fernández de la la Cueva Enríquez
35. 1711-1716 35º virrey Fernando de Alencastre Noroña y Silva
36. 1716-1722 36º virrey Baltasar de Zúñiga y Guzmán
37. 1722-1734 37º virrey Juan de Acuña y Manrique
38. 1734-1740 38º virrey Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta
39. 1740-1741 39º virrey Pedro de Castro y Figueroa
40. 1742-1746 40º virrey Pedro Cebrián y Agustín
Virreyes de la Nueva España durante el Gobierno de la Casa de Borbón con Fernando VI
41. 1746-1755 41º virrey Juan Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas
42. 1755-1760 42º virrey Agustín de Ahumada y Villalón
43. 1760 43º virrey Francisco Cajigal de la Vega
Virreyes de la Nueva España durante el Gobierno de la Casa de Borbón con Carlos III
44. 1760-1766 44º virrey Joaquín de Montserrat
45. 1766-1771 45º virrey Carlos Francisco de Croix
46. 1771-1779 46º virrey Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa
47. 1779-1783 47º virrey Martín de Mayorga
48. 1783-1784 48º virrey Matías de Gálvez
49. 1785-1786 49º virrey Bernardo de Gálvez
50. 1787 50º virrey Alonso Nuñez de Haro y Peralta
51. 1787-1789 51º virrey Manuel Antonio Flores
Virreyes de la Nueva España durante el Gobierno de la Casa de Borbón con Carlos IV