Content Areas

United States

Dignity Memorial Traveling Vietnam Wall: A Healing 

Witness to Heritage
Honoring Hispanic Leaders

National Issues

Action Item



Military/Law Enforcement 

Amer Revolution Patriots


Family History

Orange County, CA  
Los Angeles, CA
Northwestern US
Southwestern US 


East Coast
East of Mississippi





"I predict future happiness for Americans, if they can prevent the government from wasting the labors of the people under the pretense of taking care of them." 

Abraham Lincoln

Somos Primos

MAY 2010 
125th Online Issue

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-2010

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
 Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

"Art, Activism, Access: 40 Years of Ethnic Studies at UCLA"

A 1970 drawing by Eduardo Carillo, Saul Solache, Ramses Noriega and Sergio Hernandez served as a study 
for this 12 x 30–foot mural at the UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center, 

The mural is credited with being the earliest Chicano mural painted anywhere in the United States.
Fowler Museum exhibition explores 40 years of ethnic studies, click

Society of Hispanic Historical 
and Ancestral Research   

P.O. 490
Midway City, CA 

Board Members:
Bea Armenta Dever
Gloria C. Oliver
Mimi Lozano
Pat Lozano
Cathy Trejo Luijt 
Viola R. Sadler
Tom Saenz
John P. Schmal


Somos Primos Staff
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Juan Marinez
J.V. Martinez
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal

Contributors to May issue 
Olu Alemoru
Ruben Alvarez
Paul Anastasio

Dan Arellano
Maribeth Bandas
Pat Batista
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Dinorah Bommarito

Loran Bures
Judge Edward F. Butler, Sr.
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Br. Jph. Manuel Camacho
Antonio Campos
Bill Carmena
Juan Castillo
Bonnie Chapa
Sergio Contreras
Lawrence Costales
Sylvia Ann Carvajal-Sutton
Billye D.Cleveland-Jackson
Sal Del Valle
Monica Dunbar Smith,
Richard Esquivel
Jim Estrada
Angelo Falcón
Ron Filion
Thomas Ellingwood Fortin
Daisy Wanda Garcia
Eddie Garcia
James E. Garcia
Lauro Garza Arzamendi
Bobby Gonzalez


Rafael Jesús González
Roberto Guadarrama Perez
Elisa Gutierrez
Walter Herbeck
Lorraine Hernandez
Manuel Hernandez Carmona 
Miguel Hernandez
Sergio Hernandez
David Hough  
John Inclan
Margot Kline
Rick Leal
Howard Levin
Molly Long
Jose Antonio Lopez
Christine Mari
Juan Marinez
Martha McClain
Mary McCoy
Treyce Montoya
Paul Newfield III

Rafael Ojeda
Patrick Osio
Guillermo Padilla Origel

Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero
Willis Papillion
Jose M. Pena
Adrian Perez

Rueben M. Perez
Richard Perry
Juan Ramos
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Armando Rendon
Clemente Rendón de la Garza
Crispin Rendon
Viola Rodriguez Sadler
Gema Sandoval
Joe Sanchez
Richard G. Santos

Sandy See
Sister Mary Sevilla
Jim Swanek
Robert H. Thonhoff

Sylvia Tillotson
Jaime Torres
Kirk Whisler
Ricardo Valverde
Roberto Vazquez 



The Aztec Pantheon and the Art of Empire 
NCLR National Conference, San Antonio, July 10-13, 2010
El Soldado Olivado, 4-minute video
Daily Newseum
Nuestras Voces Latinas
National Trust for Historic Preservation

Return to Three Rivers, Texas, April 17, 2010 by Daisy Wanda Garcia
A Wise Latina, Sylvia Ann Carvajal-Sutton by Mercy Bautista-Olvera

Aztec Deities

Watercolor, paper, contemporary vellum Spanish binding, Bernardino de Sahagún
Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España,
, also called  Florentine Codex vol. 1, 1575–1577    

Getty Villa, Malibu, California


“The Aztec Pantheon and the Art of Empire.” 
Running from March 24th through July 5th 2010.

Groundbreaking exhibition at the Getty Villa in Malibu, California. The Aztec Pantheon explores the linkages between two great empires –the Aztec and the Roman. Celebrating the 2010 bicentennial of Mexican independence, the exhibition illuminates a dialogue between the Americas and Europe that has shaped the modern contours of Mexico.  The exhibition includes masterpieces of Aztec sculpture from the collections of the Museo Nacional de Antropología and the Museo del Templo Mayor in Mexico City, and for the first time in four centuries, the Florentine Codex, one of the most valuable chronicles of Aztec history and culture, returns to the Americas:  
Sent by Antonio Campos, Community Relations who welcomes and has offered to arrange for group tours for Somos Primos readers. 310/440.6616   http:// 


Save big by registering for the 2010 NCLR Annual Conference before May 7! 
For conference information regarding registration, volunteers,  housing, and workshops, go to: 

Editor Mimi:  This is great. . the line-up for the Conference Workshops are now online.  As of April 8th, there were 28 workshops.  You can click on the specific workshop for the outline and scope of the presentation. Check back often as the workshops are continuously updated!

NCLR Latino Family Expo is considered the largest held in the nation. Open to the public for free, the Expo offers everything from music and prizes to community services and giveaways!  More than 25,000 people go through the exhibition booths. 

Local volunteers are sought to exchange hours worked for access to exciting Conference events?  Go to NCLR homepage for more details and the volunteer application. 

NCLR | 1126 16th Street NW | Washington | DC | 20036 


El Soldado Olvidado, 4-minute video
This is a very moving video which Dan Arellano produced two years ago to honor our men in military.  Be sure you have the sound on, and be prepared to have your heart moved by the music of Bobby Pulido.  Go to:
Scroll down the menu, click on Hispanicsoldiersvideo

Daily Newseum . . .Want to know what is going on in your home state/city? Follow the simple steps below. 
Just put your mouse on a city anywhere in the world and the newspaper headlines pop up...   Double click and the page gets can read the entire paper on some if you click on the right place. You can spend forever here.
This site changes every day with the publication of new editions of the paper. Hope you enjoy this.  


Nuestras Voces Latinas, a new blog that has been established by several Latino/a law professors seeks to write regarding the issues affecting the Latina/Latino community and challenge offensive depictions often seen in the media. Nuestras Voces Latinas addresses race, class, gender, sexual orientation, education, health care, immigration, crime, politics, media, housing, language, labor, and more.
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.

Can you guess how much financial assistance the National Trust for Historic Preservation provided from October 2008 to December 2009?  ANSWER: The National Trust provided more than $85 million in financial assistance last year for hundreds of preservation projects and programs. .



April 17, 2010
By Daisy Wanda Garcia

On Feb 16, 1949 during a thunderstorm, the family and friends of Pvt Felix Longoria laid his body to rest in Arlington National cemetery.  Pvt. Longoria never knew that he would be the catalyst that launched the Hispanic Civil Rights movement and the subject of much controversy.  You may recall that Thomas Kennedy, owner of the Rice Funeral home, denied the Longoria family the use of the funeral home because the “Whites wouldn’t like it”.  The Longoria family contacted my Papa, Dr. Hector P. Garcia, LBJ intervened, and the rest is history.

Rice Funeral home   

Santiago Hernandez, Civil Rights Chariman, American GI Forum. Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria Chapter, Corpus Christi, Texas obtained approval from the state of Texas to install a historical marker commemorating the incident.  The historical marker dedication ceremony was scheduled for April 17, 2010. The marker was to be placed in front of the Rice funeral home owned by Thomas Kennedy at the time and now by Ms. Olivia Parker.  Santiago graciously invited me to attend the event.  I decided to accept Santiago’s invitation, but in my heart, I was not prepared for what followed.

 Mayor James Liska, Mayor Steele and Santiago Hernandez

In May of 2006, some longtime residents of Three Rivers Texas and the Live Oak County Historical Committee and County Judge sent an email to the Texas Historical Commission requesting that the application for a historical marker should not be approved because it was not based on facts. Also, in 2006, the City of Three Rivers refused to honor Felix Longoria by renaming the local Post Office after him. 

So, during a blinding thunderstorm, I drove from Austin to Three Rivers Texas.  When I arrived, I observed men putting the final additions on the sign and a funeral home badly in need of restoration.  

Santiago gave me a good old-fashioned south Texas abrazo.  PBS producer John Valadez was present to film the event for an upcoming PBS Documentary about the circumstances of the “Longoria affair”. I felt reassured by the friendly familiar faces. 

LtoR: Mary Helen Berlanga and Wanda Garcia


However, it did not take long for the dissenters to arrive. One woman stood behind me and commented, “If only the truth were known.”  I turned and asked her if she was calling my father a liar and then asked her to leave. In my many years of living away from blatant discrimination, I had forgotten that bigots feel perfectly comfortable with verbal insults and not expect consequences.













Dr. Pat Carroll

The ceremony was meaningful. The Longoria family showed up in full force.  Sara Posas, Sister in Law of Pvt. Felix Longoria gave the invocation. Longoria’s daughter Adela Cerra, and many other members of the Longoria family attended.  Mayor Liska and the Mayor Pro tem Sammy Garcia gave a presentation as well as Luis Figueroa, MALDEF Legislative Attorney.  

Dr. Pat Carroll, Professor of History at Texas A&M stated that the Longoria incident was well documented and spoke about his interview with Mrs. Kennedy. Mrs. Kennedy affirmed what historians had written about the incident.  And finally, Mary Helen Berlanga, State Board if Education Member District 2 spoke about the current controversy over inclusion of Mexican American history in Texas school text books.

So during a thunderstorm, Adela Cerra unveiled the plaque honoring her father Pvt. Felix Longoria. I was left with giving the benediction.  I called upon God as a witness to the event and asked for a blessing for all.


Some residents of Three Rivers feel that their community is progressive.  Though progress has been made in racial harmony, I feel that much work remains to sensitize individuals to exclusionary behaviors and diversity of different groups. I believe the installation of the plaque is a step in the right direction. My father used to say that he liked the way he was and did not want to be melted down. I have heard the expression “we are not Hispanics and Anglos, we are all Americans.”  I have yet to find a definition of what an American is.   The cruelest form of racism is the discounting of experiences and realities of other groups.  Unfortunately, for some individuals the old ways die-hard. Forgive them Lord, for they know not what they do!

Daisy Wanda Garcia
The Felix Longoria's story is included in 
El Soldado Olivado musical video at:   

Longoria Family at the Arlington Cemetery ceremony, February 16, 1949

For more on Felix Longoria, go to The Handbook of Texas Online





Sylvia Ann Carvajal-Sutton

A Wise Latina

Nominated by Billye D. Cleveland-Jackson


Mercy Bautista-Olvera

Sylvia Ann Carvajal- Sutton

Sylvia Ann Carvajal- Sutton was born in San Antonio,Texas. She is the daughter of Frank Zepeda Carvajal (1915-2000) and Florence Estrada Leal-Carvajal (1915-1966). Her parents were descendents of the early founding families of San Antonio,Texas. She is 12th generation in the land of Texas. Sylvia Ann Carvajal married James H. Sutton Jr.; they have two sons, Frank Erwin and James H. Sutton III . She has three grandchildren, and one sister, Florence I Carvajal.

Sylvia Carvajal-Sutton attended Ursuline Academy in San Antonio,Texas.  The Academy is a known historical Landmark, now known as the Southwest Craft Center. She became active in school organizations. In addition, she served in the Junior LULAC (League of United Latin American Citizens) Council and became the first girl President in San Antonio,Texas.  

Sylvia earned her Bachelor of Science degree in Nutrition from Our Lady of the Lake University. She then served as an intern at the Baptist Memorial Hospital to become a Licensed Dietician. About this time she met her future husband James H. Sutton Jr., a teacher. They married in 1961, a year later their first son Frank Erwin was born.  However, her job assignment required her to work on weekends and Holidays, which was a hardship for the family.  She explored different careers and eventually decided to become a teacher.  

In 1971, Carvajal-Sutton earned two Master’s degrees from Our Lady of the Lake, one in Educational Administration, and the second one in Curriculum and Supervision of Schools.  She became involved in the Bilingual programs developed at the University of Texas by Dr. Thomas Horn. This turned out to be a memorable experience for her.  She was invited to go with her students to visit the New York City School District by their Superintendent. They demonstrated some of the teaching methods used in a Bilingual classroom and made teaching films for their District, which were taped in their studios in New York.  

The couple’s second son, James H. Sutton III was born soon after that, around this time she received an offer to become a Writer and Consultant to the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory in Austin, Texas . She made frequent trips to Washington, D.C. as part of the U.S. Office of Education. Her assignment involved developing programs for minority children in many school districts across the nation. She worked in New York, California, Louisiana, Philadelphia, Texas, Oklahoma, and in Guam. In Guam, they were working with Professors from the University of Hawaii who were involved in putting down the Guamanian language Chamoro in writing.  Another of her assignments was to serve as a member of a Team that went into Louisiana to observe integration taking place as the school year began.  

In 1978, Sylvia Carvajal-Sutton was invited by the West German Government to attend a Seminar in Berlin. They also studied the educational systems in East Germany. Her assignment was to study their systems of education and to work with them in areas that they had identified as needing improvement. She states” this is where I became aware of what a wall can do, it can be to keep people in or keep people out, and it also divides people not only physically but in all aspects of who we are”.

After returning from Europe, Sylvia Carvajal-Sutton was hired by the San Antonio Independent  School District to serve as a school Principal. At that time, the school had 1500 students. She was one of four Hispanic women assigned for the first time as Principals in the San Antonio School District. “Talk about breaking barriers. This seems to be part of my life,” stated Sylvia. She concluded that all of her decisions in the school should be based on putting the child first- after all the schools existed because of them.  She remained in the position of Principal for twenty-three years before she retired with thirty-three years in education.  

After retirement, she worked with several Publishing Houses in the School Book adoption process in the state of Texas.    

She is the incoming Second Vice Regent of the San Antonio de Bexar Chapter, National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. She is a member of The Assistance League of San Antonio, where she serves as Chairman of Estates that are left to the Assistance League. In 2009, they touched the lives of over 60,000 families primarily in the San Antonio area. In Operation School Bell they clothed over 7,000 children.  In Togs for Tots, they clothed 5,190 infants through preschoolers. They also awarded scholarships to third and fourth year college students. In Caps Art Promotes Smiles ( CAPS ) they distributed to hospitals caps to acutely ill patients (primarily toddlers through teens) who are undergoing treatment.

Carvajal-Sutton is also a member of St. Monica’s Guild (a catholic women’s organization that provides scholarships and funds to many Catholic Charities) and a member of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. It is through the work of this Papal Order that they maintain the Christian schools in the Holy Land.  

Carvajal-Sutton has three published works, Vincente Flores: “Tejano Patriot,” Letters from Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry to Bernardo de Galvez,” and The Spanish Task Force published in January 2010 in Somos Primos issue.  

Sylvia Ann Carvajal-Sutton is a past Board member of the National Archives in Washington D.C., representing the Texas Connection with the American Revolution Association. She also has served as a board member of the San Antonio Living History Association. She is a member of “Los Bexarenos, San Antonio de Bexar Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution,” “National Society Daughters of the American Revolution,” (NSDAR) “Daughters of the Republic of Texas,” and the Order of “Los Granaderos y Damas de Galvez.” She is a member of The San Antonio Historical and Genealogy Society and pending member of The Daughters of the Confederacy. She is also a member of the Texas State Genealogical Society. Sylvia is a member of the NSDAR Spanish Task force in Washington D.C. She is Genealogy Consultant, certified by the Daughters of the American Revolution.  

Her friend Billye D. Cleveland-Jackson made the following statement:  

“Sylvia Carvajal Sutton, of the NSDAR Task Force, in Washington D.C. is working hard to put out the word to Hispanics that they may well be eligible to join some of the varied lineage groups so they can honor their ancestors.  She tries to help people learn how to do their genealogy and possibly find an ancestor who can be recognized and deservedly recognized.  She just gave our Victoria County Genealogical Society an all day seminar, aided by her very good friend, Corinne Staacke. It was well attended, she was interesting and the audience was caught up in her talks.  She’s [Sylvia Carvajal-Sutton] doing a great job in helping others to get their Hispanic ancestors recognized, in not only “Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution", but in any other organization they are eligible for.”   

Sylvia Ann Carvajal-Sutton stated “I believe that all that I am came from the strength and the life tools in my family; my mother Florence, always had a philosophy of “even as girls you can do it, you can be and do anything you want to do.”  Our parents supported us in all of our endeavors. They believed in religion, education, and patriotism. They believed in a strong family unit. I saw my parents be leaders in our church and in our community.  Sylvia Ann Carvajal-Sutton favorite saying is; "I shall pass this way, but once Lord please let me make it count, for I may not pass this way again”.  

Sylvia is presently involved in researching the Spanish Borderlands and Spain’s involvement in the American Revolution.  

If you would like help in researching your ancestry, contact Sylvia Carvajal-Sutton at (210) 341-3824 or email her at  






Dignity Memorial Traveling Vietnam Wall:

A Healing Process

Mercy Bautista-Olvera  



(A red flower was placed on each white chair)

The events surrounding the arrival of the “Dignity Memorial Vietnam Wall” took place at Rose Hills Memorial Park in Whittier , California from March 21 to the 30th 2010. The wall is a three quarter size replica of the Vietnam Memorial in Washington D.C. There are more than 58,000 names on the wall.   

The Wall is a healing process for so many Vietnam Veterans. When men came back from the war, they were not accepted, there was no “Welcome Back,” no parade, no recognition, it seemed it was sort of a punishment. Many men risked their lives to save a comrade; others returned disabled, or with emotional problems.         

Arrival of the Wall, March 21, 2010  

The event started with Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department motorcycle deputies and patriotic motorcycle riders escorting, a big rig carrying the “Dignity Memorial Traveling Vietnam Wall.” 

Many people, young and old openly expressed their patriotism.  


Master of Ceremonies Bob Archuleta, Mayor Pro-Tem of Pico Rivera , California and Commissioner for the County of Los Angeles Veterans Advisory Commission , speaks to the audience.  




Purple Heart Ceremony  

L-r Cpl. Henry Wilson Jr., USMC (Purple Heart recipient), Narrator, Gary Bryan of radio station, KRTH and Chaplain Norm Goodwin. 


Carpenters Union Training Center (Local 721)

 Workers Assemble the Wall  

Military Men

l-r Vietnam Veterans, Javier Curiel, Ted Barragan USMC 66/68, Richard Olivas USMC 69/70, David de la Cruz, USMC 66/67. Andres “Andy” Prado, served with the 75th U.S. Army Regiment (Airborne) Grenada , Panama , Desert Storm, and Somalia .  




l-r sitting Joe Lopez, Korean War U.S. Navy 1951-1953, Joseph Vastola U.S. Marine 65-69, standing Al Martinez 101st Airborne, and Peter DeBeers, U.S. Navy 1963-1968.  

Al Martinez and Joseph Vastola, of Hawaiian Gardens , when interviewed by Whittier Daily News, stated that he never saw the original wall in Washington D.C. , but its still, “For me, very emotional.”  “I have a lot of friends on there.”  

Joe Vastola, a Marine and Vietnam veteran of La Mirada , saw the traveling wall once before many years ago “It just brought back a lot of memories,” “I didn’t realize how many of my brothers were killed in Vietnam . It brought back to me the way we were treated when we [returned] from Vietnam


On Fox News, Specialist, Ray Roscoe/ U.S. Army (Ret) stated, “It sends chills up my spine because I have 2,531 of my guys on that Wall, and that’s why I am here.”  Another veteran, Robert Hernandez U.S. Army (Ret) stated, “There’s a guy there that pulled me out of a river when I was wounded, two days later [he was killed] he’s on that wall.” “There are 68 names here of my buddies that got killed, I loved them all, they were my brothers.” 

Hernandez served in the Army’s 101st Airborne Division and came to honor Jessie Lopez, the man who saved his life.

David Sanchez, now serving at 
Camp Pendleton U.S. Navy
and Vietnam Veteran Joshua Gallegos U.S. Navy


 Opening Ceremony March 23, 2010

 Clearing of the Wall-Forrest Cormany bagpipes

Pledge of Allegiance

José Ramos, founder of “Welcome Back Vietnam Veterans Day”  

L-r sitting, Los Angeles County Sheriff Lee Baca and José Ramos; standing,   Bob Archuleta and Kenton C. Woods, President, Service Corporation, Int’l, California Funeral Services, Inc. 

Fallen Soldier Battle Cross


    Placement of the Wreaths  

United States Military Branches

Marine Corps


Air Force 

U.S. Coast Guard  


Name Reading   

   Looking on the Wall for men and women’s names




Closing Ceremony March 30, 2010

Rocky Chavez, California Department of Veterans Affairs Undersecretary talked about Veterans benefits, health insurance, college, counseling for all Veterans.

Mr. Chavez is a former Vietnam Marine veteran.





Sgt. E-5 José G. Ramos U.S. Army and the Southeast Military Law Enforcement Academy (among them Jocelyn Espino, Robert Muñoz and Jair Osorio)    

The following schools brought their students to experience the Dignity Memorial Vietnam Wall on Thursday, March 25 and Friday, March 26.

California High School, Frontier High School, La Habra High School, Nueva Vista High School, Santa Fe High School Southeast Academy, St. Anne Academy, Whittier Boys and Girls Club, Whittier Area Home School Group, Whittier High School and Workman High School.


 Mementos left at the Dignity Memorial Vietnam Wall

Items collected at the wall are to be placed in the Archive
collection, and later displayed at the Smithsonian Museum of American History in Washington D.C.     







Linked in Life and in Death (Newspaper clipping)
Jesus Ernest Chavez (Army – Sgt. - E5), and Sam Joseph Favata (Army - SP4 - E4). Jesus died in Hau Nghia Province , South Vietnam at the age of 19. Sam also died in South Vietnam , at the age of 20.  

Jesus (lower left in photo) and Sam (upper right corner) were good friends since childhood. Jesus and Sam joined the Military and both were sent to Vietnam , however, to different Troops. Jesus unit was D.CO, 3rd BN, 187th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division and Sam the C. CO, 2nd, BN, 22nd Infantry, 25th Infantry Div,

USARV. They both died in Vietnam on the same day July 21, 1968, and are both buried at Resurrection Cemetery , in Montebello , CA,
a few feet from each other. 

David Medina Valdez E-4 Specialist was killed in a Helicopter crash over land in Pleiku Province , in South Vietnam - Fernanda Valdez-Martinez, his sister left a photo and a poem on the Wall.   

George Albert Juarez - Joe Garcia (right) spoke to George Albert Juarez’ mother a few minutes before this photo was taken, George Albert Juarez’ mother visited the Wall leaving a picture and a letter from a friend.   



Call to the Wall: 
All Veterans

 Master Gunnery Sgt. - 3 Daniel Smith III, United States Marine Corps called all Veterans to face the Wall, salute and touch the names on the Wall.  



White Dove Release


On April 9, 2010, nearly 2,000 mementos were placed in the Vietnam Wall vault. The burial ceremony took place in the Rose Garden. Veterans, Patriot guard Riders and elected officials attended, a clergy handled the benediction and Veterans buried the vault, the vault was placed in the “Veterans Honor” area at Rose Hills Cemetery .  

Approximately 170,000 Hispanic U.S. Servicemen fought in Vietnam and approximately 3,070 of them died in Vietnam .



Thomas Fredrick Sandoval, Army – SSGT – E6 

Joe Luna, Army - SP4 - E4
Trinidad Gutierrez Prieto, Army - SP4 - E4
Frank Gonzales Romo, Army - SGT - E5

Jose B. Cisneros, Army - CPL - E4
Larry A. De La Rosa, Army - CPL - E4

Louie Gooch Montoya, Army - SP4 - E4

Efren Carmona, Army - SP4 - E
Benjamin Beltran Castañeda, Army - SSGT - E6
Rigoberto Coto Chacon, Army - SGT - E
Carlos M. Gonzales, Army - CPL - E4
Henry Granillo, Marine Corps - PFC - E2
Gilbert Mendoza, Marine Corps - PFC - E2
Gregorio Manuel Mora, Marine Corps - PFC - E2

Miguel Ramon Burri, Marine Corps - PFC - E2
Encarnasion Rodriguez, Army - SGT - E5
Pedro Romero, Marine Corps - PFC - E2

Joe Arreguin, Marine Corps - PFC - E2
Jeffrey Michael Barron, Marine Corps - CPL - E4
Joe Julian Gonzalez, Marine Corps - LCPL - E3
Victor Manuel Guerrero, Army - CPL - E4
Raymond Ramirez Gutierrez, Marine Corps - CPL - E4
Ronald Reyes, Marine Corps - PFC - E2
Peter Paul Rubio, Army - CPL - E4
Manuel Ruiz, Army - CPL - E4
Raymond Anthony Trujillo, Army - SP4 - E4

Edward Lee Borrego, Army - SP4 - E4

Reginald Joseph Rodriguez, Marine Corps - LCPL - E3


Edward Lee Borrego, Army - SP4 - E4

Reginald Joseph Rodriguez, Marine Corps - LCPL - E3

George Calderon Alvarez, Army - SGT - E5
Xavier Amado Arvisu, Army - SP4 - E4
George Paul Martin, Army - PFC - E3
Michael Eugene Santos, Army - SGT - E5
Tom Dennis Sugiura, Marine Corps - CPL - E4
Ralph Mario Valencia, Marine Corps - LCPL - E3

Jerry Eugene Guerra, Army - SP5 - E5
Thomas Joseph Sanchez, Army - MSGT - E8

Ruben Maximo Armenta, Marine Corps - PFC - E2
Frank Barreras, Army - CPL - E4
James Albert Boda, Marine Corps - LCPL - E3
Arthur John Castillo, Army - CPL - E4
Jesus Ernest Chavez, Army - SGT - E5
Sam Joseph Favata, Army - SP4 - E4
George Albert Juarez, Marine Corps - PFC - E2
Alfonso Olmos, Army - SP4 - E4
Gilbert Solano Salazar,   Marine Corps - LCPL - E3
Ismael Jose Valdez ,   Marine Corps - PFC - E2
Jimmy Vasquez, Army - PFC - E3
Ignacio L. Villalobos, Army - SP5 - E5
Jose Edwardo Villanueva, Marine Corps - LCPL - E3

Jose Muñoz, Marine Corps - PFC - E2

Rene Zarogoza Hernandez, Army - CPL - E4
Isidro Briceño Jimenez, Army - PFC - E3
Henry Valenzuela, Army - CPL - E4

Jose Hernandez Quintero, Army - SP4 - E4
Eugenio Rodriguez, Army - SP4 - E4


Hugo Arthur Bocanegra, Marine Corps - PFC - E2
Benito Contreras, Army - SGT - E5
Robert Charles Melendrez, Army - SP4 - E4
Daniel Alexander Verdugo, Marine Corps - LCPL - E3


Baltzell Ave # 396 Ft. Benning , Georgia
Phone: (706) 545-2958
Thursday, May 27, 2010, at 10:00 a.m 
Monday, June 14, 2010 at 10:00 a.m.

Great information below on names of heroes
For complete Names of Vietnam casualties by city and state
Click on a state, scroll down to the city and the names will appear it should you a picture of the person, or their biography and medals:


Hispanics death in Vietnam : - MORE RAW VIDEO FROM LT. JAMES PETERS. VNAM 1968



Four Tejanos who spoke before the Texas State Board of Education
Testimony Presented to the Texas State Board of Education


The people in the photo testified before the State Board of Education meeting in January. 

Far left is Emilio Zamora, Ph.D Texas history professor from the University of Texas in Austin, followed by Sylvia Garcia Ph. D retired administrator, Fidel Acevedo LULAC official and Author/Historian Dan Arellano.


Testimony Presented to the Texas State Board of Education
 These comments address the Proposed Draft of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills. Social Studies, Grades 4-8.

Thank you for giving me an opportunity to provide suggestions pertaining to the Proposed Draft of the Social Studies curriculum.  A group of citizens concerned about the way early Texas history is taught to our students met several times and drafted a comprehensive report of suggestions to be included in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). They focus on Grades 4-8.

First, we wish to applaud the second draft of the seventh grade social studies draft.  There is evidence that attempts have been made to include more early history that describes the contributions of Spanish-Mexican settlers to Texas.

In the fourth grade, the second draft was minimally revised and needs to be coordinated with seventh grade.

The 4 and 7 grades draft state that “students will study the history of Texas from early times to the present”.  Yet, the first 300 years of Texas history, from 1591 to 1836 is either omitted or given very little attention.  It is like starting U. S. history in 1836 and leaving out the Pilgrims and the Revolutionary War.  It is time to tell the true story of Texas.  It is time to give credit to Jose Escandon, the first impresario who established 23 different settlements along the Rio Grande. He brought families from Mexico that culminated in the present day cities of Laredo, Zapata, and  Brownsville, and countless other small communities. The stories of our Spanish Mexican ancestors are no less impressive than the first English colonists in the East Coast and even more germane to Texas. The students of this state should learn about these stories. It was my Spanish-Mexican ancestors who established a lifeline of presidios, missions, pueblos and ranches. Some of the members of this committee can trace their ancestors to the first land grants and ranches of South Texas.

The role Tejano women in the documents is appalling. Yet, Tejano women played a crucial role in early Texas history. It was Patricia De Leon, cofounder of Victoria, Texas, which provided the funds for her husband, Martin to colonize Texas. It was Mrs. De Leon that recovered her lands through legal battles after the Texas Revolution. Two prominent early ranchers were Rosa Maria Hinojosa de Balli and Petra Vela Kennedy. Later, a Tejana, Adina de Zavala. helped save the Alamo from destruction through her chapter of the Daughters of Republic of Texas. There are several historical books that attest to the contributions of Tejano women. 

Our recommendation is to recognize the first efforts of Texans to win independence from Spain and then later to become independent from the central government of Mexico.  Before the Alamo, a group of Texans revolted against the Spanish government and established the first Republic of Texas on April 6,1813. The first president was Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara and he signed and issued the first Texas Constitution.  Yet, current social studies textbooks do not mention him or the battles that raged across Texas at this time that cost the lives of many at Nacogdoches, La Bahia, Rosillo. Bexar, and Medina.

In sum, telling the true story of Texas is important because in a few years, the majority of students in the public schools will be of Spanish-Mexican heritage. By developing a knowledge and appreciation for their historical roots, their identity will be enhanced and pride in their ancestors will be engendered.  Possibly, the high school graduation rate of Hispanics could be increased.

Recently, the 77th legislature approved  funds to build a Tejano monument that will recognize the contributions of our Spanish Mexican ancestors. Let us build on this step by making the suggested changes to the proposed social studies draft. Our report containing these suggestions is being distributed to you.

Respectfully submitted,
Anita Sylvia Garcia, Ph.D.
Andres Tijerina, Ph.D.
Jose Antonio Lopez
Geneva Sanchez
Dan Arellano
Minnie Wilson



The American Connection to Cinco de Mayo by Dan Arellano
A Piece of Texas history missing in traditional studies by Antonio Lopez
In Search of the truth in Texas History, The Goliad “Massacre”
Letter to Bishop David Fellhauer 
Tejana Heroines at the Battle of the Alamo
Los Inocentes in Concert honoring Juana Navarro Veramendi Peres
Sylvia Ann Carvajal Sutton, on Family Connections with Siege of the Alamo     

Editor: Understanding the history of Texas is paramount to understanding the westward expansion of the United States, and the eventual take-over by the United States of land west of the Mississippi.  The battle of the Alamo is the key to bringing into focus the rapid assimilation of Anglo-Saxon immigrants into a position of dominance in the southwest and northwest.  Texas provided a buffer for the United States, which facilitated the build-up of control over the  Spanish/Mexican territories of the Southwest.   




 On May 5th 1862 in the city of Puebla the invading forces of Napoleon III, Maximilliano the Archduke of Austria , his puppet Emperor, would encounter a force of Mexican troops led by Ignacio Zaragoza. We have all heard the story of how General Zaragoza who was born in Goliad , Texas would successfully defeat the French invaders at the Battle of Puebla , but that is only half of the story.    

While the United States was busy with the American Civil War, Napoleon decided that he would be as great a conqueror as his famous uncle, Napoleon I and it would be a good time to retake Mexico and stop America ’s expansion.  We know now that Napoleon had plans to enter the United States and join the Confederates.  

However, what is little known is that General Zaragoza would recruit Captain Porfirio Zamora from Palito Blanco in south Texas and in turn he would recruit 500 Tejano’s. Together as a cavalry unit they would join the Mexican Army and fight to defend Mexico from the French invasion. These Tejano’s, although still Mexicans at heart, were American citizens. After the invasion of Mexico in 1846, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo(1848) would guarantee these former Mexican citizens full American citizenship. These American citizen volunteers came from as far as Corpus Christi to Brownsville and all along the Rio Grande Valley .  

According to Dr Andres Tijerina, author, historian and professor of Texas History, the Tejano Cavalry that fought under the leadership of Captain Porfirio Zamora, would defeat the French infantry and this decisive charge would end the Battle of Puebla .  

After the French were driven out of Mexico the surviving Tejanos returned and started the celebrations in south Texas . Dr Tijerina says that if it had not been for the 500 Tejanos the war may have had a different outcome. These Tejanos considered the Battle of Puebla as their victory and their contribution in saving Mexico from French domination. After the war, Porfirio Zamora would be promoted to Major, and for his bravery and valor, would be awarded Mexico ’s second highest military medal, “ La Condecoracion de Segunda Clase.” This medal and citation were personally signed by President Benito Juarez.  

So powerful in Mexican politics was Zamora that after Benito Juarez died, General Porfirio Diaz, candidate for Mexican President rode all the way to Alice Texas to seek the endorsement of Major Porfirio Zamora. And now you know the rest of the story.  

Ref: El Mesquite, Elena Zamora O’ Shea Texas A & M University originally  published 1935 by Mathis Publishing Co., Dallas, Texas  

Dan Arellano Author/Historian


A Piece of Texas history missing in traditional studies by Antonio Lopez

Jose Antonio Lopez
- Special to the Express-News – 4/12/2010

As many have now begun to realize, Texas history has been taught as if it begins with the arrival of Anglo immigrants from the U.S.  The truth?  The Spanish influence in Texas begins with its discovery by Captain Piñeda in 1519, the amazing travels across Texas by Cabeza de Vaca and shipwreck mates from 1528 through 1536, and its settlement by Spanish Mexican pioneers beginning in the 1600s.  Tejano roots were established in the early 1700s.  That is a period of over 300 years before 1836!  What purpose does it serve to continue to pretend it never happened?  Yet, mainstream Texas history books have been written as such for generations.      

Tejanos are not an ancient, detached civilization that can continue to be ignored.  Their descendants live among us.  Regardless, the deliberate omission of pre-1836 Texas history in the classroom has been so successful that many descendants of the first citizens of Texas are unaware of their rich history.  It is time for equality.  The fix is simple.    

If Texas students learn about General Sam Houston in the classroom, then, it’s only fair that teachers instruct students about equal-stature Spanish Mexican Texas heroes such as Generals José Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara and Bernardo de Gálvez.  If they are taught about Colonel William Travis, then, it is time to teach them about Colonels José Menchaca, Antonio Zapata, and Santos Benavides.  If they are learning about Stephen F. Austin, children should also learn about José de Escandón and Martin and Patricia de León.  If they are taught about the significance of March 2, 1836, Texas Independence Day, they should also learn about its “mother” date, April 6, 1813.  If they are taught about the Texas Flag, then they should learn about the Emerald Green Flag.  If they learn about the “Alamo”, then on an equal time basis they should learn about its sister San Antonio missions and the Spanish Governors Palace, all built about the same time by the Spanish Mexican settlers of Texas.  If they learn about Anglo Texas Governors beginning in 1845, then they should learn about the thirty Spanish Texas Governors beginning in 1691.   

Finally, Texas didn’t join the U.S. until 1845, and Mexico ultimately lost Texas, South Texas, and the Southwest in 1848.  So, if students are to learn about the 1836 Anglo Texas revolt, they should learn correctly that it is a chronological chapter of Mexican, and not U.S., history.  

It is time for a fair and balanced telling of Texas History.  Its Spanish Mexican roots are real.  Pre-1836 Tejano people and events are part of the seamless story of Texas and must no longer be suppressed in the teaching of Texas history. 


In Search of the truth in telling of Spanish Mexican History in Texas  

Information Sheet – Tejano History Series, by Jose Antonio Lopez

(The Goliad “Massacre”)  


It is said that the victors get to write the history books.  So it has been in describing the 1836 military encounter at Goliad between the Mexican Army and James Fannin’s men. 


The film The Goliad “Massacre” shown at Presidio La Bahia presents Fannin and his men as innocent victims at the hands of murdering Mexican troops.  The implication is totally wrong.  That the military skirmish took place is not debatable.  The difference is in the telling of the story.  It was a “battle” in every sense of the word, not a “massacre”.  Here are some basic facts:


- James Fannin and his group were armed U.S. expatriates in a foreign land.

- The Mexican soldiers were protecting their sovereign territory.

- The Mexican Army was following orders when they carried out the execution of the invaders.

- Insurrection is illegal and punishable by death, regardless of who does it or where it occurs. 


The film and re-enactments imply that the Mexican Army was the intruder.  In reality, James Fannin was the aggressor.  Raising arms against the government was punishable by death.  Fannin knew that.  He and his men failed to understand the grave nature of their crime. 


For years, Mexico experienced serious problems with illegal immigration from the U.S.  (This is a key part of Texas history that many modern-day Anglos are unaware of.)  The Anglos trespassed into Mexican territory in unstoppable waves in search of free land.  The onslaught was so overwhelming that the Mexican military outposts were insufficient to maintain control and keep the unwelcomed trespassers in check.  To make matters worse, many of the illegal visitors took up arms against their host country.  The sovereign Mexican government was clear.  Anyone who raised arms against Mexico would be put to death.  The Anglo insurgents did not heed their host country’s warnings. 


In summary, the Mexican Army had no choice. They were only protecting sovereign Mexican territory against encroaching armed foreigners from the U.S.  After capture, Fannin was executed by a firing squad as the “commander” of the armed Anglo group. His death was not “murder” or a “massacre” as the film and the re-enactments unfairly continue to slant the story. 



That the Presidio staff:  (l) stop showing the film, The Goliad “Massacre”; (2) that they stop all “massacre” reenactments at the Presidio, and  (3) that all presentations, memorabilia, flyers, and other media stop using the word “massacre” in describing the 1836 military encounter in Goliad.


Letter to Bishop David Fellhauer 

Bishop David Fellhauer                                                                     January 26, 2010

Diocese of Victoria

1505 E. Mesquite Lane

Victoria, Texas  77901


Most Reverent Bishop Fellhauer:


For approximately the last seven years, members of an organization called The Tejano Monument, Inc, and private citizens have taken up a very worthy cause.  Their mission?  To finally recognize the faith, courage, sacrifice, and sacred memory of our Spanish Mexican ancestors in building this great place we call Texas.  Why is this necessary? 


Your reverence, the reason is simple.  Mainstream Texas history is written as if Texas history began in 1836.  It ignores our Spanish Mexican ancestors’ vital impact.  As an example, of all the monuments in Austin honoring Texas heroes, none of them pay homage to one of Texas’ most unique trademarks, its Catholic Spanish Mexican heredity.  


To correct the mistake, the 77th Texas Legislature approved matching funds to build a Tejano Monument on the grounds of the state capitol.  Recently, Governor Perry signed the bill to begin construction and it is expected to be finished in 18 months.  It is long overdue.  However, there is much hard work to do.  We need your Excellency’s help to continue.    


Our next focus is to fix the terrible distortions of our Spanish Mexican ancestors, mainly pre-1836 historical events.  Ongoing and coming events to achieve our precious goal include working with the state board of education to amend the school curriculum. 


Your Reverence, our efforts to make a stand is urgent.  The recent hateful attacks against illegal aliens have spilled over to patriotic Catholic Spanish Mexican citizens whose only sins seem to be that they speak Spanish and practice their centuries-old heritage in the U.S.  There is no doubt that such hatred is caused by the general public’s lack of basic knowledge of Texas history.  Their ignorance is fed by the continued unfair myths, legends, and terribly biased re-enactments.    


For example, for many years now, a film called The Goliad “Massacre” and its re-enactments have been shown at the Presidio of La Bahia that greatly distort and diminish the worth and

spirit of our Spanish Mexican ancestors.  Likewise, the legend of the Angel of Goliad lessens the involvement of Spanish Mexican Texans in the 1836 Texas Revolution. (See Enclosure #1)      


For much too long, Spanish Mexican descendants in Texas have endured years of unjustified penance.  Many of these loyal citizens reside in the Goliad/Victoria area.  Most are predominantly Roman Catholics and faithful members of your diocese.  It is now time to open the book of early Texas history and make it part of the seamless telling of Texas history.


It will not be easy to fix the officially-sanctioned distortions and myths.  Yet, with faith and hope, we will succeed.  The more that Spanish Mexican descendants in Texas learn of their lost history, the higher their self-esteem and pride.  Hopefully, that will motivate young Hispanics to stay in school and become productive members of society.  By the same token, the more that other people learn about pre-1836 Texas history, the more they will see that Texas’ unique Spanish Mexican roots run deep.  (Please see Enclosures 2 – 4.)


In the words of Miguel de Cervantes, “Truth may be stretched, but it cannot be broken, and always gets above falsehood, as oil does above water.”  The writing of Texas history has been unkind to the first citizens of Texas.  It is time to make truth rise above to the surface. 


The healing process has begun with the Tejano Monument in Austin.  That is a big first step, but that is just the beginning.  It is for that reason that we ask that you stop showing the film The Goliad “Massacre” at the Presidio.  Also, the Angel story should be modified to reflect the more truthful role of Spanish Mexican patriots in Texas independence.


With your help, we will finally give our Spanish Mexican ancestors the dignity and respect they have earned and rightly deserve.  Thank you, your Reverence.  May God bless you always. 


                                                            Very Respectfully


                                                            José Antonio López, Author                         

4 Enclosures

1.  Information Sheets (2)

2.  Complete Story of Texas Independence

3.  Key Eras in Texas History/Texas in New Spain

4.  Who are the Tejanos?


cc: South Texas Bishops (Brownsville, Corpus Christi, El Paso, Galveston, Laredo, San Antonio)

      Hispanic Genealogy and Historical Societies of Texas (Austin, Corpus Christi, Dallas,

         Edinburg, El Paso, Houston, Laredo, McAllen, San Antonio, Victoria)  


Tejana Heroines at the Battle of the Alamo
San Antonio - The month of April is the time Texans celebrate the 1836 final Battle
of San Jacinto, General Sam Houston and Texas independence. Also, Travis, Crockett and Bowie are honored as the leading Battle of the Alamo heroes. Plus, defenders from the states of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia along with men from the countries of England, Germany and Scotland have also long been accorded the role of heroes of Texas independence. Yet, very little is known about the role that native Tejanos played in the revolution and their accomplishments and contributions to the Texas revolution. Further, it has been championed that only one Anglo woman and her small daughter survived the Battle of the Alamo.
     Further, Tejanos have been marginalized as over all participants in the independence movement. Additionally past historians and the media have traditionally blurred the identity of Tejanos by referring to them as Hispanic Texans, Latinos, Mexicans and Mexican-Texans not simply "Tejanos". The short definition of Tejanos is that beginning in the 1690's, they are descendants of the first Spanish, Mexican and indigenous families on the Texas frontier. It should be importantly noted, that for one hundred thirty years prior to the creation of the Republic of Mexico, Tejanos had their own capital and laws, created the first towns, ranches and culture in Texas that gave them self identity and rule.  
     Accordingly, Texas, a research, publishing and communications firm, whose mission is to tell about the true story and lives of Tejanos and Tejanas, is proud to champion these forgotten heroes in Texas history. Therefore, we are pleased to identify the Tejanas who enter the Alamo and survived the battle. It is very important to understand Tejanas like their male counter parts entered the Alamo in February  of 1836 with full knowledge of the impending danger and the reason to pay the ultimate price for Texas independence.
     Anna Esparza, wife of Alamo defender Gregorio Esparza, perhaps spoke some of the most elegant words of the period upon hearing her husband decision to defend the Alamo, "Well if you are to go, I will also go, and the whole family too!" Most of the dozen or so Tejana Alamo Heroines were related to the Tejano defenders and provided nourishment, tended the wounded and  gave sustenance to them. Tejana sisters Juana and Gerturdis Navarro entered the Alamo with Jim Bowie who was a family member by marriage. They cared and nursed him throughout the assault and final battle of the Alamo.
     Also, Juana Navarro Peres had her eleven month old baby son, Alejo, with her during the siege and was truly the "Baby of the Alamo".  Many of the other surviving Tejanas also had their small children as well and understood the price to be paid for Texas independence. 

We welcome the opportunity to provide more information on the true lives and legacies of Tejanas during this period of Texas history. It was once said "Texas history can never be complete without the story of the Tejanos being told" said Rudi Rodriguez, Founder/President of was formed in 2003 and has published books, created exhibits, produced documentaries and plays and has launched a stunning website Also, it has started the official Texas "Tejano Heritage Month" festivities along with other activities that help to educate, elevate and celebrate the Hispanic experience in Texas history.  
Sent by Eddie Garcia  
and Roberto Vazquez,  President, CEO,

May 30th



                                                                          Rueben M. Perez


May 30th



                                                                                    Rueben M. Perez


            “Los Inocentes” in collaboration with author Rueben M. Perez and Family present a Musical Concert honoring Juana Navarro Veramendi Peres Alsbury on Sunday May 30, 2010 at 2:30 pm at Mission San José, 701 East Pyron, San Antonio, Texas 78214.  The musical concert and narrative readings is a free cultural event for family, friends and general public.   The concert is dedicated to Juana Navarro, noted Texas’ Tejana Woman.

In Memory of Juana Navarro Veramendi Peres Alsbury

            This special concert and ceremony is a first to honor and remember a Tejana woman and survivor of the Battle of the Alamo, along with her sister, and son, Alejo E. Peres.  Many of the history books credits one female and child to represent the siege of the Alamo, however, there were other women and children who also need to be remembered, honored and have their stories told.  Little or nothing is ever mentioned of the other brave women and children who also sustained the trauma of the Battle of the Alamo.  As we have “Remember the Alamo”, let us “Remember Our Brave Tejana Women in the Alamo”. 

              Juana was born in 1813, in the Villa de San Fernando de Bejar.  Her father, Jose  de los Angeles Navarro was in the Spanish Army and following the Battle of Medina was expelled for taking the side for an independent Texas.

            As a child, Juana’s father separated from his wife and was no longer capable of taking care of his three daughters.   Juana’s father’s sister Josefa Navarro Veramendi and husband, Juan Martin Veramendi, Governor of the Province of Texas, adopted Juana.  They loved Juana as their own and she grew up in the Veramendi Palace along with her stepsister, Ursula Navarro Veramendi.   Both girls later married, Ursula to James Bowie and Juana to Alejo Peres.   Life would become difficult for Juana with the loss of her beloved Veramendi family and husband in 1834 due to Cholera.   1835 was a year filled with unrest and turmoil for the citizens of Bexar fearing the invasion of Mexican troops.   In October 1835 the Siege of Bexar (San Antonio) occurred.  Juana married Dr. Horace Arlington Alsbury  in 1836 prior to the Battle of the Alamo.   James Bowie escorted Juana, baby Alejo (the youngest in the Alamo), and sister Gertrudes to the Alamo for protection.  On March 6, 1836, a lonely and fearful feeling came over her.  Juana could hear “El Deguello” bugle call, the most dreadful sound to mankind, death was imminent and no quarter or mercy to be shown for the defenders of the Alamo, the fall of the Alamo. 

             The hardships continue later for Juana, when Dr. Alsbury was captured at the Bexar County Courthouse and taken to Perote Prison.   Juana, Alejo and many other families followed their love ones to Candelia, Mexico awaiting their release from prison.   She would become destitute following the death of her husband during the Mexican-American War.  She and Alejo would live at San Juan Mission where she finally petitioned the State of Texas for a pension.  In her own words, she stated, “ I was in the Alamo at the time of its fall … I was then the wife of Dr. Arlington Alsbury, who was taken prisoner and confined in the Castle of Perote … and now getting old with an only son.  I am extremely poor with hardly any means of subsistence – and therefore prays the honorable Legislature will take my case into consideration and bestowed whatever they may think proper to bestow,” the request was honored.

            On the 23rd day of July of 1888, she died at 4:30 in the afternoon at the age of 78 years at the Rancho de la Laguna Redonda where she is buried.  Her son, Alejo Peres, handwrote the death notice and her burial site to this day is only known to him and to God.  


            Los Inocentes is one of San Antonio’s most acclaimed musical groups preserving and continuing the cultural and musical traditions of the American and Latin American heritage.   Los Inocentes are a performing arts group who started their musical career in 1994 at an early age, taught by their father, J. H. Zentella to sing and play.  This talented group are siblings, Biniza, Itza, and George Zentella.  Included in their early performances was their participation at the annual Texas Folklife event at the Institute of Texan Cultures.   Throughout the years, Los Inocentes have acquired an extensive repertoire of music traditions of numerous cultures, including the Hispanic Indigenous, Spanish and Mediterranean music roots.  Los Inocentes have traveled from east to west coasts performing their repertoire of acoustic music and participated in music festivals throughout the U.S.  This artistic group still finds time to perform at 6:00 am at San Fernando Cathedral and National Shrine of Little Flower on Sunday evenings for Mass.  They have sung at churches, social, and religious events and have been recognized by the Archdiocese of San Antonio for their contributions. 

            Their musical talents are shared with many local organizations as the Daughters of the Republic of Texas, Canary Islands Descendants Association, Friends of Casa Navarro and many others.   Los Inocentes perform seasonal concerts, playing a lively repertoire of Latin music to the Classics at several of San Antonio’s Missions.  For their cultural work and contributions, Los Inocentes have been awarded the “Premio Oro” by KWEX-TV Univision Channel 41.

            Los Inocentes have written and composed many different songs and have over seven recordings including: Los Inocentes En Vivo, Con Amor, Los Meros Gallos, Not Guilty, a favorite, Vivir Tu Palabra; Contemporary Sacred Music.   They are currently working on their latest production that will be available to the public soon.

            In the musical concert and tribute honoring Juana Navarro, Los Inocentes selected a musical repertoire of historic songs to play at Mission San Jose on May 30, 2010.  The selection of songs musically reflect the narrative readings by Monclovio Perez, San Antonio’s golden voice and personality and Megan Perez, great, great, great granddaughter of Juana Navarro and senior at Boston College. 

             The highlight of the Concert is “El Corrido de Juana Navarro” composed by Binisa.  The Corrido features the life and legend of Juana Navarro.  Other musical selections by Los Inocentes are time honored classic songs as La Paloma, El Deguello, and Adios del Soldado.   

Musical numbers performed for the concert and their other recording are available by contacting Los Inocentes 
(210) 223-6910 or E-mail:  

             Rueben Perez a native of San Antonio attended Trinity University receiving his Master’s in Counseling.  He started his career working for the Texas Rehabilitation Commission and went to work for San Antonio College as a counselor following his retirement.  Never really thinking too much of his family history and rich heritage, his sister, Dorothy completed the necessary paper work to get him into the Son’s of the American Revolution, Son’s of the Republic of Texas, Canary Islands Descendant Association and Granaderos y Damas de Galvez.   Later another important person entered his life, Judge Robert H. Thonhoff, author of The Texas Connection with the American Revolution.  It was then Rueben became interested in his family history.  Many of his conversations ended with Robert Thonhoff’s words, “If present Tejano descendants would do their homework, thereby learn the names and the roles of their Tejano ancestors, they would acquire a feeling of pride, gratitude, and citizenship that perhaps they never experienced before.  Tejanos gave their lives for the cause of human freedom, yet after nearly two hundred years they remain largely unknown, unsung, and unhonored.  Tejano ancestors were affected profoundly during the turbulent and confused times of revolution.  From which we gained freedom and opportunity that we still enjoy – and defend – in our country today.”  Thus started Rueben’s quest to research his family history, starting with Mateo Peres, Lieutenant of the Presidio of Bexar and Alamo garrison and ending with his great grandfather, Alejo E. Peres, last living survivor of the Battle of the Alamo.  In his search for his rich Tejano heritage, Rueben learned about his great, great grandmother, Juana Navarro Veramendi Peres Alsbury. 


Rueben Perez has authored two books, the first Ancestral Voices of the Past.  The book is a collection of stories about his ancestors, Curbelos from the Canary Islands.  His recent second book is entitled: Lest We Forget: A Tribute to Those Who Forged the Way covers true accounts of the lives and historical events during the settlement of Villa de San Fernando now San Antonio, Bexar, Texas.   It was during the writing of this book that his interest in Juana Navarro Veramendi Peres Alsbury developed.  He recognized that many other women and children who were in the Alamo during the siege have not been honored, remembered, and their stories are still unsung.  

Mission San Jose             

Working in collaboration with Los Inocentes, he wrote the script for the musical concert and tribute to honor Juana Navarro.  His sister, brother and niece, will participate in the concert to remember the brave Tejana women who forged the way for all of us during the turbulent times of Texas Independence.  

Contact: 210-492-3929 or 
Rueben M. Perez


Sylvia Ann Carvajal Sutton, serving on the DAR National Spanish Task Force
Comments on Family Connections with the Siege of the Alamo

Dear Primita: Yes, I do know the descendents of Alejo de la Encarnacion Peres.  He is the son of Juana Navarro Verimendi Perez Alsbury. Juana was first married to Alejo Perez who died then she married Dr. Alsbury. She was with him in the Alamo compound during the siege of the Alamo. So was little Alejo. Juana is the daughter of Angel Navarro brother of Lusiano and Jose Antonio Navarro.Angels' wife died and he was left with three daughters, Juana, Gertrudis and Petra (I think that was the third daughters name).  The Veramendi's raised Juana.  Gertrudis was raised by my Great Aunt Teodora who married Lusiano Navarro. Someone else raised Petra.  Juana and her sister Gertrudis were in the Alamo during the siege. There is a possibility that Petra was there also.
My great great Aunt Teodora Carvajal is the sister of my Great great Grandfather Jose Luis Sanchez Carvajal who established the Carvajal Ranch at Carvajal Crossing.My Great Great Grand father was second Lt.Cavalry in the Texas Revolution. He was gifted the land out of the old Hernandez Land Grant out of the San Bartolo Ranch. The land was gifted to him from his aunt Barbara Sanchez. My Grandfather Santiago Louis was born at this Ranch located in Karnes and Wilson County. Another famous brother of theirs was Jose Maria de Jesus Carvajal who married Refugia De Leon daughter of the empresario Martin de Leon. Founder of Guadalupe Victoria. Another Brother was Mariano Carvajal who died with Fannin at Goliad.

Sylvia is the subject of the Wise Latina in this issue, and has offered to guide family researchers.


ERNEST AGUILAR, Veteran, Activist . . . . . . . Mar 19, 1919 to Mar 15, 2010. .   91 years old
GRANVILLE W. HOUGH, Veteran, Historian .  Dec 18, 1922 - Mar 3, 2010  . . . . 88 years old
JAIME ESCALANTE, Outstanding Educator. . . 
Dec. 31, 1930 to Mar 30, 2010 . . 79 years old
RUBEN VELA, Conjunto legend  . . . . . . . . . . . .  May 10, 1937 to Mar 9, 2010 . . . 72  years old

ERNEST AGUILAR, Veteran, Activist 
Mar 19, 1919 to Mar 15, 2010

Left to right: Ernie Aguilar, David C. Garcia, Rafael Ojeda and Retired Army Colonel Felix Vargas, 
Ft Lewis
, Washington Hispanic Heritage Month in Sep 20008  
Representing the Washington State American GI Forum

Ernest I.J. Aguilar "Ernie" Passed away Monday, March 15, 2010 at home with family at his side. Born in Mexico March 19, 1919, Ernie selflessly dedicated his time and effort to the development of programs to benefit Latinos and all Washingtonians. Ernie was a veteran and fought for our freedom in World War II, the Korean War, and Vietnam. He continued to fight for our country in the areas of civil rights and equal opportunity in education, jobs and healthcare. He is survived by his loving wife, Clementina (Tina) Aguilar, six children, four grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. The family requests donations be made to: The Ernest I.J. Aguilar Scholarship Fund. Foster School of Business, University of Washington, P.O. Box 353200, Seattle, WA 98195-3200  Mass was held at St. Andrews Catholic Church, 1401 Valley Avenue East, Sumner, WA . Please visit www.Powers to sign the guestbook.

Published in News Tribune (Tacoma) on March 18, 2010 

By Senators Prentice, Fraser, Kohl-Welles, and Franklin

WHEREAS, The Washington State Legislature recognizes and honors the life and lifetime contributions of Ernest Ignacio Jose "Ernie" Aguilar, born on March 19, 1919, in Mexico City and died March 15, 2010; and

WHEREAS, In the name of public service Ernest Aguilar gave of his time, talent, resources, and skills during his entire lifetime towards the advancement of the Hispanic community and all citizens of Washington State; and

WHEREAS, Ernie Aguilar is survived by his wife of forty-five years, Clementina (Tina) Aguilar; his children, Kenny, Alan, Paul, Gloria McGriff, Michael (deceased), and Ernest (Nachito); his grandchildren, Maria Aguilar, Shana Konschuh, Darci and Alan Aguilar; and his great-grandchildren, Anthony and Alexander Konschuh; and

WHEREAS, Ernie and Tina Aguilar's son Michael was the first Hispanic born in Washington State to graduate from West Point, and later unselfishly gave his life in the line of duty in a military training maneuver; and

WHEREAS, Ernie and Tina's son Kenny has achieved international recognition as the former Director of Personnel for NASA; and

WHEREAS, Ernie Aguilar proudly served this country and was a decorated veteran of World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War; and
WHEREAS, Ernie Aguilar, as a tireless public servant and true visionary of the community, was instrumental in the creation of the Washington State Commission on Hispanic Affairs and was a member of its first governing board; and

WHEREAS, Ernie Aguilar was a former Thurston County Deputy Sheriff, the first Mexican-American to run for County Office in Washington State, and a former member of the Washington State Jail Commission; and

WHEREAS, Ernie Aguilar was a founding member and is now Chairman Emeritus of the Washington State Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, which promotes the self-determination and economic development of the State's Hispanic community; and

WHEREAS, Ernie Aguilar was one of the original founders and the first Chair of the Board of the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic in Toppenish, Washington, which has improved access to medical care for all people in the community; and

WHEREAS, Ernie Aguilar was the initiator and founder of the Washington State Catholic Hispanic Ministry within Catholic Charities; and

WHEREAS, Ernie Aguilar has demonstrated a selfless commitment to higher education with the creation of the Ernie Aguilar Scholarship Fund that has been established at the University of Washington's Foster School of Business for Latino students who are pursuing their Masters in Business Administration; and

WHEREAS, Ernie Aguilar's international leadership achievements and dedication to the advancement of the Mexican and the Mexican-American communities were acknowledged by the President of Mexico when he was awarded the Ohtli Medal, Mexico's highest civilian honor;

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, That the Washington State Senate urge all citizens of the State of Washington to join us in congratulating and recognizing Ernie Aguilar for his unique and courageous vision, tireless public service, and legacy of accomplishments on behalf of Hispanics and all citizens of the State of Washington; and

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, That copies of this resolution be immediately transmitted by the Secretary of the Senate to the family of Ernie Aguilar, the Consul General of Mexico, the Washington State Commission on Hispanic Affairs, the Washington Latino Advocacy and Leadership Institute, and the Foster School of Business at the University of Washington.  

I, Thomas Hoemann, Secretary of the Senate, do hereby certify that this is a true and correct copy of Senate Resolution 8722, adopted by the Senate March 19, 2010

Secretary of the Senate

Sent by Rafael Ojeda

Granville W. Hough, Ph.D.  Educator, Genealogist, Historian  
December 18, 1922 - March 3, 2010 at 87

Hough, Granville W., born 18 December 1922 in Smith County, MS, succumbed to MDS on 3 March 2010 in Laguna Woods, CA, at the age of 87. His life consisted of 21 years of farming and forestry; 23 years as a United States Army office; 23 years as professor of management at California State University, Fullerton; and 20 years as genealogist, historian, and grandfather. His own description of his life is at He is survived by son, David Hough and wife, Brenda (Jung) and grandchildren, Susanna Hough and Kendrick Hough, all of San Jose, CA, and daughters Nancy Hough and Bonny Miller, wife of Jerry Miller, all of Rockville, MD. He was predeceased by one son, Robin Hough. He is also survived by brother, Donald Hough of Gainesville, FL. He was predeceased by his brothers Rudolf, Harold, Dueward, Clifford, and Roland. Memorial services will be held at 11:00 a.m., Saturday 20 March 2010, at Lutheran Church of the Cross, 24231 El Toro Rd, Laguna Woods, CA 92637. Inurnment will be later this year at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.


Sent by Jim Swanek and 

Miguel Hernandez


Editor: Although Granville was not Hispanic on any family lines, the value of his research for anyone with Spanish heritage is immeasurable and probably will never be fully realized and appreciated.  Historian, author Robert H. Thonhoff wrote: 


I, like uncountable thousands of others throughout the world, will always be grateful for the full life and prodigious works of the late Dr. Granville W. Hough, who helped us to learn who we are, what we are, and what our forebears did. Not only that, he connected many of us directly with American history, especially that part with the American Revolution, from whence came the freedom and opportunity that Americans still enjoy—and defend—today.

He left a monumental legacy that people over the world will use, enjoy, and appreciate for years to come.


My condolences to all his family.


Sincerely, Robert H. Thonhoff

Karnes City , Texas

Below is Dr. Hough's own description of his life at

GRANVILLE W. HOUGH VITA Granville Watkins Hough was born 18 Dec 1922 on a farm in Smith County, MS, between the towns of Mize in that county, and the next marketing town of Magee in Simpson County. He was the fourth of seven sons of Elisha J and Nancy Elizabeth (Richardson) Hough. All seven sons served in WW II or its aftermath. Granville's mother had been a school teacher, and his father was a self-taught general farmer and fruit grower.

When Granville's father died in 1936, Granville was the oldest son at home, so he had to learn skills of farming, planning crops, controlling soil erosion, training mules, and handling other livestock. The area had no electricity and no running water. Granville gained an early appreciation of soil and energy conservation, forestry, and rural life. When he did not understand a problem, he got a farm bulletin from the U. S. Department of Agriculture and studied it until he knew what to do.

At age 14, he suggested he would like to attend high school at Magee, across the county line in Simpson County. His mother and relatives in Magee helped make the financial and tax transfer arrangements. He was successful academically and graduated as Valedictorian in 1941. He represented Magee High School each year in the District Academic Field Meet and won first place in Agriculture in 1939, then later first place in the state. Because of his academic success, his local community families all transferred to Magee High School and continued to attend there for thirty years. They had to return to Mize High School when state Civil Rights legislation in the 1960's required attendance in one's county of residence.

In Sept 1941, Granville was the second student to enroll in the new Mississippi State University Forestry program. He worked at Forestry Department jobs to pay his tuition, so learned little about the social side of college life. In establishing the Forestry Department, the University had collected in its library all readily available forestry publications from the U. S., the British Empire, and Europe. Granville was given the task of studying these documents, summarizing them on library cards suitable for future researchers. Granville learned about forestry, worldwide, and published his first article in 1942. Then, World War II ended his work in forestry, leaving only a lifetime interest in it.

Granville joined the Enlisted Reserve in Nov 1942 and was able to complete the two-year pre-forestry program at Mississippi State before he was called up for active duty in April 1943. He did his Basic Training at Fort McClellan, AL in Infantry Heavy Weapons. Earlier, he had been marginally interested in a military career and had completed all the requirements for gaining an appointment to USMA, but he failed the physical exam. In late June, 1943, he was ordered to retake the physical exam for USMA, as both the Principal and First Alternate had declined or failed to qualify. Granville passed the physical exam and joined the class of 1946 on 3 Jul 1943.

The person best qualified to discuss Granville's early life is his only surviving brother, Donald M. Hough, 715 N. W. 36th Ave, Gainesville, FL 32601.

Granville reached West Point with minimum knowledge of what was required. He had never known, met, or even seen a West Point cadet or graduate when he arrived. While retaking the physical exam at Fort McClellan Army Hospital, he got a pass to go to the Anniston, AL, public library, where he found an illustrated book about cadet life. He studied through that book, learning about sports, academics, bracing, and other aspects of cadet life. He had had two years of basic ROTC, followed by infantry heavy weapons basic training, and was an expert rifleman. He believed he could withstand the rigors and intrusiveness of cadet life and indeed he did. However, he was 20 years old prepared for an utterly different life. He could ride any horse the academy had and could hike any distance needed, but he could not swim and could not throw a baseball the required distance. He had never needed those skills and actually had water-phobia from a childhood accident. He finally passed the swim test the week before graduation, but that deficiency kept him from participating in Corps squad wrestling, a sport in which he did well.

Granville was assigned to Company D-2 and really found cadet life to be an alien experience, with plebe year about like a prison sentence. He recalled his first roommates were Dick Patton, Wayne Nichols, and Jack Donahue. There was a required change of roommates at Christmas, so he teamed up with Van Baker, Ray Gilbert, and Martin Kutler. Martin later joined Harold Williams, so Granville, Van, and Ray were together through graduation. Granville was a cadet corporal in his second year and company supply sergeant his third year. He did go to Brady, TX, as an air cadet and learned to fly; but he did not care for flying. He led his class in flying hours and Link-trainer time, but he concluded he was not a natural flyer. He asked to be relieved, and joined his classmates for summer training at Fort Benning, GA.

By his last year, Granville was so troubled by fatigue and sleep deprivation that he began having trouble with academic work. He said later that he "burned out" and did not regain interest in academic work, or any book, for several years after graduation. As he did not recall his cadet career with pleasure, he never attended a class reunion at West Point. He explained by saying: "I got enough of the place while I was there." He returned once alone and once with his family, and he was sent once from the Pentagon with Tom Rogers (Class of 1947) to give an intelligence briefing to the first class. As an alumnus, he supported the Academy in its funding drives, and he attended class parties wherever he was stationed. He always considered his classmates his best friends.

The person who can best describe Granville as a cadet is his former roommate, Prof. Van R. Baker, 434 West Market St, York, PA 17404.

Granville graduated from USMA in June 1946 as a second lieutenant in Artillery. He had thought of himself as an infantryman, but the war was over so the infantry would soon be doing mostly garrison duty if the pattern followed that after WW I. So, when the time came for choice of branch, he chose field artillery, along with his roommates, Van Baker and Ray Gilbert. He went to Fort Sill, OK, for the Basic Officers Course, then to Fort Bliss for antiaircraft and seacoast artillery training. (During the year, the Army had made a single artillery branch, rather than two, or in effect, rather than three.) Another action the Army took was to integrate 15,000 World War II officers into the Regular Army, all at higher wartime ranks than second lieutenants just out of West Point. This put Granville and his class "behind the hump" as far as promotions and opportunities were concerned.

Granville's first assignment was to South Korea in 1947 to the 48th Field Artillery Battalion. Sometimes he was the only officer and Battery Commander, and sometimes there was a captain in his battery. There was a general shortage of officers, so he had to take on strange tasks, sometimes as a Military Police Patrol Officer, sometimes military court duty, sometimes investigating events in Kaesong, but always amazed at Korean customs and our lack of knowledge about them. Eighteen months after graduation in Dec 1947, all 1946 graduates in Korea were promoted to 1st Lt. In 1948, Granville returned to Fort Sill and served with the 969th Field Artillery Battalion in School Troops. This was a black unit which he helped demobilize, then the black soldiers were integrated into other units. Granville then went to the First Observation Battalion where he served until his next overseas assignment in late 1949. (In the First Observation Battalion, Granville learned the techniques of locating enemy artillery by sound, or by flash, or by radar.)

The next overseas assignment was to Puerto Rico with the 504th Field Artillery Battalion, a direct support unit for the 65th Infantry Regiment. These were Puerto Rican units. The Army decided to reassign the 504th to direct support for the 33rd Infantry Regiment in the Canal Zone, so the 504th moved from Fort Bundy, Puerto Rico, to Fort Kobbe, CZ in the Spring of 1950. When the War with Korea started, the 504th and 33rd Infantry took turns in guarding the locks and other installations of the Panama Canal. Granville was promoted to Captain and became a Battery Commander in 1951-52. This ended his battery level duty, six years after graduation.

Granville went back to Fort Sill for the Advanced Officer Course, which he completed in 1953. The Army was then in need of people with advanced degrees in technical fields. Granville asked to go to the University of Southern California to obtain a Master's Degree in Mechanical Engineering which would be applicable to work with artillery missile systems. After obtaining this degree in 1955, he was assigned to the Nike Ajax unit at the Antiaircraft School at Fort Bliss for three years as an instructor and research officer for the Nike Ajax. He completed Battalion and Regimental Staff work in 1958, 12 years after graduation, while the graduates of 1946 were still Captains, albeit Regular Army Captains.

The next year, at the Fort Leavenworth Army Command and General Staff College, Granville graduated with an additional MOS of Nuclear Weapons Effects Officer. He had been promoted to Regular Army Major, 13 years after graduation, in order of his Academy class rank. In other words, the three cadet years at West Point counted more than 13 years of dedicated effort as an Army officer in determining order of promotion.

Granville made his first trip to the Pentagon in August 1959 when assigned there from Fort Leavenworth. Within a year, he was able to make significant contributions to the analysis of Soviet defenses against ballistic missiles, for which he received the Legion of Merit, one of seven awarded in 1960. After Gary Powers was shot down over Sverdlovsk, the U. S. had to rely on satellite photographic missions. Granville was the first Army intelligence officer to study results of this program, and for some time the only one allowed, as President Eisenhower limited knowledge of the program.

Granville's intelligence work affected his next assignment as his detailed knowledge of intelligence operations would jeopardize those operations if Granville were captured in Vietnam. He was assigned to Thule, Greenland, for one year, and was promoted to Lt Col 17 years after graduation at age 40. His promotion sequence was similar to most of his class. While in Thule, Granville graduated from the correspondence course for the Air War College. He then returned in 1963 to become Battalion Commander of the 3rd Battalion, 5th Artillery, and Deputy Commander of the Boston/Providence Air Defense Command. From there in 1964, he attended the Armed Forces Industrial College in Washington, DC, (now combined with the National War College). When he graduated in 1965, he also received a Master's degree in Business Administration from George Washington University.

Granville had decided in Thule, Greenland, that he was more of an academic person than a combat fighter and began to think about teaching as a second career. When he was assigned in 1965 to intelligence work in DOD, he was able to complete the academic requirements for a PhD in Public Administration at American University, Washington, DC. He retired 1 Jan 1968 and was recruited to teach Project Management at California State University, Fullerton.

A person who can make comments on Granville's career as an Army officer is Col Thomas E. Rogers, 11 Edinburgh, Pinehurst, NC 28374.

When Granville reported to California State University to begin teaching, he had very current knowledge about Project Management as it was practiced by the Department of Defense. He was able to work with Professor Fred R. Colgan in developing a course in Project Management which became a model for other universities. He also taught other management courses which came easy from his different staff and command experiences in the Army. He taught for 23 years in the College of Business at California State University, the same length of time he had served in the Army. Most of his former students have had successful business or public service careers in Southern California, though some have gone far afield as project managers, all over the world. He was Department of Management Chairman, 1972-75.

Persons who can give information on Granville's teaching career are Prof. Fred R. Colgan, P. O. Box 393, Port Townsend, WA, 98368, or Prof. Tai K. Oh, 2044 Eucalyptus, Brea, CA 92821.

Soon after Granville went to Fort Sill in 1946, he met Carol Louisa Steckelberg, then a student at Oklahoma College for Women at Chickasha, OK; and they were married 24 January 1947 in the First Methodist Church in Chickasha. Their children were David, computer analyst living in San Jose, CA, with wife Brenda and children Susanna and Kendrick; Nancy C., researcher and writer of Laguna Hills, CA; and Bonny (Mrs. Jerry Miller), musician and university teacher of London, England, and Rockville, MD. One son, Robin, a musician, died in 1985. Each of the children received full scholarships for their college work, based on their academic excellence and test scores. The children recall as homes the cities of Lawton, OK, El Paso, TX, Fort Kobbe, CZ, Fort Leavenworth, KS, Cohasset, MA, Arlington, VA, Los Angeles, CA, and Fullerton, CA. Granville and Carol moved to Leisure World, Laguna Woods, CA, in 1975. Carol died 17 Aug 2003.

While the family lived in El Paso in 1957, Carol had received blood transfusions at William Beaumont Army Hospital and at El Paso General Hospital. (She had tested slightly anemic, and the procedure then was an automatic blood transfusion if you tested anemic.) In one or both these transfusions, she received the virus for Hepatitis C. This devastated her health, and it was 19 years before it was correctly diagnosed through liver biopsy. By that time, she was near death and she and Granville had moved to Leisure World to a less stressful environment. She volunteered for an experimental treatment program in progress at UCLA, and her condition was successfully stabilized. However, her immune system was weakened, and she had strokes, brain surgery, and eventually developed Alzheimer's disease. She died after one year in a nursing home for that disease.

Persons who can give information on Granville's family are his son David G. Hough, P. O. Box 20370, San Jose, CA 95160, or daughter Bonny H. Miller, 5523 Englishman Place, Rockville MD 20852.

After Granville's second retirement in 1992, he was able to devote more time to his hobbies of hiking with his son and grandchildren, and to genealogy and history. He had been a sometimes genealogist all his life, but he was able to see actual records when he was first assigned to the Washington area in 1959. He continued to study census, military, and land records when he had time. Eventually he was able to study nearly all the Hough and Huff families of the U. S. He published numerous books about them, listing about 100,000 individuals. After his second retirement, he continued this work for several years, also doing studies on the early Dutch, Mayflower, and Royal ancestors of his wife Carol. Granville had two heart attacks and in 1996 underwent bypass and aortic valve replacement surgery at UCLA Hospital. After that he gave his Hough and Huff collection to Max K. Huff, 8200 Westglen Drive, Houston, TX 77063, who publishes a journal from it and other contributions. Comments on Granville's other genealogical research can be made by William B. Bogardus, 1121 Linhof Rd, Wilmington, OH 45177-2917.

In 1991, Granville joined the National Society, Sons of the American Revolution (NSSAR). His genealogical research had indicated to him that much of the history of the American Revolution is incomplete and misleading. He believed that the NSSAR and other patriotic organizations should be at the forefront of revising the history we teach our children about out country and those who have worked with us as allies, co-belligerents, and even as enemies. He was particularly annoyed by the portrayals of black and Spanish soldiers and of their contributions to the American Revolution. His experience with modern black and Hispanic soldiers and units showed they were equal to or surpassed white soldiers in valor and patriotism. When the California Society turned down a descendant of a Spanish soldier because he did not have receipts for funds his soldier ancestor had donated, Granville decided to take action. He gained support from his SAR chapter to develop the rationale for acceptance. This was in 1996 after his bypass operation, and it was uncertain how far he could go. He developed the rationale by studying the history of Spanish participation in the Revolutionary War, both before and after Spain declared war on England in June, 1779.

He found test cases, and slowly, acceptance began. Granville worked with his daughter, Nancy C. Hough, as co-author; and they published two books on California participation during the war years. Then they did books on Arizona (Sonora), New Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, West Indies, and Northern Mexico. It took five years for the eight books. The NSSAR now not only accepts descendants of soldiers and sailors identified in these books, but also descendants of other Spanish soldiers or sailors whose actions caused the British to divert ships and manpower away from the fledging and independent United States. So Granville could safely state that he had identified more Patriot ancestors than any previous SAR member.

                                                                                                                                        Granville with Raul Guerra 2006

While working on West Indies activities of the Revolutionary War, Granville found that the naval records of the Revolutionary have never been fully published, and that the project underway would take fifty more years to complete. He resolved to make a listing of the vessels and the persons who served on them, or supported them, for the Revolutionary War. This is his on-going work with his daughter, Nancy C. Hough. It may be complete in a first draft in 2005, with about 5000 vessels, and over 50,000 men.

Granville was once asked the question: How do you wish to be remembered? His least complicated answer was that he was a teacher, a historian, one who set examples, one who was willing to do things differently, a loner, one who thought about natural rather than mechanical things. He would even say he was an environmentalist who missed his calling in this life. Granville was never particularly influenced by what others thought, and he successfully tackled problems or projects that others thought impossible or not worth doing.

Granville was intelligent enough to do what he had to do in most situations. His father died when he was 13, so he had to learn to farm and do all the farm maintenance and repair tasks. There was no choice. He was at Mississippi State University doing what he wanted to do when World War II intervened. He wanted to finish school, but he soon found he could join the Army or be drafted. He joined up. Once in the Army, he found he could go to West Point as a cadet or go to Italy as a replacement machine gunner. He went to West Point. As a Regular Army officer, he could stay in or resign. He stayed in, was decorated, but never saw combat. He worked successfully with mechanical and electronic missile systems, but it was work, not something which came naturally. After retirement, he became a Registered Professional Engineer, but he never practiced. His most advanced degree was in Public Administration, but he avoided politics and either appointive or elective office. He taught Business Management but never ran a business. He published genealogies and histories with no particular training those fields. He always registered Republican but has voted Democrat ever since he experienced Ronald Reagan as Governor of California.

Granville recalled that a bit of "plebe poop" he had to learn dealt with the "fixed opinion," of a long dead general whose statue was in the corner of the Parade Ground at West Point. Granville gave as his "fixed opinion" that what you learn at USMA and all other service schools is how to fight wars, more particularly, the last one. What you do NOT learn is how to avoid wars, which gets back to more fundamental questions of population control and environmental preservation. Granville had other "fixed opinions" he was willing to share.

Granville was diagnosed with MDS Leukemia in 2006 and never given as much as a year to live. So he defied his prognosis for over three years, continuing to live by himself and drive himself to his medical appointments, until in January 2010 he had to arrange for a driver, then in February for a full-time live-in personal assistant, and finally Companion Hospice care, succumbing peacefully 3 March 2010 at his home in Laguna Woods.

A memorial service is planned for 11:00 am on Saturday, March 20, at Lutheran Church of the Cross, 24231 El Toro Rd, Laguna Woods, CA 92637; church office phone is 949-837-4673. Inurnment in Arlington National Cemetery with Carol is planned for August.

Granville suggested that family and friends who wish to honor his life with a charitable donation, might support Crean Lutheran South High School,, or the Alzheimer's Association,  A person who can comment on Granville's work on Spanish records and its effect on Hispanic people is Mimi Lozano, P. O. Box 490, Midway City, CA 92655-0490.

Legendary Teacher Jaime Escalante has Passed Away

Jaime Escalante dies at 79; math teacher who challenged East L.A. students to 'Stand and Deliver'
By Elaine Woo, March 31, 2010

He became America's most famous teacher after a 1988 movie portrayed his success at mentoring working-class pupils at Garfield High to pass a rigorous national calculus exam. He died of cancer.

Jaime Escalante, the charismatic former East Los Angeles high school teacher who taught the nation that inner-city students could master subjects as demanding as calculus, died Tuesday. He was 79.

The subject of the 1988 film "Stand and Deliver," Escalante died at his son's home in Roseville, Calif., said actor Edward James Olmos, who portrayed the teacher in the film. Escalante had bladder cancer.  "Jaime didn't just teach math. Like all great teachers, he changed lives," Olmos said earlier this month when he organized an appeal for funds to help pay Escalante's mounting medical bills.

Escalante gained national prominence in the aftermath of a 1982 scandal surrounding 14 of his Garfield High School students who passed the Advanced Placement calculus exam only to be accused later of cheating.

The story of their eventual triumph -- and of Escalante's battle to raise standards at a struggling campus of working-class, largely Mexican American students -- became the subject of the movie, which turned the balding, middle-aged Bolivian immigrant into the most famous teacher in America.

Passionate teacher

Escalante was a maverick who did not get along with many of his public school colleagues, but he mesmerized students with his entertaining style and deep understanding of math. Educators came from around the country to observe him at Garfield, which built one of the largest and most successful Advanced Placement programs in the nation.

"Jaime Escalante has left a deep and enduring legacy in the struggle for academic equity in American education," said Gaston Caperton, former West Virginia governor and president of the College Board, which sponsors the Scholastic Assessment Test and the Advanced Placement exams.

"His passionate belief [was] that all students, when properly prepared and motivated, can succeed at academically demanding course work, no matter what their racial, social or economic background. Because of him, educators everywhere have been forced to revise long-held notions of who can succeed."

Escalante's rise came during an era decried by experts as one of alarming mediocrity in the nation's schools. He pushed for tougher standards and accountability for students and educators, often irritating colleagues and parents along the way with his brusque manner and uncompromising stands.

He was called a traitor for his opposition to bilingual education. He said the hate mail he received for championing Proposition 227, the successful 1998 ballot measure to dismantle bilingual programs in California, was a factor in his decision to retire that year after leaving Garfield and teaching at Hiram Johnson High School in Sacramento for seven years.

He moved back to Bolivia, where he propelled himself into a classroom again, apparently intent on fulfilling a vow to die doing what he knew best -- teach. But he returned frequently to the United States to speak to education groups and continued to ally himself with conservative politics. He considered becoming an education advisor to President George W. Bush, and in 2003 signed on as an education consultant for Arnold Schwarzenegger's gubernatorial campaign in California.

Escalante was born Dec. 31, 1930, in La Paz, Bolivia, and was raised by his mother after his parents, both schoolteachers, split when he was about 9. He attended a well-regarded Jesuit high school, San Calixto, where his quick mind and penchant for mischief often got him into trouble.

After high school, he served in the army during a short-lived Bolivian rebellion. Although he had toyed with the idea of attending engineering school in Argentina, he wound up enrolling at the Bolivian state teachers college, Normal Superior. Before he graduated, he was teaching at three top-rated Bolivian schools. He also married Fabiola Tapia, a fellow student at the college.

At his wife's urging, Escalante gave up his teaching posts for the promise of a brighter future in the United States for their firstborn, Jaime Jr. (A second son, Fernando, would follow.) With $3,000 in his pocket and little more than "yes" and "no" in his English vocabulary, Escalante flew alone to Los Angeles on Christmas Eve 1963. He was 33.

His wife and son later joined him in Pasadena, where his first job was mopping floors in a coffee shop across the street from Pasadena City College, where he enrolled in English classes. Within a few months, he was promoted to cook, slinging burgers by day and studying for an associate's degree in math and physics by night. That led to a better-paying job as a technician at a Pasadena electronics company, where he became a prized employee. But the classroom still beckoned to the teacher inside him. He earned a scholarship to Cal State Los Angeles to pursue a teaching credential. In the fall of 1974, when he was 43, he took a pay cut to begin teaching at Garfield High at a salary of $13,000.

"My friends said, 'Jaime, you're crazy.' But I wanted to work with young people," he told The Times. "That's more rewarding for me than the money." When he arrived at the school, he was dismayed to learn he had been assigned to teach the lowest level of math. He grew unhappier still when he discovered how watered-down the math textbooks were -- on a par with fifth-grade work in Bolivia. Faced with unruly students, he began to wish for his old job back.

Motivating students

But Escalante stayed, soon developing a reputation for turning around hard-to-motivate students. By 1978, he had 14 students enrolled in his first AP calculus class. Of the five who survived his stiff homework and attendance demands, only two earned passing scores on the exam.

But in 1980, seven of nine students passed the exam; in 1981, 14 of 15 passed.
In 1982, he had 18 students to prepare for the academic challenge of their young lives.

At his insistence, they studied before school, after school and on Saturdays, with Escalante as coach and cheerleader. Some of them lacked supportive parents, who needed their teenagers to work to help pay bills. Other students had to be persuaded to spend less time on the school band or in athletics. Yet all gradually formed an attachment to calculus and to "Kimo," their nickname for Escalante, inspired by Tonto's nickname for the Lone Ranger, Kemo Sabe.

Escalante was hospitalized twice in the months leading up to the AP exam. He had a heart attack while teaching night school but ignored doctors' orders to rest and was back at Garfield the next day.

Then he disappeared one weekend to have his gallbladder removed. As Washington Post reporter Jay Mathews recounted in his 1988 book, "Escalante: The Best Teacher in America," the hard-driving teacher turned the health problem into another weapon in his bag of tricks. "You burros give me a heart attack," he repeatedly told his students when he returned. "But I come back! I'm still the champ."  The guilt-making mantra was effective. One student said, "If Kimo can do it, we can do it. If he wants to teach us that bad, we can learn."

The Advanced Placement program qualifies students for college credit if they pass the exam with a score of 3 or higher. For many years it was a tool of the elite; the calculus exam, for example, was taken by only about 3% of American high school math students when Escalante revived the program at Garfield in the late 1970s.

In 1982, a record 69 Garfield students were taking AP exams in various subjects, including Spanish and history. Escalante's calculus students took their exam in May under the watchful eye of the school's head counselor. The results, released over the summer, were stunning: All 18 of his students passed, with seven earning the highest score of 5.  But the good news quickly turned bad.

Testing controversy: The Educational Testing Service, which administers the exam, said it had found suspicious similarities in the solutions given on 14 exams. It invalidated those scores.

The action angered the students, who thought the service would not have questioned their scores if they were white. But this was Garfield, a school made up primarily of lower-income Mexican Americans that only a few years earlier had nearly lost its accreditation. "There's a tremendous amount of feeling that the Hispanic is incapable of handling higher math and science," Escalante reflected later in an interview with Newsday.

He, like many in the Garfield community, feared the students were victims of a racist attack, a charge that Educational Testing Service strongly denied. 
Two of the students told Mathews of the Washington Post that some cheating had occurred, but they later recanted their confessions.  Vindication came in a retest. Of the 14 accused of wrongdoing, 12 took the exam again and passed.

After that, the numbers of Garfield students taking calculus and other Advanced Placement classes soared. By 1987, only four high schools in the country had more students taking and passing the AP calculus exam than Garfield.

Escalante's dramatic success raised public consciousness of what it took to be not just a good teacher but a great one. One of the most astute analyses of his classroom style came from the actor who shadowed him for days before portraying him in "Stand and Deliver."

"He's the most stylized man I've ever come across," Olmos, who received an Oscar nomination for his performance, told the New York Times in 1988. "He had three basic personalities -- teacher, father-friend and street-gang equal -- and he would juggle them, shift in an instant. . . . He's one of the greatest calculated entertainers."

Ultimate performer: Escalante was the ultimate performer in class, cracking jokes, rendering impressions and using all sorts of props -- from basketballs and wind-up toys to meat cleavers and space-alien dolls -- to explain complex mathematical concepts.  Sports analogies abounded. A perfect parabola, for instance, was like a sky-hook by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. "Calculus Does Not Have To Be Made Easy -- It Is Easy Already," read a banner Escalante kept in his classroom.

In 1991, he packed up his bag of tricks and quit Garfield, saying he was fed up with faculty politics and petty jealousies. He headed to Hiram Johnson High with the intention of testing his methods in a new environment. But in seven years there, he never had more than about 14 calculus students a year and a 75% pass rate, a record he blamed on administrative turnover and cultural differences.  At Garfield, where the pass rate was above 90% when he left, his success was aided by a supportive principal, Henry Gradillas, and talented colleagues, including award-winning calculus teacher Ben Jimenez.

Return to Bolivia: Thirty-five years after leaving Bolivia for his journey into teaching fame, Escalante went home. He settled with his wife in her hometown of Cochabamba and became a part-time mathematics professor at the Universidad del Valle, and was still teaching calculus in Bolivia in 2008.

He returned to the United States frequently to visit his son and give motivational speeches. He made his last trip to the U.S. to seek treatment for the cancer that had left him unable to walk or speak above a whisper. This month, as he gave himself over to a Reno clinic's regimen of pills, teas and ointments, many of his former students gathered at Garfield to raise money.

Unpopular with fellow teachers, he won few major teaching awards in the United States. He liked to be judged by his results, a concept still resisted by the majority of his profession. As he faced death, it was still the results that mattered to him -- the young minds he held captive three decades ago who today are engineers, lawyers, doctors, teachers and administrators.

"I had many opportunities in this country, but the best I found in East L.A.," he said in one of his last interviews. "I am proudest of my brilliant students."  Escalante is survived by his wife, his sons and six grandchildren.  
Times staff writer Robert J. Lopez contributed to this report. 

Jaime Escalante didn't just stand and deliver. He changed U.S. schools forever.
By Jay Mathews, Sunday, April 4, 2010; B02 

From 1982 to 1987 I stalked Jaime Escalante, his students and his colleagues at Garfield High School, a block from the hamburger-burrito stands, body shops and bars of Atlantic Boulevard in East Los Angeles. I was the Los Angeles bureau chief for The Washington Post, allegedly covering the big political, social and business stories of the Western states, but I found it hard to stay away from that troubled high school. 

I would show up unannounced, watch Jaime teach calculus, chat with Principal Henry Gradillas, check in with other Advanced Placement classes and in the early afternoon call my editor in Washington to say I was chasing down the latest medfly outbreak story, or whatever seemed believable at the time. 

Escalante, who died Tuesday from cancer at age 79, did not become nationally famous until 1988, when the feature film about him, "Stand and Deliver," was released, and my much-less-noticed book, "Escalante: The Best Teacher in America," also came out. I had been drawn to him, as filmmakers Ramón Menéndez and Tom Musca were, by the story of a 1982 cheating scandal. Eighteen Escalante students had passed the Advanced Placement Calculus AB exam. Fourteen were accused of cheating by the Educational Testing Service, based on similarities in their answers. Twelve took the test again, this time heavily proctored, and passed again. 

Whether they cheated was an intriguing mystery, but not the one that kept me hanging around Garfield. I wanted to know how there could be even one student at that school taking and passing AP Calculus, perhaps the hardest course in American secondary education. Garfield offered the worst possible conditions for learning: 85 percent of the students were low income, most of the parents were grade-school dropouts, faculty morale was bad, expectations were low. 

Yet the school had produced phenomenal results that would challenge widespread rules barring average and below-average students from taking AP classes. The stunning success at Garfield led U.S. presidents to endorse Escalante's view that impoverished children can achieve as much as affluent kids if they are given enough extra study time and encouragement to learn. 

In 1987, 26 percent of all Mexican American students in the country who passed the AP Calculus exams attended a single high school: Garfield. That meant that hundreds of thousands of overlooked students could probably do as well if they got what Escalante was giving out. But what was that? 

Whenever I suggested that the great teaching I was seeing at Garfield might be the reason so many students were succeeding in AP, people at parties dismissed me as romantic and naive. I was living in Pasadena, where my children, like my neighbors' children, attended private schools. People there didn't believe in teaching; they believed in sorting. The idea that the sons and daughters of immigrant day laborers and seamstresses could be made to comprehend calculus, the intellectual triumph of Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, made no sense to them. 

"I bet if you checked out their backgrounds, you will find those teachers are skimming off the few kids whose parents went to college," one professor told me. More common was the assertion that Escalante, and the school's splendid history and government teachers, drilled enough facts and formulas into their kids to fool the AP tests but had no chance of giving them the conceptual understanding that well-prepared suburban students developed. 

These theories quickly fell apart. I surveyed 109 Garfield calculus students in 1987 and found that only nine had even one parent with a college degree, and that only 35 had a parent with a high school diploma. The engineering and science professors at USC, Harvey Mudd and the other California colleges recruiting Garfield grads laughed at the "no conceptual understanding" myth, as did the Escalante students I started running into who had become doctors, lawyers and teachers. 

It took me several years to understand how Garfield's AP teachers, and the many educators who have had similar results in other high-poverty schools, pulled all this off. They weren't skimming. It wasn't a magic trick of test results. They simply had high expectations for every student. They arranged extra time for study -- such as Escalante's rule that if you were struggling, you had to return to his classroom after the final bell and spend three hours doing homework, plus take some Saturday and summer classes, too. They created a team spirit, teachers and students working together to beat the big exam. 

Escalante celebrated "ganas," a Spanish word that he said meant the urge to succeed. He was so convinced of the power of teaching that he lied to keep students with him. He said school rules forbade dropping his class. He told the parents of absent students that if he did not see their children in his classroom the next day, he would call the immigration authorities to check on their status. 

I left Pasadena and moved to Scarsdale, N.Y., in 1992. At Scarsdale High School, I had a shock. My younger son wanted to take AP U.S. history. I assumed that, like Garfield, the school would welcome anyone with the gumption to take such hard course. Instead, he was told he could get in if he passed an entrance test. Once again I was in a land ruled by sorting, not teaching. 

There are fewer schools like that now, largely because of a change in teacher attitudes. My annual surveys of AP participation for Newsweek magazine show schools like Garfield emerging all over the country, particularly in the Washington area. Low-income students are being offered a chance to challenge themselves. Those schools are full of educators who tell me they have read everything about Escalante. 

When I discovered that his vocabulary was spreading even to grade schools, I knew that he had triumphed over those who wouldn't even open the AP door to some students. In 2001, a fifth-grade teacher in Southeast Washington told me that she had instituted "ganas points" for students who took an extra step to help themselves and others prepare for college. That school became the KIPP DC: KEY Academy, the city's top-performing public middle school. 

Escalante liked that story when I called him in Bolivia. It was amazing, he said, what teachers could do if they believed in their kids. He said he was still teaching. He was never going to stop. 

When I got a call a couple of days after his death about another school planning to open AP to all, I decided he was exactly right. 

Jay Mathews is the education columnist for The Washington Post. 
© 2010 The Washington Post Company

Sent by Juan Ramos



Ruben Vela, Conjunto legend 
May 10, 1937 to  March 9, 2010  at 72 

March 09, 2010 
by Bruce Lee Smith, Special to The Monitor

HARLINGEN — Conjunto legend Ruben Vela’s career stretched from his boyhood in dusty South Texas dance halls to the days of the powermix and the music video. The accordion mastery that kept people dancing for more than half a century has been forever silenced. Vela, 72, died Tuesday evening at Valley Baptist Medical Center.
Known as the "King of the Dance Hall Sound," Vela started recording in the 1950s but scored his biggest success at an age when most people start considering retirement. In the late 1990s, Vela’s hits "El Coco Rayado Powermix" and "La Papaya" brought the 60-year-old international fame and a whole new generation of fans.

Vela’s distinctive style kept dance hall crowds moving during a performing career that began when he was only 12. Whether it was a polka, ranchera or cumbia, the dance floor was always full when Vela started playing.
His wife, Molly Vela, said, "There will never be another Ruben."

"He was a wonderful, down-to-earth person. Everybody loved him because he was such a good person," she said.
"He never complained about anything. He was very happy with his music." This April, they would have been married 48 years.

Rey Avila, founder of the Texas Conjunto Hall of Fame and Museum in San Benito, said conjunto music will miss one of its finest artists. "It’s sad. He was one of the pioneers of real traditional conjunto music," Avila said.
Avila said Vela’s family called him Tuesday night to give him the news. "We all loved him," Avila said. "Conjunto music has really lost a true pioneer."

"He was one of the best, there’s no other way to describe it," he said.  Local conjunto accordionist and singer Frutoso Villareal called Vela more than just a great musician. Villareal said he’ll always remember Vela as a loving father, a strong family man and a trusted friend. "For me, he was like a friend, like a brother," Villareal said.

Villareal called Vela a mentor and teacher who showed him how to play conjunto music since the young age of 12. "I’m truly going to miss him," he said, adding, "I’ll always remember him whenever I play conjunto music."  Villareal said the Rio Valley should be proud of Vela, calling him one of the style’s greatest ambassadors. "Right now, it’s a loss for conjunto music, but I know he’s in heaven playing conjunto music at the golden gates," he said.

Born May 10, 1937 in San Antonio, Mexico, Vela grew up in Relampago and Mercedes. The Velas were a musical family and Ruben’s nine brothers and one sister could all play instruments. When he turned 11, Vela’s mother spent the princely sum of $70 to buy Vela his first accordion.

Vela practiced day and night. At dances and quinceañeras, he would watch the playing of conjunto pioneers such as Narciso Martinez, Valerio Longoria, and in particular, Tony de la Rosa. By the next year he felt ready to start performing in public.

By the mid-1950s, Vela had become a regular on Martin Rosales’ live radio show on KGBT-AM. Impressed by Vela’s talent, Rosales introduced him to Arnaldo Ramirez Sr., the owner of McAllen’s Discos Falcon. Vela’s first single was an instrumental called "Adolorido," a tune based on two old traditional Mexican songs, "Adolorido" and "El Abandonado." It became an instant hit.

It was the first of many hits for Vela. Others included "Te Regalo El Corazon," "Mire Amigo," and "El Oso Negro." Two of his most beloved singles were "El Pajuelazo" and "El Tiroteo." Over the decades, Vela also recorded for labels such as Bego, Freddie, Dina, Joey and Hacienda, and most recently, Crown.

Vela’s years of performing and his influence on conjunto were recognized by countless awards and honors. He was inducted into the Halls of fame of the Texas Conjunto Hall of Fame and Museum, the South Texas Conjunto Association and the Tejano Conjunto Festival in San Antonio.

The Vela musical tradition has been passed on: Ruben "Rabbit" Vela Jr. is the drummer in Vela’s conjunto band. His daughter, singer Marlissa Vela, has several CDs to her name and a musical career that has taken her all over the country.

Valley Morning Star reporter Michael Barajas contributed to this story.

Cecilia Law, The Universal Tejano Coalition
(C) 817-996-6262 (H) 972-642-9794

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. 



A government big enough to give you everything you want, 
is strong enough to take everything you have.
-Thomas Jefferson 

Briefs . . . . . 
Quick news from Hispaniclink
Study of Latino Catholics
Census projections for the Latino population 
New birth certificates required of Puerto Ricans
Brief  History of Social Security
Currently 80% of Latino children in the US, born in the US.
Criminal defendants entitled to know potential consequences of a guilty plea
March 31st, Cesar Chavez Day
Long Island man of manslaughter as a hate crime in the death of an immigrant.
Website for articles on farm labor and undocumented laborer issues
Quick news from Hispaniclink

A new poll by Bendixen finds that Latino voters favor
legalizing undocumented immigrants over deporting them, 77%-11%. 

The Mexican Human Rights Commission reports that 9,758 migrants en route to the United States from Central America were victims of kidnapping by criminal
organizations in the past six months...

Texas will be the big winner in national numerical political influence, gaining four congressional seats
following the 2010 Census, gaining four congressional seats, with Ohio the main loser (two seats), according to The New Constituents report produced by America’s Voice. 

Hispanic Link Weekly Report, March 20, 2010 Vol 28, no.9  Published since 1983.


Study Shows Generational Shifts among Latino Catholics, but some gains.  For a complete report visit: 

Please note that the overall figure of an estimated 48 million Latinos in the US in 2009 does not include the 4 million residents of Puerto Rico and the other Latino residents of the so-called US territories (such as the US Virgin Islands) who are US citizens. So simply add another 4 million to the 48 million and it would be more accurate to say that there were an estimated 52 million Latinos in the US. The Census projections for the Latino population this year is 49.7 million, which, if you add the 4 million in Puerto Rico), becomes 53.7 million. 

Angelo Falcón
National Institute for Latino Policy (NiLP)
Sent by Juan Marinez

New birth certificates needed Due to a high percentage of fraudulent applications for U.S. passports and social
benefits, a law enacted by Puerto Rico’s commonwealth government in December mandates that as of July 1, all Puerto Rican birth certificates will be invalid and must be replaced.

Persons born in Puerto Rico but residing elsewhere may obtain new birth certificate by filling out an application available from the Puerto Rico vital statistics record
office on or after July 1.  All birth certificates will remain valid until that date.

For more information, go to: 



Brief  History of Social Security
When Franklin Roosevelt introduced the Social Security (FICA) Program. He promised: 
1.) That participation in the Program would be Completely voluntary. 
2.) That the participants would only have to pay 
1% of the first $1,400
of their annual Incomes into the Program.
3.) That the money the participants put into the independent 'Trust Fund' rather than into the general operating fund, and therefore would only be used to fund the Social Security Retirement Program, and no other Government program.  
No longer Voluntary 
Now 7.65% 
Moved to General fund and spent

Source: Sal Del Valle

Currently 80% of Latino children in the US, born in the US.

The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that criminal defendants are entitled to know that the potential consequences of a guilty plea include deportation for non-citizens, a decision that could have broader significance for the more than 12.8 million legal immigrants who live in the United States.
The Seattle Times, posted March 31, 2010
Sent by Rafael Ojeda

March 31st designated as Cesar Chavez Day  

 “We honor his memory as a great humanitarian and a hero,” said LULAC National President Rosa Rosales. “We will continue to honor his legacy and it lives on not only for Latinos but for all Americans.” 

Jurors on Monday convicted a Long Island man of manslaughter as a hate crime in the death of an immigrant. April 19, 2010. Marcelo Lucero, a 37-year-old native of Ecuador was fatally stabbed in the chest on November 8, 2008, in Patchogue, New York. Jeffrey Conroy was found not guilty of murder as a hate crime, the most serious charge he faced. Prosecutors say Conroy and six friends in 2008 targeted Latinos for assaults -- part of a sport they called "beaner-hopping." Ecuadorian government representatives said they would have preferred a conviction for murder in the second degree.

For articles and images on farm labor and undocumented laborer issues, please go to



Latino Journal
Organize! The Lessons of the Community Service Organization
The Latino Journal has been providing information on public policy and government from a Latino perspective for over 13 years, creating a huge online following over
the last two years. Sign up at no cost. 

If you are a Non-Profits and want your event included in The Latino Journal E-News Weekly at no cost, send an email to  with the event name, date, location, and link where readers can get more information.  Adrian Perez, Publisher, (916) 396-4053

Organize! The Lessons of the Community Service Organization: University of California Television, 1 hour and 28 minute long new documentary. Work recalling important chapters in our community's ongoing civil rights and political experience in the US. March 2010
Sent by Roberto R. Calderon






Hispanics, who constitute roughly 15 percent of the U.S. population, 
account for less than 2 percent of all Fortune 500 Board directors.

Baby Abuelita to be Featured in Math Textbook
Women’s History Month Highlights Latina Entrepreneurs Impact on U.S. Business
NAD Bank Funds UTSA Institute for Economic Development 
Spanish-language TV Networks Thriving
Baby Abuelita to be Featured in Math Textbook
By Jim Wyss, March 30, 2010

MIAMI, FL — The Miami-based company that makes DVDs, books and other toys based around its line of plush dolls that sing Spanish lullabies — is going to school. The company’s characters are being featured in a math textbook produced by education giant Houghton Mifflin Harcourt that will be distributed in Florida public schools later this year.
While the book deal is not a source of revenue for Baby Abuelita, it’s marketing gold, said company CEO Carol Fenster. “I really see this as a statement about the depth and authenticity of our characters, and that our whole concept has more than just commercial appeal,” she said. “The exposure and the long term returns are immeasurable because textbooks are around for years.”

Baby Abuelita is also in “advanced talks” with a media partner about creating a television show based on its characters, she said. Launched in 2005, Baby Abuelita won 2nd place in the Miami Herald Business Plan Challenge that same year.

Sent by Jim Estrada
Estrada Communications Group, Inc. 



Women’s History Month Highlights Latina Entrepreneurs’ Impact On U.S. Business
Written by Lucia Matthews and Alice Gomez

The National Women’s History Project (NWHP) brings the contributions of Latinas to the forefront of public discourse.

Over the years Latina entrepreneurs have made a strong impact on the U.S. business scene. The Hispanic population is the largest and fastest growing minority group. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Hispanic population was 46.9 million in 2008, a 3.2 percent increase from 2007, meaning almost one in six American is of Hispanic descent.  The large Hispanic influence has resulted in an economy robust with innovative Latina entrepreneurs.  This month is Women’s History Month and various individuals, organizations and institutions are putting forth efforts towards recognizing the importance of female societal contributions.

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the National Women’s History Project (NWHP), which serves as a catalyst for promoting women as leaders and influential societal forces.  The focus for this year’s theme is ‘Writing Women Back into History’. Mainstream historical accounts have largely undermined female contributions in society.  The accomplishments of minorities tend to also receive a diminished role in typical historical reports. Therefore, Latinas face a double discrimination.

To honor the theme the NWHP has developed a nation-wide program highlighting outstanding women and their achievements.  The organization places an emphasis on featuring positive role models and the importance of women from all backgrounds.

According to the NWHP, when the effort began in the eighties less than 3% of the content of teacher training textbooks mentioned the contributions of women and when included, women were usually written in as mere footnotes.  Women were deprived of female role models.  Today the web contains millions of citations professing the accomplishments of women and Latinas specifically.

Accrediting women for the work they have done opens doors for other women to follow their lead. Lisa Garcia-Ruiz, founder of The Grant Hunter, a consulting service that helps its clients seek funding sources, was motivated by the accomplishments of others.

“I have been inspired by other strong women entrepreneurs who have been able to create a business that allows them to make a difference, make money and have time for their families as well,” Ruiz said.

For Latinas culture is an important influence in business endeavors and thus should be celebrated as playing a part in their success.  Lilian de la Torre-Jiménez, Publisher of Bodas USA La Revista, the first Spanish-language bridal magazine in the U.S., notes the significance her Hispanic heritage has on her business.

“Being Hispanic is the foundation and the heart of my business” Torre-Jiménez said.  “Our motto says it all: Tu Boda, Tu Cultura, Tu Idioma (Your Wedding, Your Culture, Your Language).”  With that same approach of catering to Latinas with a culturally appropriate multimedia platform, the publisher is launching her third magazine, Mujer Empresaria, the first Spanish-language digital magazine for the U.S. Latina Entrepreneur in mid-2010.

Culture-infused Latina companies are able to speak to the ever-growing Hispanic population.  Mainstream companies devise heavily budgeted plans to reach this lucrative demographic but oftentimes fall short of communicating with cultural relevancy.  Latina entrepreneurs such as Molly Robbins, founder of fashion brands Palomita and Chucho, understands the nuances of her Latino culture.

“The Latino culture embraces a ‘love for life’ in a compassionate and passionate way.  We love our music, colors, food, family and friends,” Robbins said.  Her clothing line embraces this culture.  “I wanted to create brands that truly resonated with the Latino community.”

Latina entrepreneurs have found alternative solutions to breaking down the barriers to success for minority business owners.  Networking online through organizations such as the Hispanic Chamber of E-Commerce provides access to knowledge and resources that help promote Latina business.

“The Hispanic Chamber of E-Commerce has given online Hispanic-focused businesses a forum to come together and promote their product or services in a professional manner,” Martha Alburquerque, developer of Lela Luxe, an online magazine dedicated to the latest fashion, art, design and entertainment.  “Stumbling upon the organization has inspired me to continue my efforts, despite being a minority in the world of blogging.”

Another important aspect attributing to the success of Latina business is their competencies in communicating in multicultural environments.  The U.S. is an increasingly diverse playground for business transactions.  Creator of networking focused company Opening Latino Doors LLC, Lourdes Sampera Tsukada, articulates the importance of multicultural understandings.

“When one is doing business or interacting with small business owners from another culture, communication styles vary,” Sampera Tsukada said.  “We are no longer doing business with the same culture and the same generations – we are doing business with many different cultures, generations, and forms of communications.  The awareness of these key components is the key to future continued success!”

Women will have an increasingly prominent role in U.S. business.  As the U.S. Hispanic population continues to grow much of this transformation will be made by Latinas.  The contributions of Latina entrepreneurs should be recognized to encourage the entrepreneurial pursuits of younger generations.  The result of such efforts will have a positive impact on the future of the U.S. business world.

Lucía Matthews is a freelance writer and director of DiálogoPR, a leader within the Hispanic public relations sector.

Alice Gomez is a public relations counselor at DiálogoPR and a published writer who has contributed numerous feature, news and technical articles.

Photo/Art courtesy of Townsend Memorial Library


NAD Bank Funds UTSA Institute for Economic Development 
to Create Plan for Sustainable New Jobs

The University of Texas at San Antonio'sInstitute for Economic Development (IED) has been awarded a three-year, $780,000 grant from the North American Development Bank (NAD Bank) and the Community Adjustment and Investment Program (CAIP) to create sustainable new jobs and expand and diversify local economies in major Texas border communities.

The funds will support research and assistance to local governments, rural areas, communities and businesses which have been directly or indirectly impacted by NAFTA (North America Free Trade Agreement).  Targeted areas include communities in the Rio Grande Valley within Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr and Willacy counties; the Del Rio-area in Val Verde County; the Laredo-area in Webb County and El Paso.   

"Many communities across South Texas are experiencing a declining tax base, lack of small business development and population flight due to lack of jobs," said Al Salgado, director of the South-West Border SBDC Network. "This project is designed to assist rural communities that must grow their own business base because they are not positioned to attract major manufacturers and research projects with state incentive funds as do the larger cities."

In addition to the South-West Texas Border SBDC Network, other Institute centers will contribute expertise. These include the Rural Business Program, the Center for Community and Business Research, the International Trade Center, Southwest Trade Adjustment Assistance Center, the SBDC National Information Clearinghouse, and six SBDC Network centers located in the targeted counties. This project is a partnership with the U.S. Treasury Department.

For more information, contact Lynn Gosnell, Marketing and Communications Coordinator, UTSA Institute for Economic Development, 210-458-2978

Sent by: email:
voice: (760) 434-1223
Latino Print Network overall: 760-434-7474


Extract: Spanish-language TV Networks Thriving
By Glenn Garvin

www., March 22, 2010

MIAMI, FL — “Spanish-language media consumption is going to change dramatically ... and I don’t know if the old guard understands what is going to happen,” says Miami Hispanic media consultant Adam Jacobson. Their advertising sales may be down nearly $100 million, but Spanish-language broadcasters say that ringing sound you hear from their industry isn’t an alarm bell. It’s a wake-up call — and a lot of companies have already answered.

“This time next year, if you’re not in Hispanic media, you’re going to want badly to get in,” says Don Browne, president of Telemundo. “And those who are already in it are going to feel prettydamn good about it.”Once a cozy little Monopoly board with all the hotels stacked on two properties, Univisión andTelemundo, Spanish-language television has turned into a rambunctious free-for-all with new competitors getting into the game all the time.

• Estrella TV, launched by veteran Spanish-language California radio company LibermanBroadcasting last year, has already acquired 28 affiliates reaching 73 percent of the Hispanic
market. Earlier this month, Nielsen Media Research began listing Estrella in its nationalratings alongside Univisión and Telemundo.• Azteca América (owned by Mexico’s No. 2 network TV Azteca), founded in 2001 as a WestCoast regional network, has steadily expanded its reach and now has 67 affiliates that reach
89 percent of the Hispanic audience across the country.

• LATV, launched in Los Angeles nine years ago, programs its 32 affiliates with mostly sportsand music shows aimed at a youthful audience.

• América TeVé, which operates only three stations, hasn’t made much of a footprintnationally. But its aggressive programming of Miami’s WJAN-41 with live shows aimed specifically at Cuban Americans rather the general Latino audience targeted by the big Spanish-language nets had a noticeable impact on local Nielsens.

“The market in Spanish-language media consumption is going to change dramatically in the next 10 to 15 years, and I don’t know if the old guard understands what is going to happen,” says Jacobson.  The biggest change: Hispanic population growth is being driven now by birth rates rather than immigration. New Spanish-language TV viewers are more likely to have been born and raised in the United States than to have come here from somewhere else, bringing old viewing habits with them.

The shifting nature of the audience has already created a host of new demographics for Spanish language
broadcasting executives. In addition to targeting viewers by age, gender and income, as their English-language counterparts do, they split them into categories like Spanish-dominant, bilingual and acculturated.  “Viewing consumption can vary a lot depending where you came from and especially how long you’ve been here,” says South Florida media consultant Julio Rumbaut. Some of the newer Spanish-language broadcasters have carved out a market niche by programming with an eye to national origins.  

Univisión’s Conde says he expects it to be extended andeven expanded, and says setting up a studio is simply a wise investment in a booming market. “Investing in this Hispanic market is investing in growth,” he says. “Investing in any other broadcasting is investing in a static or declining business.”

Estrada Communications Group, Inc.
13729 Research Boulevard, Suite 610
Austin, TX  78750
Tel: 512.335.7776 / Fax: 512.335.2226
Punto de Vista:



The Harmonica Man
Chicago school gets all its seniors into college 
Hispanic Scholarship Alliance of St. Louis 
LULAC Education News, inaugural issue

Jovita Idar: Early activist for equal educational treatment for Mexican children
Hispanic Leaders Push for Education
Teach Kids to Love Learning, not Just to Learn How to Earn
Britain's Brainiest Family is Black and Has 9-Year-Old High School-Bound Twins 
High school mural shows female role models 
Examples of ¡Excelencia!
The Harmonica Man

The volunteer effort and dedication of one man to giving and teaching how to play the harmonica to thousands of children.  In addition he also constructs string instruments teaches children how to play them.

Urban Prep Academy, charter school in tough Chicago neighborhood gets all its seniors into college 

The entire senior class at Chicago's only public all-male, all-African-American high school has been accepted to four-year colleges. At last count, the 107 seniors had earned spots at 72 schools across the nation. 
Sent by Willis Papillion

Highlighting some of the great work done by The Hispanic Scholarship Alliance of St. Louis to emphasize education. The reporter ultimately featured a 4 time HACEMOS scholar, David Aguayo. The root of this feature stems back to the momentum we've gained by forming the Hispanic Scholarship Alliance and leveraging the combined power of groups with a like cause, in our case, scholarships for Hispanic students.  Click for article and video segment.

Thanks, Jaime Torres
Chair, Hispanic Scholarship Alliance of St. Louis
Sent by Dinorah Bommarito

LULAC Education News, the inaugural issue, a brief
newsletter dedicated to bringing you news and information specific to LULAC’s work on educational advocacy! We hope to send you LULAC Education News each month, with the goal that you are more fully informed and engaged with the issues around which LULAC is currently working and can in turn serve as advocates at the state and local levels. On many issues, LULAC works in concert with its partners in the Campaign for High School Equity (CHSE), a coalition of national organizations representing communities of color that advance policies and practices to strengthen high schools and ensure that they have the capacity and motivation to prepare every student for graduation, college, work, and life. In addition to LULAC, the Campaign partners include: National Urban League, National Council of La Raza, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund, Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials Educational Fund , Alliance for Excellent Education, National Indian Education Association, and Southeast Asia Resource Action Center. This issue of the newsletter contains the following: insight into the President’s budget for fiscal year 2011; a summary of CHSE’s work around Common Core Standards; and an overview of the work that your colleagues in states that have been awarded grants to foster parent advocacy are engaged in.  Click to:

"Never mistake motion for action."

                           ---  Ernest Hemingway  (1899 - 1961)

Jovita Idar: Early activist for equal educational treatment for Mexican children, 1885 - 1946
"Por La Raza y Para La Raza"

Jovita Idar was born in Laredo, Texas in 1885 to Nicasio Clemente and Jovita Vivero and was one of eight children. In 1903 at the age of 18 years she earned a teaching certificate from the Holding Institute in Laredo and taught in a small school but the conditions in which she had to teach Mexican children so frustrated her that she decided to join her two 
brothers as a writer for her father's newspaper "La Cronica." She believed that by becoming a journalist and an activist she would be more effective in changing the deplorable conditions that existed in the public schools for Mexican children. During this time, Mexican school children were completely segregated and, in many occasions, totally excluded.

Throughout 1910 and 1911 she wrote weekly articles that called for equal educational treatment and exposed the extreme discrimination against Mexican children in the public schools. In addition, Jovita Idar started writing about the atrocities being committed by the Texas Rangers against Mexicans. She wrote about the lynching and hanging of a Mexican child in Thorndale, Texas by the Texas Ranchers and the brutal burning at the stake of 20 year old Antonio Rodriguez in Rocksprings, Texas. Of Antonio Rodriguez, she wrote, "The crowd cheered when the flames engulfed his 
contorted body. They did not even turn away at the smell of his burning flesh and I wondered if they even knew his name. There are so many dead that sometimes I can't remember all their names."

The intolerable racism and brutality against Mexicans in South Texas made Jovita Idar to take bolder actions. In 1911 her newspaper, La Cronica, called for the formation of "La Gran Liga Mexicanista de Beneficencia y Proteccion" in order for the community to work together "en virtud de los lazos de sangre que nos unen." In the same year "La Liga" sponsored the "Primer Congreso Mexicanista" and adopted the motto "Por La Raza y Para La Raza" and its primary mission was the protection of Mexican-Americans against the racist and brutal actions of "los rinches" and Anglos. Her 
actions were both courageous and extremely dangerous.

From the "Primer Congreso Mexicanista" also came the formation of the first feminist organization called "Liga Femenil Mexicanista." Jovita Idar and other women formed their own schools and allowed poor Mexican children to attend for free. The organization also provided free food and clothing for the needy in the community. The organization met at Jovita Idar's parents home and La Cronica published the organization's news and fund raising activities. 

As the Mexican revolutionary class struggle across the border grew increasingly more turbulent, the repression of the Texas Rangers and Anglos against Mexican-Americans and Mexican refugees became increasingly more violent. The Anglos feared that the revolutionary fervor in Mexico would spread to Texas. In 1913 Jovita Idar started writing articles in favor of the revolutionary forces of Francisco Villa and crossed the border to serve as a nurse in the Cruz Blanca on the side of General Villa. This attracted the attention of the federal government and the Texas Rangers.

When she returned to Laredo in 1914 and wrote an article critical of Woodrow Wilson's deployment of troops to the border, the infamous Texas Rangers came to Laredo to destroy Jovita Idar's printing presses. Texas Rangers Hicks, Ramsey, Chamberlain and another, who's name is not known, came up to the door and found Jovita Idar blocking the entrance with her hands firmly grasping the frame and feet planted on the threshold. "Los rinches" asked her to move out of the way but Jovita Idar stood her ground. A crowd gathered to witness the spectacle. In one of the greatest moments of bravery by a Mexican-American woman, "los rinches" backed down and left town. The newspaper, the voice of La Raza, was safe for a while, but only for a short while because the cowardly Texas Rangers came back in the stealth of night and with sledgehammers broke open the doors and with heavy blows smashed the presses, the linotype machines, the ink containers and the wooden table with the the lines of types. The destruction of the "little newspaper" as they called it was complete. They had silenced a strong and effective voice for political and social justice for 
Mexican-Americans in South Texas. 

In 1917 at the age of 32 years Jovita Idar married Bartolo Juarez and both moved to safer territory in San Antonio, Texas. Mrs. Jovita Idar-Juarez did not stop her activism in married life but went on to organize "El Club  Democrata" within the Democratic Party to politically empower the Mexican-American community. In 1920 she founded a free bilingual kindergarten school and continued her work as a writer and educator until her death in 1946 at the age of 61 years. She and her husband had no children. 

Sent by Roberto Vazquez, 
President, CEO,


Hispanics make up 2.5 percent of the student population at mid-Missouri's eight colleges and universities.

Hispanic Leaders Push for Education

Hispanics make up 2.5 percent of the student population at mid-Missouri's eight colleges and universities.

ST. LOUIS - The number of college-aged Hispanics is estimated to triple in the next 10 years, and Missouri's Hispanic alliance wants every one of those teenagers to go to college.

David Aguayo moved from Mexico to the United States when he was 10 years old in pursuit of a better life. They found that life in Missouri.

"We went from being poor, from having a poor, simple, humble life, to now having a life not exactly luxurious, but to having a more comfortable, pleasurable life," Aguayo said.

David was always a hard worker and involved in his community during high school, but money was a deal-breaker when it came to financing a higher education. 

Luckily, The Hispanic Alliance of St. Louis offered David and dozens of other students scholarship money in order to attend the University of their choice. "The Alliance" is made up of five separate organizations, including the Hispanic Educational, Cultural, and Scholarship Fund, The Puerto Rican Society, the Hispanic/Latino Employee Association of St. Louis, The Venezuelan Association in Missouri, and the Hispanic Leaders Group of Greater St. Louis.

"We ultimately offered thirty-three scholarships, when at first we started with four," said Jaime Torres, a central figure in the Hispanic movement. "We gave thirty-three scholarships, which adds up to $40,000. From there, we can continue to benefit the youth within our community." 

Not having enough money shouldn't be the reason a student doesn't go to college, said Jomo Castro, president of the Hispanic/Latino Employee Association of St. Louis.

"Don’t let finances dictate whether you go or not, don’t let that be the sole reason, because there’s grants, there's scholarships, there’s financial aid, there’s options," Castro said.

Mid-Missouri hosts a total of about 60,000 students among its eight colleges. Included in that number is 1,554 hispanic students, or 2.5 percent of the student population. Three percent of the state is Hispanic, which means, ideally, 1,800 Hispanic students should be at college. This gives Hispanics an 86 percent college attendance rate.

But Missouri’s Hispanic population is not satisfied. Several leaders in the Hispanic organizations said the reason education is a challenge is not that the youth lacks intelligence, but rather the motivation to move past high school education.

"Once they're out of high school, a lot of them go straight to work, and it's expected," said Omar Maldonado, President of the Puerto Rican Society in St. Louis. "There's a really strong set of family values, and to be able to support family is important. So a lot of times what they'll do is go out and they'll just start working because that helps them support family."

Omar Maldonado's mother, Maria Maldonado, is the Chair of the Hispanic Leaders Group of Greater St. Louis.  "Our youth is very caring, and very family-oriented. Nevertheless, we need to better promote the education," Maria Maldonado said. 

David Aguayo agrees. When you come from parents who immigrated to the United States, they don’t understand how challenging it is to go to college, he said. “In my case, my parents never were very involved in my studies," he said. "I always had to find out for myself how to do this, how to do that.” 

Missouri comes with even more challenges for young Hispanics because it's a conservative, and even racist state, Torres said.  “Maybe not in St. Louis, maybe not in Kansas City, but in the rest of the state, there is a lot of racism," he said. "And the national press has certain perceptions about immigrants, the undocumented, the 12 or 13 million that there are, they are undermining the social benefits."

But they are far from complaining about the situation. Instead, they're proactive and preparing their future generation of Hispanics to succeed by getting an education.  "We truly believe that education is the great equalizer for progress in a community," Maria Maldonado said.

It’s clear that David is taking these words to heart, and he works hard to prove to the Alliance and to the rest of Missouri that “Si, se puede,” he says. Yes, we can.

KOMU 8 News translated several of the quotes in this story from Spanish to English.

Reported by: Lauren Styler
Published: Thursday, September 17, 2009 

Teach Kids to Love Learning, not Just to Learn How to Earn

By Esther Cepeda

Chicago Sun Times, March 22, 2010
CHICAGO, IL — Whether straining to Leave No Child Behind or Race to the Top, there’s noquestion that this country’s leadership is zeroing in on education from kindergarten through college. Most specifically, they’re working on the academic gap between the haves and have nots domestically and on the gap between the United States and other affluent countries.

The Obama administration’s new blueprint for overhauling the way our nation educates children is blessedly less focused on just reading and math and more inclusive of art, science and social studies. There’s no question that the overriding concern of the new policy — getting every state to adopt “college- and career-ready academic standards” — reflects the White House’s belief that higher education is a fundamental driver of future economic stability for this country. That couldn’t be more true, and this renewed commitment is nothing short of wonderful. But still, the former teacher in me laments, why in all this talk of training good teachers and closing student achievement gaps do I rarely hear discussion about learning for learning’s sake?

What’s constantly missing in this conversation is how to capitalize on the joy of learning, the celebration of a child’s (and a teacher’s) innate intellectual curiosity, of personal edification. Actual learning has been replaced by an emphasis on “achievement.”If you had visited a teacher-training program in the late ‘90s, you would have heard conversations about educational philosophies based completely on the goal of harnessing all of the above to create lifelong learners.

But by the time I stood at the front of my own classroom and was finishing up my master’s in education in the early 2000s, it seemed the overriding educational goal of policymakers, administrators, and not a few teachers was to create lifelong achievers. And not necessarily high achievers mind you, but kids who could sit quietly and do well enough on standardized tests to achieve adequate yearly progress.

With that hurdle jumped, the second burning goal was to get kids through high school and in and out of college for the sole purpose of moving them on to gainful employment. Nothing wrong with that — we all gotta eat, and I happen to love work way more than the next guy. But this does not nurture educated masses who value learning so much that they do it for a lifetime and pass it on to their own children; it creates a nation of lifelong earners, not learners. That’s weird to me. I don’t think of higher education as just job training. Let’s look at the mission statements of my alma maters.

Roosevelt University, which trained me as a teacher, says it is “dedicated to the enlightenment of the human spirit.” Its aim is to prepare “diverse graduates for responsible citizenship in a global society. ”Southern Illinois University, where I was an undergraduate, says that it “supports intellectual exploration at advanced levels in traditional disciplines and in numerous specialized research undertakings” to “help solve social, economic, educational, scientific, and technological
problems, and thereby to improve the well-being of” basically, the world.|

Those are the kinds of aspirations that will create new jobs in the future. They’ll be created by innovative thinkers and entrepreneurs who can conceive new businesses, products and services the whole world will be dying to get from the United States. This innovative class will do it not only because they want to get rich, but because creating something new using what you’ve learned — and learning something new in the process — is ridiculous fun.

Applause to the White House for putting education at center stage. Now if they truly want U.S. schools from kindergarten through grad school to make it in that race to the top, they need to keep their eyes on the prize: A love of learning, not just earning.

Estrada Communications Group, Inc.
13729 Research Boulevard, Suite 610
Austin, TX  78750
Tel: 512.335.7776 / Fax: 512.335.2226
Punto de Vista:

Britain's Brainiest Family is Black 
and Has 9-Year-Old High School-Bound Twins 
Watch Paula and Peter share their braininess on a video, and learn the strategy for achievement.

These precocious London-based tykes, known as the "Wonder Twins," floored academics a year ago when they aced University of Cambridge's advanced mathematics exam. They are the youngest students to ever pass the test.

The future little scholars' father, Chris, and mother, Ann, immigrated to Britain from Nigeria more than 30 years ago and have actually been down this prodigy route before with their three older children, who are also overachievers.

The couple's oldest daughter, Anne-Marie, is now 20, but at age 13, she won a British government scholarship to take undergraduate courses at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Christiana, 17, their other daughter, is the youngest student ever to study at the undergraduate level in any British University at the age of 11. Youngest daughter, Samantha, now 12, passed two rigorous high school–level mathematics and statistics exams at the age of 6. She mentored the twins to pass their own math secondary school test when they were also 6.

Even with all of this, the proud dad denies that there is any particular genius in his family. He does credit his children's success to the Excellence in Education program for disadvantaged inner-city youth. "Every child is a genius," he said. "Once you identify the talent of a child and put them in the environment that will nurture that talent, then the sky is the limit. Look at Tiger Woods or the Williams sisters -- they were nurtured. You can never rule anything out with them. The competition between the two of them makes them excel in anything they do."

The darling duo are competitive to say the least, and this is what fuels them to out-achieve each other. Paula said, "I am excited to pass, but I should have got higher than Peter."

As far as career paths Paula says she wants to be a math teacher, while Peter aspires to be prime minister one day.

All it takes is a dream....
Sent by Pat Batista

High school mural shows female role models 

SANTA ANA: When Cesar Chavez High School students were asked to list female role models as part of a class discussion last year, one name rose to the surface: Paris Hilton.

So Rigo Maldonado – a senior human relations specialist with OC Human Relations – got to work educating the students on female artists, educators, historians, community activists and other heroines.

On Friday, the same group of students unveiled a 5-feet-by-25-feet color mural they painted depicting four of the women they studied.

The work, “I Change Myself, I Change the World,” features Judith Baca, an artist; Dolores Huerta, co-founder of the National Farm Workers Association; Felicitas Mendez, who successfully sued to end school segregation in Orange County; and Modesta Avila, an early Orange County resident jailed for opposing the Southern Pacific's plan to run railroad tracks through her property.

About 20 students worked on the mural. Participants examined the lives of the women they studied, doing Internet research, listening to guest speakers and taking field trips.

Jessica Perez, 18, worked on the mural, which took about six months to complete. Learning about notable women inspired her to set and achieve her own goals.

“I saw that everything they did, I can do too,” said Perez, now a freshman majoring in psychology at Santa Ana College. “Just because I was at a continuation school didn't mean I couldn't go anywhere.”

The mural, unveiled in the school courtyard, will be permanently displayed inside a yet-constructed building on campus.

© Copyright 2010 Freedom Communications. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | User Agreement | Site Map
Studetns at Cesar chavez High School in Santa Ana unveil on Friday a mural depicting female role models they painted on a series of panels, 5 feet tall and 25 feet long.

Examples of ¡Excelencia!

Meeting the increasing challenges of a global economy requires all U.S. citizens are well educated, especially the growing Latino population. Now, more than ever, it is necessary to build momentum to capture the talents of Latino students and enhance their transitions into a highly skilled workforce and into leadership roles in the U.S. society.

Launched in 2005, the Examples of Excelencia initiative is designed to help reach this goal by identifying and honoring programs and departments at the forefront of increasing academic opportunities and improving achievement for Latino students at the associate, baccalaureate, and graduate levels. We focus on results and disseminating these promising practices to others interested in serving Latino students. We invite you to make a nomination for a program you believe deserves to be recognized as an Example of Excelencia.

YouTube of  Sarita Brown, founder of Excelencia in Education




Paul Renteria in documentary, "Pancho Villa's Last Son" 
Richly informative: www.
Luis Valdez play "Zoot Suit" performed in Mexico City
Priest-Turned-Scientist Wins $1.53 Million Prize
Restored retablo of St. Augustine in the church of Teopisca,  Mexico
Swing Cat Enterprises
European Ethnic Minorities Impact South Texas Cuisine and Culture by
    By  Richard G. Santos 
The Little League World Series' Only Perfect Game 


Introducing Paul Renteria, Actor, Historical Activist invites readers to view his video. . an interview by Paul with the last son of Pancho Villa. "Pancho Villa's Last Son" 

The documentary was produced by Lawrence Costales. The documentary won three film festival awards in 2009.  Quite an accomplishment because it was video taped during a weekend gathering with little planning. 
See more 

Lawrence Costales
951-719-7266 cell

Richly informative: www.
The World of Latino Culture and Arts

This is your portal to written, sound and visual information about the history and cultural development of Hispanics in the United States. Free, downloadable texts, sound recordings, videos and materials are yours at the touch of your keyboard.   Topics: Hispanic Culture. . . Hispanic Art & Music . . . 
Hispanic Literature . . .  Hispanic History is owned and operated by Arte Público Press located at: University of Houston, 452 Cullen Performance Hall, Houston, TX 77204-2004. 

LUIS VALDEZ's landmark stage play, "ZOOT SUIT" is set to open in Mexico City on April 29, 2010. 

Luis Valdez directs the National Theatre Company of Mexico
(CNT) in what will be the first Chicano play ever produced by the national company. Alma Martinez, who appeared in the original stage and film, brought the project to the CNT and serves as US-Mexico Project Coordinator.
FACEBOOK: Zoot Suit (Compañía Nacional de Teatro)

Information: Kirk Whisler

Francisco Ayala,
Photo by Jacquelyn Martin, AP

Wins $1.53 Million Prize

Carl Franzen
(March 25) -- A Spanish-American scientist who has spent the better part of his life at the intersection of science and religion has won a $1.53 million prize that critics charge actually undermines both fields.

Francisco Ayala, a 76-year-old evolutionary geneticist at the University of California, Irvine, and former Catholic priest, was announced as the winner of the 2010 Templeton Prize on Thursday for "advocating mutual respect but separation of religion from science," noted Earth Times.

The prize is awarded annually by the philanthropic John Templeton Foundation, which awards some $70 million in scientific grants each year to fund research in five core areas, including "Science & Big Questions" and "Exceptional Cognitive Talent & Genius and Genetics."
Francisco Ayala, a scientist at the University of California, Irvine, and former Catholic priest, won the 2010 Templeton Prize. The honor remains a frequent target of criticism, largely from adamantly secular scientists who believe that it is little more than a charade for promoting religion's role in science.

"I contend that science and religious beliefs need not be in contradiction," Ayala said in his acceptance statement. "Science concerns the processes that account for the natural world. ... Religion concerns the meaning and purpose of the world and of human life."
"Ayala's clear voice in matters of science and faith echoes the foundation's belief that evolution of the mind and truly open-minded inquiry can lead to real spiritual progress in the world," remarked John M. Templeton Jr., whose wealthy father created the annual prize in 1972 as a spiritual alternative to the better-known Nobel Peace Prize.

As such, the Templeton Foundation purposely adjusts the size of the prize every year to exceed that of the Nobel. Previous prize recipients have included a wide range of figures, from Mother Teresa and the Rev. Billy Graham to Russian novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.

However, the prize remains a frequent target of criticism, largely from adamantly secular scientists who believe that it is little more than a charade for promoting religion's role in science.

While John Templeton Sr. was himself a devout Presbyterian and many of the award winners have been Catholic, the Templeton Foundation maintains that "the prize celebrates no particular faith tradition or notion of God, but rather the quest for progress in humanity's efforts to comprehend the many and diverse manifestations of the divine."

Famed atheist biologist Sir Richard Dawkins has never bought that argument. Two days before this year's prize winner was announced, he attacked the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., for agreeing to host the Templeton Awards ceremony, writing on his blog:
This is exactly the kind of thing Templeton is ceaselessly angling for -- recognition among real scientists -- and they use their money shamelessly to satisfy their doomed craving for scientific respectability. ... Which leading scientist has done the most to betray science in favour of his imaginary friend?
He was hardly the only scientist compelled to articulate disgust about the situation.

"For the National Academy of Sciences to get involved with an organization like [Templeton] is dangerous," Sir Harry Kroto, a Nobel Prize-winning British scientist, told The Guardian earlier in the week. The U.K. newspaper also heard from a University of Chicago biologist who labeled the proceedings "shameful" and said the the prize "polluted" rationality with superstition.

Biologist blogger P.Z. Myers also joined in the pile-on, calling previous Templeton award winners "professional frauds."

Yet at least one scholar found that the reverse was true: that the Templeton Foundation was actually defrauding religion, not science, through its prize.

"[The Templeton Foundation]'s efforts to find common ground between science and religion have systematically destroyed pretty much every religious claim," Michael Brooks wrote in New Scientist.
Little in the creed of the Presbyterian church, for example -- of which the late John Templeton was a lifelong member -- survives its axe. ... This is Templeton version of religion. A stripped-down, vague and woolly notion that there is something 'other' out there. It makes no claims beyond that.
Ayala, for his part, seemed to be quite satisfied with Templeton's award, telling the Los Angeles Times that he thought he received it primarily for his efforts toward "making people accept science, and making people accept evolution in particular."

After all, he did testify as an expert witness on the side of evolution in the 1981 court case McLean v. Arkansas Board of Education. The case remains a pivotal one in the American science and religion debate, as the judge ruled that teaching creationism alongside evolution in the state's public schools was unconstitutional because "creation science" was deemed a religious doctrine.

However, when it comes to his own religious inclinations, Ayala is far more reticent.

"Whatever my answer is going to be," he told The Vancouver Sun shortly after being awarded the Templeton, "will give reason to one side or the other to argue that the reason I take the position that I take is because I'm a believer or ... I'm not a believer."

2010 AOL Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Sent by Rick Leal



The Saints of Teopisca

Restored retablo of St. Augustine 
in the church of Teopisca,  Mexico


Restored retablo of St. Augustine in the church of Teopisca, located south of San Cristóbal in the southern state of Chiapas.
FORGED IN IRON. An exhibit of historic, hand crafted iron roof crosses from San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, originating in the Casa de La Guerra galleries in Santa Barbara, California, is traveling under the aegis of Exhibits USA. See also the illustrated book on the crosses: Spirit of Chiapas by Virginia and Robert Guess.

Sent by Richard Perry,
Exploring Colonial Mexico© The Espadaña Press

Juan Reynoso: Genius of Mexico's Tierra Caliente
Don Juan Reynoso

Swing Cat Enterprises
My friend who has done the work in Mexico, although he is not Mexican, is Paul Anastasio. His web site is  He traveled to Tierra Caliente for many years to study with and document the music of maestro Don Juan Reynoso. Don Juan passed away a couple of years ago in his nineties. Paul transcribed many hours of the music in Don Juan's head and thereby saved that regions local music. He has recorded thousands of hours of audio and video of his time there. 

Juan Reynoso was born under the blazing sun in Santa Domingo, Guerrero, in the heart of southwestern Mexico's Tierra Caliente on June 24th, 1912. The Mexican Revolution was still raging throughout the country and Juan never had the opportunity to go to school, but from the time he was a tiny child he was enchanted by the sound of the violin. One day an orphan boy who lived with the Reynosos stole a small violin from a nearby market, and he and Juan used to fight over who would get to play it. Juan eventually won out and soon began to learn the region's repertoire. Accompanied by his father Felipe, he would carry his violin to wherever people congregated, offering "tres por dos," or three pieces of music for two centavos. Juan soon began to spend time with the best musicians of the region, carefully learning the sones, gustos, pasodobles and waltzes of the Hot Lands entirely by ear.

As he grew to adulthood, Juan's musicianship and fame grew as well, and before long his group was highly sought after for weddings, christenings and parties. However, he loved to work in the fields as well, and for many years supported his large family by sowing and harvesting sorghum, sesame and corn. He now regrets not taking his music more seriously when he was younger. Juan did take a small group to Mexico City in the late 1940's, securing steady work on radio station XEX, but in a recent interview he said that he liked nothing about city life, and, after little more than a year in the city, he returned home to Tierra Caliente.

By the early 1990's some of Juan's recordings had begun to be distribute in the United States. His international fame, however, began to grow by leaps and bounds in 1996, when he and two of his sons were invited to play and teach at The Festival of American Fiddle Tunes in Port Townsend, Washington. Here his remarkable repertoire and passionate, heartfelt playing were introduced to a new and appreciative audience. With his star rapidly rising, Juan in 1997 received Mexico's highest arts award, the National Prize in Science and Arts. In additon, the folks at the Festival of American Fiddle Tunes were sufficiently impressed by his virtuosity that he and his group were invited to return each year. Sensing that these audiences truly appreciated the music he had devoted his life to learning, Juan's performances for the past eight years at the Fiddle Tunes festival have always been among his very best. The disc you are now listening to consists of a carefully chosen selection of the best recordings from Juan's festival appearances between 1997 and 2001. Most of these performannces have never been issued before, although a few have been drawn from four Juan Reynoso CDs originally issued on the Swing Cat label ( We sincerely hope that you enjoy this music, the life's work of Juan Reynoso, the Genius of Mexico's Hot Lands.

- Paul Anastasio, August, 2003


By  Richard G. Santos 

The on-going revolution in North Central Europe motivated German families to seek migration to Texas. In 1842, Henry Fisher, Joseph Baker and Burchard Miller contracted 1,000 families to settle land they had obtained from the Republic of Texas. Prince Karl of Solms-Braunfels made arrangements but he was succeeded by John Meusebach in 1845. The German colonists began arriving in 1847. By1852, German refugees of the European wars had founded the cities of New Braunfels and Fredericksburg. 

The Czechs were the second European minority group to settle in South Texas. Led by Josef Silar, they landed at Galveston Island in 1851. A second group led by Josef Lesikar arrived two years later. In ten years they reportedly totaled 700 people. Like the German settlers who arrived at almost the same time, the Czechs also brought their music, folk dances, language and cuisine. They were soon followed by Polish immigrants. Catholic priest Leopold Mocyzemba entered Texas in 1852. The first group numbering 300 people arrived in 1854 and settled in what is now Karnes County, Texas. They founded the town of Panna Maria as the seat of the first Polish colony in the United States. The following year they erected the first Polish Catholic Church in Texas followed by St. Joseph’s School the next year. 1861 it is estimated the Polish communities numbered some 1,500 people. 

All three European ethnic communities brought whatever worldly possessions they could carry as well as their respective cuisines, languages, music, musical instruments and folk dances. 

Among the items they introduced to South Texas were the three button accordion, polka, schottische and mazurka. The accordion and dances were readily adopted by the Tejanos of South Texas and the fandangos at San Antonio de Bexar soon featured La Polka Tejana, el chotiz (schottische), redova(mazurka) and the conjunto Tejano. Instrument wise, the conjunto (originally a four instrument group) made the accordion the lead musical instrument accompanied by guitar, violin and stand-up base. It took a century for the conjunto Tejano, polka, chotiz and redova to be exported to Mexico. However, the Mexican conjunto relies on the saxophone as the lead instrument supported by an accordion. By the mid-1960’s the conjunto Tejano had gone electric but still featured the accordion as the lead instrument. It was also in the mid 1960’s that American Progressive Jazz became the rhythm of choice over the simple two-four tempo.

Cuisine wise, Charlotte of Germanic ancestry still recalls her grandfather making cottage cheese. He milked the goats and poured the milk into cheese cloth bags. The bags were hung in daylight soon to be “completely covered with flies”. When ready, “the flies would be shooed away and the bags brought into the house”. The cheese cloth bags were cut away and “grandpa then sliced the cheese and proceeded to taste it. If it passed his approval, the cheese was then made available to the family and visitors to eat. I never did” says Charlotte.

German sausage of South Texas was made of at least two meats (beef with pork or venison). The meat was cut into small pieces and pounded until minced. Salt, black pepper, sugar, garlic and a dash or two of hot peppers was mixed into the meat. In the meantime, beef or pork intestines (casings) were washed thoroughly and allowed to sit in warm water before rising thoroughly. The casing was cut to length of choice (eight to twelve inches) and the meat was carefully stuffed into the casing. The casings were hung in a smoke house for one day or a minimum of three to four hours if not desired too dry. For extra dry (summer?) sausage, the casings were allowed to hang for up to four weeks. Polish and Czech sausage was made the same way with only the spices being different. Polish lelitka meanwhile, was a sausage done the same way but with grits added to make it a breakfast sausage. It should be noted the onions were ground into fine pieces and added to the pork meat (hog head) then stuffed into the casings. 

Polish headcheese (worst) required cooking a hog head in salt water. Once done, the meat was removed from the skull and either chopped or ground into coarse pieces. Salt and black pepper with assorted spices (according to family taste) was mixed with the meat. The broth of water from the boiled head was set on an open fire for about an hour (depending on size). Once done the meat was placed in a loaf pan and allowed to cool. Once cooled the worst was ready for serving.

Czech liver paste was made with pork meat. The pork liver and cuts of pork meat were cooked in separate pots. Salt and black pepper were added along with a dash of garlic, onions and bread crumbs. When meat and liver were done, they were removed from their respective pots and chopped into small pieces and allowed to cool. When ready, the liver and meat were mixed with original soup broth with water added making a good spread according to family taste. 

Czech fruit strudel did not differ from its German or Polish counterparts. A chunk of home made salted butter “the size of an egg” was mixed with half a cup of water, one egg and two cups of flour. Available fruit was sliced thinly and mixed with raisins, melted butter, two pinches of cinnamon and one cup of sugar. After dough had been spread, the thinly cut fruit mixture was spread evenly and the outer edged pinched together to seal the ingredients within the dough. The strudel was then baked for about an hour or until brown.

The Tejanos and Manitos were not immune or isolated from the cuisine of the recently arrived European ethnic minorities. Just as they adopted the accordion, polka, schottische (chotiz) and mazurka (redova), they also began to adapt the cuisine. Still to be seen today is a Spanish-Portuguese Sephardic Jewish flour tortilla holding a German, Polish or Czech sausage erroneously called “Mexican food” which it is not. In fact, even though chorizo and sausage are basically the same thing, today they are differentiated in tacos or plates made with “country sausage” or “chorizo”. Only the spices differ with the Tejano and Manito sausage-chorizo featuring peppers of various degree of spiciness. 

The cuisine of South Texas and New Mexico was expanding during this brief period of time. Other factors were about to come to play within a decade. German inventor extraordinaire Karl Drais in 1816 invented the first mechanical meat grinder. The following year he invented the velocipede (later called bicycle) due to a shortage of horses caused by the inclement weather. Drais died in 1851 before both inventions could be manufactured. Therefore, neither invention was available in the late 1840’s and 1850’s when the European ethnic minorities began arriving in Texas. Also not yet available was pasta. It was U.S. Ambassador to France, Thomas Jefferson, who upon returning to his home at Monticello in 1789 brought macaroni to the young United States. The future president created his own pasta-making machine but it was for his own use. It was not until 1848 when pasta noodles were first sold commercially in Brooklyn. 

The Little Ice Age, 19th Century European wars and rebellion, U.S. - Mexico War (1846-1848) and the U. S. Civil War (1861-1865) kept both the meat grinder and pasta noodles from distribution (and especially to South Texas and New Mexico) until the 1880’s. In the meantime, displaced Southern Whites, former Black slaves, Yankee Carpet Baggers, Southern Scalawags and the Know Nothing Party that opposed Irish, German, Polish, Catholics and non-English speaking immigrants were active in the Eastern Seaboard states. In spite of it all, the ethnic minorities continued to migrate to Texas and New Mexico bringing their cuisine and culture all through the Reconstruction Period (1865-1877) and the “Indian Wars” (1848-1890). The cuisine of the new-comers will be covered next week. Meantime, we ask for your home cooking recipes.

One final note. There is a question regarding the accompanying lithograph of an 1847 dance in San Antonio de Bexar. Are the couples dancing a redova (mazurka) or a varsouvienna (varsoviana) which is a Polish mixture of polka, schottische and mazurka? “Put Your Little Foot” (La Varsiovana) is a late date example of the dance. Please note couples on left and center seem to be stomping their feet. The Tejano couple on the right is daintily pointing their toes. What do you think?

Zavala County Sentinel ………………. 7 – 8 April 2010
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
and Juan Marinez 

The Little League World Series' Only Perfect Game 
History & Archaeology, Smithsonian Magazine
by Jim Morrison, April 6, 2010

In 1957, Mexico’s scrawny players overcame the odds to become the first foreign team to win the Little League World Series.  They came to be known as the little giants,  “Los pequeños gigantes,”

In baseball, a game full of real and imagined fairy tales from Bobby Thomson’s “Shot Heard ’Round the World” to Bernard Malamud’s fable The Natural, no story may be more inspiring or surprising than the story of the 1957 Little League team from Monterrey, Mexico.

The team was composed of mostly poor kids from an industrial city who’d started playing baseball only a few years earlier, clearing rocks and glass from a dirt field and playing barefoot with a homemade ball and gloves. They’d only imagined Major League games, gathering around a radio for Sunday rebroadcasts in Spanish of Brooklyn Dodgers contests (Roy Campanella, the Dodgers’ catcher had played in Monterrey in 1942 and 1943, enchanting their parents). Even when they reached the Little League World Series, most of their opponents outweighed them by 35 or 40 pounds. But over four weeks and 13 games beginning in July, they were magical.

On August 23, 1957, behind the pitching wizardry of Angel Macias, they defeated La Mesa, California, 4-0, before 10,000 people in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, to become the first team from outside the United States to win the Little League World Series. That day, Macias pitched what remains the only perfect game in a Little League World Series final, setting down all 18 batters in order – Little League games are only six innings, striking out 11 with pinpoint control, nasty breaking balls and sheer guile. La Mesa didn’t hit a ball to the outfield.

“I think the magnitude of the upset, to me, rivals, if not exceeds, when our U.S. hockey amateurs in 1980 beat the Red Army team at the Olympics,” says W. William Winokur, who penned a book and screenplay based on the team’s story. The movie, “The Perfect Game,” stars Jake T. Austin, Ryan Ochoa and Cheech Marin and opens in theaters this month.

The Monterrey team arrived in Williamsport after an unlikely road trip that started when the players crossed the border on foot, taking a bridge over the Rio Grande from Reynosa towards McAllen, Texas, hoping for rides to a small hotel before their first game of the championship tournament. Monterrey had been granted a Little League franchise with four teams only the year before. They expected to lose and return home.

“We didn’t even know Williamsport existed,” remembers Jose “Pepe” Maiz, a pitcher and outfielder on the team who now runs a Monterrey construction company and owns the Sultanes, a Mexican League baseball team. “We were just [supposed] to play a game in McAllen.”

They won their first game in McAllen 9-2 against a team from Mexico City filled with players who were the sons of Americans working south of the border. They swept through the rest of the regional and state tournaments, winning by at least five runs, until they reached the state semifinal game in Fort Worth against Houston. There, Maiz came on as a relief pitcher in extra innings to lead them to a 6-4 comeback win.

Along the way, their visas expired. Only intervention by the U.S. ambassador to Mexico kept them in the country. They were homesick; only Maiz had ever left Monterrey. They often didn’t have money for food, settling for two meals a day. They ate through the kindness of strangers and new friends, who offered them meals in a restaurant or gave them a few dollars after a victory, Maiz says.

Despite the challenges, they kept winning, 11-2 in the Texas state championship, and then 13-0 over Biloxi, Mississippi, and 3-0 over Owensboro, Kentucky, in the Southern Regional Championship, earning the 14 players a bus ride to Williamsport.

Teams from Canada and Mexico had made it to the Little League World Series before, but they’d never won. And they’d been composed of the sons of American expatriates. “Monterrey was ethnically the first truly foreign team to make it to a final game,” Winokur says. International competition was still so new that the Monterrey team played in the Texas state tournament and advanced through the U.S. South region.

Little League officials in Williamsport gave them new uniforms with “South” across the chest, emblematic of their regional championship. None of them fit; the Monterrey boys were too small. They averaged 4 feet 11 inches and 92 pounds while the La Mesa team averaged 5 feet 4 inches,and 127 pounds. After he watched La Mesa handily defeat Escanaba, Michigan, in the semifinal, Maiz was worried. Joe McKirahan, La Mesa’s star southpaw pitched a one-hitter and socked two homers, one a towering drive to right field.

“I say to myself, ‘Wow, what will happen to us tomorrow?’ “ he recalls.

Angel Macias, number 8, was 5 feet and 88 pounds, a rare ambidextrous player. This day, he decided to throw only right-handed. Lew Riley, his opponent on the mound, led off for La Mesa, drilling the first pitch down the first base line. “It was just foul by an inch,” recalls Riley, who now lives in Yorba Linda, California. “That was as close as we’d come to a hit.”

McKirahan, who batted cleanup for La Mesa and was later signed by the Boston Red Sox, struck out both times against Macias. “My recollection of Angel during the game was he was sneaky fast,” he says. “He was the first pitcher we saw who clearly had pinpoint control. Even at 12 [years old], you sensed this kid knew exactly where the ball was going. He just dominated us like no one else had come even close to.”

Richard Gowins, an outfielder, didn’t get in the game for La Mesa, but he watched Macias plow down one batter after another from his spot as first base coach. As the game went on, the crowd shifted, backing the boys from south of the border. “They were fast. They were upbeat. They just had a spirit about them,” he says.

Riley was cruising along himself until the fifth inning. The first Monterrey batter walked on four pitches. The second bunted perfectly between Riley and the third baseman, putting runners on first and second with no outs. Maiz came to bat. He saw a fastball from Riley, drilling it into centerfield for a double that scored the game’s first run. In the inning, Monterrey sent nine batters to the plate and scored four times, leaving La Mesa one last chance.

With two outs in the sixth and final inning, Macias threw three balls, then came back with two strikes to La Mesa’s Byron Haggard. For the next pitch, he reached back for a curveball. Haggard swung and missed. The crowd in Williamsport exploded. So did those listening to the radio broadcast in Monterrey.

Fifty-two years later, their victory remains the only perfect game in a Little League World Series Championship. After the celebration, Maiz says the team’s first thoughts were to go home. That would take nearly a month. The Monterrey players traveled by bus to New York to see a Dodgers game and go shopping with $40 each (given to them by Macy’s). Then, they made stops in Washington, D.C. to meet President Dwight Eisenhower and Vice President Richard Nixon before going on to celebrations in Mexico City. When they finally returned to Monterrey, they were met by hundreds of thousands in the streets.

Each earned a high school and college scholarship from the Mexican government although Maiz says only he and one other went to college. Angel Macias was signed by the Los Angeles Angels and invited to their first spring training in 1961 as a 16-year-old. He played briefly for the Angels in the minor leagues before going on to a career in the Mexican League.

“All the doors opened and everywhere we went somebody would point us out or want an autograph,” Macias told an interviewer a few years ago. “People knew our names, and my name was Angel Macias, champion child.”

Read more:

Read more:

Read more:




Poem: Avatar by Armando Rendon
A Rose by Richard Esquivel
Tafolla, Morales honored with Tomás Rivera Children’s Book Award
To: Rafael Jesús González
Estimado Rafael,  Tu presentación del 28 de febrero de 2010, me inspiró a escribirte unas palabras de aprecio, más o menos en el mismo espíritu de tus versos a la luna musa:
Hombre laureado,
avatar de Erato,
tocas tu cítara
con sentido universal
Tus letras, martillitos
jugando sobre cuerdas
que se extienden
entre la esfera celeste
Tus sonidos cósmicos
se escuchan por gentes
de toda raza, toda cultura--
esas tus obras líricas
nos sintonizan en dar
homenaje tambien
a tu musa lunática.



is a gift
Something to give
To say I appreciate

All those things about
your thoughts, your smile

All those things
I think
about you awhile

I promise to give
If you promise to touch
If you promise to smell

You promise to appreciate
While you think back
About me for awhile

This gift I give
only for you

A Rose.........

Richard Esquivel


Tafolla, Morales honored with Tomás Rivera Children’s Book Award
SAN MARCOS – How many uses are there for a traditional Mexican popsicle treat on a hot summer day? Turns out there are quite a few, and for that the book What Can You Do with a Paleta?, written by Carmen Tafolla and illustrated by Magaly Morales, has been named the Tomás Rivera Mexican American Children’s Book Award recipient for works published in 2008-09.

Tafolla is a repeat honoree, having previously won for her book The Holy Tortilla and a Pot of Beans. The award, established at Texas State University-San Marcos in 1995, is designed to encourage authors, illustrators and publishers to produce books that authentically reflect the lives of Mexican American children and young adults in the United States.

The award will be presented this fall on the Texas State campus with additional events scheduled in cooperation with the Texas Book Festival to be announced. 

The Tomás Rivera considers works in two categories: “Works for Older Children/Young Adult” and “Works for Younger Children,” with each category under consideration in alternate years. This year’s winner was nominated as “Works for Younger Children.” More than 40 books published in 2008 and 2009 in this category were considered for this year’s Tomás Rivera Award.

What Can You Do with a Paleta? takes readers on a joyous stroll through the barrio while considering all the different things that may be done with a paleta--an icy, fresh-fruit treat. Tafolla's inventive and poetic writing, coupled with Morales' vibrant illustrations, work to portray the beauty of the barrio and the importance of community. 

Living and writing in her hometown of San Antonio, Tafolla has cultivated a reputation as a folklorist of the Chicano-Mexicano community. Her work has been recognized at the Texas Book Festival, UCI National Literary competition and Wellington International Poetry Festival. Her children’s books include That’s Not Fair!: Emma Tenayuca’s Struggle for Justice/ No es Justo!: La Lucha de Emma Tenayuca por la Justicia, What Can You Do with a Rebozo? and Baby Coyote and the Old Woman. 

Morales is a native of Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, where she showed interest in painting and design from an early age. Her other illustrative works include A Latino Twelve Days of Christmas by Pat Mora and Chavela and the Magic Bubble by Monica Brown. Morales lives in Mexico with her husband and children where she works as a freelance designer and physical education teacher.

The 2010 Rivera Award Committee also named one honor book: Just in Case: A Trickster Tale and Spanish Alphabet Book, written and illustrated by Yuyi Morales and published by Roaring Brook Press.

After determining the winner of the award, the National Committee may choose to name honor books. Honor books are books that are deemed by the committee to be distinguished and truly representative of the spirit of the award. There is no set number of books to be named in this category. In the event that more than one book is named, they are announced in alphabetical order, by author, to accord equal honor to all of the books. 

About the Tomás Rivera Mexican American Children's Book Award

Texas State developed the Tomás Rivera Award to congratulate and acknowledge authors and illustrators dedicated to depicting the values and culture of Mexican Americans. Rivera, who died in 1984, graduated from Texas State with both his bachelor's and master's degrees before receiving a Ph.D. from the University of Oklahoma. A Distinguished Alumnus of Texas State, Rivera published his landmark novel in 1971 titled ...y no se lo tragó la tierra/ ...And the Earth Did Not Part. In 1979, Rivera was appointed chancellor of the University of California-Riverside, the first Hispanic chancellor named to the University of California System. 

For more information on the Rivera Award, please visit the Rivera Award website at .

Jesse Gainer
Assistant Professor
Curriculum & Instruction
Texas State University
(512) 963-6083

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.



Children’s Books at Target
Book published in Spain, 1636, digitized by Google. 
Luis Ortega’s Rawhide Artistry, Braiding in the California Tradition
      by Chuck Stormes, Don Reeves;
Mendez v. Westminster, School Desegregation and Mexican American Rights
      by Philippa Strum
King of the Chicanos, A Novel of the Chicano Movement by Manuel Ramos
Organizing the Chicano Movement: The Story of the CSO by Humberto Garza
How the States Got Their Shapes by Mark Stein
Beyond 50: American States That Might Have Been by Michael J. Trinklein 
Books for children. This URL is to the target listing of children's books with Latino main characters. Happily thirty books are identified.


Discursos ilustres,historicos i genealogicos by Pedro de Rojas (Conde de Mora) This book published in Spain in (ca) 1636  has been digitized by Google.  You can view the actual text


Luis Ortega’s Rawhide Artistry
Braiding in the California Tradition
By Chuck Stormes, Don Reeves; Foreword by Mehl Lawson

Volume 7 in the Western Legacies Series
The most comprehensive overview of Ortega’s life, art, and career

Editor: There is considerable information on the heritage and genealogy of the Ortega family in California through-out the text. "The patriarch of the Ortega family in New Spain, Don Jose Francisco de Ortega, was born in 1734 to Spanish colonists of noble descent in the town of Celaya, in what is now Guanajuato Province, Mexico.  His military career spanned four decades and placed him in the vanguard of Spain's northward expansion, firmly establishing the family's prominence in Alta (Utter) California." pg. 3
An acclaimed rawhide braider of horse gear, Luis Ortega elevated his craft to collectible art and influenced a generation of gear makers. This book is the most comprehensive overview of his life, art, and career and the first book-length work on rawhide braiding in North America, charting changes in horse gear over five decades.

Chuck Stormes and Don Reeves introduce readers to an itinerant cowboy who strove for a level of craftsmanship and artistry above what the market expected—and to be the best in his field. Although grounded in the Spanish vaquero tradition, Ortega’s work was shaped by his quest for excellence and an intuitive sense of how to fashion humble items into objects of lasting beauty. Ever a private man, he viewed his craft as a calling yet rarely sought attention even after his reputation was established.

More than a biography, the book is a richly illustrated overview of this expert braider’s art. Some 100 illustrations, 70 in color, offer close-ups of Ortega’s work that depict the intricacy of his reins, quirts, and other pieces. From eight-strand reatas to figure-eight hobbles, the beauty, functionality, and painstaking care of his output shine through in every piece.

This elegant volume allows readers to better understand the Hispanic foundations of the American cowboy as it portrays the work of a man recognized by the National Endowment for the Arts as a Master Traditional Artist. It will stand as a definitive work on Ortega and a tribute to his craft.

Chuck Stormes is an award-winning saddle maker who lives in Alberta, Canada. He is a founding member and past president of the Traditional Cowboy Arts Association. Don Reeves holds the McCasland Chair of Cowboy Culture at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum, Oklahoma City, and is a frequent contributor to the museum’s quarterly magazine, Persimmon Hill. Mehl Lawson is a renowned champion horseman, rawhide braider, and award-winning sculptor of western and cowboy art who lives in Bonita, California.

University of Oklahoma Press


160 pages 9" x 11" x 0"
31 B&W Illus., 71 Color Photos
Published: 2010   $29.95  


Sent by Sandy See  
Publicity Manager  
University of Oklahoma Press  
2800 Venture Drive  
Norman OK 73069  
(405) 325-3200

The book was launched April 19, 2010 by the United States Studies Program of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, in cooperation with the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, and the National Council of La Raza.  Held at the Woodrow Wilson Center, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W., Washington, D.C. 

Joining author Philippa Strum, Wilson Center Senior Scholar and were the following 

Cornelia Pillard, Professor of Law, Georgetown Univ 
Delia Pompa, Vice President for Education, National Council of La Raza, and Thomas A. Saenz, President and General Counsel, MALDEF


While Brown v. Board of Education remains much more famous, Mendez v. Westminster School District (1947) was actually the first case in which segregation in education was successfully challenged in federal court. Finally giving Mendez its due, Philippa Strum provides a compelling account of its legal issues and legacy, while retaining its essential human face: that of Mexican Americans unwilling to accept second-class citizenship.

The book was launched April 19, 2010 by the United States Studies Program of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, in cooperation with the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, and the National Council of La Raza.  Held at the Woodrow Wilson Center, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W., Washington, D.C. 

Joining author Philippa Strum, Wilson Center Senior Scholar and were the following 

Cornelia Pillard, Professor of Law, Georgetown University
Delia Pompa, Vice President for Education, National Council of La Raza, and Thomas A. Saenz, President and General Counsel, MALDEF

While Brown v. Board of Education remains much more famous, Mendez v. Westminster School District (1947) was actually the first case in which segregation in education was successfully challenged in federal court. Finally giving Mendez its due, Philippa Strum provides a compelling account of its legal issues and legacy, while retaining its essential human face: that of Mexican Americans unwilling to accept second-class citizenship.

Editorial Reviews
   "Mendez v. Westminster plays an under appreciated role in the struggle for civil rights in the United States. Strum brings the people and debates of the case vividly to life, particularly the dedication of the Latino parents at the center of the case who fought for equal education for their children in public schools.... Reminds us of the key part that Latinos have played, together with African-Americans, in the continuing battles for civil rights for all Americans in the United States." Michael Jones-Correa, author of Between Two Nations: The Political Predicament of Latinos in New York City and coauthor of Making It Home: Latino Lives in America"
   While Brown v. Board of Education remains much more famous, Mendez v. Westminster School District (1947) was actually the first case in which segregation in education was successfully challenged in federal court. Finally giving Mendez its due, Philippa Strum provides a concise and compelling account of its legal issues and legacy, while retaining its essential human face: that of Mexican Americans unwilling to accept second-class citizenship.

  In 1945 Gonzalo and Felícitas Méndez, California farmers, sent their children off to the local school, only to be told that the youngsters would have to attend a separate facility reserved for Mexican Americans. In response the Méndezes and other aggrieved parents from nearby school districts went to federal court to challenge the segregation. Uniquely, they did not claim racial discrimination, since Mexicans were legally considered white, but rather discrimination based on ancestry and supposed "language deficiency" that denied their children their Fourteenth Amendment rights to equal protection under the law.
  Strum tells how, thanks to attorney David Marcus's carefully crafted arguments, federal district court judge Paul McCormick came to support the plaintiffs on the grounds that the social, psychological, and pedagogical costs of segregated education were damaging to Mexican-American children. The school districts claimed that federal courts had no jurisdiction over education, but the Ninth Circuit upheld McCormick's decision, ruling that the schools' actions violated California law. The appeal to the Ninth Circuit was supported by amicus briefs from leading civil liberties organizations, including the NAACP, which a few years later would adapt the arguments of Mendez in representing the plaintiffs in Brown.
  Strum effectively weaves together narrative and analysis with personality portraits to create a highly readable and accessible story, allowing us to hear the voices of all the protagonists. She also presents the issues evenhandedly, effectively balancing her presentation of arguments by both the plaintiffs and the schools that sought to continue the segregation of Mexican-American students.
  Ultimately, Mendez highlights how Mexican Americans took the lead to secure their civil rights and demonstrates how organization, courage, and persistence in the Mexican-American communities could overcome the racism of the school boards. Their inspiring example is particularly timely given the current controversies over immigration and the growing national interest in Latino life.
 This book is part of the Landmark Law Cases and American Society series.
192 pages
University Press of Kansas (April 15, 2010)

Sent by Maribeth Bandas 

A Novel of the Chicano Movement by Manuel Ramos

$16.95  192 pages   
Publication: May 2010
This novel is destined to become an important part of our history, and only Manuel Ramos could write it.
Rudolfo Anaya, author of Bless Me, Ultima

Fine, hard-hitting, and on target . . . 
       - Rolando Hinojosa, author of the "Klail city Death Trip Series"

. . . . a corrido to the resilience of the Chicano spirit! Ajúa!
       - Lucha Corpi, author of Eulogy for a Brown Angel and Death at Solstice

Both heroic and tragic, this novel captures the spirit, energy, and imagination of the 1960s' Chicano movement - a massive and intense struggle across a broad spectrum of political and cultural issues - through the passionate story of the King of the Chicanos, Ramon Hidalgo.  From his very humble beginnings through the tumultuous decades of being a migrant farm worker, door-to-door salesman, prison inmate, political hack, and radical activist, the novel relates Hidalgo's personal failures and self-destructive personality amid the political turmoil of the times.  With a gradual acceptance of his destiny as a leader and hero of the people, this impassioned novel relates the maturation of one while encapsulating the fever of the Chicano movement.

Trade Paperback ISBN 978-0-916727-64-2
Library PDF ISBN 978-1-60940-008-8
Wings Press


Organizing the Chicano Movement: 
The Story of the CSO by Humberto Garza

Nota: Here's introducing a new book por un camarada de San Jose, California.  See, Humberto Garza, Organizing the Chicano Movement: The Story of the CSO.   This is Humberto's fourth history book that he's published.  His previous titles include Joaquin Murrieta: A Quest for Justice!; Joaquin: Demystifying the Murrieta Legend; and The Mexican American War of 1846-1848: A Deceitful Smoke Screen. 
A longtime educator and now retired, Humberto hails originally from Eagle Pass, Texas.  He owns and administers BLPW Consultants doing work on "Books, Leadership, Parent training & Writing workshops."  He is someone who joined that long Eagle Pass-Piedras Negras and surrounding Tejas-Coahuila region transmigration that occurred during the 1950s-1970s heeding the opportunities for employment and education found in SanJo and the surrounding urban and rural regions that would eventually become identified with the Silicon Valley in the greater Bay Area of Northern California.  Humberto fue uno de los que se quedo aunque aun recuerda sus origenes fronterizas.

To have your libraries on and off campus purchase copies of this book and the others cited contact the author at: or at  2009, 247pp. (ISBN-13: 978-0-9720873-3-9 and ISBN-10: 0-9720873-3-8).  The book is available in paperback. Or address your correspondence to: Sun House Publishing / P.O. Box 640384 / San Jose, CA 95164 / (408)772-6243.
Foreword by Arnold Bojorquez.
Foreword - By Arnold Bojorquez
Introduction - CSO, A Seed for the Chicano Movement
Chapter 1 - Existing Conditions in the Barrios
Chapter 2 - CSO Funding
Chapter 3 - Fred Ross Sr.
Chapter 4 - Bloody Christmas
Chapter 5 - San Jose, CSO
Chapter 6 - CSO Accomplishments
Chatper 7 - An Obscured Leader
Chapter 8 - Impetus to the Chicano Movement
Sent by Roberto R. Calderon
Historia Chicana [Historia]


How the States Got Their Shapes 
by Mark Stein

Editorial Reviews, From Publishers Weekly

America's first century was defined by expansion and the negotiation of territories among areas colonized by the French and Spanish, or occupied by natives. The exact location of borders became paramount; playwright and screenwriter Stein amasses the story of each state's border, channeling them into a cohesive whole. Proceeding through the states alphabetically, Stein takes the innovative step of addressing each border-north, south, east, west-separately. Border stories shine a spotlight on many aspects of American history: the 49th parallel was chosen for the northern borders of Minnesota, North Dakota, and Montana because they ensured England's access to the Great Lakes, vital to their fur trade; in 1846, Washington D.C. residents south of the Potomac successfully petitioned to rejoin Virginia (called both "retrocession" and "a crime") in order to keep out free African-Americans. Aside from tales of violent conquest and political glad-handing, there's early, breathtaking tales of American politicos' favorite sport, gerrymandering (in 1864, Idaho judge Sidney Edgerton single-handedly "derailed" Idaho's proposed boundary, to Montana's benefit, with $2,000 in gold). American history enthusiasts should be captivated by this fun, informative text.
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


“A fascinating and wonderfully entertaining account of an often-overlooked oddity of America’s history: how the jigsaw-puzzle layout of the United States emerged. I never thought a book on geography could be funny, but Mark Stein has pulled it off.” (Vogue )

“For anyone who’s been confounded by the largest of all jigsaw puzzles, the one that carved out those fifty weirdly formed states, here is the solution. It’s history, it’s geography, it’s comedy, it’s indispensable.” (ANDRO LINKLATER, author of The Fabric of America: How Our Borders and Boundaries Shaped the Country and Forged Our National Identity )

  • Hardcover: 352 pages
  • Publisher: Smithsonian; Full-size Book Club (BCE) edition (May 27, 2008)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0061431389
  • ISBN-13: 978-0061431388


Beyond 50: American States That Might Have Been by Michael J. Trinklein 

Go to the following interview in which author Trinklein discusses the quirky and true stories behind the states that never made it. . .  
a real history lesson.

*Listen/Watch on*  Many stories at have audio or video content. Look for a "Listen" or "Watch" button. For technical support, please visit NPR's Audio/Video Help page: 

Sent by John Inclan




Soldados Olvidados, 4-minute video
Diversity in the US Military
The Pacific and Adjacent Theaters in WWII
Un Orgullo Hispano de PR who received two Silver Stars.
People who fought the war in Cagayan Valley
Officer promotions announcements
Great enlarged photos of the top Military Medals

Interesting story about Monopoly's role in World War II
San Benito Veterans War Memorial
Chief Master Sgt. Ramon Colon-Lopez
Filipinos WW II US Military Service
Civil War National Graves Registration Project
Members of the Five-Star Council

  El Soldado Olvidado, 4-minute video

Do share with family and friends for Memorial Day.
This is a very moving video which Dan Arellano produced two years ago to honor our men in military.  Be sure you have the sound on, and be prepared to have your heart moved by the music of Bobby Pulido.  Go to:
Scroll down the menu, click on Hispanicsoldiersvideo

This is a fantastic site to really understand who made up the US military.  Do look at it . . really interesting.

Records of the Selective Service System in the National Archives, Kansas City, MO

Alien Personal History and Statements, Minnesota 1942-1946 (Record Group 147)

The Pacific and Adjacent Theaters in WWII

A collection of 110 photos focuses on The Pacific War, a term referring to parts of World War II that took place in the Pacific Ocean, the islands of the Pacific and the Far East. The start of The Pacific War is generally considered to be the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941. The Pacific War pitted the Allies against the Empire of Japan and culminated with the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945, Victory over Japan Day on August 15, 1945 and the official surrender of Japan aboard the battleship U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945.

Un Orgullo Hispano de PR who received two Silver Stars.

Latina Veterans and their accomplishments.

Great enlarge photos of the top Military Medals.

Rafael Ojeda

People who fought the war in Cagayan Valley

There is nothing better than oral history. Books are nothing but footnotes and having said that, I hope that sometime before Alzheimer’s claims your grandparents’ gifted minds, you have accessed the contents of that generation’s stories. Together you could string a living century of generations. There are books by Ambrose, Manchester, Morrison,  pseudo historians and lately the revisionists, but there is nothing better when you hear the answer to a child asking, “What did you do during the war, Lolo? Where were you?

Please ask some of the older folks who fought the war in Cagayan Valley to give share their stories.  Please contact Rafael Ojeda for participation.

March 31st  Officer promotions announcements were made by Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates and included the following nominations:

Marine Corps Brig. Gen. Angela Salinas has been nominated for appointment to the rank of major general.  Salinas is currently serving as the director, manpower management, Manpower and Reserve Affairs in Quantico, Va.

Marine Corps Brig. Gen. David C. Garza has been nominated for appointment to the rank of major general.  Garza is currently serving as the chief of staff, U.S. Southern Command in Miami, Fla.
  Sent by Rafael Ojeda



Interesting story about Monopoly's role in World War II

You may never look at the game the same way again...

Starting in 1941, an increasing number of British Airmen found themselves as the involuntary guests of the Third Reich, and the Crown was casting about for ways and means to facilitate their escape...

Now obviously, one of the most helpful aids to that end is a useful and accurate map, one showing not only where stuff was, but also showing the locations of 'safe houses' where a POW on-the-lam could go for food and shelter.

Paper maps had some real drawbacks -- they make a lot of noise when you open and fold them, they wear out rapidly, and if they get wet, they turn into mush.

Someone in MI-5 (similar to America 's OSS ) got the idea of printing escape maps on silk. It's durable, can be scrunched-up into tiny wads, and unfolded as many times as needed, and makes no noise whatsoever.

At that time, there was only one manufacturer in Great Britain that had perfected the technology of printing on silk, and that was John Waddington, Ltd. When approached by the government, the firm was only too happy to do its bit for the war effort.

By pure coincidence, Waddington was also the U.K. Licensee for the popular American board game, Monopoly. As it happened, 'games and pastimes' was a category of item qualified for insertion into 'CARE packages', dispatched by the International Red Cross to prisoners of war.

Under the strictest of secrecy, in a securely guarded and inaccessible old workshop on the grounds of Waddington's, a group of sworn-to-secrecy employees began mass-producing escape maps, keyed to each region of Germany or Italy where Allied POW camps were regional system). When processed, these maps could be folded into such tiny dots that they would actually fit inside a Monopoly playing piece.

As long as they were at it, the clever workmen at Waddington's also managed to add:
1. A playing token, containing a small magnetic compass
2. A two-part metal file that could easily be screwed together
3. Useful amounts of genuine high-denomination German, Italian, and French currency, hidden within the piles of Monopoly money!

British and American air crews were advised, before taking off on their first mission, how to identify a 'rigged' Monopoly set -- by means of a tiny red dot, one cleverly rigged to look like an ordinary printing glitch, located in the corner of the Free Parking square.

Of the estimated 35,000 Allied POWS who successfully escaped, an estimated one-third were aided in their flight by the rigged Monopoly sets.. Everyone who did so was sworn to secrecy indefinitely, since the British Government might want to use this highly successful ruse in still another, future war. 

The story wasn't declassified until 2007, when the surviving craftsmen from Waddington's, as well as the firm itself, were finally honored in a public ceremony.
It's always nice when you can play that 'Get Out of Jail' Free' card!

I realize most of you are (probably) too young to have any personal connection to WWII (Dec. '41 to Aug. '45), but this is still interesting.

Sent by Juan Marinez


Bids sought for construction of Veterans War Memorial


Bids for construction of the San Benito Veterans War Memorial are currently being sought here after city officials approved architectural plans for the facility at their March 10 meeting.

Contractors are invited to a pre-bid meeting March 25 at 1:30 p.m. at the City Annex Conference Room, 400 N. Travis Street. Bids for the project will be received from interested general contractors until April 2 at 2 p.m. at the office of the City Manager, 401 N. Sam Houston, San Benito.

Looking over construction plans are members of the San Benito Veterans Advisory Board review plans for the Veterans War Memorial. Shown above are board members Sandra Tumberlinson, Victor Garza, architect Danny Villarreal, Ovidio I. Gonzalez and Charlie Wilson.           (City of San Benito photo)  

Project specifications and contract documents may be procured from the architectural firm of Mata.Villarreal.Garcia Design Group L.L.P., 1314 West Ivy Avenue, McAllen. The firm performed on a “pro-bono” basis, the architectural design and coordinated the engineering work required for construction documents, according to Veterans Advisory Board chairman Victor Garza.

“We owe them a tremendous debt of gratitude,” he said. “All of the work that they put into these plans was done out of the goodness of their heart and demonstrates their high regard for the Veterans of our City and beyond,” he added. “They even approached engineers and other professionals to contribute their services for this worthy cause. It speaks to how much they respect and appreciate our Veterans, and their families, who have sacrificed so much in the name of our country.”

The facility will be built at the site of the old Missouri Pacific Train Depot which was demolished in the 1960s.

The open-air structure will be reminiscent of the old depot’s facade, with the entrance to the old facility reconstructed to face Sam Houston Blvd. It has been designed as a site to conduct special ceremonies to honor past and current military personnel for their service to the United States of America, according to City officials.

“Historical perspective shows that the old Train Depot served as the boarding point where many young soldiers and sailors bid farewell to their loved ones and departed to begin their military service in World War I and World War II,” said Sandra Tumberlinson, who serves on the Veterans Advisory Board. “And, as we know, many of those young military personnel were casualties of those wars.”

“This memorial will serve to pay tribute to those heroes, as well as those who fall victim to wars today in Iraq and Afghanistan,” said Ovidio I. Gonzalez, also a member of the Veterans Advisory Board. “It is because of its historical perspective that the City wishes to commemorate that site,” he added.

“This is our tribute to the people who paid the ultimate price for our way of life,” said Charlie Wilson, vice chairman of the board.

“We can’t do enough to recognize the men and women who have gone in harm’s way for us. And, while it is a state-of-the-art facility that will be envied by other cities, it is only a small token in appreciation for all those who gave their lives for us,” he added.

The fifth member of the Veterans Advisory Board, Sgt. Pilar Vega, is currently serving a tour of duty in Iraq.

Construction is expected to be complete this summer.

Phase II of the Veterans War Memorial includes the placement of three bronze statues commemorating the bravery of the Veterans who participated in the protection of their country over the years. Advisory Board members are conducting a fundraising effort through the sale of brick pavers for a contribution of $100 each. The pavers will be located at the site of the Memorial and will be engraved with the names of a chosen Veteran, his/her branch of military service, and dates of service. For more information or to purchase an inscribed brick, please contact Martha McClain at the City of San Benito at 956-361-3804 Ex. 301.



Wings & Things Guest Lecture


"Lessons Learned on the Global War on Terror, from the Perspective of a Special Tactics Pararescueman"

March 31, 2010 - 7:30 p.m.

Chief Master Sgt. Ramon Colon-Lopez is the Squadron Superintendent, 24th Special Tactics Squadron (STS), Pope AFB, N.C. He provides combat control, pararescue and combat weather expertise during analysis of special tactics requirements and techniques to ensure joint interoperability and equipment standardization. Additionally, he plans and conducts special operations, joint exercises and training. Furthermore, he develops, tests and disseminates special operations tactics, techniques and procedures to include combat air traffic management, close air support, casualty evacuation and combat search and rescue across AFSOC and SOCOM.

Colon-Lopez was born in Ponce, Puerto Rico, on Oct. 21, 1971. He attended Kolbe Cathedral High School in Bridgeport, Conn. After graduating in 1989, he attended Sacred Heart University, where he majored in biology. In December 1990, after two semesters in college, Colon-Lopez enlisted in the U.S. Air Force as a Transportation Specialist where he served in the Gulf War. Always seeking new challenges, he volunteered for Pararescue duty training in 1994 where he successfully completed the Pararescue pipeline in 1996. His first assignment as a Pararescueman was the 48th Rescue SQ (ACC), Holloman AFB, N.M., where he served as Combat Search and Rescue Team Leader, and the NCOIC of Pararescue supply, deploying numerous times in support of Operation SOUTHERN WATCH and Operation NORTHERN WATCH. In February 1999, he was assessed and hand selected for special duty to the 24th Special Tactics Squadron. He again deployed as part of a joint task force to several classified locations in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM from July 2002 to September 2004 where he participated in a series of joint operations, including direct assaults and combat search and rescue missions. He was then hand selected for the creation and implementation of the unit's compartmented Personnel Recovery Advance Force Operations team, servicing the entire Joint Special Operations arena. His operational experience and management skills contributed to his selection and assignment to the Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer School In January 2005 as the Superintendent of Training and then as the school's Commandant.

In June 2007, Colon-Lopez was one of six airmen in Air Force history to be awarded the first Air Force Combat Action Medal. Other awards and decorations include the Bronze Star Medal with Valor and oak leaf cluster, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Air Medal with oak leaf cluster, Aerial Achievement Medal with two oak leaf clusters, Air Force Commendation Medal with oak leaf cluster, Joint Service Achievement Medal with oak leaf cluster, Air Force Achievement Medal with oak leaf cluster, Presidential Unit Citation with oak leaf cluster, Navy Presidential Unit Citation, and Air Force Recognition Ribbon with oak leaf cluster.

Colon-Lopez is featured in the museum's "Warrior Airmen" exhibit for his role in missions to capture or kill high value targets directly related to the recent terrorist attacks on U.S. soil and abroad.

He is married to the former Janet K. McCaskill of Seagrove, N.C.
Sent Bill Carmena



A photo released by the U.S. military in 1945, after it was captured from the Japanese, shows allied prisoners of war in the Philippines carrying their comrades in slings.

 Information from military archivists, the National Archives and Records Administration, and surviving prisoners strongly suggests that this photo may depict a burial detail at Camp OÂ'Donnell, the Japanese POW camp where allied prisoners were held after the Bataan Death March. (U.S. Marine Corps/AP)


Filipinos WW II US Military Service


"Identification with our nation's history will foster assimilation and participation 
in common goals that promote good citizenship and civic involvement."  This website is dedicated to all soldiers of Pilipino descent who served in the United States military during WW11 (12/7/1941-12/31/1946). The mission of this website is to reclaim our forgotten military history and heritage in the United States Armed Forces. Special recognition is given to the 7,000 Pilipinos in the U.S. Army 1st, 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiments, 1st Reconnaissance Battalion, as well as to the additional Navy and the Merchant Marine personnel, mostly sent to liberate the Philippines, then a colonial possession of the United States from three years of Japanese occupation. Some of the Pilipino soldiers, already WW1 U.S. veterans in the Hawaiian Infantry would serve again in the Korean War. Significantly, their descendants would serve not only in the Korean and Vietnam wars, but also in the current Middle East military conflicts. This only proves that answering the call to military duty is a gift that soldiers of Pilipino descent in every generation keeps on giving to Uncle Sam, especially during times of wars. Sadly, such loyalty was repaid by the U.S. Congress Rescission Acts of February 1946, wherein the dignity of the wartime heroic deeds of the Pilipinos was diminished by the ongoing unequal treatment of the WW11 Pilipino veterans under the laws of the United States.  

An invaluable resource for the Filipino Infantry Regiments is
 the highly recommended website owned by Sgt (Ret.) Pelagio A. Valdez, created to honor SSgt Pablo S. Valdez, his father who served in both of these WW11 Filipino Inf Regts.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


SUVCW National Graves Registration Database  

The Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War (SUVCW) National Graves Registration Project was established in 1996.  Since then, hundreds of dedicated people from within and without our Order have graciously devoted thousands of hours of their time and energy visiting cemeteries, recording, verifying, researching and entering the final resting places of Civil War veterans.  From the beginning, one thing was missing - the means for the SUVCW and the general public to search and view the results of our labor on the Internet.  As the number of registrations grew, it was also apparent that duplication of effort and waste of time was reaching an unacceptable level, without knowledge of what was completed and what needed further investigation.  

The National Graves Registration Database ( is now available to all.  The database was activated February 22, 2005.  This will make all original registrations available for viewing by the general public, as well as allowing for new registrations to be entered through our online program.  

It is our hope that this online database program will promote increased interest in the SUVCW National Graves Registration Project and take us to an entirely new level of achievement.  Depending on the source referenced, there were between 4.2 and 4.8 million Union Civil War Veterans.  Due to mass burials, unreported battlefield losses, burials at sea and other circumstances, we can never expect to register all Union graves, but with your assistance we will succeed in honoring the "boys in blue" to the best of our ability.  

Loran Bures, Commander
Gen. W. S. Rosecrans Camp No. 2
Department of California & Pacific
Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War



Members of the Five-Star Council

Members of the Five-Star Council
The Five-Star Council is a group of prominent leaders invited by the Librarian of Congress to advise the Veterans History Project and bring it increased visibility nationwide. Members of the council, listed below, include veterans, elected officials, historians, and journalists--each with a relevant personal connection to this endeavor.
Everett Alvarez
Former Deputy Administrator, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
McLean, Virginia 

Lee Archer
Retired Lieutenant Colonel; CEO, Archer Assets Management
New Rochelle, New York 

Julius Becton
Retired Lieutenant General
Springfield, Virginia 

Tom Brokaw
Network news anchor
New York, New York 

Gail Buckley
Author, Historian
New York, New York 

Max Cleland
U.S. Senator
Lithonia, Georgia 

Walter Cronkite
Former CBS anchorman
New York, N.Y. 

Robert Dole
Former U.S. Senator
Washington, D.C. 

Sam Gibbons
Former U.S. Representative
Washington, D.C. 

Chuck Hagel
U.S. Senator
Omaha, Nebraska 

Jeanne Holm
Retired Major General USAF 
Edgewater, Maryland 

Tony Hope (deceased)
USO Tours
Burbank, California 

Amo Houghton
U.S. Representative
Corning, New York 
Steny Hoyer
U.S. Representative
Mechanicsville, Maryland 

Daniel Inouye
U.S. Senator
Honolulu, Hawaii 

Francisco F. Ivarra
National Commander, American GI Forum
Denver, Colorado 

John Kerry
U.S. Senator
Boston, Massachusetts 

James V. Kimsey
Chairman Emeritus, AOL, Inc.
Washington, D.C. 

Ron Kind
U.S. Representative
La Crosse, Wisconsin 

Bob Michel
Former U.S. Representative
Washington, D.C.

Norman Mineta
Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation
Washington, D.C.

James G. Parkel
President, AARP
Washington, D.C.

Anthony J. Principi
Secretary of Veterans Affairs
Washington, D.C.

Francis Y. Sogi
Deputy Chairman, National Council of AJA Veterans
New York, New York

Ted Stevens
U.S. Senator
Girdwood, Alaska

John Warner
U.S. Senator
Alexandria, Virginia

Sheila Widnall
Former Secretary of the Air Force
Cambridge, Massachusetts 


Film Project: Forgotten Southern Heroes, South Carolinians, Hispanics, and 
           American Independence! film project
Lt.Col. (retired) Jack Cowan founder, Texas Connection to American Revolution
Galvestown Bergantin 1779 Project
Search for Farragut site awaits launch
David G. Farragut Papers 
Chronology of Events Surrounding Spain’s Participation in the American            Revolutionary War by National President Judge Edward F. Butler, Sr.

Film Project


 South Carolinians, Hispanics, and American Independence!



Long forgotten heroes, South Carolina patriots of America’s War of Independence and the Spanish, Hispanic people who at that time occupied the Deep South of the continental United States, all Southern heroes, …this film will tell the story of how both of these group’s contributions to the American Revolution made the difference in the gaining of our independence, and set the whole Western Hemisphere ablaze with the spirit of liberty!  

Thomas Ellingwood Fortin, Executive Producer
Feb 2010  

Project Overview….  

This film project will be a 48-50 minute documentary, produced for distribution on South Carolina Educational Television by Producer, Director Thomas Ellingwood Fortin, Director of Photography, Lenny Spears, hosted and narrated by well known British/South Carolina historical actor Howard Burnham, historical consulting provided by various South Carolina scholars, and Hector Diaz, the leading scholar on Spanish and Hispanic military history in the United States today.  

We are also in expectation of gaining fiscal sponsorship through one or more of the historical and arts entities in Charleston, the Charleston metro area, with its over-whelming amount of both natural beauty and historical sites, serving as the primary location for filming, the only exception being b-roll shot over the past three years at other historical sites in adjacent states.  

We have put together probably one of the most talented creative teams for this sort of project, people whose main work has been mostly on award winning feature films, and internationally acclaimed documentaries. Combine with this the latest in motion picture technology available today and you can expect a documentary production that will have all of the best elements of a major theatrical motion picture, and the intelligent presentation so critical to great educational film!  

At the same time we are in expectation of partnering up with our state’s film schools like Trident Tech and USC in Columbia to create some opportunity for the students to get on the job experience working with top industry professionals. After working with these students last year on another SC based project we were impressed with the creativity and enthusiasm of these young people!  

Mission Statement ….  

Almost two years ago a joint production was set up with New Albion Pictures, North America, and Abyssal Pictures, Espana, to develop and shoot a major documentary film about the tremendous, and well nigh forgotten contribution of Spain, and Hispanics to the independence of the United States.  

In the course of the development, Producer Thomas decided that a spin-off dealing with two of the most over-looked players in the American Revolution, both Spain [and especially her colonial people, both native born Spaniards, and Hispanics,] and South Carolinians, plus their connections and interactions with each other, would be an excellent educational tool for South Carolina teachers and educational TV.  

Most of us today would be surprised to learn that chapters of the prestigious organization, SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION have been set up in Mexico! The role played by Hispanic peoples on our Southern border, and from the Caribbean also, is now recognized by this organization. These people gave their money, blood, and lives, in support of our Revolution, going beyond what the King of Spain even asked for, and were inspired to duplicate our success in establishing “government by the people, for the people,..” for themselves.  

Today both Americans, and our newest, and fastest growing population, Hispanics, are on the most part totally unaware of this history.  

This is a long over-due film that combines the finest elements of both educational, and feature film, with the latest camera technology, with a producer/director who is both an accomplished historian and film maker, to tell a story - a story about some of our Revolutionary War heroes, and events long overlooked, or just plain ignored by prejudiced scholars and historians over the centuries.  

But, we are about to set the record straight and at the same time help the newest and fastest growing segment of our Southern population “re-connect” to the founding of this great Republic!  

 Story Background….  

“With this humble instrumentality {Christopher Columbus} did it please Providence to prepare the theatre for those events by which a new dispensation of liberty was to be communicated to man.  -Edward Everett  

For centuries, the sounds of iron tools working wood have been heard in the old shipyard of Astilleros Nereo in Malaga, Spain. Ships that explored the New World probably had their birth here.  

Today the sound of tools rings out again as another ship, from the time of our American Revolution, takes form in this historic shipyard.  

The original brig, Galveztown, was the flagship of famed Spanish General, Bernardo de Gálvez, who defeated British forces in Mississippi, Louisiana and Florida during the American Revolution. The replica Galveztown will serve as a floating museum and reminder of the often-overlooked Spanish-American alliance.  

Over 500 years ago Spanish explorers opened up the Western Hemisphere, and later North America to settlement by Europeans, thus setting off a chain of events that would result in the rise of the first truly free nation on earth!  

Many today acknowledge the importance of Columbus’ voyage of discovery but few see or understand the major role Spain and Spanish Americans [Hispanics] played in the birth of these United States. I would even dare to say that without their assistance and influence, the American cultural and social landscape would hardly be recognizable to us today, and perhaps we might also still be a British Commonwealth.  

The colonist’s tendency towards free government and individual rights was more then the local tendency towards self-determination, but also a product of The Age of Enlightenment. The liberal elements in the Mother Country rejoiced in the triumph of their former colonies revolt because such a great blow was struck for the preservation of the traditional English concepts of human rights over the ideal of “the divine rights of Kings” Representative government and the liberties of the common person triumphed in the victory of the patriots, The Age of Enlightenment had reached its climax it would seem.  

But, was this just a revolutionary advance for the British people, and those of Northern European ancestry, or did others, especially in Nueva Espana, share the vision, and assist in the triumph of liberty?  

Definitely yes, for the neighbors of the original thirteen colonies to their south had not remained deaf or blind to the new ideals of The Age of Enlightenment. Both native Spaniards, and Hispanics were well abreast of the new thinking.  

Across the entire southern region of the future United States, from New Orleans, to California, a social, economic, and cultural civilization in so many ways sympathetic, and tied into the Anglo colonies, but even more diverse in its society, was well established before even Jamestown came into existence. And that civilization was about to play Midwife to the new experiment in human liberty.

Historian, and former Director of the Palace of the Governor’s Museum in Santa Fe, Dr. Thomas E. Chavez wrote what are to most Americans today a startling revelation,

“In 1785, George Washington, recently "retired to the country life," wrote a friendly letter to Carlos III, the King of Spain, thanking him for a recent gift. Washington knew that Carlos III had been generous in his support of the birth of the fledgling United States during the War of Independence. For at least five years, Spain had sent more supplies and money than had been requested to help the American Rebels succeed in what must have appeared to be an impossible dream. Spanish men from the peninsula and throughout the Americas fought in the conflict.

The American Revolution used funds collected from people living in the present states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California--then a part of Mexico. An important percentage of financial support originated in New Spain, now called Mexico. Eventually, thousands of Spanish troops fought British troops throughout the Americas.”  

Your average American today upon reading this statement would be totally amazed at this startling revelation! Another reason why this film, and others like it are so important!

But just as forgotten though as these Spanish and Hispanic heroes of liberty are, so are the South Carolina patriots and events that took place here, events that assured the final victory of the American patriots.

This film will be exploring the inter-connections between these forgotten heroes, both playing major roles that resulted in the birth of these United States. We will look at how both separately, and sometimes together, they accomplished daring victories and assisted each other.

Our main focus will be on three South Carolina patriots who had come as emigrates back then to the Palmetto state, one from the Netherlands, who would become a major mover and shaker in Charleston, one from Spain, whose son would later become one of America’s greatest naval heroes, and another who arrived during the Civil War, but his ancestors were greatly involved in the events of this film during the American Revolution, but no one seems to realize this today.

We will also be taking a look at the Spanish, Hispanic assistance that helped to win the war, and the South Carolina connections.

For instance, Don Juan de Miralles, a wealthy Spanish merchant from Havana, Cuba, was appointed as a Royal Envoy of King Carlos III of Spain to the United States in 1778, and while traveling with his secretary, Don Francisco Rendón, after their landfall in Charleston, while in route to the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia, initiated the direct shipment of supplies from Cuba to Baltimore, Maryland; Charleston, South Carolina; and Philadelphia.  

We will tell how Spain’s aid to the struggling Norte Americanos was from the beginning very significant. As early as January 1, 1776, brand new Spanish muskets were being issued to some Massachusetts Continental Regiments. The following year King Carlos III approved four million reales in bullion for the Americans to purchase weapons, and uniforms, including 30,000 muskets with bayonets. American historian Helen Auger stated it well when she said that Spain shod, and dressed the American soldiers, armed their units with the Spanish musket, at that time considered the best in the world. Later Benjamin Franklin officially thanked the Spanish authorities for the 12,000 muskets sent to Boston. Many of these supplies were shipped out of Spanish colonial ports, loaded on the ships by Hispanics, and transported by Hispanics up the Mississippi River, or delivered to ports like Charleston, SC by Hispanic merchant seamen.

We sometimes hear about the importance of France’s assistance, which was of tremendous value, but rarely, if ever, of Spain’s entry into the war in 1779, an event which would have a deciding effect on both the American War of Independence in general, and the momentum toward victory begun in South Carolina. As the new front opened in the lower southern part of the future United States, it drained off British naval and military resources, especially with its threat to the British West Indies, far more estemed in value then the North American colonies as a cash cow.

“During the American Revolution vital assistance was provided to the Patriot cause by the Kingdom of Spain. Unfortunately the value of this aid has been downplayed by most American writers and researchers. Some refer to it as having a minor effect but many do not even mention it in their accounts of the war…..The young energetic Governor Galvez of Louisiana would display such initiative. His military actions could be considered to have helped shaped a new world.”

-Rudy Scott Nelson

Besides his massive aid to the Anglo-Americans, Galvez began a military campaign against British interests in what is now our states of Louisiana, Mississipi, Alabama, and Florida [not to mention all the way up the Mississipi River to Michigan,] where soldiers who came from Spain, the Caribbean Islands, South America, Central America, Texas, and Mexico, fought and died in a common cause against the British Empire, and in support of American  independence!.  

“At Pensacola, Galvez commanded a multinational army of over seven thousand soldiers. Most of these men were already serving in the areas known as Nueva España. This included all the land east of the Mississippi, including present day Southwest and southern states, Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Hispanola, and other Spanish colonies such as Venezuela. The Spanish forces in the Americas were also joined by soldiers from Spain, other European nations, American colonists, indigenous, and blacks. It was this multi-ethnic force fighting together to achieve the goals of the American Revolution under the leadership of a remarkable general commander  

-The Galvez Project, Hispanic American heroes Series  

It all cumulated in the Battle of Pensacola. An American historian called the siege of Pensacola "a decisive factor in the outcome of the Revolution and one of the most brilliantly executed battles of the war." Another historian stated that General Galvez' campaign broke the British will to fight. This battle ended in May 1781, just five months before the final battle of the war at Yorktown. French soldiers at this battle went almost straight from Florida to the Chesapeake Bay in preparation for the final major battle at Yorktown.

Another major forgotten historical fact was that just before the final coup de grace delivered at Yorktown, the citizens of Havana Cuba gave the money needed to finance the campaign!  

Without controversy, Galvez deserves his place as a hero of the Revolution along side Lafayette, Von Steubon, Washington and the Comte de Rochambeau. As historian Thomas Fleming put it,  

“His place in American history rests not only on his military conquests but on the man himself—what today’s pundits would call his style. There was something quintessentially American about him. The emergence of such a man from Spain’s rigid empire stirs thoughts about such historic imponderables as chance, destiny, and luck. Unquestionably Bernardo de Gálvez was the right man in the right place at the right time—for the United States of America”.    

“We are also beginning to recognize that Spanish soldiers who fought for freedom for the United States did not forget what they helped create. Within a generation, nearly all the countries we know in the Western Hemisphere had become free nations. The little American Revolution of 13 English colonies had become the Great American Revolution of the Western Hemisphere  

-Address given by Dr. Granville Hough at the Galvez Gala on 12 October 2003 in the city of Long Beach, California


Its 1861, South Carolina had led the way for the South in secession from the Union, and a new, flamboyant General from Louisiana has arrived to oversee the defense of the city from the Federal forces sure to attack.  

Riding down the streets of Charleston that day was a man whose own personal heritage connected Galvez’s Spanish Louisiana with South Carolina almost a hundred years previously.  

Beauregard’s ancestors had helped Governor Galvez in intelligence gathering against the British and thus were playing an important role in American independence. His family were active merchants and ship owners who were employed by Galvez to spy upon the British, besides gathering and delivering needed supplies to the Patriots too.  

Spain and Hispanic contributions to the American cause would have both direct and indirect effect on the war in South Carolina.  

Almost as soon as hostilities had flared up, support from the Spanish Crown to the colonial insurgents began to arrive. In October of 1775, two Spanish American ships sailing from Central America called at Charleston and sold gunpowder and supplies to a local rebel leader. When the British government formally protested, one of the ships’ captains was put on trial, to maintain the appearance of neutrality, but was later acquitted.  

Another forgotten piece of history is that South Carolina took a leading part in the War for Independence. More than 200 battles and military engagements took place on South Carolina soil, King’s Mountain, Cowpens and Eutaw Springs for example. These battles, often dramatic and pivotal in the ultimate outcome of the war, were another deciding factor in the the United States gaining its independence!

Another Civil War hero who would become the US Navy’s first Admiral and who is known today for the famous remark in the heat of naval battle, “damn the torpedos, full speed ahead,” had his ties back to Spain and the American Revolution.  

Admiral David Farragut’s Father, Jorge Farragut, was an experienced sea officer and came to Charleston to offer his services to the new South Carolina Navy, much like the Marquis de Lafayette had done for Washington’s struggling Continental Army.  

He would go on to fight the British in Charleston in 1776, the siege of Savannah, the siege of Charleston, was taken prisoner, and then later fought with the militia as a volunteer at Cowpens and Wilmington.  

Later he would serve as a US Navy officer in the War of 1812 and what became of his son is well known history.  

By the way, technically speaking, the US Navy’s first Admiral was Hispanic, something to think about!  

Then there was Jorge’s fellow South Carolina Navy officer, Commodore Alexander Gillon, the Netherland born sea captain who emigrated to Charleston and commanded the most important ship in the South Carolina Navy. The Commodore would later in the war work directly and personally with Bernardo de Galvez, and allied with him, and the Spanish Navy and Army, the South Carolina Navy lead the attack on the British forces in the Bahamas.  

So, as you can see, this is more then just another film, it is also an on-going educational program that will help to bring both citizens of Hispanic origins, and new emigrants from the countries of Latin America to “connect” with the birth of our nation, a nation founded upon the universal principles of individual liberty and equality, principles that already were taking root in the hearts and minds of our neighbors to the South!  

“The 4th of July, el Cuatro de Julio, belongs to the Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban and Spanish soldiers, sailors and Marines, the Black and Tan Battalions of General Bernardo Galvez as it does to anyone. On behalf of our great country, I extend a giant salute and thanks to those brave men who bled and died helping the United States of America win its —our— independence.” -Raoul Lowery Contreras  

Goals Of This Project….  

This documentary will revolutionize the way both the general public and school children perceive the American Revolution! More then that, it will also bring the newest, and fastest growing demographic group in South Carolina, into the main stream of our history, especially bringing to light their ancestor’s contributions and participation in winning our liberty and independence as a nation over 200 years ago!  

With this in mind, our film project will seek to bring about the following,  

1. This film and the educational media created by it, will bring to the forefront the long forgotten heroes of the American Revolution, not just the over looked ones of South Carolina, but also their important allies in Spanish America, the forgotten heroes of our War of Independence!  

2. To dissolve the stereotypes and to promote an authentic portrayal of Hispanics and their role in the founding of our nation.  

3. To dissolve the stereotypes and to promote an authentic portrayal of South Carolina and South Carolinians and their role in the founding of our nation.  

4. To provide South Carolina Hispanics with increased access to cultural resources and relative historical materials that ties them into our local history. The production of a film like this one will provide educators in the state an invaluable resource.  

5. To assist in facilitating accurate portrayals of both Historical Hispanic culture, and histories in South Carolina Public schools.  

6. We are exploring the possibility of The American Revolution Association out of Camden, SC, setting up an interactive website with both printed and film media historical resources for the public. This could be a great tool for South Carolina teachers to utilize in the classroom. This film project will provide the media needed to put on online materials relating to Spain, and Hispanics in the American Revolution, and of course South Carolina’s role in the war.  

7. Provide South Carolina Educational Television with a unique new film for public broadcast that will bring the state to the forefront of these issues.  

8. Another possibility is perhaps The Charleston Museum will consider sponsoring a special running exhibit on Spain, Hispanics, and South Carolina in the American Revolution. This could be planned out so as to open with the arrival of the replica brig Galveztown to Charleston probably in 2011.  

9. Another purpose of this film production will be to showcase South Carolina’s resources for the motion picture and documentary industry, using all SC locations, crew, sound stages, post facilities, historic resources, and support!  

These are just some of the ideas we have, further input will be coming in with more ideas as we work with the leading scholars and educators in the state.

Project Status….  

New Albion Pictures and our co-production partners in Malaga, Spain, Abyssal Pictures, began the development of this program over a year ago as a major PBS documentary for national broadcast. Producer Thomas though, being a resident of South Carolina, thought that a smaller version of the major project, combined with such a relative subject as the forgotten Revolutionary War legacy of South Carolina, would be a perfect program for SCETV.  

Thomas, as Executive Producer, has accomplished the following project development at his own expense:  

Treatment, film proposal, some shot list, and story boarding,  

He has conducted major historical research into the film subject matter, putting together a massive amount of research notes and period graphics,  

Consultation and talks with the major scholars and experts on the subject from all across N. America, and Europe and secured their assistance for the project,  

Further, he has lined up his creative team, arranged collaboration with historic sites and locations for filming, gained cooperation from other film producers and post facilities, and consulted with technical experts so as to make this film cutting edge, assuring superb quality,  

Fortunately New Albion Pictures and Abyssal Pictures have shot some b-roll footage for the major documentary, and also New Albion Pictures has some outstanding Revolutionary War footage, all of which will be made available for use on this SCETV project.  

Thomas’s use of experts and “talking heads” will be a welcome relief from the usual method, the idea being not to bore the audience, but to entertain and educate at the same time!  

He is also putting together a media campaign, arranging to talk with government agencies that can assist these projects, and setting up internet connections to the project.  

All of this he has accomplished at his own expense to date, and has exhausted his resources completely.  

Additional funding is needed to complete the research, which will include travel expenses, further archival research, story development, interviews, still photography of documents and period artwork, and locating and arranging for the appropriate music from within the state.  

Also needed is funding or donations of computers, [Dell desktop with printer, scanner, and software, and an IMAC desktop with art and editing software], a good professional grade digital camera for research and location pictures, misc. office equipment, phones, office furniture, folding tables, chairs, rolling wardrobe racks, etc. and any food service donations to use while working on development, and pre-production.  

The next step would be to set up a production office in Charleston and do pre-production preparation, and then go into full production, shooting on location, followed by post-production and editing.

Outreach and Distribution….  

This film is being produced with the intention of broadcasting the program on statewide SCETV, contingent on the quality of production being to their standards.

After initial broadcast of the program, copies of this program can be made available through the state for use in the Public Schools. This program will provide students with a fresh and enlightening new view of the American Revolution, a greater appreciation of their state’s role in the struggle for liberty, and even a greater appreciation and connection to the Hispanic people whose ancestors did so much to help our country during those crucial years from 1775-1783.  


Americans in general when they think of our colonial past and the American Revolution get a mental picture of the thirteen original colonies hugging the North Atlantic coast, while Florida, and the Gulf states, in their minds, is a blank void where nothing was, or happened. We are about to change that perception.  

Our forgotten Southern heroes of that region are about to be brought to light, and given their long over-due recognition!


Latest News, April 25, 2010:  

The St. Augustine Lighthouse Museum has offered to be the fiscal sponsor here in N. America, so any donations of either money or equipment can be written off as a tax break.    

Samuel P. Turner, Ph.D.
Director of Archaeology, Lighthouse Archaeology Maritime Program (LAMP)
904-829-0745 ext. 203
St. Augustine Lighthouse & Museum 
81 Lighthouse Avenue, St. Augustine, Florida 32080

Thomas Ellingwood Fortin, Executive Producer 


Historic Plaque

Photos courtesy of Jean Nauman.  One of many markers placed by the Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana.  

Sent by Bill Carmena


Lt.Col. (retired) Jack Cowan 
founder of the Texas Connection to the American Revolution

Lt.Col. (retired) Jack Cowan founder of the Texas Connection to the American Revolution has been a busy speaker.  Living in Schertz, TX, Jack gives talks in colonial period attire to diverse Texas audiences. 

March 2nd: New Forest St. Retirement Group
March 5th: 1st Presbyterian Church
March 20th: Austin Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution 
April 6th:  Coker Methodist Church

Photo: March 20th meeting of the Austin Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution.  His topic was “Texas Connection to the American Revolution”  

To invite Lt.Col. (retired) Jack Cowan to address your group, email or call:    (210) 651-4709





Molly Long. 
Vice –President Foundation Bergantin Galvestown.  
Madrid, Spain

In 2001 a shipyard in Malaga, Astilleros Nereo- recognized as Historic Heritage of Andalucía that is dedicated to recuperating the art of hand shipbuilding started the project to build a copy of the Galvestown.  A fabulous idea to promote the history of Malaga’s son, Don Bernardo de Galvez and his contribution to the history of Spain and the United States.

Bernardo de Galvez was born in Macharaviaya, a small town in the hills near Malaga, in July 23, 1746 into an already established prominent military family. His father General Matias de Galvez, Captain General of New Spain and his uncle, Jose de Galvez, Inspector of the Viceroyalty of New Spain will be his guiding light into history.

Bernardo starts his military career in the war against Portugal in 1762 and later arriving in New Spain in 1770 in battle against the Apache Indians in Chihuahua. He returns to Spain in 1772 and begins serving in France. In 1775 as Captain serves in the Battles in Algiers and is wounded. He is then assigned to the Military Academy in Avila, Spain. Finally in 1776 he is appointed Colonel of the Louisiana Regiment in New Orleans. Once settled in New Orleans he marries a beautiful Creole, Felicitas de Saint-Maxent. During these years he promotes immigration and new settlements many being settled by Spaniards from the Canary Islands and from Malaga. In 1777 he becomes Governor of Louisiana and plays an important role in the American Revolution. Galvez helped send supplies up the Mississippi River and started battles against the British colonies along the Gulf Coast.  One of the most important battles takes place in Pensacola, Florida where Galvez earns his title of “Yo Solo” for taking singlehanded from the British the port of Pensacola in May 1781... Earning him the right to have the Brigantine Galvestown on his coat of arms.  Thanks to these missions, the political and monetary support of Spain the colonies won against the British.

In May 2008 the Brigantine Galvestown Foundation was formed with the collaboration of Lighthouse Museum of St. Augustine,(building the lifeboats) University of Malaga, University of Connecticut, Mystic Seaport (building the masts), España Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution and many other Spanish and American Institutions who will collaborate with this project. Wood from hurricane damage from St. Augustine started the project alongside Spanish wood. We are now waiting for more hurricane destroyed oak wood to arrive from Galveston, Texas.

What an amazing way to recycle and seal the historical union between Spain and the United States. The Galvestown will set sail in 2011 from Malaga and sail to many ports in the Unites States to become a floating Ambassador to spread Spanish cultural and history through the life of Bernardo de Galvez. This project includes a documentary of the shipbuilding process, movie about the life of Bernardo de Galvez, comic book and many more adventures to come…. WHY NOT COME ABOARD.  
The Galvestown in the Battle of Pensacola painted by Esteban Arriaga for the project.




Search for Farragut site awaits launch
As development looms, groups need funds for survey

September 17, 2008
By Darren Dunlap
Knox County historic groups searching for the birthplace and cabin site of Civil War Adm. David Glasgow Farragut face a looming deadline.

Development of 5 acres at Stoney Point on Fort Loudoun Lake was delayed 90 days in July to allow for an archaeological survey of the area.

The groups need to raise $9,450 for the survey, which will be conducted by the UT Archaeological Research Laboratory, according to Nic Arning, chairman of the Knoxville Historic Zoning Commission.

“Once it all gets bulldozed, it’s going to be too late,” he said. “And that’s the time factor we’re racing against.”

Historic groups want to mark the exact spot of the small cabin the Farraguts once called home.

The property owner, Lylan S. Fitzgerald, said she doesn’t have a specific date for beginning the actual construction of the small residential development, which would have nine lots. She’s gotten the needed approval for rezoning and development, according to her attorney, Arthur Seymour.

Arning said Fitzgerald has been “very cooperative” with historic groups in past months on the matter.

“She’s letting us on to the property, and she doesn’t have to do all this,” he said.

Farragut, the first U.S. admiral, was born in 1801 and lived at Stoney Point, near Knoxville. In 1806, his father moved the family to New Orleans.

His father had received a naval commission. The younger Farragut would not be far behind in his service.

According to the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, Farragut entered the Navy at age 9 as a midshipman. Two years later, he fought in the War of 1812. He commanded a vessel at age 12.

His military career would include commanding a flotilla at New Orleans in the Civil War in 1861 that opened the Mississippi River to federal traffic. Success opening the river to Vicksburg would earn him the rank of rear admiral in 1862, and two years later he would lead the Union Navy in the Battle of Mobile Bay.

During the battle, aboard the USS Hartford, he was reported to have uttered those famous words — “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead” — as the ship passed the USS Brooklyn to lead the assault.

What he said, exactly, has been debated, much like his exact birthplace.

The Bonny Kate chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in Knoxville marked the approximate location of Farragut’s birthplace with a hefty stone monument on the Stoney Point property in 1900.

The marker will remain, a condition Fitzgerald agreed to, according to Metropolitan Planning Commission records.

The property is considered the last remaining undeveloped portion of the farm of Adm. Farragut’s father, who once operated a ferry between Knox and Blount County, said Arning. Should historic groups pull together the funding for UT to do the archaeology study, they’ll look at one of four possible sites at Stoney Point for the site of the cabin.

Arning said three of the possible sites are on the Fitzgerald property, and one is on county property that runs adjacent to the proposed private development. The county property is actually an old road skirting the shore and leading to a boat ramp.

Nearby stands the stone marker, and behind that is an open lot where a dilapidated farmhouse stood until about one to two weeks ago, said a resident on the lake, Gary McCracken.

The site is visible from the water; McCracken said he noticed the house was gone when he took visitors by to view it from the lake recently.

Even with the construction, Fitzgerald doesn’t anticipate it will disturb the sites.

“The development we have planned will have little or no impact on the locations they have shown me,” Fitzgerald said in an e-mail.

She said that TVA has determined that there are no historically significant buildings on the property.

TVA spokesman Gil Francis said the agency has done no archaeological surveying. A private cultural resources firm did an assessment on the land that included structures on the Fitzgerald property.

The old farmhouse wasn’t deemed historically significant, but the land could yield items of historical significance, according to TVA. Francis said the location does have a “high potential” for historic and prehistoric archaeological resources.

Arning said Knox Heritage, a non profit organization, could accept donations for the archaeological survey. Email Knox Heritage at or call 865-523-8008.

Darren Dunlap may be reached at 865-342-6634.

  © 2010 Scripps Newspaper Group — Online
Please email me at if you want more information and a list of historic preservation people/hispanic heritage activists/political figures who are involved.
Margot Kline

David G. Farragut Papers 
Call number: MS-1887 
Repository: University of Tennessee Special Collections Library, Knoxville, TN
Abstract: The collection contains extensive correspondence and other material related to the career of Admiral David Glasgow Farragut from 1830-1870. Subsequent materials include correspondence from the Admiral's wife Virginia, his father George, and his son Loyall. This collection also contains genealogical information about the Farragut family as well as newspaper clippings and articles about the Admiral.

Series VIII: Farragut Family Genealogical Information, 1837-1961

· Folder 26 

- Coat of arms of the family Farragut of Barcelona, 1888 November. A description, in Spanish, of the Farragut family of Barcelona's coat of arms as described and pictured in Adarga Catalana, by Don Frandsco Xavier DeGarma y Duran, Barcelona, 1753. Also lists books in author's possession concerning King Don Jaime I of Spain in a note from George Marsh of Florence to Virginia Farragut.

- Letters with genealogical information of the Mallorca Farragut family in the 18th century, written to Neil D. Josephson.

- Sineu en la Genealogia de David Glasgow Farragut, by J. Rotger, Palma, 1956; also a mimeographed page from The Life of David Glasgow Farragut describing his ancestor Don Pedro Farragut, 13th century noble warrior. Included is a poem, in Spanish, by Mossen Jaime Febrer concerning Don Pedro and a translation by Brownell. 
- Deposition by William Boswell as to genealogical facts discovered by him concerning Nancy Shine Farragut, 1837. 
- Note: Nancy Shine Farragut was christened Claire Nancy Farragut and was David Farragut's sister. 
- Deposition by William Boswell as to genealogical information found concerning the Farragut family, 1837 
· Folder 30 
- Events in the life of David Farragut, including times as a child in Tennessee, undated.

There is still room for folks to participate in the SAR trip to Spain May 10-18, staying in Madrid and visiting Toledo and El Escorial, with an optional post trip extension to Gibraltar and Tangier, Morrocco.  Cost for the basic trip is $2875.00 pp exclusive of air.  For more info, contact Hazel at Magic Meetings at 703-379-8071 or by e-mail at  






Judge Edward F. Butler, Sr. 1


   1761                            The “Bourbon Family2 Compact”, between France and Spain, provided that any nation which attacked one nation, attacked both; and that when one of the countries was at war, it could call upon the other for military or naval aid.  

1763                            End of the “Seven Years War” between England and the Spanish-French Alliance .  Spain lost Havana and Manila to the English.  To get these forts back, Spain traded East Florida and West Florida to England .  Spain received New Orleans from the French.  

Jul. 4, 1776                 Spain and France enter into a secret agreement with the colonists to support them in their rebellion against England3.  

1776-1779                   Spain provided credit to the colonists totaling 8 million reales, for military and medical supplies and food.  

Aug. 1776                   Gen. Charles Henry Lee, second in command to Gen. George Washington, sent Capt. George Gibson, with a group of 16 colonists, from Ft. Pitt to New Orleans , to obtain supplies from Spain .  

Sep. 1776                    Spain sent 9,000 pounds of gun powder to the colonists up the Mississippi River, and an additional 1,000 pounds by ship to Philadelphia .  

25 Nov. 1776              Carlos, III orders Galvez to collect intelligence about the British.  Later, Galvez was ordered to render secret help to the colonies.  

24 Dec. 1776               Order issued by Minister of the Indies , Jose de Galvez, to the Governor of Louisiana, instructing him to support the Americans.

Jul. 1777                     Spain sent another 2,000 barrels of gun powder, lead and clothing up the Mississippi to assist the colonists.  Carlos, III made secret loans of 1,000,000 livres.  Additional arms, ammunition and provisions were sent by the Spanish to Gen. George Rogers Clark’s posts along the Mississippi ; and to George Washington’s Continental Army.

1777                            American Representative4 in France, Benjamin Franklin, arranged for the secret transport from Spain to the colonies of 215 bronze cannon; 4,000 tents; 13,000 grenades; 30,000 muskets, bayonets and uniforms; 50,000 musket balls; and 300,000 pounds of gun powder.                      

Sep. 1777                    By this time, Spain had already furnished 1,870,000 livres tournaises to the Americans.  Much of this was contributed through a dummy corporation5, for which France received credit.

Oct. 1777                    Patrick Henry wrote two letters to General Galvez, thanking Spain for it’s help and requesting more supplies.  Henry suggested that the two Floridas that Spain lost to England , should revert back to Spain .

1778-1779                   American Gen. George Rogers Clark obtained a considerable amount of his supplies from Gen. Galvez in New Orleans .  These supplies were used in his victories over the British at Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Vicennes.

Jan. 1778                     Patrick Henry wrote another letter to General Galvez, thanking Spain for it’s help and requesting more supplies.   

Feb. 1778                    “Treaty of Alliance” between France and The United States, obligated Spain to assist France against the English.  Gen. Galvez began to recruit an army for the defense of New Orleans .

Mar. 1778                   U.S. Captain James Willing left Ft. Pitt with an expedition of 30 men, bound for New Orleans to obtain supplies for the war.  The expedition plundered the British settlements along the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers .  Gen. Galvez welcomed them to New Orleans . Galvez sold them military arms and ammunition for their return trip to Ft. Pitt .

1779-1782                   Spanish Ranchers along the San Antonio River between San Antonio and Goliad, send 9,000 to 15,000 head of cattle, several hundred horses, mules, bulls and feed to Gen. Bernardo Galvez in New Orleans .  The cattle were used to feed his troops and to provision George Washington’s Continental Army at Valley Forge .

1779                            All males, including Indians, over 18 in New Spain were required to become a member of the Militia in their respective areas.  

Apr. 1779                    Secret treaty was entered into between the French Ambassador in Madrid , and Count Floridablanca, Spanish Secretary of State, which drew Spain openingly into the conflict between the American Colonies and England .  

21 Jun. 1779               Spain declares war on England .  Carlos, III, king of Spain , ordered Spanish subjects around the world to fight the English wherever they were to be found.  Gen. Bernardo Galvez in New Orleans , was ready for battle.

27 Aug. -

7 Sep. 1779                 Gen. Bernardo Galvez lead the Spanish Army at New Orleans up the Mississippi River 90 miles to attack Ft. Bute , in Manchac , Louisiana .  Ft. Bute was surrendered by the English on 7 Sep. 1779.  

29 Aug. 1779              Carlos, III, king of Spain , issued a proclamation that the main objective of the Spanish troops in America was to drive the British out of the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River .  

6 Sep. 1779                 Gen. Galvez led his Spanish troops and the local militia in a battle which resulted in the capture of the British Fort at Bayou Manchac near the Mississippi .  

20 Sep. 1779               Gen. Galvez army captured The British Fort at Baton Rouge , and negotiated the surrender of the British fort at Natchez .  By clearing the Mississippi of British forces, Galvez allowed Capt. William Pickles to bring an American Schooner onto Lake Pontchartrain .  Pickles seized the British privateer, West Florida , which had dominated the lake for two years.  

8 Nov. 1779                Thomas Jefferson wrote to Gen. Galvez, expressing his thanks for Spain ’s assistance during the revolutionary cause.  

1780                            Carlos, III issued a Royal Order requesting a one-time voluntary donation of two pesos per Spaniard and one pesos per Indian in each provincial site in Spain’s New World Empire, to defray the expense of the war with England.  This request was viewed as a crown order, followed by a high level of participation.  

28 Jan. - 9 Mar. 1780             Galvez led the attack on the British Fort at Mobile .  The siege lasted from 10 Feb. to 14 Mar. 1779, when the British surrendered.  Galvez was promoted to Field Marshall and was given command of all Spanish operations in America .  

Apr. 1780                    Spanish fleet sailed from Cadiz , Spain to America to reinforce the army of Gen. Bernardo Galvez.  

16 Oct. 1780               Galvez led a Spanish fleet of 15 war ships and 59 transport ships from Havana to attack Pensacola .  Embarked were 164 officers and 3,829 men.  

18 Oct. 1780               A hurricane hit the Spanish flotilla.  Many were lost.  The survivors retreated to Havana .  For fear that the British might seek to retake Mobile before he could take Pensacola , Galvez dispatches two warships and 500 soldiers to reinforce Mobile .

28 Feb. 1781               Second (and smaller) Spanish flotilla, with 1,315 soldiers, sailed from Havana , Cuba to assist Gen. Bernardo Galvez in his attack on Pensacola .  

9 Mar. 1781                Gen. Galvez led his Spanish troops and Louisiana in a two month Spanish siege on Pensacola began.  Galvez had previously ordered troops stationed in New Orleans and Mobile to join in the attack on Pensacola .  Mobile sent 500 men, and 1,400 arrived from New Orleans .  

19 Apr. 1781               1,600 reinforcements from Havana arrived in Pensacola .

 8 May 1781                 The British surrendered at Pensacola .  This removed the British threat from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River .  Galvez was assisted by four French frigates.  He gave them 500,000 pesos to reprovision their ships.  These ships then proceeded to join the French blockade of Yorktown , which led to the British surrender.

 Aug. 1781                   Gen. George Washington drank a toast to the kings of France and Spain6 at the home of Robert Morris, in Philadelphia .  

19 Oct. 1781               Gen. Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown7.  

6 May 1782                 Gen. Galvez attacked the Bahamas , which surrendered.  

3 Sep. 1783                 With the signing of the Paris Peace Treaty0, peace was declared between England , the United States , Spain and France0.  

1784                            U.S. Congress formally cited Gen. Bernardo Galvez and Spain for their aid during the American Revolutionary War.  

1785                            Upon his father’s death, Gen. Bernardo Galvez was named Viceroy of New Spain.  

30 Nov. 1785              Gen. Bernardo Galvez died in Mexico City , Mexico.  

1            NSSAR Ambassador to Mexico , 2001-2002; Founder of the Mexico Society, Sons of the American Revolution and Charter President and National Trustee of the Mexico Society, SAR.

2            The kings of Spain and France were both members of the Bourbon family, and were cousins.

3            The promise of secret support from both Spain and France surely gave confidence to the colonists prior to the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

4            Since the colonies had not obtained their independence from England yet, France could not accept an Ambassador.  Yet, Franklin , the “Representative” was afforded all the courtesies normally extended to other Ambassadors.

5            The famous “Rodrigue Hortalez and Company” served as the conduit for Spanish assistance.  It’s main director was the French playright and statesman, Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais.

6            It should be noted that to a lesser degree, the colonists received aid and assistance from Holland (now the Netherlands ) and Sweden .  Each allowed American ships the use of their ports. The current king of Sweden has been offered membership in the Sons of the American Revolution.

7            Although the hostilities between the American and British forces were halted by the surrender, the Revolutionary War was not over.  Indians aligned with the British continued to fight in Ohio and Indiana.  France and Spain continued their hostilities against the British. 

            8.   Both the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Sons of the American Revolution recognize service between the period 19 Oct. 1781 and 3 Sep. 1783 as “qualified” patriotic service.

May Travel schedule for Judge Edward F. Butler, Sr.

May 4 – 9                                FLSSAR Convention              Kissimme , FL

May 10- 25                             SAR Trip to Spain

May 26- 27                             West Point Mil. Academy      West Point , NY

May 28 - 29                            Visit SR/Fraunces Tavern      NYC, NY

May 30                                    Travel Day

May 31                                    Memorial Day Parade            Washington, DC




Breakthrough in our Arzamendi research by Lauro Garza Arzamendi
Sescosse by Guillermo Padilla Origel
Yermo by Guillermo Padilla Origel
Spanish Surname Meanings & Origins: Uncovering Your Spanish Heritage 

Breakthrough in our Arzamendi research
Lauro Garza Arzamendi

    Imagine tracing your family all the way back to Europe, locating the exact place of origin, and finding the family castle! Serendipity means to find unexpectedly, and the unexpected brings a great surprise! I have recently experienced all these things. The journey to these discoveries started with my desire to vindicate my grandfather Louis Arzamendi. In an earlier article on the Somos Primos website, “The Quest for the Arzamendis”, I related in depth on how I started with no information; only an earnest desire to find my grandfather Arzamendi’s identity. Using I found a cluster of Arzamendis in Cameron County, Texas. I found a phone number in my searches and taking a deep breath I called it. Bingo! This kind of work requires the adventurous, but what that phone call opened up to me was a dream come true. A door opened that would take me places unimagined and lead me into fascinating adventures.


My search led to individuals who had known my grandfather, Louis Arzamendi 
but much more was revealed. I was taken 
to the “Mata” museum in Matamoros to see the military equipment of his uncle General Juan de Dios Arzamendi who died in combat in the Mexican revolution. I was amazed to see the sword, epaulets, medals, and helmet!  

General Juan de Dios; 
Helmet. Sword, and Epaulet  

This fabulous find was just  the beginning; my research uncovered more than 100 years of Arzamendi military officers. The first Arzamendi to arrive in the New World was Lt. Jose Joaquin Arzamendi who arrived in Veracruz, Nuevo Espana, in 1810 having crossed the Atlantic in the frigate, “The Guadalupe”. We know from the archives of the Indies in Sevilla, Spain that his father was Ignacio Arguindegui Arzamendi and his mother was Maria Ignacia Muguru Lecuona. Lt. Jose Joaquin Arzamendi and his father were born in Azpietia, Guipuzcoa, Basque Country, Spain. Lt. Jose Joaquin Arzamendi arrived with his son Juan de Dios Arzamendi, who later in the new republic of Mexico became a general. One of General Juan de Dios Arzamendi’s sons was Colonel Bartolome Arzamendi. Fortunately I was able to retrieve his military record and picture from the University of Veracruz. Colonel Bartolome Arzamendi served with valor for 37 years from 1817 to 1854 in the Mexican Military.  He commanded troops in combat against; the Spanish in the Independence of Mexico, invasion by the French in the Maximilian episode, and the invasion of Mexico by American troops. He received for heroic actions under enemy fire the following promotions and medals.  


  1. Bartomole Arzamendi began military service on February 3, 1817.
  2. Promoted to Lieutenant January 17, 1820
  3. The Silver Medallion of Mexico with a white ribbon to be worn around his neck was awarded for his bravery during the Independence from Spain March 1821.
  4. Promoted to Captain July 28, 1821.
  5. For his display of Heroism, Order, and Humanity in the defense of the city of Tepeaca against the Spanish army he received the Silver Cross and Letter of Commendation April 1821.
  6. Because of his victorious defense of the Villa de Cordoba in May of 1821 he earned the Military Cross. The military recorded documents that he caused great terror on the Spanish army.
  7. Bartolome Arzamendi’s actions in the siege of Ulua from 1823 to 1825 resulted in his being awarded the Mexican Cross of Honor.
  8. Promoted to Lt. Colonel November 21, 1832.
  9. His valor in combat against the French army on December 5, 1838 resulted in him being awarded the Coat of Arms of Distinction.
  10. He was promoted to Colonel on the 27th of October 1841.
  11.  Colonel Bartolome Arzamendi was awarded the Campaign Cross for participation in the defense of the Republic during the American invasion.

This military record is one excellent example of an Arzamendi officer service to his nation. As I traced Arzamendis in the Mexican history books I found notation after notation of their roles in battles in all the wars beginning from 19th century Nuevo Espana to twentieth century Mexico.

Mexican Government Archival Records of Arzamendi Officers  

1816 Second Lieutenant Don Joaquin Arzamendi served under Santa Ana.
1816 Don Joaquin Arzamendi Promoted to Lieutenant by the Viceroy 
Record “Santa Anna antes Santa Anna” by Enrique Gonzalez Perdero  

1822 History of Tampico 
General Juan de Dios Arzamendi noted in Government Archives 

1822 History of Mexico
Colonel Bartolome Arzamendi, noted as the son of General Arzamendi

1822-45 History of Veracruz
Don Jose Nicassio de Arzamendi

1845 History of Mexico
General Commander of Tehuantpec and the Isle of Carmen
General Juan de Dios Arzamendi

1846-48 American Invasion of Mexico
Capitan Don Luis Arzamendi  

1853 National Secretary of Defense Archives Marching Orders
Commandant Don Joaquin Arzamendi  

1855 National Secretary of Defense Archives
Named to Principal Commander of the Sotavento Coast
General Juan de Dios Arzamendi  

1856-1857 in the Acayucan
Battalion Colonel Don Bartolomé Arzamendi  

Born 1864 mortally wounded in battle in 1914
General Juan de Dios Arzamendi
Promoted to Captain 1897, Lt. Colonel Nov. 1909, Brigadier General April 17, 1912
Commander of Arms Zacatecas 1912, Commander of Arms Tamualipas 1913, 
mortally wounded near Guadalcazar in 1914

 Major Ricardo Calderon Arzamendi:
Served in the 1920’s, documented from a Matamoros Newspaper called the “Alarma” for his contributions to the understanding of the Battle of Celaya as well as documented in a book by an antagonist who sought to refute his opinion.

Fascinating to me about the Arzamendis aside from their accomplishments is the rarity of the actual family. There are less than 50 people in the United States with the surname, and about 156 in all of Spain! 150 of the Arzamendis in Spain live in the Basque province of Guipuscoa.

My wife and I took our first trip to Spain in 2008 and spent a month working and I took the opportunity to research at the best libraries. There I found a great work of history and genealogy, La Enciclopedia Heraldica y Genealogica de los Hispano Americanos. A truly exhaustive and enormous work, it provides extraordinary information. The encyclopedia showed the place of origin for the Arzamendis. This thrilling information came late, as I had to return to the United States!  

My historical research had revealed that the ancestral homes, called in Spanish “Casa Solariega”, were to be found in Luko, Arrasate, Bizkai, and Azkoitia. I want to tell you that though fascinating this research was very difficult sometimes I would come to an impasse that would frustrate me for weeks! Quite actually great advances take place during those times. The impasse in my research progress would cause me to resort to new tactics. I found the government hall (Ayuntamiento) for the city of Arrasate on the web and I emailed them as to if there were any Arzamendis in their city. Time went by and I received a reply from a Mr. Jon Garai who was the minister of culture. His email was short and to the point, “There is a Mr. David Arzamendi here, he is 94 but of very sound mind and body. He can tell you about the Arzamendis.”  

I became very excited but now the man was an ocean away! At his age no doubt he knew things about the family from the early 20th century. I told my aunt about him, she quipped, “Well you’d better hurry” referring to his age!  It seemed impossible to go back the same year ;I had already spent a month there. I focused on returning and prayed 
over it. God heard my prayer because despite circumstances we went back in November. I sent emails that we were coming. We didn’t know what to expect so we decided to stay in the main city of 
Bilbao and then take a daily bus to Arrasate returning back in the late evening. Bilbao 
is a fabulous city of architecture, art, restaurants and education. Modern and 19th century architecture dominate the city. The cities with old roots have what is called a “Casco Viejo”, a historic downtown center with narrow streets, quaint cafes, interesting               
Casa Pension Mardones in the Casco Viejo Bilbao       
shops and a social life that is very active. 
You just don’t run into shop and get out; you have a visit, of course! I love that life much better than the modern international hotels in new town centers. You get the feel that you are living in the days of old Spain! You can stay in renovated homes designed to be inns called, “Penciones”. There are much less expensive than the hotels but not as comfortable. You may have to walk up three flights of stairs with your luggage and even the suites are tight. But they have an atmosphere that you find elsewhere!   


The streets of Casco Viejo Bilbao
 in the early morning  

We made the journey to Bilbao, checked into our Pencion and rested one day. The fateful day came as we boarded a bus to go to where my Arzamendi root started hundreds of years ago! I had found references in Spanish documenting the Arzamendis living in and around the Arrasate. One reference documented that in the 13th century the Arzamendis were making large contributions to religious orders. One aspect of research that fascinates me is that the Arzamendis are very small family, there only 156 in all of Spain, and of those 150 live in Guipuzgoa province the original place of origin of the family. There are less than 50 that go by the surname in the United States! 

Bilbao is hardly a city stuck in the past! It is known as the home of the world renown Guggenheim Museum of Modern Art constructed totally of titanium!  

We arrived in Arrasate after a scenic drive from the coast through the mountains. What a surprise that awaited us! I didn’t’ know it some of the most joyous days of my life were beginning! Lupe Arzamendi and the Minister of Culture met us and took us to a reception dinner. Our walk took us straight into the Casco Viejo of Arrasate.  The emotion that swept over and the thoughts that raced through my mind were not nostalgic but of a dynamic revelation of my place in the human family. My ancestors and present day relatives had walked these streets since 1400 the establishment date of the city!  We entered a very old but well kept building that served as a restaurant and walked up a broad wooden staircase. When I entered the room there were many people seated at a large table with so much activity;waiters coming and going, people talking, and all in this very large banquet hall. At this point I was overwhelmed I probably expected to come all this way and meet an elderly gentleman in his living room for an interview. My many international travels have required of me to appraise people and situations. The atmosphere was that of formal dinner held by dignitaries, everyone dressed well; these were people of stature, educated and cultured. I was seated at the center of a long banquet table that held about 25 people. The introductions began, they first enquired could I speak Spanish? I assented that I did, they had seated an Arzamendi family member in front of me slightly left of center, and the lady was a professor of English. Directly in front of me was Mr. David Arzamendi the 94-year-old man. He was impeccably dressed in suit and tie, very handsome with steel blue eyes; he projected a very sober but astute personality.  

Our introductions began and of course it was not possible to remember everyone but I was stunned there were more Arzamendis here in the room than I’d met in my entire life! As we spoke we served several courses of excellent food. As soon as we got fairly comfortable and introduced they began to ask me questions. The Basques are very hospitable people but they are very guarded. Not everybody gets in! They had vetted me on the Internet and they knew a lot about me. But now they wanted to see what I knew about them. First there question about history and the Basques, then genealogy. It was testing you could say, underlining it all was the real question, is our visitor a real Basque? That was a decision only they could determine, this after all was an intangible quality. It would be cultural determination; they would have to like me!


Some of the first Arzamendis I met at the reception dinner! David Arzamendi in center .

There was a simple test they were about to put me through that could easily in those intangible moments be the one that simply failed before going any further. As we spoke they asked a variety of questions. One of the elders sitting across the table to my right asked, “ Y el dedo”? (What about your finger?) , I replied, “Cual dedo?” He again spoke, “El dedo gordo de los Arzamendis”! (the Arzamendi big thumb!) This was nothing I knew about and I told them so. I was informed that the Arzamendis had thumb trait that was always looked for! I knew this was the serious moment yet, I could almost hear a drum roll. The English professor Marin was sitting at this point directly across from me, I didn’t even know how they had switched out Mr. David Arzamendi! The elder Jose instructed her, “Ensenale el dedo”! (Show him the finger) I knew that this was a make or break it situation, I had never heard of any such family genetic characteristic. Even though I might be an Arzamendi genetically but if I didn’t carry this feature it would be the characteristic that would cover my failure to pass the cultural test. Someone who simply didn’t like me would say, “He can’t be an Arzamendi, look he doesn’t have the thumb”! Marin lifted her hand and outstretched thumb, I brought mine up, it was a perfect match! 

The Arzamendi Thumb!  

I had never heard of this physical characteristic in all of life! My branch of the family had left the Basque country 200 years before but I carried the trait! There was a lot of good-natured laughing and big smiles of approval. I was in, at least for now I was in! I had become one of them.  

Linda and I returned to Bilbao and came back with our entire luggage to stay in Arrasate. We were put up at a Pencion in the center of the Casco Viejo adjacent to the main square. What a thrill! So much was happening! I had found my family and exact place of origin!  

The city of Arrasate (Spanish Mondragon) was established in 1400, and it follows the medieval pattern for a town subject to war. You have a main square, the church, the buildings around them, and the city walls. It is lovely experience to stay in such a place I shun the modern areas except for occasional shopping, and prefer to live in the “Casco Viejo”. The incessant medieval warfare caused clans of various families to unite and form “Hermandads”, “Brotherhoods”. There were killings and retributions, with further killings for the retributions! These would occasionally erupt into clan warfare. The Arzamendis were involved in all of these things. The records show that two Arzamendi brothers were killed in retribution for a retribution killing they had committed.  

Linda and I settled into our historic surroundings and the very next day we began to experience the wonderful hospitality. Our Arzamendi relatives began to call on us daily. Pilar Arzamendi who I met at the reception dinner was a true celebrity in Arrasate; she was a civic leader and headed up the Catholic Charities. The day would begin with one of the Arzamendis, usually Pilar, taking us to community breakfast at a local bakery. We would meet locals and eat fresh croissants. The conversations were very stimulating; these were not backward people by any means! Pilar carried her cellphone, checked her voice messages, managed the town charity and drove her car with a great energy! Not bad for a woman in her late 70s!  

They were very accommodating, any historical or genealogical research I wanted to conduct, and they would drive me, sometimes to distant locations. Different family members that lived in different areas of the province invited us to visit and we did experiencing great warmth and hospitality.  

I was invited by the Minister of Culture to have free use of the Ayuntamiento Archives. The secretary of the archives brought out two fabulous documents, the granting of Hidalgo status to men in the Arzamendi family. Please remember there have never been that many Arzamendis. That granting of Hidalgo status was for paperwork sake as the Arzamendi family were Warlords and prominent before this time. The Hidalgo certifications placed in my hands were dated 1591 and 1595! What a thrill to hold these documents in my hands! I made copies and photographed them as well.  

Two Certifications of Hidalgo status 
for the Arzamendi family 
1591, 1595 

Arrasate-Mondragon Ayuntamiento, Guipuscoa, Basque Autonomous Region  

There has been much discussion on the subject of Hidalgo status but I got my information from the secretary of the Ayuntamiento archives, the very place where they granted a family the title of Hidalgo. Today these qualifications and for that matter the privileges are not politically correct. So please excuse me as a Historian but these are the facts. The man and his family that were being granted Hidalgo status had to have witnesses present themselves before the Provincial Counsel. These are the qualifications and benefits of  being granted Hidalgo status in 16th century Spain and Pais Vasco.  

The Hidalgo had to be a man of means. In Spanish we use the word “algo” to signify “something”, as in “do you have something” Tienes algo? However it also can be used to denote “means, abundant substance”. So Hidalgo is a contraction of a phrase Hijo de algo) which translates to “a son of means”. The correct translation into English would be he is a “son of old money”!  

Credible witnesses of the very best families would come to testify before the Provincial Council that;

  1. The man eligible for Hidalgo did not work with his hands. He had enough money where he was free from having to do manual labor.
  2. The candidate was not involved in usury, in other words he did not lend out money for interest. This was usually a Jewish occupation.
  3. There was no Jew in his family for at least three generations by ancestry, by conversion, or by marriage.
  4. There was no Moslem in his family for at least three generations by ancestry, by conversion, or by marriage.

The Benefits of Hidalgo status were;

1.      The Hidalgo did not have to pay taxes.

2.      The Hidalgo gained a seat on the ruling Provincial Council.

3.      The Hidalgo did not have to serve the King of Spain in battle unless he chose to. If he did agree to serve in battle for the Spanish Monarchy he served as a military commander with no title and position less than Capitan.

4.      The Hidalgo was obliged to defend his province when it was attacked.

5.      He was entitled to have a “War Castle”, a bastion of defense.

6.      The Hidalgo was considered to be a native son of the soil and province whose family was descended from the original inhabitants.  

The very first day in Arrasate I met Jose Maria Aguirre who is married to Guadalupe Arzamendi. He is a historian of the Arzamendis and has a book  he has produced chock full of information. This book really helped my research and accelerated my finds. I found out from him the Arzamendi War Castle still existed though in ruins! It is located at the end of Arzamendi street in what is now Bergara! So many good things were happening to me I was in ecstasy! Imagine I had begun three years previously knowing nothing about my Arzamendi line. Since that time I had discovered my grandfather’s lineage tracing it back to Europe, found my relatives and the Casa Solariega, the ancestral home! This is the stuff dreams are made of; my dream had come true! I can only credit the God of the Bible with my good fortune, I pray over all my work!  

Our gracious hosts, Pilar Arzamendi and Arantxa Madina drove us to the Arzamendi War Castle. When I saw it joy overcame me. I had traced my roots back to the very place of origin!  


The Arzamendi War Castle 
approximately 16th century, near Bergara.  

To understand the scale I am the figure to the right of the structure. I would imagine that in the original condition there were wooden buildings where the family and their soldiers with their families lived. In times of war they would go to the war tower. I am not sure but I will find out eventually. I have been in nations were people have lived continuously for generations in one area. Their mindset is totally different than our nation where most people don’t know who their great-grandparents were. None of the Arzamendis that I met had ever been to this site!! One would think since there only 156 in all of the Iberian Peninsula, and 150 of those live in the same province, that they would have a great interest! It reminds me of my experience with Bedouins of the Middle East. When you ask them who they are or where you are at they respond calmly with names from the Old Testament!    

The War Castle is situated at the end of Arzamendi street, how that came to be I don’t know yet. It didn’t occur to me when I started this project that it would be a lifetime assignment!  

The hospitality of my Basque relatives was so full of love and consideration. They sent me to different branches of the family in different locations of the province. Linda and I experienced such joy and had a lot of fun. Let me encourage those of you reading this article, a great adventure waits for you! Life is a mystery with solutions continuously unfolding. Don’t ever get to old to dream.  

 Lauro Garza Arzamendi aka Larry Garza  

Pilar Arzamendi and 
Lauro Garza Arzamendi 
on Arzamendi St. in Bergara




Guillermo Padilla Origel


I.-Don Federico Sescosse, originario de Francia nace por 1855,  y se casa el 6 de septiembre de 1877, en Venado, S.L.P., con doña Matilde Pérez,  y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

II.-Don José Federico Sescosse Pérez, bautizado el 16 de marzo de 1886, en Zacatecas, Zac.

II.-Don Rafael Sescosse Pérez, soltero.

II.-Don Manuel Sescosse Pérez, nace en Guadalupe, Zacatecas, por 1880, y se casa en primeras nupcias con señora Bracho, sin descendencia; y en segundas Nupcias con doña Mariana Lejeume Flores, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

III.- Doña Matilde, y Doña Mariana Sescosse Lejeume, solteras.

III.-Don Rafael Sescosse Lejeume, casado con doña Victoria Eugenia Soto Ramírez, y fue su hijo: Rafael Sescosse Soto.

III.-Don Federico Sescosse Lejeume, nace el 27 de septiembre de 1913,  en Zacastecas, escritor y cronista de la ciudad de Zacatecas, muere en 1999, casado con doña Amalia Pesquera Gómez,  nacida en Tepetongo, Zacatecas, y fueron 3 hijas y un hijo llamado: Federico Sescosse Pesquera.

III.-Don Manuel Sescosse Lejeume, nació el 19 de noviembre de 1919,  en Zacatecas, y se casa con doña Elisa Varela Cerrillo, y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Don Manuel Fernando Sescosse Varela, nacido el 22 de noviembre de 1952, en Zacatecas,  y casado con doña María Concecpión Yanez Castanedo, originaria de Nochistlán, Zacatecas, con sucesión.

2.-Don Mauricio y doña María Elisa Sescosse Varela.




Guillermo Padilla Origel  


I.-Don Gabriel Joaquín de Yermo y de la Bárcena, nacido en Sodupe, provincia Vasca, España, vecino de México, en 1760, se casó con su deuda: Doña Josefa de Yermo, “dueños de la hacienda de “Jalmolonga”, en el estado de México y fue su hijo entre otros:

II.-Don José María de Yermo y Yermo, casado con doña Apolonia Soviñar, y fue su hijo entre otros:

III.-Don Manuel de Yermo y Soviñar, casado con doña María Josefa de Parres, y fue su hijo entre otros:

IV.-R.P. San José María de Yermo y Párres, nació el 10 de noviembre de 1851, en la hacienda de “Jalmolonga” en el estado de México, se ordenó sacerdote en la diócesis de León, Gto. el 14 de agosto de 1879, fundador de la Iglesia del  Calvario y de las religiosas: “siervas de la caridad y de los pobres”, en la ciudad de León, Gto., México,  donde después se le conoció como el “Gigante de la caridad y de los Pobres”, murió en Puebla de los Ángeles, el 20 de septiembre de 1904, y fue canonizado el 21 de marzo de 2000, por su santidad Juan Pablo II en la ciudad de Roma, Italia.

Sr. Guillermo Padilla Origel
agente profesional de fianzas
Madero no. 320-7
centro, 37000
León, Gto. México
tels. 7-16-65-92 y 7-16-64-38 fax
I.D. 52*11*18825


Spanish Surname Meanings & Origins

Uncovering Your Spanish Heritage

By , Guide


With roots in the middle ages, Spanish surnames have been around since the 12th century. Hispanic surnames can be especially important to genealogists because children are commonly given two surnames, one from each parent. The middle name (1st surname) comes from the father's name (apellido paterno), and the last name (2nd surname) is the mother's maiden name (apellido materno). Sometimes, these two surnames may be found separated by y (meaning "and"), although this is no longer as common as it once was. Recent changes to laws in Spain mean that you may also find the two surnames reversed - first the mother's surname, and then the father's surname.
  • Patronymic & Matronymic Surnames - Based on a parent’s first name, this category of surnames includes some of the most common Hispanic surnames. These Hispanic surnames are often formed by adding an -es, -as, -is, or -os (common to Portuguese surnames) or an -ez, -az, -is, or -oz (common to Castilian or Spanish surnames) to the end of the father's name. (Leon Alvarez - Leon son of Alvaro).
  • Occupational Surnames - these Hispanic last names are based on the person’s job or trade (Roderick Guerrero - Roderick the warrior or soldier).
  • Descriptive Surnames - Based on a unique quality or physical feature of the individual, these surnames often developed from nicknames or pet names (Juan Delgado - John the thin).

Origins of 50 Common Spanish Surnames
Click on these surnames for considerable information and resources on that surname, which includes:
meaning of the surname, Origin of the surname,  Family Genealogy Forum, Genealogy Resources, online records, family history societies, surname databases, and research guides, find records, queries, and lineage-linked family trees posted,  and free mailing list for researchers of the surname and its variations includes subscription details and a searchable archives of past messages. 

17. CRUZ 42. PENA




Breakfast Tacos went Mainstream, but it did not happen overnight 
by Juan Castillo
March 10, 2010
Decades ago, when I was not even a teenager and working in farm fields in Indiana, family members greeted dawn to cook the food that filled our tacos. Picadillo and potatoes. Eggs and frijoles or chorizo.

They wrapped them in foil, dropped them in a cooler, and off we went, crammed as tightly in our Chevy Impala as the tacos were in the cooler.

Probably because the farm work was devilishly hard, the tacos were outrageously good, and we would devour them during our brief morning breaks around 10:30, washing them down with cheap sodas. We’d been at work since 6. The more we toiled, the more we got paid, so we didn’t dally. 

The breakfast tacos were not only lifeblood; in fields miles from any stores and restaurants —, which we could not afford anyway — they were portable, convenient and tasty. Generations of Mexican American farmworkers before us could attest to that.

So it was with some interest — and maybe a little amusement that I read this morning’s New York Times story on how it is that breakfast tacos went mainstream in Austin.

Austin can’t claim taco primacy. That category is too broad, encompassing too many variations in style. When it comes to breakfast tacos, however, Austin trumps all other American cities.

That will surely trigger some outrage in towns everywhere, including where I grew up along the border in the Rio Grande Valley. Oh wait, it already has. Some are calling it a travesty.

Breakfast tacos may have gone mainstream, but it didn’t happen overnight. For many, the trail flows back to beginnings well more than half a century ago, somewhere on cotton fields in Texas and on farms in the Heartland. There, breakfast tacos fed not only the soul. They nourished weary bodies.

Tuesday, July 29, 2008

Moderate Earthquake in Southern California by Viola Rodriguez Sadler


It hit at 11:42 am. I know because the grandfather clock stopped. For us, it started to rumble, similar to a low-flying jet over the house, but then it started quaking. It was hard enough that it was difficult to walk across the room. I made it to a door jamb, and hubby made it to another door jamb, too. The shaking lasted a good 20 to 25 seconds. It was a scary feeling. The chandelier in the dining room was swinging hard. One of the picture frames was also moving. When the shaking stopped, we stepped outside and could see my plants on hanging pots still swaying. We have our cabinets attached to the wall, so none of those fell over, but some drawers and cabinet doors did open partially. One clock fell off in the guest room. One small picture fell off elsewhere, too. The hot water heater was strapped, so it was OK.

We were not able to get in touch with our son, immediately, but are certain he is fine. Hubby is picking him up from his work now. Daughter called already, and we reassured her all of us are OK.

We know we live in earthquake country and this is not the first earthquake we have experienced. The Sylmar earthquake was my first experience, and both my children were babies. When it happened both of them were still asleep. I do remember that my daughter raised her head, but went back to sleep after the jolt shook her crib.

We remember the quake in San Francisco and the images of the freeway levels pancaking. The Northridge quake was probably the last 'major' earthquake that we felt. Images of bricks on the sidewalks and freeway bridges sheared off are what I recall, but none of those quakes affected the family. No loss in property, not even loss in power. We are very blessed.

We carried earthquake insurance for a long period, until it became very expensive. Then the insurance carrier at that time informed us that they would no longer offer that kind of insurance because they had very large claims after the Northridge quake. Now, because of some legislation, homeowners must be offered earthquake insurance, but it is still very costly. So, at this time we do not have that coverage.

We try to keep both our cars 'gassed up' at all times, but we currently do not have an emergency kit a the ready. I recall experiencing several hurricanes in south Texas, and they are certainly scarier and last longer. Most of us who have lived in Southern California for a long time know that this was only a moderate one. But the media will keep hyping it. Even so, we are grateful that we have been spared the 'big one' that we have been warned about.



Recording family stories which tie into happenings 
by Mimi Lozano
After reading Viola's story on her delightful blog, I thought yes . .  we should record happenings from the personal perspective, so that our children and grandchildren will see us in that time frame. 

The Long Beach earthquake that took place March 10, 1933, only moderate in terms of magnitude, but the earthquake caused serious damage and shaped building requirements for California after that.  I was born in the fall of 1933.  My Mom was pregnant with me and happened to be at the beach, in the water, when the quake hit. She said that she was swept upside down by the waves, and  felt like she was in a washing machine with her head being twirled around in a circle.  So, I would say even though I don't remember, I got an tripe Earthquake ride in California before I was even born.  

Being brought up in California, I have experienced many earthquakes, while in many different location, which I do remember, but none of the experiences have been a source of fear.  One time, my husband and I should have been afraid, but it took us a second to react.  We were vacationing in the California mountains and had stopped at a small market to get something cool.  Just as we were checking out, the rumbling and movement started. We stood on the spot, waiting for it to stop. However,  the clerk, leaving the register open, shot out the door.  

Then we realized that behind the clerk was a huge wall made entirely of stones.  We looked at each other and dashed out the door, standing away from the structure until the moving completely stopped.   My sister said that the Loma Prieta Earthquake, October 17, 1989 in the San Francisco Bay Area had brought down the chimneys of the homes in San Mateo, many of which were stone built.  The young clerk knew what he was doing, when he rushed outside.  

With earthquakes happening all over the world, we should all re-access our surroundings with a fresh perspective, enjoy the beauty of our world, but respect its magnitude and power, and as Viola said,  be prepared.  




"Who Do You Think You Are?" 
Tampa Bay Roots

Center of Forensic Profiling, Training & Casework Worldwide Since 1987
Find a Grave 
The Perfect Tombstone Rubbing From Kimberly Powell, your Guide to Genealogy Family history made simple & affordable
"Who Do You Think You Are?" Gets Second Season
winning the 8-9 p.m. ET hour in adults 18-49, marking the first time any regular competitor in this slot has beaten an original episode of CBS's "Ghost Whisperer" in 18-49 rating since November 17, 2006.  You can watch “Who Do You Think You Are?” episodes on at: 

Clear descriptions of recommended websites.

Center of Forensic Profiling, Training & Casework Worldwide 

If you are a long time Somos Primos reader, you may remember Treyce Montoya, a handwriting analyst specialist. Treyce has worked closely with Police Departments and Human Resources departments and agencies.
Treyce kindly analyzed some family documents for family researchers, to the delight of family members who enjoyed greater insight into the character of their ancestor. The individuals who she analyzed were Juan Bautista de Anza, Valentin Gomez Farias, Irving Berlin, and Lucas de la Fuente. Treyce has offered to once again analyze a few examples which we will publish in Somos Primos. 
If you would like to have your ancestors handwriting analyzed, please write to Treyce, giving an approximate date when it was written, and your connection to the writer of the sample. 
Treyce Montoya > 
Please cc me. Mimi Lozano>

In 2006 Treyce lead the successful Texas Juvenile Probation Commission research project that was aimed at reducing juvenile recidivism rates via the Handwriting Formation Therapy (HFT) program that she created in 1987. The juveniles that were chosen to participate remained 100% anonymous during the entire 6 month program. All juveniles improved social skills, grades, and gained self confidence but most importantly, to-date none have re-offended. She is the first analyst in history to introduce a program like this within any public setting. For over 20 years many private children, teens and adults around the world have changed their lives permanently with HFT.  
For more on Treyce's expertise, go


Find a Grave 
Who is behind Find A Grave? Well, first and foremost, you are. Thousands of contributors submit new listings, updates, corrections, photographs and virtual flowers every hour. The site simply wouldn't exist without the 500,000+ contributors. When it comes to administrating, building and maintaining the site, Find A Grave is largely operated by its founder, Jim Tipton. In addition to Jim, there are a handful of folks who work behind the scenes, helping out with Find A Grave on a daily basis:

Founder Jim Tipton, was born in Michigan but spent most of his youth in Denver, Colorado. As a kid, when he wasn't solving the Rubik's cube with his feet or juggling fire, Jim was figuring out how anything electronic worked. The arrival of the personal computer brought a whole new outlet for Jim's nerdy tendencies. Jim attended Grinnell College in Iowa and earned a degree in music. He now lives in Salt Lake City, Utah with his wife, children and three cats.

Jim created the Find A Grave website in 1995 because he could not find an existing site that catered to his hobby of visiting the graves of famous people. He found that there are many thousands of folks around the world who share his interests. What began as an odd hobby became a livelihood and a passion. Building and seeing Find A Grave grow beyond his wildest expectations has been immensely satisfying for Jim. Every day, contributors from around the world enter new records, thousands use the site as an educational reference tool, long-lost loved ones are located and millions of lives are fondly remembered. In what other line of work would Jim have met one of the last living munchkins, spoken to a gathering of grave enthusiasts in a Hollywood mausoleum and acquired treasures like his antique coffin screwdriver (it only screws in)? 

The Perfect Tombstone Rubbing 
From Kimberly Powell, your Guide to Genealogy 
Have you ever struggled with trying to get a perfect tombstone rubbing? Ripped your paper or smeared your charcoal? Well, no more! 

You can achieve a clear, durable impression of a tombstone engraving by using wax crayons and interfacing material, such as Pellon, found at your local fabric store. Interfacing fabric is wonderful for tombstone rubbings because it is inexpensive (about $1.25/yard), folds neatly into a suitcase (unlike paper) and doesn't tear. 
To create the perfect rubbing start by ensuring that the stone is stable, is not crumbling and that you have permission to do the rubbing (in some states it is actually illegal). Next cut a piece of non-fusible interfacing material slightly larger than the face of the stone. Use masking tape or a partner to hold the material tightly around the stone. Rub gently, but firmly, over the inscription with the side of a jumbo wax crayon or a block of rubbing wax until you have a good impression of the entire tombstone inscription. Once you get home you can preserve your rubbing by placing it wax side up on an ironing board, then cover with an old towel and iron. This will set the crayon or wax into the fabric and preserve it indefinitely. 

Source: Family history made simple & affordable
With over 1 billion records, Archives is your complete solution for tracing your family tree as far back as possible:
  • Find death, birth, marriage, divorce and historic vital records from one easy-to-use search interface!
  • Discover new connections to your family tree with cemetery listings, obituaries, burial and military records, surname histories, and more.
  • Great for people at all levels - whether you're just starting out or have been doing genealogy for years!




Photo: 2009 Latino OC 100 Honorees
May 1st:   SHHAR Monthly Meeting: Maternal DNA, speaker Crispin Rendon  
May 6th:   Salsa with Sergio Contreras, Westminster School Board Trustee
Event and List of 2009 LATINO OC 100

The 2009 Latino OC 100 honorees pose for a photo during the fourth annual Latino OC 100 reception 
at the Delhi Center in Santa Ana. 
Click for more information and for the list of those honored.
Photo: Carlos Delgado, for the Orange County Register

May 1st   SHHAR Monthly Meeting

Free, all welcomed



 Speaker: Crispin Rendon, Biologist and Family Historian  

Orange Family History Center
674 S. Yorba
Orange, California, 92863-6471


Mitochondrial DNA testing can be confusing. Have you been tested and want to understand the results?  Do you wonder what haplogroup your Mexican ancestors belong to? Crispin will explain the power of Mexican mitochondrial DNA testing when married with Family History Research and why you can thank your mothers for your mtDNA. Are you wondering whether to be tested?  Do you know one test from the other? It is time to clear up the confusion. Learn what test results can tell you and what they can’t tell you.  


9:30-10:15 a.m. hands-on-workshop 

10:30-11:30 Lecture

674 S. Yorba, Orange Family History Center, Orange


Crispin Rendon is a Biologist and former SHHAR broad member with extensive knowledge of Hispanic Family Research.  He has spoken at various Southern California venues and has published in various Hispanic Genealogy Journals. He has been going family history research for 20 years in which time he has amassed a colossal database of over 181,000 individuals all linked to him.




 Ines Rodriguez wife of the founder of Monterrey, Mexico is haplogroup K


  Ines Rodriguez was born in Spain about 1531. She married Diego Montemayor and came with him to Mexico. Diego is credited as being the founder of Monterrey Mexico. 

MtDNA testing has linked Ines to haplogroup K.

 Haplogroup K came into existence about 15,000 years ago somewhere in Europe. Ines is my 11th great grandmother. I descend from her 48 ways but testing my mtDNA would not answer any questions about hers. Someone like Rosalinda Cantu with a maternal lineage that extends to Ines needed to be tested.

 It was last November while working on her mother’s side of the family that I discovered that her maternal lineage extends to Ines Rodriguez. Long story short, I emailed her begging that she get mtDNA tested and she agreed. 

Rosalinda had both low and high resolution testing. She matched test results with 50 other people tested at Family Tree DNA at the low-resolution test level. Those fifty people would have had the same mother some 1,300 years ago. Like Rosalinda, some of those 50 matching people also where tested at the high-resolution level and of those 14 matched her results. Those 14 people would have had the same mother some 700 years ago. 

I have prepared a maternal lineage tree to demonstrate now Rosalinda links to Ines and a report giving the evidence for that tree.  Use the following link to find the whole report: 

Another neat thing going on at Family Tree DNA is the Genealogy of Mexico DNA Project (Group Administrator:  Gary Felix, see link below). This site has the test results for people that have ancestors from Mexico. I used the test results from that web page to create a table of current Mexico mtDNA distribution. 

Family Tree DNA Mexico Genealogy

Mexican mtDNA today


# Tested

% of Total
















There is a wealth of information on DNA testing at Gary Felix's Mexican Surname DNA web page.
I think you will find answers to most of your questions there. The two most popular tests are Y-DNA and mtDNA.
There is a link for a project discount on Gary's page if you choose Family Tree DNA to do the testing.
No matter who does the testing, if you have roots in Mexico consider sending your results to Gary to post on his page.

Salsa with Sergio Contreras
May 6th, 2010

Fund raiser for Sergio Contreras, Westminster School Board Trustee.
Thursday, May 6th,  
5:30 p.m. - 8:00 p.m.
Bleu Restaurant
14160 Beach Blvd
Westminster, CA 92683
Music, Refreshments & Hors d'oeuvres
Live Music! Come to dance or listen...

FREE SALSA DANCE LESSONS! Rosa Garcia, will have you dancing like a "Star"!
5:30 p.m. - 6:30 p.m.

Rosa Garcia has been a dance instructor of many dance genres for the past 10 years. She has danced professionally in Salsa dance for the South Bay Latin Dance Ensemble. Currently, Mrs. Garcia is a dance professor at Santa Ana College where she teaches Classical Ballet.

Rosa Garcia has a BA in Dance from CSU, Long Beach and an MFA in Dance. She studied at the prestigious Alvin Ailey American Dance School in New York on a scholarship. She has been faculty at UCI, Fullerton, Cypress, Saddleback, Laguna Beach H.S., OCHSA, and St. Joseph's Ballet.

For more information  call (714) 305-9714


Event and List of  2009 LATINO OC 100 


Chancellor Eddie Hernandez of the Rancho Santiago Community College District, as well as a hundred people who have made a difference in Orange County's Latino communities, were honored Tuesday, April 6th at the fourth annual Latino OC 100 reception at Delhi Center in Santa Ana. More than 300 people attended the event, organized by Ruben Alvarez of Stay Connected OC, Santa Ana, CA 92703. 

"Special recognition was given to Dr. Eddie Hernandez, who plans to retire as Chancellor of the Rancho Santiago Community College District. Dr. Hernandez created a legacy of vision and leadership for our community. The RSCCD is the great equalizer in education. Santa Ana College has one the highest success rates in the state. We will miss him when he retires this year. One of the original LATINO OC 100, Dr. Hernandez received the most nominations ever for recognition.'
Ruben Alvarez, President & CEO
Valerie Amezcua
Cyndee Albertson
Chris Alexander
Eva Arevalo
Marylou Carrillo
Norma Castellano
Araceli Cazales
Pat Danel
Gabriela Gonzalez
Lilian De La Torre
"Kika" Francis Duarte Medrano Friend
Norma Forbess
Adriana Huezo
Lisa Gonzalez Solomon
Mary Guzman
Olga Henderson
Laura Herrera Mather
Christina Hernandez
Patty Homo
Norma Huizar
Patricia Hureta
Pam Keller
Ana Landrian
Leticia Lechuga
Tish Leon
Martha Lopez
June Magarro
Isabel Martinez Miranda
Delia Murrillo
Marlene Pena Marin
Kathy Ochoa
Sheri Oliveras Lejman
Cecila Peralta
Sarah Rafael Martinez
Rosa Renteria
Reyna Reynoso
Jane Russo
Sonya Velazquez Miskulin
Christine Villegas
Tammi Sanchez
Yatri Shukla
Anita Sweeney
Ruth Valle
Jose Alfaro
Otto Bade
Jess Badillo
Gustavo Barcenas
Frank Cano
Albert Castillo
Frank Castillo
Gil Carmona
Matt Cavanaugh
Ray Estrella
Efrain Fuentes
Daniel Gutierrez
David Hernandez
Alfred Lara
Glenn Llopis
Radon Lopez
Raul Lozano
Larry Luerra
Rene Mancia
Albert Martinez
Michael Mendiola
Alejandro Moreno
Omar Moreno
Clemente Mojica
Francisco Montes
Carlos Muniz
Martin Plascencia
Alejandro Racini
John Raya
Ron Raya
Robert Santana
Felipe Sosa
David Valentin
Alejandro Tovarez
Ernie Vasquez

Sent by Ricardo Valverde


Special LATINO OC100 
Recognition to the Faculty 
and Staff of the TEACH 
Academy and the E-Business 
Academy of Century High School for their tremendous work with their students!

Ruth Abatzoglu
Martin Albert
John Beaumont
Mark Bush
Christian Cushing Murray
Gerald Elizando
Art Enriquez
Alan Gersten
Tessa Heany
Tomas Hernandez
Kamala Kavati
Chuck Lawhon
Eric Manntai
Jessica Manntai
Beau Menchaca
James Overson
Jeanne Roddebaugh
Jennifer Ruvalcaba
Paul Schulte
Gary Rodebaugh
Laura Stern
Justin Thomas

Additional Recognition to 
Members of the Board of 
Directors of the Delhi Center
Frank Haydis
Jorge Bendeck
Sara Murrieta
Luis and Graciela Moriel
Eva Hernandez
Maria Carmen Ceballos


Art, Activism, Access: 40 Years of Ethnic Studies at UCLA
Fowler Museum exhibition explores 40 years of ethnic studies
Los Angeles Public Library News from Mary McCoy
Alma Llanera-Spirit of the Plains
Hispanic prelate named L.A. archbishop
Editor:  I received the digitized photo copy of the mural from Sergio Hernandez, one of the four artists, Eduardo Carillo, Saul Solache, Ramses Noriega and Sergio Hernandez who were responsible for the mural.   

As one of the artists, Sergio had received a copy of the poster of the mural from UCLA, took a photo and sent it to me to share with Somos Primos readers.

Sergio wrote: "I received copies of this mural poster I helped paint in 1970 at UCLA's Campbell Hall. The mural (12' x 22') will be resurrected soon (it's been rumored that it will be installed at the Gene Autry Museum) The poster was issued in commemoration of 40 years of Ethnic Studies at UCLA. It is reportedly the first Chicano Mural in the country."

Reflecting on the image, I kept wondering about something in the poster, in the image which tied the mural to the title, and decided to ask Sergio  . . . . .  

"that blue billowy pyramid shape on the left lower side, was that in the mural, or happened in taking a photo of it ??"  

Sergio responded that it was just a reflection of light on the poster.  
I was surprised, because to me, it looked right, ethereal. 

 I wrote back, "A reflection of the light!!  Interesting because it looks a little spooky. .  Symbolically . . .  our life force either draining or feeding . ."  

Sergio wrote back  some interesting facts:  Saul Solache was a renaissance man and was a PhD, professor in Urban planning, carver, painter, craftsman, intellectual and researcher. 
He passed away about 4 years ago from a sudden heart attack in Tiajuana. 
At the time of his death Solache was researching the effects of magnetism on the pyramids at Teotihuacán. 

Since I believe that our spirit lives on after physical death, I wonder if Professor Solache was expressing his presence and pleasure in the celebration of 40 years of giving visibility to the Chicano experience.  Mimi 

Painted in the 70s, both Ed Carillo and Saul Solache (now deceased) were in their 70's.  The mural was taken down about 12 years ago when Campbell hall was refurbished. UCLA promised to re-install the mural but it never happened. There was a lot of drama over the painting of the mural and were never fully recognized according to Solache who was the prime motivator in getting the mural painted. I was a very young student at the time. Solache who had been a professor at CSUN insisted I paint alongside the group.  I gained the respect of the other artist with my work and we remained friends. Most of the center section is my work. Ed Carrillo a well known painter was to the left of me, and helped me adding color and light to my Phoenix figure in the middle. 

Ed Carrillo was a very important painter  (  and passed away from cancer in the 1980's, I believe. He had been a professor of mine when I attended East Los Angeles City College in the 60's. Ramses Noriega was an activist at UCLA and was a prime organizer of the Chicano Moratorium in the 70's. He has also been a very active artist but I believe his cancer has slowed him down.

Sergio Hernandez


Fowler Museum exhibition explores 40 years of ethnic studies 

Ethnic studies emerged as an intellectual movement in the wake of societal transformations associated with the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. In the later years of that decade, with civil unrest growing over the Vietnam War and the emergence of global and local struggles for self-determination and equality, UCLA faculty, students, staff and community members pressured the university to institute an ethnic studies program that would reflect the presence, history and contributions of under-represented groups on campus.
In response, Chancellor Charles E. Young guided the establishment of four distinct ethnic studies centers in 1969 to foster study and research concerning African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, Chicanos and their respective communities. Since then, UCLA and the centers have played a key role in our nation's continual struggle with diversity, access and inclusion.
"Art, Activism, Access: 40 Years of Ethnic Studies at UCLA," on display at the Fowler Museum at UCLA from Feb. 28 through June 13, explores the campus's role in voicing the most significant issues of underrepresented communities within the fabric of American life. The exhibition's lively display of murals, graphic art, films, photographs and ephemera from the archives of UCLA's American Indian Studies Center, Asian American Studies Center, Ralph J. Bunche Center for African American Studies, Chicano Studies Research Center and other campus collections captures key moments in this remarkable history and showcases the centers' four decades of campus and community activism.
The exhibition's four main sections explore the centers' roots, their vast and important archives, and their efforts in struggles for academic freedom, self-determination, justice, and civil and human rights. A wide array of art, film and seldom-seen artifacts tell these stories.
Murals and drawings
Two large murals and a study drawing of a third, all of which graced the walls of the ethnic studies centers' home at UCLA's Campbell Hall, will be on display. The earliest, created for the Bunche Center for African American Studies in the late 1960s or early 1970s, suggests a communal protection of black youth that is both spiritual and physical. A 1970 drawing by Eduardo Carillo, Saul Solache, Ramses Noriega and Sergio Hernandez served as a study for a 12 x 30–foot mural at the Chicano Studies Research Center, which was credited with being the earliest Chicano mural painted anywhere in the United States. A third work, a mural painted by Darryl Mar and his students in 1995, was created to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Asian American studies at UCLA. Visitors can also observe the creation of a new, site-specific mural to be painted by famed Chicano artist Gronk beginning in April.
Also on display are original photographs from the series "Life in a Day of Black L.A.: The Way We See It." These 17 images, taken in 1992 by well-known African American photographers documenting their own communities in the aftermath of the civil unrest in Los Angeles, portray the daily lives of residents and include portraits of some familiar personalities, including young tennis stars Venus and Serena Williams and Los Angeles journalist Pat Harvey.
A screening area presents a continuous sequence of films, including the experimental "Frontierland" by Jesse Lerner and Rubén Ortiz Torres, Marco Williams' personal documentary "In Search of Our Fathers," and "Hito Hata: Raise the Banner," a chronicle of the contributions and hardships of Japanese Americans from the turn of the last century to the late 1970s. Also included is the 1984 film "Bless Their Little Hearts," directed by UCLA M.F.A. graduate Billy Woodberry, which explores the life of a family in South Los Angeles driven to the breaking point by the father's shame at being unable to support his family.
The exhibition's impressive compilation of hundreds of books and journals produced by the ethnic studies centers and/or written by their faculty includes many of the earliest and most important volumes published on the subject of diversity in America. These include the Amerasia Journal, the leading multidisciplinary scholarly journal in Asian American Studies; "Black Folk Here and There" by St. Clair Drake, arguably the single most important work published on the black diasporic experience in the 1980s; "Race, Class, and Power in Brazil" by Pierre-Michel Fontaine, the groundbreaking study on Brazilian race relations; and "Old Shirts and New Skins" by Sherman Alexie, which, when published in 1993, was one of the first books of poetry written by the now famous Spokane/Coeur d'Alene American Indian poet.
Posters and other artifacts
A wide array of posters and handbills from each of the centers reveals an era of striking graphics tied to political action. These are accompanied by documentary photographs of events that galvanized the campus and brought student bodies across the nation into conflict with the status quo. 
The early goals of the UCLA ethnic studies programs remain the foundation of the centers today: studying ethnic minorities in American society to provide a framework for research and community action, instilling racial pride, developing a community action program, building diverse holdings for center libraries and archives, and recruiting faculty in these areas.
Additional Information 
"Art, Activism, Access: 40 Years of Ethnic Studies at UCLA" has been organized by the Fowler Museum at UCLA, the UCLA Institute of American Cultures and UCLA's four ethnic studies research centers. Generous funding has been provided by the UCLA Office of the Chancellor, the UCLA Office for Faculty Diversity, the UCLA Office of the Vice Chancellor for Graduate Studies, the UCLA Graduate Division and the UCLA Institute of American Cultures.  
UCLA Chancellor Gene Block has dedicated the 2009–10 academic year to the theme of "Celebrating 40 Years of Ethnic Studies at UCLA."   
The Fowler Museum at UCLA is one of the country's most respected institutions devoted to exploring the arts and cultures of Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and the Americas. The Fowler is open Wednesday through Sunday from noon to 5 p.m. and Thursday from noon to 8 p.m.; it is closed Monday and Tuesday. The museum, part of the UCLA School of the Arts and Architecture (UCLA Arts), is located in the north part of the campus. Admission is free. Parking is available for a maximum of $10 in Lot 4. For more information, the public may call 310-825-4361 or visit
For more news, visit the UCLA Newsroom or follow us on Twitter.


Los Angeles Public Library News from Mary McCoy,  
History & Genealogy Department
Dear Mimi,

As you may know, the Los Angeles Public Library's genealogy specialist Michael Kirley retired in October after 39 years of service.  Until a permanent genealogy librarian can be hired, I will be overseeing the genealogy collection, so I wanted to write to introduce myself and to share with you some recent news that may  be of interest to your members.

First, I am pleased to announce that we have added another volume to our digital collection of Los Angeles city directories and street address directories, the 1923 Los Angeles city directory.  This directory is especially valuable because it includes listings for San Pedro, Wilmington, Sawtelle, Palms, Westgate, and the San Fernando Valley.

To access the directories, go to , and click the link for "Los Angeles City and Street Directories."  Anyone can use the directories - no library card is required for access.

Unfortunately, there is also some bad news to report.  Starting April 11, 2010, the Los Angeles Public Library will reduce service hours at the Central Library and all regional branch libraries and community branch libraries.

New hours for the Central Library will be Monday and Wednesday, 10 a.m. – 6 p.m., Tuesday and Thursday, 10 a.m. – 
8 p.m.; Friday and Saturday 10 a.m. – 6 p.m. The library will be closed Sunday and holidays.

The change in service hours is needed to enable the library to adjust to recent staff reductions resulting from a citywide early retirement program and a hiring freeze initiated by the City of Los Angeles to reduce its budget deficit.  The new service hours were adopted by the Board of Library Commissioners, which sets policy for the Los Angeles Public Library, at the Board’s March 25, 2010 meeting.

More information about the reduction in service hours is available on the Library website at

If you have any questions or there is anything I can assist you with, please feel free to contact me.  I look forward to working with you and your members in the future.

Sincerely, Mary McCoy
Librarian - History & Genealogy Department
Los Angeles Public Library
630 W. 5th Street
Los Angeles, CA  90071
(213) 228-7412

Alma Llanera-
Spirit of the Plains

Friday May 7 and Saturday May 8, 8:00 p.m.  Sunday May 9, 5:00 p.m.
ARC (A Room to Create) Pasadena, Tickets $15
1154-1158 East Colorado Blvd. Pasadena, CA

Blending the vocabulary of traditional Mexican folk dance-indigenous, African, influenced and contemporary movement expressions, choreographer Gema Sandoval and her company Danza Floricanto/USA bring to the stage a vibrant dance rendition of a boy's coming of age story.  Join us for an intimate evening of dance in this wonderful new Pasadena space. Come celebrate 5 de Mayo with the Southland's oldest Folklorico adding a contemporary flair to this traditional Fiesta!   
Ticket purchasing:  or call 1-800-838-3006
Sent by Gema Sandoval

Archbishop Jose Gomez 

Extract: Hispanic prelate named L.A. archbishop
by Monica Martinez
Washington Times, April 7, 2010 

Pope Benedict XVI, has appointed Archbishop Jose Gomez to replace Cardinal Roger Mahony of Los Angeles, putting Archbishop Gomez in line to become the nation's first Hispanic cardinal. 

When he takes over America's largest Catholic archdiocese next year, Archbishop Gomez also will become the first U.S. bishop to be a member of Opus Dei, the traditional-leaning movement for which Pope John Paul II took personal oversight. Archbishop Gomez, 58, appeared at the downtown Los Angeles cathedral Tuesday, taking most questions in Spanish and vowing to make comprehensive immigration reform a priority. 

He noted the first four bishops of the Los Angeles territory were Hispanic, and his appointment is a return to the church's roots. "It's one of the great Catholic communities in the world," he said. "Los Angeles, like no other city in the world, has the global face of the Catholic Church." 

Archbishop Gomez, who was born in Monterrey, Mexico, will take over the 5-million-member archdiocese when Cardinal Mahony reaches the expected retirement age of 75 in February 2011. He was installed as the archbishop of San Antonio In 2005 and previously served as an auxiliary bishop in Denver. 

"The people of San Antonio have a special goodness and grace that will always keep them close to me in my heart," Archbishop Gomez said in a statement. "But the life of a priest or bishop is not his own. The only real home we have is in the love of our people. And that love is the same everywhere people believe in Jesus Christ and come together as a faithful Catholic community." 

Archbishop Gomez is the nation's only Hispanic archbishop and likely will become the first U.S. Hispanic cardinal. Customarily, the head of the Los Angeles Archdiocese is a member of the College of Cardinals, the body of clergy who elect the pope. When Cardinal Mahony turns 80 in six years, he no longer will have voting rights in the college, and Archbishop Gomez likely would be appointed then. For the next year, though, Archbishop Gomez's formal title will be coadjutor archbishop of Los Angeles. 

According to the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, Hispanics make up more than 35 percent of America's Catholics and 70 percent of the Los Angeles Archdiocese. But while the Hispanic sheep are many, the shepherds are few — Hispanic bishops make up 9 percent of all Catholic bishops in the United States. The bishops conference points to 40 Hispanic bishops ordained in the United States, but only 28 are active. 

Cardinal Mahony, who will have served Los Angeles for 25 years upon his retirement, welcomed Archbishop Gomez with "enthusiasm and personal excitement." In a statement Tuesday, he said his diocese deserved to have a Hispanic as its next leader and called Archbishop Gomez a "gift." 

"Over the years he has been a most effective leader working with priests serving the Spanish-speaking communities across the country, and his leadership in proclaiming the dignity and rights of our immigrant peoples has helped motivate many people to advocate for our immigrants," Cardinal Mahony said. 

Archbishop Charles Chaput of Denver, a favorite of tradition-minded Catholics and the man who installed Jose Gomez as a bishop, also released a statement congratulating Archbishop Gomez and saying he is the "perfect choice" to lead the Los Angeles Archdiocese. 

"He played a very big role in making our Hispanic ministry one of the best in the country, but his impact and friendships went well beyond the Hispanic community," Archbishop Chaput said. "He has a great gift for bringing people together from very different backgrounds." 

Archbishop Gomez is the first priest of Opus Dei, a mostly lay organization, to become a U.S. bishop and one of 22 Opus Dei priests worldwide to reach the episcopate. If and when he is named a cardinal, he would be one of three Opus Dei cardinals in the world. The reaction from Opus Dei's U.S. headquarters in New York was muted, however. 

"Jose Gomez is an incredibly gracious person, someone who's been well respected and well liked everywhere he's gone," spokesman Brian Finnerty said. "Will some of that rub off on Opus Dei when he becomes archbishop of Los Angeles? Maybe, but that's not the point."  He added, "It's Jose Gomez being named an archbishop and not Opus Dei being named an archbishop. He's been named because of his great work in Denver and San Antonio, and I expect the same excellent work in Los Angeles." 

In 2008, Pope Benedict XVI named Archbishop Gomez as a consultant to the Pontifical Commission of Latin America. He also has been cited by Time and CNN as one of the nation's most influential Hispanics. Archbishop Gomez will be welcomed formally at a Mass of reception in the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels on May 26. 

• Julia Duin contributed to this article, which was based in part on wire service reports.
Sent by Sister Mary Sevilla


Oakland Museum of California Opening Celebration
URLs for California History
Video of San Francisco 1906 street scene

Telling Their Stories: Producing Web-Based Digital Oral History 5-Day Workshop
Mission Santa Clara Sacramental Records
Don’t Mexicans bleed like we do?  By Patrick Osio

Oakland Museum of California Opening Celebration, 
May 1st 11 am to May 2nd 6 pm. Free Admission
31 Hours of continuous events celebrating the creativity and culture of California - the 31st State
OMCA is locted at 1000 Oak at 10th Street. 
For more information, visit


Video of San Francisco 1906 street scene filmed from a streetcar traveling down Market Street in San Francisco, four days before the big earthquake and fire that destroyed the area.  You can clearly see the clock tower at the end of the street at the Embarcadero Wharf that is still there...

Amazing 7-minute trip back in time.  The clothing, the vehicles, the traffic chaos...unbelievable film.
Obviously there weren't any traffic laws back then, because the buggies, wagons, old cars, bicycles, trolleys and pedestrians were going all over the street.  Crazy!  No traffic lights, either.

Sent by Bonnie Chapa

Telling Their Stories: 
Producing Web-Based Digital Oral History
5-Day Intensive Educator Workshop
Monday – Friday, July 19 – July 23, 2010

The Center for Innovative Teaching
The Urban School of San Francisco 

Who: This workshop is designed for middle and high school teachers, professors, librarians, community archivists and individual practitioners interested in capturing and web-publishing digital-based oral histories. Teams of two are highly encouraged to support future implementation at your institution. Note: this workshop has filled the past 4 years.

What: This hands-on workshop explores the production and web publishing of digital video interviews with a focus on oral history methodology and technique. The publishing of student-conducted interviews has efficacy far beyond oral history. Consider the benefits of interviews with local authors, scientists, mathematicians, community leaders, artists and musicians. Using The Urban School's award-winning project - Telling Their Stories: Oral History Archives Project - - as an example, participants will learn and practice production techniques, including interview preparation, creating and using a mobile studio, and post-production leading to a public website, complete with digital video and full transcription. See for examples.

Hands-on, Real, Meaningful Learning: Participants in small groups will conduct interviews with local elders drawn from the current topics of mid-20th century study (Holocaust survivors, camp liberators, Japanese American relocation camp internees and witnesses of the civil rights struggle). Participants will complete all stages of production, from preparation to interview to publication. In true ”Authentic Doing” style, interviews will be added to the Telling Their Stories website, providing a lasting contribution to oral history scholarship.

Collaborate and Join Telling Their Stories: Educators attending this workshop will be invited to join the existing Telling Their Stories: Oral History Archives Project ( ). Telling Their Stories will offer ongoing technical support and curriculum advice, as well as host new interviews conducted by schools from around the country. Interested participants/schools can focus attention on the curricular needs and basic interview techniques and leave the more technical aspects of web publishing to Telling Their Stories. See example of collaboration with the McComb Public Schools in the new Telling Their Stories: McComb Civil Rights section -

Topics Include:
Interview techniques and materials
Scaling and adapting to local and grade-level needs
Topic development and research
Developing a mobile studio, (lighting, sound and recording)
Transcription procedures
Simple movie editing using QuickTime Pro
Processing systems: moving from tape to the web
Classroom/project management practices 

Howard Levin, Director of Technology
Project Founder and Director
Telling Their Stories: Oral History Archives Project

415-939-1957 m  415-593-9525 w  


Mission Santa Clara Sacramental Records 
"This is a collection of the sacramental records of Mission Santa Clara. They cover baptisms, marriages, and burials performed at the Mission between 1777 and 1850.

"There are nearly 23,000 records contained in the pages of these books. Each item in the collection consists of a double-page image, along with meatadata for each image containing information such as the participants, officiants, places of origin, dates of the ceremonies, and godparents."

Sent by Ron Filion

by Patrick Osio, American Reporter Correspondent
Los Angeles, Calif.

LOS ANGELES, March 26, 2010 -- Are Mexican citizens' deaths any less deserving of sadness and outrage?
It took the killing of two American citizens employed by the U.S. Consulate in Ciudad Juarez to elicit President Obama's comment that he was "deeply saddened and outraged by the news of the brutal murders."
According to the Los Angeles Times, there have been 10,031 killings in Mexico since 2007 related to the war against organized drug cartels, which at no time has brought signs of sadness or outrage from the White House, be it from Obama or his predecessor. Do Mexicans not bleed as Americans do?
But with the expression from Obama for the killings there is no mentioned of sadness or outrage at US citizens’ usage of drugs that according to an Editorial on the Seattle Times, “These gruesome tallies are the byproduct of a lethal industry that satisfies U.S. appetites for marijuana, heroin and methamphetamine. As the wealthy consumers of illicit goods, drug-abusing Americans are complicit in these deaths.”
U.S. drug users provide Mexican drug cartels with $31 billion annually to carry out their bloody war. Why is there no outrage at this?
Drug-related deaths in Mexico pale in comparison to the drug-related deaths taking place in Mexico. In just one year, 17,000 deaths due to illicit drug use were recorded in the U.S., compared to 4,700 recorded in Ciudad Juarez over the past two years.
Have we in the U.S. surrendered to drug usage as inevitable and thus quasi acceptable? Are the deaths of 17,000 fellow Americans just another statistic to which we’ve become accustomed? Other than the immediate members of the family of those whose life is so needlessly struck down, is there no sadness for their passing? Is there no outrage atdrug usage and local distribution as the cause?
Is condemning Mexico and its people for ‘not stopping’ the passage of drugs to our cities and towns through their territory a substitute for our nation’s indifference to our own people’s usage of the smuggled drugs? Are the Mexican people the lawless society due to their efforts to eradicate drug traffickers and their resulting retaliation? If so, then what is our society that allows and, through our silence, encourages illicit drug usage?
Are we not, as the Seattle Times editorial argues, "complicit in these deaths... ?"
What is the role of our nation's news media in all of this? Why do regional and national news media report so heavily about the killings in Mexico giving the appearance that the nation is one huge "killing field," when such is not the case? And, why do they not report that the U.S. as a whole is losing far more lives to the "drug war" than is Mexico? Why do editorials advise, admonish, and preach to Mexico, but not one news outlet has championed an ongoing crusade to stop drug usage and report distributors in the U.S.?
Why does the U.S. media and popular network commentators degrade Mexico as a corrupt nation, but either lightly mention or altogether ignore U.S. corruption?
How much coverage was given to the congressional testimony by Kevin L. Perkins, assistant director of the Criminal Investigation Division of the FBI, on March 11, 2010, on the state of corruption?
How many people here knew that Perkins testified that in the last two years alone there have been 1,600 convictions of federal, state and local officials, and that there are 3,200 public corruption cases pending, and that more remains to be done - that the Southwest border is a particular focus of corruption-fighting efforts? According to the Perkins' testimony, the result is over 400 public corruption cases originating from that region, with 84 convictions so far.
Were the American people informed that in July 2008, the FBI and DEA with Canadian law enforcement arrested a network of cocaine, marijuana and illegal immigrant smugglers working the Quebec-New York border? And, that the FBI conducted nearly 300 public corruption investigations along the Canadian border?
Is it in our nation's best interest to place Mexico as having the sole responsibility for the war on drugs? And how does it help our nation to destroying Mexico's economy by creating fear s about visiting, while failing to deal with or ignoring our country's responsibility?
Are we kept in the dark intentionally, or does thinking less of Mexico make us feel warm and fuzzy, believing it proves we are better than they are?
Sadness? Outrage? You bet, but we are wrong about where it should be directed.
Patrick Osio is Editor of Contact him at
Copyright 2010 Joe Shea The American Reporter. All Rights Reserved.

Patrick Osio, Vice President
Baja California Medical Tourism Association (BCMTA)
Co-founder TransBorder Communication
Dedicated to Binational Economic Development

The Baja Connection with Patrick Osio/Radio Program
Internet at:
Editor/HispanicVista/Public Interest Internet Publication since
(619) 422-1878 Fax (619) 422-4130
Cell (619) 944-1522




Personal Ancestral File 5.2: Lesson 1 - Getting Started (1 1/2 hrs)


9:00 AM

Personal Ancestral File 5.2: Lesson 2 - Making Changes (1 1/4 hrs)


10:30 AM

* Fundamentos Basicos Para La Historia Familiar


10:00 AM

* Registros Parroquiales


11:15 AM

* Registros Diocesanos


12:30 PM

* Descancos


1:30 PM

* Escritura Antigua


2:00 PM

* Nuevo FamilySearch


3:15 PM



* This class series requires registration. 
To register, send e-mail to or call 801-240-4950.

Sent by Lorraine Hernandez




Chicanos connecting with Temazcal roots by way of Mexican sweat lodge
Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 57,000 pages online

Dunbar Family of Arizona
Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce hosts 52nd Annual "Black & White Ball
     and Business Awards"
Barriozona Editor Receives Cesar E. Chavez Social Justice Award
New Mexico Genealogical Society Celebrates 50 Years
Cuisine of the Trans-Mississippi Colonists Goes West By Richard G. Santos
In Tucson, a group of Chicanos known as Calpulli Teoxicalli are connecting with their roots by way of the Temazcal, or Mexican sweat lodge.


The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, continuously published since 1897, is the premier source of scholarly information about the history of Texas and the Southwest. The first 100 volumes of the Quarterly, more than 57,000 pages, are now available Online with searchable Tables of Contents.
Sent by Paul Newfield III
Dunbar Family of Arizona
Thomas Jerome Dunbar Birth: 1841Calais Washington County Maine, USA Death: Jun. 17, 1892, USA 
Thomas Jerome Dunbar 
Birth: 1841Calais, Washington County, Maine, USA 
Death: Jun. 17, 1892, USA 

Thomas Jerome & John O. Dunbar of Arizona were early pioneers who arrived in the Tres Alamos/Tombstone area circa 1876. Another brother William settled in Prescott, AZ. Their parents were Honora Evans & Michael Dunbar who originally came from Ireland to New Brunswick, Canada then to Calais; and to Bangor, Maine. Thomas (1841-1892) was the first of the line born in the USA. Since he came from a family of lumbermen, Thomas went west to Ft. Union, NM during the Civil War in the 1860s where he served as the civilian foreman at the fort's lumberyard. While there, he met & married Agnes Burgett (1850-1886) who was attending school at a convent near Las Vegas, NM. 

Thomas & Agnes along with their firstborn son, Edward William (1871-1915), arrived at Tres Alamos, Arizona Territory along the San Pedro River where he selected his cattle ranch. Later, he sent for his kid brother John (1853-1923) to join him at the ranch. They were certainly not fearful of frontier living for this was an area known as the "graveyard of the San Pedro" due to the many vicious Apache and military encounters. There, as the largest rancher in the area, he was appointed Postmaster and Stage Stop operator. This, and the boarding house they ran, was later known as Dunbar's Station.

In 1881, Thomas was elected to the House of Representatives in the AZ Territorial Legislature, and referred to as the "father of Cochise County" after he introduced a Bill to establish a new county in the SE corner of the state. He also took a particular interest in agriculture & mining & was described as "an honest legislator and a man of excellent Judgment," who was pushing legislation to control the "cowboy problem." Thomas wanted to end rustling, misbranding and other problems affecting the stockmen in Southern Arizona. That same year, the political scrambling for appointment of Sheriff, caused a rift between parties, resulting in the Earp brothers animosity toward the new Sheriff. Through Thomas Dunbar's influence, John Behan was named Sheriff and his brother, John O. Dunbar became Treasurer of Cochise County. 

The infamous "gunfight at the OK Corral" was for the purpose of gaining political favor on the part of Wyatt Earp & his brothers in an effort to influence public opinion that they were cleaning up the cowboy element from the town of Tombstone. At this time, Tom McLowery, who later was killed, was a ranch hand on the Dunbar's Tres Alamos ranch. He, his brother Frank and the Clantons started out at the Dunbar Corral on Fremont Street to saddle up their horses, but had to go across the street toward Allen Street to retrieve some items, when Doc Holliday and the Earps opened fire on them. They were not armed, but had a rifle on the horse's saddle which was not within easy reach. As a result, three of them were killed on the streets of Tombstone. There was a sham of a court hearing by a justice of the peace who was a friend of the Earps, who dismissed the murder charges against them. Thereafter followed a bloody vendetta in which many of both sides were murdered. The last one took place at the Tucson train station where Wyatt Earp killed Frank Stillwell. Now, there are life-sized statues of Wyatt & Doc located at the downtown Tucson train depot. 

Thomas had four sons with Agnes; they were Edward, Thomas, John, & Arthur. Two years after he became a widower, he married Catherine Hanley in 1888; and had two more children, Ernest and Helen. Before Helen was born, Thomas died following surgery for a severe ear infection in June 1892. The Arizona Daily Star on 6/18 claimed "a nobler man, a better husband, father or friend never made a track on Arizona soil." Thomas Jerome Dunbar was considered by many to be the "Father of Cochise County." 

His brother, John Orlando Dunbar became a journalist who along with colleagues developed the Arizona Press Association in 1890; he published several newspapers including the Tombstone Epitaph (1886) & later the Phoenix Gazette and Dunbar's Weekly. He was quite outspoken and controversial and ended up in court often due to his newspaper work. 

Thomas's son Edward William grew up with many Spanish-speaking ranch hands; therefore, was fluent in the language which helped him court Delfina Soto whom he married in 1900 at the Courthouse in Tombstone. They had 6 children, Luisa, Inez, Edward, Anthony, Thomas, & Waldo, who were raised at Tres Alamos ranch, then Ray, AZ; then, after their father died in 1915 at age 44 from a ruptured appendix, the family moved to Los Angeles, CA.

Thomas Dunbar was the great-grandfather of Edward William Dunbar (D-9); Anthony William Dunbar (D-62); and Monica Dunbar Smith, Membership Director,; and their siblings. D-9 & D-62 are cousins.

Account written by Monica Dunbar Smith based upon Cochise County Stalwarts by Lynn Bailey and Don Chaput; public records; and oral history.  Thomas' eldest son was Edward William Dunbar was Monica grandfather and his eldest son Edward was her father.  For more information, go to .

Note* At present the graves of Thomas and Agnes Dunbar are unmarked.

Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce hosts 52nd Annual 
"Black & White Ball and Business Awards"

PHOENIX - Latino-owned business are now 50,000 strong and growing. On April 17, the Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce (AZHCC) and Qwest Communications present the 52nd Annual Black & White Ball and Business Awards.
It's the longest running formal gala in Arizona and the premiere social gathering for Arizona's Latino community. In Arizona, Nearly 2 of 5 Hispanic-owned businesses are sole-proprietorships, with two-thirds of them being family-owned, according to DATOS: Focus on the Hispanic Market, published annually by the Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. More than one-third of these businesses have annual revenue of more than $500,000.

The event features the chamber's prestigious business awards, which honor some of Arizona's most successful and influential Latino businessmen and businesswomen, as well as the presentation of the Chamber's Legacy Award.

Biographies of Business Award-Winners

Man of the Year: Mario E Diaz
Mario E Diaz began his career working for such notable individuals as U.S. Sen. Dennis Deconcini, Rep. Ed Pastor, and as the Law Enforcement Liaison for United States Attorney Janet Napolitano. Mario later managed the Janet Napolitano for Attorney General Campaign, and went on to become Director of Intergovernmental Affairs / Law Enforcement Liaison in the Attorney General's Office. After forming Mario E Diaz & Associates in 2001, the Janet Napolitano for Governor Committee was first in line as a premier client. In 2002, Napolitano won her election and Mario was appointed to Governor-Elect Napolitano's Transition Team. He later served as Deputy Chief of Staff to Governor Napolitano. 

Under Mario's leadership, the firm serves as a resource for school districts, community colleges, tribal nations, non-profit and labor organizations, candidates for public office, high-profile corporations, city, county, state and federal government entities. As a result of the firm's strong presence in the community, Mario E Diaz & Associates is a valuable source for anticipating, avoiding and redirecting potential challenges and barriers to client projects and goals.

Mario volunteers his time by serving on a number of boards, including Healthy Mothers Healthy Babies, the Arizona Latino Research Enterprise, and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). In 2009, Mario was awarded Valle del Sol's Lorraine Lee Latino Advocacy Champion Award and the ADL's Marty Shultz Award for Community Partnership.

Mario received his Bachelor of Science in Political Science degree from Arizona State University in 1991, and went on to receive his Masters of Public Administration degree from ASU, where he was named Latino Graduate of the Year.

Woman of the Year: Lisa Urias

Lisa Urias is a fourth-generation Arizonan who has practiced local and international marketing for more than 15 years. Well-known for her strategic expertise, Lisa has established relationships from corporate boardrooms to political landscapes to the media. She established Urias Communications in 2003. Urias Communications is a fully integrated advertising and public relations agency that specializes in providing a uniquely tailored and integrated marketing approach for your business. From creative direction and design to public affairs and media planning and relations, Urias Communications offers a boutique experience for clientele, at price points that reflect our current economy. Based in Scottsdale, Arizona, Urias Communications is comprised of communications professionals intimately familiar with managing diverse marketing communications practices for various clients and industries. The firm's philosophy is deeply rooted in building and sustaining solid relationships with their clients and their community. Providing individualized service to their clients - whether large or small - is at the cornerstone of their business.

Entrepreneur of the Year: Molera Alvarez Group

The Molera Alvarez Group (MAG) is a business development and consulting firm specializing in government affairs, public relations and community outreach.  

Ruben Alvarez, Managing Partner
As co-founder and managing partner of the Molera Alvarez Group, Ruben Alvarez is involved in all aspects of client services. The Molera Alvarez Group, named by the Arizona Business Journal as "one of the state's best government lobbying firms", is based in Phoenix, Arizona, and represents a wide range of Fortune 500 companies, non-profit groups and governmental entities. Prior to forming the Molera Alvarez Group, Ruben worked in the State of Arizona's Executive branch for 12 years, last serving as Governor Jane Dee Hull's Policy Advisor for Mexico and Hispanic Affairs. In this role, Mr. Alvarez interacted with U.S. and Mexican federal, state and local government officials in regards to the development and management of bi-national issues, cross-border initiatives and Hispanic community affairs. In addition, before becoming Policy Advisor, Ruben served as the Governor's Director of the Office of Equal Opportunity. He graduated from Arizona State University with a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science. He currently serves as a board member of the Washington, DC based Latino Leaders Network, Desert Mountain's Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, Maricopa Partnership for Arts and Culture, Voto Latino (founded and chaired by actress Rosario Dawson) and is Chair of Maricopa County's Integrated Health Service's Diversity Council.

Jaime Molera, Partner
Jaime A. Molera is a founding partner of the Molera Alvarez Group. The Molera Alvarez Group is viewed by Arizona Business Magazine, the Arizona Business Journal, and the Arizona Republic, as one of the top lobbying business' in the state. Mr. Molera held a variety of high-level state positions. Among these were Arizona's Superintendent of Public Instruction (2001-2003), and a top advisor on policy and legislative affairs to Gov. Jane Dee Hull (1997-2001). In 2008, he was appointed to the State Board of Education by Governor Janet Napolitano, and unanimously confirmed by the Arizona Senate. Among his many accomplishments, Mr. Molera led the charge for Proposition 301, overseeing a $2 million initiative, as Campaign Director, to bring Arizona out of the national basement in education funding through new-dedicated resources (nearly a half billion dollars per year) for K-12, Community College, and University education. He also was a major force to reform the way development occurred in Arizona through the "Growing Smarter" legislation. Recently, Mr. Molera led the legislative effort to help secure the funding (near a half a billion dollars in the construction financing) necessary to expand the University of Arizona's College of Medicine in Phoenix. In addition, Mr. Molera served as a senior consultant to U.S. Senator Jon Kyl's successful '06 re-election campaign. Moreover, Mr. Molera has appeared on numerous television, radio and print media news outlets, including the Jim Lehrer Newshour, The New York Times, Wall St. Journal, and National Public Radio. Mr. Molera was recognized by the Arizona Business Journal in November, 2006 as one of the fifty most influential leaders in Arizona, as well as by Hispanic Business Magazine as one of the top 100 Hispanic leaders in the United States. Mr. Molera is a board member of Sunrise Bank of Arizona and the Arizona School Choice Trust. He also serves as Chairman of the Arizona Prevention Resource Center.

Corporation of the Year: American Express
American Express is a recognized global leader in the financial and network service industry. Since its founding in 1850, American Express has conducted business according to several guiding principles that over the years have become inextricably linked with their community's brand, products, services and - perhaps most notably - their people. In Arizona, more than 7,000 American Express employee "ambassadors" actively demonstrate commitment in the form of volunteerism, in-kind donations, philanthropic giving and ongoing service to others. Volunteerism and good citizenship are an important part of their company's culture.

American Express is proud to have a number of Hispanic leaders who serve their community. Anna Prunty services on the Valle del Sol Board of Directors and leads the Association of Hispanics Organized to Raise Awareness (AHORA) Network of employees. AHORA members are active community stewards. In addition, Robert Espiritu is a community advocate, having served two terms as chairman of the board of the Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. American Express is honored to be a valued business and community partner in Arizona, especially in the Hispanic community.

Arizona Legacy Award: Gov. Raul H. Castro
Raul H. Castro was born June 12, 1916, in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. His family moved when he was a child to the United States and settled in Pirtleville, near Douglas, Arizona. He received a B.A. degree (teaching) from Northern Arizona University in 1939 and became a U.S. citizen that same year. Mr. Castro served as an official with the U.S. Foreign Service in the 1940s and earned a J.D. degree from the University of Arizona in 1949. After graduation, he practiced law for five years. In 1955, Castro was elected the first-Hispanic Pima County Attorney. In 1959, he served as a judge of the Pima County Superior Court. President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Castro U.S. ambassador to El Salvador in 1964. He served as ambassador to Bolivia from 1968 to 1969. In 1974, he won election as governor of Arizona, the first and only Hispanic to do so. President Jimmy Carter appointed Castro U.S. Ambassador to Argentina from 1977 to 1980. Mr. Castro is retired and lives with his wife in Nogales, Arizona.

About the Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce (AZHCC) - The AZHCC is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting the efforts of the local business community, especially small business owners. Furthermore, the AZHCC provides a voice for Hispanic businesses in the Valley through advocacy efforts at the local, state and national level.

CONTACT: Director of Communications James E. Garcia, 602-294-6086, office, 602-460-1374, cell, or e-mail Photos available upon request. Email

For Information about individual ticket or table purchases, or corporate sponsorships of this event, please contact Frankie Jo Rios (602) 294-6081,
The Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce | 255 East Osborn Road | Suite 201 | Phoenix | AZ | 85012

Barriozona Editor Receives Cesar E. Chavez Social Justice Award
TERROS, the Arizona-based behavioral and health organization, to present award to journalist Eduardo Barraza during state-wide conference. 

Phoenix, Arizona (March 24, 2010.) The editor of the Arizona-based grassroots online magazine Barriozona has been selected by TERROS as the first recipient of the Cesar E. Chavez Social Justice Activist of the Year Award.

Journalist Eduardo Barraza, who has been publishing the community-based magazine since December 2002, will receive the recognition this Friday, March 26, 2010 during the Sixth Annual Cesar E. Chavez Behavioral Health Conference, to take place at Arizona State University West Campus.

“We saw the need to recognize individuals from the community who have contributed to the improvement of the quality of life and social justice in Arizona,” said John Mireles, member of the Planning Committee of the TERROS Cesar Chavez Behavioral Health Conference. “This award acknowledges people who demonstrate adherence to Cesar E. Chavez’ principles.”

Eduardo Barraza began his career as a journalist 25 years ago. In 1998 he founded the Hispanic Institute of Social Issues, an Arizona-based grassroots multimedia publishing organization, to expand his experience in journalism into a deeper social function. 

“It is rewarding in itself to see that such a respected community agency as TERROS is honoring the legacy of a man who dedicated his life to a legitimate cause like Cesar E. Chavez,” expressed Barraza. “It is also interesting to see that TERROS chose me –a journalist– as the first recipient of this social justice activist award. Aside the individual honor, it substantiates the important role grassroots journalism plays in a community and the service it provides in social struggles. Essentially, grassroots journalism is being recognized by TERROS, and this is very gratifying.”

A community-based behavioral health organization, TERROS helps people recover from substance abuse, mental illness and other behavioral health problems throughout Maricopa County. The agency has been serving Arizonans since 1969. TERROS was the first substance abuse treatment program in the Valley. 

The award ceremony will be held during the TERROS’ Annual Conference, a prestigious event that is bringing more than 500 health and behavioral professionals from all over Arizona.

Media contact: Yolie Hernandez 480-983-1445 
Sent by Christine Mari

New Mexico Genealogical Society Celebrates 
50 Years of Continuous Service to the Genealogical Community 

Birthday Party!  Oct 15-16, 2010 
"We been receiving requests from NMGS members out of state to post information about our past programs. Well, I have summarized a few of our programs - eight to be exact - on this blog. You can access these summaries by clicking on: past-nmgs-programs.html"

, The Baca/Douglas Genealogy and family History Blog




By Richard G. Santos


      Like the Spanish colonists of New Mexico (1591 and 1598) and Texas (1680’s), colonists from the Trans-Mississippi area traveled with basic necessities. Ox or mule driven wagons were tightly packed with wooden barrels and/or burlap sacks of seeds, corn, flour, sugar and spices. Attached to the wagon by a rope was a milking cow, a milking goat and usually an extra horse or two. Because families tended to be large in number, most walked beside the wagon with the older boys herding whatever cows, goats and horses were being brought along. Extra wagon wheels, hand tools and cooking utensils were usually hung on the outer walls of the wagon for accessibility. Either the father-patriarch or one of the sons was the designated hunter responsible for furnishing the day’s main ingredient. It was his job to kill the deer, appropriate number of squirrels, turkey or whatever the family would eat at day’s end.  

      Hundreds of U.S. citizens entered Mexican Texas from 1821 to 1835. As members of various impresario-colonization contracts, they were offered free land as long as they became Catholic and Mexican citizens. Between 1825 and 1829, Stephen Fuller Austin is said to have brought 900 colonists to Texas. Although slavery had been outlawed by the newly created Republic of Mexico, the U. S. colonists were exempt from the law due to a non-existing labor force in Texas. In 1825 and 1826, Green Dewitt and James Kerr brought 40 colonists. Three years later their group totaled 186 when they founded a town they named Gonzalez. Both the Austin and Dewitt colonists entered Texas via the Camino Real de los Tejas at the land port of Nacogdoches. The road would later be known as the Spanish King’s Highway and Old San Antonio Road.  

Two groups of colonists also came in, and they were not from the Trans-Mississippi area. Martin de Leon brought 41 families from Tamaulipas in 1824 and founded Victoria, Texas. They entered Texas at the Nueces River near Lipantitlan (place of the Lipan Apaches) via the mid 1600’s coastal road from where Mier is today. As noted by Alonso de Leon during his first expedition in search of La Salle. The crossing of the Rio Grande had been used by merchants from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon since the mid 1600’s collecting salt from La Sal del Rey in present Willacy County. Five years later John McMullen and James McGloin brought Irish men and their families from New York City where they had been recruited upon arrival from Ireland. They sailed to Texas in two ships and entered Texas at the illegal (smugglers’) landing at Copano Bay. By 1835 they numbered some 500 when they established the township of San Patricio.  

Both cuisines of the Trans-Mississippi area and Spanish Colonial Texas were influenced by their respective Native American cuisine and availability of products. Rice, spices and non-locally grown products gotten legally and illegally via the Mississippi River trade from New Orleans, Natchitoches, Louisiana and Saint Louis, Missouri. The smugglers’ landings at Galveston Island, Bolivar Point and Copano Bay along the Texas Gulf Coast were also used as conduits for non-locally grown products.  

As such, the Trans-Mississippi U.S. colonists of 1821 to 1835 added little to the existing cuisine of Spanish-Mexican Texas. Chitterlings (fried pork or goat intestines) already existed as tripitas. Cracklings (friend pork rinds) was/is the same as chicharrones. Pit barbeque was/is the same as barbacoa de pozo but in time the barbacoa became only the animal’s head and not entire carcass. Hominy (pozole) and corn mush (atole) likewise already existed. Roasting a beef or goat carcass over an open flame or embers was and still is called “al pastor”. The same can be said of mustang grape wine and grape cobblers which already existed in Spanish-Mexican Texas.  

Grits and corn bread might have been new products to Spanish-Mexican Texas but the sauces and preparation of selected items were the main differences. Another difference was the fruit pies and cobblers. Raspberry, blueberry and dewberry pies and cobblers differed from the existing fruit, pumpkin or sweet potato empanadas (turnovers).  However, it must be noted that apples and peaches were not yet available in Texas. Corn bread and corn-wheat flour mixed bread did not seem to exist in Texas before the coming of the U.S. colonists. Texas had corn and flour tortillas that the Trans-Mississippi cuisine did not have. Notwithstanding this, it did not take long for the two cultures to start adapting and adopting cuisine from each other.  

Making a mustang (wild) grape cobblers common to both cultures, begins with the picking of the grapes while they are still green and the size of small pea. They are washed and rinsed thoroughly. The grapes are set in water with a pinch sugar. The cobbler calls for a cup of flour, some baking powder, a pinch of salt, a cup of milk (preferably cow milk but goat can also be used), and a dash of vanilla. Once the cobbler is formed to a desired size, the mashed grapes are laid on the dough, placed in a dutch oven over embers and covered until brown. The same preparation process was and is still used in making fruit cobblers.  

Hogs gave the colonists both meat and fat. Consequently, smoked ham, chitterlings, pig feet, innards and lard were derived from a slaughtered pig. The lard was used in developing the South’s renowned fried chicken as well as fat-based gravy (for biscuits and gravy). Before the invention and introduction of the meat grinder to Texas (late 19th Century), cooks used pig intestines to produce sausage just like Tejanos produce chorizo. That is, the intestines are washed and rinsed thoroughly. The meat was cut to the smallest possible size and pounded until it could be inserted into the intestine. Spices varied not only from one culture to another but also on product availability. Today’s “country sausage” would not evolve until after the arrival of the German, Polish and Czech settlers of the mid-19th Century. That will be covered on the next segment of this series. Meanwhile, many of the Trans-Mississippi settlers also followed the Native Americans’ “waste nothing” cuisine. Hence, hog, beef and deer brains, feet, ears, liver, heart, genitals and tongue became part of the regional cuisine. There were also special dishes of opossum, armadillo, nutria and squirrels mixed with squash, pumpkin or other vegetables.  

Not to be forgotten were a new variety of casseroles (also called goulashes) derived of whatever ingredients were available. Minced or chopped piece of browned meat (beef, goat, venison or any edible mammal) mixed with whole kernels of corn, (green or pinto) beans, peas, onions, carrots (according to taste and if available) and a tomato sauce (with hot peppers for the Tejanos) have remained special home-cooked family favorites. These casseroles/goulashes were common in the 19th Century as well as a hundred years later during the Great Depression of 1929, and have remained a quick dish for a large family or get-togethers.  

Pigs in a blanket were also introduced by the Trans-Mississippi settlers. There are two basic types. First, pieces of pork rolled in dough and baked or fried in a roll shape. Second, pieces of pork are rolled in cabbage leaves. Both recipes may include onions, bell peppers and bread crumbs. The first was adopted by the Tejanos but not the second. In this case, cabbage is used in beef or chicken caldo (a vegetable soup). The meat is boiled and when done, cabbage, carrots, potatoes, squash (or zucchini) is added along with salt, black pepper and spices. The Tejanos prepare rice (white or with tomato sauce) and add it to the individual bowl serving with a dash of lemon juice. Some add hot salsa for a slight spicy “kick”.  

Pecan and walnut pies were and remain favorites due to the availability of the fruit in South Texas. The recipe calls for honey, butter and salt mixed and heated until the mixture turns brown. Eggs are beaten and added and the mixture is stirred well. The mixture is poured in an unbaked pie crust and placed in a dutch oven over embers until crust is brown and done. Raisins (sun dried grapes) may be added as well as a dash of vanilla.  

Three European ethnic minority groups were about to enter Texas in the 1840’s and 1850’s. The German, Polish and Czech were destined to have a great impact on the cuisine, music and culture of South Texas. They and their cuisine will be presented next week. Meanwhile, send me your home recipes at    

Zavala County Sentinel – Mar 31 – April 1, 2010

Sent by Juan Marinez




To Native Americans, naming is identity by Ines Hernandez-Avila
The Taino Tribe Seeking Recognition in the 2010 Census
Indian Tribes Go in Search of Their Lost Languages

To Native Americans, naming is identity

 By Ines Hernandez-Avila, Special to CNN
  • Ines Hernandez-Avila is "an indigenous woman of the Americas," Nez Perce, Mexican
  • Her father's parents said "You are Mexican," her mother said "We are the First Americans."
  • She says when asked "Who are you?" it means where you are from, who your people are
  • Hernandez-Avila: "I am grateful for my parents, that they brought their two worlds together in me"

Ines Hernandez-Avila is professor and incoming chair of Native American Studies and co-director of the Chicana/Latina Research Center at the University of California, Davis. She is one of the founders of NAISA, the Native American and Indigenous Studies Association and a member of the Latina Feminist Group. She is a Ford Foundation/National Research Council Fellow, at the doctoral and postdoctoral levels.

(CNN) -- Naming. It is always about naming, about knowing how to name.

I am an indigenous woman of the Americas, daughter of Janice Andrews Hernandez, a Nimipu -- or Nez Perce. She and I and my two sons are enrolled on the Colville Reservation in Washington state. My father is Rodolfo Hernandez, a Mexican-American from Texas, a Tejano with indigenous roots on his father's side from San Luís Potosí, Mexico, and Spanish roots on his mother's side, from Coahuila, Mexico, by way of the Canary Islands.

I have been told that my grandfather on my mother's side has contributed a drop of Shoshone and a drop of French to our family; and my grandmother, a drop of Iroquois and a drop of Flathead.

These drops do not seem to manifest in my family. At least as far as my mom and my uncle are concerned, we are Nez Perce. We are Nimipu.

My father always referred to himself as an American. Period. He did not really relate to Mexico. He was born in Eagle Pass, Texas, grew up in Galveston, served in World War II as a Marine, fought in the Philippines, and came home to resume his work as a carpenter, following in the footsteps of his father and his father's father.

When I was a child growing up in Galveston, I knew that I was not white. I knew from school -- from kindergarten through high school I was the only nonwhite person in my classes -- and from my family. My grandparents always told me, "Tú eres Mexicana" ("You are Mexican), and my mom always told me "We are the First Americans."

My mom willingly went into a kind of exile to marry my father. She moved with fluidity into the Mexican community in Texas, loving my father's family, loving to dance to Tejano conjunto music. She always took me "back home," though, to Nespelem, to the embrace of her own family.

I grew up knowing that I came from two deeply complex cultures, and even as a child, I began to discern between the two, finding my own methods of reconciliation. I speak Spanish fluently, thanks to my paternal grandparents -- both of my Mexican grandparents learned to speak and write perfect English, and became naturalized citizens. That I know only words and phrases of the Nimipu language is heartbreaking to me, but I am trying to learn.

I did not grow up calling myself "Chicana," although I have chosen for much of my life to use this term as a political act, to call attention to the fact that Chicanos and Chicanas have indigenous cultural roots in this hemisphere -- in Mexico, to be exact.

I was an activist in the Chicano Movement in Texas in the 1970s and early '80s, and I began to keep up with what was happening in Indian Country, through any resources I could find. I learned to name in new, profoundly critical, heightened ways that were relevant to social justice and political and cultural autonomy. I saw how the thoughtful, revelatory layering and unlayering of terms transformed communities through the rationale of naming.

I have a Ph.D. in English and the institutional training (and now interdisciplinary breadth) that allow me to be a professor of Native American Studies at the University of California, Davis. I am passionate about helping to build and sustain the undergraduate and graduate programs we have developed at Davis.

But in my life there have been many spiritual teachers, intellectual mentors, elders, artists, writers, activists, friends and family members who have enriched my life and are not connected to academia. They are the ones who keep me grounded as a human being.

I think of my own identity as a radiant synthesis of all that my consciousness, my awareness, my spirit, heart, body, intellect, will have perceived in this life on this Earth.

I am eternally grateful for both my parents, that they brought their two worlds together in me. I am a daughter, a granddaughter, a wife, a mother, and a grandmother.

How would I like others to refer to my identity? Nimipu/Tejana. Indigenous people are about specificities. When you are asked "Who are you?" the expected response has to do with where you are from, who your people are. Nimipu/Tejana.

The Nimipu has to come before the Tejana because it is the reference to a First Nation. Naming matters.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Ines Hernandez-Avila.


Abstract from article of : 
The Taino Tribe Seeking Recognition in the 2010 Census
Lydia Crafts | Austin, Texas 05 April 2010

DNA link to the past

In 2000, a study funded by the National Science Foundation revealed that more than 60 percent of Puerto Ricans have Taino blood.

The chief, or Cacike, of the Tainos in Puerto Rico, said that study awakened a Taino consciousness in the Puerto Rican people. "The results showed that in every Puerto Rican, Taino blood runs in our veins."

Following the study, Puerto Ricans from across the island and many living on the mainland had their DNA tested by submitting samples of their saliva. Many began to identify themselves as Taino, and they started working to restore their traditions by studying the stories passed down by their grandparents.

Putting a people back into the history books

When Dr. Ana Maria Tekina-eirú Maynard learned how she could identify herself as Taino on the census, she sent an email explaining the process to 5,000 members of her tribe.

"There will be thousands of Tainos who will check the box and write the word Taino," she says. "And I can't wait until the census is done and all of this happens."

At the Puerto Rican Cultural Center in Austin, she and her family practice aretos, or songs for ceremonial dances. Tekina-eirú Maynard wrote the songs and believes they were inspired by her ancestors. "I would sit on my back porch and these songs would just sort of come to me," she says.

Proud heritage

Her 13-year-old son, William plays a traditional drum that Tainos from Puerto Rico made for him.

He says playing the aretos brings him closer to his indigenous heritage. "This is a very native, very pure thing, which, especially for me, I have a connection to this. It's really like you can feel it in your heart."

Tekina-eirú Maynard says the best thing about reconnecting with her Taino ancestry is that she can finally help her family understand their origins.

"I feel like I am putting my family back on track. After 500 years — that they had gone to the mountains to hide and hid so well that they forgot who they were — I feel that I have a chance now to put my family back to where they belong. And you have no idea how meaningful that is to me."

That's why Dr. Ana María Tekina-eirú Maynard says she will continue raising the voice of the people until every history book says the Tainos are still here.

Sent by


Indian Tribes Go in Search of Their Lost Languages 

By Patricia Cohen 
April 6, 2010, The New York Times 

As far as the records show, no one has spoken Shinnecock or Unkechaug, languages of Long Island's Indian tribes, for
nearly 200 years. Now Stony Brook University and two of the Indian nations are initiating a joint project to revive these
extinct tongues, using old documents like a vocabulary list that Thomas Jefferson wrote during a visit in 1791.

The goal is language resuscitation and enlisting tribal members from this generation and the next to speak them, said
representatives from the tribes and Stony Brook's Southampton campus.

Chief Harry Wallace, the elected leader of the Unkechaug Nation, said that for tribal members, knowing the language is
an integral part of understanding their own culture, past and present.

'When our children study their own language and culture, they perform better academically,' he said. 'They have a core
foundation to rely on.'

The Long Island effort is part of a wave of language reclamation projects undertaken by American Indians in recent
years. For many tribes language is a cultural glue that holds a community together, linking generations and preserving a
heritage and values. Bruce Cole, the former chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities, which sponsors
language preservation programs, has called language 'the DNA of a culture.'

The odds against success can be overwhelming, given the relatively small number of potential speakers and the
difficulty in persuading a new generation to participate. There has been progress, though, said Leanne Hinton,
professor emerita at the University of California, Berkeley, who created the Breath of Life program in California in 1992 to revive dormant languages in the state.

Representatives from at least 25 languages with no native speakers have participated in the group's workshops so far,
she said. Last month Ms. Hinton and a colleague at Yale received a federal grant to create a similar program based in
Washington, D.C.

Of the more than 300 indigenous languages spoken in the United States, only 175 remain, according to the Indigenous
Language Institute. This nonprofit group estimates that without restoration efforts, no more than 20 will still be
spoken in 2050.

Some reclamation efforts have shown success. Daryl Baldwin started working to revive the dormant language of the Miami Nation in the Midwest (part of the Algonquian language family), and taught his own children to speak it fluently. He now directs the Myaamia Project at Miami University in Ohio, a joint effort between academics and the Miami tribe.

Farther east is Stephanie Fielding, a member of the Connecticut Mohegans and an adviser on the Stony Brook project. She has devoted her life to bringing her tribe's language back to life and is compiling a dictionary and grammar book. In her eyes language provides a mental telescope into the world of her ancestors. She notes, for example, that in an English conversation, a statement is typically built with the first person - 'I' - coming first. In the same statement in Mohegan, however, 'you' always comes first, even when the speaker is the subject. 'This suggests a more communally minded culture,' she said.

Now in her 60s, Ms. Fielding knows firsthand just how tough it is to sustain a language effort over time, however. She
said she was still not fluent.

'In order for a language to survive and resurrect,' she said, 'it needs people talking it, and for people to talk it, there
has to be a society that works on it.'

Chief Wallace of the Unkechaug in Long Island already has a willing student from a younger generation. Howard Treadwell, 24, graduated from Stony Brook in 2009 with a linguistics degree. He will participate in the Long Island effort while doing graduate work at the University of Arizona, where there is a specialized program researching American Indian languages.

Mr. Treadwell is one of 400 registered members of the tribe, which maintains a 52-acre reservation in Mastic, on the South Shore. The Shinnecocks have about 1,300 enrolled members and have a reservation adjacent to Southampton.

Robert D. Hoberman, the chairman of the linguistics department at Stony Book, is overseeing the academic side of the project. He is an expert in the creation of modern Hebrew, the great success story of language revival. Essentially unspoken for 2,000 years, Hebrew survived only in religious uses until early Zionists tried to update it - an
undertaking adopted on a grand scale when the State of Israel was established.

For the American Indians on Long Island the task is particularly difficult because there are few records. But Shinnecock and Unkechaug are part of a family of eastern Algonquian languages. Some have both dictionaries and native speakers, Mr. Hoberman said, which the team can mine for missing words and phrases, and for grammatical structure.

The reclamation is a two-step process, the professor explained. 'First we have to figure out what the language looked like,' using remembered prayers, greetings, sayings and word lists, like the one Jefferson created, he said. 'Then we'll look at languages that are much better documented, look at short word lists to see what the differences are and see what the equivalencies are, and we'll use that to reconstruct what the Long Island languages probably were like.' The Massachusett language, for example, is well documented with dictionaries and Bible translations.

Jefferson's Unkechaug word list was collected on June 13, 1791, when he visited Brookhaven, Long Island, with James
Madison, later his successor in the White House. He wrote that even then, only three old women remained who could still speak the language fluently.

Chief Wallace said he had many more records, including religious documents, deeds and legal transactions, and possibly a tape of some tribal members speaking in the 1940s.

'When we have an idea of what the language should sound like, the vocabulary and the structure, we'll then introduce it to people in the community,' Mr. Hoberman said.

While it may seem impossible to recreate the sound of a lost tongue, Mr. Hoberman said the process was not all that
mysterious because the dictionaries were transliterated into English.

'Would someone from 200 years ago think we had a funny accent?' Mr. Hoberman asked. 'Yes. Would they understand it? I hope so.'

Copyright 2010 The New York Times Company
Search the archives:



The Jews of Spain: Past and Present
Dispersion of Iberian Jews by Gloria Mound  

American Sephardi Federation/Sephardic House presents 
The Jews of Spain: Past and Present
A year-long program made possible through the generous support of the Edmond J. Safra Philanthropic Foundation. 
ASF is grateful for the invaluable assistance of the Consulate General of Spain in New York. 
Spring 2010 Lectures In collaboration with The Catalan Center at NYU,  an affiliate of the Institut Ramon Llull

Wednesday, April 28 at 6:30pm:   Daughters of Sara, Mothers of Israel: Jewish Women in Medieval Girona 
The names of the Jewish women who lived in medieval Girona were Astruga, Dolça, Esther, Mairona, Preciosa, Rahel, Sara. They were born in the city, and they gave birth there. They worked and did business there. Some of them, often under duress, gave up the faith of their fathers. Others professed to be the fervent heiresses of the ancestral law. In this talk Sílvia Planas, Director of the Institut d'Estudis Nahmanides and the Museum of Jewish History of Girona, will endeavor to rediscover these women and honor their legacy and their memory.

Sunday, May 2, 2010 at 4:00pm:  A History of Jewish Catalonia
This beautifully illustrated book traces the rich and fertile history of the Jews in Catalonia from the time of the late Roman Empire and the Early Middle Ages, until the drastic decree of expulsion by the Catholic Monarchs. It captures their wedding songs, the smells from their cooking pots, and reconstructs the soaring intellectual edifice they created despite the difficulties of a daily life fraught with religious persecution and social degradation. The authors, Sílvia Planas and Manuel Forcano, will talk and engage with the audience.  Book sale and signing follows. 

Tuesday, May 4 at 6:30pm:   Traces of Esther: The Jewish Presence in Contemporary Catalan Literature
Manuel Forcano, Ph.D. in Semitic Philology, poet and essayist, will offer a Catalan perspective on Jewish culture as reflected in the writings of the great 19th and 20th century Catalan authors. Offering rich passages from the literature, Dr. Forcano will guide us from the negative stereotypes of the 19th century, through the fascination with Israel as both a religious and political inspiration, and the Bible and the Talmud as references, to the emergence of a modern, nuanced view of the place of Jewish culture in Catalonia. Free admission. Event takes place at the King Juan Carlos Center, 
53 Washington Square South (bet. Sullivan & Thompson Streets). 

All events take place at the Center for Jewish History unless otherwise noted.
Free for American Sephardi Federation members and students. $5 General admission at the door. 
For reservations: 212.294.8350 ext.0, or e-mail at 
15 West 16th Street, NYC, 10011

Monday,  May 3, 2010   6:30 pm
Dispersion of Iberian Jews by Gloria Mound
Center for Jewish History
15 West 16th Street, NYC
Thousands of Iberian Jews went "underground" at the time of the Inquisition and the expulsion from Spain. They dispersed across Europe, across the ocean to South America and the Caribbean, and to North Africa and the Middle East.  With tremendous tenacity, they preserved their heritage, married among themselves, and passed it down from generation to generation.  Gloria Mound, Director of the Casa Shalom-Institute for Anusim Studies in Israel, will illuminate their fascinating history, their presence in the Caribbean and in European countries, as well as previously unsuspected links with French Huguenots. Casa Shalom-Institute for Anusim Studies works to uncover the ancestry of Anusim, and help them find their way back to Judaism. Its new, highly esteemed library, opened in 2005 by  President Yitzchak Navon, comprises a unique collection of more than 2,000 books, 5,000 documents and a computer data base relating to secret or hitherto unknown Jewish Communities world-wide, providing a wealth of resources for academic researchers and genealogists.

Tickets at the door:
$10 General admission
$5 for ASF members and students. 
Reservations requested: 212.294.8350 x0;


Afro-Native Americans: The Journey of Black Indians, Past and Present
Reporter seeks Afro-Latinos to Interview
On the US Census, there is no category specifically for mixed race or biracial. 
Racial Profiling 


Editor:  Although this event took place in April, I wanted to share Bobby's focus for the presentation.  

Afro-Native Americans: The Journey of Black Indians, Past and Present:
This is program that examines the history of the racial/cultural fusion of African Peoples and the indigenous nations of the Western Hemisphere. 

Oral history and archaeological evidence indicates that Blacks may have traveled to the Americas hundreds of years before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to America. 

Some of the enslaved men fought alongside of the conquistadors. Many maroon communities were created by runaway slaves and Native tribes who were seeking an alternative to the Eurocentric societies. The relationship between Blacks and Natives has been characterized by cooperation, contention, harmony and violent discord. 

Though many citizens of African descent have lived among the Cherokee and Seminoles, these tribal entities have sought to remove these "Freedmen" from their tribal rolls. It's not easy to be an Indian; it's harder to be a "Black Indian."



Reporter seeks Afro-Latinos to Interview
It's a jumping off idea from a groundbreaking, upcoming documentary: "Afro-Latinos: The Untaught Story," 

I will be interviewing Afro Latinos from all walks of life, getting their stories of how they came to be here, their dreams and ambitions and how they feel they fit in. Do they feel more Latin or African or are they caught between two worlds?
I would love to connect to any Afro Latino academics or students/students societies on college campuses to get valuable insights. 
The research will be primarily L.A. based, but I may include insights from elsewhere.  I would like to do interviews in person, but telephone conversations will also work depending on people's schedules.  I would not envisage taking more than 30 minutes of anyone's time.

Regards, Olu Alemoru
Reporter, Wave Publications
323 556 5720 x215

On the US Census, 
there is no category specifically for mixed race or biracial.  
A White House spokesman confirmed that Mr. Obama, the son of a black father from Kenya and a white mother from Kansas, checked African-American on the 2010 census questionnaire. He chose “Black, African Am., or Negro.” (The anachronistic “Negro” was retained on the 2010 form because the Census Bureau believes that some older blacks still refer to themselves that way.) 

Mr. Obama could have checked white, checked both black and white, or checked the last category on the form, “some other race,” which he would then have been asked to identify in writing.  

There is no category specifically for mixed race or biracial.  Instructions for the census’s American Community Survey, which poses the question in the same way as the 2010 form, say that “people may choose to provide two or more races either by marking two or more race response boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by some combination of marking boxes and writing in responses.” 

In the 2000 census, when Americans first were allowed to check more than one box for race, about 6.8 million people reported being of two or more races.  A version of this article appeared in print on April 3, 2010, on page A9 of the New York edition. 
Sent by


Racial Profiling
Comments from an email to Rafael Ojeda from Nestor Palugod Enriquez

I will leave the subject to racial profiling to the pundits and instead tell you about the Bellaran family of New Jersey. We collected this information from the Filipino American National Historical Society and Maria Embry's research of Filipinos started passing through Ellis Island in 1892. 

Vincent Bellaran III was born in New York. He a grandson of the early Filipinos in New Jersey. Vincent Bellaran around 1900 was born to Carmen Bellaran in Manila. His name would be listed in the immigrant ship, The Finland where he made 25 trips from 1921 to 1924 transporting immigrants to Ellis Island. The ocean liner could carry over thousand passengers from Europe. He was listed as Ship's Oiler, 5ft 6 inch 140 lbs on the Ellis Island immigrant's records. He was one of the founding fathers of the Knights of Rizal of NJ in 1928. His three sons, Vincent Jr, Frank, and Raymond stayed in Union Beach. The following generation of Bellarans still lives around the Raritan Bay area but according to Raymond Bellaran Jr, his grandfather passed away in 1966. The NJ Police Sergeant is the third Bellaran carrying the Vincent name. They are active members of the community mainstream, but they still remember the beauty contests and dance parties of their early childhood. 

In 1998, Trooper Vincent Bellaran III, of Filipino, Puerto Rican, and Irish ancestry  was suspended after he accused a supervisor of racism. Before he was sent home, he was forced to strip to his underwear and surrender his uniform, badge and gun. He went on to testify in Senate hearings about “Racial Profiling” as it became more of a national issue. A federal judge upheld Bellaran's complaint that he was subjected to racism and harassment as a member of the state police. The state was ordered to pay. New Jersey has since reformed the stop and search procedure and made changes to the State Trooper Academy courses. 

Nestor Palugod Enriquez  

Sent by Rafael Ojeda, 
Tacoma, Washington



Taller Boricua
Uneasy Communion: Jews, Christians, and the Altarpieces of Medieval Spain
Migdalia Luz Barens Vera: AHORA / NOW

Exhibition Dates: March 26 - May 8, 2010
at The Julia De Burgos Latino Cultural Center

1680 Lexington Ave New York, N.Y. 10029
History: Taller Boricua was established in 1970, in New York as a non-profit arts organization. Taller Boricua/Puerto Rican Workshop Inc. has expanded into a multi cultural institution by providing a variety of programs that stimulate the social, cultural and economic development of the community. Our workshops offer artists the opportunity to share ideas and inspirations with colleagues, enhances productivity and collaborations with other non profit organizations, schools, artists, public service providers, private corporations, and the community. The Taller Boricua (translation: workshop Puerto Rican) has evolved into a highly respected community arts organization that continues to be a proactive resource for the promotion of the arts. We have been very successful in attracting the art community to function as an essential nucleus supporting creative means of expression. 

Mission: The Taller Boricua is grounded in a proactive commitment to revitalize East Harlem by providing creative programs in art education while helping address social, cultural, and economic development issues.


Uneasy Communion: Jews, Christians, and the Altarpieces of Medieval Spain  
Museum of Biblical Art   through May 30, 2010
This exhibit focuses on the period just before Spain took over Granada, in 1492. It  The exhibit features Hebrew manuscripts that were written by Christians and is curated by scholar of Jewish art, Vivian Mann, who teaches at The Jewish Theological Seminary and was the longtime director of The Jewish Museum. Closes May 30.  Museum of Biblical Art, 1865 Broadway. (212) 408-1500. 

Curated by Dr. Vivian B. Mann, Director of the Masters Program in Jewish Art at the Graduate School of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Uneasy Communion is a fascinating study on how retablos (large multi-paneled altarpieces) and related artwork produced during the 14th- and 15th-centuries belie commonly held assumptions that Jews were not artists during the Middle Ages; that most medieval depictions of Jews were negative stereotypes; and that Jews lived apart from Christians, an unknown "Other." Instead, these works attest to the intimate knowledge Christians and Jews had of one another in the small towns and cities of medieval Spain. They also document the growing conflicts between the Church and the Jewish community and hint at the cataclysm to come in the Expulsion of the Jews in 1492.

 Admission to MOBIA's exhibitions is free for members and children under 12 and pay-what-you-wish for adults, with a suggested admission of $7; Sundays are always free.  Museum hours are: Tue., Wed, Fri., Sun.: 10:00 AM-6:00 PM; Thurs: 10:00 AM-8:00 PM; Mon: Closed.

The Museum of Biblical Art
1865 Broadway
New York, NY 10023-7503
(212) 408-1500

Sent by



Kane County State Attorney's Office, From the Barrio to the Classroom project
Swedish Covenant - Taft High School, From the Barrio to the Classroom project

Canarian descendants in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana
The Old St. Gabriel Church
They Come in Ships by Paul Newfield III

From the Barrio to the Classroom  project.

Kane County State Attorney's Office
Weed & Seed Site Director Pam Bradley and Robert Renteria will be visiting a classroom at Waldo Middle School next week in Aurora, Illinois to interact and engage with students who have already read the Barrio book. Pam shares Robert's passion and they have a mutual desire to inspire and motivate our teens and misguided youth to make better choices! They are currently collaborating together to introduce and implement From the Barrio to the Class Room into the Weed & Seed programs throughout the country. Thank you Pam Bradley for helping make a difference!


From the Barrio to the Classroom  project

Swedish Covenant Sponsors Books to Taft High School
In 2009, Swedish Covenant Hospital donated books to Roosevelt High School where we piloted From the Barrio to the Classroom. This year they have stepped up to the plate again and helped us place books at Taft High School in Chicago. Nearly 200 students have participated in the program thus far and Robert will be addressing an auditorium of students on February 10th. The From the Barrio Foundation wishes to thank Swedish Covenant Hospital for recognizing the value of our program and assisting us in delivering it to help make a difference in the lives of our youth.




condecharlotte.JPG (58698 bytes)

104 Theater Street
Mobile, Alabama 36602
(251) 432-4722


Tuesday through Saturday
10:00 A.M. to 4:00 P.M.
Admission Charged/Group Rates Available

(Adjacent to Fort Conde Welcome Center)

The Conde-Charlotte Museum House stands as an impressive link between the present and Mobile's earliest history.  It was built in 1822-24 as the City's first official jail between the south bastions of Fort Conde.

When the Historic Mobile Preservation Society purchased the house in 1940 and began partial restoration, they discovered the outline of 4 small cells (6x8) in the two foot thick brick floor with hand wrought eye bolts still anchored on one.  The jail doors were removed when the building became a residence and at least two were used in the kitchen wing the owner added.  The exposed jail floor and these jail doors can still be seen in the house.

The history of Mobile is reflected in the furnishings of the restored rooms.  fort conde was constructed of brick in the early 1700's by Bienville, the French founder of Mobile. When the English captured the fort in 1763, the name was changed to Fort Charlotte in honor of George III's Queen.  Seventeen years later (1780) the Spanish took possession and in 1813 the Americans moved in.  It was during this period that Mobile became a city and the old fort was demolished.  About ten years before Mobile was part of the confederacy, the old jail property was converted into a residence, known as Kirkbride House.

It is this house that is owned by and has been restored by the National society of Colonial Dames of America in the state of Alabama.  It is now a fascinating house museum furnished to depict the periods of mobile's history under five flags.

Each room is furnished to reflect a period and a nationality - French Empire, 18th Century English, American Federal, and the Confederate room is furnished in the fashion of southern parlors at the outbreak of the War Between the States.  A walled Spanish garden of  late 18th Century design complements the house.

This house is on the National Register of Historic Places. 

Sent by Lila Guzman, Ph.D. author of Lorenzo series  . . 

Report on the state of the Canarian descendants in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina - English version

Informe sobre el estado de los descendientes de Canarios en San Bernardo, Luisiana - Spanish version

Books which had been donated to the Society by the government of the Canaries were presented to State Archives Research Library to begin a section on the Canary Islands.

Held formal presentation of Family Charts of numerous members to State Archivist for public display.

Copies of manifests from all ships transporting recruits and their families from the Canary Islands to Louisiana (1778-1783) were presented to Baton Rouge Diocesan Archives, La. State Library, LSU Library.

Established Society's own website

Installed granite monument honoring first ancestors and their descendants in the Ascension Catholic Cemetery, Donaldsonville, La.

Hosted officials and performers from Gran Canaria and members of Los Islenos of St. Bernard at the site of the Valenzuela Settlement.  Presented bound copies of the sacramental records of Diocese of Baton Rouge.

Presented bound copies of sacramental records to numerous heads of government. in Canary Islands.

Presented educational programs at:

 The annual La. Spanish Club Convention
 Galvez Library during La. Archaeology Week
 Hispanic Heritage Week at LSU
 Summer Institute for Spanish teachers
 Historic Donaldsonville Museum

E. Ascension Library, Gonzales
 Baton Rouge Genealogical Society

Assumption Parish Library, Pierre Part Branch, Pierre Part
Terrebonne Parish Genealogical Society, Houma
Lafourche Heritage Society Annual Seminar, Thibodaux

Go to activities for more historic Louisiana information, click on the icons:

Sent by Bill Carmena


  The Old St. Gabriel Church


The model shown depicts the original St. Gabriel Church building.  St. Gabriel, which dates ot the Spanish Period, is one of the five oldest buildings in Louisiana.  it was begun in 1774 and finished in 1776.

During the last decade of the 18th century, the nearby Galveztown settlement dwindled in population, causing that settlement's own church, St. Bernard, to fail.  During this peirod, the pastors of St. Gabriel served the Galveztown church.  In 1807 the records from St. Bernard Church were moved to St. Gabriel.

Photos courtesy of Jean Nauman.  One of many markers placed by the Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana.  Sent by Bill Carmena.



"They Came in Ships..." 

[An address delivered by Paul Newfield III on October 7, 2000, at Donaldsonville, Louisiana, on the occasion of the dedication of the monument celebrating the Canary Islanders who settled in Louisiana in the late 18th century.] 

 El año mil setecientos, setenta  y ocho... 

The year 1778.  They came in ships -- men, women, children -- our ancestors. 

Seven hundred recently enlisted recruits with their families, departing their native Canary Islands forever, aboard sailing ships that would carry them across the seas to Spanish Louisiana. 

By estimate, approximately 2,363 Isleños set sail for Louisiana, but not all of them arrived here. 

King Carlos III of Spain required fresh troops to bear arms in the imminent war against Great Britain, and he needed loyal subjects to settle, populate and defend his Louisiana lands.  Over a period of about five years, beginning in the about 1778, our Canary Islands ancestors came to Louisiana.  They settled at places they called San Bernardo, Tierra de los Bueyes, Galveztown, Barataria, Valenzuela.   

I have often tried to imagine what it might have been like for those early Isleños

Why did they come? 

What circumstances would compel a man to leave his native land and boldly travel to the other side of the earth, to a distant destination, Nevermore to return? 

                   It takes Courage, Inner Strength, Faith, and a lot of Hope –

Attributes that I admire in my ancestors and that I look for in myself. 


These Canary Islanders were loyal subjects of King Carlos III of Spain.  Their native archipelago consisted then, as it does now, of seven volcanic islands situated in the deep blue waters of the Atlantic Ocean, some 800 miles southwest of Spain and 100 miles west of Morocco on the African continent. 

They came to this place called Louisiana  - -  this flat, featureless land of marshes, bayous, swamps and prairies  - - a place so very different from their homeland. 

They were military men, freshly recruited soldiers of the newly established Second Battalion of the Fixed Louisiana Regiment. Earning their pay, they captured Baton Rouge from the British in 1779; they captured Mobile in 1780, and Pensacola in 1781.  In the story of America's fight for Independence, these soldiers justifiably earned a place of honor.  They were pioneer farmers ‑ tamers of the land and cultivators of the soil. 

Equally deserving of recognition and a place of special honor were the Women - - the wives, the mothers - - keepers of the hearth, Women who shared the hardships and joys, who bore the children and who reared and nurtured them. 

In our research, we are fortunate to have access to the detailed records, penned by Spanish clerks and administrators more than 200 years ago, among which are a series of ledger books called Libros Maestros

In Valenzuela, the Libro Maestro dates from 1779, and lists 113 family groups, including 3 widows and 9 orphaned girls, for a total count of about 400 souls. 

The very first name appearing in that Libro Maestro was Francisco Gonzales Carbo, with his wife and 9 children - 11 family members in all.  It is no wonder that this family name is so well known to us all. 

Many Canary Islanders prospered...  But not all.  Those in Galveztown were not so fortunate. 

The recruit Antonio Alonso set sail from Santa Cruz de Tenerife on October 28, 1778 aboard the frigate San Ignacio de Loyola, with his wife Rita and their 5 year old son, Antonio.  Rita was two months pregnant when they began the voyage. 

She must have been a strong woman.  A sea voyage, pregnant, but with a spirit full of Hope.  They arrived at New Orleans in early January, 1779, and they were among 28 families of the San Ignacio  who ascended the Mississippi River to Galveztown, a newly established frontier settlement at the confluence of Iberville's Bayou Manchak and the Amite River, directly across from contentious British territory.  The Alonso family would be part of the Galveztown settlement, and the elder Antonio would hope to wear the uniform of Bernardo de Galvez's Second Louisiana Infantry Battalion. 

The Alonso family was enrolled on the pages of the Libro Maestro, and from these pages from Galveztown we read the following notations: 

"On May 27, 1779 was born a daughter. 

"On the 8th of July, 1779 the son died; 

"On the 25th of July, 1779 the daughter died; 

And then lastly we read, 
"All the remaining individuals of this family died on the 2nd and the 16th of September, 1779...." 

Only 11 months after Antonio Alonso and his family sailed, they were all gone.  Vanquished Hope!  Sic transit gloria mundi. 

The old settlement at Barataria has all but disappeared, returned now to its original moss and palmetto, but its cultural legacy to us is a small, languid bayou, remembered to this day as Bayou des Familles - "Bayou of the Families"  - in recognition of the Canarian families that once inhabited its banks.  Ironically the name of the bayou is in French. 

From the settlements of San Bernardo and Tierra de los Bueyes in St. Bernard parish, those early Isleños bequeathed to us their Spanish language, which they passed along to their children and their children's children.  They perpetuated the old stories, and they sang their decimas - those distinctive songs of a particular form and meter that celebrate life.  The Isleños of St. Bernard, above all, have been "keepers of the flame", where that glowing ember of "Spanishness" has continued to smolder for more than 200 years. 

And back to the settlement of Valenzuela - along the banks of Bayou Lafourche des Chetimaches - where we are today. 

We have come here, this October 7th, 2000, to this old venerable parish cemetery of the Church of the Ascension, in Donaldsonville, Louisiana, to dedicate and bless this beautiful monumental stone.  And in so doing, let us also call upon our Isleño ancestors - those bold immigrants - for their blessing upon us and our families;  and we pray that their strengths and virtues will continue to pour down upon us, their lineal descendants and heirs of their blood - upon us here, who, in their time, were the Hope for which they prayed. 

                                                                                                                   Paul Newfield III

Sent by Bill Carmena



Narciso Martinez Cultural Arts Center 
“Battle of Medina " Seminar May 15, 2010 - Laredo Texas, VSALGS Society

Tejanos in Action, Honoring  May 28, 2010, the Johnston High 20
Casa Navarro seeking Friends, Preserve the past ~ Protect the Future
Kera's Little Mexico/El Barrio
Doctor continues push for Tejano monument
Defunciones del año de 1813 durante la Batalla del Alasan 
Narciso Martinez Cultural Arts Center 
225 E. Stenger
San Benito, Texas. 

May 4 at 7 p.m.
Narciso Martinez Writers Forum
Come develop your writing skills and share your talent with a creative group of writers. Free. 
May 12 at 7 p.m.
"El Second Weensdee"
An oral history series that preserves a local cultural treasure, conjunto music. The monthly event takes place the second Wednesday of every month. Free.

 May  25 at 8:45 a.m. 
Memorial Day Solemn March and Ceremony
Veterans and Survivors carrying photos of deceased veterans march silently to Veterans War Memorial Site for ceremony that begins at 9 a.m.

Sent by Martha McClain
Public Relations Coordinator, City of San Benito 

For more information call 956-350-3905.

Saturday, May 15, 2010

Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical VSALGS Society

Presents " Battle of Medina " Seminar
In the Steps of General Joaquin de Arredondo

1937 E. Bustamante St.
UT Health Science Center Auditorium
9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

Jose Antonio Lopez author of " The Last Knight "
Dan Arellano author of " Tejano Roots"
Jose M. Pena author of " Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla "
Ricardo Palacios author of " Tio Cowboy "
Joe Moreno, Laredo Public Library Special Collections Librarian

Discussions on the Archeological Sites, the Camino Real, actions taken by General Joaquin de Arredondo, Laredo Census in the 1800's , and a panel discussion.

Books will be available
Lunch will be served at a price of $7.50 but you will have to RSVP ahead of time.
Questions and Information 
Contact :  Elisa Gutierrez (956) 763-7415  Bibi Garza-Gongora ( 956) 723-8419 or Lily Perez ( 956) 724-2075



Tejanos in Action  May 28, 2010
Honoring the Johnston High 20 in a Memorial Day Service.  

The Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin, the Tejanos in Action, the Johnston 20 Memorial Committee and the Eastside High School P.T.S.A. will be honoring the Johnston High 20 in a Memorial Day Service.  

This ceremony will take place at the East Side Memorial High School 1012 Arthur Stiles Road on Friday May 28, 2010 at 6 P.M.. Join us as we honor these young men that sacrificed their lives while in service to their country. Scheduled to speak will be Major General Freddie Valenzuela USA (retired).        Joe Montez

Pete “log” Aguilar
Gene Beltran
Jose Ramon Cano    
Leland Gann
Wiley Guerrero  
Matt Hernandez
Booker T. Lofton
Rudy Lopez        
Walter Moore
Joe B. Moreno
David Mosqueda  
Joe “karate kid” Rodriguez
Toby Rodriguez    
Johnny Roland
Willie Sneed 
Henry Terrazas 
Daniel Tienda 
Alex Quiroz 
Sam “semia” Ybarra
The families of the above are encouraged to bring photos, letters and other items to display at the “Table of Honor.
For more information contact:  Dan Arellano Committee Chair


Mclavio Perez as Navarro

Casa Navarro seeking Friends
Preserve the past ~ Protect the Future

Visit the site, you might find yourself there >

José Antonio Navarro was one of twelve children born to Don Angel Navarro and Maria Josefa Ruiz y Pena de Navarro. Only six of their children lived to maturity. 

José Antonio Navarro (at 41 years of age) and his uncle, José Francisco Ruiz were elected in 1836 to represent San Antonio at the Convention for Texas Independence. Navarro and his uncle were
the only two native Texans to sign the Texas Declaration of Independence!

Navarro served as a delegate to the Convention of 1845 which voted for Texas annexation to the United States and drafted the constitution of the State of Texas. Navarro was the only native Texan among the delegates to help draft the Constitution of the State of Texas.

Friends Membership, 501 (C)3
$25- individual, $40 - family.  Membership includes the Newsletter and Invitations to special events!
To make a donation: Contact Casa Navarro (210) 226-4801 or mail to: Friends of Casa Navarro,
228 So. Laredo, San Antonio, Texas 78207.  Visit the Friends Web Site:
Sent by President Sylvia Tillotson

The Dallas Historical Society, St. Ann's Alumni and Friends of Little Mexico Exhibit held a a presentation of Kera's Little Mexico/El Barrio on April 29th at the Margaret and Al Hill Lecture Hall.

The flavor, aroma, customs and language from Old Mexico were transplanted to an area that came to be known as Little Mexico, just north of downtown Dallas. Here many immigrants from Mexico settled to begin their new lives in the United States.

Using archival photographs, home movies and personal accounts of past and present residents, Little Mexico/El Barrio tells the story of a once thriving community defined not only by specific geographic boundaries, but by a common language and cultural heritage.

The half-hour program includes interviews with prominent Mexican American community leaders and the personal accounts of past and present residents of this neighborhood where everybody knew one another.

"The community was very close knitted," said Francisco X. "Pancho" Luna. "In those days, nobody locked their doors. There was no air conditioner so we left the doors open to get a breeze. We enjoyed those days."

Among the stories and memories relived in Little Mexico/El Barrio are: Maria Luna, who started her tortilla-making business in the 1920s; St. Ann's Catholic School, Travis Elementary and Cumberland Hill School, the places where Little Mexico children went to school; and the discrimination many residents faced as they tried to deal with the not always smooth transformation of the neighborhood from predominantly white to Mexican American.

The 1997 KERA program was produced by Yolette Garcia and Rick Leal.
Sent by 

Doctor continues push for Tejano monument 
by Nick Pipitone, The Monitor  
Publication: Freedom - Brownsville Herald; 
Date: Mar 7, 2010;  Section: Front Page;  Page: A5

An excerpt from Thomas Payne’s “Age of Reason” hit Dr. Cayetano Barrera one day and brought everything into perspective. Eight years ago, Barrera, a McAllen physician and self described history buff, began a push to place a monument on the state Capitol grounds in Austin to commemorate the seldom-told story of the Tejano settlers — the Spanish and Mexican people and their descendants who shaped modern day Texas. 

To Barrera, this was a history that had been neglected and omitted from the textbooks and public consciousness for far too long.  “‘…Time makes more converts than reason,’” Barrera quoted from the “Age of Reason” in his wood-paneled office recently. “It was not fashionable to have Spanish and Mexican history in our books. This, I don’t think, could have happened 30 years ago. But times change.” 

Barrera’s original idea and push for the monument grew as he spoke to more and more people who agreed with his sentiments. In January, the state Historical Preservation Board approved the site and design of the monument, the final legislative hurdle in the arduous effort to place it on the Capitol’s historic south grounds. 

But the work of Barrera, the nonprofit he started for the movement and the several state legislators involved is far from done. 

A large portion of the monument is finished in clay, but still needs to be bronzed, Barrera said. The Tejano Monument Inc. still has to raise more than $500,000 to cover any cost over-runs for the bronze casting, insurance for the monument and the eventual unveiling ceremony, which could draw thousands of people, the group’s co-Vice President Renato Ramirez said. 

Barrera said the monument could be erected and unveiled as early as late July 2011. 

“All we did was get past the paper work,” said Andres Tijerina, a history professor at Austin Community College and another covice president, about January’s long-awaited vote. “We still have as big of a project to do now. Now we really got to start to build the thing.” 


The idea of the monument came about after Tijerina gave a speech about Tejano history at the University of Texas-Pan American in November 2002. Barrera approached Tijerina afterward to tell him that he, too, had felt for years there should be more public recognition for Tejano history. 

The next time they met, they agreed to begin work on placing the monument on the Capitol grounds. Neither of them had any idea just how much time and work it would require. 

“It’s been very gratifying but—on the other hand—very trying,” Tijerina said. “It’s not something one would want to do twice in their lifetime.” 

The two then began to amass the political and financial connections necessary for the huge task. Barrera’s nephew, Richard Sanchez, was state Rep. Ismael “Kino” Flores’, D-Mission, chiefof-staff at the time and provided the political ins. Flores filed the first legislation in 2001 for the creation of the monument. 

The bill passed, the nonprofit was formed and fundraising for the $1.6 million project began. Large private donations came from the IBC Bank in Zapata, run by Ramirez, and other businesses totaling about $1 million. 

But two other large obstacles stood in the way after the massive fundraising effort. A law needed to be enacted in the Legislature in 2006 in order to release the remaining $600,000 for the project, which had to be taken from federal highway funds. 

Another big road block was overturning a law that prohibited any additional monuments from being placed on the Capitol’s front lawn, the historic south grounds — the most prominent spot which Barrera and the organizers sought. Originally, the preservation board suggested another site on the Capitol grounds already crowded with other statues and monuments. 

“As one of our board members said, ‘After the 1960s, I’m never going to the back again.’ It involved that sensitivity of being asked to go to the back again after 150 years of neglect,” Tijerina said. “As ominous and daunting as that law appeared to us, there was never any possible consideration that we would accept it.” 

Gov. Rick Perry signed into law in May 2009 a measure that allowed the monument on the Capitol’s historic south grounds. The preservation board gave the monument’s site and design the final OK in January. 

The monument — designed by Laredo sculptor and artist Armando Hinojosa — will consist of an oval, multi-tiered granite base with an array of lifesized bronze statues that include a Tejano on horseback, a settler family and an early Spanish explorer, as well as a longhorn and a mustang. 

It will also have five bronze plaques that will describe several features of Tejano heritage and their contributions to the Texas Revolution, the state’s economy, culture and long history of ranching — all distinctive Texas traits whose origin has not been recognized, Tijerina and Barrera said. 

And though the idea began with Barrera and Tijerina, both are quick to point out that a multitude of businessmen, officials and legislators statewide from both parties — and several from the Rio Grande Valley — were receptive to the project and unanimous in their support. 

“When young children and families see it, I’m wondering who they will be seeing,” said state Rep. Trey Martinez Fischer, DSan Antonio, chairman of the state’s Mexican American Legislative Caucus, the nation’s oldest. “The historical figures, their parents, grandparents and all their ancestors who have broken their backs to make this state what it is today.”


Defunciones del año de 1813 durante la Batalla del Alasan

Hola Mimí.- 
Mucho gusto en saludarla, le envío más información para la revista, sobre las defunciones del año de 1813 durante la Batalla del Alasan.-
" En veinte de junio de mil ochocientos trese, en la Batalla del Alasan jurisdiccion de Bexar ví muerto de tres valasos en el pecho á Dn. Juan Angel Camacho, soldado Patriota voluntario, soltero, hijo legitimo de Dn. Gregorio Camacho y Da. Josefa de Ynojosa, y segun el informe que tomé le dieron sepultura á su cuerpo Antonio Robalí y Ramon Paderes en Campo Santo de Bexar, no testó, ni recivió mas Sacramento que una Absolucion Militar y para que conste lo firme.- B. Jph. Manuel Camacho "
"En veinte de junio de mil ochocientos trese en la Batalla del Alasan jurisdiccion de Bexar, ví muerto de un valaso en la cabeza a Jph. Tirujano Soldado Patriota voluntario, marido que fué de Da. Josefa Montalvo, y segun el informe que tomé le dieron sepultura á su cuerpo Ramon Paderes y Jph. Antonio Robalí( alias el quate), no testó ni recivió mas Sacramento que una Absolucion en plural y para que conste lo firmé.- Br. Jph. Manuel Camacho."
" En veinte de junio de mil ochocientos trese en la Batalla del Alasan jurisdiccion de Bexar, murío el soldado Ramon Valdes de esta Compañía, marido que fué de María Encarnacion de Acosta, y segun el informe que tomé le dieron sepultura Ramon Paderes y Jph. Antonio Robalí (alias el quate ) no testó  ni recivió mas Sacramento que una Absolucion en plural y para que conste lo firmé.- Br. Jph. Manuel Camacho."
" En veinte de junio de mil ochocientos trese en la Batalla del Alasan jurisdiccion de Bexar, murió el Sargento de las Milicias de Coaguila Jph. Antonio Bueno, marido que fué de María Ygnacia de Castro y segun el ynforme que tomé le dieron sepultura á su cuerpo Antonio Robalí (alias el quate ) y Ramon Paderes , no testó ni recivió mas Sacramento que una Absolucion en plural y para que conste lo firmé.- Br. Jph. Manuel Camacho."
En veinte y nueve de noviembre de mil ochocientos trece en el Campo Santo de la Ciudad de Bexar, estando ayi destacado con mi Compañía sepulté a Crecencio Guaxardo Soldado de los Agregados á mi Compañía, soltero, originario del Saltillo, no testó por que no tubo, murió en el Ospital de dicha Ciudad de resultas de las heridas que recivió en el pecho en la Batalla del Alasan y recivió los Santos Sacramentos de Penitencia eucaristía y Sagrada Uncion y para que conste lo firmé.-Br. Jph. Manuel Camacho."
Nota. Las partidas del año de 1814, se ayarán en el Curato por haverseme destinado á Campaña y lo rubrico.- 
 El Br. Don Joseph Manuel Camacho, era Capellan Real de la Compañia Presidial de San Antonio Bucareli de la Babia que se hallaba establecida en el Valle de Santa Rosa María del Sacramento,( hoy, Múzquiz,Coah.).-
investigaciones efectuadas respetando su escritura original para SOMOS PRIMOS, por su amigo.-
Tte. Cor. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero

Envío otro registro de defunción del 20 junio de 1813, del Capitán Don Atanacio Borrego.-
" En veinte de Junio de Mil Ochocientos trese en la Batalla que se dió á los Ynsurgentes de Bexar en el Paraje del Alasan ví muerto al Capitán Don Atanacio Borrego, marido que fué de la defunta Doña Josefa Flores, á cuyo cuerpo dió sepultura Antonio Robali, y Ramon Paderes en el Campo Santo de Bexar murió de un valaso en la cabeza y supe que tenía echa dispocicion testamentaria y para que conste lo firmé."  Br. Jph. Manuel Camacho 

" La Batalla del Encinal de Medina. agosto de 1813.
 Entre los ancestros de mi Esposa Gloria Martha Perez Tijerina de Palmerín,  uno de los combatientes de las tropas Reales y quien falleció en la misma fué el Cabo Manuel Sanchez, su registro de defunción dice lo siguiente:
" En dies y ocho de Agosto de mil ochocientos trese en el Encinal de Medina dí sepultura al Cabo de esta Compañía  Manuel Sanchez, marido que fué de Anna María Luna ,recivió una Absolucion Militar y murió en la Batalla que se dió el mismo día á los Ynsurgentes de Bexar y no testó por que no hubo lugar y para su constancia lo firmé. "
                                                 Br. Jph. Manuel Camacho. 

 Un mes después de la Batalla del Encinal de Medina,encontrándose las Tropas Realistas en persecución  de Don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara y sus fuerzas, la noche del 12 de septiembre de 1813 fueron atacados el Capitán Don Ysidro de la Garza y el Teniente Coronel Don Ygnacio Elizondo, los registros de sus defunciones dicen así:
" En doce días del mes de septiembre de mil ochocientos trese, en el Paraje de los Brasos por de este lado por el camino Real de Nacodochis á mano derecha contra un encino en el ------, sepulté al Capitan Dn. Ysidro de la Garza marido que fué de Doña María del Rosario Gonzalez, no testó ni recivió mas de una Absolucion interpretatiba y el Sacramento del Sto. Oleo, murió de una estocada que le dió estando dormido el loco Dn.Miguel Zerrano y para qu conste lo firmé.="  Br. Jph. Manuel Camacho
"En Veinte uno de septiembre de mil ochocientos trese, en uno de los Jacales de San Marcos, sepulté Bendiciendo el sepulcro al Tte. Coronel Dn. Ygnacio Elizondo ,Marido que fué de segundas nupcias de Da. Romana Carrasco murió de una estocada  que le dió en un vacio en el paraje de los Brasos camino de Nacodochis el loco Dn. Miguel Zerrano e hizo disposicion  testamentaria y recivió los Santos Sacramentos de Penitencia Sagrada Uncion y demas Auxilios espirituales y para que conste lo firmé."        Pagó los 3 ps. de manda forzosa.       Br. Jph. Manuel Camacho

San Fernando de Bejar.
" Yo el Br. D. Jose Dario Sambrano, Cura de esta Cap. de Bexar Vicario Juez Eclesiastico de su jurisdiccion, certifico en quanto puedo y el derecho me permite que entre los Libros de la administracion de Santos Sacramentos de este Archivo de mi cargo hay un forrado en badana encarnada numerado y foliado en donde se acientan las Partidas de los que fallecen que comienza en primero de enero de mil ochocientos dos y al folio siento veinte i cuatro hay una, cuio tenor es el siguiente._
En la Ciudad de San Fernando de Bexar en quince dias del mes de noviembre de mil ochocientos trece años se tomó razon en el Libro maestro de este Archivo de mi cargo de la muerte del Soldado de Milicias de esta ciudad José Lino Losolla marido que fué de María Merced Lombrana, el que fué muerto y pasado por las Armas por el Teniente Coronel D. Ygnacio Elizondo en la Loma del Toro, quien recivió el Sacramento de la Confesion, no testó por ser pobre; y para su constancia lo firmé= Br. José Dario Sambrano= 
Concuerda con su original de la que es fielmente sacada arreglada y concertada ciendo testigos al berla sacar corregir y concertar D. Ramon Fuentes, y  Ygnacio Santos Coy; y para su constancia lo firmé  en ocho dias del mes de febrero de mil ochocientos catorce. Br. José Darío Sambrano.   Nota.- transcribo tal como está su escritura original.

Estos registros y los anteriores los investigué hace como 8 años en el centro de Historia Familiar de la Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos Días, de la Cd. de San Luis Potosí S.L.P.,puede incluirlos en la revista.- 
Reciba un afectuoso saludo de su amigo.

Tte. Cor. Ricardo Raúl Palmerín Cordero 



David Rumsey Historical Map Collection: Mexico City 1883
Don Ignacio Allende Unzaga 1769 –1811 by Clemente Rendón

Mexico City 1883

Plano del perimetro central, 
Directorio comerical de la Ciudad de Mexico


This map shows businesses in the blocks just west of the Zocalo in Mexico City. There is also a street directory. 


Don Ignacio Allende Unzaga 1769 –1811; 
un militar en el virreinato 
Clemente Rendón/Tamaulipas En Lí

Otro articulo muy completo y bueno. Una historia integral sobre los heroes principiantes de la Independencia de Mejico. Gracias y buen trabajo. . . . Jose M. Pena

Don Ignacio Allende Unzaga 1769 –1811 
Conmemorando el bicentenario de la independencia

I).- Los orígenes de un militar en el virreinato

Ignacio José Allende y Unzaga nació en San Miguel el Grande –hoy San Miguel de Allende- en la Provincia de Guanajuato, el 21 de enero de 1769. Su padre don Domingo Narciso de Allende español de mediana fortuna y su madre, doña Mariana Unzaga, perteneciente a una de las principales familias de la villa de San Miguel el grande. Al morir su padre, el joven Ignacio heredó una considerable fortuna, que fue administrada, por un tiempo, por el albacea designado por don Domingo, un español de apellido Berrio, quién influyó para que Ignacio Allende tomara la carrera de las armas. En 1792 procreó un hijo con la Sra. Antonia Herrera, al que llamaron Indalecio.

Ignacio Allende ingresó al Regimiento Provincial de caballería de la Reina, cuerpo militar que tenía su sede en San Luis Potosí, al mando del coronel Félix María Calleja del Rey. Este Regimiento formó parte de la brigada que organizó Calleja a fin de emprender una campaña a Texas para combatir al aventurero angloamericano Nolland, que estaba levantado en la frontera de la Nueva España con Louisiana. En esa campaña ganó Ignacio Allende importantes ascensos; para 1802 ya tenia el grado de teniente de caballería. En ese año contrajo matrimonio, pero su esposa falleció poco tiempo después.

II).- La idea de Independencia.

En 1806 pertenecía al Regimiento del cantón de Jalapa, con el grado de capitán. Regresó a San Miguel el Grande, donde fue el capitán del Regimiento de caballería de la Reyna. En esa época comenzó a simpatizar con la idea de independizar a la Nueva España. Ignacio Allende se interesó por los proyectos de los conspiradores de Valladolid en 1809; a pesar de que fueron denunciados y aprehendidos, Allende continuó conspirando en Querétaro.

En la ciudad de Querétaro organizó reuniones, disfrazadas de tertulias culturales, a las invitó a varios amigos de confianza, para que participaran en el movimiento libertario que se gestaba. Los sanmiguelenses, así como varios historiadores, piensan que el autor del movimiento de independencia es Allende, porque el capitán Allende fue el alma de la conspiración y fue él quién convocó a los demás, pero por veneración y respeto cedió la dirección del movimiento al Padre Miguel Hidalgo.

En dichas reuniones participaban el Lic. Francisco Parra, el padre José María Sánchez, el capitán Ignacio Allende, el capitán Juan Aldama, el corregidor don Miguel Domínguez y su esposa doña Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez; el capitán Joaquín Arias, los comerciantes Epigmenio y Emeterio González y otras personas. Fue invitado el padre Miguel Hidalgo a participar en esas reuniones para que encabezara la conspiración por ser ampliamente reconocido en la región del Bajío. Hidalgo se incorporó y asumió el liderazgo de la conjura. Se había planeado iniciar la insurrección el 1º de octubre de 1810 en San Juan de los Lagos, aprovechando las fiestas patronales que reunían a una gran multitud. Juan Garrido y otros denunciaron a los conspiradores, obligando al Corregidor Miguel Domínguez a que procediera en contra de ellos. Doña Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, que había sido encerrada en sus habitaciones desde el día 13 de septiembre, pudo enviar un propio con un recado para el capitán Allende avisándoles que la conspiración había sido descubierta. El enviado, Ignacio Pérez, llegó a San Miguel la noche del 15 y no encontró a Allende, por lo que avisó a Juan Aldama; juntos se trasladaron a Dolores, ya que allá se encontraba Ignacio Allende con don Miguel Hidalgo. Llegaron a la casa del padre Hidalgo a las dos de la mañana del domingo 16 de septiembre, quién al saber que habían sido descubiertos exclamó: “caballeros somos perdidos, aquí no queda mas remedio que ir a coger gachupines”. Hidalgo tomó sus providencias y pidió a los serenos (veladores) que avisaran a la gente que estaba comprometida con la insurrección para que se presentaran en su casa. Comisionó a cada uno de los jefes para que fueran a detener a los españoles, civiles y religiosos, residentes en el pueblo; lograron aprehender 19 españoles. En la calle, frente a la casa de Don Miguel Hidalgo estaban los simpatizantes del movimiento, esperando instrucciones de éste; allí los arengó por primera vez. Se trasladaron a la cárcel; liberaron a todos los presos, quienes se unieron al grupo y se trasladaron al atrio de la iglesia, habiendo ordenado al campanero de la parroquia Jesús Galván, que tocara la campana para convocar a misa. Eran las cinco de la mañana del domingo 16 de septiembre. El padre Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla arengó a todos los reunidos en el atrio y pronnció un discurso conocido como “El Grito de Independencia”, en el que dijo, entre otras cosas, lo siguiente:

“¡Que la antorcha que aquí se enciende, no se apague jamás!

Hermanos míos, mexicanos por la patria y por la ley. Ha llegado la hora de la bendita libertad que tanto tiempo se ha anhelado.

La campana que siempre ha llamado a misa, esta mañana os llama a daros justicia y libertad...

¡ Viva México !; ¡ Viva nuestra Santa religión !; ¡ Viva el rey Fernando VII !; ¡ Viva América !; ¡ Viva la libertad !; ¡ Muera el mal gobierno !

Dirigiéndose a los militares les dijo:

“Capitán Allende, capitán Aldama, ya tenéis un ejército, formadlo en compañías que habremos de partir a campaña”.

Con esa patriótica y simbólica acción del 16 de septiembre de 1810, se dio inicio a la Revolución de Independencia de México. El padre Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, el capitán Ignacio Allende y el capitán Juan Aldama se convirtieron en “Los Padres de la Patria”.

III). - La campaña libertadora 

Después de la arenga que pronunció Hidalgo, empezaron los preparativos para armar aquel improvisado ejército, con machetes, picas, garrotes, hondas y muy pocas armas de fuego y caballos. Se les incorporó el destacamento del Regimiento de la Reina integrado por 34 soldados. Ignacio Allende fue el encargado de organizar aquel grupo de 700 – 800 hombres, de los cuales solo la mitad tenían caballo. Hidalgo ordenó que sacaran a los prisioneros españoles para llevarlos como rehenes.

Partieron rumbo a San Miguel el grande, haciendo escala en la hacienda de “La erre”, en donde comieron. Continuaron hacia el santuario de Atotonilco el Grande, en cuya sacristía había una imagen de la Virgen de Guadalupe, que fue tomada por Hidalgo y colocada en un asta a manera de estandarte. Con esta imagen se presentó ante su gente y gritó: “¡Viva la Virgen de Guadalupe! Viva la América!”. La tropa contestó repitiendo ese grito, agregando: “¡Mueran los gachupines!”.

Llegaron a San Miguel la noche del 16 y tomaron esa plaza con relativa facilidad, Allende convenció a su regimiento para que se les incorporara; la tropa ya sumaba 1200 personas. Acamparon tres días en esa población y de allí se dirigieron el día 19, con una fuerza de 6,000 hombres, hacia Guanajuato, pasando por Celaya, población que tomaron el día 20 de septiembre. En Celaya fue proclamado Hidalgo como Capitán General del Ejército de América, el cual ya contaba con más de 20 mil hombres. Allende y Aldama fueron nombrados tenientes generales; ambos organizaron el heterogéneo ejército. Durante la campaña Ignacio Allende se hizo famoso por su ética y caballerosidad en el mando. Fue respetuoso de la población civil y no castigaba a los presos.

El 24 partieron hacia Guanajuato -pasando por Salamanca e Irapuato-, población que tomaron el 28 de septiembre y en la cual hubo una gran cantidad de españoles muertos, en la Alhóndiga de Granaditas, Casa Fuerte en la que se habían refugiado. La turba enardecida se dedicó al pillaje y saqueo, no pudiendo contenerlos los jefes insurgentes sino hasta el tercer día, gracias al empeño de Allende por contener los desmanes. El ejército insurgente se abasteció de armas, municiones y dinero en oro y plata, lo cual le daba gran poder para continuar la lucha. En Guanajuato se incorporó a la lucha insurgente Mariano Jiménez. 

De Guanajuato partieron hacia Valladolid, población que tomaron el 17 de octubre, sin que les opusieran la menor resistencia. El día 19 Hidalgo publicó un decreto mediante el cual se abolía la esclavitud. En Valladolid se incorporaron al ejército insurgente varios Regimientos realistas. Hidalgo tomó los recursos disponibles y se dirigió hacia la ciudad de México. En el pueblo de Charo se les presentó el padre José María Morelos, a quién Hidalgo comisionó para que organizara los ejércitos insurgentes en la costa sur de México, los héroes se despidieron en Indaparapeo y ya no se volvieron a ver. Las tropas insurgentes continuaron su marcha por Acámbaro, en donde Hidalgo fue proclamado generalísimo e Ignacio Allende capitán general de un ejército que se aproximaba a 80 mil hombres. Pasaron a Maravatío, lugar en el que se incorporó Ignacio López Rayón. Continuaron por Ixtlahuaca y llegaron a Toluca, el 28 de octubre, que había sido evacuada por Torcuato Trujillo, cuyas fuerzas enfrentaron los insurgentes en “El Monte de las Cruces” el día 31. Ignacio Allende dirigió a los insurgentes y, tras 6 horas de combates, los realistas se retiraron, por lo que los insurgentes victoriosos avanzaron hasta Cuajimalpa. Tras permanecer dos días acampados en Monte de las Cruces. El capitán general Ignacio Allende insistió en la necesidad de marchar sobre la Ciudad de México, que se encontraba a 30 kilómetros de distancia, argumentando que eso les daría gran prestigio, porque lograrían la prisión o huida del virrey y la desorganización del gobierno virreinal, lo que los acercaría a la independencia total. Hidalgo ordenó retirada inexplicablemente, por lo cual tuvo serias diferencias con los jefes militares. Se dirigieron a Querétaro y en Aculco fueron dispersados por las tropas realistas de Félix María Calleja, por lo cual separaron las tropas insurgentes. 

Mientras Allende se dirigió a Guanajuato, Hidalgo se fue a Valladolid con poca gente. A pesar de la organización defensiva, Allende fue derrotado en Guanajuato, porque no recibió ayuda de los otros jefes insurgentes. Hidalgo se trasladó a Guadalajara y fue bien recibido por las autoridades el 28 de noviembre. Después llegó Allende con sus tropas. Calleja había tomado Valladolid y recibió la orden del Virrey que combatiera a los insurgentes en Guadalajara. Hidalgo tomó la determinación de enfrentar a las tropas realistas en “El Puente de Calderón”. Tras un reñido combate, el 16 de enero de 1811, en donde Allende mostró sus dotes militares. Sin embargo ocurrió una desgracia cuando explotó uno de los carros insurgentes cargados con municiones; los improvisados soldados insurgentes se vieron desconcertados y ya no obedecieron a sus jefes. Calleja aprovecho el desconcierto y derrotó a los insurgentes que huyeron despavoridos por falta de disciplina militar. Hidalgo regresó a Guadalajara y de allí se traslado a Aguascalientes, para seguir su camino hacia la hacienda de Pabellón, adonde llegó el 24 de enero. Allí estaban esperándolo Ignacio Allende, Aldama y Abasolo, quienes estaban muy disgustados por los errores militares de Hidalgo, por lo que lo destituyeron del mando militar, siendo substituido por Ignacio Allende a quién se le dio el nombramiento de generalísimo. A Hidalgo solo se le dejó el mando político. Fue allí que decidieron emprender su marcha hacia el norte, con la idea de llegar a los Estados Unidos, para solicitar apoyo y abastecerse de armas.

Los insurgentes dominaban el camino de Aguascalientes a Texas. Mariano Jiménez, que había sido comisionado por Hidalgo, entró victorioso a Saltillo el 8 de enero; allí nombró a don Pedro de Aranda como jefe del gobierno libertario de la provincia de Coahuila y Texas, con sede en Monclova. Jiménez se trasladó a Monterrey.

El generalísimo Ignacio Allende y el capitán general Juan Aldama llegaron a Saltillo el 24 de febrero y fueron recibidos con gran regocijo. A Hidalgo se le pidió que llegara en la madrugada del día 7 de marzo, casi en calidad de preso. En Saltillo, los insurgentes recibieron del gobierno español una proposición de indulto, la cual fue rechazada con un escrito en el que se incluyó una lapidaria frase: “El indulto, excelentísimo señor, es para los criminales y no para los defensores de la patria...”. 

IV).- El prendimiento y muerte de los héroes

Los insurgentes salieron de Saltillo el 16 de marzo con el propósito de llegar a Texas, vía Monclova, y de allí pasar a los EEUU. Quedó como jefe de las tropas en Saltillo el general Ignacio López Rayón. Hidalgo y una parte de las tropas pasaron por la hacienda de Capellanía (hoy Ramos Arizpe) y llegaron a la hacienda de Santa María. En ese lugar se le presentó a Hidalgo el insurgente novo santanderino Bernardo Maximiliano Gutiérrez de Lara, a quién se le dio el rango de teniente coronel y se le comisionó para que fuera a Washington con el fin de procurar apoyos para la causa insurgente, ya que el anterior comisionado, Lic. Ignacio Aldama había sido aprehendido en San Antonio de Béjar. Después llegó el generalísimo Allende con el resto de la columna y pernoctaron todos en Santa María.

Francisco Ignacio Elizondo, oficial realista, se había “adherido” a las tropas de Mariano Jiménez, cuando arribaron a Saltillo en enero. Fingió ser file a los insurgentes y se trasladó a Monclova, como avanzada, allí aprehendió al Gobernador Pedro Aranda y planeó, junto con Tomás Flores, la emboscada para aprehender a los insurgentes antes de que llegaran a Monclova. Hizo firmar una carta a Pedro Aranda, en la que decía a los insurgentes que en Monclova los esperaban con los brazos abiertos.

Los insurgentes continuaron su marcha por las agrestes tierras sem.-desérticas entre Saltillo y Monclova. El 17 de marzo llegaron a la hacienda de Mesillas y el 18 llegaron al presidio de Anhelo, descansando allí el martes 19. El miércoles continuaron su marcha y llegaron a La Joya y Agua Nueva. El 21 de marzo la columna se puso en marcha sin tomar precauciones militares y con la confianza de que iban a ser encontrados por unas tropas que les harían los honores correspondientes. Se les había recomendado que llegaran a las norias de Baján en pequeñas partidas para que, tanto hombres como animales, pudieran beber agua en orden, dando oportunidad para extraer agua de la noria paulatinamente.

Ignacio Elizondo escondió sus tropas tras una loma, llamada desde ese día “loma del prendimiento”, a la que rodea el camino, de forma que fueron aprehendiendo a los insurgentes conforme iban llegando, sin que se dieran cuenta los que venían detrás. Cuando llegó el carruaje de don Ignacio Allende a ese sitio, fue el único que se enfrentó a los traidores, disparando su pistola contra los traidores, pero un disparo de los realistas mató a su hijo Indalecio, por lo que Allende cayó abatido por la desgracia. Así fueron aprehendidos y amarrados todos los integrantes de la columna insurgente, “desapareciendo” gran parte de los caudales que llevaban para adquirir elementos de guerra. Los realistas concluyeron su traición al atardecer. Solo Rafael de Iriarte se dio cuenta de la emboscada y se retiró a Saltillo sin defender a sus compañeros, razón por la cual fue fusilado por López Rayón en Saltillo.

Los Padres de la patria fueron llevados a Monclova el día 22, en donde le pusieron grilletes en pies y manos. Salieron de Monclova con los presos el día 26 de marzo y tras una larga y penosa trayectoria que pasó por Anhelo, río Nazas, Mapimi y Huejuquilla (actualmente Jiménez, Chi.), llegaron a San Felipe de Chihuahua el 23 de abril. Se les sometió a un largo proceso que duró casi tres meses, que en el caso de Hidalgo fue doble, primero militar y después eclesiástico. Aldama y Jiménez fueron fusilados el 26 de junio. Hidalgo fue degradado como sacerdote y fue fusilado en Chihuahua el 30 de julio. 

En el proceso se acusó a Allende de ‘Alta traición’ a lo que contestó: “en todo caso me podréis acusar de ‘alta lealtad’ ya que soy leal a mi patria”. Don Ignacio Allende fue fusilado el 1º de agosto de 1811. A todos ellos se les cortó la cabeza y fueron remitidas a Guanajuato, colgándose en sendas jaulas, una en cada esquina de la Alhóndiga de Granaditas. Las cabezas permanecieron allí hasta 1821. Posteriormente fueron trasladados los restos de los héroes de la Independencia a la Catedral Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México. El 16 de septiembre de 1925 los restos de los héroes fueron depositados en la cripta de la Columna de la Independencia, en la Ciudad de México. 

En el estado de Guanajuato se modificó el nombre de la ciudad que vio nacer a don Ignacio Allende, llamándole San Miguel de Allende en su honor. Esta población fue elevada al rango de ciudad en 1826 y es cabecera del municipio de Allende.

En el noreste tenemos tres municipios que honran la memoria del Héroe don Ignacio Allende, uno en Chihuahua, uno en Coahuila y otro en Nuevo León, todos con el nombre de Allende.

En Matamoros tenemos una antigua Plaza, que es la segunda en importancia de la ciudad, que lleva el nombre del caudillo Insurgente: Plaza Allende. Además tenemos una calle que lleva su nombre en el norte de la ciudad que sigue una trayectoria de oriente a occidente y tiene un trazo paralelo a las vías del ferrocarril.

¡Loor y gratitud hacia los héroes que nos dieron patria!

Ing. Clemente Rendón de la Garza
Cronista Municipal de Matamoros, Tamaulipas.




Viejas Fotos del Trolley de Puerto Rico...
Cemi Underground and Taller Boricua

Spanish "Cuban Papers "
Cuban-American Statistics.
The Birth of a Rican Manuel Hernandez Carmona 


Viejas Fotos del Trolley de Puerto Rico...
Estas fotos muestran Los trolleys que operaron en San Juan desde Los 1880's hasta el último en el 1946. 
Disfruta hoy, lo que nunca muchos conocieron…

Great site.  The pictures are fascinating, with sound history! 
Sent by Joe Sanchez bluewall@mpinet.netCemi 
Underground and Taller Boricua

1680 Lexington Avenue at Taller Boricua's Multi Arts Space at the Julia de burgos Cultural Center, Lexington Ave. 106th St.  El Barrio, NYC  
Very active center, with films, art exhibits, music, performers, book reading, etc. every month.


Spanish "Cuban Papers "
Excellent resource in finding a particular legajos in the Spanish "Cuban Papers ".  

 Full text of "Descriptive catalogue of the documents relating to the history of the United States in the Papeles procedentes (Cuban Papers).

In the first place, the Department's Guide to the Materials for the History of the United States in Spanish Archives (Washington, 1907), prepared by Professor William R. Shepherd in the earliest period of its operations, is the briefest of all its guides to foreign archives, a book of only 107 pages. Yet the three great Spanish archives which the book purports to cover — that of Simancas, the Archivo Historico Nacional at Madrid, and the Archives of the Indies at Seville — contain enormous quantities of valuable material for American history, certainly more than a million of documents, perhaps more than two millions, the natural product of colonial empire conducted upon a vast scale, with minute attention to detail, and by administrators trained to incessant writing. Colonial empires have sometimes won greater success with less use of the pen ; but, whatever the practical results may have been, historical investigators will not quarrel with the Spanish official's ceaseless accumulation of papers. Their main thought will be one of gratulation and contentment, that the system has left infinite riches of material to the present-day student.
To this vast mass of material, moreover, American interest has been strongly directed of late. Since 1898 American students have entered as never before upon the study of Spanish-American history, of the relations between Spain and the United States, and of the history of those parts of our present area — the Louisiana territory, old Florida, California, and the Southwest, a good third of the whole — which once were ruled by Spain. Historical societies and institutions in the states involved, historical departments in their universities — like the Department of Archives and History in the State of Mississippi, or the historical department of the University of California — have interested themselves in the exploitation of Spanish archives and have interested others in the history to which they contribute. That third of the
United States that was once under Spain is well awakened to interest in its own past. One might fairly feel confident that a volume describing in detail an important portion of these treasures would be put to good use. Moreover, not only was this department's Guide but a meagre " first aid ", but Spain herself has provided little guidance to her archives, few such volumes, for instance, as those of the British Calendars of State Papers ; and the materials derived from those archives which the Argentine and other American governments have occasionally published bear little relation to the history of the United States.
Good luck in your research .  Bill Carmena


Cuban-American Statistics

  Cuban Americans have acquired an enormous amount of wealth and prosperity in an extremely short period of time; no other 
immigrant  group has achieved this as quickly as the Cubans. Many immigrants have  never achieved it at all, despite being in this 
country far longer than  Cubans.
  Second-generation Cuban-Americans were more educated than even  Anglo-Americans. More than 26.1% of second-generation 
Cuban-Americans  had a bachelor's degree or better versus 20.6% of Anglos. Thus  Cuban-Americans in 1997 were approximately 25% more likely to have a  college degree than Anglos.
  Other Hispanic groups lag far behind. Only 18.1% of South Americans had a bachelor's or better. Puerto Ricans, despite being U.S. citizens by birth, recorded a disappointing 11%; Mexicans only 7%.
  In 1997, 55.1% of second-generation Cuban-Americans had an income greater than $30,000 versus 44.1% of Anglo- Americans. Thus Cuban-Americans are approximately 20% more likely to earn more than $30,000 than their Anglo-American counterparts. All other Hispanic groups lag far behind in average income.
  In 1997, 36.9% of second-generation Cuban-Americans had an income greater than $50,000 versus 18.1% of Anglo-Americans. 
Cuban-Americans were twice as likely to earn more than $50,000. Also, approximately 11% of Cuban-Americans had incomes greater than $100,000 versus 9% of Anglo-Amer icans, and less than 2% of other Hispanics.
Cubans comprise less than 4% of the U.S. Hispanic population, Mexicans  65%, Puerto Ricans 10%, Central and South Americans 11%, and "others" 10%.   Yet of the top 100 richest Hispanics in the U.S. , more than 50%  are of Cuban descent (ten times what it should be on a population  basis), and 38% of Mexican descent. The rest is scattered among all  other Hispanic groups.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Sent by Doval1715

The Birth of a Rican 
Manuel Hernandez Carmona 

The Birth of a Rican is an authentic bicultural semi- autobiographical portrayal of the Puerto Rican experience in the United States. It is written by Manny Hernandez who was born and grew up in the town known today as Sleepy Hollow, New York in the early 1960's.

This real life drama depicts the happy moments, the sorrows, the frustrations, the
conflicts and the road to success of Manny's family as he lived an ongoing
revolving door experience between the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico and New
York City. The story travels back in time and revisits the untold Puerto Rican-California exodus and its encounter with Mexicans in California and Italians in New York at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Colleagues,  I am including comments received on the inspirational narrative. If you are interested in a copy, e-mail me directly. If you would like copies for your students or for your class, there are special prices.  I also have instructional modules available for English teachers based on the book. Feel free to share or forward this information to any interested colleagues.

Cordially, Manuel Hernandez (Manny) 787-556-2956

For more information on how to obtain the book,
e-mail the author directly at:



1. Subject: [latinoliterature] Re: The Birth of a Rican 
From: Debbie 
This essay moved me to tears. Here was my first reaction yesterday as I was in the middle of reading it:

Hi Manny - I just have to tell you this. I am halfway through the essay, and suddenly tears came to my eyes. I am serious - emotions are deep here – not because of the story yet - but because since the beginning of my life, white
people have always hurt me and it was always the Ricans who saved me, sheltered me and gave me warmth and love. 

I have to go out in the yard and smoke a cigarette and maybe cry a bit. Tears are now dripping down my face. It's like tears of relief – a realization of how bad I have been abused these past few years in just trying to help make the world a better place.  I'll be back to finish the essay. Love to all, Debbie

Then when I woke up this morning I wrote the following:

Hi Manny - When I woke up this morning I thought about your essay, and the emotions that went through me yesterday. It was indeed your essay that stirred up my emotions to such a point. At first I was feeling the emotions inside, deep inside me, twisting around in me, and then the emotions traveled up to my eyes, and was released through the tears. Wow - your writing is POWERFUL. Thank you, Debbie

(Continued: I think I need to add that I AM a white woman. I am not a Latino in any way shape or form except for the fact that I married a Puerto Rican and so now my own family is Latino – From Mom and Pop (God Bless them) in P.R. to my little mixed Rican (from both sides) grandchildren here in NY. 

Subject: [latinoliterature] The Birth of a Rican 
Prof. Hernandez,
I just finished reading the story "The Birth of a Rican" and I must say it is amazing how you capture the reader's attention. I honestly couldn't stop reading. In some parts of the story I wanted to know more details. For example, Manolo working on his Uncle's farm; how he dressed, what it was like for him on a daily basis; his feelings toward his own uncle mistreating him, etc. I really liked the story. It opened many emotions in me. I hope the story isn't finished yet. I still want to know what happened to Cappone's daughter, Did Manolo arrive to Puerto Rico?, What was it like for him, visiting the island for the first time?, His opinions in regards to his father's mean uncle, etc. Thank you so much for sending me this story. Once again, I enjoyed it very much.
I hope your children are in good health as well as you and your wife. Enjoy this Holy Week with your family and eat lots of fish! Take care professor.—Lucille



Parish of the Assumption of Our Lady in Cordova, Spain
Dona Sancha de Ayala 
Revista Electronica: Genealogia Costa Rica
List of Officers & Sailors in the 1st Voyage of Columbus

Los Reyes Catolicos de España, Fernando II de Aragon e Isabel La Catolica
Consignatarios de Indias por Angel Custodio Rebollo

The Parish of the Assumption of Our Lady in Cordova, Spain

The Parish of the Assumption of Our Lady in Cordova, Spain, where the baptism of a one month old Valentino Mora took place. The photographer, there for another infant, was asked by a single mom of 21 to take a picture of her son for free.  The photo of the baptism of Valentino Mora is sweeping the Internet, because at the time the priest pours the Holy water over his head, the water flows in the shape of a rosary.  Received March 31, 2010.
Sent by Sylvia Carvajal Sutton  

Dona Sancha de Ayala 
16 page essay on the genealogy and history of . . 
have it downloaded DonaSanchadeAyala.pdf 
Sent by John Inclan 


Revista Electronica: Genealogia Costa Rica - Academia Costarricense de Ciencias Genealogicas

There are 16 issues.  The first one was published in March 2007.  The issues are about 225 pages, full with genealogy, some of which goes back to the 1200s in Spain.

Sent by Paul Newfield III  


List of Officers & Sailors in the 1st Voyage of Columbus.,

Sent by Paul Newfield III  





Fernando, nació el 10 de Mayo de 1452  en Sos Zaragoza, hijo de Juan II de Aragón y de su segunda esposa Juana Enriquez, murió el 23 de Enero de 1516 en Caceres.

Su abuelo materno fue Fadrique Enriquez, Almirante de Castilla.


Contrajo matrimonio con Isabel de Castilla el 7 de Enero de 1469, por Constancia de pacto celebrado con las capitulaciones del matrimonio. Isabel nació en Madrigal de las Altas Torres ( Avila ) en 1451, hija de Juan II y de su segunda esposa Isabel de Portugal.


Fernando tuvo varios amores antes de su matrimonio con la Reyna Isabel , Uno de sus amores fue Aldonza Roig.

Tuvo dos hijos naturales uno de ellos de nombre Alfonso, el cual fue nombrado años mas tarde Arzobispo de Zaragoza y Virrey de Aragón, y  La otra de nombre Juana, futura esposa de Bernanrdo Fernández de Velazco.


Conquistó varias ciudades españolas, entre ellas una muy importante Granada, en la cual derrotó a los arabes-musulmanes.


Los hijos que tuvo con la Reyna Isabel , fueron  Isabel, Juana, María, Juan


Isabel se casó con Alfonso de Portugal, hijo de Juan II de Portugal y su prima Leonor de Viseu.  Alfonso murió en 1491 de una caída de un caballo. Isabel nuevamente se casa con Manuel I el Venturoso, teniendo un hijo de nombre Miguel.

Isabel muere en el parto del nacimiento de Miguel, pero Miguel muere También en 1500.  

María se casó con Manuel I el Venturoso, su cuñado y  primo de Juan II de Portugal  

Juan, muere siendo niño  

Juana, se casa con Felipe I el hermoso, Al fallecer Felipe, Juana se trastorna y no puede ocupar el trono de sus padres.


 Cuando falleció la Reyna Isabel ( la Católica )  en el año de 1504, en Medina del Campo, Fernando ocupa el puesto de su difunta esposa, por derecho tendría que corresponder a su hija aún viva Juana, quien estaba casada con Felipe I el Hermoso, a ella le llamaron ( Juana la Loca ).


En el año de 1506 contrae nuevamente matrimonio con Germana de Foix, quien era sobrina del Rey de Francia Luis XII , tuvieron cinco hijos, los Cuales fueron Carlos I, Leonor, Isabel, María y Catalina.


Fernando durante sus matrimonios también tuvo otra hija natural llamada María de Aragón, la que pasó a ser Monja en el Convento de las Agustinas En las cercanías de Madrid, España


Fernando II de Aragón fallació el 23 de Enero de 1516 en Madrigalejo en La provincia de Caceres. Fue sustituido por su nieto Carlos I.   Videos de los Reyes Católicos

Shared on Genealogia de Mexico

Consignatarios de Indias por Angel Custodio Rebollo

Las ordenes religiosas percibiendo la importancia que adquiría todo lo que les enviaban de América, generalmente portados por sus religiosos y las dificultades que tenían estos a su llegada para entregar los justificantes y tramitar ante la Casa de Contratación y Aduanas, primero en Sevilla y después en Cádiz, con el fin de legalizar lo que transportaban, algunas como los Franciscanos y los Jesuitas decidieron establecer lo que se vino a llamar “Procuraduría de Indias” y que entre otros tenían los siguientes cometidos:

Recibir a los miembros de su Orden en el puerto, acompañarlos para pasar los trámites en la Aduana y para el oro y la plata que trajeran registrada en la Casa de Contratación.

Sobre este tema de los metales preciosos registrados, dada la corrupción que existía, era casi normal que se pasasen algunos camuflados sin declarar.

También recibían las remesas de dinero que transportaban para entregar a personas en España y en estos casos también  había un buen volumen que no era declarada con objeto de evitar el pago de impuestos.

Acompañarlos a los alojamientos previstos y cuando estuviere establecido llevarlos de nuevo al puerto designado para emprender el regreso.

Estos viajes y la dotación de lo necesario para su sagrado ministerio, eran por cuenta de la Corona, por lo que había que llevar una compleja contabilidad. Todo ello era manejado por cuatro ó cinco religiosos, aunque a veces necesitaban la ayuda de seglares que eran retribuidos.

Las personas encargadas de la Procuraduría también cobraban las rentas que producían las inversiones en Castilla de todo lo procedente de América, que a veces eran difíciles de cobrar y se veían necesitados de establecer pleitos que originaban un gran trabajo.

Otra labor que tenían en la Procuraduría y en relación a los encargos que recibían para su envío al otro lado del Atlántico, era obtener las mercancías a buen precio y de las calidades solicitadas.

Por lo tanto, la tarea de estos religiosos era, con ligeras variantes, lo que hace actualmente un consignatario/agente de viajes.
                                Angel Custodio Rebollo.





Great web sites on our Hispanic & Filipino connection
Caballeros Andantes, Historia y Leyendas 

Primera expedicion desde los Cayos de San Luis, Venezuela
Simon Bolivar: Liberator of Latin America by Scott S. Smith
Nazi Plan for South America 
Great web sites on our Hispanic & Filipino connection.
Enjoy, Rafael Ojeda


Caballeros Andantes, Historia y Leyendas 

Portal de Historia:
quí se consignan materiales de hechos y personajes reales cuyos documentos, libros y videos componen la base de datos. Muchos de los documentos son de libre consulta aunque hay material restringido sujeto a inscripción previa. 


Diario El Carabobeño
Artículo publicado el: 31/03/10

Historia y tradición
31 de marzo de 1816, primera expedición desde los Cayos de San Luis
Eumenes Fuguet Borregales (*)
La llegada el 7 de abril de 1815 a Margarita en calidad de "Pacificador" del general Pablo Morillo, al frente de más de diez mil experimentados soldados, complica la situación emancipadora. Bolívar en la goleta Santa María de la Popa, propiedad del prócer curazoleño Luis Brión, los primeros días de diciembre de ese año trataba de auxiliar a las fuerzas que se encontraban sitiadas en la fortaleza de Cartagena de Indias. A través del barco corsario El Republicano se entera de la rendición de la heroica plaza, luego de soportar ciento dieciséis días de verdadero sacrificio y heroísmo.

Conocedor de la hospitalidad mostrada hacia las familias venezolanas, el Libertador opta por dirigirse hacia Haití, arribando al puerto de los Cayos la noche del 24 de diciembre de 1815, país libre donde permaneció tres meses. El 2 de enero de 1816 se entrevista en Puerto Príncipe con el presidente Alejandro Petión, de quien recibe las mejores atenciones, protección y apoyo para continuar la lucha redentora. En Puerto Príncipe fue alojado en la casa parroquial de la Catedral, gracias a las gentiles atenciones del Padre Gaspar, quien por cierto al quedar ciego cuatro años después, fue sustituido por el sacerdote venezolano José Cesario Salcedo, designado Vicario General de Puerto Príncipe.

Poco a poco y a partir del día 6, llegaban a Haití los oficiales que con mejor suerte pudieron escapar de Cartagena en las goletas "Constitución", "Sultana" y "La Estrella", y en la fragata "Americana". A proposición del rico armador y benefactor Brión, el 7 de febrero se reúne la Asamblea en los Cayos. Agradecido Bolívar por el valioso apoyo prestado por el marino en navíos y dinero, lo denominó "el primer protector de América y el más liberal de los hombres".

En la Asamblea se designó al Libertador Jefe Supremo de la Expedición en lo político y militar, Capitán General de Venezuela y de la Nueva Granada. El presidente Petión, conocido como "El Magnánimo", ordena apoyar inicialmente con dos mil fusiles y sus respectivas bayonetas y cartuchos. Más adelante le enviaría cuatro mil fusiles adicionales. Bolívar, en carta de agradecimiento, le diría: "Un día la América le proclamará Libertador". La única exigencia de Petión a cambio del apoyo prestado, era la libertad de los esclavos, noble solicitud que Bolívar decretaría en varias ocasiones.

El 8 de febrero Bolívar asciende a Brión a Capitán de Navío, designándolo comandante de la expedición naval. Al general Ignacio Marión, mano derecha de Petión, Bolívar le obsequió un medallón con su retrato, un vaso de plata maciza grabado con sus iniciales (S.B) y le prometió enviarle los mejores caballos de Guayana. La expedición salió el 31 de marzo de 1816 de los Cayos de San Luis en los navíos "Bolívar", "Mariño", "Piar", "Constitución", "Brión", "Félix", "Conejo" y "Fortune". Unos trescientos hombres iban organizados en ocho unidades de maniobra, la mayoría de ellos oficiales, de allí la denominación de la "Expedición de los soñadores".

El 2 de mayo en el islote Los Frailes al noreste de la isla de Margarita, divisan los barcos españoles: la goleta "Rita" y el bergantín "El Intrépido", procediendo en breve combate a abordarlos y capturarlos. Ese día asciende a varios oficiales, entre ellos, a Brión a Almirante, siendo el primero de Venezuela. El 3 de mayo la escuadra arriba a Juan Griego. El día 7 de mayo realizan en la iglesia de Villa del Norte una asamblea, la cual ratifica a Bolívar con todos los poderes conferidos en Haití. El Libertador deja encargado de Margarita al general Juan Bautista Arismendi, dirigiéndose a Carúpano, adonde llegan el 31 de mayo; puerto protegido por las baterías realistas, que al ser destruidas huyen a Cariaco.

Mariño y Piar son enviados a ocupar Güiria y Maturín. Bolívar, en cumplimiento de lo ofrecido a Petión, decreta en Carúpano el 2 de junio la libertad de los esclavos, continúa hacia Ocumare de la Costa con setecientos soldados, arribando el 6 de julio con la intención de avanzar sobre Caracas. En Ocumare emite su segundo decreto sobre la libertad de los esclavos. Una vez bajado el parque, las naves sin autorización del Libertador se trasladan a Curazao a buscar provisiones. Soublette es derrotado el 13 de julio en "Los Aguacates".

Bolívar, con intenciones de atentar contra su vida por la cercanía de los realistas, pudo ser rescatado y llevado a Bonaire por el corsario francés Juan Bautista Bideau, eficiente colaborador desde 1811. Regresa a Choroní y al no encontrar a Soublette, se dirige a Güiria, donde es desconocida su autoridad por Mariño y Bermúdez. Sigue a Margarita y de nuevo a Haití en la goleta "Indio Libre", donde volverá a recibir la hospitalidad y apoyo de sus autoridades, para reiniciar su incansable lucha por la independencia.

(*) Gral. de Bgda.

Artículo enviado desde la página web del Diario El Carabobeño
Sent by Roberto Guadarrama Perez


Simon Bolivar: Liberator of Latin America by Scott S. Smith 

Concise, well documented informative site.  

Gerhard Masur, Simon Bolivar (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1948), pp. 11-25. The Encyclopedia Britannica calls Masur's volume the "best biography of Bolivar in the English language." It should be available in any good library. Although I consulted half a dozen other books, all references are to Masur unless otherwise noted.

Below is the introduction. 

Simon Bolivar (SEE-mohn boh-LEE-vahr) was one of the most powerful figures in world political history, leading the independence movement for six nations (an area the size of modern Europe), with a personal story that is the stuff of dramatic fiction. Yet today outside of Latin America, where he is still practically worshipped, his name is almost unknown.

Born to wealthy Creoles in Caracas, Venezuela, on July 24, 1783, his father died when he was three and his mother six years later. Simon was reared by an uncle with a tutor who exposed him to the writers of the Enlightenment, such as Voltaire and Rousseau, who were inspirations for the French Revolution. The tutor, Simon Rodriguez, fled the country when he was suspected of conspiring to overthrow Spain's colonial rule in 1796.1

At 16, Bolivar was sent to Spain to complete his education and on the way, his ship stopped in Vera Cruz. During an audience with the viceroy, he audaciously praised the French Revolution and American independence, both of which made Spanish officials nervous.2

In 1802, he married the daughter of a nobleman in Spain and returned to Caracas, only to have her die a year later from yellow fever. As a way of keeping his mind off of his grief, Bolivar decided to return to Europe to immerse himself in the intellectual and political world he had found so stimulating.3

Sent by Bill Carmena

Nazi Plan for South America  

The Nazis’ plans for South America began long before World War II, and those plans were reflected in the dictatorship found in some of the countries in the region for years. Evidence suggests that Cordoba was chosen by the Third Reich leadership to be their refuge if they lost the war in Europe or it reached South America.

The first interest in South America dates back to two German philosophers, Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche, who laid the philosophical foundations on which National Socialism and other ideologies were built.

Nietzsche’s sister, Elisabeth Forster Nietzsche, had chosen Paraguay to found an idealized German community. The project, called New Germany, was over-idealized and cut off from the rest of society (it had to be purely German), which may have led to its failure.

After the First World War, the interwar German bourgeoisie founded The Eden Hotel in La Falda City, in Cordoba province Argentina, with tourist attractions targeted to wealthy families coming from Europe. Apart from its tourism purposes, as will later be seen, it had played an important role for the “Nazi intelligence in Argentina” during the
war. In his only book, My Struggle, German Chancellor Adolph Hitler had already suggested the conquest of the Americas underdeveloped countries.      

Cordoba during the War
It has been confirmed that without the government’s knowledge, a number of trucks loaded with big weapons entered Argentina from Bolivia and traveled up to the Calamuchita Valley in Cordoba. Ex-crew members from the Graf Spee used to train there using sticks instead of guns.

It was also proved that in this same province:
• Near each bridge railway or route was a house where a German Nazi lived, who usually had access to dynamite.
• A swastika flag could be seen on the top of a hill from which the whole Calamuchita Valley could be seen.
• A coded transmission was sent to Berlin every night probably from “The Eden Hotel,” which housed a powerful radio transmitter. Based on a report revealing these transmissions, a group of people went to the hotel to investigate. There was a strong police presence when they arrived, so they reported this to the “Comité de Acción Argentina” (Argentine Action Committee) in Buenos Aires. Consequently, in secret sessions held at the Congreso de la Nación (Congress of the Nation) in 1943, the Anti-Argentine Actions Commission listd the following issues:

1. German entities, under commercial or tourist names or acronyms, were acting in this country as spies.

2. The German railways information office (“R.Y.D”) led by the Nazi agent Godofredo Sandstede had connections with the “Organización Central de Alemanes en el Extranjero” (Central Organization of Germans Abroad), with the Headquarters of German National Socialism in Berlin and with the German Embassy in Argentina. These connections conducted actions against Argentine and American interests.

3. Sandstede and the Tourism Office were the Nazi-fascist spearhead for penetration into South America.

FBI Suspects Hitler’s Escape
An FBI document dated four months after Hitler’s suicide declared that there was a possibility that he had escaped to his friends’ hotel in Cordoba, “The Eden.”

Its owners during the war, Walter and Ida Eichhorn, had been personal friends of Hitler and some of his officers. On September 17, 1945 the FBI’s attention was drawn to the couple and their hotel: “Should the Führer have difficulties at any time, he can find shelter in La Falda, where all the required preparations have already been arranged.”

United States interest in the Eichhorns had begun some months before the end of the war after intelligence information in Buenos Aires compromised the couple. Within a few weeks, the FBI had discovered that the relationship between the Führer and the Eden Hotel owners was much closer. The Eichhorns were not only open and active Nazis, but had also collected funds during Hitler’s campaign to reach power.

The Nazis’ plans for South America began long before World War II, and those plans were reflected in the dictatorship found in some of the countries in the region for years. Evidence suggests that Cordoba was chosen by the Third Reich leadership to be their refuge if they lost the war in Europe or it reached South America.

The first interest in South America dates back to two German philosophers, Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche, who laid the philosophical foundations on which National Socialism and other ideologies were built.

Nietzsche’s sister, Elisabeth Forster Nietzsche, had chosen Paraguay to found an idealized German community. The project, called New Germany, was over-idealized and cut off from the rest of society (it had to be purely German), which may have led to its failure.

After the First World War, the interwar German bourgeoisie founded The Eden Hotel in La Falda City, in Cordoba province Argentina, with tourist attractions targeted to wealthy families coming from Europe. Apart from its tourism purposes, as will later be seen, it had played an important role for the “Nazi intelligence in Argentina” during the
war. In his only book, My Struggle, German Chancellor Adolph Hitler had already suggested the conquest of the Americas underdeveloped countries.      

Cordoba during the War
It has been confirmed that without the government’s knowledge, a number of trucks loaded with big weapons entered Argentina from Bolivia and traveled up to the Calamuchita Valley in Cordoba. Ex-crew members from the Graf Spee used to train there using sticks instead of guns.

It was also proved that in this same province:
• Near each bridge railway or route was a house where a German Nazi lived, who usually had access to dynamite.
• A swastika flag could be seen on the top of a hill from which the whole Calamuchita Valley could be seen.
• A coded transmission was sent to Berlin every night probably from “The Eden Hotel,” which housed a powerful radio transmitter. Based on a report revealing these transmissions, a group of people went to the hotel to investigate. There was a strong police presence when they arrived, so they reported this to the “Comité de Acción Argentina” (Argentine Action Committee) in Buenos Aires. Consequently, in secret sessions held at the Congreso de la Nación (Congress of the Nation) in 1943, the Anti-Argentine Actions Commission listd the following issues:

1. German entities, under commercial or tourist names or acronyms, were acting in this country as spies.

2. The German railways information office (“R.Y.D”) led by the Nazi agent Godofredo Sandstede had connections with the “Organización Central de Alemanes en el Extranjero” (Central Organization of Germans Abroad), with the Headquarters of German National Socialism in Berlin and with the German Embassy in Argentina. These connections conducted actions against Argentine and American interests.

3. Sandstede and the Tourism Office were the Nazi-fascist spearhead for penetration into South America.

FBI Suspects Hitler’s Escape
An FBI document dated four months after Hitler’s suicide declared that there was a possibility that he had escaped to his friends’ hotel in Cordoba, “The Eden.”

Its owners during the war, Walter and Ida Eichhorn, had been personal friends of Hitler and some of his officers. On September 17, 1945 the FBI’s attention was drawn to the couple and their hotel: “Should the Führer have difficulties at any time, he can find shelter in La Falda, where all the required preparations have already been arranged.”

United States interest in the Eichhorns had begun some months before the end of the war after intelligence information in Buenos Aires compromised the couple.  Within a few weeks, the FBI had discovered that the relationship between the Führer and the Eden Hotel owners was much closer. The Eichhorns were not only open and active Nazis, but had also collected funds during Hitler’s campaign to reach power.

Editor’s note:
Cordoba’s Jews have faced brief periods of peaceful coexistence and extended periods of intense anti-Semitism throughout history. We found Cordoba to be very receptive to our visit and to our purpose for coming. We love Argentina’s Jewish Community and were blessed to be a blessing to them!

Source: The Nazis and Cordoba— A HISTORY | Jewish Voice Connections pg.7

Source: The Nazis and Cordoba— A HISTORY | Jewish Voice Connections pg.7

04/22/2010 02:50 PM