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Throughout September, many events will be held across the country remembering  those that died 10 years ago in the 911 terrorist attack.  Please fly an American flag in their honor on Sunday 9/11.  

Somos Primos

142nd Online Issue

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-2011

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

Google image.

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research   
P.O. 490. Midway City, CA 

Board Members: 
Bea Armenta Dever, Virginia Gill, 
Gloria C. Oliver, Mimi Lozano
Graciela Lozano, Daniel Reyna, 
Letty Robella, Viola R. Sadler
Tom Saenz, John P. Schmal



"All tyranny needs to gain a foothold is for people of good conscience to remain silent."  

Thomas Jefferson


With sincere thanks to our volunteer staff and all those who contribute information in  support of our mission of educating ourselves about who we are as Latinos. 
Thank you.

Somos Primos Staff

Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Roberto Calderon, Ph,D.
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman, Ph.D
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal

Rebeca "Becky" Alviso
Dan Arellano
Francisco J. Barragán
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Jaime Cader
Eddie AAA Calderón, Ph.D.
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Lydia Cano
Jesús Cantú Medel
Norma Cantu
Bill Carmena
Manuel Hernandez Carmona
Steven Carlos Chavez
Gus Chavez
Abelardo de la Pena
Salvador del Valle 
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca
Joan De Soto
Maria Embry
Lionel Fernandez, Ph.D.
Eumenes Fuguet Borregales
Eddie Garcia
Maria Rose Garcia
Wanda Garcia


Rosanne Gonzales-Hardy
Yvonne Gonzalez Duncan
Eddie Grijalva
Dahlia Cantu de Palacios
Sharon Hawley Crum 
Sergio Hernandez
John Inclan
Rick Leal
Joe Antonio López
Dave Lujan
Jerry Javier Lujan
Juan Marinez
Don Milligan
Richard Montanez
Paul Newfield III
Rafael Ojeda
Dahlia Palacio
Ricardo R. Palmerín Cordero
Adrian Perez
Christopher Perez
Elisa Perez
Robert Perez Guadarrama
Fred Provencher
Armando Rendon

Crispin Rendon
Zoraida Rios-Andino
Refugio Rochin, Ph.D.
Rudi R. Rodriguez
Viola Rodriguez Sadler
Eli Rojas Raymundo
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Ben Romero
Lorraine Ruiz Frain
Joe Sanchez
Samuel Sanchez
Kirk Whisler
Steve Santillan
Kym Stockman
John J. Valadez
Val Valdez Gibbons
Laura Varela 
Lorena Varela 
Yomar Villarreal Cleary
Lynne Winters
Carlos Yturralde
Dr. Michael Zurowski


Letters to the Editor

 Dear Mimi, 
As I have mentioned in the past, you and your staff provide an outstanding, excellent monthly report, Somos Primos, to us, the community. Somos Primos is an invaluable source and resource for us Latinos and Latinas, some of us who struggle daily to keep informed and to develop self-reliance and maintain,  our self-respect and dignity. There are those in our society who want some of us Latinos to "just go away" while they take advantage of us (I know, this is difficult to believe). I feel so empowered after reading an issue of Somos Primos, and it is because of loving, caring people like you who want for us to become educated and succeed in life--for that I am truly grateful. 

P.S. Thank you very much for including the Bert Colima story in the August issue of Somos Primos. Our Colima and Romero family and cousins are so very proud of cousin Bert Colima, professional boxer.

Sincerely, Lorri Ruiz Frain

Tony "the Marine" Santiago, a Somos Primos staff writer/contributor  received this very complementary email: 

Hola, mi nombre es Lorena Varela, salvadoreña trabajo en la Asamblea Legislativa de mi país, colaborando con la Comisión de Salud. He leído lo que usted hace en su país, que es conservar y trasladar sus raíces a las nuevas generaciones de descendencia boricua fuera de sus fronteras.

Me parece una labor muy ejemplificante para los latinos que algunas veces viviendo fuera de nuestros países, se olvidan de donde vienen y para donde van, porque al perder nuestras identidades perdemos el rumbo de nuestras vidas; sí tenemos que aprovechar las oportunidades que se nos dan en otros lugares pero jamás olvidar nuestro orígenes.

Le deseo toda clase de bendiciones en su labor.

Atentamente, Lorena Varela

You amaze me with your articles ..........I love the way your index is set up to pick and chose those articles of interest, of course they are all interesting but sometimes we need to scan due to time allotments.

Keep up the good work, Your cousin, Yomar 
(Yomar Villarreal Cleary)

Mercy, a thousand thank you(s) to you and Mimi.
Rebeca "Becky" Alviso

Mimi, the wealth of info in Somos Primos is absolutely staggering. There is something in the August issue for everyone. I hope that the long list of Hispanics who “have made it in mainstream society” keep in mind and continue to practice our rich culture. You don’t have to give up your heritage just to be accepted. 

Keep up the good work!  Abrazos y Saludos,
Joe López 

Hola Mimi,

My name is Jerry Lujan Jr and I would very much be interested in receiving your newsletter. My father Jerry Lujan informed me of this wonderful newsletter and in fact will be contributing to your publicatons. My prima Elisa has been a wonderful resource for mapping out our extensive family tree. I want to thank you for creating and distributing this vital publication. Que Dios siempre la bendiga!

Sincerely, Jerry Lujan Jr
Reading, PA



   Longoria Affair wins Imagin Award
   Captain Hector P. Garcia By Daisy Wanda Garcia
Buy American
   Honorable Sotomayor, Son of a Perez
   MALDEF GALA, Sept 9th
   Winners of the 26th Annual Imagen Awards,
 Accomplished Leaders Honored at NCLR Awards Gala
    Hispanic College Enrollment Spikes, Narrowing Gaps Other Groups
    A Wise Latina, Marcelina Treviño-Savala by Mercy Bautista Olvera
    Breaking Barriers, 2nd Volume, 1st Issue by Mercy Bautista Olvera





Friday August 13, 2011


            LOS ANGELES - Last night at a black tie dinner some five hundred guests convened at the historic Beverly Hilton hotel in Beverly Hills to honor the country’s most talented Latino film and television artists, both in front of and behind the camera.  The occasion was the 26th annual Imagen Awards, created by legendary writer and television producer Norman Lear and Imagen Foundation founder Helen Hernandez.  The Imagen Awards are both a glamorous and serious affair to honor positive, nuanced and powerful portrayals of the Latino experience in film and television. 

Secretary of Labor Hilda L. Solis, the first Latina in American history to hold that post flew in from Washington D.C. to attend.  PBS president Paula Kruger, Vice President for Diversity at the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) Joseph Tovares and actor Tony Plana who narrated The Longoria Affair all cleared their schedules in order to attend.

The best part of the evening came near the end when the nominees for Best Documentary on Film or Television were announced.  As the titles of the films in competition were read: “Sins of my Father (Red Creek Productions) The Fence/La Barda (HBO), The New America (mun2). The Longoria Affair (PBS), Monica and David (HBO)”, actor and Chairman of Latino Public Broadcasting, Edward James Olmos could be seen; eyes closed and fists clenched repeating to himself, “Longoria, Longoria, Longoria….”

Then, from the podium came the words, “And the winner is…The Longoria Affair”, the entire ballroom shook with applause and gritos.  As Director John J. Valadez and Co-Producer Pamela A. Aguilar took the stage amid a cacophony of claps and hoots, there came a lone voice above it all. It was impossible to tell where it came from but the words were clear and distinct and unmistakable:  “Viva Hector Garcia!”  Other voices echoed “Viva!” in response.  Everything after that was a timeless and exquisite blur…

John J. Valadez,  Producer


Here is my schedule for Texas:
Weds Sept 14 Arrive in San Antonio or Austin
Thurs Sept 15 Screening at Trinity College (San Antonio)
Friday Sept 16 Screening at UT San Antonio
Sat Sept 17 OPEN
Sun Sept 18 OPEN
Mon Sept 19 OPEN
Tues Sept 20 Screening at San Jacinto College (Houston)
Weds Sept 21 Screening at Huston-Tillotson College (Austin)
Thurs Sept 22 Screening at St. Mary's College (San Antonio)
Friday Sept 23 OPEN


Captain Hector P. Garcia

Daisy Wanda Garcia

Photo, courtesy of  Bell Library

University of Texas, A & M, Corpus Christi, TX


My father Dr. Hector P. Garcia used to welcome the incoming class of interns at Memorial Medical Center in Corpus Christi, Texas with this rather simplistic story about his service in the U.S. Army.  He said: I entered the army as an infantryman.  When General Eisenhower found out that I was a doctor, Eisenhower pulled off the castles and replaced it with the caduceus.  Every one laughed.


Recently, my friend Rick Leal opened my eyes to my father’s struggle for equity within the armed services. Rick told me how Papa had to really struggle to prove to the army that he was a physician, graduate of a medical school and completed his residency.   So, I contacted Grace Charles, of Texas A&M University and requested copies of all pertinent documents.  The documents range in date from 1939 until Papa’s discharge in 1946.  Digging through these documents I have new respect for my father’s tenacity in dealing with the greatest bureaucracy, the U.S. military.   

Papa began his service in Camp Bullis in San Antonio, Texas.  The documents detail how Papa struggled to get promoted to a higher rank even though he was highly recommended by his Commanding Officers. When he completed the requirements for a promotion, the Army kept raising the bar. Papa requested a transfer to the medical reserve.  This was put on hold until he could provide the Army with a letter from the President of the appropriate medical school that he was a physician. Once he was admitted into the medical reserve, he excelled.  One of the articles describes how Papa spoke fluent French and Spanish and Arabic, and how his patients regarded him “with a child like trust”.   

In 1945, Captain Garcia of the Medical Corps, 591st Engineer Combat Group was recommended by Colonel William Weiler for the award of the Bronze Star for Meritorious Service.


The citation read:

Hector P. Garcia, Captain, Medical Corps, Medical Detachment, 591 Engineer Combat Group, for meritorious service in direct support of combat operations from 20 December 1944 to May 1945 in France and Germany.  As Headquarters’ surgeon, Captain Garcia performed his important tasks in a highly commendable manner.  His superior services are in keeping with the highest tradition of the Medical Corps.  Entered military service from Mercedes, Texas.


Papa returned to Camp Fannin in the United States and was separated from the military in March 1946.  Many do not know that Dr. Hector P. Garcia was not a U.S. citizen when he served in the U.S. Army in the European theatre during WWII.  He married my mother Wanda Fusillo while he was stationed in Italy.  When he returned to the U.S., he became a citizen on November 7, 1946 at age 32.  


With the current anti immigrant sentiment, we should remember many immigrants serve this country with distinction.  Even in 2011, some things never change about the treatment of immigrants by the bureaucracy. Recently I had to prove that I was a citizen U.S. because I was born in Naples, Italy.  It took the efforts of Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison, U.S. Senator from Texas and Joyce Sibley, Director of Constituent Services to straighten out the bureaucracy.  I will be eternally grateful to both.

Click to a listing of the 63 previous articles written by Wanda Garcia about her Dad for Somos Primos.


New MPI Fact Sheet Highlights Major Changes in Immigration Policy 
and Programs in the Decade since 9/11



The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 prompted the profound realignment of the U.S. immigration system, with national security and enforcement the dominant lens through which programs and budgets have been shaped over the past decade.

The post-9/11 era has witnessed the largest government reorganization since World War II; increased information sharing and data collection across international, federal, state and local law enforcement and intelligence agencies; the broad use of nationality-based screening and enforcement initiatives; and the expansion of immigrant detention policies. The heightened security focus also has provided the impetus for increased state and local involvement in immigration enforcement and policymaking - previously a realm almost exclusively the province of the federal government.

A Migration Policy Institute (MPI) Fact Sheet released today, Through the Prism of National Security: Major Immigration Policy and Program Changes in the Decade since 9/11, lays out major policy, budget and organizational changes that have occurred in the U.S. immigration arena as an outgrowth of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Among them: exponential growth in funding for immigration programs tied to homeland security and reinvigoration of sidetracked or long-delayed immigration initiatives (such as the development of an entry-exit system and the launch of the 287[g] federal-state immigration enforcement partnership).

"One of the most important and less-examined developments of the post-9/11 era has been the birth of a new generation of interoperable databases that exist at the intersection of intelligence and law enforcement, supporting programs such as US-VISIT," said MPI Senior Fellow and fact sheet co-author Doris Meissner, who was commissioner of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) during the 1990s. "The creation of these databases and, most crucially, their linkage with other government databases for national security and other screening purposes has reshaped immigration enforcement at the federal, state and local levels."

The decade since 9/11 has witnessed new visa controls and traveler-screening systems; a major expansion in border enforcement (with a doubling of the Border Patrol and the advent of physical fencing and high-tech surveillance equipment deployed along the U.S.-Mexico border); and significant new interior enforcement initiatives such as 287(g) and Secure Communities.

"The U.S. immigration system we have today - marked by an intense focus on national security and border control - is a defining legacy of September 11, 2001," said co-author Muzaffar Chishti, who is director of MPI's office at NYU School of Law. "The resulting immigration machinery, developed to help secure the nation's borders, now is also being directed more generally at illegal immigration and the unauthorized population."

The Fact Sheet is available at:

Sent by Hispanic Marketing 101



                                                            MEDIA RELEASE
Contact: Rudi R. Rodriguez
(210) 673-3584

 Celebrate Tejano Heritage Month 2011  
Full Calendar of Events Announced to Celebrate Texas’ Unique Hispanic Legacy  

             San Antonio – (August 25, 2011) In 2006, Gov. Rick Perry officially declared the month of September as Tejano Heritage Month. Spearheaded by the efforts of Texas, a San Antonio-based historical publishing and research company, a full calendar of events has been announced that will help bring about awareness of Tejano heritage as well as honor to those who helped found this rich land known as Texas .  

            Events kickoff with the annual Tejano Breakfast, this year held on Sept. 3 at Alamo Plaza on the grounds in front of the cradle of Texas liberty, the Alamo . Other highlights: the 7th Annual Tejano Vigil on Sept. 10. This moving commemorative ceremony inside the Alamo Shrine has featured such illustrious speakers as State Sen. Leticia Van de Putte, Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, Gen. Alfred Valenzuela and State Rep. Carlos Uresti.  

            Also on the agenda is the 6th Annual Tejano Memorial Ceremony at San Fernando Cemetery #1. This solemn occasion memorializes many of the Tejano patriots that took place in the Texas Revolution that are buried there, including signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence Jose Antonio Navarro. This event will be held on Sept. 26.  

            “Our goal in starting and championing Tejano Heritage Month has always, from the beginning, been about creating more public awareness of what the Tejanos who came before us did for this land and this country,” says Texas President and Founder Rudi R. Rodriguez. “Tejanos, when generally thought of, have never been associated with ‘ Texas ’ icons such as the Alamo , but that’s who was there, Tejanos. We want to connect the history with the myths and increase our overall sense of pride in our history.”  

            Running throughout the month will be the annual Tejano Heritage Month Children’s Student Awards Contest. It will run from Sept. 1-Oct. 15 and is open to all school-age children in the state of Texas . Rules, entry forms and general information are available online at    

            “We have a very exciting and robust calendar of events this year and have fostered relationships with some substantial corporate partners and sponsors,” Rodriguez explains. “We will also be unveiling a brand new online hub for Tejano history, that we will be unveiling at a special event in mid-September, where you can visit our Tejano History pages online.”  

Also being held during Tejano Heritage Month is the 32nd Annual Texas Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference that the Los Bexareños Genealogy Society is presenting on Sept. 29 at the Marriott Plaza Hotel.

            “This is looking to be our most successful Tejano Heritage Month to date,” says Rodriguez, “It was once said that Texas history would never be complete without the story of the Tejanos being told. We are helping to complete that story. Viva Tejano Texas !”  

            More information and a complete calendar are available online at or by calling Texas at (210) 673-3584.







Diane Sawyer special report, it was pointed out: 
(1) if every American spent just $64 more than normal on USA made items this year, it would create something like 200,000 new jobs!  
Data from her report also suggests that:

 (2) If 200 million Americans each refuse to buy just $20 of Chinese goods, that's a billion dollar trade imbalance resolved in our!!

Sent by Sal Del Valle 

The Eisenhower interstate system requires
that one mile in every five must be straight.
These straight sections are usable as airstrips
in times of war or other emergencies.

Boy Scouts Merit Badge has a good listing of outstanding Hispanics in a variety of fields.  Mini-bios easy to incorporate into any activity for Hispanic Heritage Month. 


Driven by a single-year surge of 24% in Hispanic enrollment, the number of 18- to 24-year-olds attending college hit an all-time high of 12.2 million in October 2010. From 2009 to 2010, the number of Hispanic young adults enrolled in college grew by 349,000, compared with an increase of 88,000 young blacks and 43,000 young Asian-Americans and a decrease of 320,000 young non-Hispanic whites. As a result of these shifts, young Hispanics are now the largest minority on the nation's college campuses. The Hispanic enrollment increase has been spurred by a mixture of population growth and educational strides. The rate of young Hispanics enrolled in college rose from 13% in 1972 to 27% in 2009 to 32% in 2010. Read the full article at 

Mapping of the 2011 U.S. with 2010 Census data

Browse population growth and decline.  Changes in racial and ethnic concentrations and patterns of housing development.





Accomplished Leaders Honored at NCLR Awards Gala to recognize excellence in communications, sports, and service

Washington, D.C. - NCLR (National Council of La Raza) presented six awards on July 26th to honor individuals and organizations that have demonstrated exemplaryaccomplishments, both in their fields and in service to the Hispanic community and the United States. NCLR President and CEO Janet Murguía congratulated the winners at the organization's Awards Gala which was the closing event of the 2011 NCLR Annual Conference held July 23-26 in the District of Columbia.

The award winners are Mary's Center, a nonprofit community organization in the District of Columbia; Maria Otero, Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs; Jorge Muñoz, founder of the nonprofit organization An Angel in Queens; Ignacio E. Lozano, Jr., former publisher of La Opinión; former NFL player and coach Thomas R. "Tom" Flores; and former chair of the NCLR Board of Directors José H. Villarreal.

"NCLR is thrilled to recognize individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the Hispanic community and to our great nation. They have shown that there are no limits to what can be achieved through hard work, vision and perseverance," Murguía said. "We congratulate Mary's Center, Maria Otero, Jorge Muñoz, Ignacio Lozano, Jr., Tom Flores, and José Villarreal and thank them for being an inspiration to us all."

Mary's Center, the recipient of NCLR's Affiliate of the Year Award, is a federally qualified health center in the District of Columbia that served more than 18,000 clients from over 40 countries in 2010. Mary's Center provides immigrants with services such as prenatal care, home visits, family planning, and primary care for children and adolescents, as well as help with school and job placement. This award is the most visible recognition that NCLR bestows annually to showcase the achievements and impact of an outstanding Affiliate and to recognize the Affiliate's active engagement in critical NCLR policy and programmatic initiatives. 

Maria Otero, Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs, was honored with the Graciela Olivarez La Raza Award. She is the highest-ranking Hispanic official at the State Department, and the first Latina Under Secretary in its history. She oversees and coordinates U.S. foreign relations on a variety of global issues, including democracy, human rights, and labor; environment, oceans, health, and science; population, refugees, and migration; and monitoring and combating trafficking in persons. NCLR annually presents this award to an individual or organization that has made significant contributions to promoting the interests of Hispanic Americans.

Jorge Muñoz received the Maclovio Barraza Award for Leadership. He has fed up to 140 day laborers in his Queens neighborhood seven days per week for the past seven years. His nonprofit, An Angel in Queens, operates on little more than what he can spare from his weekly paycheck as a school bus driver, a few donations from local restaurants, and the help of his family. Muñoz served an estimated of 180,000 free meals in the first five years alone. This award recognizes those who have worked for the betterment of the Hispanic community at the grassroots level and whose leadership has served as a source of strength and support to the Hispanic community.

Ignacio E. Lozano, Jr

Ignacio E. Lozano, Jr. was presented with the Ruben Salazar Award from Fred Fernandez, member of the NCLR Board of Directors for Communications. As the former publisher of La Opinión,he is a highly respected leader within the media community for his commitment to quality journalism. His groundbreaking work made Spanish-language journalism an integral part of the national media landscape in the United States. This award is given to an individual who has dedicated his or her professional life to portraying issues, concerns, and/or news relevant to contemporary Hispanic America and promoting the positive contributions that Latinos have made to U.S. society.

The Roberto Clemente Award for Sports Excellence went to Thomas R. "Tom" Flores, the first Hispanic starting quarterback in NFL history and one of only three athletes to win the Super Bowl as both a player and a coach. He is counted among a select few athletes with four Super Bowl rings to his name. His contributions to professional football are impressive, and his contributions to the children of his native California through the Tom Flores Youth Foundation and other charitable work are equally inspiring. This award is presented to an individual renowned in the world of sports and committed to the advancement of Hispanic Americans.

The Raul Yzaguirre President's Award was given to José H. Villarreal, chair of the NCLR Board of Directors from 2001 to 2004. This award is presented each year to an individual or organization that has shown outstanding support for NCLR's mission, goals, and philosophy. Villarreal has dedicated his time, energy, and considerable talent to NCLR's mission within and outside of the organization. He has personally contributed to the organization's success by donating hundreds of hours of his time to NCLR and serving as an advisor and mentor to Murguía and an entire generation of emerging Latino leaders. Villarreal was a key player in securing the NCLR headquarters building just four blocks from the White House and establishing an endowment that provides income for NCLR in perpetuity. 

The NCLR Awards Gala, which was co-sponsored by Amtrak, Eli Lilly and Company, Ford Motor Company, and UPS, was held at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel. NCLR-the largest national Hispanic civil rights and advocacy organization in the United States-works to improve opportunities for Latinos. For more information on NCLR, please visit, or follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

NCLR 150 Photos
10 Sessions videotaped can be see at this site.



Marcelina Treviño-Savala

A Wise Latina

Nominated By  Dr. Armando A. Ayala  

Written By

Mercy Bautista-Olvera



         Marcelina Treviño- Savala      

Marcelina Treviño-Savala is a farm worker advocate and attorney. She currently serves as Michigan 's Director of Migrant Affairs. The migrant affairs office is an extension of Michigan 's Department of Human Services.   

Marcelina Treviño-Savala was born in Detroit , Michigan ; she is the daughter of Bernardino Treviño, a native of Mexico and Gloria Treviño, a former migrant worker. Marcelina has two brothers; Juan and Marco, and one daughter; Mireya.    

During her time as an undergraduate student, she was active on campus with the Chicano/Latino Community.  

Marcelina Treviño-Savala received a Bachelor’s and a Master’s Degree in Social Work from the University of Michigan , and a Juris Degree from Thomas M. Cooley Law School .    

Treviño-Savala served as Senior Staff Assistant with the Michigan State University College Assistance Migrant Program. She later served as Associate Director, Project Coordinator for the Michigan State University High School Equivalency Program (HEP) a residential GED program for migrant and Seasonal farm workers.  

She joined the Michigan Department of Civil Rights as its Reconsideration Attorney.  She also served as Coordinator of Chicano/Latino Student at the Michigan State University Office of Racial Ethnic Student Affairs.  

"I'm happy to have the opportunity to work with the Latino and farm worker communities," stated Treviño-Savala as she accepted the challenge of becoming Michigan 's Director of Migrant Affairs.  

She succeeded Martha Gonzalez-Cortes, who served as the state's top migrant farm worker advocate for six years.  

The director of migrant affairs is responsible for monitoring how tax dollars are used to provide public housing, fair wages, and services such as health and educational programs for farm workers. The director is also responsible with helping to construct state policies that deal with migrants. It also helps to break down fear and barriers in the migrant life.  

In a Census studies conducted by the state, about 100,000 migrants pass through Michigan every year to pick crops, work in canning factories, and fill other agricultural-related jobs.  

Her mother Gloria comes from a migrant family, so this is personal for Marcelina Treviño-Savala; her legal education has helped her to understand what is best for the migrants.  

 “Although I am not representing them in court, I am still advocating on their behalf.” In her office she has, a framed photo of Hispanic labor organizer Cesar Chavez, “He was the first to give a compassionate voice to the farm workers,” stated Marcelina Treviño-Savala.  

Marcelina Treviño-Savala appreciates the sacrifice her parents endured, including discussions her parents had with her and her brothers; to have a better education, it paid off, she became a lawyer, her brother Juan is a Social Worker, and her brother Marco is an Assistant Golf Professional.   

Marcelina Treviño-Savala’s days are busy with conference calls with the Civil Rights Commission, attends meetings with the House subcommittee members, and hearings on farm-employer violations, “I’m at the table as much as possible. If I need to advocate louder, I will.”   

Often times you will also find her arriving at the migrant camp with gifts; dolls, soccer balls for the children, everything from hand sanitizers to booster car seats for migrant workers who are unfamiliar with the Michigan ’s new child seat laws.

“They [migrant workers] are so appreciatative of little things,” stated Treviño-Savala. The rapport she has with the migrant workers is mutual; she understands their needs coming from a family who knows the struggles of being a farm worker.






Second Volume   

 1st issue

Mercy Bautista-Olvera  


The 1st issue in the series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” focuses on contributions of Hispanic leadership in United States government. Their contributions have improved not only the local community but the country as well. Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example; illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.  

Lieutenant General David M. Rodriguez: Commanding General , U.S. Army Forces      
Judge Esther Salas:
  (Member) Federal District Judge, District of New Jersey  
Francisco G. Cigarroa M.D:
  Presidential Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence  
Carlos Zarate:
  Deputy Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism Katherine Archuleta:  Political Director for the 2012 campaign to Re-elect President Obama  



Army Lt. General David M. Rodriguez  

Army Lieutenant General David M. Rodriguez has been appointed to serve as U.S. Commanding General in the Army Forces.

David M. Rodriguez was born in West Chester , Pennsylvania . He is married to Ginny Rodriguez; the couple have four children.  

In 1972, Rodriguez graduated from West Chester High School . In 1976, Lieutenant General Rodriguez graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point , New York  

He served as a Second Lieutenant of Armor in the United States Army, then served three years in 1st Battalion, 61st Infantry, 5th Infantry Division in Fort Polk , Louisiana .  

David M. Rodriguez earned a Bachelor’s of Science Degree from the United States Military Academy , a Master’s Degree on Military Art and Science from the United States Army Command and General Staff College. He earned a Master’s of Arts Degree in National Security and Strategic Studies from the United States Naval War College .  

On July 29, 2008, United States Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates selected Rodriguez to be Senior Military Assistant, and promoted him to Lieutenant General.    

From March 2010 to July 11, 2011, he served as International Security Assistance Force Joint Command (IJC), and Deputy Commander , U. S. Forces in Afghanistan (USFOR-A).      

On April 5, 2010, David M. Rodriguez was inducted into the “B. Reed Henderson High School Hall of fame.”  

Lieutenant General Rodriguez served as Commander of the 82nd Airborne Division and Regional Command - East in Afghanistan . He commanded the 2nd Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division and 2nd Battalion, 502nd Infantry, 101st Airborne Division.  As a Major, he served as the Operations Officer of the 1st Battalion 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, and served as a J3 Plans Officer for XVIII Airborne Corps during Operation Just Cause.   

Throughout his career, Lieutenant General Rodriguez received many awards and decorations; such as the Distinguished Medal, Defense Superior Medal, Bronze Star with one leaf oak cluster, Master Parachutist Badge, Air Assault Badge, and many others.  



Judge Esther Salas  

On June 14, 2011, the United States Senate Committee confirmed Judge Esther Salas as a Federal District Judge for the District of New Jersey. She is the first Hispanic woman to be appointed as a United States District Court judge.   

Esther Salas was born in Monterey Park , California ; she is the youngest of five children of Mexican and Cuban immigrants, Carlos Salas Sr., and Aurelia Salas. She has three brothers; Carlos Salas Jr., Fernando, Daniel, and one sister; Julie. When Esther was five-years old, her parents separated, her mother, Aurelia along with her siblings, moved to Union City , New Jersey . She is married to Mark Anderl. The couple have one son; Daniel.    

When Salas was 10-years old, a fire destroyed their home in Union City ; she helped her Cuban immigrant mother by translating in English to the welfare worker on what had happened. The family lost everything as a result to the blaze, but Salas gained an interest in social justice and law that would stay with her long into her career.  

In 1987, Salas graduated from Emerson High School . She attended Rutgers University . She credits her success during her education and during her later professional life to the Minority Student Program.  In 1991, she earned a Bachelor’s Degree. In 1994, Salas earned a Juris Degree from Rutgers University School of Law in Newark , New Jersey .   

From 1995 to 1997, Salas worked as a clerk for New Jersey Superior Court Judge Eugene J. Codey Jr. Salas began her career as a litigator at the law firm of Garces & Grabler, P.C., where she handled criminal defense cases. She served for nine years as Assistant Federal Public Defender for the District of New Jersey.   

In 2006, Salas was selected from a group of 99 applicants as U.S. Magistrate Judge for the District of New Jersey, becoming the first Latina in that position in which she served for five years in Newark , New Jersey .

In 2008, during “Women’s History Week,” Salas credited her success, and that of her siblings, all of whom earned college degrees, to her mother, a single mother who had no more than an elementary school education.   

Salas was nominated by New Jersey ’s senators Frank Lautenberg and Robert Menendez to serve as Federal District Judge, she was also recommended for the position by President Obama.  

In comments on her Senate confirmation, U.S. Senator Robert Menendez stated, “Judge Esther Salas is one of the most highly respected magistrate judges in New Jersey and I am pleased that her nomination to the District Court has been confirmed. Judge Salas will be the first ever Latina to be appointed to the New Jersey District Court, making this a historic nomination. Her story is testament to the quality of education that Rutgers provides its students and the important role it plays in forming the next generation of leaders in our state.”  

Asked what career advice she would offer current students, particularly minority students, Judge Salas, stated; “The one piece of advice that I would offer any student, especially a minority student, is to believe. There will be many times that you doubt yourself and your abilities. It is imperative that you work through the self-doubt and forge ahead. Be proud of who you are and never lose sight of that which makes you special. Embrace your differences and stay true to yourself while remembering that success is earned through hard work and determination.”  

Judge Salas served as President of both the Hispanic Bar Association of New Jersey and the Hispanic Bar Foundation of New Jersey. She has also been a member of the Governor’s Hispanic Advisory Committee for Policy Development, the Supreme Court Committee on Minority Concerns, and the Supreme Court Committee on Women in the Courts.  

Salas mother celebrated Salas’ ascent to magistrate five years ago, but was recently diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, and is not fully aware of what Salas confirmation means. 



Francisco G. Cigarroa, M.D.  

Francisco G. Cigarroa, M.D. has been appointed to serve as a member of the Presidential Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanics.  

Francisco G. Cigarroa was born in Laredo , Texas . He is married to Graciela Alarcon-Cigarroa; an attorney. The couple have two grown daughters; Maria Cristina and Barbara Carisa.  

In 1979, Dr. Cigarroa earned a Bachelor’s Degree from Yale; he received his Medical Degree with highest honors from University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas . In 1983, Dr. Cigarroa completed 12 years of postgraduate training.  He was chief resident at Harvard’s teaching hospital, Massachusetts General in Boston , and completed a fellowship at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore , Maryland .  

In 1995, Dr. Francisco G. Cigarroa joined the University of Texas Health Science Center faculty in San Antonio .  Dr. Cigarroa was on the surgical team that in 1997 split a donor liver for transplant into two recipients; it was the first operation of its type in Texas .  In 2000, he headed the team that performed South Texas ’ first successful pediatric small bowel transplant.  

In 2003, former President George W. Bush appointed Dr. Francisco G. Cigarroa to serve as a member of the President’s Committee on the National Medal of Science. He also served as a member of the Secretary’s Council on Public Health Preparedness, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Health Emergency Preparedness.  

He served as Director of Pediatric Surgery, the medical staffs of University Hospital , CHRISTUS Santa Rosa Hospital-Downtown, CHRISTUS Santa Rosa Children’s Hospital, CHRISTUS Santa Rosa Hospital-Medical Center , and the Baptist Health System. He is also a Consultant at Methodist Children’s Hospital.

The University of Texas System Board of Regents appointed Francisco G. Cigarroa, M.D., as the 10th Chancellor of the University of Texas System

As a Chancellor, Dr. Cigarroa managed one of the largest public systems of higher education in the nation, with nine universities and six health institutions,  an annual operating budget of $11.5 billion (FY 2009), including $2.5 billion in sponsored programs funded by federal, state, local, and private sources, and more than 194,000 students and 84,000 employees.  Dr. Cigarroa also served as Vice Chairperson for Policy on the Board of Directors of the University of Texas Investment Management Co. (UTIMCO).  

Dr. Cigarroa is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies; Dr. Cigarroa is a Fellow of the American College of Surgery and a Diplomat of the American Board of Surgery. He received a certificate in pediatric surgery from the American Board of Surgery.  He is an accomplished researcher who has published scientific papers on principles of surgery in infants and children.   

His many professional affiliations include the American Medical Association, Texas Medical Association, and Bexar County Medical Society.  He is also a member of the Board of Directors of the Greater San Antonio Chamber of Commerce, the San Antonio Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, and “ United Way ” of San Antonio , and Bexar County.  


Juan Carlos Zarate

Juan C. Zarate is a Senior Adviser to the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), the Senior National Security Consultant and Analyst for CBS News.   

Juan Carlos Zarate was born in Santa Ana , California . He is a member of the Bar Association.

Zarate is a magna cum laude graduate of Harvard University and a cum laude graduate of the Harvard Law School . He also studied as a Rotary International Fellow at the Universidad de Salamanca, Spain .  

Zarate served as a Federal Law Clerk for Chief Judge Judith Keep in the Southern District of California.  

He served as a prosecutor in the Department of Justice's Terrorism and Violent Crime Section, where he worked on terrorism cases, including the USS Cole investigation.     

From 2001 to 2005, Zarate served at the Treasury Department where he received the Treasury Medal.    

From 2005 to 2009, Zarate served as the Deputy Assistant to the president and Deputy National Security Adviser for combating terrorism. In this role, he was responsible for developing and overseeing the effective implementation of the U.S. government's counterterrorism strategy. He was also responsible for overseeing all policies related to transnational security threats, including counter narcotics, maritime security, hostages, international organized crime, money laundering, and critical energy infrastructure protection.  

He serves on the Board of Advisors for the director of the National Counter terrorism Center , the Board of Advisors for Regulatory DataCorp, and the Board of Directors for American Charities for Palestine .   

Zarate joined the National Security Council, he served as the first Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for terrorist financing and financial crimes, where he led the Treasury Department's domestic and international efforts to attack terrorist financing, build comprehensive anti-money-laundering systems, and expand the use of the department's powers to advance national security interests. He also led the U.S. government's global efforts to hunt for Saddam Hussein's assets, resulting in the return of over $3 billion of Iraqi assets from the U.S. and around the world.  

A noted commentator on national security issues, with a weekly show for CBS News called "Flash Points," Zarate is a recognized author with numerous publications.  

In the spring term of 2011, Zarate taught “National Security Law: Evidence, Standards and Proof” and “Legal Presumptions Embedded in National Security Decision-Making,” at Harvard Law School.    



Katherine L. Archuleta

Katherine Archuleta will be President Barack Obama's National Political Director. The re-election team has chosen Archuleta of Denver becoming the first Latina to hold a position on a presidential campaign team.  

Katherine Archuleta was born in Colorado .  She is single.  

In 1972, Katherine earned a Bachelor’s of Arts Degree in Education at Metropolitan State College of Denver and her Master’s Degree in Education at the University of Northern Colorado .   

“I came to Metro for four reasons,” says Archuleta: “The affordability, the urban experience, the excellence of the teacher training program and the strong diversity of the student body gave me exactly what I needed to teach in urban schools,” stated Archuleta, who worked for eight years in the Denver Public Schools. From 1983 to 1991, Archuleta served as an Adjunct Professor at the University of Denver .    

Katherine has nearly 18 years of government experience. She was an aide to Denver Mayor Federico Peña. In 1996 and 1997, she served as Mayor Pena’s Chief of Staff during his tenure as Secretary of Transportation. She served as a Senior Policy Adviser in 1997 when Peña was Secretary of Energy.  

In 1997, President Clinton named Archuleta as Member of the Board of Trustees of the Institute of American Indian and Alaska Native culture and Arts development.  

In 2004, Katherine served as Senior Advisor to Denver Mayor John Hickenlooper.

In 2008, she was the City of Denver ’s lead planner for the 2008 Democratic National Convention. Archuleta served as Chief of Staff to Secretary Hilda Solis in the United States Department of Labor.  

In addition, Katherine has served as Executive Director of the National Hispanic Cultural Center Foundation. She co-founded Semilla Group, a women-owned consulting group focused on community development, and the Center for Regional and Neighborhood Action, a nonprofit organization engaged in regional growth management. She is the founder of the Latina Initiative, a Colorado organization focused on getting more Hispanic voters involved in politics.  

"Her understanding of the issues of the West are important, and the understanding in the Latino community is important as well," Interior Secretary and former Colorado Sen. Ken Salazar told the Denver Post.  

"It sends the message that Obama is going to take the Latino vote seriously in this election from the very start," stated C. Nicole Mason, executive director of the Women of Color Policy Network at New York University 's Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service. Mason further stated, “Without having delivered on the 2008 campaign promise of passing immigration reform, Obama could find it a tough road ahead.”  




   The Wanda Garcia Series
   Finding a place to mark the life of Dr. Hector P. Garcia
   After restoration, 'Lagartos' statue may remain in plaza  





Editor:  A special acknowledgement of Wanda's Witness to History.  This issue includes the 63rd article by Wanda sharing aspects of her father's life.   Included are the months in which the article appeared.


3. GOOD OLD DAYS(March 2007)
4. GIANTS (April 2007)
6. INSPIRATION(May 2007)
7. THE MEDAL(June 2007)
8. AMERICAN ONLY(July 2007)
9. COURAGE (August 2007)
10. GARCIA STYLE(September 2007)
11. LET THE HEALING BEGIN(October 2007)
12. THE GREEN ROOM(November 2007)
13. CHEPITA'S TALE(December 2007)
14. CLOSE ENCOUNTERS Part I(January 2008)
15. CLOSE ENCOUNTERS Part II(February 2008)
16. CLOSE ENCOUNTERS Part III(March 2008)
17. HPG VERSUS CCISD(April 2008)
19. THE AMERICAN G.I. FORUM (Early Years)(June 2008)
20. THE AMERICAN G.I. FORUM (Civil Rights Revolution) (July 2008)
21. THE AMERICAN G.I. FORUM (Glory Years) (August 2008)
22. HECTOR P. GARCIA JR., A TRIBUTE(August 2008)
23. THE AMERICAN G.I. FORUM (Last Message) (September 2008)
24. WANDA F. GARCIA, PH.D. (October 2008?)
28. BOTICA GARCIA(January 2009)
32. SOMOS PRIMAS (April 2009)
37. VETERANS DAY (August 2009)
38. DR. HECTOR P. GARCIA PAPERS (September 2009)
40. THANKSGIVING DAY 1980'S (November 2009)
43. HAPPY BIRTHDAY DR. HECTOR (February 2010)
44. A DAUGHTER'S PERSPECTIVE-THE 1960'S (March 2010)
47. OUR TEJANO HEROES (June 2010)
49. THE OLD WAYS (August 2010)
51. WITNESS TO HERITAGE (October 2010)
52. THE LONGORIA AFFAIR (November 2010)
55. FRUITS OF LOVE (February 2011)
59. THE LETTER (June 2011)





— Plans are under way to cast in aluminum the legacy of civil rights pioneer Dr. Hector P. Garcia.

The location of where a Texas Historical Marker will stand in his honor is up for debate, stirring emotions of those who were close to him.

Some want it at his medical office, now shielded by a chain-link fence from the deteriorating neighborhood he served. Others prefer the county's indigent care hospital, where a family clinic is named for him, or the university plaza that marks the resting place of his scribed civil rights work.

The city's bayfront also has been named as a possible location because of the high tourist traffic.

The criteria, defined by the Nueces County Historical Society: The marker must be accessible and in a place that best represents the man.

Garcia, a physician and World War II veteran, spent a majority of his public life in his office, a red brick building with blue trim at 1319 Bright St. It was a longtime meeting spot for the American GI Forum, a civil rights group Garcia founded in 1948 to advocate for the rights of Hispanics and veterans.

The now-shuttered building was a first choice for the historical marker, his daughter Wanda Garcia said. She is leading the effort for a local marker and wants public input about where it should be placed.

"It's a really nice building," Garcia said. "It's just had some bad luck."

It has been vacant for 15 years, most recently embroiled in a family dispute about its restoration.

Four years ago the National Archives and Historical Foundation of the American GI Forum, the fundraising arm established by Dr. Hector P. Garcia to help pay for college scholarships and for a repository for GI Forum documents, lost a $250,000 federal grant to help. Board members were unable to raise the $750,000 matching funds required.

Through the years, the foundation struggled to gain community credibility after accusations of corruption, unexplained missing funds and lawsuits filed by Garcia's daughter Cecilia Garcia Akers and his widow, Wanda, now deceased, after they were refused board membership. Garcia's daughter Wanda and his cousin Amador Garcia, who is the foundation's chairman, are on the board.

That reputation has left the foundation inactive the past two years, Amador Garcia said.

He believes the marker should be outside the medical office, which could help the foundation raise money to restore the building.

"I know there is some concern about the part of town, but you know Dr. Hector didn't care about where he put his building," he said. "He put it in the Westside, and that's where he practiced his medicine. That's where he chose to earn his bread."

The building on Bright Street was a local and national symbol of the civil rights movement.

Dr. Hector P. Garcia and the American GI Forum gained national attention in 1949 with the case of Pvt. Felix Longoria, who was killed in combat during World War II. A funeral home in Three Rivers denied his widow's request to use the chapel for his burial because her husband was Hispanic. The GI Forum petitioned then-senator Lyndon B. Johnson, who secured a hero's burial at Arlington National Cemetery.

Longoria's burial there became the catalyst for a national civil rights movement.

The only place the marker should go is outside Garcia's medical office, said Mexican-American filmmaker John Valadez, who wrote and directed "The Longoria Affair," an Emmy-nominated documentary chronicling Garcia's fight for civil rights.

"I don't know why there is a discussion, except that people are afraid to talk about race because it reminds us of how much more we need to do," said Valadez, who lives in New York City. "If people are afraid to see the marker there, maybe it's a commentary on us. Maybe we are the ones who have the problem; it's not the clinic or the place, it's us."

The clinic is where Garcia received visits from patients and politicians for more than 40 years and also helped plan a strategy for the landmark 1968 public school integration case Cisneros et al. v. CCISD.

Patients stood in line at his office, sometimes all day, to see Garcia — who didn't take appointments.

Everyone was treated equally.

It wasn't uncommon to see some of the community's poorest people sitting next to some of the area's most influential political leaders. He always put his medical practice first, said Cecilia Garcia Akers, who worked in her father's office for 10 years. She remembers the kindness and respect he had for everyone who walked through his door.

Another option being championed by community leaders is the family clinic named after him at nearby Christus Spohn Hospital Memorial, where he frequently treated sick patients when it was known as Memorial Hospital.

"It still serves the poor, the generation of those he used to serve," said Alicia Gallegos-Gomez, a South Texas radio personality. "Think of the thousands of people who go through those doors. It would be meaningful."

Garcia's daughters both said they are open to that idea.

Ultimately, the decision will fall to Wanda Garcia and the Nueces County Historical Society, said Anita Eisenhauer, society chairwoman.

The society oversees the historical marker process at a local level. Members agreed to fund Garcia's marker in the next fiscal year, which begins Oct. 1. The marker will cost about $1,500 plus a $100 filing fee with the state, which must approve it. The process takes about a year, Eisenhauer said.

The Texas Historical Commission is processing a marker application for Dr. Hector P. Garcia in Hidalgo County, where he spent his early years.

One of the historical society's concerns is that people see the marker, Eisenhauer said. She worries that might not happen if it's outside an abandoned building, where it could fall prey to vandalism.

Several other options are being discussed.

Some believe Garcia's marker would reach the most eyes on the bay front, the city's highest tourist attraction. Wanda Garcia has suggested Cole Park or the intersection of Morgan Avenue and Shoreline Boulevard.

Other suggestions include Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, which houses his extensive collection of historical papers and has a plaza dedicated to him. Or his grave at Seaside Memorial Park, where each year friends and family honor his life.

What would Dr. Hector P. Garcia do if he could decide?

"He would get on the radio," Gallegos-Gomez said, "and call a town hall meeting and take the pulse of the community."

© 2011 Corpus Christi Caller Times. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.





Members of Save the Lagartos Committee  Vanessa Monsisvais / El Paso Times

After restoration, 'Lagartos' statue may remain in plaza

The "Plaza de Los Lagartos" statue is back on the drawing board -- and possibly staying at San Jacinto Plaza in Downtown under an updated plaza redesign.

The statue by El Paso artist Luis Jimenez, who died in 2006, has been the center of discussion since plans began earlier this year to redesign San Jacinto Plaza as part of Downtown revitalization plans.

"The good news is that the option to restore and preserve the statue and keep it in the park is very viable," West-Central city Rep. Susie Byrd said. "People have been advocating to keep the statue in the plaza, and what that affirmed to me is that the history of the alligators is essential and truly meaningful to the community."

The city's Historic Landmark Commission on Thursday met with the SWA Group, a landscape architecture and urban design company based in San Francisco, to discuss the design being donated by Mills Plaza Properties. The company of area developers is investing heavily in Downtown, including renovating several historic buildings surrounding the plaza.

In its original design, SWA had done away with the statue amid concerns that it was in poor condition due to exposure from the elements. There were concerns that the statue possibly needed to be moved into a climate-controlled environment to avoid further deterioration.

But a conservator report concludes that the sculpture can remain outside as long as certain provisions are made, including that Jimenez's work is restored and properly shaded.

Deborah Hamlyn, deputy city manager, said at the meeting that water that once spouted over the statue apparently did the worst damage. When the water was shut off in the past year, the statue's deterioration eased.

The statue will now likely be removed, restored and relocated, Hamlyn said.

Concept renderings of the two-acre San Jacinto Plaza show the statue placed closer to the Mesa Street side of the plaza, surrounded by large shade trees.

"We're feeling comfortable that the piece can continue its life within the park," said Sean McGlynn, director of the city's Museums and Cultural Affairs Department. "We need to continue the conversation with the estate of the artist, but the report has caused us to think we can do a restoration of the piece."

The Legislative Review Committee may have a public meeting to display the new renderings and get public input before the plans go to the City Council for approval, Byrd said.

"It needs to fit within the new schematics of the design, but first and foremost its ideal location should be at the plaza," said Lane Gaddy, an area businessman who launched the San Jacinto Alligator Project on Facebook in April as a response to the redesign's omission of the alligators -- live and in fiberglass. "Bringing live alligators back seems unlikely, but the community wants the statue there. It's part of the history of the plaza."

San Jacinto Plaza has long been known as "Plaza de Los Lagartos" for its history of housing a pond with live alligators in its early years.

Cindy Ramirez may be reached at;546-6151.





   Hispanic Heritage of the United States By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca 
   U.S. Latino Patriots: From the American Revolution to Afghanistan 
            by Refugio Rochin and Lionel Fernandez  
   Britannica Resources for Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month


Miami, October 2, 2008 - More than 1,000 students joined the United States Postal Services’ (USPS) Ernesto Cintado, CBS morning weather anchor Lissette Gonzalez and North Campus President José A. Vicente for the unveiling of the Hispanic Heritage Month commemorative stamp. The event, along with others celebrating Hispanic Heritage, took place Oct. 1, 2008 at the North Campus Lakeside Patio.





U.S. Latino Patriots: From the American Revolution to Afghanistan, An Overview
By Refugio I. Rochin and Lionel Fernandez


This is an excellent 26 page report. It should be in the hands of all educators and veteran groups as a resource for celebrating Hispanic Heritage Momth:


The mission of the Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives is to disseminate and advance understanding and knowledge of the contributions of Latinas and Latinos to the culture, society, history, arts, and sciences of the United States (U.S.). Since its inaugural opening on August 10, 1998, the Center has taken an active role in developing knowledge of the accomplishments of Latinas/os, “Latino Patriots” and their role in U.S. military history. Under the direction of Refugio I. Rochin, research has been conducted, data collected, and text prepared at the Smithsonian Institution by Lionel Fernandez, a volunteer at the Center for Latino Initiatives. Jose Alonzo Oliveros, a former fellow at the Center under the auspices of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus
Institute (FY 2000), initially prepared the groundwork for this project.

This research has explored the feasibility of developing an exhibition at the Smithsonian to document the contributions of Hispanic Americans in military conflicts since the American Revolution where the U.S. has played an active role. This history dates back to the colonial era with the onset of the American Revolution and spans more than 200 years to include contemporary military conflicts. The Smithsonian’s collections include more than 140 million objects and archival materials. These include military memorabilia of U.S. war periods. The Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History is the primary repository of materials that involve the participation of Latinas/os in U.S. military engagements. The National Air and Space Museum has a few relevant
objects to add to our knowledge. Several of these wars have placed U.S. Hispanics in the roles of both allies and enemies with Hispanics from other nations.

There are several museums in the U.S. and other countries that trace U.S. involvement in military engagements. However, our research indicates the contribution of Latino patriots is relatively unknown. In addition, there exists a vast body of data, in print, film, and on the internet that is available about the U.S. role in warfare by historians and in personal accounts.

The infamous surprise attack on the people and government of the U.S. on September 11, 2001, underlines the need to honor the contribution of American heroes, both civilian as well as military, who are ready to come to the defense of this great nation and give their lives if necessary. Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty! An international war against terrorism has begun against an elusive and deadly enemy, the Al Queda network.

The project titled, “U.S. Latino Patriots,” was developed by the Center for Latino Initiatives after discussion with Hispanic veterans, current and former colleagues, and educators in Latino Studies. They have all identified the need to recognize and document the military record of Hispanics and/or Latinos in U.S. history, noting the relative absence of this record in state and national museums and archives.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda
Tacoma, Washington 




By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca 


Revised  May 31, 2011 to incorporate 2010 Census Data. Earlier version posted on Weekly Digest , October 24, 2003. Excerpt appears in Oxford Dictionary of Latinos and Latinas in the United States, Oxford University Press, 2005. This version incorporates commentary from “Hispanics: What’s in a Name?” (excerpted from the study American Hispanics: A Contemporary Perspective, Caravel Press, 1990) by the author and which ap­peared in Cambio Magazine, Phoenix, Arizona, July 12, 1990.  

Scholar in Residence/Past Chair, Department of Chicana/Chicano and Hemispheric Studies, Western New Mexico University; Editor-in-Chief, ABC/CLIO Greenwood Encyclopedia of Latino Issues Today (2 Vols., forthcoming ).

     Hispanic Heritage Month is not about celebrating the heritage of Spain and other Hispanic identified countries in the Americas and elsewhere. Hispanic Heritage Month celebrates the contributions to the United States by Spain and other Hispanic identified countries in the Americas and elsewhere. That’s a critical distinction. Unfortunately, many Non-Hispanic Americans know little about the contributions to American life and culture by American Hispanics; that is, those Hispanics in the United States who are citizens of the United States either by birth or naturalization and, therefore, not (necessarily) citizens of Hispanic countries in the Americas and elsewhere. There are some instances where American Hispanics like other groups have dual citizenship.

Another way to differentiate U.S. Hispanics from Hispanics in Spain and other Hispanic identified countries in the Americas and elsewhere is to think of the latter as Hispanic Americans and the former as American Hispanics. American Hispanics live and work legitimately in the United States. There are some Hispanics like members of other groups living and working in the United States legitimately with temporary documentation (Green Cards) while waiting to become American citizens. Those Hispanics who live and work in the United States without proper documentation are not considered American Hispanics. They are sometimes referred to as “undocumented workers.”

Celebrating the Hispanic heritage of the United States actually started in 1967 with a proclamation by President Lyndon Baines Johnson recognizing the 16th of September of that year as Hispanic Heritage Day. The 16th of September is celebrated in Mexico and by Mexican Americans in the United States as Mexican Independence Day from Spain in 1821. The following month the President’s Cabinet (Interagency) Committee on Mexican Americans held a Mexican American summit in El Paso, Texas. On September 17, 1968, House Joint Resolution 1299 (Public Law 90-498) was passed unanimously by voice vote proclaiming the week of September 15-22 as Hispanic Heritage Week. Subsequent presidents continued the tradition. On August 17, 1988 Air Force Colonel Gil Coronado successfully persuaded Congress to enact Public Law 100-42 designating National Hispanic Heritage Month from September 15 to October 15, spanning celebration of September 16th and Dia de la Raza (Columbus Day) on October 12. National Hispanic Heritage Month coincides with the independence days of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Chile also.

Little known because American textbooks exclude it, the Hispanic heritage of the United States is older than the Anglo Heritage of the United States. By the time of the Plymouth Plantation in 1619, Saint Augustine (Florida) had been in existence for 55 years, and Santa Fe was already a thriving city. Throughout the vast expanse of the Spanish presence in North America, Spanish settlements of varying sizes dotted the landscape. Spanish exploration in what is now the United States took many forms. In 1536 Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca left for us a record of his travels through Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. And in 1592, Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá recorded in Virgillian cantos the exploits of the Spaniards at Acoma Pueblo near present-day Albuquerque. That text, Historia de Nuevo Mexico, is now  regarded as the first American epic.­ Over time, Santa Fe became ­the commercial center of Spain in what is now the United States and geographically critical in the westward expansion of the United States. 

     What is the term “Hispanic”? What does it mean? Where does it come from? Why is it used to identify particular peoples of the Americas? Is the term “Hispanic” the same as “Latino”? Both the terms “Hispanic” and “Latino” have been used for some time. More recently, however, the revivified term “Latino” has resonated with contemporary American Hispanics, many of whom perceive the term “Hispanic” as a label imposed on them by the bureaucracy of the U.S. Census Bureau. Actually, the term “Hispanic” cropped up in the early Spanish colonial period to designate persons with a biological tie to a Spaniard. In Spanish the term was “Hispano.” Later, the term evolved into “Hispano- Americano” to emphasize that Hispanos were also Americans since they were of the Americas. Historically, the United States appropriated that term for its own identity so that few Americans realize that all the populations of the Americas are Americans.

The word “Hispanic” is one of those large rubrics like the word Catholic or Protestant. By itself, the word refers to all Hispanics (persons whose heritage derive from historical origins in Hispania-- Roman name for Spain), attesting to a common denominator, conveying information that the individual is an off-spring or descendent of a cultural, political or ethnic blending which included in the beginning at least one Spanish root either biological or linguistic or cultural. That means a Mexican Indian with no Spanish “blood” (as we understand that term) in him or her, but who speaks Spanish and amalgamated, internalized, or assimilated the evolutionized Spanish culture of Mexico is considered an Hispanic just as an Indian of the United States who speaks English and has amalgamated, internalized, or assimilated the evolutionized Anglo culture of the United States is considered to be an American though in the case of American Indians they are Americans both by priority (they were here first) and by fiat (the United States made them Americans by colonization and later by law).

Talking about people in terms of labels can be misleading. For example, a person may be an Hispanic in terms of cultural, national or ethnic roots. Nationally Colon (Columbus) was a Spaniard though born in Genoa. Werner Von Braun (father of the American space program) was born in Germany and became an American citizen after his relocation to the United States from Nazi Germany. In Argentina there are Hispanics who have no “Spanish blood” but who, nevertheless consider themselves Hispanics, speak Argentine Spanish and are fluent in Italian or German, the languages of their immigrant forebears to that country.

Put another way, the term “Hispanic” is comparable to the term Jew which describes the religious orientation of people who may be ethnically Russian, Polish, German, Italian, English, etc. There are Chinese Jews, Ethiopian (Falashan) Jews, Indian Jews, et al. So too the term “Hispanic” describes  people by linguistic orientation (Spanish speakers from countries whose principal or national language is Spanish). These may be Mexicans, Nicaraguans, Cubans, Venezuelans, Chileans, Argen­tines, et al. Additionally, there are blended Hispanics often identified as Indo-Hispanics and Afro-Hispanics, Asian-Hispanics (many Filipinos) and a congeries of other mixtures. There are Hispanics who identify themselves as Black and many who identify themselves as White. There is an array of Chinese Hispanics, Lebanese Hispanics, Pakistan Hispanics, Hindu Hispanics, Jewish Hispanics (Sephards) et al. This all points to the fact that Hispanics are far from a homogeneous group. In the main, though, their common characteristics are language (Spanish or a derivative version of Spanish as well as a distinctively derivative version of English oftentimes called Spanglish) and religion (most are Catholic), though there is a growing number of Hispanic Protestants). There are other lesser characteristics as well.

     According to current demographic data, the United States has the 5th largest Hispanic population in the world exceeded only by Mexico, Spain, Columbia, and Argentina. By the year 2010 only Mexico will have a larger Hispanic population. In the year 2000, close to 7 million American Hispanics who reported themselves as such in the Census lived in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, another 3 million in New York City. Since 1980 the American Hispanic population of both cities almost doubled. And over the 1990's the Hispanic population of the United States grew 58%. Since 1980 Mexican Americans almost doubled their population size. From 24 million American Hispanics in 1990, the 2010 Census count enumerated 50.5 million U. S. Hispanics not counting the  4.5 million Hispanics in Puerto Rico who are excluded from the count. In the 1990 count almost 4 million Hispanics in the United States were missed by the Census , and another 4 million or so undocu­mented Hispanics in the United States.

At the start of the new millennium there were about 45 to 48 million Hispanics in the United States, making them the single largest minority group in the country. That is, 16% of the U.S. population was Hispanic. Or, 1 in 6 was Hispanic. As a group, American Hispanics are larger than the population of Canada (32 million) and more than twice that of Australia (20 million). Projections suggest that by the year 2050 1 in 3 Americans will be Hispanic. Peter Francese of American Demographics notes that “America really had no clue that the Hispanic population was that big.” But Steven Murdoch, the Texas demographer, has been aware of the growth of the Hispanic population in Texas. He has forecast that by the year 2040 Hispanics in Texas (Tejanos) will comprise 65% of the state’s population while the Anglo population of the state will have dwindled to 25%. Ten percent of the state’s population will be black or other.

According to the 2010 Census, the Hispanic population grew from 35.3 million to 50.5 million (not counting Island Puerto Ricans). Per the U.S. 2010 Census count, Hispanics are in every state of the country. One report asserts that Hispanics are in every county of the United States. Hispanics make up the majority population in 28 major U.S. cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, most of them located in California, Texas, Florida, and New Jersey. The Hispanic population more than doubled in Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and South Carolina. 75% of Hispanics live in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, New Mexico, New Jersey, New York, and Texas. Five states are 15% or more Hispanic (New Mexico, 46.3%; California, 31%; Texas, 30%; Arizona, 22%; Nevada, 15%)  and five states are 10% or more Hispanic (Colorado, 14%; Florida, 14%; New York, 14%; New Jersey, 12%; Illinois 10%). Nine states and the District of Columbia are 5% or more His­panic (Connecticut, 8%; Idaho, 7%; Utah, 7%; DC, 7%; Wyoming, 6%; Washington, 6%; Oregon, 6%; Massachu­setts, 6%; Rhode Island, 6%; Kansas, 5%). Five states account for almost 75% of the U.S. His­panic population (California, 34%; Texas 20%; Massachusetts, 9%; Florida, 7%; Illinois, 4%. These figures don’t take into account Census errors like the one in 1970 which failed to count some 3 million Mexican Americans. One of the reasons for so much difficulty in counting American Hispanics is that s significant number  report themselves as White or Black, not Hispanic. 

     In the 20th century, the U.S. Hispanic population grew 5 times faster than the overall popu­lation. Since 1980, the nation’s Hispanic population has grown by more than 40% compared to 7% for the overall population. At present growth rates, the American population is expected to reach 325 million by the year 2020. Projecting the U.S. Hispanic figures per their growth rates, they could number well over 60 million by the year 2020. That means that about 1 in 5 Americans could be Hispanic, roughly 20% of the U.S. population. (Counting Puerto Rico, the U.S. Hispanic population today is about 54.2 million—17.4% of the total U.S. population.) By the year 2050 some demographic forecasts expect the U.S. Hispanic population to triple. At the moment, Hispanics account for more than half of the U.S. population  growth. Astonishingly, these growth rates are not fueled principally by immigration but by fertility. An extreme projection suggests that by the year 2097, 50% of the entire U.S. population will be Hispanic, 30% will be black; 13% will be Asian, and only 5% will be white.

In a 1988 study, the Arizona Republic of Phoenix indicated that in the year 2013 “Hispanics will make up nearly half of Arizona’s population, raising the prospect of their taking a strong leadership role in the state.” Despite these auguries for the population growth of American Hispanics, little planning if any has been undertaken for such an eventuality. In fact, compared to their size in the American population, American Hispanics are grossly underrepresented in most areas of American public life and policy. Like Blacks, they are congregated in the gladiatorial areas of sports. Despite their looming size, American Hispanics are almost never seen on mainstream network television news shows as hosts or discussants on American domestic and foreign policy issues. Except for special shows, American Hispanics are still largely invisible in the plethora of inane television programs. In film, non-Hispanics portray Hispanics (often badly). Many times in film and television Hispanics are often referred to by Hispanic names in the scripts, but never seen.

     Who are these people whose presence in the American population will have such a major force in the American future? Surprisingly, most Americans tend to think of U.S. Hispanics as a loose aggregation of “immigrants” who speak only Spanish, somewhat aware that the largest number of them live in the Southwest, a fair number in the MidWest, the Upper Middle Atlantic states and New England with a growing number in the American Southwest.  

            Essentially, American Hispanics may be sorted into five groups: (1) Mexican Americans, many of whom identify themselves as Chicanos, an ideological designation that identifies their generation, (2) Puerto Ricans, some of whom identify themselves as Boricuas, (3) there are U.S. Hispanics who identify themselves as Hispanos (found mostly in New Mexico many of whom identify themselves as Manitos and are counted as Mexican Americans; in Texas a vast number if not most Mexican Americans refer to themselves as Tejanos; and in California, many Hispanic Californians who are descendents of the founding families in both Baja and Northern California refer to themselves as Californianos rather than Mexicans, (4) Cuban Americans, and (5) Latinos– Hispanics from countries other than Mexico, Cuba, Spain, and Puerto Rico.       

Per the U.S. Census Count of 2010 the Mexican origin population grew by 54% and accounts for 63% of U.S. Hispanics, about 32 million. Two out of three U.S. Hispanics are Mexican Americans. Not counting Puerto Rico, Puerto Ricans make up almost 10% of U.S. Hispanics with almost 4 million of them in the continental U.S. Almost 4 million of them live on the island of Puerto Rico. Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans make up almost 75% of the U.S. His­panic population. In other words, 3 out 4 U.S. Hispanics are Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. T­he almost 2 million Cu­ban Americans in the United States, most of them in Florida, make up about 4% of U.S. Hispanics. Latinos, about 12 million of them with roots in Latin America make up the balance of U.S. Hispanics—25%. In other words, 1 out of 4 U.S. Hispanics is Latino, that is, from countries other than Mexico, Puerto Rico, or Cuba. There are other U.S. Hispanic groups, statistically not significant as groups, like Sephardic Americans (Hispanic Jews), Pacific Islanders with Hispanic roots, and American Filipinos who are not counted as Latinos but should be since Spain had a longer presence in the Philippines than in Mexico.

In profile, U.S. Hispanics are a “young” population with a median age in 2010 of 27 years compared to 34 years for non-Hispanics. Hispanics are predominantly an urban population: 82% live in cities, compared to 65% of An­glos, though there is a trend of U.S. Hispanics migrating to rural areas. In terms of median income, in 2000, U.S. Hispanics earned an average of $23,300, some $2,450 more than blacks but some $2,600 less than Anglos. In 2010 median income for U.S. Hispanics was $40,200. Nearly 1 out of every 4 American Hispanics fell below the poverty level in 1999, more than thrice the ratio for Anglos. In 2000, American Hispanic unemployment rose to 13.8% com­pared to 7.2% for the total population. In 2010 Hispanic unemployment rose to 18% compared to 9.6% for the total population. While there were gains for some American Hispanics, most of these figures remained rela­tively un­changed in the year 2010 for the mass of American Hispanics who are still searching for America. Economic projections indicate that by 2012 Hispanics will represent a $1.3 trillion consumer market. In 2010, $21.3 billion in remesas (money sent to Mexico) were generated by Mexicans working in the United States.  

    Importantly, American Hispanics are not recently arrived immigrants to the United States. Given the finite immigration quotas for “Latin America” since 1924, the present population of U.S. Hispanics would not be as large if its source of growth were solely from immigration. Their sheer size in the American population points to the fact that American Hispanics are of longer duration in the United States and their growth stems principally from fertility. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, in 2010 there were 98.8 births for every 1000 Hispanic women compared to 66 births per 1000 Anglo wo­men.

The initial core of Hispanics in the U.S. population came from the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, later renamed New York after the British acquired it in the 17th century. Later the Hispanic Jews (Sephardim) who came with the Dutch colony contributed significantly to the colonial revolutionary efforts of 1776 and to the later pros­perity of the country. In the 19th century, in two swift “gains” within 50 years of each other, the United States “acquired” a sizable chunk of its Hispanic population, not counting the acquisition of Louisiana in 1803 with its His­panic residents and Florida in 1819 with its Hispanic population. The first “gain” was as a consequence of the U.S. war against Mexico (1846-1848) out of which came the Mexican Americans of California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, parts of Oklahoma, Kan­sas, and Wyoming. No one is sure of the numbers of ”Mexicans” who came with the dismembered territory (almost half of Mexico’s domain) but figures range from 150,000 on the low side to as many as 3.5 million (including Hispanicized Indians). The second “gain” of Hispanics occurred as a result of the U.S. war with Spain (1898) out of which came the Puerto Ricans, Filipinos, Guamanians, Virgin Islanders, and the first wave of Cubans (though Cubans had been emigrating to the American colonies first then the United States since the 17th century. In 1917 Cuba was cut loose by the United States. The figures for these groups range variously as well. But the point is that American Hispanics have been part of the United States historically for some time. In both the U.S. war with Mexico and the U.S. war with Spain, the United States “came” to the Hispanics, the Hispanics did not come to the United States. They were already on their land which the United States appropriated from them as a spoil of war. In both cases, Hispanics who came with the conquered territories were chattels of war. Unfortunately, Americans have tended to think of Hispanics in the United States as newly arrived and to confuse them with Hispanic Americans, the 400 million who populate the Spanish-language countries of the American hemisphere.

Not all American Hispanics agree on the term Hispanic to identify themselves. Many American Hispanics from the Southwest, for example, prefer to be called Mexican Americans or Chicanos and think the term Hispanic is an arbitrary label imposed on them by a bureaucracy with a colonial mentality. Sandra Cisneros es chews the term Hispanic; she favors the term Latina. Many Puerto Ricans agree with that sentiment and prefer to be called Boricuas or Latinos. Other American Hispanics contend the term Hispanic dilutes their individual identities as, say, Salvadorans, Nicaraguans, etc. At best, the term Hispanic is a convenient way to talk about a diverse group of people much the way we use the term American to talk about an equal­ly diverse group of people. In vogue now with many Hispanics in the Southwest and elsewhere is the term Latino which could very well include Italians and other groups with links to Roman Latinization.

This “looking for a name” has created particular problems for American Hispanics, especially in libraries (including the Library of Congress) and with bookstores and booksellers. Irma Flores Manger, an Austin librarian, thinks  

we are leaving a whole group of people in limbo without any positive literature about Chicanos or other Latino experiences in which the only books available are written by authors in English. The books are not available in some libraries because if you are not familiar with the authors you will not buy the books as librarians. The book stores usually have a small section on Latino Studies and sometimes our books are lumped in with immigration studies. I don’t know why it’s so hard for these stores to carry books by Chicano or Latino authors in English; there is usually a huge section for African Americans or Native American materials.  

The difficulty lies in the fact that indeed Americans (including librarians) do not really have a handle on the Hispanic taxonomy. For them all Hispanics are alike. Unlike African Americans who are not lumped in with Africans, American Hispanics are lumped in with Hispanics of Latin America. The Library of Congress is a good example of this lumping. When one wants to find material on African Americans in the Library of Congress one does not go to the African Section. They are found in the American Section. But to find materials on American Hispanics in the Library of Congress one has to go to the Hi­panic Section where all other Hispanics are included also. Mostly, American bookstores have separate sections for African materials and for African American materials. Not so for American Hispanic materials. All Hispanic materials are lumped into the Hispanic section. Peddling the Colombian writer Gabriel Garcia Marquez’ books in Spanish or English translation for Chicanos instead of Rudolfo Anaya’s works only strengthens the proposition that Americans do not differentiate between Hispanics because they don’t know who Hispanics are.

Admittedly, there is much to a name. I’m an American Hispanic of Mexican stock who subscribes to a Chicano perspective of life in the United States. I’m not a Hispano because I’m not Spanish. And I’m not a Latino because I’m not from one of those “other” Spanish-language countries of the Americas. A Puerto Rican friend of mine explains that he’s a Hispanic of mainland Puerto Rican stock and subscribes to a Boricua perspective of life in the United States. Another friend of mine tells me he’s an American Scandinavian of Norwegian stock who is a registered Republican. I don’t find that confusing at all. We’re all Americans, rich in cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity.

What’s in a name? Everything! That’s why my name is Felipe and my friend’s name is Sean. Names help to tell us apart. They also reflect our heritage and background. Unfortunately, many Americans tend to think the word Hispanic refers to a homogeneous group of people–which it does not, anymore than the word German, say, (as in German Americans) refer to a homogeneous group of people. American Hispanics come in all sizes, shapes and colors.

       Ideologically, Mexican American Chicanos say the term Hispanic diminishes their demographic priority when “lumped” with other American Hispanic groups (all of which are considerably smaller than the Mexican American group). Those Mexican American Chicanos contend that this lumping suggests all U.S. Hispanic groups are equal in size and have passed through the same historical process in the United States, a suggestion not supported by the facts. Not all U.S. Hispanic groups have passed through the same historical process as Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. The historical process of these two groups has been distinctive, not shared by “other” American Hispanic groups in the United States. A sizable number of Mexican Americans and all Puerto Ricans are American territorial minorities by virtue of conquest. For this reason, shrill groups of Mexican American Chicanos and Puerto Ricans have resented across the board applications of legal remedies (affirmative action, for one) for all U.S. Hispanics for historical discrimination they have not endured nor suffered. Militant members of these groups say that hiring a U.S. Hispanic of  Peruvian descent, say, to head a major federal program intended to remedy discrimination against territorial Hispanics does not remedy discrimination suffered by Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans at the hands of Anglo-Americans since their conquest and for whom these legal remedies were originally enacted if such remedies are applied across the board for all Hispanics whe­ther or not they are members of  the  aggrieved  groups. Peruvian culture–while Hispanic–is not Mexican American culture or Puerto Rican culture. There are notable linguistic differences as well.

Additionally, Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans point out the difference between an “oppressed” territorial minority (the U.S. came to them) and “political or economic refugees” (they came to the U.S.) Many Chicano scholars explain that Hispanics  from  Mexico  who gravitate to San Diego, Tucson, El Paso, San Antonio, and Brownsville are migrating to a part of what once  was  their ancestral homeland until 1845/ 1848 (1853 in Southern Arizona with purchase of the Gadsen  Strip),  now considered “greater Mexico” (previously New Spain). Some Chicano scholars see this migration as analogous to the migration of Jews to Palestine, their ancestral homeland. Moreover, those same Chicanos point out, most Mexicans migrating to the United States are racially more Indian than Spanish. On their Indian side they are, thus, autochthonous people, here long before the Niña, the Pinta, the Santa Maria, and the Mayflower. They are not immigrants. They are of the Americas, sharing a common bond with the indigenous peoples of the United States and Canada.

In view of the foregoing, plans for meeting the needs of American Hispanics must take into account their over­whelming reliance on the English language, and particularly that 15% of the U.S. Hispanic population which is monolingual Spanish operant. For them Bilingual Education and Spanish-language publishing makes sense. Reaching the 50 million plus American Hispanic population requires knowledge of who they are and their centrality in the American future. All the more reason for a His­panic Heritage Month every day 


Copyright © 2011 by the author. All rights reserved.  





U.S. Latino Patriots: From the American Revolution to Afghanistan, An Overview
By Refugio I. Rochin and Lionel Fernandez



The mission of the Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives is to disseminate and advance understanding and knowledge of the contributions of Latinas and Latinos to the culture, society, history, arts, and sciences of the United States (U.S.). Since its inaugural opening on August 10, 1998, the Center has taken an active role in developing knowledge of the accomplishments of Latinas/os, “Latino Patriots” and their role in U.S. military history. Under the direction of Refugio I. Rochin, research has been conducted, data collected, and text prepared at the Smithsonian Institution by Lionel Fernandez, a volunteer at the Center for Latino Initiatives. Jose Alonzo Oliveros, a former fellow at the Center under the auspices of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus
Institute (FY 2000), initially prepared the groundwork for this project.

This research has explored the feasibility of developing an exhibition at the Smithsonian to document the contributions of Hispanic Americans in military conflicts since the American Revolution where the U.S. has played an active role. This history dates back to the colonial era with the onset of the American Revolution and spans more than 200 years to include contemporary military conflicts. The Smithsonian’s collections include more than 140 million objects and archival materials. These include military memorabilia of U.S. war periods. The Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History is the primary repository of materials that involve the participation of Latinas/os in U.S. military engagements. The National Air and Space Museum has a few relevant
objects to add to our knowledge. Several of these wars have placed U.S. Hispanics in the roles of both allies and enemies with Hispanics from other nations.

There are several museums in the U.S. and other countries that trace U.S. involvement in military engagements. However, our research indicates the contribution of Latino patriots is relatively unknown. In addition, there exists a vast body of data, in print, film, and on the internet that is available about the U.S. role in warfare by historians and in personal accounts.

The infamous surprise attack on the people and government of the U.S. on September 11, 2001, underlines the need to honor the contribution of American heroes, both civilian as well as military, who are ready to come to the defense of this great nation and give their lives if necessary. Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty! An international war against terrorism has begun against an elusive and deadly enemy, the Al Queda network.

The project titled, “U.S. Latino Patriots,” was developed by the Center for Latino Initiatives after discussion with Hispanic veterans, current and former colleagues, and educators in Latino Studies. They have all identified the need to recognize and document the military record of Hispanics and/or Latinos in U.S. history, noting the relative absence of this record in state and national museums and archives.

This is an excellent 26 page report. It should be in the hands of all educators and veteran groups as a resource for celebrating Hispanic Heritage Momth:

Sent by Rafael Ojeda
Tacoma, Washington 





Britannica Resources for Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month


                                            Examples of a 20 QUESTION QUIZ that can be downloaded for classroom use

1. Who was the first U.S.-born Hispanic to win a Nobel Prize?


In 1968 Luis W. Alvarez received the Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery of subatomic particles that occur in nuclear collisions. In 1944–45 he was part of the team that developed the atomic bomb, and he also helped develop a method for using radar to locate targets during aerial bombing. Working with his son, Alvarez helped create the theory that the extinction of the dinosaurs was caused by a massive asteroid impact on Earth.

2. Who was the Mexican American labour organizer awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1994 for his nonviolent activism and his support of working people?


Cesar Chavez grew up in a migrant farm-labour family of Mexican American descent. He attended school only sporadically but received training as an organizer. He founded the National Farm Workers Association and led a five-year strike by California grape pickers that attracted nationwide attention. Many later battles he led ended in agreements that strengthened farmworkers' rights. In recognition of his nonviolent activism and his support of working people, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1994, one year after his death.



   Isidera Lambert Elizondo, community activist dies at 92
   Victor Sauceda, youth leader/community activist dies at 88
   Richard Chavez, United Farm Workers of America dies at 81
   Tillie Rodriguez, MALDEF staff and presence dies at 79
   Rudecinda “Cindy” LoBuglio,Hhistorian/Genealogist dies at 76
   George Ramos, Reporter, Professor, Activist dies at 63  




Isidera Lambert Elizondo
 Longtime Houston Chicana Activist 
Dead at 92

Mrs. Elizondo joined others in front of HPD's headquarters. (Lady holding a child by hand in attached picture). Significant of the photo is this: Mrs. Elizondo is accompanied by her mother, Paula Lambert, and her daughter Shiela. They are on each side of Mrs. Elizondo.

Shared by Jesús Cantú Medel
nieto político de Mrs. Elizondo

Isidera Lambert Elizondo (1919-2011), a longtime Chicana activist in the City of Houston was buried on Tuesday, August 16, 2011, at Earthmen's Cemetery. She lived to the ripe age of 92. During the riots and protests related to José Campos Torres' death on May 5, 1977, at the hands of Houston Police Department (HPD) officers in Houston, Texas, Mrs. Elizondo joined others to picket against police brutality and the miscarriage of justice in front of HPD's headquarters. Isidera Lambert Elizondo is the woman holding the left hand of the young girl in the center of the above photograph. She was 58 years old at the time. Significant of this photograph is the fact that three and maybe four generations of women in the Lambert Elizondo family appear to have joined together to walk in protest. Thus, in the photograph Mrs. Isidera Lambert Elizondo is accompanied by her mother, Ms. Paula Lambert, and her daughter Shiela. They are depicted walking and picketing immediately behind Isidera Lambert Elizondo and the unidentified little girl. Isidera's daughter Sheila is holding up a sign that reads: "We Say Stop! to the Racist Cops." And the picket sign is signed at bottom with the name of the grassroots organization they represented which though difficult to read clearly appears to have been "Barrios Unidos de [Houston?]." The lettering is difficult to read. Photograph courtesy of Jesús Cantú Medel. QEPD.

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 




Victor Saucedo
Community Youth Leader

Oct 1, 1922 - Aug 4, 2011

Saucedo was dedicated community member, supporter of physical fitness

By Michele Gualano
, August 9, 2011

Victor Saucedo's service in the Army during World War II influenced him throughout his life, especially the appreciation he acquired for physical activity and discipline.

“He was very adamant about overseeing the exercises that his unit would have to do and he raised our four sons the same way, teaching them proper push-ups at about age 7,” his wife, Bertha Saucedo, said.

Saucedo died from complications of a stroke. He was 88.


He might be best remembered on the South Side as a Little League executive and coach.

“He taught us everything about baseball, how to get down low on the grounders and how to square up on the ball when we were going to bunt,” his son Oscar said. “He impacted a lot of lives as a coach and as a person.”

After his time in the military, Saucedo settled in Carrizo Springs where he supplied butane to residents as a truck driver with Binsmoor Brothers Butane Company.

When times were tough, Saucedo was inventive about his workout options.

“When we were dirt poor he was pouring cement into coffee cans and making weights out of them by attaching a broomstick in the middle,” his wife recalled. “He felt that people needed to stay physically fit all the time, and that's why he was going to the YMCA well into his 80s.”

In 1958, Saucedo moved to San Antonio and began a career with Hillman Oil Company as a dispatcher. When Hillman opened a Phillips 66 service station, Saucedo was tapped to work promotions.

“It ended up that he took it on and ran the station for about 10 years,” his wife said. Saucedo enjoyed running the station mostly because it was located in his neighborhood at the corners of Highland and Gevers.

Saucedo was actively involved in several community organizations, including as a Little League coach and league president.

“When he became president he had 20 teams in this area with children raging from ages 8 to 12 years old,” Bertha Saucedo said. In 1972, Saucedo's 19-year-old son, Michael, was killed while rafting in Yosemite National Park . His raft capsized, causing him to strike his head on a rock.

After retiring, Saucedo and his wife opened Michael's Childcare and Learning Center to honor their son's memory and assist the families of their South Side neighborhood.

“He loved people and the community he lived in,” his wife said. “It was important for him to build up our community. We need more people like that.”

 Click for Victor Saucedo's family pedigree.





LOS ANGELES, CA - MALDEF mourns the recent passing of another friend and leader; Tillie Rodriguez, a trusted and dedicated servant of the Latino community and MALDEF's national receptionist for over two decades, passed away earlier this week, at the age of 79. Tillie was an admired member of the MALDEF community. Every day for more than twenty years, she demonstrated her compassion for and commitment to Latinos by rising at 4:30 a.m. every morning to be the first at MALDEF headquarters, ready to serve the cause of advancing Latino rights in the United States. She took pride in her job, and pleasantly responded to countless MALDEF callers each day. Tillie was so much more than a receptionist at MALDEF. Her combined expertise as a communicator and unmatched kindness were critical to ensuring that MALDEF achieved its mission. She always reassured distressed members of the community not to worry, laying the foundation for the relationship MALDEF continues to have with its clients and others who interact with MALDEF today. Remarkably, Tillie was able to do all of this and raise three successful children, one of whom is a former MALDEF employee. All of her children are continuing their mother's legacy in their personal and professional lives today, protecting the rights of Latinos and other underrepresented communities. Tillie's spirit lives on in them, as well as in all of the MALDEF colleagues she inspired over the years.The following quotes can be attributed to MALDEF leadership, staff, and supporters.Antonia Hernandez, President & CEO, California Community Foundation; Former President and General Counsel, MALDEF, 1985-2003 

"When I hired Tillie, I had no idea that she would serve for the next quarter of a century at the heart of MALDEF's national office. Tillie was the voice of MALDEF, she understood the mission and the important role she played at MALDEF. I will miss her and her warm smile." Thomas Reston, MALDEF Board Chair.  "Every institution has a heart that beats true, through the decades. MALDEF was lucky to have Tillie Rodriguez there." The Honorable Vilma S. Martinez, United States Ambassador to Argentina; Former President and General Counsel, MALDEF, 1973-1982 

"MALDEF has lost one of its most recognizable and eloquent voices. I have lost a friend." Joaquin G. Avila, Executive Director of the National Voting Rights Advocacy Initiative, Fred. T. Korematsu Center for Law and Equality and Distinguished Practitioner in Residence at Seattle University School of Law; Former President and General Counsel, MALDEF, 1982-1985; MALDEF Staff, 1974-1985 

"MALDEF is an institution today. The reason that we are an institution within the Latino community is because of staff who have generously and selflessly given their time and energy to advancing the cause of Latino empowerment. This is true for all levels of employees at MALDEF. Tillie was the voice that was publicly identified as MALDEF to the nation. Her thoughtfulness and genuine concern regarding the mission of MALDEF was demonstrated time and time again in her dealings with the public. As MALDEF's receptionist at the national office, Tillie was a voice that was both informative and reassuring to many of her numerous telephone calls. As a receptionist, Tillie played an integral role as a member of the support staff that made it possible for MALDEF to continue to forcefully advocate on behalf of the Latino community. I will miss her." Thomas A. Saenz, MALDEF President and General Counsel 

"MALDEF has lost a guiding light in Tillie, whose continuous presence through more than half of MALDEF's existence has contributed to the continuity that is one of our greatest organizational strengths. Through her work, she kept us continually connected to the community; through her daily dedication, she kept us tightly tethered to our mission; and through her many years of service, she quintessentially modeled the generous sacrifice that is a hallmark MALDEF value. We will sorely miss her daily presence and pleasance, but we know that she will always be with us as an eternal MALDEFian." 

Sent by Rafael Ojeda



Remembering Richard Chavez:

Richard Chavez, 81, Cesar’s younger brother,
helped build the UFW from its earliest days.
Please read and post your personal memories

They grew up during the Depression, inseparable and as close as brothers can be on their small family homestead in the North Gila River Valley outside Yuma, Ariz. When the family lost the farm, they became migrant farm workers and labored beside each other as children in California’s fields, orchards and vineyards in the 1930s and 1940s. 

By the early 1960s, Richard Chavez, then a journeymen carpenter, was dedicating most of his free time after work and on weekends helping his brother, Cesar Chavez, organize what would become the United Farm Workers of America.

Richard Chavez spent the next three decades working full time with the farm worker movement. He suddenly passed away at 81, of complications from surgery in a Bakersfield hospital on Wednesday, July 27, 2011.

He designed the stylized black Aztec eagle that later became the union's world-renowned symbol in 1962. The next year, Cesar convinced Richard to put up his house as collateral for a loan to start a credit union for farm workers. In 1966, Richard gave up carpentry to dedicate all of his time to the movement, earning $5 a week like Cesar and other movement staff. He was the first full time staff person for the non-profit organization that is now the Cesar Chavez Foundation, providing extensive social services to farm workers.

Richard was born in 1929, two years after his brother, Cesar, on the family homestead near Yuma. The two brothers left farm labor in 1949, spending a year working together in lumber mills around Crescent City, Calif. In 1950, Richard moved back to San Jose, where in 1951 he entered the carpenters union apprenticeship program. He worked as a framer building suburban housing tracks before moving to Delano. There he worked on both commercial and residential projects, including schools and freeway overpasses. Richard began his activism with Cesar in the Community Service Organization, then the most effective Latino civil rights group in California, in 1952, and was president of the Delano CSO chapter, which he also helped form.

His varied duties with the UFW over the years included long stretches organizing the farm workers' successful boycotts of California table grapes and other products in New York and Detroit during the 1960s and '70s. He was in charge of administrating union contracts in 1970, and later negotiated UFW agreements and oversaw union bargaining. Richard was first elected to the UFW executive board in 1973. In the ‘60s and ‘70s, he also oversaw construction and helped build most of the major structures on the farm workers’ “Forty Acres” complex outside Delano, including its coop gas station, union office and hall, and health clinic.

Richard retired from the union in 1983, but always remained very active with the movement, fulfilling public speaking engagements and serving as an active board member of both the Cesar Chavez Foundation and Dolores Huerta Foundation. He also worked building and rehabilitating multi- and single-family housing, including affordable housing projects for the Chavez foundation, in the 1980s. He obtained his state contractors license and built a large housing community in Tehachapi and custom homes in Los Angeles during the 1990s. A dedicated researcher of his family’s history, Richard was the driving force behind a two-day Chavez family reunion that in October 2010 gathered more than 300 family members from across the nation and around the world at the National Chavez Center at Keene, Calif., where his brother is buried.

Chavez foundation President Paul F. Chavez and UFW President Arturo S. Rodriguez expressed shock and condolences to all members of Richard Chavez’s family.

Richard had six children with his first wife, Sally Chavez: Richard Jr (who preceded him in death), Frederico, Dorothy, Rebecca, Susana and Guadalupe. He had four children with his long-time partner, Dolores Huerta: Juana, Ricky, Maria Elena and Camilia.

Richard's legacy has effected so many people. We ask that you please share your personal memories of Richard with us by going to  and scrolling to the bottom of the page and posting your comment by clicking "reply" below. Viva Richard Chavez!

We have also put together a flickr photo group. If you are a flickr member please join our group and add your photos at: 
News clips on Richard Chavez can be found at: 

Information sent by Mercy Bautista Chavez and Rafael Ojeda 




Rudecinda "Cindy" LoBuglio, 
Historian, Genealogist dies at 76 years  

LOBUGLIO, Rudecinda "Cindy" was born March 28, 1934 in San Pedro, California. This beautiful and intelligent life came to an end August 7, 2011, following a two year struggle with Alzheimer's. 

Cindy had a passion for historical research and was editor of the "Spanish-American Genealogist" publication for years. She was an eighth generation native Californian and a Sepulveda family descendant. She was a member of The Augustan Society, The Boone Family, Los Californianos, San Pedro Historical Society and the California Native Daughters. Cindy loved life and people. She will be missed very much by her entire family and large group of friends. She is survived by her loving husband of 55 years, Joseph LoBuglio, daughter, Margaret Gage, daughter and son-in-law Nicole and Jim Dandois, five grandchildren, five great-grandchildren. She now goes to rejoin her parents, William and Gloria Lawrence, daughter, Darlene Drissel, and son, Joseph Sumner LoBuglio. Her service will be held at the Sacred Heart Catholic Church in Susanville, California. In lieu of flowers, please make a donation to a heart research charity of your choice. 
Published in the Los Angeles Times on August 14, 2011

Sent by Joan De Soto  and Lorri Frain 








George Ramos,
Cal Poly professor and Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist dies at age 63

Cal Poly professor and Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist George Ramos was found dead in his Morro Bay home Saturday afternoon, July 25, 2011.

His co-worker and friend contacted the Morro Bay Police Department after she was unable to get in touch with Ramos for about a week. Officers eventually broke into Ramos's home and discovered his body in the hallway. At this time officers believe he died of natural causes, and friends say Ramos was recently struggling with his diabetes.

Ramos graduated from Cal Poly's Journalism Department in 1969, and spent 25 years as a reporter, editor, bureau chief and columnist at the Los Angeles Times.

He received three Pulitzer Prizes over the years, but made history with his first prize in 1984. Ramos was the first Chicano journalist to ever win the Pulitzer Prize Gold Medal for Meritorious Public Service.

Ramos returned to Cal Poly in 2003 as Chair of the Journalism Department, and was inducted into the National Association of Hispanic Journalists Hall of Fame in 2007. In the past two years, he's also worked as editor of CalCoastNews.

Ramos is survived by his brother.

View a video memorial to George Ramos!prettyPhoto/0/



    Semi-submersible ship carrying 7.5 tons of cocaine
    Mapping of the 2011 U.S. with 2010 Census data
    Photos of a Mexican drug lord's home after being raided
    The Journal On Latino Americans.
    In English-only debate, consider our past


The U.S. Coast Guard reported that their crews helped stop a submarine-like craft filled with $180 million of cocaine in the western Caribbean. A cutter found the semi-submersible craft July 13 off the coast of Honduras.  Officials say it was found with the help of a U.S, Customs and Border Protection airplane. An FBI dive team recovered 7.5 tons of cocaine, which were turned over to U.S. law enforcement.  OCRegister, 8/2/11  

Mapping of the 2011 U.S. with 2010 Census data




Photos of a Mexican drug lord's home 
after being raided


Mexican drug lord house revealed wealth and opulence beyond comprehension. An exotic art collection - some of which was illegal to own - some stolen, including a gun collection better than most museums, more guns than anyone would imagine, along with ample ammo, just in case of trouble.



These pistols were finished with gold handles, a matched pair for both of these guns were found.

Indoor pool and sauna and outdoor pool.


A collection of exotic animals - which were cared for in the grandest fashion, by the way. Eight lions were on the property, 
and a very rare white albino tiger.



This pile of cash before it was counted was estimated to be approximately 18 Billion Dollars!  After it was counted it turned out to be a little more than 22 Billion Dollars! Stacks of cash were found in every nook and cranny... This case is filled with 100 dollar Bills estimated to be 1/2 a million dollars and no doubt headed out to make another drug deal with perhaps the Columbians.  18 plastic bins filled with 100 dollar bills were found...  Another cabinet stack tight with cash - all 100's.

Each of these stacks of 100's holds USD250,000 (a quarter of a million US dollars)! They also had millions in Columbian money and Mexican Pesos, although they preferred American dollars for the most part.
There were even stacks of Chinese Yuan found in one closet.  More Gold machine guns and pistols - most were never fired, just held for collection value.  The money and valuables found in this one house alone, would be enough to pay for health insurance for every man woman and child in the USA for 12 years! 

It is estimated to be approximately 27 more of these houses in Mexico alone. Not to mention the ones in other countries who are enriching themselves in the drug trade. These people have so much money, they make the Arab oil sheiks look like welfare recipients. Their money can buy politicians, cops, judges, whatever they need they just throw down stacks of cash and it is theirs! This is why the drug problem is so difficult to fight.






The Journal 
On Latino Americans

As the former Publisher of the Latino Journal, I welcome you to our latest venture The Journal On Latino Americans.

Unlike the many other publications targeted at the Latino market, our focus is to bring you information about the people in America that are doing something about the issue.  So welcome and experience our growth.  We are certain that together we can make a difference.

The Journal On Latino Americans has captured the attention of online readers, with over 1,200 hits in our first week, which has now grown to over 600 readers per day nationwide. 

We are easily accessible to readers who are online via computers or smart phones.  Plus, we capture more readers through our weekly Journal On Latino Americans Updates, sent to several thousand followers directly to their email box.

I made The Latino Journal the largest online publication about public policy and government in the nation.  Now, the goal is to repeat that feat with the Journal On Latino Americans.

Read it.  Share it.  Enjoy it with your family.  And, we are always open to suggestions and articles.

Saludos, Adrian Perez, Publisher 






In English-only debate, consider our past 
by Steven M. Nolt

Immigration and Ethnic
History Department
Goshen College, Indiana


In 1831 Noah Webster, editor of the first dictionary of American English, wrote to John Marshall, chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.

Marshall, who had known the men who drafted the Constitution and Bill of Rights, had for decades been the ; leading interpreter of constitutional law; Webster wondered if Marshall would endorse an effort to make English the nation's official language. Marshall replied that such a mow would be unconstitutional, since the First Amendment protected freedom of speech. That meant, among other things, that no language should be given legal privilege.

Because Marshall's opinion was included in private correspondence, it does not carry the same precedent as his many court opinions. But it does remind us of the assumptions of the founding generation of America's leaders. They did not root national identity in language. In fact, in 1828, opponents of presidential candidate Andrew Jackson called him unfit to be president because, among other things, he spoke only English. Most of the nation's Founders had been bilingual, if not multilingual, reading and speaking several European and ancient languages.

During the 19th century, as Northern states established public school systems, some communities with large immigrant enrollments implemented at least some teaching in a language other than English. That was the case in Buffalo, N.Y, for example, during the mid-1800s, where schooling took place in German and English. In 1866 the Pennsylvania legislature chartered what is today Kutztown University to train teachers for public schools that operated, in part, in German.

Such programs broadened the language skills of all children, regardless of their native tongue. That was the case for Norman Vincent Peale, a well-known preacher and author of "The Power of Positive Thinking." Peale spent his formative years in Cincinnati. Although his parents spoke only English, Cincinnati's public schools were bilingual at that time and so Peale's morning classes were in German and his afternoon classes were in English. This language exposure, by his own account, was a valuable piece of his education. His experience was not unique.

Of course, newcomers and non-English speakers of earlier eras - including those who spoke German - were not always warmly welcomed by their neighbors and sometimes faced outright hostility. Yet in the 1800s in many places, including Indiana until 1921, citizenship was not a requirement for voting. So communities composed of European immigrants had more political influence and' were able to have a hand in shaping the policies that allowed them to adjust to American society on favorable terms.

Today's debates over the public role of language is prompted by Indiana Senate Bill 590.  Proponents of English - only believe that contemporary "  society is so diverse that the; country needs the cohesion of; single language. Yet the United States has been this diverse before, .and language assimilation may be even faster today due to modern mass media and technology.

No doubt there will remain strongly held convictions on all sides of this issue. That is the nature of democracy. Pausing to consider our common past may not alter those convictions. But it does remind us that the nation's Founders did not root American identity in language, and that public education's use of languages other than English helped some European immigrants adjust successfully to life in a new country. Were they alive today, they might wish their descendants would offer the same generosity they received and a bit less" of the hostility they endured. 




   From the Broom Closet to the Boardroom: 
 Richard Montanez
   How One Visionary Latino has Influenced His Community
   and One of the Largest Corporations in America

   Mike Landers; Photos By Henry De Kuyper
   Published in Lowrider Raza Report

The road to a successful destiny is a lonely road sometimes, one not often filled with many people. If Richard Montanez had his way that road to destiny would be as jam-packed with traffic as a California freeway, filled with everything from lowriders to economy vehicles. “I believe that we all have the capability of being a genius when we are born, but somewhere along the line the world starts to tell you that you’re not, or you can’t be. I don’t think you should ever let someone else dictate how great you can be,” Richard says.

His enthusiasm is contagious, and his empathy for human struggle is genuine. He’s the product of a lowincome Latino family and knows all too well what it’s like to work hard and barely make ends meet. Now he is far removed from that struggle, as Richard is the executive of multicultural sales and community activation at PepsiCo North America—a far cry from his initial job as a janitor with Frito- Lay. 

Lowrider magazine was honored to sit down with this visionary leader to learn how a janitor went on to create one of the most successful snack products of all time, while at the same time providing business opportunities for Latinos.

Richard grew up during the difficult times of the ’60s, a tumultuous time in America where the Civil Rights initiatives were taking center stage in America. Being a minority meant being treated very differently by society. “I remember my mom getting me ready for school and I was crying. I couldn’t speak English and I didn’t want to go to the school I was being bused to,” Richard says. “I got on the bus, which was green, and I remember thinking, ‘Why can’t we get on the yellow bus?’ All through town people knew what that bus meant. Again, it was society placing me in a different category.”

Richard’s mornings were rough, as he couldn’t understand his teachers’ lessons, so he was relieved at the thought of a lunch break. However, lunch proved to be even worse. “I pulled out my food and everyone stared at me: I had a burrito. They didn’t even know what that was at the time, so I’d just put my food away and didn’t eat because I didn’t want to be stared at for being different,” Richard says. “I went home and told my mom to make me a bologna sandwich and a cupcake like the other kids had. Instead she made me two burritos and told me to go make a friend. By the end of the week I was selling burritos for $0.25 a pop!” 

The experience was invaluable to Richard, as he had learned that what made him different actually made him special and was of value to his life. He remembered this experience during a fateful day in Corporate America that changed his life forever. While Richard was handling his janitorial duties at Frito-Lay’s Rancho Cucamonga, California, plant, he saw a corporate videotape made by then company President Roger Enrico and then Vice President of Sales Al Carey which said, “We want every worker in this company to act like an owner. Make a difference. You belong to this company, so make it better.” 

This revolutionary corporate stance inspired Richard who also benefited from a stroke of luck: a broken machine in the Cheetos assembly line. “Some of were missing the cheese because the machine had broken, so I took some home. I put some chili powder on it, and it tasted good! So I mixed up some more chilies and began trying to create my own seasoning. I let my coworkers try a few and they loved them. Then it hit me, I had an idea!” Richard took the company president up on his offer from  the videotape. “I called up President Roger Enrico, not knowing I wasn’t supposed to do that. His assistant picked up the phone and
asked my name and where I worked. I told her I was Richard Montanez, and I worked as a janitor in the Rancho Cucamonga plant. She was a visionary for even putting me through to Roger. He got on the line and said, ‘Hi Richard, I hear you’ve got an idea?’ He told me he would be down at the plant in two weeks and wanted to hear my idea.” 

Richard’s excitement was met with opposition among his coworkers at the plant. “I was greeted with, ‘Who do you think you
are calling the president like that? Now we have to make the plant presentable.’” Richard was stunned, but instead focused on the fact that he had two weeks to organize a presentation for a new product launch, knowing nothing about how to do it! “I designed my own graphics, made about 100 bags, and I went to the library and checked out a book on how to build a marketing and sales strategy.”

The time had come and the company president and top executives showed up at the plant for his presentation. The president
was so impressed with Richard’s packaging that he thought they had already designed the product. “I was nervous but doing well
until an executive in the meeting threw me for a curve when he asked me, ‘What size market share do you think we should get
with this product?’ It hit me that I had no idea what he was talking about, or what I was doing. I was shaking, and I damn near wanted to pass out. I thought hard and envisioned the sales racks that you see at the bodegas or the grocery store and realized what those shelves looked like, and I opened my arms to about as wide as the rack displays were and I said, ‘This much market share!’ I didn’t even know how ridiculous that looked. They could have laughed in my face right then and there, but the CEO stood up and put his arms out the same way and said, ‘Gentlemen, do you realize we have a chance to go out and get this much market share?’ Then Al Carey (who is currently the CEO of Frito-Lay) stood
and asked his sales team with hand open, ‘Can we get this market share?’” Needless to say, Richard’s idea worked and that’s how Cheetos Flamin’ Hot were born—with a little
Latino ingenuity.

Cheetos Flamin’ Hot is now the biggest selling, single-serve SKU in the company. The success of the product influenced and
created the first Frito-Lay Hispanic marketing team. Rather than rest on this accomplishment, Richard instead fills his days with
ways that serve to nurture our country’s future leaders. He’s worked with PepsiCo to develop college scholarships directly catered to minorities and the less fortunate. He has also launched the Continuous Improvement Initiative, and helped influence Hispanic products and marketing promotions for KFC and Taco Bell. These experiences are not lost on Richard who knows that uplifting others has been the key to his success. “I’ve worked on Capitol Hill, I’ve worked with [former California] Governor Schwarzenegger, and I’ve worked on efficiency teams. The fact that I’m lucky enough to be surrounded by great people, like my mentors Roger Enrico and Al Carey, and that I get to meet and help so many current and future leaders, constantly inspires me,” Richard says. “I’ve never had a bad year with the company because of my passion and the fact that I’ve worked with so
many great people. Thirty-four years in and I’m still excited about what I’m doing.”

Richard has been recognized by Hispanic lifestyle magazine as one of the most influential Hispanics in Corporate America,
and he’s been featured in Newsweek and Fortune 500 magazine. An even greater feat, Richard and his wife have been married for more than 30 years, and he is the father to three sons and has four grandchildren. “I want my kids and the kids I speak to across the country to understand the importance of education and the value of having self-confidence,” Richard says. “Once I got
a hold of confidence and realized who I was, it gave me a different sense of power and accomplishment. When you feel that way you can light up the room, not because you own material things,” Richard says from his warehouse, which is used to store the food and toys he gives to needy children. “Get your education and have confidence. A lot of times, growing up in the ’hood, there isn’t much to be confident about. Chances are you’ve been broke, you’ve been hungry, and you feel like you don’t have anything. Well, I’ve been there too, but instead of that stopping me it made me succeed,” Richard says. “I may not have a degree, but I read a book a week. People tell me that with the knowledge I have, I should have a PhD. I tell them, ‘I’ve had a PhD since I was a kid: I was poor, hungry, and determined!’”

Richard has used his life experience to influence not only the gente but the world at large. That same nervous little boy who was
embarrassed of his lunch is a living testament that you can make it in this world if you accept who you are, carry yourself unselfishly and confidently, and learn as much as you can from others. “I believe that God made us all unique and that you have a genetic code that no one else has. In all the ages of time there has never been or will ever be anyone like you. We are all gifted, and when you find your purpose, you find your gift. I tell my children to never let any man, woman, or society tell you who you are. You know who you are, and you’re destined for greatness.” Spoken like a true leader. 

Kits for kidz ™and Feed The Children are just a few of the charitable programs that PepsiCo Sales Executive Richard Montanez demonstrates his passion to help the needy. He says “True performance with purpose begins by serving in all communities across our country, especially during rough economic times.”
Primarily this project focuses on providing  school supplies.  

There is also a hygiene kit.

Editor: Do check these sites and take pride that it is a Latino who is behind these wonderful works.





   Chicana/Latina Foundation Leader Awards, Oct 14
    Focusing on Needs of Latino Students by Manuel Hernandez Carmona




Greetings –  

As summer is more and more in the air, we at the Barrio Foundation thought you might enjoy a short clip from a Barrio presentation at College of DuPage, on April 25th  with more than 400 high school students in attendance.  You will hear about the Barrio message from students, parents, teachers and community organizations – please click  

To find out more about bringing the Barrio program to your school or organization, please contact me at:, 630-333-8891, or contact Cheryl Maraffio:, 630-649-0915.  You can also learn more about us by clicking this link: 

We are ready to work with you and your staff to help reach your students make better choices for themselves so they will focus their efforts on education and turn away from anti-social behaviors. 

From The Barrio Foundation | 1670 Valencia Way | Mundelein | IL | 60060



The Chicana Latina Foundation is pleased to announce this year's Legacy and Emerging Leader Awards. Awards will be presented at the Annual Scholarships and Awards Dinner on October 14, 2011, at the South San Francisco Conference Center.


Newly appointed to the California Public Utilities Commission, Catherine Sandoval will be presented with the CLF Legacy Award.  Santa Clara University Law Professor Catherine J.K. Sandoval has been named by Gov. Jerry Brown to be one of two new commissioners on the five-member California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC).

Sandoval joined Santa Clara University in 2004. She is a tenured associate professor and teaches telecommunications law, antitrust law, and contracts. She has been an active participant in Santa Clara University School of Law's academic programs in high-tech, international, and social-justice law.

Sandoval is the first Latina to be named to serve as a CPUC Commissioner in its more than 100-year history. The San Francisco-based CPUC oversees rates and other rules for privately owned electric, natural gas, telecommunications, water, rail, and passenger transportation companies. CPUC commissioners are appointed by California's governor and must be confirmed by the state Senate for their six-year, staggered terms.

"We are extremely proud to learn of Professor Sandoval's appointment to the California Public Utilities Commission," said Donald Polden, dean of Santa Clara University School of Law. "She has a wealth of experience, industry knowledge, and legal expertise to offer the state of California in this important role, and we know that she will do an outstanding job."

Prior to joining the SCU Law faculty, Sandoval served as the undersecretary for California's Business, Transportation, and Housing Agency where she worked on infrastructure and energy issues. Previously, she was the vice president and general counsel for Z-Spanish Media Corporation, a Sacramento-based communications company, which provided broadcast and Internet services in several languages.
From 1994 to1999, she was a senior official at the Federal Communications Commission, where she directed the Office of Communications Business Opportunities.

Sandoval graduated with a B.A., magna cum laude, from Yale University and received her law degree from Stanford Law School. She received a Master of Letters in Politics (Political Science) from Oxford University, which she attended through a Rhodes Scholarship-the first Latina to receive the prestigious award. She hails from East Los Angeles and was the first person in her family to receive a bachelor's degree. After law school she clerked for Judge Dorothy W. Nelson on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, then was an associate at the law firm of Munger, Tolles & Olson in Los Angeles


Presented to Rebeca Rangel, Senior Vice President, Community Affairs Manager, Bank of the West.  Rebeca Rangel joined Bank of the West in 2005. Rangel is responsible for the Bank's community relations efforts, as well as its multi-million dollar corporate philanthropy program. Her work strategically advances Bank of the West's $75 billion community support goal and Community Reinvestment Act objectives. Rangel is also a Bank of the West Charitable Foundation Trustee.

Prior to joining Bank of the West, Rangel served as a Legislative Assistant to then Congresswoman Hilda L. Solis in Washington D.C. where she developed the legislative strategy for a broad portfolio of domestic and international issues. Rangel has also provided consulting and research assistance to the National Council of La Raza, the Greenlining Institute, and microfinance institutions such as Accion USA and Pro Mujer-Mexico.

Rangel holds a bachelor's degree in Urban Studies from Stanford University, a master's degree in public policy from Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, and is a Pacific Coast Banking School graduate. Throughout her academic career, Rangel enjoyed teaching English as a Second Language to university service employees and educating underserved youth.

Originally from Richmond, California, Rangel remains committed to her home community by volunteering with the Making Waves Education Program and serving as President of the board of Familias Unidas, a mental health agency serving Contra Costa County residents. Rangel is also a member of Operation HOPE's northwest regional board, a loan committee member of Working Solutions and a performance outcomes committee member of Jewish Vocational Services.

Please join us at our Annual Dinner and help us celebrate this year's honorees and scholarship recipients.

Friday, October 14, 2011, 6:00 pm - 9:00 pm

South San Francisco Conference Center
255 South Airport Boulevard
South San Francisco, CA
For sponsorship opportunities, please call 650-373-1083 

Sent Jaime Cader




Focusing on the Needs of Latino Students  

Manuel Hernandez Carmona 


Focusing on the needs of Latino students should not only be a statement made by President Barack Obama but a top priority translated into real academic policies.  There are some very significant statistics revealed in the presentation, “Educational Equity and the Latino Population of the United States” by Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz, presented at Teachers College, Columbia University on February 21, 2008 on the status of Latino education. About 20 percent of all school age students between the ages of 5 and 17 are Latino but only 13 percent obtain college degrees. Data obtained from Rivera-Batiz’ research depicts the Latino high school dropout at close to 30 percent.  Because the Latino school population continues to surge at a fast and furious rate, the needs of Latino students must be met with a clear present vision in terms of what to do and how to tackle their academic needs.                                                 

The academic needs represented in numbers and statistics are alarming and reveal a huge difference between Latinos, their White counterparts and African-Americans. In 2007, 13 percent of Latinos 25 and over had earned a bachelor’s degree or higher. In contrast, 32 percent of Whites and 19 percent of African-Americans 25 and over had a bachelor’s degree or higher (Digest of Education Statistics, 2007, NCES, 2008, Table). Latinos are improving in educational achievement but not as rapidly as other groups.  What happened to the dozens of thousands of Latinos that did not graduate from college? Why is the Latino high school dropout rate on the increase again? Despite the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Latinos continue to quit school and inadvertently fall behind in their quest of the so-called American Dream. What academic policies is the present administration creating as a result of the already shocking statistics?  

In 33 or more American states, standardized exams and the S.A.T.’s are the gateway to higher education, but without a high school diploma, what kind of social, economic and academic horizons can Latino dropouts count on? How will they able to compete in America’s demanding workforce? When will the United States Department of Education make a serious recognition of culturally competencies and their ability to construct bridges to make predictions and outcomes about a poem, a story, an essay or a drama read in the English classroom? The United States Department of Education reading program is in dire need of a curriculum change. President Barak Obama’s past political campaign focused on the term, change. Why not get serious about changing our academic policies to help improve the quality of education that Latinos and other Americans deserve as well?

Scientifically based research has validated culturally based literature as key in the early stages of “learning to read”. Prior knowledge helps students to build bridges to make predictions and outcomes about the poem, story, essay or drama read in the English classroom. Reading for pleasure and identity encourages the recently arrived student to make personal connections. In a “learning to read” environment, pleasure and enjoyment form the initial jump-off point for further literary development. When students construct meaning from a personal standpoint, engagement with reading develops smoothly, and academic success is just a step away.

The US-DE reading program must make a transition from its hard-core traditionalist approach to a more integrated reading experience. States have the authority to design their own literature initiatives, but the Obama administration must set an example of the change in curriculum so desperately needed in schools throughout America. Even city, state and national standardized exams should include a more varied list of authors. How can you engage interest in a Latino adolescent by reading one poem from a Latino author during Hispanic Heritage Month?  That’s preposterous! I am sure Martin Luther King was envisioning Barak Obama’s swearing in as President of the United States in 2009. That was a dream come true for billions of Americans, but Latinos dream today of a better and quality education that can really make a difference in their lives. This is the time to focus on the education of Latinos in America!

(The author is an associate at Souder, Betances & Associates, an English Staff Development Specialist in Puerto Rico, professor at the University of Phoenix in Puerto Rico and author/editor of the textbook, Latino/a Literature in the English Classroom  , Editorial Plaza Mayor, 2003)




   American Sabor: Latinos in U.S. Popular Music
  Tom Flores: Last Year to Get Into the Hall of Fame
   Chicano Highlights: Abelardo de la Peña Jr.
   Angel Lopez, inducted into the San Digo Tennis Hall of Fame 2011.


West Coast East Side Revue, Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, CA, Sunday February 21, 1965 Courtesy of Mark Guerrero

American Sabor: 
Latinos in U.S. Popular Music
July 20, 2011

When you think of Latin music, the sounds that have typically defined it—mambo, merengue, salsa, cha-cha-cha—naturally, come to mind. But what about music’s influence on more traditional U.S. genres like jazz, R&B, rock ‘n’ roll and hip-hop?

A newly opened exhibit, “American Sabor: Latinos in U.S. Popular Music,” invites visitors to explore the depth and breadth of Latino music, which, historically, encompasses a sound that is at once distinctive, and all-American.

“In a huge way, what this [exhibition] is about is not just Latino music in a bubble, which, as we know, never exists in a bubble,” says Ranald Woodaman, of the Smithsonian Latino Center. ”It really is a huge story about Latin music, kind of at the heart of America.”

Divided regionally into the five cities best-known to American audiences in terms of Latino music production—New York, Miami, San Antonio, Los Angeles and San Francisco—this interactive exhibition focuses on post-World War II Latino music. While there are parts of the Latino music story that date back to the Great Depression, World War II was the era when many Latino musicians fighting in the war, like Tito Puente and Ray Barretto, were exposed to jazz, says Woodaman. From that exposure, the mambo sound was developed, “a fusion of more traditional Afro-Cuban, Afro-Caribbean rhythms with a U.S. jazz approach.”

Mambo would not be the only new sound created from melding cultures and influences, as the bilingual exhibit explains. From the rebellious Pachuco of the late 1930s, a counterculture created by Mexican-Americans who felt rejected by both societies, which would lay the foundation for Chicano music, to the intersections of Mexican music with that of German and Czech immigrants in Texas and the fusion of Caribbean cultures with urban cultures in Los Angeles and New York, Latino sound can be heard across genres.

With music playing in the background, maps, original records, fliers, promotional posters, videos, films and other ephemera from the era, including: Carlos Santana’s mariachi, Eva Ybarra’s accordion, a Celia Cruz outfit, original records from both independent and commercial music labels, as well as items from Héctor Lavoe, Ruben Bladés and Gloria Estefan, among others, tell the story. Listening booths, a mixing station and a dance floor encourage visitors to be a part of it.

“Learning is important,” says Woodaman, “but this exhibit offers an opportunity to immerse yourself in the music, in the rhythms, and use that as an entry point for learning.”

“I’d like people to come to this exhibit and basically get a sense of how varied, especially by region, Latino music traditions really are,” Woodaman says. “It’s really old, it’s been in the United States for a long time and … at the end of the day, what we call Latin music is part and parcel of the American experience.”

See “American Sabor: Latinos in U.S. Popular Music” at the S. Dillon Ripley Center’s International Gallery until October 9. Learn more about Latino music and the exhibit at the American Sabor website. Created by the Experience Music Project in Seattle, Washington with curators from the University of Washington, the 5,000 square-foot exhibition was designed to be accessible to visitors of all ages. The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) also designed a smaller version of the exhibit, intended for libraries and community centers, which is traveling the country simultaneously.

Editor:  This is particularly interesting because Ken Burns PBS series on Jazz in the United States DID NOT INCLUDE ANY Latino influence on American popular music.   I could not comprehend the exclusion, especially considering the popularity of the mambo and chachacha of the late in the early 40s and early 50s.  

This exhibit appears to be a return of an exhibit mounted in 2007 and closed in 2008.  

The first interpretive museum exhibition to tell the story of the profound influence and impact of Latinos in American popular Music... Oct. 13, 2007 - Sept. 7, 2008 - Cached

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Tom Flores: 
Last Year to Get Into the Hall of Fame
He's not the first Latino to play pro football, but he is the first Latino to play starting quarterback for an NFL team By Adrian Perez

Published on LatinoLA: August 5, 2011

In recognizing Thomas Raymond Flores (AKA Coach Tom Flores), the National Council of La Raza (NCLR) has outdone the one organization that is supposed to acknowledge individuals who have accomplished outstanding athletic fetes, the url=]Pro Football Hall of Fame[/url] (HOF). 

It took one of the nation's largest Hispanic organizations to present Coach Tom Flores with the prestigious "Roberto Clemente Award for Sports Excellence." The award is presented by NCLR to sports professionals who positively portray Hispanic Americans and promote efforts to help Hispanics across the U.S.

Not to say that the HOF should induct Flores based on his ethnicity, however. It has been hinted that perhaps the oversight of Flores induction could be based on his Mexican-American background. Still, others allege that his continued affiliation with Raider's owner Al Davis has poisoned his chances of being recognized. It's possible, but unlikely.

Flores is not the first Hispanic to play pro football, but he is the first Hispanic to play starting quarterback for an NFL team and was first to win four Super Bowl rings. But, apparently that isn't enough for the HOF.

Of the 267 members who have been inducted into the HOF, only 2 are Hispanic – Tom Fears, a receiver for the Los Angeles Rams (1948-1950), and url=ñoz]Anthony Muñoz[/url], a lineman for the Cincinnati Bengals (1981-1991). Not to minimize their accomplishments in the NFL, Fears and Muñoz were very deserving of an induction, but in weighing their accomplishments in the NFL, Flores stands head and shoulders above them.

Born March 21, 1937 in Fresno, California, Flores grew up picking grapes and playing football for Sanger High School. Upon graduating, he headed north to play for the University of the Pacific Tigers and upon graduating he went to play for the Canadian Football League before landing as the Oakland Raiders' first quarterback, from 1960 to 1966. These weren't easy years for the start-up team since they had to play their games at San Francisco's Kezar and Candlestick Stadiums until Oakland completed the Coliseum. 

As the Raider's quarterback, Flores averaged a 50 percent pass completion rate, and gave them three winning seasons before being traded to the Buffalo Bills in 1967. Two years later he was traded to the Kansas City Chiefs, where he retired in 1970. 

Flores came back to the Raiders in 1972 as Assistant Coach, coaching the wide receivers, tight ends and quarterbacks. His big break came in 1979 after the legendary John Madden retired and Al Davis, now managing owner of the Raiders, picked Flores to be the head coach. He took the Raiders to the Super Bowl and won in 1981 and 1984, with the latter being the only Super Bowl championship by a Southern California NFL team. After that game, Al Davis exclaimed: "Tom Flores isn't just a great coach in our league. With all due respect, he's one of the greatest coaches of all time."

Interestingly, nearly every player Flores coached in those championship years is now part of the Pro Football Hall of Fame, except him and another Mexican-American, url=]Jim Plunkett[/url] – the starting quarterback for the Raiders in the 1984 Super Bowl game. 

Today, Flores remains tied to the Raiders as the "color man" for the Raider Nation Radio Network. But, it's his community involvement and giving that is also very impressive.

Since the 1980s, Flores has hosted an annual golf tournament in Los Angeles to benefit the Boy Scouts with Disabilities, an event that has raised over $3.5 million since. In addition, he established the Tom Flores Foundation that benefits low-income youth in his hometown of Sanger, which also named their high school stadium in his name.

Flores has even found the time to author his biography, "Fire In the Ice Man," and co-authored "Tales of the Oakland Raiders," two books still selling well across the nation.

Obviously, the only thing missing is his induction into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Two other coaches, Mike Ditka and Tony Dungy, share similar records as Flores, of which only Ditka has been inducted. Dungy still has time to be inducted, but unfortunately, this is Coach Flores' last year to be inducted into the HOF, a process controlled by sports writers. 

Since 2009, the National Football League has stated it wants to grow its Hispanic fan base. There would be no greater recruitment tool than inducting Flores into the HOF and use the ceremonies to market the NFL to Hispanics across the U.S. Not all of the 50+ million Hispanics living in the U.S. are soccer fans.

Related stories on
NFL Launches a New Spanish Language Site
NFL Reaches Out to Latino Fans
About Adrian Perez:
CEO/Publisher at POP-9 Communications
Author's website
Email the author



Chicano Highlights: Abelardo de la Peña Jr.

Robert "El Beto-man" Tijerina interviews LatinoLA's co-founder and editor
By Steven Carlos Chavez
Published on LatinoLA: August 11, 2011 

Thank you for visiting this special feature of "Chicano Highlights" with your host Robert "El Beto-man" Tijerina here on the This is an interview from July 2011 with Abelardo de la Peña Jr. He is founder of, a user-generated website celebrating Latino voices, lives and souls. Also, he is a Director at the Mexican Cultural Institute in La Placita Olvera Street in Los Angeles, CA. 

You can hear the interview by clicking on the link: 

Abelardo de la Peña's parents are from Jalisco, Mexico and were married in Guadalajara. They moved to California shortly thereafter. Abelardo de la Peña Jr. was born in Long Beach and grew up in the Wilmington area, also known as "Wilmas" to the locals. He grew up with his two sisters and three brothers and graduated from high school in 1971. That same year, he joined the United States Army. 

He is married with four children and his two sons have served as medics in the US Army. Abelardo continued his education and achieved his Bachelor of Arts degree in Journalism. He also enjoyed the music revolution of the late 1960s as an aficionado and musician. He was active and involved in his community.

In July of 1999, Abelardo introduced his web site onto the world-wide internet. He serves as El Editor since the first day. He considers it a community blog that is open to anyone who has a topic to discuss, and preferably related to the Latino community. 

There they publish national events, poetry, short stories, book reviews and profiles of prominent individuals, Chicano music, information about special events and fund raisers, and a Calendar page to list any stage plays, car shows, and other cultural events. is a big supporter of the recent Radio Aztlan events at the University of California, Riverside and wants to continue to support and report. 

Everyone is welcomed to contribute. We invite you to check out at 

Abelardo is also a Director at the Mexican Cultural Institute, which is located at 125 Paseo de la Plaza, #100 Los Angeles 90017 (323)821-6898. at Olvera.Street, the birth place of the city. It is a mini-museum, a gallery, a resource center, and a library. The Mexican Cultural Institute is the premier venue for the expression of traditional and contemporary art and culture from the Mexican, Mexican American and Chicano perspective. 

For more information, their web site The current exhibit titled "El Movimiento en Los Angeles; Origin and Legacy" in the Downstairs Gallery. Open noon to 6 pm, Thursdays through Sundays. More information here.

Abelardo de la Peña Jr. believes that it is important to everyone, especially our younger generation, to understand that perseverance, pride and persistence are important ideas and guides for success and that "No one can take away your education and learning. It is yours forever."

Thank you for stopping by "Chicano Highlights" with your host Robert "El Beto-man" Tijerina, on the Radio Aztlan KUCR 88.3 FM. The interview was recorded at the University of California, Riverside and edited for rebroadcasted here on the East LA internet radio for your convenience. 

We thank you for your continued support and ask that you stop by again.  Recording Time 30m 54s

About Steven Carlos Chavez:
Supporter and contributor to and Radio Aztlan KUCR. 
Founder and operations Manager for East LA Internet Radio.




A long time tennis pro and San Diego native,  Angel Lopez is being inducted into the San Digo Tennis Hall of Fame 2011. I have attached two documents for you to review and share with Latino and Latina tennis players and other sports people, especially young athletics who are looking at tennis as a sport option. The first attachment is the announcement of his Hall of Fame induction and the second a extensive background information piece about Angel. You all will be impressed with both documents.

This is a special event because Angel will be the first ever Chicano to be inducted into the San Diego Tennis Hall of Fame. Angel has been a consistent promoter of tennis within the Latino community and other ethnic diverse groups in the nation. He is a world class tennis coach and has an extensive background promoting and serving tennis players around the nation and beyond.

I am proud to say that in the early stages of his tennis life, Angel was promoted and sponsored in many events through the support of the former La RAZA Tennis Association (LRTA) in San Diego, California. The LRTA was founded by Bill Molina, Gus Chavez, Jim Estrada, Vic Villapando, Manuel Cavada, Carlos Carrido, Maria Velasquez, Hildo Hernandez and Max Hernandez. 

           Gus Chavez

Angel Lopez

Angel Lopez, a United States Professional Tennis Association Master Professional and a top tour coach, is not resting on his laurels as 1995 National USPTA Professional of the Year.

Lopez serves as director of tennis operations at the San Diego Tennis & Racquet Club, where he has taught since December 1979. In March 1997 he began operating the Angel Lopez Tennis Academy at the San Diego Tennis & Racquet Club, where he supervises eight assistant professionals who are all USPTA certified.

Angel Lopez was inducted to the San Diego Tennis Hall of Fame in 2011. He was selected in the categories of Tennis Teaching Professional, Coaching, Community Service, and Senior Playing Success. Also in 2011, Angel was honored at the WTA Mercury Insurance Open held at the La Costa Resort and Spa during Latin Night for his 31 years of service to the San Diego County Tennis Community and those in the Latino Community appreciate the sport and love of Tennis.

The United States Professional Tennis Association's San Diego Division awarded Angel Lopez the 2011 Community Service Award at their Awards Dinner, recognizing him for his many contributions to the San Diego tennis community. Lopez was honored by Wilson Racquet Sports at the 2010 USPTA World Conference. He was presented with a plaque that read, "In recognition of your outstanding contribution to the San Diego Community and Wilson Sporting Goods Co." The County of San Diego, California honored Angel Lopez and the San Diego Tennis and Racquet Club on Aug. 3, 2010 by proclaiming it Angel Lopez and San Diego Tennis and Racquet Club Day. The proclamation stated it was for 30 years of outstanding service to San Diego County.

Lopez was named to the 2005 and 2006 USA Tennis High Performance Committee and the USTA National Hispanic Participation Task Force Committee. He was also named to the national USTA Player Development Committee, headed by Billie Jean King. He previously served on the Player Development Committee from 1997-1998.

Lopez was appointed to serve on the National USTA Tennis in the Public Parks Committee for the 2007-2008 term. He was appointed by President Jane Brown Grimes, and the committee is chaired by Billie Jean King. For the 2009-2010 term, he was selected to the USTA National Diversity Committee by USTA President Lucy S. Garvin. For the 2011-2012 term, Angel was again appointed, this time by USTA President Jon Vegosian, to the USTA National Diversity and Inclusion Committee.

He was regional vice president for the USPTA San Diego Division from 1997 to '98 and was president of this division from 1993 to 1996.

Angel has worked special events and clinics personally with such tennis greats as Rod Laver (10 years), Steffi Graf, Arthur Ashe, Billie Jean King, Tom Gullikson, Allen Fox, Roy Emerson, Zina Garrison, Dennis Van der Meer, Vic Braden and Pavel Slozil. He has written articles and tennis tips that have been published Tennis magazine, ADDvantage magazine, Inside Tennis, Tennis Talk, Tennis West, and in the San Diego Union Tribune. Angel has appeared on ESPN, Univision, ABC, CBS, and NBC. He has also appeared on  national and local news.

In addition to being honored as USPTA Professional of the Year, Lopez was named the 1994 World TeamTennis Professional Coach of the Year. In 1999, he was the United States Olympic Committee Developmental Coach of the Year and received a Specialist in Competitive Player Development Certification by the USPTA and USTA Tennis Player Development. Lopez also directed the USTA competition training center for San Diego, Calif., from 1996-2007.

In 2004, Lopez was recognized by AeroMexico and The Pacific Life Open during the pro tournament at Indian Wells Garden for service to the Southern California community and specifically to Hispanic youth. In 2003, he was recognized as Player of the Year by the USPTA San Diego Division.

Lopez also received the 2002 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance - Ethnic Minority Council Community Service Award at the AAHPERD national convention in San Diego.

In 2001, the USPTA honored Lopez for 10 years of outstanding participation in the continuing-education program with a Decade Education Merit Award. He also ranked among the top 10 USPTA education participants for the year.

In 1994, Lopez was head coach of the Newport Beach Dukes of World TeamTennis, which included players Zina Garrison, Kelly Jones, Larisa Neiland, Trevor Kronemann, Tami Whitlinger-Jones, Ann Grossman and Kerri Pheubus.

Lopez's team was the only team in WTT history to have an undefeated season at that time; they were 14-0. In 1995 he was named tour coach for Garrison. He traveled with her to the French Open, Wimbledon, U.S. Open, Lipton, Birmingham, England (where she was the tournament singles winner), Eastbourne and other events.

Lopez had coached Garrison in 1989 and 1990, when she rose to No. 4 in the world. He traveled with her to the U.S. Open, Australian Open, Virginia Slims of Chicago, Virginia Slims of Los Angeles, Great American Bank Classic in San Diego, Porsche Cup in Germany, Virginia Slims Championships in Madison Square Garden, and exhibition matches.

Another of his students, Alexandra Stevenson, won the junior doubles championship and finished in the final 16 in junior singles at the 1997 U.S. Open. Stevenson also won the USTA National 18 Doubles championship and was a semifinalist in the National 18 Singles. She was a 1998 Wimbledon singles semi-finalist. Angel gave Alexandra her first lesson at 4 years old and coached her at WTA Tour events.

Angel coached Kelly Jones from 14 years of age. He rose to No. 2 nationally in 18-and-under boys singles. He was a two-time NCAA doubles champion and four-time NCAA All-American. Jones had a No. 1 ATP doubles ranking in 1992 and was the 1994 World TeamTennis Player of the Year when Lopez coached the Newport Beach Dukes.

Brandon Wai is another longtime Lopez student, since 9 years of age. In 2006 and 2007 he played No. 1 at Yale University. He was a two-time Ivy League Player of the Year. He reached No. 2 nationally in USTA boys 16-and-under singles, and he was the only high school player in San Diego to win high school singles championships in three separate years.

Lopez has taught many San Diego high school players to San Diego High School Championships. Winners in CIFSD singles include boys Kelly Jones (1981), Frank Grannis (1982 and 1984), Derek Miller (1998) and Brandon Wai (2001, 2002 and 2003). Girls include Sara Pappelbaum (1980), Alexandra Stevenson (1995, 1996 and1997), Emma Taylor (2002) and Gabrielle DeSimone (2007 and 2008). Lopez also worked with Ashley Backus (1999) and Rebecca Kwan (2005).

Lopez also has traveled to Grand Slam Tournaments (U.S. Open, Wimbledon, Australian and French Open) with Kelly Jones, Angelica Gavaldon, Lupita Novelo and Tami Whitlinger-Jones.

Other players Lopez has coached include:


• Michael Chang
• Carl Chang
• Katrina Adams

• Alejandro Hernandez Jr. (top 5 lnternational Tennis Federation junior in the world - 1995)

• Jami Yonekura
• Lisa Seemann
• Ditta Huber
• Frank Grannis
• Kerry Safdie
• Chris Numbers
• Linda Allred
• Alexandra Stevenson
• Leslie Harvey
• Rebecca Harvey
• Tu Dong
• Otis Allman
• Casey Merickel

• Vince Horcasitas
• George Spiska
• Kelly Perry
• Jose Ruelas Jr.
• Jim Ault
• Scott Morse
• Chris Henderson
• Brandon Wai
• Yuichi Uda
• Todd and Kim Khoury
• David Smith
• Emma Taylor
• Tongle Yu
• Zachary Wolfe
• Woody Yocom
• Alberto Ramos
• Antonio Ramos
• Bobby Hrdina
• Paul Jeffries
• Sara Pappelbaum
• Cari Hagey

• Collette Kavanagh
• Pelon Olivas
• Rebecca Kwan
• Troy Collins
• Ashley Backus
• Gabi DeSimonie
• Shane Thornton
• Dorian Geba
• Amanda Mang
• Page Bartelt
• Alex O'Brien
• Trevor Kronneman
• Larisa Savchencko Neiland
• Ann Grossman
• Tami Whitlinger
• Jamie Smith
• Corey Smith
• Dominique Cetale
• Rene Musquiz
• Rafael Musquiz
• Ted Bell

• Jefferey Adams
• Luis Humberto Lopez
• German Aragon
• Melinda Ainsle
• Francesco D'Arcangelo
• Chris Swortwood
• Veena Prabaaker
• Tami Byrd
• Flavio Borquez
• Victor Fimbres
• Eugenio Casta
• Daniel Corona
• Steven Gottlieb
• Carlos Escalante
• Dominic Gareri
• Wendy Caragher
• Andrew Whatnall
• Brandon Nakashima
• Dominic Gareri
• Keegan Smith
• Roxanne Ellison
• Sierra Ellison  


Lopez serves on advisory staffs at Nike and Wilson. He serves on the Board of Directors of the Southern California Tennis Association, Southern California Junior Tennis Council, San Diego Tennis Patrons (Youth Tennis San Diego) Foundation, and San Diego District Tennis Association. He is also a member of the USPTA National Diversity Committee.

Lopez's honors include: 1985 San Diego District Tennis Writer of the Year (column in Tennis West Magazine); 1988 and 1994 Professional of the Year, USPTA San Diego Division; 1989 Coach of the Year, USPTA San Diego Division; and 1990 and 1994 Coach of the Year by the USTA, San Diego District. In 1985 he was Coach of the San Diego National Junior Boys Team. In 1999, he won the USPTA San Diego Community Service Award. Also in 1999, he was USTA/San Diego District Sponsor of the year. Angel was named one of the top tennis coaches in southern California for 5 years by Southern California Tennis and Golf magazine.

In addition, Lopez was chosen as one of the Top 100 Role Models by Mexican Heritage Foundation in 1994. In 1995 he was chosen by USTA Player Development as one of 24 coaches selected nationally for USTA High Performance Coaching Seminars.

In 2006, Angel was honored at the 2006 WTA Acura Classic after the feature match on July 31. He received the "Serving the Future Award" in recognition of outstanding contributions on court and service to the community. The award was presented by Youth Tennis San Diego.

In 2007 Angel received the Southern California Tennis Association Service Award for his efforts in the junior player development department. The SCTA wrote to Angel, "The example you have set by virtue of your exemplary conduct, leadership and expertise, while assisting programs conducted by the Southern California Tennis Association has earned you this substantial honor. Your favorable example has enhanced the level of sportsmanship in the program and has provided today's junior players with an environment in which they can compete and excel."

Angel was awarded the Olive R. Pierce Award by Youth Tennis San Diego at the YTSD Annual Junior Tennis Banquet in April 2009. The award is for Outstanding Contribution to the Welfare and Development of Tennis in San Diego County.

As a player, Lopez was the 1988 USPTA National Open Mixed Doubles champion and 1995 USPTA national men's 40 doubles champion. He was the National ATA doubles and mixed doubles champion in 1982 and OJAI Junior College Doubles Champion in 1976. In 2003, Lopez was ranked No. 1 in men's 45 doubles by the USTA Southern California Section. Also in 2003, he was ranked No. 5 nationally in men's 45 singles and No. 2 nationally in men's 45 doubles. In 2005, he was ranked No. 4 nationally by the USTA in men's 50 singles, No. 45 in the world by the ITF in men's 50 singles, No. 6 individually by the USTA in men's 50 doubles and No. 4 by the USTA in men's 45 doubles with partner Robert Delgado. He is ranked No. 2 by the USPTA in men's 50 singles and No. 1 in men's 50 doubles with Tommy Connell. He was ranked No. 2 by USPTA in men's 50 doubles in 2007. Lopez was named 2006 men's player of the year by the USTA San Diego District and the 2006 USPTA San Diego Division player of the year. In 2008, Angel attended the USPTA Player Development Conference, "The Spanish Way to Develop Players," held at the Academia Sanchez-Casal in Naples, Fla. He also completed coaches courses at LGE and Vic Braden Tennis College in the 1990s. In 2009, Angel began the year winning men's 50 doubles with partner Robert Delgado at the Babolat World Tennis Classic ITF and USTA National Tournament. Angel was the USPTA San Diego Division Player of the Year in 1982, 1991, 2003 and 2005.

Also in 2006, Angel was part of the World Championship USA International Fred Perry Cup team that won the gold medal and the cup in Durban, South Africa. The all-USPTA team consisted of Angel, Fred Robinson, Sal Castillo and Wendell Pierce. Team USA defeated France in the final, 3-0. They posted wins over Spain, Italy, Austria and Slovenia. Angel was undefeated in match play. This was the first time in five years the U.S. team won the cup.

Lopez played on a full tennis scholarship for the University of Arizona from 1976 to 1978, and he also played for San Diego City College from 1975-1976. He competed professionally on the American Express Eastern and Western circuits, USTA Southern Circuit, and the USTA Missouri Valley Satellite Circuit. He also played the Volvo International and Washington Star International, both ATP tour events. Lopez was coached and mentored by the legendary Pancho Segura, who is in the International Tennis Hall of Fame and a USPTA honorary member. While playing at the University of Arizona, his team won the Western Athletic Conference Championship in 1978. He also was a conference singles finalist and Las Vegas Intercollegiate singles champion, both in 1977. At San Diego City College, his team won the 1977 Southern California Junior College Championship and was No. 2 in the state of California.

Lopez helps young players today by awarding the Angel Lopez Scholarship for $1,000, through Youth Tennis San Diego, to a graduating senior for the college of his or her choice. He sponsors sanctioned tournaments and satellite junior tournaments, as well as a national open at the Barnes Tennis Center. Angel also sponsors an after-school program in his old childhood neighborhood for underprivileged children, the USTA/San Diego District Adult Championships, and the USTA national girls 16 &18 championships at Barnes Tennis Center. Angel sponsors the tennis programs at Montgomery, Lincoln, Calexico, Clairemont and Hoover high schools, and also at San Diego City College.

Sent by Gus Chavez   




   Constance Cortez, Texas Tech Professor 
   Wins International Latino Book Award
   Somos en escrito Magazine Update for August 2011



Texas Tech Professor Wins International Latino Book Award
Constance Cortez, an associate professor in the College of Visual and Performing Arts at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, received the top prize in the arts books category at the 2011 International Latino Book Awards. She was honored for her biography of Carmen Lomas Garza, a Chicana artist with ties to Texas.


Garza was born in Kingsville, Texas, and her arts reflects her experiences growing up in South Texas. The biography includes 77 pages containing color illustrations of Garza’s work.


Professor Cortez has been on the faculty at Texas Tech since 2003. She holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the University of Texas and earned a Ph.D. in art history from the University of California at Los Angeles.


Sent by Dr. Christine Marin,  Professor Emerita. 

Chicana/o Research Collection & Archives. 

Department of Archives & Special Collections. 

Hayden Library.   Arizona State University.



Somos en escrito

From: Armando Rendon []
Sent: Friday, August 12, 2011 3:23 PM
Subject: Somos en escrito Magazine Update for August 2011

Featured in this update for “Somos en escrito Magazine” is a joint venture with the producers of a documentary airing on CNN International this weekend (See of a massacre of Italian villagers by Nazi troops toward the end of WWII. The story of San Pancrazio, a remote village in Tuscany, evokes our recollections about the sacrifice of all Americans of thatgeneration. Somos editor Armando Rendón, visited the town during its June 29, 2010, ceremonies commemorating the tragic event and wrote this memoir thatis linked on CNN, a major news channel, a first for Somos en escrito.

Don’t miss these provocative essays: one about poetry by Emanuel Xavier in his new anthology which features poets recruited from coast to coast; a thoughtful piece by Jim Estrada about why immigration enforcement is of concern to Latinos, from his forthcoming book; an insightful piece about political action by Raúl Caballero; a commentary on the real reason behind disdain for the Spanish language by Salomón Baldenegro, Sr.; and a wildly popular read on Somos about the pachuco by Richard Griego, Ph.D., who remembers a bato friend nicknamed, El Drácula;

A growing archive of poetry includes a poem about silence by Teresinka Pereira, an internationally acclaimed writer; a challenging look atthe word, spic, by Edwin Torres from the Xavier collection; a nostalgic work by Nuyorican poet Charlie Vasquez from his Bronx-inspired new collection;

Plus new short stories by up and coming fiction writers, Tommy Villalobos, who reinvents his barrio days with humor, and César V. Love, in his first publication, a ghostly discussion with the past.

Extracts from Me No Habla With Acento: Contemporary Latino Poetry The following is the foreword by the editor of the just published anthology of Latino poetry; a representative poem from the book follows.

Sin pelos en la lengua
By Emanuel Xavier
Writing an introduction for this anthology has been quite a dare. Perhaps it is because experience has taught me there is absolutely no way one person could ever speak for an entire community. Within the modern day Latino/a poetry scene in the United States, the only genuine commonality shared is that we live in a country where we are all still a minority. We share our truths creatively using
English, Spanish, and/or Spanglish words to paint our canvas for an insatiable audience longing to find themselves somewhere between the sentences in our   poems.

Me No Habla Spic
By Edwin Torres
i remember one afternoon in soho
sitting on the sidewalk
with my longhaired cat, hairy
single and carefree
showing my beautiful pet to the world
people passing by, saying
what a cute spic

The Legacy of San Pancrazio, Italy
By Armando Rendón
On June 29, 1944, in the Tuscany region of Italy, in a village settled high above the Valdambra Valley, where farming families had lived peacefully for generations amid rustic stone buildings, disaster struck. For several weeks, Allied Forces had been clawing up the great rugged terrain of the boot called Italy, pushing before them Nazi battalions committed to making the American and British troops pay dearly for every step.

El Silencio
Por Teresinka Pereira

El silencio
es mas sabio
que la palabra abierta
en una pagina traspasada
de pasión.

Day of the Deadbeat
By César V. Love
Juan had never known his grandfather, but this Dia de Los Muertos he was scrubbing his grandfather’s tombstone for the better part of the afternoon. At twilight, he heard a voice. An old man, the color of white flour, appeared. “M’iho, you’re giving yourself blisters, and I don’t like the smell of bleach.” “Abuelito, it’s you! What took you so long?”

Overcoming a False Sense of Security
By Jim Estrada
Why are U.S. Latinos skeptical about “enforcement” solutions regardingcomprehensive immigration reform being placed in the hands of non-federal law enforcement personnel? Simply stated, Latinos are dubious about how such enforcement will be implemented. Of the more than 50 million Latinos in the United States, nearly 40 million are native-born or naturalized citizens of
the USA! Thattranslates into the potential of 40 million “legal” U.S. citizens being suspected of being “illegal” immigrants solely on the basis of appearance.

La Vecina Next Door
by Tommy Villalobos
No dweller on either side of Arizona Avenue would have envisioned Arturo Solunaz’ heart in its current state—it was beating irregular thumps like a blown tire every time he saw Daniela Ferpádez. Or thathe wanted to bite off a good chunk of his tongue every time he saw her walk. To Artie, she was a beautiful and sacred thing. Artie, as those both close and remote would testify under oath, up to now, gave little thought to anything or anyone outside of his bakery job, Dodgers baseball, low riding and food from any of the major food groups as long as they came in heaping portions.

Desde repaso hacia acción
Por Raúl Caballero
En los años recientes los Latinos en los Estados Unidos hemos venido atestiguando múltiples signos y acciones anti-inmigrantes, de hecho lo seguimos haciendo y lo más grave es que ya no provienen como antaño de casos aislados accionados por las consabidas organizaciones racistas de la frontera, ahora esas actitudes se han incorporado a los recintos legislativos en todos los niveles y en todo el país.

La Navidad
By Charlie Vázquez
Bronx, 1976 (à la cubana)
It’s cold for the Sun People and the rainbow lights
Blink on the fire escape like electric faerie vines
Magical, through the clean and foggy windows
Not in step with the congas, bongos, brass that
Flourish and hail in a queen on the king’s holiday
(Or his alleged holy day, a day marking his first
Yet perhaps gods are both enduring and false)

Saints and sinners all agree…
By Salomón Baldenegro, Sr.
A few years back The Texas Tornados recorded a song (“She never spoke Spanish tome”) that asserts that “Saints and sinners all agree, Spanish is a lovely tongue...” Indeed it is, yet, perversely, for some folks it is a target of hate. Of course, it’s illogical to hate a language—the haters really hate the speakers of the language, not the language itself. “Spanish” is code for “Mexicans.”

Thus Spake El Pachuco
By Richard J. Griego, Ph.D.
His name was Arturo, but he was known to his camaradas as Count Dracula or just El Drácula, and he was my brother-in-law, at least for the short year that he and my sister were married. The unusual nickname was given to Arturo atage fifteen when he was working as an assistant in a funeral parlor. One day the body of a young lady friend of his came in and Arturo picked her up
and started waltzing around with her. The shocked employees asked what he was doing. Arturo said that he was giving his friend her last dance. One of the guys said, “Man, you look just like Count Dracula.” and from that point on the saga of El Drácula began.

Armando Rendón, Editor
Somos en escrito Magazine
510-219-9139 Cell




   The Islenos of Louisiana, on the Water’s Edge by Samantha Perez
   Hecho en Tejas edited by Dagoberto Gilb
   The Circuit — by Francisco Jiménez
    MEX/LA: Mexican Modernisms in Los Angeles1930-1985


 By Samantha Perez

The History Press, $19.99 softcover, 142 pp.

Of the many ethnic groups who came and settled in Louisiana, the Isleños have to be one of the most interesting. This little book by Samantha Perez tracks the history of this group from Spain’s Canary Islands (they were islanders, isleños in Spanish) who settled at four places in Louisiana in the late 18th century.

“For a place known best for its French legacy - beignets, Bourbon Street and Vieux Carré - it is difficult to imagine Louisiana with an undeniable Spanish past, but for a short time in the late 1700s, after a secret deal with the French, parts of Louisiana territory fell under Spanish control,” Perez writes. You might be skeptical, but consider this: what is called the French Quarter in New Orleans burned during the Spanish period and was rebuilt by the Spanish using the hallmarks of Spanish architecture: courtyards, balconies, iron railings.

Architecture is not all the Spanish left. Perez is living proof. She’s a descendant of an Isleños family that settled in San Bernado (now St. Bernard Parish), one of the four areas the immigrants selected. The other three were at Galveztown, right on Bayou Manchac in Ascension Parish where East Baton Rouge and Livingston parishes also meet; at Barataria on the West Bank of New Orleans; and at Valenzuela on Bayou Lafourche.

 Perez interviews Isleños descendants in several places in Louisiana, but only in St. Bernard is the Isleños presence strong enough to still be visible. There’s a church there that the Isleños founded and a Isleños heritage center where songs and traditions of the Canary Islanders are performed. On festival days, locals sometimes dress in distinctive Isleños costumes.

Galveztown has disappeared beneath fields and suburban lawns, but it is the site of an archaeological dig being led by LSU professor Rob Mann. Artifacts from the Spanish period are being recovered at a steady rate. Barataria didn’t last either, and the site has been swallowed by New Orleans. In fact, neither settlement lasted too long. Floods, storms and disease (malaria, yellow fever, etc.) laid waste to them. Most of the Isleños settlers abandoned the unwelcoming sites and merged into the larger French and American populations in places like Baton Rouge and Donaldsonville. Valenzuela was a different story. Like St. Bernard, it survived.

“By 1794, only six years from the end of the Spanish period, the Isleños suffered damaged homes and fields when a hurricane hit the area. Commandant Verret begged for assistance from the Spanish government, but Governor Carondelet refused. Valenzuela, it became clear, was on its own. The Isleños had to recover by themselves. The time of rations and support was over.

“Luckily the Canary Islanders on Bayou Lafourche were able to survive and even thrive. With Galveztown and Barataria already struggling by the 1780s, the success of Valenzuela was a much-needed victory for the Isleño colonists. Without their survival and those in their sister colony called St. Bernard, the Canary Islanders in Louisiana might not be here today.”

And while they are still here, many adopted the French culture and language of their neighbors. Even in St. Bernard Parish, the area strongest in Isleño tradition, life in the New World changed the Canary Islanders and their culture. Most of the immigrants were farmers, but the location along the bayous and waters of the Gulf invited a change to more maritime pursuits. Fishing and shrimping remain very important to present day Isleños.

Those activities have been heavily impacted by the last two major events to hit the St. Bernard area: Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. Perez says history argues for the survival of the culture.

“In crisis after crisis, the Isleños across southeast Louisiana continued to prove what the original immigrants exemplified best: their ability to adapt and persevere. They adapted from the beaches and mountains of the Canary Islands to the swampy marsh of Louisiana, they learned to fish, farm and trap and use the area’s natural resources to their own advantage. They adapted to the new world that Hurricane Katrina washed upon their shores in 2005 and have maintained a sense of tradition and custom for more than two centuries of change.”

Perez’s book is short and accessible to most readers. It’s written in clear, understandable language and contains information that will interest all Louisianans, especially those who are Isleño descendants.

The History Press, $19.99 softcover, 142 pp.
Sent by Bill Carmena 



Hecho en Tejas
Ghost Stories: Fantasmas Mejicanas
Edited by Dagoberto Gilb

Review of Hecho en Tejas an anthology of Texas Mexican literature by Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, Scholar in Residence and Chair of the Department of Chicana/Chicano and Hemispheric Studies, Western New Mexico University  Press, 2006, 522 pp.

Hecho en tejas is a remarkable anthology of Texas Mexican literature edited by a remarkable Chicano writer. While the selections reflect the historical trail of Texas Mexican writers, it’s the introduction by Gilb that is incisive and riveting. “There is a haunting in Texas,” Gilb tells us, “and it’s the ghost of a bisabuela gone prematurely . . . it’s the ghost who hoists up Mexican flags in the Rio Grande Valley. ‘ Gilb is telling us about those Texas Mexicans who were here before us and are now physically gone but still with us en la memoria, still with us en los cuentos de la tarde ya cuande se ha puesto el sol. Son cuentos tejanos seldom found in the anthologies of Texas literature or American literature.
Tejano writers are not in the anthologies of Texas literature or American literature, not because they don’t write well enough but because they’re Texas Mexicans and Texas Mexicans aren’t Texans even though they call themselves Tejanos. We see this attitude in the Texas textbook massacre of 2011 over the Tejano presence in the social studies textbooks authorized for the Texas public schools.

Hecho en tejas is laid out structurally by eras: the 30s, the 40s, the 50s, etc. That’s cool! The selections are uncannily representative of their eras. As editor, Gilb was working in a fertile cosecha: the Southwestern Writers archives at Texas State University—San Marcos. Along the way, Gilb had help from Arturo Madrid, Roberto Trujillo, and the Katherine Anne Porter Literary Center. Hecho en tejas gestated for 10 years. It has turned out to be a terrific resource and reference work.
However, the fly in the ointment is that the 500 or so pages of selections reflecting the literature of Texas Mexicans is a structure teetering on the introduction. As I said, that introduction is incisive and riveting.  It’s what follows that gives me pause, not because it’s not representative, there’s so much more than could have been included. I know that sounds lame. But I was expecting to see Joe Olvera in the anthology, also Rafael Jesus Gonzalez, Georgia Cobos, El Tigre, and Marco Portales. I know that Including “everybody” would have made for a bigger book. Obviously Hecho en tejas needs more than one volume. The Tejano story is as big as Texas. Hey, it is Texas.
Let me digress for a moment.  What we know about our past as Americans we know from that body of lore more commonly called “literature.” To be sure, much of what we know about our past may be drawn from an equally significant source embodied in the oral tradition. But, by and large, it is the literary tradition which provides us with cultural and linguistic clues about our national identity. And it is through the agency of literature that the cultural values of a society are transmitted across the generations.  In essence, then, that nebulous facet of our national identity known as the American character is unequivocally reflected in American literature.

Thus, to plumb, let us say, the national character of the Greeks, Russians, English, Mexicans, et al, we must examine their literary heritage--or legacy, if you will. To begin with, literature provides us with tangible manifestations of the epistemological process of a people--that is, how they come to know about life; or more specifically, how they come to adduce or deduce what they consider to be the truth or truths about themselves and about their collective existence.
Much to the contrary, Texas was not a literary wasteland during the three centuries of Spanish rule and the brief period of independent Mexican administration. When Texas was first organized as a republic and later when it became part of the United States, it did so with a rich Tejano literary dowry which we have yet to appreciate. By 1836 San Antonio was already more than a century old. Quite naturally, Tejanos considered that this fact entitled them to some priority in the new republic.

However, during the 9 years that Tejanos lived within the rubric of the Republic of Texas, their situation went from bad to worse. Initially, elite Tejanos fared well with their Anglo American compatriots. Lorenzo de Zavala, former Mexi­can minister to France, was the first vice-president of the republic. Among others, Jose Antonio Navarro and Francisco Ruiz signed the Texas Declaration of Independence. Many Tejanos moved in the upper circles of power in the new Republic. But that honeymoon was to be short-lived.

Tejano literature of this period is principally documentary. A generation had hardly passed from Mexican independence in 1821 to the annexation of Texas by the United States in 1845–in all, only 24 years. It was unlikely that any significant literary activity or production would emerge within so short a span of time. Tejanos continued to correspond with friends and family from afar, continued to write business letters when required, continued writing in their diaries and journals, contributed news items and, on occasion, poetry and cuentos to local  or regional newspapers. On the whole, Tejano life ebbed and flowed as always. Despite their new political context, in the main Tejanos considered themselves mejicanos culturally while learning to cope with the mechanics of being American.

The Rio Grande was a political boundary, not a cultural one. The one exception to Tejano life after 1836 was in education. Tejano influentials sent their sons to American schools, principally in the East, harboring the hope that such an education would provide their heirs and, of course, their family with greater advantage. In many cases these advantages came to pass. Most often it led to apostasy. Thus, Tejanos came to realize that assimilation demanded fealty to the dominant culture and its traditions with a concomitant credenda of apodictic values.

The drive was on to make them Americans a fuerzas–in the image of Anglo Americans. But the problem remained. Some Mexicans could think, talk, and act “white” but most of them remained “brown” and continued to speak Spanish–or Tex-Mex as their patois was demeaningly described. Just as the King of Spain wanted all of his subjects to be like Spaniards, so too Anglo Americans wanted all Americans to be like them. Despite their antipathies toward Tejanos, however, Anglos reluctantly acknowledged the superiority of vaqueros in the handling of horses, skills which vaque­ros passed on to Anglo wranglers.

Tejanos did not go gently into that good night of American colonization. Across the entire region that was once Mexico, mejicanos now Americans battled constantly, physically and juridically, to preserve their way of life and to attain the rights and privileges as new Americans. There is little doubt that mejicanos of the annexed territory pondered the maxim that it is better to live with one’s own devil than someone else’s. Life as American citizens became more onerous than life as mejicanos. As Americans, Tejanos were relegated to the status of African Americans in the South with no consideration for their education. In Texas they were part of the Mexican-Dixon Line.

Consequently, Tejanos taught their children the values of their culture at home, what it meant to be Tejano. Tejano traditions were passed on from generation to generation orally, using a variety of media to articulate and to preserve their community. A branch of my mother’s family settled in Texas in 1731 as part of the 16 families from the Canary Islands that founded La Villita: the first settlement of San Antonio, Texas.

Despite the depreda­tions, survival was paramount. The process of that survival included music, fiestas, and the cuentos–the stories of their heritage. Today we see the strength of that survival in Tejano music, Tejano festivities, and in the literary productions by Tejano writers as evidenced in Hecho en tejas.

Finally, I was surprised to see Amado Muro in the collection (even though he’s listed as Chester Seltzer). He almost hoodwinked me into including him as a Chicano in We Are Chicanos: Anthology of Mexican American Literature which I edited for Washington Square Press in 1973. Okay, Seltzer was a remarkably good writer, but he wasn’t a Tejano—not even a Texan. I know the book is about “hecho en Tejas.”

Seltzer notwithstanding, Hecho en tejas is a profound statement about Tejanos and their heritage.


The Circuit — Stories from the Life of a Migrant Child
 How A Book Influenced This Migrant Child
By Francisco Jiménez

Reviewed by Sergio Jara Arroyos
Hispanic Link Weekly Report Aug. 6, 2011

The Circuit: stories from the life of a migrant child, by Francisco Jiménez, is a must read for the summer or whenever you are ready to wrap yourself in his sun-scorched skin. This semi- autobiographical account was published in 1997. Yet the story transcends time. It is as applicable at this moment as it was the sweltering day the author began putting his childhood feelings down on paper.

Turn the book’s pages and you will notice that while some settings and situations are dated, the realities and stresses of a migrant child existence without an expiration date. They are still with us.The Circuit’s cultural and literary contribution has been acknowledged with the John and Patricia Beatty Awards (1998), Americas Award (1997), selected Booklist Editor’s Choice (1997) and Boston Globe Horn Book Award (1998).

The simple yet detailed way Jiménez shares his story is evident the moment you open the book. It allows readers to recreate the scenarios as if they were there.

Jiménez writes: “‘I remember being hit on the wrist with a twelve-inch ruler because I did not follow directions in class,’ Roberto answered in a mildly angry tone when I asked him about his first year of school. ‘But how could I?’ he continued, ‘the teacher gave them in English…’”

His storytelling entices the reader to join his personal journey. He challenges us, collectively and as individuals, to reassess how much we respect those who work so hard to bring us food while they themselves go hungry.

Their experiences, stacked with fears and perils, reflect the hundreds of thousands immigrants endure to reach the United States as they carry the hope their trips will change their fortune for the better. The narrator sees this experience with the eyes of a child, with emotions that reach the readers’ compassion.

It portrays my own reality at age ten, when I first joined my parents as a worker in the orchards of Washington State, something I
continued doing each summer through my high school years. I’m 19 now, a college student. I found and read Jiménez‘s rare book in
a public library at age 11 and related to it instantly. It spoke words I wasn’t yet willing or capable of voicing. It gave me peace of mind,
knowing a writer, an author, knew how I felt. 

The book’s humane treatment of undocumented immigrants acquaints readers with how harsh simple reality can be for some  — the blazing sun, the bugs, the living conditions, the oppression, the constant moving from strawberries to cotton fields, from picking grapes to topping carrots and thinning lettuce.

Jiménez again: “After the bell rang and everyone was seated, Miss Ehlis began to take roll. She was interrupted by a knock on the door. When she opened it, I could see Mr. Denevi, the principal, and a man standing behind him. The instant I saw the green uniform. I panicked. I wanted to run but my legs would not move…”

The right to survive and the right to become an educated individual are two influential ideals that give direction to my decisions. Jiménez’s written words, as well as my mother’s hope that her children deserve a better life, are two of my guides.

The Circuit is published by the University of New Mexico Press, 1997, soft cover, 134 pages, $7.50. The book and its sequels Reaching Out and Breaking Through are available through Amazon for $21, 00.





MEX/LA: Mexican Modernisms in Los Angeles1930-1985

Text by Mariana Botey, Harry Gamboa Jr., Ana Elena Mallet, Catha Paquette, Jennifer Sternad, et. al.  


The years from 1945 to 1985 are often identified as the moment in which Los Angeles established itself as a leading cultural center in America. However, this conception of its history entirely excludes the very controversial presence of the Mexican muralists, as well as the work of other artists who were influenced by them and responded to their ideas. It is likewise often thought that Los Angeles' Mexican culture arrived full formed from outside it, when in fact that culture originated within the city--it was in Los Angeles and Southern California that José Vasconcelos, Ricardo Flores Magón, Octavio Paz and other intellectuals developed the iconography of modern Mexico, while Anglos and Chicanos were developing their own. David Alfaro Siqueiros, Clemente Orozco, Alfredo Ramos Martínez and Jean Charlot made some of their earliest murals in Los Angeles, influencing the Mexican, Mexican-American and Chicano artists of the 1970s and 80s. MEX/LA: Mexican Modernism(s) in Los Angeles 1930-1985 focuses on the construction of different notions of “Mexicanidad” within modernist and contemporary art created in Los Angeles. 

From the Olvera Street mural by Siqueiros, to the Golden Age of Mexican cinema and the Disney silver-screen productions, to the revitalization of the street mural, up to the performance art of Guillermo Gómez-Peña, MEX/LA explores the bi-national and hybrid forms of artistic practices, popular culture and mass-media arts that have so uniquely shaped Los Angeles' cultural panorama.

Published by: Hatje Cantz
Distributed Art Publishers 
ISBN: 9783775731331 AVAILABLE: 12/31/2011
FORMAT: Hbk, 8.5 x 10.5 in. / 224 pgs / 75 color / 140 b&w.
Sent by



    Sgt. 1st Class, Leroy A. Petry, 44th Hispanic Medal of Honor Recipient 
    ADA: Know Your Rights, Returning Service Members with Disabilities
     Retired General Richard Sanchez Running for U.S. Senate
    As Long as I Remember: American Veteranos by Laura Varela   
    Military Writers Society of America
    Know Your Rights, Returning Service Members with Disabilities
    UMAVA, Orange County, CA honors veterans on July 3rd
    Reckless, U.S. Marine Horse


Sgt. 1st Class, Leroy A. Petry, 44th Hispanic Medal of Honor Recipient 

U.S. Army Sgt. 1st Class, Leroy A. Petry, a Santa Fe native, became the 3,455th serviceman to receive the nation's highest military honor. Congress awards the medal, and the president bestows it on recipients, the 44th to a soldier of Hispanic descent, and the first to a New Mexican since the Korean War, was awarded to Sgt. 1st Class Petry, an Army Ranger 

The Medal of Honor has been awarded to servicemen since the Civil War, recognizing soldiers, Marines, airmen, sailors and Coast Guardsmen who risked their lives with "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity" above and beyond the call of duty.

On his fifth tour of Afghanistan, in 2008, Petry led a team of Rangers into a firefight, was shot through both legs, and then picked up a live grenade and threw it as it exploded, saving his buddies from harm, but losing his hand in the process. He deserves the Medal of Honor. He also deserves our admiration and our thanks.

Date of Issue: 07/12/2011
Accredited To: New Mexico
Place / Date: 26 May 2008, Paktya Province, Afghanistan 

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Staff Sergeant Leroy A. Petry distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action with an armed enemy in the vicinity of Paktya Province, Afghanistan, on May 26, 2008. As a Weapons Squad Leader with D Company, 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, Staff Sergeant Petry moved to clear the courtyard of a house that potentially contained high-value combatants. While crossing the courtyard, Staff Sergeant Petry and another Ranger were engaged and wounded by automatic weapons fire from enemy fighters. Still under enemy fire, and wounded in both legs, Staff Sergeant Petry led the other Ranger to cover. He then reported the situation and engaged the enemy with a hand grenade, providing suppression as another Ranger moved to his position. The enemy quickly responded by maneuvering closer and throwing grenades. The first grenade explosion knocked his two fellow Rangers to the ground and wounded both with shrapnel. A second grenade then landed only a few feet away from them. Instantly realizing the danger, Staff Sergeant Petry, unhesitatingly and with complete disregard for his safety, deliberately and selflessly moved forward, picked up the grenade, and in an effort to clear the immediate threat, threw the grenade away from his fellow Rangers. As he was releasing the grenade it detonated, amputating his right hand at the wrist and further injuring him with multiple shrapnel wounds. Although picking up and throwing the live grenade grievously wounded Staff Sergeant Petry, his gallant act undeniably saved his fellow Rangers from being severely wounded or killed. Despite the severity of his wounds, Staff Sergeant Petry continued to maintain the presence of mind to place a tourniquet on his right wrist before communicating the situation by radio in order to coordinate support for himself and his fellow wounded Rangers. Staff Sergeant Petry's extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service, and reflect great credit upon himself, 75th Ranger Regiment, and the United States Army.  

Our latest MOH recipient was station here at the former Ft Lewis now Joint Base Lewis McChord. HIs mother is Mexican. On his father side they have German roots.  Tony Santiago in his  Wikipedia article,mentions, in the first paragraph  the name of SFC Petry's parents as Larry Petry and Lorella Tapia Petry. Born: 29 July 1979, Santa Fe, NM

 Sent by Rafael Ojeda 

The Army and the Air Force each have a version of the medal. A third version is for the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard.

Nominations for the military honor are intensely scrutinized, and the process can take 18 months or longer. Recommendations for the medal must be made within two years from the time of the action for which a serviceman is nominated. If a recommendation is outside that time, it must be made by a member of Congress. The nomination is vetted and a recommendation must be approved by several different levels of the military before final approval by the president.

Diverse recipients: During the Civil War, private Jacob Parrott was the first soldier to receive the Army Medal of Honor, as one of 22 men who made it through 200 miles of Confederate territory to capture a railroad train in Big Shanty, Ga.

A total of 19 of servicemen were awarded two Medals of Honor, including Thomas Custer, younger brother of Gen. George Armstrong Custer. Thomas Custer was awarded the medal twice for actions during the Civil War and later died with his brother at the Battle of Little Bighorn.

Robert Augustus Sweeney was the only African American serviceman to twice receive the Medal of Honor. In 1881 and again in 1883, Sweeney jumped into the ocean to save fellow sailors.

Petry will be the 44th serviceman of Hispanic descent to receive the Medal of Honor. He is the first member of the 2nd Battalion, 75th Army Ranger Regiment to receive the honor.

A total of 28 Native Americans have been awarded Medals of Honor for their military actions dating to active Army campaigns against the Apache in 1871.

Although African American servicemen were awarded Medals of Honor in every conflict from the Civil War through World War I, no African American soldiers or sailors in World War II were recognized with a Medal of Honor until more than half a century after their service.

The Army in 1993 ordered a study to determine whether racial bias played a part in who received the honor. The report found there was bias and recommended 10 soldiers for the medal. Congress approved seven, and President Bill Clinton finally awarded the men their medals in 1997. Only one was still alive at the time.

Congress directed the Army in 1996 to review all Asian American and Pacific Islands servicemen who were awarded the Distinguished Service Cross in World War II "to determine whether any such award should be upgraded to the Medal of Honor." A total of 22 were upgraded, and the medals were bestowed in 2000. Two other Asian Americans, Sgt. Jose Calugas of the Philippine Scouts and Pfc. Sadao Munemori of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, did receive Medals of Honor for actions during World War II prior to the review.

"These quiet men, small in stature, performed unbelievable acts of bravery; they were tigers in battle," Army Chief of Staff Gen. Eric K. Shinseki said at the time.

Dr. Mary E. Walker, a contract civilian surgeon during the Civil War, is the only woman to receive the Medal of Honor. She was honored in 1865 for her work in the field and in hospitals caring for wounded soldiers "to the detriment of her own health." She was later captured by the Confederates and held as a prisoner of war for four months.

Walker's medal was rescinded, along with those of other civilians, in 1917. She refused to give up the medal, and her family lobbied for her name to be returned to the honor roll. President Jimmy Carter restored her name to the roll in 1977.

Protecting the honor: Beginning in 2006, the Medal of Honor became the only military service decoration with special protection to prevent it from being imitated or sold. But the Stolen Valor Act was found unconstitutional by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals as an infringement on freedom of speech. The Supreme Court might take up the case.

The FBI regularly investigates claims of false Medal of Honor use. In 1996, H.L.I. Lordship Industries, a company that had produced the Medal of Honor, was fined $80,000 for selling 300 fake ones. Florida resident Jackie Stern was convicted that same year of wearing a Medal of Honor to which he was not entitled. The federal judge sentenced him to write a personal letter of apology to the 171 living Medal of Honor recipients.

Privileges of the award:
Other military personnel, regardless of rank, are encouraged to salute Medal of Honor recipients when they meet them. It is special recognition of the valor and courage indicated by the medal. 

Medal of Honor recipients are given special deals on air transportation, an increased military pension and a 10 percent increase in retirement pay. They receive a special Medal of Honor flag, along with the neck medal. 
Recipients are invited to future presidential inaugurations and inaugural balls.

For more images visit  



ADA: Know Your Rights, Returning Service Members with Disabilities.  Free download of a 30-page booklet by U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division Disability Rights Section

Sent by Wanda Garcia 


Retired Lt. General Richard Sanchez Running for U.S. Senate

Estimada Mimi and Mercy, Great News at last one of our Hispanic Generals running for U.S. Senate. I saw this in Poder magazine today, but could not get it in their online magazine. Rafael Ojeda, Tacoma WA /




As Long as I Remember: American Veteranos
by Laura Varela

From: Laura Varela []
Sent: Wednesday, August 17, 2011 2:01 PM
To: Roberto Calderon
Subject: Chicano Vietnam Veterans Documentary

Estimado Beto,

Thank you so much for allowing me to be part of UNT's Historia Chicana Series. The students and faculty were amazing. Below is some info on the film and links for any Profesors/Universities on your list serve that might be interested in the film. My documentary "As Long as I Remember: American Veteranos" examines the legacy of the Vietnam War on the Chicano community in San Antonio. The film is already in the libraries of UT, UTSA, UTA, UNLV, UVL, UCSD, South Texas College and many more. It is used in classes that cover American History, Chicano History, Literature, Art, and Humanities. I had a big screening sponsored by CMAS at UTA this past December. I also just returned from Germany where I showed the film in a class at Bielefeld University that studied the art and culture of the Lone Star State, and a Masters Course at the University of Leipzig on Chicano Cultural Production. The film features very well known writers including Dr. Norma Cantu and Michael Rodriguez, Diana Montejano aside from the artists like Juan Farias, Roberto Sifuentes and Eduardo Garza. I also screened in at the NACCS Conference in April of 2010. It was broadcast nationally on PBS this fall through an American Public Television offering and will be with pbs for six years, so I imagine it will run every "Hispanic" Heritage Month and Veterans day. I've attached the link to the page below for more information of DVD purchase (institutional purchases include screening rights and educations rights.) I'm also available to present to a class or large public presentations. Thanks so much for your time and energy.

warmest regards, Laura Varela

As Long as I Remember: American Veteranos – 2010, 56:00 min
Producer / Director – Laura Varela 
Producer Fernando S. Cano II

AS LONG AS I REMEMBER: AMERICAN VETERANOS examines the steep personal toll and enduring legacy of the Vietnam War on three artists from south Texas: visual artist Juan Farias, author Michael Rodriguez and actor/poet Eduardo Garza. Through the personal histories and experiences of these Chicano veterans, the film examines the role art plays in the sorting of memories, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), activism and the current conflict in Iraq. AS LONG AS I REMEMBER chronicles their upbringing in the Mexican-American community, their military service in Vietnam, and their lives after the war. Farias, Rodriguez and Garza’s poignant and powerful recollections illuminate the minority experience in the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps at a time when Mexican Americans accounted for approximately 20 percent of U.S. casualties in Vietnam, despite comprising only 10 percent of the country’s population.

Funded by Humanties Texas, City of San Antonio Office of Cultural Affairs and Latino Public Broadcasting.
You tube trailer link: (this is better quality )

About the Filmmaker

Laura Varela is a San Antonio-based documentary filmmaker and media artists whose work as a storyteller is shaped by her roots growing up on the US/ Mexico Border in El Paso, Texas. Her work navigates between ideological, cultural, linguistic and physical borders through the use of film and contemporary art installations.

She is currently developing the PBS documentary raúlrsalinas and the Poetry of Liberation, about the life and times of Xicano poet and activist. In March 2009 she created the site-specific public art installation “Enlight-Tents” at the Alamo with German artist Vaago Weiland. Her installation work has been exhibited at the San Antonio Museum of Art, Blue Star Center for Contemporary Art, The Esperanza Peace and Justice Center, Gallista Gallery, and the UTSA Downtown Art Gallery.

She is a fellow of the 2006 CPB/PBS Producers Academy, the 2006 NALAC Leadership Institute, and the 2003 NALIP/UCLA Latino Producers Academy. She attended the Sundance Filmmaker’s lab in 1997 and in 1993 received her Bachelor of Science from the University of Texas in Radio TV and Film. Artist Residencies include Swarthmore College, PA, Art for Change in NYC, and the Hoschule Neiderrhein and Faust Academy in Germany.

El Paso, Texas. Her work navigates between ideological, cultural, linguistic and physical borders through the use of film and contemporary art installations. 

She is currently developing the PBS documentary raúlrsalinas and the Poetry of Liberation, about the life and times of Xicano poet and activist. In March 2009 she created the site-specific public art installation “Enlight-Tents” at the Alamo with German artist Vaago Weiland. Her installation work has been exhibited at the San Antonio Museum of Art, Blue Star Center for Contemporary Art, The Esperanza Peace and Justice Center, Gallista Gallery, and the UTSA Downtown Art Gallery.

She is a fellow of the 2006 CPB/PBS Producers Academy, the 2006 NALAC Leadership Institute, and the 2003 NALIP/UCLA Latino Producers Academy. She attended the Sundance Filmmaker’s lab in 1997 and in 1993 received her Bachelor of Science from the University of Texas in Radio TV and Film. Artist Residencies include Swarthmore College, PA, Art for Change in NYC, and the Hoschule Neiderrhein and Faust Academy in Germany.

Contact Laura at lauravarela (a)



Celebrating America's Independence 
in Santa Ana, California

It was my honor and privilege to represent our veterans as we celebrated America's Independence Day at Centennial Park on Sunday July 3rd, 2011 6pm-9:30pm, and as we also paid tribute to the sacrifices of our active duty troops, our veterans and our families.

Lft to Rt:
Francisco J. Barragan, Commander-UMAVA (US Marines & CA Army National Guard); Antonio Mendez, US Army & WWII Silver Star Recipient; Sal Lujan, US Army-Korea; Pastor Francisco B. Parras Jr., US Marines-Vietnam; 3 members of Santa Ana High School JROTC (led by Commander Tom Osseck); and Nelida Yañez, US Army and former Commander of UMAVA.

There were many dedicated volunteers that made this celebration a resounding success, in partnership with community sponsors and the support of leaders from the City of Santa Ana, in particular Council Members Carlos Bustamante and David Benavidez; and Gerardo Mouet Director, Parks, Recreation & Community Services; and Jose Perez, Community Services Supervisor. Mayor Miguel Pulido, and Mayor Pro-Tem Claudia Alvarez also spoke.

This was also a great event for our families in Santa Ana which consisted of about 4,500-6,000 attendees according to SAPD. There were history walks, face paintings, games, and approximately $25,000 of fireworks because of the financial contributions of sponsors.

UMAVA (the United Mexican-American Veterans Association) was honored to have a small participation as follows:
" Playing the Bugle (Reveille, other songs & taps) - Nelida Yañez, Color Guard Leader.
" Presenting the Colors - Santa Ana High School JROTC (led by Commander Tom Osseck).
" Leading on our Pledge of Allegiance, me as Commander of UMAVA.
" Singing the Star Spangled Banner - Sara Ortiz, my 9-year old niece.
" Invocation - ordained Pastor Francisco B.Parras Jr, our UMAVA Chaplain.
" Candlelight Ceremony - me as Commander of UMAVA.

The Candlelight Ceremony includes 4 lit candles brought to the stage by me and the SAHS JROTC members. This represents our 4 key Constitutional Freedoms, and the main excerpt of it is as follows:

"Good evening, our Motto at UMAVA is: Honoring Yesterday; Appreciating Today; Inspiring Tomorrow.
What you see here today represents the Past, Present, and Future.

" The STRIPES of the US Flag represent the 13 Original colonies.
" The STARS represent the present 50 states, and our Veterans our Service to nation
" And the Light and Warmth of the 4 Candles reminds us of the 4 Great Freedoms, and the future guarantee of these by our veterans.:
1. Freedom of Speech; 
2. Freedom of Religion, and Freedom from the imposition of Religion; 
3. Freedom of the Press; and
4. The Freedom to Assemble Peacefully and to Petition Our Government.

ELIMINATE any one of these freedoms and our world becomes darker and colder (I blew out each candle in succession).
" The Freedom of Speech;
" The Freedom of Religion;
" The Freedom of The Press;
" The Freedom of Peaceful Assembly:

In this world of potential Darkness and Cold, of Rule by a Few, stands the United States of America, keeping Freedoms alive in this world.
" Here the Four Freedoms Do Exist and are an example of Warmth and Light for All
" But these Freedoms are Not Free. They have been purchased for us by the sacrifices and contributions of our Active Duty troops, our Veterans and our Families.
" (4 veterans come up to the stage and lit the candles, representing the sacrifices that keep these Freedoms alive. And these veterans lit these candles as I read the statistics of the Total Killed and wounded from the recent major wars: WWII, Korea, Vietnam, and the Afghanistan/Iraq conflicts.)
" Antonio Mendez, US Army & WWII Silver Star Recipient; Sal Lujan, US Army-Korea; Francisco B. Parras Jr., US Marines-Vietnam; and Nelida Yañez, US Army-representing Iraq/Afghanistan.

WAR            DEAD & Wounded  MISSING

WWII                      1,076,245      30,314

KOREA                      128,650        4,759

VIETNAM                   211,454        2,489

Afghanistan & Iraq        47,779              3  

Lft to Rt: Antonio Mendez, US Army & WWII Silver Star Recipient; Nelida Yañez, US Army and former Commander of UMAVA; 3 members of Santa Ana High School JROTC (led by Commander Tom Osseck); Pastor Francisco B. Parras Jr., US Marines- Vietnam; Sal Lujan, US Army-Korea; and Francisco J. Barragan, Commander-UMAVA (US Marines & CA Army National Guard)

PLEASE CHERISH these Freedoms, and thank our Troops, our Veterans and our Families - and may God Bless America - Happy Birthday AMERICA!!! "

Gerardo Mouet & Jose Perez (city staff) were key to the success along with other members of the committee. They have the full list of the Independence Day Celebration Planning Committee and of the sponsors.  
For more information, or additional photos, please contact: 
Submitted by, Francisco J. Barragán, Commander-UMAVA
714.605.2544 cell 



Reckless…the mare. Sergeant Reckless. Anti-tank company/5th Marines

This horse was a pack horse during the Korean war, and she carried recoilless rifles, ammunition and supplies to Marines. Nothing too unusual about that, lots of animals got pressed into doing pack chores in many wars. 

But this horse did something more….during the battle for a location called Outpost Vegas, this mare made 50 trips up and down the hill, on the way up she carried ammunition, and on the way down she carried wounded soldiers… 

What was so amazing? Well she made every one of those trips without anyone leading her. 

I can imagine a horse carrying a wounded soldier, being smacked on the rump at the top of the hill, and heading back to the “safety” of the rear. But to imagine the same horse, loaded with ammunition, and  trudging back to the battle where artillery is going off, without  anyone leading her is unbelievable. To know that she would make 50 of  those trips is unheard of. Hell, how many horses would even make it back to the barn once, let alone return to you in the field one single time. 

So here is a clip of her story and photos to prove where she was and  what she did….  

She was retired at the Marine Corps Base in Camp Pendleton where a General issued the following order…she was never to carry any more  weight on her back except her own blankets. She died in 1968 at the  age of 20. 
P.S. How bad was the battle for Outpost Vegas…. Artillery rounds fell at the rate of 500 per hour, and only two men made it out alive without wounds. Just two. And a horse, and she was wounded twice. 

Val Valdez Gibbons 



    Rededication of Bernardo de Gálvez Plaque
    The Tejano Battle of Medina, a Fight to the Last Man 
    August 18, 198th anniversary of Texas' bloodiest clash
    Mexican Texans in the Civil War



Rededication of Bernardo de Gálvez Plaque
by Jim and Lynda Guidry
Saturday, June 11, 2011

The Texas Society Daughters of the American Revolution today hosted a ceremony to rededicate the Bernardo de Gálvez Plaque in front of the Hotel Galvez which is celebrating its 100th Anniversary this weekend. 
Katherine Ann Shackelford, state historian for the group, welcomed the crowd to the event. Listen: MP3 RealPlayer

“The Texas Society Daughters of the American Revolution has a long history with the city of Galveston,” Shackelford said. “The first DAR chapter was formed here, the George Washington Chapter, and it was organized June 17, 1895.”  Bernardo de Gálvez was recognized as an "unsung hero" of the American Revolution. 

George Dersheimer of the Sons of the American Revolution Bernardo de Gálvez Chapter also made a presentation.

Guests at the event included Ana Lia Galvez and Jose Galvez Anguita, descendents of Bernardo de Gálvez; and George Mitchell, the Galveston developer who restored the hotel.

“What we’ve done now is finish up the last $22 million in restoration,” Mitchell said. “Now you have the Queen of the Gulf in its true fashion as it was back in 1911. I want to say that it is a majestic hotel.”

In a brief conversation with Guidry News Service, Mitchell recalled the 75th anniversary of the hotel. Listen: MP3 RealPlayer.
For photos, go to: 

“Johnny put it on, Mitchell recalled, referring to his late brother Johnny Mitchell. “He always put on a good show. "
Sent by Wanda Garcia 



This Day in History (August 18, 1813)

The Tejano Battle of Medina
 a Fight to the Last Man 


On April 7, 1812 the Republican Army of the North crosses the Sabine River into Spanish Texas. Flying the Emerald Green Flag of Liberty, Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara and Augustus Magee bring with them 142 American and 158 Tejano volunteers. This rag tag army would be successful in every battle and every skirmish beginning with the capture of Nacogdoches, Trinidad, the four month siege of the presidio in Goliad, the Battle of Rosillio, the capture of San Antonio and the Battle of Alazan. 

 Unfortunately, Spain was still a super power and would send an army to quash the revolution.  On August 18th, 1813 the Republicans set out to fight in what would become the biggest and bloodiest battle ever fought on Texas soil; “The Battle of Medina,” consisting of approximately three hundred Americans, one to two hundred Native Americans and eight to nine hundred Tejanos. The well trained and disciplined Spanish Mexican Army had approximately 1830 combatants. The Republicans were ambushed and out of the 1400 only one hundred would survive, ninety of those survivors would be Americans, which proves beyond any shadow of a doubt that the ones with the most to lose would fight the hardest and that the Tejanos and their Native American allies stood and fought to the last man. This battle raged on for about 4 hours with our Tejanos, like Leonidas at Thermopylae, were determined to achieve victory or die trying. Little did they realize the sacrifice they would pay would be the ultimate. 

After the battle  the victorious Spanish Army marches in to San Antonio and five hundred Tejanos would be arrested and crammed in to a make shift prison ;seventeen suffocating in the scorching heat of night. The next day several would be released, however three hundred twenty seven would be detained and executed. Three a day would be taken out and shot, beheaded then their heads were placed on spikes and displayed around the square for all to see as a lesson to those that revolt against their Spanish Monarch. 

No one would be spared the wrath of General Arredondo, not even the women and children. Around three hundred of the wives, mothers and daughters of the Tejanos would be imprisoned, many of them would be brutally and repeatedly raped, several dying as a result of the brutality. The women were forced on their knees from 4 in the morning till 10 at night to grind the corn to make the tortillas to feed the despised Spanish army. And through the windows of their make shift prison the mothers could see their children searching for food and shelter. 

Short lived as it may have been, this Republic was a real Republic and this was a real revolution, a revolution of the people, by the people, and for the people and these were our ancestors, and to this day they have remained unknown and unrecognized for their ultimate sacrifice. 

Dan Arellano Author/Historian
PO Box 43012
Austin Texas 78704





Remember the Battle of Medina!

Today, August 18, is 198th anniversary
 of Texas' bloodiest clash.
By Scott Huddleston, San Antonio Express-News  


The deadliest battle in Texas history unfolded south of San Antonio 198 years ago today, yet it remains a painful, obscure event in the state's long struggle for independence.  Comparison:  



Historian Robert Thonhoff, a leading authority on the battle, said he'd love to see the site of the Aug. 18, 1813, conflict finally confirmed through recovery of archaeological treasures buried in soft, sandy soil before the battle's bicentennial in 2013.

“And I hope I'm alive to see it,” said Thonhoff, 81, who has researched the battle for nearly 30 years.

It was as hot a day as anyone could imagine, he said, when some 1,400 Anglos, Tejanos and American Indians with the Republican Army of the North, defending the first republic of Texas, were crushed by more than 1,800 Spanish Royal Army forces. About 1,300 rebels died in battle or were executed. Only 55 Spanish troops were killed.

The Spanish forces included a young lieutenant, Antonio López de Santa Anna, who would become the Mexican president and generalísimo best known in Texas history for ordering a predawn assault on the Alamo on March 6, 1836.


In his official report, Spanish Gen. Joaquín de Arredondo would mention “Don Antonio Santa Anna” as one of three men who “conducted themselves with great bravery” in the 1813 battle.

Tom Green, a fifth-generation Texan who attends an annual ceremony memorializing the battle, said Arredondo's take-no-prisoners approach had an early impact on Santa Anna, who years later declared himself the “Napoleon of the West.”

“He learned the brutality from the Spanish,” said Green, of Pearland.

The early 1800s were chaotic, violent years throughout much of the world. Napoleon Bonaparte was in power in Europe and had placed his older brother, Joseph, on the Spanish throne. The rebels in Texas declared independence from Spain on April 6, 1813, and flew a solid green flag as a symbol of the new republic.

The republican troops went south from San Antonio to meet Arredondo's army, which had marched east from Laredo but ran out of water and was lured into a dense, sandy oak forest on the morning of the battle. Their defeat after a four-hour conflict put an end to the republic.

A Spanish census had estimated the population of Texas at 3,177 in 1809, Thonhoff said. More than 40 percent of those inhabitants, including up to 900 Tejano men, were annihilated in the battle.

After the conflict, royalists controlled San Antonio, said Thonhoff, who co-authored a 1985 book on the battle, “Forgotten Battlefield.” Arredondo had women locked up and forced them to make tortillas for his army, as children begged in the streets for food. Ten men were executed each day for a month in the Plaza de Armas, the area of today's City Hall downtown.

“The experience was so terrible that people would not talk about it because it hurt so bad,” Thonhoff said. “It has literally been swept under the historical rug for nearly 200 years.”

That shocking event set the stage for the renowned Battle of the Alamo 23 years later, he said. While marching his army north from Mexico in 1836, Santa Anna directed his troops around the sandy ground where the Republican Army had been entrenched.



A commemoration of the Battle of Medina is set for 10 a.m. Saturday by a historical marker that was erected in 2005 near Espey in Atascosa County. Signs will direct motorists exiting west off U.S. 281 onto Old Pleasanton Road to the ceremony site. An afternoon seminar on the battle will start at 1 p.m. at the Pleasanton Church of Christ at 1003 N. Main St.

The annual ceremony is held where Thonhoff believes the heaviest fighting occurred, near Galvan Creek. Musket balls and other items have been found there, though not in high enough concentration to prove a link to the battle.

Thonhoff said he'd like to see a university or well-funded research group use ground-penetrating radar and aerial infrared surveys to find human bones, musket balls and other battle artifacts. Some history buffs have said a visitor center or even a state park could be created, once the site of the battle is  proved.

Since the conflict was a moving battle, with some republican troops fleeing toward San Antonio, the historical evidence might be deep in the soil and spread out over a north-south area one mile wide and four miles long, Thonhoff said.

“Hard evidence should be found in abundance by the bucket loads,” he said. “We've got the technology today to find it.”
Read more:

Sent by Joe López 





Secession and the Civil War deeply divided the Mexican Americans of Texas (Tejanos). Accusations of subversion and disloyalty before the war resulted in a reluctance by many of them to become involved in the conflict. Those who joined militia units in South Texas and on the frontier frequently did so out of a fear of being sent out of the state and away from their families. Some were able to avoid conscription by claiming to be residents of Mexico. 

Tejano frustrations during the Civil War are exemplified by the case of Capt. Adrián J. Vidal, who joined the Confederacy but deserted and enlisted in the Union Army, only to desert again and join the liberals in Mexico, where he was captured by the French and executed.

At least 2,500 Mexican Texans joined the Confederate Army. The most famous was Santos Benavides, who rose to command the Thirty-third Texas Cavalry as a colonel, and thus became the highest ranking Tejano to serve the Confederacy. Though it was ill equipped, frequently without food, and forced to march across vast expanses of South Texas and northern Mexico, the Thirty-third was never defeated in battle. Colonel Benavides, along with his two brothers, Refugio and Cristóbal, who both became captains in the regiment, compiled a brilliant record of border defense and were widely heralded as heroes throughout the Lone Star State. The Benavides brothers defeated a band of anti-Confederate revolutionaries commanded by Juan N. Cortina at Carrizo (Zapata) in May 1861 and on three separate occasions invaded northern Mexico in retaliation for Unionist-inspired guerilla raids into Texas. The Benavides brothers were also successful in driving off a small Union force that attacked Laredo in March 1864.

Many Tejanos who enlisted in the Confederate Army saw combat far from home. A few who joined Hood's Texas Brigade marched off to Virginia and fought in the battles of Gaines' Mill, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, and Appomattox Court House. Thirty Tejanos who enlisted from San Antonio, Eagle Pass, and the Fort Clark area joined Trevanion T. Teel's artillery company, and thirty-one more joined Charles L. Pyron's company, both in John R. Baylor's Second Texas Mounted Rifles, which marched across the deserts of West Texas to secure the Mesilla valley. These units were later incorporated into Gen. Henry Hopkins Sibley's Confederate Army of New Mexico and fought bravely at the battle of Valverde.

Other Mexican Texans from San Antonio served in the Sixth Texas Infantry and fought in several of the eastern campaigns, including the battles of Chattanooga, Chickamauga, Atlanta, and at Franklin and Nashville in John Bell Hood's calamitous invasion of Tennessee. Two of the better known Tejanos in the regiment were Antonio Bustillos and Eugenio Navarro. Others who served the Confederacy included the younger Manuel Yturri, a Kentucky teacher and scholar, who rose to the rank of captain in the Third Texas Infantry; and Lt. Joseph de la Garza, also from San Antonio, who died at Mansfield, Louisiana, in 1864 during the Red River Campaign. More than 300 Texas Mexicans from Refugio and Bexar counties joined the Eighth Texas Infantry. Two companies commanded by Joseph M. Peñaloza and José Ángel Navarro were almost entirely Tejano.

Other Texas Mexicans, resentful of growing non-Hispanic political dominance of their communities, enlisted in federal blue. Many joined the Union Army for the bounty money offered upon enlistment, but some enlisted because they opposed slavery or to satisfy grudges against landowners, attorneys, and politicians who had used the American legal system to take valuable land from Tejanos during the preceding decade. The federal Second Texas Cavalry, commanded by Col. John L. Haynes, a resident of Rio Grande City, was composed almost entirely of Tejanos and Mexican nationals recruited from the small villages along the banks of the Rio Grande. The regiment, which suffered an exceptionally high desertion rate, fought in the Rio Grande valley and later in Louisiana. Company commanders included George Treviño, Clemente Zapata, Cesario Falcón, and Mónico de Abrego. A number of Tejanos, acting as Union consorts, were actively engaged in the Nueces Strip. The most famous of the Union guerillas were Cecilio Balerio and his son Juan, who fought a bloody skirmish with Confederates at Los Patricios, fifty miles southwest of Banquete, on March 13, 1864.


Bette Gay Hunter Ash, Mexican Texans in the Civil War (M.A. thesis, East Texas State University, 1972). Arnoldo De León, They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes Toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821–1900 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983). Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies (Washington: Department of the Navy, 1894–1927). John Denny Riley, Santos Benavides: His Influence on the Lower Rio Grande, 1823–1891 (Ph.D. dissertation, Texas Christian University, 1976). Jerry Don Thompson, Mexican Texans in the Union Army (El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1986). Jerry Don Thompson, "Mutiny and Desertion on the Rio Grande: The Strange Saga of Captain Adrian J. Vidal," Military History of Texas and the Southwest 12 (1974). Jerry Don Thompson, Vaqueros in Blue and Gray (Austin: Presidial, 1976).

Jerry Thompson, "MEXICAN TEXANS IN THE CIVIL WAR," Handbook of Texas Online (, accessed June 14, 2011. Published by the Texas State Historical Association. 

Sent by Juan Marinez





Victor Saucedo-Rodriguez
Compiled by
Dahlia Guajardo-Cantu de Palacios




Ancestors of  Victor


Compiled by 

Dahlia Guajardo-Cantu de Palacios

All of these surnames below are the surnames of the ancestors of Victor.

Every time you go back a generation you double your grandparents.  Six generations back you have 64 grandparents.  So, if your parents or grandparents come from the same area as a friend of yours, it is likely that you will find out that you are primos.

These lines of Victor are primarily from Coahuila, Mexico and South Texas.

Marriage  April 20, 1947
Lady of Guadalupe, Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas







Ancestors of



1. Victor1 SAUCEDO-RODRIGUEZ, born 1 Oct 1922 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; died 4 Aug 2011 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; buried 11 Aug 2011 in San Fernando Cemetery # 2, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, son of 2. Miguel SAUCEDO-BERMEA and 3. Concepcion RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO.  He married on 20 Apr 1947 in Our Lady of Guadalupe, Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas Bertha GUAJARDO-CANTU, born in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas; christened in Big Wells, Dimmit County, Texas, daughter of YNES GUAJARDO-SANCHEZ and ANGELITA CANTU-GONZALEZ.  

     Children of Victor SAUCEDO-RODRIGUEZ and Bertha GUAJARDO-CANTU were as follows:

               i         Diane SAUCEDO-GUAJARDO, born in Cicero, Illinois.   

               ii         Michael SAUCEDO-GUAJARDO, born 12 Jan 1953 in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas; died 28 May 1972 in Yosemite California; buried in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.  

               iii        Albert Oscar SAUCEDO-GUAJARDO, born in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas.

               iv        Robert SAUCEDO-GUAJARDO, born  in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.  

               v        Martin SAUCEDO-GUAJARDO, born in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.  


Generation 2  

2. Miguel2 SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born 28 Jan 1896 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 16 Feb 1896 in San Fernando de Rosas, Saragosa, Coahuila, Mexico; died 2 Jun 1972 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; buried 5 Jun 1972 in San Fernando Cemetery # 2, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, son of 4. Gumecindo SAUCEDO-ANCIRA and 5. Antonia BERMEA-PENA.  He married 3. Concepcion RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO, born 1904 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico; died Nov 1998 in Yakima, Yakima, Washington; buried Nov 1998 in Yakima, Yakima, Washington, daughter of 6. Benito RODRIGUEZ and 7. Ma. Racquel NAVARRO.  

     Children of Miguel SAUCEDO-BERMEA and Concepcion RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO were as follows:

               i         Antonio1 SAUCEDO-RODRIGUEZ, born 14 Oct 1918 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; died 22 Dec 2000 in Yakima, Yakima, Washington; buried in Yakima, Yakima, Washington.  He married Ladie E THOMPSON.

               ii         Carmen1 SAUCEDO-RODRIGUEZ, born 1920 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; died in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; buried in San Fernando Cemetery, # 2, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. She married Jim FROMME.

     1        iii        Victor1 SAUCEDO-RODRIGUEZ, born 1 Oct 1922 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; died 4 Aug 2011 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; buried 11 Aug 2011 in San Fernando Cemetery # 2, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.  He married on 20 Apr 1947 in Our Lady of Guadalupe, Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas Bertha GUAJARDO-CANTU, born in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas; christened in Big Wells, Dimmit County, Texas, daughter of YNES GUAJARDO-SANCHEZ and ANGELITA CANTU-GONZALEZ.

               iv        Alfonso1 SAUCEDO-RODRIGUEZ, born 1925 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; died in Chicago, Cook County, IL. He married Racquel DIAZ.


Generation 3  

4. Gumecindo3 SAUCEDO-ANCIRA, born 18 May 1876 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 16 May 1929 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; buried 17 May 1929 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas, son of 8. Emiliano SAUCEDO-RIOS and 9. Ma. del Socorro ANCIRA-FUENTES.  He married in , , Mexico 5. Antonia BERMEA-PENA, born abt 1878 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 10 May 1952 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; buried in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas, daughter of 10. Deciderio BERMEA and 11. Francisca PENA.  

     Children of Gumecindo SAUCEDO-ANCIRA and Antonia BERMEA-PENA were as follows:

     2        i         Miguel2 SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born 28 Jan 1896 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 16 Feb 1896 in San Fernando de Rosas, Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 2 Jun 1972 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; buried 5 Jun 1972 in San Fernando Cemetery # 2, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.  He married Concepcion RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO, born 1904 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico; died Nov 1998 in Yakima, Yakima, Washington; buried Nov 1998 in Yakima, Yakima, Washington, daughter of Benito RODRIGUEZ and Ma. Racquel NAVARRO.

               ii         Juan2 SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born 24 Jun 1904 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 25 Jun 1974 in Crystal City, Zaval County, Texas; buried 27 Jun 1974 in Crystal City, Zaval County, Texas.  He married Paula GONZALEZ, born abt 1906 in Zaragoza, Coah., Mexico.

               iii        Gustavo2 SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born Aug 1906 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died in California.  He married Felis (---).

               iv        Henriqueta2 SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born 2 Aug 1908 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 26 Jan 1944 in Celina, Mercer County, Ohio; buried 28 Jan 1944 in Celina, Mercer County, Ohio.  She married Benito RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO, born in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas, son of Benito RODRIGUEZ and Ma. Racquel NAVARRO.

               v        Ninfa2 SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born 4 Aug 1908 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 5 Mar 1909 in San Fernando de Rosas, Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico.

               vi        Gumecindo2 SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born 1913 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico.  He married Aurora PEREZ.

               vii       Petra2 SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born 29 Jun 1916 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas.  She married Francisco CASTRO.

               viii      Consuelo2 SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born 2 Feb 1918 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; died Jan 2010 in Salinas,  , California.  She married on 23 Dec 1940 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas Jesus VALDEZ-GALARZA, born Oct 1908 in Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico; died 15 Jan 1964; buried 15 Jan 1964, son of Jesus VALDEZ and Margarita GALARZA.  


6. Benito3 RODRIGUEZ, born 21 Mar 1858 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico; died 5 Sep 1932 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; buried 6 Sep 1932 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas, son of 12. Epimenio RODRIGUEZ and 13. Ma. Francisca GALAN.  He married in 1890 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico 7. Ma. Racquel NAVARRO, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 29 Oct 1869 in Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; died 1953 in Stockton, , California; buried 1953 in Stockton, , California, daughter of 14. Susano NAVARRO and 15. Ma. Paula de Jesus YGLESIAS.  

     Children of Benito RODRIGUEZ and Ma. Racquel NAVARRO were as follows:

               i         Antonio2 RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO, born 13 Mar 1893 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico; died abt 1980 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; buried  in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.  He married in 1917 in Philadephia, Pennsylvania Mary Ann MAHON, born abt 1900 in Philadephia, Pennsylvania; died abt 1919 in Philadephia, Pennsylvania; buried in Philadephia, Pennsylvania.

               ii         Maria2 RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO, born in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico.  She married Alejandro MENCHACA, born in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico.

     3        iii        Concepcion2 RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO, born 1904 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico; died Nov 1998 in Yakima, Yakima, Washington; buried Nov 1998 in Yakima, Yakima, Washington.  She married Miguel SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born 28 Jan 1896 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 16 Feb 1896 in San Fernando de Rosas, Saragosa, Coahuila, Mexico; died 2 Jun 1972 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; buried 5 Jun 1972 in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, son of Gumecindo SAUCEDO-ANCIRA and Antonia BERMEA-PENA.

               iv        Epimenio2 RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO, born in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico.

               v        Guadalupe2 RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO, born in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico.

               vi        Benito2 RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO, born in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas.  He married Henriqueta SAUCEDO-BERMEA, born 2 Aug 1908 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 26 Jan 1944 in Celina, Mercer County, Ohio; buried 28 Jan 1944 in Celina, Mercer County, Ohio, daughter of Gumecindo SAUCEDO-ANCIRA and Antonia BERMEA-PENA.

               vii       Irene2 RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO, born in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas.


Generation 4  

8. Emiliano4 SAUCEDO-RIOS, born 1846 in Presidio del Rio Grande del Norte, Coah., Mexico, son of 16. Miguel SAUCEDO-FUENTES and 17. Seberiana RIOS.  He married on 5 Jan 1877 in San Fernando de Rosa, Zaragoza, Coah., Mexico 9. Ma. del Socorro ANCIRA-FUENTES, born in Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 15 Feb 1848 in Nuestra Senora de La Victoria, Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of 18. Juan Antonio ANCIRA-GONZALEZ and 19. Ma. Francisca FUENTES.  

     Children of Emiliano SAUCEDO-RIOS and Ma. del Socorro ANCIRA-FUENTES were as follows:

               i         Vicente3 SAUCEDO-ANCIRA, born 1871 in Hacienda de La Maroma, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 3 Feb 1874 in San Buenaventura, Coahuila, Mexico.

               ii         Francisca3 SAUCEDO-ANCIRA, born 1872 in Hacienda de La Maroma, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 3 Feb 1874 in San Buenaventura, Coahuila, Mexico.

               iii        Bibiana3 SAUCEDO-ANCIRA, christened 2 Jan 1876 in Our lady of Refuge, Eagle Pass, Maverick County, Texas.

     4        iv        Gumecindo3 SAUCEDO-ANCIRA, born 18 May 1876 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 16 May 1929 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; buried 17 May 1929 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas.  He married in , , Mexico Antonia BERMEA-PENA, born abt 1878 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 10 May 1952 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; buried in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas, daughter of Deciderio BERMEA and Francisca PENA.  


10. Deciderio4 BERMEA, born abt 1855 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico.  He married 11. Francisca PENA, born abt 1860 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas; buried in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.  

     Children of Deciderio BERMEA and Francisca PENA were as follows:

     5        i         Antonia3 BERMEA-PENA, born abt 1878 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 10 May 1952 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; buried in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas.  She married in , , Mexico Gumecindo SAUCEDO-ANCIRA, born 18 May 1876 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 16 May 1929 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; buried 17 May 1929 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas, son of Emiliano SAUCEDO-RIOS and Ma. del Socorro ANCIRA-FUENTES.

               ii         Micaela3 BERMEA PENA.  She married (---) PRADO.


12. Epimenio4 RODRIGUEZ, born abt 1835 in San Fernando De Rosas, Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico, son of 20. Juan Jose RODRIGUEZ and 21. Ma. RAMON.  He married on 25 Oct 1856 in San Andres, Nava, Coahuila, Mexico 13. Ma. Francisca GALAN, born abt 1837 in Nava, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of 22. Tomas GALAN and 23. Josefa MARTINEZ.  

     Children of Epimenio RODRIGUEZ and Ma. Francisca GALAN were as follows:

     6        i         Benito3 RODRIGUEZ, born 21 Mar 1858 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico; died 5 Sep 1932 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; buried 6 Sep 1932 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas.  He married in 1890 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico Ma. Racquel NAVARRO, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 29 Oct 1869 in Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; died 1953 in Stockton,California; buried 1953 in Stockton,California, daughter of Susano NAVARRO and Ma. Paula de Jesus YGLESIAS.  


14. Susano4 NAVARRO, born 1843 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico, son of 24. Victor NAVARRO and 25. Ma. Ysabel PEREZ.  He married (1) on 3 Feb 1867 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico 15. Ma. Paula de Jesus YGLESIAS, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 31 Jan 1839 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of 26. Felipe YGLESIAS and 27. Ma. del Refugio GAUNA; (2) Ma. Guadalupe MENCHACA.  

     Children of Susano NAVARRO and Ma. Paula de Jesus YGLESIAS were as follows:

               i         Ma. Ysabel3 NAVARRO, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 3 Nov 1867 in Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.

     7        ii         Ma. Racquel3 NAVARRO, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 29 Oct 1869 in Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; died 1953 in Stockton,California; buried 1953 in Stockton,California.  She married in 1890 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico Benito RODRIGUEZ, born 21 Mar 1858 in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico; died 5 Sep 1932 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas; buried 6 Sep 1932 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas, son of Epimenio RODRIGUEZ and Ma. Francisca GALAN.

               iii        Ma. del Refugio3 NAVARRO, born 1872 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 7 Sep 1872 in Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.


     Children of Susano NAVARRO and Ma. Guadalupe MENCHACA were as follows:

               i         Ma. del Rosario3 NAVARRO, born 13 Oct 1876 in Eagle Pass Maverick County, Texas; christened 21 Oct 1876 in Nuestra Senora del Refugio, Eagle Pass Maverick County, Texas.


Generation 5  

16. Miguel5 SAUCEDO-FUENTES, born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 28 Dec 1824 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, son of 28. Francisco SAUCEDO and 29. Ma. Gertrudis FUENTES.  He married 17. Seberiana RIOS, born abt 1828; died bef 5 Jan 1877.  

     Children of Miguel SAUCEDO-FUENTES and Seberiana RIOS were as follows:

     8        i         Emiliano4 SAUCEDO-RIOS, born 1846 in Presidio del Rio Grande del Norte, Coahuila., Mexico.  He married on 5 Jan 1877 in San Fernando de Rosa, Zaragoza, Coah., Mexico Ma. del Socorro ANCIRA-FUENTES, born in Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 15 Feb 1848 in Nuestra Senora de La Victoria, Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of Juan Antonio ANCIRA-GONZALEZ and Ma. Francisca FUENTES.  


18. Juan Antonio5 ANCIRA-GONZALEZ, born 1818 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 20 Sep 1818 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of 30. J de Jesus Sisto ANCIRA-LOZANO and 31. Ma. del Refugio GONZALEZ ABREGO.  He married on 17 Nov 1843 in Nuestra Senora De La Victoria, Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico 19. Ma. Francisca FUENTES, born abt 1825 in Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico.  

     Children of Juan Antonio ANCIRA-GONZALEZ and Ma. Francisca FUENTES were as follows:

               i         Ma. Josefa de Las Niebes4 ANCIRA-FUENTES, born 1844 in Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 11 Aug 1844 in Nuestra Senora de La Victoria, Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico.

               ii         Ma. Niebes del Refugio4 ANCIRA-FUENTES, born  in Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 4 Jan 1846 in Nuestra Senora de La Victoria, Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico.

     9        iii        Ma. del Socorro4 ANCIRA-FUENTES, born in Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 15 Feb 1848 in Nuestra Senora de La Victoria, Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico.  She married on 5 Jan 1877 in San Fernando de Rosa, Zaragoza, Coah., Mexico Emiliano SAUCEDO-RIOS, born 1846 in Presidio del Rio Grande del Norte, Coah., Mexico, son of Miguel SAUCEDO-FUENTES and Seberiana RIOS.

               iv        Ancelmo de Jesus4 ANCIRA-FUENTES, born 1857 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 25 Apr 1857 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

               v        Ma. del Refugio4 ANCIRA-FUENTES, born 1859 in Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 20 Jun 1859 in Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico.

               vi        Ma. Josefina4 ANCIRA-FUENTES, born Aug 1869 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 2 Apr 1935 in Del Rio, Valverde County, Texas.  She married Reymundo VILLARREAL GAUNA, born 8 Apr 1866 in Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died 10 Jul 1947 in Kerrville, , Texas.  


20. Juan Jose5 RODRIGUEZ, born abt 1810 in , Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico; died bef 25 Oct 1856.  He married 21. Ma. RAMON, born abt 1815.  

     Children of Juan Jose RODRIGUEZ and Ma. RAMON were as follows:

     12      i         Epimenio4 RODRIGUEZ, born abt 1835 in, Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico.  He married on 25 Oct 1856 in San Andres, Nava, Coahuila, Mexico Ma. Francisca GALAN, born abt 1837 in Nava, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of Tomas GALAN and Josefa MARTINEZ.  


22. Tomas5 GALAN, born in Nava, Coahuila, Mexico; died bef 25 Oct 1856.  He married 23. Josefa MARTINEZ, born in Nava, Coahuila, Mexico; died bef 25 Oct 1856.  

     Children of Tomas GALAN and Josefa MARTINEZ were as follows:

     13      i         Ma. Francisca4 GALAN, born abt 1837 in Nava, Coahuila, Mexico.  She married on 25 Oct 1856 in San Andres, Nava, Coahuila, Mexico Epimenio RODRIGUEZ, born abt 1835 in, Zaragoza, Coahuila, Mexico, son of Juan Jose RODRIGUEZ and Ma. RAMON.  


24. Victor5 NAVARRO, born abt 1820 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico, son of 32. Pedro NAVARRO and 33. Ma. Petra SANCHEZ.  He married on 5 Aug 1840 in Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico 25. Ma. Ysabel PEREZ, born abt 1825 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of 34. Faustino PEREZ and 35. Ma. del Refugio MORADO.  

     Children of Victor NAVARRO and Ma. Ysabel PEREZ were as follows:

     14      i         Susano4 NAVARRO, born 1843 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.  He married (1) on 3 Feb 1867 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico Ma. Paula de Jesus YGLESIAS, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 31 Jan 1839 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of Felipe YGLESIAS and Ma. del Refugio GAUNA; (2) Ma. Guadalupe MENCHACA.

               ii         Jose Alvino4 NAVARRO, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 1 Mar 1844 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.

               iii        Jose Ma.4 NAVARRO, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 13 Apr 1846 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.

               iv        Jose Pedro4 NAVARRO, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 21 Jan 1849 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.  


26. Felipe5 YGLESIAS, born abt 1810 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.  He married on 16 Jun 1833 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico 27. Ma. del Refugio GAUNA, born abt 1815 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.  

     Children of Felipe YGLESIAS and Ma. del Refugio GAUNA were as follows:

               i         MA. GENOVEVA DE JESUS4 YGLESIAS, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 26 Mar 1834 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.

     15      ii         Ma. Paula de Jesus4 YGLESIAS, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 31 Jan 1839 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.  She married (1) on 3 Feb 1867 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico Susano NAVARRO, born 1843 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico, son of Victor NAVARRO and Ma. Ysabel PEREZ; (2) Asencion GOMEZ.


Generation 6  

28. Francisco6 SAUCEDO, born abt 1800 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.  He married 29. Ma. Gertrudis FUENTES, born abt 1805 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.  

     Children of Francisco SAUCEDO and Ma. Gertrudis FUENTES were as follows:

     16      i         Miguel5 SAUCEDO-FUENTES, born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 28 Dec 1824 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.  He married Seberiana RIOS, born abt 1828; died bef 5 Jan 1877.  


30. Jose de Jesus Sisto6 ANCIRA-LOZANO, born 1792 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 4 Apr 1792 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of 36. Jph. Francisco Marciano ANCIRA GONZALEZ and 37. Ana Ma. Alvira LOZANO RODRIGUEZ.  He married 31. Ma. del Refugio GONZALEZ ABREGO, born abt 1795 in Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of 38. Jose Ignacio GONZALEZ-FLORES and 39. Ma. Ignacia FLORES ABREGO.  

     Children of J de Jesus Sisto ANCIRA-LOZANO and Ma. del Refugio GONZALEZ ABREGO were as follows:

               i         Jose Indalecio Eugenio5 ANCIRA-GONZALEZ, born 1817 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 17 Nov 1817 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

     18      ii         Juan Antonio5 ANCIRA-GONZALEZ, born 1818 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 20 Sep 1818 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married on 17 Nov 1843 in Nuestra Senora De La Victoria, Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico Ma. Francisca FUENTES, born abt 1825 in Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico.  


32. Pedro6 NAVARRO, born abt 1800 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.  He married 33. Ma. Petra SANCHEZ, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; died bef 5 Aug 1840.  

     Children of Pedro NAVARRO and Ma. Petra SANCHEZ were as follows:

     24      i         Victor5 NAVARRO, born abt 1820 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.  He married on 5 Aug 1840 in Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico Ma. Ysabel PEREZ, born abt 1825 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of Faustino PEREZ and Ma. del Refugio MORADO.  


34. Faustino6 PEREZ, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.  He married on 3 Mar 1821 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico 35. Ma. del Refugio MORADO, born in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.  

     Children of Faustino PEREZ and Ma. del Refugio MORADO were as follows:

     25      i         Ma. Ysabel5 PEREZ, born abt 1825 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.  She married on 5 Aug 1840 in Santa Rosa de Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico Victor NAVARRO, born abt 1820 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico, son of Pedro NAVARRO and Ma. Petra SANCHEZ.

               ii         Jose Eusebio5 PEREZ, born 1833 in Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 8 Mar 1833 in Santa Rosa De Lima, Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.


Generation 7  

36. Jph. Francisco Marciano7 ANCIRA GONZALEZ, born 30 Oct 1764 in Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 8 Nov 1764 in San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Nuevo leon, Mexico; died 10 Dec 1830 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of Diego PEREZ DE ANCIRA and Ma. Dolores GONZALEZ PAREDES.  He married (1) on 10 Apr 1815 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Maria Del Pilar AMAYA-FLORES, born in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died bef 10 Dec 1830, daughter of Ramon AMAYA and Juana FLORES; (2) on 6 Aug 1785 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico 37. Ana Ma. Alvira LOZANO RODRIGUEZ, daughter of JUAN ANGEL LOZANO-CAVAZOS and Ma. Guadalupe RODRIGUEZ QUIROGA-GARZA.  

     Children of Jph. Francisco Marciano ANCIRA GONZALEZ and Maria Del Pilar AMAYA-FLORES were as follows:

               i         Jose Maria de Jesus6 ANCIRA-AMAYA, born 1805 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 21 Mar 1805 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married Monica IBARRA-LOZANO, born abt 1805 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of Rafael IBARRA and Petra LOZANO.

               ii         Jose Trinidad de Las Nieves6 ANCIRA-AMAYA, born 4 Aug 1820 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 11 Aug 1820 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

               iii        Jose Fernando6 ANCIRA-AMAYA, born 1820 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 12 Aug 1820 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

               iv        Ma.Teresa de Jesus6 ANCIRA-AMAYA, died 2 Aug 1819 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

               v        Ma. del Pilar6 ANCIRA-AMAYA, died 26 Aug 1825 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


     Children of Jph. Francisco Marciano ANCIRA GONZALEZ and Ana Ma. Alvira LOZANO RODRIGUEZ were as follows:

     30      i         J de Jesus Sisto6 ANCIRA-LOZANO, born 1792 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 4 Apr 1792 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married Ma. del Refugio GONZALEZ ABREGO, born abt 1795 in Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of Jose Ignacio GONZALEZ-FLORES and Ma. Ignacia FLORES ABREGO.

               ii         Ma. del Socorro6 ANCIRA-LOZANO, born 1813 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  She married on 9 Sep 1823 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Jose Ignacio GONZALEZ ABREGO, born in Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of Jose Ignacio GONZALEZ-FLORES and Ma. Ignacia FLORES ABREGO.

               iii        Victoriano6 ANCIRA-LOZANO.  


38. Jose Ignacio7 GONZALEZ-FLORES, born 1800 in Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 1854 in Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico, son of Ignacio GONZALEZ GALINDO and Ignacia FLORES-CARDENAS.  He married 39. Ma. Ignacia FLORES ABREGO, born in Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  

     Children of Jose Ignacio GONZALEZ-FLORES and Ma. Ignacia FLORES ABREGO were as follows:

     31      i         Ma. del Refugio6 GONZALEZ ABREGO, born abt 1795 in Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  She married Jose de Jesus Sisto ANCIRA-LOZANO, born 1792 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 4 Apr 1792 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of Jph. Francisco Marciano ANCIRA GONZALEZ and Ana Ma. Alvira LOZANO RODRIGUEZ.

               ii         Jose Ignacio6 GONZALEZ ABREGO, born in Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married on 9 Sep 1823 in San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Ma. del Socorro ANCIRA-LOZANO, born 1813 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of Jph. Francisco Marciano ANCIRA GONZALEZ and Ana Ma. Alvira LOZANO RODRIGUEZ.  


Compiled and prepared by

Dahlia Guajardo-Cantu de Palacios,, 805 581-6465






   My Cousin – Gilbert ‘Magu’ Lujan by Elisa Perez Lujan
   Benches, Bones, and Big Toes by Ben Romero




My Cousin – Gilbert ‘Magu’ Lujan

by Elisa Perez Lujan 

August 3, 2011

Gilbert ‘Magu’ Lujan was one of the seventeen grandchildren of Esteban Lujan.  His father Alberto was a godson of General Toribio Ortega and Fermina Juarez (See Blogs “Fermina Juarez: Viuda de Toribio Ortega” and  “General Toribio Ortega”).  Gilbert, who was very interested in our Indigenous Roots and our extended La Junta Tribe, celebrated the day that I was able to document our Apache great-great-great- grandfather (see Blogs “My Apache” and “Digging Up The Roots”).

Because I married young, and my Tio Alberto married older, Magu and his brother Richie were contemporaries of my own boys.  Richie and my son David sang in a “garage band” such as sprung up all over L.A. around the time of La Bamba and Richie Valens.

My oldest son, Ruben, and his friend Philip Russo (see Blog “Chico Cano - Did He or Did He Not”) were into restoring 1949 Chevy coupes upholstered in Tuck-and-Roll leather from Tijuana, Mex.  Gilbert never got into either one of them.  But… he did tell me repeatedly that it was then that his vision of  “Caruchas“, as related to the Chicano experience, took root.

In the years that followed Gilbert moved to Fresno, joined the Air Force, and was mostly living outside of L.A. County.  By the time he returned he had already been involved with the Cesar Chavez Movement and “The Royal Chicano Air Force”, which the FBI investigated as “subversive”.  The Chicano Air Force members then confessed that they had a squadron of  “Adobe” planes,  but they were having a hard time getting them off the ground!

By then Gilbert was more deeply involved in his art and had developed his signature approach.  However, we were to have many a heated argument about what I considered his promotion of negative aspects of our marginal existence.  His views were labeled by some as radical.  Gilbert never thought of himself as an extremist. He once asked,  ”How does wanting parity make me a radical?”

On August 29, 1970, Gilbert and Richie stopped by my house.  They were on their way to a peaceful protest against the “disproportionate number of Chicanos being killed in Vietnam.”  They were back within a few hours–ashen faced and shaken by what had turned into a frightening scene.  We did not yet know that LA Times reporter Ruben Salazar had been killed by a police deputy who fired a tear gas projectile into a crowded bar where Salazar was sipping on a cold beer.

The incident only served to solidify Magu’s passionate, verbal pursuit of social justice.  Later, despite having achieved world-wide fame, he never wavered from his initial path. Gentle and soft-spoken, Magu would turn livid when speaking in defense of “La Raza” — then do a turnabout to speak lovingly of our indigenous roots and our “costumbres”.  He remained the same unassuming “Vato” to the end.  I recall teasing him about his signature Khaki pants—I think he continued to wear them until they became hard to find.

As of now, much is being written about Magu’s contribution to the art world.  But for me, his greatest legacy is having enabled “Raza” to shed the negative cloak that enveloped us for too long.  Gilbert had attained national social influence.


Viva Gilberto Magu Lujan!.   Que Descanse en Paz!

Prima Elisa Perez



Pictured : Gilbert Lujan, Elisa Lujan Perez, Sergio Hernandez at Magulandia




By Jerry Javier Luján (Sunday July 24, 2011 )



Magú, ya te nos fuiste

Y en cada corazón que tocaste, existe

Mucho amor y respeto de los tantos que conosiste.


Ya se nos fué un grán amigo, mi primo

Se nos fué, peros sabemos que seguirá

Pintanto con sus colores ardientes,

Los cuales fueron su marca, signiatura y su tradición.


Te vamos a extrañar de todo corazón hermano

De todo lo que compartiste,

Las pláticas pesadas de tu Mental Menudo

Y más que todo, lo gentíl que fuiste


Ya se nos fué otro veterano

Y grán piloto del Royal Chicano Air Force

Y uno del los mentados, “Los Four”


Pero más que nada, te damos las gracias

Por ver convivido aquí entre nos,

Y la riqueza que nos dejaste de todas tus obras

Por las cuales dejaste tu huella bien marcada


Siempre vivirás dentro de nuestras memorias,

Tantas memorias inolvidables

Que descances en paz mientras sigues tu

Jornada eterna,  alla en Magulandia.


                                                        (con safos)





My wife and I returned home from the Clovis Farmer’s Market laden with fresh fruits and vegetables. Dahlia, my three-year-old granddaughter, lost no time in selecting two large strawberries from one basket, while eyeing a bag of yellow cherries.

“What is that, Grandpa?”

“These are cherries,” I said. “Do you want some?”

Her eyes lit up. “Uh-huh,” she answered, extending a small, chubby hand.

“Let me wash them,” I said. “Then take a few to your mom and have a few of them for yourself.”

The cherries were sweet, plump, and juicy. Dahlia ran to her mother while biting into one. “Mommy, Grandpa gave us sweet fruit. These are called cherries, but be careful. They have rocks.”

It reminded me of my early childhood and what we used to call cherry and apricot pits; huesos, the Spanish word for bones.

I had a large homemade highchair that I used until the age of five, when I finally graduated to the tarima (bench). Like many large Hispanic households of the 1950‘s, our dinner table was surrounded by benches on each of the long sides and a chair on either end for Mom and Dad. My high chair was usually wedged next to Mom. Benches had the advantage of accommodating several children.

My early experience with the tarima was unfavorable. On a late spring morning, my siblings had returned from our grandfather’s house with small buckets full of cherries and apricots. They placed them on the table and many hands dipped into the buckets, followed by joyful sounds of sweet fruit indulgence. I climbed on my high chair and begged for fruit, always at the mercy of whatever my siblings passed in my direction.

After everyone left the kitchen for other adventures, I was still fixated on the buckets of fruit. I climbed off my chair and tried to climb on the bench. It rocked back in my direction and landed on my big toe.

The throbbing pain lingered for what seemed like days and my big toe looked twice the size of the one on my other foot. My brother, Louie thought it resembled a large cherry, while my sister, Marcella insisted it looked like a ciruela (plum). Their comments did little to cheer me up, but I received some much-needed sympathy from my oldest sisters, Ramona and Virginia. They washed and gave me all the apricots and cherries I could eat, first removing and disposing of the huesos.

The toenail turned black and eventually fell off, giving my toe a new look. Louie thought it resembled a small potato, while Marcella insisted it looked like a baby’s bottom.

Ben Romero
Author of Chicken Beaks book series




   1940 census images and index on Ancestry

    Footnote Becomes Folds3
National Homes for Disabled Soldiers




Wednesday, August 17, 2011
1940 Census Will be Free on
Posted by Diane Haddad 

Subscription genealogy website has decided to make the 1940 census images and index—which will be on the site after the 1940 census is opened next year for research—free to search and view through 2013. 

That’ll be more than 3.8 million images with 130 million records. Even better, they’ll be indexed by 45 fields, meaning you’ll be able to search on the name, street address, county, state, parents’ birthplaces and more. 

The records won’t be on right when the census is released April 2, 2012.’s press release says they’ll commence “streaming onto the website in mid-April 2012.” 

Can’t wait until mid-April? The record images will be available first on the National Archives’ website, but they won’t be searchable right away by name. Click here to see our post about finding your ancestors’ 1940 census enumeration district. 

Get help with your census research—including preparing for the release of the 1940 census records—in the May 2010 Family Tree Magazine.




Footnote Becomes Folds3



Today we announced our intention to create the finest and most comprehensive collection of U.S. Military records available on the internet and changed the name of the site from Footnote to Fold3.  This announcement isn’t a complete change from what we’ve been doing.  Some of our best and most popular work has been on military titles like the Revolutionary War Pension files, the Civil War Service Records and “Widows’ Pensions,” WWII Missing Air Crew Reports and the Interactive Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall.


This new focus will direct our content plans and allow us to organize the site around military records.  In the future we’ll make other changes that will help us build the best online source for records related to the U.S. military, the men and women who have served and the families who support them.

You will still be able to access the great non-military records previously found on Footnote, but we’ll be adding millions of U.S. military records, like these  already available. 

  • Word War II “Old Man’s Draft” Cards
  • War of 1812 Pension Files
  • Mexican War Service Records
  • World War I Officer Experience Reports
  • Confederate Casualty Reports

Sent by 




California, Sawtelle—
National Homes 
for Disabled Soldiers, 

Today, August 24th - FamilySearch has released the next in a great lineup of California Projects, The US, California, Sawtelle—National Homes for Disabled Soldiers, 1866–1938. These records give military history (unit(s), enlistment date, discharge date); personal history (birth date and place, description, occupation, religion, residence after discharge from home); history while in the home including reason for discharge; and general information which can include pension number and more.

The Sawtelle Veterans Home was a care home for disabled American veterans in what is today part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area . The Home, formally the Pacific Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, was established in 1887 on part of Rancho San Vicente y Santa Monica lands donated by Senator John P. Jones and Arcadia B. de Baker. By 1900 with over 1000 residents a new hospital was built. This in turn was replaced in 1927 by the Wadsworth Hospital." (Wikipedia)

This appears to be an easy project, two entries per image, and with the speed of our current indexers may be gone before this project update is printed in the newsletter. If so, watch for other California projects. I will continue to send out a notice to the CSGA membership and society lists when the projects are launched. If you would like to be added to a separate project notification list, send an email to and I will make that happen. 









Dr. Juan Martinez Cruzado, a geneticist from the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez designed an island-wide DNA survey, The study funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, shows that 61 percent of all Puerto Ricans have Amerindian mitochondrial DNA, 27 percent have African and 12 percent Caucasian. (Nuclear DNA, or the genetic material present in a gene's nucleus, is inherited in equal parts from one's father and mother. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from one's mother and does not change or blend with other materials over time.)

In other words a majority of Puerto Ricans have Taino blood. "Our study showed there was assimilation," Martinez Cruzado explained, "but the people were not extinguished.

"The people were assimilated into a new colonial order and became mixed. That's why Puerto Ricans are: Indians mixed with Africans and Spaniards," he asserted.  "It is clear that the influence of Taino culture was very strong up to about 200 years ago. 

If we could conduct this same study on the Puerto Ricans from those times, the figure would show that 80 percent of the people had Indian heritage."

Another historical moment that should receive more attention involves the story of a group of Tainos who, after 200 years of absence from official head-counts, appeared in a military census from the 1790s. In this episode, a colonial military census noted that all of a sudden there were 2,000 Indians living in a northwestern mountain region. "These were Indians who the Spanish had placed on the tiny island of Mona (just off the western coast of Puerto Rico) who survived in isolation and then were brought over," Martinez Cruzado said.

Martinez Cruzado noted how many customs and history were handed down through oral tradition. To this day on the island, there are many people who use medicinal plants and farming methods that come directly from the Tainos. This is especially true of the areas once known as Indieras, or Indian Zones. EXCERPTS FROM THIS WEBSITE: 


It should to be mentioned, that these Taino American Indians people had been forcefully removed from Puerto Rico by the US United States Federal Government and placed in their American Indian Schools back in 1898. It should further be noted that the ELA Commonwealth Government of Puerto Rico still publicly claims that Taino Indians as an ethnic American Indian race of Puerto Rico do not exist. Ask yourself: Is this not a very foolish public statement ?


By Principal Chief Pedro Guanikeyu Torres

MY PURPOSE OF ATTENDING THE UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU MEETING: was to bring them a report by our Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Nation of Boriken Puerto Rico and its protest for Puerto Rico's US Census representatives and their direct violation of the US Government OBM (Office of Budget Management) ruling on Race and Ethnicity by the US Census representatives in Puerto Rico and the United States. I informed them of the census problem that was going on with the US Census in Puerto Rico. 

I spoke with the representatives of the Hispanic Advisory Committee and directly spoke with Ms. Flame of (HAC) and the other committee members about the issue relating to the Taino American Indians of Puerto Rico and the United States. . . . they had no idea that there were any surviving Taino Indians in Puerto Rico and that American Indians are not only from the United States. "I am Principal Chief Pedro Guanikeyu Torres. 

I come here today as an invited Representative of the Jatibonicu Taino Tribal Nation of Puerto Rico, Florida and New Jersey and its Taino Tribal Council Government, to report an unhappy situation that has occurred within Puerto Rico's past history and to the present US Census. I would first like to say that we the Tainos are the very first American Indian Nation to greet and meet Christopher Columbus on October 12, 1492. ||

We are the Native American people of the Caribbean and Florida region of the Americas, who live a marginal (Over looked) existence as American Indian people. We as a people have been placed under a false category of extinction. ...I say that we the Tainos are still here.This foolish extinction story was and still is being spread. The aforementioned territories are the past traditional homelands of the Taino tribal nations of the Caribbean and Florida. In Puerto Rico, in a census in 1799 there was a documented contingent of some 2,302 pure natives of Taino Indian blood living in the country and who had settled in the Central Cordillera (Puerto Rico's Central Mountain Range). 

These places today are known by our people as the Indieras (Indian Lands). In the year 1820, the term "Indio" or Indian was officially removed as a racial category from all Puerto Rico census reports. I would now like further speak on a direct violation of the OBM ruling on Race and Ethnicity as it applies the US Census and the US territory of Puerto Rico.

If we take all the above data into account it is evident that the time has come to throw overboard the fallacy of the extermination of the native population. . . It might also have been true that the colonists who held natives under the encomienda exaggerated the dissapearance of the native element to force the limitless introduction of Negro slaves, which were not subject to the ordinances or scruples ( imposed by Queen Isabela) that impeded the exploitation of native labourers. It is not due to this crossbreeding that we do not consider ourselves Arawaks, nor Spaniards, nor Negroes, but rather as Puerto Ricans?

Sent by Juan Marinez 



'Isla Borinken' ...1493

Early History of Boriken or Puerto Rico:

Carmen Yuisa Baguanamey Colon Delgado is the hereditary chief of the Taino Turabo Tribe from the line of Chief Caguax, She is also great-granddaughter of Jose Delgado Rojas, the owner of the Delgado Royal Grant. The Delgado royal grant, the largest grant ever given to anyone by the King of Spain was their ancient territorial tribal land; for the Delgado clan of the Turabo River Valley are the descendants of the Chiefs who ruled this ancient territory, prior to the colonizer's arrival.  

"I have included here an attachment of a document.
This is a translation completed by myself from the Spanish language 
of a write up done by our Caguas town historian on my grandfather Caguax "
...Carmen Delgado. Complete translation on this website.   

The following is adapted from the original translation:  

Columbus arrived in Hispanola December 25, 1492 and goes ashore. With the wood from the Santa Maria they build a fort, called Navidad. He left 39 men there and sailed back to Spain.  

The next year, when he returned all were dead and the fort burned. They had not expected the Taino to become violent. When Ponce de Leon gets his mandate to conquer Boriken (Puerto Rico) in 1506 he arrives in Puerto Rico and establishes a treaty of no aggression with the Sovereign chief of Natives, Chief Aguebana ( Like the river that was named after him). Juan Gonzalez accompanied him as interpreter. He was very well received and presented with gifts. Ponce de Leon's captain was called Luis de Anasco.  

Both the chief and Ponce de Leon gave each other their names. It was the mother of the chief who had advised the indians to be pacific, if they did not wish to die at their hands. She had already heard of some of the incidents in Hispanola of the Spaniards killing indians. The Spanish were aware that the native people had communication with each other and were therefore very careful not to cause them to be enemies at first.  

The colonization of Puerto Rico began in a peaceful manner. The Indians were not really peaceful but tried it out that way in the beginning because of the 'Guaityau' or blood pact carried out between Ponce de Leon and Chief Agueybana . There had already been much bloodshed in Hispanola.  

After the pact was made it was the Spaniards broke the Guaytiaue and began treating the natives as mere objects, not human beings, they were not respected by the invaders. They enslaved the people. ( as their charter from Spain had given them leave to do so). The natives who would not allow the Spanish to enslave them took to fighting them.

When the Spanish first arrived Boriken was full of gold , Ponce de Leon 'gave' the indian chiefs to the conquistadores to work their fields and gold mines. They were then treated inhumanely and resisted. The consequences of this resistance were complicated by disease the native could not well resist.  

There was a Catholic named Father Antonio Montesino, a Dominican priest who was in charge of delivering the Advent Sermon which he used to address the wrongs being done to the natives.  

"Under whose authority have you unleashed such a detestable war against this people who were in peaceful possession of their lands? How can you oppress and work them without feeding them or healing them of their sickness. Aren't you under the obligation of living them as your own selves? Don't you understand this? Don't you feel it? On such lethargic ground you sleep. . . Rest assured that, in the present state you are in, there's no salvation for you, the same as there is none for those who reject Jesus' law.  

Also Fray Bartomome de Las Casa opposed the slavery. It was practically impossible to keep passive under such terrible conditions and the natives rose up to defend themselves.

For all practical purposes the natives as a race of people were reduced in numbers dramatically in Puerto Rico, due to the abuse perpetrated on them by the colonizers. There were other factors, mass suicide, exodus to other places and diseases. The uprisings of 1511 and 1513 greatly reduced the number of natives on the island.  

The Europeans then began importing black slaves to the island.  

Caguax or Caguas was the Chief of the east central portion of the island. His territory was in the Turabo River Valley and was made up of Aguas Buenas, San Lorenzo, Gurabo, Juncos and Las Piedras. After the uprising of 1511, in which he allegedly did not participate, tradition has it that he embraced Catholicism and remained peaceful but he was amongst those Chiefs ( as was Don Alonso, another chief) who were 'reduced' and sent away to eventually die in the Dominican Republic ( or perhaps it was in Utuado) away from their own people. They were the only ones to accept this 'amnesty' . Other chiefs chose to adopt an attitude of civil disobedience, even though accepting they would have to live with the Spaniards.  

Juan Ceron ( who became governor) took charge of Chief Mana, Chief Guacabo , chief Orocovix and Chief Caguas and he in turn gave them to whom he saw fit. At this point Chief Caguas no longer felt he needed to up hold his peace pact with Ponce de Leon .

The natives continued to fight. 16 chiefs were captured, betrayed by a native, and extradited to Hispanola, for conspiracy.  

The indians dispersed into the central mountains, some of the people hiding in caves, when they were captured they were enslaved and put to work in the mines.  

Many Puerto Ricans are mestizo because in those days the Catholic priests were in favor of marrying off the daughters of Taino Chiefs to the second sons of Spaniards to avoid blood shed. In all reality, what this did for them was obtain large tracks of land from the Natives and free labor.  

"When the power of love, overcomes the love of power, the world will know peace."

Jimi Hendrix1942 - 1970

 "Guakia taino cuan yahabo" . . . . . "we the taino are still here"





   Sept 10th: Join SHHAR in Celebrating it’s 25th anniversary 
Sept 10th:  A Class Action Exhibit 

Sept 24th: Logan Historical Barrio Reunion
   Sept 24th: Victorian Tea Party, Heritage Museum of Orange County 
   Until Sept 29th: Works by Chicano artist Emigdio Vasquez on display at CSUF
   Oct 15th: Voices in the Wind: Writing Retreat with Elva Treviño Hart
   Nov 5th:    Feria de Historia Familiar
   Anaheim High School Alumni Lydia Cano Recognized



Invites you to Celebrate SHHAR's 25th Anniversary 
on Saturday September 10th, 9:30 am to 12 noon

Learn about the social life of Early California families
from  Richard and Ruth Duree
historians, reenactors, and period dancers
Meet OC researchers with early 

FREE. . .  NO COST . . . FREE

Come and meet our new Board members: 
Virginia Gill, Graciela Lozano, Dan Reyna, and Letty Rodella

Orange Multi-Regional Family History Center
674 S. Yorba, Orange, 92863-6471

9:30 am:               Come early and with the help of SHHAR Board members, start your own family history  research.
10:15 am:             Gather for introductions and announcements
                             Special guests:  Yvonne Gonzalez Duncan, Heritage Museum of Orange County
                                                        Lupe Trujillo Fisher, organizer, Westminster City Dia de la Familia
                                                        Ricardo Valverde, organizer Olive St. Reunion 
                                                        Mary Acosta Garcia, Author of Santa Ana's Logan Barrio: It's History, Stories, and Families
                                                        Guy Dickson, Living History reenactor

10:45 - 11:30      California Fandangos of the 1800s,  the clothes, music and dance of Early Californio families 
                                                         presented by Richard and Ruth Duree

11:30 - Noon      Pan de dulce, cake, and drinks

For more information, call Mimi 714-894-8161



"A Class Action"  Sept. 10

Friends, colleagues, and students

I am writing to invite you to our opening event/reception for "A Class Action: The Grassroots Struggle for School Desegregation in California." An invitation for you and a guest is attached.  The grand opening is Saturday, September 10, at the Old Orange County Courthouse in Santa Ana. You are welcome to arrive anytime after 4:00. The short program will begin at 5:15.

Please note that the RSVP deadline is September 1. If you have any questions, please let me know. I hope to see you there!
Raymond W. Rast, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of History
Associate Director, Center for Oral and Public History
California State University, Fullerton

Sent by Yvonne Gonzalez Duncan 



Dia de la Familia 

Sunday, September 11, 2011
Sigler Park, 7200 Plaza St.
1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.

Community Information Booths available free to local groups for sharing their services.

Great Entertainment 
and Delicious Food.  Good opportunity for fund raising.

Remembrance of September 11th, 1:00 p.m.
Brief program will include flag ceremony, moment of silence & remarks

City of Westminster    Community Services & Recreation Department   (714) 895-2860
For more information, call Lupe Trujillo Fisher, 714-891-7126





The Logan Historical Barrio*

invites you to The 11th Barrio Reunion


Saturday, September 24, 2011

12 Noon - 6PM
At Chepa’s Park
(Formerly Logan Park)  

1009 Custer St.
Santa Ana, CA.  92701
(Corner Custer/Stafford St.)

Park Phone (714) 571-4263


·      Music, Potluck, Prizes,

·      Photo Display Contest

·      Bring Your Logan Memories With You.

·      Volunteers  And  Raffle Donations Needed, Suggestions Are Welcomed






Bring copies of  your photos, 
we are not responsible for loss of originals

For More Info:

Norma Cardona Peralta       (714) 543-5743
Clara Alvarado Soria          (714) 832-2836
Helen Parga Moraga            (714) 771– 4474
Cecelia Andrade Rodriguez (714) 697-4594
Mary Acosta Garcia             (714) 415-8629

*Logan barrio streets were platted in 1886, while still part of Los Angeles County, even before Orange County was Created.






Emigdio Vasquez is surrounded by his artwork last year at Grand Central Art Center's
 "Detras de las Cortinas" exhibit. (Karen Tapia/CSUF)


Works by Emigdio Vasquez, a well-known Chicano artist who has worked in Orange County for decades, are display at Cal State Fullerton.  A public opening reception was held Aug. 27, at the Begovich Gallery.  Posted by Ron Gonzales. 

Vasquez, 72, who received both bachelor’s and master’s degrees at CSUF in the 1970s, is known for working in the photo-realistic style. He began oil painting in the late 1950s and creating murals in the 1960s. Vasquez has created more than 20 murals throughout Orange County, in such locations as CSUF, the Fullerton Museum Auditorium, Anaheim City Hall, and the Cesar Chavez Business and Computer Center at Santa Ana College.

“Particularly dedicated to Orange County and the Chicano Arts Movement, his work captures everyday urban life in the barrios, or neighborhoods,” the Department of Visual Arts says on its website. “In a style described as ‘social realism,’ Vasquez’s portrait, urban landscape and still life paintings all give voice to the struggles of the working class and the undeniable fortitude of the Latino culture throughout the decades.”

Vasquez, born in Jerome, Ariz., moved with his family to Orange in the early 1940s.

“He recorded the urban experience, unsentimentally and with dignity, neither glorifying nor criticizing,” Vasquez’ daughter and artist Rosemary Vasquez Tuthill said in a CSUF release. “Some of his favorite subjects are people in their environments, reflecting a slice of time in history — from orange pickers to zoot suits and pachucos to famous labor leaders and street scenes.”

See 16 photos of Vasquez, his work and career here, including excerpts from interviews over the years. 





Voices in the Wind... A Writing Retreat with Elva Treviño Hart

Saturday, October 15, 2011
9:00 AM to 3:00 PM
Huntington Beach Central Library

HBReads is pleased to announce a writing retreat with Elva Hart. Mrs. Hart is the author of Barefoot Heart: Stories of a Migrant Child. Earlier this year she visited Huntington Beach as part of the 2011 HBReads program. Please share the attached announcement with anyone who would be interested in writing their story. (Space is limited to the first 30 applicants.) More information can be found on our website

Then this retreat is for you! Please join us for communal writing (very powerful, just like group meditation) and for reading in a setting that is designed to be receptive, non-judgmental, and truly respectful of the sacred nature of our personal stories. Voices in the Wind is a story-birthing workshop in a retreat-like atmosphere. This is a fund raiser. The price is $150. for the day. For more information, please go the website,  HBReads



Sábado 5 de Noviembre, 2011


FREE . . . .FREE.. . .  FREE

An all-day conference on how to do family research which will be conducted in Spanish. This is a great time to bring youth and grandparents . . .  Grandparents to share their history and the youth to record it.  Lunch and syllabus can be purchased, but the classes are free.  You are welcomed to bring your own picnic lunch.


Centro de Estaca Santa Ana
3401 Greenville St. Santa Ana, CA 92704
Setenta Autoridad de Area
Registración: 8:00 am - 9:00 am
Sesión de Apertura: 9:00 am – 10:00 am

SESION I 10:10 AM - 11:10 AM

SESION II 11:20 am - 12:20 pm
     Elder López y Hna. López

LUNCH 12:20 pm – 1:20 pm

SESION III 1:20 pm - 2:20 pm
D. INDEXING: Elder Yern

SESION IV 2:30 PM - 3:30 PM
C. FORUMS Y WIKI: Elder Yern

Para imprimir este volante vaya a:

Para información o preguntas:
909-203-0233 e-mail:



Lydia Cano Bundy – AHS Class of 1961

Serving others, from her family to her community and country, is a way of life for Lydia Cano. Trials she faced when her family moved to Anaheim in 1957 from Las Cruces, New Mexico, made such an impression on Lydia that she ultimately became a lifelong voice to help people overcome bigotry and obtain education, housing and medical services.

Lydia said her journey to becoming a community leader, which has taken her through barrios and corporate board rooms, started when she enrolled as a 9th grader at Fremont Junior High. By second semester, she was elected student body vice-president. Her leadership roles continued during her days at Anaheim High, where she served in various service clubs, often as officer. At the end of her sophomore year, she was elected as the only junior to serve on the five-member song leader team. In her senior year, she was elected head song leader and homecoming queen, one of the first Hispanic girls to hold these positions.

Lydia continued to attain “firsts” in her life and career. As vice president of the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco, she was the first and only female and the first Hispanic bank officer. She was also the only Hispanic on the national staff of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and the first female and first Hispanic on the Cal State Dominguez Foundation’s Board of Directors.

Other accomplishments include development of a Hispanic Chamber of Commerce at both county and state levels, being named “Woman of the Year” by California State Assemblyman Jim Morrissey and being selected as a delegate to the 2001 Republican Convention in Philadelphia.

She also served as one of the few female officers with the San Diego Police Department, then later the Anaheim Police Department as a reserve officer. She was also the only female in a training class of 50 males at the OC Sheriff’s Department Academy.

From first serving as a spokesperson for her classmates, then working with the Barona Indian Reservation to raise funds for housing and economic development, to representing corporations with the governments of the United States and Mexico, Lydia made a tremendous impact on whatever community she served.

The success of one project she headed, which united people from all walks of life to work to in neighborhoods that had suffered disinvestment, led to her being recognized by the Federal Home Loan Bank Board in Washington D.C. and being recruited to establish and oversee the federally mandated $10 billion Community Investment Program of 1978. This federal law was in response to the allegations of “red lining” brought against the lenders by community leaders throughout the country.
Her next position with Mercury Savings and Loan Association brought her back to Orange County. Her job was to enhance the presence of savings and loans in their lending areas. To gain this exposure, Lydia became involved as a board member and chairperson in many organizations, helping develop and implemented various new programs such as the 2% Club of Orange County.

In this effort, she approached the county’s largest corporations to increase donations to non-profit entities serving low- and moderate-income and minority clients. The program was praised by President Reagan and Lydia received a personal letter of congratulations from the president.

Governor Deukmejian also took notice. He recruited Lydia serve in his administration as Deputy Director of the Department of Veteran’s Affairs with oversight of California’s then $350 billion CalVet Loan Program. Her innovations did away with bottlenecks in the loan process, automating the entire system. Under Lydia’s tenure, the department raised $562 million for mortgage financing for California veterans.

Her second appointment by Governor Deukmejian was as Deputy Director of the Department of Housing and Community Development. As the state’s first mobile home ombudsman, she had oversight of California’s then 18 loan and grant programs for housing and economic development. Lydia said the most rewarding part of this experience was helping farm workers and the homeless obtain housing and better living conditions. After four years of service to California, she was recruited and received an appointment by New Mexico Governor as the Director of the Office of Manufactured Housing and Building Ordinances for the State of New Mexico.

Her career was interrupted by a severe automobile accident and subsequent cervical spine surgeries from 1987 to 2003. During this lengthy recovery period, Lydia began her service to the Hispanic Chamber of Orange County as Executive Director and assisted in the development of the California State Hispanic Chamber of Commerce.
Lydia’s exciting career included serving as the editor of the Orange County Register’s Spanish language newspaper “Excelsior.” Her edict was to establish a greater presence in the Hispanic community of Orange County.

Along with her everyday responsibilities of publishing a newspaper, she established and chaired the Hispanic Heritage Committee to provide cultural and historical understanding to the public. Books presenting information on the Hispanic culture from the Aztecs to the present were distributed to libraries and schools throughout Orange County.

Her last position before retiring was with the Alzheimer’s Association of Orange County, for which she established a multi-cultural program that assisted a case load of clients and their families understand and cope with this devastating disease.
Lydia credits her life’s work of helping others to her parents, saying she inherited her father’s fortitude and mother’s gentleness. Her 92 –year- old father and 89- year-old mother still live in Anaheim.

Lydia said her philosophy is to always treat people with respect and recognize their valid place in society; whether it was a homeless person or a corporate CEO. Her response to each individual was to determining their needs and bringing them to a better way of life. She considers herself a “resource seeker with resolutions to problems.”

After decades of public service, Lydia is focusing her attentions on family by helping her son and daughter-in-law raise two children in the San Francisco Bay area. Now she’s lending her leadership skills to helping run a Cub Scout pack. Lydia’s legacy of giving is still growing as she continues to touch the lives around her.

Anaheim High, its students, alumni, teachers and administrators are proud to inductee Lydia Cano to the Colonist Hall of Fame.

Sent by Eddie Grijalvet


El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciuncula 

   Adelante, Mexican American artists: 1960s and Beyond
   Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A. 1945-1980
   5th Annual Los Angeles International Tamale Festival, Nov 4-6 
   El Movimiento en Los Angeles
   A Nation Emerges: The Mexican Revolution Revealed 


Mexican American artists: 1960s and Beyond


This Invite gets you in plus one guest for the opening reception on September 8th 6-8pm

BUT YOU MUST RSVP by September 1, 2011

to RSVP call 323-340-4792 or email

 It will be open to the public 9/9/2011 through 1/1/2012.

The Forest Lawn Museum in Glendale will present “¡Adelante! Mexican American Artists: 1960s and Beyond,” a collection of works by an array of talented Mexican American artists, many who helped forge the Chicano Art Movement that began in the 1960’s, as well as a number of the new generation of artists. This extraordinary exhibit includes paintings, drawings, sculpture, and photography. 

The influential artists who are participating in the exhibit include: 

Judith F. Baca; Benjamin Botello; David Rivas Botello; Joseph Botello; Joe Bravo; Barbara Carrasco; Lupe Duarte; Yami Duarte; Ofelia Esparza; Paul G. Fuentes; Lalo García; Margaret García; Deanna Gomez; Elysa Gomez; Ignacio Gomez; Imelda Gomez; Yolanda González; Jaime Guerrero; Roberto Gutiérrez; Wayne Healy; Sergio Hernandez; jaxiejax (Jacqueline Sanders); Leo Limón; David A. Lopez; Pola Lopez; Los de Abajo Printmaking Collective; Heriberto Luna; Frank Martinez; David J. Negrón; Antonio Pelayo; Steven Botello Rivera; Bill Robles; George Rodriguez; Frank Romero; Shizu Saldamando; Steve Santillan; August H. Santistevan; Maria “Frances” Santistevan; John C. Santistevan (1974 – 1993); Melly Trochez; Patssi Valdez; Mark Vallen; George Yepes; ZANlovesEastLA (Rosanna Esparza Ahrens).

Sent by participating artists Steve Santillan and Sergio Hernandez.



Pacific Standard Time:
Art in L.A. 1945-1980

For the last 20 or 30 years, Los Angeles has been recognized as being one of the most important art capitals of the world and the birthplace of many important arts movements.  Beginning this fall and continuing through march 2012,  Pacific Standard Time will bring together more than 60 cultural institutions across Southern California to tell the story of the birth of the Los Angeles art scene and how it became a major new force in the art world.

Each institution will make its own contribution to this grand-scale story of artistic innovation and social change, told through a multitude of simultaneous exhibitions and programs.  Exploring and celebrating the significance of the crucial post-World War II years through the tumultuous period of the 1960s and 70s, Pacific Standard Time encompasses developments from L.A. Pop to post-minimalism, from modernist architecture and design to multi-media installations; from the films of the African American L.A. Rebellion to the feminist activities of the Women's Building; from ceramics to Chicano performance art; and from Japanese American design to the pioneering work of artists' collectives.

Initiated through $10 million in grants from the Getty Foundation, Pacific Standard Time involves cultural institutions of every size and character across Southern California, from Greater Los Angeles to San Diego and Santa Barbara to Palm Springs.


Los Angeles International 
Tamale Festival 
November 4,5 & 6, 2011 

You are cordially invite you to participate in the 5th Annual Los Angeles International Tamale Festival This event was started 5 years ago to continue the tradition of tamale making and to creating jobs and opportunities for many people!.  Expected audience 35,000.

For Vendor Space or Sponsorship information please to Event Web Site: 

TICKET PRICE At the door $6 Adult admission / Pre-sale Ticket $4. Admission for Children under 16 years of age is free! 
Amission for VIP Tent $50 / Pre-sale Ticket for VIP Tent $40 
This area will include live music, Tamale sampling, seating 

NUMBER OF TAMALE VENDORS 30 professional and amateur
PRIZE MONEY $200 Best Tamale over-all "People's Choice"
COMPETITION CATEGORIES: Best Tamale: Chicken, Beef, Pork, Fish, Fruit, Vegetarian
• VIP Tent
• Kids Zone
• Tamale Eating Contest
• Corn Husk: Dress and Shirt Design Contest
• Best Tamale Booth Design
• Chef Interaction
• Live Music


Commemoration Committee of the Chicano Moratoriums 

Below  is a draft.  If you are interested in participating in support of the committee's goals, please contact Rosalio Munoz at



 US System for Mano de Obra Barata

In 1965 the US government was ending the Bracero Program that had brought millions of Mexican of migrant field workers as cheap labor for agribusiness for over two decades. At the same time a new Immigration Law was passed that initiated a restrictive quota system on the Western Hemisphere that most negatively impacted Mexican workers ability to gain permanent legal residence. In the name of civil rights however family reunification reforms were expanded including the possible exemption of the parents of citizen children from quotas.

In 1966 the United States and Mexico initiated a Border Industrial Program allowing US corporations to open assembly plants (called maquiladoras) on the Mexican side of the border. This attracted masses of Mexican workers, especially women north to the borderlands (and the many more jobs beyond) for factory jobs.

By 1968 Mexican American Humberto “Bert Corona” Corona labor and civil rights pioneer then the foremost leader of the Mexican American Political Association became convinced the US corporate interests with government tacit license were establishing a de facto immigration policy of undocumented immigration that could by pass civil rights and labor reforms to rapidly increase a larger powerless urban and rural worker force that could be marginalized as Latino “illegal aliens”. Without organizing the new masses of unorganized workers the labor and civil rights gains would be jeopardized by the pitting of the undocumented workers against others by corporate, government and media manipulation.

Together with Los Angeles foremost rank and file Mexican immigrant labor organizer Soledad “Chole” Alatorre and other labor and civil rights activists they established the Centro de Accion Social Autonoma (Autonomous Center for Social Action) known as CASA to assist immigrant workers, documented and undocumented, to struggle social, economic and political rights in their own name. The organization involved the workers to apply for legalization and stand up to deportation demanding due process and other constitutional and human rights. It allied and involved the immigrants with the civil rights, labor and other peace and justice issues especially of the Mexican American Community.

By 1970 CASA members were marching the the Chicano Moratoriums, speaking out against immigration raids, supporting the struggles of high school and college students and campaigns for minority representation. In 1971 CASA and MAPA began educating the broader community of injustices in the Immigration laws and threats to make them worse.

In January 1972 Bert Corona, Chole Alatorre and the CASA organization led a march for undocumented worker rights through the downtown Los Angeles Mexicano commercial district on Broadway with hundreds of undocumented workers openly marched with hundreds more of Mexican, Chicano, Latino, labor and progressive allies. The modern immigrants rights movement came into the light of day.





A Nation Emerges:
The Mexican Revolution Revealed

Organized by the Getty Research Institute, with support form Edison International.
September 8, 2011 - June 3, 2012
Los Angeles Pacific Library, Central Library
630 W. 5th St.  Los Angeles, 90071

The Mexican Revolution (1910-20) which lasted a decade and transformed the nation, was extensively chronicled by Mexican, American, and European photographers and illustrators.  Thousands of images captured a country at war.  Never before, and possibly never since, has a country been the subject of such scrutiny or fascination.  From postcards of the 1910 Fiestas del Centenario, to images of a war that was waged on several fronts by ever-shifting revolutionary factions, to photographs of the 1923 assassination of Pancho Villa, this exhibition chronicles this complex, multi-facted chapter in Mexico's history.



   Sept 17th:  Peña Andaluza en California
   Oct 27th: Genealogical Society of Stanislaus County 
   The Ayon (Ayllón) Family Reunion Rocks Irwindale
   Update regarding the Briones House
   Efforts name new post office in town for Chief Justice Warren  
   San Francisco Sutro Library Presentations
   Dam is named for town razed by flood



SEPTIEMBRE 10 DE 5:00 A 10:30 PM

Official Promoters of The Culture of Andalucia in California

 Dutch Avio Club
1557 W Katella Ave
Anaheim CA 92802

For information (619) 234-7897 or

Dr. Michael Zurowski, Novelist invites us to have a look at his novel set in a cut-throat academic/corporate LA environment with the backdrop of hallowed old Californio land-grant families at:

Genealogical Society of Stanislaus County Presents

TIME: 8AM—7 PM  COST: $30.00
The Storer Bus will leave the Trinity United Presbyterian Church, 1600 Carver Rd. Modesto, CA at 8:00 AM and return to the same at 7:00 PM. Coffee and muffins will be served in the morning. Please bring a lunch and snack for the return trip.

Information: Sharon Hawley Crum 
E-Mail  Phone # 209– 838-2118




The Ayon (Ayllón) Family Reunion Rocks Irwindale


Rosanne Gonzales-Hardy

On July 30th 2011
, descendents of Facundo Ayon (Ayllón) celebrated their 36th family reunion at Irwindale Park in Irwindale , California .


The Ayons are a proud family with a great historical background. Their ancestor Facundo Ayon was the son of Teófilo Ayllón and Martina Monge. According to family rumor, Teófilo was a native of Barcelona , Spain . It is true that at different  times  he was both Justice of the Peace and Alcalde Constitucional of a small mining town, Real de la Santísima Trinidad ,  in Sonora , Mexico . Proof lies in the records housed by the Church of Latter Days Saints and at the Cathedral of La Asuncion in Hermosillo , Sonora , Mexico . Documents written by Teófilo to the Diocese in Hermosillo began in 1821 and ended in 1836.


During the time of the gold rush, Teófilo and his sons  Facundo and Salvador arrived in California lured by the stories of El Dorado .  Like so many entrepreneurs from around the world, the glamour wore off and eventually Teofilo returned to Sonora . Salvador remained in Northern California and Facundo lived in Southern California .


On the 18th of December 1861 , Facundo married San Juan Capistrano resident, Isabel Parra, whose parents came from the town of Altar , Sonora , Mexico . After the passing of Isabel, Facundo married the widow Catarina Paredes Carrasco on June 19, 1876 . Catarina’s father, Jose Severo Paredes, was a native of Magdalena , Sonora , Mexico and finally settled in El Monte , California . Between his two wives, Facundo fathered a total of twelve children.


Eventually Facundo moved his family to an area known for its semi-barren landscape where cactus flourished and jackrabbits were abundant. He and his friend, Gregorio Fraijo, founded and settled down with their families in this area called the “ Garden of Rocks ” in the San Gabriel Valley , otherwise known today as Irwindale.


In 1883, Facundo had the chance to meet a Presbyterian minister, Rev. Antonio Diaz, while taking a cartload of wood to Los Angeles to sell. Soon after, Facundo converted from Catholicism to Presbyterianism. In 1887, he met Rev. Alexander Moss Merwin; in 1889 they organized the Azusa Spanish Church where Facundo became the first elder. The church changed its name to Divine Saviour Presbyterian Church in 1944.  

Divine Saviour Presbyterian Church today 
Irwindale, California  


After Facundo passed away in 1897 his family grew rapidly and the next hundred years saw an explosion of descendents. Many of these descendents served in the military and the list is long. A few veterans attended this year’s reunion, which included Ray Ayon, James Ayon, Gilbert Lopez and Bernie Ayon. There was even a boxer in the family, Rudy Ayon. During his boxing career the public knew him as the “Azusa Assassin”. In later years, he coached other young talents including WBO Light Welterweight, Zach Padilla. Rudy passed away in December 2009 at the age of 98. His memory lives on at Ayon Fist, a boxing club in Azusa .

Courtesy of Mike Aguirre


Courtesy of Ray M. Ayon

Facundo Ayon’s memory lives on and his family celebrates that memory every year. There is even a street named after him in Irwindale.


Ayon (Ayllón) Family Reunion 2011

Courtesy of Ray M. Ayon


Ayon Fist: Contact Mike Aguirre at 626-806-5909. Ayon Fist is also on Facebook.

* Family members spell their last name either Ayon or Ayllón  


Rosanne Gonzales-Hardy is the great-great granddaughter of Facundo Ayllón* and Catarina Paredes. She is a genealogist and author of San Gabriel Valley Families of Nueva Galicia and San Francisco's Broadway Tunnel.  She is co-author of  Eyes to the Past: A Pictorial History from Families of Azusa, Baldwin Park  and Irwindale.

Information sent by  Rosanne Gonzales-Hardy

AYLLÓN:  The name is of Castilian lineage with its ancestral home in Laredo in the province of Santander [ Spain ]. From there the name extended to Castile , the Kingdom of León and Andalucía.  It is a noble family. Don Pedro González de Mendoza, Lord of Almazán, married Doña María Ruiz de Ayllón, Lady of Monteagudo.        Doña Beatriz de Ayllón founded the Holy Spirit Convent in Córdoba [ Spain ].

COAT OF ARMS:  Escutcheon divided into four quarters: The 1st and 4th are silver fields with an “ordinary” or Greek cross in red; the 2nd and 3rd are gold with two green bands.  




Briones House wall 
purchased for $30,000  

Remnant of historic 1840s home of Palo Alto pioneer Juana Briones to be stored at a city facility by Sue Dremann, Palo Alto Weekly Staff, July 27, 2011

The last remnant of the historic Briones House that proponents sought to preserve through nearly 14 years of litigation has been purchased by Palo Alto Stanford Heritage (PAST) for $30,000, according to Clark Akatiff, a member of the Friends of the Juana Briones House.

Numerous contributors came up with $25,000 in cash for an 8-foot-by-8-foot section of the original wall, Akatiff said, which
represents a rare form of adobe construction in which earth is packed between wooden cribbing set atop adobe brick.

The agreement with the property's owners, Jaim Nulman and Avelyn Welczer, was concluded on July 25. In addition to the cash, Nulman and Welczer will receive a $5,000 donation credit, which they can use as a tax write-off, Akatiff said.

"It is a pity that the house no longer stands, but Juana lives in memory and through the artifact that has been saved," he said.

The wall and its timbers are encased in foam and sheets of plywood and will be moved within the week to a secure location on City of Palo Alto property for storage "until things settle out," Akatiff said.

Additional timbers and rocks from a wall believed to have been constructed by local Native Americans are also being stored at the city site, he said, and await incorporation into a fitting memorial to Juana and her times. PAST will retain ownership of the wall, he said.

How the wall will be displayed has yet to be determined, but Akatiff said the leading prospect is that at least part could be used in the proposed Palo Alto History Museum, which is planned for the former Palo Alto Medical Foundation building (Roth Building) on Forest Avenue. But the history museum must still raise $1 million before construction can begin, he said.

Part of the wall might also be incorporated into a memorial at Esther Clark Park, which is adjacent to the home's original Old Adobe Road site, he said.

Akatiff said the purchase concluded amicably with Nulman, despite a nearly 14-year battle that embroiled the city, the couple and
preservationists in two lawsuits.

"There are many to thank for this accomplishment. Certainly the many people who donated money to allow for the purchase, but also the City of Palo Alto, and especially PAST, which provided the organizaional structure by which donations could be collected, and purchase made. I would also make mention of Jim Steinmetz, the contractor who carefully deconstructed the house, and whose concern for its historical value was always foremost in his mind," Akatiff said in an email to proponents.

"History is in some ways what we make of it," Akatiff said by phone Tuesday. "In the 20th and 21st centuries, some of us decided that Juana was important to our history. The house is gone, but Juana's with us -- more now than 50 years ago -- when she was not much more than a footnote at that time."  Nulman could not be reached for comment.

Sent by Lorraine Frain 





   Name courthouse 
in honor of Warren 

By way of background, some of you have seen the article before when it was published in the San Antonio Express-News. The Bakersfield Californian editor read the article and asked for my support in an effort to name the new post office in town for Chief Justice Warren. 

The Bakersfield Californian
Thursday, Jul 28 2011 11:00 PM
JOSE ANTONIO LOPEZ: Name courthouse in honor of Warren

This month marks the 37th anniversary of the passing of Earl Warren, the U.S. Supreme Court chief justice from 1953 to 1969. He also served three terms as governor of California and, due to his impeccable credentials, also headed the Warren Commission, which investigated the assassination of President Kennedy. In a nutshell, his list of successes is stellar.

Warren must be respectfully remembered by Americans of Hispanic descent and anyone else who supports equality.

Wait a minute, wasn't he a Republican, appointed by President Eisenhower? Republicans aren't known for championing civil rights, correct? Well, Warren did, and at great risk to his political career.

Why honor Earl Warren? The answer is that although the Founding Fathers adopted the Constitution in 1787, its freedoms did not extend to everyone living in the U.S. It was written at a time when its authors owned slaves, Native Americans didn't count, and women weren't treated equally.

The fight for justice goes on. As most fifth-graders know, the Constitution's protection for blacks did not occur until 1964. Native Americans are still treated as foreigners in their homeland. Women continue to struggle for equal rights.

So it was for Hispanics. Of all the highly controversial cases brought up before Warren's Supreme Court, one in particular brought "justice for all" to Hispanics in 1954. That case, Hernandez v. Texas, also was called the "Class Apart" decision.

The case shined a spotlight on official racism against Hispanics in Texas. Until the 1950s, Hispanics were prohibited from serving on juries in many Texas counties. Hernandez, the defendant, was found guilty by an all-Anglo jury, even though Hispanics made up 14 percent of his community's population. On appeal, the case reached the U.S. Supreme Court.

In its decision, the Supreme Court found that the state of Texas discriminated against Hispanics. Warren delivered the court's unanimous decision on May 3, 1954. The court declared that 14th Amendment guarantees extended to white U.S. citizens of Mexican descent, who up until then had been held as a "class apart" by the white Anglo majority in Texas.

The decision literally opened the doors of opportunity for countless of today's successful Hispanics, many of whom are unaware of how or who won those rights for them.

Yes, Warren spearheaded the order to intern Japanese-Americans during World War II, but the man more than made up for it by what he did for Hispanics and other minorities. You would have had to live through the 1940s to really understand all of the difficult and challenging issues he faced at that time, especially during the early war years.

The federal courthouse in Bakersfield should be named for Earl Warren. An honor of that magnitude in Warren's hometown is long overdue.

Jose Antonio Lopez is a San Antonio writer and Air Force veteran whose ancestors settled in what is now South Texas in 1750. A version of this article first appeared in the San Antonio Express-News  



San Francisco Sutro Library Presentations

Sutro Library, the San Francisco branch of the California State Library, announces two evening programs to be held on the last Thursdays in September and October. Our featured speakers this fall are two National Park Service experts who will share their knowledge and enthusiasm for Adolph Sutro:

September 29, 2011 GROUNDS FOR PLEASURE: THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF ADOLPH SUTRO’S “MERRY WAY” AMUSEMENT PARK: Guest Speaker: Leo Barker, National Park Service Archaeologist 

Guest Speaker: Tom Bratton, National Park Service Docent 

These programs are free and open to the public. Receptions with light refreshments will begin both evenings at 7:00 pm; the lectures start at 7:30 pm.  The Sutro Library is located at 480 Winston Drive in San Francisco. Directions to the Library are posted on Google Maps. For more information, please contact the Sutro Library directly at (415) 731-4477 or  The flyer is posted online at: 
Sutro Library’s fall program series is generously sponsored by the California State Library Foundation.

Office: (916) 651-6798




Dam is named for town razed by flood

Special to The Press-Enterprise
Saturday, August 6, 2011

In the watery depths behind the Prado Dam lie what is left of the town of Prado, home to primarily Mexican American families before floods and the building of the dam forced them to move.

Before Lennie Keesler's grandfather, Maximiliano Orozco Esparza moved to Prado about 1930, he went to work for the railroad in 1928 and then moved to Arizona in 1929 with his wife and children to pick cotton. Eventually, he and his wife had 12 children, and he opened a pottery shop in Prado, along with a man named Ariola.

Keesler has documented stories from her grandparents and became involved in keeping the Prado Dam from being renamed several years ago.

She wanted her heritage and those of the other inhabitants kept in tact.

"It was this whole little town with two schools and a restaurant and two pottery shops across from each other, Espinoza's store and a pool hall. One of the roads had a Dead Man's Curve because of so many accidents there," said Keesler.

She said that Ginger Rogers and Ronald Reagan stopped to buy pottery.

She said some of the families who lived in Prado were the Ariolas, Aguilars, Ashcrofts, Espinozas and her grandparents. Her grandparents' house was only a living room and kitchen, but it was added on to as the children came along.

Arthur Aguilar's family lived in Prado until 1941 and he said about 100 houses filled the town. He was told by his mother and grandmother that Prado began as an Indian village. The land had been deeded to Jose Antonio Yorba in 1810. His son Raymundo Yorba ran cattle on his El Rincon ranch. John Newberry bought 600 acres from Yorba descendents in 1882 and he deeded land for a 20-room hotel, railroad right of way and a general store.

Aguilar said the town also had two dairies, one where his uncle Mike Bega worked. Aguilar said a movie was made in town and his uncle was in a crowd scene.

Life in the town went on normally until about 1930 onward when several floods inundated the area.

Keesler said that her mother's older brothers and sisters would hold up the smaller children to keep them out of the water as floodwaters swept through her grandparents' house. Then, the great flood of 1938 came and wiped out the town.

"My grandpa told me he saw dressers and other furniture in the trees. The town was devastated and all the families had to move," she said.

Aguilar said most families stayed until 1941 when they had to move out for dam building. He said the Moreno and Serrano families moved to Norco.

Keesler's grandfather chose to move the family home to 167 N. Vicentia in Corona. After the families moved out of Prado, the Army Corps of Engineers began the construction of the Prado Dam, whose waters cover the town site.

Nita Hiltner is a Press-Enterprise correspondent. She can be reached at .



   New Mexico and Southwest History
   The Mission of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe del Norte
   3rd Annual, New Mexico Oral History Forum  



New Mexico and 
Southwest History
Wonderful assortment
of articles 
and information. 
Do check it out.  

"The Mission of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe del Norte" was founded by Fray Garcia de San Francisco in the year 1659. And almost 300 years later it became a cathedral. It served as the mother mission of the area to the surrounding churches, such as Islet, Socorro, Senecu, San Lorenzo, and to the churches built along the Rio Bravo from San Elisario to Doña Ana...."  Church Records extracted by Aaron Magdaleno

Sent by Paul Newfield III 




3rd Annual


Location: The Albuquerque Museum  
Friday  September 23, 2011  9 AM – 4 PM 

 New Mexico’s premier annual meeting on oral history methods, practice, and projects.

Open to anyone interested in developing or expanding their own projects/programs at any level from individual    
          and family history to major archives preservation.

We welcome the statewide community as well as participation from the surrounding areas of Arizona, Colorado,
          and Texas.

Come greet old friends and meet new ones in a friendly setting that provides unique educational and networking

Updated List of Presenters Forthcoming

Questions?  Contact Rose Diaz (505-255-6811)         

Oral History and Public Programs

Panel#1           Oral History and Museums: Anchor Institutions Empowering Communities  
 Panel #2         Building & Maintaining Indigenous Oral History Projects: Exploring Community and Shared Landscapes  
Panel #3          Oral History and Legacy Projects: Capturing Missing Narratives  
 Panel #4         Oral History and Public Art: Re-Visioning Community Spaces

Rose T. Diaz, Ph.D.
President and Sr. Historian
Origins and Legacies Historical Services
cell: 505.550.9706

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 




   How Latinos Are Changing the Midwest’s Economy for the Better
   Vicente Sebastián Pintado Papers





How Latinos Are Changing the Midwest’s Economy for the Better

By article and photos by 
Niala Boodhoo, June 9, 2011

CHICAGO – Recent census reports show Midwestern cities are shrinking and people are moving out. But one group is actually growing – the Hispanic population. That’s why I went to a few of the fastest growing areas Latinos are moving to in the Midwest to learn more about their economic impact.

Drive down the main strip of Aurora, Illinois, a town about 50 miles west of Chicago, and strip malls like the “Plaza del Sol” are a common sight on the landscape. In the 2010 census, Aurora ranked as the state’s second most populous town – a jump boosted by the growth in the Latino population.

Laid off from Caterpillar, Javier Galvez is opening up a pizza shop in Aurora to cater to growing Latino families (Niala Boodhoo)“Aurora’s like Little Mexico,” said Javier Galvez, who’s a month away from opening his pizza shop on the corner of New York and Lake Street in downtown Aurora.

“Everybody stops here. They’re going to take their chances here first to start their business because they know that [in] a 40 mile radius or more, there are going to be towns they can take advantage of,” Galvez added.

Aurora actually extends into four counties – two of them, Will and Kendall, had explosive population growth in the past decade.

Even if Aurora is not as well-known as other Hispanic enclaves like Chicago’s Little Village or Pilsen, its population goes back generations.

Read more in Reporter’s Notebook: How does this influx of immigrants compare to previous waves?
Galvez came to Aurora when he was two years old because his father got a job working for Burlington Northern, laying railroad track across Illinois.

Galvez started in industry, too. He worked his way up at Caterpillar, where he started on the floor, building excavators, but moved into employee training and logistics.

Then two years ago, he was laid off. So now he’s using those management and logistics skills to run the restaurant, Spizzico, which has already found success in its first location in Elwood Park.

Galvez said their slogan – “the best pizza for the best price” – is especially suited for large, Latino families looking for a bargain.

“I know that everybody says that restaurants and everything are the first to flop,” Galvez said, “But you never know if you don’t take that chance, right? He’s not the only one.

According to the Aurora Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, one out of every two businesses in Aurora are Hispanic-owned. Executive Director Norma Vazquez describes the growth as “unstoppable”.

In the three years since Vazquez become executive director, the chamber’s membership has gone from 50 to 342 members.

One of the Hispanic-owned businesses that’s been around for a while is Frank’s Digital Printing.

While the recession has been hard on the business, owner Frank Garcia said he still gets lots of new business from other Hispanic entrepreneurs who come to him to have their new signs and fliers printed.

Frank’s oldest brother, Manuel Jr., said that when their family moved to Aurora, there were probably just ten others.

That was a 100 years ago, when Burlington Northern recruited Mexicans, including Manuel Sr., to work on the rail lines.

Many lived in boxcars because they weren’t allowed to live in town. Frank told me he remembers as a kid visiting his uncle who lived in a boxcar.

Frank and Manuel Jr. are two of nine children. A few generations later, the entire Garcia family numbers almost 80. They all still live in Aurora, where the Latino population makes up almost half of the 200,000 or so people.

The Garcias are part of a nation-wide Hispanic population boom that happened between the 2000 and 2010 census.

For the first time in fifty years, there were more Hispanic births than immigration.

The Hispanic population across the Midwest is still small compared to traditional population centers in the southwest and Florida.

But here, Latino growth stands in stark contrast to declines among white and African-American populations.

A few hundred miles away in South Bend, Indiana, Allert Brown Gort has been studying the economic impact of these ethnic encalves.

Allert Brown-Gort is the associate director at the University of Notre Dame’s Institute for Latino Studies. He told me while Latino households are still mostly low-income, they have a greater economic impact than other poor American households.

“What we see is a difference in how money is spent and on what things money is spent on,” he said.

That’s in part because Latino households are larger, and have more wage earners, because children tend to stay at home longer.

The Institute has researched how Latino households also have more spending power in two key ways: more money goes towards buying food and clothes, and more of those purchases are made at small, mom and pop stores owned by people who also live in the same neighborhood – so the money stays within the community.

“There is a lot more local shopping, there are lot more small businesses that are being maintained through the shopping,” Gort said.

Hispanic enclaves are popping up in places you might not expect – outside of cities like Indianapolis, Columbus, and Detroit.

Melvindale, Michigan, is just south of Dearborn, home to the largest Arab-American community in the Midwest.

On Oakwood Blvd., not far from the police department, the ivy green awning outside the Town Market grocery store is in three languages: English, Arabic – and Spanish.

Inside, cans of fava beans are stacked next to salsa and refried beans. There is pita bread, and tortillas.

“I was thinking it was going to be an Arabic store,” owner Faoud Waseem said.

Waseem moved to Melvindale from Dearborn because he knew a lot of Arabic newspapers were setting up shop here, and lots of his fellow Yemenis were buying houses.

“But when I got here, a lot of Spanish started moving here and they started asking me to bring their products here,” said Waseem.

Before he came to Melvindale, he didn’t have a clue what a tortilla was. But his customers made sure he learned – they would bring in cans from home, and tell them this is what they needed in the store. He called the companies and found distributors who could provide the food they wanted.

Now, Latinos make up about 20 percent of his customer base. He’s even hired a Spanish-speaking clerk.

It’s not just Melvindale.

In other Detroit suburbs like Lincoln Park and Allen Park, the Hispanic population has expanded in the past ten years from southwest Detroit.

“The Latino community in Detroit everybody knows each other – it’s pretty small,” said Angie Reyes, the Detroit Hispanic Development Corporation’s Executive Director. She’s spent her entire life in Detroit.

“About five, six years ago, at the Cinco de Mayo parade, we’re looking at the people and we’re going, who are all these people? Because we saw so many new faces.”

She said that’s when she started to realize how much the Latino population had exploded in recent years.

Michigan is the only state that lost population in the census. Reyes pointed out had it not been for the 30 percent increase in Latinos throughout Michigan — the overall population decline of Detroit – and the state – would have been even worse.

The Hispanic Development Corporation offices are off Trumbull Street near downtown, in a neighborhood where Dominican hair salons are just as common as Mexican taqueiras.

Reyes said these businesses often start small, but then they grow – like her own nonprofit, which she started in her house.

“You’ll see a little shack, then it’s brick, then it’s a two story building, then the next thing you know they’re have another location that’s down the street,” she said.

That presence is starting to get noticed. More and more business owners from the rest of the city are now coming to the center to sign up for Spanish classes.

And Reyes said as others start to recognize the role her community is playing not just in Detroit, but the region’s economy, they’re starting to refer to Latinos as the “silent giant”.

What role are Latinos playing in your community, and especially in the economy? Feel free to share your stories in the comments section below. In the meantime, here’s a little slideshow from my travels:

Sent by Juan Marinez



Vicente Sebastián Pintado Papers

Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
Washington, D.C. 2008

A Finding Aid to the Collection in the Library of Congress
Prepared by Kenneth Fones-Wolf
Revised and expanded by Karen Linn Femia

Contact information: 
Finding aid encoded Library of Congress Manuscript Division, 2008
Finding aid URL: 
Latest revision: 2011 August


Collection Summary
Title: Vicente Sebastián Pintado Papers
Span Dates: 1781-1842
Bulk Dates: (bulk 1799-1817)
ID No.: MSS51045
Creator: Pintado, Vicente Sebastián, 1774-1829
Extent: 1,500 items; 7 containers plus 22 oversize; 12 linear feet; 6 microfilm reels
Language: Collection material in French and Spanish.
Repository: Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Abstract: Surveyor general of Spanish West Florida. Correspondence, bills of sale, court transcripts, testimonies, surveys, notebooks, plats, land grants, maps, petitions, and other papers relating principally to Pintado's duties as alcalde, commandant, and surveyor general. 

Selected Search Terms: The following terms have been used to index the description of this collection in the Library's online catalog. They are grouped by name of person or organization, by subject or location, and by occupation and listed alphabetically therein.

Armas, Christoval de--Correspondence.
Bolling, Christopher--Correspondence.
Collins, José--Correspondence.
Cruzat, Antonio--Correspondence.
Folch, Vicente--Correspondence.
Kneeland, Ira Cook, d. 1812?--Correspondence.
Lynd, Juan.
López, Manuel, 1780-1860--Correspondence.
Morales, Juan Ventura, 1756-1819--Correspondence.
Pintado, Vicente Sebastián, 1774-1829.
Reggio, Pedro--Correspondence.
Rivas, Francisco, Captain--Correspondence.
Tegart, Patrick--Correspondence
Trudeau, Charles Laveau, ca. 1750-1816--Correspondence.

Scope and Content Note: 
The papers of Vicente Sebastián Pintado (1774-1829) span the years 1781-1842, with the bulk of material dating from 1799 to 1817. The papers consist of correspondence, bills of sale, court transcripts, testimonies, surveys, notebooks, plats, land grants, manuscript maps, petitions, and papers relating to Pintado's official duties as alcalde, commandant, and surveyor general of Spanish West Florida from 1799 to 1817. Spanish West Florida encompassed Louisiana from the Mississippi River to the Pearl River north of Lake Pontchartrain, the Gulf coasts of the present day states of Mississippi, Alabama (Mobile and vicinity), and western Florida (Pensacola and St. Mark's vicinity).  Place names that appear in this register are from this geographic area unless otherwise specified. Although some of the papers predate Pintado's appointment as alcalde in 1799, most of the material
relates to land surveys, land purchases, and deeds from his appointment as alcalde until his departure for Cuba in 1817. After moving to Cuba, Pintado served as military engineer. The papers include no record of his official duties in Havana. The collection contains four series: General Correspondence, Official Papers, Maps and Plats, and an Addition.

The General Correspondence includes manuscript copies of many outgoing letters as well as communications from Christoval de Armas, Christopher Bolling, Antonio Cruzat, Vincent Folch (United States Governor of West Florida), Manuel Gayoso de Lemos (Governor of Baton Rouge), Charles Boucher de Grand-Pré (Governor of Baton Rouge), Ira Cook Kneeland (Pintado's deputy
surveyor), Manuel López, Juan Ventura Morales (intendent of West Florida), Captain Francisco Rivas, and Charles Laveau Trudeau (Spanish surveyor in Louisiana). There is also documentation on the Nicolls raid in the Apalachicola River area and the Kemper brothers' raids in Louisiana, 1804-1805.

In addition to Pintado's personal and professional correspondence, the collection includes part of  the land records of Spanish West Florida. Maps, charts, plats, and land surveys, many cadastral, relate to the coastal area from West Florida to the Mississippi River, with special attention to the Baton Rouge, Feliciana, Mobile, and Pensacola districts. This material is supplemented by correspondence between Pintado and his corps of surveyors including José Collins, Ira Cook Kneeland, Pedro Reggio (who became assistant surveyor after the death of Kneeland in 1812), and Vicente Sebastián Pintado Papers 4

Patrick Tegart. Legal documents such as court transcripts, testimonies, surveys, land grants, deeds, and petitions are in the Official Papers. The Addition to the papers consists of a bound volume dated 1806 containing five maps and written text concerning various properties of Juan Lynd located in the vicinity of Baton Rouge. The Pintado Papers offer information on the critical transitional period from the time of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 through the seizure and occupation of West Florida by the United States in 1813-1814 to  the ultimate cession of East and West Florida by Spain to the United States by terms of the Adams-
Onis Treaty of 1819. They provide insight into the multicultural relationships which developed in the area. A Spanish/Talapuche Indian vocabulary is also in the papers.


Land grants--Alabama.
Land grants--Florida.
Land grants--Louisiana.
Land grants--Mississippi.
Land tenure--Alabama.
Land tenure--Florida.
Land tenure--Louisiana.
Land tenure--Mississippi.
Real property--Alabama.
Real property--Florida.
Real property--Louisiana.
Real property--Mississippi.

Vicente Sebastián Pintado Papers 2
Alabama--Maps, Manuscript.
Florida--History--Spanish colony, 1784-1821.
Florida--Maps, Manuscript.
Louisiana--Maps, Manuscript.
Mississippi--Maps, Manuscript.

Go to the site for the organization of the boxes and reels, the location of  specific documents by dates and location.

Sent by Bill Carmena


   Consul of Spain Honors Mary Helen Berlanga
   2006 Gov. Rick Perry declared Sept as Tejano Heritage Month
   Navarro Opera
   Call for Proposals. . ."Cada cabeza es un mundo"
   Nov 5th: The Tejano Battle of Medina
   The Alamo Deguello Horns
   Historic huts getting critical attention
   Dallas Mexican American Historical League
   Antonio Gil Y’barbo  Remembered submitted by Eddie U Garcia




Consul of Spain Honors State Board of Education member Mary Helen Berlanga

Mimi,  This is the article based on honoring Mary Helen Berlanga, member of the Texas State Board of Education and her battles with the Board. The consul/ambassador from Spain did the presentation.
Photos by Bill Olive, Special to the Caller-Times, can be purchased at >Buy this photo


Mary Helen Berlanga (from left) was honored with the Royal Order of Isabel la Cathólica by Miguel A. Fdez. de Mazarambroz, consul general of Spain in Southwest, and Fernando Moral-Iglesias, honorary consul of Spain in South Texas.


Mary Helen Berlanga (left) pictured with Esther Bonilla-Read was honored on Friday with the with the Royal Order of Isabel la Cathólica for her efforts to keep Spain's contributions in Texas history books.

Mary Helen Berlanga (foreground) was honored on Friday with the with the Royal Order of Isabel la Cathólica. Looking on is Mary Jane Garza


— For decades, State Board of Education member Mary Helen Berlanga has fought for Texas history.

She argued to ensure textbooks included the contributions of blacks, Hispanics and the contributions of Spanish explorers.

"I argued for accuracy and never expected anything in return," she said.

But on Friday, the Consul of Spain recognized her efforts with the Royal Order of Isabel la Cathólica. About 120 people attended the ceremony at the Omni Corpus Christi Hotel-Marina Tower.

"I'm just in awe and so honored," said Berlanga of Corpus Christi.

Fernando Moral-Iglesias, honorary consul of Spain in South Texas, said the honor recognizes those like Berlanga, a 28-year education board member, who promote the history of Texas and its roots from Spain.

The order itself is part of history having been created on March 14, 1815, by King Ferdinand VII of Spain in honor of Queen Isabella I of Castile.

In announcing the award, the consul wrote that exclusion of such history in the past has distorted the contributions made by Hispanics going back to the arrival of Spaniards on the continent.

"We feel that the history of Texas is very rich with Spanish roots and Mrs. Berlanga has been particularly vocal on the board to highlight that history," said Miguel A. Fdez. de Mazarambroz, consul general of Spain in the Southwest.

One historical influence that Berlanga argued to preserve was that Christopher Columbus' exploration voyage to the Western Hemisphere was funded by Spanish monarchs.

When contributions from Spain were suggested for removal from Texas history texts, Berlanga argued that Texas is known for cattle and horses, both of which came from Spain.

"Whether were talking about, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, the first European to explore North America's southwest area, or Hernando De Soto, who explored Central America, there is a lot to be said about those explorers," she said. "They came into the U.S. and certainly influenced us."

Moral-Iglesias said Berlanga's efforts have kept Spain's influences alive in history.

"She fought to maintain the history and Spain recognized that," Moral-Iglesias said.

Dr. Clotilde P. Garcia, who died in 2003, was the last local person to receive the order in 1990. She was honored for writing the book "Captain Alonso Alvarez de Piñeda and the Exploration of the Gulf of Mexico."

© 2011 Corpus Christi Caller Times. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Sent by  Esther Bonilla Read 



Tejano Heritage Month

About Texas

(San Antonio, Texas) August 26, 2011 - In 2006, Gov. Rick Perry officially declared the month of September as Tejano Heritage Month. Spearheaded by the efforts of Texas, a San Antonio -based historical publishing and research company, a full calendar of events has been announced that will help bring about awareness of Tejano heritage as well as honor to those who helped found this rich land known as Texas.

Events kickoff with the annual Tejano Breakfast, this year held on Sept. 3 at Alamo Plaza on the grounds in front of the cradle of Texas liberty; the Alamo. Other highlights: the 7th Annual Tejano Vigil on Sept. 10. This moving commemorative ceremony inside the Alamo Shrine has featured such illustrious speakers as State Sen. Leticia Van de Putte, Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, Gen. Alfred Valenzuela and State Rep. Carlos Uresti. Please note that seating is limited, to RSVP, contact Ms. Vivian Carranza at (210) 673-3584.

Also on the agenda is the 6th Annual Tejano Memorial Ceremony at San Fernando Cemetery #1. This solemn occasion memorializes many of the Tejano patriots that took place in the Texas Revolution that are buried there, including signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence Jose Antonio Navarro. This event will be held on Sept. 26.

"Our goal in starting and championing Tejano Heritage Month has always, from the beginning, been about creating more public awareness of what the Tejanos who came before us did for this land and this country," says Texas President and Founder Rudi R. Rodriguez. "Tejanos, when generally thought of, have never been associated with 'Texas' icons such as the Alamo, but that's who was there, Tejanos. We want to connect the history with the myths and increase our overall sense of pride in our history."

Running throughout the month will be the annual Tejano Heritage Month Student Awards Contest. It will run from Sept. 1-Oct. 29 and is open to all school-age children in the state of Texas. Rules, entry forms and general information are available online at

"We have a very exciting and robust calendar of events this year and have fostered relationships with some substantial corporate partners and sponsors," Rodriguez explains. "We will also be unveiling a brand new online hub for Tejano history, that we will be unveiling at a special event in mid-September, where you can visit our Tejano History Online." Also being held during Tejano Heritage Month is the 32nd Annual Texas Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference that the Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society is presenting from Sept. 29 through Oct. 2 at the Marriott Plaza Hotel.

"This is looking to be our most successful Tejano Heritage Month to date," says Rodriguez, "It was once said that Texas history would never be complete without the story of the Tejanos being told. We are helping to complete that story. If you or someone you know has an interest in volunteering at or attending any or all of these events, please contact Ms. Vivian Carranza at (210) 673-3584. To view a complete calendar of events, click here. Viva Tejano Texas!"

More information and a complete calendar are available online at or by calling Rudi R. Rodriguez, Texas at (210) 673-3584.  

About Texas Texas is a multifaceted organization whose goal of promoting, publishing, producing and marketing Texas Tejano print, electronic and educational materials continues to be a leader in its field. The company was founded in 2002 on the premise that little is known by the public about the role of Tejanos in Texas history. Through our efforts, we strive to help the public learn about the fascinating past of local Tejanos and their influence on Texas.

More information about Texas and a complete calendar are available online at  or by calling Rudi R. Rodriguez (210) 673-3584.




The World Premier of the Navarro opera will happen September 24th!! 
Sent by Sylvia Tillotson





"Cada cabeza es un mundo"

Tejanas have been instrumental in the development of Chican@ Studies and have a long history of intellectual and political work as Tejanas in and out of Texas. The anthology, tentatively titled, Somos Tejanas: Tejanidad and Identity, will gather the essays—scholarly and creative—that explore Tejana identity from a myriad of angles.



We invite you to write a personal essay, a poem, or a critical article for our book. Send an electronic proposal that includes a 250 word abstract double spaced in Word format Times new roman--12) and your brief bio citing your publications and area of interest (100 words) by October 12, 2011 to all three co-editors:

Norma E. Cantú
Lori Beth Rodríguez
Sonia Saldívar Hull

"Cada cabeza es un mundo"
Prof. Norma E. Cantú
Department of English
University of Texas at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX 78249
(210)458-5134 (office)




The Tejano Battle of Medina

The Tejano Thermopylae of Texas

A call for Volunteer Actors and Reenactors



On November 5th, 2011 on the school grounds of the South Side Independent School District 1460 Martinez-Losoya Road in Losoya Texas Dr Juan Jasso, Superintendent of Schools and the Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin invite you to attend this free event. Battle of Medina Film Productions will be filming the reenactment of the Battle of Medina and is seeking volunteers for the reenactment of the biggest and bloodiest battle ever fought on Texas soil. Recently the State Board of Education approved the addition of the Battle of Medina to the curriculum to be taught in Texas schools and since this school sits on the possible battle site it is appropriate that it be filmed where it occurred ; 23 Years before the Alamo our Tejano ancestors stood and fought to the last man at the Battle of Medina 

Actors and reenactors should wear appropriate attire. Tejano’s to wear 1800 Tejano attire, not Texan. Anglo volunteers to wear colonial period attire or frontier dress eg buckskin: Native Americans to wear buckskin or appropriate Native American attire. Spanish and Mexican soldiers are also needed in 1800 military attire with muskets if possible.  There will be cannons, muskets, swords and all kinds of early military hardware. This event will be professionally filmed, edited and produced by San Antonio’s TV personality Maclovio Perez and directed and produced by Author and Historian Dan Arellano. Southside High School is located 20 miles south of San Antonio on Hi 281 South and Martinez-Losoya Road. 

Please go to my Facebook page for examples of appropriate attire. 
For More Information Contact: Dan Arellano, President Tejano Genealogy Society 





The Alamo Deguello Horns
Scott L Moss

The music that was played when the Mexican army were charging the Alamo.  
The writer is not identified.


I spent two years as a docent at the Alamo while I was living in that area. Three times an hour for eight hours every Thursday, I told the story of the battle of the Alamo to gatherings of people who--in most cases--were just there because they'd heard of the place, the visit was free and in summer the Long Barrack (where I worked) was air conditioned. I say all of that in order to say that I almost certainly have a lot more of an emotional tie to that place and those events than is "normal." I consider my time there among the most valuable days of my life.


El Deguello is a song about which I spoke every single presentation. I spent so much time wondering what it sounded like. It appeared that nobody knew. So, this is inordinately important to me. I "get" that the battle of the Alamo did not have to happen. I "get" that the Texicans took Texas from its rightful owners by force. There has been a lot of that in human history. I also know that had Santa Ana not been slowed down there, it would have been years longer before Texas became a separate political entity and that Santa Ana was a dreadful human being.


We are spending a goodly amount of time these days (most of us anyway) thinking and rethinking what America is, was and ought to be. I truly encourage you--especially if you are Texan--to also think about February and March of 1836 at San Antonio de Valero. If you aren't Texan and I sent this to you, it's because I thought about it and decided you would find it worth your time.
Sent by  Dahlia Palacio




Historic huts getting 
critical attention
By Scott Huddleston
San Antonio Express News, August 19, 2011

The San Antonio Conservation Society, faced with the daunting task of saving one of the state's most threatened historic sites, called on one of the best in the business.

One of the first challenges stonemason Baltazar Espinosa had in salvaging two rare jacales, or huts, from the 1836-45 Texas republic, was piecing together a fireplace and chimney, using the original sandstone that had crumbled into a pile of rubble. 

“First of all, you have to investigate where everything started. Then you follow the ghost of the outline of the old chimney,” as seen in markings on the wall, Espinosa said.

For several weeks, Espinosa and a small crew have worked to stabilize the jacales, owned by descendants of Blas Herrera, a Tejano scout who rode into San Antonio in mid-February 1836 to warn the Alamo of the approaching Mexican army. After being added last year to the National Register of Historic Places, the family's Von Ormy ranch, where the huts are located, was recently named one of the 10 most endangered historic sites by Preservation Texas.

Ron Bauml, the conservation society's property restoration manager, said Espinosa has skillfully reconstructed the chimney like a jigsaw puzzle.

“Just by looking at the stones, he could tell which were corner stones and which were in the interior,” Bauml said.

Experts say a full restoration would cost far into six figures. But with a $17,000 grant from the conservation society, the jacales are getting enough care and attention to protect them from natural elements that can destroy a primitive structure.

Espinosa, whose résumé includes work at the Alamo and 1920s stone structures at Woodlawn Lake, has been recognized by the Texas Historical Commission and the conservation society for his work with native stone and adobe.

The jacales, two of only five known to exist in Bexar County, are the type of structure many settlers occupied, at times temporarily. Walls were made of horizontal cypress laths, with river gravel, sandstone and adobe mortar reinforced with straw and horse hair pressed in between.

The family's ties to the ranch date to a 1774 Spanish land grant. But many families in the area fled east after the Spanish Royal Army crushed the first republic of Texas at Battle of Medina in 1813. According to the National Register nomination, the property first appeared on tax rolls in the name of Blas Herrera in 1845. He had 800 acres valued at $300 and three cows. 

Herrera and his wife raised at least 12 children and had a dairy farm, horses, oxen, swine, corn and even bees for honey.

Bauml said plans for the jacales include window covers and other protection to allow ventilation but keep out rain and animals. In some areas, modern plaster on exterior walls must be replaced with mud plaster and a lime mix, then whitewashed, so the walls can “breathe” out moisture from the ground and retain their historic look.

The conservation society also is negotiating with Herrera's family on a conservation easement, so the preservation group can inspect the site annually. Any significant alterations to the property would need the group's consent.

“This is a wonderful resource, and a real tangible part of our history,” said Nancy Avellar, conservation society president.

Read more:




Mexican American 
Historical League 


Greetings to our general members, directors, and friends of the Dallas Mexican American Historical League (DMAHL). This letter is the first in an effort to keep all of you informed of DMAHL activities and upcoming events.

A quick update on DMAHL events and plans for the remainder of 2011:



• Unfortunately, DMAHL will not have an exhibit at the State Fair of Texas this year. The Museum of Nature and Science has been very gracious and generous in hosting our exhibit for the last three years. No exhibit space is available in the Nature Building this year as they are using the building as a "staging area" for their move to their new location in downtown Dallas.

• In lieu of a large exhibit at the 2011 State Fair, we discussed at our July meeting the possibility of having smaller "citywide" exhibits during the month of September and October, which would coincide with Hispanic Heritage Month. We hope to firm up those plans in the very near future.

• DMAHL Monthly Meetings: The meetings are held on the last Saturday of each month, with the exception of December. There is no meeting scheduled in December due to the holidays. Our meetings start at 10:00 AM. The Hispanic Contractors Association has generously offered DMAHL a location for our monthly meetings. Our first meeting there will be the August meeting, on August 27th. The address for the HCA is 2210 W. Illinois Avenue, Dallas, TX 75224-1636. If you are not a member of DMAHL, we encourage you to join us. The annual dues are $12.00. Or, if you wish to just come to one of our meetings, we invite you to attend as a guest. We look forward to seeing you.

• DMAHL is currently working on collecting pictures, artifacts and other historical items. If you have any item you wish to donate, please contact DMAHL so the items can be added to our archives. We will ask everyone to sign a "Gift/Loan Form" for any item given or loaned to DMAHL.

Plans DMAHL is working on for 2012:
• DMAHL will seek to acquire an exhibit venue at the 2012 State Fair of Texas.
• Explore an opportunity to collaborate with SMU to host an exhibit during the year.
• Explore the possibility of an exhibit at the Latino Cultural Center during the year.
• Host our Annual DMAHL Membership Drive/Reception

Jesse Tafalla Albert Valtierra
President – DMAHL VP – DMAHL & Exhibit Chairperson
214-388-0564 214-236-7673






submitted by Eddie U Garcia 
(760) 252-3588


Received this interesting article from Helen Wallace that was published in the Dallas Morning News on Januany 29, 1939.  This article provides us with an opportunity to remember the explorer of East Texas Antonio Gil Y'barbo.  It is my understanding that the Statue of Antonio Gil Y'barbo is an impressive site in the center of Nacogdoches, Texas.  Thanks to Joe "Jose Antonio" Lopez I am able to send you a picture of the statue that honors the "Father of Nacogdoches" who was not only a true Tejano, but an unsung hero of Texas.   


I learned numerous historical facts from this article that profiles the life of a descendant that includes early history, also accomplishments of Antonio Gil Y'barbo.  Most of the structures from 1783 are gone, but a stone fort that was built on the Main Street of Nacogdoches was relocated to the Stephen F Austin College, Nacogdoches campus with dedication in 1937. 


Some of the Y'barbos remained on grant land, but other descendants relocated to other communities.  Such was the case with the families of two Mora cousins that moved to Victoria County, Texas and their Y'barbo line is included in this email.  The genealogy information is the result of independent research of George and Terry Oliver, Michael R Uresti and myself.    

This is an appropriate title for this article: 

submitted by , Eddie U Garcia 

The 3 page Ybarbo article was featured in the Sunday edition of the 1939 newspaper mentions Juan Ybarbo's grandfather Pedro Ybarbo and his father Luciano Ybarbo. That Ybarbo family was located in the 1832 Census of Nacogdoches. Pedro Ybarbo's widow was Juana de la Garza, 43, and the children were: Remigio, 22; Maria Josefa, 20; Maria Canuta, 18; Manuel Onofre, 16; Luciano, 14; Juan Bautista, 10; Maria Feliciana, 7; Juana de Jesus, 5; and Pacifica, 1; 

Pedro Ybarbo, son of Antonio Gil Ybarbo, was born in 1782. I knew that Pedro's family had been found in the 1832 Census, because the granddaughter of Robert William Oliver, Pam Farley, sent me the Ybarbo Lineage Chart that George and Terry Oliver made. The name of Pedro's wife was on the chart. The Ybarbo lineage research enabled Pam to be accepted as a Daughter of the Republic of Texas. 






Two Mora families that lived in Victoria County, Texas can trace their roots 
to Don Antonio Gil Ybarbo, the "Father of Nacogdoches": 


1) Mathieu Antonio Ybarbo, born in Andalusia, Spain in 1698; He married on 12 Apr 1723 at the Alamo -- Mission San Antonio de Valero Juana Lasgarda Hernandez; She was born in Spain; died in 1773, Lobanillo Rancho, Louisiana; daughter of Nicolas Hernandez and Simona de Sepulveda; 

2) Antonio Gil Ybarbo, born in 1729, Los Adaes, Louisiana; died 1809 at La Lucana; He married (1) Maria Davila Padilla; She was born in 1733, Los Adaes, Louisiana; died on 24 April 1794, Lobanillo Rancho; daughter of Pedro Silverio Padilla and Josefa de Torrez; He married on 25 Jan 1796 (2) Marie Guadalupe de Herrera;

3) Maria Josefa Ybarbo, born 1746, Los Adaes, Louisiana; died in 1830; She married Nicolas Mora; He was born in 1746, Nacogdoches, Texas;

4) Estevan Mora, born 1785; He married in 1809 (1) Maria Gertrudis de la Cerda; She was born 1795; daughter of Neponunceno de la Cerda and Maria Ignacia Seldna Flores (a half caste); He married on 25 May 1848 (2) Maria Casilda Lararin, widow of Jose Maria Arocho. 

5) Jose Maurico Mora, born on 1827 in Nacogdoches, Texas; He married Maria Jacoba Lazarin on 23 July 1857 in Nacogdoches, Texas;

6) Maria "Emily" Carmen Mora, born on 17 May 1855, Nacogdoches, Texas; died on July 1889 in Nursery, Victoria, Texas; She married on 22 July 1875 in Victoria, Victoria, Texas Inocencio Uresti; He was born on 27 Dec 1853 in Spring Creek, Victoria, Texas; died on 3 Feb 1934, Nursery, Victoria,
Texas; son of Jose Guadalupe Uresti and Maria Francisca Garcia; (Florencio Uresti was an older brother of Inocencio Uresti. [Inocencio Uresti married on 9 Dec 1889, San Diego, Duval, Texas (2) Maria Garcia; She was born 17 May 1871 in San Diego, Duval, Texas; died on 17 Jun 1955, San Antonio, Bexar, Texas; burial in Cemetery #2, Victoria , Victoria, Texas; daughter of Jose Maria de Jesus Garcia Flores and Maria Matiana Perez;]

7A) Manuel Mora Uresti, born on 17 Jul 1876, Nursery, Texas; died in 1948, Victoria, Victoria, Texas; He married (1) Olivia [--]; married (2) Lena Valdez; daughter of Florencio Valdez and Rosie Vava;

7B) Hilario "Eli" Uresti, born on 19 Feb 1878 at the Uresti Ranch, Nursery, Victoria, Texas; died on 25 Oct 1923 in Houston, Harris, Texas; He married Josefina Gonzalez; daughter of Librado Gonzalez and Josefina Samora;

7C) Jose Ramon Uresti, 20 Apr 1880-abt 1882;

7D) Inocencio Uresti, Jr., born on 18 Jan 1883 at the Uresti Ranch, Nursery, Victoria, Texas; died on 18 Jan 1957, Victoria, Texas; He married Magdalena Gonzalez; daughter of Librado Gonzalez and Jossefina Samora; 

7E) Vital Uresti, born on 21 Nov 1883, Nursery, Victoria, Texas; died 10 Jan 1970, Victoria, Victoria, 
Texas; He married Antonita Gonzalez, daughter of Librado Gonzalez and Josefina Samora;

7F) Maria Guadalupe Uresti, born on 21 Sep 1885 in Nursery, Texas; died on 6 Sep 1963 in Port Lavaca, CalhaunTexas; She married Julius Henson; He was born on 25 Dec 1880, Victoria, Victoria, Texas; died in Cuero, DeWitt, Texas, 17 Jul 1958; son of John Henson and Margarita Garza; 
7G) Francisco Uresti, born on 13 Oct 1887 in Nursery, Victoria, Texas; died on 28 Jan 1955, Cuero, DeWitt, Texas;


1) Mathieu Antonio Ybarbo, born in Andalusia, Spain in 1698; He married on12 Apr 1723 at the Alamo -- Mission San Antonio de Valero Juana Lasgard Hernandez; She was born in Spain; died in 1773 at Rancho Lobanillo, Louisiana; daughter of Nicolas Hernandez and Simona de Sepulveda; 

2) Antonio Gil Ybarbo, born in 1729, Los Adaes, Louisiana; died 1809 at La Lucana; He married (1) Maria Davila Padilla; She was born in 1733, Los Adaes, Louisiana; died on 24 April 1794, Rancho Lobanillo; daughter of Pedro Silverio Padilla and Josefa de Torrez: married 25 Jan 1796 (2) Marie Guadalupe de Herrera; 

3) Maria Josefa Ybarbo, born in 1746, Los Adaes, Louisiana; died in 1830; She married Nicolas Mora; He born in 1746, Nacogdoches, Texas; 

4) Estevan Mora, born in 1785; He married in 1809 (1) Maria Gertrudis de la Cerda; She was born in 1795; daughter of Neponunceno de la Cerda and Maria Ignacia Seldina Flores (a half caste); He married 25 May 1848 (2) Maria Casilda Lararin, widow of Jose Maria Arocho. 

5) Eulogio (Juan) Mora, born on 1824, Nacogdoches, Texas; He married Louisa Morin in 1847, Nacogdoches, Texas; 

6) Eligia Maria Mora, born in Nacogdoches, Texas on 7/30/1858; died on 12 Sep 1923, Victoria County, Texas; She married George Frank Oliver; He was born 21 Feb 1855, Oliver Ranch, Nursery, Victoria, Texas; died on 14 Jun 1925, Victoria, Texas; Their children: Andrew Oliver; Charolette Oliver; Jesse Laurence Oliver; Robert William Oliver; Mary Louise Oliver; and Paul Oliver; 
7) Jesse Laurence Oliver, born on 11 Dec 1882, Oliver Ranch, Nursery, Victoria Texas; died on 19 Dec 1965, San Antonio, Bexar, Texas; He Married Sarah Jane Uresti; She was born on 2 Aug 1889, Uresti Ranch, Nursery, Victoria, Texas; died on 9 May 1972, Victoria County, Texas; daughter of Florencio Uresti and Mary Jane Samora; 

8A) Lois Marine Oliver, born in Beeville, Bee, Texas, 15 Sep 1911; died on 18 Jun 1986, Austin, Travis, Texas; She married on 26 Oct 1935 in Beeville, Bee, Texas Charles Edward Caddel; He was born on 23 Apr 1911, Sinton, San Patricio, Texas; died on 9 May 1978, Taft, San Patricio, Texas; 

8B) Edward Roland Oliver, 12/13/1916-1/7/1918; 

8C) Jesse George Oliver, born in Nursery, Victoria, Texas 2 Jan 1919; He married on 9 May 1946, Phoenix, Arizona "Terry" Margaret Elizabeth Terry; born on 12 Apr1920; She died 6 Jan 2009 in Lordsburg, New Mexico; 

8D) Frankie Lee "Lela" Oliver, born on 24 May 1921 in Beeville, Bee, Texas,; died 7 March 2007; She married on 9 May 1946 in Kingsville, Kleberg, Texas Eugene "Gene" Morris Darter; He was born on 8 Sep 1920; died on 17 Apr 1970 in Houston, Harris, Texas; 

8E) Gloria Jane Oliver, born on 26 Nov 1923 in Beeville, Bee, Texas; died on 17 April 1970, Houston, Harris, Texas; She married Ernesto Quinoños; He was born on 5 July 1927, Dominican Republic; This couple divorced;

by Eddie U Garcia 
(760) 252-3588

NOTE: East Texas at one time extended into Louisiana;



   Diez Y Seis De Septiembre Y Diez Y Seis Balas by Dan Arellano
   Online classes from Monterrey, NL being scheduled
   Teniente Juan de la Barrera Ynzaurraga
   Families of General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mex, Vol 8  (1847-1850)
   Archive of Parral Digitized Images of Documents available
   Personajes en la Historia de México, José Leon Robles de la Torre
         Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz
         Victoriano González Garza
   Fuerza Aerea Expedicionaria Mexicana (FAEM)  



Diez Y Seis De Septiembre

Diez Y Seis Balas

The Execution of Father Miguel Hidalgo Y Costilla 

We all know how Father Hidalgo cried out for a new government on the 16th of September, 1810; starting a revolution in Mexico; but we know nothing about the death he suffered at the hands of his executioners.

There were several eye witness accounts of Father Hidalgo’s heroic and tragic death but it is best described by the leader of the execution squad, Captain Pedro de Armendariz. Captain Armendariz explains that he reluctantly accepted the assignment and recruited the execution squad from amongst his men; who had no desire to kill a priest. 

On the day of his execution, his soldiers, in complete silence, marched Father Hidalgo towards his place of execution, the silence broken only by the prayers of Father Hidalgo. His soldiers, already shaking like a leaf for what they were about to do; their nerves frayed even further listening to his prayers. Arriving at the stool placed for his execution, he hands his prayer book to a priest and in silence and on of his own accord sat in the assigned place. 

His arms were bound by two musket slings and a bandage was placed over his eyes against the post. Ready to meet his maker he raised his crucifix with both hands and faced his executioners, which were in formation two steps away, three deep and four abreast.

According to Armendariz, when he ordered the first row to fire, several of the men, being nervous and trembling, managed to only wound him in the arm and abdomen. His head, jerking due to the pain, caused his blindfold to fall from his head revealing his beautiful brown eyes which he affixed upon his executioners; and the soldiers could see that he was weeping.

Hurriedly he orders the second squad to fire and all of the bullets miss his heart, some striking him in the abdomen and some going astray. Father Hidalgo showed little reaction and his unwavering gaze remained upon his executioners. His tears flowing from his brown eyes caused such a reaction that even some of the soldiers began to weep.

Armendariz orders the third squad to fire; his soldiers trembling caused the bullets to miss their mark, only managing to cut his back and abdomen to pieces; obviously no one wanted to kill a priest.

At this point he orders his men to march forward and orders them to place their muzzles over his heart, firing point blank, and that is the way he was finally killed. It took sixteen bullets to kill Father Miguel Hidalgo Y Costilla. 

Dan Arellano, Author/Historian
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Amigos, Estamos por iniciar el Diplomado de Genealogia e Historia Familiar en la ciudad de Monterrey, NL.

Les invitamos a inscribirse, pudiendo hacerlo llamando al 8393-0011 (Monterrey) Proporcionando sus datos generales y especificando su nivel como Investigador (principiante, Intermedio, Avanzado) 
El primer Módulo consta de 6 horas.

- La clase sera 1 por semana - Grupos limitados a 5 Participantes

Los horarios de Lunes a Viernes son: Por la Mañana - 9:00 a 10:30

Por las tardes - 16:00 a 17:30  (4:00 a 5:30 PM)  - 17:30 a 19:00  (5:30 a 7:00 PM)

Sábados Dependiendo de la creación de grupos. Si deseas información mas detallada puedes enviarnos un email a  Y te enviaremos los detalles de cada nivel







Hola  Sra. Mimí.
Con el gusto de siempre le envío un afectuoso saludo y este artículo para SOMOS PRIMOS, esperando sea de su interés y de los lectores, reciban un afectuoso saludo de su amigo.
Anexo el registro de bautismo efectuado en el Sagrario Metropolitano de la Cd. de México.
Investigador de Genealogía e Historia.
Tte. Corl. Ricardo R. Palmerín Cordero.


Después de finalizada la Guerra de Intervención Norteamericana 1846-1848  y efectuados los Tratados de paz de Guadalupe Hidalgo el mes Febrero del  año de 1848.
 Los padres del Teniente Juan de la Barrera Ynzaurraga quién murió durante el asalto al Castillo de Chapultepec el día 13 de Septiembre de 1847, el Señor Don Ignacio María de la Barrera y Troncoso y Doña María Josefa Ynzaurraga y Carrillo, hicieron al  Supremo gobierno la siguiente solicitud.
 " Excelentísimo Señor.
 Ignacio María de la Barrera y Josefa Inzaurraga, hacemos presente a Vuestra Excelencia, que nuestro hijo legítimo, el Teniente del Batallón Permanente de Zapadores Don Juan de la Barrera, murió gloriosamente defendiendo los sagrados derechos de nuestra Independencia y Nacionalidad en el Fuerte de Chapultepec el memorable día 13 de Septiembre próximo pasado, como podrán informar sus Gefes respectivos existentes en esa ciudad, dejándonos en medio del justo sentimiento que nos ha causado su temprana muerte, pues que aún no tenía 19 años de edad, la dulce satisfacción de que en cumplimiento de su deber fue sacrificado honrosamente por su patria.
Por esta consideración y porque según los artículos 2° y 6° del Decreto de las Cortes de España de 28 de Octubre de 1811, declarados vigentes en varias resoluciones del Supremo Gobierno, nos corresponde por ser en la actualidad notoriamente pobres, el goce de la pensión designada en el Supremo Decreto de 19 de Febrero de 1839, a las familias de los Gefes y Oficiales del Ejército, que mueran en acción de guerra, ocurrimos a la justificación de Vuestra Excelencia, para que en uso de sus facultades y en consideración al estado de pobreza en que nos hallamos, se sirva dispensarnos no mandamos los documentos respectivos y en consecuencia se sirva declararnos la pensión correspondiente al empleo en que falleció nuestro hijo por las balas de los enemigos invasores, disponiendo que se nos abone desde el día 14 de Septiembre que fue el siguiente al de su fallecimiento, presentando ahora únicamente la copia de su despacho."
Por tanto, a Vuestra Excelencia suplicamos sentidamente, se sirva acceder a esta solicitud en que recibiremos justicia y gracia. México, Abril 3 de 1848. Ignacio María de la Barrera y Josefa Inzaurraga.
Esta fué la contestación a la solicitud de pensión de los Padres, el año de 1854.
Ministerio de Guerra y Marina.
Sección de Comisaría.
Excelentísimo Señor.
Animado el Excelentísmo, Señor Presidente en favor de todos aquellos Mejicanos que supieron morir con honor ante el enemigo extranjero defendiendo los derechos sagrados de su patria con aquel denuedo que inspiran los elevados sentimientos de un buen militar; y probados que han sido hasta la evidencia los servicios que en esa lucha prestó el Teniente de Zapadaores Don Juan de la Barrera, quién según su liquidación presentada por el Excelentísimo Señor Director General de Ingenieros, alcanza desde 1° de Diciembre de 1843 en que ingresó al Colegio Militar, hasta el 13 de Septiembre de 1847 en que falleció: 396 pesos, 3 reales, 8 granos, y 48 centésimos, manda Su Excelencia que con la mayor exactitud y preferencia los satisfaga la Comisaría a la Señora Madre del expresado Oficial Doña Josefa Inzaurraga. Dígolo a Usted  de Suprema Orden, para su su exacto y puntual cumplimiento.
Y lo inserto a Vuestra Excelencia para su conocimiento y demás fines, como resultado de la instancia que V.E. llevó con un informe fecha 13 del corriente.

Dios y Libertad, Méjico, 21 de Octubre de 1854. Exmo. Señor.Director General de Ingenieros.





Families of General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Volume Eight (1847-1850)

This book has marriage and family information on the 338 marriage records found for Nuestra Senora de la Soledad parish church in Valle de la Mota for the years of 1847-1850.

The church records used as a primary source for this book are available as digital images to view, print or download for free at in the Mexican Church Records browse image collection for General Teran. The marriages for this volume are found on images 106-213 in the 1840-1854 film collection. The
marriages are arranged in this volume in the same order as they appear in the original records.

Here is a link; Families of General Teran, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Volume Eight (1847-1850) 

My web site provider has cautioned me that I am near to my monthly traffic limit. If that should happen visitors will see a “Sorry, Page Temporarily Unavailable” message until the first of next month. 
If you want to purchase a hard copy of this book contact: 

Best Regards, Crispin Rendon


August 5, 2011

Digitized Images of Documents held in the Archive of Parral are Now Available to Researchers  The Archivo histórico municipal de Parral, Chihuahua, México (also known as the Archivo de Hidalgo del Parral) houses the Fondo Colonial. This important collection contains a wealth of historical documents that pertain to what was once the Spanish colonial province of Nueva Viscaya. Today that vast geographical area encompasses the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Durango, the eastern parts of Sonora, and Sinaloa, as well as the southwest part of Coahuila. 

 Digitized Images of Documents held in the

 Archive of Parral are now Available to Researchers  

The Archivo historico municipal de Parral , Chihuahua , Mexico (also known as the Archivo de Hidalgo del Parral) houses the Fondo Colonial. This important collection contains a wealth of historical documents that pertain to what was once the Spanish colonial province of Nueva Vizcaya . Today, that vast geographic area encompasses the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Durango, the eastern parts of Sonora and Sinaloa as well as the southwest part of Coahuila.  

 Researchers whose area of interest is Nueva Vizcaya for the years 1632 to 1821, can now obtain digitized copies of documents found in the Fondo Colonial collection. This can be accomplished with the assistance of the non-profit organization, the Hispanic Heritage Project. The Hispanic Heritage Project’s website,, provides a searchable catalog of the documents held in the collection. The website also provides more detailed information about the Parral archive and how to access its collections.  

After locating a document of interest, digital images of that document can be ordered by email.  Once a document request is sent to the Archivo histórico municipal de Parral, notification of the cost for the images will be sent to the requester by return email. Payment can be made either by direct deposit to the Hispanic Heritage Project, Bank of America account 24691-14835 or by mailing a check to the Hispanic Heritage Project, 1400 Oak Hill Rd. #811; Escondido 92027.  The charge for that service is $1.00 for the first image and 25 cents for each additional image.   

Email requests should be made to:
Questions can be sent to Carlos Yturralde at:







 Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz

Datos del Tomo VII, de XIII, Libro No. 50 de mi obra inédita "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México", relacionados con el General de División don Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz, 44 Presidente de México, interino, nombrado por la "Convención de Aguascalientes" del cinco de noviembre de 1914 al 16 de enero de 1915, en que fue nombrado por la misma convención el Gral. don Roque González Garza. Pero el presidente Gutiérrez no entregó el mando sino que siguió como presidente nómada por el norte del país, de San Luis Potosí a Nuevo León hasta el dos de junio de 1915 en que renunció, total seis meses y 26 días. En esas fechas ejercían el Poder Ejecutivo tres presidentes. El primer jefe del Ejército Constitucionalista don Venustiano Carranza, en Veracruz, el Gral. Roque González Garza en la capital de la República y el Gral. Gutiérrez Ortiz nómada por S.L.P. y Nuevo León. 

Hacienda de su familia en Santo Domingo, del Municipio de Ramos Arizpe, Coah., donde hizo sus primeros estudios y otros en Saltillo, Coah., sin obtener ningún título.

Contrajo matrimonio con la señorita Petra Treviño y procrearon varios hijos e hijas y entre ellos don Eulalio Gutiérrez Treviño que llegó a ser Gobernador de Coahuila.

A los 19 años de edad, el 15 de septiembre de 1900 se levantó en armas y se pronunció contra el General Aréchiga en Concepción del Oro, Zacs., el 26 de noviembre de 1906, se pronunció contra las fuerzas del Gobierno del General Díaz y luego secundó la Revolución Maderista de 1910, obteniendo el grado de Capitán Primero. Para el 15 de mayo de 1911, ya era Mayor. Siguió una larga carrera militar participando en muchos combates, siendo herido en dos ocasiones. Yo obtuve su hoja de servicios como militar de la Secretaría de Guerra, del archivo de cancelados, y debidamente certificada, obra en mi libro arriba citado. Luego estuvo de Presidente de la República en las fechas antes mencionadas.

De junio de 1915, siguió combatiendo a las fuerzas de Carranza hasta 1917. Fue electo Senador de la República por Saltillo, a partir del 1o. de septiembre de 1920 hasta el 31 de agosto de 1928.

El tres de marzo de 1927 causó baja en el Servicio Militar 1927, y según consta en su hoja de servicios citada, su baja fue con el grado de General de División, con una antigüedad de 27 años, 11 meses y 11 días de servicios.

El cuatro de noviembre de 1939, la Secretaría de Guerra le otorgó la condecoración al Mérito Revolucionario del 1o. y 2o. periodos. Pero el General ya había fallecido el 12 de agosto de ese mismo año, en la ciudad de Saltillo, así como las condecoraciones fueron post mortem.

Sus restos fueron depositados en el Panteón de Santiago de Saltillo, Coah., en el monumento familiar.

Yo visité su tumba en 1959 y tomé la fotografía que obra en el libro que cito, y en la lápida sólo hay una sencilla inscripción que dice: "FAMILIA GUTIÉRREZ". 








Victoriano González Garza

Datos del Tomo VIII de XIII, Libro 51 de mi obra inédita: "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México", relacionados con el General de División don Roque Victoriano González Garza, Presidente de México No. 45, del 16 de enero al 10 de junio de 1915, total cuatro meses y 26 días, interinamente, designado por la Convención de Aguascalientes...

Nació el 23 de enero de 1885 en la ciudad de Saltillo, Coah., según consta en acta certificada de su nacimiento por el Registro Civil de Saltillo, Coah., que me fue enviada en 1955 y que obra en el libro citado. Fue hijo legítimo de don Agustín G. González y de su esposa doña Prisciliana Garza.

Hizo sus estudios primarios y secundarios en su natal Saltillo, sin llegar a obtener ningún título universitario.

El nueve de febrero de 1911, se unió a las fuerzas maderistas en Ciudad Juárez, Chih., como Capitán Segundo, grado que le otorgó el propio Madero que fungía como Presidente de la República provisional, quedando a las órdenes del General Eduardo Hay, jefe del Estado Mayor de Madero. El 19 de abril de ese mismo año, fue ascendido a Mayor, según consta en la larga "Hoja de Servicios" del General Roque González Garza, donde se detallan sus combates y ascensos dentro del ejército y que me fue expedida, certificada por el archivo de cancelados de la Secretaría de Guerra, en 1959.

En junio de 1914, surgieron algunas diferencias entre el General Francisco Villa, jefe de la División del Norte y el señor Venustiano Carranza, primer jefe del Ejército Constitucionalista, por la toma de Zacatecas entonces Coronel Roque González Garza, participó en los conflictos que se trataron en la Convención de Aguascalientes, de la que fue Presidente el General Antonio I. Villarreal, pero todos bajo los mandos de Villa y en las que no participó Carranza que se sostenía con su Gobierno en el Puerto de Veracruz.

La Convención de Aguascalientes, nombró presidente interino en 1914, como ya vimos en el artículo anterior, al General Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz, que luego no estuvo conforme y se retiró con su gobierno rumbo a San Luis Potosí y Nuevo León, a principio de enero de 1915, fecha en que la propia convención nombró Presidente Interino al General Roque González Garza, quien tomó posesión del cargo el 16 de enero de 1915, durando en el cargo hasta el diez de junio de ese mismo año. Ya he manifestado antes en artículo anterior, que en esas fechas de enero de 1915, había tres Presidentes de la República: Carranza en Veracruz, González Garza, en la Ciudad de México y Gutiérrez Ortiz, nómada por el Centro-Norte del país.

En sus últimos años de vida, perteneció a la "Legión de Honor" del Ejército Mexicano hasta que solicitó su retiro el nueve de mayo de 1950, con 33 años, un mes y 29 días de antigüedad.

Su muerte: el día 13 de noviembre de 1952, apareció una nota en el periódico Universal de la Ciudad de México, que dice: "...México 12 de noviembre, falleció el General de División don Roque González Garza, en el Hospital 20 de Noviembre de la Ciudad de México".

Sus funerales fueron muy concurridos con familiares, amigos y autoridades. Sus restos fueron llevados al Panteón Francés de la Piedad en la Ciudad de México.

Source: El Siglo de Torreon

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera









Por Jerry Javier Lujan ( Albuquerque, NM el 19 de Julio, 2011, como me la contó 
Don Fortino González, veterano de la Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana Escuadrón de Pelea 201  

Don Fortino and Dona Berta with their Grandaughter taken in 2006      

El American GI Fórum (AGIF) tuvo su conferencia nacional anual ( la # 63) en Albuquerque, Nuevo México del 13 al 17 de julio, 2011.  En esta conferencia tuve el gran honor de conocer al El Señor Fortino Gonzales, acompañado por su amable y linda esposa, Doña Berta.  Don Fortino fue enviado como el representante de la Asociación de Veteranos del distinguido Escuadrón 201 de las Fuerzas Aéreas Mexicanas.  Dicho escuadrón brindo honorable servicio militar en combate como aliado de las fuerzas aéreas de  los Estados Unidos Americanos en el teatro de guerra en el Pacífico durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Tuve el privilegio y el placer de platicar ampliamente con ésta linda pareja, los cuales fueron nuestros huéspedes de honor de dicha conferencia nacional de veteranos Estadunidenses Americanos y sus familias.  El Escuadrón 201 ha mantenido una afiliación con el AGIF casi desde su principio en 1947, y han mandado delegaciones a casi todas las conferencias nacionales del AGIF por más de sesenta años.

Le pregunte a Don Fortino como había llegado a ser parte del Escuadrón 201, y lo que él me platicó fue lo siguiente.

DFG:  Pues yo estaba trabajando en la industria armamentista del gobierno Mexicano, la cual tenía contratos con el gobierno Estadunidense para ayudarle en su esfuerzo de la Segunda Guerra, con todas clases de productos explosivos, tal como proyectiles, granadas, cartuchos de distintos calibres, bombas, y otros productos de armamentos.  Y trabajaba en la fabricación de granadas y otros explosivos, los cuales utilizaban el TNT.  Toca que en una ocasión hubo un accidente muy trágico en la parte donde se preparaban las granadas.  Había miles de granadas en línea, de TNT de cada granada estaba aforrada con un pedazo de lona y una especie de grasa o aceite.  De ahí se les iba a cubrir de metal, y luego se les iba a colocar el aparato detonador.  Pues, cuando estaban éstas miles y miles de granadas listas para la siguiente etapa de asamblea, hubo una chispa, que no se supo de donde originó, y una del las granadas explotó, y como una explosión en cadena, siguieron explotando las demás.  Fué un desastre muy trágico.  Después, en otra fábrica de explosivos hubo otro accidente similar pero de un producto diferente.   

JJL: Estaban ubicados las distintas fabricas armamentistas cercas unas de otras?  

DFG:  No.  Y gracias a dios, que se tomaron las precauciones de tenerlas apartes y en las afueras de la ciudad, por si acaso llegara a pasar un accidente, cosa que muy fácilmente puede pasar en este tipo de producción.  Tuvimos suerte que solamente tuvimos dos accidentes de ese tipo.

JJL:  Solo que su especialización era el manejo y fabricación de explosivos y proyectiles?

DFG:  Así es. 

JJL:  Dígame por favor, Don Fortino, como estuvo que se formó el Escuadrón 201?

DFG:  El Escuadrón 201 ya existía dentro del la fuerza aérea Mexicana, antes que entráramos a la guerra.  Como los E.U.A necesitaban toda clase de productos para luchar contra sus enemigos, México tenía mucho que ofrecer.  Aparte de los productos armamentistas, México le vendía grandes cantidades de petróleo a los E.U.A..  Más bien la razón por la cual México le entro a la guerra fué por tres barcos petroleros Mexicanos que fueron hundidos en el Golfo de México por submarinos Alemanes.   

El 13 de Mayo de 1942 marca el início del capítulo que habrían de escribir con letras de oro los integrantes del Escuadrón 201. Ese día aproximadamente a las 23:55 hrs, un submarino Alemán del tipo U-Bote hundió frente a las costas de Miami al petrolero Mexicano, Potrero del Llano. Es necesario mencionar, que al año de haberse iniciado el conflicto, se celebro una reunión en Londres Inglaterra, donde se estableció un Convenio Internacional que prohibía atacar a los barcos de los países neutrales que tuvieran a la vista su bandera y su matrícula.

A raíz de éste suceso,  México exigió a través de su cancillería en Suecia una explicación y la correspondiente indemnización al atentado cometido en contra de nuestro país, tras lo cual la única respuesta del gobierno alemán provino nueve días después en igualdad de circunstancias cuando un navío más, el Faja de Oro, fué hundido cerca de Key West E.U.A.  Ante ésta situación el gobierno del General Manuel Ávila Camacho declaró el estado de guerra en contra de las fuerzas del eje el 28 de Mayo de 1942. Habiéndose definido la situación, Alemania asesto dos golpes más a nuestro país, esta vez hundiendo los barcos, el Tuxpan y el Chiapas.

Luego se llamó una conferencia entre los presidentes de ambos países, en Monterey, Nuevo León.  El Presidente Mexicano, Ávila Camacho le pidió al Presidente Roosevelt más protección en el golfo contra los ataques Alemanes, los cuales estaban causando mucho daño a los barcos petroleros Mexicanos.  Roosevelt le dijo que México podía contar con esa protección, pero con la condición que México tomara una parte militar más activa en la guerra.  

Ese tema se discutió muchísimo dentro del gobierno Mexicano.  El ejército de infantería, no podía ser una opción, debido a que el ejército Mexicano estaba en muy malas condiciones, y se necistaría demasiado entrenamiento para llegar a pelear competentemente en un frente de batalla de infantería, especialmente en el extranjero.  

Al fín se reconoció que en lo que México pudiera ser lo más útil en la guerra era con un elemento de sus fuerzas aéreas, las cuales tenían bastantes pilotos de mucha experiencia y entrenamiento.  Después de mucho debate sobre cuáles del los elementos de la fuerza aérea iba ser enviada a la guerra, se escogió el Escuadrón 201, la cual fue nombrada por los miembros del grupo, como “La Águila Azteca, y así fuediseñado du emblema.    

Agustín Lara

Cantar del regimiento
Envuelto en mi bandera está,
En ella lleva el viento
Hablando de la libertad

Cantar del regimiento
Mil vidas que se apartarán
Que los cuide la virgen morena
Que los cuide y los deje pelear
Ya se va mi regimiento
Va cantando y sabe dios si volverá



JL:  Si es tan amable, Don Fortino, me puede usted contar los eventos cronológicos desde que salieron de su patria Mexicana, hasta el fín de la guerra?

DFG: Con mucho gusto, Señor Luján.  El entrenamiento del Escuadrón 201 Aéreo Expedicionario Mexicano tomó lugar en Estados Unidos y en Las Filipinas.  Las actividades de entrenamiento en Los Estados Unidos fueron individuales y de unidad.  El propósito fué el de crear una fuerza aceptable para operar independientemente, integrada a las fuerzas armadas de Los Estados Unidos.  La adaptación a los sistemas y procedimientos de Estados Unidos era un requisito primordial para la integración conjunta en los campos de batalla. El entrenamiento continuó después en el Teatro de Operaciones.  Hubo muchos obstáculos en el entrenamiento, pero se aprendieron lecciones muy importantes.  El grupo elegido, compuesto de aproximadamente 300 mexicanos, entró a Estados Unidos por Laredo Texas, el 25 de julio de 1944.  Éstos hombres formaron parte de la primera Organización Militar Mexicana que viajó fuera del país en misión de guerra, arribando a Randolph, Texas para el procedimiento inicial. Todo el personal fue sometido a un examen médico, y los pilotos pasaron pruebas de vuelos también.


El entrenamiento individual comenzó el primero de agosto de 1944.  El Escuadrón se dividió de acuerdo a sus especialidades y de ahí fueron transportados a diferentes centros de entrenamiento, el grupo más grande fue llevado a Pocatello en Idaho y también The Republic Aviation Corporation en Farmingdale en Long Island, New York, otros fueron a Boca Ratón en la Florida. y a Scott Field en Illinois.  El entrenamiento para el personal de tierra, consistió básicamente de instrucción del idioma inglés, materias básicas militares, y entrenamiento práctico en diferentes especialidades. Los instructores y sus discípulos trabajaron arduamente para alcanzar su misión. En la opinión de los instructores, "Los hombres de mantenimiento demostraron una recomendable seriedad al deber, iniciativa, y comprensión."  

Después de terminar el entrenamiento individual, el Escuadrón se concentró en Pocatello, Idaho para tomar parte en el entrenamiento como Unidad, el propósito de éste fué el de crear una fuerza capaz de operar independientemente. El 20 de octubre de 1944, las únicas vacancias que quedaban eran las del Oficial de Inteligencia y seís operadores de radar. El Escuadrón recibió dieciocho aparatos P-47. y se organizó de la siguiente manera:


El entrenamiento de vuelo, en aparatos nuevos comenzó el 22 de octubre de 1944 con buenos resultados, lo que fué atribuido a la experiencia de vuelo de los pilotos, volando un mínimo de tres simulacros en aparatos BT-13, antes de comenzar a volar en los P-47, el programa de entrenamiento en el que participaron, era el mismo al que eran sometidos los pilotos de Estados Unidos y éste incluía 120 horas de vuelo, en cuatro facetas.  Los pilotos pronto demostraron su habilidad de vuelo y durante la primera semana, todos, excepto uno, ya habían pasado a la fase del P-47.  El comandante de la sección "I" calificó a los pilotos Mexicanos diciendo: “Considerablemente superaban los mínimos requisitos en decisión, técnicas, despegue, aterrizaje, y en su operación en general”. Él mismo reportó el 16 de diciembre de 1944 que: " La calidad del vuelo en formación del Escuadrón, fue calificada de excelente a superior."  

Las inclemencias del invierno de 1944 frenaron a los integrantes del Escuadrón en la continuación de sus actividades de vuelo, sus miembros deseaban estar listos lo antes posible para entrar en combate, por esto, cuando el clima lo permitía, eran los primeros en estar listos para volar.  Para resolver el problema del mal tiempo y continuar con las etapas de entrenamiento, el Escuadrón 201 fué reubicado en Majors Field en Texas, el 30 Noviembre de 1944.  Finalmente el Senado Mexicano autorizó al Presidente de México a enviar a combate al Escuadrón 201 de la Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana el 29 de Diciembre de 1944.  El 2 de Febrero de 1945, los pilotos estaban listos para comenzar el entrenamiento de tiro, siendo esta la fase final de entrenamiento del Escuadrón 201.  La Unidad se trasladó a Brownsville Army Air Field en Texas para realizar ésta parte del entrenamiento; pero desafortunadamente el mal tiempo, una vez más, retrasaba las actividades.  El resultado más alto en impactos de aire a aire fue de 25%, y los mejores resultados de aire a tierra fueron de más de 30%.  Después de completar el entrenamiento de tiro el Escuadrón regresó a Majors Field Texas en marzo de 1945.


El entrenamiento de los pilotos y personal de tierra de reemplazo, comenzó en febrero de 1945. En marzo, dieciséis pilotos estaban volando el curso de repaso, diez de ellos estaban casi listos para comenzar a volar aparatos P-47, seís más estaban a un mes de alcanzar éste objetivo, considerando ésto, por lo menos nueve pilotos de reemplazo estarían listos para el 28 de Julio de 1945, y cinco más un mes después. El plan de entrenamiento para los reemplazos consideraría cuarenta y ocho pilotos más para el entrenamiento de vuelo de repaso y en el P-47.  Éste entrenamiento que inicialmente fué conducido en Foster Field en Texas, se cambió a Napier Field en Alabama, cerca de Maxwell Field que era donde residía la Air Corps Tactical School, centro donde se desarrollaban las tácticas aéreas y estratégicas de los Estados Unidos.  

El Presidente Manuel Avila Camacho dijo:  "Que los miembros de la Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana no olviden nunca el ejemplo de nuestros héroes.  Que, en las pruebas que les reserva la guerra, sientan latir-al unísono con los suyos- y en los corazones de todos los mexicanos.  Y que la bandera que les envío vuelva con ellos, desgarrada tal vez por las balas del enemigo, pero con gloria."  

Después de terminar su entrenamiento, el Escuadrón 201 recibió la Bandera Mexicana el 22 de febrero de 1945. Estaban listos para combate.  Los pilotos fueron transportados por el 21st. Bombardment Wing a Topeka en Kansas, para su procesamiento final, y el personal de tierra dejó Majors Field en Texas, en tren el 18 de marzo. El Escuadrón 201 partió de San Francisco, California, a bordo del U.S.S Fairslile el 27 de marzo y llegó a Manila Bay en las Filipinas el 30 de abril de 1945.  

La FAEM y el Escuadrón 201 fueron quienes representaron en el campo de batalla a las fuerzas militares de México; y lo hicieron muy bién.  Era una pequeña fuerza que combatió, relativamente un corto período de tiempo, "Pero considerando que el Escuadrón 201 era nuevo en el combate, su record se puede comparar favorablemente con el del los pilotos veteranos del Grupo 58avo de los E. U. A”.  El Escuadrón 201 voló cincuenta y nueve misiones en Luzón y Formosa, también numerosos vuelos de escolta en el área del sur-oeste del Pacífico. Hubo pérdidas inevitables, pero ese fué el precio que se pagó por el honor de México.  

Los conceptos tácticos y operacionales en el área sur-oeste del Pácifico fueron únicos en muchas maneras.  El General MacArthur y el General Kenney establecieron una relación de trabajo que hizo sobresalir las capacidades de los componentes de tierra, aire, y marítimos en una forma sin precedente dentro de las fuerzas aliadas.  Su éxito en integrar las operaciones de las fuerzas de tierra y aire fué comparada con el concepto de operación Alemán "Blitzkrieg" (un ataque intensivo y bien coordinado contra al enemigo).  

Las Estratégias de los Aliados para derrotar al Japón requería la reducción desu perímetros de defensa, que fué expandido después de la ofensiva japonesa en 1942.  Ésta estratégia hizo innecesaria la recapturación de todo el terreno en las manos japonesas.  Las fuerzas aisladas y el uso de bases de operación al frente mejoraron el costo y efectividad, desde estas bases al frente, fué posible emplear el poder aéreo táctico y cortar las líneas de comunicación japonesas.  El Manual de Familiarización de la Zona de Guerra para el área sur-oeste del Pacífico presentó ésta estratégia como sigue:  

El plán es generalmente así;  primeramente un bloqueo aéreo aliado sería dispersado desde nuestra base más avanzada.  Los transportes de abastecimientos japoneses serían atacados con persistencia, hasta que sus unidades más fuertes, dentro del área bloqueada, fueran separadas por completo de sus líneas de abastecimiento; simultáneamente nuestros pilotos buscarían los aviones enemigos, donde quiera que estuviesen, principalmente en las bases más avanzadas para destruirlos.  Al mismo tiempo los bombarderos atacarían en éstas bases a los aviones y barcos, así se continuaría hasta que la capacidad de contraataque aéreo del enemigo fuera minimizada. Mientras tanto, solo una o dos de las numerosas bases costeras del enemigo dentro del área bloqueada serían seleccionadas para ser invadidas.  Las Fuerzas Aéreas se cambiarían a soporte de tierra y atacarían fuertemente a las fuerzas de infantería.  Después vendrían las fuerzas de avance que ocuparían las pistas de aterrizaje. Ingenieros y Unidades especializadas para controlar la malaria comenzarían a trabajar inmediatamente. Nuestras Fuerzas Aéreas se moverían al frente y éste proceso se prepararía inmediatamente para repetirse hasta el siguiente punto de alcance de nuestros pilotos, mientras los pocos enemigos atrapados dentro del área bloqueada se mantendrían impotentes y aislados. 

En la Segunda Guerra Mundial, ya se había aceptado que la superioridad en el aire sería la forma inicial del Poder Aéreo; después de haber logrado ésto, algunos creyeron que el bombardéo contra la moral o material serián los blancos que seguir; mientas otros pensaban que la aislación de los campos de batalla y soporte a las fuerzas de tierra serían los siguientes blancos.  Las características del área del sur-oeste del Pacífico favorecía  la segunda, ésto es, el poder aéreo táctico fué necesario para contribuir en la destrucción de las bases japonesas para conseguir una victoria, o para el avance de bases aliadas para mantener operaciones aéreas estratégicas.  

La estratégia de los Aliados requirió un grán esfuerzo de cooperación al nivel de operaciones. Sin considerar las fuerzas marítimas, la mayoría del tiempo fué el poder aéreo quien soportó a las fuerzas de tierra, pero también fueron las fuerzas de tierra quienes soportaron a los poderes del aire, proveyendo el apoyo y defensa de bases aéreas cercanas a las líneas de combate en las islas del Pacífico.  Este fué el concepto que permitió el desarrollo táctico en las operaciones Tierra-Aire, y permitió la temprana invasión de las Filipinas en el Golfo Leyte, on Octubre 20 de 1944.  

Cuando la FAEM llegó a las Filipinas, las fuerzas Japonesas ocupaban todavía una extensa parte de Luzón y Mindanao. Las fuerzas de tierra de los aliados estaban en persecución de las tropas japonesas, pero éstas eran aún así una fuerza formidable que continuó peleando hasta que japón se dió por vencido.  La actividad enemiga sobre Luzón fue limitada, pero hubo algunos reportes de aviones enemigos sobre la bahía de Manila en junio. Esta era la situación cuando la FAEM inicio misiones de combate en Junio 4 de 1945.  

Para facilitar la identificación del objetivo, un avión de contacto (L-5) o controladores de tierra dirigían las fuerzas de ataque.  Las pobres comunicaciones con éstos elementos atribuyó también a misiones inefectivas. Este personal daba resultados de las misiones, y cuando la vegetación o distancia no interfería con sus operaciones la mayoría de los resultados fueron confirmados en el objetivo.  Cuando el Escuadrón 201 abandonaba una misión por cualquier razón, los pilotos dejaban caer sus bombas en áreas de seguridad, usualmente sobre el mar.  “Strafing” (ataque con las metralletas del avión) requería de contacto visual con el objetivo.  No todas las misiones envolvieron strafing, pero cuando pasaron, los resultados fueron bastante buenos. Los resultados de algunas misiones mencionan explosiones secundarias y nidos de ametralladoras silenciadas.  Un reporte diario indicó " Los P-47 Mexicanos bombardearon y ametrallaron concentraciones enemigas y convoyes de vehículos al norte de Payawan en la ruta #4. Todas las bombas dieron en el objetivo y dos camiones quedaron en llamas."  Estos reportes son prueba de la efectividad del Escuadrón 201 en la área sur-oeste del Pacífico.


En las Filipinas casi no hubo actividad área enemiga.  La aviación japonesa se había concentrado en la defensa del Japón, y solo vuelos esporádicos fueron observados sobre las Filipinas.  Hubo alguna actividad aerea enemiga sobre Formosa (Taiwan), y el Escuadrón 201 recibió la oportunidad de ir trás ella del 6 al 9 de Julio de 1945.  

uatro operaciones de largo alcance se lanzaron hasta Formosa  para conducir misiones en busca de aviones enemigos. En dos misiones los pilotos observaron aviones no identificados, posiblemente adversarios, pero estaban muy lejos y no les fue posible entrar en combate aéreo.  En una ocasión los aviones enemigos cambiaron dirección contraria y en ambos casos volaron hacia arriba o dentro de las nubes.  Algunos aviones aliados fueron observados, y en otra ocasión un submarino fue detectado.  Submarinos japoneses conducían misiones de abastecimiento a sus fuerzas aisladas en algunas islas.  

En estas misiones no se destruyó adversarios enemigos, pero permitió el entrenamiento para misiones de largo alcance. Después de casi un mes de entrenamiento y misiones de translado de aviones, el Escuadrón recibió otra misión, bombardear Korento, Formosa. Ocho aviones despegaron el 8 de Agosto de 1945 a una misión de largo alcance que casi sobrepasaba las capacidades de los mismos. Los pilotos declararon la misión inefectiva, pero no tuvieron otra oportunidad. La guerra termino en Agosto 15 de 1945.  

La última misión del Escuadrón 201 fué de escoltar a un convoy en ruta a Okinawa, y esta tomo efecto el 26 de Agosto de 1945.  La guerra oficialmente había terminado, pero había la posibilidad de que aviones Kamikaze despegaran desde Formosa. Ésta fué la última misión asignada a la Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana y al Escuadrón 201.  

  JJL:  Don Fortino, muchísimas gracias por sus ambles atenciones en compartir conmigo esta linda historia, la cual es importante que las nuevas generaciones sepan de la honra con la que Ud. Y sus compañeros brindaron en la lucha por la libertad de sus ambos países.

The information from the above July 19, 2011 interview shared in English by Jerry Javier Lujan. 


201st Fighter Squadron  (Escuadrón 201)

(As related by Mr. (Don) Fortino González, veteran of the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force 201st Fighter Squadron (better known as el Escuadrón 201), which was Mexico’s military contribution to the war effort in the Pacific Theatre  in World War II.

The American GI Forum (AGIF) held its 63rd annual national conference in Albuquerque , NM from July 13-17, 2011 .  At this conference I had the great honor of meeting Mr. Fortino González, accompanied by his amiable wife, Doña Berta.  Don Fortino was sent to this conference to represent the Association of the Distinguished Veterans of Mexican Fighter Squadron 201of the Mexican Air Force during World War II.  This squadron served with honor and great valor in combat, in the Philippines , Taiwan and Okinawa , and were attached to the U. S. Army Air Corps.

I had the pleasure and privilege of having long conversations with him and his wife, who were treated as our “guests of honor” during the conference.  The AGIF is a national organization of Hispanic veterans and their families chartered by Congress.  The Mexican Expeditionary Force 201st Fighter Squadron, the association that Mr. Gonzalez was sent to represent, has been an affiliat member of the AGIF almost since its inception in 1947, and has sent delegations to almost all of the national conferences of the AGIF for more than sixty years. 

 JJL:  Don Fortino how it was that he happened to have served with the 201st Fighter Squadron from Mexico , and he recounted the following.

FG:  Well, Mr. Lujan, I was working in the armaments industry of the Mexican government who had contracts with the U.S. government to help with the war effort. During WWII, Mexico developed a considerable armaments industrial complex that manufactured all sorts of explosive products, projectiles of all types, hand grenades, cartridges of many calibers, bombs, among other products related to explosive armaments, which the United States desperately needed.  I worked at a factory where we manufactured grenades, and other types of explosive products that were TNT based.  It so happened that on one occasion there was a horrific and tragic accident at the plant where grenades were being manufactured in an assembly line.  Thousands of unfinished grenades were lined up, whose TNT base was covered only with a canvass laden with grease or oil, waiting for the metal jacket that produced shrapnel to be placed, before the detonating pin and handle were added to finish the product.   It so happened that a spark that came from an unknown source caused one of the canvass covered grenades to detonate, setting off a tremendous chain reaction of explosions.  I don’t know how many thousands of grenades detonated, but it was a disaster of tragic proportions. After that, at another plant that produced explosives, there was another similar accident, but of a different type of explosives.

JJL:  Were the different armament manufacturing plants situated in close proximity to each other?

FG:  No.  And thank God, that the armaments industry took the proper precautions to have the plants in different parts of the on the outskirts of Mexico City , in case an accident should occur; something that can easily happen in this type of production.  We were lucky that we only had those two explosive accidents in our armament industry. 

JJL:  So, your specialty was in ordinance plants that produced explosives and projectiles?

FG:  Yes.

JJL:  Please tell me Don Fortino, how was it that the Fighter Squadron known as Escuadrón 201 came into being.

FG:  The 201st Fighter Squadron already existed within the Mexican Air Force, before we entered the war.  The United States was in great need of all kinds of products needed for the war effort, and Mexico had many of those products to offer.  Other than the production of armament products, Mexico sold huge quantities of oil to the U.S.   In fact, the reason Mexico entered the war was because several of its oil tankers reroute to various U.S. ports were sunk by German U-boats in the Gulf of Mexico, several just off the U.S. coast.

The Mexican government broke all diplomatic relations with the Axis powers immediately after the Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor .  However, Mexico withheld declaring war against the Axis until May 28, 1942 .  That date marks the initial chapter which lead to creation of the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force, 201st Fighter Squadron, a date that should be inscribed in gold letters by those who served in this Expeditionary Force..  On that day at approximately 23:55 hours, a German U-boat, sank the Mexican oil tanker Potrero Del Llano right off the coast of Miami , Florida .  It is necessary to mention that a year after the initiation of the conflict, a reunion was held in London, in which an International Covenant was established which prohibited any attacks against ships of neutral countries that displayed the colors of the country in which they were registered.

As a result of this incident, Mexico demanded, via its Chancellery in Switzerland , the corresponding indemnification of that incident against her sovereignty, and neutrality.  The only response from the German Nazi government arrived nine days later under similar circumstances when another ship, the Faja de Oro, was sunk close to Key West . Under these circumstances the administration of General Manuel Ávila Camacho declared war against all the Axis Powers, on May 28, 1942 .  Having defined the situation, Germany dealt two more blows to Mexico , sinking the Tuxpan and the Chiapas .

Once Mexico declared war against the Axis Powers, a conference was called between the Presidents of the United States and Mexico , in Monterey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The Mexican president, Ávila Camacho asked President Roosevelt for more protection in the Gulf of Mexico against German attacks, which were causing much damage to the Mexican oil tankers.  Roosevelt pledged the protection that Mexico had requested, but with the condition that Mexico should take a more active military part in the war.

That theme was discussed at length within the Mexican government.  To engage the infantry of the Mexican army which was in shambles, and was not an option, and would need extensive training to get it to the point of being able to fight in a competent manner on a battle front, especially on foreign soil.   </