Content Areas

United States
Witness to Heritage
National History Day 

Hispanic Leaders
National Issues
Health Issues



Early Patriots

Family History

Orange County, CA  
Los Angeles, CA

Northwestern US 
Southwestern US 
Middle America



East Coast

Central & South America


Somos Primos

JUNE 2012
151st Online Issue

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-2012

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

Skull with Turquoise Mosaic (1400-1521)
An actual human skull adorned with turquoise, jadeite and shell. Click for more information.

Society of Hispanic Historical and
Ancestral Research   

P.O. 490
Midway City, CA 

Board Members:
Bea Armenta Dever. Virginia Gil 
Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano, Carmen Meraz, Letty Pena Rodella, Daniel Reyna, 
Viola Rodriguez. Sadler, Tom Saenz
John P. Schmal



    "One of the penalties of not participating in politics is that you will be governed by your inferiors."   Plato

"Whoever claims the right to redistribute the wealth produced by others
 is claiming the right to treat human beings as chattel."  Ayn Rand 

Somos Primo Staff
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Roberto Calderon, Ph,D.
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman, Ph.D
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal

Submitters to the Issue
Hon. Fredrick Aguirre
Linda Aguirre
Sarah Anderson
Ray John de Aragón
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Arturo Bienedell
James Cader

Eddie AAA Calderon, Ph.D.
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Sara Calderon
Bill Carmena
Jack Cowan
Christopher Cruz
Maria Embry
Carlos Ericksen-Mendoza
Charlie Ericksen
Joel Escamilla
Carol Floyd
Lorri Frain
Daisy Wanda Garcia
Don Garcia
Dr. Lino Gracia, Jr. 
Wanda Garcia
Eddie Grijalva
Bobby Gonzalez
Sylvia Gonzalez-Hohenshelt
Frank Heinisch 
John Inclan 
Kathie Kennedy
Thomas H. Kreneck, Ph.D. CA
Linda LaRoche

Jose Antonio Lopez
Jeanie Low
Rafael Ojeda
Christine Marin, Ph.D.
Juan Marinez 
Don Milligan
Dorinda Moreno
Carlos Munoz, Jr., Ph.D.
Roland Nunez Salazar
Rafael Ojeda 
Ricardo Palmerin Cordero
Antonio Pascual
Jim Lamare
Augustine G. Lerma
Barbara O'Brien
Jose M. Pena
Richard Perry
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Frances Rios
Refugio Rochin, Ph.D.
Norman Rozeff
Joe Sanchez
Antonio Saenz
Samuel Saenz 

Tomas Saenz
Alfredo Santos
Tony Santiago 
Richard G. Santos
Mike Scarborough
Harold Shuller
John Simmons
Dr. Frank Talamantes, Ph.D,
Paul Trejo
Phillip Thomas Tucker
ErLinda Tórres
Val Valdez

Armando Vazquez-Ramos
Herman Velez
Jesse O.Villarreal, Sr.
Martin Wisckol




Navy Honors Pioneer Family by Fredrick P. and Linda Martinez Aguirre
Concerned Women for America
Ford Giver L.A. Times $ Million
Court Rules Prayer Proclamation Unconstitutional
Billy Graham's Prayer For Our Nation
Trans-Pacific Partnership Deal favors some foreign countries.
He could not fly the American Flag in his yard
Watching, 100 years of U.S. History in 10 minutes
PBS Series "Latino Americans" Will Chronicle the Latino Experience
Mixed-race Americans, brushing aside the issue is harder than it seems
Sen. Carlos Truan: A man of the people by Daisy Wanda Garcia
A Wise Latina: Judge Catherine Torres-Stahl
The National Council of La Raza (NCLR) National Latino Family Expo


By Frederick P. Aguirre & Linda Martinez Aguirre  


USNS Cesar Chavez (General Dynamics NASSCO)

With the sharp "crack" of the champagne bottle bursting against the hull of the massive ship and these noble words, "I christen thee USNS Cesar Chavez.  May God bless this ship and all who sail her," Helen F. Chavez, widow of the namesake, launched the USNS (United States Naval Ship) Cesar Chavez on May 5, 2012.  Built by General Dynamics NASSCO shipyard in San Diego, California, the 689 foot long ship made its ceremonial maiden voyage.   


The USNS Cesar Chavez is the latest of the Lewis and Clark-class of cargo and ammunition ships that are continuously deployed to strategic locations worldwide carrying U.S. Marine Corps cargo and delivering  more than 10,000 tons of food, fuel, ammunition and other dry cargo to U.S. and allied ships at sea.  

Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced that the naming of the USNS Cesar Chavez continues the tradition of the 14 Lewis and Clark-class ships honoring legendary pioneers and explorers which include the USNS Sacagawea, the USNS Alan Shepard and USNS Amelia Earhart.  "Cesar Chavez inspired young Americans to do what is right and what is necessary to protect our freedoms and our country," said Mabus.

 Not only did Cesar Chavez serve in the U.S. Navy during World War II, his family helped settle the West.


Launching of USNS Cesar Chavez
 (General Dynamics NASSCO)

 In 1888, Cesario Chavez, Cesar's grandfather, moved his family from Mexico to the Arizona Territory.  He ran a business cutting wood, hauling it in wagons pulled by mule teams to the mines and railroads of southern Arizona.  In the early 1900s he homesteaded 118.58 acres in the North Gila River Valley outside of Yuma, Arizona.  In 1863 Congress passed and President Lincoln signed the Homestead Act which promised that any "U.S. citizen or intended citizen" could claim up to 160 acres and take title by living and farming on the land for five years.  Thousands of Swedes, Norwegians and other European citizens jumped at the opportunity and homesteaded our Midwestern states. Cesar Chavez was born in 1927 on the homestead officially designated by the Bureau of Land Management as Serial #: AZPHX 0036083.

North Gila Valley, Arizona. 
Photo courtesy of Linda Martinez Aguirre

Cesario and Dorotea Chavez, their son, Felipe 
 (Cesar's uncle) and 3 year old granddaughter 
Rita Chavez Arvizu (Cesar's first cousin) 


In 1881, Andres Arias, Cesar's uncle, witnessed the legendary gunfight between the Earp brothers and the Clanton clan at the OK Corral in Tombstone, Arizona.

 In the early 1900's Librado Chavez, Cesar's father, drove a Wells Fargo stagecoach on a rural Arizona route, was the local postmaster, ran a country store in the little valley and farmed the homestead until the family lost the homestead during the Depression.   
Photo Courtesy of Wells Fargo 

In 1903, Francisco Arvizu, Cesar's uncle, mined for gold in the Colorado River town of Picacho, California. Over $14 million of gold was mined out of Picacho.   His daughter, Dorothy Chavez Arvizu Castro, grandmother of Linda Martinez Aguirre, was born in 1903 in Picacho and recalled the times that she and the Chavez family traveled up and down the Colorado River on the steam-powered paddle wheel river boat before Arizona became a state in 1912.  Indeed, the pioneer Chavez family helped settle and build the Old West.

Photo circa 1905 of the paddle wheel river boat courtesy of the Yuma Arizona Historical Museum

Paul F. Chavez, Cesar's son and President of the Cesar Chavez Foundation stated that the naming of the ship also honors Latinos who displayed their "fervent patriotism" for our nation.  During World War II over 500,000 Latinos fought in every major battle in the Pacific and European Theaters.  For example, on December 7, 1941, among those U.S. Navy Latinos who gave their full measure of devotion for our nation were Ensign Manuel Gonzales, the heroic pilot from the USS Enterprise aircraft carrier who was shot down while trying to land at Ford Island and S2 Reyner Aguirre who was and still is "on duty" on the USS Arizona.  Also, of the 8 Nevarez brothers who served in the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps in World War II, S1c Encarnacion Nevarez was killed in action on November 7, 1944 the USS Albacore submarine.  Cesar Chavez' cousins, PFC Rudolph G. Rico, 10th Infantry Regiment, 5th Infantry Division, was killed in action on January 19, 1945 and buried at Luxembourg American Cemetery and Lawrence Horta, U.S. Army, also died in Europe fighting for our nation against the Nazis.

Cesar Chavez U.S. Navy photo  

Fittingly, the USNS Cesar Chavez pays tribute to a man who was a World War II sailor, a civil rights champion and who hailed from a pioneer family and also honors our valiant American patriots of Latino heritage.

Were your ancestors among the millions who claimed federal lands under the Homestead Act of 1862?  To commemorate the 150th anniversary of this legislation May 20th, we're sharing resources to help you learn more about your homesteading ancestors.

Friends, Please open the following site and see the official program on the christening and launching of the USNS Cesar Chavez. It was an incredibe event that was attended by 7,000 people from California, Texas, Washington D.C. and other states. Thanks to Pedro Anaya from NASSCO for sharing this historic program with us.

Our nation is at a crossroads, and this is an opportunity not to be missed. That’s why Concerned Women for America is preparing to distribute 250,000 copies of our If My People: 7 Principles for Prayer in 2012, to encourage and empower faith-filled citizens to fervently pray for our nation, its people and its leaders right through Election Day.

"Beward the greedy hand of government, thrusting itself into every corner and crevice of industry."  Thomas Paine

A $1 million grant was awarded to the Los Angeles Times by the Ford Foundation to expand coverage on immigration, ethnic communities
in Southern California, the southwest U.S. border and the Brazilian economy. The grants enable it to hire reporters to cover immigrant groups including the Vietnamese and Korean communities, the border region and the California prison system, according to a Ford Foundation spokesman.

Hispanic Link, Vol. 30 No. 10 May 23, 2012
1420 N St. NW
Washington, DC 20005 (202) 234-0280
Court Rules Prayer Proclamation Unconstitutional 
By: Matthew Clark Filed in: National Day of Prayer 
May. 17, 2012 

Just a week after “record turnout” for the National Day of Prayer, as millions joined together in prayer all across America, a state appellate court has declared the proclamation of a day of prayer unconstitutional.

The Colorado Court of Appeals has ruled that the Governor’s Colorado Day of Prayer proclamation, which was first issued in 1905, is unconstitutional.
The Freedom From Religion Foundation (FFRF), an atheist group which has sought to stamp out any semblance of our religious heritage from public life, originally filed the lawsuit in 2008.  In 2010, the state trial court had dismissed FFRF’s suit ruling:

[T]here is nothing controversial about a restatement of a right protected by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution…the proclamation [does] not have the force and effect of law, and even if [it] did, the language does not support the foundation for a state religion, but only an acknowledgment of the rights of the citizenry as recognized as far back as the Declaration of Independence.

Yet, the state’s appeals court overturned that decision last week, holding: A reasonable observer would conclude that these proclamations send the message that those who pray are favored members of Colorado's political community, and that those who do not pray do not enjoy that favored status . . . . In doing so, they undermine the premise that the government serves believers and nonbelievers equally.

Just last year, the FFRF lost two challenges to prayer proclamations. First, their suit against the Presidential National Day of Prayer proclamation was thrown out by the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals. After losing that challenge, the atheist group attempted to stop a day of prayer in Texas, only to have that suit thrown out by the district court.

As the ACLJ has consistently argued in multiple cases defending public prayer proclamations:

[T]o hold that . . . calls for . . . Americans to pray and fast violates the Establishment Clause would be inconsistent with Marsh v. Chambers, 463 U.S. 783 (1983) and the long history of official government acknowledgement of religion in American life – specifically with the long history in this nation of legislators and executive officials calling this nation’s people to prayer.

Congressman Doug Lamborn (CO–5) has written a public letter to Colorado’s Governor, John Hickenlooper, urging him and the state’s Attorney General to appeal the ruling to the state Supreme Court. As the letter notes, “[M]ore than 70 percent of Colorado’s population . . . regard prayer as an integral part of their faith.” The letter specifically thanks the Governor for issuing the “Colorado Day or Prayer” proclamation “recognizing the importance of prayer to Coloradans and the constitutional right of all Americans to pray both publically and privately.”

While governors in all 50 states have historically issued prayer proclamations, FFRF’s challenge in Colorado is particularly poignant considering the fact that the National Day of Prayer Task Force, which organizes many of the nation’s National Day of Prayer activities, is headquartered in Colorado.

Billy Graham's Prayer For Our Nation

He has certainly hit the "world" 
on the head!

Current Age: 93 
from a man the media has never 
been able to throw dirt on.....amazing!

'Heavenly Father, we come before you today to ask your forgiveness and to seek your direction and guidance. We know Your Word says, 'Woe to those who call evil good,' but that is exactly what we have done.
We have lost our spiritual equilibrium and reversed our values.
We have exploited the poor and called it the lottery.
We have rewarded laziness and called it welfare.
We have killed our unborn and called it choice.
We have shot abortionists and called it justifiable.
We have neglected to discipline our children and called it building self esteem.
We have abused power and called it politics.
We have coveted our neighbor's possessions and called it ambition.
We have polluted the air with profanity and pornography and called it freedom of expression.
We have ridiculed the time-honored values of our forefathers and called it enlightenment.
Search us, Oh God, and know our hearts today; cleanse us from sin and set us free. Amen!'

With the Lord's help, may this prayer sweep over our nation and wholeheartedly become our desire so that we once again can be called 'One nation under God!'

Sent by Paul Trejo


Trans-Pacific Partnership Deal favors some foreign countries. Consumer groups and environmental activists worry that terms demanded by the current administration will eliminate important public protections for US companies. A portion would ban "Buy American" provisions -- a restriction that opponents emphasize would crimp U.S. jobs. 5/4/12

Watching, 100 years of U.S. History in 10 minutes


This guy was told by his ‘Homeowners Association’ that he could not fly the American Flag in his yard.
His response:

PBS Series "Latino Americans" Will Chronicle the Latino Experience 
in the U.S. Over the Last 200 Years—Premieres Fall 2013

Arlington, VA (May 2, 2012) - LATINO AMERICANS
, a three-part, six-hour documentary series produced by WETA Washington, D.C.; Bosch and Company, Inc.; and Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB), will air nationwide on PBS in the Fall of 2013, the production partners announced today. LATINO AMERICANS will chronicle the lives and experiences of Latinos in the United States from 1800 to the 21st Century. Through its people, politics and culture, LATINO AMERICANS will tell the story of early settlement, conquest and immigration; of tradition and reinvention; of anguish and celebration; and of the gradual construction of a new American identity from diverse sources which connects and empowers millions of people today. Initial funding for LATINO AMERICANS is made possible by major grants from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and PBS.

The project brings together a diverse team of award-winning filmmakers from around the country to tell these stories, led by the Emmy Award-winning Series Producer Adriana Bosch. The team includes the Imagen Award-winning John Valadez, the ALMA Award-winning Ray Telles, the Peabody Award-winning Dan McCabe and the Emmy Award-winning Nina Alvarez (project staff list below). The production staff will utilize the accounts of historical figures and events; present-day interviews with Latinos - from best-selling authors, entrepreneurs and pop cultural celebrities to political leaders and everyday people, as well as historians and other experts; and historical re-enactments. LATINO AMERICANS will also include a Spanish-language version of the series, a companion book by acclaimed journalist Ray Suarez, and bilingual online educational resources.

"Over the centuries, Latinos - whether traveling across borders, or with deep roots in America itself - have profoundly influenced American culture and American history," said Bosch, whose recent PBS projects include LATIN MUSIC U.S.A. and several productions for the series AMERICAN EXPERIENCE. "LATINO AMERICANS is a story of pride, a story about the people whose lives and contributions are at the very essence of American life.   Latinos have transformed America and transformed themselves, and having a group of Latinos tell this story in their own words is an important milestone in our history."

Brian Moriarty/Gabriela Ubago, DKC, 212-685-4300
Kate Kelly, WETA, 703-998-2072 /



Are you ‘diverse’?
For mixed-race Americans, brushing aside the issue is harder than it seems

by Dante Ramos,  deputy editor of the Globe’s editorial page. Follow him on Twitter @danteramos.

Elizabeth Warren, current Harvard Law School Porfessor, stands with one of her three brothers and her parents in 1955.

In the mid-’90s, around the time Elizabeth Warren’s name was appearing on a list of minority law professors, I was applying for entry-level reporting jobs at dozens of newspapers. In a few cases — one of which involved a summer job at a paper tartly critical of affirmative action — something odd happened. First came the nibble of interest; later, the bashful questions: What, exactly, was my ethnic background? Perhaps I’d like to be considered for a minority internship?

At the time, I was in my early 20s, underemployed, and eager to please. But did I qualify? It was hard to say. One of my parents is Filipino; the other is white; my surname is Spanish. Still, I disliked the implication that my dull, dutiful stories, which I’d clipped to my resume, were suddenly fascinating if their author were less ambiguously ethnic. What grated most — what steered me away from these strange, unbidden opportunities — was that no one asked: Are you actually disadvantaged in some way? Does your ethnicity relate in any way to what you’ve written?

Which brings us back to Elizabeth Warren. We may never know whether she played up her scant Native American ancestry to advance her academic career. But whatever the flap says about the Harvard law professor’s US Senate campaign, it also reflects badly on the ham-fisted, box-checking approach that many employers once took toward diversity — and that some still use today.

Especially in the 1980s and ’90s, the heyday of identity
politics, the well-justified desire to open academia and other fields to people of color led in practice to some awkward moments, at least for those who bristled at having their experiences of life reduced to “white,” “black,” “Asian,” “Hispanic,” or “Native American.” And even now, when jobs and school admissions may still ride on these crude categories, anyone whose ancestry falls outside or between them is in a painful spot.

As for Warren, it’s easy to imagine that, in their rush to get less white and less male quickly, law school faculties might have scrounged around in a promising job candidate’s background in the hope of finding some diversity. Warren comes from a state crafted from the former Indian Territory, a state whose license plates bear the slogan “Native America.” You can almost hear a wishful line of questioning: “You’re from Oklahoma? Are you, by any chance, part Indian?” To which a legal scholar who’s at least 1/32nd-Cherokee could answer honestly: “Well, I’m not.”

This lets Warren off too easily. On Wednesday, she said she’d identified herself as a member of a minority in a directory of law professors because she wanted to connect with others “for whom Native American is part of their heritage and part of their hearts.” Her explanation makes little sense. Why not join a genealogy club instead?

Yet if Warren handled this subject badly, let’s admit that it’s impossible to handle well. The question still lurks: Are you “diverse” or not? For mixed-race Americans who mean neither to exploit their ancestry nor minimize it, politely brushing aside the issue is harder than it seems.

Meanwhile, the usual ethnic categories keep blurring at the edges; the 2010 census counted over 9 million Americans as multiracial. Yet as The New York Times reported last summer, many elite colleges still can’t say how multiracial applicants fit in with their diversity goals. So applicants are left to fret: Check every box that applies, or hope that skipping the question entirely won’t keep you from getting in?

This isn’t a rant against promoting diversity. We need lawyers and doctors and teachers and reporters who’ve known life outside the affluent, often monochrome suburbs of the Northeast Corridor, and who’ve done something besides jumping from one parentally subsidized resume-building activity to the next.

But even today, our Dilbert-like workplace bureaucracies — the hiring committees, the stilted phone interviews, the people scurrying around to deliver what they think the boss wants — often can’t detect the kinds of diversity that matter most. They just aren’t up to the task of judging how applicants’ backgrounds might influence their work.

Under different circumstances, mixed ancestry could be a gift, one that brings the ability to float above America’s long, tortured racial history and observe it from a critical distance. With time, the old categories may blur enough, and old prejudices may erode enough, to make this whole subject seem quaint.

For now, though, the hiring committee and the admissions office are sending a different message: You’re not so special. Just check a box.

Sen. Carlos Truan: A man of the people 
 Daisy Wanda Garcia

Sen. Carlos Truan: A man of the people 
" Daisy Wanda Garcia of Austin is the daughter of civil rights pioneer Dr. Hector P. Garcia. She writes monthly for the Caller-Times. Email her at 
" Posted May 5, 2012 at 3 a.m. 

CORPUS CHRISTI - In April we lost a great public servant, former Texas Sen. Carlos Truan. Truan served for three decades in the Texas House of Representatives and the Texas Senate. I was especially saddened by his passing because Carlos Truan was a constant in my life - a part of my history.

I have many memories of Carlos Truan and my father, Dr. Hector Garcia, working together on educational issues of benefit to the people of Texas and visiting with him at the Founders Day Banquets and American G.I. Forum conventions.

I first became acquainted with Carlos Truan while he was a member of the American G.I. Forum youth. Dr. Garcia depended on Carlos, "Carlitos" as he affectionately called him, when there was a difficult task to be done.

Truan was a beneficiary of the American GI Forum scholarship program. The next I heard, Truan was running for state representative. The one piece of advice my father gave him was to never forget where he came from - a piece of advice Truan evidently took to heart during his career in the Texas House and Senate.

Truan never lost an election because he worked for the people. He was dedicated to his constituency and they in turn were dedicated to him. But it also takes planning and money to win elections. Truan organized one of the most effective get-out-the-vote teams. It was so effective that many Democrats used his model for their own campaigns.

During the 1980ies, Dr. Garcia would travel to Austin usually to lobby the South Texas delegation about some issue. One of our stops would be the Texas Capitol where we would visit the offices of Sen. Truan and Rep. Hugo Berlanga. Both elected officials would always give us a warm welcome despite their busy schedules.

During Truan's tenure, he passed comprehensive legislation to benefit working-class families by equalizing education, bringing higher education to South Texas and laws which protected our environment and kept our beaches open. Among his many pieces of legislation were the Texas Bilingual Act, which also allowed teachers to speak Spanish in the classroom. One piece of Truan legislation dear to my heart was that which provided symbolic redress to Chipita Rodriguez. Chipita was the first woman legally hanged in Texas and Drs. Hector and Cleo Garcia, my aunt, struggled to get Chipita's name cleared.

His success rate in getting the legislation passed was high. Truan employed many tactics such as marathon filibustering which from all accounts struck fear in the hearts of his colleagues. Fellow members of the Texas House and Senate still remember these sessions. And then there was the time he joined the Dirty Thirty and later the Killer Bees to demand ethical reforms. Truan was the first Mexican-American legislator to be named the Dean of the Texas Senate and later recipient of the Tejano Lifetime Achievement Award. He retired from politics in 2001. When he retired I remarked to friends that the people and environment lost a great ally.

The greatest thrill of my life occurred when Rene Truan sent me an email stating his father, Senator Truan, enjoyed reading my articles in the Caller-Times. At a future time, I had planned to interview the Senator, but destiny had other plans and the interview never happened. I dropped by Our Lady of Guadalupe Church in Austin to bid farewell to an old acquaintance at his memorial service. As expected the church began to fill up with former legislators, old friends and family. I was filled with a sense of gratitude for the privilege of knowing this man and all I could think about was how this man enriched my life. So thank you Senator for all you did for the people of Texas. You have earned your place in Texas history books. We expected great accomplishments from you and you delivered beyond our highest expectations. Que descanse in Paz.

© 2012 Corpus Christi Caller Times. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.  Shared in Somos Primos by special permission.

Judge Catherine Torres-Stahl

Judge Catherine Torres-Stahl  

A Wise Latina

Nominated & Written


    Mercy Bautista-Olvera


Judge Catherine Torres-Stahl is the former judge for the 144th District Court of Bexar, Texas. She is also currently nominated by President Obama to serve as a Federal Judge for the Western District of Texas.  

Catherine Torres-Stahl was born and raised in San Antonio, Texas. She is the daughter of Edgar Torres and Jesusita Sanchez-Torres. She is married to Paul Stahl. The couple have two children.   

Torres-Stahl graduated from Fox Tech High School. In 1988, she earned a Bachelor’s of Arts Degree in English Communication-Arts from St. Mary’s University Cum Laude.  In 1993, she obtained her Law Degree from St. Mary’s University School of Law.  

Her legal career began at the District Attorney’s Office, where she was a prosecutor in several specialized units including Family Violence, Juvenile Court, and in the Appellate and general trial courts.  

In 1997, she left the District Attorney’s office, and joined the law firm of Scott Jones & Associates, within three months of working in this capacity, she was appointed to serve as a San Antonio Municipal Court Judge.  Judge Stahl spent 9 1/2 years at Municipal Court, where she oversaw the Juvenile Court.

In 2000, Judge Torres-Stahl began to work in conjunction with the COSA Community Initiatives Department to develop and establish Teen Court. This   became operational in August of 2002, and has achieved a great success serving the city of San Antonio and its youth.  

In 2003, she served as President of the Mexican American Bar Association.   She is also the recipient of the “Amicus Award” from St. Mary’s University School of Law Center for Legal and Social Justice; “Hall of Fame” from the Texas Teen Court Association; “Distinguished Alumni” of Fox Tech High School, and recipient of the “Politics Award” from “La Prensa de San Antonio.”  

Judge Catherine Torres-Stahl is a mentor, role model, and symbol of what dedication and hard work can accomplish.  

In 2006, Judge Catherine Torres-Stahl was first elected to serve as judge for the 144th District Court of Bexar, Texas.

On September 11, 2010, Judge Torres-Stahl was recognized as “Latina Judge of the Year” from the Hispanic National Bar Association Annual Convention in Minneapolis, Minnesota.  

“Judge Torres-Stahl personifies everything this award was conceived to represent,” said Congressman Charles A. Gonzalez in his support letter for this award. “She is an innovative and dedicated member of the bench whose creation of programs, such as Teen Court, showcase her willingness to adapt for the better of our community,” stated Congressman Charles A. Gonzalez.  

“It is truly an honor to be recognized by a group of my peers as the 2010, Latina Judge of the Year. I am committed to continue to advocate for children and families and am privileged to be recognized for the work which I am so passionate about. I truly believe my life has been defined by a series of opportunities, which include serving the public through my unique perspective on this community and its needs,” stated Torres-Stahl.  

Judge Catherine Torres-Stahl has been a board member of Hispanas Unidas, served on the Latina Girl Scout Advisory Committee, and continues to be a motivational speaker and mentor for elementary through college students.  

“To know Judge Torres-Stahl is to understand her deep devotion and dedication to her roots, to her profession and to her community,” said Yvonne Gomez, fellow HNBA member and colleague of Judge Torres-Stahl. “She is truly a leader and role model for our youth, for our Hispanic community, and for our society.”

The National Council of La Raza (NCLR) National Latino Family Expo

Date Time
Saturday, July 7 10:30 A.M.—6:00 P.M.
Sunday, July 8 10:30 A.M.—6:00 P.M.
Monday, July 9 10:00 A.M.—3:00 P.M.

The National Council of La Raza (NCLR) National Latino Family Expo is the largest national, culturally relevant consumer fair designed to educate and inform the Latino community and others of products and services. This event provides an opportunity for corporations, agencies, organizations, and businesses to showcase products, services, and programs that positively impact the American Latino community. Unique corporate giveaways, innovative modern displays, educational activities, and live entertainment inform and inspire attendees of all ages. Attendance is free of charge and the expo is open to the general public.

Over 200 exhibitors participate and themed pavilions explore key issues within the community as well as celebrate the Latino culture.

Community/El Barrio Pavilion Click here for a sample schedule of 2011 events and activities.
This pavilion celebrates the neighborhoods and communities that American Latinos live in. From insurance agencies and banks to small businesses, grocery stores, and universities, the pavilion includes products and services that are utilized by Latinos every day and is filled with interactive activities, demonstrations, performances, and consumer giveaways.

Culture and History/El Museo Pavilion
Click here for a sample schedule of 2011 events and activities.
This pavilion showcases the diversity of Latino culture and history. Featuring local artists, cultural centers, and Latino media outlets, the pavilion offers information about and insight into the past and the future of the American Latino presence.

Health and Fitness/Tu Salud Pavilion
Click here for a sample schedule of 2011 events and activities.
This pavilion offers facts, products, and services regarding healthcare, nutrition, and an active lifestyle in the environment we live in today. The Latino community has been greatly affected by recent changes in our nation’s healthcare system. As the community continues to expand, it is imperative that all current information be readily available and easily accessible for all members. The pavilion also features free health screenings including vision, lung health, and blood pressure; group exercise, dance, and fitness classes; and cooking demonstrations.

Technology and Environment/El Futuro Pavilion
Click here for full schedule of events and activities
This pavilion presents technological advancements in various industries which make our everyday lives easier. The pavilion features demonstrations on environmental topics of interest, such as techno-trash and proper waste management, and an area for expo attendees to play video games and explore the Internet.

Career and Education/Tus Oportunidades Pavilion

This pavilion offers a wide array of career and educational resources, such as direct connection to employers, networking opportunities, college and university programs, and informational clinics on interview best practices, résumé tips, applying to schools, and financial resources.

NCLR Family/Familia Pavilion
Click here for full schedule of events and activities
This pavilion highlights NCLR’s programs in the areas of health, education, workforce development, and policy and is the information center for the NCLR National Latino Family Expo. The pavilion provides access to the latest publications and reports printed by NCLR components and partners, and includes an information booth from which raffles and giveaways will be announced.


Memorial Day: Remembering Our Past & Those Who Shaped It, Felipe de Ortego y Gasca
Photos of the Tejano Monument
Cinco de Mayo Honors a Tejano Hero by Lino Garcia Jr.
López: The Tejano/Tejana Bucket List by José Antonio López  

By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

Scholar in Residence, Western New Mexico University ; Professor Emeritus, Texas State University System—Sul Ross


Memorial Day is about remembering and honoring not only those who have fallen in battle in military service to the country but remembering all those who have lived before us and made our present possible. The event urged Longfellow in 1867 to write the poem “Decoration Day” which ends with the words: “Your silent tents of green / We deck with fragrant flowers / Yours has the suffering been / The memory shall be ours.”  

No one is sure about who exactly initiated Memorial Day. Here’s one story. Boalsburg , Pennsylvania (off Route 322 in the foothills of the Alleghenies of Centre County), boasts the origin of Memorial Day. The story (apocryphal or true) is that on a pleasant Sunday morning in October of 1864, Emma Hunter and Sophie Keller were placing flowers on the grave of Emma’s father, Dr. Reuben Hunter, a surgeon in the Union Army, when they met Mrs. Elizabeth Meyer who was placing flowers on the grave of her son Amos, a private in the Union Army who was killed on the last day of the battle at Gettysburg. They decorated the graves of each other’s kin and gave birth to Memorial Day originally called Decoration Day.

Gaining adherents, on May 5, 1868 , General John A. Logan, commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, proclaimed May 30, 1868 as a day for decorating the graves of those who died in defense of their country. In 1882, the event was designated as Memorial Day and later broadened to include any American who had died in war or peace as soldiers or civilians, to which Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote: “One flag, one land, one heart, one hand, one nation evermore.” In May of 1966, President Lyndon Johnson recognized Waterloo , New York , as the “official” birthplace of Memorial Day.

(extracted from  

What does Memorial Day mean for American Hispanics? Memorial Day should give us pause to remember that American Hispanics have been part of the United States since its founding and that American Hispanics have fallen in every American war in defense of the nation [see Hispanics in America’s Defense, Department of Defense].  

American Hispanics fought in World War I, the Spanish-American War, the Civil War, the War of 1812, and the American Revolution, and countless other skirmishes including the present day conflagrations in Bosnia , Afghanistan , and Iraq . Many historians point out that without Spain ’s help the American colonists could not have won their independence. Hispanics have been America’s strongest supporters and allies.  

More importantly, though, Memorial Day gives us a moment to remember our antepasados and their struggles for our well-being. We all stand on the shoulders of those who went before  us.  It is therefore fitting to honor their memory and their place in our lives and in our history.  

In 1776 Hispanics (Sephards) were part of the founding of the United States , having become part of the American population when the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (of which they were a part) became New York .  When the United States acquired the Louisiana territory and New Orleans , the Hispanic citizens of that purchase became Americans (having been French briefly when Napolean acquired the territory from Spain ). And again when the United States acquired Florida in 1819, the Hispanic settlements of that region became Americans. Hispanics are not newcomers in the United States . They have been part of the American fabric since the beginning.  

The largest number of Hispanics who became Americans by fiat were the Mexicans who were part of the Mexican Cession—that territory of Mexico annexed by the United States as a prize of the U.S.—Mexico War of 1846-1848. The territory dismembered from Mexico was larger than Spain , Italy , and France combined. In part, we are the progeny of that “conquest generation” that endured the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune.  

Like other “territorial Americans” (Native Americans, Mexican Americans, Pacific Islanders), the United States came to Puerto Ricans, they did not come to the United States . Territorial Americans are Americans by fiat—they came with the territories acquired by the United States by force of arms and conquest.  

Despite the travails of life in their own lands as strangers, Hispanics have answered the nation’s call in times of peril. During World War II, they served in numbers greater than their percentage in the American population. More than 700,000 Hispanics were in uniform during World War II, most of them Mexican Americans. As a group they won more Medals of Honor than any other group.  

This is the history we must remember and honor; and why we ought to decorate the graves of those who shaped our present. More importantly, however, we ought to extract from that me-mory, the most important lesson of history as George Santayana, the eminent American Hispanic philosopher, put it: those who cannot learn the lessons of history are condemned to repeat it.  

Por eso nos recordamos de nuestros valientes militares y  nuestros antepasados en este dia de la memoria—Memorial Day!  

Photos of the Tejano Monument 
Jesse (Villarreal), you missed your true vocation; you are one fantastic photographer and organizer. Your photos do an outstanding job of placing a sequence to the Tejano Monument celebration. And Minnie, thanks for forwarding them. Rest of you...Click on Album to see a fantastic show...A big abrazo and congratulations...Jose M. Pena  Parade

Sent by Jose M. Pena

Cinco de Mayo honors a Tejano hero
Lino García Jr., For the San Antonio Express-News
May 4, 2012 

Cinco de Mayo celebrates the defeat of French forces by the Mexican army on May 5, 1862. It is celebrated in many parts of the present-day United States with parades, fiestas and speeches. However, it does not fall within the historical dimensions of events in this country, since it occurred in 1862, when the southwestern states were already integrated into the United States.

Many people confuse the Cinco de Mayo of 1862 with the El Grito of Sept. 16, 1810, which does enjoy a historical connection to our history, since it liberated Tejanos in the Texas of that time, as well as others living in the area then known as the Spanish Southwest.

The Battle of Puebla of May 5, 1862 (Cinco de Mayo) took place during one of Mexico's most difficult periods, when Mexico had won its independence from Spain, was struggling to form a government, and had fought the U.S.-Mexican War of 1848. It owed certain European nations money, so when it halted its debt payments to France, that country decided to invade Mexico.

The hero of the Cinco de Mayo of 1862 was Gen. Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín, a Tejano born in 1829 in La Bahía del Espíritu Santo, present-day Goliad. His father was Don Manuel G. Zaragoza, and his mother was Doña María de Jesús Seguín, a relative of Don Juan José Erasmo Seguín, a prominent Tejano land and cattle baron whose family members were early settlers of San Antonio de Béjar.

Gen. Zaragoza's family moved to the interior of Mexico, where the young Ignacio entered a seminary but found it not to his liking, and so he entered a military academy.

In 1861, President Benito Juárez appointed him minister of war, but he soon left this position to lead his troops against the French forces, which were almost twice the strength of the Mexican army he commanded. He defeated the French at Puebla on May 5, 1862, and was quickly proclaimed a hero in Mexico City, but he soon died at age 33.

After this battle, Juárez declared Cinco de Mayo a national holiday and its Tejano leader a national hero. That is why in certain parts of the United States, people celebrate this holiday as a tribute to a brave Tejano and as a sign of solidarity with our neighbor to the south.

Lino García Jr., Ph.D., is an eighth-generation Tejano and holds the chair of professor emeritus of Spanish literature at the University of Texas-Pan American. He can be reached at

López: The Tejano/Tejana Bucket List  
By José Antonio López

SAN ANTONIO, May 8 - The recent Tejano Monument unveiling in Austin, Texas, brought much needed attention to the long-ignored period of early Texas history.

Impressively presiding over the state capitol south lawn, the new symbol of over 300 years of Spanish Mexican Texas history is suddenly on display as a public record for all to see. However, what happens now?

As my wife and I travel through South Texas, we see signs of an early Texas history renaissance. We continue to meet citizens who are enthused about the Tejano Monument and about rediscovering their heritage. Even so, they often want to learn more of specific people and events missing from mainstream Texas history. Thus, to borrow from the modern-day concept of a “Bucket List” of things to do and learn, the following tips are provided:

(1) First, become an expert on the people known as Tejanos. (l) To kick off your list, plan a family trip to the Tejano Monument. (2) Then, learn about the San Juan Bautista Presidio (The Gateway to Texas), built in 1699-1700 and first commanded by Captain Diego Ramón. Read about Manuela Sánchez and her husband, Louis St. Denis. Manuela was the first European-descent woman to cross what is now Texas from San Juan Bautista Presidio to Natchitoches, Louisiana. Learn about Domingo Ramón and Adolfo de León. San Juan Bautista is truly unique. Many of the oldest Tejano families in Texas trace their roots to the presidio, whose ruins are located in Guerrero, Coahuila, just across the Rio Grande near Eagle Pass, Texas.

(3) Learn about the first Spanish Mexican communities “deep in the heart of Texas” and their diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. If you are able to do so, visit (a) San Antonio, (b) Los Adaes/Nacogdoches, (c) Goliad, and (d) the Lower Rio Grande Villas del Norte. Learn about Marqués de Aguayo, Fathers Francisco Hidalgo, Morfi, & Margil, Gil Ybarbo, Martin & Patricia de León, Rafael Manchola, José Escandón, Tomás Sánchez, and Blas Maria de la Garza Falcón.

(4) The pre-1836 period in Texas history needs the most attention today. To begin with, there was never any organized immigration of families directly from Spain to Texas. They came from Mexico. That makes Mexico a key component in our state’s development. However, due to many years of history distortion, Mexico’s reputation has suffered greatly. Hopefully, one day soon, its dignity in the recording of Texas history will be restored. Actually, Mexico and Texas were never enemies, since Mexico considered Texas part of its republic until it lost it to the U.S. in 1848. Consequently, learn about Central and Northern Mexico towns, such as Monclova, Monterrey, Queretaro, Saltillo, Zacatecas, and other population centers. More than likely, this is where your Spanish-surnamed ancestors came from. (It was the skills they brought with them from there that Tejanos used to establish the ranch and cowboy ways of life in Texas.)

(5) Visit Zapata, TX, birthplace of Texas Independence. José Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara, first President of Texas was born in Revilla, part of today’s Zapata/Guerrero, Tamaulipas community. (6) Learn of Father Miguel Hidalgo’s September 16, 1810 Grito connection to Texas independence. (7) Trace the 1811-1813 Texas Independence Trail: (a) Don Bernardo’s Ride from Zapata to Washington, D.C; and (b) read about the five battles of the first Texas Revolution: (Nacogdoches, La Bahia (Goliad), and San Antonio (Battles of Rosillo, Béxar, and Alazán). (8) Learn about the significance of the Battle of Medina that the Texas State Historical Association calls the largest battle ever fought on Texas soil. More Texas patriots (over 800) died there for Texas independence than in all of Sam Houston’s 1836 battles combined. (9) Visit the Spanish Governors Palace, where Lt. Colonel Gutiérrez de Lara read the words of the first Texas Declaration of Independence on April 6, 1813. (10) Learn about the Las Casas Revolt. (11) Visit Losoya, Texas. Spanish Royalist soldiers who died at the Battle of Medina are buried there. (12) Learn about our Texas Native American roots. (13) Plan to visit the Adai Caddo Indian Nation Cultural Center, Robeline, Louisiana. The Hasinai Caddo tribes gave the Spanish explorers the word “Texas.” (14) Visit nearby Natchitoches, Louisiana, where Lt. Colonel Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara organized the Army of the North (First Texas Army) in 1811-1812.

(6) Learn about Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca’s travels in early Texas. There are many good books that give details on this extraordinary traveler and his companions. (16) Learn about the survival story of Brother Marcos de Mena, the lone survivor of a 1554 Spanish shipwreck on the Texas Coast. (17) Visit San Elizario, TX, home of the first Thanksgiving and the Texas connection to Nuevo México. (18) Learn about Father Terreros’ martyrdom at San Sabá Mission, whose ruins are located near Menard, Texas. (19) Visit Laredo to learn about José de Escandón’s Villas del Norte. (20) Travel along Los Caminos Del Rio (U.S. 83) from Laredo to Brownsville. Residents of the many closely-connected towns on both sides of the river are descendants of the first South Texas pioneers. Their kinship proves why the Rio Grande is a permanent Mason Dixon Line. (21) Visit the Treviño Uribe Ranch House in San Ygnacio, Texas.

This is just a sampling. There is much more. Join a Hispanic genealogical/historical group to share learning with others. (You don’t have to be Hispanic to do so.) Maintain Spanish language proficiency, since it will help you to read church records and other documents.

Again, it is up to you, but have patience. Long ignored in mainstream Texas history, the early Texas information highway is in its infancy. If possible, contact local chambers of commerce and libraries. Tell them why you are visiting their area, but don’t be surprised if they are unaware of the place you are seeking. Regardless, your role is vital in reconstructing our Spanish Mexican ancestral story. In truth, you will be helping to preserve early Texas history for the future.

Lastly, Walt Whitman’s admonishment to mainstream historians in 1883 still rings true today: “We Americans have yet to really learn our own antecedents. Thus far, impress’d by New England writers and schoolmasters, we tacitly abandon ourselves to the notion that our United States have been fashion’d from the British Islands only … which is a very great mistake.”

Clearly, as Mr. Whitman points out, it is time to accept the solid bi-lingual, bi-cultural Spanish Mexican foundation of Texas and the Southwest. In restoring the missing early Texas history chapters, we must also share our joy with the many descendants of Tejano families in Mexico. (After the 1836 Texas Revolution, their ancestors were violently forced south across the Rio Grande. To this day, they have not been repatriated back to their Texas homeland.)

So, make sure you initiate your Tejano Tejana Bucket List activities soon to learn more of the roots of this great place we call Texas. Finally, here is the Tejano Monument message: The “Spanish Colonial” and “Mexican” periods, long treated as irrelevant in conventional Texas history, are very much alive. Their descendants are still here today. We never left.

José Antonio (Joe) López was born and raised in Laredo, Texas, and is a USAF Veteran. He now lives in Universal City, Texas. He is the author of two books: “The Last Knight (Don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara Uribe, A Texas Hero)”, and “Nights of Wailing, Days of Pain (Life in 1920s South Texas).” Lopez is also the founder of the Tejano Learning Center, LLC, and, a Web site dedicated to Spanish Mexican people and events in U.S. history that are mostly overlooked in mainstream history books.



Christopher Cruz, State of California History Champion 
Documentary: The Chicano Revolution to Reform the Public Education System

What is National History Day?

National History Day (NHD) is a highly regarded academic program for elementary and secondary school students.  Each year, more than half a million students, encouraged by thousands of teachers nationwide participate in the NHD contest. Students choose historical topics related to a theme and conduct extensive primary and secondary research through libraries, archives, museums, oral history interviews and historic sites. After analyzing and interpreting their sources and drawing conclusions about their topics’ significance in history, students present their work in original papers, websites, exhibits, performances and documentaries. These products are entered into competitions in the spring at local, state and national levels where they are evaluated by professional historians and educators. The program culminates in the Kenneth E. Behring National Contest each June held at the University of Maryland at College Park.

National History Day began in 1974 as a history fair sponsored by the history faculty at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. Faculty created the competition to foster historical research and inquiry, to "reform the way history was taught and learned in the elementary and secondary school," and to "provide a positive learning environment in which students' work would be evaluated outside the classroom."

Regional and state competitions developed in support of that first History Day fair. In 1980 the first National History Day competition offered students from all fifty states the opportunity to compete at the University of Maryland, College Park.

Meet Christopher Cruz whose documentary took first place in California received the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research award.  He will compete nationally, June 10-14th.  


I was born in Pomona, California to two traditional Catholic Hispanic parents. At the age of four I moved from Pomona to Upland, California. Since then I have grown up striving to be a good student and dedicated member of the community. Throughout my life I have always looked towards my parents for inspiration. 

My mother who is Mexican-American worked to be the first one in her family to receive a college education in the U.S. My father who immigrated to the U.S. at a young age from El Salvador grew up being raised by a single mom and he also worked hard to be the first in his family to attend college. Their stories of Hispanic success in the U.S. were what first spurred my pride for my Hispanic culture. Using their encouragement, I have tried to follow their good examples and as a result have become a straight A student in the Honors/AP program. 

I also strive to be an involved citizen of my school and belong to groups such as the water polo team, the swim team, Key Club, the California Scholarship Federation, the Future Business Leaders of America organization (Business Club), and the National Honor Society. In addition I have strived to become a leader within my school becoming a captain on the JV Water Polo team, serving as vice president of the business club, and I am proud to say I will be a member of student government (ASB) next year. 

I am also very dedicated to my community and serve my community in various service activities. While I have always respected my Hispanic culture I truly learned much more about my culture after attending the Inland Empire Future Leaders Conference. It was there where I first viewed the HBO film Walkout! and had the opportunity to speak with Sal Castro. After having this unique experience, I decided that I wanted to do my History Day project on the walkouts. 

This year the history day theme was Revolution, Reaction, and Reform and I could not have asked for a better topic. I decided to present my topic in the form of a documentary and was fortunate enough to conduct many interviews with students, teachers, and administrators from the LAUSD including influential figures such as Sal Castro and current School Board President Monica Garcia. My documentary, The Chicano Revolution to Reform the Public Education Sytem, discusses the educational atmosphere of Chicano students in 1968 and shows why it was necessary for these students to walkout of their schools in protest of the unequal education they were receiving. It not only tells the story of the walkouts, but works to show how far Chicanos and Latinos have come by describing the ever increasing rate of Chicanos and Latinos who decide to attend college. 

This History Day project has helped me to strengthen my Hispanic pride and has helped me to respect the sacrifices my past Hispanic brothers and sisters have made. I feel honored to be recognized by the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research and am proud to say that I will be representing my high school, the state of California, and the Hispanic Community at National History Day competition at the University of Maryland.  


Carlos Fuentes, author dies in Mexico City at 83
Tom Fuentes, longtime former O.C. GOP chairman, dies at 63
Francisco Alvarez, GIF Leader

15 May 2012
Carlos Fuentes Dies in Mexico City at 83 (November 11, 1928 – 15 May 2012)

Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes, right, talks to Colombian author Gabriel Garcia Marquez. (AP Photo/Dario Lopez-Mills) (ap)

MEXICO CITY (AP) - Author Carlos Fuentes, who played a dominant role in Latin America's novel-writing boom by delving into the failed ideals of the Mexican revolution, died Tuesday in a Mexico City hospital. He was 83.

Mexico's National Council for Culture for the Arts confirmed the death of Mexico's most celebrated novelist. The cause was not immediately known, said the culture official, who was not authorized to speak to the media.

Mexican media reported Fuentes died at the Angeles del Pedregal hospital, where he was being treated for heart problems. The loss was immediately mourned worldwide via Twitter and across Mexican airwaves.

A message on President Felipe Calderon's Twitter account said "I deeply lament the death of our beloved and admired Carlos Fuentes, a universal Mexican writer."

The prolific Fuentes wrote his first novel, "Where the Air is Clear," at age 29, laying the foundation for a boom in Spanish contemporary litera ture during the 1960s and 1970s. He published an essay on the change of power in France in the newspaper Reforma on Tuesday, the same day he died.

His generation of writers, including Colombia's Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Peru's Mario Vargas Llosa, drew global readership and attention to Latin American culture during a period when strongmen ruled much of the region.

"The Death of Artemio Cruz," a novel about a post-revolutionary Mexico that failed to keep its promise of narrowing social gaps, brought Fuentes international notoriety.

The elegant, mustachioed author's other contemporary classics included "Aura," ''Terra Nostra," and "The Good Conscience." Many American readers know him for "The Old Gringo," a novel about San Francisco journalist Ambrose Bierce, who disappeared at the height of the 1910-1920 Mexican Revolution. That book was later made into a film starring Gregory Peck and Jane Fonda.

Fuentes was often mentioned as a candidate for the Nob el prize but never won one. A busy man, Fuentes wrote plays and short stories and co-founded a literary magazine. He was also a columnist, political analyst, essayist and critic.

And he was outspoken. Once considered a Communist and sympathizer of Cuba's Fidel Castro, Fuentes was denied entry into the U.S. under the McCarren-Walter Act.

More recently, as a moderate leftist, Fuentes strongly opposed harsh policies against immigration and the war on terrorism in the U.S, though he expressed deep affection for the United States. He warned about Mexico's religious right but also blasted Venezuela's Hugo Chavez as a "Tropical Mussolini."

Described by Mexican cultural officials as the country's most distinguished living author, Fuentes in 1987 won the Cervantes Prize, the Spanish-speaking world's highest literary honor.

Fuentes also was named a commander of the National Order of Merit, France's highest civilian award given to a foreigner, in 1997. Spain gave him a Prince of Asturias Award for literature in 1994.

Throughout his life, Fuentes also taught courses at Harvard, Princeton, Columbia and Brown universities in the United States.

The son of a career diplomat, Fuentes himself served as an ambassador to England. He resigned from Mexico's foreign service in protest over Mexico's 1968 student massacre, but returned to serve as ambassador to Paris beginning in 1975.

Fuentes resigned from the foreign service again in 1977 when former President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz was appointed ambassador to Spain, saying he wouldn't serve with the man who ordered the student massacre in Mexico City, which activists said killed up to 350 people.

A believer that literature allowed him to say what would be censored otherwise, Fuentes also was the subject of censorship.

His mystery novel "Aura," which narrates a romantic encounter beneath a crucifix with a black Christ that some officials claimed was too racy, was banned from public high schools in Puerto Rico. It also sparked controversy in Mexico in 2001 when a former interior secretary asked the novel to be dropped from a suggested reading list at his daughter's private junior high school.

Fuentes was born in Panama City on Dec. 11, 1928 to Mexican parents. He lived most of his life abroad, growing up in Montevideo, Uruguay; Rio de Janeiro; Washington, D.C.; Santiago, Chile; and Buenos Aires, Argentina. He later divided his time between homes in Mexico City home and London, where he did most of his writing.

Fuentes was married from 1959 to 1973 to actress Rita Macedo, with whom he had his only surviving daughter.

After the couple divorced, Fuentes married journalist Silvia Lemus and they had two children together. Their son Carlos Fuentes Lemus died from complications associated with hemophilia in 1999, and Natasha Fuentes Lemus died in 2005 after a cardiac arrest.

Fuentes also acknowledged having affairs with actr esses including Jeanne Moreau and Jean Seberg.

As he grew older, Fuentes left many novels unfinished with imperfections and "wounds that make the book bleed," he said.

But Fuentes said in 2008 that he agreed with Mario Vargas Llosa to gather 12 writers, including Garcia Marquez, to each create a piece about their favorite dictator.

Fuentes wrote a 2008 opera inspired by Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, the five-time president of Mexico during the Texas Revolution.

He said he wanted to see the man he considered the most flamboyant character in Mexican political history dancing and singing with his wooden leg.

But Fuentes always postponed writing about himself. "One puts off the biography like you put off death," he said. "To write an autobiography is to etch the words on your own gravestone."


Copyright © 2012 The Associated Press. Carlos Fuentes, Legendary Mexican Writer, Dies  National Public Radio
Accessed: 15 May 2012
By Eyder Peralta
Information sent by Rafael Ojeda, Roberto Calderon, Mercy Bautista Olvera


Tom Fuentes, longtime former Orange County
GOP chairman, dies



Tom Fuentes, the longtime chairman of the county Republican Party who increased the GOP stronghold over the county and then watched demographic changes roll back those gains, died Friday night, May 18th surrounded by family at his Lake Forest home after a battle with cancer. 
He was 63.

The staunchly conservative Fuentes was elected as county GOP chief in 1985. He made headlines three years later, with the party's controversial hiring of uniformed security guards to patrol outside predominantly Latino polling places. By 2004, the party’s claim as “America’s most Republican county” had become increasingly debatable and Fuentes stepped down as chairman amid growing dissension. 

See a slide show of Fuentes.

Fuentes served as a trustee of the South Orange County Community College District from 2000 until his death. He was also active in the Roman Catholic Church, and served as communications director for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange from 1977 to 1989. He was co-founder of the Second Harvest Orange County Food Bank of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, and received several papal honors including being named a Knight of Malta.

"Tom put Orange County on the map politically - he made it a conservative county that was important to anyone in politics, " said political commentator Bruce Herschensohn, who credits former boss Richard Nixon for introducing him to Fuentes.

"He said, 'You've got to know Tom Fuentes,'" Herschensohn recalled Saturday morning. He also noted that visiting presidents and presidential candidates "always wanted to sit next to Tom."

"Presidents want to be seen next to those who are respected," said Herschensohn, echoing the tribute to Fuentes he gave at the county party's Flag Day dinner on June 13, 2011. "And they also appreciated it on a personal level, because Tom was friendly and easy to be with."

Doctors had hoped to have dealt with Fuentes' cancer with a liver transplant, but the disease spread to his lungs.  Fuentes acknowledged his failing health at the Flag Day event, but also showed that his barbed humor and uncompromising politics were intact.

"Yes, your old chairman has cancer," Fuentes told about 1,000 of the faithful gathered at the Hyatt Irvine event. "Many of you have stood with me when we have battled cancers within our party, cancers from the left. Tumors like (registered Republican) Arnold Schwarzenegger.... Time has proven us right. In the long run, we have won these battles. I will stand with you in our ideals until I can stand no longer."

Fuentes rose from his hospice bed on Sept. 8 to attend a Newport Beach rally for presidential candidate Rick Perry. With tubes feeding oxygen through his nose, he stood from his wheelchair to give an invocation in a clear, strong voice.

Fuentes also traveled to Los Angeles to accept a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Sept. 17 convention of the California Republican Party, and gave a six-minute speech that criticized both Schwarzenegger and former GOP gubernatorial candidate Meg Whitman. In November, he attended a Perry fundraiser in Newport Beach and continued to welcome friends to his home until his death.

A sixth generation Californian, Thomas Alexander Fuentes was born on Oct. 16, 1948, in Los Angeles. At the age of 12, he walked precincts for presidential candidate Richard Nixon. In 1962, he moved with his family to Orange County.

He attended Santa Ana College, where he twice served as student body president. In 1970, he received a B.A. in government from Chapman University, where he was the GOP club's president. He worked his way through college at a hotel near Disneyland.

In 1971, he was hired as an aide to county Supervisor Ronald Caspers and the following year was appointed to the county GOP's governing Central Committee. Caspers drowned along with 10 others when his sailboat sank in 1974 – Fuentes was supposed to be on the boat but canceled at the last minute. Fuentes then quit his job, resigned his political post and entered St. Patrick's Seminary in Menlo Park to study for priesthood.

The endeavor was short-lived, however, and he returned to the county and was elected back to the Central Committee in 1976.

"People joked that the problem wasn't that he wanted to priest, it was that he wanted to be pope," said Bill Christiansen, who spent eight years as county GOP executive director under Fuentes. "Tom said he thought (people at the seminary) said he was going to celebrate, not that he was going to be celibate."

In 1983, he helped found the Second Harvest food bank with retired Rockwell controller Dan Harney. The nonprofit has since distributed 272 million pounds of donated and surplus food through 470 member charities. Harney had the idea and Fuentes had the contacts.

"Tom had the gift of being the consummate networking and fundraising guy," said Bob Whiton, a former chairman of the food bank. "He knew everybody."

Fuentes was particularly known for launching and emceeing an annual Second Harvest fundraiser known as the No Lunch Lunch, at which attendees initially were served bread and water on newspapers so they could get a taste of the life of those less fortunate.

In 1985, Fuentes was elected county GOP chairman. By the mid-1990s, Republicans had taken control of every congressional and state legislative seat in the county. He was the emcee for hundreds of fundraisers and candidate appearances, and often the county's most visible cheerleader of Republican – and especially conservative – causes.

"Tom, of course, never hid his opinions," said Kathy Tavoularis, who worked under Fuentes for 10 years. "Even if the tide was against him – which wasn't often – he was forceful and clear and unflinching. You always knew where Tom stood and so did those who were involved with the political arena."

Read a remembrance by Tavoularis.

But there were bumps along the way – especially with the hiring of poll guards in the 1988 Assembly election of Republican Curt Pringle, who beat Democrat Christian "Rick" Thierbach by 843 votes. Fuentes said the security guards were to help ensure that non-citizens didn't voting. A civil-rights suit was filed on behalf of five Latino voters alleging that the poll guards were sent to deter legitimate Latino voters. Fuentes, Pringle and fellow defendants paid $400,000 to settle the suit.

"I look back on it as an effort that was entirely well-intentioned but mistakenly implemented," Fuentes told The Los Angeles Times in 1996.

In 1989, Fuentes resigned his communications post with the diocese amid complaints from some priests over the poll guard incident, as well as priests' concerns with Fuentes' dual roles with the GOP and the church.

The Most Rev. Norman McFarland, diocese bishop, told the Register, "I have no problems with Tom and he's not a racist. But that thing at the polls was a heck of a mistake."

Fuentes said his decision to leave the church post had nothing to do with the complaints.

The party's stronghold on the county began slipping toward the end of the next decade. By 1998, county Democrats had picked up two state legislative seats and a congressional seat. In 1999, Republicans fell below 50 percent of the county's registered voters for the first time since 1984. In 2001, the county GOP lost its spot as the California county with the highest percentage of Republican voters.

Fuentes' loyal supporters continued to dominate the county party, but rumblings of dissatisfaction were growing over his polarizing positions on social issues and his sometimes domineering leadership style. In 1998, a new – and short-lived – group called Republicans for New Directions advocated moderation on social issues and wanted Fuentes replaced. It got 11 candidates elected to the 80-member GOP Central Committee.

The next year, the New Majority – with $10,000 annual dues – formed, with leaders' goals including a more moderate, pragmatic county party. Some members began talking about the need to find a successor to Fuentes.

Fuentes dismissed the New Majority as "a liberal elite," "country-club Republicans," and "big-business Republicans," while emphasizing a "values-centered" philosophy.

Fuentes continued to prevail in intra-party squabbles, winning re-election to the chairmanship in 1999, 2001 and 2003. But the divisiveness became increasingly public. Among other things, the well-heeled Lincoln Club discontinued its contributions to the county party. Former Assembly GOP Leader Scott Baugh, who had helped Fuentes fend off the New Majority challenge while maintaining good relationships with the group's leaders and with the Lincoln Club, won support to succeed Fuentes. In 2004, Fuentes stepped down and Baugh was elected to replace him. Baugh then won funding for the party from both the Lincoln Club and the New Majority.

Read an obituary by John Gizzi at Human Events.

Fuentes remained in the public eye on a smaller scale thanks to his post as a trustee for the South Orange County Community College District, to which he'd been appointed in 2000. He was subsequently elected and then twice re-elected to the seat.

Fuentes became a senior fellow with the Claremont Institute for the Study of Statesmanship and Political Philosophy and served as a director for Eagle Publishing Inc., in Washington, D.C.

His political appointments included being named by President George W. Bush as a member of the Legal Services Corporation Board of Directors. Then-Speaker Dennis Hastert appointed Fuentes in 2006 to serve as his designee on the Board of Advisors of the United States Elections Assistance Commission in Washington, D.C. Then-House Minority Leader John Boehner re-appointed Fuentes to the post.

Fuentes is survived by his wife, Jolene, and their three children: Michelle 26; Thomas ("T.J."), 25; and Joseph ("Joey") 18.The family asks that those wanting to make donations in Fuentes' memory send them to the Carmelite Sisters of the Most Sacred Heart of Los Angeles, Attn: Advancement Office, 920 E. Alhambra road, Alhambra, 91801 or St. Michael's Abbey of the Norbetine Fathers, 19292 El Toro Road, Silverado 92676.

Sent by Martin Wisckol
Politics editor
The Orange County Register
625 N. Grand Ave.
Santa Ana CA 92701
714-796-6753  714-932-1648 cell


In Memory of

Francisco Alvarez

May 13, 2012

Francisco Alvarez, Commander of the Corporal Oscar Sanchez Chapter of the American GI Forum passed away unexpectedly on Sunday May 13, 2012. The American GI Forum mourns the loss of a distinguished and caring colleague. Our condolences go out to his wife Sandra, his daughter Tanya, his friends and the Alvarez family. 

Francisco was a veteran who served in the United States Air Force and who subsequently worked tirelessly to improve the lives of veterans and their families. He lent his considerable professional skills to the American GI Forum from the chapter level all the way up to the National Board of Directors. His service as legal counsel and parliamentarian contributed significantly to an organization known for its legions of community and veteran volunteers and its civil rights work.

Francisco had many friends within his position as a Deputy District Attorney in Stanislaus County and his varied community service including the American GI Forum of the United States. A product of East Los Angeles, Francisco was born on July 13, 1954. His professional profile is full of accomplishments as a prosecutor in the District Attorney's office. His community Service, especially with veterans, is as widely known as his gregarious personal disposition. Francisco's story includes a very long list of special projects and programs to which he lent his experience and leadership skills in order to promote a better and friendlier world.

Those of us who knew and worked with Francisco, knew a man of boundless energy, integrity, and commitment. A man with the understanding and capacity to embrace challenges while encouraging us to always be at our best. Bringing out the best in people was a special talent that Francisco had. Francisco was as dedicated to holding people accountable as he was in his belief in the rehabilitation of individuals. 

My dear friend Francisco, we already miss you. So many times at so many places striving to always do the right thing. Accomplishing the mission way always foremost to you and because of your integrity, your honesty and your commitment, we all benefited and the world became a better place. Thank you for being a guiding light and thank you for showing us how to care and how to embrace life. Francisco's life was a gift to us for which we are forever thankful and we will all miss him. Our hearts and prayers go out to Francisco's wife Sandra, his daughter Tanya, and all of his family and friends, 

In Francisco's honor we pray:  Prayer of Saint Francis of Assisi
Lord, make me an instrument of Thy Peace,
Where there is hatred, let me sow love:
Where there is injury, pardon; 
Where there is doubt, faith:
Where there is despair, hope:
Where there is darkness, light:
Where there is sadness, joy:

O DIVINE MASTER, grant that I may not so  much seek to be consoled, as to console: To be understood, as to understand: To be loved, as to love; For it is in giving that we receive,  It is in pardoning that we are pardoned, And it is in dying that we are born to Eternal Life.

May you rest in peace.   AMEN  Augustine G. Lerma

Sent by Augustine G. Lerma


Floating bales of marijuana  . . . a mystery
Dozens of bodies, many mutilated, dumped in Mexico
White births are no longer a majority in the United States
UC admits record number of out-of-state and international students
Mass Exodus US Oil Refineries.
More Oil Than Rest Of The World
7 Steps to Fix Congress!
Gun Control to be Dictated by the United Nations, NOT each country.
First Shoe Drops: Catholic School Drops ObamaCare
Fighting Sharia Law MUST be a Strategic Objective for the US

California coas

Floating bales of marijuana
a mystery

by Erika I. Ritchie and Alejandra Molina

Jerry Conlin, a Border Patrol spokesman, said the agency recovered 180 bales of marijuana, weighing a total of 8,068 pounds.  Valued by officials at more than $4 million were recovered after being seen floating in the ocean near Dana Point Harbor on Sunday, May 21. 

The Orange County Register
May 21, 2012 

Dozens of bodies, many mutilated, dumped in Mexico
By Tracy Wilkinson, Los Angeles Times
May 13, 2012

The remains of at least 43 men and half a dozen women are found along a highway outside Monterrey, officials say. Police suspect drug cartel ties.

MEXICO CITY — Mexican authorities responding to an anonymous tip discovered about 50 mostly mutilated bodies dumped on the side of a highway between Monterrey and the U.S. border, a region where rival gangs are battling for control over a lucrative drug-trafficking corridor.

The bodies of at least 43 men and half a dozen women were found Sunday in plastic garbage bags near the town of Cadereyta Jimenez, the location of a large state-run oil refinery, officials in the state prosecutor's office told The Times. The exact number of dead was being sorted out, made unclear by the condition of the bodies.

Army and police troops descended on the site and temporarily closed the highway, a major thoroughfare from Monterrey to the border city of Nuevo Laredo.

Jorge Domene, public security spokesman for Nuevo Leon state where the bodies were found, said in a news conference that most of the victims had been decapitated. Their hands and feet also had been chopped off, he said, all of which will complicate the task of identifying the dead.

Judging by tattoos on the bodies, as well as a spray-painted message left alongside them, it seemed likely the victims belonged to a cartel and were killed by rivals, Domene said. The message claimed responsibility for the killings on behalf of the Zetas paramilitary drug gang, he said.

The fight among drug cartels has boiled down largely to a battle between the Zetas, known for their viciousness, and the Sinaloa group, the oldest and largest trafficking network in Mexico. The Zetas once controlled much of northeastern Mexico, but Sinaloa loyalists have steadily moved into the region and allied themselves with the Gulf cartel, a formerly dominant group that created the Zetas but has since turned on them.

More than 50,000 people have been killed in Mexico since President Felipe Calderon launched a military-led assault on powerful drug cartels in December 2006.

Earlier this month, 15 bodies were discovered on the road to Chapala, Mexico, a popular retirement community for U.S. citizens in Jalisco state. And on May 4, 23 bodies — nine hanging from a highway overpass and the other 14 decapitated — were discovered in Nuevo Laredo.

"This discovery is a reflection of actions happening all over the country, like in Nuevo Laredo, and a few weeks ago in Jalisco and a few months ago in Veracruz," Domene said.

State prosecutor Adrian de la Garza said many of the men and women whose bodies were found Sunday had been dead at least 48 hours and had probably been killed elsewhere and then dumped. He said some of them may have been immigrants or hailed from other parts of the country. Traffickers routinely intercept migrants attempting to reach the United States, force them into labor in drug production or slaughter them for refusing to cooperate.

Many of the bodies were unclothed, and most seemed to be more than 25 years of age, De la Garza said.

Mexicans on July 1 will vote for Calderon's successor. Election news has largely eclipsed reports on drug-war violence, but in recent weeks the mounting death toll has once again earned front-page coverage — and promises to be very much on voters' minds going into this summer's balloting.

The runaway violence, combined with high unemployment, has eroded support for Calderon's once-dominant National Action Party. Polls show that Enrique Peña Nieto of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which was driven from power 12 years ago, is the favorite to win the presidency.

Each of the three major candidates has expressed determination to confront the drug cartels and the violence — though none has offered a concrete plan for doing so. The U.S. government has long given its full support to Calderon's military-led campaign.

The discovery of numerous bodies has become painfully routine in Mexico, with rival gangs often leaving their victims in public venues as a warning to their enemies. In Veracruz, 96 bodies were dumped in public squares and alongside roads in a three-week period last fall, a spate of killing that signaled a campaign by Sinaloa allies to oust the Zetas there.

The violence is part of a war of retribution between Sinaloa and the Zetas, Alejandro Hope, a former Mexican intelligence officer, said in a column Sunday.

"For the criminal groups the game is clear: Take the war to the rival's territory … heat up the plaza," Hope said. "They've learned that the authorities will follow the bodies, not go where the kill orders are given."

Also over the weekend, gunmen attacked the offices of a newspaper in Nuevo Laredo. No one was hurt in the Friday evening attack; the newspaper, El Manana, long ago stopped reporting on cartel violence out of fear.

Four current and former journalists were killed in a week's time this month in the coastal state of Veracruz, including a well-respected investigative reporter who specialized in writing about police corruption and drug trafficking.
Copyright © 2012, Los Angeles Times,0,2098410.story  

Dr. Frank Talamantes, Ph.D,
Professor of Endocrinology (Emeritus)
University of California
Santa Cruz, California, 95060
Residence: 83 Sierra Crest Dr.
El Paso, Texas 79902

For more on the drug war, go to:  < blog, updated three times a week.


Official: Census Bureau  White births are no longer a majority in the United States.  
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.  Source: Gus Chavez

“It is so vital to put the word out about our coming together spiritually. In fact, it is imperative. We are at the eleventh hour.”
- Flordemayo, Mayan Nicaraguan curandera. 
“Latino Quote Of The Day”™ is curated by Bobby Gonzalez.

UC admits record number of out-of-state and international students
AP, April 17, 2012

The University of California admitted 43% more out-of-state and international students than last year, significantly boosting its efforts to reach out to those higher-paying freshmen, according to data released Tuesday.

But it remains uncertain how many of these students will actually enroll since non-Californians are less likely to enroll than resident students, officials said.

UC offered fall entrance to 61,443 California students to at least one of its nine undergraduate campuses, a rise of 3.6% from last year.

It also admitted 18,846 students from other states and countries, up from 13,144 the prior year. Those students would pay an extra $23,000 a year and help plug the budget gaps caused by reductions in state funding. Students have until May 1 to decide whether they will enroll.

UC hopes to raise the overall enrollment of non-Californians to 10% of undergraduates in a few years, up from the current 6% or so, although some campuses like UCLA and UC Berkeley already have much higher shares of out-of-staters.

Because applications from state residents increased substantially and enrollment is not expanding much, it got harder for Californians to find a spot in UC. Overall, the admissions rate for California students declined from 69.7% last year to 65.8% for fall 2012. And non-Californians faced a similar trend: 53.9% of out-of-state students in the U.S. were admitted, down from 60.7% last year, and about 61.3% of foreign applicants, compared with 64.1% in 2011.

UC administrators say that all California students who met UC’s academic standards were offered at least one spot somewhere in the university, even it was not their first or second choice.

“We have the capacity to educate many more students at our campuses,” Kate Jeffery, UC’s interim director of undergraduate admissions, said in a statement Tuesday. “What we don’t have is the funding to admit more California students. Nonetheless, we continue to honor the California Master Plan, finding a space at one of our campuses for all students who qualify for guaranteed admission.”

UCLA once again was the hardest UC campus to crack for Californians, with only 17.7% of them offered entrance at the Westwood school. Next came UC Berkeley, 22.7%; San Diego, 32.1%; Irvine, 33.6%; Santa Barbara, 41%; Davis, 44.5%; Riverside and Santa Cruz, both 61.6%; and Merced, 76.5%.

When non-Californians are included in the acceptance rate, UC Berkeley had a slight edge for being the most selective UC campus, offering a spot to 21.2% of all applicants compared with 21.3% at UCLA.

Eight of the nine campuses increased their number of admissions offers to non-Californians. Only UC Berkeley, which already attracted controversy for enrolling 30% of its current freshman class from out of state, pulled back somewhat, cutting the numbers of such offers by 12.5%.



Mass Exodus US Oil Refineries.

The Closure Of The U.S. Oil Refinery Industry In The Past 2 Years

In 2010, there were 149 operable U.S. refineries with a combined capacity of 17.6 million barrels (2,800,000) per day. Something odd started happening in late 2010-early 2011. The US oil refinery industry quietly announced the closure of numerous US oil refineries. Many are completely unaware the US ships oil overseas to be processed. We do so as we do not have enough refineries to process the vast amounts here, and we are barred from building anymore refineries. 


More Oil Than Rest Of The World
Andrew Malcolm IBD Editorials
The Government Accountability Office tells Congress the Green River Formation out West contains an "amount about equal to the entire world's proven oil reserves." So why are we keeping it locked up on federal lands?

Exploding the Big Lie pushed by President Obama that we can't drill our way out of high gas prices because we have but 2% of the world's proven oil reserves, Anu Mittal, GAO director of natural resources and environment,
testified before Congress last week that just one small part of the U.S. is capable of outproducing the rest of the planet.

That small part is known as the Green River Formation, the world's largest oil shale deposit, and is located in a largely vacant region of mostly federal land on the western edge of the Rocky Mountains that includes portions of Wyoming, Utah and Colorado.

As we have written in our "Oil And Gas/Fact And Fiction" series, the Green River Formation has been dubbed our Persia on the Plains, an area with technically recoverable oil in an amount estimated at four times the proven resources of Saudi Arabia.

Given that current U.S. daily oil consumption is running at 19.5 million barrels, the staggering amount of
Green River reserves would by itself supply domestic oil consumption for more than 200 years. That sure blows the heck out of the "peak oil" theory that the world is running out of oil.

According to Mittal's testimony before the House science subcommittee on energy and the environment, the U.S. Geological Survey "estimates that the Green River Formation contains about 3 trillion barrels of oil, and about half of this may be recoverable, depending on available technology and economic conditions."

According to the president's bizarre formulation, this oil does not count as a "proven" reserve because little drilling has been done. There is a reason for that. As Mittal testified: "The federal government is in a unique position to influence the development of oil shale because 72% of the oil shale within the Green River Formation lies beneath federal lands managed by BLM (Bureau of Land Management)."

The Obama administration also is in a unique position to block shale oil development. And while it says we can't drill our way to energy independence, it blocks drilling wherever it can. When it can't, as in the Bakken Formation centered on North Dakota, the economy booms and joblessness falls as oil is extracted from shale on private and state lands.

As we've noted,
94% of federal onshore lands and 97% of federal offshore lands are off-limits to oil and gas drilling. Include in that total the vast reserves of the Green River Formation and other federal lands on and offshore banned from drilling as part of a manufactured oil and gas crisis. The Obama administration recently rescinded 77 oil and gas leases in Utah.

As we've also noted, the Environmental Protection Agency, in response to environmental groups, tried to manufacture a crisis in which hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, was said to have contaminated test wells in Pavillion, Wyo. Those claims and others made in the six-decade history of the technology have proved groundless.

How much oil are we really talking about? "The Rand Corporation, a nonprofit research organization, estimates that 30% to 60% of the oil shale in the Green River Formation can be recovered," Mittal testified.
"At the midpoint of this estimate, almost half of the 3 trillion barrels of oil would be recoverable. This is an amount about equal to the entire world's proven oil reserves."

There are obstacles to be sure, but they are matters of will more than technology.

The nation that put men on the moon because it wanted to could be energy-independent in the lifetime of most of its citizens. The choice in November will be between that future and one that consists of harvesting algae and driving electric cars that explode.


*1. No Tenure / No Pension. A Congressman/woman collects a salary while in office and receives no pay when they're out of office.

2. Congress (past, present & future) participates in Social Security.

All funds in the Congressional retirement fund move to the Social Security system immediately. All future funds flow into
the Social Security system, and Congress participates with the American people. It may not be used for any other purpose.

3. Congress can purchase their own retirement plan, just as all Americans do.

4. Congress will no longer vote themselves a pay raise.  Congressional pay will rise by the lower of CPI or 3%.

5. Congress loses their current health care system and participates in the same health care system as the American people, that is to include having Medicare and Medicaid.

6. Congress must equally abide by all laws they impose on the American people.

7. All contracts with past and present Congressmen/women are void effective 12/31/12. The American people did not make this contract with Congressmen/women.  Congressmen/women made all these contracts for themselves. Serving in Congress is an honor, not a career. The Founding Fathers envisioned citizen legislators, so ours should serve their term(s), then go home and back to work.

Could not find it in my old Webster's. Googled it and discovered it is a  recently "coined" new word found on a T shirt on eBay. Getting really close  to the bone! Read this one over slowly and absorb the facts that totally are  within this sentence! I love this word and believe that it will become a recognized English word. Finally, a word to describe our current political situation.

Ineptocracy (in-ep-toc ' -Ra-cy) - A system of government where the least  capable to lead are elected by the least capable of producing, and where the  members of society least likely to sustain themselves or succeed, are  rewarded with goods and services paid for by the confiscated wealth of a  diminishing number of producers.


Gun Control to be Dictated by the United Nations, NOT each country.

Editor: There is discussion underway in the United Nations with the goal of establishing world-wide laws to limit the access and possession of guns by the citizens of  member countries.  This would of course be against our constitution   

The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, along with the rest of the Bill of Rights.

In 2008 and 2010, the Supreme Court issued two Second Amendment decisions. In District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), the Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm, unconnected to service in a militia[1][2] and to use that arm for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home. In dicta, the Court listed many longstanding prohibitions and restrictions on firearms possession as being consistent with the Second Amendment.[3] In McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. 3025 (2010), the Court ruled that the Second Amendment limits state and local governments to the same extent that it limits the federal government.[4]

"Those who trade liberty for security have neither. . . . John Adams

"Those who hammer their guns into plows, will plow for those who do not. . . . . Thomas Jefferson

REMEMBER:  Gun Control is not about guns, it's about CONTROL. 


First Shoe Drops: Catholic School Drops ObamaCare
Andrew Malcolm  IBD Editorials
Faced with being forced to abandon its conscience while emptying its bank account, a Catholic university finds its students can't keep the health insurance they like as it becomes prohibitively expensive.

Franciscan University of Steubenville, Ohio, finding itself at the nexus of cost and conscience regarding the demands and expenses imposed on it and other Catholic institutions by the onslaught of ObamaCare, has announced it will neither comply nor participate in the nationalization of health care and drop the health coverage it offers to its students.

It's the first shoe to drop in what will be a cascade of such decisions. Franciscan University was able to drop its coverage, but as the U.S. Council of Catholic Bishops has warned, other institutions and charities may be forced to close, sell off their assets or turn them over to secular operators in the wake of ObamaCare's unacceptable mandates and costs.

"This is putting people in a position where they are having to choose between their faith and their morality — and now an unjust cost," said Mike Hernon, vice president of advancement at the university. "These sorts of regulations from the government are forcing our hand in a way that's really wrong."

Hernon said students must have insurance — either through their parents' policy or through the university's basic plan. That plan now costs about $600 a year. However, Hernon said the school's health care provider has served notice that under ObamaCare, the policy would double to $1,200 and then triple the year after.

This exposes the first big lie of ObamaCare and the reason for its existence — to control the rising costs of health care. On a macro level, Charles Blahous of George Mason University's Mercatus Center projects it will add $1.16 billion to net federal spending over the next 10 years and at least $340 billion to federal budget deficits in that time.

The second big ObamaCare lie is that if you like your health care coverage, you can keep it. But the federal mandate on contraceptives that is required in violation of the Constitution changes existing coverage in what is to some an unacceptable way: It requires religious institutions to scrap the free exercise of the religions that motivate them. That and the prohibitive cost will force many to drop the coverage that the covered like.

The small Catholic school in Ohio posted a statement on its website noting: "Up to this time, Franciscan University has specifically excluded these services and products from its student health insurance policy, and we will not participate in a plan that requires us to violate the consistent teachings of the Catholic Church on the sacredness of human life."

It's not just Catholics who are in revolt. Groups including the National Association of Evangelicals, the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, the Lutheran Church of Missouri Synod, and the Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of North and Central America have all expressed their opposition to ObamaCare's restrictions on the free exercise of their faith and conscience.

So to satisfy Sandra Fluke, the Georgetown law student who lobbied Congress for free contraceptives, and others of her ilk who want taxpayers to pay for their lifestyle choice, the Obama administration is willing to shred the Constitution and religious freedom that those who founded this country came here seeking.

It's also not just religious institutions that will feel the pinch, but businesses of all sizes. There are many mandates in one-size-fits-all ObamaCare, and many of those not fortunate to get politically favored waivers will likely drop their coverage, pay the cheaper fines and throw their workers and their health care costs into the federal pot, adding to the growing burden on taxpayers.

Editor:  OC Register editorial 5/27/12 extracts:  More than 40 Catholic individuals, dioceses and universities have sued the Obama administration to prevent trampling of their First Amendment right to practice religion by forcing them to pay for a abortifaceients, sterilizations, contraception, devices and pills that would violate their religious beliefs. The media shamefully has downplayed the 43 lawsuits, despite the gravity of the potential infringement of rights.

"We do not seek to impose our religious beliefs on others," said Notre Dame University president John Jenkins, "We simply ask that the government not impose its values on the university when those values conflict with our religious teachings."

Fighting Sharia Law MUST be a Strategic Objective for the US
By Tawfik Hamid

One of the more outspoken and courageous reformist Muslims in America is Dr. Tawfik Hamid. Dr. Hamid, once a member of a terrorist organization and author of
Inside Jihad, brings unique insights to the issue of radical Islam—as evidenced by his recent opinion column below.
Some see Sharia Law (Islamic Law) as a threat to human rights, discriminating specifically against women, gays, and non-Muslims. This limited understanding of Sharia may lead to a half-hearted response rather than a serious fight for the US's strategic interests. It is, however, difficult for an honest person to deny the fact that Sharia Law is a threat to human rights for the real threat of Sharia goes far beyond infringements of human rights.

Sharia Law was the main topic for discussion in several debates in the US and other western countries.  Careful observation of our modern history reveals that the US has had major troubles from all Muslim countries or systems that have implemented Sharia Law.

The following is a list of Islamic countries and societies that have implemented Sharia Law as the main law of the land:

1-Saudi Arabia
3-Afghanistan under the Taliban regime

Without a single exception, the US has suffered major troubles from all of these countries.

For example, Saudi Arabia produced Bin Laden who led Al-Qaeda and attacked the US on September 11 2001 which dragged the US into very costly confrontations. These confrontations have cost the US economy trillions of dollars and thousands of lives. In fact, 15 of the 19 hijackers of the planes that attacked the twin towers on September 11 were Saudis. Moreover, petrodollars coming out of Sharia-ruled Saudi Arabia have been used to support Islamists in Egypt and other Islamic countries thus promoting more Islamic-based hatred and animosity toward the US.

Another example of the outworking of Sharia is the Iranian Islamic regime that has shown aggression toward the US and currently aims at creating a nuclear bomb that threatens world stability and security. The relationship between the US and Iran declined dramatically after the Iran regime adopted Sharia Law following the Islamic revolution in 1979.

Afghanistan under Sharia Law created a system extremely hostile toward the West, including the US. The Sharia-ruled Taliban adopted Al-Qaeda fighters and caused - and is still causing -major troubles for the US. In fact, the Islamist threat that originated in Afghanistan has also affected nearby countries such as Pakistan. The honeymoon that existed temporarily between the US and the Taliban during the confrontation with the Russians has ended and the true nature of the Taliban as an anti-American regimen has been exposed.

Furthermore, the relations between Sudan and the US have significantly declined after the implementation of Sharia in the country.

Somalia has shown animosity toward the US and has become a breeding ground for terrorists since it became controlled by the Al-Shabbab Islamic movement that implemented Sharia Law in the land. Several US Muslim citizens also became radicalized in Somalia after Sharia dominated it.

If we compare the above countries to Islamic countries that did not make Sharia Law the main law of the land - such as Turkey, Qatar, UAE, Tunisia, Malaysia, and Indonesia - we notice that the former countries did not cause as much trouble for the US as the Sharia-ruled countries did. This is unlikely to be just a coincidence.

Sharia causes animosity toward the US (as a symbol of the highest power of western civilization) in several ways as we see below:

1- Sharia Law creates hatred toward the values of freedom and equality that are the founding principles of the US. For example, Sharia allows beating women, polygamy, and pedophilia. Additionally, it promotes killing apostates, gays, and adulteries. Islamists who adopt these Sharia values cannot have anything but hatred toward the countries that promotes freedom and liberty.

2- Sharia induces a notion of the supremacy of Islam above all non-Muslims. Several Quranic verses have been used to promote this principle of supremacy of Muslims and Islam (See: Quran [i] 48:28). Also, Sharia rules necessitate that Non-Muslims in Muslim society MUST pay a special form of Tax of humiliation 'Jizia' to the Muslim rulers. Non-Muslims-according to Sharia- MUST by disgraced [ii] during paying such taxes. The psychological contradiction in the mind of Islamists between their sense of the supremacy of Islam, and the reality of their weakness and inferiority, creates frustrations that lead to a desire to destroy or erase the world power (i.e. the US and other western countries) that 'deprives' them of their superiority.

3- Sharia principles teach the values of Jihad to spread the religion and subjugate non-Muslims to Islamic laws. With no single exception, all schools of Islamic Jurisprudence (Shafeii, Hanbali, Maleki, and Hanafi)-until today-promote that Muslims MUST declare war on and fight Non-Muslims until they subjugate to Islam.

The integration of the previous 3 factors can explain to some extent the observed positive correlation between implementing Sharia and creating hostility toward the US and other western countries.

To conclude; The trouble that has faced the US from countries that adopted Sharia Law in the last few decades, and the enormous costs that were paid by the US in these confrontations, should make the US consider Sharia not only an infringement to Human Rights but, more importantly, a serious threat to its national security and strategic interests.

[i] Quran 48:28 It is He Who has sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over (superior to) all religion: and enough is Allah for a Witness.

[ii] Quran 9:29 Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (Islam) of the People of the Book (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

"Radical Muslim organizations are working with our government to rewrite counter-terrorism training materials." 

Brigitte Gabriel, 



The Mormon way of business
Santander Appoints Jesse O. Villarreal, Jr. As Executive Vice President
USHCC Applauds Univision for new joint-venture with ABC News
General Electric Moving to Beijing|

The Mormon way of business
The Mormons have produced a striking number of successful businesspeople
May 5th 2012,| from the print edition of The Economist· 

JOKES about sacred underpants have reached epidemic proportions, thanks to Mitt Romney’s presidential bid and the musical masterpiece by Matt Stone and Trey Parker, “The Book of Mormon”. But the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, to give it its full name, is fighting back. A huge advertising campaign features ordinary people doing ordinary things—a white man sporting a beard, a black man sporting a moustache and a young skateboarder flying through the air—with the tag line: “I’m a Mormon.”
The snag is, not everyone will buy the idea that Mormons are just like the rest of us. They don’t get drunk. They have large families, stable marriages and a three-month supply of food in the larder in case of Armageddon. They are usually clean-cut and neatly dressed (the facial hair in the “I’m a Mormon” ads is thankfully atypical). And they have a passion for business.
Related topics
Less than 2% of Americans are Mormons, yet their commercial prominence belies their numbers. Mitt Romney founded Bain Capital, a private-equity powerhouse. Jon Huntsman senior (the father of Mr Romney’s rival for the Republican crown) founded Huntsman Corporation, an $11 billion chemicals giant. David Neeleman has founded two cut-price airlines: JetBlue in America and Azul in Brazil. Ralph Atkin started a third: SkyWest Airlines. Eric Varvel is the boss of Credit Suisse’s investment bank, Harris Simmons heads Zions Bancorporation, a more local bank, and Allan O’Bryant runs the Japanese arm of Reinsurance Group of America. J.W. Marriott runs the hotel chain his father created. Had Max Weber lived a century later, he might have made sweeping generalisations about the “Mormon work ethic”.
Mormons have constructed a huge pro-business infrastructure. The Marriott School at Brigham Young University provides among the best value for money of any business school in America, charging Mormons just $10,000 a year, a fifth of the fees at the leading schools. Mormons are such a force at Harvard Business School that people joke about being dominated by the three “Ms” (the other two are McKinsey and the military). Clayton Christensen of Harvard is one of the world’s leading management thinkers. Stephen Covey, the author of “The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People”, is one of its leading self-help gurus.
Small wonder young Mormons keep pouring into business. Provo, the home of Brigham Young University, is a high-tech hub, the home of Novell and hundreds of other computer and graphic-design companies. Big investment banks have added the Marriott School to Harvard and Wharton as one of their favourite hunting grounds. Goldman Sachs has opened one of its largest offices outside New York in Salt Lake City. Jeremy Andrus, a young chief executive, has recently taken Skullcandy, a headphone company, public for $125m. Household income in Utah, where Mormons predominate, is above the American average.
What explains the Mormons’ success? Clean living probably helps: alcohol clouds judgment and lubricates bad deals. A history of persecution may breed self-reliance: 19th-century Mormons trekked westwards across plains and mountains to escape the kind of bigots who murdered their founder, Joseph Smith, in 1844. Modern Mormons have something in common with other industrious minorities, such as Parsees, who are prominent in corporate India, the overseas Chinese and Jews. But some of the answer may lie in the faith itself. Mormonism—the only global religion to have been invented in the past 200 years—is in some ways more business-friendly than its more ancient rivals.
Mormons revere organisation. They believe that God created the world out of chaos, rather than out of nothing. They also believe that men and women are capable of “eternal progression” towards “Godhood”, so long as they conduct themselves like busy little bees. The church is probably the best-organised in the world and certainly the most cost-effective. The president and his 12 advisers sit at the top like the board of a multinational. Below them, the church depends on a throng of lay volunteers. Church members begin to perform in public at the age of three. They become “deacons” at 12 and are given more demanding jobs as they grow older. The faithful are expected to give 10% of their pre-tax income to the church. No one knows how much money it has, but unofficial estimates are in the billions.
The missionary tradition
The fiercest crucible for young Mormons is the mission. Mormon men serve as missionaries for two years when they turn 19; women for 18 months when they turn 21. They have no choice over where they go and often have to learn a foreign language. They are cut off from their families (they are allowed only two phone calls home a year) and assigned a “companion” to keep them on the straight and narrow. They are expected to proselytise for ten hours a day, six days a week. Few other groups experience anything as demanding at a similar age. One exception is young Israelis, who spend gruelling years in the military, and who also have an outstanding record as entrepreneurs.
Missionary work provides young Mormons with a fluency in foreign languages that is rare in America. Mr Neeleman, for example, was born in Brazil and returned there as a youngster to do missionary work. His feel for the local culture, and fluent Portuguese, make it easier for him to adapt what he learned about running airlines in America to the Brazilian market.
Missionary work also teaches young Mormons to persevere despite harsh odds. They must sell a product for which there is almost no demand: an idiosyncratic version of Christianity that teaches that Christ made a post-resurrection visit to the United States, that the Garden of Eden may have been in Missouri and that drinking alcohol is a sin. After that, selling airline seats or life insurance must be a doddle.
Frank Heinisch 

Santander Appoints Jesse O. Villarreal, Jr. As Executive Vice President, Government Affairs And Public Policy Director In U.S.

BOSTON, April 23, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Santander Holdings USA, Inc. and Sovereign Bank, N.A., wholly owned subsidiaries of Banco Santander, announced the appointment of Jesse O. Villarreal, Jr. as Executive Vice President, Government Affairs and Public Policy Director. In this role, Villarreal will lead Santander's government relations and industry public policy efforts in the U.S. Villarreal will be located at Santander's U.S. headquarters in Boston and will report to Chief of Staff, Carlos Garcia.

"Earlier this year we converted from a thrift to a national bank, setting the stage for our future growth. This important milestone, in combination with our continuous enhancement of our leadership team is moving us forward as an organization. I am pleased to welcome Jesse to Sovereign-Santander," said Jorge Moran, Santander US Country Head and Sovereign Bank President and CEO. "Jesse's extensive experience in the public sector working on banking and financial issues is a great addition to shaping the Bank's public policy positions and regulatory framework to continue the successful implementation of our growth plan."

Prior to joining Santander, Villarreal served more than ten years in various capacities in the United States federal government, including positions at the Department of the Treasury, the White House and at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). Villarreal served for nearly five years as Chief of Staff to former FDIC Chairman Sheila Bair where he played a significant part in the FDIC leadership team as it developed responses to the recent global economic crisis. Most recently, Villarreal served as Senior Advisor to Acting FDIC Chairman, Martin J. Gruenberg, where he assisted in the agency's transition from former FDIC Chairman, Sheila Bair. While at the FDIC, he was involved in all areas of agency policy and operations and brought a unique and valued perspective to the FDIC.

In addition to his public service experience, Villarreal has held leadership positions in the financial services industry at JPMorgan Chase and Texas Commerce Bank/Chase Manhattan.

Jesse Jr. was also featured in a small article in the AUSTIN AMERICAN STATESMAN.

Jesse O.Villarreal, Jr.

USHCC Applauds Univision for new joint-venture with ABC News

Univision, the largest Spanish-language media company in the U.S. has announced a joint venture with ABC News. The news comes on the heels of a successful March sweeps with Univision owned KMEX-TV Los Angeles recognized as the #1 station in the country, regardless of language. The ABC-Univision venture will provide English-language network programming tailored to Hispanic viewers.

“The USHCC congratulates Univision on its joint-venture with ABC News," says USHCC President and CEO, Javier Palomarez. “As the premier Spanish-language media provider, this historic partnership will elevate the Univision brand even further."
The joint-venture between the two companies will begin to generate online content as early as this summer and television next year. The programming will deliver English-language news with a focus on Hispanic issues to serve English-dominant and bilingual Hispanics.

“We are honored to be recognized as a top provider of news and entertainment media to Hispanic America,” says Univision Networks President, Cesar Conde. “We are committed to our mission of informing, entertaining and empowering our community and this landmark agreement with ABC News speaks to this commitment as well as to our vision of connecting all audiences to issues and topics of importance to Hispanics,” says Conde.

“This venture will offer an unprecedented opportunity to connect with Hispanic consumers and businesses," says Palomarez. “We trust that corporate America takes note of Univision’s success, and urge our nation's leading advertisers to continue their focus on the incredibly powerful Hispanic consumer, who currently represents over $1 Trillion in purchasing power across the United States.”

About the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce
Founded in 1979, the USHCC actively promotes the economic growth and development of Hispanic entrepreneurs and represents the interests of nearly 3 million Hispanic-owned businesses in the United States that combined generate in excess of $465 billion annually. It also serves as the umbrella organization for more than 200 local Hispanic chambers and business associations in the United States and Puerto Rico. For more information, visit

General Electric Moving to Beijing|

General Electric is planning to move its 115-year-old X-ray division from Waukesha , Wis. , to Beijing . In addition to moving the headquarters, the company will invest $2 billion in China and train more than 65 engineers and create six research centers. This is the same GE that made $5.1 billion in the United States last year. but paid no taxes-the same company that employs more people overseas than it does in the united States .  Check it out on Snopes!  

The evidence is clear and convincing. Did U.S. taxpayers save GM for China? Listen to the candid comments of GM's CEO. 



Autism and Medical Marijuana by Aury L. Holtzman, M.D.
The Weight of the Nation
Experts Debunk 5 Most Common Postpartum Depression Myths Plaguing Latina Moms
Comments on some aspects of Emergency care for people over 75 years old
Health care crisis is a Crisis of culture
About the simple onion

Autism and Medical Marijuana by Aury L. Holtzman, M.D.
Huntington Beach, CA

A few months ago, I met Meiko Hester-Perez who shared her story of how marijuana had totally changed her son's health and violent behavior  autism.   Meiko was featured in the second issue of  the Journal of Medical Cannabis, Vol. 1, Issue 2.   

Quotes from the article: 

"While medical marijuana is used to treat dozens of ailments, one mother swears by it to help her severely autistic son.  

In fact, she's convinced pot has saved his life.

Meiko Hester-Perez gives her severely autistic 12-year old son Joey the marijuana in chocolate.

"When your son is knocking on deaths door there's nothing you won't do," according to Meiko Hester-Perez. "It happened to be cannabis for our family."

Hester-Perez didn't make the decision lightly, two and a half years ago Joey only weighed 42 pounds. A stark contrast to his current weight of 112 pounds.

"My son was absolutely withering away. You could see the bones in his chest," according to Hester-Perez.

Out of desperation, she Googled cannabis and autism, and realized she wasn't the only one who made the connection.

Other parents and autism experts found success with medical marijuana as a treatment for autistic children.

The first time Hester-Perez gave Joey a pot brownie she saw almost immediate results.

"Everything has improved. Right now, he's given one brownie every two to three days, whereas the other medications he was taking every single day, twice a day," according to Hester-Perez.

But there are those who aren't sold on the idea.

Doctor Seth Ammeran says using medical marijuana to treat autism is cause for concern because there has been no research on the topic.

"Parents have the best interest of their kids at heart, and they want to do what's best for their kids, but as a medical professional who really needs to look at the science behind recommendations, I can't in good conscious recommend it," says Dr. Seth Ammeran, of the American Academy of Pediatrics Substance Abuse Committee.

But Hester-Perez says the research is there, it's just not being done in the traditional sense.

"Whether we like it or not, the studies are being done," says Hester-Perez, "and they're being done within our homes."

Lester Grinspoon, M.D wrote: "There's no such thing as a harmless drug, but marijuana is much less harmful than other drugs," Dr. Grinspoon is a professor emeritus of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Grinspoon is a leading expert in the field of medical marijuana, who has authored several books on the subject. "No one in the world has died from marijuana," insists Grinspoon, who has spent four decades researching the illicit drug.

Recently a middle school boy was brought in to consult with me by both of his parents.  He had just been released after spending a month in a children's psychiatric facility. He had been under the care of a team of psychiatrists, psychologists, and neurologists.   For the last seven years he had been under their care and had been prescribed innumerable psychiatric medications, with no benefit.  Nothing worked, but because of violent behavior they were forced to put him in the hospital.    After years and years of trying conventional psychiatric medication, all they could do was lock him up.

While the parents were considering the possibility of their son being institutionalized for the rest of his life,  a friend recommended that she consider the possibility of marijuana. When the parents considered their options, which seemed to be medical marijuana or a locked psychiatric facility, they opted for a trial of marijuana.   This young man is being followed by a team of psychiatrists, psychologists and neurologists to monitor the results of treatment with medical cannabis for autism.  We will update this column in the future.

For information about alternative treatments for autism, please visit, the Unconventional Foundation for Autism 
More links: 

For more on Meiko Hester-Perez

The Weight of the Nation 
Some facts from documentary "The Weight of the Nation," which aired on HBO May 14-15.
Statistics reveal that two-thirds of Americans are overweight or obese. 

5%:    Proportion of adults who meet the daily guidelines for physical activity
10%:  Proportion of parents with an obese child who seek medical help
90%:  Profit margin of soda
$150 Billion: Amount spent each year in the U.S. on obesity related health costs

In answer to the question, "How serious is the problem of childhood obesity?" America Bracho, Executive Director of Latino Health Access responded:

Obesity is the precursor of a lot of chronic diseases.  You are looking at a nightmare from the financial and the medical point of view when these kids develop diabetes at 15 and end up being blind at 30 or having kidney problems.  The other area of course is the emotional piece of having such a large group of kids excluded and stigmatized.  The other impact we really need to think about is the economic impact of having people disabled at 30. 


The Mount Sinai Hospital Experts Debunk the 5 Most Common Postpartum Depression Myths Plaguing Latina Moms

NEW YORK, May 2, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- According to a recent study, more than 30% of Latinas in the U.S. and Mexico suffer perinatal or postpartum depression, making it the number one complication of pregnancy among Latinas.  In an effort to raise visibility for a disease that is often dismissed, physicians from The Mount Sinai Hospital debunked the 5 most prevalent Latino myths about postpartum depression, a type of depression that affects some women after childbirth.  A growing and significant audience, Hispanic Mothers accounted for approximately 24% of births nationwide and 24% in New York State.  Lack of awareness, understanding and acceptance of the disease has resulted in powerful myths impacting the lives of women who are experiencing one of life's most joyous events, especially in the Latino home.

Myth # 1 – "I feel so bad. Shouldn't I be happy about my newborn? Maybe I am not a good mother."
It is not uncommon for women to experience temporary mood disorders or "blues" after giving birth.  According to Kim Klipstein, MD, Director of Behavioral Medicine and Consultation Psychiatry at The Mount Sinai Hospital, "postpartum depression is different than "baby blues," which is a mild form of depression that occurs within a few days after childbirth and lasts up to a week."  Conversely, Dr. Klipstein added, "postpartum depression typically emerges over the first 2-3 months after childbirth but may occur at any point during the first year after delivery.  Symptoms may include: loss of interest or pleasure in life, loss of appetite, rapid mood swings, fear of hurting or killing oneself or one's child.  These feelings can disrupt a woman's ability to function on a daily basis and make bonding with the newborn difficult. More serious symptoms associated with postpartum depression that require immediate medical attention include: lack of interest in your infant, suicidal thoughts or thoughts of harming your baby, hallucinations or delusions."

Myth # 2 – "My Mother says that postpartum depression has not affected the women in our family. If I speak up, they'll think I'm crazy!"
Although, for many Latinos, mental illness is considered shameful – a topic that shouldn't be discussed, do not let misinformation, uncertainty or shame get in the way of you getting the help you need.  In Latino cultures, which have deep-rooted family values and high expectations of new moms, Hispanic women reject feelings of unhappiness during pregnancy and after the baby are born.  If their own mothers never expressed negative feelings about pregnancy, they believe they must follow her example.  But keep in mind that postpartum depression is a real illness and, if left untreated, it can interfere with mother-child bonding and lead to serious long term problems.  According to Dr. Klipstein of The Mount Sinai Hospital, "children of mothers who have untreated postpartum depression are more likely to have behavioral problems, such as sleeping and eating difficulties, temper tantrums and hyperactivity."  Dr. Klipstein concludes, "delays in language development are more common as well." 

Myth # 3 – "Because of my age, I am at higher risk of experiencing postpartum depression."
Postpartum depression can affect any woman of childbearing age regardless of socio-economic status, education level, racial and ethnic background and age.  According to Dr. Klipstein of The Mount Sinai Hospital, "the cause of postpartum depression is unclear.  It may be related to sudden hormonal changes during and after delivery. Untreated thyroid conditions may also be associated with postpartum depression."  Some factors that increase your chances of developing postpartum depression include: a previous episode of depression, lack of support system and/or a strained relationship with your partner, a history of an anxiety disorder, depression during pregnancy, and a family history of depression.  Feeling overwhelmed and anxious are normal feelings for any mother, but if they begin to interfere with your ability to care for yourself and your baby it could signal something more serious and it is important to seek help.

Myth # 4 – "Postpartum depression cannot be prevented. I just need to get through it."
Aside from the biological changes, a variety of physical, psychological, and environmental factors can lead to postpartum depression. The good news is that the disease is treatable and should be addressed immediately.  According to Dr. Kim Klipstein of The Mount Sinai Hospital, "by identifying your risk factors and understanding postpartum stress, you can anticipate a plan with your doctor."  And, upon returning from the hospital after child delivery, Dr. Klipstein suggests that "Mothers follow a sensible diet, eliminating alcohol and caffeine; limit visitors; let family and friends know how they can be of help; have a solid support system and get sufficient rest."

Myth # 5 – "I would rather just put up with the postpartum depression, than be prescribed medications that will affect my breast milk and harm my baby."
  Women should talk to their doctors as soon as they experience any of the symptoms of postpartum depression to determine the most suitable treatment and not make any assumptions.  According to Dr. Kim Klipstein of The Mount Sinai Hospital, "treatment for postpartum depression may include counseling, medication, or both."  Though there may be risks associated with taking medication while breastfeeding, there are ways to minimize this risk and there are also equal risks associated with not treating depression during this time period. Risks and benefits of treatment should be discussed in detail with a health care professional so that the best treatment option for you and your baby can be mutually decided upon.

If you have experienced any of the symptoms of postpartum depression or, if you need help determining whether you, a family member or friend has the disease, contact your doctor immediately.  Seeking treatment will afford you the opportunity to feel better and enjoy one of the happiest periods in a woman's life.   For an appointment with a specialist contact: 1-877-241-4983 or visit

About The Mount Sinai Medical Center

The Mount Sinai Medical Center encompasses both The Mount Sinai Hospital and Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Established in 1968, Mount Sinai School of Medicine is one of the leading medical schools in the United States.  The Medical School is noted for innovation in education, biomedical research, clinical care delivery, and local and global community service.  It has more than 3,400 faculty in 32 departments and 14 research institutes, and ranks among the top 20 medical schools both in National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding and by U.S. News & World Report.

The Mount Sinai Hospital, founded in 1852, is a 1,171-bed tertiary- and quaternary-care teaching facility and one of the nation's oldest, largest and most-respected voluntary hospitals. In 2011, U.S. News & World Report ranked The Mount Sinai Hospital 16th on its elite Honor Roll of the nation's top hospitals based on reputation, safety, and other patient-care factors. Of the top 20 hospitals in the United States, Mount Sinai is one of 12 integrated academic medical centers whose medical school ranks among the top 20 in NIH funding and US News & World Report and whose hospital is on the US News & World Report Honor Roll.  Nearly 60,000 people were treated at Mount Sinai as inpatients last year, and approximately 560,000 outpatient visits took place.

For more information, visit  Follow us on Twitter @mountsinainyc.

Andres Reyes, Latin2Latin Marketing + Communications. 
954 376 4800 /
SOURCE The Mount Sinai Hospital Back to top RELATED LINKS

Comments on some aspects of Emergency aid for people over 75 years old

Dr. Suzanne C Allen MD practices emergency medicine in Johnson City, Tennessee. Dr. Allen graduated with an MD 32 years ago.

We are seeing cutbacks throughout the services we provide. For example, we are now having to deal with patients who would normally receive dialysis can no longer be accepted.  In the past, there was always automatic approval under Medicare for anyone who needed dialysis -- not anymore." So, what will be their outcome?  "They will die soon without dialysis," she stated.

What about other services?  She indicated as of 2013, no one over 75 will be given major medical procedures unless approved by
locally administered Ethics Panels.  These Panels will determine whether a patient receives medical treatments or not. 

While details on specific operating procedures and schedules, Dr. Allen points out that most life-threatening emergencies do not occur during normal hospital business hours, and if there are emergencies that depend to be resolve within minutes or just few hours, the likely hood of getting these Panels approval in time to save a life are going to be very challenging and difficult, if not impossible she said.

This applies to major operations such as receiving stents, bypass surgery, kidney operations, or treating for an aneurysm that would be normally covered under Medicare today.  In other words, if you needed a life-saving operation, Medicare will not provide coverage anymore after 2013 if you are over 75 years old.
Sent by Bill Carmena 

Health care crisis is a Crisis of culture

During my shift in the Emergency Room last night, I had the pleasure of evaluating a patient whose smile revealed an expensive shiny gold tooth, whose body was adorned with a wide assortment of elaborate and costly tattoos, who wore a very expensive brand of tennis shoes and who chatted on a new cellular telephone equipped with a popular R&B ring tone. While glancing over her patient chart, I happened to notice that her payer status was listed as "Medicaid"! During my examination of her, the patient informed me that she smokes more than one costly pack of cigarettes every day and somehow still has money to buy pretzels and beer.

You and our Congress expect me to pay for this woman's health care? I contend that our nation's "health care crisis" is not the result of a shortage of quality hospitals, doctors or nurses. Rather, it is the result of a "crisis of culture", a culture in which it is perfectly acceptable to spend money on luxuries and vices while refusing to take care of one's self or, heaven forbid, purchase health insurance. It is a culture based on the irresponsible credo that "I can do whatever I want to because someone else will always take care of me." Once you fix this "culture crisis" that rewards irresponsibility and dependency, you'll be amazed at how quickly our nation's health care difficulties will disappear.

Respectfully, STARNER JONES, MD

Sent by Pablo Trejo


About the simple onion 
This is a very interesting article.
In 1919, when the flu killed 40 million people, there was this Doctor that visited the many farmers to see if he could help them combat the flu. Many of the farmers and their family had contracted it, and many died.

The doctor came upon this one farmer, and to his surprise, everyone was very healthy. When the doctor asked what the farmer was doing that was different, the wife replied that she had placed an unpeeled onion in a dish in the rooms of the home, (probably only two rooms back then). The doctor couldn't believe it and asked if he could have one of the onions and place it under the microscope. She gave him one and when he did this, he did find the flu virus in the onion. It obviously absorbed the bacteria, therefore, keeping the family healthy. 

Now, I heard this story from my hairdresser in AZ. She said that several years ago many of her employees were coming down with the flu and so were many of her customers. The next year she placed several bowls with onions around in her shop. To her surprise, none of her staff got sick. It must work.... Try it and see what happens. We did it last year and we never got the flu. 

Now there is a P. S. to this.... I sent it to a friend in Oregon who regularly contributes material to me on health issues. She replied with this most interesting experience about onions: 

Thanks for the reminder. I don't know about the farmers story.... But, I do know that I contacted pneumonia and needless to say I was very ill... I came across an article that said to cut both ends off an onion put it into an empty jar.....placing the jar next to the sick patient at night. It said the onion would be black in the morning from the germs.... Sure enough it happened just like that.... The onion was a mess, and I began to feel better. 

Another thing I read in the article was that onions and garlic placed around the room saved many from the black plague years ago. They have powerful antibacterial, antiseptic properties. 

This is the other note.

Lots of times when we have stomach problems we don't know what to blame. Maybe it's the onions that are to blame. Onions absorb bacteria is the reason they are so good at preventing us from getting colds and flu's and is the very reason we shouldn't eat an onion that has been sitting for a time after it has been cut open!


I had the wonderful privilege of touring Mullins Food Products, Makers of Mayonnaise.. Mullins is huge, and is owned by 11 brothers and sisters in the Mullins family. My friend, Jeanne, is the CEO.

Questions about food poisoning came up, and I wanted to share what I learned from a chemist.

The guy who gave us our tour is named Ed. He's one of the brothers Ed is a chemistry expert and is involved in developing most of the sauce formula. He's even developed sauce formula for McDonald's.

Keep in mind that Ed is a food chemistry whiz. During the tour, someone asked if we really needed to worry about mayonnaise. People are always worried that mayonnaise will spoil. Ed's answer will surprise you. Ed said that all commercially- made Mayo is completely safe.

"It doesn't even have to be refrigerated. No harm in refrigerating it, but it's not really necessary." He explained that the pH in mayonnaise is set at a point that bacteria could not survive in that environment. He then talked about the quaint essential picnic, with the bowl of potato salad sitting on the table and how everyone blames the mayonnaise when someone gets sick.

Ed says that when food poisoning is reported, the first thing the officials look for is when the 'victim' last ate ONIONS and where those onions came from (in the potato salad?). Ed says it's not the mayonnaise (as long as it's not homemade Mayo) that spoils in the outdoors. It's probably the Onions, and if not the onions, it's the POTATOES. 

He explained, onions are a huge magnet for bacteria, especially uncooked onions. You should never plan to keep a portion of a sliced onion. He says it's not even safe if you put it in a zip-lock bag and put it in your refrigerator. 

It's already contaminated enough just by being cut open and out for a bit, that it can be a danger to you (and doubly watch out for those onions you put in your hot dogs at the baseball park!) Ed says if you take the leftover onion and cook it like crazy you you'll probably be okay, but if you slice that leftover onion and put on your sandwich, you're asking for trouble. Both the onions and the moist potato in a potato salad, will attract and grow bacteria faster than any commercial mayonnaise will even begin to break down.

Also, dogs should never eat onions. Their stomachs cannot metabolize onions.  Please remember it is dangerous to cut an onion and try to use it to cook the next day, it becomes highly poisonous for even a single night and creates toxic bacteria which may cause adverse stomach infections because of excess bile secretions and even food poisoning. 
Please pass this on to all you love and care for. That's YOU... 

Sent by Jack Cowan


Mesothelioma Resource Online 
My name is Sarah Anderson, the Communications 
Director for Mesothelioma Resource Online. Approximately 30% of all patients in the UK and the US diagnosed with this lethal form of cancer served in the military at some point. However, our site,, is an excellent resource to learn about Asbestos in the military and the various treatment options for Mesothelioma.

Respectfully, Sarah Anderson

Asphalt Dangers . . .   
Sent by Barbara O'Brien


Harvard, MIT announce new partnership that will offer free online classes
2012 CMAS-Benson Latin American Collection Short-Term Research Fellowships

Harvard, MIT announce new partnership that will offer free online classes
CAMBRIDGE, Mass. — Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have joined forces to offer free online courses in a project aimed at attracting millions of online learners around the world, the universities announced Wednesday.

Beginning this fall, a variety of courses developed by faculty at both institutions will be available online through the new $60 million partnership, known as “edX.”

“Anyone with an Internet connection anywhere in the world can have access,” Harvard President Drew Faust said during a news conference to announce the initiative.

MIT has offered a program called OpenCourseWare for a decade that makes materials from more than 2,000 classes available free online. It has been used by more than 100 million people. In December, the school announced it also would begin offering a special credential, known as MITx, for people who complete the online version of certain courses.

Harvard has long offered courses to a wider community through its extension program.  The MITx platform will serve as the foundation for the new learning system.

MIT President Susan Hockfield said more than 120,000 people registered for the first course offered by MITx. She said Harvard and MIT hope other universities will join them in offering courses on the open-source edX platform.  “Fasten your seatbelts,” Hockfield said.

Other universities, including Stanford, Yale and Carnegie-Mellon, have been experimenting with teaching to a global audience online.  The Harvard-MIT initiative will be overseen by a not-for-profit organization based in Cambridge, to be owned equally by the two universities. MIT and Harvard have made commitments of $30 million each in institutional support, grants and philanthropy to start the collaboration.  Certificates will be given to students who pass the online courses.

Harvard and MIT also plan to use the edX platform to research how students learn and which teaching methods and tools are most successful.

Copyright 2012 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.  © The Washington Post Company

2012 CMAS-Benson Latin American Collection 
Short-Term Research Fellowships

The Center for Mexican American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin announces its first annual competition for three (3) short-term research fellowships at the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection in the fields of Mexican American and Borderlands Studies (

World renowned for its over 1,000,000 books, periodicals, pamphlets, and microforms; 4,350 linear feet of manuscripts; 19,000 maps; 11,500 broadsides; 400,000 photographs and slides; and 60,000 items in a variety of other media (sound recordings, drawings, video tapes and cassettes, DVDs, posters, memorabilia, and electronic media), and periodical titles are estimated at over 40,000 with 8,000 currently received titles and over 3,000 newspaper titles, the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection is one of the foremost research libraries containing materials related to the Mexican American experience and Borderlands Studies. For a listing of Mexican American and U.S. Latin@ archival and manuscript collections see:

Further, the Mexican American Library Program (MALP) at The University of Texas at Austin was formally established in 1974 by the University Libraries to support the educational needs of students of Mexican American and U.S. Latino culture and history. It is also designed to support the research activities of the faculty of the Center for Mexican American Studies, which has been serving the state of Texas and the nation as a leader in the intellectual development of Mexican American studies since 1970.


Short-term fellowships are restricted to post-doctoral scholars, Ph.D. candidates or holders of other terminal degrees from outside the Austin area who have a specific need to use the Mexican American and Borderlands collections at the Benson Library. Further, projects must demonstrate innovation and substantial contributions to shaping the fields of Mexican American Studies and/or Borderlands Studies.  Fellowships are for 2 weeks with a maximum award amount of $750. Fellowships are for travel and housing. Priority will be given to applicants who might not otherwise be able to complete their research without CMAS fellowship support and to applications that focus on the Mexican American and/or experiences of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. Award recipients will be announced on June 15th. Residencies may begin on July 1, 2012 and must end by September 1, 2012. Awardees must publicly acknowledge CMAS and the Benson Latin American Collection in any published materials resulting from the fellowship, including doctoral dissertations, articles, and book manuscripts.

CMAS-Benson Latin American Collection Short-Term Research Fellowship in Mexican American and Borderlands Studies applications must be received by June 4, 2012. This includes the applicant’s own materials and all reference letters.


Mural Painted by Malaquías Montoya at UC Davis Student Community Center
Siete Dias con el Pueblo/Seven Days with the People, 1974
Herbert Lewis Hardwick a.k.a. "Cocoa Kid" By: Tony "The Marine" Santiago
Mario Gutierrez wins the Kentucky Derby by Charlie Erickson and Jim Lamare

New Mural Painted By Malaquías Montoya at UC Davis Student Community Center 
Sketching “The Practice of Freedom”: Malaquias Montoya, left, and Jaime Montiel ’02 

40+ years of challenges and a vision has finally become a reality. 
Lots of photos were taken throughout the planning and creating the mural.  Really interesting to view.  Go to the site and see the final painting.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Siete Dias con el Pueblo/Seven Days with the People, 1974 

Bernardo Palombo: Siete Dias Con El Pueblo or Seven Days with the People was a landmark festival organized by the CGT (Confederación General de Trabajadores), held in the Dominican Republic in 1974. It was an important moment in the history of the popular song [in the Americas] primarily because it happened in a time when communications were so limited, unlike what we have today, there was no internet, there was no e-mail, few people had telephones and even telegrams sometimes wouldn’t arrive to its particular place.

Sylvia Gonzalez-Hohenshelt 


Herbert Lewis Hardwick 
"Cocoa Kid"

By: Tony "The Marine" Santiago

 Herbert Lewis Hardwick 
     a.k.a. "Cocoa Kid
Boxing is a brutal sport which has often been presented as an option for the poor and underprivileged to gain fame and riches. It is also a sport that because of its brutal and dangerous nature has destroyed families whose warriors have received disabling permanent injuries and at times even death. The sport sort of reminds me of the Roman Empire and how its people cheered when Gladiators met in the Coliseum only to fight each other to the death. The victor received fame and glory while his opponent was often murdered. Even though we do not condemn boxers who have lost a match to his/her death, the damage which they receive while brutally entertaining their public can be considered a living death.  

Most boxers have little or no formal education and therefore become easy prey to corrupt promoters and managers, who end up stealing the money which they have earned. On June 7, 2012, the International Boxing Hall of Fame will induct into its galleries several boxers. Among the inductees is a Puerto Rican boxer, whom I had never heard of before until I wrote his biography. His name is Herbert Lewis Hardwick a.k.a. "Cocoa Kid" and his is a sad story which I will share with you.

Early years:  Hardwick was born in the City of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico to Maria Arroyo, a native of Puerto Rico, and Lewis Hardwick, an African American Merchant Marine. In 1913, his father was on leave and left the island without knowing that Maria was pregnant with his child. It was only upon his return several months later, that he found out that he was a father.  

The Hardwick family moved to Atlanta, Georgia when he was still a child and his father renamed him "Herbert Lewis Hardwick." Tragedy struck the family when his father and the rest of the crew of the USS Cyclops disappeared during World War I. The loss of the ship and 306 crew and passengers without a trace sometime after March 4, 1918, remains the single largest loss of life in U.S. Naval history not directly involving combat. The cause of the ship's loss is unknown. Hardwick was only four years old.

Shortly thereafter, upon the death of his mother, Hardwick went to live with his maternal aunt Antonia Arroyo-Robinson.  Mrs. Arroyo-Robinson raised Hardwick and he came to identify more with his Puerto Rican heritage.

Boxing career: Hardwick began to box in Atlanta when he was fourteen years old under the tutorship and management of Edward Allen Robinson (Antonia's husband). He fought for the first time as a professional at the age of fifteen, on May 27, 1929 at the Elks' Restaurant, in Atlanta, against a boxer who went under the name of "Kid Moon" and was victorious in that encounter.

In 1932, Connecticut State Senator Harry Durant was among those present in one his fights in West Palm Beach. The Senator was impressed with Hardwick and sponsored his trip  to New Haven where Hardwick began to fight under the name of the "Cocoa Kid." The name printed on his boxing license was that of "Louis Hardwick Arroyo." Hardwick used various names during his boxing career, besides using "Louis Arroyo," he would also fight under the name of "Louis Kid Cocoa". On April 4, 1932, he scored a win in his first fight in Connecticut, against a boxer named Joe Miller.

Black Murderers' Row: During his career in the late 1930s and early 1940s, Hardwick fought the top African-American fighters of the era in the Welterweight and Middleweight divisions. This group included, but was not limited to Charley Burley, Holman Williams, Jack Chase, Lloyd Marshall, Joe Carter (boxer), Tiger Wade, Bert Lytell and Eddie Booker. Hardwick fought Williams thirteen times, winning eight, losing three, and drawing in two.

The group was known as the "Black Murderers' Row." This group was made up primarily of African-American highly rated boxing contenders in the 1940s and 1950s, who competed around the Middleweight and Light Heavyweight divisions. Hardwick was the only Hispanic of African descent in the group. Renowned for their toughness and great boxing ability, they were feared throughout the boxing world and were the most avoided fighters of their generation. According to boxing pundit Jim Murray, the Murderers’ Row was the most exclusive men’s club the ring has ever known. They were so good and so feared that they had to have their own tournament. The term "Boxing Murderers’ Row" was coined by writer Budd Schulberg, screenwriter of ''On the Waterfront.''

Amongst the many boxers whom Hardwick fought and defeated during his career was Louis "Kid" Kaplan. The fight occurred on February 2, 1933 at the Arena in New Haven. Kaplan was a former champion who held the World Championship title in the Featherweight division until 1927. On December 5, 1933 he faced Lou Ambers and lost the match.

From April through September 1940, Hardwick was the number one welterweight contender in the world. However Henry Armstrong, who held the World Welterweight Championship, refused to give him a title shot. On October 9, 1943, Hardwick made the cover of ''Knockout Magazine'' as "The Cocoa Kid."


The Hardwick - Billy Smith controversy: In 1944, a controversy erupted between Hardwick and a boxer named "Oakland Billy Smith." When the fighters met on November 24, in the Civic Auditorium of San Francisco, California], the betting odds favored the Cocoa Kid over Smith by 2 to 1. When Hardwick was knocked down four times, referee Frankie Brown became suspicious and stopped the fight, declaring it a "no-contest." During an investigation carried out by the California Boxing Commission, Hardwick claimed his poor performance was due to personal anxiety about his “sick mother” (meaning his aunt Antonia). According to the ''Oakland Tribune,'' the commission felt that Hardwick threw the fight. In addition to withholding his earnings, the commission fined him $500, and suspended him from boxing for six months. 

End of his boxing career: On September 17, 1945, Hardwick fought and lost to Archie Moore. He lost his last professional fight on August 24, 1948, against Bobby Mann at Ball Park in Trenton, New Jersey. In 1949, Sugar Ray Robinson entered into, and then broke, two agreements to fight against Hardwick.

That same year of 1949, Hardwick was Robinson's sparring partner at the welterweight king's training camp in Pompton Lakes, New Jersey. Robinson was training for a fight with Steve Belloise and was at his peak. In one session Hardwick landed a short overhand right to Robinson's chin and dropped him in the second round.

By the end of his boxing career, Hardwick had fought a total of 244 professional fights, of which he won 176 with 48 knockouts (KO). He lost 56 fights, 7 by way of KOs and 10 of his fights were classified as draws (ties). Among the Champions which he faced during his career were: Louis Kaplan, Johnny Jadick, Lou Ambers, Christopher "Battling" Battalino, Chalky Wright and Archie Moore. Of these he defeated Kaplan, Jadick and Wright in non-title fights.


Later years: After retiring from the ring in 1950, Hardwick found himself homeless and penniless in Chicago Marguerite Winrou, his wife, divorced him and gained the custody of their children. According to the Naval Record Management Center in St. Louis, Missouri, Hardwick had served in the United States Navy during World War II. He was honorably discharged after being diagnosed with pugilistic dementia by military doctors. He kept his diagnose a secret during his days as a boxer in order to continue boxing.

Due to his long and difficult boxing career, Hardwick suffered from pugilistic dementia in his last years. In 1955, he wrote to the Navy asking for a copy of his discharge papers which he claimed were stolen with his Social Security card and was later admitted to the Veterans Administration Hospital in North Chicago. He died there on December 27, 1966 and is buried in Wood National Cemetery, section 36a, row 11, site 3, located in the state of Wisconsin. In 2011, Hardwick was elected to the International Boxing Hall of Fame. He will be inducted in June 7, 2012.



Mexican Jockey Stretches Derby String, Mario Gutierrez 
By Charlie Ericksen and Jim Lamare

Aboard 15-1 longshot I’ll Have Another, Mario Gutiérrez celebrated Cinco de Mayo by winning the Kentucky Derby, the most  celebrated U.S. horse race, on, coincidentally, the Mexican holiday.  Besting a field of 20 thoroughbreds, he became the sixth Latin American jockey in 11 years to guide the winner home in the “Run for the Roses.”

Born and raised in Mexico’s Caribbean port resort of Veracruz, Gutiérrez, 25, repeated the feat of Puerto Rican John Velázquez, who at age 40 rode 20-1 shot Animal Kingdom to victory last year. Exactly half of the 20 jockeys competing in the Churchill Downs track’s premiere race this year were born in Latin America.

Gutiérrez began learning the racing business and jockey skills under the tutelage of his father at age 14, riding on Mexican tracks
while still in his teens. At 19, he advanced to compete at larger tracks in Canada. He became a top rider there, with 661 victories at Hastings Park in Vancouver.

His skills attracted the attention of trainer Doug O’Neill, who found quality mounts, including I’ll Have Another, for Gutiérrez in
California. Together, they won the Robert Lewis Stakes at 43-1 in February, and then, in early April, the Santa Anita Derby. They
won that top test for three-year-olds by a nose at 4-1 before O’Neill gave Gutierrez his Kentucky Derby opportunity.

At Louisville, I’ll Have Another drew an outside post, number 19. Gutiérrez moved his mount up gradually through the pack and
caught front-running favorite Bodemeister in the stretch, beating him by a length and a half.

Gutierrez is the 42nd jockey in the Derby’s 138 illustrious years to win in his first attempt.

Hispanic Link 
Vol. 30: No.9
1420 N St. NW
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 234-0280


June 5, 2012 14th annual International Latino Book Awards
Puentes: Revista méxico-chicana de literature, cultura y arte
The Difference Between British and American Spelling by Eddie AAA Calderón, Ph.D
Voices: San Antonio College Multicultural Journa, Vol. VI (2012) – Commemorative Issue

 June 5, 2012 14th annual International Latino Book Awards 

The 14th annual International Latino Book Awards will be held the evening of June 5, 2012 at the Instituto Cervantes in New York City in the heart of mid-town at 211 East 49th Street. They will start at 7 pm. The awards will be presented by Latino Literacy Now in partnership with Las Comadres Para Las Americas and the Instituto Cervantes.

Latino Literacy Now was founded to promote literacy in the community and to advance the cause of reading as a means of self-improvement both personally and professionally. We hold the Latino Book & Family Festival in several cities across the country as a means of accomplishing this mission. We also conduct the International Latino Book Awards and the Latino Books into Movies Awards in recognition of the many positive contributions being made to Latino literature by publishers and writers worldwide.

The awards are sponsored this year by Scholastic and Libros Publishing with additional considerations from the University of Arizona Press and Arte Público Press.

Each year we hold the International Latino Book Awards during BookExpo America, the largest publishing trade show in the United States, held annually at the Javits Center in New York City. This scheduling allows us to attract more authors, publishers and other publishing industry professionals who are already at the Expo.

The 14th Annual International Latino Book Awards promises to be bigger and better than ever. We have new eBook categories in Children's, Young Adult, Non-fiction and Fiction.

Kirk Whisler
Latino Print Network
3445 Catalina Dr.
Carlsbad, CA 92010



Puentes: Revista méxico-chicana de literature, cultura y arte,

Sent and recommended by Dr. Roberto Calderon. who writes:

For all of you who have not yet discovered this literary and arts journal, Puentes: Revista méxico-chicana de literature, cultura y arte, here’s a reminder to check it out and obtain your own subscription.  Of course, have your libraries purchase a subscription as well.  At the recent sixth annual consecutive NACCS-Tejas Foco Conference held at Texas State University in San Marcos, Texas, I had the good fortune of coming across our friend Dr. Javier Villarreal of Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi.  Javier had a copy of the latest issue, Número 9 Otoño 2011, of Puentes. This latest number is dedicated to the work of two great and still living writers of letras chicanas, Rolando Hinojosa-Smith and Miguel Méndez.  Javier had one copy of the revista left with him and he gave me the copy to communicate its contents to the lista.  So this is our notice to you to take the next step and read it.  Se aventaron! 

I now own a complete set of the journal and plan on re-subscribing so as not to lose out on any future issues.  I want to provide for us the basic info on the current and latest issue of Puentes and also the journal’s mission statement and notice of its editorial board and their address so that you can get ahold of them if you need to.  The best way is by emailing Dr. Jesús Rosales who’s the editor and now at Arizona State University but was formerly located at Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi; therein the connection to our colleague, Javier Villarreal.

The latest Issue of Puentes is dedicated to the literature of Rolando Hinojosa & Miguel Méndez

College of Liberal Arts
School of International Letters and Cultures
Arizona State University
PO Box 870202
Tempe, Arizona 85287-0202

The Difference Between British and American Spelling

Eddie AAA Calderón, Ph.D

We are all aware that the same language spoken in different countries have their own idiomatic expressions, pronunciations, and spellings. The Spanish spoken in Spain may not be 100% similar to those spoken in Chile, Uruguay, Bolivia, Mexico, and other Spanish speaking countries. I have pointed this out in the articles I wrote for this magazine. But the spelling of words does not differ from the Spanish of Spain if we compare it with American and British spellings. The difference may lie more than likely in what we may want to surmise as the seemingly homogeneity of the Hispanic culture as opposed to that of their British and American counterparts.
My country, the Philippines, has used American English since the Americans came to our shore in late 19th century until they left and returned our independence in 1946 (the Philippines successful declared its independence from Spain in 1898.) However, the influence of British English because of that expression "que chico es el mundo" has not gone unnoticed especially among the younger generation of college students. (For this subject matter, please refer to my article: The Verbs in Spanish, their Unique Categorization, Dynamism of Spanish in PHILIPPINES)
I started writing mostly in British spelling during my last two years of college at the University of the Philippines when some of our students writing for the university newspaper were using British English and of course the British spelling. Some of them went to British schools and consequently were proud of their British education. At that time we also had students from the former British colonies attending the university and they were from Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, Hongkong, Singapore, Malaysia, Uganda, Nigeria, etc. Their presence as well as the British style of writing and the British spelling employed by our
student writers for our university newspaper had made a follower of me which I still carry to these days.
The spelling differences between the British and American writings are numerous and I will not be able to narrate them all here. I am just going to concentrate on the common British words. Except for many known words, I do not spell all the English words in British; my learning English the American way and my further studies and ultimately my stay in the USA are the obvious explanation.
Let me start with words ending in re and er. The British spellings ending in re are metre, calibre, centre, fibre, goitre, litre, lustre, metre/kilometre, mitre, reconnoitre, sabre, saltpetre, sepulchre, sombre, spectre, and theatre to name a few words. The American spelling for the same words ends in er. Interesting enough the spelling of the word manoeuvre is British; Americans spell it maneuver which also removes the letter o in between the letters n and e in the British spelling.
The words encyclopaedia, orthopaedic, paediatric, palaeonthology, primaeval, mediaeval, etc. are British spellings while their American counterparts do not employ the letter a and consequently the spellings are encyclopedia, orthopedic, paleonthology, pediatric, primeval, and medieval. So are the words: gynaecology, haemophilia, leukaemia, oesophagus, oestrogen, palaeontolody, homoeopathy, etc. Their American English counterparts are gynecology, hemophilia, leukemia, esophagus, estrogen, paleontology and homeopathy.
The same is true also with the British spelling of the following words which end in our and ise and in their American counterparts, the endings are or and ize. They are ardour, honour, labour, candour, organise (organisation), realise (realisation), maximise (maximisation), to name a few.
The British English doubling is required for all inflections (-ed, -ing, -er, -est) and for the noun suffixes -er and -or.) Therefore, British English usage is cancelledcounsellor, cruellest, labelled, modelling, quarrelled, signalling, traveller, jeweller/jewellery, and travelling. Americans usually use canceled, counselor, cruelest, labeled, modeling, quarreled, signaling, traveler, jeweler/jewelry, and traveling. I used to spell the above mentioned words the British way with ll, but I have been adhering to the American spelling for quite some time now.
Advice and device are British spelling and they are spellled as advise and devise in American English. The words defence and offence are British while defense and offense are American. The word programme and aeroplane are British spellings and their American counterparts are program and airplane. Furore and aluminium are British; furor and aluminum (without the i after the letter n) are American. And listen to this, connexion is British spelling while connection is its American counterpart. But this distinction does not appear to remain forever as many Canadians and other former British subject are beginning to use more the American spelling.
There are more example of spelling differences but suffice it to say, one will notice them when s/he either reads British writings. Also the English spoken and words spelled in Australian, Canadian, and New Zealander English is not completely in harmony with British English. As English has acquired an international usage especially the popularity of American English, these three English speaking nations have adopted American spellings. Take for example the word speciality (British) and specialty (American without the i after the letter l). Canada also uses specialty like the the American usage, but in Australia, both speciality (British) and specialty are used. Canada also spells the word jeweller/jewellery as jeweler/jewelry. The fact that the USA and Canada are neighbours has made many Canadians recognise the American spelling and pronunciation of words.
My Ph.D. dissertation at the University of Minnesota carried with it British spellings which my adviser vehemently opposed at the start. But in the end I prevailed. It was not the same experience I had when I wrote my MA thesis at Oxy (Occidental College in Los Angeles, California, the alma mater of President Barak Obama) when one of the thesis critics insisted that I spelled the words in American English, otherwise he would not recommend to the panel the appproval of my MA thesis.  My thesis adviser then urged me to accept the critic's suggestion.
As I already mentioned the English we use in the Philippines has been American English but returning Filipinos students who attended British schools as well as foreign students from the former British colonies attending our schools write in British English. Consequently their idioms and slangs are British. One very common example is the expression "the line is engaged," when the phone line is being used. In American usage, we say "the line is busy."
Lift is elevator in British. This was quite an experience for me when I was in India when I asked the hotel worker where the elevator was located. I knew that the word lift was British, but I forgot at that moment that India was a British colony and therefore spoke British English. The hotel person then told me: "do you mean to say lift?" I became amused and I just smiled at the worker.
Last but not least, the word schedule is pronounced as shedyul in British English including Canadian usage even though Canada and the USA especially the states close to Canada almost have the same accent. The American pronunciation for this word is skedyul. Of course there are more differences in the way we express our thoughts or ideas in both oral and written conversation as we are all culture bound. After all language is the expression of culture and when we adopt a language we incorporate and exhibit the underpinnings and nuances of our indigenous culture.

The first picture of my youngest son Eddnard-Plácido was taken in 2009. The second one was Pfirlani-Eddie, my eldest son inside the dryer in 2006.


Voices: San Antonio College Multicultural Journal
Vol. VI (2012) – Commemorative Issue
In Honor of the Late Chicano Lit Scholar Juan Bruce-Novoa

Nota: San Antonio College (SAC) has just published its sixth annual volume of the journal, Voices: San Antonio College Multicultural Journal (2012). 

I came to this issue of the journal by way of my fortunate meeting with Prof. Juanita Luna Lawhn at the sixth consecutive annual conference of the NACCS-Tejas Foco held this past spring semester at Texas State University in San Marcos, Texas. Juanita is a longtime professor of English and Chican@ Literature at SAC; in fact she taught the first Chican@ lit course at SAC. Juanita invited submission of the edited copy of my paper presented at the NACCS-Tejas Conference, an essay that had been prepared at the invitation of our colleague at Texas State University, Dr. Ana Juárez. One thing led to another and we finally have a copy of the journal in hand. We thank Juanita for sending us a copy. 

Here’s giving this literary and humanities journal a wider note and sharing the particulars of the current volume. The current volume was edited by Juanita Luna Lawhn (San Antonio College), Gilliam “Mike” Burton (San Antonio College), and guest editor, Juan Rodríguez (Texas Lutheran University). The issue is dedicated specifically and broadly to the remembrance and legacy of the late Chicano literary scholar, Dr. Juan Bruce-Novoa, whose last academic post was at the University of California at Irvine. Hence the current issue is what is called on the cover page a “Commemorative Issue.” 

Professor Luna Lawhn is interested in making sure that copies of the journal find their way into the libraries at all of our respective campuses across the country. You may also contact her directly for an individual or personal copy. She has indicated that as long as copies are available she will be able to oblige requests. To contact Juanita write to her email address at: Juanita J. Luna Lawhn Juanita can cue you as to the availability of copies of the current issue. The sooner you respond the likelier your chances of getting a copy sent your way. Have your campus librarian contact her as well. 

For your copy of the latest volume of Voices contact Prof. Juanita Luna Lahwn at: .

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 


Latinos in the New Millennium: Almanac of Opinion, Behavior, and Policy Preferences
Exodus from the Alamo:
The Anatomy of the Last Stand Myth by Phillip Thomas Tucker
Mexican American Colonization during the Nineteenth Century:
A History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands," by Jose Angel Hernandez
Marked for Death by Geert Wilders
Enchanted Legends and Lore of New Mexico: Witches, Ghosts, and Spirits
     by Ray John de Aragón
La Fabrica del Crimen/The Crime Factory by Sandra Rodriguez

Latinos in the New Millennium

An Almanac of Opinion, Behavior, and Policy Preferences

  • Luis R. Fraga, University of Washington
  • Rodney E. Hero, University of California, Berkeley
  • John A. Garcia, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Michael Jones-Correa, Cornell University, New York
  • Valerie Martinez-Ebers, University of North Texas
  • Gary M. Segura, Stanford University, California


Latinos in the New Millennium is the most current and comprehensive profile of Latinos in the United States: looking at their social characteristics, group relations, policy positions and political orientations. The authors draw on information from the 2006 Latino National Survey (LNS), the largest and most detailed source of data on Hispanics in America. This book provides essential knowledge about Latinos, contextualizing research data by structuring discussion around many dimensions of Latino political life in the US. The encyclopedic range and depth of the LNS allows the authors to appraise Latinos' group characteristics, attitudes, behaviors and their views on numerous topics. This study displays the complexity of Latinos, from recent immigrants to those whose grandparents were born in the United States.

  • Hardback   ISBN:9781107017221   470pages   150 b/w illus. 169 tables   Dimensions: 228 x 152 mm
    Not yet published - available from February 2012  
    Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


Exodus from the Alamo: 
The Anatomy of the Last Stand Myth
by Phillip Thomas Tucker  

Last Stand Myth:
The Texan defenders stood their ground, dying to a man within the walls of the Alamo.

"False," writes U.S. Air Force military historian Phillip Thomas Tucker in his 2010 study Exodus from the Alamo: The Anatomy of the Last Stand Myth. According to Tucker, the author or editor of over 20 books and 60 scholarly articles, Santa Anna's pre-dawn attack on the fortified mission caught the garrison unprepared. The accounts of the battle cited by Tucker are not restricted to the disputed diary of Mexican Colonel José Enrique de la Peña, who later became a political rival to Santa Anna. Contemporary Mexican military and American newspaper stories of the battle are examined, as well as diaries describing the period. 

Tucker contends that at least two groups of Texans attempted to leave the Alamo, hoping to reach defensible higher ground east of the mission at what was then the tree-lined alameda of the Gonzales Road, now near the north side of the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center. Tucker's account also examines the makeup and motives of both forces, depicting the majority of the Alamo defenders as recent and naive colonists who hoped to extend the Southern system of slave-labor to attain personal fortune, while the Mexican forces are seen as territorial defenders of a young and fragile republic.

Texas patriots shouldn't be worried by Tucker's version of events. Though he writes of the Alamo rank and file, "Contrary to the traditional Alamo mythology, possessing a death-wish or desiring to die as a martyr to Texas were the lowest of all priorities at the time," Tucker does not impute cowardice to the men, but rather a determination to survive and continue the fight. A group of 62 men are described marching in formation from the Alamo sally port near the Church, hardly a runaway scatter. He also presents evidence that there was true heroic sacrifice at the Alamo, but it wasn't just a gesture. Instead, he posits that the column received supporting fire from Captain Dickenson, who commanded the battery of 12-pounders at the Church's rear. Even with cannon support, states Tucker, the column fell to a lancer company of the Dolores Regiment commanded by General Sesma. Among other evidence, Tucker cites an 1878 article in the San Antonio Daily Express that quotes Sergeant Loranca of the Dolores Cavalry, "Sixty-two Texans who sallied forth … were received by the Lancers."

Though interpretive speculation, the accounts in Tucker's story serve to humanize the conflict, showing foolishness, arrogance, and yes, bravery, on both sides. 
Tara Lichterman 
908 Darby Rd., Havertown, PA 19083
610/853-9131 {tel} 610/853-9146 {fax} 

"Mexican American Colonization during the Nineteenth Century: 
A History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands," 
by Jose Angel Hernandez

This study is a reinterpretation of nineteenth century Mexican American history that examines Mexico's struggle to secure its northern border with repatriates from the United States in the aftermath of a war resulting in the loss of half its territory.

Responding to past interpretations, Jose Angel Hernandez suggests that these resettlement schemes centered on the developments of the frontier region, the modernization of the country with loyal Mexican American settlers, and blocking the tide of migrations to the United States to prevent the depopulation of its fractured northern border.

Through an examination of Mexico's immigration and colonization policies as they developed throughout the nineteenth century, the book focuses primarily on the population of Mexican citizens who were "lost" after the end of the Mexican American War of 1846-1848 until the end of the century.

Editorial Reviews
"Mexican American Colonization during the Nineteenth Century makes a significant contribution to borderlands, Chicano, and Mexican history especially because Jose Angel Hernandez takes a distinctly transnational approach in examining 'Mexican American' migration 'south' to northern Mexico, rather than 'Mexican' migration 'north' to the southwestern United States. While bridging the gap between traditional area studies focused on the United States or Latin America, Hernandez's methodology empirically tests the supposed motivations attributed to 'Mexican repatriates' against the documentary record, concluding with a more subtle interpretation.  Equally impressive is his thoroughly bi-national and bilingual use of both primary and secondary sources. In the final analysis, Jose Angel Hernandez, in revealing the surprising impact of ethnic Mexican repatriates on their nineteenth-century 'homeland' south of the 1848 border, develops a brilliantly original approach worthy of imitation."  - John Chavez, Southern Methodist University

"Jose Angel Hernandez has written an important book about the little-known history of the repatriation of Mexicans in the decades after the U.S.-Mexican War. His work is notable for connecting specific and well-researched cases spanning the entire border from Texas to California to the broad themes of migration, the creation of national spaces, and memory that have been so central in shaping the region." - Andres Resendez, University of California, Davis

"Hernandez's illuminating book transforms our understanding of the U.S.-Mexico borderlands in the latter half of the nineteenth century. He explores the extensive repatriation of Mexican Americans in the colonization of northern Mexico. These policies, he argues, had more to do with defending settlements against the threats of Anglo American invasion and Apache raiding than the often-cited ideological notions of racial 'whitening' or sentimental nationalism. His revealing bi-national archival work opens crucial questions that many scholars considered closed."
 - Renato Rosaldo, New York University

"With one out of ten Mexicans now living in the United States, Jose Hernandez's brilliant historical analysis of Mexico's relationship to its diaspora is a timely and important contribution to knowledge about our often misunderstood southern neighbor. More than any other author, he explains how and why Mexico's northern frontier became transformed into an entity known simply as 'the border.'" - Douglas S. Massey, Princeton University

Paperback: 280 pages
Publisher: Cambridge University Press; 1 edition (April 30, 2012)
ISBN-10: 1107666244
ISBN-13: 978-1107666245

Jose Angel Hernandez
University of Massachusetts-Amherst
Department of History
161 President's Drive
Herter Hall, 624
Amherst, MA 01003
(413) 545-4337

   Marked for Death by Geert Wilders

Edited:  The First Amendment Is What We Need in Europe
Address before the Gatestone Institute, New York City, April 30, 2012, by Geert Wilders  

I am in New York for the release of my book "Marked for Death." It reveals how Islam has already profoundly changed Europe in the last decades. It exposes the cultural relativism which has affected Europe so deeply that many in Europe refuse to stand for liberty and prefer to appease Islam. It explains why Islam is a threat to freedom.

As you know, people who speak out like me pay a steep price for speaking these truths. Apart from legal attempts to silence me, there are also the threats by radical Muslims to kill me. I have been living under permanent police protection for almost eight years now. But I do not regret one word. I see it as my duty to warn the West.

I have traveled widely in the Islamic world. I have read the Koran. I have studied the life of Muhammad. It made me realize that Islam is primarily an ideology rather than a religion. This ideology wants to impose Islamic sharia law on the whole world, including us the Kafirs, the non-Muslims. This ideology is also outspokenly anti-Semitic.

This ideology also harms Muslims. Islam believes that everything men have to know can be found in the Koran. As such, it is hostile to all forms of innovation. But without innovation there can be no progress and people cannot prosper.
Many people unfortunately are blind to the nature of Islam because they do not realize what Islam is, and mistakenly believe that it is a religion just like any other religion.

I have written my book to inform them.
Islam fails four major tests that religions should fulfill:
Adherence to a religion must be a personal choice; 
2) no religion should demand that those who leave it be killed; this makes it a totalitarian ideology rather than a religion. 
3) a religion must never mandate the subjugation of those who do not belong to it; 
4) a religion must be in accord with basic human rights. 

I have also written my book because I am not a defeatist. The West is able to defeat totalitarianism just as it defeated Nazism and Communism in the past.  My book is dedicated to freedom. It is inspired by many freedom fighters, from previous generations but also people from our age.  Fortunately, we are not alone in the fight for freedom. We are in the company of heroes and friends. This gives us the strength to continue.

In order to defeat Islam so, we must do four things.

The first and most important is to speak the truth, always and everywhere also about Islam. Like the Americans, the people in the Netherlands and other European countries desperately need a First Amendment. That will allow them to tell the truth about Islam and Muhammad. We must encourage Muslims to leave Islam and to choose freedom and prosperity.

Secondly, we have to believe in the superiority of our Western values. If we do not believe in our own Western values, we will not be prepared to defend them. That is why we have to end the biggest disease in the world today, the cultural relativism which pretends that all cultures are equal. Our Judeo-Christian, humanist civilization is more free, more democratic, more tolerant than any civilization the world has ever seen. We should not be afraid to say so.

Thirdly, we must stop the Islamization of our societies by restricting immigration from Islamic countries, and expelling those who violate our laws and commit violence. If you respect our laws you are welcome to stay; if you don't, you do not belong here..
And fourthly, we must reassert our national identities. The nation-state enables self-government and self-determination. This insight led the Zionists to establish Israel as the homeland of the Jews.

Zionism teaches us one of the most important lessons which the modern world needs today. Theodor Herzl argued that a Jewish state would facilitate "a new blossoming of the Jewish spirit." Today, we need our own respective nation-states to preside over a new blossoming of our own Western spirit.

Our nations are the homes in which freedom and democracy prosper. This is true for the Netherlands. This is true for America. This is true for Israel.  Israel is the only democracy in the Middle East. It is a beacon of freedom in an unfree region, a beacon of life in a place of darkness. If Israel falls, the West falls.

Mothers in the West can sleep safely because Israeli mothers at night worry about their sons in the army. Their fight is our fight. We should support it.  Israel is, indeed, a vital outpost of Western civilization. That is why Islam conditions the faithful to hate the Jewish state and to view its destruction as an imperative. It is our duty to stand with Israel.

In my book I explain how we can defend freedom and oppose Islamization and cultural relativism in a non-violent and democratic way. In fact, that is what my party, the Party for Freedom, is doing in the Netherlands.

Fourth:  Freedom of Speech 
When I began to speak out against Islam 10 years ago, two things happened. Extremist Muslims from the Netherlands and all over the world marked me for death, but Dutch people came to me to express their support. In 2010, we became the third biggest party in the Netherlands. Though the PVV did not become a coalition partner in the Dutch government, for almost two years we supported a center-right minority government in return for measures to roll back Sharia in Holland, stop the Islamization process, and counter cultural relativism.

The Dutch government even had the audacity to speak out against the powerful OIC, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. The OIC is an international organization of 57 Islamic countries, most of them autocracies,.  This OIC constitutes the largest voting bloc in the United Nation. It criticized the fact that Dutch judges acquitted me of all charges in my court case. But the Dutch government made it clear to the OIC that freedom of speech will not be muzzled in the Netherlands. It told the OIC very bluntly: "The Dutch government dissociates itself fully from the request to silence a politician." 

We are fighting for the future of our children, the survival of the Western spirit, the preservation of our liberty and democracy, our Judeo-Christian and humanist heritage.

We must be brave and save our heritage and our own constitution. The West is in danger, but we can still prevail. Even when we are insulted, even when we are harassed and intimidated -- even when we are marked for death -- we must stand up for our values, tell the truth and never, ever, be silent.

Enchanted Legends and Lore of New Mexico: Witches, Ghosts, and Spirits
by Ray John de Aragón

Beginning in the seventeenth century, townsfolk and rural dwellers in the remote Spanish colonial city of Santa Fe maintained a provocative interest in mysterious and miraculous visions. This preoccupation with the afterlife, occult forces and unearthly beings existing outside the natural world led to early witch trials, stories about saintly apparitions and strange encounters with spirits and haunted places. New Mexican author Ray John de Aragón explores the time-honored tradition of frightening folklore in the Land of Enchantment in this intriguing collection of tales that crosses cultures in the dark corners of the southwestern night.

Born and raised in Las Vegas, New Mexico, Ray John de Aragón has traveled as a storyteller, thrilling audiences with tales of terror and suspense. Ray John’s first university degrees were in education. His advanced degrees are in American studies with an emphasis on the Spanish history, customs and language of New Mexico. He is an internationally recognized author with several published books. He is also a visual artist and santero, a maker of religious images. He is the author of: The Legend of La Llorona, and The Penitentes of New Mexico.


La Fabrica del Crimen/ The Crime Factory 
by Sandra Rodriguez
Frontera List, April 2: 
The new book LA FABRICA DEL CRIMEN [CRIME FACTORY] , by award-winning El Diario reporter Sandra Rodriguez was presented on Friday night at the UACJ bookstore in Juarez. Published by Planeta, the book looks at the forerunners of the current hyper-violence in the city with details on murders, gang life and riots in Juarez prisons, government malfeasance, corruption at all levels of law enforcement, and most importantly, the crisis of impunity. The murderers portrayed in the book state clearly that they never thought their crimes would be punished. Rodriguez is an investigative journalist and it is her research into the justice system in Juarez and Chihuahua that provides practically the only evidence of the actual and almost complete lack of prosecution or punishment of more than 95% of homicides and other crimes in the city. Many of the events in her book pre-date the explosion of extreme violence in 2008 and the detailed reporting in the book is essential to even beginning to understand what is happening in the city and why it is now one of the the most violent places on the world. This is a VERY IMPORTANT book.
Below are articles from El Pais and El Diario, by uncorrected google translations... 

GOOGLE TRANSLATION of "Killing in Ciudad Juarez goes unpunished"
The journalist recounts Sandra Rodriguez youth drug hitmen in 'The Factory of crime'
http://internacional.elpais. com/internacional/2012/04/01/ actualidad/1333316546_058934. html
At 37, Sandra Rodriguez Nieto journalist has seen many corpses in Ciudad Juarez and it shows in the precision of their descriptions. Between 2008 and 2010 were killed in the town over 7,000 people. In just under 200 cases were evidence against suspects, the rest got away. Data are collected in The Crime Factory, a book that bears his signature and has just published Planet.

The reporter, a native of Chihuahua, answers the call of the day while driving on the streets in recent years it has become the most violent city in Mexico. "It's a good time, just let me park," says a professional used to make the stories when they arrive. Investigative journalist, working for The Journal, has spent years covering the event information in Juarez. Crime Factory tells the story of Vincent, a teenager in 2004 and only 16 killed his parents and sister and then ask for rescue as if her disappearance was an abduction. The young man would enter later in the band of Artists Murderers and end up being shot without any family claim his body. "A case strong enough" to support the history of violence in Ciudad Juarez and serve as a guideline to the author to investigate the causes leading to train a generation "willing to kill for any reason or for none, simply because doing so, not punishment. " It is what Rodriguez called consciousness of impunity.

"I conceive the phenomenon of violence here as the sum of a series of failures by the authorities, who did not do their job and were the first to protect the drug."Vincent decided to kill because he was convinced that nobody would investigate the killing, like so many others who had already occurred. "Without punishment, the message came to these young people was that human life has no value," says the author.

For the reporter, the guy was a torturer created by society, which helped shape the environment. A bright young man with great skills and enormous intelligence, as were people like The Dream oThe Saik, but no moral effort, unaided, were easily influenced. "They grew up in an environment in which all stimuli had to commit crimes with impunity against the rampant killings and violence unleashed in such a way as to highlight in the neighborhood, you have to carry a weapon."

She also blamed part of the phenomenon of violence to sprawl Juarez boomeconómico experimented with the maquilas, the factories that export of textiles. "The authorities favored the capital alone." The population increase was accompanied at all the tools necessary to structure neighborhoods with schools, hospitals or public places where he could grow a healthy society. "It has long been warning about a large segment of the population that neither study nor work more than 50% of young people leaving school after high school." While the number of murders has declined every month for the past year, attributed in part to the supposed victory of a poster on another and changes in the municipal police, the journalist believes that violence can be reactivated.

Concerned about this whole phenomenon and very committed to her work, Sandra Rodriguez was included in 2010 in the list of Heroes of the Media published by the Los Angeles Times, but never felt such: "Heroin?, Not only consider I have a responsibility as a reporter. "

Aware of the pressures on reporters cartels and very present with the memory of Armando Rodriguez El Choco, partner of The Journal in February 2008 threatened and killed that same year, the journalist refused but more difficult to play their work by being a woman. "The nature of this city is a massive incorporation of women into work. In the editorial, in driving, in the maquilas. The environment is tough but we are many we cover drug information and the deal is different, "he says. A Rodriguez is more concerned about not knowing how to distinguish good from bad and insists in the interview: "When one speaks of refers to the dealer cartel, the gunman, police and authorities. If the drug groups are so powerful is because they have had from the beginning with the government protection. "

GOOGLE TRANSLATION of The Journal reporter urges to seek justice in the book The Crime Factory
Staff, THE JOURNAL | 03.31.2012 notas.php?f=2012/03/31&id= 6ccd6800a3ff6ec0bb4c5b93b15fa7 3e

The reporter for El Diario, Sandra Rodriguez Nieto, last night presented his book "The Crime Factory", a work published by Planeta, where among other things discusses how the image and urban sprawl have led to crime and social fragmentation.

The book launch was held at the University Bookstore UACJ at the Centro Cultural Paso del Norte, which were Teresa Almada, director of Casa Youth Promotion, journalist Alejandro Paez and Professor Hugo Almada.

"That's my intention with this book, generate a reflection on who you read on the importance of law enforcement, the need for us that these institutions really work and devote themselves to clarify, because otherwise we will not leave of our barbarity. Because parks could be built, how good, may be invested in police clearance, good, but what we need is a state that is decided politically to fight crime, whoever falls, otherwise our crime problem will deepen ' Rodriguez said Nieto.

The journalist explained that while there are several components in Juarez that the crime conducive to play, impunity is the key to facing this city decay and brutality with which this is a war between organized crime cartels.

To encourage such reflection and raise the argument that the best fighting violence is controlling the offense through the administration and enforcement of justice, journalist Chihuahua developed extensive research that has as main character Vicente Leon Chavez, the teenager who in May 2004 killed his parents and sister because he believed that killing and throwing the bodies in Ciudad Juarez was very easy.

It is from this case that the author of the book documents in detail the system of justice in Chihuahua to the constitutional reform that leads to the hearings. "The Crime Factory", a book that promotes itself as "a stark portrait of crime in the extreme", is already on sale. 

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Latino soldiers
 Cebu, Phillipines, WW II


American Rosie the Riveter Association
Vietnam Wall, Searching by Hometown Location

Austin, Texas Vietnam Deaths
Army Sergeant Receives Second Highest Military Honor
"Shifty" - an incredible American hero by Chuck Yeager
Death March survivor finally tells story
Social Security and Department of Defense Implement New Process
Congratulations to Alfredo Lugo, Advocate for Veterans Rights

The unfortunate story of what happened to Joe Sanchez and me
The American Rosie the Riveter Association (ARRA) is conducting a national search to locate the Rosies & Rositas & Roses who worked during World War II to do the work needed in our nation's war effort. They worked in war-related services such as aircraft plants, cotton fields, copper mines, munitions plants, shipyards, aircraft assembly factories or for the Red Cross. Each day, we lose opportunities to interview them, collect their stories for future generations of students, scholars, researchers. Do you know a Rosie, a Rose, a Rosita who came to the aid of their country? If so, the ARRA wants to honor 1/888-557-6743 or send an e-mail to or visit their site at for information....let's get our Rositas/Rosies/Roses AND other women involved and honored....

Vietnam Wall, Searching by Hometown Location 

US Flag Summary

First click on a state. When it opens, scroll down to the city and the names will appear. Then click on their names. It should show you picture of the person, or at least their bio and medals.
1)Click on the link and find the city you went to high school/college or the town you lived in and look at the names.
(2)Click on the name and it will give details of the death.

Sent by Jack Cowan 

We have 100 different US flag products, ranging from 4x6in to 30ftx50ft. The list includes indoor and outdoor kits, car flags, stick flags, banners, nylon, cotton and polyester flags, printed flag, sewn flags and more!

Who really designed the American Flag?
Find out at our Flag Blog

US Flag Summary

Information on purchasing a United States flag.


Austin, Texas  Viet Nam Deaths

Seventy five young men from the Austin area were killed in the war in Viet Nam; during that era the Tejano population of Austin was less than 10 percent yet suffered 25 percent of the casualties and 23 percent were from Johnston High School.

Join us as we honor these young men that sacrificed their lives while in service to their country. Scheduled to speak will be State Representative Eddie Rodriguez. This year's ceremony will be dedicated to the latest casualty of the war, U.S. Navy Hospital Corpsman, Joe Ramos.

A ceremony took place at Eastside Memorial High School at the
Johnston Campus 1012 Arthur Stiles Road on May 26, 2012. 

The Battle of Medina Society, the Tejanos in Action, the Johnston 34 Memorial Committee and the Johnston/Eastside Memorial High School Ex-Students Association honor the Service, Loyalty, Personal Hardships, and the Supreme Sacrifices made by our fellow Citizens.

Dan Arellano President
Johnston Memorial Committee
Arturo Acosta
Pete "Log" Aguilar
Malone Allen
Arthur Arredondo
Gene Beltran
Jose Ramon Cano 
John (Chicho) Castillo
Rudy Espinoza
Joe Gallardo
David Guerrero
Wiley Guerrero 
Isaac Guzman
Billy Harris
Jesse T. Hernandez
John 'Matt"Hernandez
Booker T. Loftin
Rudy Lopez 

Joe Montez
Walter Moore 
Joe B. Moreno
David Mosqueda
Ernest Ojeda
Eleuterio ( Shine) Pena
Alex Quiroz 
Joe Ramos
Gabriel Rodela Jr
Joe "Karate Kid" Rodriguez 
Toby Rodriguez
Johnny Roland 
Henry Terrazas
Daniel Tienda 
Ray Louis Van Zandt
Alfred Venegas
Sam "Semia" Ybarra 
Army Sergeant Receives Second Highest Military Honor 

April 13, 2012
Associated Press |by Kristin M. Hall

FORT CAMPBELL, Ky. -- A Brazilian-born Army sergeant credited with saving two lives during an attack in Afghanistan while wounded has been presented with the nation's second highest military honor, the Distinguished Service Cross.

Army Chief of Staff Gen. Ray Odierno presented the medal to Sgt. Felipe Pereira of the 101st Airborne Division during a ceremony Thursday at the installation on the Tennessee-Kentucky state line.

Pereira is the first soldier from the famed 101st Airborne Division since Vietnam to receive the honor. He is assigned to Company A, 1st Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team.

Born in Brasilia, he moved to America at the age of 17 to learn English at a Nebraska college. He earned a degree in biology and was working as a martial arts instructor when he decided to join the Army. In 2010, he became a dual citizen of Brazil and the United States.

For the complete article, go to: Networking Sites Become a fan on Facebook Follow on Twitter

Sent by Bill Carmena

"SHIFTY" - an incredible American hero by Chuck Yeager

Shifty volunteered for the airborne in WWII and served with Easy  Company of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, part of the 101st Airborne Infantry. If you've seen Band of Brothers on HBO or the History Channel, you know Shifty. His character appears in all 10 episodes, and Shifty himself is interviewed in several of them. 

I met Shifty in the Philadelphia airport several years ago. I didn't know who he was at the time. I just saw an elderly gentleman having trouble reading his ticket. I offered to help, assured him that he was at the right gate, and noticed the "Screaming Eagle," the symbol of  the 101st Airborne, on his hat. 

Making conversation, I asked him if he'd been in the 101st Airborne or if his son was serving. He said quietly that he had been in the 101st. I thanked him for his service, then asked him when he served, and how many jumps he made. 

Quietly and humbly, he said "Well, I guess I signed up in 1941 or so, and was in until sometime in 1945 ..." at which point my heart skipped. At that point, again, very humbly, he said "I made the 5 training jumps at Toccoa, and then jumped into Normandy . . . do you know where Normandy is?" At this point my heart stopped. I told him "yes, I know exactly where Normandy is, and I know what D-Day was." At that point he said "I also made a second jump into Holland , into Arnhem ." I was standing with a genuine war hero ...  and then I realized that it was June, just after the anniversary of D-Day. 

I asked Shifty if he was on his way back from France , and he said "Yes... And it 's real sad because, these days, so few of the guys are left, and those that are, lots of them can't make the trip." My heart was in my throat and I didn't know what to say. 

I helped Shifty get onto the plane and then realized he was back in coach while I was in First Class. I sent the flight attendant back to get him and said that I wanted to switch seats. When Shifty came forward, I got up out of the seat and told him I wanted him to have it, that I'd take his in coach. 

He said "No, son, you enjoy that seat. Just knowing that there are still some who remember what we did and who still care is enough to make an old man very happy." His eyes were filling up as he said it. And mine are brimming up now as I write this. 

Shifty died on Jan. l7, 2011 after fighting cancer. 
There was no parade. 
No big event in Staples Center . 
No wall-to-wall, back-to-back 24x7 news coverage. 
No weeping fans on television. 

And that's not right! Please do me a favor and pass this on so that untold thousands can read it. We owe no less to our REAL heroes....  Rest in peace, Shifty.  Chuck Yeager, Maj. General [ret.] 

Distributed by Francis ”Joe” Kelman KI4TRR
ARES Emergency Coordinator
CERT Assistant Program Coordinator
CERT Logistics Section Chief
Suwannee County, Florida
Cell 386-590-1594

Sent by Eddie Grijalva

Death March survivor finally tells story 
by Tom Berg   

Fountain Valley. All those years, no one knew about April 1942.  Elias Coloma, now 90, was just the wicker basket guy at the Orange County Swap Meet.  "He was funny, always joking around," says Shirley Heinle, a swap-meet vender since 1983. "But we didn't know that about him."

Over the decades Coloma's wicker business expanded from retail to wholesale. Still, no one knew about April 1942. "He'd give my kids lollipops and give me tips about (buying) baskets," says Sylvia Munoz, who supplied her business at Coloma's warehouse. "But he never talked about that." Even Coloma's own family knew little about April 1942.

"We heard bits and pieces about him eating bugs they found along the road," says his daughter Kele Coloma. "But we didn't know a lot. He had a hard time talking about it."  That's what happens when you witness inhumanity at a level rarely seen – even in war. "I consider myself lucky," Coloma says, gripping his cane before his recent 90th birthday party. "I just can't express it." And with those words, he finally begins talking about April 1942.  And how he survived the Bataan Death March.


The Battle of Bataan is a story that goes in one direction – bad to worse. It starts Dec. 8, 1941. Just hours after bombing Pearl Harbor, the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the Philippines. Very quickly, they cornered 80,000 unprepared American and Filipino troops on the Bataan Peninsula.

"You'd hear boom-boom-boom," says Coloma, a forward observer with the Philippine Scouts, under command of the U.S. Army. "And wherever those shells dropped, they killed someone because we were too many people all in one place."

Four months it lasted. When C-rations ran out, Coloma's 86th Field Artillery Battalion ate horses. Then monkeys. Then grass. Then weeds.  "The shelling was continuous," says Coloma. "Night and day."

By April 9, 1942, it was clear that no help was coming. So U.S. Army Gen. Edward King surrendered his 15,000 American and 60,000 Filipino troops – the largest U.S. surrender since the Civil War.  At first it didn't seem so bad. The Japanese told Coloma he could walk home so he followed the endless line of men in the road.

"We began to realize it was really different when the weak people were pulled off the side of the road and shot," he says. "Or bayoneted."  Those who asked for water?  "Sometimes the guard would open their mouth with a weapon and shoot them," he says, holding his cane up like a rifle.

Asked where he slept, he pounds his cane on the floor: "We marched without sleeping," he says, his words growing more and more concussive. "In the hot sun we marched and at night we marched. No food and no water, okay? No rest."


Five days he held on as others dropped or were executed. "If there was mud on the side of the road, we'd try to drink from it," he says. "If there was wild rice, we'd pick the grain and put it in our pocket."  Sometimes the guards would allow it. Sometimes they'd tie the prisoner to a tree and shoot him – boom – as an example.

"I told myself, 'I will survive,' " says Coloma, whose cane punctuates every story. "I wanted to go home."  On the fifth day, they were crammed into boxcars in San Fernando.  "No one could sit down," he says. "There was no place to defecate, no bathroom, nothing," Coloma says. "It was so hot and so filled that some people died on their feet."  When the doors finally opened in Capas, the survivors marched nine more miles to their final destination, Camp O'Donnell. 

Of the 75,000 men who began the death march, an estimated 10,000 were executed or marched to death along the way – making it one of the worst atrocities in modern warfare. And it wasn't over yet.  Malaria, dysentery and starvation claimed another 22,000 prisoners over the next three months. Camp conditions were so unsanitary that hospital floors reportedly were covered with bodies, blood and vomit – all covered with flies.

"I was lucky," says Coloma, whose weight dropped from 130 to 70 pounds. "I kept an old meat can, not washed, clipped to my pants. With that, I ate a bowl or rice and a cup of water a day." In July, the Japanese transferred prisoners to another camp. And that's when a stranger saved Coloma's life.


A crowd of Filipino civilians waited outside the gate to watch the prisoners pass. One civilian pulled Coloma out of line, threw a clean shirt over him and snuck him away.  "They took me village to village," he says, "until I was home (in Guimba, in central Luzon). Then I said, 'I am free.' "

Coloma served as a guerilla fighter with (Maj. Robert) "Lapham's Raiders" throughout the war, then re-joined the U.S. Army, which promoted him and brought him to America. Coloma retired from the Army in 1962 as a master sergeant.

For the next 50 years he lived a quiet life with his wife and four daughters. Always hardworking. Always frugal. Always quiet about his past.  He was just the wicker basket guy.

Until a few years ago when he was hospitalized on his birthday and came close to death. His family sat by his side for days until Coloma – the ultimate survivor – pulled out and now lives with a pacemaker. Since then, his daughters have urged him to talk about April 1942.

"Nobody really knows what he did," says his daughter Kele Coloma. "He's like the quiet, unspoken hero. We just want people to know what he went through."  Fewer than 100 Philippine Scouts from the Bataan Death March are left, says Gil Mislang, vice president of the Philippine Scouts Heritage Society.

"These men are proud but they do not cry," he says. "When they talk about their hardships, they stop and look down and become silent for a little bit, but they continue. It shows, what they went through. They can never forget."

And that's what happens when Coloma is asked how he survived one of the worst atrocities in modern warfare – the Bataan Death March.  "I can't describe it," he says, and this time his eyes close, his words pause and even his cane goes silent. "All I had was a determination to survive, that's all."  He appears lost for a moment, then is back.  "I can't say anymore."

Contact the writer: 714-796-6979 or

Sent by Tom Saenz 

Social Security and Department of Defense Implement New Process
to Improve Efficiency for Wounded Warriors Applying for Disability Benefits
Electronic Medical Records Will Reduce Time for a Decision 

The Social Security Administration and the Department of Defense (DoD) are working together to improve access to disability benefits for the nation’s Wounded Warriors, service members, veterans, and their dependents. A new nationwide project enables Social Security disability case processing sites to receive military medical records from multiple DoD facilities with a single request to a centralized DoD site. As of today, this initiative is in its first phase of nationwide expansion.

“Receiving electronic medical records for our Wounded Warriors and other military personnel will significantly shorten the time it takes to make a disability decision,” said Michael J. Astrue, Commissioner of Social Security. “This new process will improve the speed, accuracy, and efficiency of the disability program.”

Sent by Rafael Ojeda
Tacoma, Washington

CONGRATULATIONS TO ALFREDO LUGO,  Advocate for Veterans Rights   

The unfortunate story of what happened to Joe Sanchez and me


To all concerned:  

I want to take this opportunity to tell my version of the unfortunate story of what happened to Joe Sanchez and me while making a lawful arrest on April 13, 1982 . It was a good arrest, but then a bizarre turn of events occurred, that left one of us accused of committing burglary and assault, which ultimately cost Joe his job and pension. And yet the invisible man, (ME, the other officer present), was allowed to continue my career totally unaffected. Firstly, I would be remiss if I didn’t give you a brief background of what was happening prior to this incident.

            When Joe arrived at the 30th Pct., he did so with some obscure rumbling from unknown officers in his past commands. It was implied that he was an “Active” officer with a dangerous enthusiasm towards making arrests. It was also mentioned that he may have the Department’s attention as result of his large arrest activity. After meeting Joe, I was impressed with his knowledge of the street and its workings. He was a highly decorated officer and also, a wounded Vietnam combat veteran. We were allowed to team up and became a well known duo in the community as well as in the Department. During this time, we effected numerous dangerous arrests and were not intimidated by street thugs who would take control of entire neighborhoods as they flourished in their criminal endeavors. Somewhere during this period of many good arrests, the death threats began. Criminal elements began fighting back. The Department, of course, took notice. There was the taking of pot shots at us and untrue allegations of misconduct now being lodged against us. Those arrested, now carried with their MO, the discrediting of arresting officers. Their attempt to draw the Department’s attention in hopes that the uncovering of incidental breaches of Departmental guidelines, would result in action against us. It became a two front offensive against us.

            On April 13th, 1982 , Joe and I had stopped at a hardware store in our sector to have spare radio car keys made.  As we left the hardware store with our newly made keys, we spotted a vehicle moving slowly in our direction. It was too slow and the only people who would be driving like that were either lost, living near by or looking to obtain drugs. The entire upper area of our command was infested with locations where cocaine or marijuana was easily purchased. The driver obviously wasn’t looking for parking as he exited the auto wearing a large cowboy hat. He headed towards a nearby building as the other occupants remained in the vehicle. He entered a building through the front entrance after ringing to be buzzed in.  We felt confident we knew what was going down and pursued our suspicions to make a possible arrest. We followed the cowboy hat, (Bertino Cunningham), into the building after ringing an unknown apartment and getting buzzed in. We specifically notified central of our actions as required. We quietly arrived on the floor where the suspect knocked on a door and was admitted entry. We paused momentarily wondering if it was all over. Suddenly, another male exited the apartment and walked right into us. After speaking with this male, he agreed to knock on the door in what appeared to be a gesture of cooperation.  The knock sounded and the door opened. Joe who was standing in front of me, observed the apartment occupant open the door while holding a pistol. Joe turned and flashed “Herman, he’s got a gun” and began rushing the door. I followed and we were now inside the apartment entrance with this armed guardian pinned against the wall.  The fellow, who knocked fled as I secured the guardian, removing the weapon from him and forcing him to the floor. Joe had already entered further into the apartment and was covering others with his drawn weapon. Calls to central for back-up were transmitted. I pulled my prisoner toward Joe as I would expect any partner would have done with the intent in not leaving their partner alone. Upon reaching Joe, we were now covering three males and guarding a closed door where a female had fled into. The sound of an opening window was heard by Joe from within this adjacent room. Our back-ups began pouring in as the prisoners were frisked and contraband secured. It was up to Joe and I to protect the integrity of the collected evidence and condition of the prisoners. This became difficult with the arrival of our back-ups. There were so many assisting in pat downs and searches for further weapons and contraband. The extra help was at first, vital to survival and essential to stabilizing the situation. Once things were calm, only the AO’s (arresting officers) and essential personnel should have remained. This is where sergeants earn their keep. They oversee the operation. It was also during this brief period of time, that if anything improper occurred, how could it go un- noticed? I can recall pushing cops out of the way in an attempt to secure the contraband and maintain the integrity of the crime scene. There were too many participants in a small area. Prisoners were being repeatedly searched and shoved around. When it finally slowed down, Bertino Cunningham was heard to exclaim “Are you Joe Sanchez? You took my money” Joe was startled at this sudden accusation which seemed as if it was planned. Cunningham was told that he would be allowed to air his complaint at the 30th Pct. station house.

            At the station house, the arrests were processed and the allegation of theft was lodged specifically and “only” against Joe. A field FIAU (Field Internal Affairs Unit) Lieutenant arrived and interviewed Joe and me. We were informed that an investigation would follow in this matter. This was routine as in all such cases. It was almost funny that Joe and I were known to the local FIAU as active officers who have had allegations aimed at them to interfere with our active posture. To me, it was just another baseless allegation.  I completed the processing while Joe was interviewed.  I don’t remember much about the FIAU interviews at the station house because I was the arresting officer and had my hands full with the paperwork involved. The arrest moved through the Court System, as Joe and I testified before a  grand jury to secure indictments against our prisoners. Note: A person who testifies in front of a grand jury is automatically given immunity from prosecution unless that person waives his/her immunity by signing a form. Neither Sanchez nor I were told by the assistant Manhattan prosecutor to do so after we had explained the situation of the arrest and the complaint on Sanchez by Bertino Cunningham. The then special state prosecutor, Thomas Duffy and his assistant Joe Hester, knowing Sanchez had immunity, proceeded to indict him anyway, thus violating Sanchez's civil rights and  due process, which in itself, became a total fiasco of our justice system

            The tables began to turn! Appearances and progress in this case slowed down almost un-noticed. The case seemed stalled. The single allegation against Joe now grew to three or four. The other prisoners now were similarly robbed by Joe Sanchez. Still, nothing was directed at me! The Monday morning quarterbacks at the command were in their glory. “Serves him right, we all knew this would happen and that’s what he gets for being so active and in the spotlight”. These were the sentiments flowing around. There appeared to be a polarization within the command regarding Joe. What also was emanating was the question of what my part was in this mess? Wasn’t I the other officer present? There were no allegations tossed at me although I expected, as the partner, to be targeted just as Joe had been.

            The allegations against Joe grew into an indictment, arrest, and suspension. It was as if I didn’t exist on that day. We both had families and I was disturbed, but thankful I still had my job. We both had families that were to be affected by this. The questions grew at the command about what had happened. It was more confusing to fellow officers than you could imagine. Things were said about me. The rumble was that I turned and agreed to testify against my partner for exclusion in the storm that would follow. What was missing was that the Department mounted no action against me, and the vivid images of that day and the struggle with the armed guardian and the good arrest seemed to have been forgotten by all. What should have been a Department Recognition evolved into the loss of a job for Joe and the disappearance of all the defendants. All of the defendants were promised immunity from prosecution if they testified against Joe. Of the six arrested, three never testified once given immunity. They went missing and were unable to be found by the Special State Prosecutors Office. The remaining three, cowboy hat Cunningham, girlfriend and the gun toting guard at the door testified against Joe. It did not matter that the prosecutor knew they were lying. Sanchez had to go down. At his trial, I testified on his behalf as did FIAU Lt John Verwoert and Captain Raymond Abruzzi, who was once our commanding officer at the 30 Pct.

            The newly appointed Special State Prosecutor in 1985, Charles Joe Hynes, (now a Brooklyn  District Attorney), realized Joe Sanchez was unjustly arrested and indicted and dismissed the indictment against him, yet the damage was already done as Joe was fired and unable to return to the NYPD.

In spite of being accused, arrested, indicted and then exonerated, Joe became a New York State Corrections Officer working at the Sing Sing facility where he faced inmates he had once arrested in Washing Heights . Joe's is a story that needs to be heard by all of law enforcement and others who champion the cause for justice. It tells us all what can happen to a good, honest and well decorated cop that broke the police code of silence and paid dearly for it from "The Enemy Within".

            More details of the subsequent hearings and outcome can be found in the book “True Blue: A Tale of the Enemy Within” by Joe Sanchez and Mo Dahnia.

 Thank you, Herman Velez


Cinco de Mayo Historical Reenactment,  Camp Mabry Military Base,  Austin, Tx 
General Bernardo de Galvez and The Texas Longhorn 

General Zaragoza center 
Juan Hinojosa on Right

2012 Cinco de Mayo Historical Reenactment
in was held at the
Camp Mabry Military Base in Austin, Tx

Chuck Young, Hector Diaz & Roland Nunez Salazar

The reenactment and celebration during the day included mariachi and dancers!  A Military Ball with full regalia was held in the evening at the Holiday Inn Hotel in downtown Austin.

Watch Battle of Puebla on Youtube

L to R Dora Cruz, President
 of Share the Culture, Inc. 
Don Miles & Kathy Riley

L to R Jill, Hector Diaz 
& Maribel Rios

Gina Flores, unknown, Maribel Rios, Dora Cruz & Kathy Riley

Maribel Rios/Roland N Salazar

Share the Culture, Inc. is a non-profit group dedicated to sparking interest in the general public by encouraging living history reenactments, such as the historic Cinco de Mayo - The Battle of Puebla event. 
For more information on participating with the group, please contact Don Miles, organizer of the Battle of Puebla event, President & CEO of Share the Culture, Inc., 

General Bernardo de Galvez and The Texas Longhorn 

Long before the cattle drives of early Texas were recorded in the 1800s, there was a Texas Longhorn cattle drive that would have a major impact in the American Revolution. This historical event took place about one-hundred years before cattle were trailed in Texas. At that time, Texas was part of New Spain, as was most of what we now know as the United States. Spanish General Bernardo de Galvez, an almost forgotten name in the American Revolution, was a man destined to become a hero of the Revolution.

General Bernardo de Galvez was one of the most influential leaders aiding the American colonists in their struggle for Independence. Although he is has been left out of many history books, today a few historians are beginning to acknowledge his contributions to the American Revolution, which resulted in independence from Great Britain. The support that he gave to George
Washington and the colonists helped to establish a vibrant new nation, the United States of America.

Bernardo de Galvez was born on July 23, 1746 in Malaga, Spain. He was married to Marie Felice de Saint-Maxent Estrehan and they had three children. He had a distinguished military career and participated in military conflicts in Portugal, Algiers, and in New Spain, where he fought against the Apache Indians. In North Africa, Galvez proved his courage when he refused to surrender
his position which was about to be attacked, even though he was seriously wounded. His dedicated service to Spain resulted in military promotions and helped him gain vast leadership and warfare experience that would prove to be invaluable to him.

In 1777, Bernardo de Galvez arrived in Louisiana as a colonel and interim governor of the Province. The American colonies were at war with Great Britain, and it would only be a short time before Spain would be engaged in the American Revolution. The colonies needed financial aid, supplies, and additional manpower. In 1777 through Galvez’s effort, $70,000 worth of goods was shipped to Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and other American posts. Forming an alliance with Oliver Pollock, the American agent in New Orleans, General Galvez kept the Mississippi River open for navigation so that much needed provisions and essential equipment could be supplied to General George Rogers Clark in the upper Midwest and to General George Washington in the east.

By 1779, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general and was commissioned by the King of Spain, Carlos III, to serve as Governor of Louisiana. After the Battle of Saratoga, which is considered a defining moment of the American Revolution, France, Spain and Holland joined Washington’s forces in their fight against theBritish. On May 8, 1779, King Carlos III ordered Governor
Galvez to raise and lead the Spanish armed forces along the Coast of the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River. Even before Spain declared war against the British, Galvez had been secretly providing aid to the Americans. When Spain finally declared war on the British in August, 1779, General Galvez was free to act openly. Galvez’sforces were comprised of not only Spanish soldiers, but also Frenchmen, Mestizos, Indians, Mexicans, Germans, as well as others. Part of his army even included an Irish regiment and an Italian regiment.

Galvez knew that a reliable source of food was necessary to feed a fighting army and he also knew that Texas could provide large herds of cattle to provide that much needed food. He sent an emissary, Francisco Garcia, to San Antonio de Bexar on June 20, 1779, with a dispatch to Texas Governor Domingo Cabello. This dispatch lawfully authorized the first cattle drive out of Texas. By August, the first two thousand head of Texas Longhorns were on their way to Louisiana. Throughout the remainder of the
American Revolution, up to fifteen thousand head of cattle were rounded up on the ranches between Bexar and La Bahia in herds of about one thousand each. The cattle were trailed by vaqueros and mission Indians and were escorted by Spanish soldiers to Nacogdoches, to Natchitoches, and then on to Opelousas for distribution to the Spanish forces under Galvez. These cattle kept
the Spanish army and its allies fed during the war against Great Britain; thus, Texas and Texas Longhorns played a significant role in the American Revolution.

Galvez’s victories in 1779 against the British aremonumental. He won battles at Manchac, Baton Rouge, and Natchez. The following year in 1780 Fort Charlotte at Mobile surrendered to Galvez’s forces. His next objectivewas Pensacola, where after months of fighting, the British relinquished Fort George to Galvez. The Battle of Pensacola was one of the longest battles of the American Revolution, yet, it is seldom mentioned in our history books. Galvez died on November 30, 1786 in Mexico City
at the age of forty.

Without the help of Spain, General Bernardo de Galvez and the Texas Longhorns, the outcome of the American  Revolution may have had a much different ending. In Texas, the city of Galveston was named in honor of Gen. Galvez. He was honored with a bust at the site of Fort George in Florida. A United States postage stamp was issued in 1980 to commemorate the 200th anniversary
of Galvez’s victory at Mobile. In Washington D.C. there is a statue of Galvez mounted on a horse. A speech given on June 3, 1976 by King Carlos I of Spain is engraved on the base of the statue, and reads in part, “May the statueof Bernardo de Galvez serve as a reminder that Spain offered the blood of her soldiers for the cause of American Independence.”

General Bernardo de Galvez’s role in the American Revolution is as exciting as it is heroic and should be remembered and celebrated.

Much of the information for this article is from conversations with my good friend, Judge Robert H. Thonhoff, and from his book The Texas Connection with The American Revolution. There are two active historical organizations that work to educate the public about the significant contributions of Spain, Bernardo De Galvez, and Texas to the success of the American Revolution:
The Granaderos and Damas de Galvez and The Texas Connection to the American Revolution Association (TCARA).

The obverse of the 2012 TNA Medal features General Bernardo de Galvez, the Spanish Burgundy flag, and a Texas Longhorn. The reverse of the medal shows the official seal of the Texas Numismatic Association. The medal was designed by TNA Medals Officer Frank Galindo of San Antonio, Texas. Anyone interested in ordering a silver and bronze medal set or single bronze medals, contact Frank Galindo, TNA Medals Officer, via e-mail at HYPERLINK “” orat P.O. Box 12217, San Antonio, TX 78212-0217.

The March/April 2012 issue of TNA News, the official publication of the Texas Numismatic Association (TNA), has a picture of a medal of Bernardo de Gálvez and an article titled “The Role of General Bernardo de Gálvez and the Texas Longhorns in the American Revolution.” The creative genius of the medal and the article is Frank Galindo, member of the Founding Chapter of the Granaderos y Damas de Gálvez. The medal and article can be viewed in the Association’s website at (Click the March/April 2012 hypertext address and scroll to page 15).

Sent by Joel Escamilla

Governor General Granaderos y Damas de Galvez, 
San Antonio


Fuentes Family Papers 
Antonio Rodríguez Fuentes & Josefina Barrera Fuentes Family Papers

Antonio Rodríguez Fuentes (1895-1988) and Josefina Barrera Fuentes (1898-1993) were two longtime Corpus Christi residents who ranked among the most involved individuals in early local Mexican American community organizations. Mr. Fuentes was born and raised on his family’s ranch near Montemorelos, Nuevo León, Mexico, and received his education in Montemoreles. As a young man he moved to Laredo, Texas, to live and work. 

Mr. Fuentes traveled from Laredo to Corpus Christi during the 1910s, where he was impressed by the beauty of Corpus Christi Bay and decided to take up residence. In Corpus Christi he became further self-taught, learning English and other skills. He met Josefina Barrera in Corpus Christi, a native of the city, and the couple married in 1918. When they married, Mr. Fuentes worked as a clerk for the local Mexican Consul. The Fuentes couple would have five children, including Ruben, Ophelia, Mercedes, Antonio, and Carmen. The couple instilled in their children a love of reading and respect for education.

Josefina Barrera was the daughter of José María Barrera and Roque Martínez Barrera, respected members of Corpus Christi Mexican American society. Because of her family’s affiliation with many organizations, Josefina and her husband naturally became involved in these groups as well as in the social network that these clubs comprised. The Fuentes couple was related to numerous local individuals, including such luminaries as Andres De Luna, one of the founders of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). 

Mr. Fuentes became active in the local Corpus Christi branches of Mexican American organizations including the Obreros y Obreras, Alianza Hispano-Americana, Woodmen of the World, and others, often held office in these groups, worked to keep them functioning, and traveled as a delegate to their out-of-town conventions. He also sold insurance for these organizations to their members, which was a vital service to the membership. For a time, he and his wife operated a dry goods store, though Mrs. Fuentes worked mainly in the home. 

Antonio R. Fuentes, Corpus Christi Photographer and Filmmaker.  
Mr. Fuentes was likewise a proficient photographer by avocation. As such he owned and took pictures with Kodak still camera and with a 9.5 mm French-made Pathex movie camera. These images are listed in the inventory below. His cameras are in boxes 62 and 63, respectively. His photography included a range of topics, including family and historically valuable organizational images. The remarkable nature of Mr. Fuentes’ Corpus Christi movies can be savored by the above signature images of this link. These motion pictures may well represent some of the earliest made by a Mexican American filmmaker about the Mexican American community in Texas. None of these images may be used or downloaded without the written permission of Special Collections & Archives, Mary and Jeff Bell Library. Mr. Fuentes owned a projector (in Box 64) for these and other films with which he would entertain his family and neighbors at home as well as serving as a documentarian of events. 

The Fuentes Family Papers consist of approximately 36.5 linear feet in 65 boxes and shelf items. They include correspondence, unprinted manuscripts, ledgers of club meeting minutes, club membership rosters, pamphlets, brochures, flyers, periodicals, clippings, newspapers, books, photographs, motion picture film, cameras, gavels, framed images, and other memorabilia and records. They include both the Fuentes library and materials he acquired as the last living legal trustee of Obreros Hall, from which some of these items came.

The Fuentes Family Papers were formally donated by Mrs. Mercedes Fuentes Peck, daughter of the Fuentes couple, in 1995. These items came through the assistance of Richard Gonzales of Corpus Christi. Thomas H. Kreneck, who made the acquisition and with the guidance of Mrs. Peck conveyed the materials to Special Collections & Archives, ranked this collection as one of the most significant research resources dealing with early twentieth century Mexican American development with which he had ever been associated. The handwritten minutes of meetings of the Woodmen of the World and the Obreros y Obreras, as well as the early print items are of particular merit. 

The archival processing and creation of the inventory of the Fuentes Family Papers was done by Sean Mooney in 2011-2012. Preliminary organization of the collection was accomplished by Thomas H. Kreneck in 2007, respectively. Abel Cantu, Irvan Hendrik, Denver Ang, Grace Charles, and Kreneck collaborated on the editorial work of the original film for this link.

I hope your readers are as pleased as we are with what this collection will do for Mexican American research, especially historical documentaries. 

Thomas H. Kreneck, Ph.D. CA
Associate Director for Special Collections & Archives
Joe B. Frantz Lecturer in Public History

Sent by Roberto Calderon 


Biography of Amando Saenz, Part 6 of 9, by Samuel, Tomas and Antonio Saenz
Days gone By . . . Luis Trujillo
My Papa. . . Hector P. Garcia, Founder of the GI Forum by Daisy Wanda Garcia
To My Grandson Dustin, by Grandma Mimi
Since a Father guides and teaches us about the outside world by Linda LaRoche 


Part 6 of  9 
The End of the Migration Era (1955-1956)

Written By: Samuel Saenz 10/28/2011  
Co-Edited By: Tomas and Antonio Saenz  

By this time Amando’s brothers and sisters were now much older and were able to take on manual and dish washing jobs at restaurants and some income was generated. Consequently the urgent need to migrate to Florida in the winter was not needed. In 1955 the annual farm labor spring migration to the Hudsonville, Michigan area was made to work on the onion fields and surrounding greenhouses. By this time Amando's sisters, Olivia, Irma, Brijida and Zulema worked the fields and helped out. Amando returned back to doing part time seasonal work at a large greenhouse complex named Romance Gardens. That same year Amando and his family migrated for the last time to the cotton fields in West Texas in the Snyder area. Time was moving on and Sam’s tour of duty with the US Army was nearing completion at Ft. Bliss, Texas. Accompanied by his father and mother Amando drove over to El Paso, Texas in October to visit Sam. It was a short visit but we managed to have a long lunch hour across the border in Mexico. We discussed long term family planning and the independent career prospects for Amando and Sam after Military discharge. The concept of ending family migrant labor and settling in Michigan was the prime discussion item. Amando and our father laid out plans to complete the migration cycle for 1955 and spend the winter months in South Texas. Finally Amando and the family would make their last migration trip to Michigan in the spring of 1956. Accordingly, we would hook up in Michigan after my discharge from the US Army.

The 1956 year rolled in and things started to happen according to plan. After my discharge, we interfaced and reunited at Hudsonville, Michigan. Amando and I worked all summer long for Romance Gardens and at the same time we were consolidating and investigating the detail planning to move into the city of Grand Rapids in the fall season. The objective was to transform the family from migrant labor to Industrial work and for the family children to attend the local schools in the pursuit of a better life. 

By this time the family's younger brothers had grown up and taken responsibility positions with everyone still following the work rules originally laid out by Amando. By October of 1956 he was already 25 years old and Sam was 23. Amando’s long migrant labor career was over. His self imposed mission and loyalty to help support and feed his brothers and sisters had been completed. 

He and Sam were now looking at new independent personal career opportunities for themselves and to live independent lives separate from the family. Things worked out great; we manage to purchase an old house in the Polish district of Grand Rapids. All the brothers and our dad found industrial work in the local factories. Shortly thereafter, our sister Olivia also joined her brothers by securing a job in a furniture factory. In the meantime all the children enrolled in school and were assimilating into the main stream of American life. Amando took a deep interest in developing his work skills and expertise raising plants for Romance gardens. 

In the meantime, for Sam Jr., the long awaited window of opportunity for higher education that was envisioned by his mother back in 1949 became a reality. In the fall of 1956 he enrolled at Grand Rapids JC using the GI Bill. At first, the family transformation process encountered some resistance from our dad. When the cold weather rolled in, he missed the warm Texas weather and the Texas life style. When the deep snow settled in, he looked out the window and exclaimed “Aqui estamos encerrados como los chingados Osos.” (Here we are locked up like the dammed bears). Our dad’s feelings for returning back to Texas did not get any support from Amando and the rest of the family. We were now in the promised land of milk and honey. 

My father started to roll in the money from the factory pay checks of his sons. This Prosperity was shocking and unbelievable to our father as throughout his life he had lived on borrowed money that had to be paid back by migrant work. Pretty soon he opened up a bank account and bought a new car and all his children were in school becoming Americanized. This was truly a Godly blessing as looking at the results an outside observer may comment “why didn’t you do this a long time ago stupid?” In Mexico they have a saying “ Nomas el Burro sabe la Carga que trae en la espalda” (Only the Donkey knows how much load is on his back) and so the same can be said for Amando and his working brothers and sisters, only they knew the load they carried and what it took to get out of the migrant stream.

Once his brothers and sisters became self sufficient, Amando was free to start his own life style. He visited South Texas for short periods and would always come back to Grand Rapids. His freedom from parental responsibility gave him the opportunity to start concentrating on having his own family and to pursue the line of work that he knew best. In late December of 1956, Amando surprised all his family by announcing that he was going to marry his childhood sweet heart, Idolina Acero who lived in the old Barrio where we grew up in Alice, Texas. Together with his new bride he celebrated the 1957 New Year and immediately started working for the Romance Gardens greenhouses. By this time Amando had three years experience and was taking on more responsibility and developing a greater understanding on the Green House business operation for which he later became the company lead man.

Amando and Idolina bought one or two homes and lived in Grand Rapids where they shared their lives and moved on to have a family of six children, three boys and three girls. Amando was the principal provider and dedicated himself to support and raise his new family. As the years rolled by, the children were growing up and Amando started to have a dream about how nice it would be if he bought a small farm where he could raise some of his food supply and perhaps built a small green house as a side business.

During family weekend dinner visits Armando would comment strongly on his dream objectives. Most of his brothers and sisters including myself would listen to him, we knew about his determination and dedication and supported his dream, but somehow we felt that this was way out of scope for his capability. The main argument was where was he going to get the capital to buy the farm, plus he had a full commitment to support his family, which now numbered eight people, and he had only one income.

Sam recalls on one occasion El Primo Lupe came over to visit us in Grand Rapids and Amando took us all out into the country side and showed us this old abandoned farm that was for sale. El Primo supported his ideas, but advised him on the huge work undertaking and the required capital. Furthermore for the business portion of the dream, how could  he do it? He only had a 2nd grade education, and limited eye vision capability.  How was he going to pull this off? It was Amando’s nature not to give up and as more years rolled by he became more persistent and moved on to lay out tentative financial plans to purchase his farm and green house project.


Days gone By . . . Luis Trujillo

GI Forum, 1950

This is a poem I wrote and sent to my Pueblo, Colorado friend Roy Archuleta.  Back in the 50's when we worked at the Pueblo Army Depot. in 1952 I went to USAF and he went to the Army.  We reunited 58 years later after contacting Roy through the Internet. He lives in Alamogordo NM and appeared at my door 2 years ago here in Lakewood where I live with a 19 year old son from his second marriage. I returned the visit the following year. He has MS and still hanging in there. Here's a couple of more attachments, in our youth, I'm on the left next to Roy in the white suit. 
Days gone By
I saw him last in Pueblo Town,
and lost him in the years to come.
And then again as the years came and went,
I found my friend like heaven sent on the Internet.

He had a new name Elroyo with a book he wrote,
"Where we come from" that depicts of Spanish conquest and a boat,
It's History at it's best about Spaniards who came west,
whom made their contribution to this land,
and fought for freedom for America hand in hand,
Whence ELroyo's people came from afar and settled
in the Land of Enchantment to live and die,
That is legacy that will remain forever more ever so dear

Those that remain to carry on will cherish what happen here,
Now Elroyo and I are gray and old with many stories to be told,
many memories of much laughter and memories some very bold,
When our time comes and we are gone, and others begin anew,
We know there's still much work to do, to save the planet for those
up on it, for Life is precious and so are people, who must learn to live
together in peace and harmony, it's a must that we must trust in our
Creator who gave us life to work and enjoy in all its glory.

Now in our Golden years. 
(Roy & Luis)

My Papa . . . Hector P. Garcia, Founder of the GI Forum by Daisy Wanda Garcia

Every June on Father’s Day, we honor all the contributions our fathers made in our lives. Whenever I think about my Papa, Dr. Hector Garcia, I remember his many qualities… He was reliable; intelligent, consistent among many others qualities. He was always there to support and protect me. He instilled in me the value of education and independence. But my favorite quality was his “wicked” sense of humor. Many think of my father in terms of his public persona which concealed his sense of humor. I offer as proof the statement of Dr. Ramos, one historian interviewed in the PBS documentary the “Longoria Affair”. He said that Papa was not a warm, fuzzy sort of guy and did not have a sense of humor. This was true about Papa in situations dealing with desegregation and other political issues. But with his family, Papa had another side. He was a practical joker, enjoyed telling stories and had a sense of humor.

Our family spent a lot of times telling jokes and laughing. We kids and my mother Wanda, as well would expend a lot of effort trying to play tricks on him. But we could never fool him-most of the time Papa would look the other way. The games came to a peak on Christmas Eve when we opened gifts. We would expect Papa to guess what was in the box. Remarkably he always did guess down to the color of the object. Then we would accuse one another of telling Papa what was in the box. Papa loved to tease my mother. Papa would buy cherry ice cream and then my mother would pick out the cherries. Papa always asked what happened to the cherries. Of course my mother played innocent as if some imaginary creature ate the cherries.

Papa was a complex person, but he enjoyed simple pleasures. His friends came from the ranks of the prominent to the humble…and Papa was equally comfortable with both groups.

Saturday nights were reserved for playing dominoes with his friends-unless one of us kids came home to visit. On Sunday we would take long car trips along the coast. These rides became more important to Papa as he became older and could not drive. So family or members of his staff would take him for the rides. Papa loved listening to KCCT, the local Tejano radio station in Corpus Christi at full blast. One of his favorite television programs besides the Domingo Pena Program was Dr. Quinn Medicine woman. Papa would always remind my mother to tape the programs so they could watch the movies together later. His favorite restaurant was Luby’s cafeteria on Alameda Street. Sundays were reserved for lunch at Luby’s---much to the chagrin of my siblings. At times Dr. Xico, my uncle, and wife Yolanda joined us for lunch. About three years ago Luby’s closed its doors. I was saddened by this event because another link to our past was gone.

The moments Papa treasured the most were the family gatherings on Easter and Christmas. The entire Garcia clam got together either at Dr. Cleo’s, my aunt or my cousin, Tony Canales’ house and exchanged tales and jokes. Papa and Dr. Cleo would really elaborate about the Garcia curse. The Garcia curse held that all Garcias were born with wealth, intelligence and good looks or a combination of these. Dr. J.A. had the wealth, Dr. Cleo the intelligence and Dr. Hector the good looks, and so on.
Papa has been gone for sixteen years now. I realize now how much I miss his presence in my life. As I age I notice that I am becoming more and more like Papa. When I was young I was irritated by some of his traits which are now surfacing in me. Aging has helped me understand my father. So Papa, Thank you for being there for me and helping to shape the woman which I am today. I love you, know you are still with me and one day we will all be together again.


To My Grandson Dustin, by Grandma Mimi 

I received a request from my youngest grandson, Dustin, who is graduating high school this year.  He had a school assignment to request from an older family  member, memories of him, plus some comments on his upcoming graduation, and advice for the future. I wrote:
This may seem like a strange memory that touches me because it is fairly recent. Two years ago, I stayed in the family home with Dustin while my daughter and husband were out of town. My main responsibility was to get him to his scheduled activities. The first evening, I walked into the family room and was greatly surprised with what Dustin was watching . . . Pawn Stars on the history channel!

It turned out American Pickers and Antique Roadshow were also among his favorite shows, and they are mine too. It was so much fun to sit and watch those programs together over the weekend and know that the generation gap was not that big.
A very early memory ties in with Dustin's sports interest. Dustin was about three. His dad had set up a little basketball hoop, appropriate to his age and height. Dustin kept trying to throw the ball through the hoop. Over and over, he tried, with no success. Finally, with one hand Dustin grabbed the pole, pulled the basketball hoop down to him, and finally triumphantly put the basketball through the hoop. I have had the fun of seeing Dustin very successfully put many balls through many hoops, scoring in basketball, soccer, LaCrosse, and running the football to a touchdown.
Dear Dustin, we are all so proud of you. You, the youngest grandson, graduating high school with both athletic and scholastic recognition, while, with all the social challenges, still maintaining your family standards. Good for you. Thank you so much for putting so much effort into living life fully. You have been a blessing and a joy
May you who have been blessed with so much success, talent, health, and intelligence be humbly grateful for all that has been given to you. Thank the Lord in all things. No matter what happens, trust that Heavenly Father has a plan for you. You many not understand when problems and disappointments come into your life, but know that Heavenly Father loves you, and your family loves you. No matter what happens, you are never alone. Always maintain an attitude of gratitude.
This is my favorite scripture, Proverbs 3: 5-6. For many years, your Mom and I carried a little card with this scripture in our wallet. My finally wore out.

"Trust in the Lord with all thy heart; and lean not unto thy own understanding. In all thy ways, acknowledge Him, and He will direct thy path."

Lots of Love, Grandma Mimi

P.S. to my primos . . .  
Dustin was honored by being selected as the graduating Scholar/Athlete of the Year.  He served as the football team's chaplain  and won an Award for Sportsmanship.  Am I proud?   Yes, but more than anything, I am grateful.

Since a Father guides growth and teaches us about the outside world  
Linda LaRoche
I just had another encounter with racism and it got me thinking about my father and the stories he told and the example he set on how to handle it; by out-smarting the ignorance.  Then I realized we are at half month and you probably already have your June issue lined up; nevertheless it triggered my first encounter with racism, which is in my manuscript Lost in Reverie.  I have been trying to secure representation for it (and now I have 2 other multi-cultural books) during the past 4 years. Anyway to get back on topic; here is my shortened first encounter with racism.  Since a Father guides growth and teaches us about the outside world along with defining a leadership role, I thought it was fitting for the upcoming issue. Perhaps you can use this cuento, of 1200 words, if not, it was worth a try.

During a morning recess, in the second grade, at Washington Elementary school in Montebello, I am waiting in line to play kickball. The boy behind me, Robbie wants to jump ahead. He pushes my shoulder and says, “Go to the end of the line, you dirty Mexican.” I am horrified at his insult, and I look at my arms. Nothing about me is dirty. I run to go push him back; sticking out my tongue as far as it will go. The bell rings. I contemplate telling the teacher, but feel that she will not solve the problem to my satisfaction. There is only one person who has the capacity to handle this– my father.

When I share my first encounter with racism, my father responds with, “There is a lot of ignorance in the world. Education is key. Remember to always be proud of what and who you are.” I nod in agreement. Then he goes into a long discourse that goes over my head. “I’m coming to school with you tomorrow,” he states. “Oh goody,” I applaud.

The following morning while the class is being assembled, my father and I stand at the classroom door holding hands. My father asks me the boy’s name. Miss Thompson greets us and shakes my father’s hand. He looks dashing in his business attire. Standing 6’ 2”, you can hardly miss him dressed in his custom-made Italian suit, fitted shirt and fine leather wing tips. She can no longer mistake him for what she had originally conceived in her mind. The week before we had an exercise to draw our fathers’ profession and when I didn’t know where to begin, Miss Thompson asked me what my father did for a living, I replied, “Construction.” She drew a picture and interpreted that to mean he was a worker in a hardhat. I frowned at her gross misinterpretation.

Miss Thompson asks me to take my seat, and speaks to my father in a hushed tone. A few minutes later, she calls Robbie up to her desk. His face goes white and I feel supremely happy. One of the nicknames my father has given me is “The Judge.” “You would make a terrific lawyer. You have a sense of fairness, you’re smart, you already know right from wrong,” he remarks.

My father was born in Mexico with roots stemming from Barcelona, Spain. How or why his ancestors migrated to Mexico is a mystery. When I inquire about the transition or about his father, he goes cold. He simplifies my questions with what he thinks I need to know. He began working at the age of six despite the fact that he was a sickly frail child and had a strong dislike for physical labor. The post- revolutionary Mexican government had offered both men and women the opportunity to enter into the new public school system, and he loved school.

He migrated from Mexico when he was twenty-one, went to the Bay area to live with his eldest brother, worked in a factory, signed up for English classes, bought a used car, and taught himself how to drive on the back roads. He dented it in several places, and knew instantly what he wanted out of life: to work for himself, make money and own property. He enlisted in the Air Force so he could take advantage of the GI Bill, and served for three months before the Korean War ended. By age twenty-five, in Los Angeles, he had a real estate license, bought himself a Swiss Patek Philippe watch as a celebratory gift, and worked for a company on a commission basis, selling residential remodel and improvement plans. Always on the move for an opportunity, he was liked and admired by older men who mentored him. One became my godfather– a very successful salesman, Carlos Delgado; sixteen years his senior, with land acquisitions.

When my father was twenty-eight he met my mother; their courtship lasted three months. “That’s because she dragged it out,” he would say.  

Growing up I had been surrounded by a sense of comfort and of stories. There was even a tale about my parents meeting, according to my mother, she had just moved from an apartment, she had to vacate quickly because it was sold. As a widow with an eight year-old son that was in boarding school, she went to a boarding house to live temporarily until she could locate another apartment.

She put her furniture in storage and after moving her personal belongings into the boarding house she settled in the family room to watch television. Sensing she was being watched, she looked up and had déjà vu, a tall man standing at the doorway was staring at her, smiling. She recently had a dream that she would be meeting someone who shared his physical traits. My father’s Aunt Damiana owned the boarding house and he had not visited her for over a year but after he took one look at my mother, he became a daily house-guest.

My father told anecdotes about his childhood friends, his youth, and his day. From his point of view, “I had gone to visit my favorite Aunt. I was busy with work and hadn’t been there for a while. I saw your mother, she was beautiful, and asked my Aunt –Is she married, is she available?”

He knew within days that he wanted to marry her, “It was something inside me I felt it in my bones.” Asking her to join him for a steak dinner, she accepted.

“In sales I drove my car all over the city, when she saw it was old, I may not have a chance. So, I told her my plans for the future so she would feel safe–that I wanted more out of life. The way to your mother’s heart is through practicality” he would comment.
The best tales came from my father’s adventures. As a child, every time I heard his laugh snort I assume he censored something he found outrageously funny. Retold around the dinner table, his stories became increasingly pleasurable to hear over time, as easy familiarity gradually replaced the anecdotes punch.

More than a mere listener, I was often an active participant in their formation, either as the main subject or as an eye-witness. He would often give me a wink and say, “The happiest time in my life is when you and your brother were little.”

In Homer’s world of the Iliad, my father would have been Ares– the embodiment of assertion, the god of war and strife, thriving on conflict, rejoicing in the delight and victory of battle.

As a child, I envision my life in time sequences, each one corresponding to my age. I use school events and photographs to divide my age; for example, this is my seventh year in the second grade, and so on. I had hoped that all these time sequences would add to something meaningful.

When my father died, all those silly sequences fall away. As if, life could be divided so neatly.

The Christmas after his death my mother snaps a picture of me sitting in her favorite chair; I am dressed in a red cashmere sweater and skirt. I look solemn and thin. His death took a toll on me, the configuration in my eyes looks as if something has been severed and it had—my soul. But his spirit out pours with love turning my dreams into prophecies filled with symbolism and I discover that it is love, not time, that heals all wounds.

p.s. My father's name was Octaviano Martinez

Linda is an author and editor. She teaches Creative Writing and Blogging at the College of Southern Nevada.  Do visit Linda's blog, The Quill, .  One selection I particularly enjoyed was

Personal website:  Twitter:  and email:


Family History Expos
Alien Files Arrive at the National Archives in San Bruno, CA Genealogy

Salt Lake Family History Library Facebooks
All 1940 US Census Images and Six States Now Published Online

Family History Expos: 


Ceremony May, 22, 2012 at 10 AM.
National Archives at San Francisco.
1000 Commodore Drive, San Bruno, CA

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), together with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS, formerly known as the United States Immigration and Naturalization Services or INS), have agreed to preserve for future generations approximately half a million  Alien Files. In particular, the National Archives at San Francisco located in San Bruno, California will be announcing the arrival of the first 40,000 case files on May, 22nd, at 10 AM. Attendance is limited to invited guests and members of the press.  

Save Our National Archives (SONA), a coalition of over thirty community non-profit and academic organizations, together with other individuals, worked closely with former Congressman Tom Lantos (deceased) and current Congresswoman Jackie Speier to ensure that these Alien Files would not be destroyed. From 1998 until 2009, SONA representatives spoke at public hearings, signed internet petitions, led letter writing campaigns, held meetings here in the Bay Area and in Washington, D.C. advocating that this extensive and diverse record of American immigration history be preserved.  

THE “A-FILES” (Alien Files)  

The Alien Registration Act of 1940 required the creation of an Alien Registration record for each immigrant in the United States. By 1944, the case files developed into the "Alien Files” or “A-Files” as they are commonly known. Some “A-Files”, due to official need to pull older case files for government purposes, include immigrants who entered the U.S. as much as forty years earlier than 1940.  

Each “A-File” contains documents not only related to their immigration and personal history, but historically significant records key to understanding U.S. immigration policy, its influences on global migration, and sociological patterns from the 20th century onwards. Sample documents include: family photographs and letters; birth and marriage certificates; family genealogies; INS investigations, transcripts of interviews and deportation hearings.  Immigrants may be Jewish Holocaust survivors; Alien Enemy Parolee Files for German, Italian, and Japanese alien residents and their families who were placed in internment camps during WWII; Filipino Freedom Fighters; WW II War Brides; those subjected to apartheid; subjects of the Chinese Exclusion Act era and subsequent "Confession Program”; migrant workers; and refugees from Eastern Europe and other regions (e.g., Africa, Indonesia, Southeast Asia). Of particular interest to the Bay Area, are thousands of individual immigration files from the Angel Island Immigration Station.


On June 3, 2009, the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) signed an agreement that transfers hundreds of thousands of “A-Files” for individuals who were born one hundred years ago or more to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for preservation. Under this agreement, those case files will be available for public research under specific guidelines established by NARA. “A-Files” maintained by the former Immigration and Naturalization Service District Offices in San Francisco, California; Reno, Nevada; Honolulu, Hawaii; and Agana, Guam will be housed at the National Archives at San Francisco. Older A-Files for other states and locations will be housed at NARA. Kansas City. Beginning this summer preserved A-File individuals may be searched through the National Archives website at through the Archival Research Catalog (ARC).  

The vast majority of active A-Files are still under the jurisdiction of the USCIS and have been consolidated in Federal facilities in Lee's Summit, Missouri. Current access for those “A-Files” is through its website at and only with a Freedom of Information/Privacy Act (FOIA) request.  

In special recognition of Congressman Tom Lantos’ long relationship with the National Archives (of which he had the San Bruno facility named after Congressman Leo Ryan) and his steadfast support of SONA’s efforts to preserve the Alien Files, the May 22nd ceremony will also dedicate the public research area in his memory. Tom Lantos, a WW II refugee, freedom fighter, and a naturalized U.S. citizen, is himself an “A-File” subject. Congresswoman Jackie Speier assumed a leadership role in having the Alien File agreement signed by USCIS and NARA, and ensuring the arrival of the A-Files in San Bruno. SONA is pleased to acknowledge their role and that of the community on this day.

Contact:  Jeanie Low ( & Jennie Lew (
SONA Communications Coordinators
SONA (Save Our National Archives), San Francisco, CA.  

National Archives at San Francisco. Press Contact:
Marisa Louie, Archivist - Email: (650) 238-3501

Family Gems Found in Manuscript Collections
Manuscript materials such as unpublished family histories and collections of family and personal papers are actively collected by thousands of institutions around the world. These invaluable sources of family history information may include personal letters and diaries, family Bibles, coroner's inquests, prison records, church records, etc. Learn how to locate and use manuscript collections to fill in the holes of your own family history.
10 Fabulous Sources for Family History Books Online
Published family and local histories offer a potential rich source of information about your personal family history. Even if a family genealogy has not been published for your ancestors, local and family histories can offer insight into the places your ancestors lived and the people they may have encountered during their lifetime.
Historical Diaries & Journals Online
Experience the past lived by your ancestors, through personal narratives and writings depicting time, places and events from around the world in this extensive listing of online historical diaries and journals.

This newsletter is written by: Kimberly Powell
Genealogy Guide  Email Me | My Blog | My Forum


Investigación Genealógica en Chile-

Investigación Genealógica en Colombia -

Investigación Genealógica en Ecuador -

Investigación Genealógica en Guatemala -

Investigación Genealógica en Honduras -

Investigación Genealógica en Panamá -

Investigación Genealógica en Perú -

Investigación Genealógica en Puerto Rico -

Pesquisa Genealógica no Brasil (Portuguese) -  


All 1940 US Census Images and Six States Now Published Online
20 Million Records for 21 Other Countries Also Added

6 May 2012

The 1940 US Census Community Project, which includes FamilySearch,,, NARA, and, have now published browsable images online for 1940 U.S. Federal Census and the completed searchable indexes for six of the states. Online volunteer indexers have indexed 35% of the census. At current rates, they anticipate wrapping up the indexing by late summer. Follow the progress online at or search the records on FamilySearch also published new, free records online for Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, England, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, United States, Venezuela, and Wales. Search these diverse collections and 2.5 billion other records for free at
Searchable historic records on are made available by thousands of volunteers from around the world who transcribe (index) information from digital copies of handwritten records to make them easily searchable online. More volunteers are needed (particularly those who can read foreign languages) to keep pace with the amount of digital images being published online at Learn more about how to personally help provide free access to the world’s historic genealogical records as a volunteer indexer at
FamilySearch International is the largest genealogy organization in the world. FamilySearch is a nonprofit, volunteer-driven organization sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Millions of people use FamilySearch records, resources, and services to learn more about their family history. To help in this great pursuit, FamilySearch and its predecessors have been actively gathering, preserving, and sharing genealogical records worldwide for over 100 years. Patrons may access FamilySearch services and resources free online at or through over 4,600 family history centers in 132 countries, including the main Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Editor Mimi . . Primos, I deleted some of the countries to save Somos Primos space, sticking to Southern Europe, South America and USA. Volunteers are really needed.  This is a monumental vision to digitized ALL records . .  Quite a goal to benefit everyone.

Collection Indexed Records Digital Images
Argentina, Córdoba, Catholic Church Records, 1557-1974 141,313 0
Brazil, Immigration Cards, 1900-1965 115,868 205,297
Italy, Catania, Caltagirone, Civil Registration (Tribunale), 1861-1941 0 300
Italy, Catania, Catania, Civil Registration (Comune), 1820-1905 0 134,287
Italy, L'Aquila, Civil Registration (State Archive), 1809-1865 0 48,487
Italy, Messina, Patti, Civil Registration (Tribunale), 1865-1910 0 50,580
Italy, Toscana, Civil Registration (State Archive), 1745-1900 30,304 14,706
Italy, Treviso, Treviso, Civil Registration (Tribunale), 1871-1941 0 57,310
Peru, La Libertad, Civil Registration, 1903-1997 0 344,817
Peru, Lima, Civil Registration, 1874-1996 0 33,660
Portugal, Braga, Catholic Church Records, 1530-1911 0 12,377
Portugal, Coimbra, Testaments, 1801-1935 0 30,617
Portugal, Porto, Catholic Church Records, 1535-1949 0 38,771
Spain, Diocese of Avila, Catholic Church Records, 1502-1975 15,148 0
Spain, Province of Cádiz, Municipal Records, 1830-1930 0 45,945
Spain, Records of Widows and Orphans of Spanish Officials, 1860-1960 0 19,933
United States, Alabama, Madison County Chancery and Circuit Court Records, 1847-1950 0 70,606
United States, Alabama, County Marriages, 1809-1950 199,605 110,116
United States, Alabama, Madison County Chancery and Circuit Court Records, 1847-1950 0 50,116
United States, Arizona, Maricopa County Probate Records, 1870-1930 0 612,719
United States, California, San Mateo County Records, 1856-1967 0 194,485
United States, Florida, Marriages, 1830-1993 366,378 336,440
United States, Illinois, Probate Records, 1819-1970 0 97,722
United States, Indiana, Marriages, 1811-1959 (Kosciusko, Martin, Morgan, Noble counties) 65,891 0
United States, Iowa, County Births, 1880-1935 141,618 0
United States, Maine, State Archive Collections, 1790-1966 0 32,826
United States, Maryland, Register of Wills Books, 1629-1983 0 55,810
United States, Montana, Lake County Records, 1857-2010 0 94,699
United States, New York, Orange County Probate Records, 1787-1938 0 145,899
United States, Ohio, County Births, 1856-1909 848,900 83,479
United States, Ohio, Jefferson County Court Records, 1797-1940 0 95,246
United States, Texas, Daughters of the Republic of Texas, Membership Applications, 1892-2010 0 15,967
United States, Texas, Deaths, 1977-1986 0 83,208
United States, Texas, Eastland County Records, 1868-1949 0 36,214
United States, Utah, Cache County Records, 1861-1955 0 39,775
United States, Utah, County Marriages, 1887-1937 294,182 0
United States, Texas, Daughters of the Republic of Texas, Membership Applications, 1892-2010 0
United States, Utah, State Archives Records, 1852-1998 0 138,357
United States, Vermont, Franklin County Probate Records, 1796-1921 0 38,170
United States, Virginia, Orange County Marriage Records, 1757-1938 11,823 922
United States, Washington, County Probate Records, 1853-1929 0 29,096
United States, Washington, County Records, 1856-2009 0 19,441
United Kingdom, Chelsea Pensioners' Service Records 1760-1913 933,943 0
United States Census, 1940 (Alaska, American Samoa, Arkansas, Arizona, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, Guam, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Panama Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, US Virgin Islands, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming) 0 195,237
United States Census, 1940 (Colorado) 1,125,636 0
United States Census, 1940 (Delaware Records) 267,283 0
United States Census, 1940 (Kansas) 1,803,332 0
United States Census, 1940 (Oregon, New Hampshire, Virginia) 4,297,480 0
United States, California, San Mateo County Records, 1856-1967 0 32,111
United States, Idaho, Cassia County Records, 1879-1960 0 77,820
United States, Maine, State Archive Collections, 1790-1966 0 33,610
United States, Massachusetts, State Vital Records, 1841-1920 0 206,348
United States, Missouri, Jackson County Voter Registration Records, 1928-1956 0 26,603
United States, Montana, Cascade County Records, 1888-1955 0 48,630
United States, Montana, County Births and Deaths, 1861-2004 0 170,930
United States, New York, Queens County Probate Records, 1899-1924 0 88,428
United States, North Carolina Civil Action Court Papers, 1712-1970 0 75,430
United States, North Carolina, County Records, 1833-1970 0 46,007
United States, Oklahoma County Marriages, 1891-1959 188,814 82,614
United States, Oregon, Douglas County Records, 1852-1950 0 39,239
United States, Oregon, Wasco County Records, 1854-1960 0 37,347
United States, Registers of Enlistments in the U. S. Army, 1798-1914 212,785 0
United States, Texas Deaths, 1977-1986 0 72,976
United States, Texas, Daughters of the Republic of Texas, Membership Applications, 1892-2010 0 21,523
United States, Texas, Eastland County Records, 1868-1949 0 82,099
United States, Utah, Cache County Records, 1861-1947 0 46,377
United States, Utah, State Archives Records, 1852-1998 0 136,127
United States, Washington, County Deaths, 1891-1907 3,519 4,929
United States, Washington, County Records, 1856-2009 0 165,664
United States, Washington, King County Delayed Births, 1941-1942 5,631 24,644
Uruguay, Civil Registration Records 241,131 0
Venezuela, Mérida, Archdiocese of Mérida, Catholic Church Records, 1654-2011 517,719 0



Tracing your DNA-driven genealogy from 7th century Andalusia, Spain
A general estimate of the global (ethnonational) Brazilian Y DNA and mtDNA
June 15: New Mexico DNA Project presented by Ángel de Cervantes
The oldest hatred: 17 Jewish skeletons found in 13th century English well
Warren's claim as Native American opens debate over ethnic ties
Genealogy in the Era of Diversity
Isabel Olea by Crispin Rendon
Tracing your DNA-driven genealogy from 7th century Andalusia, Spain to 11th century Spire, Germany to 14th century Lithuania & Prague, & to 16th century Bialystok, Poland.

Can DNA-driven genealogy trace your mtDNA (matrilineal lines) and Y-chromosome (patrilineal lineages) to specific geographic areas at certain times in history? Are you curious about your ethnic family...  You can find the news story at:

Sent by John Inclan

 A general estimate of the global (ethnonational) Brazilian Y  DNA and mtDNA:  
Analysis made by Ricardo Costa de Oliveira, you made a general estimate of the global Brazilian Y DNA and mtDNA: Brazilian population= 200 million

100 Million Men in Brazil
- 55% Brazilian Portuguese = 40% Colonial Hardcore - 15% Post-Independence Immigration. (55 million men with Portuguese Surnames - 100% of the “White” population in this category=20 million, 90% of the “Pardo”-“Mulatto”=30 million, 40% of the “Black”=5 million).

Less than 100 thousand men in Northern Portugal around the year 1000AD at the height of the Islamic Wars in NW Iberia.
More than 400 thousand Portuguese crossed the Atlantic in the conquest and colonization of Brazil 1500-1800.
55 million of Brazilian Portuguese Y DNA X 5 million of European Portuguese.

Ratio of 11X1 in favor to Brazil.
- 12% Italian - Post-Independence Immigration
- 8% Spanish – 2% Colonial – 6% Post-Independence Immigration. Galicia represents more than half of the Spanish contribution.
- 5% Amerindian – Native. Concentration in Northern Brazil
- 5% African – Colonial-1850. Concentration in the Littoral.
- 5% German - Post-Independence Immigration. Concentration in the South
- 3% Arab, Lebanese, Syrian - Post-Independence Immigration
- 2% Polish - Post-Independence Immigration. Concentration in the South
- 2% Japanese - Post-Independence Immigration. São Paulo, Paraná.
- 3% Swiss, French, English,Ukrainian, Eastern European, Armenian, Roma, Chinese, Jew, Others Post-Independence Immigration

100 Million Women in Brazil
-33% Amerindian
-33% Eurasian
10% Portuguese – 2% Colonial- 8% post-Independence. 

10 million of Brazilian Portuguese women X 5 million of European Portuguese. Ratio of 2X1 to Brazil.
5% Spanish
7% Italian
4% German
2% Japanese
2% Polish
1% Arab
2% Ukrainian, Swiss, French, English, Other Eastern European, Armenian, Roma, Chinese, Jew, Others -33% African

Fernando Henrique Cardoso: In the 19th century, because of the struggle between Spain and Portugal, we were involved in wars in the South, and the Brazilian empire was perceived by our neighbors as a trap. Then the axis moved towards the United States and Brazil became a Republic and much more quiescent—and again hesitated. To what extent would we play a hegemonic role in the region? We never assumed such a role. We preferred to be more loved than feared.

At the end of the last century, the economy became so vigorous, we had established democratic traditions and we rediscovered our cultural particularities. These give us a sense that maybe we can play a role in the area of “soft politics”: not just to be economically strong, but also because of our capacity to accept others, to be tolerant. We love to consider ourselves as open-minded, as a racial democracy. It’s not entirely true, but it’s an aspiration with some ingredients of reality. Because in
fact we are more tolerant than several other countries.

Compare the United States and Brazil. Both are countries built on migration, but in Brazil migrants have fused much more, and what has been even more impressive is that the cultures have mixed. We do not have a Black culture in Brazil, and a White culture. It is senseless in Brazil to speak about a Black culture: it is our culture.

And we are very accepting of variety in religion. We are not intolerant—Brazilians are syncretists, not fundamentalists. And because we are a country composed of migration we have contacts with many different parts of the world. Lots of Brazilians are Japanese and maybe more than 10m are Arabs. More than that are Germans; there is no other country in the world with more Italians, in absolute numbers. And all this fused. We never exactly know our descendancy.

Brazil has always been in favour of multilateralism, instead of bilateral relations, and of trying to negotiate, to bridge. Brazilian diplomacy is based on that. We need to look South, to the basin of the Rio da Plata—and to America; both relations with America and the South. There are elements of flexibility in Brazilian culture; they originate with the Portuguese, not only in Brazil.

If you compare the Portuguese and the Dutch in Africa, it is quite different. The Portuguese always had sexual relations with the native people. There is a phrase I like to repeat when I’m in Spain. In the eighteenth century the Marquess of Pombal [Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo; the first minister of the Kingdom from 1750 to 1777] sent a letter to his brother, the viceroy of the North of Brazil, saying, we have to promote the Portuguese who marry indigenous women, because it is better to have half a Portuguese than one Spaniard! They were fighting the Spanish and worried about the demographic question. They felt the children were somehow Portuguese. That was not common in the Spanish world. They kept more separate.

Then in Brazil, the dominant ruling class normally tried to disguise the fact that inequality was so high. One of the ways to disguise differences is to treat people as if they are closer than they really are, to speak as if we were equal. To some extent this is a tricky thing, even if people are not aware of it: it is a way to maintain differences without provoking a strong reaction. The traditional part of the ruling class in Brazil will always be mild, soft, always saying “please”, not ordering. This is not the same now
with the new bourgeoisie: they are much more arrogant than the old traditional elite groups in Brazil. They are different; more capitalist. 

Regards, Ricardo Costa de Oliveira

Sent by Don Milligan

June 15: New Mexico DNA Project presented by Ángel de Cervantes

Friday, June 15, 2012, 3:00 PM 
The Lodge of Santa Fe
750 N. St. Francis Dr., Santa Fe, NM 

The Genealogical Society of Hispanic America and the New Mexico DNA Project present Ángel de Cervantes
Who will discuss the Anthropological Genetic Genealogy: The Celt-Iberian connection to New Mexican Families

Haplogroup R1b1
Part I
In Part I of an ongoing series, Mr. Cervantes will explore the connection between certain New Mexican families and the Celt-Iberians. Mr. Cervantes will show a short film that will trace the history of these people. He will discuss which families show the markers that are most identified with this ancient civilization.

Ángel de Cervantes is a History Instructor and the Project Administrator of the New Mexico DNA Project. For more information about the New Mexico DNA Project, visit their website:  

This program is hosted by the Genealogical Society of Hispanic America
Sponsored by Cathy J. Archuleta, Conference registration information available at: 

The oldest hatred: 17 Jewish skeletons found in 13th century English well

The remains of 17 bodies found at the bottom of a medieval well in England could have been victims of Jewish persecution, new evidence has suggested.

Anthropologists put the date of the incident at around the height of England’s persecution of its Jews, and just prior to their eventual expulsion.

Jews had been living in England since at least the country’s conquest by William the Conquerer in 1066. The following centuries saw abuse, heavy taxation, blood libels, and pogroms. In 1218, England became the first European nation to require Jews to wear a marking badge.

English Jews were finally expelled by Edward I in 1290. They left with only what they could carry, their money, valuables, and property were confiscated. Between 4,000 and 16,000 Jews were expelled.

Jews were not allowed back into England until 1655, some three and a half centuries later, when Menasseh Ben Israel, a rabbi and leader of the Dutch Jewish community, approached Oliver Cromwell with the proposition.


Seven skeletons were successfully tested and five of them had a DNA sequence suggesting they were likely to be members of a single Jewish family.

DNA expert Dr Ian Barnes, who carried out the tests, said: “This is a really unusual situation for us. This is a unique set of data that we have been able to get for these individuals.

“I am not aware that this has been done before – that we have been able to pin them down to this level of specificity of the ethnic group that they seem to come from.”

[…] Eleven of the 17 skeletons were those of children aged between two and 15. The remaining six were adult men and women….Pictures taken at the time of excavation suggested the bodies were thrown down the well together, head first

A close examination of the adult bones showed fractures caused by the impact of hitting the bottom of the well. But the same damage was not seen on the children’s bones, suggesting they were thrown in after the adults who cushioned the fall of their bodies.

The team had earlier considered the possibility of death by disease but the bone examination also showed no evidence of diseases such as leprosy or tuberculosis.

Giles Emery, the archaeologist who led the original excavation, said at first he thought it might have been a plague burial, but carbon dating had shown that to be impossible as the plague came much later.

And historians pointed out that even during times of plague when mass graves were used, bodies were buried in an ordered way with respect and religious rites. 

Sent by 
Original sender John Inclan


Warren's claim as Native American opens debate over ethnic ties

May 6, 2012
Warren's claim as Native American opens debate over ethnic ties

By Bill Kirk

LAWRENCE — Questions about her Native American heritage continued to dog the campaign of Democratic Massachusetts U.S. Senate candidate Elizabeth Warren late last week, even as she made a stop at the Everett Mills to celebrate labor unions and the Bread and Roses strike of 1912.

After proclaiming her allegiance to organized labor and working families in a speech to about 100 people in the sixth-floor exhibition hall on Friday, Warren reiterated that her designation as a Native American in a book on law professors back in the 1980s and 1990s was based on family lore.

"I'm proud of my heritage," she told reporters after making remarks at the breakfast gathering. "I grew up on family stories about who I am. It's something we just talk about in my family. As I've said, it's part of who we are."

Experts in genealogy and Native American culture said this week that such a claim, if used to further an academic or professional career, would certainly be unethical, although not illegal.

Others say the issue has brought up many questions about racial and ethnic identity, both in terms of the DNA makeup of people and their cultural connections.

It's also spotlighted a robust interest in genealogy, as more and more people are plunging into their ancestral past in an effort to find out who they really are. Aided by the Internet and DNA analysis, people can find out more easily than ever where they came from and who they're related to. Even many people from Latin America, including those from Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, are finding that they have Indian roots in the ancient Taino tribe.

'Ethnic fraud'?

In Warren's case, questions remain as to whether she used her Native American ancestry to further her career as a law professor. Some critics say she's guilty of what's known as "box-checking," or designating yourself as a Native American in order to be considered a minority in the eyes of future employers or college admissions officers.

It's a charge Warren refutes, saying that she made the designation because she was reaching out to make a connection with people who may have a similar background.

When asked if she took advantage of so-called "box-checking" she said, "I worked hard for every job I got. I was hired because of the work I've done."

Whatever her reason, fraudulent designation of Native American ancestry is frowned upon as unethical, although it doesn't appear to be illegal.

But it should be, says Jim Peters, the executive director of the state Commission on Indian Affairs.

Peters, himself a member of the Mashpee Wampanoag tribe, said the practice was common during the heyday of affirmative action, but is less common now. He noted that if Warren was simply trying to assert her connection to her native American roots, that's fine. But if she was using it to gain an advantage on job applications, that's not.

"There should be a law against it," he said. "People have a right to embrace the fact they have Native American in their ancestry. If they have a connection, we don't hold it against them."

But, he added, "It depends on what you want to do with it."

That's precisely what the Coalition of Bar Associations of Color was getting at when they passed a "Resolution on Academic Ethnic Fraud" last July. The resolution, signed by the presidents of the Hispanic, Asian, Native American and National bar associations, states, among other things, that "fraudulent self-identification as Native American on applications for higher education ... is particularly pervasive among undergraduate and law school applicants."

It goes on to say the phenomenon is "so pervasive, it is commonly understood and referred to within the Native American Community as 'box-checking.'"

While no evidence has been documented that Warren checked a box indicating she was a Native American on her law school application to the Rutgers School of Law-Newark, it is clear that she did check a box in her application to the Association of American Law Schools desk book, a directory of law professors from participating schools.

Further, it has been revealed that Warren's minority status was listed by Harvard Law School possibly as recently as last year as part of that university's efforts to show its own ethnic diversity in hiring minority professors.

When asked about these issues Friday, Warren's campaign issued a statement saying: "She has been straightforward and open about her heritage while the people who recruited her (to teach at Harvard Law School) have made it clear it was because of her extraordinary skill as a teacher and a ground-breaking scholar."

The statement went on to say that her Republican opponent, Sen. Scott Brown, "has been peddling nasty insinuations for weeks to distract from his million-dollar tax returns and multi-million dollar Wall Street fundraising. We're getting back to the issues that really matter in this election, like how to level the playing field for middle-class families."

Brown's campaign had no comment on the matter.

Common question
For many, the question over Warren's claim to Native American ancestry has opened a window into the issue of ethnic diversity in general and Native American heritage in particular.

In recent years, according to David Lambert, a genealogist with the New England Historic Genealogical Society in Boston, more and more people are looking into their pasts to see if there is some link to the indigenous tribes that resided on this continent for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans.

"In the past 30 or 40 years, more people are coming forward, inquiring as to their Native American heritage," he said. "One hundred years ago, people wouldn't be looking at that."

He said there are many reasons for that, but at least one reason seems to be related to people wanting to cash in on their possible connections to financially successful casinos on Indian-held land across the country.

"A lot more people are coming forward, based on the casino aspect," he said. "Why not find out if you're related? If you have it, you're not wrong to claim it, but you have to back it up, through research and DNA, just so the next generation knows the truth, and can claim it."

He said in most cases he's reviewed, people are not Native American.

"If you polled 100 people, more than 40 percent will say they are Native American," he said. "The truth is, it's more like 10 percent. I usually disappoint people."

He said many people, including Warren in this case, look at old photographs that may show relatives with high cheek bones and dark hair.

"But you can't base it on photographs," he said, recalling how one couple he worked with, thinking they were Native American, were actually Scottish.

"You have to look for church records, vital records, probate records," he said. "Everyone wants to prove they are related to an Indian chief or a princess. More likely, you are not related to the royal family of Mohawks."

He said the prevalence of Native American ancestry is more pronounced in Western and Southern states, and less so in New England.

In Warren's case, a preliminary review of her ethnic roots by another researcher at the New England Historic Genealogical Society determined that she was 1/32nd Cherokee because she had a great-great-great grandmother who was Cherokee.

However, no documents have been provided showing proof of that connection.

A spokeswoman for the Cherokee Nation in Tahlequah, Okla., said there are actually three Cherokee tribes, all with different rules regarding citizenship.

"For Cherokee Nation, applicants must show documentation they are a direct, lineal descendant of someone on the Dawes Rolls, which were compiled by the federal government in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and available to be viewed online on the National Archives' website," said Lenzy Krehbiel-Burton, the deputy executive director of the Cherokee Nation Communications department.

She added, "there is a difference between having Cherokee ancestors and being a citizen of the Cherokee Nation (or any tribe, for that matter). There were Cherokees who for one reason or another were not on the Dawes Rolls, which means their descendants, while legitimately Cherokee, are not eligible for tribal citizenship. It is not a perfect system by any stretch of the imagination, but at this point, it is all we have to go by to determine eligibility for citizenship."

She said she could not discuss specific cases such as Warren's for privacy reasons.

Representatives of the other two Cherokee tribes, one of which is also in Oklahoma, the other in western North Carolina, could not be reached for comment.

Dominicans and Taino

The use of resources such as the Dawes Rolls is just one of many methods used by people to determine their ethnicity. More and more, people are turning to DNA analysis, according to several experts reached this week.

Lambert said it is still an imperfect science and can only show if a person has Native American blood, not which tribe they might be from.

In Latin America, DNA and blood-type testing has been used to show that many people from the Dominican Republic, for example, are related to the Taino tribe, which populated the Caribbean around the time the Spanish arrived.

Jorge Estevez, of the National Museum of the American Indian/The Smithsonian, said that for generations, school children in the Dominican Republic had been taught that the Taino Indians were completely wiped out by the early to mid-1600s following the Spanish invasion.

In fact, he said, Taino bloodlines, and many Taino customs, remain active today throughout the region.

Several different tests have been done, he said, showing that anywhere from 10 to 40 percent of the population of the Dominican Republic had Taino DNA markers. In Puerto Rico, the results were even higher, with one test showing that 61 percent of the population had Indian blood, he said.

"What it showed," he said, "is that the genocide of the Taino people is ludicrous."

The result has been a revival of interest in the culture of the Taino tribe, with groups sprouting up all over the Caribbean celebrating Indian traditions.

In the United States, in general, and Lawrence in particular, interest in tracing such family lineage doesn't seem as popular. The Lawrence History Center on Essex Street, for example, has no records of anyone doing research on the subject.

Lambert, of the New England genealogical group, said people should celebrate all of their ancestral lines.

"I've known Native Americans who have both Mayflower lines and Native American lines, and they say, 'I just want to be Native American,'" he said. "They should embrace all of their ancestors."

He added, "Elizabeth Warren now has a connection and a tradition. What she does with that is her doing. Some will become registered members of a tribe, others will just go on with their life."

• • •

Follow Bill Kirk on Twitter under the screen name bkirktrib. To comment on stories and see what others are saying, log on to 


Genealogy in the Era of Diversity

CARL L. BANKSTON III: Professor of Sociology at Tulane University in New Orleans, LA. /
Final paragraph of his article about Elizabeth Warren concludes : My own children, in addition to their Louisiana background, are also half-Filipino. I usually tell them not to list themselves on applications as “Asian” because being Asian is generally more of a disadvantage than being white in systems of selection by racial and ethnic categories. Or, since Filipinos usually have Spanish last names, they could use their mother’s name and claim to be “Hispanic-surnamed.” Or maybe they could just be Choctaw. In today’s world, genealogy has many more uses than just making connections with your kinfolk.

Isabel Olea
By Crispin Rendon
May 12, 2012


Deep Ancestry reveals that another of my distance ancestors is Native American.

Isabel Olea is my 10th Great Grandmother. She is in rank 2 of my mtDNA Top Twenty list (see link below), with over 69,000 of her descendants in my genealogy database. I have been looking forwarding to learning of her deep ancestry for a couple of years now.

The results of testing Jose Antonio Lopez, one of her mtDNA descendants, place her in Haplogroup subclade C1c2. She is a Native American. Some 20,000 years ago her mtDNA female ancestor left what is now Siberia traveling east to a refuge created by an Ice Age. Her descendants remained there boxed in by a frozen world for about 4,000 years, until the ice melted. A vast new world, free of humans since the being of time, lay before them. These people traveled down the American Pacific coast. Some of them stopped in Central Mexico. The first one we know my name in Isabel Olea from the Zacatecas, Mexico area. Her descendants came to populate the Mexican States of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas.

So how did we come to know all of this? Thanks to the wonderful paper trails found in Mexican Church records, hundreds of family researchers and Jose Antonio Lopez. I made the connection between Jose Antonio Lopez and Isabel Olea by looking at my database records.

Standard family history caveat:

Family history research is at times a very difficult endeavor. The link between every generation holds a potential error. I have prepared the following report to present the evidence I have linking Jose Antonio Lopez to Isabel Olea. I hope that by sharing this information, others will have an opportunity to find any errors that I may have in this paper trail. A one page mtDNA family tree is found on the final page.

For a look at my Top Twenty list 2012 MtDNA Report 

Best Regards,
Crispin Rendon

Sent by Jose M. Pena



June 2: Music & Arts Festival, Heritage Museum of Orange County
June 2: Heritage Hill Ranches to Farms to Cities, Lake Forest
June 2: Wedding Gowns, Tea, and an Historic Wedding, Santa Ana

June 9th, SHHAR Meeting, Donna Starr, Native American History of Bolsa Chica”
Review of May 12 SHHAR Monthly Meeting, Marriage Dispensations
Seniors Making a Difference in the 34th District Recognition Breakfast, May 11
Aqui Entre Nos
June 24th: Rancho Los Alamitos, Reconciling Perspectives
June 24th: Rancho Los Cerritos, Concert Series
First Christian baptism in Spanish colonial California 243 years ago

The 2nd Annual Heritage Music & Arts Festival, featuring Bluegrass, Folk & Americana music, at the Heritage Museum of Orange County, is Saturday, June 2, 2012, from noon to dusk.  Gates will open at 11 AM, with the first main-stage musical act starting at noon and ending with our headliner’s set at 5 PM.  For information on the bands, cost, day actvities, please go to:


June 2:  Ranches to Farms to Cities, the Transition to Orange County, lecture, 9-11 am, Lake Forest June 2: Wedding Gowns, Tea, and an Historic Wedding, 12 noon to 4 pm., Santa Ana
To be covered, the early American period of local history: We will discuss how the transition was made from the Mexican rancheros and their vast estates to American owners who sometimes maintained ranching, and others who shifted to sheep or agriculture. The economic, political and natural conditions that fostered the change in ownership will be discussed. We will look at the Whiting, Irvine and Moulton families among others. We will finish with the coming of towns and the split of Orange County from Los Angeles. The second hour will be conducted by Ms Ellen Bell of the Irvine Historical Society who will talk about Jame Irvine Sr. as an example of the transition from Mexican to American land ownership. 

Following the class will be an optional tour to Heritage Hill in Lake Forest where the Serrano Adobe and Whiting Ranch House can be seen together. 

The classes are held in the Laguna Hills city council chambers where there are three large murals depicting local historic events, great backgrounds to the stories we will be telling. The time is from 9:00 to 11:00 a.m., with an optional field tour following. At 24035 El Toro Road, El Toro and Paseo de Valencia.  This is the last of a series of classes offered by the the city recreation department. You can sign up ahead of time by calling (949) 707-2680. Or come by and sign up at the door.  

Sent by Frances Rios
The Santa Ana Historical Preservation Society requests the honor of your company at the 1905 nuptials of Miss Genevieve Waffle and Mr. Mark Lacy at our Open House on Saturday, June 2, 2012 from noon to four o'clock in the afternoon Dr Willlella Howe-Waffle House Santa Ana, California

Included with your tour of this 1889 Victorian gem is a display of vintage and contemporary wedding gowns, and wedding photos ranging from the early 1900s to today. Enjoy delicious tea, punch and wedding cake, browse through an extensive collection of books on local history in our gift shop, and take home a "wedding party favor".

Adults $5, Seniors and Members $4, Students K-12 $3

And to make the day even more unique, you can witness the bride's elegant entrance, as we reenact Genevieve Waffle's wedding in the home where it actually happened in 1905. Don't miss her descent down the stairway at 12:30, 1:30, and 2:30.

Also available are tickets for our Downtown Architectural Walking Tour at 2:30, $8.00 pp. Come early and save when you purchase a combined House and Walking Tour ticket for $10.00.

The Dr Willella Howe-Waffle House and Medical Museum is located at 120 Civic Center Drive West, Santa Ana, California. Read more about us at , or call 714/547-9645.


Orange Family History Center, 674 S. Yorba ST., Orange, CA
June 9th, 3012, Monthly Meeting

Donna Starr, docent for the Amigos de Bolsa Chica.
“Protecting the Native American History of Bolsa Chica”
Understanding the history of your local community and the need to save the past.  
Recent archaeological findings in the Bolsa
Chica area are helping increase understanding of the life of the earliest of residents in Orange County.

9:00-9:50 Hands-on Computer Assistance for Genealogical Research 
10:00-10:15 Welcome and Introductions
  Speaker and/or Special Workshop   

Review of May 12 SHHAR Monthly Meeting 

Viola's blog: 
Grand Jurors Association of Orange County:
A very informative presentation on the Catholic Dispensas Matrimoniales, was given by Viola Rodriguez Sadler, seated, and conducted by SHHAR Board member, Letty Rodella.  

Viola is an expert and a very well known researcher and presenter.  Viola  gave examples from early documents demonstrating the wealth of information that can be gleaned from these early marriage dispensation records found among the Catholic Church archives.

Among the books which were identified as especially valuable for Tex/Mex researchers were the following.  These  books will be available as a Special Collection at the Orange Multi-Regional Family History Center.  
1) Raul Guerra, Nadine Vasquez, and Baldomera Vela, Two Volumes Marriage Dispensations
2) Maria de la Luz Montejano Hilton, Four volumes, Libros Parroquiales de la Ciudad de Mexico, Estractos
3) Carl Lawrence Duaine, With All Arms
4) Martha Duron Jimenez, Igfnacio Narro Etchegaray Diccionario Biografico de Saltillo
5) Lilia E. Villanueva de Cavazos, 246 Testamentos de Monterrey


Seniors Making a Difference in the 34th District
Recognition Breakfast, Friday, May 11, 2012

California State Senator Lou Correa
proudly honored the
Seniors Making a Difference
in the 34th District

Recognition Breakfast
Friday, May 11, 2012
Garden Grove Community Meeting Center
11300 Stanford Ave.
Garden Grove, CA 92840-5320

Senator Lou Correa district includes the cities of Anaheim, Buena Park, Fullerton, Garden Grove, Santa Ana, Stanton, and Westminster.  

The breakfast reflected the multi-cultural community in his district.  A Vietnamese chicken soup with rice noodles was the main dish.  Senator Correa is serving.  Bananas, fruit juices, American pastries, and a variety of ice or hot coffee rounded out the meal.  

Editor:  I attended honoring Viola Rodriguez Sadler, a dear friend, SHHAR Board member, involved in many good causes.
Text below from the booklet which included the honorees:

Senate Concurrent Resolution 32 recognizes May as Senior Volunteer Month.  Through out the state and here in Orange County, we celebrate the work and dedication of remarkable senior citizens whose contributions improve the lives of so any Californians.  It is with great privilege that I welcome all of the "Seniors Making a Difference" who are being honored here today.

Each honoree has contributed to their community in signifcant ways and has been chosen based on their continued service.  it is with a sense of respect and celebration that we set aside the month of May to recognize and pay tribute to these amazing citizens.  Our ceremony today is offered as an acknowledgement of their individual dedication and commitment.

On behalf of my constituents and the California State Senate, I thank you for the service you provide in our communities and encourage you to continue your dedication, hard work, and advocacy for the residents of the 34th district. 

Lou Correa, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, and Mallory Vega, the Executive Director for the Acacia Adult Day Services.  


I am happy to report that "Aqui Entre Nos" from Mexico was the winner of the  Best Foreign Feature in the Newport Beach Film Festival.  I am happy because I was in the audience, in its one screening, May 3rd, and it was funny, touching, great acting, super music, etc. Script, characters, scenes, music, everything held together. Nothing wasted. I am  delighted that it won. The film was funny and at the same time dealt with many social issues of change, women's rights, aging, career changes, seeking creative expression, and the challenges and fulfillment of marriage and parenthood. 

Kudos really go to the writer/director, and music director.   Following the film we were fortunate to hear from them.  For both, it was their first feature.  This is surely the beginning of a wonderful career.  

Alejandra Garcia Williams, the Mexican consul in Orange County

June 24th:  Rancho Los Alamitos, 
Reconciling Perspectives

June 24: Rancho Los Cerritos, 
Concert Series 

Rancho Los Alamitos, free lectures 2012, 1:30 - 4:00 pm
June 24: Reconciling Perspectives 
August 24: A View of California from Rancho Los Alamitos
October 7: Rancho Los Alamitos in Idea, Space and Form

6400 Bixby Hill Road, Long Beach, CA 90815
562-431-3541 or email: 
Space limited, please call to reserve a seat
Free Parking is at CSULB, Lot 11 on Palos Verde Ave., with continuous shuttle service to the Rancho. Shuttle buses are handicapped accessible.  OC Register, 5/5/12 excerpt from an article by Ron Gonzales

Rancho Los Cerritos
4600 Virginia Road, Long Beach, CA  90807  562-570-1755

2012 Summer Concert Series. Free; 5:30-7:00pm 
Gates open after 5:00pm for picnicking - bring a lawn chair or a blanket; house open for tours until 7:00pm. No pets allowed.

June 24: Bernie Pearl
July 22: Cris Barber Quintet
August 26: Romanza


"Latino students in Orange County account for 69%  of all high school dropouts and have the lowest college eligibility rates at just 19.8 %," said Richard Porras, an AT&T executive who chairs the Workforce Development Committee of the orange County Buisness council.  It sponsors the effort as a way of preparing students for the workplace of tomorrow. 

Historical baptism marker may get new home

The Orange County Register

A state historical marker proclaiming the site of the first Christian baptism in Spanish colonial California 243 years ago may get a new home.

The monument was erected in 1957 along old Pacific Coast Highway to alert travelers entering San Clemente from the south that they were two miles from the inland historical site. When I-5 replaced PCH as the main artery through town, the marker was moved to the rose garden at San Clemente City Hall.

Few people notice it there, tucked in a corner of the parking lot. In recent years, longtime civic leader Bertha Henry Taylor has made it a mission to move the monument to a more high-profile place.

Casa Romantica Cultural Center and Gardens is proposing to accept the plaque and place it in a garden with a smaller base than the one it has now – an imposing concrete structure with a large wooden cross designed to catch the attention of passing motorists.

Patricia Holloway, associate director at Casa Romantica, said she contacted the California Office of Historic Preservation and said it looks like the new concept could work.

The advantage: More people would see it and the cultural center could tell its story as part of docent-led tours.

"Thousands of people per year will have exposure to it," Holloway said.

She said it appears San Clemente may be able to move the plaque without submitting a report to the state for a new landmark. It might take only a staff review instead of having to go through the state's Historical Resources Commission.

The wording on the plaque would still be correct as well. Holloway noted that Casa Romantica is two miles from the La Cristianita ("Little Christian") baptism site on Camp Pendleton – the same distance as the original PCH marker site, though from a different angle.

"It sounds really promising, but it's not a done deal," Holloway said.

Jenifer Finley, Casa Romantica's executive director, picked out a site in the cultural center's garden that can be made accessible to people who want to look at the marker without paying admission to the Casa. The location is along a path that leads to native California plants.

Finley sees the historic marker as a way for children to learn that San Clemente history goes way beyond 1925, when Ole Hanson founded the town, and 1927, when he built Casa Romantica for his family.

She said there was concern about relocating the entire monument from City Hall due to its size and condition and that putting the cross at Casa Romantica might give a false impression that it was a religious site. Moving just the plaque and placing it on a smaller pedestal would fit nicely in the garden, Finley said.

Taylor, 100, said she is excited. "We're making headway, and I'm so happy about it," she said.

Contact the writer: or 949-492-5127

© Copyright 2012 Freedom Communications. All Rights Reserved.
Privacy Policy | User Agreement | Site Map



June 1st, 10 am, Groundbreaking Ceremony, "Aztec Eagles"
Forgotten History of the "Aquilas Aztecas" . . Over 90 Combat Missions
Los Archivos de Aztlan, UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center 
June 8-10th: The 43rd Annual Southern California Genealogy Jamboree 
June 10th: Grand Opening of the Rancho Center & Barns Area Restoration 
June 21s-23rd: Santa Barbara Summer Symposium 
Until July 1st, Legacy of the Serpent
201st actual combat pic
Actual Combat Photo 
Note Mexican Flag Colors on the tail of the P-47 Thunderbolt



June 1st, 10 am

Mounting of the Mural/Monument will be at
3425 E First St Los Angeles, Ca 90063


The Committee for the 201st Fighter Squadron Monument Project and El Mercado De Los Angeles will be announcing the construction and unveiling of their monument depicting the history of Mexico's Escuadron 201. To that end the 201st Fighter Squadron Monument Committee will be performing a ground breaking ceremony for the construction of the Escuadron 201 Monument.


The ceremony will take place at the El Mercado De Los Angeles on Friday June 1, 2012 at 10:00 A.M. at El Mercado De Los Angeles 3455 E 1st Street Los Angeles California. Invited dignitaries will be Mexican Consul General David Figueroa Ortega, Los Angeles City Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, City Councilman Jose Huizar, Congresswoman Lucille Roybal-Allard, Congresswoman Grace Napolitano and Supervisor Gloria Molina.


The monument will depict the history of the 30 Mexican fighter pilots who arrived in Loredo, Texas on July 25, 1944 from Mexico to train and fly American P-47s and joined their American counter parts fighting the Japanese in World War II. Their aircrafts were the only planes to have the colors of both nations, Mexico's and the United States.

Known as the "Aztec Eagles", El Escuadrón 201 was a Mexican fighter squadron, part of the Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana (FAEM - "Mexican Expeditionary Air Force") that aided the Allied war effort during World War II. Escuadrón Aéreo de Pelea 201 (201st Air Fighter Squadron) was composed of more than 300 volunteers; 30 were experienced pilots and the rest were ground crewmen. The ground crewmen were electricians, mechanics, and radiomen. Its formation was prompted by the attack by German submarines against Mexican oil tankers Potrero del Llano and Faja de Oro, which were transporting crude oil to the United States. These attacks prompted President Manuel Avila Camacho to declare war on the Axis powers.

"These courageous pilots are rarely mentioned or acknowledged in war movies, documentaries and in history books. We are proud of all of our veterans, especially proud of the contributions of this small and significant squadron of daring and gallant Mexican airmen. This monument will bring to light their willingness to participate in the war to help make a difference." said Alfred Lugo the founder of the monument.

Pilots marked with an asterisk (*) were killed during flying operations in the Philippines.

Mamerto Albarrán Nágera*
José Barbosa Cerda
Julio Cal y Mayor Sauz
David Cerón Bedolla
Héctor Espinoza Galván*
José Espinoza Fuentes*
Jacobo Estrada Luna
Manuel Farías Rodríguez
Guillermo García Ramos
Raúl García Mercado
Carlos Garduño Núñez
Radamés Gaxiola Andrade
Audberto Gutierrez Ramires
Fernando Hernández Vega
Roberto Legorreta Sicilia
Mario López Portillo*
Praxedis López Ramos

Miguel Moreno Arreola
Reynaldo Pérez Gallardo
José Luis Pratt Ramos
Graco Ramírez Garrido
Joaquín Ramírez Vilchis
Justino Reyes Retana
Carlos Rodríguez Corona
Crisóforo Salido Grijalva
Amador Sámano Piña
Ángel Sánchez Rebollo
Carlos Varela Landini
Roberto Urías Aveleyra
Miguel Uriarte Aguilar
Javier Martínez Valle
Fausto Vega Santander*
Jaime Zenizo Rojas

Founder/Produceralfred lugo
Alfred Lugo
Documentary Producer


Please contact: Alfred Lugo
562-706-3286 Cell
562-696-6204 Home

     Co-Founder Artist/Muralist

Project Artist

Artist Jose Luis Gonzalez



Victor H. Mancilla

Producer/Director of


Documentary on Escuadron 201
To be screened at the unveiling

201st patch
201st patch

alfred lugo
Alfred Lugo
Documentary Producer


Please contact: Alfred Lugo
562-706-3286 Cell
562-696-6204 Home

Artist Jose Luis Gonzalez


Victor H. Mancilla

Producer/Director of


Documentary on Escuadron 201
To be screened at the unveiling

Project Location: East Los Angeles
The intent of this project is to present to El Mercado, located at 3455 E. 1st East Los Angeles, California, the installation and mounting of a tile mural depicting the history of Mexico's Escuadron 201. The mural would be mounted on a selected wall of the Mercado where the Mercado's many weekly visitors may see and read the heroic achievements of Mexico'sEscuadron 201's pilots and ground crew who trained and fought for the United States in the Philippines in World War II.

201st squadron formation

 . . . .  Over 90 Combat Missions


 El Escuadrón 201 was a Mexican fighter squadron, part of the Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana (FAEM - "Mexican Expeditionary Air Force") that aided the Allied war effort during World War II. The squadron was commonly known, apparently coined by members of the squadron during training, by the nickname Aguilas Aztecas, or "Aztec Eagles".[1]
        The squadron was attached to the 58th Fighter Group of the United States Army Air Forces during the liberation of the main Philippine island of Luzon in the summer of 1945. The pilots flew P-47D-30-RA "Thunderbolt" single-seat fighter aircraft carrying out tactical air support missions.
        Beginning in June 1945, the squadron initially flew missions with the 310th Fighter Squadron, often twice a day, using borrowed U.S. aircraft. It received 25 new P-47D-30-RA aircraft in July, marked with the insignia of both the USAAF and Mexican Air Force. The squadron flew more than 90 combat missions, totaling more than 1,900 hours of flight time. They participated in the Allied effort to bomb Luzon and Formosa to push the Japanese out of those islands. During their fighting in the Philippines, five pilots died (one was shot down, one crashed, and three ran out of fuel and died at sea), and three others died in accidents during training.
        Among the missions flown by the squadron was 53 ground support missions flown in support of the U.S. 25th Infantry Division together with the Philippine Commonwealth Army soldiers and recognized guerrilla units in its break-out into the Cagayan Valley on Luzon between 4 June and 4 July 1945, 37 training missions flown 14 July-21 July 1945 (including missions of transporting new aircraft from Biak Island, New Guinea), four fighter sweeps over Formosa on 6 July-9 July 1945, and a dive bombing mission against the port of Karenko, Formosa, on 8 August.
        When the 201st deployed, no provision for replacement pilots had been made and the pilot losses incurred in the Philippines hampered its effectiveness. Mexican replacement pilots were rushed through familiarization training in the United States, and two more pilots died in flight accidents in Florida. When the 58th Fighter Group left the Philippines for Okinawa on July 10, the Mexicans stayed behind. They flew their last combat mission as a full squadron on August 26, escorting a convoy north of the Philippines. The 201st returned to Mexico City in November 1945.
        Sent by Ruben Alvarez

Los Archivos de Aztlan
UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center Newsletter (May 2012): Vol. 10, No. 9

CSRC awarded grant from NEH
The CSRC Library has been awarded a grant of $185,000 from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) to support a three-year archival project. It will address the gap in the American historical record regarding Mexican American contributions to Los Angeles civic life before the social movements of the 1960s and 1970s. The project, “Documenting and Preserving the Post–World War II Generation of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles,” will involve arranging, describing, digitizing, and providing public access to five collections: Edward R. Roybal Papers, Grace Monta?ez Davis Papers, Julian Nava Papers, Dionicio Morales Papers, and Ricardo F. Mu?oz Papers. These collections include an extensive number of photographs, correspondence, personal papers, and organizational papers. Once digitized, these materials will have the potential to dramatically shift the current popular understanding of Mexican American history in Southern California and beyond.

Library and Archive
The CSRC Library welcomes service-learning students

The CSRC has partnered with the UCLA Department of Information Studies to provide service-learning opportunities for graduate students enrolled in the master of library and information science (MLIS) program. Students enrolled this quarter in the MLIS course “Ethics, Diversity, and Change in the Information Professions” are required to provide at least twenty hours of service to an approved site or community organization. Five students will perform their service at the CSRC on projects that include the processing of serials and audio-video components of the Yolanda Retter-Vargas Papers, the Norma Corral Papers, a portion of the Guillermo Hern?ndez Papers (which is comprised of audio recordings), papers associated with the CSRC A Ver book series, and the ongoing La Gente de Aztl?n digitization project. For more information on these projects and other volunteer and intern opportunities, contact the CSRC librarian, Lizette Guerra, at

Gomez collection received
The CSRC is proud to announce the recent acquisition of the Ramiro Gomez Papers. Gomez is a young Latino artist who portrays Latino domestic workers employed in affluent Los Angeles neighborhoods. The collection includes selections from Gomez’s Happy Hills series of mixed-media works and documentary photographs of his installations. The CSRC will be digitizing this collection and providing access to it through the UCLA Digital Library. The CSRC Library will feature an exhibition of Gomez’s art in 2012–13; the exact dates will be announced. For more information on the artist, visit his blog at Researchers who wish to consult this collection may contact the CSRC librarian, Lizette Guerra, at .

Archival projects in process
The Tomas Benitez Collection: This collection of invitations to gallery openings, museum exhibitions, and film and theater presentations is a virtual tour of the Chicana/o and Latina/o art scene in Los Angeles from 1979 to 2009. A curated collection of these materials has already been scanned and will be available online in the near future for artists, researchers, and anyone interested in Chicana/o art. 

The Mexican Museum of San Francisco Papers: In 2005 the CSRC Library archived the first 250 linear feet donated to this collection. Since then the library has received an additional two linear feet featuring catalogs and ephemera related to the construction of the Mexican Museum’s facility. These materials will soon be available to researchers. 

SACNAS Papers: Late last year the CSRC Library received fourteen linear feet of papers from the Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS). We are fortunate to have CSRC visiting scholar Reynal Guillen processing and preserving this invaluable collection. 

The Guillermo Hernandez Papers: Prior to his passing in 2006, Guillermo Hernandez, former director of the CSRC, donated approximately four linear feet of oral histories recorded on audiocassettes and quarter-inch, reel-to-reel tape. Library staff are now preserving these materials as well as digitizing a curated selection of the recordings. 

Aztlan seeking submissions
Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies is currently considering submissions for 2012. Each issue of Aztlan presents three types of articles: peer-reviewed essays, thematic dossiers, and book reviews. All submissions are considered on a rolling basis and should be sent to our submission inbox at . For complete information about Aztlan and the submission guidelines, please visit the CSRC Press website. To ask questions or discuss ideas with the journal’s staff, please contact CSRC assistant editor David O’Grady at .

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 

43rd Annual 
Southern California Genealogy Jamboree

Rancho Center & Barns Area Restoration,

The 43rd Annual Southern California Genealogy Jamboree will be held Friday, June 8, through Sunday, June 10, 2012, at the Los Angeles Marriott Burbank Airport, 2500 Hollywood Way, Burbank, California.

On Saturday, June 9 and Sunday, June 10, Jamboree will offer free live-streamed sessions so family historians around the globe can benefit from the knowledge and expertise of our speakers.

Southern California Genealogical Society
417 Irving Drive, Burbank, CA 91504
818.843.7247 ph   818.688.3253 fx   818.574.8393 msg
Sunday, June 10th: Grand Opening of the Rancho Center & Barns Area Restoration,  noon to 5 pm.

Discover the living story of Southern California found in the extraordinary historic site today.  Experience the remarkable opening of the Rancho Center and the restored barnyard where the great shires, rabbits, and ducks have come home to stay.  Celebrate with the sights and sounds of music and dance from all eras; listen to native and newcomer stories; try your hand at ranching skills, crafts and food; and revel in the traditions of people spanning the times of the region then and now.

Free admission.  Free parkings in at CSULB Lot 11 located on Palo Verde Avenue at Redina with continuous shuttle service to the Rancho. For more information, 562-431-3541  

Join us in Santa Barbara for our 2012 Summer Symposium!

June 21-23rd

Nestled between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean, Santa Barbara boasts a history that spans Spanish colonization; lawless Gold-Rush settlements; Victorian-era health resorts; and a booming economy fueled by oil and silent film production. It's easy to understand why Santa Barbara is an internationally-renowned city of high cultural interest. Twice destroyed by earthquakes, in 1812 and 1925, Santa Barbara rebuilt itself in a unique "Santa Barbara Style," which artfully blends Spanish, Mediterranean and Moorish architectures.

Conference of California Historical Societies
112 Harvard Ave. #15, Claremont, CA  91711

Legacy of the Serpent 

The Los Angeles County Museum of Art explores an ancient, mythic figure and his importance in Mexican art and culture.
Through July 1st

Quetzalcoatl is a mythic beast.  He's also a man, or at least a man-god, according to historic and anthropological findings.  
He has appeared everywhere in central and southern Mexico, from the temples of Teotihuacan to the grand structures of Chichen Itza, including the base of the Mayan city's iconic, central pyramid, El Castillo.

Quetzalcoatl has survived across political boundaries and through the centuries, even appearing in contemporary Mexican and Chicano art, literature and popular culture.

There are many manifestations of the feathered, or plumed, serpent, and some of them are currently on display at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "Children of the Plumed Serpent: The Legacy of Quetzalcoatl in Ancient Mexico" features more than 200 objects, including painted codices, turquoise mosaics, pottery, gold, sculpted figures and textiles from Mexico, Europe and the United States. The extensive exhibition, housed in LACMA's 2-year-old Resnick Pavilion, runs through July 1.

"Children of the Plumed Serpent" is organized in five thematic sections, generally arranged chronologically. The show starts with "The World of Tula and Chichen Izta," opening with large sculptural pieces from these and other areas.

The first major work, "Architectural Ornament in the Form of a Cut Shell" (A.D. 1400-1521), is an intriguing artifact from Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City), but it's not entirely clear how it represents Quetzalcoatl.

In fact, this seems to be a recurring quandary in the exhibition. So many interesting and ancient objects from Mexico's Postclassic (A.D. 900-1521) and early colonial periods are on display, but a surprising number are peripheral to the central theme and story of the plumed serpent, and many don't reference him at all. Even though we are in an exhibition exploring Queztalcoatl and his reach across territories and time, we're still left searching for the feathered serpent among the objects on view.

Of course, several sculptural works and codices (illustrated manuscripts) do directly reference or embody Queztalcoatl. The sculpted pieces are among the finest in the show, including "Rain-god vessel" (A.D. 1200-1500), a slip-painted ceramic from Colima; "Seated Figure of Quetzalcoatl" (A.D. 600-900), a ceramic from Veracruz; "Effigy Censer in the Form of the Maize God" (1200-1400), a slip-painted ceramic from Yucatán; and "Effigy Censer" (1200-1500), a ceramic with pigments from Yucatán. The detail and design in these works is amazing.

The stone "Bust of Quetzalcoatl" (1300-1521), on loan from the British Museum, is a rare and striking piece. With its hollowed mouth and eyes open as if in a trance, and serpent's coils with feathers writhing around its head, this sculpture conveys the cult-like status Quetzalcoatl commanded.

Other noteworthy pieces include a real human "Skull with Turquoise Mosaic" (1400-1521), a turquoise mosaic shield (1100-1521) and disk (1300-1521), and a gold collar necklace (1300-1500) from Oaxaca. While we're once again searching for Quetzalcoatl among the obscured figures in the turquoise shield and disk, both works are fascinating and tell the story of trade and interaction with the native people of the American Southwest, where turquoise is found and produced.

This exhibition leaves some important questions unanswered. If he's such a superpower stud, what can Quetzalcoatl do? What are his powers? For a contemporary audience immersed in and bombarded with superhero cinema, some simple explanations could go a long way toward bridging the centuries.

Also, the show's didactics tell us that "Today, the descendants of the Children of the Plumed Serpent continue to thrive in southern Mexico." If that's the case, where are the present-day manifestations of Queztalcoatl in this exhibition? It would have been cool and meaningful to see the plumed serpent in a contemporary mural, poster or design, as there are many examples of this in modern-day Mexican and Chicano art and culture.

Nonetheless, "Children of the Plumed Serpent" is a wide-ranging and stimulating exhibition, with more ancient work from Mexico than you're likely to see anywhere else in the United States. It's another example of the fine work former LACMA curator Virginia Fields accomplished. The Mesoamerican art scholar – who co-curated this show with Victoria Lyall and John Pohl – died last June at 58, and this was her final project.

Contact the writer: 714-796-6026 or

Archive Chronicling History of San Diego's Chicano Movement to Go Digital
The California-Mexico Studies Center, Inc.
June 28: Fort Ross Bicentennial at the Presidio
July 6–7: Northern California Family History Expo in Sacramento
Bounty-Pitcairn Conference, August 19-21, 2012
Manuel Valencia: California's Native Son by Julie Armistead
The Center for Latino Policy Research (CLPR) UC, Berkeley

Archive Chronicling History of San Diego's 
Chicano Movement to Go Digital, Accessed: 25 April 2012

In 2004, the University of California, San Diego Libraries acquired one of the region’s most significant archives—the papers of Chicano activist Herman Baca— documenting the struggles and achievements of the Chicano Movement in San Diego from 1964 to 2006. Thanks to a $56,000 grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), the UC San Diego Libraries will now begin a two-year effort to digitize the 40,000-plus items—including correspondence, photographs, posters, slides, and audio interviews—contained in the Archive.

"Herman Baca has made an amazing contribution by documenting the Chicano Movement in San Diego and Southern California," said Marye Anne Fox, chancellor of UC San Diego. "Digitizing this collection will greatly increase the impact of his archive by making it available to all segments of the community, which will help us to strengthen our ties to the Chicano community while providing an important new resource for teachers, students, and scholars and citizens beyond the campus."

When the Baca collection was received in 2004, it became the UC San Diego Libraries' first archival collection on Chicano activism. Since that time, the collection—which is housed in the Mandeville Special Collections Library— has grown to include the American Friends Service Committee United States-Mexico Border Program Records (1974-2004), and the Roberto Martinez Papers (1969-2009).

"We are thrilled to have received funding from NHPRC to digitize the Herman Baca Archive, a collection of such historical significance to the San Diego region," said Brian E. C. Schottlaender, The Audrey Geisel University Librarian at UC San Diego. "This grant will enable us to make this rich archive freely available and easily discoverable on the Internet in just a few years. In an increasingly digital world, one of our top goals is to make our collections as accessible as possible to our users and members of the public. This effort helps to advance that goal."

In the 1960s, Herman Baca, who grew up in National City, CA, became a prolific Chicano activist, political organizer, printer, and founder, as well as chairman, of the Committee on Chicano Rights (CCR). Baca, who brought the emerging Chicano movement into local electoral politics through his work with the Mexican –American Political Association (MAPA), is known and admired for his community-based grassroots organizing in support of civil rights and political and judicial equality. In the 1970s, noting the lack of Chicanos represented by either the Republican or Democratic parties, Baca organized the San Diego County chapter of La Raza Unida Party, a national third-party effort to increase the number of registered voters and political candidates in the Chicano community.

Over the years, Baca worked closely with other leading figures of the Chicano movement—including Cesar Chavez, Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales, Humberto Nor "Bert" Corona, Francisco "Kiki" Martinez, and Jose Angel Gutierrez—to address immigration, civil and political rights, educational opportunities, and other issues affecting Chicano communities. Over the nearly 40-year time span represented in the Archive, Baca gathered an amazing variety of materials, from meeting minutes and fundraising brochures to court case files and Chicano artworks, tracing the grassroots activities and events that defined the Chicano movement.


According to Lynda Claassen, director of the UC San Diego Mandeville Special Collections Library, the Baca collection is used each quarter by students in many disciplines, including History, Anthropology, and Ethnic Studies.

"A major benefit of digitizing the collection is that it will make it more accessible not only to these students, but also to the K-12 and regional Chicano communities, which have expressed great interest in incorporating materials from the Baca collection into lesson plans and teaching opportunities," said Claassen.

The UC San Diego Mandeville Special Collections Library is an important historical resource for the San Diego community, with numerous collections covering the history of San Diego, California, Baja California, and significant Pacific voyages. In addition, the UC San Diego Archives and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Archives house a wealth of rare and historic materials, including correspondence, photographs, maps, newspapers, and other archival items that trace the history and development of the University and the San Diego and border regions.

About the UC San Diego Libraries

Ranked among the nation's top 20 public academic research libraries, the UC San Diego Libraries play an integral role in advancing and supporting the university's research, teaching, and public service missions. As the intellectual heart of the UC San Diego campus, the university libraries provide access to more than 7 million digital and print volumes, journals, and multimedia materials to meet the knowledge and information needs of faculty, students, and members of the public. Each day, the Libraries vast resources are accessed nearly 90,000 times through the Libraries' main Web site. For more information:

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 

California-Mexico Studies Center, Inc.  June 28: Fort Ross, 200 Years Ago, 1812-2012
The California-Mexico Studies Center, Inc. 
Armando Vazquez-Ramos President & CEO
1551 N. Studebaker Road, Long Beach, CA 90815
Phone: (562) 430-5541 Cell: (562) 972-0986


Vol.1 No.1
April 29, 2012
L.A. Riots 20th Anniversary 
June 28: Fort Ross, 200 Years, 1812-2012

Fort Ross Bicentennial at the Presidio, a Series of four lectures, offered free, no RSVP necessary, Golden Gate Club 135 Fisher Loop, Presidio of San Francisco

June 28, 7-8 pm  General Vallejo's Legacy
Meet the great-great-granddaughter of Mariano Vallejo, Mexican Commander of the Presidio 183-1834.  California historian Marth Vallejo-McGettigan presents Mexican California history, live music, and family lore.

Full series:        

2012 Northern California Family History Expo
July 6–7 in Sacramento

The Northern California Family History Expo is happening in July. This is a great opportunity not only for learning from the experts how to further your own family history research, but also for inviting members of the community and general public–whether beginner or advanced family historians–who share your love of genealogy to attend. The Northern California Family History Expo is sponsored by Family History Expos (a private company).

The expo will be held July 6–7, 2012, at the Crowne Plaza Sacramento Northeast, 5321 Date Avenue, Sacramento, California.

The opening keynote speaker will be Dean L. McLeod, who has been a full-time professional genealogist since 1975 and is a founding board member of the Association of Professional Genealogists.

Holly T. Hansen, president of Family History Expos, Inc., will give the closing keynote address. Holly has helped thousands of family history enthusiasts understand the techniques and technology needed to trace their roots in today’s ever-changing technological environment.

The 50 classes offered will cover a wide range of topics including family history research tips, online resources, personal history writing, and recent updates to FamilySearch presented by staff from the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah. You can review the complete class schedule at /. The early bird special of $49 for registration expires on June 6, 2012.

There is no cost for attending the keynote addresses, visiting the exhibit hall, or attending the free classes for family history consultants, stake directors and assistants, and priesthood leaders. Copy coupon from website for full conference attendance. 

Sunday-Tuesday, August 19-21, 2012 at the Pitcairn Islands Study Center in Angwin, California < for information on the program schedule, speakers and topics, plus registration

Manuel Valencia: California's Native Son
by Julie Armistead

Editor's note: The following essay was reprinted in Resource Library on July 26, 2006 with the permission of the Hearst Art Gallery at Saint Mary's College and the author. If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, or wish to obtain a copy of the catalogue from which it is excerpted, please contact the Hearst Art Gallery directly through either this phone number or web address:  925-631-4379

Manuel Valencia had the good fortune to come of age in the latter half of the 19th century when San Francisco truly began to flourish as a city and support a growing contingent of artists. He was born in 1856, a mere seven years after the onset of the Gold Rush. Eleven years later, the transcontinental railroad was completed, and California experienced an increasing flow of westward migration. While he was still a young man, the San Francisco Art Association and Bohemian Club were founded, providing venues for artists to socialize with newly-prosperous businessmen and budding art collectors. It was an exhilarating time. But there is another aspect to his life that makes Manuel Valencia distinctive in the annals of California art: as a direct descendant of one of the soldiers of the 1775-1776 Anza-Moraga expedition to establish the Mission and Presidio of San Francisco, he is certainly one of California's first native-born artists.

Manuel Valencia's great great grandfather, José Manuel Valenzia
[1] was born in Guadalupé, Zacatecas, Mexico in 1749. Recruited for the Anza-Moraga expedition,[2] he came to California with his wife, Maria Luz Muñoz, and three children, Maria Gertrudis (age 15), Francisco Maria (age 8) and Ignacio Maria (age 3). After making the long journey north, the expedition arrived at the place that became Yerba Buena, later San Francisco. The family would have been present when the first mass was conducted on June 29, 1776 under an arbor on the spot where Mission Dolores would be constructed.[3] This important event happened just days before the American Declaration of Independence was signed on the opposite coast. According to Dorothy Mutnick in one of her important histories of early California, José Manuel was a soldier in the mission escort, and after his enlistment period had ended, he remained as a crew member. Toward the end of his life, José Manuel was one of the earliest settlers of Pueblo San José, which became the first capital of California in 1849.[4] Later, Manuel Valencia would paint several versions of the first capitol building, one of which is included in this exhibition. When Manuel moved his family to San José after the 1906 earthquake, he was retracing his great great grandfather's footsteps.

Manuel Valencia was a Californio, a title used to identify the Spanish-speaking settlers of California and their descendants. Several of his relatives were granted tracts of land by the Mexican government, which claimed all of California by right of discovery. Two siblings of José Antonio Valencia, Manuel Valencia's grandfather, were granted land in Contra Costa County. All three siblings were children of Francisco Maria Valencia, José Manuel's son who, like his father, served in the San Francisco Company. Candelario Valencia, also a soldier, obtained the Acalanes tract (part of present-day Lafayette) in 1834; within five years it was sold. Accounts differ as to why he gave up the land ­ like many Californios, he could have sold it to pay off debts, but it is also possible that he decided the tract was too remote after his sister Maria Manuela's husband, Felipé Briones, was killed by Indians in 1839. He lived on his other property near Mission Dolores in San Francisco, and most records indicate that Valencia Street was named either for him or for the family. Candalario's sister, Maria Manuela Valencia, received Boca de la Cañada de Pinole, a grant located between Martinez and Lafayette in 1842. She spent years proving her claim to the satisfaction of the American government after the Mexican-American War and finally succeeded in 1878.
[5] Additional Valencia descendants received grants or married other Californios who had their own. California is dotted with towns and other locales named for these settlers.[6]

"The name of Manuel Valencia is as closely identified with the early development of California art as is that of his Spanish forebear, General Valencia, with its history," states his July 10, 1935 obituary in the San Francisco News. Although the obituary mistakenly identified his great great grandfather as a General, it makes an important point. Valencia mingled with many of the notable artists of the day and submitted paintings to the San Francisco Art Association and Bohemian Club exhibitions. Although largely self-taught, he studied briefly with Jules Tavernier, a most respected artist and colorful character. He painted on weekends with fellow artists Angel Espoy, Carl Jonnevold and John Califano. He was employed as a staff artist for the San Francisco Call newspaper and was a friend of M. H. de Young. Valencia maintained a studio in San Francisco and sold his paintings through Gump's and Morris & Kennedy's in San Francisco, and Delmonico's in New York.[7

Manuel Valencia was born on October 30, 1856. Some sources list San Rafael as his place of birth, while others cite Rancho San José, which is merely another name for the vast 6,659 acre Pacheco Land Grant given to Ignacio Pacheco in 1840
.[8] It should be remembered that San Rafael as a city was not incorporated until 1874, and much of what is now northern San Rafael and southern Novato was a part of Rancho San José. So the discrepancy may be one of semantics only. The assertion that Manuel Valencia was born in the Valencia hacienda on Rancho San José deserves a bit more scrutiny, however, and involves some additional historical background.

Ignacio Pacheco was a descendant of Juan Salvio Pacheco, another Anza-Moraga party member, so it would not be unlikely that a lasting friendship between the Pachecos and the Valencias could have developed.
[9] Ignacio constructed an adobe home on the Marin property and lived there for the rest of his life. His estate was divided between his widow and children; the adobe home, along with 600 acres, went to daughter Catalena. About 1870, Catalena married Francisco Ignacio Valencia, who was Manuel Valencia's cousin and a son of Candelario.[10] Mildred Hoover, in her book Historic Spots in California, writes that at least for a time after the marriage, the home was known as the Valencia adobe; however, Catalena, who was born in 1857, was one year younger than Manuel. If Manuel Valencia were born in the adobe home, it would have been prior to the merging of the two families.

Valencia began painting as a youth, perhaps inspired by his artist father, also named Manuel Valencia. One of the paintings included in this exhibition, Sutter's Fort, was the subject of a letter Valencia wrote to Mr. J. L. Gillis of the California State Library in 1912: "...I am glad to give you an idea in regard to the painting of Sutter's Fort you mentioned in your letter. Of course, I have painted several views of the same, if the one now in your possession is a full view of the place it was painted about 1875 or thereabout from a sketch done by my father a few months after the capture of General Vallejo in 1846, if I am not mistaken."

Painting did not, however, always pay the bills. As with many other artists of the day, Valencia's earliest employment was as an illustrator. He worked for the Salvation Army magazine Western War Cry which was published in San Francisco between 1883 and 1900,
[12] and it was during that time that Valencia met and married Mabel Eadon,[13] with whom he had nine children. The family lived in San Francisco, and Valencia maintained a studio there as well. At the time of the 1906 earthquake and fire, he "rode his horse to his Sutter Street studio. He found his studio in a mess ­ all his father's sketches and all his own valuable oil paintings, however, were still intact ­ the U.S. Militia refused to let him take any of his goods away ­ then later on during the same day ­ THE FIRE came and burnt them all."[14]

Valencia moved his family to 954 Vine Street, San Jose, although he continued to keep a studio in San Francisco. On November 9, 1906 Valencia received a letter from his dealer, Abe Gump, who was critical of some paintings he had sent for sale. Mr. Gump wrote, "I am living in Marin County and the hills all look more or less brown and have not the greenish-yellow that is in some of your pictures. I think you are making a mistake not living in Marin County, as just before the Earthquake you had the right ideas about Marin County scenery."
[15] Just three years earlier, while living at Bolinas, Valencia received critical praise for his work in a March 15, 1903 San Francisco Chronicle review. "Valencia, who is rapidly coming to the front as an artist of great sincerity with unusual ability in expression of what he sees, continues to work at Bolinas, where he has unfolded his easels and umbrellas for an extended stay. He is sending out some small marines of great merit." In 1912, Valencia served as the Director of the Art Gallery at the Santa Clara County Fair and also mounted an exhibition of 80 of his paintings in the Russ Building in San Francisco. Another undated catalog of Valencia's landscapes attests to his sense of humor, with the following lines printed on the cover, "Good Pictures, Like Clever Criminals, Are Apt to be Unhung," as does his business card, with the motto, "Boost, Don't Knock." [16]

True to his Californio heritage, Valencia painted scenes of the California missions, an endeavor that was popularized by other artists such as Edwin Deakin and Chris Jorgensen, but his motivation may have been quite different. Essayist Sheri Bernstein hypothesized, "the romanticized image of the dons of Alta California was far preferable to the derogatory view of contemporary Mexicans that prevailed within the dominant culture."
[17] Valencia clearly traveled all over the state, and beyond, to capture his landscapes. One mission painting in this exhibition, whose location has not been identified, resembles architecture found farther to the southwest or even in Mexico, where Valencia studied painting and where he was made an honorary member of the Escuela de Bellas Artes.[18]

Manuel Valencia was a prolific painter who focused the passion of his Californio spirit to capture on canvas the essence of the California landscape. In 1967 Lewis Ferbache, former curator at the Oakland Museum, paid tribute to Valencia by asserting that, "at his best, there is genuine personal poetry in his work."
[19] An art review in the San Francisco Chronicle on March 15, 1903 described him as "an artist of great sincerity with unusual ability in expression of what he sees..." and critic Laura Bride Powers praised him for continuing to evolve as an artist when she stated in 1905, "His last work, oaks done down at Santa Barbara, shows great improvement along technical lines, without detracting in the least from its virility and truth."[20]

Manuel Valencia died at age 79 in Sacramento on July 6, 1935, after an operation. It is fitting that his family scattered his ashes on Mt. Tamalpais, not far from the place where he was born. It is my hope that this exhibition, which brings together some of his very best paintings, will lead to a reevaluation of his life and work. How appropriate if that could happen here, at the Hearst Art Gallery, a place linked historically with the Valencia family and the Anza-Moraga expedition.


1 The original spelling of the name was Valenzia, although it was changed to Valencia in the next generation. The name José is also sometimes seen as Josef or Joseph.

2 Juan Bautista de Anza was charged with the task of finding an overland route from Sonora (now southern Arizona) to northern California for two reasons: to establish a safer, more reliable means of sending supplies to the missions and presidios that were being founded in California, and to colonize the area for the Spanish.

3 The present Mission Dolores was completed in 1791.

4 Mutnick, Dorothy Gittinger, Some Alta California Pioneers and Descendants 1776-1852; Mutnick, Dorothy Gittinger, Some California Poppies & Even a Few Mommies, with a History of Upper California During the First Hundred Years; Mutnick's original research located at the Moraga Historical Society; Bancroft, H. H., History of California, Vol. 1542-1800; In Mildred Hoover's Historic Spots in California, she says that the first legislature in San Jose was called the "Legislature of a Thousand Drinks" because the legislators imbibed freely and often adjourned to the local saloon. The capital was moved to Vallejo in 1851.

5 Mutnick, Mildred Gittinger, Some California Poppies; Hoover, Mildred Brooke, Historic Spots in California; California State Archives, Spanish and Mexican Land Grant Maps 1855-1875; University of California, Berkeley, Library, Mexican Land Grants for Contra Costa County.

6 For example, Saint Mary's College is located in Moraga, named after Joaquin Moraga, grandson of José Joaquin Moraga, Anza's lieutenant who assumed command of the expedition when Anza returned to Mexico. Moraga led the party into San Francisco and was the first Commander of the Presidio and Mission, a position he held until he died 9 years later. Joaquin was granted Rancho Laguna de los Palos Colorados, in what is now the Moraga Valley.

7 Biographical sketech of Manuel Valencia, prepared by Edwin Valencia, Jr., in the Mary Lou Valencia Giller Family Papers; Hughes, Edan, Artists in California, 1786-1940, biographical entries for Angel Espoy and Manuel Valencia; Lekisch, Barbara, Embracing Scenes of Lakes Tahoe and Donner; San Francisco Chronicle, obituary, July 6, 1935.

8 Sacramento Bee, July 6, 1935; San Francisco Chronicle, July 6, 1935; pioneer card in the California Section of the California State Library completed by daughter Ethel Valencia Grau in 1935; Hughes, Edan, Artists in California, biographical entry for Manuel Valencia.

9 There was a certain prestige to being one of the select few who founded San Francisco; there also was much intermarriage among the Anza-Moraga expedition families.

10 1870 California Census, Marin County; 1880 California Census, Marin County.

11 California Section of the California State Library; also quoted in Lekisch, Barbara, Embracing Scenes of Lakes Tahoe and Donner.

12 The Western War Cry ceased publishing after 1900, and resumed again from 1921 until 1967, when all the regional War Cry magazines were merged into one national publication.

13 They married November 29, 1896. According to Edwin Valencia, Jr., Mabel Eadon was from Leeds, England, and was also an artist.

14 Letter from Manuel Valencia's son, Edwin J. Valencia to Jeanne Van Nostrand, May 16, 1946, quoted in Lekisch, Barbara, Embracing Scenes of Lakes Tahoe and Donner.

15 Mary Lou Valencia Giller Family Papers.

16 Catalog of the Santa Clara County Fair Art Gallery in the Mary Lou Valencia Giller Family Papers; Russ Building exhibition mentioned in the San Francisco Call, June 14, 1912.

17 Bernstein, Sheri, "Selling California, 1900-1920" in Made in California: Art, Image, and Identity 1900-2000, p. 94.

18 Sacramento Bee, obituary, July 6, 1935; Hughes, Edan, Artists in California; biographical sketech of Manuel Valencia, prepared by Edwin Valencia, Jr., in the Mary Lou Valencia Giller Family Papers.

19 Oakland Museum of California Artist File.

20 San Francisco Call, November 5, 1905.

The Hearst Art Gallery at Saint Mary's College will present Manuel Valencia: California's Native Son (1856-1935) from September 9 through October 15, 2006. Manuel Valencia: California's Native Son (1856-1935) is a retrospective of more than fifty paintings by this turn of the century landscape painter selected from public and private collections. The above essay is contained in the catalogue which accompanied an exhibition. Manuel Valencia: California's Native Son (1856-1935):

About the author:
Julie Armistead is Hearst Art Gallery Registrar/Collections Manager and the guest curator of the exhibition. 

Resource Library
editor's note:

Resource Library
wishes to extend appreciation to Heidi Donner of the Hearst Art Gallery for her introduction of the author to this publication and her help concerning permissions for reprinting the above text. Readers may also enjoy the images in our preview article for the exhibition Manuel Valencia: California's Native Son (1856-1935) (7/10/06).

Read more articles and essays concerning this institutional source by visiting the sub-index page for the Hearst Art Gallery in Resource Library.

Sent by Lorri Frain

The Center for
Latino Policy Research (CLPR)
University of California, Berkeley
By Lisa García Bedolla (May 14, 2012)


Lisa Garcia BedollaThe Center for Latino Policy Research (CLPR) is an organized research unit at the University of California, Berkeley. We form part of the Institute for the Study of Societal Issues. CLPR was established in 1989 in response to a wave of student protests on campus demanding that the University of California be more responsive to the needs of the state's growing Latino population. In response, the state legislature passed SCR43, which led to the creation of the University of California Committee on Latino Research (UCCLR), housed in UC's Office of the President (UCOP). UCCLR funded Latino-focused centers on every UC campus (except UCSF). Each center then also received campus support and/or funding. Unfortunately, UCOP decided to eliminate UCCLR in 2008; CLPR continues to receive support from the Berkeley campus, but at a significantly reduced level. We remain the only Latino-focused research center on the Berkeley campus.


Approach to Research/Methodology. CLPR's goal is to leverage the complexity of the Latino experience in the United States in order to shed light on the myriad factors that affect the distribution of material, social, and political opportunities within U.S. society. We accomplish this mission through the conduct of community-engaged research projects that, in collaboration with our community partners, work to inform local, state, and national policies that affect Latinos. Our work aims to foster community participation in the research process, redefining how the university relates to the community and also ensuring that our research products reach and are relevant to those most directly affected. The result is a set of policy solutions rooted in rigorous academic research and applied practice.


CLPR's work over the past two years has focused on the policy issues facing Latinos in California. To engage in this work, we use a variety of methods including survey analysis, GIS mapping, census analysis, experimental approaches, and qualitative methods. What guides our work is a desire to use rigorous academic tools in order to address the most pressing issues facing Latinos in California.


Impact of Research. CLPR's current research program focuses on Latino immigrant integration within California schools. Our most recent research brief, "Classifying California's English Learners: Is the CELDT Too Blunt an Instrument?" explored the state's system for classifying English learners in kindergarten. We found serious problems in the state's classification system, potentially resulting in over-classification of students as English learners, making it more difficult for schools to focus their scarce literacy resources on the students in greatest need. We are following up this study with an in-depth look at English learner reclassification across the state.


Our second major initiative is as a partner in the Mission Promise Neighborhood (MPN). This U.S. Department of Education-funded program attempts to provide neighborhood-level wrap-around services to support student academic success. Given the large number of Latino immigrant parents and children in San Francisco's Mission district, the project will need to address the specific needs of this community. CLPR is leading the data and evaluation for the MPN, an effort that will result in our ability to use census tract geography in order to merge census, school-level, city-level, and provider-level data on children living in the Mission. By contextualizing children's neighborhood context in this way, we will be able to show the connections between neighborhood well being and students' academic opportunity structures. Our analysis will also make it possible for our project partners to more effectively target their resources towards those children and families that need them most.


Future Research Challenges. Our research challenges stem from the need to conduct research that addresses the complexity of the Latino experience across geography, class, national origin, and generation. Few foundations are funding research, and those that do may not support the type of multi-faceted, longitudinal work that is necessary in order to understand the Latino immigrant integration process across multiple dimensions. Our task is to explain this need and why it is important that research centers help policymakers better understand and serve this important demographic group.


Institutionally, the University of California overall is facing significant budgetary challenges. We, like many centers on campus, have been hard hit by those cuts. We need to be able to prove our value and relevance to the campus administration in order to secure their continued financial support. We hope that our efforts demonstrate the ability of academic research to provide solutions to the many critical problems facing our state and our nation.
Recent Research
Projects and Reports (with links)


García Bedolla, L. and R., Rodríguez (2011). Classifying California's English Learners: Is the CELDT Too Blunt an Instrument?


Pérez Huber, L. (2011) English Dominance as Racist Nativist Microaggressions: The Need to Reframe Restrictive Language Policies for California's Latina/o Students.


Suárez-Orozco, M. (2011). Immigration's Echo: Educating the Immigrant Generation.
Lisa Garcia Bedolla is anAssociate Professor of Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley and Chair of the Center for Latino Policy Research (CLPR). Her research interests center around the civic engagement, community activity, and political incorporation of racial/ethnic groups in the United States, with a particular focus on the intersection of race, class, and gender. She is author of Fluid Borders: Latino Power, Identity, and Politics in Los Angeles (2005) and of Latino Politics (2009). Her articles have appeared in the Journal of Politics, Politics and Gender, Latino Studies, the Harvard Journal of Hispanic Policy, State Politics and Policy Quarterly, Social Science Quarterly, and in numerous edited volumes. She has received fellowships and grants from the National Science Foundation, UCLA's Institute of American Cultures, the James Irvine Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Huntington Library, and the American Political Science Association. Dr. Garcia Bedolla can be reached at
The Center for
Latino Policy Research (CLPR)
University of California, Berkeley
2420 Bowditch, #5670
Berkeley, CA 94720-5670
Fax: 510.643.8844
Key Staff:
Lisa García Bedolla, Chair
Rosaisela Rodríguez, Research Director
Verónica Vélez, Postdoctoral Research Fellow

SOURCE: National Institute for Latino Policy


Mendoza’s Mexican Mercado
Soldiers of Color in the Northwest


According to the 2008 Small Business Economy report, Hispanics saw a 91.3% increase in the number of self-employed between 2000 and 2006. Carlos and Sonia (Mendoza) Cervantes, and Sonia’s brothers Edgar and Gorge combined those entrepreneurial qualities and launched a family business: Mendoza’s Mexican Mercado, located in Seattle. In a county where nearly 7% of the population considers itself Hispanic/Latino, the market has the potential to reach more than a 128,000 customers.

In August 2010, Edgar Mendoza leased the building next to his small café, Barriga Llena, to open a small Mexican market. With help from Gorge, Sonia and Carlos bought the market from Edgar and opened the doors on their own in January 2011.

Married 18 years, Sonia and Carlos are still the only employees, working 12-hour days, seven days a week. “The store is my child,” Sonia says with a smile.

Coming from a family where cooking and selling food is “part of our blood,” they are committed to bringing the flavors of Mexico to Seattle. Many of dishes Sonia prepares and offers as ready to eat in the shop are family recipes; dishes “mi abuela hizo” – “My grandmother made…” – like carnitas, enchiladas, taquitos, and frijoles. Sonia’s corn tortillas have the “taste of home!”

Specialty greens and herbs

Mendoza’s buys most of the market’s fresh produce from Washington’s Yakima Valley. The valley’s hot dry conditions make it possible to grow heat loving vegetables such as peppers within a reasonable distance. Special greens like epazote (sometimes called Mexican tea), huazontle (a relative of amaranth), and papalo (purslane) have smells and tastes that remind customers of their homes in Mexico.

While many Seattleites may not be willing to try the chapulines (grasshoppers), they are a popular high protein snack all the way from Oaxaca. For those less adventurous, the queso fresco that is always in the refrigerator case is a creamy, mild, fresh cheese that balances spicy and flavorful meat dishes.

Faced with two challenges that place a particularly heavy burden on small businesses – the vast web of laws and public policies that directly disadvantage small and local businesses and the access to capital – Sonia and Carlos are determined to succeed.

Many small businesses are only able to finance their capital needs through family, friends, and credit cards. Without the help of a large extended family and a close community of friends to fund the business, it would not have been possible. Carlos says, “It is all self-help and mutual aid.”

Specialty and traditional meats and cheeses - the "taste of home"

Their first eighteen months have been hard but satisfying. “Gaining the trust of our customers was a big concern. A business like this can succeed only through honesty, perseverance, faith, personal sacrifice, and a ‘grand vision’ – our love of Mexican flavors and our desire to bring these to Seattle’s communities.”

A vast majority – nearly 90% – of all small independent retail businesses are family-owned or operated, and small shops have been the path immigrants have long taken to gain an economic foothold in the US. It is the immigrant entrepreneurial drive that combines the old and the new to bring new flavors to cities like Seattle while at the same time providing familiar “food from home” for those relocated here from countries like Mexico. These family businesses are the “American Dream” – business ownership and community support.

Owners of small shops like Mendoza’s Mexican Mercado are critical to the health of a neighborhood, providing connection and stability.

Explore the diversity of small ethnic markets and restaurants in your community. Give them the support they need against the competition and pressure from the chain stores, Walmart, and other big box stores.

Shopkeepers like Sonia and Carlos bring diversity, flavor, hope, and perseverance to their businesses in contrast to the “franchising of America,” where every city looks – and tastes – like every other city.   

Sonia and Carlos need us and we need them!


Mendoza’s Mexican Mercado
Barriga Llena
The Small-Mart Revolution: How Local Businesses Are Beating the Global Competition, by Michael H Shuman
The Mom & Pop Store: True Stories from the Heart of America, by Robert Spector
Encyclopedia of Chicago, Grocery Stores and Supermarkets
Supermarkets as a Natural Oligopoly, Paul B. Ellickson, Duke University, 2004
Walmart by the Numbers
City of Seattle Demographics


Soldiers of Color in the Northwest

I was researching the history of DuPont WA and Fort Nisqually and ran across the story fo the Buffalo Soldiers from the 9th Cavalry here in DuPont WA and the Fort Lewis area. Then by chance I found two recent article fo the Buffalo Soldiers Museum in Tacoma and their history in Ft Vancouver near Portland, Oregon. 

The other reason that I followed through on the Buffalo Soldiers, was my Fort Nisqually mentioned that many Filipinos were drafted in the Philippines into the 9th,10th, and the 24th and 25th Infantries. I will see were that will lead me for my Filipinos friends.
Reading about the San Francisco Presidio Garrison, showed the discrimination that was prevalent for our Soldiers of colors.
Rafael Ojeda
Taccoma, WA  
(keep clicking the "Next Story" at the bottom to read about Pancho Villa etc). (They had some great baseball players too) 
enUS439&prmd=imvns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=DAJAT_TzAtTRiALI9b24AQ&ved=0CEIQsAQ&biw=1600&bih=628 l



The Romneys’ Mexican History By Héctor Tobar
Romney, Facts you need to know by Albert Vigil
Unappreciated Role of the Woman in Frontier History by Richard G.Santos
The California-Mexico Studies Center
Reies Lopez Tijerina

Mike Scarborough Blog:
Crossing borders with storyteller Luis Alberto Urrea
Lynching of Persons of Mexican Origin or Descent in the United States 1848 to 1928
Escultura de Don Juan de Oñate en El Paso, Texas
Arizona Latino Arts and Cultural Center
Peoria, AZ Councilman Tony Rivero aims to revive cultural festival

The Romneys’ Mexican History By Héctor Tobar

Smithsonian magazine, 
May 2012

My journey to the Mormon heartland of Mexico began in a gloomy bar in Ciudad Juárez, just a short walk from the bridge over the Rio Grande and the U.S. border.

I ordered a margarita, a decidedly un-Mormon thing to do. But otherwise I was faithfully following in the footsteps of the pioneers of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, many of whom once passed through Ciudad Juárez on their way to build settlements in the remote mountains and foothills of northern Chihuahua.

Mitt Romney’s father was born in a small Mormon enclave where family members still live, surrounded by rugged beauty and violent drug cartels.  Colonia Juárez holds remains of descendants of founder Miles P. Romney

Back in the late 19th century, the pioneers traveled by wagon or train. Neither conveyance is used much in northern Mexico these days. I arrived in El Paso from Los Angeles via airplane, and would travel by car from the border on a mission to see the Mormon colonies where Mitt Romney’s father, George, was born.

Mitt Romney, who is vying to be the next president of the United States, has family roots in Mexico. And not in just any part of Mexico, but in a place famous for producing true hombres, a rural frontier where thousands of Mormons still live, and where settling differences at the point of a gun has been a tragically resilient tradition.

These days northern Chihuahua is being ravaged by the so-called cartel drug wars, making Ciudad Juárez the most notoriously dangerous city in the Western Hemisphere. “Murder City,” the writer Charles Bowden called it in his most recent book.

I entered Ciudad Juárez just as a gorgeous canopy of lemon and tangerine twilight was settling over the border.

It isn’t advisable to travel through northern Chihuahua after dark, so I was going to have to spend a night in Ciudad Juárez before heading to the Mormon settlements, 170 miles to the south. Thus my visit to the Kentucky Club, where Frank Sinatra, Marilyn Monroe and assorted other stars downed cocktails.

“They say this is where the margarita was invented,” I told the bartender in Spanish.

“Así es,” he answered. I consider myself something of a margarita connoisseur, and this one was unremarkable. So was the bar’s wood décor. Honestly, there are two dozen Mexican-themed bars in Greater Los Angeles with better atmosphere.

Still, one has to give the watering hole credit just for staying open given the general sense of abandonment that has overtaken the old tourist haunts of Ciudad Juárez. Devout Mormons have always avoided the debauchery on offer there. Now everyone else does too.

On a Sunday night, the once vibrant commercial strips by the international bridges presented a forlorn sight. I saw sidewalks empty of pedestrian traffic leading to shuttered nightclubs and crumbling adobe buildings, all patrolled by the occasional squad of body-armored soldiers in pickup trucks toting charcoal-colored automatic weapons.

Beyond the border crossings, in the Ciudad Juárez of big malls and wide avenues, the city did not feel especially menacing to me—until I read the local newspapers, including El Diario: “Juárez Residents Reported Nearly 10 Carjackings a Day in January.” I spent the night in the Camino Real, a sleek example of modernist Mexican architecture, an echo of the Camino Real hotel in Mexico City designed by the late Ricardo Legorreta. I dined in eerily empty spaces, attended by teams of waiters with no one else to serve.

John Hatch, my guide to the Mormon colonies, arrived the next morning to pick me up. It was Hatch who had returned my phone call to the Mormon Temple in Colonia Juárez: He volunteers at the temple and also runs an outfit called Gavilán Tours. We were to drive three hours from Ciudad Juárez to Colonia Juárez, where Hatch and his wife, Sandra, run an informal bed-and-breakfast in their home, catering to a dwindling stream of tourists drawn to Chihuahua for its history and natural enchantments.

“I’m fourth generation in the colonies,” Hatch informed me. He can trace his roots to Mormon pioneers who traveled from Utah and Arizona to Mexico in 1890. He and Sandra have six children, all raised in the Mexican colonies and all now U.S. citizens, including one deployed with the Utah National Guard in Afghanistan. Hatch himself, however, has only Mexican citizenship.

His kids, he said, would rather live in Mexico but have been forced to live in the States for work. “No one wants to claim us,” he told me. “We feel enough of a tie to either country that we feel the right to criticize either one—and to get our dander up if we hear someone criticize either one.”

This state of feeling in between, I would soon learn, defines nearly every aspect of Mormon life in the old colonies. The settlers’ descendants, numbering several hundred in all, keep alive a culture that’s always been caught between Mexico and the United States, between the past and the present, between stability and crisis.

Hatch retired ten years ago after a long career as a teacher in Colonia Juárez at a private LDS academy where generations of Mexican Mormons in the colonies have learned in English. Among other subjects, he taught U.S. history. And as we left Ciudad Juárez behind, with a final, few scattered junkyards in our wake, he began to tell me about all the history embedded in the landscape surrounding us.

“See those mountains in the distance?” he asked as we sped past a sandy plain of dunes and mesquite shrubs. “That’s the Sierra Madre.” During the Mexican Revolution, Pancho Villa’s troops followed those hills, Hatch said, on their way to raid Columbus, New Mexico, in 1916.

Villa once rode and hid in those same mountains as a notorious local bandit. He became one of the revolution’s boldest generals, and attacked the United States as an act of vengeance for Woodrow Wilson’s support of his rival, Venustiano Carranza.

The Mexican Revolution played a critical role in the history of the Mormon colonies. Were it not for that 1910 uprising and the years of war that followed, Mitt Romney might have been born in Mexico, and might be living there today raising apples and peaches, as many of his cousins do.

An especially vicious faction of revolutionaries arrived in the colonies in 1912, appropriating the settlers’ cattle and looting their stores. The revolutionaries took one of the community’s leaders to a cottonwood tree outside Colonia Juárez and threatened to execute him if he didn’t deliver cash.

Many English-speaking families fled, never to return, including that of George Romney, then a boy of 5. In the States, George grew up primarily in the Salt Lake City area, attended college nearby, worked for Alcoa and became chairman of American Motors. He was elected governor of Michigan and served in President Richard Nixon’s cabinet. Mitt Romney’s mother, Utah-born Lenore LaFount Romney, was a former actress who ran unsuccessfully for U.S. Senate in Michigan in 1970.

As Hatch and I drove through Ascensión, one of the towns on the route to Colonia Juárez, he recounted the story of a hotel owner who was murdered there a few years back, and of a lynch mob that tracked down a band of three alleged kidnappers and killed them.

I’ll admit to being a bit freaked out hearing these stories: What am I doing here, in this modern-day Wild West? I wondered. But Hatch disabused me of my fears. Most of the worst violence in the region ended three years back, he told me. “We feel very blessed we have escaped the worst of it.”

Hatch would like to get the word out to his old U.S. clients who have been scared off. The Europeans, however, have kept coming, including a group from the Czech Republic that came to see local landmarks related to the history of Geronimo, the Apache fighter.

Geronimo’s wife, mother and three young children were killed by Mexican troops in a massacre in 1858, just outside the next village on our route, Janos. The enraged Geronimo then launched what would become a 30-year guerrilla campaign against the authorities on both sides of the border.

Finally, we arrived in one of the Mormon colonies, Colonia Dublán. I saw the house where George Romney was born in 1907. The old two-story, American colonial-style brick structure was sold by Romney family members in the early 1960s. Since remodeled, it now has a Mexican colonial-style stone facade.The maple-lined streets surrounding George Romney’s home were a picture of American small-town order circa 1900. There were many homes of brick and stone, some with the occasional Victorian flourish.

“This street is named for my first cousin,” Hatch told me, as we stood beneath a sign announcing “Calle Doctor Lothaire Bluth.” Hatch’s octogenarian uncle and aunt, Gayle and Ora Bluth, live on the same street. Ora was recently granted U.S. citizenship, but not Gayle, though he served on a U.S. Navy submarine (and represented Mexico in basketball at the 1960 Olympics in Rome).

It was a short drive to Colonia Juárez, where the Mormon colonies were founded and which remains the center of church life here. I first glimpsed the town as we descended a curving country road and entered a valley of orchards and swaying grasses. Even from a distance, Colonia Juárez presented an image of pastoral bliss and piety, its gleaming white temple rising from a small hill overlooking the town.

When the first settlers arrived here in the 1870s and ’80s, some were fleeing a U.S. crackdown on polygamy. (The practice ended after a 1904 LDS edict that polygamists would be excommunicated.) They dug canals to channel the flow of the Piedras Verdes River to their crops, though the river’s waters dropped precipitously low afterward. But lore has it that the Lord quickly provided: An earthquake triggered the return of an abundant flow.

There was no museum to which Hatch could direct me to learn this history, most of which I picked up from books written by the colonists’ descendants. Colonia Juárez isn’t really set up for large-scale tourism (in keeping with the Mormon ban on alcohol, it remains a dry town). Still, a stroll through the town is a pleasant experience.

I walked to the Academia Juárez, a stately brick edifice that wouldn’t look out of place on an Ivy League campus. On a gorgeous day of early spring, quiet filled the neighborhoods, and I could hear water flowing alongside most of the streets, inside three-foot-wide channels that irrigate peach and apple orchards and vegetable gardens amid small, well-kept brick homes.

Down in the center of town is the “swinging bridge,” a cable-and-plank span still used by pedestrians to cross the shallow Piedras Verdes. Hatch remembered bouncing on it as a boy.

“The old-timers said that if you had not been kissed on the swinging bridge, you’d never really been kissed,” he said.

This must be a great place to raise kids, I thought, a feeling that was confirmed later that evening when a local family invited me to a community potluck in the home of Lester Johnson. It was a Monday night, a time set aside, according to Mormon tradition, for family gatherings.

Before diving into assorted casseroles and enchilada dishes, we all bowed our heads in prayer. “We are grateful for the blessings we have,” Johnson said to the group, “and for the safety we enjoy.”

There was a toddler, and a woman of 90, and many teens, all of whom assembled in the living room later for the kind of relaxed, multigenerational neighborhood gathering that is all too rare on the other side of the border. They talked about family, school and other mundane or scary aspects of life in this part of Mexico, such as a local restaurant one of the moms stopped frequenting when she saw people with guns at another table.

But the bigger problem facing the English-speaking residents of the Mormon colonies is one common to rural life: keeping sons and daughters home when there isn’t enough work locally. Johnson, 57, has five children, all adopted, all Mexican. And all now live in the United States.

“We need to get some of our young people back here,” Johnson said. Like other members of the community, he said he resented the media coverage that draws ironic comparisons to the Republican Party’s hard-line position on immigration and the ambivalent feelings of Mitt’s bicultural Mexican cousins. “I don’t think anyone down here knows him personally,” Johnson said. Mitt Romney has reportedly not visited the area.

In Colonia Juárez, they might not know Mitt, but they do know the Romneys. Some see similarities between Mitt Romney, the public figure, and his Mexican relatives, some three dozen of whom are said to live in town.

Biographers of the Romney family have pointed to the “indomitable will” of the forebears. But this characteristic, it seems to me, is common to many of the Mormons of the colonies. Their shared determination is one of the things that has allowed a relatively small number of English-speaking people to keep their language and way of life essentially unchanged for more than a century, despite being surrounded by an often hostile Spanish-speaking culture.

Leighton Romney, Mitt Romney’s second cousin, told me he hasn’t met the former governor of Massachusetts. (They have the same great-grandfather, Miles P. Romney, one of the 1885 pioneers.) I met Leighton the next day, on a visit to the fruit cooperative, packing house and export business he runs.

A 53-year-old dual citizen, Leighton has lived in Mexico all his life. Four of his uncles and one aunt served with the U.S. military in World War II. He knows the words to both country’s national anthems. Like people of Latin American descent living in the States, he hasn’t lost his sense of “kinship” to the country of his roots. “We’ve got a lot of similarities to Mexican-Americans,” he said. “We’re American-Mexicans.”

Leighton is deeply involved in the 2012 presidential campaign—the one to be held in Mexico in July to succeed outgoing President Felipe Calderon. Leighton is backing Enrique Peña Nieto, the candidate of the centrist Institutional Revolutionary Party, and is fundraising for him.

“We’re looking to have a little bit of a say in what the government here does,” Leighton said.

So the Mormon colonies will endure, I thought afterward, thanks to the industriousness and the adaptability of its residents. Like their ancestors, the pioneers still channel the waters of a river to their crops, still have big families and still learn the language and customs of the locals.

I spent my final hours in Mexico’s Mormon heartland playing tourist. I visited an old hacienda, abandoned by its owner during the revolution, and the ruins of the pre-Columbian mud city of Paquimé. I had the old walls and corridors of that ancient site all to myself and was soon enveloped by a soothing, natural quiet. In the distance, flocks of birds moved in flowing clouds over a strand of cottonwood trees.

In the town of Mata Ortiz, famous for its pottery, I was the only customer for the town beggar to bother. Here, too, were vast open vistas of cerulean sky and mud-colored mountains. Standing amid the town’s weather-beaten adobe homes and unpaved streets, I felt as if I had stepped back in time, to the lost epoch of the North American frontier: This, I thought, is what Santa Fe might have looked like a century ago.

Finally, John and Sandra Hatch gave me a ride back to the airport in El Paso. After crossing the border, we stopped in Columbus, New Mexico, where I received a final reminder of the violence that marks the history of this part of the globe. At a shop and informal museum inside the town’s old train depot, I saw a list of the people killed in Pancho Villa’s 1916 raid. Villa’s troops, a few hundred in all, were a ragtag bunch in cowhide sandals and rope belts. They killed eight soldiers and ten civilians, leading to Gen. John Pershing’s largely fruitless “Punitive Expedition” into Mexico days later.

I also saw an artifact from the more recent past: a newspaper clipping detailing the arrest, just last year, of the town’s mayor, police chief and others on charges of conspiring to smuggle guns to Mexican drug cartels.

We left Columbus down a lonely highway where we spotted more than a dozen U.S. Border Patrol vehicles and no other traffic. “Sometimes they follow us for miles,” Hatch said of the Border Patrol. Driving a big van with Chihuahua license plates seems to catch their attention.

Finally, we reached El Paso and I said goodbye to the Hatches, who gave me a parting gift—a copy of the Book of Mormon.

Photographer Eros Hoagland is based in Tijuana.
Find this article at: 

Romney, Facts you need to know by Albert Vigil

Did you know that Romney received a dual degree from BOTH Harvard Business School and Harvard Law … graduating Cum Laude?  Well, it's about time that someone put an article out there describing Mitt Romney and his background. 

Here are a few:
1. Mitt is humble, hard-working. 
2. His scholastic credits are an open book...grades, friends, etc. 
3. He speaks without the aid of a tele-prompter ...
4. He does his speaking engagements primarily to adults not high schools ...
5. His past friends are visible, upstanding, patriotic .....
6. He is a religious man, and attends a church which preaches humanity...
7. He has an outstanding and successful background in government and business...
8. His public demeanor is dignified....
9. He successfully worked with Democrats while Governor...
10. He is proud to be an American, and strongly backs Israel... 

Last, but surely not least, his history is an open book and he is clean as the driven snow.......

Romney graduated in 1971 [from Brigham Young] with a 3.97 grade-point average. Because he ranked at the top of his class in the College of Humanities, he was chosen to speak on graduation day…Mitt decided to attend Harvard Business School, but his father thought he should obtain a law degree, so he enrolled in a joint program at Harvard Law School. In 1975, he graduated from Harvard Law cum laude and from Harvard Business School, where he was named a Baker Scholar and was in the top 5 percent of his class.

Back in December of 2011, the NY Times spotlighted Romney’s years at Harvard Business School: 
Mr. Romney recruited a murderers’ row of some of the most distinguished students in the class. “He and I said, hey, let’s handpick some superstars,” said Howard Serkin, a classmate… Mr. Romney served as a kind of team captain, the other members said, pushing and motivating the others. “He wanted to make straight A’s,” Mr. Serkin said. “He wanted our study group to be No. 1.” Sometimes Mr. Romney arrived early to run his numbers a few extra times. And if his partners were not prepared, “he was not afraid of saying: ‘You’re letting us down. We want to be the best,’ ” Mr. Serkin added… Mr. Romney was in his element. His class performances were outstanding; his peers described him as precise, convincing and charismatic. He won the high grades he worked for…

If Mr. Romney melded with the school intellectually, he kept some distance from it socially. He was married and a parent. In the liberal precincts of Cambridge, he and his wife, Ann Romney — pictured wearing matching sweaters at a fall 1973 business school clambake, with their two sons on their laps — seemed like they were from “out on the prairies,” Mr. Brownstein said.
The future governor abstained from things many other students were doing: drinking coffee or alcohol, swearing, smoking…

Today, Mr. Romney does not speak much about his business school degree. But he remains quite attached to the star study group he put together all those years ago, faithfully attending dinners the men hold every five years…

He does not miss a chance to return to that setting. Mr. Romney even showed up the year he was put in charge of cleaning up the troubled 2002 Olympic games, stopping by for an hour before flying to Athens for a meeting of the International Olympic Committee…

The men gathered most recently in 2009, after Mr. Romney’s unsuccessful presidential bid. His old friends asked him about the experience, and he pointed out how much simpler decisions are in business than in politics. “You end up taking into consideration things that wouldn’t be important in a business decision,” Ronald J. Naples remembers him saying.
Not an unsmart man. Not at all. 

California-Mexico Studies Center Reies Lopez Tijerina

"The CMSC's letter to all Mexican presidential and congressional candidates seeks to promote policies and programs that will respond to the needs of over 32 million Mexican immigrants in the United States, under the new president and legislature to be elected on July 1st 2012. 
Letter and articles related to this petition at:"

The California-Mexico Studies Center 
Armando Vazquez-Ramos President & CEO
1551 N. Studebaker Road, Long Beach, CA 90815   Phone: (562) 430-5541 Cell: (562) 972-0986
Website:  Blog: 


Reies Lopez Tijerina along with Los Brown Berets de La Hermandad will be at The Parks Inn by Radison 2500 Carlilsle N.E $10 Minimun Donation in Albuquerque, NM. on June 4th 

June 5th Reies Lopez Tijerina will also be at The Onate center just North of Espanola from 5pm to 9 PM.  

Come and Enjoy a Very Historical and Enlightening Evening with The Leader of The Indo Hispano/Chicano Movement We will be There Remembering and Honoring The Moment that Shook up The Indo Hispano/Chicano Movement When The Honorable Reies Lopez Tijerina and La Alianza Raided The Tierra Amarilla Courthouse.. Que Viva El Movimiento!!!!

Any Questions on The Event in Albuquerque
Please Contact 505-304-435 Pastor Leo Brannan....
New Blog by Mike Scarborough
Good Afternoon,
In the past several days I have submitted four additional posts to They are entitled: Manifest Destiny 165 years later; How the West was Lost; Just Spreading the News; and Public Domain Land Available for Return to the Western States.
I would appreciate it if you would considering taking a moment to read them. If you agree with what I have written please consider assisting in giving them the widest circulation possible.
I believe we have an excellent opportunity during the current election cycle to bring awareness to the total indifference the government displayed when it was taking millions of acres from our Western States, Indian Tribes, and Spanish and Mexican Land Grants.
A number of states are finally awakening to the realization that they were cheated out of large portions of their land and natural resources as a result of Manifest Destiny raised its ugly head in the 1800's.
If the states, Indian Tribes and Land Grant heirs would join in a collective demand for the return of their land they could possibly force the political parties to face the issues during the upcoming political debates.
Mike Scarborough
Santa Fe, New Mexico


Crossing borders with storyteller Luis Alberto Urrea

Between Two Worlds - - Life on the Border Moyers & Company

Crossing borders with storyteller Luis Alberto Urrea

Luis Alberto Urrea, America Public Television, interview by Bill Moyers
: This week on Moyers & Company. 5/5/12.

LUIS ALBERTO URREA: The border ran right down the middle of our depressed little apartment. Kitchen was the United States, living room was Mexico. Walter Cronkite was the ambassador to both countries.

BILL MOYERS: Welcome. There is no stretch of territory in the world quite like the borderlands between the United States and Mexico. A vast swath of terrain, a long and tortured history, and an endless stream of humanity both separate and join our two countries. It’s as complex a coupling as you will find anywhere.

From Brownsville and Matamoros on the Gulf of Mexico, the border runs along the Rio Grande River to intersect with the Continental Divide, where it turns toward Tijuana and San Diego on the Pacific Ocean. One thousand nine hundred and sixty nine miles snaking through desert and desolation, dividing towns and cities marked now by stretches of steel and concrete fence, with infrared cameras and sensors, National Guardsmen, and Border Patrol agents. Well over a hundred million people cross this border every year, one way or another.

One day in May eleven years ago, 26 Mexican men set out across the murderous stretch of desert known as the Devil’s Highway, heading for Arizona, and hopefully, for work. Twelve of them made it. Fourteen were scorched alive by the torrid sun.

No writer understands the border culture between Mexico and the United States more intimately than Luis Alberto Urrea, whose life is the stuff of great novels. Son of a Mexican father and Anglo mother, Urrea grew up first in Tijuana and then just across the border in San Diego. Over the years he has produced a series of acclaimed novels, including The Hummingbird’s Daughter, The Devil’s Highway, and his latest, Queen of Americaeach a rich and revealing account of the people of the borderlands that join and separate our two nations.

Three of Urrea’s books were among scores of others removed from classrooms earlier this year when the Tucson school district eliminated Mexican-American studies on the accusation it was “divisive.” But there’s no ban on ideas in Bill’s studio, and Urrea talks with Bill Moyers about that episode as he unfolds the modern reality of life on the border.

Go to the site and read the entire interview at: 

Lynching of Persons of Mexican Origin or Descent in the United States, 1848 to 1928

From: Journal of Social History
Volume 37, Number 2, Winter 2003
pp. 411-438 | 10.1353/jsh.2003.0169

Abstract:  The lynching of persons of Mexican origin or descent has been largely overlooked by historians of American mob violence. This essay offers the first attempt to construct a systematic set of data on the subject. The authors contend that between 1848 and 1928, mobs lynched at least 597 Mexicans. Traditional interpretations of western violence cannot account for this phenomenon. The actual causes of mob violence against Mexicans were several-fold: race and the legacy of Anglo American expansion, economic competition, and diplomatic tensions between Mexico and the United States. Throughout this era, Mexicans formulated numerous means of resistance against Anglo mobs. These included armed self-defense, public protest, the establishment of mutual defense organizations, and appeals for aid to the Mexican government. The central aim of this essay is to broaden the scholarly discourse on lynching by moving beyond the traditional limitations of the black/white paradigm. Placing the experience of Mexicans into the history of lynching expands our understanding of the causes of mob violence and the ways in which individuals and groups sought to resist lynching and vigilantism. The essay is based on numerous archival sources in both Spanish and English. These include diaries, letters, memoirs, folk culture, newspapers, government documents, and diplomatic correspondence.
Website: Project Muse
Sent by Carlos Munoz, Jr.

On November 16, 1928, four masked men tore into a hospital in Farmington, New Mexico and abducted one of the patients as he lay dying in bed. The kidnappers drove to an abandoned farmhouse on the outskirts of the city where they tied a rope around the neck of their captive and hanged him from a locust tree. (1)

The dead man, Rafael Benavides, had been admitted to the hospital with a serious gun wound less than twenty-four hours earlier. His wound was inflicted by a sheriff's posse pursuing him for an assault upon a farmer's wife. According to one newspaper, "the fiendishness and brutality of his acts were such that the postal laws will not permit us to print them." (2) The abduction and execution of Benavides therefore elicited the approval of many local citizens relieved at the removal from their community of this dangerous menace. In the frank opinion of one newspaper editorial, "the degenerate Mexican got exactly what was coming to him." (3) Others were nonetheless more circumspect in their assessment of the lynching. While they did not dispute the guilt of the dead man, they contended that his due punishment could only be determined by a court of law. The Santa Fe New Mexican responded to the precipitous action of the mob by stating that it would "take San Juan County a long time to live down the bad name received by this lawless act." (4) Such an opinion reflected a new racial sensibility among many Anglos in the Southwest. For decades lynch mobs terrorized persons of Mexican origin or descent (5) without reprisal from the wider community. The more critical attitude taken by the Anglo establishment created a political climate less tolerant of extra-legal violence. Although acts of lawlessness continued, Rafael Benavides became the last Mexican in the United States to be lynched in such blatant defiance of the judicial system.

Historical and Comparative Contexts

Between 1848 and 1928, mobs lynched at least 597 Mexicans. Historian Christopher Waldrep has asserted that the definition of lynching has altered so much over the course of time as to render impossible the accurate collection of data on mob violence. (10) It is therefore essential to familiarize the reader from the outset with the interpretation of lynching used to compile the statistics in this essay. The authors regard lynching as a retributive act of murder for which those responsible claim to be serving the interests of justice, tradition, or community good. Although our notion as to what constitutes a lynching is clear, it is still impossible to provide a precise count of the number of Mexican victims. We have excluded a significant number of reported lynching’s when the sources do not allow for verification of specific data such as the date, location or identity of the victim. The statistics included in this essay should therefore be considered a conservative estimate of the actual number of Mexicans lynched in the United States.

Even when one considers the methodological problems in compiling accurate data on lynching, it is clear that Mexicans suffered from mob violence in smaller numbers than African Americans. Between 1882 and 1930, it is commonly noted that at least 3,386 African Americans died at the hands of lynch mobs. Our research reveals, however, that the danger of lynching for a Mexican resident in the United States was nearly as great, and in some instances greater, than the specter of mob violence for a black person in the American South. Because of the smaller size of the Spanish-speaking population, the total number of Mexican victims was much lower, but the chance of being murdered by a mob was comparable for both Mexicans and African Americans.

Comparative data on Mexican and African American lynching victims are unavailable for the years between 1848 and 1879. However, it is still possible to place the number of Mexican victims during this time period in context. As Table One shows, between 1848 and 1879 Mexicans were lynched at a rate of 473 per 100,000 of population. This statistic is astounding even when compared with African American victims during the period scholars claim was most rife with mob violence--1880 to 1930--and in the most lynch-prone states in the South. During these years, the highest lynching rate for African Americans was in Mississippi, with 52.8 victims per 100,000 of population. On the basis of such comparison, the Mexican population of the United States between 1848 and 1879 faced unparalleled danger from mob violence. The growth of the Mexican population at the turn of the twentieth century and a decline in white-on-Mexican violence led to a substantial decline in the lynching rate after 1880. Nevertheless, the figure of 27.4 Mexican lynching victims per 100,000 of population for that period exceeds the statistics during the same time for black victims in some southern states and nearly equals that in others. Between 1880 and 1930, for instance, the lynching rate for African Americans in South Carolina and North Carolina respectively was 18.8 and 11.0 per 100,000 of population. In Alabama, the figure was 32.4. These figures suggest that Mexicans faced a similar risk of lynching as African Americans in some states of the Deep South. (Further information on how these statistics were calculated can be found in the Appendix.)

To read more click 
Sent by Juan Marinez

Richard G. Santos
This story was written by Richard, back in September, given how women have been treated on issue of their health, their life choice and more recent the voice on social justice issues. You may find the story very relevant to Women of our ethnicity and culture. ~ Juan Marinez 
I recently wrote what I taught for years, that is that U. S. history textbooks are written in black and white perspectives from the East Coast point of view. The multi-cultural, multi-lingual essence of Texas and the U. S. Southwest is at best overlooked if not belittled. Moreover, the textbooks are male oriented and the role of the woman and ethnic minorities are ignored. In a patronizing manner, women who excelled in politics, business, arts and entertainment are given short biographical sketches ignoring the fact they are the exception and not the norm.

I first faced this contradiction in 1971 – 76 when serving as the first Ethnic Studies Director and instructor at Our Lady of the Lake University in San Antonio. As Department Head I informed the administration I wanted to hire a woman to teach a course on The Woman. The Sisters of Divine Providence told me I could not do that as “the woman is not a minority”. I was terribly upset (to say the least and being politically correct) as I did not expect that from nuns. Much to their chagrin, I got around the issue by posting a class on The Woman to be taught by me under “Special Topics”. On the side, I hired Ms. Lupe Anguiano to teach the class. Hence, I opened each session, took roll, attended class and paid her salary from my paycheck. Times have changed and the role of the woman in history, culture and the family has gotten academic acceptance but still excluded in the textbooks.

I also used to tell my students that the teaching and writing of history was not limited to memorizing names, dates and events. To study and write history one must look at the totality of human-social-scientific, linguistic and cultural evolution. Ideally, a historian is nothing more than a reporter of past events. Unfortunately, the role of the woman in history, anthropology and sociology is lacking. This is even more evident in the lack of studies and writings regarding the woman on the Frontier (meaning West of the Mississippi River). Yet, then and now the woman is a child’s first doctor, teacher, provider, peace-keeper, financial manager and keeper of the Faith and culture. Take the nomadic hunter-gather Native American culture of South Texas. The men were the hunters, priests, warriors and frequently, but not always, the “medicine men”. The women were the gatherers, weavers, seamstresses, nurses, and misleading, all-encompassing “keepers of the home” a phrase that minimizes their role as organizers and preservers of the home and family.

The woman in the Spanish Colonial, Mexican and early U. S. historical periods of South Texas and New Mexico were all of the above plus, gardeners of fruits, vegetables and herbs (i.e. medicinal and spices), took care of a family’s domestic live stock (milk cows, goats, chicken, etc), doctor-nurse-midwife-curandera (herb healer), and the unpaid, unappreciated laborer. The frontier woman had to ride a horse, fire a weapon and defend the home-ranch-farm with or without a husband or mate around. If a widow, she had to do all the above plus raise a family. The frontier woman and many today are still the keepers of the Faith and culture as many men step aside when it comes to religious instruction and participation as husbands silently delegate that responsibility to the wife and mother of their children. 

The woman then and now was and remains the key element in regard to the culture of the home. Today, however, a woman’s education, and socio-economic status of the family unit, has a great impact on what she bequeaths and passes on to her children. Not to be ignored or over-looked, the religious affiliation of the family unit today also impacts on the role of the woman.

As to the social role and expectation of the woman, it is interesting to note that up to the 19th Century, women usually married by 12 years of age. Empress Carlota of Mexico (wife of Emperor Maximillian) introduced the quinceanera through which young ladies were presented to society ready to marry at 15 years of age. The U.S. followed the 19th century European tradition of introducing young ladies at 16 years of age. The coming of age debutant balls introducing young ladies to society varied thereafter but never exceeding 21 years of age.

Today the quinceanera, “sweet sixteen ball” and debutant ball are no longer seen as presenting daughters for marriage but rather merely a coming of age party-social gathering-celebration. Yet the role of the wife-mother has remained practically unchanged and unappreciated.

As a sidebar, I personally am fed-up with hearing and reading the same old articles and seeing the Casasola photographs of the women soldiers (soldaderas) and “Adelitas” of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. Tell me about General Carmen Reyes. What was her background, family life, battles won and lost and accomplishments before, during and after the revolution? How does she compare to Joan of Arc? Also, how does the generala compare to her contemporary rebel leaders? Why is she still an unknown a century after the fact? The Mexican Revolution is not my area of expertise but if it was I would not hesitate digging into the Archivo de la Defensa in Mexico City as well as the history and archives of the revolution in Michoacan and Jalisco.

The same applies to Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz. Yes she was a great writer-poetess and I have enjoyed and still enjoy her literary output. However, she was a num leading a shelter, cloistered life exposed only to the elite upper socio-economic circles of Mexico City during her life. She never married, never had or raised children, never had a husband or had to deal with neighbors (other than her fellow sheltered nuns). She does not represent or present the woman of her lifetime. So how did her worldview compare to that of Maria del Carmen Calvillo ranch owner-manager-cattle baroness of Bexar in the early 1800’s? Nuf zed as I hope I got some of you angry enough to do something about the unappreciated role of women in history.
Zavala County Sentinel …………….. 21-22 September 2011
I recently wrote what I taught for years, that is that U. S. history textbooks are written in black and white perspectives from the East Coast point of view. The multi-cultural, multi-lingual essence of Texas and the U. S. Southwest is at best overlooked if not belittled. Moreover, the textbooks are male oriented and the role of the woman and ethnic minorities are ignored. In a patronizing manner, women who excelled in politics, business, arts and entertainment are given short biographical sketches ignoring the fact they are the exception and not the norm.
I first faced this contradiction in 1971 – 76 when serving as the first Ethnic Studies Director and instructor at Our Lady of the Lake University in San Antonio. As Department Head I informed the administration I wanted to hire a woman to teach a course on The Woman. The Sisters of Divine Providence told me I could not do that as “the woman is not a minority”. I was terribly upset (to say the least and being politically correct) as I did not expect that from nuns. Much to their chagrin, I got around the issue by posting a class on The Woman to be taught by me under “Special Topics”. On the side, I hired Ms. Lupe Anguiano to teach the class. Hence, I opened each session, took roll, attended class and paid her salary from my paycheck. Times have changed and the role of the woman in history, culture and the family has gotten academic acceptance but still excluded in the textbooks.
I also used to tell my students that the teaching and writing of history was not limited to memorizing names, dates and events. To study and write history one must look at the totality of human-social-scientific, linguistic and cultural evolution. Ideally, a historian is nothing more than a reporter of past events. Unfortunately, the role of the woman in history, anthropology and sociology is lacking. This is even more evident in the lack of studies and writings regarding the woman on the Frontier (meaning West of the Mississippi River). Yet, then and now the woman is a child’s first doctor, teacher, provider, peace-keeper, financial manager and keeper of the Faith and culture. Take the nomadic hunter-gather Native American culture of South Texas. The men were the hunters, priests, warriors and frequently, but not always, the “medicine men”. The women were the gatherers, weavers, seamstresses, nurses, and misleading, all-encompassing “keepers of the home” a phrase that minimizes their role as organizers and preservers of the home and family.
The woman in the Spanish Colonial, Mexican and early U. S. historical periods of South Texas and New Mexico were all of the above plus, gardeners of fruits, vegetables and herbs (i.e. medicinal and spices), took care of a family’s domestic live stock (milk cows, goats, chicken, etc), doctor-nurse-midwife-curandera (herb healer), and the unpaid, unappreciated laborer. The frontier woman had to ride a horse, fire a weapon and defend the home-ranch-farm with or without a husband or mate around. If a widow, she had to do all the
above plus raise a family. The frontier woman and many today are still the keepers of the Faith and culture as many men step aside when it comes to religious instruction and participation as husbands silently delegate that responsibility to the wife and mother of their children. The woman then and now was and remains the key element in regard to the culture of the home. Today, however, a woman’s education, and socio-economic status of the family unit, has a great impact on what she bequeaths and passes on to her children. Not to be ignored or over-looked, the religious affiliation of the family unit today also impacts on the role of the woman.
As to the social role and expectation of the woman, it is interesting to note that up to the 19th Century, women usually married by 12 years of age. Empress Carlota of Mexico (wife of Emperor Maximillian) introduced the quinceanera through which young ladies were presented to society ready to marry at 15 years of age. The U.S. followed the 19th century European tradition of introducing young ladies at 16 years of age. The coming of age debutant balls introducing young ladies to society varied thereafter but never exceeding 21 years of age.
Today the quinceanera, “sweet sixteen ball” and debutant ball are no longer seen as presenting daughters for marriage but rather merely a coming of age party-social gathering-celebration. Yet the role of the wife-mother has remained practically unchanged and unappreciated.
As a sidebar, I personally am fed-up with hearing and reading the same old articles and seeing the Casasola photographs of the women soldiers (soldaderas) and “Adelitas” of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. Tell me about General Carmen Reyes. What was her background, family life, battles won and lost and accomplishments before, during and after the revolution? How does she compare to Joan of Arc? Also, how does the generala compare to her contemporary rebel leaders? Why is she still an unknown a century after the fact? The Mexican Revolution is not my area of expertise but if it was I would not hesitate digging into the Archivo de la Defensa in Mexico City as well as the history and archives of the revolution in Michoacan and Jalisco.
The same applies to Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz. Yes she was a great writer-poetess and I have enjoyed and still enjoy her literary output. However, she was a num leading a shelter, cloistered life exposed only to the elite upper socio-economic circles of Mexico City during her life. She never married, never had or raised children, never had a husband or had to deal with neighbors (other than her fellow sheltered nuns). She does not represent or present the woman of her lifetime. So how did her worldview compare to that of Maria del Carmen Calvillo ranch owner-manager-cattle baroness of Bexar in the early 1800’s? Nuf zed as I hope I got some of you angry enough to do something about the unappreciated role of women in history.
Zavala County Sentinel …………….. 21-22 September 2011


Escultura de Don Juan de Oñate en El Paso, Texas 

Governor Juan de Oñate set up his headquarters in San Juan Pueblo in 1598, but by 1601 he had moved the Spanish capital across the Rio Grande to Yuque-Yunque Pueblo. Named San Gabriel, it served as the seat of government until 1610, when Oñate's successor founded a new capital at Santa Fe.

Una grandiosa escultura ecuestre de Don Juan de Oñate, explorador y colonizador novohispano de los siglos XVI y XVII, fue instalada en la ciudad estadounidense de El Paso, Texas, en octubre de 2006, como la segunda de doce esculturas en bronce que se pretenden erigir dramatizando la historia de esta ciudad y del suroeste norteamericano.

 Esta iniciativa, llevada a cabo por la Fundación XII Travelers Memorial of the Southwest, pretende revitalizar y reactivar el desarrollo económico, el turismo y la calidad de vida de El Paso.

Dicho monumento, instalado a la entrada del aeropuerto de la ciudad, ha sido elaborado por el artista americano John Sherrill Houser y hace referencia a la rica herencia, la diversidad cultural, y la atracción hacia las tierras de El Paso del Norte y territorios circundantes, que dan entrada a lo que fue el gran suroeste español que iba de Texas, pasando por Nuevo México, Colorado y Arizona hasta California, con el fin de llamar la atención del público en general, estudiantes,educadores, visitantes, artistas e historiadores.

La estatua, de 16 toneladas de peso, mide unos 11 metros de alto y fue terminada diez años después de su comienzo, tras ocho años de construcción y dos años de fundición e instalación. El coste total ascendió a unos 2 millones de dólares de los cuales el 40% fueron costeados por la ciudad y el 60% por el sector privado. Finalmente el jinete fue dedicado e inaugurado el sábado 21 de abril de 2007.

Esta Fundación se propone, como agradecimiento a España y al pueblo español, dirigirse a la Comunidad de Madrid, como representación capital de todas las comunidades españolas, para la erección de una estatua gemela a la de El Paso que mantenga y recuerde el hermanamiento de las gentes y las culturas de ambos lados del océano para con ello reactivar una corriente permanente de intercambio en un canal de doble dirección en todos los campos, desde el cultural e histórico,al turístico y económico.

Colegio de Trinitarios, Calle Trinidad 1 28801 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, España. Tel: +34 91 885 5252 Fax: +34 91 885 5248


Arizona Latino Arts and Cultural Center  Opens Three New Exhibits
Artwork and jewelry of Latina artists is highlighted May 4-August 24, 2012

PHOENIX. The Arizona Latino Arts and Cultural Center (ALAC) announces the premier and opening of three new gallery exhibits each opening this Friday May 4th at ALAC - Galeria 147, located at 147 E. Adams Street in downtown Phoenix. Exclusively highlighting female artists and opening one week before Mother's Day, the main gallery hosts the 2nd Annual Latina Art Exhibit and Festival, themed "Madres/Madonnas/Mujeres" in celebration of women and mothers everywhere and across all cultures. Concurrently, two separate one-woman shows will showcase the talents of Norma Garcia -Torres in the La Capilla Gallery and Alondra Yasmin Ortega in the El Rincon Gallery. The three exhibits will run from May 4th - August 24th and feature both artwork and jewelry. 

Special events featuring the artists, jewelers and theater performances will be also be held on the nights of First Friday during May 4, June 1st, July 6th and August 3rd. Participating artists from Phoenix, Tucson and Chicago include: Francisco Anatra, Diana Caldreron, Christina Cardenas, Francisca Cota, Monica Crespo, Esperanza Gama, Cynthia Flores-Gurrola, Diana Luevano-Ruiz, Yolanda Palomo, Mary Ann Rodriguez-Veatch, Gabby St. Paul, Ilda Veloz, and Veronica Verdugo-Lomeli.

The exhibit at ALAC - Galeria 147 is curated by Monica Gisel Crespo, a renowned local artist who participated in the 1st Annual Latina Art Exhibit and Festival in 2011. "Endowed with all the gifts that Mother Nature could give, our exhibit honors the work and love of the woman; of her capacity to create life, nurture and preserve her heritage and carry the story of her culture," said Gisel Crespo. "By portraying the charm, mysticism and passion of myths, legends and stories, this artwork captures the essence of feminine strength and leadership essential to facing a chaotic future with courage and energy." 

In the La Capilla Gallery, the Norma Garcia-Torres portrays the theme "Feminine Divine" and in the artists' words expresses how women "must awaken the feminine divine within us and recognize her presence in transforming our world." The work of Alondra Yasim Ortega, in the El Rincon Gallery, is self-described as "classical yet realistic with a hit of abstract, focused on the expression of the immigrant life and challenges."

Sent by ErLinda Torres

Peoria, AZ Councilman Tony Rivero aims to revive cultural festival . . Fiesta would celebrate city's history

Peoria Councilman Tony Rivero is taking the lead to revive Fiestas Patrias, a community festival that began in the early 1970s, but faded away in recent years.

In its new avatar, Fiesta Peoria, as it would be called, would still pay homage to the city's Latino heritage but be more inclusive by being celebrated as a multicultural festival on Sept. 15, which coincides with the start of the National Hispanic Heritage Month.

Rivero, who represents a heavily Hispanic district in the city's older section, has committed $23,400 from his council district funds for the festival, still in early stages of planning. Each council member annually gets $30,000 to spend on his or her district for various community projects and other purposes. Any spending of $5,000 or more must get council approval.

The Peoria City Council this week without comment unanimously approved the funds for the festival.

Rivero said he had been considering this since he got on the council last year.

"It's a good chance to recognize the Latino culture; but I want everyone to know it's a festival for all, not just the Hispanic community," Rivero said. "We should celebrate our history and not forget people who worked hard to get us where we are today."

According to the U.S. Census, nearly 19 percent of the Peoria's 154,000 residents are of Hispanic or Latino origin.

Fiestas Patrias, Spanish for patriotic holidays, commemorates the independence of many Latin American countries. Peoria residents and business leaders for years, with support from the city, organized the festival with Mexican food, music and dance at what was once called Washington Park, later renamed Johnny E. Osuna Park.

Mexican migrant workers started the tradition when Peoria was a small farming community.

The festival was last known to be held in 2008 after a three-year gap.

Rivero said he is reaching out to the Northwest Black History Committee, which promotes the cultural heritage of African-Americans, and other community groups that contribute to the American historical experience.

Rivero said the festival would also be a way to draw more people to downtown and generate sales tax for the city. He expects about 10,000 people would attend.

A staff report estimated the festival's cost at about $80,000.

Rivero said he hopes to be able to return the district funds to the city if enough is raised through sponsorships, vendor booth charges and a $5 entrance fees for those 13 and up.

"We're confident we'll raise the money and we'll do everything we can to return the district funds," Rivero said.

Brenda Rehnke, Peoria's recreation manager and a longtime city employee, said the festival which was held over two to three days, was especially popular during the nighttime, when people would participate in the live music and dance.

The festival would feature popular Hispanic bands. Another tradition was the crowning of a queen and her court. Young women would give speeches in English and Spanish about their Hispanic heritage. The winner would get an education scholarship.

She said any event that uses the recently renovated Osuna park and the nearby Peoria Center for the Performing Arts is good for the city.

"Anything done for citizens in a beautiful new renovated park is a wonderful addition to the city," Rehnke said.

This isn't the first time council district funds have been used to launch a city festival. Councilmembers Dave Pearson and Joan Evans contributed to the P83 Party, which draws people in the spring to the area near 83rd Avenue and Bell Road, which houses the Peoria Sports Complex and many restaurants and retail shops.

Read more:




Jose Jimenez, Chief Diversity Officer of the Year Award
West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana Largest Slaveholders (1860)   
         and Surname Matches for African Americans
Jose Jimenez, Chief Diversity Officer of the Year Award
Jose Jimenez, Chief Diversity Officer of CSC, received the 2012 Chief Diversity Officer of the Year Award at the 6th Annual LISTA National Emerging Technology Leadership Summit & 12th Annual National Latino TechLatino Achievers Awards Gala held May 23rd to 24th, 2012 at the Melia Hotel, 590 West Peachtree Street NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30308
"With over 35 years of extensive corporate and government experience, his deep knowledge of business, as well as a passion for diversity and inclusion and the Latino community made Jose is a natural fit for this award,” said Jose Marquez-Leon, President and CEO of Latinos in Information Sciences and Technology Association. "Jose is a recognized leader in both the information technology and Hispanic communities, his work for advancement in STEM education in the Latino community is unparalleled, as is his commitment to fostering a diverse and inclusive workforce.”
Jimenez works close with CSC executives globally to develop business initiatives that enhance customer and community relationships as well as external and internal communications strategies that strengthen CSC’s ability to attract diverse talent in all markets. Jimenez has provided leadership to many diversity initiatives within NPS, and he has worked extensively to build strong support with external diversity organizations.

LISTA ( promotes the utilization of the technology sectors for the empowerment of the Latino community. LISTA is committed to bringing various elements of technology under one central hub to facilitate partners, members and the community with the leverage and education needed to succeed in a highly advanced and technologically-driven society. LISTA’s mission is to educate, motivate and encourage the use of technology in the Latino community and empowering them to bridge the digital divide. Their premiere network spans over 13 Chapters, 4700 members and 75,000 subscribers. LISTA’s focus is to develop the next generation of Latino technology leaders, grow strong technology businesses and leadership teams and role models in a rapidly changing socio economical IT industry.

John Simmons
(800) 775-0889



Transcribed by Tom Blake, March 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the Parish. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral Parish, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 428) reportedly includes a total of 9,571 slaves. This transcription includes 20 slaveholders who held 100 or more slaves and one who held 97 in West Feliciana Parish, accounting for 3,627 slaves, or 38% of the Parish total. The rest of the slaves in the Parish were held by a total of 276 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at . In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber was not aware of any relevant changes to Parish boundaries.

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Parish, the number of slaves they held in the Ward where the slaves were enumerated and the first census page of that Ward on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "Parish" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Louisiana in 1860 there were 371 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,161 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this Parish with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription. In fact, one holder on this list, Jos. A. S. Acklen, is listed with a combined total, but was actually enumerated separately for six named plantations, Loango, Panola, Killarney, Lachlomond, Bellevue and Angola.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did not find any such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or Parish. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 West Feliciana Parish population included 2.036 whites, 64 "free colored" and 9,571 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had dropped 22% to 1,583, and the "colored" population had dropped about 7% to 8,915. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the Parish was listed as having 4,197 whites, about double the 1860 number, but the 1960 total of 8,190 "Negroes"was actually 15% less than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) Where did all these freed slaves go? Orleans Parish saw an increase in colored population of almost double between 1860 and 1870, growing to over 50,000, so likely that is where many went. No other Louisiana Parish showed such a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the Louisiana colored population only increased by 4%, about 13,000. States that saw more significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from West Feliciana Parish, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).


ACKLEN, Jos. A. S. (Loango, Panola, Killarney, Lachlomond, Bellevue and Angola.Plantations), 659 slaves, Ward 7, 291
BARROW, D., 103 slaves, Ward 3, page 273
BARROW, J. P. & 8 others, 176 slaves, Ward 10, page 305B
BARROW, R. C., 144 slaves, Ward 3, page 276
BARROW, W. A., 108 slaves, Ward 10, page 307B
BARROW, W. H., 200 slaves, Ward 6, page 289
BURNS, F. A., 120 slaves, Ward 8, page 300
FORT, W,. J. (Catalpa Plantation), 372 slaves, Ward 3, page 269
HAILE, R. H., 97 slaves, Ward 4, page 280
HAMILTON, W. S., 154 slaves, Ward 4, page 279
JACKSON, J. K.?, 125 slaves, Ward 4, page 281B
PERKINS, H.?, 137 slaves, Ward 2, page 260
SMITH, G. A., 103 slaves, Ward 3, page 267B
SMITH, J.? Scott, 101 slaves, Ward 3, page 275
SMITH, M. A., 128 slaves, Ward 2, page 261B
STIRLING, M. C., 127 slaves, Ward 3, page 264
STIRLING, Sarah, 149 slaves, Ward 3, page 266
STIRLING, W. H., 151 slaves, Ward 10, page 304B
TURNBULL, D., 225 slaves, Ward 11, page 309
TURNBULL, D. (Rosedown Plantation), 145 slaves, Ward 3, page 272
WOODS, W. C.?, 103 slaves, Ward 4, page 277

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)
(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in Parish, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in Parish)

ACKLEN, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
BARROW, 216, 40, 5, 29, 29, 4
BURNS, 1023, 107, 1, 52, 46, 1
FORT, 421, 7, 1, 7, 4, 1
HAILE, 47, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1
HAMILTON, 2446, 254, 10, 157, 127, 8
JACKSON, 19100, 1771, 39, 1033, 853, 27
PERKINS, 1897, 182, 8, 125, 99, 6
SMITH, 29087, 2573, 57, 1500, 1274, 51
STIRLING, 9, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
TURNBULL, 26, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0
WOODS, 2026, 209, 5, 128, 112, 5

Return to Home and Links Page
Sent by Bill Carmena 

Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas


University of Notre Dame
1576 | 1633 | 1708 | 1719 | 1720 | 1726 | 1732 | 1735 | 1736 | 1737 | 1739 | 1740 | 1747 | 1751 | 1756 | 1757 | 1758 | 1760 | 1761 | 1762 | 1764 | 1769 | 1772 | 1773 | 1774 | 1777 | 1778 | 1781 | 1782 | 1786 | 1787 | 1788 | 1789 | 1790 | 1791 | 1792 | 1793 | 1794 | 1795 | 1796 | 1797 | 1798 | 1799 | 1800 | 1801 | 1802 | 1803

The Church in Louisiana and Florida, 1513-1815
Bibliographical Note
Editorial Procedure
Explanation of the Calendar
Description of the Collection
Alphabetical List



This guide and the accompanying rolls of microfilm are being published by the University of Notre Dame archives under the sponsorship of the National Historical Publications Commission.

The initial step in the program of publishing manuscripts having a significant relevance to American History was taken in 1950 when President Truman directed the National Historical Publications Commission to draw up a plan for making such material readily available for scholarly use. The Commission's Report was submitted to President Eisenhower in 1954 and, in the succeeding decade, the Commission encouraged the editing and publishing of various collections, including the Jefferson Papers, the Adams Papers, and the Franklin Papers.

In 1963 the Commission recommended to President Kennedy a ten-year program of publication to be financed by the Federal Government as well as by private sources. The Report, stressing the importance of a citizenry well instructed in American History, recommended the increased use of microfilm as a means of making available, as inexpensively as possible, significant source material. In 1964 Congress enacted legislation authorizing the Commission's grant program and the first funds were allocated for the support of projects deemed worthy of approval by the Commission. Early in 1965 the Commission approved a grant to the University of Notre Dame Archives. The project was commenced in June, 1965.

In the task of preparing the Records of the Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas for microfilming we have been aided by Mr. Norman Leslie Smith III, Mr. Charles Gensheimer, Mrs. Janet Ubelhart, and Miss Mercedes Muenz. A debt of gratitude is owed to Dr. Oliver W. Holmes, to the National Historical Publications Commission, and especially to Mr. Fred Shelley of that Commision for his wise counsel and encouragement. The information acquired at the Frebruary, 1966, meeting at the National Archives in Washington D.C. of representatives from institutions preparing microfilm publications under grant from the Commission has been invaluable.

Lawrence J. Bradley, LL.B., M.A.
Manuscripts Preparator
Notre Dame, Indiana
April 1967


The Church in Louisiana and Florida, 1513-1815

Although the Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas, later to be known as the Diocese of New Orleans, was formally erected only on April 25, 1793, by Pope Pius VI, the area embraced within its confines had had a long ecclesiastical history prior to that time. Following the discovery of Florida by Ponce de Leon in 1513, Spain made several attempts to explore and tame the wild lands of southeastern North America. Acting by virtue of the Patronato Real de Indias or Royal Patronage of the Indies -- a recognition accorded to the Spanish sovereigns by the Roman Pontiffs of extensive control over and responsibility for the ecclesiastical administration of the Indies -- King Charles I, pending approval from the Holy See, provided for the erection of a Diocese of Florida which was to embrace the whole territory along the Gulf coast from the Cape of Florida to the Rio Grande.

The proposed See, however, never actually materialized, and the Fransiscan, Juan Suarez, who had been chosen to be its bishop, perished while accompanying the ill-fated de Narvaez expedition to the area. Following the failure of De Soto's expedition (1539-1543), Spain made no further effort to conquer and colonize the lands bordering the Mississippi. Instead, she confined her efforts to Florida and the southwest.

The French, solidly established in Canada by the mid-seventeenth century, soon began to encroach upon the territory to the south which had been claimed initially by Spain. After La Salle and his party reached the mouth of the Mississippi in 1682, Louisiana became definitely French territory. Here, as in the Spanish domains, Church and State were bound closely together with the French monarch exercising considerable control over and bearing considerable responsibility for ecclesiastical affairs. After an initial attempt to establish an independent Viciariate Apostolic for the area failed because of the opposition of Bishop St. Vallier of Quebec, Louisiana in 1688 was recognized formally as belonging within the Diocese of Quebec.

In 1699 the priests of the Seminary of Quebec, an outgrowth of the Seminary of Foreign Missions at Paris, began their priestly labors in the area. They were soon joined by the Jesuits. In 1712 Louisiana became a proprietary colony under the wealthy Antoine Crozat who had obtained a fifteen-year lease from the French crown. Finding the venture to be unprofitable, Crozat relinquished his lease in 1717. The colony then reverted to the French crown which turned it over to John Law's Company of the West. The obligation of providing for the religious needs of the territory, which included the nomination and maintenance of priests as well as the building of churches, devolved upon Law's Company.

Actual ecclesiastical supervision over the territory continued to be exercised by remote control through a local vicar general. Although a Frech Capuchin, Louis-Francois Duplessis de Mornay, was chosen coadjutor to Bishop St. Vallier of Quebec in 1713 and, as such, entrusted with the care of Louisiana, he never visted the colony. In 1717 Spain showed a renewed interest in the westen part of the territory and a mission, staffed by Spanish Franciscans, was established at Los Adayes, twenty-one miles from Natchitoches. In 1720 French Carmelites were introduced into the territory but they were soon replaced by French Capuchins from the Province of Champagne under an agreement between the Company of the West, the Capuchins, and Bishop de Mornay. The Capuchins were to serve the French posts in the territory while the Jesuits were to continue serving the Indian missions.

Unfortunately, years of friction ensued between the two missionary groups until the eventual suppression of the Jesuits in the colony in 1763 following their suppression in France. In 1727 a band of French Ursuline Nuns arrived in New Orleans where they established a convent and a school for girls and began the task of attending to the Royal Hospital. In 1731 the colony again changed hands as the Company of the West relinquished its lease and returned it to the direst supervision of the French crown. There it remained until it was ceded to Spain by the secret treaty of Fontainebleau in 1762. The actual transfer, however, was not completed until 1769 when Spanish forces Captain-General Alexander O'Reily succeeded in putting down a rebellion of a segment of the French population.

Meanwhile, Florida, which from the time of its discovery had remained Spanish territory, was passing into the hands of England, having been ceded to her by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. There, St. Augustine had been founded in 1565 and missionary activity had been undertaken first by secular clergy, then by Jesuits, and finally by Franciscans. Although the Franciscans had succeeded in establishing a number of flourishing missions among the Indians, these were dealt a blow from which they never recovered by the destructive English raids of 1702-1704 led by onetime Governor James Moore of Carolina. In 1709 Dionisio Resino was named auxiliary to the Bishop of Santiago de Cuba, the diocese to which Florida belonged, and entrusted with the care of Florida. After three weeks' residence in the territory he was so disheartened by the conditions prevailing there that he returned to Cuba.

In 1735 Francisco de San Buenaventura y Tejada, appointed auxiliary to the Bishop of Santiago de Cuba in 1731, finally arrived in Florida. When he was translated to the See of Yucatan in 1745, Pedro Ponce y Carrasco was named his successor but did not sail to Florida until nine years later. Once there, he remained only nine months. In 1762-1763, on the eve of its cession to England, the territory received an impromptu episcopal visitation by Bishop Pedro Augustin Morrell of Santiago de Cuba as he was returning from English captivity by Charleston, South Carolina.

While acquiring Florida from Spain, England in 1763 also acquired from France a thin strip of territory extending westward along the Gulf to the Mississippi. By a royal proclamation of the same year two royal colonies were formed of the territory thus acquired: East Florida, which extended west to the Charrahoochee River and had St. Augustine as its capital, and West Florida, which extended west from the Chattahoochee River to the Mississippi and had Pensacola as its capital. Although the British sovereign pledged to allow Catholics freedom of worship insofar as the laws of Great Britain permitted, a wholesale exodus of the Spanish population took place, and as a result Catholicism all but disappeared from the area. A small revival came five years later when Andrew Turnbull, a Scottish physician turned colonizer, established a plantation composed largely of Catholic Minorcans at New Smyrna on the Atlantic coast, seventy-four miles south of St. Augustine.

Before long the territory was once again in Spanish hands. In 1779 Spain officially threw in her lot with the American revolutionaries and attacked British West Florida. Mobile fell to her in 1780 and Pensacola in 1781. The remainder of the Floridas was returned to her by treaty in 1783. Once again under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Bishop of Santiago de Cuba, the Church in the territory was confronted with a twofold task: the reduction of Spaniards, Minorcans and French to ecclesiastical unity under the Spanish Patronato Real and the conversion of Anglo-American settlers. While Bishop Santiago Joseph de Hechavarria y Elguezua of Santiago de Cuba was primarily responsible for ecclesiastical affairs in these remote areas of his diocese, the actual supervision was entrusted to two vicarios, Father Thomas Hassett, an Irish priest from Spain, who was sent to reside at St. Augustine and care for East Florida, and Father Cirilo Sieni de Barcelona who resided in New Orleans and was charged with the care of the joint province of Louisiana - West Florida.

By this time, the Spanish authorities had come to recognize the need for a resident bishop on the mainland. A proposal was drawn up for the appointment of an auxiliary to the Bishop of Santiago de Cuba to reside in New Orleans. The plan was approved by Rome and in 1781 King Charles III of Spain asked Bishop Hechavarria to propose Father Cirilo for the post. Although Cirilo was officially notified of this appointment on July 18, 1782, bulls were not issued by Pope Pius VI until June 6, 1784, and Cirilo's consecration did not take place until March 6, 1785.

Meanwhile, it had become evident that the administrative work of the vast Diocese of Santiago de Cuba was too great a burden for its bishop. Eventually, by a consistorial decree of September 10,1787, that diocese was split in two and the new Diocese of St. Christopher, with its episcopal seat at Havana, was erected. The mainland territories of Louisiana and the Floridas were placed under its jurisdiction. Bishop Felipe Joseph Trespalacios of Puerto Rico was transferred to the new diocese and Bishop Cirilo became his auxiliary. Subsequent events, marred by friction between the two bishops, soon demonstrated the unfeasibleness of such a division of authority. By 1791 King Charles IV had decided upon a further division of the Diocese of St. Christopher. Rome was consulted and on April 25, 1793, Pope Pius VI issued a bull establishing the Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas. Auxiliary Bishop Cirilo was recalled and Luis Ignacio Maria de Penalver y Cardenas, a forty-four-year-old native of Havana, was named bishop.

Consecrated at Havana on April 25, 1795, Bishop Penalver arrived in New Orleans on July 17 and took formal possession of his See on July 24. He was confronted immediately with a multitude of distressing problems. A general spirit of indifference and even scorn for religion, fostered in part by the spread of Voltairianism and revolutionary ideologies from France, combined with the perennial shortage of priests, the distinct aversion of the French population for everything Spanish, and the deeply rooted moral abuses that had developed under pioneer colonial conditions to burden the bishop during his six-year administration of the diocese. Eventually, even his great zeal could no longer sustain him in the face of such appalling conditions and he petitioned the king for a change to some other diocese. His request was granted. On July 29, 1801, Rome formally announced his appointment to the Archdiocese of Guatemala. Envisioning only a brief interval before the arrival of a successor, he appointed Father Thomas Hassett administrator and Father Patrick Walsh assistant administrator before leaving Louisiana in November of that same year.

Events were to prove Penalver's prognostication wrong and to undermine the arrangements he had made for the interim administration of the vacant See. Louisiana was to be without a bishop for the next fourteen years. Although Francisco Porro y Peinado, a Spanish Minim, was selected for the post early in 1801, rumors of the impending transfer of Louisiana from Spain to France caused him to delay his departure. Eventually in 1803, before he had ever formally taken possession of the diocese, he was transferred to the Diocese of Tarazona in Spain. The unexpected duration of the period of administration and the complications created by the retrocession of the Louisiana Territory to France and its subesequent sale to the United States in 1803, which brought to an abrupt end the close relationship that had existed between Church and State, combined to create for Father Hassett unexpected difficulties, not the least of which was an end to the financial subsidies which the state had granted to the Church under both the Spanish and French regimes.

The situation worsened upon the death of Hassett in 1804. Although Father Walsh then claimed authority by virtue of his appointment as assistant administrator, his claim was disputed by Father Anthonio de Sedella, the Capuchin rector of the Cathedral, who unfortunately had a substantial popular following. Likewise, in 1806 Bishop Juan Jose Dias de Espada of Havana disputed Walsh's authority in Florida which had remained Spanish territory. Although Rome in 1806 had authorized Bishop John Carroll of Baltimore to assume temporary supervision of the vacant See, the extent of his jursidiction was not specifically spelled out, and as a result it was not clear whether Florida was included in the territory entrusted to him. The Bishop of Havana continued to exercise jurisdiction over Florida, and in Louisiana the authority of the administrators appointed by Carroll continued to be challenged by Father Sedella and his followers. Finally, in 1815 Louis-Guillaume-Valentin DuBourg, who had been acting as administrator, was named bishop. Although even his authority was contested at times by Sedella and although the question of Florida remained unsettled until the transfer of the territory to the United States in 1821, the diocese once again had a bishop.


Bibliographical Note

Brief general accounts of the Catholic Church in colonial Louisiana and Florida may be found in the first two volumes of John Gilmary Shea's pioneering four-volume History of the Catholic Church in the United States (New York, 1886). Although now outdated, Shea's work still contains a wealth of information.

More specifically relating to the Church in Louisiana are Roger Baudier's The Catholic Church in Louisiana (New Orleans, 1939), Jean Delanglez's The French Jesuits in Lower Louisiana (1700-1763) (Loyola University of New Orleans, 1935) and Charles Edwards O'Neill's Church and State in French Colonial Louisiana: Policy and Politics to 1732 (Yale University Press, 1966), all of which contain extensive bibliographies citing both published and archival sources. A special supplement to Catholic Action of the South, XI (July 29, 1943), no. 35, edited by Roger Baudier and published in celebration of the sesquicentennial of the Diocese of New Orleans, has been very helpful and informative.

The history of Catholicism in Florida has been traced recently in Michael V. Gannon's The Cross in the Sand: The Early Catholic Church in Florida 1513-1870 (University of Florida Press, 1965). An earlier but still very useful account of a more limited period of that history os Michael J. Curley's Church and State in the Spanish Floridas (1783-1822) (Catholic University of America Press, 1940). Both Gannon and Curley also supply extensive bibliographies.

Finally, among the many useful secular histories are Alcee Fortier's four-volume History of Louisiana (Paris, 1904), Henry E. Chamber's three-volume History of Louisiana (American Historical Society, 1925), and Caroline Mays Brevard's two-volume History of Florida from the Treaty of 1763 (The Florida State Historical Society, 1924).



Early in the 1880's Professor James F. Edwards, librarian of the University of Notre Dame, aware that irreplaceable items pertaining to the history of Catholicism in America were constantly in danger of being lost through neglect, carelessness or willful destruction, began to implement a plan which he had conceived for establishing at Notre Dame a national center for Catholic historical materials. The frail but hard-working Edwards set about acquiring all kinds of relevant items, including relics and portraits of the bishops and other missionary clergymen, a reference library of printed materials, and an extensive manuscript collection.

To the manuscript collection, in which he hoped to include all the existing diocesan archives as well as the papers of outstanding Catholic clergymen and laymen, he gave the designation "Catholic Archives of America." Prominent clergymen such as Archbishop William Henry Elder of Cincinnati, Archbishop Francis Janssens of New Orleans, and Father Ignatius Horstmann of Philidelphia, and laymen like Martin I.J. Griffin, editor of the American Catholic Historical Researches, and John Gilmary Shea, the pioneering historian of the Catholic Church in the United States, lent their active and very helpful assistance. Thousands upon thousands of items which have been a boon to historians were acquired.

Unfortunately, Edwards had not the time, nor the money, nor the health necessary to bring his project to completion. Although the collection has been augmented under successors, Father Paul J. Foik, C.S.C., and Father Thomas T. McAvoy, C.S.C., the present Archivist of the University of Notre Dame, the ambitious scheme for an official American Catholic archives had to be given up in 1918 when Canon Law was changed so as to require each bishop to maintain his own archives.

The Records of the Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas (1576-1803), subject of this microfilm publication, are part of a larger group of papers pertaining to the Archdiocese of New Orleans down to 1897. The collection was acquired in the 1890's by Edwards through the generosity of Archbishop Janssens. Everything for the period in question, except photostatic copies made for use in the Notre Dame Archives and duplicates of a few items, has been filmed. The material relating to the period after 1803 has not been filmed because there are restrictions upon its use. It may be consulted, however, at the Archives with the permission of the Archivist.

Although the first two items in the collections are dated 1576 and 1633, respectively, and there are a number of items for the period from 1708 to 1783, the great bulk of material pertains to the years 1786 through 1803. Consulted until now mainly by historians of the Catholic Church, it should prove useful also to secular historians because of the close connection between Church and State which existed during both the French and Spanish colonial regimes in Louisiana and Florida. Photostatic copies of all the items in the collection, as well as photostatic copies of the calendars for those portions that have already been calendared, are in possession of the New Orleans Archdiocesan Archives.

According to a tradition, most of the papers of Bishop Penalver, as well as those of his successor, Bishop DuBourg, were destroyed during the Civil War. Bricked up in a chimney for safekeeping when New Orleans was threatened by Union troops, it was discovered later that someone had neglected to close the chimney at the top and that, consequently, rain had poured in and turned the papers into a mass of pulp. Whether copies of at least some of the items thus lost have survived in the dossiers pertaining to Penalver's administration of the diocese or whether the papers destroyed were personal papers or official papers which dealt with other matters is not known.

In addition to this collection in the University of Notre Dame Archives, there are numerous other collections both in the United States and in foreign countries which pertain to the ecclesiastical as well as to the secular history of colonial Louisiana and Florida. Although far too numerous to list here, references to these collections may be found in Philip M. Hamer's Guide to Archives and Manuscripts in the United States (Yale University Press, 1961), the National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections, Roger Baudier's The Catholic Church in Louisiana (New Orleans, 1939), Jean Delanglez's The French Jesuits in Lower Louisiana (1700-1763) (Loyola University of New Orleans, 1935), Charles Edwards O'Neill's Church and State in French Colonial Louisiana: Policy and Politics to 1732 (Yale University Press, 1966), Caroline Mays Brevard's two-volume History of Florida from the Treaty of 1763 (Florida State Historical Society, 1934), Michael V. Gannon's The Cross in the Sand: The Early Catholic Church in Florida 1513-1870 (University of Florida Press, 1965), and Michael J. Curley's Church and State in the Spanish Floridas (1783-1822) (Catholic University of America Press, 1940). The Florida State Historical Society has published in several volumes a number of manuscripts and documents pertaining to the history of their State. Documents edited by Manuel Serrano y Sanz and pertaining to both Florida and Louisiana may be found in Documentos Historicos de la Florida y la Luisiana Siglos XVI al XVIII (Madrid, 1912). For Louisiana itself there are James Alexander Robertson's two-volume edition, Louisiana under the Rule of Spain, France, and the United States 1785-1807 (Cleveland, 1911), and a recently published collection of items edited by Jack D.L. Holmes, Documentos Ineditos para la Historia de la Luisiana 1792-1810 (Madrid, 1963), which forms volume XV in the Coleccion Chimalistac de Libros y Documentos acerca de la Nueva Espana.


Editorial Procedure

The Records of the Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas had been arranged chronologically and calendered prior to the inception of the present microfilm project. Where the particular item is a simple letter or document it was calendared as such. However, where, as often occurs, the particular item consists of a large dossier of documents or copies of documents and accounts of various proceedings, it was given a specific date -- often that of the last document or notation contained therein -- and a single inclusive calendar was drawn up for the entire dossier. Such dossiers will be found on the microfilm under the date assigned to them in the calendars although they quite often contain material for earlier years. Specific documents within each dossier appear in the same order that summaries of them appear in the calendars.

In a number of instances particular documents are so badly mildewed, water-stained or faded that it has been impossible, without risking the complete destruction of certain documents, even to separate various pages for filming. Under these circumstances targets have been used to explain the difficulty, the calendars for the items in question have then been filmed and, finally, whenever possible, the items themselves have been filmed, taking particular care to secure as readable an image as circumstances permit. In referring to the calendars the user is cautioned that they were prepared as an aid to research not as a substitute for the documents themselves, and that, consequently, the University of Notre Dame Archives does not guarantee their accuracy.

Since the particular dates of various items often do not appear on the face of the items themselves and since documents of various dates are often filmed together under one date because calendared under that date, targets bearing the date under which they were calendared have been prepared and filmed before each such item or group. Items dated only by month and year appear at the beginning of that month. Items dated only by year appear at the beginning of that year. In addition, an alphabetical list, which appears both in this Guide and on the first roll of microfilm and which includes the names of the authors of the various items to be found in the collection as well as the names of particular persons or places under which various dossiers have been calendared, has been prepared as part of the present microfilm project. This list, used in conjunction with the calendars which have been filmed on the first roll of microfilm and the date targets which appear before each item or group of items, should enable the researcher to locate quickly any particular item of interest.

As an aid to indentification and citation, each frame on each roll has been given a specific number which will be found on the lower right-hand corner of the frame. No matter how careful the editors and filmers are, there are bound to be cases where, after a whole roll has been filmed, it becomes necessary to either add or delete a frame. Obviously, this throws off the numerical sequence of the frame numbers. To meet this difficulty we have employed the following technique: when a frame has had to be added, we have used the number of the preceding frame and added an "A" to it; when a frame has had to be deleted, the number assigned to that frame simply does not appear. While these procedures are a compromise with perfection, they are realistic in terms of the problems which unfortunately arise in microfilming, especially when the alternative might well involve several refilmings of an entire roll. Throughout the microfilm targets have been used to identify various items and point up special problems that have arisen in microfilming the collection. Targets have not been used in cases, such as for torn or stained pages, where particular defects should be readily apparent.


Explanation of the Calendar

(1) 1758 Nov. 15

(2) Rochemore, Vincent Gaspard Pierre de, Chevalier, Councilor of the King in Council, Commissaire general of the Marine, Ordinateur of La.
(3) New Orleans, (Louisiana)

(4) Appoints Monsieur (Louis Alexandre) Dolaunay, church warden of the church of St. Louis in New Orleans to examine and finish the accounts of the old churchwardens and to examine old matters concerning the property of the same church.
(5) IV-4-a (6) A.D.S. 1p. 8vo. (French)
(7) 3

1. Date of the Document

This can be either the date appearing in the text of the document or, in the absence of such a date, a date based upon some other evidence and supplied by those who calendared the particular document. In the latter case it would appear in parentheses. A document dated simply by month and year is filed before other documents for that month, and one dated simply by year is filed before other documents for that year. In the case of a large dossier, a date appearing in this position on the card would indicate the date under which particular dossier will be found. Other dates which might be found further on in the calendar would indicate merely the specific dates of the documents within the particular dossier.

2. Author of the Document

Parentheses around this item or portions of it would indicate that the information so appearing had been supplied by the person who calendered the particular document.

3. Point of Origin

Parentheses around this item or portions of it would indicate that the information so appearing had been supplied by the person who calendared the particular document.

4. Summary of the Text

The summary, depending upon the length of the text and the material covered therein, might well run over onto successive cards. In such a case the information appearing at the foot of this card would appear only at the foot of the last card in the set. Items in the summary which appear in parentheses have been supplied by the person who calendared the document.

5. Location of the Document

This notation indicated where in the Notre Dame Archives this particular document will be found. The Roman numeral indicates the cabinet, the Arabic numeral the shelf, and the small letter the box. In this particular case the item would be found in the first box on shelf four of cabinet four.

6. Information about the Document

The notations given here indicate the nature of the particular item, the language in which it is written, the number of pages, and the size of those pages. For example, this item is a signed autograph document, written in French, and consisting of one octavo size page. If the document had been written in English, rather than French or some other foreign language, no language indication would have been given. The abbreviation A.D. would indicate an autograph document which had not been signed. D.S. would indicate simply a signed document. A.L.S. would indicate an autograph letter signed, A.L. would indicate an autograph letter, and L.S. would indicate a signed letter.

7. Number of Cross References

This number indicates the number of duplicate copies which have been made of the calendar.

Description of the Collection

The 809 items which comprise the Records of the Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas (1576-1803) are broken down, by year, as follows:
1576    1          1747    1         1774    1         1792    18
1633    1          1751    1         1777    1         1793    19
1708    1          1756    1         1778    2         1794    11
1719    1          1757    1         1781    1         1795    40
1720    1          1758    6         1782    1         1796   105
1726    1          1760    1         1783    1         1797    67
1732    1          1761    1         1786   15         1798    46
1735    1          1762    1         1787   17         1799    42
1736    3          1764    2         1788   24         1800    50
1737    1          1769    1         1789   30         1801    64
1739    1          1772    2         1790   48         1802    92
1740    1          1773    1         1791    1         1803    80

Roll One: Introduction; Alphabetical List; and Calendars, 1576-1803

The major portion of this roll in composed of the University of Notre Dame Archives' calendars for the Records of the Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas, 1576-1803. These calendars typed on 3" by 5" index cards, have been placed in chronological order and filmed eight cards to a frame. Those who refer to them are particularly cautioned that they have been filmed as an aid to the use of the microfilm and not as a substitute for the documents themselves. Consequently, the University of Notre Dame Archives guarantees neither the accuracy nor their completeness.

Roll Two: 1576-1790

On this roll are to be found the earliest documents in the Collection. Although the initial item in dated May 27, 1576, for the period up to 1786 there are only forty items. The great bulk -- one hundred and thirty-four items -- pertains to the years 1786-1790. In general the material on this and succeeding rolls relates to ecclesiastical affairs and includes items pertaining to marriages, funerals, dispensations, grants of indulgences, the assignment and transfer of priests, and ecclesiastical finances. Throughout the film there are various documents relating to matters of concern to both Church and State which are indicative of the close relationship which existed between the two.

Items of special interest include: a printed brochure contained two letters, dated respectively 1632 and 1633, from Father Estevan de Perea, Guardian of the Province of New Mexico, to Father Fransisco de Apodaca, Commissary General of all New Spain, relative to missionary activities; a partial list under date of Dec. 13, 1737, of those killed by the Natchez Indians at Natchez and the Yazoos; two items, dated Feb. 28, 1757, and Nov. 30, 1758, respectively, relative to the finances of the Charity Hospital at New Orleans; several items, dated respectively May 6, 1786, July 6 1786, Aug. 11, 1787, and Mar. 28, 1788, relative to quests for sanctuary by fugitives from justice; a general summary, dated 1788, of the registry of persons in Louisiana, at Mobile, and at Pensacola; a letter of Mar. 28, 1788, from Father Valiniere to Father Sedella relative to religious requirements for the settlement of Americans in Spanish territory; a Nov. 6, 1789, copy of a royal decree for the establishment of a Maritime Fishing Company in Louisiana; and an Aug. 17, 1790, dossier containing various royal and papal decrees relative to a tax on ecclesiastical income. In several instances, on this and succeeding rolls, where particular documents are so badly stained, faded or deteriorated that it has been impossible to obtain a completely legible image, the applicable calendar has been also filmed before such documents.

Roll Three: 1791 - Jan. 1795

Many of the items on this roll are actually large dossiers containing various documents relating to specific subjects. For example, the only item for 1791 is a dossier under date of June 30 of documents concerning the building of brick houses to be rented for the benefit of the Church of St. Louis in New Orleans. Other items of interest include: an April 10, 1793, dossier containing royal instructions in regard to marriages among Protestants and between Protestants and Catholics; a Dec. 21 1793, dossier of instructions for Father Joaquin de Portillo, Vicar Forane of Louisiana, and for Father Theodoro Thirso Henrique Henriquez, Advocate of the Royal Court of Mexico and Santo Domingo, Vicar General Auxiliary to the Bishop of Havana, Vicar Forane of Louisiana, and Ecclesiastical Judge for the Province of Louisiana; and a Jan. 24, 1795, copy of Governor Carondelet's report to Spain giving and account, which includes census figures, of the various parishes in Louisiana.

Roll Four: Feb. 1795 - Feb. 1796

A large number of items on this roll reflect the presence of Luis Penalver y Cardenas, first Bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas, who arrived at New Orleans in July 1795. Items of special interest include: an Aug. 24, 1795, dossier pertaining to the accounts for the period from 1785 to 1791 of Antonio Ramis, majordomo of the fabrique of the Church of St. Louis in New Orleans; a Sept. 19, 1795, dossier relative to Bishop Penalver's visitation of the Hospital of Charity of San Carlos at New Orleans; a 95-page dossier, dated Oct. 8, 1795, of proceedings, indicative of the red tape that might be entailed under the Spanish system of administration, carried on by Pedro Marin Argote in order to obtain possession of several slaves allegedly erroneously listed in the inventory of Father Antonio de Sedella's goods; an Oct. 9, 1795, dossier relative to an audit of the accounts of the Church of St. Louis for the period from January 1791 to July 1795; a Dec. 22, 1795, dossier giving an account of Bishop Penalver's episcopal vistitation of New Orleans; a copy of the regulations issued by King Charles IV on Jan. 1, 1796, in regard to pensions for widows and unmarried women; a 172 page dossier under date of Jan 15, 1796, of documents relative to an official investigation, conducted in 1790, of the accounts of the Church of St. Louis; and a Feb. 5, 1796, dossier relative to a quest for sanctuary in the parish church at St. Augustine, Florida by Santiago Duarte, a Spanish grenadier who had been convicted of high treason for conspiring to deliver the fortress of San Marcos to some French prisoners incarcerated therein. In addition to the foregoing, a number of informative census reports for various parishes in the diocese are scattered throughout the roll.

Roll five: Mar. 1796-Feb. 1797.

Once again, there are to be found scattered throughout this roll a good number of informative parish census reports including an Oct. 1, 1796, report of parishes under the care of Father Pierre Josef Didier in Illinois and Missouri. Other items of special interest include: a 175-page Mar. 30, 1796, dossier pertaining to an audit of the accounts of the Parish of St. Gabriel at Iberville for the period from Oct. 21, 1785, to July 21, 1796: a dossier of Sept. 28, 1796, pertaining to a quest for sanctuary in the church at Mobile; and a Nov. 21, 1796, account of Bishop Penalver's visitation of Rapides, the village of the Apalachee Indians, and Avoyelles. Finally, there is a dossier under the date of Oct. 6, 1796, which contains a list of sixty-three instructions for pastors in the diocese and a report on conditions in the Cathedral Parish of New Orleans which embraced a large area surrounding the city as well as the city itself. Unfortunately, many of the pages of the last item are badly faded and very difficult to read and, as a result, in many instances it will be impossible to obtain clear, legible images on the film.

Roll Six: Mar. 1797 - Oct. 1797.

Among the items of special interest on this roll are: several parish census reports; Easter duty reports of Aug. 18 and Aug. 19 listing the names of members of the Second Battalion of the Infantry of Mexico; an Easter duty report of Sept. 16 for the First and Second Battalions of the Infantry of Louisiana; a dossier of Oct. 4, 1797, containing a 108- page account, with supporting documents, of the administration of Antonio Ramis, majordomo of the fabrique of the New Orleans Cathedral, for the period from 1785 to 1797; an Oct. 21 dossier of documents relative to the accounts for the period from 1787 to 1797 of Juan Gradenigo, majordomo of the fabrique of the church at Opelousas; and a 202-page dossier under date of Oct. 27 relative to proceedings against Father Paul de Saint Pierre, pastor of Saint Genieve, Missouri.

Roll Seven Nov. 1797 - Aug. 1798.

Items of special interest on this roll include: various parish census reports; a record under date of Dec. 17, 1797, of marriages and burials at Cabahanoce for 1796; a 120-page dossier of April 18, 1798, in regard to a quest for sactuary in the church at Mobile; a July 2, 1798, dossier relative to the appointment of a pastor for St. Charles in the Illinois country; a July 22, 1798, dossier of documents, which are unfortunatountry badly water-stained, concerning the establishment of parishes at Avoyelles, Rapides, and Ovachita; an Aug. 7, 1798, dossier relative to the removal of Father Francis Lennan to Bayou Sara consequent to the surrender of Natchez, where he had been serving, to the United States; and an Aug. 22, 1798, dossier of 112 pages relative to the accounts of the fabrique of the New Orleans Cathedral for 1797.

Roll Eight: Sept. 1798 - Dec. 1799.

Items of special interest on this roll include: an extensive dossier of Oct. 1, 1798, containing various original documents, manuscript copies, and photostats from the Library of Congress, all of which pertain to an investigation of the conduct of Father Juan Delvaux who had been charged with inciting seditious principles: a dossier of Dec. 31, 1798, containing several parish census reports; a Jan. 17, 1799, report on the finances of the Parish of St. Landry at Opelousas for the years 1791 to 1798; an April 22, 1799, report on the finances of the New Orleans Cathedral; and a dossier of Nov. 19, 1799, containing an additional group for parish census reports as well as a statement by Bishop Penalver in regard to the finances of the New Orleans Charity Hospital.

Roll Nine: Jan. 1800 - May 1801.

Among the items of special interest on this roll are: various parish census reports, including a dossier of Dec. 1800 which contains reports for Upper Louisiana; a dossier of Mar. 25, 1800, which consists of various royal dispatches, including one in regard to a tax levy to meet the expenses of the war in Europe and one relative to the conduct of ecclesiastical affairs pending the election of a successor to Pope Pius VI; a May 23, 1800, dossier of correspondence with Father Miguel de Andino of Puerto Rico in which Bishop Penalver reveals his feelings about conditions in the Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas; and dossiers of July 14, 1800, and Feb. 25, 1801, relative to the finances of the Cathedral.

Roll Ten: June 1801 - April 1802.

Among the items of special interest on this roll are: a number of parish census reports; a dossier of Aug. 31, 1801, which contains an inventory drawn up upon the appointment of a new archivist, of documents in the archives dating back to 1771 and relating to marriages and lawsuits; documents under date of Sept. 16, 1801, in regard to a royal levy of certain excise taxes; correspondence of Sept. 30, 1801, and Nov. 11, 1801, between Bishop Penalver and Manuel de Salcedo, the Vice Royal Patron, in regard to the financial affairs of the New Orleans Charity Hospital; a dossier of Oct. 17, 1801, containing Bishop Penalver's controversial decree nominating Father Thomas Hassett to serve as administrator of the diocese and a related dossier of documents under date of Feb. 10, 1802, upon which occasion Penalver acknowledged receipt of his bulls as Archbishop of Guatemala and relinquished control of the diocese to Hassett; and a Mar. 11, 1802, dossier of testimony in regard to a quest for sanctuary in the church at New Orleans by Matias Santa Iniesta of the Royal Artillery who had been accused of killing another soldier, Antonio Suarez.

Roll Eleven: May 1802 - Nov. 1802.

The material on this roll reflects Father Thomas Hassett's administration of the diocese pending the appointment of a new bishop. Items of special interest include: a May 31 dossier in regard to the financial accounts of the Cathedral; an Aug 18 account of the finances of the Charity Hospital; and three dossiers of Nov. 5 in regard to quests for sanctuary. Rumors of an impending retrocession of Louisiana to France are reflected in a dossier of Nov. 18 concerning repairs to the roof of the Cathedral and in a dossier of Nov. 26 in regard to the financial accounts of the Cathedral.

Roll Twelve: Dec. 1802 - Dec. 1803.

The material on this roll reflects Father Hassett's continuing administration of the diocese as well as the problems created by the retrocession of the province to France in 1803. Items of special interest include: several parish census reports; a number of dossiers which contain inventories of the goods of the various parishes in the diocese along with a declaration by the respective pastors as to whether or not they wished to remain in the province after its transfer to France; several dossiers in regard to the disposal of slaves by the Ursulines in view of the impending transfer; documents under date of April 2 and April 4, 1803, pertaining to the surrender of church vestments and vessels to French authorities by relgious communities; a May 4, 1803, dossier of accounts for the Cathedral for the last two months of 1802; May 26 and May 27, 1803, dossier in regard to a quest for sanctuary in the church at New Orleans; a Nov. 29, 1803, set of instructions for the ceremonies scheduled for the next day for the transfer of the province from Spain to France sent to Father Hassett by Manuel de Salcedo, the Spanish Governor, and Sebastian Calvo de la Puerta y O-Farrill, Marquis de Casa Calvo, the official designated by the King of Spain to make the actual transfer; and another dossier of Nov. 29, 1803, the contents of which include declarations of intent to remain in or to leave the province by the clergy of New Orleans as well as a printed copy of the actual transfer proclamation setting forth the limits of the territory and provisions for individuals, for pensions, for ecclesiastics, and for religious houses.



Alphabetical List

This list contains the names of the authors of the various items to be found in the collection, as well as the names of particular persons and places under which various dossiers in the collection have been calendared. Dates have been given in the same chronological sequence in which the items themselves have been microfilmed. Where the item is dated only by month and year, it will be found at the beginning of that month. Where it is dated only by year, it will be found at the beginning of that year. In a few instances, namely in the case of enclosures and certain items which were filed and consequently have been calendared and filmed with other items, two dates have been given: first, the date of the item itself, and second, in parentheses, the date of the item with which it has been filmed. For example, Saturnino Domine's letter of March 12, 1796 is listed thus: 1796 March (encl'd in 1796 March 22, Archbishop Despuig y Dameto to Bishop Penalver y Cardenas). On the microfilm the letter will be found by referring to the date of the item in parentheses. Where the particular item is a simple letter or document, not part of a larger dossier, the date given is that of the letter or document itself. However, where the item -- in many cases merely a copy of the original -- is to be found in a larger dossier, the date given is that under which the dossier has been calendared and, consequently, filmed. In most cases this is actually the date of the last item in the particular dossier. In order to avoid any confusion that this might cause, targets bearing the date of the calendar have been filmed before each item or group of items which is the subject of a specific calendar. To locate the various items within particular dossiers more specifically, reference should be made to the calendars which have been filmed on the first roll of microfilm in the same chronological order in which the documents themselves have been filmed. By using this list in conjunction with the calendars and the date targets, the researcher should be able to locate quickly any particular items of interest.

Sent by



Zapata Rising is now officially formed
Exodus from the Alamo: The Anatomy of the Last Stand Myth by Phillip Thomas Tucker
King of the Wild Frontier: Who was Davy Crockett?
The Mexican Tejanos of South Central Texas by Richard G. Santos
La Voz de Guadalupe County Newspaper

Zapata Rising is now officially formed

Front row: Peggy Moffett, Ms. Villarreal and daughter Ana Silva, Maricia Rodriguez, Celia Balderas, Amparo Gutierrez, Joyce Currington and Sylvia Medina. Back row: Macedonio Martinez, from Laredo, Adan Gutierrez, Jose Garcia also from Laredo, Commissioner Jose E. Vela, Paco Mendoza, Mr. Elizondo, Roberto Montes, and the Medina family. Also in attendance, a representative of Patricia Alvarez Justice candidate, also from Laredo.

The Zapata Rising steering committee and members, met for the first official meeting. Items discussed: Historical Commission has begun to interview people directly affected in preparation for a book "Lo que el rio se llevó, Lo que el río nos dejó"; EDC has invested on video studio to document the oral histories; the chamber opened the bank account for the steering committee; a nerve center office has been established within the chamber with scanning equipment for those interested in sharing photos and documents for the website; a featured segment for Today Show, History Channel, Travel Channel was announced; and government support from local, state and federal entities along with top hispanic corporations was discussed. Thanks to Roberto Montes, Commissioner Vela, Amparo Gutierrez, Paco Mendoza and Anna Silva for pooling excellent ideas. Next meeting Thursday May 10th.

Save the date for the ZAPATA Family Reunion, spread the word: August 8, 9, & 10, 2013:  Biggest Family Reunion in the World
Commemorating the 60th Anniversary of the Creation of Falcon Dam.  Honor our family by attending one of the biggest family reunion in the world!  Visit the website to learn more about this event:  

Sent by Jose Pena

Exodus from the Alamo: The Anatomy of the Last Stand Myth by Phillip Thomas Tucker

For 175 years, the Battle of the Alamo has been one of America's most cherished historical events.  Celebrated in song, story and cinema, the story of heroism against all the odds helped define the young nation's pursuit of liberty.

Myth or reality? Actor John Wayne, left, as Davy Crockett in the 1960 classic western The Alamo. A new book has cast doubt on the legend of the fort's heroic defense. The brave last stand depicted by Hollywood stars like John Wayne was a myth.

In reality, author Phillip Thomas Tucker claimed many of the Americans who died at the Alamo were cut down as they tried to escape from the besieged garrison after a surprise pre-dawn attack.  The 'last stand' at the Alamo on March 6, 1836 came after a small band of Americans held out for 13 days against the army of Mexican dictator General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. The leaders of the group included Crockett, already famous as a frontiersman, storyteller and crack shot, and James Bowie, known for his distinctive knife.

Last stand: Mexican soldiers advance on the fort at the Alamo in the 1960 film.  It has long been part of the Alamo legend that Crockett died fighting.  The legend was firmly established by the 1955 Disney TV show in which the hero was seen swinging an empty rifle as the hordes of Mexican soldiers closed in for the kill.  But in his book, 'Exodus from the Alamo,' Dr Tucker painted a much less glamorous ending.

Using recently discovered Mexican accounts of the battle, the historian wrote that the defenders of the Alamo in the war for Texan independence did not die defending their garrison under brilliant sunlight.  Instead, the Mexicans launched a surprise pre-dawn attack, climbing the walls under cover of darkness and causing mayhem in the fort while most of its defenders were still asleep. Bowie is rumored to have been bayoneted in his bed.
According to a diary kept by Colonel Jose Enrique de la Pena, an officer in Santa Anna's army, Crocket was captured with a handful of others and executed.  Although the accuracy of the diary is disputed, he claimed Crocket and his fellow prisoners were hacked to death with swords.  And most of the Mexican casualties inflicted within the fort were said to be the result of 'friendly fire.'

Evidence? The bound manuscript of Lieutenant Colonel Jose Enrique de la Pena, who fought at the Alamo. The contentious account claims Mexican soldiers captured Crockett and several others and hacked them to death.
Dr Tucker claimed the myth grew over the years because Americans preferred to ignore the Mexican version of the battle in favour of a more heroic ending. 'A culture of chauvinism disregarded the accounts of the Mexicans. The power of the myth was so strong it transcended the truth,' he said. He said his research showed the battle may have only lasted 20 minutes. It was 'but a small affair,' wrote the general who led the final assault.

Publishers Casemate said the book has received a hostile reception in Texas, where the story is said to embody the spirit of the state.


American hero: A contemporary picture of Davy Crockett

Born 1786 of Irish, Scottish, French and English descent, David 'Davy' Crockett grew up in east Tennessee. He ran away from home aged 13 and did not return until he was nearly 16 after three years, in which he claimed to have roamed across Tennessee and learned his skills as a backwoodsman. 

During the 1813 Creek War, a conflict between Indian tribes and U.S. forces, Crockett was made a scout because of his hunting abilities, he is said to have supported the starving troops with game. He was eventually discharged from service in 1814 but was elected Lieutenant Colonel in the Tennessee Militia on March 27, 1818.  In 1826 Crockett was elected to the United States House of Representatives as a Jacksonian. As a Congressman, Crockett supported the rights of squatters, who were barred from buying land in the West without already owning property.  He also opposed President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act, which sought to evict Native Americans from swathes of the country. 

Disillusioned with U.S. politics, Crockett left his home in Tennessee in 1835 to join the Texan uprising against Mexican rule.
On January 14, 1836, Crockett and 65 other men signed an oath to the Provisional Government of Texas saying: 'I have taken the oath of government and have enrolled my name as a volunteer and will set out for the Rio Grande in a few days with the volunteers from the United States.' Crockett arrived at the Alamo on February 8. To the surprise of the men garrisoned there, on February 23 a Mexican army, arrived and laid siege.  All that is certain about the fate of David Crockett is that he died at the Alamo on March 6 when Mexican soldiers overran the fort.

Read more: 

Las Escuelitas 

Richard G. Santos

            Historically, political refugees and exiles are forced or voluntarily leave their homeland as a result of a revolution, or overthrow of the government with which they were associated. Such was the case with numerous individuals and families of northeast Mexico with the fall and execution of Mexican Emperor Maximilian (1867), execution of Nuevo Leon-Tamaulipas and Coahuila Governor Santiago Vidaurri (1867), death of Benito Juarez (1872) and rise of Porfirio Diaz (1876). Always thinking they would return to Mexico, the refugees and exiles settled in the townships, ranchos and farms along the Rio Grande with few venturing no more than fifty miles from the Texas-Mexican border. Their presence can be dated by the number of Mexican Masonic Lodges, Mutualista organizations and membership in socio-civic organizations including the Woodmen of the World chapters.

            The building of rail lines from San Antonio and Corpus Christi to the Texas–Mexico border communities (1881-1883) energized the geographic area between the San Antonio River and Rio Grande as land owners now used the railways to move their horses, cattle, sheep, goats and agricultural products from the Winter Garden and South Texas to markets beyond San Antonio and Corpus Christi. Railroad work camps became loading sites which in turn became townships. At the same time, older townships and communities skipped by the railroad became ghost towns. Lack of a labor force drove the land owners to recruit individuals and families from the Texas-Mexican border area and settle them in housing on the ranchos and farms where they were employed. Few Mexican border laborers were settled at the railway loading townships but always in the segregated “across the tracks” or “across the main road/street” barrios.  In time they established their own churches, civic, religious and social organizations, schools, “mom and pop stores”, bakeries, fruit stands and entertainment establishments (namely cantinas and dance halls).  Senior citizen “anglos” and “Mexican Texans” have told this writer how “in the old days grandpa would hitch the wagon and take all children at the ranch or farm to school.  The “anglo” kids were the first to be taken to their school and then the others to the Mexican or Black schools across the tracks. The same order was kept in picking up the kids after school. First the “anglo” kids, then the Mexican kids and finally the Black kids, if any.  Although segregated at school, churches, cemeteries, movie theatres and such, at the ranch or farm all kids played together and got along fine”. 

            The Mexican Revolution of 1910 through 1929 saw an exodus of political refugees, exiles; anti-war people and members of defeated factions mass migrate to Texas and the United States.  The rebels in exile (Madero, Flores Magon, Reyes etc) who had been in Texas since 1904, were replaced by the followers of Porfirio Diaz when he abdicated in 1911 and thereafter by the followers or politically-militarily active members of the various governments between 1911 and 1929 including the devote Catholics forced to leave during the 1926 – 1929 Cristero Uprising. The college educated, wealthy professionals gravitated to San Antonio and beyond away from the violence along the border. Many veterans, conscripts and Mexican labor class settled in the smaller communities in the Winter Garden area and South Texas.  A great number became migrant farm workers and more so during both World War I and World War II. The Corrido de Kansas of the 1920’s states “ya me voy pa’ pensilvania por no piscar algodon (I am going to Pennsylvania in order not to pick cotton). The ballad then related the trip by train, what they saw between “Forowes” (Fort Worth) and how they were greeted when they arrived at their destination. Many individuals and families stayed in the Midwestern states and communities where they can still be found today.

Far out numbering the Spanish Colonial Tejanos, it was and has been the Mexican families of the Revolution of 1910 that gave cohesiveness to the Hispanic Mexican American population of the United States and Texas. They introduced the mariachi, quinceanera, Cinco de Mayo, Diezyseis de Septiembre, pinata, Our Lady of Guadalupe and initiated in 1911 the effort to establish English-Spanish Bilingual Education and the “Mexican culture” in the Texas public schools (Congreso Mexicanista; Laredo, Texas). While waiting, they established the escuelitas (neighborhood school) also known as “the school of 400” (where pre-school and elementary aged children were taught the most basic 400 words of English they needed when attending school). Hundreds of photographs can still be found of the students of las escuelitas as well as socio-civic-religious organizations performing Christmas programs or celebrating the Fourth of July as well as Cinco de Mayo and the Diezyseis. 

            Today it is the grandchildren and great grandchildren of the refugees and exiles of the Mexican Revolution of 1910 that make up the vast majority of the Mexican Americans, Mexican Tejanos, Hispanics and Chicanos. They far outnumber the Spanish Colonial Tejanos. Both groups, however, are fully fledged U.S. citizens, U. S. English dominant, and most have never travel into Mexico beyond the border area. They are not to be confused with the individuals and families who have migrated to the U.S. since the Korean War and more so within the last twenty years. In closing it should be stressed that as a rule in South Texas the term “Latino” is primarily used by Tejanos and Mexican Americans for Hispanics with a country of origin other than Mexico.   As stated at the beginning of this series, once you understand the diversity and complexity of the ethnic group you begin to realize why we cannot agree on what to call the group and that there  is not one thing all have in common.  Members of the group come in all

shapes, sizes and color of skin, eyes, hair type and anything else you may wish to cite. Incidentally, it is not true that all Spaniards are light skinned, have blue eyes and all Spanish women have a mustache and are as wide as they are tall. Not true. Not true.


end ………………. End …….. ……….end ………………….. end

             Zavala County Sentinel …… 16- 17 Mat 2012



La Voz de Guadalupe County Newspaper July/August 2011
Alfredo Santos c/s
Editor, La Voz Newspapers
(512) 944-4123






Chapel of La Purísima Tlajomulco by Richard Perry
Inauguración del Museo Del Valle Del Pilón por
Tte.Cor. Ricardo Raul Palmerin Cordero
Enciclopedia de los Municipios y Delegaciones de México
Hijo de Juárez fue un júnior sin oficio ni beneficio: experta
Personajes de la Historia de Mexico por Jose Leon Robles de la Torre
    Carlos Salinas de Gortari
Ernesto Zedillo
Donan libros sobre la historia de Reynosa a la Biblioteca Publica de McAllen
Mexican Jihad by Raymond Ibrahim

La Purísima Tlajomulco

As part of our series on the churches and chapels of the Lake Cajititlan region, we include the closely related, nearby chapel of La Purísima Tlajomulco.

Before the arrival of the Spaniards the Kingdom of Tlajomulco was the preeminent indigenous power in the region. And in the 16th century Tlajomulco was the principal Franciscan mission town in the Lake Cajitítlan region, but following destruction of the main church here a new doctrina or missionary hub was established at Los Reyes Cajititlan.

However the former hospital chapel of La Purísima still stands in Tlajomulco, although with a later facade added in the 18th century.

Although the chapel retains its austere 16th century profile—the entry and choir window are soberly classical, albeit enhanced with panels of carved foliage—the crowning gable is more in the Jaliscan baroque style of the churches around Lake Cajititlan.
Reminiscent of the rounded gable at San Juan Evangelista Cajititlan (see earlier post), with its scrolled cornice and stone cross, it is also a showcase for inventive stone carving.

A large, complex Virgin's crown, flanked by a pair of cherubs, stands above the niche containing the statue of La Purísima, while the spaces on either side are filled with an unusual filigree design composed of intertwined Franciscan cords ending in outsize tassels.
A dated cross relief on the churchyard fountain, together with the high quality and imagination of the stone working throughout suggest the presence here of skilled masons and sculptors, quite possibly members of the noted Sebastián family from nearby Cajititlan.
Throughout Mexico, today as in colonial times, the Christmas season comes to a climax on January 6th, the Day of the Three Kings or Los Santos Reyes. Presents are exchanged amid communal festivities and traditional religious observances. Although the main regional celebration take place at Los Reyes Cajititlan, the inhabitants of Tlajomulco also commemorate Epiphany, as they have done since early colonial times, and decorate the church in their own festive manner.
text © 2012 Richard D. Perry; photographic images ©Richard Perry & Niccolo Brooker. All rights reserved.
For more information on the colonial arts and architecture of Jalisco, consult our guidebook, Blue Lakes & Silver Cities, available from Espadaña Press

Saludos, Richard Perry Mexico



Para mi amiga Mimi. Asi como para los lectores y colaboradores de " SOMOS PRIMOS "
Les mando un afectuoso saludo.
Presidente de la Sociedad de Genealogia de Nuevo Leon.
Tte. Cor. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero
El próximo día 27 de Mayo se cumplen 4 años de que fuera inaugurado el Museo del Valle del Pilón de mi tierra natal Montemorelos,N.L., Gracias a la iniciativa de Doña Beatriz Bazán de Vaquero y al apoyo del entonces Gobernador del Estado de Nuevo Leon Lic. Natividad González Parás, que nos construyó el Museo en el que fuera el Colegio Industrial, edificio que se encontraba en ruinas. Orgullosamente digo que tenemos uno de los más hermosos museos del Norte de México.

Les envío estas 4 fotos que me tomaron en las que se observan : El Casco Prusiano que usara mi Padre el Mayor de Caballeria Delfino Palmerín Mejía cuando era Cadete de la Escuela de Caballería del Colegio Militar durante los años de 1920 hasta Dic. de 1923, su Sable Toledano, mis uniformes del H. Colegio Militar que usé de 1964 a fines de 1966 ( de Gala y Levita con Ros ), una fajilla y una cartuchera de gala. dichos objetos están en calidad de Comodato y quién los heredará es mi hija Gloria Martha.

La foto de mi padre del año de 1921, tenía 15 años de edad.
Nota. mi Padre fue de los Cadetes del Colegio Militar que en Mayo de 1920 escoltaron al C. Presidente Constitucional de la Republica Don Venustiano Carranza, acreditandosele sus primeros hechos de armas a la edad de 14 años, por los tiroteos en la Villa de Guadalupe, Apam,Tepexpam y combates en San Marcos, Rinconada, Apizaco y Aljibes.


En otra de las fotos estoy con el Actor Carlos Bracho quien asistió a dicha ceremonia  y tambien con mi amigo y compañero de la Escuela Secundaria " Antonio de la Garza Garcia " Sr. Antonio Alanís Barboza y su esposa.


Enciclopedia de los Municipios y Delegaciones de México
Encyclopedia of the Municipalities and Delegations of Mexico is a work of research to rediscover the richness and features of each of the municipalities located throughout the country in monographs of the 2,440 municipalities that make up the 31 States of Mexico and 16 delegations of Mexico City.

The work consists of 32 sections, one per state, with contents classified by state and municipalities.

La estructura temática contiene información clasificada y sistematizada alusiva a su nomenclatura, historia, medio físico, perfil sociodemográfico, infraestructura social y de comunicaciones, economía, cultura, turismo y gobierno, la cual es complementada con mapas, escudos, grifos, fotografías, organigramas, estadísticas, etc.

La edición de la primera publicación impresa de la Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México fue realizada en 1986 por CEDEMUN (Centro Nacional de Desarrollo Municipal) ahora INAFED (Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal) en coordinación con los Gobiernos de los Estados y sus Municipios.

La investigación además de dar a descubrir y comprender el proceso histórico de cada uno de los Estados y sus respectivos Municipios ha evolucionado a través de los últimos años la cual actualmente se presenta mediante un sistema de consulta electrónica (CD) y vía Internet.

Sent by Don Garcia 

Hijo de Benito Juarez

Presentan libro sobre el vástago del Benemérito y Margarita Maza 

Hijo de Juárez fue un júnior sin oficio ni beneficio: experta

El único descendiente varón de ese matrimonio fue una figura menor, pues vivía de las apariencias, afirma la investigadora Esther Acevedo

El protagonista de por ser hijo del Benemérito: una historia fragmentada, Benito Juárez Maza, 1852-1912, libro de Esther Acevedo, en imágenes incluidas en el volumen publicado por el INAH  oto Arturo Chapa


Por: José León Robles de la Torre

Carlos Salinas 
de Gortari


Datos del Tomo VIII de XIII, Libro No. 68 de mi obra inédita: "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México" relacionados con el Lic. Carlos Salinas de Gortari. Presidente de México No. 62, del primero de diciembre de 1988 al 30 de novimbre de 1994, total seis años.  

Nació en el dia tres de abril de 1948 en la Ciudad de México, D. F., siendo hijo legitimo del Lic. Raul Salinas Lozano y de su esposa Dona Margarita de Gortari Carvajal. Estudió la primaria en la Escuela Abraham Lincoln  la secundaria en la Escuela Niños Héroes de Chapultepec de la Ciudad de México D.F., luego pasó a la Escuela Nacional Preparatoria de San Ildefonso, siendo un estudiante muy brillante.

En 1964, lo enviaron sus padres, junto con su hermano Carlos a Washington para realizar otros estudios. En 1969, cuando tenía 18 años de edad ingresó a la Escuela Nacional de Economia hasta recibir el titulo de Licenciado en Economia en julio de 1971.

En 1972, contrajo matrimonio con la señorita Cecilia Occelli González y procrearon los siguientes hijos Carlos en 1974, y siguieron, cecilia y Juan. El 1º de diciembre de 1982, fue nombrado Ministro de Programación y Presupuesto.

El cinco de octubre de 1987, fue designado precandidato a la Presidencia de la República, siguió su campaña como candidato y obtenido el triunfo en las elecciones, subió a la silla presidencial el dia 1o. de diciembre de 1988, durante en el cargo hasta el 30 de noviembre de 1944.

Durante su gobierno, realizó viajes a muchos países del mundo y recibió y otorgó condecoraciones. El 18 de enero de 1990 recibió la visita del los Reyes de España, Juan Carlos y la Reina Sofía. El siete de mayo de ese mismo año, recibió la visita del Papa Juan Pablo II que estuvo en México hasta el dia 13 de del mismo mes.

El 12 de junio de 1990 fue a Washington, USA a entrevistarse con el presidente Bush. El diez de julio de 1991 participó en los Tratados de Libre Comercio con los Estados Unidos de América. Ajustados los puntos del Tratado de Libre Comercio con los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, los firmó el Lic. Carlos Salinas de Gortari, Presidente de México el 1o. de enero de 1992.

El 12 de octubre de 1992, recibió el Presidente de México, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, a Rigoberta Menchú de Guatemala, y Premio Nobel de la Paz por su defensa a favor de los más necesitados.

A principios de octubre de 1993, recibió por segunda vez, la visita de Papa Juan Pablo II. El 23 de marzo de 1994, fue asesinado el candidato a la Presidencia de México, Lic. Luis Donaldo Colosio, como consecuencia de su discurso del seis del mismo mes en que habló fuerte un México mejor. Terminando su mandato presidencial, fue duramente atacado por su inexplicable riqueza acumulada y el de su hermano incómodo Raúl.


Por: José León Robles de la Torre

       Ernesto Zedillo


Datos del Tomo VIII de XIII, Libro No. 69 de mi obra inédita: "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México" relacionados con el Liz. Don Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León, Presidente de México No. 63, del 1o de dicimbre de 1994 al 30 de noviembre de 2000, total seis años.

Nació el día 27 de diciembre de 1951 en la Ciudad de México, D.F., siendo hijo legítimo de don Rodolfo Zedillo Castillo y de su esposa doña Martha Alicia Ponce de León. Siendo muy pequeño sus padres cambiaron su residencia a Mexicali, B. C., donde Ernesto hizo sus estudios primarios en las escuelas Andrés Arreola y León Vicario, en la colonia Pueblo Nuevo de Mexicali, B. C., la secundaria la hizo en la Escuela Federal No. 18, y al terminar, ingresó a la vocacional No. 5 de Ciencias Sociales del Instituto Politécnico Nacional de la Ciudad de México.

En marzo de 1969 ingresó a la Escuela Superior de Economía del Instituto Politécnico Nacional. Era un estudiante brillante y de muy buena conducta. Siendo estudiante, en 1961, ingresó a la Dirección de Política Económica de la Secretaría de la Presidencia de la República. También desempeñó algunos trabajos en la IEPES del PRI. En junio de 1972, impartió clases de Macro Economía en el Politécnico.

 A finales de 1974, contrajo matrimonio con la señorita Nilda Patricia Velasco Núñez y procrearon los siguientes hijos Ernesto, Emiliano, Carlos, Nilda Patricia y Rodrigo, todos Zedillo Velasco. Estando recién casados partieron a Inglaterra, donde realizaron estudios en la Universidad de Braford y después, disfrutando de una beca del CONACYT, fueron a los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica a realizar estudios en a Universidad de YALE, donde permanecieron cuatro años, obteniendo títulos de Maestría y Doctorado, regresando luego a México.  

En 1978, ingresó a trabajar en el Banco de México y durante 1981 y 1982, fue nombrado subgerente de Investigaciones del mencionado banco. El 15 de octubre de  1987 fue nombrado subsecretario de Programación y Presupuesto del Gobierno Federal y el 1o. de diciembre de 1988, fue nombrado Secretario de Programación y Presupuesto. En enero de 1992, fue nombrado de Educación Pública. Era un gran deportista, practicaba el futbol y la caminata.  

En noviembre de 1993, fue nombrado jefe de la campaña presidencial de Luis Donaldo Colosio. En el mese de marzo de 1994, después del asesinato de Colosio, el Lic. y Dr. Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León, fue designado candidato a la Presidencia de la República, y habiendo obtenido el triunfo, subió a la silla Presidencial el día 1o. de diciembre de 1994 y duró hasta el 30 de noviembre de 2000 en que entregó el poder al electo Vicente Fox, tocándole entregar el mando a un partido contrario que era el PAN, iniciándose pacíficamente la alternancia.  

Con este artículo terminó la relación de Presidentes de México, hasta la toma de posesión de Zedillo que es hasta donde abarca mi obra de "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México". Con el siguiente, iniciaré una serie de los Presidentes Municipales de Torreón, Coah., siguiendo los festejos del Bicentenario de la Independencia de México 1810-2010 y el Centenario de la Revolución Mexicana 1910-2010.

Source: El Siglo de Torreón newspaper
Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera


Personajes en la historia de México


Alphabetical Index

Index Alfabetico

By Jose León Robles de la Torre

Submitted By Mercy Bautista-Olvera

La siguente serie de lista de index alfabetica “Personajes en la historia de Mexico”- La independencia y los Presidentes de México publicada en Somos Primos fue escrita por mi tio el escritor, poeta, periodismo José León Robles de la Torre. Envie 2 articulos de cada mes para ser publicados. Los Presidents de México quienes obtubieronr uns posisicion historica. Las biografias fueron inspiradas en llenar una historia familiar unica.  

The following list is an alphabetical index to the “Somos Primos” series “Personajes en la historia de Mexico - La Independencia y los Presidentes de Mexico” by José León Robles de la Torre. These 68 biographies are each filled with unique family history.


      Nombre                               Nacimiento                Padres                     Esposa                Somosprimos   

Alemán Valdés, Miguel

Primero de diciembre de 1946 al 30 de noviembre de 1952 – 6 años


29 de septiembre de1900, Sayula, Veracruz, México

General don Miguel Alemán González y de su esposa doña Tomasita Valdés,

señorita Beatriz Velasco y Mendoza

febrero 2012

Almonte, Juan Nepomuceno

19 de abril al 24 de septiembre de 1872, Regente del Imperio 11 de Julio de 1863 al 20 de mayo de 1864 – 1 año  


15 de mayo de 1803, Michoacán, Mexico   

Pbro. y Generalísimo don José María Morelos y Pavón y de doña Brígida Almonte

señorita doña   Dolores Quezada

febrero 2011 

Álvarez  Hurtado, Juan Nopomuceno

4 de octubre al 11 de diciembre de 1855 – 2 meses


27 de enero de1790, Barrio Santa Maria de la Concepcion Tachuela, now Atoyac, Mexico

don Antonio Álvarez y de doña Rafaela Hurtado

señorita doña Faustina Benítez

noviembre 2010

Anaya Alvarez, Pedro María

1 de abril al 20 de mayo 1847, 12 de noviembre 1847 al 8 de enero 1846 – 108 días

20 de mayo de 1795, Huichapan, Hidalgo, Mexico 

D. Pedro Anaya Maldonado y de su esposa doña María Antonia Álvarez.


julio 2010

Arista, Mariano

15 de enero 1851 al 6 de enero de 1853

26 de julio de 1802, San Luis, Potosi, Mexico

don Pedro García y Arista y de doña Juana Nuez de Arrieta

señorita doña Guadalupe Martel

agosto 2010

Avila Camacho, Manuel

Primero de diciembre de 1940 al 30 de noviembre de 1946 – 6 años 

24 de abril de 1897, Teziutlán, Puebla, México

don Máximo Ávila Costilla y de su esposa
doña Eufrocina Camacho

señorita doña Soledad Orozco

febrero 2012

Barra Quijano, Francisco León de la

26 de Mayo al 6 de noviembre de 1911 – 5 meses


16 de junio de 1863, Quéretaro, Mexico

don Bernabé León de la Barra y de doña María Luisa Quijano

señorita doña  Francesa Maria Elena Borneque (al enviudar se caso con la hermana de su primera esposa señorita Maria del Refugio Borneque)

junio 2011

Barragán Ortiz, Miguel

28 de enero 1835 al 27 de febrero 1836 – 1   año

8 de marzo de 1789, San Luis, Potosi, Mexico

don Francisco Hernández Barragán y de su esposa doña Clara Josefa Ortiz de Zárate

Manuela Trebesto y Casasola

enero 2010

Bautista Ceballos, Juan

5 de enero al 7 de febrero de 1853 –

1 mes


13 de mayo de 1811, Durango, Mexico



septiembre 2010

Bocanegra, José Maria

17 al 23 de diciembre de 1829 – 7 días

25 de mayo de 1787, Labor de la Troje, Zacatecas, Mexico (now Aguascalientes)



Octubre 2009

Bravo Rueda, Nicolás

11 julio al 19 1839, 26 Octubre 1842 al 5 marzo 1843, 28 julio al 6 agosto 1846 -

6 meses


10 de septiembre 1786,  Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico

don Leonardo Bravo y de su esposa doña Gertrudis Rueda

señorita doña  Antonia Guevara

febrero 2010

Bustamante, Anastacio

1830 – 1832;1837-1839;1839-1841 - 6 años

27 de julio de 1780, Jiquilpan, Michoacán, Mexico

José Maria  Bustamante y de su esposa doña Francisca Oceguera


noviembre 2009

Calles, Campuzano Putarco Elías

Primero de diciembre de 1924 al 30 de noviembre de 1928 – 4  años


25 de septiembre de 1877, Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico

don Plutarco Elías y de doña Jesús Campuzano

señorita doña Natalia Chacón  

noviembre 2011

Canalizo Bocadillo, José Valentín

4 octubre de 1843 al 3 de junio 1844; 21 de septiembre al 6 de diciembre de 1844 - 11 meses


14 de enero de1794,  Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico

don Vize Canalizo y de su esposa doña María José Bocadillo

señorita doña María Josefa Bocadillo Davila?

marzo 2010

Cárdenas, Lázaro

Primero de diciembre de 1934 al 30 de noviembre de 1940 – 6 años 


 21 de Mayo de 1895, Jiquilpan, Michoacán, Mexico

don Dámaso Cárdenas y de su esposa doña Ma. Felícitas del Río

señorita doña Amalia Solórzano

January 2012

Carranza, de la Garza Jose  Venustiano

Primer Jefe Constitucionalista del Ejercito Facto como primer jefe 14 de agosto de 1914; 30

de abril  de 1917 y Constitucional 1 de mayo de 1917 al 21 de mayo de 1920 -  5 años    

28 de diciembre de  1859, Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico

don Jesús Carranza y de su esposa doña Ma. de Jesús de la Garza

señorita doña  Virginia Salinas 

agosto 2011

Carrera Sabat, Martin

14 de agosto al 11 de septiembre 1855  

28 días


20 de diciembre de1806, Puebla, Mexico

don José Carrera y de doña Josefa Sabat de Carrera

María de los Angeles Lardizábal

octubre 2010

Carvajal Gual, Francisco Segundo

15 de Julio al 13 de agosto de 1914 – 29 días


9 de diciembre de 1870, Campeche, Mexico

don Francisco Carvajal y de su esposa doña Mercedes Gual


agosto 2011

Comonfort de los Rios, Ignacio

1 de diciembre de 1855 al 11 de enero de 1858 – 2 años  


12 de marzo de1812, Puebla, Mexico

don Mariano Comonfort, Teniente Coronel, y su esposa doña Ma. Guadalupe de los Ríos


noviembre 2010

Corro Justo, José

27 febrero 1836 al 19 abril 1837 –1 año  

19 de julio de 1794, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico


Cónyuge Juana Fernanda Ulloa

febrero 2010

Díaz de la Vega, Fuentes, Rómulo

12 al 14 de agosto y del 12 de septiembre al 4 de octubre 1855 –20 días

23 de mayo de 1800, Ciudad de Mexico

don Pedro Díaz de la Vega y de su esposa doña Mónica Fuentes Carrión

Cónyuge Pilar Valera

octubre 2010

Díaz Mory, Porfirio

5 de febrero de 1877 al 30 de noviembre de 1880; 1 de diciembre de 1884 al 25 de mayo de 1911 – 30 años 


15 de septiembre de 1830, Oaxaca, Mexico

don José de la Cruz Díaz y de su primera esposa doña Maria Petrona Mori Cortez

señorita doña   Delfina Ortega Díaz  (second wife Carmen Romero Rubio)

mayo 2011

Díaz Ordaz, Gustavo

Primero de diciembre de 1964 al 30 de noviembre de 1970 – 6 años 

12 de marzo de 1911,  Ciudad Cerdán, Puebla, Mexico

Ramón Díaz Ordaz y de doña Sabina Bolaños Cacho

señorita Guadalupe Borja Ozorio

abril 2012

Echeverria Alvarez, Luis

Primero de diciembre de 1970 al 30 de noviembre de 1976 – 6 años 


17 de enero de 1922, Ciudad de Mexico    

don Rodolfo Echeverria y de su esposa Catalina Álvarez

señorita doña