Somos Primos

114th Issue Online

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-9

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

First Latina U.S. Supreme Court Justice

Sonia Sotomayor

Mercy Bautista-Olvera

On August 6, 2009, the U. S. Senate confirmed Sonia Sotomayor to the U. S. Supreme Court. Sotomayor replaces retiring Justice David Souter. She is the first Hispanic of Puerto Rican descent to serve on the high Court, the third woman     in the Court’s history, on August 8, 2009 she was sworn in as the 111th Justice and the first nominated by a Democrat President in 15 years. Click to article.  

Content Areas
United States 
Remembering 9-11
Tear of Grief
National Issues

Action Item
Bilingual/Bicultural Education
Hispanic Heritage Month

Military/Law Enforcement 
Patriots, American Revolution

Orange County,CA  
Los Angeles,CA

Northwestern US
Southwestern US 

East of Mississippi

East Coast


Family History



Few others can claim the patriotism demonstrated by our Hispanic citizens. Consistent with this, they've received awards for heroism and bravery far in excess to their proportion of the population.  --Ronald Reagan - September 16, 1981


  Letters to the Editor : 

Before we are done amigos, everyone whose contributions to the beginning of this nation has been buried under the dust of the ages, or plain ignorance and prejudice, is going to be recognized!  We are making history!
Thomas McVay Tucker
Executive Producer & Director New Albion Pictures



 Somos Primos Staff:   .
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Luke Holtzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Ashley Mendez Wolfe
Armando Montes
Dorinda Moreno
Michael Perez
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr
Submitters to this issue
Dorina Alaniz Thomas, Ph.D.
Esther Bonilla Read
Julie Brooks
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Gloria Candelaria
Dorina Alaniz Thomas, Ph.D.
Esther Bonilla Read
Julie Brooks
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Gloria Candelaria
Bill Carmena
Oscar Castillo 
Rafael Castillo
Gus Chavez
Jack Cowan
Armando Duran Cepeda
Joel Escamilla
Jim Estrada
Lupe Fisher
Wanda Garcia
Art Garza
Val Gibbons
Dahlia Guajardo-Cantu de Palacios
Zeke Hernandez
David Hinojosa
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
Rick Leal
Joe Lopez
Cathy Luijt
Gilbert Lujan
Paulo Luizaga
Victor Mancilla 
Eddie Martinez
Juan Marinez
Joe Martinez, Ph.D.
Thomas McVay Tucker
Mark & Brenda Mittelstadt
Roddy Monsivais
Dorinda Moreno
Carlos Munoz, Jr., Ph.D.
Rafael Ojeda
Jose R. Oural
Willis Papillion
Gilbert Patino
Eleanor Payan
Richard Perry
Armando Rendon, J.D.
Crispin Rendon
Ben Romero
Norman Rozeff
Ann Salas-Rock 
Tony Santiago
Thomas Saenz
John Schmal
Thomas McVay Tucker
Ricardo Valverde
Margarita B. Velez


SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Michael Perez, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal, Tomas Saenz, Cathy Trejo Luijt.



Congratulations to Sonia Sotomayor, First Latina U.S. Supreme Court Justice 
Wise Latinas 
Hispanic Breaking Barriers by Mercy Bautista Olvera
The New face of America
History of Naturalization in the United States
Roberto Galvan (1911-1958) Mexicano Civil Rights Leader
The Latino/a population in the United States is expected to triple by 2050
16 New Recipients of the Medal of Freedom

First Latina U.S. Supreme Court Justice

Sonia Sotomayor

Mercy Bautista-Olvera




Sonia Sotomayor - who rose from the broken-glass streets of a city housing project to become the Supreme Court's first Latina nominee - says she's just a "kid from the Bronx." Sotomayor's factory-worker father (r.) died when she was 9. Her mother, Celina (l.), supported Sotomayor and her brother, now a doctor, by working at methadone clinics.

 Sonia Sotomayor as a baby with her parents Celina and Juan

Sonia Maria Sotomayor was born on June 25, 1954 in the Bronx, a borough in New York . She is the daughter of Juan Sotomayor and Celina Báez-Sotomayor. She lived not too far from the stadium of her favorite team, the New York Yankees.  Her parents came to New York from Puerto Rico . During WWII, at 17, her mother, Celina Báez joined the Women's Army Corps in Georgia . She eventually settled in the Bronx , where she married Juan Sotomayor. Sonia’s father, a factory worker, died when Sonia was only nine-years old. The following year Sonia was diagnosed with diabetes. Their widowed mother Celina, living in a public housing project, raised both Sonia and her brother Juan. Her brother, now a physician, has been in private practice specializing in pulmonary and asthma diseases in Syracuse , New York .  He is also an assistant professor in Pediatrics and Allergy at the University Hospital and St. Joseph Hospital . Judge Sotomayor describes her mother as her biggest inspiration; her mother emphasized to her children the importance of hard work and education. Her mother Celina would later remarry Omar Lopez.  



         Sonia and her brother Juan                   A little girl with big dreams  


Sotomayor is seen in a cap and gown for her eighth grade graduation.

 Sonia Sotomayor: 8th grade graduation
from the parochial Blessed Sacrament School


She attended Cardinal Spellman High School in Baychester.

                       Cardinal Spellman High School in New York  

Sonia Sotomayor attended Cardinal Spellman High School in New York ; she was the 1972 Valedictorian of her high school class, she studied forensics and was class president as a sophomore and junior.    


Sotomayor 1976 Pyne Prize from Princeton 

Sotomayor went on to earn a Bachelor's Degree in History from Princeton in 1976. At Princeton , she continued to excel, graduating summa cum laude, and Phi Beta Kappa. Sotomayor was a co-recipient of the Moses Taylor Pyne Prize, the highest honor Princeton awards to an undergraduate.


My Princeton experience has been the people I've met.

To them, for their lessons of life, I remain

eternally indebted and appreciative.

To them and to that extra-special person in my life.  

Thank you __ For all that I am and am not.

The sum total of my life here, has been made-up

of little parts from all of you.
                                           SONIA SOTOMAYOR
Princeton yearbook, 1976

On August 14, 1976, after graduating from Princeton , Sonia Sotomayor married her high school sweetheart, Kevin Edward Noonan. She and Noonan divorced amicably in 1983 with no children.   

In the fall of 1976, Sotomayor entered Yale Law School ; she became an editor of the Law Journal at Yale and managing editor of the Yale and Studies in World Public Order. In 1979, Sotomayor earned her Jurist Degree from Yale Law School .  
From 1979-1984, Sonia Sotomayor served as Assistant District Attorney, working in the New York County District Attorney’s Office with her mentor Robert Morgenthau. As a member of the Trial Bureau, Sotomayor litigated cases involving robberies, assaults, murders, police brutality, and child pornography.  

In 1984, she joined a private practice in New York City, her areas of specialty included intellectual property and copyright cases, international transactions involving grain commodity trading, and automobile dealer relations law. She worked for both American and foreign clients, with the opportunity to travel extensively domestically and abroad. Many of the cases required a great deal of investigative work when counterfeit issues arose. “As a result, I had my own bulletproof vest and worked closely with law enforcement officials,” she said.  

In 1990, the managing litigation partner of her firm, David A. Botwinik, urged Sotomayor to apply for a vacated seat on the Federal bench. “I had always wanted to be a judge, but I assumed it would happen much later in my career.” As Judge Sotomayor explains, “I was still in my 30’s at the time and I felt they would not even consider me. If it hadn’t been for my partner’s insistence and support, I never would have applied.”  

In November 1991, President George H. W. Bush nominated Sotomayor to serve as Federal Justice for the U. S. District Court, Southern District of New York.   She was confirmed on August 11, 1992. She was the youngest member of the court when appointed and the first Hispanic Federal judge for U.S. District Court.   

In 1995, Sotomayor made a key ruling that brought Major League Baseball back to the nation after a strike. She ruled in favor of Major League Baseball players over owners in a labor strike that had led to the cancellation of the World Series. Many baseball observers agree that Sotomayor's quick decisive action helped halt a strike that had eliminated the last month and a half of the 1994 regular season as well as the entire postseason.    

Jude Sonia Sotomayor named as Obama's pick for the Supreme Court  

Honorable Judge Sonia Sotomayor
  Second Circuit, Courts of Appeals  

 -- "I don't believe we should bend the Constitution under any circumstance. It says what it says. We should do honor to it."

-- From the1997 Courts of Appeals nomination hearing 


     In 1997, President Clinton nominated Sotomayor to the U.S. Court of Appeals,    for the Second Circuit, one of the most demanding circuits in the country. In addition to Sotomayor’s distinguished judicial service, she has also served as a Lecturer at Columbia University Law School and as an Adjunct professor at New York University School of Law (1998-2007).From October 7, 1998 to August 7, 2009; she served as an Appellate Justice.  

She has served in a variety of legal roles, including as a prosecutor, litigator and judge. In her three-decade career, she has worked at nearly every level of the judicial system. Judge Sotomayor brings more federal judicial experience to the Supreme Court than any justice in the last 100 years, and more overall judicial experience than anyone confirmed for the Court in the past 70 years.  

Judge Sotomayor has protected the rights of working Americans, ruling in favor of health benefits and fair wages for workers in several cases. She has shown support for First Amendment rights in cases of religious expression and the right to assemble and free speech. She has a strong record on Civil Rights cases ruling for plaintiffs who had been discriminated against based on disability, sex, and race.  

Judge Sotomayor is a widely respected legal figure, having been described as    ”highly qualified for any position in which, wisdom, intelligence, collegiality, and good character would be assets,” and as “a role model of aspiration, discipline, commitment, intellectual prowess, and integrity.”  

The Nomination

  In her speech, Sotomayor <a href="">thanked her mother</a>, who is standing to her right, for raising her after her dad died at the age of 9.

Nomination Day, May 26, 2009; l-r;

Sotomayor’s nephew, Juan (brother), Celina, (mother) Sonia Sotomayor, 
Vice President Joe Biden and President Obama 

On May 26, 2009, President Barack Obama announced his selection of Judge Sonia Sotomayor for Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States , to replace retiring Justice David Souter. Sotomayor’s nomination was formally submitted to the U.S. Senate on June 1, 2009.  

 The Senate Hearings: July 13 - 16, 2009

  U.S. Supreme Court nominee Judge Sonia Sotomayor (L, in blue) is sworn-in by Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick Leahy (D-VT) (R) during the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee confirmation hearings on Capitol Hill in Washington July 13, 2009.

1st Day of Hearings, July 13, 2009

   The Senate Vote  

August 6, 2009, Al Franken Senate Judiciary Committee member
announces the nomination to the U.S. Senate

On August 6, 2009, the Senate voted 68-31 to confirm Sotomayor. Obama praised the Senate's vote as "breaking another barrier and moving us yet another step closer to a more perfect union.”  

The longest-serving senator, 91-year-old Robert Byrd of West Virginia , who has been in frail health following a long hospitalization, was brought in a wheelchair to vote in Sotomayor's favor. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., a supporter of the nomination, suffering from brain cancer, was the only Senator absent.  

In the final Senate tally, nine Republicans joined a majority of Democrats and the Senate's two independents to support Sotomayor's confirmation. They included the Senate's few GOP moderates and its lone Hispanic Republican, retiring Senator Mel Martinez of Florida , as well as conservative Senators Lindsey Graham of South Carolina , and Lamar Alexander of Tennessee , the party's third-ranking leader.  

California Senator Diane Feinstein stated, “It’s truly a great day for the United States of America . A great day for justice and the law, and a great day for every young woman out there who says, ‘Yes I can, I can do it if I work hard.’ That is the message of Justice Sonia Sotomayor. She is going to be a wonderful Supreme Court Justice.  Our nation is going to be exceptionally well-served.”  

Senator Dick Durbin of Illinois , a top Democratic Senator stated, "Those who oppose her for fear of her unique life experience do no justice to her or our nation. Their names will be listed in our nation's annals of elected officials’ one step behind America 's historic march forward."  

“With the historic vote, the Senate has affirmed that

        Justice Sotomayor has the intellect, the temperament, the history, the integrity, and the independence of mind to ably serve on our nation’s highest court court.”  

"This is a wonderful day for Judge Sotomayor and her      family, but I also think it's a wonderful day for America."

- -
President Barack Obama
August 6, 2009  

                                                   The Oath


August 8, 2009: l-r U. S. Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor,
Juan (brother), Celina, (mother), and Chief Justice John Roberts    

On August 8, 2009, two swearing in ceremonies took place; the first was held in a private ceremony, in the second and public ceremony, she again took the oath from Chief Justice John Roberts in an ornate conference room beneath a portrait of the legendary Chief Justice John Marshall.  

August 12, 2009, White House reception


"We celebrate the greatness of a country in which such a story is possible, we celebrate how, with their overwhelming vote to confirm Justice Sotomayor, the United  States Senate, Republicans and Democrats,  tore down yet one more barrier and affirmed our belief that in  America the doors of opportunity must be open  to all." 
- -President Barack Obama  August 12, 2009

 “Our Constitution has survived domestic and  international tumult, including a Civil War, two World Wars, and the catastrophe of September 11th. It draws together people of all races, faiths, and backgrounds from all across this country who carry its words and values in our heart. It is the nation’s  faith in a more perfect union that allows a Puerto Rican girl from the Bronx to stand here now.”  

 “I am struck again today by the wonder of my own life, and  the life we in America are so privileged to lead. In reflecting on life experiences. I am thinking also today of the judicial oath of office that I first took almost two decades ago, and that I reiterated this past weekend – to judge without respect to what a person looks like, where they come from, or whether they  are rich or poor, and to treat all persons as equal under the law. That is what our system of justice requires and it is the foundation of the American people’s faith in the rule of law, and it is why I am so passionate about the law.” 
 - - Associate Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor
      August 12, 2009 




Another Wise Latina:  Mercy Bautista-Olvera 


Editor:  Although there was much political discourse and criticism about Judge Sotomayor's comment about a Wise Latina, surely the background and life experiences of an individual shape their perspective on life and decision making.  It is logical that humanity's yearning for  justice will be more likely satisfied when more perspectives, more viewpoints, are brought to the table.  

A few months ago I asked Mercy to share her biography with readers. Mercy is a beautiful example of another Wise Latina.  She has lived her life with love, respect and concern for others, doing her best in whatever situation she found herself. 

In addition to many individual articles written and shared in Somos Primos by Mercy, starting in 2005, in 2008, Mercy started a very tender series honoring our military.  Latinos/Latinas Ultimate Sacrifice, profiled Latinos killed in Iraq and Afghanistan. 

In 2009 Mercy started another series on Hispanics Breaking Barriers.  Published in this issue is the 9th in the series.  

After reading Mercy's bio,  I would like to invite readers to send articles (of any length) honoring a Latina whose selfless action improves the lives of others. It is the Wise Latina that grasps that what benefits an individual must also ultimately benefit the nation. Mercy is a fine example.  I know that each of you know Wise Latinas whose quiet, unsung lives demonstrate the principles of wisdom and right action.  Please share.


Mercy Bautista-Olvera  

Maria Mercedes (Mercy) Bautista was born in the city of Zacatecas , Zacatecas , Mexico ; she is the youngest daughter of Marcelino R. Bautista and Anastacia Nuñez-Bautista, (both deceased). When still a child, with five sisters and three brothers, her family immigrated to Los Angeles , California . A few months after their arrival, Mercy received a “Welcome to United States ” letter from President Dwight D. Eisenhower (the letter regrettably, over time, became lost). Mercy attended elementary and middle school in South-East Los Angeles and graduated from John C. Fremont High School . Shortly thereafter, on September 28, 1963, Mercy became a naturalized citizen.  

As a teenager, Mercy worked such various jobs as a ticket cashier at the Mayan Theatre in downtown Los Angeles , auto part assembly worker, and for Learner’s Department store, she rose from an office clerk to Manager of the Credit Department.   

Married at an early age, her family would grow to include three daughters. She volunteered in her oldest daughter’s pre-school classroom and at the local Girl Scout chapter. In her daughter’s school she joined the P.T.A. and later became Chairperson of the Advisory Board. The Advisory Board allowed Mercy to represent the issues and recommendations concerning her daughter’s elementary school at school district-wide meetings. After two years of volunteer service, she was hired by the school Principal to work as an “Education Aide III.”    

Mercy, at the time single parent, with three young daughters; enrolled at East Los Angeles Junior College . Holding three part-time jobs; classroom Aide, school office clerk, and local library worker, she now solely supported her three daughters and attended evening classes at East Los Angeles College .  She graduated with an Associate of Arts Degree, making the Honor List, the Dean’s List and Alpha Gamma Sigma Membership. (The following day after her graduation from college, she remarried).  

Mercy later attended California State University at Los Angeles and received a Bachelor’s of Arts Degree in Child Development. By this time her experience and education qualified her to work as a “Teacher’s Assistant.”  As an “Assistant,” she could provide instruction in the classroom and when necessary, serve as a substitute teacher.  She still volunteered many hours translating for teachers and parents, and often tutored students during her lunchtime. Throughout her 22 years in education, she maintained an outstanding rapport with teachers, parents, and students.   

Mercy’s involvement with “Somos Primos” began when she attended a monument dedication for Pfc. Eugene A. Obregon on October 2, 2004 at Father Serra Park in Los Angeles . The monument site is dedicated to the Latino heroes who have received the Congressional Medal of Honor. She later wrote about the dedication and sent it to the Somos Primos website.  

She then wrote another article for Somos Primos about her dad, Marcelino R. Bautista, who worked as a railroad worker under the Bracero plan during WWII. Somos Primos’ editor Mimi Lozano-Holtzman then asked permission to send the article to Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, the Director of the national organization, “Defend the Honor.” Consequently and with permission, Dr. Rivas-Rodriguez reprinted the article and photo of her father in the book, “A Legacy Greater Than Words.” Definitely, one of many highlights in her life was having her father’s name and photo in a published book.  

Mercy has been an advocate for many issues, she has written to express her views to U.S. Presidents, U.S. Senators, and U.S. Congressmen regarding soldiers/veterans not receiving Congressional Medal of Honor recognition, Veterans health insurance and benefits, the mistreatment of farm workers (by their employers), and abuses against illegal immigrants.  

For “Somos Primos” she then wrote a variety of articles presenting positive Hispanic role models; Hispanics in the Civil War, Benito Juarez, Marine Pfc. Guy Gabaldon, Marine Sgt. Rafael Peralta, Enrique Camarena, Cesar Chavez, Michael E. Lopez-Alegria (Astronaut), and Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner; (Argentina’s 1st female President). She also wrote, “Los Niños Heroes de Chapultepec,” a little known battle against the French in 19th century Mexican History.  

In 2008, she submitted a series of biographies titled “Latinos/Latinas Ultimate Sacrifice,” a series profiling Latinos killed in Iraq and Afghanistan .  She wrote in detail of the lives and contributions of nearly 130 fallen lives.  She strongly voiced that their sacrifices, never be forgotten.  In 2009, Mercy started another series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers.” This series presented the contributions of Hispanics in United States government and leadership.  She wrote how these leaders improved not only the local community, but the country as well.  

Currently, Mercy is part-time caretaker for her two youngest grandsons providing them with at home tutoring. At her grandson’s school, she still volunteers her time. In her spare time, she enjoys researching family history, reading, attending musicals, and plays. Mercy is married, has five children and seven grandchildren. She continues to live her life dedicated to children and education.




Part IX


Mercy Bautista-Olvera



In the coming months this series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” will present the   contributions of Hispanics in United States government and leadership. Their contributions have improved not only the local community but the country as well.    Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example, illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.


Dr. Thelma Melendez de Santa Ana : Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education in the Department of Education (Confirmed)

Vilma S. Martinez: U.S. Ambassador to Argentina (Confirmed)

John R. Fernandez: First Capital Group, Senior Vice President, currently a nominee for Assistant secretary of Commerce for Economic Development

Juan M. Garcia III: U.S. former member of the Texas House of Representatives, representing the 32nd District, (Texas) currently a nominee for Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs), Department of the Navy, Department of Defense

Dr. Ines Triay:  Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management in Energy Department (Confirmed)      


 Dr. Thelma Melendez de Santa Ana

Dr. Thelma Melendez de Santa Ana has been confirmed by the Senate to serve as Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education in the Department of Education, she will be a top advisor to Education Secretary Arne Duncan in the Obama Administration.

Thelma Esther Melendez’ family emigrated from Mexico . She was raised in Montebello , California . She is the daughter of Benedicto Melendez and Maria Melendez. She attended Fremont Elementary School , and eventually she married Otto Santa Ana, currently, a UCLA Chicano Studies Associate Professor. 

Melendez de Santa Ana earned a Bachelor Cum Laude in Sociology from UCLA.

As a Title VII Fellow, she earned a Ph.D. in language, literacy & learning from the Rossier School of Education at the University of Southern California .

Melendez de Santa Ana has worked in the Montebello and Pasadena School Districts as a Bilingual classroom teacher, a middle school Assistant Principal (for curriculum and instruction), elementary school Principal, and Director of Instruction for elementary and middle schools.

Since 2006, Melendez de Santa Ana has been Superintendent of the 33,000 student Pomona Unified School District . She is a highly respected educator, with commitment and passion for helping students, she inspires everyone who works with her. Her motto of ‘Respect, Responsibility, and Results’ for every student, parent, and educator, are keys to improving student achievement.


Vilma S. Martinez

Vilma S. Martinez has been confirmed by the Senate to serve as U.S. Ambassador to Argentina .  

Vilma Socorro Martinez was born on October 17, 1943 in San Antonio , Texas ; she is the daughter of Salvador Martinez and Marina Pina-Martinez. In the early 1970’s, she married fellow attorney Stuart Singer. They have two sons, Carlos and Ricardo.   

During her childhood, much of Texas was openly segregated. “We weren’t allowed to go into some of the parks,” Martinez recalls. “When we went to the movies, we had to sit in the back of the theater.”  

At 15 years of age, Martinez worked as a volunteer in the firm of a local Hispanic lawyer, Alonso Perales. The experience led her to focus her sights on becoming a lawyer.  

After graduating from high school, Vilma Martinez enrolled at the University of Texas at Austin , earning a Bachelor’s of Arts degree in 1964. She went on to Columbia University School of Law, receiving her Bachelor’s of Law (L.L.B). Degree in 1967.  

Martinez began her career as a staff attorney with the NAACP Legal Defense Fund in 1967.  “I joined the staff at the NAACP Legal Defense Fund when Title VII was new and I worked on Title VII cases throughout the South and an early Northern school desegregation case in Denver , Colorado ,” Martinez said.

In 1970, she became Equal Employment Opportunity Counsel for the New York State Division of Human Rights in New York City and in 1971; she joined the firm of Cahill, Gordon & Reindel in New York as a litigation associate.

Martinez was one of the first two women elected to the Board of Directors for the Mexican-American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF). In 1973, she was selected president and general counsel. She served in that capacity from 1973-1982. During her tenure, Martinez worked on a number of issues. She is proud of a major victory in Plyer vs. Doe, which guaranteed undocumented children the right to a public school education. She was also instrumental in MALDEF’s effort to expand the Voting Rights Act to Mexican-Americans.     

Since 1982, Martinez has been a partner in the Los Angeles law firm of Munger, Tolles & Olson, where she specializes in federal and state court litigation, including defense of wrongful termination, employment litigation, and other commercial litigation.  

In 1994, she was hired by the Los Angeles Unified School District to challenge that portion of Proposition 187, which denied public school education to California ’s undocumented migrants. While her suit filed in the state courts successfully won a restraining order, a similar case was filed soon afterwards in the federal courts by MALDEF and other civil rights groups. The federal class action suit, Gregorio vs. Wilson , ultimately resulted in nearly all provisions of Proposition 187 being declared unconstitutional in 1998.  

Martinez is proof that a person from a humble beginning can become a success. Youth have looked to her for inspiration as they deal with the many challenges of living in a diverse culture.


Dr. John Russell Fernandez

John Fernandez, Senior Vice President for First Capital Group is a nominee for Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Economic Development and Economic Development Administration for the Department of Commerce.  

John Russell Fernandez was born in Canton, Ohio, son of Armonia C. Fernandez, he is a first generation American, Fernandez grew up in Kokomo, Indiana. He is married to Karen Suzanne Howe they have one daughter, Isabel.  

He earned a Bachelor of Science degree from Indiana University ’s School of Public and Environmental Affairs, and a Master of Public Affairs (M.P.A.) and a Doctor of Law (J.D.) from Indiana University School of Law.  

Fernandez served as a law clerk for Indiana Supreme Court Justice Roger DeBruler, soon after he served in a private practice of law as a member of Bingham Summers Welsh and Spilman’s litigation practice group.  

Starting in 1991, Fernandez served on the Bloomington City Council for five years and as its President.  In his off-Counsel role, Fernandez advises private and governmental organizations on economic development, public finance and public policy issues. He earned a Jurist Doctor Degree from the Indiana University School of Law in Bloomington , Indiana in 1992.  

In 1993, Fernandez was admitted to the Bar Association in Indiana .  

In 1996, Fernandez served as Bloomington ’s Mayor. In his first term, Thomson Consumer electronics in Bloomington announced plans to close its plant. Fernandez marshaled community, state, and federal resources and developed a strategic redevelopment plan that led to over $200 million in private investments and created hundreds of new jobs.  As Mayor, Fernandez developed an aggressive downtown revitalization plan resulting in more than $100 million of new investments.  He also worked with business and Indiana University leaders to launch Bloomington ’s Life Sciences Partnership, securing more than $243 million in private investments and creating more than 3,700 jobs.   

From 1999-2003, Fernandez served a second term, as Mayor he served as a member of the Electronic Commerce & Internet Technology Taskforce for the United States Conference of Mayors. He is also a member of the Indiana Land Resources Council and the Indiana Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations.  

Fernandez was also the Indiana Democratic Party’s candidate for Secretary of State in 2002. 

In 2007, Fernandez joined the Obama for Change Indiana leadership team serving as a senior advisor and fundraiser.  For more than 20 years, John Fernandez has played a prominent leadership role in Bloomington and Indiana ’s civic life.  

Currently, Fernandez is Senior Vice President & Partner at First Capital Financial Group. In this capacity, he leads the real estate investment firm’s new development and acquisition team. Fernandez’ community activities include service on a number of philanthropic boards including, the Bloomington Economic Development Corporation and the Community Foundation of Bloomington and Monroe County .

Juan M. Garcia III   

Juan M. Garcia III, a second-generation Naval Aviator, and attorney, is a nominee for Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs), Department of the Navy.  If the Senate confirms Garcia, he will provide leadership in recruiting, developing, and retaining personnel in the military and civilian service.   

Juan M. Garcia III was born on May 27, 1966 in St. Louis , Missouri ; he is the son Navy Pilot Juan Manuel Garcia II and Patricia Corcoran-Garcia. Juan is married to Denise Giraldez-Garcia; (of Puerto Rican descent) they met at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. The couple have four children, twin eight-year-old boys, a six-year-old-daughter, and a three-year old son.

Garcia graduated with honors and received his Bachelor’s Degree from the University of California at Los Angeles , where he gave the 1988 commencement address. In 1992, Garcia received his Jurist Degree-MPP (Jurist Degree-Master in Public Policy) from Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. At Harvard Garcia became a close friend to President Obama, they were law school classmates. 


In 1999-2000 Garcia served in the White House Fellow (the nation's premier leadership development program) serving as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Education to Richard Riley. Garcia is a 2nd generation aviator; he has flown 30-armed missions in support of Operation Desert Thunder in the Persian Gulf , including an emergency landing in a sandstorm. He is the Commanding Officer of Naval Reserve Training Squadron 28. He served as Flag Lieutenant in the U.S. Navy and the aide-de-camp in London to the Deputy Commander in Chief of U.S. Naval Forces in Europe . Garcia served in Operation Allied Force in Yugoslavia . He has served in supporting the enforcement of the no-fly zone in Iraq aboard the USS constellation.    

Garcia received his “Wings of Gold” from the Naval Air Station in Corpus Christi , Texas ; his Military awards include the Joint Commendation Medal, the Naval Commendation Medal, and the Naval Achievement Award.    

Garcia left active duty in 2004 and continued to serve as an instructor pilot at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi with the Naval Reserves. Garcia served as Chair in the Board of Citizens for Educational Excellence and the Board of Governors for Leadership in Corpus Christy, Texas , the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Memorial Foundation, the Surfrider Environmental Group, and the Corpus Christi Barrios Association.  

Garcia was admitted to the Bar in 2005 in Corpus Christi , Texas , he served in U.S. District Court, Southern District of Texas.  

In January 2007, U.S. Representative Garcia won his first victory for open government. He represented the 32nd District in the Texas House of Representatives. Garcia made the initiative of recording the vote as a direct avenue for ethical open government, the centerpiece of his campaign, and the bi-partisan legislation he co-authored has changed forever, the way the legislature does business. With overwhelming passage of Proposition 11 by the people of Texas , the Garcia Amendment was expanded and Texas Constitution made sure, that no new law can change the lives of Texans without public accountability for the vote.  


 Dr. Ines Triay  

Dr. Ines R. Triay has been confirmed by the Senate to serve as Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management in Energy.   

Ines Triay was born in Cuba in 1958, the daughter of Miguel Eduardo de Triay and Ines de Triay. When she was three years old, she and her parents joined thousands in fleeing Cuba . The Triay family went into exile in Puerto Rico . Her father, an electrical engineer, and her mother, a piano and dance teacher, found success in Puerto Rico but moved to Miami , Florida , seeking opportunity for their daughter. She is married to John H. Hall.  

In 1980, Ines Triay received her Bachelor’s of Science Degree in Chemistry, Magna Cum Laude in the University of Miami and in 1985; she earned her Doctorate Degree in Physical Chemistry from the University of Miami In Florida .  

Triay soon became recruited by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico , as a post-doctoral staff member in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. She served as Manager of the Department’s Carlsbad Field Office in New Mexico . During her tenure there, the number of transuranic waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant increased from one or two per week to 25 per week. She also spearheaded a national effort culminating in a plan that completes the disposal of all legacy transuranic waste 20 years early. Before managing the Carlsbad Field Office, she held several key positions at Los Alamos National Laboratory.  

During Triay tenure in these positions, the program completed the cleanup of the Department’s Rocky Flats site in Colorado and the Fernald site in Ohio . She also played an instrumental role in the commencement of remotely handled transuranic waste disposal operations at the Department’s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico .  

Triay leads the largest, most diverse, and technically complex environmental cleanup program in the world, the program has an annual budget of more than $5.5 billion, workforce of more 30,000 federal and contractor employees. It has enough radioactive waste to fill the Louisiana Superdome and it originally involved more than 2 million acres at 107 sites located in 35 states.  

Triay has been awarded to the Presidential Rank Award, the Wendell Weart Waste Management Lifetime Achievement Award, and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers’ Dixy Lee Ray Award for Environmental Protection, the National Atomic Museum ’s National Award of Nuclear Science, and numerous awards from the Department and Los Alamos National Laboratory recognizing her for excellence in performance.  

Triay is a member of numerous professional organizations; she has produced more than 200 articles, papers, reports, and presentations for professional conferences and workshops, as well as major trade publications. She is American Chemical Society certified member.


*Updates from Previous Articles*  

*Victor M. Mendez: Administrator of Federal Highway Administration in Transportation Department (Confirmed July 10, 2009)

(See April 2009 issue of “Somos Primos for complete biography)      

*Rosa “Rosie” Gumatao Rios: Treasurer of United States in Treasury Department (Confirmed July 24, 2009)

(See July 2009 issue of “Somos Primos for complete biography)   





Dr. Hector P. Garcia
Daisy Wanda Garcia

Dr. Hector P. Garcia Statue at  
Texas A & M University, Corpus Christi
LtoR: Terry Hernandez, Wanda Garcia, and Mariana Tinoco


On August 6, 2009, I had the privilege of attending a tour of my father’s collection, given by Dr. Tom Kreneck. Papa selected Dr. Kreneck to be the curator for his collection. Dr. Kreneck got into much detail on the archival process including techniques for preservation of the papers.  In addition, Dr. Kreneck stated that the special collections receive many requests for documents from all over the USA and from European countries. PBS and other entities contact the university asking for copies of photos and letters.  


Gray boxes containing Papa’s papers line metal shelves in the library.  Many display cases are in the reception area containing photos and other memorabilia. Stacks of pictures and letters from my Papa’s archives are piled high on tables.  

Memories flooded every time I saw an article or letters reminding me of a time my father was here - when the collection was but a vision.  

Standing behind Dr. Hector P. Garcia in the photo are (LtoR) Attorney Amador Garcia: Patrick Carroll, President of CCSU Alan Sugg, and Library Director Richard L. O'Keeffe

It began for me one summer in 1987. I returned to Corpus Christi, Texas to visit my parents.  My first stop was at my father’s clinic on Bright St.  Papa was in the reception area when I entered the clinic. Once my eyes adjusted to the light, I saw him surrounded by papers and many file boxes. I asked, “What are you doing, Papa!”  I learned to expect anything when my father was involved.  So I was not surprised by his response.     “I am organizing my papers to give them to a university.  So far, he said, “Yale and University of Texas and CCSU want my papers.”  

Then he thrust the stack of documents he was holding and said “Kiki, put this in that box!”  The file boxes contained many file folders. The date and the subject matter were printed on the tab in black ink in my father’s distinct handwriting. For the next hours, Papa kept handing me packets of Xeroxed documents, newspaper articles and photographs. He would issue clear commands where to put them.  I observed that there were many copies of the same article.  I said, ‘Papa, do you want me to throw the duplicates?’  “No!” he said, “Leave them”. I remarked, “Papa, you have enough copies to donate your papers to three universities!”  

There were many contenders for Papa’s papers.  Some universities held weekly meetings to strategize how to obtain the papers.  For the next year, Universities wined and dined my father. Papa received many invitations and I accompanied him to many of the events. Yale created an endowed chair.  The University of Texas at Austin, Texas, Papa’s alma mater, named Papa outstanding alumnus.  In the end, Papa selected Corpus Christi State University (CCSU) because he wanted to be in proximity to his papers. In addition, he was afraid they would be lost if a major university had possession of his papers.   

In 1992, Dr. Garcia donated his papers to CCSU. CCSU President Dr. Alan Suggs had the appropriate celebrations and printed commemorative bookmarks to celebrate the event.  CCSU Gave Papa his own office.  He was really pleased to have the office.  Since he admired people with education, he felt that it was a form of validation from academia. He made many friends among the professors and would always address them formally.   In 1993, Corpus Christi State University became part of the Texas A&M University System, and its name was officially changed to Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi.  

Texas A&M University housed the HPG papers in the special collections and archives Dept. of the Mary and Jeff Bell library.  In addition, A&M formed many committees to oversee the construction of a plaza with a statue in honor of my father.  Other committees were tasked with raising money for this project. The community swiftly raised the money and raised contributions totaling $500,000 to build the tree-lined tiled plaza. With the  $60,000 surplus, the University of A&M created the Garcia Scholarship Endowment fund to help students attend A&M-Corpus Christi.  

Friends of Dr. Garcia commissioned artist Roberto Garcia Jr. to create a statue for the plaza.   At the time the plaza was under construction, my father’s health was failing.  My sister and I would drive Papa at night to look at the different stages of construction of the plaza.  Later when Papa could not walk, friends took him in a wheel chair to examine the progress of the construction.  On one occasion, they noticed that Papa had tears in his eyes. By the time the work was completed on the plaza and the statue. Papa was in the hospital.  

On June 28, 1996, A&M University dedicated the statue and the plaza in honor of Dr. Hector P. Garcia, the Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient who donated his papers to the school in 1992.   About one thousand people attended the dedication.

The 9-foot 1,800-pound bronze statue of Dr. Hector P. Garcia by Roberto Garcia Jr. was unveiled. It stood in the center of a fountain in a tree-lined plaza with a double courtyard about the size of a baseball field.  “It’s lavishly landscaped with every plant imaginable,” said Texas A&M University Vice President Pete DeDominicis.  “I think it will become a major tourist attraction once people discover it.” [1]Texas A&M Corpus Christi President Robert Furgason read a message from President Clinton, “As we commemorate Dr. Garcia’s lifelong work on behalf of education and civil rights for all Americans, let us rededicate ourselves to this crucial endeavor. I am proud to call Dr. Garcia my friend.[2]  

Papa was not able to attend the dedication because he was in the hospital.  After the ceremony, Alicia Jasso of Texas A&M University took a VHS of the dedication to the hospital so that Papa could see the dedication.  However, Papa was so ill; he was unable to focus.  He died one month after the dedication on July 26, 1996.  

At the time of his death in 1996, Garcia’s papers were conveyed to Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Texas.  Garcia's papers contain his voluminous archives about 350 linear feet, dealing with the American G.I. Forum and cover the major issues faced by Mexican Americans during his career as a champion of civil rights. 

These papers document Mexican-American history during much of the 20th Century and make A&M-Corpus Christi a center of
research on the nation's expanding Hispanic population.  The collection is considered a centerpiece of the holdings of the university’s Mary and Jeff Bell Library.  

 Dr. Thomas Kreneck, Associate Director of Special Collections & Archives, said, “Garcia’s papers comprise one of the most valuable resources in existence on the Mexican-American experience during the last half of the 20th century. “By his death in 1996, he was the elder statesman of Hispanic civil rights in this country.”   

Every time I look at the statue, I marvel how Robert Garcia Jr. captured the many facets of Papa’s personality- especially the healing qualities of Papa’s hands-the hands of a healer.  

Who would have known how far this vision would go? Who would have dreamed that my father’s paper would become the centerpiece of the department's manuscript holdings at Texas A&M University?   It brings me tremendous joy to know that people remember my father and hold him in such high esteem.  Though death and time have separated my father and me, not a day passes that I do not remember his great energy and presence.  I leave you in love and light.  

[1] Joe Pappalardo, “Clinton to Dr. Hector: ‘I wish you good luck’, Corpus Christi Caller Times, June 22,   1996.

[2] Ellen Bernstein, “Statue, music, fans pay tribute to Garcia”, Corpus Christi Caller Times, June 29, 1996.


South Texas Native Helps NASA Reach for the Moon

Humberto Sanchez

Title: Humberto Sanchez, NASA Engineer
Origins: Columbus, Wis.
Academics: University of Texas
Degree: Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering


NASA’s Constellation Program is taking the next giant leap --- developing the people, spacecraft and equipment needed to extend our reach beyond low earth orbit to the moon and then beyond. But the leap begins here with people like Humberto Sanchez who is working in Constellation’s Operations and Test Integration (OTI) office.

Constellation is developing America’s newest space transportation system that will help NASA establish a sustained human presence on the moon as a platform for continued space exploration to Mars and beyond. Sanchez’s role in the OTI office includes contributing to the development of Constellation’s operational and testing requirements.

Known as “Beto” to his co-workers, Sanchez worked in the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) on “plan, train, fly” for Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. He helped plan shuttle and station missions; then made sure the astronauts were trained for the missions they would fly.

Born in Columbus, Wis., Sanchez and his family soon moved to the little town of Edcouch, Texas and then again to the nearby town of Harlingen. During high school, Sanchez remembers having teachers who encouraged him and helped him prepare for college. Looking back he says he now realizes his science teachers are what led him to NASA.

At the University of Texas, Sanchez chose to major in mechanical engineering because it offered him a taste of everything engineering: heat transfer, physics and mechanics.

He had no plans to work for NASA. Then, after graduation, Sanchez by chance saw a job fair card announcing a visit by NASA recruiters. Sanchez did some research, followed through with an interview, and then drove his beat-up car to Houston.

Today he’s planning the next mission to the moon: From ground operation to launch and landing.

“I am currently supporting the Constellation Virtual Mission project. It involves simulating flight exercises to test and validate ground operations in preparation for future missions,” said Sanchez.

Sanchez realizes that the work he and his team are doing will contribute to the foundation of the Constellation Program. As Sanchez looks forward to the next giant leap for space exploration, he thinks back to the first step taken on the moon decades ago.

“I remember watching the Apollo 11 mission at my grandmother’s house on a small black and white television,” said Sanchez. “Now, here we are again, striving to go back to the moon. What I really hope for is to be around when we go to Mars. Now that would be awesome!”

Johnson Space Center information:

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


 R. Chang-Díaz, Astronaut, Physicist 
"I'm not only Hispanic, but I'm part Chinese."



Franklin R. Chang-Díaz: 1950—: Astronaut, Physicist - Advice From Von Braun

Franklin R. Chang-Díaz was born on April 5, 1950, in San Josè, Costa Rica. His father, Ramòn Chang, was an oil worker whose own father had escaped China during the Boxer Rebellion. "I'm not only Hispanic, but I'm part Chinese," the astronaut explained to Boston Globe writer Peggy Hernandez. "To define me only as Hispanic is too narrow." One of six children, Chang-Díaz wanted to become an astronaut since he was seven. He told Hernandez that he used to sit outside the U.S. Embassy in Costa Rica listening to radio broadcasts between Houston mission control and the Mercury and Gemini space crews. "I knew the names of all the astronauts," he said, "[b]ut I thought, 'Who is this guy Roger? Boy, this guy is lucky. He gets to go on all the flights.'" With his cousins, Chang-Díaz would often play astronaut, using an empty cardboard box in the yard as a space ship. "I would count down. The spaceship would lift off and we would land on a planet," he told Hernandez. "Then, we would get out and we would explore the new world."
After the launch of the Soviet satellite Sputnik in 1957, Chang-Díaz wrote a letter in Spanish to scientist Werner von Braun, the leading rocket researcher of the time, who was then living in the United States after an earlier career developing the V-2 rocket for Nazi Germany. The boy asked for advice on how to become an astronaut, and von Braun recommended that he study math and science, but learn these subjects in English and in the United States. After completing high school in Costa Rica, Chang-Díaz—who had saved fifty dollars for the purpose—moved to Connecticut to further his education. He lived in Hartford with an uncle and cousins, but spoke no English and had insufficient academic credits to gain admission to an American university. So he enrolled in transitional classes at Hartford High School, graduating in 1969 and earning a scholarship to the University of Connecticut. There he obtained a B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1973. In 1977 he completed his doctorate in plasma physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Born April 5, 1950, in San Josè, Costa Rica; son of Ramòn A. Chang and Maria Eugenia Díaz; married Peggy Marguerite Doncaster; four children. Education: University of Connecticut, B.S. in mechanical engineering, 1973; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sc.D. in applied plasma physics, 1977.
Career: Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, researcher, 1977-83; MIT Plasma Fusion Center, visiting scientist, 1983-93; Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, director, 1993–. Selected as astronaut by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1980, veteran of seven space missions, 1986, 1989, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2002; founded Astronaut Science Colloquium Program, 1987; cofounder and director, Astronaut Science Support Group, 1987-89. Adjunct professor of physics, Rice University and University of Houston. 

Awards: Outstanding Alumni Award, University of Connecticut, 1980; NASA Space Flight Medals, 1986, 1989, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998; NASA Distinguished Service Medals, 1995, 1997; NASA Exceptional Service Medals, 1988, 1990, 1993; Liberty Medal, awarded by President Ronald Reagan, 1986; Medal of Excellence, Congressional Hispanic Caucus, 1987; Cross of the Venezuelan Air Force, 1988; Flight Achievement Award, American Astronautical Society, 1989; honorary doctorates from Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, University of Connecticut, Babson College, and Universidade de Santiago de Chile; honorary faculty, College of Engineering, University of Costa Rica; "Honorary Citizen", government of Costa Rica, 1995; Wyld Propulsion Award, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2001; Hispanic Engineer National Achievement Awards Conference Hall of Fame, 2001.
While still an undergraduate, Chang-Díaz was part of a research team that developed experiments involving high energy atomic collisions. During his graduate studies at MIT, he worked on the U.S. controlled fusion program, with particular focus on the design and function of fusion reactors. After earning his Ph.D. in applied plasma physics, he joined the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, where he continued research on fusion reactor technology. His innovations there included a new concept for guiding and targeting fuel pellets inside a fusion reaction chamber.
Citing this material
Please include a link to this page if you have found this material useful for research or writing a related article. Content on this website is from high-quality, licensed material originally published in print form. You can always be sure you're reading unbiased, factual, and accurate information.

Sent by Bill Carmena


The History of Naturalization in the United States


The history of naturalization in the United States is somewhat complex. The complexity is aggravated for women by the fact that the laws re­garding naturalization and females were ambiguous, especially before 1907.  For a significant portion of American history, a woman's citizen­ship status was derived from the status of her husband. In many cases immi­grant women were naturalized "by de­fault" upon their marriage to a citizen or upon their foreign-born husband obtaining citizenship. This derivative type of citizenship is the reason there are few naturalization records for immigrant women for most of American history. For those who were "naturalized by marriage" there generally is no mention of them in any records before 27 September 1906 when Congress standardized the naturalization process and required names of spouse and children on naturalization paperwork. Also, until women received the right to vote, there was little reason for many to bother with the expense and pro-cedure of naturalization.  However, there are occasionally naturalization records for women in the 1880s, 1890s and later. Many of the children "naturalized by default" via their father's naturalization, but not listed specifically, later went through the naturalization process themselves.

To reduce confusion, here is a brief chronology relevant to the problem at hand:

The Basic Naturalization Act was passed on 27 September 1906, which standardized the naturalization process throughout the United States. Records after this date are more consistent than those before. No longer could just any court perform a naturalization

On 2 March 1907 an act was passed wherein a wife's citizenship status was determined by the status of her hus-band. Here is where the confusion begins to get worse. For women who immigrated after this act (and before later changes were enacted), there was no real change from before (unless their husband was already a U.S. citi-zen). However, it was different for U.S.-born citizen females who married an alien after this date. These women would lose their citizenship status upon marriage to an alien. Many of these women would later become citi-zens again upon their husband's natu-ralization. Women who married men who were racially ineligible to natu­ralize lost their ability to revert to their pre-marriage citizenship status.


On 22 September 1922, Congress passed the Married Women's Act, also known as the Cable Act. Now the citizenship status of a woman and a man were separate. This law gave each woman her own citizenship status. This act was partially drawn in response to issues regarding women's citizenship that occurred after women were given the right to vote. From this date, no marriage to an alien has taken citizenship from any U.S.-born woman. Females who had lost their citizenship status via marriage to an alien could initiate their own naturalization proceedings.


This act affected U.S. citizen women whose marriage to an alien between the acts of 1907 and 1922 had caused them to lose their citizenship status. These women, if the marriage to the alien had ended in death or divorce, could regain their citizenship by fil­ing an application with the local naturalization court and taking an oath of allegiance.  Those women still married to their husband were not covered under the act and these individuals would have to go through the complete naturalization process.


In  1940, Congress allowed all women who lost their citizenship status between 1907 and 1922 to re­patriate by filing an application with the local naturalization court and taking an oath. The complete natu­ralization process was no longer nec­essary for any woman whose mar­riage between 1907 and 1922 caused her to lose her citizenship status. 


Smith, Marian L., " 'Any woman who is now or may hereafter be mar­ried... ' Women and Naturalization, ca. 1802- 1840", National Archives and Records Administration Web Site:

prologue/natural1. html) originally published in 'Prologue:

Quarterly of the National Archives and    Records    Administration,' Summer 1998, vol. 30, no 2.

Szucs, Loretto D., "They Became Americans: Finding Naturalization Records and Ethnic Origins," Salt Lake City, Utah, Ancestry, Inc., 1998.

http://shops, ancestry, corn/product. asp ?productid= 1028. 

Michael John Neill, is the Course I Coordinator at the Genealogical Institute of Mid America (GIMA) held annually in Springfield, Illinois, and is also on the faculty of Carl Sandburg College   in   Galesburg,   Illinois. Michaei -is the Web columnist for the \FGS FORUM and is on the editorial board of the Illinois State Genealogical Society Quarterly.    He conducts seminars and lectures on a wide variety of genealogical and computer topics and contributes to several genealogical publications, including Ancestry and Genealogical Computing. You can e-mail him at: or visit his website at: but he regrets that he is unable to assist with personal research.
Copyright 2001,, My

Copyright 2001,, My

The Genealogical Society of Santa Cruz County Newsletter
July/August 2002, pg 9



Roberto Galvan (1911-1958) Mexicano Civil Rights Leader


Nota: Here's someone I had not read about before or cannot recall having done so anyway.  Roberto Galvan was a Mexicano civil rights leader in Southern California who hailed from the Mexican state of Guanajuato.  He was involved in the labor movement, as so many Chicano progressive leaders were during the twentieth century.  See, Carlos Larralde, "Roberto Galvan: A Latino Leader of the 1940s," Journal of San Diego History 52:3-4 (Summer/Fall 2006): 151-178.  The essay is richly illustrated including a photograph depicting a portrait of Roberto Galvan.  To read the entire essay or download a PDF copy go to:  
I have copied the first few paragraphs of the essay to provide you with a lead-in into the essay's content.  These paragraphs provide the basic biographical information and the various organizational relationships in which Galvan engaged while in Southern California.  Adelante.
Roberto R. Calderón
Historia Chicana [Historia]
[Carlos Larralde  Roberto Galvan: A Latino Leader of the 1940s
Journal of San Diego History 52:3-4 (Summer-Fall 2006): 151-178.]
Roberto Galvan (1911-1958), labor union organizer and tireless worker for human rights, spent his life working to improve the lives of his people, the migrant Mexican workers in California. He worked through the International Longshoremen’s Union, the Warehousemen’s Union (ILWU), and El Congreso de Habla Español (the National Congress of Spanish-Speaking Peoples) to help the unfortunate: a Latino worker who lost his arm; a Mexican tractor worker who was battered and killed by Ku Klux Klan thugs on a narrow dark road; and desperate Mexicans who faced deportation. During the 1930s, nearly two million Latinos left the United States for Mexico in a massive “repatriation” program initiated by President Herbert Hoover. An estimated 400,000 were American citizens or legal residents of Mexican descent.2
Galvan spent years under the threat of deportation and death. His efforts to unionize Latinos caused him to be labeled as a Communist, even a Soviet spy. The Ku Klux Klan, the American Nazi Party, the John Birch Society, and the Minutemen  lackened his reputation but they could not erase his legacy as a champion of civil rights.3
After his death in 1958, a “blessed Galvan” cult emerged to provide inspiration to Latinos. Families lit votive candles before his image in their home shrines. Objects that he had touched became relics. Some people even imagined that he had been reincarnated as César Chávez (1927-1993) who founded the National Farm Workers
Association, later the United Farm Workers.

At one meeting in Southern California, Chávez blessed his listeners on behalf of Galvan. More recently, it was suggested that Galvan had reappeared in the guise of fourteenyear- old Anthony Soltero of Ontario, California, who committed suicide on March 30, 2006, to protest the treatment of Mexican immigrants in the United States.
Groups such as the National Alliance for Human Rights, also known as Estamos
Carlos M. Larralde is an independent scholar who has written several monographs and articles in Mexican American studies. He has a Ph. D. in sociology from the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Larralde is the author of Mexican American Movements and Leaders (1976).
[Roberto Galvan, organizer of El Congreso, on April 29, 1939.
Author’s collection. 151 the Journal of San Diego History 152]
Unidos (We Are United), and Justice for Immigrants also support Galvan’s role as a
spokesman and martyr for civil rights.4
 Galvan used nonviolence civil right activities to promote “first and foremost” the rights of all California citizens, particularly his fellow poor and humble Mexicans in the San Diego and Southern California regions. He particularly focused on efforts to combat the Ku Klux Klan and to stop abusive working conditions. He also communicated with many people in the early civil rights movement, including Bert Corona (1918-2001), Carey McWilliams (1905-1980), and Luisa Moreno (1906-1992). This article is based on interviews with Galvan’s friends, associates, and family members who sought to preserve his memory and achievements.
Galvan was born on June 6, 1911, in Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico, to a family of resourceful merchants and well-educated priests. His traditional Mexican name
was Roberto or Norberto Galvan Cisneros though he preferred to be called “Bob”
by family and friends. His cousin, the dignified Reverend Gregorio Farías, taught
Galvan the values of respect and justice. “They instilled pride and good sense into
me,” explained Galvan to his son Carl. “Even if you eat beans, a good front and a
nice parlor where you can conduct business and receive friends are needed.”5
Galvan and his family arrived in San Diego on March 13, 1918, where they sought a safe haven from the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920). Galvan was a sensitive boy. When he first saw the ocean, he burst into tears and refused to speak for the rest of the day. His mother worried about his catching tuberculosis, one of the chief causes of death in Mexico during this period. Every time Galvan coughed, she fed him, and so he grew up near the kitchen. Having few friends, this loner lad did not play much. He loved to read and stare into space. If he used bad language, his mother jammed soap in his mouth. Good behavior was rewarded with chocolate dipped ice-cream cones. He grew up as the best-dressed child in the neighborhood. 
Galvan began his career in sales—selling shoes, orthopedic equipment, and real estate. Later he joined the cannery industry, becoming secretary and, later,  treasurer for the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). A member of the
United Fish Cannery Workers Union, Local 64, CIO, he negotiated union wages
for San Diego’s Van de Camp cannery workers. Galvan gathered Hispanics,
Blacks, Filipinos, Japanese and other organizers to pursue new strategies in the increasingly contentious battles for membership as distinct locals. From 1938 to 1952, he worked with the International Longshoremen’s Union and the Warehousemen’s Union (ILWU).
Galvan supported labor unions in Los Angeles during a national conference of
El Congreso de Habla Español on April 29-30, 1939. He particularly wanted to discuss with other union leaders unfair labor conditions faced by laborers in meatpacking plants, mines, canneries, mills, and cotton fields. He had a horror of bureaucracy and, at times, single-handedly ran San Diego’s El Congreso by using the telephone for hours. Serious, ethical, and hardworking, he considered a handshake to be as contractually binding as a signature. He kept union members united and stayed in touch with laborers and the elderly, taking flowers to the sick, attending funerals, and going to community meetings. He was shocked at nothing and his idea for life could be related to people in few words: “I do not believe in perfection. I believe in improvement.”6
[153 Roberto Galvan: A Latino Leader of the 1940s]
Like many Latino leaders of his generation, he did not seek personal success but social justice. Galvan said, “Etiquette and humility are powerful tools that can achieve success. Conceit only creates problems.”7 Galvan and many of his contemporaries lived Spartan lives; many of them were Communists. As Christians, however, they also recalled the lessons of the New Testament. As Bert Corona pointed out, “No one is indispensable. Others will continue our self-reliance and arduous struggle and must adapt their thinking to the changed conditions.”8
Paramilitary organizations that shot, tortured, or hanged Latinos, including the Ku Klux Klan, the Silver Shirts, the Italian Black Shirts, and the Sinariquistas, Reverend Gregorio Farias from Guanajuato helped to shape his cousin Galvan into a crusader for justice and respect.
[Author’s Collection. The Journal of San Diego History 154]
or Mexican Gold Shirts, became the greatest challenges for Galvan and other civil rights leaders. An alien laborer who challenged his employer’s authority might be hanged. Migrant workers were discovered hanging from trees in rural areas,
sometimes with their abdomens split to expose the intestines. Some field workers
were buried alive. A worker could have his throat cut if he or she argued with or
insulted a white woman. Gas torches were used on captured minorities to “see
them dance.” Occasionally, the head of a Latino immigrant would be set on a fence
post while the rest of his naked body lay in a ditch. The Klan once threatened to do
this to Galvan if they ever caught him.9

The Latino/a population in the United States is expected to triple by 20 

Science Daily (July 30, 2009) - The Latino/a population in the United States is expected to triple by 2050, according to projections from the U.S. Census Bureau. And along with that growth, says University of Illinois professor Lydia Buki, will come a rise in the number of individuals from that population who are diagnosed with cancer. 

Sent by  Juan Marinez


Medal of Freedom Awarded


On August 12 at a White House ceremony, 16 people received the President's Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States, among the following were:
• Pedro José Greer Jr.: Among the many hats Greer wears, he is the founder of Camillus Health Concern, an agency that provides medical care to more than 10,000 homeless patients every year in Miami, Florida
• Joe Medicine Crow-High Bird: The last living Plains Indian war chief and author of seminal works in Native American history is also the last person alive to have received direct oral testimony from a participant in the Battle of the Little Bighorn: his grandfather, a scout for Gen. George Custer.
• Chita Rivera: The winner of two Tony Awards, Rivera was also the first Hispanic to receive the Kennedy Center Honor, awarded annually for exemplary lifetime achievement in the performing arts.
• Sidney Poitier: The first African-American to win a Best Actor Academy Award, Poitier also broke ground by insisting that the crew in one of his films be at least 50 percent African-American and by starring in the first mainstream movie portraying interracial marriage as acceptable.
Sent by Dorinda Moreno, Mercy Bautista Olvera and Rafael Ojeda


Hispanic Medal of Honor Society
 "Legacy of Valor" 
2009 NCLR Display


2009 NCLR, LtoR 

Capitan Fernando Nava, Mexico, 201 Squadron, 
Cpl. Rudy Hernandez, Korean, Medal of Honor Recipient, 
US WW II Pilot, Lt. Col.(retired) Henry Cervantes, 
and Victor Mancilla, film producer, Esquadron 201

Letter applauding the display:

Sent: 8/4/2009 11:25:37 A.M. Pacific Daylight Time
Subj: NCLR Chicago

Hey Rick how are you? Good I hope, well you probably don’t remember me but we recently met at the NCLR last week in Chicago.  I’m the Special Emphasis Program Manager for Hispanic Heritage at the V.A. here in Palo Alto.  I tried calling the number on the card you gave me, but it says the number is not working.  

You & I had some great dialogue about the booth set-up you had at the expo & the only words that I have to describe it is “Amazing”!  There is a ton of pride in your collection & what makes it so amazing is that it’s one of a kind.    

You have really put a lot of time & effort in it & I’m proud to say that I was able to see it.  The display/booth is the first thing I talk about when people ask me “How my trip was?”  Along with having CMH winner Mr. Rodolfo P. Hernandez in attendance was an honor in itself, but you have really paid attention to the little details & as a retired Veteran myself I truly appreciate it in all its glory.

Please contact me at your earliest convenience, take care & have a nice day.

Thomas M. Turrey III
Safety & Emergency Management
3801 Miranda Ave , Bldg. 4, C-151A
Palo Alto , CA .  94304
tel - (650) 493-5000 x-63059/67016
fax - (650) 849-1994




Teardrop Buildings . . . . Remembering 9-11

On Friday, September 11th, 2009, an American flag should be displayed outside every home, apartment, office, and store in the United States. Every individual should make it their duty to display an American flag on this eighth anniversary of one of our country's worst tragedies. We do this to honor those who lost their lives on 9/11, their families, friends and loved ones who continue to endure the pain, and those who today are fighting at home and abroad to preserve our cherished freedoms.

The TEAR of  GRIEF,  A statement against terrorism honors those who died in 9-11.
It was made and installed by the Russian Government.
The structure is located,
lined up with the Statue of Liberty, in the shipping yards.  It is an impressive memorial and statement against terrorism. . . . .  Artist Zurab Tesereteii

In September 2005, Russian President Vladimir Putin was present in Bayonne, New Jersey for the groundbreaking that launched the one-year construction project. The entire structure was designed and built in Russia, transported in pieces to the US, and assembled in Harbor View Park on the Peninsula at Bayonne Harbor. This beautiful two-acre public park sits on the New Jersey shore within view of the World Trade Center site and the Statue of Liberty. The completed sculpture was dedicated on 9/11/2006. 


The huge wall to right is part of the 9-11 Tear of Grief complex. 

The walkway is made of stones.
Names of the persons killed on 9 11 are inscribed on the base.


The following data is from a PEW Forum's Religious Landscape survey, conducted in 2007 among a sampling of 35,556 U.S.  adults, and released in 2008.  

These figures refute President Obama's statement that "whatever we once were, we are no longer just a Christian nation."  

In an interview with Laura Haim on Canal Plus, President Obama stated,  “And one of the points I want to make is, is that if you actually took the number of Muslim Americans, we’d be one of the largest Muslim countries in the world,” Mr. Obama said."

In the PEW study, Muslims in the United States are not even one percent, while the Christians are 78.4% .  


Christian 78.4
   Protestant  51.3
       Evangelical churches 26.3
       Main Line churches 18.1
       Historical Black churches   6.9
   Catholic 23.9
   Mormon   1.7
   Jehovah's Witness   0.7
   Orthodox   0.6
   Other Christian    0.3
Other religions   4.7
   Jewish   1.7
   Buddhist   0.7
   Muslim   0.6
   Hindu   0.4
   Other world religions   0.3
   Other Faiths   1.2
Unaffiliated 16.1
Don't know/Refused   0.8



Sen. Diane Feinstein Leaves Out Latinos in History of Civil Rights Bill                      
Judge: Texas city quelled Latino voting power
Health Care Tidbits 
California Assembly sends apology to Chinese immigrants


Sen. Diane Feinstein 
             Leaves Out Latinos in History of Civil Rights Bill                      


Senator Diane Feinstein                              July 25, 2009

One Post Street, Suite 2456
San Francisco, CA 94104
Fax # 415-393-0710

Dear Senator Feinstein:

As a Black American who supported you in the late-seventies for SF Mayor; and later for US Senator. And work tirelessly with you and Admiral Bob Toney; to keep the US Missouri in SF, during the eighties.

Now I discover you have deserted the cause of helping ALL persons of Color! In your proposed Civil Rights History Project Act; you have intentionally left out Hispanic Americans, who not only play a heroic developing part in our American history! But equally as well—a pivoting role. 

Need I remind you, it was a Hispanic who brought Court order desegregation and integration to its successful completion in the SF Unified School District; and ALL the School Districts in California, during the seventies. It was none other then Dr. Ed Aguirre, Regional Commissioner of the Office of Education IX, SF—and later became our first person of Color appointed to the position of National Education Commissioner! Plus, there was Dr. Ray Cortines; who save SF School District and Pasadena students—in the seventies and eighties, both whom I had the honor of serving with! Follow by SF Superintendents Rojas and Dr. Carlos Garcia.

Also, there was Master Sergeant Robert Maldonado; who was my two oldest children godfather; in France, during the mid-fifties. And my tutor of life, during my early twenties!

Not to mention the MANY fighting heroic Hispanics; who fought along the side of Black soldiers in WWII!

And the greatest of them all—Cesar Chavez, a leader equal to Dr King!

Senator Feinstein, how could you ignore and pass-over such rich history of Hispanic Americans? This is tantamount to me passing over 1.5 million heroic Jewish fighting men of the Jewish Brigade in WWII; 11,000+ paid the ultimate sacrifice! My Jewish Daughter-in law, would never forgive me; if I left them out of my article—Veterans of Color!

Fredrick Douglass once said;” I know no class of my fellowmen, however just, enlighten, and humane, which can be wisely and safely trusted absolutely with the liberties of any other class”

With respect and appreciation!

Willis Papillion
1578 Reo PL.NW
Silverdale, WA 98383 


Judge: Texas city quelled Latino voting power
By Anabelle Garay Associated Press Writer © 2009 The Associated Press
July 15, 2009,

DALLAS — A federal judge ruled Wednesday that a Dallas suburb illegally diminished the voting power of its growing number of Latino residents because of flaws in its current election system and ordered city officials to modify how they run municipal elections.
The ruling by U.S. District Court Judge Jorge A. Solis prevents the city of Irving from using an at-large system that allows political candidates to receive votes from across a broad geographic area rather than a specific district or precinct.
The ruling came in a voting rights lawsuit against Irving that alleged the at-large election system kept Hispanics from being elected to local government positions because they were outpaced by a majority of white voters voting for other candidates. The suit was filed in November 2007 on behalf of Manuel Benavidez, an Irving resident who has twice run unsuccessfully for the school board.
"My hope is that this case brings progress and hope to our community and to communities all across the country," Benavidez said after learning of the judge's decision. "This case is particularly important right now, because of the growing Latino population in the city of Irving."
The City Council plans to review the judge's order and discuss it during next week's meeting, said Irving spokeswoman Laurie Kunke. In a statement, Irving officials said they will attempt to develop and agree on an election and redistricting plan and a schedule to implement it.
The Dallas suburb had more than 191,000 residents — 31 percent of them Hispanic — during the 2000 Census. By 2006, the Census Bureau estimated nearly 42 percent of the city's population was Latino and a majority lived in the suburb's southern half.
None of Irving's eight current city council members are Hispanic, and only one Latino candidate has won a seat on the council in the last 20 years.
After the judge's decision, Mayor Herbert Gears said city officials knew change was in the city's future because of the latest demographics. But he said they had not thought that revisions needed to be made now.
The ruling could have broader implications in cities throughout the country where the number of Latinos and other minority residents has surged, especially as the nation prepares for the 2010 Census, said Benavidez's attorney, Bill Brewer.
"We hope it contributes to the conversation when people are determining how inclusive we ought to be as we go through these changing times with the demographics upon us," Brewer said.
Irving has been the site of protests in recent years. Latino advocates accuse police officers of racial profiling with the intention of arresting suspected illegal immigrants to be deported. Irving police have denied that their participation in a federal program that allows them to check the immigration status of someone in jail has led to racial profiling.

Sent by Joe Martinez, Ph.D.
Juan Marinez



Health Care Tidbit

9 People, 2,678 ER Visits

Source: AARP Bulletin, June 2009, pg.6


Think your local emergency room is crowded? Here's a startling look at why that might be: An analysis of emergency room usage in the central Texas area found that in the last six years, just nine resident accounted for a whopping 2,678 visits. One of the nine was in the emergency room more than 100 times a year for four years.

Little is known about these nine individuals other than that they're all middle-aged, speak English and are about evenly split between male and female. Some have histories of substance abuse and mental health issues.

What is clear though, is that the abundance of visits likely could have been avoided, says Anjum Khurshid, director of clinical research and evaluation at the Integrated Care Collaboration, which conducted the analysis.

"The key lesson of this is if we talk to each other and have a coordinated system, we can prevent these kinds of numbers," Khurshid says.

Reducing the numbers of non-essential use of the emergency hospitals could make a big difference. The average cost of an emergency room visit in the United States is about $1,000. At that rate, the nine Texans likely racked up more than $2.7 million in charges.

The results of the Texas analysis are no surprise, says Caroline Steinbert of the American Hospital Association. "Uninsured people don't get primary care, so they end up going to the emergency room for things that could have been prevented had they had access to primary care.

Editor: I found these figures very interesting. My Mom was in a locked Alzheimer facility for eight years. We paid the full cost for her care; however, although her facility had a registered nurse on staff, 24-7, there were a few occasions that I had to rush her to the emergency room of a hospital. 

I was able to observe the misuse of the Emergency rooms first hand.  These are some that I remember:

Sitting in the waiting room, although a 12-14 year old boy had sat quietly for about a half an hour, when his folks were at the window, trying to get him to be seen, they motioned for him to start coughing, which he did on demand.  It was obvioulsy very contrived, but he was seen.

Another time, I could hear thorough the curtain which separated people lying on the hospital beds in the emergency room.  After the doctor examined a crying baby, I heard a nurse talking to the parents of the infant. They were concerned about their baby coughing, there was no fever, or other complications. The nurse sent them home, with some baby bottles, baby formula and a suggestions for adding moisture in the air. 

Recently, I was waiting to get an X-ray, a lady in her late 60s, sitting next to me, explained that she had been having some problems with her heart and came to the emergency room for that reason. She was not having a heart attack. She had no pain. She was waiting to have an MRI.  She did not have a family physican. 

I am sure all these people needed medical care, but at the cost of $1,000 per emergency room visit, it appears some other level of care is needed. Clearly these examples that I observed were a misuse of the emergency room system.  

My son is a family physician. He works, as a temporary doctor for clinics all over California.  He likes the challenge, and has learned much about the needs of the poor to receive proper medical care.  Some are tragic cases, which early care could have prevented. 

Hopefully a system can be put into place which will relieve emergency centers for real emergencies,  and save funds for free clinics or a system where care by family physicians can serve as the first level of care. 



California Assembly sends apology to Chinese immigrants
July 27, 2009, San Francisco News


The California Assembly has passed a resolution apologizing for the way their predecessors severely discriminated against Chinese immigrants. Assembly member Paul Fong of Mountain View was a co-sponsor. 

"They could not own a home, they could not work for private employers or public employers who were willing to hire, they could not voice their opinions and bring forth complaints in court, they could not testify in court, they could not marry, and they could not attend public schools. In fact, Chinese were denied citizenship status in California until 1957," said Fong. 

Chinese immigrants built much of the state's infrastructure in the late 19th century, following the Gold Rush.  But many were persecuted and forced to live in ghettos, and the state legislature enacted discriminatory laws. The current legislature unanimously approved the resolution issuing a formal apology. 

WIKIPEDIA: The Mexican Repatriation was an voluntary and involuntary migration mainly taking place between 1929 and 1937, when an estimated 400-500,000 Mexicans left the US due to high unemployment, fear of deportation, encouragement by welfare agencies and the Mexican government. During the Great Depression, Mexicans and Mexican Americans were viewed as usurpers of American jobs and a burden on social services such as relief aid[citation needed]. The Immigration and Naturalization Service targeted Mexicans because of "the proximity of the Mexican border, the physical distinctiveness of mestizos, and easily identifiable barrios."[1]

These actions were authorized by President Herbert Hoover and targeted areas with large Hispanic populations, mostly in California, Texas, Colorado, Illinois and Michigan. Although President Franklin Roosevelt ended federal support for the program when he took office, many state and local governments continued with their efforts.

January 1, 2006, Bill 670 - the so-called "Apology Act for the 1930s Mexican Repatriation Program" became official. California acknowledged the suffering of tens of thousands of Latino families unjustly forced out of the Golden State that was their home.

EDITOR QUESTION: This was a federal act, shouldn't the apology be a federal apology? 

Mass Deportations to Mexico in 1930s Spurs Apology 
The Sacramento Bee, December 28, 2005

One in a series of reports on new laws that take effect in the new year. By Peter Hecht -- Bee Capitol Bureau Published 2:15 am PST Wednesday, December 28, 2005 

Carlos Guerra was only 3 years old when Los Angeles County authorities came to his family's house in Azusa and ordered his mother, a legal United States resident, and her six American-born children to leave the country. It was 1931. The administration of President Herbert Hoover backed a policy that would repatriate hundreds of thousands of Mexican Americans, more than half of them United States citizens.

Amid the economic desperation of the Depression, Latino families were viewed as taking jobs and government benefits from "real Americans." In Los Angeles County, a Citizens Committee for Coordination for Unemployment Relief urgently warned of 400,000 "dep ortable aliens," declaring: "We need their jobs for needy citizens."

Up to 2 million people of Mexican ancestry were relocated to Mexico during the 1930s, even though as many as 1.2 million were born in the United States. In California, some 400,000 Latino United States citizens or legal residents were forced to leave.

Now California, for its part, wants to say it is sorry. On Sunday, Senate Bill 670 - the so-called "Apology Act for the 1930s Mexican Repatriation Program" - becomes official. It acknowledges the suffering of tens of thousands of Latino families unjustly forced out of the Golden State that was their home.

"The state of California apologizes ... for the fundamental violations of their basic civil liberties and constitutional rights during the period of illegal deportation and coerced emigration," the act reads.

The words fail Guerra. He is 77 years old now. He is a veteran who served in the U.S. Army in postwar Korea and France. But he can't forgive, forget, or accept an apology.

He can't excuse the forced train ride that delivered his family to 
Guanajuato, Mexico. He can't excuse the decade-plus estrangement that denied him of a relationship with his father, who stayed behind because

California needed orange pickers. And he can't excuse being spurned by not just one culture, but two. "What is an apology?" asks Guerra, an artisan who makes embroidered furnishings. "I don't understand it at all."

Forced from the United States, Guerra and his American-born siblings had to learn Spanish, adapt to a new culture and endure the poverty of the Mexican countryside for 13 years before his family legally returned to California.

"The saddest thing of all," says Guerra, who lives in Carpinteria, "is that I lost my country. This is where I was born. I'm a Californi a native. But it took me years to be able to call myself a so-called 'Americano.' "

He didn't fit in either south of the border. "In Mexico, they called us Norte�os. They thought we were completely Anglicized, and they disliked people from the north," he says.

California's apology was inspired by the work of California State 
University, Los Angeles, Chicano studies professor Francisco Balderrama and Raymond Rodriquez, a history professor emeritus at Long Beach City College.

In their book, "Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s," they describe long-term emotional trauma by children, born in the United States, who were forced to grow up in Mexico.

"For American-born children, trying to adjust to life in Mexico proved to be a very traumatic experience," the authors wrote. "... Deep-seated scars of rejections by both cultures would remain embedded in their lives forever."

The little-acknowledgedged history of Mexican Americans repatriated in the 1930s became embedded in the mind of state Sen. Joe Dunn, D-Santa Ana, after he read "Decade of Betrayal" on a flight to Washington, D.C. Dunn drafted SB 670 with the help of Assembly Speaker Fabian Nunez, D-Los Angeles, and Assembly members Noreen Evans, D-Santa Rosa, Lloyd Levine, D-Van Nuys and Lori Saldana, D-San Diego.

Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the bill Oct. 7, but vetoed a companion measure - Senate Bill 645 - that would have created a commission to study paying reparations to survivors of the 1930s repatriations.

"I believe reparations are due for the remaining survivors," said Dunn, who noted they number between 2,000 to 4,000 in California. "There should be some compensation to acknowledge their suffering."

For Alfonso Lara, 78, of Davis, an apology - long overdue - will suffice.

Lara was born in Holtville near the border. He was 7 when his father, a worker in a Los Angeles floral warehouse, died of an apparent heart attack in 1932.

Soon afterward, he says, some men came knocking on the family's door, telling his mother, Maria Chavez, Lara and his younger brother, Luis: "There's nothing for you to do here. Now go back to Mexico."

"It wasn't right. It shouldn't have happened," said Lara, who grew up without education on an isolated ranch in central Mexico.

He later returned to toil in sugar beet and tomato fields near Davis under the bracero program, which allowed seasonal workers from Mexico into the United States.

On one of his back-and-forth trips between the two countries, he ran into a man who knew his family in Southern California. Lara was stunned when the man told him he was a United States citizen - and had the right to stay.

Lara, who is now on kidney dialysis and uses a wheelchair, went on to become a farm supervisor and foreman. He once w orked for a rancher, a Japanese American, who used to tell him stories of being rounded up and locked into a California relocation camp during World War II.

In 1988, the Reagan administration approved compensation of $20,000 each to some 66,000 surviving Japanese Americans who were held in camps during the war.

Lara isn't asking for compensation. But Lara, who proudly saw all six of his children go to college, wants his history shared so that "my grandchildren know that this happened."

As part of the state's apology, a monument will be erected at a site to be determined in Los Angeles. It was in Los Angeles where 50,000 Mexican Americans were placed on trains and repatriated in five months in 1931, hundreds were rounded up in San Fernando and Pacoima on Ash Wednesday, a Catholic holy day, and many Latino barrios simply disappeared.

Dunn said he is working with U.S. Rep. Hilda Solis, D-El Monte, in the hope of enacti ng a federal companion measure to the California apology.

Jose Lopez Sr., was a factory worker at the Ford assembly plant when his family was ordered to Mexico after nearly two decades in the United States. He wound up cutting sugar cane and died in poverty in the Mexican state of Michoacan.

"I think an apology is the least they can do," said his son, Jose Lopez, 78, a retired autoworker in Detroit who came to testify on behalf of the California bill.

About the writer: The Bee's Peter Hecht can be reached at (916) 326-5539 or


The new face of America
A special report on Texas 

Getty Images Pledging allegiance

Jul 9th 2009, from The Economist print edition 


Texas is the bellwether for demographic change across the country.  At the age of 34, Julian Castro has pulled off a remarkable feat. On May 9th, without even the need for a run-off, the polished young lawyer won the race to become mayor of San Antonio, the largest Hispanic-majority city in America and the seventh-biggest city in the entire country. He joins Antonio Villaraigosa, the mayor of Los Angeles, as one of America’s half-dozen most prominent Hispanics.

The curious thing is that Mr Castro is only the third Hispanic mayor in San Antonio’s long history; the first, Henry Cisneros, was elected only in 1981. America’s Hispanics have a long way to go before they enjoy the influence that their numbers suggest. “We do have a history of failing to participate,” he admits. “But we have been seeing a series of big advances.”

Things are indeed changing. At the national level voter turnout among Hispanics was 49.9% last year, up from 47.2% in 2004, though still much lower than the non-Hispanic whites’ 66.1%. The body to watch is the Mexican American Legislative Caucus (MALC), which claims 44 of the 74 Democrats in the Texas House (there is not one Hispanic Republican there, a gigantic problem for the party). Trey Martinez Fischer, who chairs MALC, is another young man in a hurry. “MALC is taking over the Democratic Party here,” he says, “and it is time for us to expand our footprint.”

The most pressing issue, he reckons, remains education. “We are creating a majority population here that is limited in its skill set. It is up to us: if we don’t act, we are heading for disaster.” But it is not just education; Hispanics, he says, are poorly served when it comes to access to capital, health care and public transport. “This state”, he says, “has not yet atoned for the sins of its past.”

You only need to tour the Rio Grande valley, which stretches from Brownsville in the east up almost as far as Laredo, to see what he means. The valley includes some of Texas’s fastest-growing and most successful counties, such as Cameron County around Brownsville and Hidalgo County around McAllen; Brownsville has boomed, thanks in large part to its port, which serves Mexico’s buoyant north. McAllen has also become a favoured place for rich Mexicans to buy homes, educate their children and squirrel their money away; its mayor, the engagingly town-proud Richard Cortes, has big plans for an arts district, upmarket shopping centres, a huge public library which he says will be the fifth-largest in the country, and much else.

Down in the valley
But you can also encounter poverty on a scale hard to find anywhere else in America. More than 30% of the valley’s population still falls beneath America’s official poverty level, according to Sister Maria Sanchez of Valley Interfaith, a local charity. The poorest among them are to be found in the colonias, small settlements outside recognised towns. There are around 2,300 colonias in total, and the worst of them still have large numbers of houses without running water. In recent years state money has hugely improved some of them, such as Las Milpas, outside McAllen. Others, like Los Altos outside Laredo, are a national disgrace. “We are the richest country in the world, and we still have this,” says Jaime Arispe, of the Laredo Office of Border Affairs, as he surveys a street that looks as if it could be in Port-au-Prince.

Others echo Mr Martinez Fischer’s views, if not quite the passion with which he expresses them. Rafael Anchia, another House member, was recently tipped by Texas Monthly as the first Hispanic governor of Texas—though not until 2018. He brushes the accolade aside, but like Mr Martinez Fischer says that the state has systematically under-funded public education and insists this will have to change. 

Health care is another racial issue. Texas has the worst insurance-coverage rates in America, and Hispanics, as well as blacks, fare much worse than Anglos; most Americans get their health care through their companies, but Hispanics and blacks are more likely to work for employers who provide limited benefits or none, or to be unemployed.
The flaws in the American health system are mostly a federal matter, but Texas makes them worse by failing to take up available federal dollars because of the need for co-finance by the recipient state; by providing few public clinics; and by refusing to reimburse private hospitals for the cost of emergency care for people who cannot afford to pay, forcing them to jack up prices for others. It also operates one of the least generous subsidy regimes for poor children in the country.

The reason why MALC will have to be listened to on all these counts is demographic. The Hispanic population is constantly being reinforced by the arrival of immigrants from across the Rio Grande, though economic, political and security pressures have started to make the border less permeable. 

But international migration is not the main driver of Texas’s booming population. Texas’s Hispanics, on average, are younger than the Anglos, and their women have more babies. In 2007 just over 50% of the babies in Texas were born to Latinas, even though Hispanics make up only 38% of the population. Over the eight years to 2008, reckons Karl Eschbach, Texas’s official state demographer, natural increase (which favours Hispanics) accounted for just over half the 3.5m increase in the state’s population, and migration from other states for almost half of the rest.

Even if the border closed tomorrow, Hispanics would still overtake the Anglos by 2034, reckons Mr Eschbach. Recent trends suggest that this will in fact happen by 2015. More than half the children in the first grade of Texas schools are Hispanic. And in the Houston public-school district the proportion is 61%, notes Stephen Klineberg, of Rice University. (African-Americans make up another 27%.)

Nor is it only Texas that is undergoing profound demographic shifts, says Mr Klineberg. Texas today is what all of America will look like tomorrow. At the moment there are only four “minority-majority” states (that is, states where non-Hispanic whites, or Anglos, are in the minority): California, Texas, Hawaii and New Mexico. He expects the 2010 census to show as many as 10-12 states to have passed that milestone; by 2040, he thinks, America itself will be a minority-majority nation.

The geographical spread of Texas’s Hispanic population has changed in a way that will change the state’s politics. Most Latinos used to live south of the I-10, the motorway that joins San Antonio to Houston, notes Mr Anchia. But now Dallas, like Houston, has considerably more Hispanics than Anglos: a little over 40% of the population against around 30%. Mr Anchia himself represents a district that includes part of Dallas and a swathe of prosperous suburbs, including some where there have been nasty rows about illegal immigration.

Even public schools up in the once lily-white panhandle in the north of the state are seeing their classes fill up with Hispanic children; to take a random example, in tiny Stratford up on the border with Oklahoma some 54% of the children at the local high school are Hispanic. “Every single institution in this state was built by Anglos for Anglos,” says Mr Klineberg. “And they will all have to change.”

Come on in
That might be easier than it sounds. Texas has proved far better than the other border states (California, New Mexico and Arizona) at adapting to the new, peaceful reconquista. In California, Proposition 187, which cracked down hard on illegal immigration, was heartily backed by the then Republican governor and passed in a referendum in 1994, though it was later struck down by a federal court. This kind of thing has only ever been attempted in Texas at local level, and even then only very rarely. 

Texas has always been a strong supporter of immigration reform that would offer illegal immigrants (of whom Texas has close to 2m, about 7% of its population) a path to citizenship. It has also always favored NAFTA. Perhaps that is because Texas was itself Mexican until 1836. For centuries the border, demarcated by the Rio Grande, was entirely porous, and its very length meant that much of Texas felt joined to Mexico—a cultural affinity evidenced in the fact that the margarita and the fajita were both invented in Texas.
Only recently, at the behest of distant authorities in Washington, DC, has this sense of propinquity seemed to weaken. Driven by anger elsewhere in America, immigration officials raid businesses looking for workers with false Social-Security numbers. Driven by post-2001 fears, the number of Border Patrol officers is being increased from 6,000 in 1996 to 20,000.

Texans don’t like this much. In April Jeff Moseley, president and CEO of the Greater Houston Partnership, the city’s chamber of commerce, made a powerful speech to a Senate hearing in Washington in which he rebutted the notion that undocumented workers are a drain on America’s resources. According to a study he presented, they are more likely to be net contributors in fiscal terms. He argued that they mostly complement rather than compete with domestic workers, and that they are less likely to commit crimes than the native population. And he pointed out that cracking down on illegals has had a perverse effect, ending a pattern of seasonal or circular migration that has served Texas well for many decades. Instead, it has encouraged the use of people-smugglers bringing across whole families who then tend to stay. It has fenced people in, not out.

Mr Moseley used the word “fence” calculatedly. Down in southern Texas there is no five-letter word more likely to provoke anger. The way Texans see it, the fence that is being built along a third of America’s 2,000-mile long southern border is an expensive waste of time. It sends an appalling signal to a friendly neighbor; it is easy to climb over, with or without a ladder; it is easy to circumvent; it is bad for the environment, because it cuts off animals from their water sources; and it tramples on the rights of landowners, since it has to be built well back from the riverside so as not to interfere with flood channels.
But if the fence itself is likely to have little effect on illegal immigration, the fear of terror that gave rise to it, coupled with the recession on both sides of the border and Mexico’s murderous struggle with the drug lords in its border cities, are certainly affecting both the legal and the illegal sort of crossing. Everyone along the valley of the Rio Grande seems to believe that the border is slowly closing.

At the extreme eastern end of the border, Jude Benavides, an ecologist at the University of Texas at Brownsville, laments how life has changed. “Three of my four grandparents are from Mexico,” he says. “We used to cross over the bridge to Matamoros just for lunch or dinner. Now we don’t go. We are scared of the violence, and it can sometimes take as long as two hours in line to get back across.”

The economy, too, is a powerful reason why people are crossing less often. The Mexican peso has fallen by 18% against the dollar since the beginning of 2008. That has hit retailers on the American side hard. Mexicans in the northern border provinces have been hurt by the collapse of America’s car industry. Many of the maquiladoras, factories set up just on the Mexican side of the border to benefit from lower wages and land costs, have specialized in making parts for Detroit. One of Texas’s main assets is a bit distressed just now.

Don’t mess with Texas
So Texas has a huge challenge to cope with. But it seems wrong to end on a pessimistic note. Texans above all are optimists, and few of them seem to doubt that Mexico’s proximity is a huge long-term source of strength for the Lone Star state. That optimism, rooted in a profound sense of local pride that can sometimes jar with outsiders, is Texas’s dominant characteristic.

It is the reason why the wildcatter, the independent oilman whose test drillings might come up dry 20 times before gushing in the end, is an enduring Texas symbol. And it explains why risk-taking is admired and failure no disgrace. Most of the Enron executives who lost their jobs when the firm went bust in 2001 quickly found new ones. The company’s offices in Houston were swiftly re-let. Enron Field baseball stadium became Minute Maid Park. “Don’t mess with Texas” was once a slogan for a wildly successful anti-litter campaign. It is now the state’s unofficial motto. 

To visit America in the midst of the worst recession for decades can be a disheartening experience, but a tour of Texas is quite the reverse. Since suffering that big shock in the 1980s, it has become a well-diversified, fiscally sensible state; one where the great racial realignment that will affect all of America is already far advanced; and one whose politics is gradually finding the center. It welcomes and assimilates all new arrivals. No wonder so many people are making a beeline for it. 

Sent by Rafael Castillo

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National Museum of the American Latino
Honor y Valor, October 2-3rd, Austin

National Museum of the American Latino

Urge congress to fund the museum commission


The Commission to Study the Potential Creation of the National Museum of the American Latino Act of 2007 was signed into law by the President on May 8, 2008, but there is still much work to do. Our next step is to send letters to the House and Senate Appropriations Committees asking them to fund the Latino Museum Commission created by the legislation.

Please consider sending a letter of support to the chairs and ranking members of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees to demonstrate the national rally call to create the National Museum of the American Latino. 

Click here to view a letter sent by Rep. Xavier Becerra and Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen to House Appropriations leaders.

Click here to view a letter U.S. Senators sent to their Senate Appropriations leaders.

Click here to view a template letter you can use as a sample. 

Click here to view appropriations letters sent by other organizations.

The website simplifies the action of contacting your Senator or Representative.

These are the Smithsonian Museums in Washington, D.C.  


  • Anacostia Community Museum
  • Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
  • Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
  • Freer Gallery of Art
  • Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
  • National Air and Space Museum
  • National Air and Space Museum - Udvar-Hazy Center
  • National Museum of African Art
  • National Museum of American History
  • National Museum of Natural History
  • National Museum of the American Indian
  • National Museum of the American Indian - Heye Center
  • National Portrait Gallery
  • National Postal Museum
  • National Zoological Park
  • Renwick Gallery, Smithsonian American Art Museum
  • S. Dillon Ripley Center, International Gallery
  • Smithsonian American Art Museum
  • Smithsonian Institution Building, the Castle

    For a calendar of exhibits, go to:




“Honor y Valor”  October 2-3rd, Austin

Underway is a 2-day event in support of the 10th Anniversary celebration of the U.S. Latino & Latina WWII Oral History Project at The University of Texas at Austin. 

The “Honor y Valor” dinner will be held Friday, October 2 at 7 p.m. at the AT&T Conference and Executive Center. The following day, Saturday, October 3, an all-day national symposium on the Korea and Vietnam conflicts and the Latino experience will take place. 

The project staff has worked diligently for a decade to chronicle the contributions made by Latinos to the WWII effort-on the battlefield and on the home front-as their stories were often omitted from books, movies and media coverage. The results of these efforts include a play (Voices of Valor), three books, a host of educational materials, and a photo exhibit, all of which are accessed by teachers and professors around the world. Several of the project's historically relevant photos have been used by the U.S. Air Force, the Japanese American Museum, the National WWII Museum, the Smithsonian Institute's National Museum for American History, and by various news and media organizations across the nation.

The dinner committee members will be working together to ensure a successful commemoration of the project's first 10 years.  For information how you can help, please contact:  

Jim Estrada, Estrada Communications Group
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, University of Texas at Austin

Art Acevedo, Austin Police Department
Jaime Chahín, Texas State University, San Marcos
Gus Chavez, Defend the Honor
Nora de Hoyos Comstock, Las Comadres Para Las Americas
Alfredo J. Estrada, Latino Magazine, 
Raymond M. Estrada, Estrada Communications Group
Victoria Gutierrez, Southwest Key Programs
J.J. Haynes, Rancho Colorado
Jorge Haynes, California State University
Mack Ray Hernandez, Hernandez & Simpson, LLC
Manuel Madrigal, Madrigal Management Consultants
Guillermo Nicolas, 3N Management Development
Luis Patiño, Univision/Telefutura
Andrew Ramirez, RZ Communications
Geronimo M. Rodriguez, Jr., Seton Family of Hospitals
Mark M. Stacey, alcance Media Group
Andrés Tijerina, Austin Community College
J. Michael Treviño, Reputation Management Associates
Alfred Valenzuela, U.S. Army (Ret.)

For information about the U.S. Latino & Latina WWII Oral History Project, please go to:

For information on sponsoring or attending the October 2-3rd event, 
please contact: Jim Estrada, Estrada Communications Group, Inc.
13729 Research Blvd., Suite 610
Austin, TX 78750
Tel: 512.335.7776





Queso Fresco May Prevent Obesity
Got Workers? Dairy Farms Run Low on Labor

Queso Fresco May Prevent Obesity
By Castro Cheese Co.
La Vaquita News, May 21, 2009


HOUSTON, TX — Mexican style cheese known as queso fresco (fresh cheese) may contribute to preventing and fighting obesity and other related health problems. Several studies have demonstrated that eating dairy foods while consuming a low-calorie diet can work together to speed up metabolism and as a result help reduce fat and body weight. According to these studies, adults who consumed the recommended daily intakes of calcium in dairy products while consuming a low-calorie diet tended to lose significantly more body weight and body fat than those who consumed only a balanced, reduced-calorie diet with little or no dairy foods.

The latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend children and adults consume three servings every day of calcium-rich foods, such as queso fresco.
“Queso fresco contains less calories, fat and cholesterol than other cheeses such as cheddar, mozzarella, or processed cheese products like Velveeta® while providing the recommended daily calcium intake,” said Elizabeth Castro, VP of Sales and Marketing at Houston-based Castro Cheese Company. “It’s an excellent option for those who want or need to reduce weight.” To view the nutrient profiles for several of these types of cheese, go to:

Additionally, queso fresco is a good source of calcium and protein. Research continues to show that calcium is important to everyone's health. Beyond building strong teeth and bones, calcium may play an important role in reducing risk of hypertension, kidney stones, cardiovascular diseases, and colon cancer. It may also aid in weight management. “There’s great interest in exploring the benefits of Hispanic cheeses because of obesity problems that children and adults face,” continued Castro. “By incorporating queso fresco in your daily meals, not only will it help you to get the nutrients you need, but it will help to reduce your risk of certain health problems.”

Some US-based companies are working to preserve the desired properties of traditional Latin American artisan cheeses while following rigorous food quality standards. Such is the case at Castro Cheese Company, a Houston based company that produces a wide variety of Hispanicstyle cheeses from pasteurized milk.

The company’s proprietary processes maintain the full flavors, textures and cooking properties of those cheeses and creams made in Latin America through traditional methods. Queso fresco is one of the most commonly used ingredients in Latino foods, and it is becoming increasingly popular on U.S. American tables. It has a soft, mild flavor and firm but creamy consistency that puts it somewhere between ricotta, mozzarella, and white cheddar. The cheese has versatile properties: It can be crumbled and sprinkled over foods (like salads, soups, or enchiladas) and when heated it will soften but won’t melt. That is why queso fresco is ideal for stuffing vegetables and meats, for casseroles, or to replace less healthy options like cream cheese or feta.

Latin American cheese is one of the fastest growing food categories in the USA. Production jumped about 183% percent from 1996 to 2008, according to U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service. 

Estrada Communications Group, Inc.
13729 Research Boulevard, Suite 610
Austin, TX  78750
Tel: 512.335.7776 / Fax: 512.335.2226
Website:  6.29.09


Got Workers? Dairy Farms Run Low on Labor

Turlock, Calif. July 30, 2009


Even in Recession, U.S. Job Candidates Are Scarce;
Milk Producers Relying on Immigrants Worry About a Crackdown

Jesus Rodriguez, a Mexican who can't read or write, sometimes mixes up the numbers that identify the cows that he milks. But he can easily tell one brawny black-and-white Holstein from another, and discern when they are sick, in heat or just plain moody.
Farmer Ray Souza credits immigrants like Mr. Rodriguez, an employee for nearly 20 years, for saving the U.S. dairy industry. "I haven't had a non-Hispanic want to do this work in 10 years," says Mr. Souza, a descendent of Portuguese immigrants, a group that helped turn California into the nation's largest dairy state.
Dairy farmers from Vermont and New York to Wisconsin and beyond have become increasingly dependent on immigrants, many of them Latin Americans who are in the U.S. illegally. Unlike other agricultural work where laborers are hired for short, seasonal stints, dairy-farm laborers often stick around for years, forging close ties with their employers.
But that has also left dairy farmers vulnerable, as rising unemployment in the U.S. heightens tensions over the hiring of illegal immigrants. Dairy farmers say that without immigrant workers, a labor shortage might force some to shutter their businesses, depriving rural communities in the U.S. of a key economic engine.
Last month, about 100 dairy farmers changed from boots into suits for the day and flew to Washington to make their case to Congress. "We need a stable supply of labor," says farmer Ed Schoen, who milks 180 cows in upstate New York. "The dairy industry's survival depends on it." Amid a plunge in milk prices, "worrying about workers is another layer of stress we don't need," says Mr. Schoen, who is on the board of Dairy Farmers of America, a cooperative that produces one-third of the nation's milk.
But groups that call for a crackdown on illegal immigration say that the farmers want an amnesty that would unfairly disadvantage American workers.
"You'd bring thousands of people who would work in dairy farming and then compete with Americans for jobs in manufacturing, construction and services," says Roy Beck, executive director of NumbersUSA, a national organization that lobbies for immigration reduction. Given the recession, "this is a time when we know it's possible to find Americans to do this work. If you had the right recruiting, pay and working conditions, you could handle this with Americans."
But, in the long term, he adds, "we are going to need a foreign-guest worker program geared toward agriculture."
During the Bush administration, some dairy farmers lost workers to immigration raids. Today, others worry that the loss of workers will continue under more restrictive hiring rules under discussion in Washington.
That served as a wake-up call to the industry to aggressively lobby for changes to the country's immigration laws. "We are losing workers while Congress sits on its hands," says Jerry Kozak, president of the National Milk Producers Federation.
A study commissioned by the dairy industry found that immigrants account for 40% of the dairy labor force and are responsible for nearly two-thirds of U.S. milk production. Despite the poor economy, one-fifth of surveyed dairy farmers said they expected to face a worker shortage this year.
In May, Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D., Calif.) reintroduced the AgJobs bill, bipartisan legislation that would enable dairy farmers to legalize their current immigrant work force. The bill's fate may hinge on passage of a comprehensive bill to overhaul immigration.
The dairy industry in California's San Joaquin Valley used to be dominated by Portuguese and Dutch immigrants and their descendents. "Now Hispanic immigrants are the ones who do this work," says Mr. Souza, standing in front of the red barn that his grandfather built. "One day, another group will come."
Some dairy farms are turning to artisanal cheese making as part of an effort to become sustainable. WSJ's Beckey Bright reports.
The U.S. produces about 22 billion gallons of milk annually that amounted to $35 billion in sales at the farm level last year. Retail dairy product sales -- including milk, cheese and yogurt -- totaled $100 billion.
Latin Americans have been heading to the U.S. for decades, but the demographic shift in the dairy labor force is relatively new. In dairy states like Vermont and Wisconsin, farmers began hiring Mexicans and Central Americans in the late 1990s, when family-owned farms began to bolster production to compete with large dairy farms. Increasing the size of their herds and adding extra milking shifts required more work hands.
Latin American immigrants often were eager to secure year-round, full-time work, rather than the itinerant jobs that they would be able to land elsewhere in the agricultural sector. Many also hail from rural areas where many families raise cows.
"Working with farm animals is second nature" to Latin Americans, says Mike McCloskey, co-owner and general manager of Fair Oaks Farms, which has a herd of 12,000 cows, a restaurant and a store in Indiana. His immigrant workers are in the barns "when it's minus 10 degrees and when it's 95 degrees and 95% humidity," he says.
The high turnover and low reliability of local workers posed major problems for dairy farms that wished to grow, according to Tom Maloney, who studies agricultural labor at Cornell University.
"In the mid-'90s, I saw dairy managers who were afraid to expand their businesses because they couldn't find dependable help. Then, some dairies began to hire Latino immigrants, and found they were reliable and had a tremendous work ethic," says Mr. Maloney, a senior extension associate in the Department of Applied Economics & Management. "Now they can't imagine operating without them."
Dairy farmers in Europe have begun to use robotic milkers to reduce dependence on manual labor. But due to the high capital investment required, adoption in the U.S. is likely to be slow, Mr. Maloney says.
Phil Martin, an agricultural economist at the University of California, Davis, believes if labor gets much more expensive in the dairy sector, those higher wages could spur investment in technology -- "although it's not clear at what wage," he says. Currently, the average hourly wage for dairy workers in California, for example, is $11.38. Even though minimum wage is lower, he says, "I would suspect a whole lot of 18-year-olds prefer to work at McDonald's for minimum wage than milk cows."
On Mr. Souza's 250-acre farm, people occasionally drop by looking for work. "Once Americans get the job description, they lose interest real quick," he says. So six out of the eight employees are Mexicans. They deliver calves, milk cows and scrape manure.
Under the sweltering sun recently, Mexican Ubaldo Polido followed a nutritionist's chart as he measured out rations of fodder, grain and alfalfa hay for the herd. Another Mexican worker, hammer in hand, fixed wooden pens that hold newborn calves.
Milker Salvador Reynoso, whose shift had ended at 4:30 that morning, smiles when asked about his job. "I like the animals; I like the convenience of just walking to work," he says.
Write to Miriam Jordan at
Sent by Dorinda Moreno



Nights of Wailing, Days of Pain by Jose Antonio Lopez
I Am My Language: Discourses of Women/Children in Borderlands by Norma Gonzalez 
On the Border with Mackenzie or Winning West Texas from the Comanches 
     by Capt. Robert G. Carter

The Imaginary Line
by Joseph Richard Werne 
Martin De Leon Martin De Leon, Tejano Empresario by Judy Alter 
The Secret War for Texas by Stuart Reid 


"NIGHTS OF WAILING, DAYS OF PAIN" (life in 1920's South Texas)
by Jose Antonio Lopez

Author Jose Antonio Lopez opens your eyes to an amazing scenario through this compelling, suspenseful historical novel, Nights of Wailing, Days of Pain. 
As you immerse yourself into the lives of the Tejanos in 1920’s South Texas, you will witness the economic, social, and political lives of the U.S. citizens of Spanish Mexican ancestry – the Tejanos – during a memorable era of Texas history...".

Mr. Jose Antonio (Joe) Lopez, a USAF veteran, was born and raised in Laredo, Texas. Mr. Lopez is a descendant of the Uribes from Revilla, one of the earliest families that settled South Texas in 1750. He is married to the former Cordelia Jean “Cordy” Dancause of Laredo. They have a daughter, Brenda Jo. Mr. Lopez has college degrees from Laredo Jr. College and Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas. He earned a master’s degree in education. Mr. Lopez is the author of The Last Knight: Don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara Uribe, A Texas Hero. Visit his web-site:

Please remember to come and invite your friends and colleagues. Saturday, July 25, 2009, at 11:30 to 1:30 PM, Serenity Foundation, 6204 South First St., Austin, Texas.

I Am My Language: Discourses of Women/Children in the Borderlands
By Norma Gonzalez 

In this book, Norma Gonzalez uses language as a window on the multiple levels of identity construction in children-as well as on the complexities of life in the borderlands-to explore language practices and discourse patterns of Mexican-origin mothers and the language socialization of their children. She shows how the unique discourses that result from the interplay of two cultures shape perceptions of self and community, and how they influence the ways in which children learn and families engage with their children's schools.

"This fine work is the very first linguistic anthropological analysis that has enabled all of us to peek into the manner in which language is literally created within the ecology of the borderlands of the Southwest U.S.'-Carlos G. Velez-Ibanez, University of California, Riverside

Norma Gonzalez received her BA, M.A., and Ph.D. from the University of Arizona, and she has devoted her research to studying households in the borderlands, language processes, and community and school connections. She is currently an associate professor in the Department of Education, Culture, and Society at the University of Utah.

January 248 pp. 6x9 ^    ISBN 0-8165-2549-8 $22.95s paper


On the Border with Mackenzie 
or Winning West Texas from the Comanches
Back in print
On the Border with Mackenzie or Winning West Texas from the Comanches
When first published in 1935, On the Border with Mackenzie, or Winning West Texas from the Comanches, by Capt. Robert G. Carter, quickly became known as the most complete account of the Indian Wars on the Texas frontier during the 1870s. And even today it still stands as one of the most exhaustive histories ever written by an actual participant in the Texas Indian Wars.

Carter, a Union Army veteran and West Point graduate, was appointed in 1870 to serve as second lieutenant in the Fourth United States Cavalry stationed at Fort Concho, Texas. He was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1900 for his gallantry in action against the Indians occurring on October 10, 1871, during the battle of Blanco Canyon.

Led by Col. Ranald Slidell Mackenzie, the Fourth Cavalry moved its headquarters to Fort Richardson, Texas, in 1871 where they soon became one of the most effective units on the western frontier. Among the battles and skirmishes they participated in were the Warren wagon train raid of 1871; the Kicking Bird pursuit of 1871; the Remolino fight of 1873; the Red River War of 1874-75; and the Black Hills War of 1876.

L. F. Sheffy refers to On the Border with Mackenzie as "a splendid contribution to the early frontier history of West Texas ... a story filled with humor and pathos, tragedies and triumphs, hunger and thirst, war and adventure." And in the words of John H. Jenkins in Texas Basic Books, Carter "pulls no punches in this outspoken narrative, and the reader always knows where he stands."

Long out of print, this definitive history of the Indian Wars will now have the accessibility that it deserves. It is as Charles Robinson states in the foreword "essential to any study of the Indian Wars of the Southern Plains."
CHARLES M. ROBINSON III is a history instructor at South Texas Community College in McAllen. He is the author of many books, primarily on the American West, including Bad Hand: A Biography of General Ranald S. Mackenzie, which won the Texas Historical Commission's T R. Fehrenbach Book Award, and TSHAs Texas and the Mexican War: A History and a Guide.

Texas A&M University Press Consortium
www.TAMU.EDU/UPRESS    Orders: 800-826-8911

Number 23 in the Fred H. and Ella Mae Moore Texas History Reprint Series
978-0-87611-228-1 doth
6x9.600 pp. Illustrations. Index.


A History of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, 1848-1857
By Joseph Richard Werne  


The line dividing the United States and Mexico is invisible, "imaginary," drawn through shifting sands and changeable rivers. The economic, social, and political issues surrounding this line, however, are all too real, and the line snakes its way through a history of conflict, through questions of definition, maps and claims of ownership, and personal and political gerrymandering.

In The Imaginary Line: A History of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, 1848-1857, Joseph Richard Werne sets out to explore this border and the men who drew it. Using a variety of sources, including manuscripts, government documents, contemporary accounts, and memoirs, he creates a map of his own, one that charts the intersection of individual lives, politics, and geography. Werne proposes to revise the common view of the U.S.-Mexican Boundary Survey Commission as directed and funded almost entirely by the United States; the recent release of documents and archived files from the Mexican Boundary Commission allows further study of the Mexican commissions role and demands recognition of the equal Mexican contribution to the commission's immense task.

The diverse group of military and civilian surveyors, engineers, and politicians that composed the Joint Commission had to reconcile disparate personal interests and backgrounds, as well as different maps and equipment. Their efforts were of "epic quality" and represent the coinciding cooperation and conflict that comprises border relations today. Werne's study describes their lives and work, their survival of the hostile environment, and their struggles with inadequate funding and government corruption, tying their stories into the approaching civil war in the United States, the rapidly lengthening transcontinental railroad, and political instability in Mexico.

JOSEPH RICHARD WERNE is a professor of history at Southeast Missouri State University, where he has also served as director of the Latin American Studies Program. He has served twice as president of the Midwest Association for Latin American Studies, and his essays have been published in Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Journal of the Southwest, and Historia Mexicana. He received his B.A. from Denison University, and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Kent State University. Werne has traveled numerous times in Mexico, Latin America, and Spain.

Texas A&M University Press Consortium
www.TAMU.EDU/UPRESS    Orders: 800-826-8911
978-0-87565-338-9 cloth  0-87565-338-3
$34.95  LC2006027539.6x9.272 pp. 15 b&w photos. 4 maps. Bib. Index.

Martin De Leon, Tejano Empresario
by Judy Alter 

"A much needed text for teaching the TEKS in Texas"-Leslie Woolsey, Region XI Educational Service Center on Mirabeau B. Lamar
978-1-933337-08-1 hardcover
1-933337-08-7 $17.95
7x10.64 pp.5 b&w sketch-es. Index. App.
Children. Biography. Multicultural.


Don Martin De Leon was the only Tejano empresario to settle a colony in Texas, in the days before statehood. Other empresarios, such as Moses Austin and Sterling C. Robertson, were Anglos who had been drawn to Texas by the lure of land. De Leon established his colony in southeast Texas, near the Gulf Coast, and founded the city of Victoria. He and his six sons governed the colony.

Though Don Martin died in 1833, his sons actively supported the Texas fight for independence by giving money and goods to the Texas Volunteers. But the family suffered from a general prejudice against people of Mexican descent-they lost their land and livestock and had to leave Texas. They returned in the late 1840s, but they no longer had the immense holdings of land and cattle that Don Martin had accumulated.

In 1972, the De Leon family was honored with Texas state historical markers on family graves in Evergreen Cemetery in Victoria. Finally, Martin De Leon and his family are recognized for their loyalty to Texas, their support of the Texas Revolution, and their contributions to the Republic of Texas.

Martin De Leon is the fourth tide in The Stars of Texas Series, aimed at fourth graders studying for the Texas history section of the TAKS test. The first two books in the series, Henrietta King: Rancher and Philanthropist and Mirabeau B. Lamar: Second President of Texas, have been chosen for the Accelerated Reader program, and Henrietta King was a Spur Award finalist. Free workbooks for all Stars of Texas Series books are available on-line.

JUDY ALTER is the author of numerous children's books. She is the long-time director of TCU Press and lives in Fort Worth, Texas.

The Secret War for Texas
By Stuart Reid
Could the British have stopped Manifest Destiny in its tracks in 1836?
A Scottish doctor named James Grant was the agent who tried to make it happen, and Texas was the stage on which the secret battle was fought.

On the eve of the Texas uprising, only two things stood in the way of American ambitions to reach the Pacific Ocean: the British claim to the Oregon country and the vast but sparsely populated Mexican province of Texas. Britain was therefore almost as concerned with the outcome of the Texians war as Mexico was.

At a crucial point when Texians had to decide whether to seek rights within the Federal Republic of Mexico or to secede and ally with the United States, James Grant led a band of followers toward Mexico, with the intent of forming a state within that nation. His efforts met enduring accusations that he fatally weakened the Alamo by stripping it of men, ammunition, and medical supplies. When Grant was killed on the ill-fated Matamoros expedition, British hopes of blocking the upstart Americans died, too.

Yet, despite his important role, Grant remains a shadowy and often sinister figure routinely condemned by historians and frequently dismissed out of hand as merely an unscrupulous land speculator. Drawing heavily on British sources, Reid tells the forgotten story of Dr. James Grant and the twelve-year-long secret war for Texas, from his involvement in the "silly quixotic" Fredonian Rebellion to the bloody battles along the Atascosita Road. The international scope of the story makes this far more than just another tale of the Texas Revolution.

STUART REID is a historical consultant to the National Trust for Scotland for the Culloden Moor Memorial Project. He has been a librarian, a boatman, a professional soldier, a cartographer, and a surveyor, among other things. He has written twelve entries for the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and is the author of f previous books. He lives in the United Kingdom.

Texas A&M University Press Consortium
www.TAMU.EDU/UPRESS    Orders: 800-826-8911

978-1-58544-565-3 cloth  1-58544-565-7  $29.95
LC 2006014555.5 3/4 x 91/4. 248 pp. 4 maps. 4 line art. App. Bib. Index.



School Fire Escape Tube, USA
The Culture Wars' New Front: U.S. History Classes in Texas
Who Will Educate the Next Generation of California Youth?
6th International Conference on Teacher Education and Social Justice

School Fire Escape Tube, USA
Sent by


The Culture Wars' New Front: U.S. History Classes in Texas
The Wall Street Journal      July 14, 2009
By Stephanie Simon 


The fight over school curriculum in Texas, recently focused on biology, has entered a new arena, with a brewing debate over how much faith belongs in American history classrooms.
The Texas Board of Education, which recently approved new science standards that made room for creationist critiques of evolution, is revising the state's social studies curriculum. In early recommendations from outside experts appointed by the board, a divide has opened over how central religious theology should be to the teaching of history.
Three reviewers, appointed by social conservatives, have recommended revamping the K-12 curriculum to emphasize the roles of the Bible, the Christian faith and the civic virtue of religion in the study of American history. Two of them want to remove or de-emphasize references to several historical figures who have become liberal icons, such as César Chávez and Thurgood Marshall.
 Associated Press
Don McLeroy, a member of the Texas State Board of Education. 
"We're in an all-out moral and spiritual civil war for the soul of America, and the record of American history is right at the heart of it," said Rev. Peter Marshall, a Christian minister and one of the reviewers appointed by the conservative camp. 
Three other reviewers, all selected by politically moderate or liberal members of the board, recommended less-sweeping changes to the existing curriculum. But one suggested including more diverse role models, especially Latinos, in teaching materials. "We have tended to exclude or marginalize the role of Hispanic and Native American participants in the state's history," said Jesús F. de la Teja, chairman of the history department at Texas State University. 
Social studies teachers from Texas are meeting this summer to write new standards. They can accept, reject or modify the six reviewers' suggestions, all of which were made individually. The teachers' recommendations are sent to the 15-member board of education, a conservative-dominated body that has authority to revise standards.
The three reviewers appointed by the moderate and liberal board members are all professors of history or education at Texas universities, including Mr. de la Teja, a former state historian. The reviewers appointed by conservatives include two who run conservative Christian organizations: David Barton, founder of WallBuilders, a group that promotes America's Christian heritage; and Rev. Marshall, who preaches that Watergate, the Vietnam War and Hurricane Katrina were God's judgments on the nation's sexual immorality. The third is Daniel Dreisbach, a professor of public affairs at American University.
The conservative reviewers say they believe that children must learn that America's founding principles are biblical. For instance, they say the separation of powers set forth in the Constitution stems from a scriptural understanding of man's fall and inherent sinfulness, or "radical depravity," which means he can be governed only by an intricate system of checks and balances. 
The curriculum, they say, should clearly present Christianity as an overall force for good -- and a key reason for American exceptionalism, the notion that the country stands above and apart.
"America is a special place and we need to be sure we communicate that to our children," said Don McLeroy, a leading conservative on the board. "The foundational principles of our country are very biblical.... That needs to come out in the textbooks."
But the emphasis on Christianity as a driving force is disputed by some historians, who focus on the economic motivation of many colonists and the fractured views of religion among the Founding Fathers. "There appears to me too much politics in some of this," said Lybeth Hodges, a professor of history at Texas Woman's University and another of the curriculum reviewers. 
Some outside observers argue that curriculum analysts should be trained academics. "It's important to have trained historians establishing the framework," said David Vigilante, associate director of the National Center for History in the Schools at the University of California, Los Angeles. 
The conservative Christian reviewers, in turn, are skeptical of the professional historians' emphasis on multiculturalism, views stated most forcefully by Mr. de la Teja but echoed by Ms. Hodges. Reaching for examples of achievement by different racial and ethnic groups is divisive, Mr. Barton said, and distorts history.
The standards that the school board eventually settles on won't dictate day-to-day lesson plans; that is up to individual teachers. But they will offer clear guidelines for educators -- and also for publishers.
Nearly every state has its own curriculum standards, and there are scores of social studies texts to choose from at most grade levels, so what happens in Texas won't necessarily affect other states. But the Texas market is huge, so most big publishers aggressively seek approval from the board, in some cases adopting the majority's editing suggestions nearly verbatim. 
While the battle in Texas is just heating up, the tug-of-war over how to present history dates back nearly 150 years, said Jonathan Zimmerman, a New York University professor of education. A single paragraph in a third-grade text might seem insignificant. But it is a powerful symbol, he said, "because schools remain the most important venue for teaching our kids who we are."
Some suggestions put forth by outside analysts appointed to review Texas K-12 social studies standards. Read the full report by each reviewer at
Curriculum changes recommended by reviewers appointed by social conservatives on the Texas State Board of Education:
Replace Thurgood Marshall with Harriet Tubman or Sam Houston.
In first grade, students are expected to study the contributions of Americans who have influenced the course of history. Rev. Peter Marshall, a reviewer, calls Thurgood Marshall -- who as a lawyer argued Brown v. Board of Education and later became the first black justice on the U.S. Supreme Court -- a weak example.
Delete Anne Hutchinson from a list of colonial leaders
Students learn about colonial history in the fifth grade, and three reviewers suggested that the standards not include Anne Hutchinson, a 17th century figure, among a list of significant leaders. Ms. Hutchinson was exiled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for teaching religious views at odds with the officially sanctioned faith.
Delete César Chávez from a list of figures who modeled active participation in the democratic process
Two reviewers objected to citing Mr. Chávez, who led a strike and boycott to improve working conditions for immigrant farmhands, as an example of citizenship for fifth-graders.. "He's hardly the kind of role model that ought to be held up to our children as someone worthy of emulation," Rev. Marshall wrote.
Emphasize study of original documents
The three reviewers appointed by social conservatives on the board all say students should study more original documents, rather than relying on a textbook author to interpret them. The current standards rely too much on supplementary material such as poetry, folktales and art, they say, and too little on original documents and historical narratives.
Include more study of religious revival movements
Evangelist Billy Graham should be included on a list of transformational leaders of the 20th century and students in fifth and eight grades should study the colonial-era religious revival known as the Great Awakening as a force "in shaping a national identity," suggests reviewer Daniel Dreisbach, a professor of public affairs at American University.
Replace references to America's "democratic" values with "republican" values
Reviewer David Barton suggests swapping out "republican" for "democratic" in teaching materials. As he explains: "We don't pledge allegiance to the flag and the democracy for which it stands."
Curriculum changes recommended by reviewers appointed by moderate and liberal members of the Texas State Board of Education:
Tone down emphasis on the Cold War
Reviewer Lybeth Hodges, a history professor at Texas Woman's University, suggests revising the standards that set current events in the Cold War framework of democracy versus communism. She calls for adding study of Arab nations and Islam.
Add more Latino historical figures
Reviewer Jesús F. de la Teja, a former state historian, calls for adding names such as Juan de Oñate, who led the Spanish expedition that settled New Mexico and José Antonio Navarro, a proponent of Texas independence. He also recommends a deeper study of Texas history.
Reword references to minorities' "contributions" to society
Mr. de la Teja argues that it marginalizes women and people of color to talk about their "contributions to society," as though they are standing outside and only offering a few crumbs of value. He prefers standards to use the phrase "role in society," which he says emphasizes that minorities have a significant place in culture and history.
Write to Stephanie Simon at
Sent by Gus Chavez


Who Will Educate the Next Generation of California Youth?

By Victor M. Rodriguez Dominguez

La Prensa San Diego On July 17, 2009

Higher Education in California is facing the greatest challenge in its history. But Latino youth will pay a disproportionate share of the consequences for the crisis in the next few years. The impasse between Governor Schwarz-enegger and the state legislature have created the conditions for an ever further worsening of the economy of this state.
 The cut in $584 million in the budget of the California State University system has led Chancellor Charles B. Reed, to inform that the 23 institutions that make up the CSU, will accept 10,0000 less students this Fall 2009 term. Also a few days ago he announced that there will be no admissions in any of the 23 universities for the Spring 2010 semester/quarter. This will mean that a total of 45,000 California students will be left without choices for a four-year institution. That is, unless they come from families with the resources to pay for a private college education.
 The chancellor also announced that employees, both faculty and staff, will be asked to accept furloughs to reduce the $584 million in budget cutbacks the system will face this next fiscal year. Even if there are furloughs faculty and staff are also likely to suffer layoffs. The quality of education could likely suffer impacting how many students per faculty, how much time faculty has to provide mentoring and research. In addition, entering students will experience a 10 per cent increase in tuition this year. It seems also likely that in the July 21 meeting of the CSU Board of Trustees an additional 20 per cent raise in tuition will be approved. Cumulatively, this will mean a 32 per cent rise in tuition costs for CSU students.
 The CSU system, with its 433,000 students is the second largest higher education system in the state. The other two, the University of California, with 220,000 students and the California Community Colleges (CCC) with 1,548,000 constitute the three-tiered system of higher education in this state. However, it is the CSU who makes the largest contribution to the education of Latinos in the state. Only 3 per cent of UC students are Latinos while Latinos make-up 8 per cent of the 433,000 CSU students. While the CCC has a larger percentage of Latino students, the community colleges do not offer a bachelor which is required in most professions. Therefore, the larger burden of educating the next professional Latino generation rests on the shoulders of the CSU.
 These dramatic budget cuts come at a time when studies suggest that by 2025 close to two in five jobs (41 per cent) will require a university degree. This lack of access at a time when, according to Deborah Santiago 2006 study supported from the Tomas Rivera Public Policy Institute, the percentage of Latinos earning a bachelor has not changed significantly in the last 25 years. The percentage has hovered between eight and 10 per cent. These cuts will significantly make these numbers decline even further.
 Ironically, the restriction in access to higher education for California youth comes at a time when by 2025, 41 per cent of the jobs will require a bachelor. Given that the “baby boomer” generation will be retiring in a few years and that they tend to have the highest level of education, we will be facing a gap between supply and demand. According to Hans Johnson and Ria Sengupta (2009), the state will need one million more college graduates than what the system of higher education provides. These cuts will increase the gap between supply and demand and will reduce this state’s ability to compete in an increasingly competitive world.
 The lack of an educated workforce, which by 2020 will be 50 percent Latino, will impact the social security and pension systems which many of the “baby boomers” will be counting on for their economic survival. If Latino youth is not educated, it will affect us all, regardless of national origin, ethnicity or race.
 The CSU, according to the Blue Sky Consulting Group (April 2008) contributes to the support of 207,000 jobs and the circulation of $13.6 billions through the state’s economy. This does not include the thousands of faculty, staff and administrators employed on the 23 universities. So in addition to the educational effects the economic effects will be immediate and substantial.
 We have to invest in the future now, and it is our responsibility to tell Sacramento what we need for ourselves and the future of this state.
Dominguez is Sociologist, Professor, Department of Chicano and Latino Studies at CSU Long Beach. Find this story online at [1].



Race, Gender, and Teacher-Education Policy


DATES: 5-6 December 2009
LOCATION: University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), U.S.A.

CONFERENCE OVERVIEW: What does it mean to prepare teachers to teach toward social justice? Across the United States and around the world, educators face many challenges. Especially troublesome are the economic, social, and political contexts that make difficult our attempts to address differences and oppressions in schools and society. Yet, in the face of these challenges, teacher educators are continuing to produce significant theories, practices, and coalitions. The 6th International Conference on Teacher Education and Social Justice will offer rare opportunities to discuss cutting-edge research, develop innovative resources, build networks, and explore possibilities for new directions in teacher preparation. The Conference draws together hundreds of educators from around the world with diverse experiences but with shared commitments and priorities.

SPECIAL NOTE ON REGISTRATION: The Conference Organizers are pleased to announce that registration is free for the 6th International Conference on Teacher Education and Social Justice. Pre-Registration is required, and will begin after September 15th. Participants are responsible for their own transportation, lodging, and meals. Information on registration is online at the conference website.

CALL FOR PROPOSALS: Proposals are solicited for presentations about original research on all topics regarding teacher education and social justice. Especially encouraged are proposals on the Conference Theme of "reframing race, gender, and teacher-education policy." Proposal guidelines are online at the conference website. Proposals are due September 15th.

CO-SPONSORS: Center for Anti-Oppressive Education, UIC Department of Educational Policy Studies, UIC Institute for Research on Race and Public Policy

Kevin K. Kumashiro, Ph.D.
Professor and Chair,
Department of Educational Policy Studies
Interim Co-Director, Institute for Research on Race and Public Policy
University of Illinois-Chicago (

Sent by Dorinda Moreno




Highlights/History & Accomplishments of Association of Mexican American Educators
Fact Sheet on Supreme Court's Decision in Horne v. Flores




This document was taken from the program for the 1985 Installation of Officers banquet held in Fresno, California. Dr. Reynaldo Garay, former president and official historian for the Association, summarizes the first twenty years of AMAE history.
It is difficult to squeeze twenty years of AMAE into a few brief pages, but I will attempt to do so. I have divided the history into five periods of time and accomplishments.
The First Period: GENESIS
In the beginning, when God created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless wasteland, and darkness covered the abyss... Then God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.
That passage from Genesis in the Bible reminds me of the AMAE logo, El Fuego Nuevo. From days of darkness and mystery came the light of El Fuego Nuevo.
It is in these images that we should think of this Association. It was created from bits of thought, parts of concepts, from threads of hope. It was born in days of darkness and confusion when some educators felt that there was much to be done to bring us from a sense of marginal existence on the fringes of society. The early meetings, according to one source, were of a clandestine nature and care was taken not to over-publicize the organizational efforts outside of the immediate group.
Into this midst stepped some bold leaders who voiced their cultural values and pushed their ethnicity. Who were these people? They are among us: Phil Montez, Cecilia Suarez, Art Palacios, the late Marcos De Leon, Dr. Raquel Montenegro, the late Manuel Banda, Ed Moreno and many more like them.
For example, Phil Montez has been quoted as saying that AMAE was born of conflict, Dr. Raquel Montenegro speaks of birth pains and Marcos De Leon stated in his history," AMAE, it can be said, is a product of human snife and differences of philosophy."
Still, these were the leaders that created the word of AMAE and AMAE was the word. Let us paraphrase from the Bible again: In the beginning was the word was the light that shines on in the darkness and the darkness grasps it not. It was this word "AMAE" in which the early leaders believed and it fortified them in their efforts.
You must know that in 1964-1965 there was a huge polemic fought for control of AMAE. It was a polemic over whether AMAE would subscribe to a culturally diverse model or to a culturally assimilated model. The diverse model, the more democratically inspired direction, was the one that won. Thus, the Association of Mexican American Educators had its genesis in conflict.
The big accomplishment of the first period had to be the fact that AMAE was created at all. A second accomplishment was its meteoric expansion through California. Fresno and San Diego, along with Los Angeles, become immediate and full-fledged participants in the organization. A third accomplishment in the beginning was AMAE's early identification and advocacy of bilingual education as a viable and needed vehicle for the delivery of quality education to language minority students. Remember, we are talking of 1965, ten years before bilingual education became a fully recognized program on the national scene.
         Philip Montes 1966   Marcos De Leon 1967      Ed Moreno 1968  
It was a very correct advocacy in keeping with the following purpose of the fourteen purposes of AMAE in its Articles of Incorporation filed in 1965:
"To secure for the children of Mexican descent, the right to be educated by personnel who understand and appreciate their social, cultural, economic and language background, and the right to be respected as individuals with potential that needs to be developed to the utmost."
With words like these, you can understand why so many bought into AMAE early on.
Highlights of the History and Accomplishments of the Association of Mexican American Educators, Inc.: The Second Period: Thought, Language and Action >>
Sent by Dorinda Moreno




On June 25, 2009, the Supreme Court decided Horne v. Flores, a case involving education of English Language Learner (ELL) students in Arizona public schools. The Supreme Court reversed and remanded the case back to the district court to determine a number of factual and legal issues in light of its opinion. 

Positive Points of the Decision
1. The significance of providing equal educational opportunities to ELL children cannot be understated. The Court said: “There is no question that the goal of the EEOA [Equal Educational Opportunities Act]- overcoming language barriers- is a vitally important one, and our decision will not in any way undermine efforts to achieve that goal.”

2. States have continuing obligations under the EEOA to develop effective programs that will allow ELL children to become proficient in English.

3. The Court rejected Arizona school officials’ claim that the State’s mere compliance with the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) constitutes compliance with the EEOA. Courts may now consider whether substantial state educational changes made pursuant to NCLB—including funding increases as well as programmatic and monitoring improvements to language programs for ELL students—amount to “appropriate action” under the EEOA and help ELL  students become proficient in English.

4. Focusing solely on funding of ELL programs is insufficient to prove a violation of the EEOA, but funding remains relevant because courts must still determine whether available funding for general education and from local revenues supports “EEOA-compliant ELL programming.”

5. Returning control to the State by possibly dissolving the lower court injunction is important but can only occur if the public’s interest is served and the State can prove that it has satisfied its obligation of providing “appropriate action” under the EEOA.

6. No ultimate determination has been made on any of the claims by the plaintiffs in the case. The lower court must still determine whether the following changes were significant enough to satisfy the State’s obligation under the EEOA and, therefore, dissolve the injunction: a change from Bilingual Education programs to Structured English Immersion programs; a change in ELL programs and funding resulting from NCLB; and a change in Nogales’s local structural and management reforms.

Negative Points of the Decision
1. The Court further relaxed the standard to dissolve injunctions under Fed. R. Civ. P. 60(b)(5), thus providing an avenue for defendants to circumvent compliance with an existing injunction and to argue other changed circumstances. 

2. The Court held that although the district court must resolve whether the State has provided sufficient funding for ELL programs, the court must take into account funding for general programs and other local sources rather than looking at targeted ELL funding alone. Thus districts may be forced to “rob Peter to pay Paul.”

3. The Court stated that compliance with NCLB is not per se compliance under the EEOA, but the Court also discussed in detail how the language program changes made by the State pursuant to NCLB may, along with other changes, provide the basis for significant changes and “appropriate action.”

4. The Court ignored, in essence, some of the data reflecting the overall lack of success of ELL students, especially at the secondary level. The Court held, however, that the record at this time is insufficient to make a final determination. 

5. The Court’s majority opinion seemingly endorsed Structured English Immersion programs over Bilingual Education programs and indicated that putting more money into education does not matter, but those rhetorical comments carry no legal weight. As the dissenting opinion notes, there is substantial research proving that bilingual education is far more successful than Structured Immersion programs in helping students learn English and that providing sufficient funding for quality educational programs will make a difference. Clearly, the debate is not over.

The original action was filed in 1992 by a class of ELL students in Nogales, Arizona, claiming that the State had failed to assist ELL students in overcoming their language barriers under the EEOA by under-funding language programs. Plaintiffs prevailed at the trial level in 2000, proving that the State had violated the rights of ELL students under the EEOA by failing to take “appropriate action.” The district court ordered the State to provide adequate funding of programs for ELL students, an order with which the State never complied. Following a series of court orders attempting to enforce the 2000 funding order, the State filed a motion seeking dismissal of the case arguing that a series of significant programmatic improvements and funding for ELL programs made state compliance with the funding order insignificant. The motion was denied by the lower courts. Arizona then sought review with the Supreme Court.

In support of the plaintiffs in this case, MALDEF and other national civil rights groups submitted an amicus brief arguing that Congress never intended for a State to be absolved of its responsibilities under the EEOA by meeting its duties under NCLB.  Founded in 1968, MALDEF, the nation’s leading Latino legal civil rights organization, promotes and protects the rights of Latinos through litigation, advocacy, community education and outreach, leadership development, and higher education scholarships. For more information on MALDEF, please visit:

Contact: David Hinojosa
Staff Attorney- MALDEF Southwest Regional Office 210-224-5476



Sept 6: Fandango returns to Santa Paula, CA
PBS Listens to Latino ‘Voces'
The Mexican Heritage Mariachi Poster Collection
Ken Burns's "The National Parks"

Fandango returns to Santa Paula 
on Sunday, September 6th, 12-7 pm

We are back -- after many requests that we bring another fandango to Santa Paula.  In a joint partnership with the City of Santa Paula Community Services Department and De Colores Arts Group, the 4th fandango ~ musical is taking shape.  Once again, we will be at the Railroad Park Gazebo on Santa Barbara Street on the Sunday of Labor Day weekend from 12 noon to 7 pm.  We will have music all afternoon, food, the children’s activity table called El Rincon de Niños, and of course our popular Mercado with a variety of vendor booths.  In the next e-newsletter, I will bring you information on the various musical performers who will be playing for us.  
You will not want to miss this event.
WHERE:  Railroad Park Gazebo on the corner of Santa Paula Street and 10th Street in Santa Paula
For more information:  Call Xavier @ (805) 525-8961



PBS Listens to Latino ‘Voces'
Series Puts Aspects of U.S. Hispanic Life in Focus
by Laura Martinez -- Multichannel News


Just in time for this year's Hispanic Heritage Month, public-television stations nationwide will premiere Voces (Voices), a series curated by Latino Public Broadcasting and showcasing several aspects of Latino life.

The new season of Voces kicks off Sept. 1, with Celia the Queen, Joe Cardona's 2008 documentary about the Cuban salsa legend Celia Cruz.

The weekly series will feature films about Latino music legends and several documentaries, including ¡Presente! about Puerto Rican activist Antonia Pantoja; Bracero Stories, on Mexican "guest workers" in the U.S.; and The Golden Age, documenting a soccer league in Queens, N.Y., made up entirely by former World Cup players from Central and South America. Each weekly episode will be presented by actor Edward James Olmos.
"In addition to being entertainment, Voces is a reminder of the enormous influence that Latinos have had on every aspect of American life, from music to sports to education to public service," said Patricia Boero, executive director of Latino Public Broadcasting and curator of Voces.

According to Boero, the series is expected to air on about 350 public TV stations nationwide, thought programming will be done on a market-to-market basis. Now on its second season, Voces will also be available for online viewing at a dedicated page on
Source: National Association of Latinos Independent Producers, NALIP, July 30th.



The Mexican Heritage Mariachi Poster Collection

Mexican Heritage Bellas Artes de San Jose

Review 17 years of original poster designs by some of the most gifted U.S.  Latino artists. 



Guide to Hispanic Heritage by the Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 
From the homepage you can link to any of the following items, not indicated as links. 



Milestone Achievements of Hispanics in the United States

  • First Hispanic in space: Franklin Chang-Díaz (1986)
  • First Hispanic female in space: Ellen Ochoa (1993)
  • First U.S.-born Hispanic to win a Nobel Prize: Luis W. Alvarez (Physics, 1968)
  • First Hispanic U.S. cabinet official: Lauro Fred Cavazos, Jr. (secretary of education, 1988–90)
  • First Hispanic U.S. surgeon general: Antonia Novello (1990–93)
  • First Hispanic U.S. attorney general: Alberto Gonzales (2005–07)
  • First Hispanic to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives: Joseph Marion Hernández (Territory of Florida, 1822–23)
  • First Hispanic elected to the U.S. Senate: Octaviano Larrazolo (New Mexico, 1928)
  • First Hispanic woman elected to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives: Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (Florida, 1989)
  • First Hispanic governor of a U.S. state: Ezequiel Cabeza de Baca (New Mexico, 1917)
  • First Hispanic to hold a World Boxing Association world heavyweight title: John Ruiz (2000)
  • First Hispanic inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame: Roberto Clemente (1973)
  • First Hispanic to win the Pulitzer Prize for fiction: Oscar Hijuelos (1990)
  • First Hispanic to win the Academy Award for best actor: José Ferrer (1950)
  • First Hispanic to win the Academy Award for best supporting actress: Rita Moreno (1961)

Census Facts

States with the Largest Hispanic Population*

  • 1. California (10,966,556)
  • 2. Texas (6,669,666)
  • 3. New York (2,867,583)
  • 4. Florida (2,682,715)
  • 5. Illinois (1,530,262)

Cities with the Largest Hispanic Population*
  • 1. New York City (2,160,554)
  • 2. Los Angeles (1,719,073)
  • 3. Chicago (753,644)
  • 4. Houston (730,865)
  • 5. San Antonio, Texas (671,394)

Leading Countries of Origin of Hispanics in the United States*

  • 1. Mexico (20,640,711)
  • 2. Puerto Rico (3,406,178)
  • 3. Cuba (1,241,685)
  • 4. El Salvador (655,165)
  • 5. Colombia (470,684)

*Source: United States Census 2000

Culture and History

Notable People

    Hispanic population by state, 2000.
    Percent increase in Hispanic population by county, 1990–2000.
    American Southwest: a brief overview of its history and culture.
    Territory gained by the United States in the Mexican-American War, 1846–48.
    Mexican-American War, 1846–48.
    Events of 1827–36, leading to the founding of the Republic of Texas.

  • Plan of Santa Fe, headquarters of the Spanish colonial frontier province, mid-18th century.
© 2009 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


Smithsonian Latino Museum
If you are a teacher in an area with few Hispanics/Latinos, the resources of the Smithsonian Latino Museum will be of some help during Hispanic Heritage Month.  The goal of the website is to educate concerning the contributions of Hispanics/Latinos to the United. States.  Little on the history prior to the United States becoming a nation, which limits the information of the earliest Hispanic presence.  



The National Parks: American's Best Idea


San Francisco, CA – April 22, 2009 – At a one-day conference called “Parks for All” in San Francisco today the filmmaker Ken Burns said that he hopes his most recent film, THE NATIONAL PARKS: AMERICA’S BEST IDEA, will help attract new communities into the country’s parks. 

“Our national parks are a defining part of who we are as a people,” Burns said at the start of the conference, which took place on Earth Day at the Cowell Theater in San Francisco. “We’re hopeful new generations of Americans will discover our parks, embrace them and pass them on to their children as part of their heritage.”

Burns and his co-producer, Dayton Duncan, who also wrote the screenplay for the film, outlined an extensive outreach campaign that will accompany the broadcast of the NATIONAL PARKS film this September on PBS, including visits to 45 markets where the filmmakers will show clips and lead discussions about the national parks. The documentary — six episodes and twelve hours in length — tells the history of the national park idea, chronicling its birth in the mid-1800s and tracing its evolution for nearly 150 years. It is co-produced with WETA, the public television station in Washington, DC.

With support from the Evelyn and Walter Haas, Jr. Fund, the filmmakers launched The Untold Stories Project to bring to light stories from the national parks focusing on the role of African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans and Native Americans in the creation and protection of individual parks and to engage new and traditionally underserved audiences in the educational richness of the national parks.

“When we started making this film eight years ago we quickly realized that the history of our parks is very much the history of our country,” Duncan said. “At the heart of the national park idea is the democratic notion that the most magnificent and sacred places in our nation belong to everyone. And from the very start, people of all backgrounds, rich and poor, well known and unknown, have been involved in the evolution of the park idea. We wanted to find — and then tell — their stories.”

The Untold Stories Project, conceived in 2004, will supplement the already ambitious educational and community outreach plans normally associated with his films, Burns said. “This entire project is aimed at helping the National Park Service in its efforts to let America’s increasingly diverse population know that the parks belong to them,” he said. “We hope it will prompt more people to experience their parks — and become stewards of their future.”

Among the elements of the outreach campaign for THE NATIONAL PARKS: AMERICA’S BEST IDEA are:

  • A special research effort into people and stories often overlooked in histories of the national parks. Many of them were incorporated into the larger series and into the companion book to be published by Alfred A. Knopf in September. The entire research document also has been organized into a book that will be donated to the National Park Service for its use.
  • A special 45-minute film, “The National Parks: This Is America,” which tells the story of the national park idea through the lens of a diverse cast of historical characters and brings the story closer to the present than does the larger documentary. This, too, will be given to the National Park Service.
  • Five “mini-documentaries,” each about 10 minutes, profiling contemporary people from diverse backgrounds involved in parks issues. The topics include: “City Kids in National Parks”; “Manzanar – ‘Never Again’”; “Mount Rushmore – Telling America’s Stories”; “San Antonio Missions – Keeping History Alive”; and “Yosemite’s Buffalo Soldiers.”
  • Translation of the entire 12-hour series into Spanish for broadcast on PBS stations; and translation of the shorter films into Spanish, Japanese and Lakota.
  • An unprecedented outreach effort — involving local PBS stations and national parks near them — aimed at traditionally underserved audiences.

As part of the outreach campaign, 10 PBS stations have received community engagement grants to work with nearby national parks and other organizations to reach communities that have not historically visited the parks. Activities include working with local schools (Los Angeles, Las Vegas and Miami); outreach to communities near parks (San Antonio, Texas; Knoxville, Tennessee; and Ashville, North Carolina); partnerships with Outward Bound (Los Angeles) and Big Brothers/Big Sisters (Seattle); and digital and film workshops (San Francisco), among other initiatives, each designed to foster stewardship, care and understanding of the national parks. Additional grants were provided to 50 other public television stations for engagement activities, including screenings, community discussions and events, hands-on learning experiences in national parks, classroom outreach, local productions, Web sites and new media broadcasts. The National Park Foundation, which also is one of the film’s underwriters and main outreach partner, has provided grants to 36 units of the National Park Service to work with surrounding communities on projects related to the film.

Through Story Share, an on-line service created by WETA with support from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting to allow people to share their stories in words, photographs and video, all stations within the PBS system will be able to collect local stories about the parks. These stories will ultimately be provided to the National Park Foundation and the National Park Service, where they will remain archived for future generations to use.

Beyond the local outreach programs, WETA will create and send educational materials, including video, to every middle school in the nation. The lesson plans, which will go to history and social studies teachers, focus on finding and telling the “untold” stories of one’s own community and the creation of student-generated projects incorporating the ideals of the film and the national parks.

John Boland, Chief Content Officer, PBS, said, “Our national parks are an American treasure. And in Ken’s hands they are also an extraordinary story about American life. We are very pleased to present this film to the country in September and to help generate a conversation about our parks and environment that will continue long after the broadcast.”

Ira Hirschfield, President of the Evelyn and Walter Haas, Jr. Fund, said, “We’re very honored to be working with Ken and Dayton, their partners at Florentine Films, and the entire PBS family, to share these important stories with the American public. By showing how the national parks have shaped the lives and histories of so many diverse people in this country, all of us can help Americans see a part of ourselves in these special places. And we can build an even stronger base of support for our National Parks as a vital resource for all.”

The announcement about the outreach efforts supporting the film was made at conference, “Parks for All,” organized by the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, the National Park Service Golden Gate and KQED to examine efforts underway to broaden the appeal of national parks to reach more diverse audiences. Among those participating include Milton Chen, Executive Director of the George Lucas Education Foundation, a 2nd Century Commissioner, National Park Service; Gerard Baker, Superintendent, Mt. Rushmore National Memorial; Nina Roberts, Professor of Recreation and Tourism, San Francisco State University; Rose Ochi, an attorney who helped to establish Manzanar National Historic Site; Bill Gwaltney, Assistant Regional Director for Workforce Enhancement for the Intermountain Region of the National Park Service; and Ernesto Pepito, Manager of Youth Leadership Programs, Crissy Field Center, Golden Gate National Parks.

THE NATIONAL PARKS: AMERICA’S BEST IDEA uses archival photographs, first-person accounts of historical characters, personal memories and analysis from more than 40 interviews, and what Burns believes is the most stunning cinematography in Florentine Films’ history. The series chronicles the steady addition of new parks through the stories of the people who helped create them and save them from destruction. It is simultaneously a biography of compelling characters and a biography of the American landscape.

Among the lengthy cast of characters profiled in the series is John Muir, a deeply religious mountain prophet who found inspiration in Yosemite and then inspired generations of parks enthusiasts; George Masa, a Japanese immigrant whose photographs of the Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina and Tennessee served in the fight to protect the region as a national park; Chiura Obata, another Japanese immigrant, whose highly-acclaimed paintings of Yosemite gave Americans a fresh perspective through which to see their beloved landmarks; Marjory Stoneman Douglas, who persuaded Congress that a swamp in southern Florida, the Everglades, should be set aside as a national park; George Melendez Wright, a park ranger from San Francisco who recognized the need to preserve the parks’ wildlife in its natural state; Adolph Murie, a young biologist and protégé of Wright who was instrumental in reforming park policy so that wildlife — even predators — would have the same protections as the land itself; and Stephen Mather, a wealthy businessman who used his personal fortune and genius for promotion to create a National Park Service.  

These historical accounts are paralleled with contemporary stories of people who continue to be transformed and inspired by the parks today. They include Shelton Johnson, an African-American who grew up in Detroit, where the national parks seemed distant, unreachable places until he later became a park ranger; Gerard Baker, a Native-American park superintendent whose tribe has long considered the land sacred; Tuan Luong, a Paris-born Vietnamese rock climber and photographer who fell in love with the parks and dedicated himself to photographing all 58 national parks with a large format camera; and Juan Lujan, who grew up in west Texas during the Depression and joined the Civilian Conservation Corps, with which he would help develop Big Bend National Park in Texas. Also included in the film are interviews with best-selling author Nevada Barr, a former park ranger; writer and environmentalist Terry Tempest Williams; historians William Cronon, Paul Schullery and Alfred Runte; and many others.

Funding is provided by General Motors; the Evelyn & Walter Haas, Jr. Fund; Corporation for Public Broadcasting; The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations; Park Foundation, Inc.; Public Broadcasting Service; National Park Foundation; The Peter Jay Sharp Foundation; The Pew Charitable Trusts; and Bank of America.

Armando Rendon



Tony Argento, Cowboy Poet
Seattle Film Festival, September 
Spanish Word of the Day

Joan Baez -- Celebrating 50 Years of Music
A Brief Introduction to Mariachi -- Part 1: History
Arte Ganas
Extract from: Now You’re Speaking My Language
Mexican Americans and Language

Tony Argento re-lives Cowboy Poetry Classics: Tales of the "Old West," - patriotic verse and Robert W. Service, includin' story and character history. Tony sets you back in time through his unique audience connection abilities of exquisite humorous and solemn character animation & vocal sound effects.
Tony tells tales of the Cowboy like his Granddad did, the man who inspired him about "Cowboy Poetry." He began reciting Cowboy Poetry in grade school in 1965 at age 5. His unique interpretation of the Cowboy way continues today. Tony refers to his style of reciting "Cowboy Poetry" as; "Tuned Up and Twisted!" Notable poems he recited are; " The Devil's Tail," by Gail Gardner learned at 5."The Shootin' of Dan McGrew" and "The Cremation of Sam McGee," by Robert W. Service by age 11. He admiringly acknowledges the writers of the poems he recites out of respect, and says, "I like the idea of continuing the poet's stories so others can enjoy them, too." He is very enthusiastic about what he does. Those who've seen Tony say it's obvious he truly enjoys sharin' his enthusiasm with the audience, incudin' the common statement. He's quite animated. ###
Sunday August 30, 2009 $12 adv. $14 dr. - 7pm
La Peña Cultural Center, 3105 Shattuck Ave. in Berkeley
Sent by

Editor:  My first introduction to cowboy poetry was in a Southwest Airlines flight magazine article.  I did not even know such a specialized area of poetry existed.  I really enjoyed the selection in the article.  The poems were funny, some-what irreverent, very simple, home-based philosophy, charming.  I've looked for Spanish surnamed cowboy poets, and had really not stumbled upon any, until this was sent from La Pena in Berkeley.  I hope that there are more Latino cowboy poets out there.  Maybe they just have shared with the public.   I certainly welcome any Latinos poet there with a connection to their cowboy roots.  

More on Tony Argento
More on Cowboy poetry


Seattle International Latino Film Festival
SEPTEMBER 24 - 27 2009


The Seattle International Latino Film Festival aims to exhibit films that recognize the richness and diversity of Spanish speaking communities worldwide. The broad range of Latino cultural expression cannot be minimized to stereotypes. Instead, our mission is to both educate against and dispel social myths by offering a forum to voices that represent the multiplicity of perspectives in the Latino experience and to bring focus back to common ground of all communities, our humanity.
With films from 11 countries that represent Spanish, Portuguese and indigenous languages, our festival illustrates that Latin America has gained much ground in representative and innovative cinema. Moreover, the international community has contributed either by co-producing films or by direction of non-Latino directors who show a loving hand in topics that are authentic to Latinos and the Latino Diaspora. Many of the films have received awards internationally, namely a Goya award that is the equivalent to the American Oscar. Many of the films will be North American Premieres. Seattle stands to present a new node for Latino Film, putting Seattle on the map, yet again as a location for important film festivals.

Location: 2328 First Avenue Seattle, WA 98121 - Time:  4PM to 7 PM - $75 per person.  For more information: James Hoscyns; or please contact: 206-774-8373

Sent by Rafael Ojeda
Tacoma, Washington




America Ferrera, a cast member in "Ugly Betty," poses backstage with a Special Achievement award for Outstanding Performance of a Latino-led Ensemble in a Television Series at the 2008 ALMA Awards in Pasadena, Calif., Sunday, Aug. 17, 2008. (AP Photo/Chris Pizzello)

Eva Longoria Parker and George Lopez will host September's ALMA Awards celebrating Latino achievement in entertainment.

For the first time, the ALMA Awards will air during National Hispanic Heritage Month. The ceremony honoring those who work in film, TV and radio also will feature new categories, including one for emerging young talent and a sports award.

"Desperate Housewives" star Longoria Parker is one of the ceremony's executive producers as well as co-host.

"The ALMA Awards is a special show because it represents the determined spirit and soul of the Latino people, and I cannot think of a better person to help celebrate and co-host with me than my good friend George Lopez," Longoria Parker said in a statement Monday.

The American Latino Media Arts Awards were created in 1995 by the National Council of La Raza, a national Latino civil rights and advocacy organization, as part of its effort to promote diverse and fair portrayals of Latinos in the media. The awards ceremony will air Sept. 18 on ABC.

On the Net:

(Copyright ©2009 by The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.)



The Rose, A Sense of Place


Trailer of documentary, Rose Marine Theater in Fort Worth

Sent by Roberto R. Calderón, Ph.D.  


Real Academia Española, noun
The Royal Spanish Academy


It is rare for a country to have an institution devoted to monitoring and protecting its language, but Spain has one, in the shape of the Real Academia Española. This august body was created in 1713 and given royal approval in 1714 with the motto ‘limpia, fija y da esplendor’ word for word ‘it cleans, preserves and gives splendor’ (to the language). Its original aim was to protect the purity of the Spanish language, but nowadays it seeks to maintain the essential unity of Spanish throughout the Spanish-speaking world. There are 41 full members appointed from among the most prestigious Spanish writers, intellectuals and linguists, as well as honorary and overseas members. Current members include Mario Vargas Llosa, the internationally known Peruvian writer, and Juan Luis Cebrián, the former editor of the influential Spanish newspaper, El País. The academy’s first dictionary was published betwee! n 1726 and 1739, in six volumes, and a single-volume edition was published in 1780. The single-volume edition is now in its 22nd edition, with the 23rd currently being prepared.

Source: Spanish Word of the Day
Friday, July 3, 2009

Content By
© HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2006. All rights reserved.



Joan Baez -- Celebrating 50 Years of Music
WHAT: An Evening with Joan Baez
WHEN: Friday, September 25, 2009 at 8pm
WHERE: Center for the Performing Arts, 255 Almaden Blvd, San José (MAP)


It was just over 50 years ago that Joan Baez graduated from Palo Alto High School, right here in Silicon Valley. In the five decades since then, she has become one of the legends of contemporary American folk music -- not just for her expressive singing voice with its
distinctive vibrato and three-octave range, but also for her undying commitment to social justice and human rights.

In the 1960s, she marched with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and took to the fields with Cesar Chavez. More recently, she was invited to stand alongside South Africa's Nelson Mandela as the world celebrated his 90th birthday. Throughout her career, she has used the power of her music to focus attention on issues of equality, and she has introduced American audiences to music from countless other cultures (including songs by South American composers such as Villa-Lobos, Bonfa, Nascimento, and others).

Recently, the San Francisco Chronicle interviewed Joan Baez about her 50 years in the music industry, as well as other topics. It's a great article, and you can read it online now.

This fall, Joan Baez will give a one-night-only concert, as part of the 18th Annual San José Mariachi and Mexican Heritage Festival. "An Evening with Joan Baez" will take place on September 25 at the San Jose Center for the Performing Arts.



A Brief Introduction to Mariachi -- Part 1: History


The Word "Mariachi" can refer either to the most famous style of Mexican music, or to the groups of musicians who specialize in this music. The Mariachi style is vibrant and rhythmic, designed to bring listeners to their feet and set them dancing. It is the music of celebration -- heard at birthdays, baptisms, weddings, etc. -- and of courtship. It is also a  powerful symbol of Mexican heritage, both inside Mexico and abroad.

There are many conflicting theories and ideas about the origins and development of the Mariachi tradition. The following synopsis reflects an amalgamation of some of the most prominent ideas

Origin of the Word
Linguists and musicologists have long argued over the origin of the word. Some believe it derives from the French word "marriage," since the music was often played for weddings. Others have speculated that it was named for a festival honoring a virgin named Maria H. (mah-ree-ah AH-chay). Today, the leading theory is that the word comes from the indigenous (and now extinct) Coca language, and that it refers to the wooden platform on which revelers would dance as the musicians played.

Origin of Mariachi Music 
Mexico has many regional styles of folk music. Mariachi is believed to have arisen in western Mexico, in and around the  state of Jalisco. While the typical Mariachi instruments are European in origin, the music was heavily influenced by the musical traditions of the native peoples of Central America, and by the music of African slaves brought to the New World by the Spanish. From the blending of these three cultures came a new, vital sound that was uniquely Mexican.

The earliest Mariachi ensembles played for local fiestas and fandangos. They dressed in typical peasant garb and were generally unknown outside their own villages. Their songs dealt with themes of rural life, courtship, etc.

Development of Modern Mariachi
With the Revolution of 1910, Mariachis began to gain status as a symbol of Mexican culture. By the 1930s, Mariachis were utilized and supported by populist politicians like President Lázaro Cárdenas. It was during this period that professional Mariachis adopted the "charro" -- the familiar Mariachi uniform consisting of elaborately embroidered and decorated pants, short jacket, sombrero, and boots.

Perhaps the most important event in the development of Mariachi music came in 1934, when Mariachi Vargas (founded in 1898 by Gaspar Vargas and later taken over by his son Silvestre) moved from its original home in Jalisco to Mexico City. Urban audiences embraced the lively style of music and dance. Silvestre Vargas hired a classically-trained musician, Rubén Fuentes, to lead the group. Fuentes fostered a new standard of professionalism in Mariachi. He wrote formal arrangements of the traditional sones that had previously been passed down by ear, and he composed many new huapangos that are now part of the standard Mariachi repertoire.

Also during this period, Mariachi music caught the attention of record producers, film makers, and radio DJs, helping it spread not only throughout Mexico, but around the world.

Today, there are professional Mariachi groups thoughout the Americas, and even as far away as Europe and Japan. There is a Mariachi Mass that has been approved by the Roman Catholic Church. In recent years, many popular ranchera singers (such as Pepe Aguilar, Pablo Montero, and others) have created a blending of Mariachi and  contemporary pop music styles, and Linda Ronstadt's Grammy Award-winning Canciones de mi Padre album is the largest-selling non-English album ever in the US.

More Information
You can find further information about the history of Mariachi at the following websites:

* Smithsonian Folkways
* Mariachi 4 u-- (featuring an article from The Latino Encyclopedia)
* New Mexico State University
* Wikipedia
* Mexconnect.comThere is also an excellent video on YouTube about the history of Mariachi. Taken from the documentary film Pasajero, A Journey of Time and Memory, it features many veteran Mariachi performers discussing their experience with this enduring art form:  





Mural Art Teaching and Training


Arte Ganas would like to introduce you to an exciting new motivational Mural Art Workshop program called ARTE GANAS. Our highly charged program uses Mural Art, Music, and Fun as vehicles to promote art appreciation, art skills and "Team Esteem" in the classroom or work place. Arte Ganas conducts these fantastic Mural Art Teaching and Training Workshops in School Districts and other Educational Institutions throughout California, Texas and the Southwestern United States to rave reviews!

The famous saying: "Si Se Puede" (It can be done) comes alive as this fun filled introductory workshop focuses on mural design. Set to high-energy music, two to four teams of 25 participants each compete in the creation of full size color murals based on the works of such masters as Diego Rivera.

This is all completed within 1-½ hours and with no art skills necessary! Your school will have up to four murals to permanently display where ever you want. Door prizes are awarded and all students are guaranteed to have a great time.

The ARTE GANAS program focuses on a lot more activities than just Art Mural design. For extended programs we offer a wide array of other great projects. I hope you consider this exciting workshop for your school or work site in the near future, as it is a fantastic vehicle to help motivate people to work together in harmony and with much more enthusiasm.


Extract from: Now You’re Speaking My Language
By: David Kaplan
Nielsen IAG, July 9, 2009

Hispanic consumers have become a force to be reckoned with across screens large and small, fixed and mobile. According to Nielsen May 2009 universe estimates, 82% of Hispanics have cable plus (expanded cable package that does not require a cable box)—a usage level which has risen by 12 percentage points from just four years ago and significantly narrowed the gap with non-Hispanics (89%). One-third of Hispanics have wired digital cable, another 33% have direct broadcast satellite subscriptions, 21% are DVR owners and 88% have DVD players. Two-thirds of Hispanic households have personal computers, with six in ten also signed up for Internet access at home. Nearly seven in ten of those Hispanic Internet households have high speed broadband accessc almost identical to the general population percentage. While all Internet users average 28.5 minutes online per day, Hispanic households log slightly less time at 21 online minutes per day.

Nielsen reports that Latinos who are online are more likely to download music than the general Internet population — 32% download music online versus 24% of all Internet users. The same pattern holds true for video downloads, with 17% of online Latino households pulling video off the web, versus 14% of all Internet users; 9% download movies versus 6% of the general Internet population; and 8% of access TV shows online versus 7% of all Internet users. Wired Latinos trail the general Internet population when it comes to online shopping. While 70% of Internet users shop online, spending approximately $861 per  year, just 62% of Hispanics purchase products on the web and spend $762 annually.

Dialing in Mobile phones have made tremendous inroads in the Latino community, which trails only the  African-American segment in number of minutes per month (783 minutes versus 811 minutes respectively). Although Latinos don’t spend as much time on the phone, they receive or make more phone calls per day (14) than any other ethnic group, and have the phone bills to prove it — $94 per month compared to African Americans $89, Asians $82 and Whites $80. Roughly two-thirds of Hispanics used text messaging services in the last 30 days, about one-fourth utilized mobile Internet, and the same percentage sent an email in the past month. What’s clear is that Hispanics represent a viable and growing segment in the electronic marketplace. Their increasing “three screen” media consumption as well as their favorable predisposition to advertising make them an audience that can be harnessed on new platforms to boost brand impact.
13729 Research Blvd • Suite 610-219 •
Austin, TX • 78750



Mexican Americans and Language: Del dicho al hecho
by Glenn A. Martinez 

Associate professor of Spanish and linguistics 
University of Texas-Pan American in Edinburg, Texas


When political activists rallied for the abolition of bilingual education and even called for the declaration of English as an official language, Mexican Americans and other immigrant groups saw this as an assault on their heritage and civil rights. Because language is such a defining characteristic of Mexican American ethnicity, nearly every policy issue that touches their lives involves language in one way or another.

This book offers an overview of some of the central issues in the Mexican American language experience, describing it in terms of both bilingualism and minority status. It is the first book to focus on the historical, social, political, and structural aspects of multiple languages in the Mexican American experience and to address the principles and methods of applied sociolinguistic research in the Mexican American community.

Spanish and non-Spanish speakers in the Mexican American community share a common set of social and ethnic bonds. They also share a common experience of bilingualism. As Martinez observes, the ideas that have been constructed around bilingualism are as important to understanding the Mexican American language experience as bilingualism itself. 

Mexican Americans and Language gives students the background they need to respond to the multiple social problems that can result from the language differences that exist in the Mexican American community. By showing students how to go from word to deed (del dicho al hecho), it reinforces the importance of language for their community, and for their own lives and futures.

GLENN MARTINEZ is an associate professor of Spanish and linguistics at the University of Texas-Pan American in Edinburg, Texas.

144 pp., 8 figures 61/8x91/4
ISBN 0-8165-2374-6 $15.95s paper
University of Arizona Press •


William Carlos Williams – Latino Poet, essay by Armando Rendón, J.D. 
¿Porque mataron a García Lorca?  poem by Armando Rendón, J.D. 


William Carlos Williams – Latino Poet

by Armando Rendón, J.D.  


William Carlos Williams was born on September 17, 1883 , in Rutherford ,New Jersey. The date was auspicious because it falls today during a period of celebrating the 
liberation of several Spanish speaking countries from foreign rule. His struggle with identity that resulted in a remarkable contribution to the world of literature may be a metaphor for that impulse toward freedom. 

            Recent community upheavals in the United States support the argument that people whose contributions to a nation’s development have been slighted or distorted by the ruling majority will seek to correct history. Over recent decades, growing Chicano and Latino political awareness has opened wider the gates to academia for more Latinos and led to scholarly research into the Hispanic past of the United States. We have discovered that the origins of many famous people are rooted in Mexican, Caribbean and Latin American heritage, as well as from Spain.            

William Carlos Williams, one of the most influential poets of the 20th century, is one of those famous Americans whose Hispanic origin has been little known. He came by his middle name by virtue of his mother, Raquel Hélène Rose Hoheb, who was born in Puerto Rico . From the evidence to be found in his autobiography, his poetry, and writings about him, his mother and her maternal origins lent more than a middle name to the poet and his works.

Williams’ writings have been thoroughly critiqued and his life minutely detailed by biographers; I don’t intend to advance such scholarship about him but simply to revive the significance of his life’s work to the Latino community.

In Williams’ autobiography, he simply introduces his mother, Elena, as she was called in the U.S., by saying she had come to the U.S. via Santo Domingo “to be married.” (W.C.W., p. 5) The road extended back much farther.

Elena’s mother, Meline Hurrard (or Jurrard) was of Basque ancestry whose family had emigrated from Bordeaux to Martinique , a French possession in the Caribbean in the early 1800s. She had married Solomon Hoheb, whose ancestors had been Sephardic Jews in Holland. (P.M., p. 15) Unfortunately, Williams relates matter-of-factly, the eruption of Mount Pelée in 1902 wiped out the Hurrard side of Elena’s family along with the other 28,000 inhabitants of the city of Saint-Pierre .

Due to this mixed heritage, Elena spoke both Spanish and French, the two languages th at were apparently the idioms of Williams’ childhood. “Spanish and French were the languages I heard habitually while I was growing up,” Williams tells us. “Mother could talk very little English when I was born, and Pop spoke Spanish better, in fact, than most Spaniards.” (W.C.W., p. 15) Obviously, Spanish was dominant in Williams’ first years.

William George Williams, or “Pop” as Williams called his father (Elena was always “mother”), had remained an English citizen despite residing in the U.S. throughout his adult years. At the age of five, Pop’s family had migrated from England to the Caribbean , living first in St. Thomas and then moving to Santo Domingo.  William George thus became an hispanohablante from childhood. He and Elena met in Santo Domingo and later on when the elder Williams had moved to New York City, he brought Elena over to marry.

No doubt due to his Spanish fluency, when William George became ad manager for the manufacturer of a cologne called, Florida Water, the job took him to South America on prolonged assignments.  When Pop went to Buenos Aires in 1897 to help organize a factory and distribution center there, mother and the boys, William Carlos, 14, and his brother, Ed, 13, sailed from New York City to spend a year in Paris. A multi-talented woman, his mother had studied painting for three years in Paris in the l at e 1870s, and had also spent a short while in Geneva. The trio lived with an aunt and cousins of their mother’s during their year-long stay.

Besides her multilingual skills and painting talents, Elena also played the piano, accompanying the choir on Sundays at the Unitarian Church where Pop served as superintendent of the Sunday school for 18 years.

In his autobiography, Williams belittled his own Spanish, but he was apparently fluent enough to write poetry in Spanish and translate as well. A physician for most of his adult life, he recalls th at as an intern, he was relegated to escorting an aged but wealthy Mexicano ranch owner and railroad executive, from New York City back to his n at ive San Luis Potosí, primarily to keep him alive till he got him there. Though, as Williams says, “My Spanish wasn’t so hot,” (W.C.W., p. 73) he managed to cope with the situation, and delivered the old man, alive, to his family after a four-day trip. The man died within a day, but by then Williams was headed back home, 10 $20 gold pieces in his pockets as payment from the anciano’s son.

William Carlos had obtained an internship at the French Hospital in Manh at tan at the suggestion of J. Julio Henna, a senior member of the medical staff there, and an old friend of his father’s—Henna was one of three physicians (including Ramón Emeterio Betances) who had fled Puerto Rico in the early 1880s because of their rebellion against Spanish rule.

The name that Williams chose as his pen name, so to speak, is instructive of where his loyalties and sensibilities lay with regard to his bicultural background. In 1909, he self-published a thin volume of poems with “not one thing of the slightest value” in it, he says in his autobiography, (W.C.W., p. 107) but perhaps using some of the Mexican gold dollars for the venture. When it came time for him to decide on what his literary signature would be, he decided on William Carlos Williams: “To me the full name seemed most revealing and therefore better.” (ibid, p. 108) Wh at he meant by most revealing and better, he does not disclose.

Williams’ third book of poems, published in 1917, was titled Al Que Quiere, and included a poem entirely in Spanish. Paul Mariani, one of his biographers, reports th at Pop Williams was “furious” that the publisher had gone to press with three typos in that one piece. (P.M., p. 13)

The Williamses kept close ties with Puerto Rican kin. One Fourth of July, when Williams was about 9 or 10, he was playing with his cousins Carlito and Raquel, who were on an extended visit, when a toy cannon they had filled with gun powder discharged in Williams’ face and nearly blinded him; for weeks, he had  bandages on his face, but no permanent harm occurred. (W.C.W., p. 18) The cousins were the offspring of Elena’s brother, Carlos, also a physician.

A conflict arose early on between his mother and British grandmother, Emily Dickenson Wellcome, over the rearing of young William. The grandmother tried to take over his upbringing, Williams recalled, until one day, “Mother lost her temper and laid the old gal out with a smack across the puss. … Her Latin blood got the best of her that day. Nor was she sorry; it did her more good, in fact, than anything that had happened to her since her coming to the States from Santo Domingo to be married. I think that one of the most potent forces th at kept my mother going to the age of ninety-two was a malign determination to outlive her mother-in-law, who died at eighty-three in 1920. I hope I take after my female ancestors.” (W.C.W., p. 5)

Perhaps the most startling influence his mother might have had on Williams was her spiritualism, a tendency that often caused her suddenly to lapse into a trance. Close friends and family knew her as a medium; she often would lose awareness of her surroundings but continue to communicate as if in another persona. On one occasion, Williams relates, just as the family was at supper, Elena began looking around as if lost, and spoke as if she were someone else. His f at her asked her name and she said, “Why I’m Lou Payne.” (W.C.W., pp. 15-16) Pop Williams wrote to Jess Payne, a former neighbor and friend, who wrote back informing William George that, Lou Payne, the neighbor’s wife, had been near de at h from an illness just at the time that Elena had gone into the trance.

How else explain any number of his poems that convey a perspective as if from within a mirror, from another dimension? Here are a few lines from “Portrait of the Author”:

            The birches are mad with green points

            the wood’s edge is burning with their green,

            burning, seething—No, no, no.

            The birches are opening their leaves one

            by one. Their delicate leaves unfold cold

            and separate, one by one. Slender tassels…

                                                                        CEP, p. 228

In a later poem, “Eve,” he says, as if vindicating his mother’s terrible gift, “I realize why you wish/to communicate with the dead—/And it is again I/who try to hush you/…It not so much frightens/as shames me. I want to protect/you, to spare you the disgrace—/seeing you reach out that way/to self-inflicted emptiness.” (C.E.P., pp. 376-77)

The influence of Hispanic roots on Williams has been thoroughly thrashed out by Julio Marzán, a Puerto Rican born poet and English professor now living in Queens , New York . Marzán published The Spanish American Roots of William Carlos Williams in 1994.

In seeking to give voice to his Latino persona, Marzán posits, Williams invented a system of expression which enabled him to convey through English “a nascent writing that appears to have no roots in this country’s literature.” In other words, Williams’ poetry represents in fact “a major Latin literary root in Anglo American letters.” (J.M., p xi)

But Williams must have felt he had to be circumspect. He did not want to be labeled by critics or fellow poets as less than a real American writer because he was the son of immigrants. He sought to repel or dispel the biased notion that as a “foreigner” he could not write “good” English, and therefore, he had to write better than anyone else and do so within the American idiom. It seems that Williams found his voice by developing an approach to poetry, different from either th at of the European classicist variety or the modernists of that era such as Ezra Pound and T.S. Eliot.

Thus, his primary contribution to American, even world, literature, was to liberate the poet from the oppression of language, that is, to convey his own worldview through 
what ever influences or informs his personal identity and free of Old World forms.  Dante Alighieri reflected this consciousness when he broke away from the Church-imposed L at in as the lingua franca to write the Divine Comedy in the vernacular of the Italian people; by doing so, he freed the Italian language from bondage and cre at ed a new literature.

Part of or perhaps the underlying genius in Williams’ poetry, Marzán suggests, is his ability to convey externally the Anglo American persona, which was necessary to avoid being labeled a Latin immigrant and therefore less than an adequate or acceptable writer of English, while imbuing through a kind of code the very cultural essence that was his true self. Had Williams openly professed his Boricua roots, he would probably have been 
relegated to a second tier as a writer, as the offspring of immigrants trying to pass himself off as a White Anglo American. In short, he might never have continued as a writer.

Was this code, as Marzán calls it, actually a means that Williams used to suppress his “Spanish American roots,” a rejection of his Latino origins? Not likely. That would have meant abandoning his mother, both figuratively and physically. It’s quite clear from his writings that he cherished his mother, despite her idiosyncrasies. Williams visited Mayagüez in 1956, apparently on a mission to learn more about his roots; among other things, he found out the year of his mother’s birth— for some reason, she had kept the fact hidden from her children until her death.

Any writer will tend to convey in his language the ethos that is derived from his origins. That doesn’t make it good literature. Most of the writing in the early years of the Chicano movement would not pass muster today as first class fiction or poetry; it was heavily nationalistic but its good intent would not redeem it as credible literature.

Learning about Williams’ experience as a bilingual and bicultural person adds another dimension to his overall contribution to literature. Williams mastered wh at was essentially a second language, English, and obviously wrote beyond the ordinary—he established a standard. Chicanos writers, I for one, tend to write with a pronounced ethnic slant. That does not relieve me of the obligation to write as well as I can in English and when I do so in Spanish, my mother tongue.

During Williams’ era, the buzzwords stereotyping or racial profiling with their present connotation did not exist, but the denigration of foreigners and immigrants did: Williams realized this and, if Marzán is correct, adjusted to the reality through subterfuge or subtlety, and even “coding” in his poetry.

But, much has changed since Williams’ day. We can criticize writing if it’s just poorly worded or structured, but to demean a poem or story, let alone a community, because it derives from a “foreign” source, or communicates through an “inferior” language, can cause immedi at e push-back from various social sectors.  

Unlike Williams, I feel very comfortable if some of my writing clearly defines me as a Chicano writer or poet, because I can also write from the universal center that Williams found, which is unrelated, even unconscious, of an ethnicity, a place of birth, or a spiritual slant.  That underlying impulse in Williams’ poetry of a Latino sub-consciousness empowers all Latino writers. Having set the benchmark in the English idiom, he has “proven” as it were that one can be Latino, Chicano, Boricua or whatever, and still exercise a mastery of English. In fact, Williams tells us, we can enhance the English language because of our bicultural and bilingual nature.

This is precisely what Williams was suggesting in 1940, when he spoke at the First Inter-American Writers’ Conference at the University of Puerto Rico. According to Mariani, Williams “studded his talk with references to Spanish liter at ure and to the salutary influence that literature had had on the American language,” (P.M., p. 446) going so far as to compare the Spanish dramatist, Lope de Vega, to Shakespeare. Mariani says it was “a way of paying tribute to his parents… For the first time in his life, Williams had returned to his mother’s ancestral home.” (P.M., p. 446)

Of course, Mariani missed the whole point. Williams had long before “returned to his mother’s” cultural roots, if he had ever left them, through language—here was an American writer, who could tell the difference between the shorter line of four stresses in Spanish drama and poetry against the iambic pentameter of Shakespeare’s works, and dare to urge North American writers to take advantage of the Spanish idiom.

Mariani quotes from Williams’ speech: “In many ways, sixteenth and seventeenth century Spain and Spaniards are nearer to us in the United States today than perhaps, England ever was. It is a point worth at least taking into consideration. We in the United States are climactically as by latitude and we at her much nearer Spain than England, as also in volatility of our spirits, in racial mixture—much more like Gothic and Moorish Spain.” P.M., p. 446-47.

This doesn’t sound like someone who rejects his bicultural roots. Rather it reveals in the “we” that at he recognized his origins and found them more vital and organic to his writing than even English literature. Is it not a tribute to his mother and a profession of his Hispanic roots that he claims that “volatility of spirits” and “racial mixture” as his own?

As subtle as ever, Marzán would say. Williams again seems to be using code words for the influence of his mother, the volatile medium, and his own mixed racial and ethnic ancestry. Today, it’s very likely that at Williams would have felt quite comfortable to break the code and call himself a Boricua or Latino poet.

Williams Carlos died March 4, 1963 , age 80, after suffering a series of strokes that left him unable to write. Up until now, few if any Latino have appreciated him as a brother. It must be a final culmination of complex life that we can now fully proclaim and esteem William Carlos Williams as a Latino poet, no half ways about it.


The Autobiography of William Carlos Williams, (W.C.W.) by William Carlos Williams, New Directions Books, Norfolk, Conn. , 1948.

The Collected Earlier Poems, (C.E.P.) by William Carlos Williams, New Directions Books, Norfolk , Conn., 1938, 1951.

The Collected Later Poems, (C.L.P.) by William Carlos Williams, New Directions Books, Norfolk, Conn., 1944, 1948, and 1950.

The Spanish American Roots of William Carlos Williams (J.M.), by Julio Marzán, University of Texas Press, Austin, 1994.

William Carlos Williams, A New World Naked, (P.M.) by Paul Mariani, McGraw-Hill , New York , 1981.  

Armando Rendón is author of Chicano Manifesto, a long-time writer on Chicano and 
Latino affairs, and in his later years, having been inspired by the likes of Williams, turning more to poetry. He is in the midst of reading all of Williams’ poems.  



¿Porque mataron a García Lorca?

Poem by Armando B. Rendón

         Fedrico García Lorca

                                                                                                                     Born in Fuente Vaqueros, Granada, Spain, June 5,1898; died near Granada, August 19,1936, García Lorca is Spain's most deeply appreciated and highly revered poet and dramatist. His murder by the Nationalists at the start of the Spanish civil war brought sudden international fame, accompanied by an excess of political rhetoric which led a later generation to question his merits; after the inevitable slump, his reputation has recovered (largely with a shift in interest to the less obvious works). He must now be bracketed with Machado as one of the two greatest poets Spain has produced this century, and he is certainly Spain's greatest dramatist since the Golden Age. 





¿Porque mataron a García Lorca?

(June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936)

¿Porque mataron a García Lorca?
¿Porque hicieron correr su sangre,
derramándola por las calles?
¿Porque callaron con balas su boca?

¿Como fueron capaces esos brutos,
de actuar con un fervor tan audaz,
de tomar esa vida tan valiosa,
de tapar con su plomo esa voz?

¿Cuales fueron sus razones en cortar
esa vida digna y valerosa?
¿No se les ocurrió las consecuencias
que sus actos iban a brotar?

Una sombra ha cubierto el cielo
de ese punto de tiempo cuando sonó,
resonando por las paredes de Madrid,
el eco puntual del tiro que se lo llevo.

Su muerte es más que un solo caso,
Este poeta animaba, reflejaba
el alma del pueblo, el mero ser:
se han tapado miles de bocas con un balazo.

¿Será siempre así, los tiranos
controlando la gente y sus ideas
asesinando sus voceros,
sus inventores de sueños y futuros buenos?

¡Mira! en la sierra, un jinete verde,
galopeando bajo nubes verdes.

Escuchen! como hasta los cascos suenan

verdinegro por la noche verde.

¡Viva! Federico. Federico vive! 

Armando B. Rendón
15 de enero 2007

To Read Federico Garcia Lorca's poems:



Brigadier General Rafael O’Ferrall  
Independence Day
Museum Exhibits
A great story about un MOH Capt Versace from the Viet Nam War
World War II Heroes from the Harlingen Area
Federal Border Patrol Agent Julie Monsivais
Laws and regulations that apply to Special Classes of persons who may be naturalized Based on Active Duty 
In fulfillment of their pledge
Periods of War for VA Benefits Eligibility
A Salute to Latino Veterans
Some Great Military Info
Five Payan Brothers Served in the US Army during World War II 

Those who hammer their guns into plows will plow for those who Do not.'
- Thomas Jefferson

"Orgullo Hispano"

Brigadier General Rafael O’Ferrall

By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago  



                      Brigadier General Rafael O’Ferrall  

Brigadier General Rafael O’Ferrall  I don’t know about you, but when Sonia Sotomayor was confirmed an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States on August 8th, I was proud as hell, not only because she was the first Hispanic in said position, but because of the story of her humble beginnings and struggles to get where she has gotten to should serve as an example to our youth. 

The story which I am going to tell you is not about Sotomayor. It is about another Hispanic of Puerto Rican descent whose humble beginnings did not prevent him from becoming one of our “Orgullo Hispano” in the military.  Rafael O’Ferrall, was born in New York City to Puerto Rican parents. Do not be fooled by his surname, because as I have made it clear in the past there are many Hispanics with non-Hispanic surnames. In the case of Rafael, his Irish descendents were among the many Irish families who moved to Puerto Rico, their new homeland, during the Irish Diaspora. Rafael was not born with a “silver” spoon in his mouth, as a matter of fact his parents moved to United States in search of a better way of life. His family was poor and when he was five years old, his mother sent him to Puerto Rico to live with his grandmother.  

He went to public school in the town of Carolina. Now, let me tell you, Carolina is a good city to live in, but like every city it also has it’s bad sections and trouble makers. O’Ferrall, could have done like so many others have done and that is complain about how life is unfair and blame all of his misgivings on his parents and everyone else except himself. He could have been disobedient, joined a gang, become a drug addict; a criminal and spend his life living off the governments welfare system, but nooooo, not him. He was going to make it and he knew it, but it wasn‘t going to be easy.  

His loving grandmother, the person who raised him, died suddenly in the 1960s and his mother returned to Puerto Rico. O’Ferrall, then went to live with her. He was enrolled at “Dr. Jose M. Lazaro High School”. While his mother worked as a nurse, he excelled in academics and sports. This kid was really determined to show the world that negative aspects of live where not going to get the better part of him. So much so, that in 1972, he was asked by the Puerto Rican Olympic Committee to represent Puerto Rico in the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich Olympics in the track and field events, however even though he was later substituted by the more experienced Luis Alers, did not this get him down, it was only one of those things in life which he will learn to overcome.  

After he graduated from high school in 1973, he enrolled in the University of Puerto Rico and participated in various competitions as member of the track and field team of his Alma Mater. In 1974, he represented the island in the XII Central American and Caribbean Games which were celebrated in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. During his student years he became a member of the university's Reserve Officer Training Corps program, which is also known as ROTC. He earned his Bachelor of Science degree with a concentration on Natural Science on June 20, 1978 and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Army National Guard that same year. 
Now, life was all rosy for him, he had his ups and downs and had to overcome many obstacles which came along the way. His mother returned to the United States and things were far from easy, but as I stated before, he was and is one heck of determined individual. By, 1986, O’Ferrall earned his Master's in Business Administration and Management. O’Ferrall served in various military administrative positions and from July 2001 to July 2002, he continued his military academic education and became the first Hispanic to attend the United States Army War College/ Senior Service College at Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government in Cambridge, Massachusetts.  

On October 2002, he was promoted to the rank of Colonel and on February 2003, he was sent to Fort Bragg, North Carolina where he first served as Deputy Brigade Commander and later as Brigade Commander of the Task Force Guardian Mariner, XVIII Airborne Corp. Now in case you didn’t know (I know I didn‘t) , the Guardian Mariner is a strong force which conducted multinational operations in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/ Noble Eagle in what the United States and it's allies referrer to as the Global War on Terrorism. O’Ferrall managed and directed mobile security teams to complete over 242 security missions aboard 173 Military Sealift Command ships, ensuring the safe and timely delivery of over 500 million square feet of war fighting equipment and supplies essentials to United States Central Command. How about that, hum?   

In 2008, of the same year that he was promoted to Brigadier General, he served as Assistant Adjutant General-Army/Deputy Commanding General (Army). In this assignment he was responsible for the training, readiness, personnel, and other areas of the Puerto Rico Army National Guard. If you think that you have a tough job, check this out: 
On December 2008, O’Ferrall was deployed and named Deputy Commanding General, Joint Task Force Guantanamo at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, position in which he currently serves while simultaneously serving as Assistant Adjutant General (Army) and Deputy Commanding General of the Joint Force Headquarters, of San Juan, Puerto Rico. O’Ferrall became the first Hispanic and general officer from the Puerto Rico Army National Guard supporting a joint forces mission of this caliber.  

He is responsible for the supervision of over 2150 members comprised of United States Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard as well as over 5000 civilian contractors and workers on the base. Among O’Ferrall's responsibilities is to ensure that those under his supervision provide safe, humane, legal and transparent care custody of detained enemy combatants, conduct intelligence collection, analysis and dissemination for protection of detainees and personnel working in Joint Task Force-Guantanamo in support of the Global War on Terrorism, support the Office of Military Commissions to law enforcement and war crime investigations in planning for and on order to respond to Caribbean mass migrations operations.  

The amazing thing about all this is that during all of this time besides earning his BA and MA he attended and completed courses in the United States Army War College, Senior Service College, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Executive Seminar Anti-Terrorism / Force Protection, Level IV, Washington, District of Columbia; United States Navy, Commanding Officer Anti-Terrorist / Force Protection Course, Level III, Norfolk, Virginia and The Joint Task Force Commander Training Course, United States Northern Command, Colorado Springs, Colorado. 
He also serves in the board of various companies and as of September, 2004, is the General Manager of Dade Paper Company’s Puerto Rico and Caribbean Division, a foremost supplier of paper, plastic and foam foodservice disposables as well as janitorial supplies and equipment located in Cataño, Puerto Rico and has participated either as author or co-author in the following:  

"The Transformation of Reserve Component (RC) Modernization: New Options for DOD?" and .“United States Army War College Article: Reserve Component Equipping: A Critical Element of the National Military Strategy."  
As I have always stated, O’Ferrall who is happily married to Maria Del Carmen Vazquez and has four children: Carmen Michelle O'Ferrall (from a previous marriage); Rafael Jr., Gian and Stephanie O’Ferrall, is the type of person who is a living example what our youth can accomplish if they set their goals to seeking a higher level of education. O’Ferrall is a positive role model to follow and a true “Orgullo Hispano”. 


Independence Day Citizen soldiers

USA TODAY editorial, July 02, 2009



When Victor and Miguel Mendoza take the oath of allegiance to become U.S. citizens on July Fourth, the words "support and defend" will have special meaning to them.

The brothers, Mexican immigrants who came to America in 1994, will speak that oath in Baghdad, where both are on duty fighting for their adopted nation. A third brother, Jose, served in the Iraq war, too. In what's becoming a family tradition, he became a citizen on July Fourth in Baghdad two years ago.

The Mendozas represent the best of what the nation is celebrating this Independence Day weekend — liberty, freedom and the sacrifice it takes to keep them strong. They symbolize what's right with America, a nation of immigrants that was built by opening its doors. And they speak to what could be so much better. At a time when anti-immigrant sentiment has swept through great swaths of the nation, much of it focused on those from Mexico, it's worth recalling that more than 65,000 immigrants serve in the armed forces, about one-third of them legal residents but not yet citizens. Military service can shorten the usual five-year wait.

Despite a jarring economic crisis, America remains the envy of much of the world and a magnet for millions who come seeking opportunity they can't find elsewhere. This week alone, more than 6,000 aspiring Americans will become citizens — including 500 service members — in ceremonies from Sacramento to Camp Lejeune, N.C., to Baghdad.
The opportunity and the equality in America are what Miguel Mendoza, 29, first noticed when he came to the USA at 14. And it is what he still loves as he is about to become a citizen during his second tour in Iraq.
Americans do have differences, he says, "different races, beliefs, heritage. Like me being an immigrant from Mexico. But I am still in the U.S. Army, the same as someone born in the USA. I am wearing the same uniform. Put it in one word: It would be equality."
These are the things worth commemorating by lighting up the skies this weekend, as the great experiment in democracy celebrates its 233rd year.
Ignorant citizens.
Immigrants seeking to become U.S. citizens have to pass a test, and the Mendoza brothers aced theirs this week in Baghdad. That's more than you can say for a group of Arizona high school students who were surveyed recently on their knowledge of U.S. history and civics.
Just in time for Independence Day, the Goldwater Institute, a non-profit research organization in Phoenix, found that just 3.5% of surveyed students could answer enough questions correctly to pass the citizenship test. Just 25%, for example, correctly identified Thomas Jefferson as the author of the Declaration of Independence.
Other questions, all culled from the citizenship test, included: Who is in charge of the executive branch? (The president.) What is the supreme law of the land? (The Constitution.) How many justices are on the Supreme Court? (Nine.) The vast majority of students flubbed them all.
Unfortunately, and unsurprisingly, this was no aberration. A survey done last year found about half of 17-year-olds didn't know that the controversy surrounding Sen. Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s concerned his witch hunt into communist activity. In 2006, a national assessment test given to U.S. 12th-graders found that a third lacked basic knowledge about civics.
Instead of worrying about how immigrants might change America, this weekend would be a good time to wonder whether the ignorance of citizens about the roots of their own cherished freedoms is the greater threat. Simply put, democracy requires knowledge.
Totalitarian governments do best when they can keep their citizens ignorant. So do demagogues who stoke anger to steal power. Without knowing the lessons of history, how can people elect intelligent leaders and know when freedoms are threatened?
The big challenge is finding better ways to educate young people about history and civics. Meantime, we've got a suggestion. Why not make the 100-question citizenship test part of the high school curriculum, and passage a graduation requirement?
All U.S. citizens, not just the newest ones, should know there's more to Independence Day than fireworks.
(Mendoza brothers: Victor, left, and Miguel aced U.S. citizenship tests and will be sworn in Saturday in Baghdad/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services)


Museum Exhibits

The National Museum of the United States Air Force galleries present military aviation history, boasting more than 400 aerospace vehicles -- many rare and one-of-a-kind -- along with thousands of historical items and powerful sensory exhibits that bring history to life and connect the Wright brothers' legacy with today's stealth and precision technology. We invite you to take an online glimpse of our galleries. Click on a gallery name to see exhibits, including aircraft, engines, equipment and weapons of the USAF. The section also highlights special exhibits, current exhibits and restoration projects.
Air Force Flight Test Center Museum - Edwards AFB, Calif.
Air Force Space and Missile Museum - Patrick AFB, Fla.
Air Mobility Command Museum - Dover AFB, Del.
Eighth Air Force Museum - Barksdale AFB, La.
Hill Aerospace Museum - Hill AFB, Utah
History and Traditions Museum - Lackland AFB, Texas
Museum of Aviation - Robins AFB, Ga.
Peterson Air and Space Museum - Peterson AFB, Colo.
South Dakota Air and Space Museum - Ellsworth AFB, S.D.
The USAF Armament Museum - Eglin AFB, Fla.
Travis AFB Heritage Center - Travis AFB, Calif.
USAF Security Police Museum - Lackland AFB, Texas
Warren ICBM and Heritage Museum - F.E. Warren AFB, Wyo.
Sent by Bill Carmena



World War II Heroes from the Harlingen Area, Texas

Norman Rozeff, March 2009



On the quiet Sunday morning of December 7, 1941, Japan's armed forces launched a surprise attack on the American Pacific Fleet based at Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii. That was the start of the United State's participation in World War II. On that day Harlingen lost its first serviceman in the war. He was John Herbert Spaeth.

Johnny was a sailor serving on the USS Shaw (DD-347). She was a Mahan–class destroyer launched in 1936. The Shaw was in dry dock at the time of the attack. She was struck almost simultaneously in her forward portion by three separate dive bombers. An uncontrollable fire ensued, and the ship was ordered abandoned. Efforts were then made to flood the dry dock in an effort to quench the flames, however within a half hour after the bombardment, her forward munitions magazine spectacularly exploded and removed her bow. The aft portion remained afloat despite the intense fires that consumed her forward portion. Fragment missiles from the explosion pierced the old harbor tug Sotoyomo (YT-9) also in the dry dock, and she soon sank.

The proud Shaw would live to fight another day. In early 1942 she was partially restored at Pearl Harbor and then sailed to the West Coast and Mare's Island, San Francisco for a complete overhaul after which time she returned to service. She experienced considerable action in the South Pacific.

In 1949, four years after World War II ended the Charro Social Club erected a stone monument in then Diaz Park, now Lt. George Gutierrez Veterans Memorial Park, to commemorate their fallen servicemen in arms. The inscription on it reads:


Carved in the gray granite stone are the names of the servicemen who had died. As time passed, relatives of other service personnel who had been overlooked came forth with additional names. Their names were cast in a bronze plate later affixed to the stone monument. There are ninety-three names in all.

Those listed on the monument are:

Alchorn, George
Anson, William
Baker, Orville Adam
Barger, Y. G. A.
Benavides, Manuel

Bermea, Arturo
Bledsoe, Jesse William
Brittain, Ben Franklin
Burk, Billie
Bustamante, Gustavo

Carr, Elmer
Coffee, L. C.
Cormack, Laurence
Countz, Charles Wayne
Covio, Carlos C.

Crawford, Wayne
Datzman, Rowland P.
Donald, William C.
Duloney, John

Duncan, Roy W.
Durham, William Dayton
Edmonson, Barney I.
Finley, Robert S.
Fry, Edward Jr.

Frye, Roy Thomas
Gilbert, Harold
Glenn, James E.
Gonzalez, Andres
Gonzalez, Augustin

Gonzalez, Eduardo V. Jr.
Gonzalez, Samuel
Green, Bernard
Haas, Elmer, Jr.
Hand, Roscoe, Ervin

Hassell, Charles Robert
Herrera, Nephlati
Herron, Buren Thomas
Hoover, Hal
Hopkins, Mickey O.

Hull, Charles W.
Jeffus, Marvin
King, John
Kist, George Joseph
Knowles, Charles L. Jr.

Return to Harlingen History

Return to CCHC Home Page

La Turno, Charles E. Jr.
Levrier, John Jr.
Mallory, Douglas
McBean, K.
McKelvey, Charles

Medley, Alton C.
Miller, Carroll Paul
Minton, Gene
Mitchell, Leon R.
Molina, Higinio

Montgomery, Jim
Morris, Runyan
Muny, Billie
Murray, Phillip
Nantz, Albert

Oler,William L.
Owens, Ralph
Perkins, Martin B.
Pile, Porter Monroe
Raimond, Paul F.

Reiser, John C.
Rendon, Luis M.
Robbins, D. O.
Roberts, Jack
Rodriguez, Alejandro S.

Rodriguez, Belen T.
Rodriguez, Jose
Rodriguez, Librado
Romero, Rodolfo
Schleifer, Walter L.

Serna, Alejandro
Sharp, Richard L.
Silva, Antonio
Simmons, Sam Ed
Spaeth, Alvis

Spaeth, John Herbert
Swain Floyd E.
Thompson, Phillip
Townsley, Roy W.
Valdez, Joel

Van Hoy, Waythe
Vega, Albert M.
Villanueva, Gustavo
Walker, Wodward Jr.
West, Max

Wilds, David Warren
Wilson, Preston
Wisher, Leonard    



Federal Border Patrol Agent Julie Monsivais
End of Watch: July 18, 2009


Federal Border Patrol Agent Julie Monsivais, End of Watch July 18, 2009. Roddy Monsivais (Miami Dade Chapter Vice President), was related to her, it was his niece and she died in Yuma, Arizona. Roddy raised Julie as if she was his own daughter. Julie wanted to follow Roddy foot steps in Law Enforcement and had a goal of being the Director of U.S. Border Patrol. Julie was gracious young lady at age of 25 years old and she is now is a "Guardian Angel Protecting Heaven!"

Julie Monsivais had characteristic which struck me most when Roddy was relating stories about her, it was about her superabundance of common sense. She had the power of deciding and avoiding difficult questions. She was a keen person with insight of human nature had been cultivated by the trials and struggles of her early life. She knew how to talk to people and how to reach them better than any woman of her time. I heard Roddy tell me many stories about her; but for the person he wished to reach, and the object her desired to accomplish as an individual, the stories did more than any argument could have done.

Sincerely, Jeff Mallow
NLPOA Miami Dade Chapter President
NLPOA National Central Vice President

It is still early, so a Trust Fund has not yet been set up, but Condolence Cards can be sent to:
The Monsivais Family
7046 Monarch
Corpus Christi, TX, 78413

Also, if you want to send an e-mail to 
Roddy Monsivais
, directly please send to:



Laws & Regulations to persons 
who may be naturalized based on Active Duty 

These USICS links from Homeland Security on Immigration cover the Laws and regulations that apply to Special Classes of persons who may be naturalized: Based on Active Duty Service in the U.S. Armed Forces during specified periods of Hostilities.
Hopefully this will help many of our Latino non-citizens to apply for naturalization. Many of these veterans are probably living outside of the U.S. I would suggest that MALDEF and LULAC follow up on the children and spouses of these Veterans for their Naturalization eligibility too.
Sent by Rafael Ojeda



In fulfillment of their pledge
Armando Rendón, J.D.


Our warriors are dying day by day—
Survivors of battles on foreign lands,
Normandy, Bataan, Iwo Jima, the Bulge—
more each day make their final stand.

Abuelita said, “Adios,” to four of her sons,
my uncles!, who took on the burden of war,
marching off into the unknown 
of mayhem and death, of blood and fear.

Did they realize what they were facing,
not just a schoolyard fight on a dare,
but live bullets flying and bombs bursting
about them, or parachuting into flak-filled air?

How could they brave the tropical island heat,
or in Europe’s winters, the freezing nights, 
and in the first fire fight, squeezing the trigger
with a human being in their sights? 

So many young men put on a uniform
and left their dreams and hopes aside;
most returned somewhat older and wiser
of the world, but never the same inside.

While most came back to restart their lives,
Countless others formed the roll of honor:
They paid the price of freedom
with the coin of sacrifice and valor.

Those brave survivors we must honor still 
because in that very moment of death
they fulfill their pledge to give their all 
for country, even unto the final breath.

Armando Rendón


Periods of War for VA Benefits Eligibility



The most up-to-date electronic version of 38 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 3 and 4 is maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).   NARA's site for this is here: e-CFR.    If you want to insure you have the most up to date version of this regulation please be sure to check e-CFR.

§3.2 Periods of war.

This section sets forth the beginning and ending dates of each war period beginning with the Indian wars.   Note that the term "period of war" in reference to pension entitlement under 38 U.S.C. 1521, 1541 and 1542 means all of the war periods listed in this section except the Indian wars and the Spanish-American War. See §3.3(a)(3) and (b)(4)(i).

(a) Indian wars.   January 1, 1817, through December 31, 1898, inclusive.   Service must have been rendered with the United States military forces against Indian tribes or nations.

(b) Spanish-American War.   April 21, 1898, through July 4, 1902, inclusive.   If the veteran served with the United States military forces engaged in hostilities in the Moro Province, the ending date is July 15, 1903.   The Philippine Insurrection and the Boxer Rebellion are included.

(c) World War I.   April 6, 1917, through November 11, 1918, inclusive.   If the veteran served with the United States military forces in Russia, the ending date is April 1, 1920.   Service after November 11, 1918 and before July 2, 1921 is considered World War I service if the veteran served in the active military, naval, or air service after April 5, 1917 and before November 12, 1918.

(d) World War II.   December 7, 1941, through December 31, 1946, inclusive.   If the veteran was in service on December 31, 1946, continuous service before July 26, 1947, is considered World War II service.

(e) Korean conflict.   June 27, 1950, through January 31, 1955, inclusive.

(f) Vietnam era.   The period beginning on February 28, 1961, and ending on May 7, 1975, inclusive, in the case of a veteran who served in the Republic of Vietnam during that period.   The period beginning on August 5, 1964, and ending on May 7, 1975, inclusive, in all other cases.   (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 101(29))

(g) Future dates.   The period beginning on the date of any future declaration of war by the Congress and ending on a date prescribed by Presidential proclamation or concurrent resolution of the Congress.   (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 101)

(h) Mexican border period.   May 9, 1916, through April 5, 1917, in the case of a veteran who during such period served in Mexico, on the borders thereof, or in the waters adjacent thereto.   (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 101(30))

(i) Persian Gulf War.   August 2, 1990, through date to be prescribed by Presidential proclamation or law.   (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 101(33))

[26 FR 1563, Feb. 24, 1961, as amended at 32 FR 13223, Sept. 19, 1967; 36 FR 8445, May 6, 1971; 37 FR 6676, Apr. 1, 1972; 40 FR 27030, June 26, 1975; 44 FR 45931, Aug. 6, 1979; 56 FR 57985, Nov. 15, 1991; 62 FR 35422, July 1, 1997] [See Federal Register]



A Salute to Latino Veterans

November 04, 2003, 
Extracted from article on the Democratic Caucus web page at: 



Latinos are the highest decorated ethnic group in U.S. military history.  They have received 1,550 Silver Stars, 2,000 Bronze Stars, 88 Medals of Honor, and 40 Distinguished Service Crosses since WWI.   

The 65th Infantry is the highest decorated regiment in U.S. military history.  Made up of four thousand Puerto Rican soldiers during the Korean War, the regiment was awarded:

Nine Distinguished Service Crosses
Two hundred fifty Silver Stars
Over five hundred Bronze Stars
Presidential Unit Citation
Meritorious Unit Commendation
Two Korea Presidential Unit Citations
The Gold bravery Medal of Greece.

Sent by Ricardo Valverde



A Journal Of American Service

Estimada Mimi,
I was looking for a documents of Roy Benavidez that I am trying to locate its web site, and found these two links with some great info not only about our MOH Benavidez, but other photos that may be of interests to our community.

Rafael Ojeda

A Journal Of American Service

A web site that shares the emotional and spiritual experiences of the Vietnam War through poetry, stories, adn photos by combat veterans. Hosted by Vietnam Veteran Bill McDonald.



Payan Brothers Served in the Army, during World War II


El Paso, Tex
Gerald-Post 1943
In the U.S. Armed Forces

During WW II, Mr. and Mrs. Roman Molina de Payan of  El Paso, Texas had five sons who served in the Army.

Roman Jr. served with the 7th Airborn Division at camp McKalll, N.C. He attended Sacred Heart and Aoy Schools and the El Paso Technical Institute. At the time of his enlistment in January 1943, he was employed by the Geneva Jewelry Co.
Roman Payan Born 06-06-1906 in Saucillo, Chihuahua Died 1995

            Cecilio was in Sicily with an antiaircraft unit. He participated in the North African campaign, during which he was awarded in Order of the Purple Heart for wounded received in action. He attended Aoy and Bowie high School.  Cecilio Born 12- 02-1912 Clifton, Arizona Died 1979.

            David served with Co. A, 348th Engineers in Camp Pickett, Va. He was a student at Aoy and El Paso Technical Institute. At the time of his induction in November, 1942, he was employed by the clover Shop Ernesto is serving in the Air forces and is training at Freeman Field, Seymour, Ind. He graduated from Aoy and Bowie High School. David Born 12-12-1918 El Paso, Texas Died Sept 13, 2000.

            Pedro, a fifth brother, was a sergeant in the Texas Defense Guard in the Texas Defense Guard Unit. He is employed by Harry Mithcell’s Brewery.  Pedro Born 04-14-1910 in Clifton, Arizona Died May 11, 1973.

Ernesto Born 5-17-1922 El Paso, Texas Died Aug 10, 1983
My father was Fernando Payan, who was deferred due to hearing ailment.

Shared by Eleanor Payan



DAR Spanish Task Force, Searching US/World for Spanish Records of Donativos
Letter from Patrick Henry to Governor Bernardo De Galvez, October 18, 1777
Letter from Thomas Jefferson Governor Bernardo de Galvez, November 8, 1779
Secret Help Given to the American Colonies by Spain Started in 1776 
Obituary: Angela Chacón Salinas Fernandez traced ancestry to founding of U.S., Texas
Requirements of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution
The National Society of DAR

DAR Spanish Task Force

Searching US and World Wide Archives for Spanish Records for List of Donativos


In 1998, under the Love Administration, the Spanish Task Force was formed.  The Task Force has very specific duties to locate documentation related to the Spanish contributions to the American Revolution, in order to identify Spanish nationals who contributed to the American Revolution.
This interest and outreach was as a result of the increasing numbers of women seeking DAR membership based on the participation of their Spanish ancestors, in some aspect of support to the American Revolution.
Sylvia Carvajal Sutton, of San Antonio is a certified genealogist consultant for the DAR. She a member of the Spanish Task Force and will be reporting on the researching expeditions of the Task Force.  Sylvia has agreed to share searching highlights.
July 28, 2009
Dear Mimi: 
We finally made it home from the Washington, D.C. Task Force meeting and 118th Continental Congress.  On the way home we stopped at different places to do research. I went to the North Carolina State Archives in Raleigh. They have a very nice Spanish collection. Unfortunately, I found little on what the Task Force was specifically looking for, but did indeed find two very interesting documents. 

Let me first add that the staff was very supportive of me as I searched through their Collection of Spanish Documents. They treated me with the utmost courtesy. 

The historic foundation to their collection is thus: In 1926 their Historical Commission funded two people to go to Spain to make copies of documents relating to North Carolina.  Their collection is primarily related to that topic.  The copying of documents stopped briefly in 1927 when they ran out of funds, resumed briefly until the King of Spain, at the request of the head Archivist of the Archivo General de los Indies, ordered that no more Spanish documents be copied.  Unfortunately, the Archivist in Spain felt that the importance of their Archives would be reduced by having copies of their important historical documents in the hands of others. 
Among the Spanish documents in the North Carolina State Archives, which I feel very pertinent to our effort of validating the Spanish contribution to the American Revolution are two letters: one from Thomas Jefferson and the other from Patrick Henry. I will forward copies of these because they are from the American Revolutionary Period and they prove that Spain was sending supplies.

These letters are a part of The Cuban Papers Collection.  The staff  were as excited as I was about giving visibility to these two marvelous letters included in The Cuban Papers Collection.   The letters by Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry give you a sense of what the young country was experiencing, the difficulties of giving birth to a new nation. There is no ambiguity, the letters speak clearly of the Spanish support to the American colonists.
Sylvia Carvajal Sutton



Retyped Xerographic Copy of  North Carolina State Archives Document

Letter from Patrick Henry to Governor Bernardo De Galvez

October 18, 1777


P. de Cuba,  Legº 2370.
Patrick Henry
Williamsburg, Virginia.
October 18, 1777
To:  The Governor in Chief of Louisiana.
New Orleans

                                                                                 Williamsburg, Virginia
                                                                                  October 18, 1777


     O take the liberty of presenting to your Excellency in the name of the State of the Republic of Virginia, my sincere thanks for the favorable reception which you were pleased to give to Mr. Gibson, a captain who sent to you with letters from our last executive consul and on the part of Major General Lee.  We are extremely sensible of the manner with which you have had the goodness to furnish us with a quantity of valuable in merchandise as a consequence of these letters and of the request which you have been pleased to make to the court of Spain, in our favor, of which we have just been informed at this moment and which has been followed with joy.  We are, sir, filled with the strongest sentiment of gratitude.  The United States of America and particularly Virginia, will never forget the precious and invaluable sign of favor which His Catholic Majesty has just accorded them.  They will show forever how they have been aided by the kindliness of a nation as generous and as exalted as yours.

     I pray Your Excellency to be pleased to inform us in what manner and how we shall be able to make the necessary restitution in order to acquit ourselves of the merchandise which has been so generously furnished us at your intercession, by your nation.  Address the letters which you may be pleased to write to me to Mr. Raleigh Colston Ecuyer, our agent at Saint Dominque, who will forward them to me.

     I have the honor of being, with the greatest respect, Sir,

                                                          Your Excellency's most humble

                                                                      obedient servant

                                                                      Patrick Henry
                                                                      Governor of the Commonwealth
                                                                      of Virginia



Retyped Xerographic Copy of  North Carolina State Archives Document

Letter from Thomas Jefferson from 
to Governor Bernardo de Galvez

November 8, 1779


P. de Cuba,  Legº 2370.
Thomas Jefferson 
Williamsburg, Virginia.
November 8,  1779
No address.

                                                                                 November 8, 1779


     We learn by the return of Mr. Lindsay, who arrived here lately by way of Havana, and who had been sent by our Committee of Illinois down the Mississippi to New Orleans, that Colonel Rogers had left that place and continued his voyage up the Mississippi.  We await impatiently the reply brought by him from Your Excellency, to the letters of January 14, 1778, by Colonel Rogers, and January 26, 1778, by Captain Young, written by Governor Henry, whom I have had the honor of succeeding on his resignation.

     The attention of His Most Christian Majesty, since the date of these letters, to the continued hostilities between the condederated powers of France and North America against Great Britain, adding by their efforts, the weight of your powerful and wealthy empire, has given us all the assurance which human events can admit of a happy outcome of the present dispute.  Our proximity to the countries over which you preside directly, the direct channel of commerce by the Mississippi, the nature of these advantages with which we can furnish each other, indicate these which can result from a direct union, and on our part, the best foundations are established by a sentiment of gratitude for the favors which we have received from your hands.

P. de Cuba,  Legº 2370.

     Inspite of the calamities of the present war on our people, they have finally begun rapidly to extend their settlements on the Mississippi river and we have reason to believe, particularly so on the Ohio and branches which communicate directly with each other.  In the course of another year, there will be such a large number of inhabitants as to render their trade an object of your attention at New Orleans.  They can only be furnished with their necessities by the manufacturers of Europe and although they may wish to have them immediately, in exchange for the stave wood, furs, flour, pickled port, and beef, our people note be able to trade until they have opened their lands a little.  In order to protect them from the savages we are obliged to send and maintain among them a considerable armed force whose supplies, together with the clothes and the needs of the friendly savages, becomes an object of great difficulty for us.  For the smallest force which we have maintained at Kaskaskia, on the Mississippi, we have contracted a considerable debt at New Orleans with Mr. Pollock, aside from what is due to your crown for the help which it has generously furnished us an a number of letters of exchange brought by Colonel Clarke are at being declared.  We learn through Mr. Lindsay, that Mr. Pollock will probably be in great embarrassment if we do not make payment to him immediately.  The worst drought which has ever been seen since the establishment of this country has deprived us of the power to send flour, obliging us, for our own existence, to buy some from the neighboring states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, to whom 

P. de Cuba,  Legº 2370.

we have, until this year, furnished a great quantity.  The lack of salt prevents us from preparing beef and pickled pork for your market.  In this condition of affairs, we can only envisage the disgrace of this gentleman for these services which he has rendered us with the greatest veal.  We are making efforts in order to establish a capital in France by the delivery of tobacco, to which it will be possible to turn up to a certain point, but the accidents to which this tobacco is subjected in its exportation, render this dependence less sure than we would wish, for the relief of Mr. Pollock.  Aside from the fact that we have other very great needs, young as we are in commerce and manufacture and engaged in a war with the nation whose power on sear has been such that it has intercepted a great of the help which we have undertaken to export from Europe, you will not be surprised to learn that we find the greatest difficulty to procure either money or merchandise in order to answer the demands of our armies and this is why this would be a circumstance of great relief for us, if we were able to depositis in France, in order to draw from them for this part of our states which are on the Atlantic and to procure a suspension of the demands on your part, for the needs of our western forces for on, two, or three years, or such time, the longest that can be obtained.

     It is in veiw of this that Governor Henry, in his letters of January 14th and 26th, 1778, solicited from your nation a loan which Your Excellency had the goodness to under-take to communicate to your court.  We hope to learn through 

P. de Cuba,  Legº 2370.

Colonel Rogers, the outcome of this application and we would not have entreated with you until then on this subject, if we had not learned of the condition of Mr. Pollock.  As we flatter ourselves that because of you this request can have had success and that you may be authorized to advance some loans of money for us, I take the liberty of requesting you, in this case, to advance for us sixty-five thousand, eight hundred and fourteen piasters and five-eights, to Mr. Pollock.

     Surrounded as we are with difficulties, we can not succeed in performing all to which our gratitude pledges us, to replace this help promptly, but very certainly, in respect to this, nothing in our will be left undone.  Our particular prospects in order to do this and the time which it will take to accomplish it all will be the subject of another letter as soon as I have the honor of learning from whether we can be furnished and to what extent.  I hope also to learn through Colonel Rogers, Your Excellency's opinion on the other preposition, in the same letters, for the establishment of corresponding ports on your and our side of the Mississippi, near the mouth of the Ohio, for the aggrandizement of commerce between us.

     After having rendered to Your Excellency, our very sincere thanks for the friendly dispositions which you have personally shown us, and having assured you of our profound respect and esteem, I take the liberty of subscribing myself. 

                                                                Your Excellency's

                                                                Very humble, obedient servant

                                                                Signed:   Th  Jefferson

       Editor: Thomas was entered with a small s to the right of Th



The Secret Help Given to the American Colonies by Spain Started in 1776 
by Virginia Sanchez


When the American colonies waged a war for independence against England, King Carlos III of Spain sought opportunity to regain land Spain lost to England at the end of the Seven Years War in 1773. Spain agreed to join France as an ally and beginning in 1776, covertly shipped arms, munitions, cattle, uniforms, medicine, blankets, and money to the American colonies using France as the go between. Spain declared war on England in June 1779

In March of 1780, Carlos III decreed that to sustain the war against England, "his vassals in America" were to contribute a one-time donativo (donation) of one peso (approximately $30 by year 2002 standard) per Indian and other castes and two pesos per Spaniard and noble. Collectors (such as alcalde mayores or military commanders) went to towns and pueblos in the New World and collected one peso per Indian over 18 years old and other castes, and two pesos from each Spaniard. Donativos were collected from soldiers and citizens throughout Cuba and Spain's hard-pressed North American colonies, including the provinces of California, New Mexico, and Texas. (Robert H. Thonhoff, The Vital Contributions of Spain in the Winning of the American Revolution: An Essay on a Forgotten Chapter in the History of the American Revolution, 2000, (2), self published, 617 N. Esplanade St., Karnes City, TX, 78118-2522, (830) 780-3582 (

Written by Virginia Sanchez.



Angela Chac
n Salinas Fernandez
 traced ancestry to founding of U.S., Texas

July 21, 1929 - - July 20, 2009
By Edmund Tijerina - Express-News, 7/23/09 



When Angela Chacón Salinas Fernandez was inducted into the Daughters of the American Revolution, it was an acknowledgement of the little-known Hispanic contribution to American independence.

Fernandez, who also traced her ancestry to the early days of San Antonio and the Texas Revolution, died Monday of pancreatic cancer. She was 79.

The story of the Hispanic contribution to the American Revolution came through Bernardo de Gálvez, a Spanish governor who secured the port of New Orleans, led the Spanish forces that defeated the British in battles in Louisiana, and led campaigns that helped Spain win the British colonies of western Florida and the Bahamas.

A direct connection between San Antonio and the American Revolution came when Gálvez arranged for cattle from the missions of Bexar and La Bahía to travel to the Spanish troops. Today, Galveston bears the name of the hero who became a viceroy of New Spain.

Among those who worked on the cattle drive was Francisco Manuel Salinas, a Spanish military officer who rounded up cattle, horses and mules that were given to Gálvez. Salinas was the great-great-grandfather of Angela Salinas Fernandez.

She began researching her family history in 1951. Her father suggested she go to the library and check out “With the Makers of San Antonio,” a book of genealogy about the city's founding families.

In the 1970s, when her children were older, she delved further into her family history, going to archives at the Bexar County Courthouse and in Austin.

A decade later, the Daughters of the American Revolution accepted her lineage and invited her to become a member.

Her ancestors also included José de Urrutia, a Spaniard and leading expert on American Indians who was a captain at the San Antonio de Béxar Presidio in the 1730s, and Pablo Salinas, who served at the 1835 Siege of Bexar, the first major campaign in the Texas Revolution.

In addition to the DAR, Fernandez was a member of the Canary Island Descendants Association and the order of the Granaderos y Damas de Gálvez, which aims to spread the word about Spain's role in the American Revolution and celebrate the roles played by members' families.

“She was just proud of all the heritage that she found,” said her daughter, Cindy Flores, “that her family had gone back so far.”

Survived by: Angela was born and died in San Antonio.  Her husband, Tito M. Fernandez of San Antonio; a daughter, Cynthia Flores of San Antonio; four sons, Tito Fernandez III of San Antonio, Arnold Fernandez of Fort Worth, Roland Fernandez and Carlos Fernandez, both of San Antonio; a sister, Carmen Maldonado of San Antonio; 14 grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren.  Preceded by: Three brothers, William and twin brothers Richard and Joseph; and two sisters, Louise and Mary.

Sent by Crispin Rendon
Jack Cowan
Gilbert Patino

Requirements of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution
The National Society of DAR is the final arbiter of the acceptability of all applications for membership. Membership in DAR is open to women at least eighteen years of age who can prove lineal bloodline descent from an ancestor who aided in achieving United States independence. Acceptable ancestors include various related categories of known historical figures, including:
  • Signers of the United States Declaration of Independence;
  • Military veterans of the American Revolutionary War, including State navies and militias, local militias, privateers, and French or Spanish French Revolution and sailors who fought in the American theater of war;
  • Civil servants of provisional or State governments;
  • Members of the Continental Congress and State conventions and assemblies;
  • Signers of Oaths of Allegiance or Oaths of Fidelity and Support;
  • Participants in the Boston Tea Party;
  • Prisoners of war, refugees, and defenders of forts and frontiers; doctors and nurses who aided Revolutionary casualties; and ministers, petitioners;
  • And others who gave material or patriotic support to the Revolutionary cause.
Source: Wikipedia


Addendum I. Patriots of the Philippines in Spain's 1779-1783 War with England
      During the American Revolution by Granville Hough, Ph.D. 

Spain was extremely sensitive about Manila and the Philippine Islands because Manila was the anchorage of the treasure galleons moving the benefits of Spain’s Far Eastern trade to Acapulco, thence to Veracruz, thence to Havana, and on to Spain. During the Seven Years War ending in 1763, England had captured both Manila and Havana, the two ports which
were keys to Spain’s overseas wealth. Spain could not allow these cities to be lost again. When it became clear there was to be another war with England, Spain began reinforcing Manila and the Philippines with soldiers, money for fortifications, and people and resources for shipbuilding at Manila.

The resources for the San Blas Naval Department, which had been built to support California, were shifted to the support of Manila, and California was limited to land support for almost two years. The first ship to leave San Blas for Manila in 1779 was the packetboat San Carlos soon followed by the second ship, the packetboat Príncipe. Another which moved was the frigate Princesa in 1780, but it returned in 1781 Within two years, new ships which had been built in Manila began to come back to San Blas as replacements, including the Aránzazu in 1780 and the San Carlos ( El Filipino). Names of some officers known to have been available to make the trips to Manila are known and are shown below.
Only a few individual sailors are named; however, some of the probable mariners are known based on their prior or subsequent service on these ships. These are included in the compilation below. Names of those who manned the Manila Naval Department have not been recovered.

In 1780, a picket of 100 soldiers was sent from Mexico to help defend the City of Manila. Others were sent from veteran Corona, Asturias, and Granada regiments in Mexico plus two companies of the Regt of Dragoons of Spain and Mexico for a total of 400. At the beginning of the war we know there was one Regiment of Infantry del Rey garrisoned in Manila, with two battalions, each with eight companies of Fusiliers and one company of Grenadiers; one Company de Malabares at Cavite; and one unit of Cavalry, the Esquadrón de Dragones de Luzón, with three companies; and two companies of artillery. There were about 2000 effective soldiers in the Philippines at the beginning of the war. There were also militia units of varying degrees of effectiveness. These units were reinforced with men from the Philippines. We have not found lists of these and other soldiers for the war period, but we do have some of the key persons in the units in the Philippines after the war. There seems to have been seven units assigned for the period 1788-1801, but given different titles for different years; 
(1) Regimiento de Infanteria del Rey; 
(2) Real Cuerpo del Artilleria/Plaza de Manila/Regimiento Fijo de la Plaza del Manila; (3) Battalón del Real Príncipe/Battalón de Milicias del Real Príncipe/Regt Milicias del Real Príncipe; 
(4) Escuadron de Dragones del Luzón; 
(5) Compañia de Malavares/Compañia Veterana de Infanteria del Malavares; 
(6) Plaza de Cavite; and 
(7) the Fuerza de Santiago/Real Fuerza de Santiago. 

The key persons from these units who show service during the war are shown below with an asterisk. Those without an asterisk may also have served in wartime, but we did not see
suitable records. Also, wartime service was not necessarily in the Philippines. (Legajo 7268, LDS film 1156332).

*Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de Leon ( - 8 Aug 1806, Philippines). Fernandez:114, Knight of the Order of Alcántara, military officer, and gentleman of the bedchamber, served as Governor of the Philippines from 1 Sep 1793 until 7 Aug 1806. He probably had wartime service.
*Juan de Aguirre (1729 - ). Entered service 1741, Captain, Comp Vet Inf, Malabares, 1796 and 1801, Legajo 7268:III:38.
*Marcos Aguirre. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
Ignacio María de Alava. DT:188, Chief of naval Squadron in Philippines in 1796.
*Pedro Alayosalgas. DT:177, SubLt, 2d Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, at Binondo, 1779.
Duque de la Alcudia. DT:189, involved in the 1796 defense of the Philippines.
*Francisco Alegria (1755 Mifanoas, Provincia de Alaba - ), single in 1788, entered service 1775, was Lt by 1776. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:68.
*Irazaque Alonzo. DT:177, SubLt, 1779, 2d Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, at Santa Cruz.
*Francisco Alvarez Castro. Pilot for the Aránzazu on its voyage from Manila to San Blas, 1781.
*Jacinto Álvarez. DT:177, Capt, 3rd Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, at Binondo, 1779.
*Vicente Alvarez. DT:177, Lt, 2d Comp, 1779 at Santa Cruz, Capt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:27,v.
*Domingo Amador. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Miguel del Amo (1842 Burgo de Osma, Castilla la Vieja - ), single in 1788, entered service in 1762, Adjutant in 1779 and 1788. Adjutant and Capt Grad, Escuadrón de Dragones de Luzón, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:638.
*Mariano Anejas. 1st Cpl 3rd Comp, 1779, Sgt, 1st Grenadier Comp, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:34.
*Pascual de los Angeles. Soldier, 2d Comp, 1779, Sgt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:330.
Pedro Anguia. DT:179, SubLt, Urban Militia of Manila, 1773.
*Joaquin Angulo (1755 Manila - ), married by 1788, entered service 1771, Lt in 1782, Lt of Grenadiers in 1796. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:76.
*Felipe Antonio. DT:177, Lt, 8th Comp, 1779, Capt, 1800, Bn del Real Príncipe, Legajo 7268:III:28.
*Miguel Antonio. DT:177, Lt of Grenadiers, 1779, Capt, 1800, Bn del Real Príncipe, Legajo 7268:III:28.
*Martin de Aranda (1745 Viscaya, Spain - ), entered service 1759, Capt in 1782, single. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:IV:204.
*Manuel Arce/Arze (1762 Peru - ), SubLt in 1780, married by 1788. Adjutant Major, Capt Grad, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:78.
*José de Arcega/Arzega (1732/33 Pueblo Malinao, Province of Albay, Nueva Caseres, Filipinas - ), Capt and Adjutant Major in 1776, Capt, Vets of Malavares, 1795, Sgt Major Plaza Cavite, 1798, Legajo 7268:IV:342.
*Francisco Antonio Arias. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 either on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Joseph Arias (1748 Valladolid, New Spain - ). Sgt in 1779, SubLt in 1788, single, Inf del Rey. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1794, Legajo 7268:VIII:743.
*José Arlegui y Leoz (1741/42 Puello in Navarra - ), entered service 1761, Comandante, Proprietario, 1780, married and a Lt Col Grad and Comandante, Dragones de Luzón, 1788, widowed in 1800. Col, Grad, Escuadrón Dragones de Luzón, 1800, Legajo 7268:II:25.
*Francisco Arnedo y Antillán (1755 Villa Arneda, Rioja - ), entered service 1770, SubLt in 1782, Dragones Pavia, married. Capt, Escuadrón de Dragones de Luzón, 1800, Legajo 7268:II:9.
*José Arriola (1751 Manila - ), entered service 1760, Lt in 1780 and married by 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey in 1796 and Inf del Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:73.
*Manuel de Arze (1762 Lima, Peru - ). Entered service 1780, Adjutant Major, Inf del Rey 1796, prior service included Reyno de Nueva España.
*José de Arzega (1732 - ). Entered service 1749, Capt, Vets of Malabares, 1795, Legajo ??????
*Juan Manuel de Ayala. Thurman:243, ship commander who took the San Carlos to Manila 10 Oct 1779 and returned with the Aránzazu, 1780.

*Ignacio Vicente Barrera. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*José de Basco y Vargas (born in Granada – after Nov 1787). Cardenas:123, wartime Governor in the Philippines. Fernandez:113, Naval officer, Governor from Jul 1778 until Nov 1787, appointed rear-admiral, Governor of Cartgena, and Count of the Conquest of the Batanes Islands.
*Antonio Bausa/Gausa. Serra: San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on either the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Félix Bayot (1765 Ceuta - ), SubLt by 1778 and single in 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:548.
*Francisco Bayot (1758 Barcelona - ), Lt in 1779, married by 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:69.
*José Bayot (1768 Mexico City - ), Cadet in Apr 1783, single and SubLt in 1788. SubLt of Grenadiers, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:92.
*Juan Bayot (1727 Aragon - ), entered service in 1744, Col, Grad in 1781, marriage status may be widower in 1788. Col and Brigadier, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:61.
*Juan Antonio Bayot (1763 Barcelona - ), SubLt in 1778, single and Lt in 1778. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:79.
*Guillermo Beltran. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on either the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Josef Francisco Beltran. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on either the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Félix Berenguer de Marquina. Fernandez:114, Naval officer who must have had wartime service, served as Governor, 1788-1793.
*José Bernard (1748 - ). Began service in 1769, SubLt, Real Cuerpo de Arty, Plaza de Manila, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:661.
*Visente Blanco (1748 Ciudad de Leon - ). Lt in 1779 and married Lt by 1788, Inf del Rey. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:71.-
*Juan Francisco Bolanos. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on either the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Basilio Brito. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Mariano Francisco Buenaventura. Serra:San Carlos mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on either the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Juan Antonio Bueno. Serra:San Carlos, married mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on either the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Lorenzo Burgos (1748 Veracruz - ), Capt in 1780 and single in 1788, Inf del Rey. Sgt Major, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:63.
*José Bustamente (1735 Mexico, New Spain - ), SubLt in 1779 and married by 1788, Escuadrón Dragones de Luzón. Lt, Grad, Dragones de Luzón, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:II:12.

*José Camacho. In 1779, pilot for the Princesa. It is possible he also made trips to the Philippines.
Conde de Campo-Alange. DT:191, involved in the 1795 defense of the Philippines.
*Fernando Campuzano. Serra: San Carlos, in Jul 1783 master carpenter for the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Antonio Candulla. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on either the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Manuel Cano (1756 Mexico, New Spain - ), Sgt, Oct 1783, and single Sgt, 1788, Dragones de Luzón. Sgt, 1791, Dragones de Luzón, Legajo 7268:X:1071.
*Salvador Canseco. 2d Sgt, 2d Comp, 1779, Sgt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:33.
*Alexandro Carballo (1735 Manila - ), entered service 1757, Capt in 1776, married Capt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:64.
*José Carballo (1768 Manila - ), entered service 1782/83, Cadet in 1782, single SubLt in 1788, Inf del Rey. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:69.
*Cosmo Cárdena. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*José Anastacio Cárdenas. Serra: San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Felipino).
*Clemente Carlos. DT:177, Capt, 5th Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779, *Juan Casamara (1750 Puerto Real de Andalucia - ), Adjutant in 1779, married Capt in 1788, Inf del Rey. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1799, Legajo 7268:V:384.
*Ambrosio Casas. DT:177, Capt, 8th Comp, 1779, Capt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:270.
*Joachín del Castillo (1748 Extremadura - ), entered service 1762, Lt in 1782, single Adjutant in 1788, Inf del Rey. Adjutant Major, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:77.
*Gaspar Castro. DT:177, SubLt, 5th Comp, Regt de Real Príncipe, 1779. 
*Raimundo de Castro (1758 Isla Ibisa, Mayorca - ), entered service 1767,
1st Sgt in 1780, married SubLt in 1788, Inf del Rey. Lt, Inf del Rey,1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:II:85.
*Juan Cencelli. DT:157, Col of Regimiento del Rey in 1779.
*Phelipe/Felipe Cerain (1743 Maesta, Provincia de Alaba - ), Lt Col, Grad, 1782, and married Capt of Grenadiers, Inf del Rey, 1788, Legajo 7268:XI:1089.
*Ygnacio Cerezo/Serezo (1766 Mexico, New Spain - ), soldier in 1780, married 1st Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1788, Legajo7268:XI:1156.
*Miguel Choneayava/Choncamava. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on either the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Diego Choquet de Islas. Cutter:116, Thurman:243, ship commander who took the Príncipe to Manila on 18 Dec 1779, carrying 150,000 pesos in hard cash to support the Philippines.
*Bernardino Chrisanto. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Miguel Ciriaco. Soldier, 4th Comp, 1779, SubLt, Bn de Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:32.
*Gregorio Clavero. DT:166, began service as an engineer in 1774, and served later in the Philippines.
*Luis de la Concha (1758 Puerto Real, Andalucia - ), Lt of Frigate in 1782 in the Navy. Governor, Castellano de la Plaza de Cavite, 1794-1799, Legajo 7268:IV:341. Manuel Conde. DT:179, SubLt, Milicias Urbanos de Manila, 1773.
*Gaspar Cordero. DT:177, Capt of Grenadiers, Regt Real del Príncipe, at ondo, in 1779.
*José Cordero (1755 - ). Entered service 1776, 1st Cpl, 1780, Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:115.
*Carlos Cornely (1753 Croswell, Ireland - ), Capt in 1780, single Capt in 1788, Dragones de Luzón. This may be Carlos Connely, Capt, Grad Col, ragones de España, 1800, Legajo 7272:III:4.
*Alonso Corrales (1758 Villa de la Fuente del Sahuco, Castilla la Vieja - ). Entered service in 1769, SubLt in 1780, when he came to the Philippines in a picket of 100 men from Mexico, married SubLt Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:83.
Carlos Conveli. Capt, Escuadrón de Dragones de Luzon, 1793. Leg 7268:IX:952.
*Agustín de la Cruz. DT:177, SubLt, 7th Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, at Tambobo, 1779.
*Antonio de la Cruz. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino). There had been a Juan Antonio de la Cruz in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Ignacio de la Cruz. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on either the Princesa or the Favorita.
*José de la Cruz. Caulker for the Aránzazu for its voyage from Manila to San Blas, 1780-81.
*Juan Bernardo de la Cruz. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Pascuál de la Cruz. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on either the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Pedro de Cruz. 1st Cpl, 6th Comp, 1779, Sgt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:33.
*Ventura de la Cruz (1753 Puerto Cavite, Philippines - ), soldier and Cpl in 1772, married Sgt, 1st Cl, Inf del Rey 1788. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1793, Legajo 7268:IX:898.
*Vizente de la Cruz. SubLt of Banderas in 1779, Lt in 1800, Bn del Real Príncipe, Legajo 7268:III:29.
*Pedro Czaxmote. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in July 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).

Francisco David. DT:179, Capt, 3rd Comp, Urban Militia of Manila, 1773.
*José David (1738 Manila - ), Capt in 1776, married Capt, Inf del Rey, 1788, Legajo 7268:XI:1093.
*Joaquín Delitala (1747 Almunia, Aragon - ), volunteer at Gibraltar with 3r Comp, Tapadores, 1782-83, single Lt, Dragones, Luzón, 1788, Legajo 7268:II:1199.
*Jaime Denis (1738 Elne, Rosillon - ), entered service 1766, Adjutant Major in 1781, Arty of Manila, in 1795 and 1796 Capt of Arty, single, Legajo 7268:VI:656.
*Juan Diego. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Serafin de Diós. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
Manuel Dongo. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1794, Philippines? Leg 7268:VIII:778.
Juan Double. Cadet, Cuerpo Vet Inf de la Isla de Trinidad, 1795. Leg 7295:XIV:25.
*Andrés Duarte. Cadet, 1782, Bn del Real Príncipe, SubLt, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:32.
*Juan Duran (1748 Alora de Andalucia - ), Capt in 1771, married Capt, Inf del Rey, 1788, Legajo 7268:XI:1091.
*Juan Agustín Echevarria. Pilot for the Principe for its 1779 voyage to Manila.
Phelipe Escalante. DT:179, Capt, 1st Comp, Urban Militia of Manila, 1773.
Miguel Escalante. DT:179, Lt, 1st Comp, Urban Militia of Manila, 1773.
*José Escamilla (1742 San Pedro Tecualtichi, New Spain - ), soldier and Cpl in 1780, married Sgt 1st Cl Inf del Rey, 1788. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1797, 1st Sgt, Plaza Manila, 1799, Legajo 7268:IV:340.
*Raimundo Español (1741 Venazque en Aragon - ), entered service 1762, Capt of Grenadiers in 1782, married Sgt Major, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt Col, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:62.
*Cristóbal Espinola. Co-pilot for the Príncipe for its 1779 voyage to Manila.
*Vicente Estacio (1751 Manila - ), entered service in 1771, Lt in 1779, married Lt of Grenadiers, Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:70.
*Pedro Estanisalo. Soldier, 4th Comp, 1779, Sgt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:34.
*José Tomás Estrada/Estrella. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in July/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita. This may be Thomas de Estrada, Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Mason Faubus. DT:177, SubLt, Grenadiers, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779, at Tondo.
*Marcos Faustino. SubLt, Grenadiers, 1779, Capt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:29.
*Francisco Feliciano. DT:177, Capt, 4th Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1773.
Mariano Fernandez de Folgueras (born in Galicia - assassinated in 1823 during an insurrection, Philippines). Fernandez:114, King’s deputy who took over as interim governor from the dying Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce on 7 Aug 1806 and served until 4 Mar 1810. He possibly had wartime service. He became interim governor a second time 10 Dec 1816 and served until 30 Oct 1822.
*Ramon Fernandez (1737 Borja, Aragon - ), entered service 1759, Lt in 1779, Married Lt, Dragones de Luzón, 1788, Capt Grad, 1796. Capt, Escuadrón de Dragones de Luzón, 1799, Legajo 7268:V:484.
*Estaquio Fernando. 2d Sgt, 5th Comp, 1779, Bn del Real Príncipe, Sgt, 800, Legajo 7268:III:33.
*Teodoro Fiamo. DT:177, Capt, 7th Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, at Tambobo, 1779.
Eusebio Flores. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Leg 7268:XI:1157.
*José Francisco Flóres. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Martín Flóres. (1753 Murcia - ), entered service 1764, SubLt in 1780 when he came in a picket of 100 men to defend the City of Manila, single Lt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, 1796 and 1799, Inf del Rey, Legajo 7268:V:399.
*Ignacio Francisco. Serra: San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Juan Francisco Fuentes. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Rafael de Francisco. DT:177, Adjutant Mayor, Plana Mayor, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779.
*Juan Gallardo. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Antonio Galvan (1742 Alburquerque - ), Lt in 1774, Naval Artillery, Capt of Arty, Manila Arty, 1795, married. Capt, Real Cuerpo Arty, Plaza de Manila, 1796, Legajo 7268:VII:679.
*Juan Garcia. Surgeon in 1779 on the Princesa.
*Fray Juan Antonio Garcia Riobó. Chaplain in 1779 on the Princesa.
*Juan José García. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Antonio Garduño (1741 Malacatepec - ), 2d Sgt in 1774, married 1st Sgtin 1788, Inf del Rey. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1791, Legajo 7268:X:1024.
*Francisco Gómez. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Josef Gómez. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos
(El Filipino).
*José González. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*José/Juan González. Cardenas:122, moved in 1779-81 to the Philippines and returned in 1782 in the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Joseph González (1733/355 Villagruse en Asturias - ), Capt in 1763, married, Capt of Grenadiers, Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796, Capt of Grenadiers, Plaza Manila, 1799, Legajo 7268:IV:338.
*Joseph Eusebio González. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Juan Matías González. Surgeon from San Blas to Alta CA in 1782 on the Princesa.
*Manuel Gonzales (??? Pantoña en las Montañas de Burgos - ), Sgt in 1780, married SubLt, Escuadron Dragones de Luzón, 1788, Legajo 7268:XI:1190.
*Felipe Guevara (1752 Manila - ), entered service 1770, Lt in 1781, married Lt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:75.
*Ignacio Guevara (1759 Mexico - ), entered service in 1780. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1794, married, Legajo 7268:VIII:788.
*Philipe de Guevara. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Alejandro Gusta (1737 Barcelona, Chathaluña - ), entered service 1765, Lt in 1769, single Lt, Dragones de Luzón, 1788. Capt, Escuadrón de Dragones de Luzón, 1800, Legajo 7268:II:10.
*Simon Guzman. DT:177, Lt, 1st Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779, at Binondo.

*Santiago Hac. Capt, Comp Vet Inf de Malabares, 1791, Legajo 7268:X:1081.
*Antonio Hermenegildo. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Manuel Hermosilla (1768 Galicia - ), Distinguished Soldier, 1778, Andalucia Regt, single SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:90.
*Narciso Herraes (1735 Ceuta, Castilla la Nueva - ), SubLt in 1780, single Lt, Inf del Rey, 1788, Legajo 7268:XI:1115.
*Bruno de Hezeta. Cardenas: many references, ship commander who took the Princesa to the Philippines in 1780.
*Remigio Ibañes (1744 pueblo Hermita - ), mestizo/Spanish, entered service 1768, 2d Sgt in 1776, Manila Arty, SubLt, 1st Comp, Manila Arty, 1795, single, Lt, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:659.
Juan Infante. DT:179, SubLt, 1st Comp, Urban Militia of Manila, 1779.
*Juan Francisco de Inote. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*José Isac. Cadet, 1779, Bn del Real Príncipe, Lt, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:29v.
*Clemente de Jesus. DT:177, Lt, 4th Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779, at Santa Cruz.
*Toribio de Jesus. DT:177, Capt, 2d Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779, at Santa Cruz.
*Andrés Ximénez/Jiménez (1733 Alcala, los Gazules - ), Adjutant in 1779, Adjutant, grad Lt, King’s Fort at Santiago, 1799, single, Legajo 7268:IV:336.
*Francisco Jiménez/Ximénez (1731 Alcala Gazules - ), Lt in 1775, Arty Minadores. Capt, Real Cuerpo de Arty de la Plaza de Manila, 1796, single, Legajo 7268:VI:657.
*José Jordan (1755 Queretaro, New Spain - ), entered service 1775, soldier and Cpl in 1777 with Dragones de España in New Spain, single Sgt, Dragones, Luzón, 1788. Sgt, Esquadrón de Dragones de Luzón, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:II:18.
*Salvador José. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Francisco Julian. SubLt, 4th Comp, 1779, at Santa Cruz, Capt, Milicias del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:28.
*Pedro Julián. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Antonio Jurado (1752 Manila - ), entered service in 1770, 2d Sgt in 1780 in Manila Arty. Lt, Real Cuerpo Arty, Plaza de Manila. 1796, married, Legajo 7268:VI:658.
*José Jurado y Padilla (1749 - ), entered service Aug 1783, 1st Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1799, Legajo 7268:V:436.

*Martin Lagasca (1758 Manila - ), entered service 1774, 2d Sgt in 1781, married 1st Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1788, 1796, 1800, Inf del Rey, Legajo 7268:III:114.
*José Larios (1761 la Puebla, New Spain - ), entered service 1778, 2d Sgt, 1780, married 1st Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1791, SubLt, 1796, Legajo 7268:X:1026.
*José Lastarria (1770 Manila - ), Cadet in August, 1783 in Dragones de Luzón, single SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1788. SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:565.
*Antonio Ledesme. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Manuel de Legazpi. Soldier, Cazadores/Rangers, 1779, SubLt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:31.
*Mariano de Legazpi. 2d Sgt, 5th Comp, 1779, Lt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:29.
*Joaquin Lima (1761 - ), entered service 1778, 1st sgt, Inf del Rey, 1796, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:32.
*Jaime Linart (1748 Calvia - ), entered service 1770, 2d Sgt, 1772, single SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:87.
*Joseph Lisola (1760 Guadalaxara, New Spain - ), soldier and Cpl 1779, Inf del Corona, New Spain, single 1st Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1788. SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:107.
*José Longoria (1755 San Luís Potosí, New Spain - ), entered service in 1768, SubLt in 1780 when he came in a picket of 100 men to defend the City of Manila, single SubLt of Grenadiers, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:82.
Gregorio Lopez (1764 Manila - ), service began in Oct 1783 as a soldier in Inf del Rey, Asia, before news of war ending reached Manila. 1st Sgt, Comp Vet de Inf, Malavares, 1796 and 1801, Legajo 7268:III:41.
*Joaquín Lopez. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*José López Perea/Perca (1753 Manila - ), entered service 1771, Sgt in 1782, married with Filipina. Sgt in Dragones de Luzón, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1794, Legajo 7268:VIII:741 as José López.
*Juan Lopez. Carpenter for the Aránzazu for its voyage from Manila to San Blas, 1781.
*Juan Lopez de Narváez. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
Bernardino de Losa. DT:186, Engineer Captain, 1790 decade, wartime service not recovered.
Juan Lozada. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:IV:263.
*Luis de Luna (1743 Mexico City - ), Lt in 1781, married Lt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1791, Legajo 7268:X:976.

*Domingo Macaro. 2d Sgt of Grenadiers, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1779, Lt, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:30.
*Juan Antonio Machuca. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Vizente Matheos. Cadet, 1782 Bn del Real Príncipe, Lt, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:30.
José Mariano. Sgt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1798, Legajo 7268:V:517.
(Because of missing folios, we were unable to determine his initial date of service.)

Juan Martija. DT:179, Lt, 3rd Comp, Urban Militia of Manila, 1773.
*Estevan José Martínez. Serra:San Carlos, in 1782 commanded the Princesa from San Blas to Alta CA and in Jul 1783 the San Carlos (El Filipino) from San Blas to Monterey and San Francisco.
*Manuel Martinez (1749 Mexico City - ), 2d Sgt in 1780, married 1st Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1788, Legajo 7268:XI:1151.
*Pedro Masdeu (1735 Melilla - ), Capt, grad Lt Col, Manila Arty, 1781. Col, Real Cuerpo Arty, Plaza de Manila, 1795, married, Legajo 7268:VII:678.
*Félix Mantanza. 2d Cpl, 1st Comp, 1779, Sgt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:33.
Luis Mateo. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1794, Legajo 7268:VIII:782.
*Ramón Melendez (1748 Ceuta - ), Cadet in 1779, single SubLt in 1788 in
Inf del Rey. SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1791, Legajo 7268:X:1000.
Felipe Memlje. Cadet, Escuadrón de Dragones de Luzón, 1800. Leg 7268:II:23.
*Manuel Mendoza (1756 Manila - ), entered service in 1773, Sgt in 1778,
married SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo
*Antonio Mercado (1754 Montefrio, Granada - ), entered service 1763,
SubLt in 1782, married SubLt, 1788, Lt, Inf del Rey, 1796, Legajo
*Joseph Meu. Serra:San Carlos, pilot in Jul/Aug 1782 for the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Nicolás Mijares (1760 Manila - ), entered service 1778, SubLt in 1780, Dragones de Luzón, single SubLt in 1788 and 1796. SubLt and grad Lt, Dragones de Luzón, 1800, married, Legajo 7268:II:13.
*Ramón Mijares (1752 - ). Entered service 1771, Lt of Grenadiers, 1779, Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:67.
*Fernando de Mir (1751 Granolles, Chataluña - ), Distinguished Soldier and Cpl in 1769 in Infantry in Africa, single Portaguion, Dragones de Luzón, 1788. SubLt, Escuadrón de Dragones de Luzón, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:II:14.
*Francisco de Mir (1746 Granolles, Cathaluña - ), entered service 1765, Lt in 1772, married Lt, Dragones de Luzón, 1788. Capt, grad, Escuadrón de Dragones de Luzón, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:II:11.
*Juan de Mir (1732 Micante, Valencia - ), Capt in 1769, married Capt, Dragones de Luzón, 1788. Lt Col, grad, Escuadrón Dragones de Luzón, 1795, Legajo 7268:VII:689.
*Antonio Mora (1754 Xeres de la Frontera - ), soldier and Cpl in 1781, married 1st Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1788, Legajo 7268:XI:1162.
*José Morales (1757 Mexico, New Spain - ), soldier and Cpl, 1780, single Sgt, 1788, Dragones de Luzón. Sgt, Escuadrón Dragones de Luzón, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:II:19.
*Juan Morando. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Alonzo Moreño. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 for the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Diego Moreño (1750 Puerto Real, Andalucia - ), entered service 1772, Lt in 1779, single Lt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:74.
*Blas Morillo (1753 Cartagena - ), entered service 1769, SubLt in 1780, married Lt Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:81.
*Diego Mosteirin (1732 - ), entered service 1754, Col and Commandant, Arty Filipinas, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:655.
*Francisco Mourelle de la Rua. Cárdenas:112, Thurman:245, naval Ensign who commanded the Princesa on its 15 March 1780 voyage to the Philippines, and he commanded it on the return trip to San Blas in 1781.
*José Manuel Munguía. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Francisco Muñoz y San Clemente (1755 Pamplona, Navarra - ), Naval Lt, 1779, Capt of Frigate, 1782, Caballero de la Orden de Calatrava. Lt del Rey, Cabo Subalterno, de las Islas Filipinas, 1799, married, Legajo 7268:IV:337.

*Fulgencio Naguiat (1746 Manila - ), 1st Sgt, 1788, married 1st Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1794, Legajo 7268:VIII:773.
*Jacinto Navarro. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Loreano Noriega (1766 Manila - ), Arty Cadet in 1779, single SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:88.
*Damian Novales (1761 Castilla la Vieja - ), entered service 1780, Lt in 1780, single Lt in Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:72.
*Tomás Núñez Danfi y Parrila (1760 Cadiz, Andalucia - ), Cadet, 1778, Inf Savoya and later served at Gibraltar, 1st Adjutant, Plaza Manila, 1799, married, Legajo 7268:IV:339
*Juan Francisco de Ochea. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
Fernando de Otal. DT:179, SubLt, 2d Comp, Urban Militia of Manila, 1773.
*Manuel Ortega (1756, Puebla of Los Angeles, New Spain (now Mexico) - ), soldier in 1778, Dragoons of New Spain, Sgt, Dragoons of Luzón, 1800, married, Legajo 7268:II:20.
*Gregorio Ortiz (1755 Cagayan, Philippines - ), entered service 1773, 2d Sgt, 1781, married 1st Sgt, 1788, Inf del Rey. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:587.
*Martín Ortiz (1747 Nueva Segovia, Philippines - ), entered service 1772, 1st Sgt in 1781, married 1st Sgt of Grenadiers, Inf del Rey, 1788.
Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:113.
*Juan Pantoja y Arriaga. Serra:San Carlos, second pilot in 1779 for the Princesa and pilot in Jul 1783 for the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Andrés Isidro Parada. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Gregorio Pardo (1756 - ), entered service 1772, Lt, Real Cuerpo Arty Plaza de Manila, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:660.
*José Pardo (1754 Mexico City - ), soldier in 1782, Cpl in 1783, single 1st Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1788. SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:97.
*Juan Francisco Pastor (1769 Madrid - ), Cadet in 1777, Dragones del Rey, single Cadet, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:86.
*Francisco Patiño (1741 Galicia - ), Lt in 1776, Lt Col, grad and Governor of the King’s Fort at Santiago, 21 Aug 1799, single, Legajo 7268:IV:335.
José Patricio. Sgt, Bn del Real Principe, 1800. Leg 7268:III:34.

*Manuel de la Peña. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1794, Legajo 7268:VIII:723.
*Gregorio Perea. 2d Sgt, 3rd Comp, 1779, Lt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:30,v.
*Diego Peña/Pons. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*??Vision de la Pons. DT:177, Oiso, Regt Mil del Real Príncipe, 1779.
*Luís Antonio de la Peña. Serra: San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Sebastián Perez (1736 Cadiz, Andalucia - ), 2d Adjutant in 1780, single, Ayudante Mayor de la Plaza de Cavite, 1798, Legajo 7268:IV:343.
*Nicolás Pimpin/Pinpin (1751 - ), entered service 1770, 1st Sgt, 1778, SubLt de Banderas, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:110.
*Andrés del Pino (1738 Manila - ), entered service 1763, 1st Sgt in 1772, married 1st Sgt Inf del Rey, 1788. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:585.
*Joseph Pinto (1752 Mexico, New Spain - ), entered service 1761, SubLt in 1780, single Lt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:80.
*Joseph Pizon. DT:177, Lt, 6th Comp, Regt Mil del Real Príncipe, 1779.
*Thomas Poliquet (1738 Burgos - ), entered service 1754, Lt in 1771, single Capt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1799, Legajo 7268:V:385.
*Alexandro Pusta (1737 Barcelona, Cataluña - ), Lt in 1769, Dragoons of Spain, Capt, Dragoons of Luzón, 1800, Legajo 7268.
*José Ricardo Quintero. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Fernando Quirós y Miranda. Cutter:116, second officer in 1779 on the Princesa.

*Josef Rafael. DT:177, Capt, 6th Comp, Regt Mil del Real Príncipe, 1779, at Tambobio.
*Agustín Ramirez (1748 Manila - ), entered service 1764, Capt, 1782, married Capt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt of Grenadiers, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:66.
*José Ramírez. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Juan Bernardo Ramírez. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
José Ramirez Portocarrero. SubLt de Banderas, Inf del Rey, Philippines, 1800, Leg 7268:III:112.
*José Ramos. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Pedro Ramos. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Gregorio de los Reyes. DT:177, Colonel, 1779, and 1800, Bn del Real Príncipe, Legajo 7268:III:27.
*Mariano? de los Reyes. DT:177, Lt, Grenadiers, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779, at Pimenco.
*Vicente Rios (1738 Manila - ), Capt in 1777, married Capt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1799, Legajo 7268:V:379.
*José de Rivera (1756 - ). Entered service 1774, but he received 10 years credit for apprehending 5 deserters in 1773. SubLt, Real Cuerpo Arty de la Plaza de Manila, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:662.
*Lorenzo Rivera (1743 Manila - ), entered service 1763, Capt in 1777, married Capt in Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:65.
*José Rodríguez (1744 Mexico, New Spain - ), soldier and Cpl, 1767, Dragones of España in New Spain, Sgt, Dragones de Luzón, 1788, Legajo 7268:XI:1194.
*Miguel de los Roman. DT:177, SubLt, Cazatores, Regt Militia del Real Príncipe, 1779.
*Félix de la Rosa. DT:177, SubLt, 1st Comp, 1779, at Pimenco, Capt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:28.
*Isidro Rosalio. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Lucas del Rosario (1745 Manila - ), entered service 1766, 1st Sgt in
1771, SubLt, Comp Vet Inf de Malavares, 1795, married, Legajo 7268:VII:672.
*Román del Rosario. DT:177, Lt, 5th Comp, 1779, Capt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:28.
*Pablo Roy/Roig. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Pedro Roy. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Antonio Rubio y Ambiela/Yambiela (1753 - ). Soldier, 1781, in Zeuta Infantry Garrison, Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1796 and 1800, Legajo 7268:III:131.
*Ramon Ruis (1750 Santiponse - ), entered service 1774, 2d Sgt, 1776, single SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Undated note: “En la expedición de la America meridional desembarco y toma de la isla de Santa Cathalina, sitio, y rendición de la placa de la colonia del Sacramento…” Lt, Inf del Rey, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:559.

*Pedro José de Salazar. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*José Saldana (1763, Mexico, New Spain - ), entered service in 1780. Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:592.
*Fray Matías San Catalina y Noriéga. In 1779, chaplain on the Princesa.
*Rafael San Francisco. Lt, began service in 1779, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:V:514.
*Félix de San Luis. 1st Cpl, 1779, Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:122.
*Juan St Ana. DT:177, SubLt, 8th Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779.
*Domingo de los Santos. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Esteban Santos. 2d Sgt, 3rd Comp, 1779, Sgt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:32,v,o.
*Joaquín de los Santos. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Miguel de los Santos. SubLt, 5th Comp, Bn del Real Príncipe, in 1779, Capt, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:28,v,o.
*José Sanz (1737 Micante, Valencia - ), Capt in 1771, married Capt, Dragones de Luzón, 1788. Capt, Escuadrón Dragones de Luzón, 1791, Legajo 7268:X:1079.
*Tomás Sanz. DT:150, plans for a new port submitted by Sanz in 1779.
*Pedro de Sarrio/Sariano. DT:151, Fernandez:113-114, Spanish official in Manila, appointed interim governor, 30 Oct 1776 – Jul 1778, and appointed a second time in Nov 1787 until 1 Jul 1788.
*Segismundo Sartori (1747 Casamayor, Modena, Italy - ), entered service 1775, Sgt in 1779 in Cuerpo de Marina, married SubLt, Inf del Rey, 1788 and 1796. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:91.
*Ignacio Sayson. Cadet, 1779, SubLt, Bn de Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:30,v,o.
*Domingo de los Seño??? DT:177, Lt, 7th Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779.
*José Gerónimo de Silva. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Luís Silvero de Tapia. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*Domingo Silvestre. Soldier, 7th Comp, 1779, Sgt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:33,v.
*Jabon de los Somos. DT:177, Lt Col, Plana Mayor, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779.
*Ambrosio Soriano. DT:177, Capt, 1st Comp, Regt del Real Príncipe, 1779, at Pimenco.
*Diego Soriano. Cadet in 1779, Lt, Bn de Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:30.
*Fermín Soriano. Cadet in 1779, Lt, Bn del Real Príncipe, Legajo 7268:III:29,v.
Juan Soriano. Lt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1798, Legajo 7268:V:513. (We were unable to determine his initial date of service, but it was probably before 1783.)
*Pedro Soriano. 2d Sgt of Cazadores/Rangers, 1779, Lt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:30,v,o.
*José Suarez (1734 Oviedo, Castilla - ), soldier and Cpl in 1782, Inf del Rey, Asia, SubLt, Comp Vet Inf de Malavares, 1796, single, Legajo 7268:VI:667.

Joseph Tagle. DT:179, Lt, 2d Comp, Urban Militia of Manila, 1773.
Luís Tagle. DT:179, Capt, 2d Comp, Urban Militia of Manila, 1773.
*Vicente Tallado. Serra:San Carlos, mariner from de la Panpangua, Filipinas, confirmed 10 Aug 1779.
*Juan Talavera (1737 Casas de Vez, Murcia - ), SubLt in 1780, single SubLt, Grad Lt, Dragones de Luzón, 1788. (This may be the person who was in 1790, SubLt, Dragones de España, in Mexico.)
*Teodoro Tianco. Capt, 7th Comp, 1779, Capt, Bn del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:27,v.
*Mariano Tobias. Lt Col, Inf del Rey, 1791, Legajo 7268:X:955.
*José Apolinar Torralba (??? Manila - ), soldier and Cpl in 1777, married Sgt, Dragones de Luzón, 1788, Legajo 7268:XI:1195.
*Lorenzo de Torres (1747 Toscana - ), SubLt in 1779, married Lt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Lt, Inf del Rey, 1791, Legajo 7268:X:980.
*Manuel de Torres. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
Miguel del Tosso. Alf, Escuadrón Dragones de Luzón, 1800. Leg 7268:II:15.
Juan Crisóstomo Tovar. Cadet, Mil Discip Blancos de Caracas, 1799. Leg
*Josef Tovar y Tamariz. Serra:San Carlos, pilot, Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
Pedro Trejo. Sgt, Bn Vet de Caracas, 1799. Leg 7295:III:44.
José Triano. Sgt, Bn Mil Discip Blancos de Caracas, 1799. Leg 7295:IV:40.
José Troconiz. Sgt, Cuerpo de Inf Vet de Maracaibo, 1796. Leg 7295:X:41.
Antonio Trujillo. Sgt, Mil Regladas de Inf de Blancos de Maracaibo, 1799. Leg 7295:XI:15.
Diego Trujillo. Sgt, Cuerpo Inf Vet de Maracaibo, 1790. Leg 7294:X:16.
Juan Trujillo. Sgt, Escuadrón Vol Cab de Caracas, 1793. Leg 7294:XXVI:17.
*Antonio Tuason. DT:177, Col Reformado, Plana Mayor, Regt, Milicias del Real Príncipe, 1779.
*Felix Tuason. DT:177, Capt, Cazadores/Rangers, Regt, Milicias de Real Príncipe, 1779, at Binondo.
*Mateo Tuason. DT:177, SubLt, 6th Comp, 1779, at Tambobio, Lt, Milicias Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:29,v,o.
*Vicente Dolores Tuason. Adjutant Mayor, 1779, Lt Col, Regt, Milicias del Real Príncipe, 1800, Legajo 7268:III:27.

Pedro Ularsada?? DT:179, Capt, 4th Comp, Urban Militia of Manila, 1773.
*Antonio de Ulloa. DT:147, involved with defenses of the Philippines in 1776.
*Antonio Vallejo (1760 Puerto Santa María - ), service in Cav. Monteza prior to 1786, Adjutant of Manila Arty, 1795, married. 1st Sgt, 2d Comp, Real Cuerpo Arty, Plaza de Manila, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:663.
*Antonio Valls. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Celedonio Varran. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul/Aug 1782 on the Princesa or the Favorita.
*José Antonio Vasquez. Thurman:245, naval pilot in the Princessa on its 1779-80 voyage to the Philippines and on its return in 1781.
*Josef Velez de Vallé. Serra:San Carlos, mariner in Jul 1783 on the San Carlos (El Filipino).
*Juan Verdier (1759 Cataluña - ), in Cataluña Inf prior to 1787, Adjutant of Arty, Manila Arty, 1795, married. 1st Sgt, 1st Comp, Real Cuerpo Arty, Plaza de Manila, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:664.
*Juan Victorino (1756 - ). Entered service Dec 1779, Sgt, Inf del Rey, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:597.
Effer?m Villestao?? DR:179, Lt, 4th Comp, Urban Militia of Manilla, 1773.
*Manuel Zendejas (1745 Valladolid, New Spain - ), 1st Sgt in 1779, married 1st Sgt of Grenadiers, Inf del Rey, 1788. Sgt de Granaderos, Inf del Rey, 1794, Legajo 7268:VIII:774.
*Filomeno Zendrera (1746 Sevilla - ), entered service 1768, Capt in 1780, married Capt, Inf del Rey, 1788. Capt of Granaderos, Inf del Rey, 1796, Legajo 7268:VI:530.


Cárdenas:page. Enrique Cárdenas de la Peña, San Blas de Nayarit, vols 1 and 2, Mexico, D. F., Secretaria de Marina, 1968.

Cutter:page. Donald C. Cutter, “California Training Ground for Spanish Naval Heroes,” California Historical Society Quarterly, Vol XI#2, (June 1961):109-123.

DT:page. Díaz-Trechuelo, María Lourdes, “Defensa de Filipinas en el Ultimo Cuarto del Siglo XVIII,” Anuario de Estudios Americanos, Tomo XXI, Sevilla, Spain, pp 145-209.

Fernandez:page. Alejandro M. Fernandez, The Spanish Governor-General in the Philippines, University of the Philippines Law Center, Quezon City, 1971. Library call number JQ.1261.F392s.

Legajo:section:page. Catalogo XXII del Archivo de Simancas, entitled Secretaria de Guerra (Siglo XVIII) Hojas de Servicios de America, published in 1958 at Valladolid, Spain, with index in Spanish by Ricardo Magdaleno, lists many who served during Spain’s 1779-1783 War with England and who stayed in service after the war. Those who were later in the Philippines are listed in Legajo 7268. All those shown above with an
asterisk are confirmed to have served during wartime.

Serra:California mission. Fray Junípero Serra was able to perform confirmations, and visitors from San Blas or from the Philippines on missions to Alta CA took advantage of the opportunity. Most confirmations were at Fray Serra’s home church at San Carlos, but some events such as marriages and baptisms took place at San Francisco and Santa Clara and were witnessed by maritime visitors. LDS Microfilm #0944282 with translations by Thomas Workman Temple, II, and Marie Northrop, is thus a source of information on mariners from San Blas in 1779, 1782, and 1783, and indirectly from those who also served in the Philippines.

Thurman:page. Michael E. Thurman, The Naval Department of San Blas: New Spain’s Bastion for Alta California and Nootka, 1767-1798, Glendale, CA,
The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1967.

includes considerable information on Filipinos in America Pre-1898.

Filipinos, 10 Feb 2002, PI Zip.




Wednesday, December 16, 1992      *  EXCELSIOR *

Volviendo a Nuestras Raices




In the United States, Zamora is the 128th most popular surname among modern Hispanic families.  exact origin of the name is unknown, but believed to be based on the Arabic word for music, "zamur".  Descriptive identification was an early source of surnames.  Zamora is the name of a province in northern Spain.

Early records gives Zamora as a place of origin for Alvaro de Zamora, arriving in New Spain from Cuba in 1519.  Alvaro was part of the capture of Tenochititlan and also the entrada into Tututepec.  Evidencing a special talent for language, he soon was supporting himself as one of only three interpreters for the Audiencia.  Ultimately, receiving the encomienda de Mazatlan and several estancias for his services as interpreter.  On February 15th, 1563 Alvaro de Zamora was awarded a coat of arms.

RUDOLFO ZAMORA, of Huntington Beach has traced his line back to a Sargento Major, DIEGO DE ZAMORA, born to Juan de Zamora and Magdelena Maria (last name unknown) in 1676 in the town of San Juan Tianguismanacio, Puebla.  In 1696, Diego married Josefa Francisca Esteban and soon moved north to Parras, Coahuila.  From this marriage, a daughter, Antonia Zamora, is the line from which Mr. Zamora descends.

Antonia Zamora married Mauricio Ortega.  Their son, Santiago Ortega de Zamora, born July 12, 1772 took the Zamora name when he married Maria Dolores Morales in January 22, 1792.  Taking a mother's surname, or even a grandmother's name was not entirely unusual in Mexico.  However, for the family researcher, the search is much more  challenging.  It took Mr. Zamora many dedicated hours to discover that his line was through a grandmother generations back, and not a grandfather.

Juan Zamora and Cecelia Montalva de Zamora are Mr. Zamora's immediate grandparents.  They married in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon where Mr. Zamora's father, Elijio was born in 1899, the first of 13 children.

The family moved to Poteet, Texas, raising strawberries, living a quiet, humble life on a small farm.  Elijio fulfilled his role as the eldest son with humility and love.   he started working at a very early age in the fields to help his family.  Through his life he gave generously, from the little that he had, to his family.  Never leaving projects half-way , Elijio always completed everything he started.  He was a noble self-made man.

Prio to marriage, Elijio worked in the physically demanding job of a furnace stroker in a gold smelter.  He married his bride, Paula Lopez in San Antonio, November 11, 1926.  After marriage he worked in a potato chip factory.  The depression forces him to look for other work.  In 1839-39, he attempted to feed his family as a train porter.  In 1940, Elijio and his family followed the crops into Michigan. 

Missing the Texas barrios, Elijio enjoyed the opportunity of hearing missionary priests teaching in Spanish and would frequently take young Rodolfo.  One incident Mr. Zamora said he would never forget was "the priest giving a sermon of how the devil would use his pitch fork to turn those poor souls around while in hell.   My Dad developed a loud cough to attempt to break the cycle of the sermon.  After trying that several times without success, he grabbed my hand, mumbling as we left, what garbage to be using in front of grown men."

"My father had tenacity of purpose.  He wanted my sister, Sally, and me to get an education, so we wouldn't have to work physically as hard as he did.  He wanted me to an engineer.  I remember in Jr. High taking as an elective a typing course. He flatly told me that taking typing was not for a man to learn.  I should have taken another drafting class."

Elijio moved his family back to San Antonio during the second world war in 1944.  he died a tragic early death, suffering a heart attack at 43 years old while working in an industrial laundry.

Mr. Zamora, married and the father of two sons and a daughter, fulfilled his father's desires.
Graduating with advanced engineering degrees, he went on to successfully start two companies, ChemResin in Santa Ana and then Ruvenco in Newport Beach.

"I learned from my father, to set a goal and not to give up.  I used his strength of character in doing my family research, and experienced an indescribable excitement, like no other feeling, a joy, a complete joy in discovering the records of my ancestors."

Other surnames on Rodolfo Zamor's pedigree are: Ortega, Lopez, Cortez, Montalvo, De la 
Cruz, Mata, Cardenas.

Compiled by Mimi Lozano (c) 1992, member of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research.



Cotton Picking Labor Day by Margarita B. Velez
On the Run by Ben Romero

Margarita B. Velez



             The aroma of grilling hamburgers filled the air, and I remembered another Labor Day when I learned the real meaning of labor.

            Money was scarce, and my brothers and I wanted to earn some cash before summer ended.  A cotton field at the end of Hammet Street was ready for picking, and presented a perfect job opportunity.  We were not deterred by Mama’s description of the harsh work.

            Very early in the morning Mama packed our lunch, and we joined the other people walking to the field.  The foreman eyed us with hesitation, but handed over a canvas sack to fill with the white puffy stuff topping the green plants.

            We watched as experienced cotton pickers pulled the cotton from the boll, and moved quickly down the row.  Then we began picking.  My first attempt was successful, but a prickly boll stabbed my hand. Stray dry branches scratched my legs, and my allergies flared up with the dust.  My brothers followed behind, and grumbled as we plucked the fluffy cotton from the plants.  The sun rose higher as the bag slowly filled up.

My back began to ache; my fingers throbbed, and my brothers complained about the labor.  But we were determined to finish the job.

            Finally, we dragged the full bag to be emptied, and were disappointed that it weighed so little.

            Returning to the field, we pulled the cotton from the dry bolls as the sun beat down on us.  One of our companions sang a mournful love song, and then someone else started singing, “Ay que laureles tan verdes As we joined in the feisty song we found renewed energy.

            At lunchtime, we sat with the other workers under the truck’s shadow, and pulled out our sack lunch.  Mama’s tortillas filled with chorizo and eggs never tasted so good.

            When the foreman flirted with me, I gave him one of Mama’s tacos.  That prompted a burley picker to say, “Now you can get away with stuffing rocks in the cotton.”

            My hands were bleeding, and the picking was slow, so I cheated a little.  The rock fit in my hand, and I figured it wouldn’t be noticeable when the bag was emptied.  My brothers were scared when we approached the truck to empty the bag.  Chebo’s face was flushed, and he stammered, “You’re going to get us in trouble.”

            I watched the needle climb when the bag was hung on the weighing hook.  The fruit of my labor spilled, and the rock never appeared. 

As I returned to work, my mouth was dry as cotton.  The rest of the afternoon I feared the foreman would come to chase me off the field.  The next bag was free of rocks; the extra weight wasn’t worth the guilty experience. 

            By the time the field was cleared; our backs ached, and our hands were swollen.  My brother’s face was streaked with sweat and dust.  His green eyes flashed when he promised, “I’m never going to do this again.  I’m going to college so I’ll never have to work in a field.”

            At home; we bathed off the dirt and sweat, and rested.  Mama rubbed “Pomada de la Campana,” a soothing salve on our injured hands.

            The next day was the first day of my freshman year in high school; and as I walked with my friend Tara, she asked what I’d done on Labor Day.  I stuck out my swollen hands, and told her how my brothers and I earned a few dollars picking cotton.

“I guess my hands are hurting so much because I cheated,” I said confessing my crime.

That Labor Day lives in my memory as a reminder of how hard some folks still have to work to earn a living.  Whenever I wear a cotton garment, I’m thankful for a September day was the only time I labored in a cotton field.

September 1997

From “Stories from the Barrio and Other ‘Hoods” by Margarita B. Velez.  Margarita Velez an author from El Paso, Texas also wrote “Border Buster,” a novel about corruption and drug dealing on both sides of U.S./Mexico border.  “Stories…” is $20.00 and “Border Buster” is $29.95 with tax, shipping and handling included.  Contact the author at for a signed copy or buy through 



ON THE RUN by Ben Romero



Every kid likes to run. It comes natural. But running is better when it is done by choice.
During the summer, my father used to wake my brother and me before leaving for work at 5:00 a.m. He hated laziness and knew that if we didn’t get up early when we were on vacation from school, we’d end up sleeping until nine or ten. The purpose of getting us up, he told us, was so that we could run a couple of laps around our property for health reasons. It was supposed to get the blood circulating in our legs and promote growth. Since Mom was already up, she would cook breakfast for us while we were running, and we would get an early start on the list of chores Dad left for us. That way, by the time the heat of the day was upon us, we could take time to go to the irrigation ditch for a swim or sit in the shade and play cards.

My cousin, Michael often stayed with us during the summer. He hated getting up early, but made a contest out of everything. Being a couple years older than me, he’d let me take a shortcut and try to beat me back to the house. As I ran, I’d look over my shoulder and see Michael and my brother straining to overtake me, their hair flowing, faces distorted with effort. It was during these times that I let my imagination take over. In my mind, we were jockeys on swift horses headed for the finish line. My legs were my horse, and I galloped with all my might to win. Sometimes I did. Other times I lost, and I often found myself practicing in secret so that I could win more often. I wished I had the stamina of a horse.
One afternoon, after supper, as we sat outside enjoying the cool breeze that comes with the waning daylight of New Mexico summers, I asked my father why horses can run so fast and far without seeming to tire.

“Porque no tienen hiel (because they don‘t have gall),” he responded. I took this to mean that horses do not have a gall bladder. At the age of eight, Father to me was the pinnacle of wisdom. I pressed with more questions. I asked if horses never got tired at all. He said they don‘t get tired the same way people do and they’ll continue to run for their rider until they drop dead. It is their heart that will eventually get overworked and finally stop beating. That is why a horse should never be pushed too hard.

All this talk about horses was fascinating. It didn’t help me run faster, but it made me understand that I’d never be as fast as a horse.

One day my parents told us to get ready to go to town to visit Grandma. She’d been in the hospital recovering from surgery and finally got released. Mom said Grandma had a surprise she wanted to show us. She looked thin and pale, but Grandma’s toothless smile showed she was genuinely happy to see us. Her iron-tight hugs felt as strong as ever. None of us mentioned the surprise, but the suspense was killing me.

After the customary coffee, the sweet bread, the small talk surrounding a large display of get-well flowers, discussion of the surgery finally began. And then Grandma opened a cabinet and produced a dark bottle and spread some newspaper on the table so she could show us the contents. It looked like little green rocks, some were sharper than others. Mom said they were Grandma’s gall stones.

Huh? I looked at Dad. “Where did they get them and how did they take them out?” I demanded to know.  “Le sacaron la hiel (they removed her gall bladder).”
The thought took a few seconds to register. But then I saw my grandmother in a whole new light.  “Wow, Grandma! That means you can run all day like a horse without getting tired.”
Ben Romero
Author of Chicken Beaks Book Series


SHHAR Meeting: September 5th
Obituary, Iola Gallardo
Mind Ready Foundation
Westminster Through the Years

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

September 5th
9:30- 11:30 a.m.

"How to Start Your Family History"

Orange County Multi-Regional Family History Center
674 S. Yorba
Orange, CA 



If you have been wanting to start your family research,  this is a good time to start. SHHAR meetings are free and open to the public.  We are a self-group. We meet and share our findings.  We do not collect dues.  Membership is simply asking to be notified of meetings.

August 1st meeting, presentation by Cal State Northridge student, Dahlia Rose Guajardo, 
Crispin Rendon, networking database coordinator, Tom Saenz, SHHAR Board member.
Photo taken by Viola Sadler.

For the first hour, the following members will share information about their research involvements.   The 2nd hour, attendees will to get small group, or one-on-one help. 

Cathy Trejo Luijt, Arizona/New Mexico and Chihuahua, Mexico , researcher will be sharing some of the problems, along with the possible value of networking with strangers on the internet.  She will be discussing the discrepancies she has encountered as she “met” new cousins online? She suggests researchers be prepared to deal with what might turn up, plus the need to double-check and confirm all data. 

Thomas Saenz, will share the very helpful and useful results he has achieved in finding and corresponding with relatives with similar interest in genealogy and family history. 
He will also share the value of finding relatives (direct and indirect lineage) who have had a major part in history.  

Crispin Rendon, will explain how the SHHAR networking database works, and the kind of assistance that he frequently is able to give to email requests for help.  He will share information on his personal PAF database of 169,500 records (primarily Mexico), which includes family connections to many SHHAR members.  

Crispin has
written and published on the web articles about the Y-DNA and mtDNA of a founding family of Northern Mexico.  He has also published a Descendants of Diego Trevino and Beatriz Quintanilla book that is being distributed to attendees of the 30th Texas State Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference next month. 

John P. Schmal will discuss IGI records and the difference between extracted records and submissions.  He will answer questions about Jalisco and Aguascalientes research. For John Schmal’s articles on Jalisco, Zacatecas and Sonora roots and history, please see:

Specialist in San Gabriel/La Plaza, Los Angeles research, A guascalientes (Calvillo y La Ciudad), Jalisco, Zacatecas and parts of Sonora (Hermosillo and Guaymas).

His research projects include researching Graciano in Monte Escobedo (Zacatecas), Cornejo, Cervantes and Reynoso in Jalostotitlan (Jalisco), Ledesma (Valle de Santiago and Guarapo, Guanajuato), Barron in Julimes/Aldama/San Geronimo (Chihuahua), Serrato (Penjamillo, Michoacan), Delgadillo and Carrillo in Hostotipaquillo, Jalisco.
John has authored the following books, which will be on display: 
  • A Mexican-American Family of California: In the Service of Three Flags (2003)
  • Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following Paper Trail to Mexico (2002)
  • Naturalizations of Mexican Americans: Extracts, Volume 1 (2006)
  • Naturalizations of Mexican Americans: Extracts, Volume 2 (2006)
  • Naturalizations of Mexican Americans: Extracts, Volume 3 (2006)
  • Naturalizations of Mexican Americans: Extracts, Volume 4 (2007)
  • The Dominguez Family: A Mexican-American Journey (2004)
  • The Indigenous Roots of a Mexican-American Family (2004)
  • The Journey to Latino Political Representation (2007)


Cuba, after the revolution
The OC Register is looking for native Cubans to interview
Do you know anyone?


Just over a half century ago, Fidel Castro came to power in the Cuban revolution. Many Cubans fled and came to the United States.

If you or your family members were among them and you live in Orange County, we'd like to hear your stories.

When did you or your family come, and why? How did you come to live in Orange County?

What did leaving Cuba mean for your family? What sacrifices were made along the way, and what benefits were gained? What values do you retain from your Cuban culture, and what values do you embrace as an American? What changes, if any, do you advocate for Cuban-American relations, and why do you feel as you do?

Email your story (up to 900 words) and photos attached as .jpgs, with the
names of those in the photos, to Ron Gonzales at
Selected pieces will be published online and in print during Hispanic
Heritage Month in September and October.

Deadline is Labor Day.

If you have questions, email or call 949-454-7334.
Ron Gonzales


Iola Gallardo
December 23, 1926 - - August 6, 2009

Iola Gallardo, passed away at the age of 82.  Iola was born in Arizona. She moved to California in 1950, with her husband, James and her children, Marjorie and Robert.

Several of her accomplishments include: becoming the first Hispanic female Police Officer for Fullerton PD in 1956; Traffic Control Officer for Santa Ana PD in 1959; Sec. to Orange County Superior Court Judge in late 1960's; Secretary to the President of Pima College, Tucson, AZ in mid 1970's; Exec. Secretary to the VP of Academic Affairs at Santa Ana College. In 1989, she received an AA degree from Santa Ana College.
Iola was also involved with the League of United Latin American Citizens for over 40 years. She served terms as the president of the Anaheim Chapter. Most recently she served as an Orange County Grand Juror, 2008-09.
She will be missed dearly by her family, friends and especially her faithful companion Alfie. If love could have saved her, she would have lived for eternity

She is survived by her four children, Marjorie, Robert, Janice, and Alan; eight grandchildren; seven great-grandchildren. Iola was born on Dec. 23, 1926 in Meza, AZ.
Mass was held August 13th at St. Callistus Catholic Church in Garden Grove, CA

Sent by Zeke Hernandez



There are thousands of children attending Orange County schools who need our help. Many are living in poverty and start school without the basic tools that are essential to their success. Studies show that students with proper supplies have a better chance of succeeding in school. Every child deserves to start the school year ready to learn.
Backpacks for kids Backpacks For Kids 2.0 will provide thousands of children with the tools they need for success in the classroom. With the help of the community, a fully-loaded backpack for each student in need starts the school year off right! In 2007, we were able to purchase school supplies and distribute over 1,000 backpacks to local schoolchildren.
Our Goal Summer 2009: Our goal this year is to give away 2,000 backpacks (loaded with pens, pencils, paper, notebooks, etc) from donor businesses, individuals and organizations. Proceeds to benefit school children (Grades K-12) in Central Orange County including Westminster, Garden Grove Stanton and Huntington Beach on  > > >  August 30, 2009.

Mind Ready Foundation's mission is to help our elementary school aged students be prepared for school each fall by providing them with much needed school supplies.  Prepared students are successful students. Their success is America's success.  Your help is needed. For more information contact, community volunteer/ advocate: Lupe Fisher

To see a terrific video from our last Back-to-School FEST, please visit:




Obituary: Iola Gallardo, First Fullerton Hispanic Female Police Officer 
December 23, 1926 - August 6, 2009


Gallardo, Iola, at age 82, passed away on Aug. 6, 2009. 
Lola Gallardo moved to California in 1950, with her husband, James and her children, Marjorie and Robert. Several of her accomplishments included: becoming the first Hispanic female Police Officer for Fullerton PD in 1956; Traffic Control Officer for Santa Ana PD in 1959; Sec. to O.C. Superior Court Judge in late 1960's; Secretary to the President of Pima College, Tucson, AZ in mid 1970's; Exec. Secretary to the VP of Academic Affairs at Santa Ana College. In 1989, she received an AA degree from Santa Ana College.
She was also involved with the League of United Latin American Citizens for over 40 years. She served terms as the president of the Anaheim Chapter. Most recently she served as an Orange County Grand Juror, 2008-09.
She will be missed dearly by her family, friends and especially her faithful companion Alfie. If love could have saved her, she would have lived for eternity. She is survived by her four children, Marjorie, Robert, Janice, and Alan; eight grandchildren; seven great-grandchildren. Please Note:  Mass will be heard at 10 am (not 10:30 am)




The settlers who founded the temperance colony of Westminster in 1870 were not the first to come to the coastal plain. The earliest settlers were the Oak Grove people who occupied the land over 8,000 years ago and stayed until the climate became too dry and vegetation dwindled. The area remained uninhabited until the Gabrieleno Indians moved in from the desert to this area and numbered over 200,000. Diseases such as measles, smallpox and diphtheria reduced the Indian population.

The next recorded history of the North Orange County area dates to 1492, when Pope Alexander IV decreed that all unclaimed land in the North American continent belonged to the King of Spain. Large land grants called ranchos were awarded by the King to induce colonization of the continent.

The Spaniards cleared, surveyed and mapped their new land. In 1784 the Spanish Governor of California honored Manuel Nieto with a 21 mile square concession of land to be called the Rancho Las Bolsas. It covered most of what we know today as west Orange County. The Rancho prospered with large crops and fine herds, however, after Nieto’s death in 1804 his heirs quarreled and the Rancho was partitioned in1834.

During the 1850’s with California’s admission to the Union, the U.S. Land Commission was set up to review claims that rose from original Spanish land grants. An American named Abel Stearns saw this as an opportunity to buy up shares from the disputing factions of the Rancho Las Bolsas. With the Commission’s acceptance, Stearns became the sole owner of the rancho changing the name to Stearns Rancho.


Westminster was the second colony in Orange County to be deliberately founded, but in contrast to the first which was Anaheim, Westminster was not founded by any one ethnic group nor did it center on one product economy.

Westminster was founded as a temperance colony by the Presbyterian Reverend, Lemuel P. Webber in 1870 upon his purchase of some 6,000 acres of the Stearns Rancho. Fulfilling his dream, he invited those people with like ideas in religion and morals to locate on individual 40 acre farms in his new colony. The town was named for the Westminster Assembly of 1643 which prescribed the basic tenets of the Presbyterian Church. John Y Anderson, a native of Virginia was the first man to respond to the Reverend’s invitation. Anderson took up residence on the corner of what we know as Westminster Boulevard and Monroe Street.

In 1872, the town’s first schoolhouse was built after a tax was levied which raised over $3,000 for the project. School started that August with 13 students.

In the spirit of cooperation, the township soon realized it had to make supplies more readily available for all to share. In 1874, the township opened the first “general store” beginning the first business district on Almond Avenue, which today is known as Westminster Boulevard.

At the end of 1874, the colony had 225 inhabitants, 62 families, and 52 farms.Acreage prices started at $13 rose to $20 and $30 per acre in 1875.

Soon, 1,800 additional acres were needed and added to the northern part of the colony. The first community newspaper, the Tribune, was started in 1878.

The district was surrounded with wild Spanish cattle, hogs, and horses. Meat was sold through a butcher for 9 cents per pound. Horses were rounded up and domesticated for riding and for work.

At the close of the first decade three churches were free of debt, testifying to the character of the towns people. An additional two general stores had been opened, two blacksmiths, a wagon shop, a harness shop, a milliner, and a shoemaker. A sorghum mill and two creameries set the scene for future industry and the self-sufficiency of Westminster.

THE 1880’s: The second decade was one of continuing development. This agricultural community had overcome swamps and tulles and a rainy season that flooded the region due to the lack of any drainage system. The Drainage Act of 1881 turned thousands of acres into productive soil and opened the most thriving celery fields in the world.

The Santa Fe and Southern Pacific railroads brought settlers from the Missouri River to the west coast for $15.00 and during the price wars the cost went to $1.00. Railroad travel marked a population and a land boom in all of Southern California. Before that, pioneering families could only arrive by ship which passed through the Panama Canal or overland in wagons through the hot desert.

Oxen teams hauled harvested crops from Irvine Ranch to Anaheim Landing and returned inland with lumber for Westminster’s growth. The 1880’s closed with the secession of the southern part of Los Angeles County which was to become Orange County.

THE 1890’s: Dairy farming was the principle source of income for many ranchers. These ranchers cooperatively built creameries which provided more jobs and eventually led to their products being exported. Peatland was yielding 12,000 bunches of celery per acre and trade went on.  Early settlers had pledged not to grow grapes, but outside influences modified tradition, and soon grapes began to flourish and the first saloon was then opened.

THE 1900’s: Westminster was growing. The colony continued to gain the reputation as the finest dairying center in the country. Chinese were brought in from Los Angeles and San Francisco along with some Japanese and Mexicans to farm the rich productive soil.

The first library was set up in the newly built Odd Fellows Hall in 1900. The first telephone was installed for the Wells Fargo mail agent, J.F. Patterson, who also became the agent for Southern Pacific Railroad when the line reached Westminster in 1902. The “Plaza Association” was organized to develop Sigler Park and also to provide awards to those citizens who caught chicken thieves. The Westminster Chamber of Commerce was formed to promote the town’s business.

THE 1910’s: With the Southern Pacific Railroad coming through Westminster, 1,500 to 2,700 carloads of celery were being shipped to eastern markets. Two large sugar factories, located within eight miles of the town, provided a convenient market for sugar beet growers. Land prices were rising with some acreage selling for $500 per acre.

During the 1910's the artesian wells were allowed to fill ponds, making the area into a well known sportsman’s paradise. Gun clubs dotted the marsh land along Bolsa Road. In 1913, the Westminster Gun Club bagged 8,633 ducks. At seasons end, the wells were capped, water drained off, and cattle returned to the pastures.

THE 1920’s: Westminster was known as a quiet village – an area primarily of scattered farms. It was one of the most ideal communities in which to raise a good family. It had the best schools and the finest church facilities in the local area.

1924 saw the Midway City subdivision and in 1927 Barber City was begun. The world’s largest goldfish farm moved into the area where the Westminster Mall stands today. The Westminster Gazette newspaper was established, and at the same time the original Green Kat Tavern was built. It was ironic that this community, first established as a temperance colony, should have a tavern as its landmark just a few decades later.

THE 1930’s: With the building activities of the late twenties, it seemed that Westminster might grow and become more than just a farming community in the thirties, but major events altered the growth. In the spirit of cooperation, the “Association of the Unemployed” was started during the depression years, assisting in securing food for the area. Then on March 10, 1933, a devastating earthquake damaged much of the city and all of its brick buildings. The 17th Street Hoover School had to be rebuilt by SPA and was opened again in 1935.

Additionally, in 1938, Southern California was struck by a severe flood. Fortunately, it bypassed Westminster proper but left washes and debris across roads, which disrupted access to the town for months.

THE 1940’s: As the forties began, one could view orange groves, lima beans, and sugar beet fields which surrounded the few businesses in downtown Westminster. By 1942, the population had reached 2,500. However, World War II brought several more changes which again effected the development growth of Westminster. Young men left the area to join the armed forces, and the Japanese, nearly all of them farmers, were moved out of Orange County. Defense workers from the Midwest settled in Westminster and joined their fellow neighbors working at local shipyards and aircraft factories, which were located nearby.

At the end of the war, many servicemen who enjoyed the Southern California climate decided to stay. Huge housing tracts grew in areas surrounding Westminster, but the agriculture remained untouched by this population boom, and sheep herders were able to keep their paths open through Westminster.

During these trying times, Westminster was part of the first desegregation case in the United States. A Federal judge denounced segregation in public schools, and integration came to most of California schools.

THE 1950’s: Recovering from the earthquake, the flood, and World War II, Westminster found itself growing once again. Land developers became interested in acquiring local farms. Eventually, new tracts were built, and in 1956, the population was recorded at 10,755.

In March of 1957, proceedings began to form a municipality called the Tri City. However, when Midway City withdrew from the venture a spiritual contest resulted. The voters finally chose to incorporate by a vote of 1,096 to 1,008, and it was also decided to retain the historical name of Westminster. The first permanent City Hall was located in the Hoover Schoolhouse.

September 10, 1959, Westminster High School became a reality. It was at that time, the most modern and up-to-date school in the county. Deriving its name and tradition from the English Westminster Abbey, the mascot became the lion, and the colors of the Royal Guard, red, black and white, were used.

THE 1960’s: In the 1960’s the population quadrupled. The number of schools grew from 3 in the fifties to 22 at the end of the sixties. Freeways were completed that linked Westminster with the Southland Freeway system.

In August of 1968, the city moved its base of operations from the condemned Hoover Schoolhouse to the new municipal facilities which, in keeping with tradition, followed the English theme. The Tower of Westminster, California, was built in the center of the square of brick civic buildings.

THE 1970’s: The 1970’s found a thriving community concerned with the original cooperation spirit the townspeople showed throughout the years. Most vacant land had been developed in residential zones and new construction was replacing some of the older dwellings. Two libraries situated in storefront buildings were accommodated by one new facility. The Historical Society, joining with the City Council restored and resettled the 1874 McCoy-Hare House in Heritage Park as a reminder of the early days.

In addition, the 1970’s were a prosperous decade for commerce. The Westminster Mall, a prestigious new shopping center, was built, housing 180 shops. Further construction of municipal buildings included an administration building and a senior citizens facility. New fire department buildings were being considered along with renovation of the civic auditorium. Street improvements and other capital outlay for the city continued with the same positive outlook held by the early day pioneers. This cooperative spirit, purpose and determination became the earmark of our city, Westminster.

THE 1980’s: The 1980’s saw population growth as Southeast Asian refugees, fleeing from the conflict in their homelands, relocated to this area. Over 500 businesses opened in the Bolsa Avenue area. The construction and development of Southeast Asian businesses, restaurants, and professional services is not only adding to the commercial base, also becoming a tourist attraction. The development of this area and the twenty-five-acre shopping center at Beach and Heil streets will add to the revenues needed to operate a still-growing city. Westminster now has an assessed valuation of over $2 billion, which reflects a 34.5 percent increase in a one-year period.

The growth of Westminster Colony in the 130 years since Rev. Webber chose this area will continue as will the spirit of cooperation and purpose demonstrated throughout the time Westminster grew into today’s thriving city of 73,500.

THE 1990’S: The 1990’s were a time of challenge, celebration, change and crisis for the city of Westminster.

There were many changes in land use during this period. The Warne family ranch at Bolsa and Bushard, that had held to its agricultural use from the early 1900’s, became a part of the Westminster “Little Saigon” area with the development of markets, retail stores, and professional offices. The Warne family farmhouse and big red barn (circa 1915) were relocated to Blakey Historical Park at 8612 Westminster Boulevard by the Westminster Historical Society. The Westminster Museum and the McCoy Hare House have also been moved to the two-acre parcel donated by Leaora Blakey.

The historic Westminster Auditorium, built in 1940 as a WPA project by the Westminster School District at Westminster Boulevard and Hoover, was demolished to become the site for a three-story assisted care facility in 1996. Under city municipal ownership, the auditorium had served as the Westminster Cultural Center for the past twenty years. Plans to construct a cultural center on City municipal-owned property east of the Civic Center are progressing slowly. The Community Services Center and the Senior Center are being used at this time for community events.

The Highway-39 Drive-in Theater (the last drive-in in Orange County), built in 1955, was redeveloped recently into a shopping center. With Wal-Mart as the anchor for this center, it boosts the sales-tax revenue for Westminster. Westminster Center at Goldenwest was redeveloped, as well as the Westminster Mall.

Amid political upheaval, fire services, that had been provided by Westminster Fire Department since incorporation in 1957 were transferred to the Orange County Fire Authority. The three local fire stations remain as part of the system. There were many celebrations during the 1990s. Westminster had a gala party to mark forty years of incorporation in 1997. The Blessed Sacrament Church celebrated fifty years, and the Westminster Presbyterian Church marked 125 years in the community. The Midway City Sanitary District, founded in 1939, marked the occasion by hosting an open house at the new office building at Cedarwood and Hazard. The district provides sewer and trash service and boasts the lowest rates in the country at this time. City Hall Administration buildings were remodeled during the 1990’s.

Westminster was named “All-America City” in 1996 by the National Civic League for civic accomplishments, made possible by the cooperative efforts of business, government, the volunteer sector, and other individuals. Projects recognized by this award included: Project SHUE (Safety, Health, Understanding, and Education), an intergenerational after-school program at the Senior Center for six-to-nine-year old Vietnamese and Hispanic “at risk” children; the anti-gang program TARGET (first of its kind in the nation), which teamed Police, Probation, and District Attorney working together daily in an office at the police station; and the Community Collaborative, which grouped leaders from city and county working to provide a total range of services. The spirit of cooperation that marked the early years of Westminster Colony continues to thrive in the Westminster of the 1990’s.

Crisis hit the community in September 1998, when the 5,000,000-gallon water-storage tank on Hefley Street ruptured, flooding the adjoining fire station and forty-nine Hefley Square Townhouses. There was no loss of life, but damage to homes was extensive. Nearly a year later, eleven of the homes were still being rebuilt or repaired. The fire station was damaged but is back in service. City employees, the Orange County Fire Authority, neighboring fire services and the Red Cross were on-site for days assessing the damage and assisting residents. Water storage for the city was non-existent as the twin storage tank was emptied while the cause of the tank failure was determined.

In 1999, Westminster was a city of 86,500 with an assessed valuation that is over $3.5 billion. Westminster School District has an enrollment of 9,817 in grades K through 8. Boos School and Midway City School closed during the 1990’s and the campus now houses single family homes.

THE 2000’s: The turn of the century and early years of 2000 found continued growth and improvement in Westminster. Design and completion of two 8million gallon state of the art water tanks at Hoover and Hazard Avenues assures an adequate water supply. In the Civic Center area, Sid Goldstein Memorial Park was dedicated. An important part of the park is the Vietnam War Memorial which is a tribute to all who served in that arena.

Coastline Community College now serves the community at its satellite campus located adjacent to the Westminster Rose Center, which includes a 411 seat theater and convention/banquet center for community events and programs. The Westminster Rose Center, Coastline College Educational buildings and Sid Goldstein Freedom Park joined the Civic Center City Buildings, Senior Center, the Orange County Courthouse, and the Orange County Library to create a focal point for Westminster that provide services for the residents of the community.

Residential and commercial growth continue as the assessed valuation has reached $5,186,876,215 and a population in 2005 that is 92,000 and growing.

Copyright © 2000 - 2009 City of Westminster, CA 

Sent by Ricardo Valverde


Reflections of Mrs. Wagstaff by Eddie Martinez
El Movimiento, Chicano Identity and Beyond as seen through the lens of Oscar Castillo
          Touching on history of Con Safos magazine by Gilbert Lujan
Thomas A. Saenz, Named MALDEF President And General Counsel
Obituary: Armando R. Cid
Mario Fernando Vazquez
Downtown Long Beach Inaugural Latin American Parade & Festival
Semillas Community Schools First International Baccalaureate 
1st Long Beach Latin-American Parade and Festival


There was a rather large turnout of Willowbrook alumni at the memorial for Mrs. Wagstaff considering that she had left Willowbrook Junior High School 57 years ago. Attending were Willowbrook’s alumni and faculty from California State University, Los Angeles, where Dr. Marian Wagstaff taught Secondary Education and was Chairman of that department from 1952 until her retirement in 1976.  

The master of ceremonies for the memorial service was Harold Barnes, an alumnus of Willowbrook.  Speakers were Dr. Mary Falvey, Dean of the Charter College of Education and Adrian Dove, class of 1950, who gave us a historical journey of Mrs. Wagstaff’s experiences, “… her embrace of multiculturalism preceded Brown vs. Board of Education of 1954.” Then Josephine Martin spoke of her memories as Dr. Marian Wagstaff’s personal secretary.  At the end Robert Mallory spoke on behalf of his wife and himself as the Boulder Creek caretakers of Dr. Marian Wagstaff for 25 years until her death on April 26, 2009.  

In 1951 and 1952, the Wagstaff Way was responsible for Willowbrook Jr. High School receiving the Freedoms Foundation Award in Valley Forge, Pa., in recognition of teaching what the foundation called the American Way of Life.  Before the civil rights movement she saw no color and the students followed suit.  Most of the students at Willowbrook were minorities.  She was the first female principal of a school in the state.  She was also the first person to hire the first black teacher at Willowbrook.  She ran the junior high school like a high school in that there were many extra curricular programs offered to the students.  Many of the students went on to professional careers in medicine, sports, science, visual and performing arts, law, and education.  She never forgot her students and kept in touch with many of them, and they kept in touch with her until the very end.


When I spoke at the podium I talked about the importance of Mrs. Wagstaff’s project, ANYTOWN USA.  Her idea was to bring together young people of different ethnic backgrounds to a wooded campground far from city life. In 1951, Latino students were bussed in from the east side, Anglo students from the west side, Asian students from the south side, and African American students from the inner city of Los Angeles, where we all came together in Idyllwild.  In the beginning everyone seemed to be uncomfortable meeting strangers and remained separated. As the week passed, we were all soon making friends and sharing the many fun activities that included sports, singing, and story telling by the campfire. On the final day of camp, there was a lot of hugging and tearful goodbyes and the exchanging of phone numbers with the promises of reuniting next summer at ANYTOWN USA, which most of us did.    

In 1972, Mrs. Wagstaff and I were reacquainted after 20 years. She read a bulletin posted at Cal State LA where my name appeared as a portrait artist working for Walt Disney Studio and she contacted me there.  In 1975, she attended my art show entitled, Encanto en México at the Goez Art Studio & Gallery in East Los Angeles.  She expressed pride in my artwork on Mexico’s cultures and my Latino heritage.  

The last time I spoke with Mrs. Wagstaff was sometime in the late 1990’s, while I was visiting my fellow Willowbrook classmate, Wally Palmer.  The phone rang, it was Mrs. Wagstaff calling to say hello to both of us.  In our conversation, I told Mrs. Wagstaff that I remember what she had once told me, “Aim for the stars, you may not make it, but when you look around, you may get dizzy!” She responded, “You remembered that?”  I said, “I’ve never forgotten.”  

Below is a portrait I painted of her. The abstract background of green foliage is symbolic of the environment of her home in Boulder Creek, California.  On June 9, 1995, in a letter from her, Mrs. Wagstaff poetically finished with, “Our redwood trees and the surrounding natural habitat remain in a tranquil state.” 



El Movimiento,
Chicano Identity and Beyond through the lens of Oscar Castillo

Curated by Gregorio Luke
September 10, 2009
Opening reception 6 pm
The Latino Museum of History, Art, and Culture
Location: 514 South Spring Street
Los Angeles, CA, 90013
Phone: (213) 626-7600


Touching on history of Con Safos magazine by Gilbert Lujan

Subject: TLM exhibit
Date: Thu, 13 Aug 2009 08:56:30 -0700

Dear Mimi
I have included two new statements which are part of Oscar Castillo's upcoming Photography exhibit in Los Angeles (as is shown below !!).


Con Safoss LowRider Centerfold 

When I joined Con Safos as Art Editor in 
1969, the initial essential task seemed to develop an inventory and articulate those definitions for ChicanArte.  Some claimed that to define this aspect of the culture  was to limit its potential appreciation.

The idea of homegrown Chicano Arte was absent and most only accepted or understood the famous big three Mexican painters: Diego Rivera, David Siquieiros and Jose Orozco.
So since the purpose of Con Safos was to expose and validate our Chicano experiences, it was mandatory to show how Ranflas ( custom Low  Riders ) represented a community folk Art form,  Cruising was also considered a kinetic 'Performance Art' parade of showboats as another low-rider tradition. 

The Low Rider a 1947 Chevy sedan owned by Mickey Lorenzano, from Wilmington was a sculptural emblem and jewel as folk art, The intent of the centerfold was meant to celebrate and claim validation of this Art form.

I asked Oscar to photograph this cultural vehicle at a 3/4' angle for the most advantageous view and he caught this great neighborhood ambiance and excellente carrito.
Thank you, Oscar


Los Four Artists
1974 Los Angeles County Museum of Art

My original intention for curating a Los Four exhibit was to coalesce Chicano cultural motifs as Fine Art expositions. The Los Four members: Right to Left: Beto de la Rocha, Frank Romero Carlos Almaraz and Gilbert  "Magu" Lujan.

The exhibit was also meant to counter our perceived second-class citizen status at the time as not having any cultural art classification.

In our initial show at the University of California, Irvine 1973, we painted this group mural proselytizing graffiti as calligraphy.  Spray cans were used and described as liquid pencils to make an artwork instead of being considered as an act or tool of vandalism.

The other significant aspect was that we collectively shared a team dynamic of cooperation as painters.

We chose bright colors and common popular ethnic symbols as content.  Then in a process of placing them over each other like in an over-lapping vandalistic style.

We created this painting in the photo by blending our aesthetic sensibilities.

Then in 1974, Los Four was invited to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art on Wilshire Boulevard to make history as the first authentic Chicano exhibit at a cultural palace. Jane Livingston was the assigned curator. Cecil Ferguson was also staff and helpful to us.
Oscar was there to document as a friend and witness.




Armando R. Cid
Artist, Teacher

June 7, 1943 - July 13, 2009


Obituary: Armando R. Cid was artist, teacher
By Robert D. Dávila
Published: Wednesday, Jul. 15, 2009, Sacaramento Bee, Page 6B

Armando R. Cid, a prominent Sacramento artist who celebrated Mexican folk ways as an educator, activist and founding member of the Royal Chicano Air Force art group, died Monday at age 66. He collapsed at his Oak Park home and was taken by ambulance to UC Davis Medical Center, where he died, said his wife, Josie S. Talamantez. The family has requested an autopsy, she said.
Mr. Cid was a printmaker, painter and craftsman whose art expressed respect and affection for the traditional folk life of Mexico. His works portrayed artifacts and icons in brilliant colors, including animals, chili peppers and skeletons. He was renowned for his brightly colored, papier mâché masks and altar pieces for annual Día de los Muertos (Day of the Dead) celebrations.
He shared his heritage in works commissioned by government and private patrons, including Bank of America and Kaiser Permanente. He was credited with installing Sacramento's first public art, a mosaic mural at the Washington Square-Sherwood Apartments in Alkali Flat. He created playful pieces with birds in high-top sneakers to cheer patients at UC Davis Health System clinics.
"His art was so alive and colorful and fun," UC Davis Health System art adviser Susan Willoughby said. "Everyone could relate to it."
Mr. Cid also saw art as a way to educate and promote community development. He was an original member of the Royal Chicano Air Force, an influential artists collective in the 1970s Chicano movement. He was an early supporter as an artist and later was executive director of La Raza Galeria Posada bookstore and gallery.
He was on the Sacramento Metropolitan Arts Commission and the Art in Public Places Committee, and he helped launch Sacramento's annual Day of the Dead celebration. He taught at Sacramento State, Los Rios Community College District, migrant camps, community centers and state prisons in Solano, Susanville and Calipatria.
"He believed art had a social purpose," said Juan Carillo, former deputy director of the California Arts Commission. "He felt the past sets the course for the future, and if young people learned about their traditions, they would honor that and stand taller and walk a straighter line."
Armando Ramirez Cid was born in 1943 in the Mexican city of Fresnillo and moved as an infant with his family to Sacramento. He graduated from Sacramento High School and served three years in the Army.
He worked in advertising at the Los Angeles Times while studying at the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena. He earned bachelor's and master's degrees in art at Sacramento State. His work can be found in many private and public collections, including the Smithsonian Institution.
Mr. Cid married Talamantez after his first marriage ended in divorce. The father of five children, he was excited about the upcoming wedding of one of his twin daughters.
"Every time I think about Armando, he had a wry smile," Carillo said. "On the exterior he was a jester, but inside he had on a philosopher's cap and was always teaching. He was a teacher to the core."
Survived by: Wife, Josie S. Talamantez of Sacramento; sons, Armando Jr. and Miguel, both of San Diego; daughters, Zenaida Lopez-Cid of Davis, Amar Azucena Cid of Sacramento and Ximena Cid of Arlington, Texas; brothers, Robert of Rowland Heights, Luis of Sacramento, and Alfredo of Davis; and sisters, Clara Cid and Olga Cid, both of Sacramento. 
"We need to make sure our youth know all the work done to create awareness for our cultura and also how doors were forced open for those who were coming right behind us.  My Condolences to la familia,  
Dr. Petra  Guerra
Assistant Professor,
PRSSA Advisor, Department Of Communication
1201 W. University Dr.
Edinburg, TX  78539
Sent by Dorinda Moreno
and Roberto Calderon



Thomas A. Saenz, Counsel To Los Angeles Mayor, Named MALDEF President And General Counsel



July 15, 2009 – Yesterday, MALDEF announced Thomas A. Saenz, Counsel to Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa and veteran civil rights leader, as its new President and General Counsel. Saenz will join MALDEF in mid-August.

“We could not ask for a better civil rights leader than Thomas Saenz to take the helm of MALDEF at this critical time,” said Patricia A. Madrid, Chairman of the MALDEF Board of Directors and former New Mexico Attorney General. “The Latino community is currently facing a drastic rise in hate crimes and witnessing an explosive rebirth of extremist anti-immigrant rhetoric and measures that adversely affect all Latinos. A highly respected attorney and community leader, Thomas brings a wealth of legal expertise and dedication to civil rights causes that fundamentally define the future of Latinos. We are looking forward to a great future under his leadership as we work together to advance the mission of MALDEF,” Madrid added.

“Tom Saenz has been a trusted advisor who understands the importance of public service and working on behalf of those in need,” said Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa. “His zealous leadership, legal prowess and counsel have helped diversify our body of City commissioners, provide living wages for our City's workers, and demand a quality education for every child in Los Angeles. I thank Tom for his devoted service to the City of Los Angeles and wish him all the best in his new endeavor. MALDEF is not only inheriting a brilliant legal mind, but also a passionate and committed champion of civil rights.”

Saenz had previously served at MALDEF for 12 years. During that time he successfully challenged California’s unconstitutional Proposition 187 and led numerous civil rights cases in the areas of immigrants’ rights, education, employment, and voting rights. Saenz achieved several victories against ordinances unlawfully restricting the rights of day laborers, served as lead counsel in the 2001 challenge to California’s congressional redistricting, and initiated the employment discrimination lawsuit resulting in a $50 million settlement with Abercrombie and Fitch.

Saenz said he is looking forward to the new challenges and opportunities. “Throughout its 40-year history, MALDEF has been a national leader on all legal and policy issues affecting the Latino community. I look forward to leading a very strong MALDEF staff in successfully addressing the next set of challenges facing what is now the largest minority group in this country, a group whose progress is essential to our nation’s success,” Saenz stated.

“Tom Saenz is an outstanding choice, he represents an extensive and celebrated record as a champion for civil rights and social justice. Throughout his career as Chief Counsel to Mayor Villaraigosa and as legal counsel for MALDEF, Saenz has proven to be a cornerstone for legal activism in our country,” stated Wade Henderson, President and CEO, Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR). “I can think of no better leader to take on the challenge of continuing MALDEF's nationwide movement for equality and justice.”


Mario Fernando Vazquez
Attorney, Union and peace Activist
November 25, 1946-July 10, 2009


The labor, legal, civil rights and immigrants' rights communities are saddened by the passing of this dynamic and courageous activist, husband, and father.

Born in Mexico, Mario came to the U.S. when he was fifteen. Soon after his 1965 graduation from Lincoln High in East Los Angeles, Mario joined the U.S. Army in 1966 with a strong desire to fight in Vietnam. Never sent to the front lines, he served two years in the Army Engineer Corps at Fort Ord, where his views toward the war began to change.

Mario's activism began in college during the height of the Chicano Movement. Abandoning his interest in the business field, he attended and graduated from UCLA School of Law. Mario vigorously defended the rights of immigrants, teachers, women and working families in Southern California since the 1970's.

As a lawyer, he worked with and was board chairman at One Stop Immigration and Educational Center. A partner in the law firm Tampkin, Goodman, Vazquez & Sarin, he later had his own firm, where he specialized in immigration and labor law. Mario also worked with respected immigration lawyer and immigrant rights activist Steven Hollopeter.

Among his many good friends are Antonio Villaraigosa, Gil Cedillo, Pete Navarro, and Maria Elena Durazo, all graduates of the Peoples' College of Law, which he co-founded.

He was an expert on unions and immigrants and wrote a history of the immigrant workforce in the Los Angeles garment industry, having worked with the International Ladies Garment Workers Union. AFT Local 1475 organizer Rosalva Ungar remembers Mario's support in the 1970s on a picket for Head Start when no one else showed up.

Mario opposed the Simpson-Rodino bill, particularly the "employer sanctions" provisions, as anti-worker, at a time when much of organized labor felt undocumented workers were a drain on organized labor and should be deported. Mario's work helped persuade labor leaders, including Cesar Chavez of the United Farm Workers' Union (UFW), to reverse their positions and adopt a policy of organizing undocumented workers and demanding that government agencies enforce minimum wage, labor standards and the right to organize into unions.

Mario served as co-founder, attorney and board member to a wide-range of civil rights boards and other organizations. During the 1970s he was on the board of the Dr. Homa Darabi Foundation. Recently he helped create the Miguel Contreras Foundation.

Mario co-founded the Paul Robeson Community Center. Oneil Cannon, President Emeritus of the Robeson Center, recalls that "Mario had a special interest in inter-cultural understanding and spoke authoritatively on 'The African Presence in Mexico and Latin America'. He was involved in peace and nuclear disarmament advocacy and rarely, if ever, missed a peace demonstration."
Mario worked to end the blockade of Cuba, and encouraged cultural, scientific and educational exchanges with the country, making numerous visits to the island.

Mario will be dearly missed by friends at United Teachers of Los Angeles and by all who knew him through his work with the International Ladies Garment Workers Union, the Paul Robeson Community Center, the National Lawyers Guild, People's College of Law, Liberty Hill Foundation, CASA (Coalition for Autonomous Social Action), the Dr. Homa Darabi Foundation, the World Peace Council, the American-Soviet Friendship Society and other groups.

Mario was a devoted husband and father. He is survived by his wife, Cristina, his children Cesar, Gabriela and Adrian, brothers: Armando, Antonio, Fernando, Federico, Edmundo, Roberto, his mother Lourdes, and granddaughter Vanesa.

The family requests that in lieu of flowers, donations be made to the Mario F. Vazquez Memorial Fund Amalgamated Bank, 60 S. Los Robles Ave., Pasadena, CA 91101
Memorial Service on Sat., July 18, 2009, 12 p.m. at Forest Lawn Hall of Liberty, 6300 Forest Lawn Drive, LA, CA 90068. For more info. Visit

Published in Los Angeles Times on 7/17/2009



Bringing the Circle Together: 
A Native American Film Series is a FREE monthly film

Series located at the National Center for Preservation of Democracy located at 111 North Central Avenue, between 1st Street and Central Avenue, in downtown Los Angeles. Directly across from the Japanese American National Museum.
The film series is hosted by Lorin Morgan-Richards and is sponsored by the following organizations:  The Japanese American National Museum,   American Indian Children's Council, Hecho de Mano, and  Nahui Ohlin

Sent by Dorinda Moreno




Semillas Community Schools Becomes 1st International Baccalaureate School to be Authorized in the City of Los Angeles


July 15, 2009
LOS ANGELES, CA- Semillas Community Schools, a non-profit community-based educational organization committed to opening high quality charter schools in East Los Angeles, today announced that it has become the first International Baccalaureate World School (IB) to be authorized in the city of Los Angeles. The authorization recognizes the Middle Years Program (6-10) of Anahuacalmecac International University Preparatory High School, an independent charter school located in the Northeast Los Angeles neighborhood of El Sereno. Semillas today also announced that its delegation of Anahuacalmecac students have been selected to participate in the opening ceremony of the 2009 Hanban Chinese Bridge Summer Camp for High School Students sponsored by the University of California, Los Angeles Confucius Institute in Beijing, China.
"Since 2002 we have created a dynamic model of international education for disadvantaged inner city students in East Los Angeles," said Marcos Aguilar, Executive Director of Semillas. "IB World School authorization recognizes the unique value Semillas offers the children of the City of Los Angeles. The mission of Semillas is to provide every child in East Los Angeles with wholistic preparation for tier-one universities. Semillas now holds the unique status as the first public school authorized as an International Baccalaureate World School in the city of Los Angeles. World School authorization ensures East L.A. kids get a fighting chance at quality educational opportunities." The students, staff and parents of Semillas are to be congratulated for this amazing accomplishment.
Charter schools are public schools created or organized by a group of educators, parents, community leaders, or community-based organizations and sponsored by a state, county, or local school board.  The students of Los Angeles deserve access to the culturally-driven, community-based, international education Semillas provides. Quality education is a long-standing demand in East Los Angeles - one that Semillas meets on all counts," said Dr. Juan Gomez Quinones, President of the Semillas governing board.
Beyond the minimal standard of instruction, Semillas aims to meet the rigor of international standards of education, as well as internationally recognized rights of children, and Indigenous Peoples through our houses of higher learning. Semillas is decisively paving the way for university success on the international stage for twenty- first century students based upon the wisdom of millenarian Indigenous knowledge. Semillas also provides a haven for students to cultivate intellectual and social potential to become future doctors, lawyers, artists, entrepreneurs and educators. Semillas strives to provide a strong foundation for future generations through a powerful education so they become conscious, whole and capable individuals that can guide with ancestral clarity for the coming seven generations.
About Semillas Community Schools:
Semillas represents two community-based charter schools in East Los Angeles, Xinaxcalmecac Academia Semillas del Pueblo for grades kinder through eighth and Anahuacalmecac International University Preparatory High School of North America for grades ninth through twelfth. Semillas students strive to become internationally-minded, culturally wise community members. For more information visit:

For More Information Contact:  Joseph Peña, Communications, Semillas Community Schools, 323-225-4549x101,
Anahuacalmecac Preparatory has become an IB World School thereby joining the community of state, private, national and international schools from every region of the world. These are schools that share a common philosophy-a commitment to high quality, challenging, international education that Academia believes is important for our students. Only schools authorized by the IBO as IB World Schools can offer any of its three academic programs: the Primary Years Program (PYP), the Middle Years Program (MYP), or the Diploma Program. 
Schools applying to offer the PYP or MYP must begin implementing these programs before the school is granted IB World School status. A delegation appointed by the IBO will schedule a visit to the school and report on the school's progress and capacity to deliver this program. For further information about the IBO and its program, visit
Anahuacalmecac Preparatory has become one of the 1,855 schools in 124 countries. Anahuacalmecac's 200 students, from 6th - 10th grade, will be part of the over 200,000 students to receive the IB's three challenging programs worldwide. Each program includes a curriculum and pedagogy, student assessment, teacher development and a process of school authorization and evaluation.
Semillas Community Schools  
4736 Huntington Drive South
Los Angeles, California 90032
United States
Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.,Professor Emeritus, Department of Ethnic Studies   



Sirens, Saints and Angels
Rafael Jesús González is to be honored by the City of Berkeley
Latin-American Parade and Festival in Downtown Long Beach

On Sat. Sept. 5th, Sadie Williams of Building Alliances,
Tina Flores, Los Cinco de Cuba, join with Josefina Lopez in hosting the 70th B'Earthday Celebration of Dorinda Moreno, Fuerza Mundial

The event, l2 noon - 6pm included Malinacihuatl, Azteca Danzantes
Mariachi Orgullo de Mexico, and many other special Guests, and surprises! The occasion tied in with support for Corazón del Pueblo. 4814 International Blvd.,
Oakland, CA. (510) 532-6733. More on
Corazón del Pueblo in October.

Sirens, Saints and Angels 

Tilaco: A Jewel of the Queretaran popular baroque Exhibit in California


In the 1750's, Father Junípero Serra, the future apostle of California, ventured with his fellow Franciscans into the rugged Sierra Gorda area of eastern Querétaro state to evangelize the semi-nomadic Indian tribes who lived there, and gather them into mission towns. Their efforts bore fruit and within a few years five new missions rose in the verdant valleys of the region.
These churches, most notably San Francisco Tilaco, are famous for their richly ornate, "folk baroque" facades of painted and sculpted stucco, which have recently been restored to their original, colorful appearance. 
Together with fine art photographer Jeffrey Becom, Richard Perry, Espadaña Press is participating in an upcoming exhibition that illustrates the spectacular "folk baroque" churches of the Sierra Gorda, Mexico.
Curated by Julianne Burton-Carvajal and entitled In the Footsteps of Father Junípero Serra, the exhibit opens August 21 2009 in the Mora Chapel Gallery of the Carmel Mission in California, and will run until March 21, 2010. Thereafter it will travel to other locations in California and elsewhere. San Francisco Tilaco, Sierra Gorda. ©Jeffrey Becom

Source: Richard Perry,
Exploring Colonial Mexico
August/September 2009



Rafael Jesús González is to be honored by the City of Berkeley. 

October 13th is to be named Rafael Jesús González Day. 


Susan Feliz, the city Art Ambassador writes: "Rafael , you are recognized for your lifetime of writing and art, cultural and political activism, and community service. The City of Berkeley is delighted that you are a member of our community.  For this and many other reasons that will be read at the council, the City will declare Oct 13th Rafael Jesús González Day.

It is an honor to be selected for this recognition and you join the company of Robert Hass, Susan Griffin, Kent Nagaro, Steven DeStaebler, Adam David Miller, Bella Feldman, Robert Cole, and Barbara Gates to name a few."
Acknowledgement will be made on October 13 at 7 pm.
For more information contact Susan Feliz at or 510-841-1781

Sent by Dorinda Moreno



1st Long Beach Latin-American Parade and Festival


Dear Neighbor:
I am proud to announce that on September 12, 2009 we will celebrate our City's first-ever Latin-American Parade and Festival in Downtown Long Beach. The parade will draw thousands of people to Pine Avenue and will celebrate all Latino cultures and countries including Brazil, Cuba, México, Perú, Puerto Rico just to name a few.
I have been working to bring this event to Long Beach long before I was elected to the City Council. The vision from the start was not only to celebrate our rich Latin-American culture, but to serve as an economic boom to Downtown restaurants and businesses.
We are collaborating with the Downtown Long Beach Associates (DLBA) who are serving as lead sponsors for the parade and festival. The Downtown Gazette newspaper will serve as the media sponsor for both the parade and the festival, as well.
The parade will run the entire length of Pine Avenue and end in the East Village for a celebration which will include food, performances and Latino art on display.
Jessica Quintana of Centro CHA told the Press-Telegram: "What an incredible way to highlight the largest ethnic group in the city of Long Beach. What a great new tradition for our city.”

The celebration begins with a parade down Pine Avenue. As the parade progresses through the heart of Downtown Long Beach, it will end in the East Village Arts District, where the festival will be in full swing. The festival features a food court, dance classes, art lectures, vendor booths, a kids' activity area and more, all celebrating the beauty and historical legacy of Latin America.   

For more information about participating, please contact Steve Sheldon at the Downtown Long Beach Associates at or 562-436-4259.  View recent media coverage about the parade and festival in the Press-Telegram and in the Downtown Gazette, or to to:

Office of Long Beach City Councilmember Robert Garcia
 333 West Ocean Blvd. | 14th Floor | Long Beach | CA | 90802  
Sent by Ann Salas-Rock
and Ricardo Valverde



Fifth Annual Hispanic Genealogy Conference
Obituary: Pauline Kibbe 
Obituary: Albert Huerta, Attorney and Faith Healer
Tijuana on the Line by Galal Kernahan

Fifth Annual Hispanic Genealogy Conference
Keynote address and four lectures
Saturday September 12th, 2009: 10:00 am – 4:30 pm

Co-sponsored by the Olibama Lopez Tushar Hispanic Legacy Research Center
and the Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy 

Denver Public Library, Central, Basement Conference Rooms A, B, and C 
10 W. 14th Ave Pkwy (14th and Broadway)


 “Hispanic Custom and Tradition in the Southwest:  
400 Years of Settlement"

Dr. Arthur Campa, Associate Dean,
School of Letters, Arts and Sciences, MetropolitanStateCollege of Denver
 Dr. Campa will provide a comprehensive look at the Hispanic customs and traditions passed on and adapted by successive generations of descendants of the early Spanish settlers of the northern frontier. Spanning four centuries and many generations, he will blend history and culture in understanding the rich heritage of what is today the Southwest region of the United States. 
“Tracking Railroad Records” 11:15pm – 12:00pm
Janice Prater, Education/Program Assistant
Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library
 Railroad records are valuable and yet overlooked source of historical and personal information on those individuals in our families who worked for railroad companies. Ms. Prater will introduce participants to the use of railroad records, including how to access them and the type of information that is found in these records.  In addition to those who were career railroad workers, individuals would take work with the railroads for periods of time for a number of reasons, such as during the depression, when crops failed, after a recent move to a new area, or when the railroad first came to the area where they lived, so this can often be an overlooked source of good genealogical information.
“The Spanish Language of Northern New Mexico and Southern Colorado” 1:00pm – 2:00pm

Danny E. Martínez, Instructor of Modern Languages and Ethnic Studies and Director of CU Succeed Program, University of Colorado

 Mr. Martinez will provide a linguistic and socio-historical sketch of the Spanish of Northern New Mexico and Southern Colorado from its origins to present.  The presentation will focus on the historical, social, and linguistic factors that distinguish the Spanish of Northern New Mexico and Southern Colorado from other varieties of Spanish spoken in the Spanish-speaking world.
“Resources in the Western History/Genealogy Department”  2:15pm– 3:00pm
James K. Jeffrey, Special Collection Librarian, Denver Public Library
Western History/Genealogy Department
The Western History/Genealogy Department is among the best research facilities for Hispanic genealogy in the region. Mr. Jeffrey will highlight some of the unique aspects of the Western History/Genealogy collection as well as help participants understand how to make the best use of the collection for Hispanic genealogy research.
“Genealogical Research in Spain: Extending the Vigil Family Ancestral Lines in Spain, 1400’s-1500’s”   3:15pm – 4:15pm
Marietta Gonzales, Genealogical Researcher
Building on the research of several genealogists, Mrs. Gonzales was able to continue to extend the genealogy of the ancestors of Francisco Montes Vigil, a common ancestor of most New Mexico families. Traveling to the town of San Martino de Siero, Asturias, Spain, where the Montes Vigil family originated, she contacted individuals who led her to additional sources on related family lines, such as the Argüelles, the Quiñones and the Quirós. She will share how the work of various researchers guided her own research and she will summarize steps in conducting genealogy research in Mexico and Spain , using the Vigil family as an example.
Early Registration Fee: $20.00 per person, postmarked no later than September 5. After September 5 and Conference Day Walk-ins:  $30.00 per person. Vender Table Fee: $25. and $8. box lunch only available by September 5th deadline, checks only, Please.  
More information: José Esquibel  (303)-842-2274 or
Ada Duran                                                         
PO Box 140978, Edgewater, CO 80214


Obituary: Pauline Kibbe  

12 Dec 1909 15. . . . May 2006 91602
(North Hollywood, Los Angeles, CA)


Pauline Rochester Kibbe, Latin Americanist with the Good Neighbor Commission in the 1940s, was born in Pueblo, Colorado, in 1909. She and her husband had two children. In 1939 she traveled to Mexico and then returned to San Antonio, where in 1940-41 she worked in a bilingual secretarial and purchasing service for Mexican business firms. In 1942 she wrote and produced the script for a series of twenty weekly programs on Latin America, entitled "Americans All" and broadcast over KTSA. In 1942-43 she chaired the Business and Professional Women's Club citywide Central Planning Committee for Inter-American Understanding. That year she wrote a weekly column called "Looking South" for the San Antonio Light. From 1939 to 1943 Pauline Kibbe served as field associate to the Executive Committee on Inter-American Relations in Texas. In 1943 she became the first executive secretary of the Good Neighbor Commission.
In 1944 she wrote Community Organization for Inter-American Understanding, a blueprint for institutions to participate in inter-American work. Among the objectives of the proposed organizational efforts was the promotion of Christian principles in human relations. She traveled across the state and to Mexico giving talks on inter-American affairs before Pan-American groups, women's clubs, churches, and sororities. In a typical month she participated in twenty speeches, conferences, workshops, and trips. In 1946 Kibbe wrote The Latin American in Texas. The book outlined the problems of segregation, the exploitation of agricultural workers, unfair employment practices, substandard housing, and segregation in public schools. She called for a constitutional amendment prohibiting segregation and discrimination, the institutionalization of the GNC as a permanent state agency, the abolition of the poll tax, and the reapportionment of school funds. Everett Ross Clinchy, Jr., called the book "angry." It received the Saturday Review of Literature's Anisfield-Wolf Award and was subsequently published by the Universidad Autónoma de México. A confidential document about the exploitation of undocumented labor written in 1947 led to Kibbe's departure from the GNC. She quoted United States immigration officials to the effect that employers refused workers their pay. She also protested the use of braceros because she believed that taking men away from their families caused moral problems. Her findings were reported in the Texas Spectator. Valley growers objected and Kibbe resigned, apparently under pressure. She charged authorities with imposing a "gag rule."
In 1948 she became state PAC director for the CIO. She wrote Educational Program on Latin America, published by the Phi Eta national sorority in 1943 and then by the Office of Inter-American Affairs in Washington, D.C. She wrote two brief pamphlets, Minute Guide to Speaking Spanish (1964), which went through six editions, and Guide to Mexican History (1966).
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


Obituary: Albert Huerta, Attorney and Faith Healer
1944 . . .  July 16, 2009

by Jaime Powell 

CORPUS CHRISTI — Attorney and faith healer Albert Huerta, known for his kind heart, keen legal mind and healing hands, died Thursday of complications related to a stroke, friends said. He was 65.

After 27 years as an attorney, Huerta had a second calling, dedicating his life to Jesus Christ. In 1998, he started My Father’s House, a nonprofit interdenominational ministry dedicated to bringing people closer to God. Thousands soon flocked there mainly because they believed Huerta’s hands had healing powers.

“How many did he touch?” said Carsten Meyers, who believes Huerta cured his throat ailment. “Tens of thousands. I would have been real skeptical, but after seeing it for all these weeks and months and years, he had the gift. (Before I saw it) I would have put on my conservative sunglasses and said wait a minute. But it was real. It was genuine. It happened to me.”

Born in Laredo in 1944, Huerta grew up poor and hungry, friends said, before working his way through Texas A&I University and St. Mary’s School of Law.
By 1989, Huerta, was a hard-charging personal injury attorney, named one of the top 60 most successful lawyers in the United States by Forbes Magazine.
He had money, a job he loved, a family he was crazy about and the Texas Sky Festival music venue he opened with son Joseph, friends said.

Then in 1998, Huerta was headed out the door to buy himself a $100,000 Mercedes- Benz when the phone rang and changed his life forever.

Joseph Huerta, an up-and-coming young lawyer himself, plunged into a ravine while skiing in Vail. Doctors weren’t sure if he would survive.  Attorney Mikal Watts, Joseph Huerta’s best friend, flew to Denver to be with him and witnessed the genesis of Albert Huerta’s faith.

“He was in a coma, and they said if he did come out of it within a week he was going to be like that for the rest of his life,” Watts said. “Mr. Huerta prayed and prayed and promised if God would save his son, he would convert his life to serve the Lord.”

On his Web site, Huerta describes a deal he tried to cut with God: $1 million in exchange for saving Joseph’s life. The younger Huerta didn’t get better, so his father upped the ante, promising to devote the rest of his life to God if his son was spared.

Joseph Huerta lived. And Albert Huerta kept his word, Watts said. A year after the accident, Huerta, still a practicing lawyer, started My Father’s House. Huerta made countless contributions that many people will never know about, but it’s likely his ministry work that he should be remembered for, said Dr. Robert Vela, Huerta’s best friend for a quarter of a century.

“Hopefully, it will inspire people to do what I am going to do,” Vela said. “When we are faced with difficult decisions, that we will stop and say what would Albert do? How would he handle this situation? And then, do what he would do.”
Survivors include wife, Norma Huerta; sons, Joseph and David Huerta; daughter, Lisa Huerta; and grandson, Tristan Huerta.

Rosary will be recited at 7 p.m. Monday at Corpus Christi Cathedral. Mass will be celebrated Tuesday 10 a.m. at Corpus Christi Cathedral. Burial will be in Seaside Memorial Park Cemetery.
Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Tijuana on the Line by Galal Kernahan

CHAPTER ONE: Beginning of the Line

What happens to a city ruled by a straight line?

In the past, Tijuana-bounded by a straight-edged border-came to be known for glitz and glitter, dust and dreams. Signs were everywhere. GET YOUR MEXICAN AUTO INSURANCE JUST AHEAD. WE UPHOLSTER YOU WHILE YOU WAIT. WORK GUARANTEED. SLOW DOWN FOR MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE.

People were everywhere. Men patrolled lines of cars offering painted vases, Aztec calendars, statues of Jesus and Batman.

Traffic surged over to Avenida Revolucion. Facades of curio shops, liquor stores, jewelers and women's clothing shops clamored by day. Bright lights of bars, cafes, night clubs and restaurants clamored by night. Show time. This is the place! Take a look! voices called from doorways. More taxi drivers hustled passing men. More chunks of music hurtled onto the sidewalk-marimba rhythms from an arcade, the sledge hammer beat behind an electric guitar, riffs of Mariachi trumpet.

Dwellings still blanket hillsides. A few are dignified homes at peace behind wrought-iron. Some line gridded streets. And then there are thousands of makeshift shelters thrown up by newcomers or once new arrivals. Change had been everywhere. Nothing stood still.

The man pushing a cart could be the symbol of Tijuana. He may sell tacos, fruit or snow cones. It does not occur to the tourist, who buys a savory tamale from a street vendor, peels back the warm corn-husk wrapping and sinks teeth in this typical Mexican food, that once a proud general almost met his end as a larger version of the same item.

On January 13,1845, Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana took flight from a rising sea of disaster and defeat. Disguised as a muleteer, he hoped to make it to the coast and away to safety. Around him was a country in chaos. He was one of the symptoms and one of the causes. If individuals can influence the course of events at all, his had been a sorry and influential role. He had been a Royalist and a Republican, Liberal, Conservative and Dictator.

The only consistent element in the whole performance was his hunger for glory. His life alternated between the sensational and the absurd. Spectacular sallies heightened each farce that inevitably followed.

In 1835, just before departing Mexico City to straighten out matters in Texas, he was boastful. If the U.S. were found to be aiding the rebels, he would march on Washington and raise the Mexican flag over the Capitol.

His troops overwhelmed foolhardy adventurers at Goliad. Surprised by Sam Houston at San Jacinto, he ran like a rabbit, hid, put on cast-off clothing from an abandoned cabin.

When Texans sighted him crossing a field, he dropped to the ground and pulled a blanket over himself. Taken prisoner, he first said he was a common soldier. Then that he was Santa Ana's aide. When he reached camp, captured soldiers recognized him. They gasped, "The President!"

A few years later, he puffed up his reputation on the basis of action in the
tragic-comic "Pastry War." Its alleged cause was damage Mexicans did a bakery owned by a Frenchman. For this and other supposed affronts, the French Government pressed a claim against Mexico for 600,000 pesos.

A punitive expedition seized the Vera Cruz island fortress of San Juan Ulloa. Santa Ana raced off to protect the nation's honor. The Mexican General had been in the port barely long enough to go to sleep when French forces came ashore from the fort.

Because it took a bomb to knock down the city gate, Santa Ana was jolted awake a few minutes before a party came to arrest him. He rushed downstairs with a handful of clothes he grabbed as they were coming up. They detained him only long enough to ask which was Santa Ana's room, then let him resume headlong flight. His aide displayed more courage. He was subdued only after absorbing saber cuts and pistol wounds.

Outside the city, Santa Ana rallied a few Mexican soldiers. By then, the French were leaving. They posted a cannon loaded with grape shot to cover their embarkation.
When Santa Ana charged, two of his officers and seven of his men were shredded. Others were wounded, including the General. His horse was killed under him. He was hit in the left hand and leg. The leg had to be severed and replaced with a wooden one.

In the General's version of the same incident, he lost 25 men while the invaders left 100 fallen in the streets as he heroically drove the rest into their boats at bayonet-point.

We conquered! Yes we conquered! he reported to the Minister of War. Mexican arms secured a glorious victory in the plaza! The flag of Mexico remained triumphant! I was wounded in this effort. This will probably be the final victory that I shall offer my native land.

Better for Mexico had this indeed been Santa Ana's final victory, but he recovered from the amputation. In subsequent victories, he managed to lose more than half of Mexico's national territory.

How often were long-suffering Mexicans to be reminded by Santa Ana of the blood he shed in their defense. He insisted the leg be buried with full military honors! Many came to regret he had not given all of himself…and less of the nation.

This, then, was the man who, dressed as a muleteer, fled the fury of a disgusted people in early 1845. All his insufferable bungling and posturing seemed about to catch up with him. Indians jumped the little party near Xico. His companions scattered.

He might have gotten away, too, but for his wooden leg. Instead, he had to await his fate astride a mule. Because muleteers rarely carry much cash, he sought to give the impression he was a merchant willing to deal for his freedom. It didn't work. They made him dismount, noticed his limp and discovered his artificial leg. They first suspected, and then were sure who he was.

What happened next showed they had a sense of humor, though a weird one. They sent for a huge pot, scoured huts for spices and chiles. They gathered banana leaves. Santa Ana was to be prepared as a huge tamale and so presented to the authorities.

The village priest discovered what was going on. He was horrified. He tolled the church bell. He carried the Host from the altar into their midst. That worked. The prisoner was surrendered alive.

Less than six months later, Santa Ana was aboard a ship going into exile. His destination was supposed to be Venezuela, but he disembarked in Havana. While he fleeced Cubans with fighting cocks, he schemed for a return to power.

He talked with the U.S. Consul and others who could carry his words to the gray-eyed man with grizzled hair and ashen pallor, who lived in the White House.

James Knox Polk was a somber politician, a shrewd and slavish follower of old Andy Jackson. Jackson, U.S. President from 1829 to 1837, dominated Democratic politics until his death at 78 in 1845. Both he and Polk were from Tennessee. One was called "Old Hickory" and the other "Young Hickory." Both were expansionists.

Jackson's Secretary of State Martin Van Buren wanted his turn at the top spot. The chief rival for the old General's nod was the South Carolinian John C. Calhoun. Van Buren neatly blighted Calhoun's chances.

He leaked to "Old Hickory" that, when a cabinet minister a dozen years earlier, the South Carolinian agreed Jackson should be reprimanded for seizing Florida.
Van Buren moved into the White House. The opposition Whig Party gained
the Presidency in 1837.            

Then, still the Democratic Party leader, Jackson turned to "Young Hickory."
If Santa Ana was larger than life, Polk was smaller. Santa Ana, always dramatizing his exploits, fancied himself a "Napoleon." Polk, raising cane with the political opposition as he combed the backwoods for votes, was dubbed the "Napoleon of the Stump." His partisan generalship was a matter of political bombast and all the feints, thrusts and tricks that went with being the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

As an obedient party man, he ran for Tennessee Governor when told to… even though he didn't want to. He won the first time, then lost two later bids. Fresh from such defeats he hardly seemed a likely presidential candidate. However, he enjoyed the paternal affection of "Old Hickory," especially in view of the fact he was the very embodiment of Manifest Destiny, what would today be called "naked imperialism."
Jackson and his lieutenants engineered Folk's nomination. That Baltimore Democratic Convention witnessed an innovation, the "dark horse." Folk's name did not even figure in any of the first eight ballots. He won on the ninth.

Cannons boomed. The new telegraph line to Washington hummed. Everyone drank whiskey, smoked cigars, congratulated each other and scrambled for a place on the bandwagon.

Folk's position was clear. He wanted California...and everything that lay between it and America's then western frontier. He planned, if elected, to incorporate at least half of Mexico into his nation. He was elected and he did.

The design to accomplish these ends served both territorial and petty partisan considerations. General Zachary Taylor, leading the invasion into Mexico from the North, was a prominent member of the opposition Whig Party. The popularity his victories brought was, politically speaking, distressing to Polk.

The design to accomplish these ends served both territorial and petty partisan considerations. General Zachary Taylor, leading the invasion into Mexico from the North, was a prominent member of the opposition Whig Party. The popularity his victories brought was, politically speaking, distressing to Polk.

One of Folk's moves aimed at limiting Taylor's popularity was to put another Whig General, Winfield Scott, into the invasion picture. Scott's expedition from Vera Cruz to Mexico City was supposed to overshadow Taylor's drive down from the North.
In spite of his moves to diminish Taylor's growing public favor, widespread acclaim propelled him into the White House as Folk's successor.

Polk failed in a final try to cut both Taylor and Scott down to size. He unsuccessfully maneuvered for authorization to send still two more generals-that outranked them-into the war. Scott blurted bitterly "Polk is more an enemy than Santa Ana!"
What kind of an enemy was Santa Ana? Historians argue the question. There is no doubt he helped Polk amputate a huge portion of Mexico.

Should he be viewed as a traitor? Or was he, perhaps, a double-dealer who outsmarted himself?

Whichever, Santa Ana may have had traced before Yankee grey eyes an outline of how to make a fabulous transfer of territory possible.
Colonel A. J. Antocha dropped by the White House in February, 1846.

One of Folk's moves aimed at limiting Taylor's popularity was to put another Whig General, Winfield Scott, into the invasion picture. Scott's expedition from Vera Cruz to Mexico City was supposed to overshadow Taylor's drive down from the North.
In spite of his moves to diminish Taylor's growing public favor, widespread acclaim propelled him into the White House as Folk's successor.

Polk failed in a final try to cut both Taylor and Scott down to size. He unsuccessfully maneuvered for authorization to send still two more generals-that outranked them-into the war. Scott blurted bitterly "Polk is more an enemy than Santa Ana!"

What kind of an enemy was Santa Ana? Historians argue the question. There is no doubt he helped Polk amputate a huge portion of Mexico.

Should he be viewed as a traitor? Or was he, perhaps, a double-dealer who outsmarted himself?

Whichever, Santa Ana may have had traced before Yankee grey eyes an outline of how to make a fabulous transfer of territory possible.

Colonel A. J. Antocha dropped by the White House in February, 1846.  He was a naturalized U.S. citizen. Santa Ana's debacle in Texas the year before brought Antocha's ejection from Mexico. He was suspected of ties to the fallen dictator.
He told President Polk he had recently talked with Santa Ana. He said the exiled general was favorably disposed toward a deal and cash to facilitate handover of much of the territory America coveted.

Near Saltillo one of the greatest tragedies of a tragic war occurred. A contingent of Arkansas cavalry scalped so many helpless Mexicans in a cave their blood puddled on its floor.

It was insane reprisal for the death of fellow soldiers killed at the hands of Mexicans trying to prevent the rape of their wives and daughters.

Santa Ana counseled Vera Cruz be taken. It was, but not before Santa Ana was back in Mexico. He implied he might be of service in establishing a reasonable, republican government there.

Polk cleared the way for his return. Orders were sent he be allowed to pass unmolested through the blockade.

On August 6,1846, Santa Ana landed at Vera Cruz. His ship had been briefly detained by a U.S. sloop of war. He conferred with one of its officers.

Churning Mexican politics made it possible for Santa Anna again to play a key role. Events that followed did not vary from the sequence earlier outlined.

He led armies that lost to the Americans in the North. He led armies that lost to the Americans marching on Mexico City from Vera Cruz. He accepted a large cash bribe from U.S. General Winfield Scott to hasten the end of hostilities and then remained in the field anyway.

The whole charade succeeded too well. Before it ended, American hawks, stirred by triumphs and angered by war costs, demanded not just western lands but all Mexico.

In a second interview, Antocha laid out a coercive strategy to force Mexican authorities to relinquish the land. Whether it was on Antocha's advice or not, whether Antocha indeed represented Santa Ana or not, that strategy was the one Polk used.
One step-to heighten tension-was to withdraw Folk's emissary charged with pursuing a negotiated purchase from Mexico. This was done. Another was to send forces to the Rio Grande. This, too, was done. The third step was to dispatch naval forces to Vera Cruz. Also done.

Polk sent an agent to Cuba. The man talked at length with Santa Ana. Among comments reported back was one to the effect that, if Mexico remained in anarchy or became a monarchy, Santa Ana intended to go to Texas and become an American citizen.

Santa Ana suggested American forces advance southward at least as far as Saltillo, perhaps to San Luis Potosi. They did.
There have been recent times when likelihood of a phenomenon like Tijuana seemed all but impossible. The present is becoming one. This was a time when Mexico itself was at risk.

Santa Ana and Polk were-each in his own way-a grotesque caricature of his respective culture.

It is well to remember that not all American leaders were single-minded aggressors devoid of scruples about a neighbor nation. Certainly all Mexican leaders were not addicted to the grand gesture followed by sell-out.

Opposition to Polk in the United States was substantial. Opposition to Santa Ana in Mexico was fierce. Each had an opponent deserving of mention.

Young Illinois Congressman Abraham Lincoln ridiculed the shoddy legalisms with which Polk tried to clothe his war. Benito Juarez, an Indian who rose to become Governor of Oaxaca, denied Santa Ana permission to set foot in his state.
The Congressman and the Governor were fated to be friends. They would come to represent the greatness of their two peoples as vividly as Polk and Santa Ana displayed the defects.

Neither a Polk nor a Santa Ana are to be found among people in modern Tijuana, but some arrogant Americans and some self-important Mexicans, who share traits with them, are sprinkled here and there. Such persons are tragic replicas of those behind a sick season of slaughter that should never have happened. But, late in the 20th Century, it began happening again.
As well there should be, there are Americans with uneasy consciences about the War of 1846-1848, now generations in the past. Some wounds never quite heal. Would that there were something more than Hashes of remorse.

One of those came in 1962. Then U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy visited Indonesia. In response to a question, he said he did not believe the U.S.Mexican War was justified. Some alpha Texans were up in arms.

President John F. Kennedy, tried a facetious remark to calm the furor. He said that all future comments on Texas by his brother, the Attorney General, would be cleared with Vice President Lyndon Johnson, a Texan.

People in Mexico's interior sometimes reproached people of Tijuana. They put them down for absorbing too many American influences. But now? Like Ciudad Jaurez and other Mexican cities on the line, today's Tijuana heralds a failing state wracked by violence and corruption.

The consuming civic rot and metastasizing deadly violence are funded by billions in drug money supplied by millions of U.S. addicts.



Barack Obama May Become The Sixth, Not The First Black President
New DAR Publication Highlights Minority Patriots of the Revolutionary War

Barack Obama, Not The First Black President

A Historians says Dwight Eisenhower's mother, 
Ida Elizabeth Stover Eisenhower, (above, right) was black.

          Black male historians have written extensively that Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Dwight Eisenhower had black ancestors, according to historians Joel A. Rodgers, Dr. Leroy Vaughn, and Dr. Auset Bakhufu.

          Black historians, however, were not the first to write about the five presidents' racially mixed families. White historians and political opponents also wrote about the men's black ancestors, but the books were either destroyed, went out of print or are hard to find.
          A common theme associated with the earlier black presidents is that they all passed for white, sometimes destroying family photographs and letters, to hide their racial backgrounds.

          Sen. Obama cannot obviously pass for white because of his dark skin color. Obama makes it clear he is the son of a Kenyan economist and white female anthropologist.
          Interracial relationships between black women and white men explain the racial backgrounds of some of the presidents, but not all.

          Sexual relationships between black men and white women have produced offspring. Andrew Jackson, the nation's seventh's president, was the son of a black man and an Irish woman, according to historians.  Interracial relationships between black men and Native American women also produced racially mixed offspring.

          Rodgers, who died in 1966, wrote the book The Five Black Presidents, and Dr. Vaughn devotes a chapter to the five black presidents in his Black People and Their Place in World History. Rogers and Vaughn agree Jefferson, Jackson, Lincoln, Harding and Coolidge had black ancestors.

          Dr. Auset Bakhufu, author of The Six Black Presidents Black Blood: White Masks includes Eisenhower.
Sent by John Inclan


Forgotten Patriots:
African American & American Indian Patriots of Revolutionary War: 



The Daughters of the American Revolution announced the release of the second edition of Forgotten Patriots – African American and American Indian Patriots of the Revolutionary War: A Guide to Service, Sources, and Studies.
The guide identifies over 6,600 African Americans and American Indians who contributed to American independence and contains details of the documented service of the listed Patriots, historical commentary on happenings of the time, an assortment of illustrations, and an extensive bibliography of research sources related to the topic.
For more information, excerpts, and how to purchase the book, please visit Forgotten Patriots....



Life, Liberty and Benign Monarchy?
Center for Integral Small Farmer Development in the Mixteca
The "River of Raptors"
Aztec Conchero Dance Tradition

Life, Liberty and Benign Monarchy?
Op-Ed by Kathleen DuVal
New York Times, July 3, 2009


CHAPEL HILL, NC — From the perspective of 2009, democracy in the United States is a great success. This makes it is easy to imagine that the march to democracy was the only path — that there is a clear line from the Declaration of Independence to the presidency of Barack Obama, and that democracy is the only fair society.

But republican government was a risky choice at the time of the Revolution, and democracy was almost out of the question. There were more proven alternatives for running a society fairly. A look at two other contenders for control of the continent in 1776 — [native] American Indians and Spaniards — reveals that democracy’s supremacy in promoting human rights was far from inevitable.

There were Indians fighting on both sides of the Revolution and others who tried to stay neutral.  But whatever their choice, Indians did not fight for an American republic or a British constitutional monarchy, but for their own goals, especially sovereignty. While American Indians were politically diverse, by the Revolution their most common governance structure consisted of multiple chiefs with limited power, advised by councils of elders. Chiefs led by persuasion rather than force. As a Mohawk man of the day explained, “We have no forcing rules or laws amongst us.”

For the British, a signed document was what sealed a treaty; but for the Indians they dealt with, a treaty had no validity without public acclaim. At a treaty negotiation, hundreds of people would gather for weeks, discussing and debating in formal sessions and over elaborate meals. Although not always reached, consensus was the ideal.

Historians and anthropologists have hypothesized that this extreme insistence on shared power was a reaction to the fall of earlier, hierarchical Mississippian chiefdoms, which had ruled much of North America from about 700 to 1600 A.D. Mississippian chiefs could be brutal. Weapons and art depicting violence are abundant at Mississippian archaeological sites. Some chiefs were buried with not only piles of luxury goods but also people, killed to accompany their leader in death.

Later American Indians may have inherited a distrust of centralized authority from their
oppressed ancestors. Did Indians build democracies? No. Did they provide liberty and justice for their people? Often, yes. Indians built consensus-style government over time, in response to the hard lessons of history.

Indians were the most populous but not the only rivals to British-American occupation of North America in the 1770s. King Charles III of Spain saw the American Revolution as an ideal opportunity to extend his empire north. Although most people forget Spanish involvement in the war, Spain won battles against the British at Baton Rouge, LA, Mobile, AL., and Pensacola, FL.

At the end of the Revolution, European maps showed Spain in possession of most of what is today the continental United States: the entire Gulf Coast and everything west of the Mississippi River. Immigrants from the new United States of America were offered free land in the West if they swore an oath to the king and converted to Catholicism. Knowing what we know now about imminent U.S. dominance, this might look like a bad deal. But thousands of U.S. Americans took the king up on his offer as land became scarce in the east. Royalist, imperial, theocratic, bureaucratic Spanish governance was not out of the question.
Surprisingly, the Spanish empire provided some freedoms that the U.S. would later take away when it expanded westward. Women in the Spanish Empire were not subject to coverture, the legal doctrine under which their legal identities were subsumed under men’s, first by their fathers and then by their husbands. In the post-Revolutionary U.S., married women could not own property, participate in local politics, serve on juries, write wills, sign contracts or exercise custody rights over their children. Under the Spanish system, in contrast, women kept their names, property and legal identities. They were not equal to men of their rank, certainly, but they had legal rights unavailable in Anglo-American society.

Slaves in the Spanish colonies of Louisiana and the Floridas also had some rights and
opportunities that they would lose under the U.S. Slaves who felt mistreated by a master (beyond the “normal” allowed violence) had the right to appeal to the local military commander — and they sometimes won. Slaves could gain freedom through wartime service; thus hundreds served as soldiers, messengers, spies and laborers for the war effort. After the American Revolution, appeals became easier to win, and more than 1,000 slaves in Spanish territory freed themselves either by buying themselves or being paid for by a family member or friend. The life of a slave in Spanish Louisiana and Florida was not easy, but it was far less dehumanizing than the plantation system of the U.S. American South.

U.S. founders did not want to become Indians or Spaniards. Many of them admired Indian
freedoms but believed the natives had no real government. Not knowing of the Mississippian past, Thomas Jefferson wrote in his “Notes on the State of Virginia” that Indians had “never submitted themselves to any laws, any coercive power, any shadow of government.” While he judged that “too much law, as among the civilized Europeans” was worse than “no law, as among the savage native Americans,” he believed representative government was best of all.

And the founders believed the Spanish were even more despotic than the hated British. Jefferson believed that the monarchy and priesthood left Spanish subjects “immersed in the darkest ignorance, and brutalized by bigotry and superstition.” He ignored the many black slaves and impoverished white settlers who voted with their feet, moving to Spanish territory for freedom and land.

Councils of elders and monarchies are not better than democracies, and usually are worse. But North American history makes clear that the details of a political system often make more difference in people’s lives than the form does. Our past should give us pride but also humility and caution as we proceed in the world.

[Kathleen DuVal, an associate professor of history at the University of North Carolina, is the author of “The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent” and a forthcoming book on the American Revolution on the Gulf Coast.]
Sent by: Jim Estrada 
Estrada Communications Group, Inc.
13729 Research Boulevard, Suite 610
Austin, TX  78750    
Tel: 512.335.7776 / Fax: 512.335.2226  Website:



Center for Integral Small Farmer Development in the Mixteca



In the Mixteca region of Oaxaca, Mexico, Jesús León Santos leads an unprecedented land renewal and economic development program that employs ancient indigenous agricultural practices to transform this barren, highly eroded area into rich, arable land. With his organization, the Center for Integral Small Farmer Development in the Mixteca (CEDICAM), a democratic, farmer-led local environmental organization, León has united the area’s small farmers. Together, they have planted more than one million native-variety trees, built hundreds of miles of ditches to retain water and prevent soil from eroding, and adapted traditional Mixteca indigenous practices to restore the regional ecosystem. Efforts are paying off as barren hillsides turn green again, aquifers are recharged, and the high rate of migration slows as indigenous farming families find they are able to make a living at home.

Climate Change, Industrial Farming, and Migration
Studies indicate that climate change trends such as erosion, flooding, desertification and changing weather patterns will gravely affect small farmers and consequently food supply worldwide. In the Mixteca region of Oaxaca, one of Mexico’s poorest states, this is grimly apparent. According to a UN study, the region has one of the highest rates of soil erosion in the world, affecting 83 percent of the land, with 500,000 hectares considered severely eroded.

After adopting chemical-intensive varieties of corn seed in the 1980s, many small farmers in the Mixteca region found that yields were dropping and the soil was becoming depleted. As a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and US corn subsidies, maize prices dropped and many farmers could no longer afford the price of fertilizers and pesticides that the new varieties required. As the soil declined in productivity, small-scale agriculture became increasingly difficult. Erosion, coupled with declining prices for the staple corn crop, forced thousands of Mixtecans to leave the region.

In the early 1980s, León, a Mixtec indigenous small farmer and cofounder of CEDICAM, began helping people organize to reforest the area to quell erosion. As more and more farmers requested trees to plant on their properties, CEDICAM’s first nursery expanded into a system of several community-run nurseries. More than twenty years of grassroots work has led to significant benefits for the region. With help from León and CEDICAM, people are now planting up to 200,000 native trees a year. The trees prevent erosion, aid water filtration into the ground, provide carbon capture and green areas, contribute organic material to the soil and provide more sustainable, cleaner burning wood to residents who cook on open fires. CEDICAM is teaching communities sustainable use of firewood and the use of wood-saving stoves. This alleviates the workload of women who, in the past, had to travel farther to collect wood.

Sent by Juan Marinez



"River of Raptors" passes over Vera Cruz every year

The "River of Raptors" passes over Vera Cruz every year. During migration, over 4 million raptors fly over every fall. Even today, people from around the world visit Vera Cruz during this time. My question is how did the indigenous people react to this? The history of the native peoples of the state of Vera Cruz is interesting. In the pre-Hispanic period, Vera Cruz was inhabited primarily by the Huastecos and Otomíes occupying the north, while the Totonacs resided in the north-center. The Olmecs became dominant in the southern part of Veracruz. Did any of these people use this yearly phenomenon of nature in art, religion, calendar, agriculture, festivities, etc.? Did other native peoples travel to the Vera Cruz area each year to experience the River?
Regards, George Vierra
Napa Valley College, Napa, CA



    "Estrella del oriente que nos da su santa luz
      Es hora que sigamos el camino de la cruz"

The tradition of the current Aztec conchero dancers seen in Mexico and more recently in the U.S. originated shortly after the Spanish invaded Mexico in 1521. As a form of accommodation the Native Americans that survived the invasion of the Spanish were allowed, under Spanish ecclesiastical supervision, to conduct their dances in the courtyards of churches in honor of the saints or virgins represented there. The dance troupes imitated a military type of hierarchy, the head being the captain (capita´n), two women captains who tend the altar and who supervise other women, two sergeants (sargentos) who tend the altar and supervise trips (marchas), and two standard bearers (alfareces). The men are referred to as warriors, the women as malinches. Malinche here refers not to the concept of traitor, originating from  the lover and interpretor of Corte´s, but rather a positive image of the historic Malintzin, a person that assists the soldiers. These Aztec dancers use a plumed headdress, a cape, and a stringed instrument made with the armor of an armadillo; moreover, rattles from shell-like seeds known as chalchahuites or ayayotes provide a pre-Columbian native quality of sound that accompanies the intricate steps of the dancer. Also accompanying the dance is the rhythm of a tall wooden drum known as the huehuetl (from Aztec Nahuatl wewetl).It is estimated that there may be as many as 50,000 conchero Aztec dancers in Mexico; in the United States, there are conchero dance groups represented in every state where there is a sizeable population of Mestizos, i.e., those that are part Native American and Spanish. Most recently, the performance based troupes (as opposed to traditional, sacred and ritualistic) have been seen participating in North-American Native powwows.
 The origin of the conchero tradition as it is known today is the result of an accommodation between Spanish/Christian  authorities and Native Americans of Mexico circa 1537.1 There are two schools of thought regarding the authenticity of the conchero tradition:
(1)Those who see it as syncretic, as a process of colonialism, and
(2)Those who see it as a spiritual and sacred tradition with hidden meaning, interpretation and symbolism.2 

Among the problems in searching for a deeper meaning of the tradition is the number of groups that became part of the  folklore of danza vis-a-vis Catholic saint ceremonies and celebrations. Moreover, there is little research in this area; what little remains as Native American documents are post-conquest, written under the hand and censorship of the Inquisition.3  Martha Stone, in her book, At the Sign of Midnight, attempts to portray a collaborative view between herself and the conchero groups that have accepted her as a Malinche, a capitana de mesa (a captain of a troupe), and a capitana de comunidades en la capitani´a (a captain of troupes within communities).4 While her work does provide anminteresting and descriptive portrait of concheros, it does not explain the most important elements of the conchero danza, i.e., the sacred/spiritual foundation. While it could be argued that conchero jefes (or heads) do not like to share with outsiders any religious aspects of their danza, nonetheless, without any understanding of the purpose for its existence, it is reduced to performance-based activities that rest on folklore and Christian accommodation. Perhaps it is the very nature of its sacred essence that makes it more difficult for the jefes to divulge its spiritual base.5 
 All matters concerning Native Americans in Mestizo-America require careful scrutiny on the part of the researchers. To date, the problem has been to accept the Catholic/friar version of the Aztecs by Sahagu´n as an unbiased observer.6 One must see the motives of the Spanish since their arrival in the Americas. The burning of priceless documents (codices) of the Aztec civilization was a malicious and premeditated act by the first Inquisitor of Mexico, Juan de  Zuma´rraga. It is clear that information regarding science, arts and religion should be eliminated in view of the intentional cultural and religious genocide that the Inquisition was directing. It is the creation of medieval Europe in the Americas, from imperialism of church and state to the exploitation of the masses and the creation of a plutocracy.7 What  has become clear after thirty years of study into Native-American thought and culture is the evident psychological and mental projection of the medieval world by Spanish friars and subsequent researchers in colonial Mexico as well as twentieth-century American writers. To find any allusion to devils, witchcraft and generally barbaric Inquisitional and medieval deeds is to project a Western medieval picture of a non- Western Amerigenous culture and society. This view is inconsistent with the Native American ind of pre-Columbian society where there exist no devils or witches, nor the concept of evil, hell or purgatories. Yet, in the post-conquest codices, including the work of Sahagu´n, there exist these medieval European ideas.8

When dealing with conchero danza tradition it is easier to see the distinct influences from each camp. Jose´ Flores Peregrino,  capitan of a danza troupe from Austin, Texas, declares it a  Mestizo development, asserting, moreover, that others may see it differently, some more pure, others more Christian.9 As a capitan and a student of Maestro Andre´s Segura, he understands those elements that are rooted in pre-Columbian tradition. While there are symbols that can be interpreted in two different ways (e.g., the cross), he discerns the difference between Christian and native crosses:10
To the native the cross symbolizes life and balance, the four winds...The crosses of San Andre´s  and Ketzalko´atl are balanced, whereas the Christian cross in out of balance with its horizontal points too high. The center is in the middle of the cross...This is where man becomes and that is why the elders of ancient times were conquerors of the four winds...They were persons who had learned and were able to achieve and understand the energy of the four winds...the cross connects with Nahui Ollin11, the four movements in harmony and in motion... 
According to Flores, another native root is in the Canto de la Estrella, a chant that is ancient and, according to his understanding, antedates the arrival of the Christians. He insists  that there is no mention of Christ, citing the first verse: "Estrella del oriente/ que nos da su santa luz/ es hora que sigamos/ el camino de la cruz." (Star of the East/ from which we receive thy holy light/ the time is upon us/ to follow the path of the cross.)12 The reference points here are the star in the East and the path of the cross. Its connection to Christian tradition can be easily seen in the biblical tradition. However, there was religious significance to the planet Venus for the pre- Columbian sages; it has both astronomic and religious significance. The reference to the cross vis- a-vis Venus may be incongruous here. It is possible that it may be a colonial loan word in view that there was a special teaching to follow which was taught by the Tlamatinimi or the sage- scientist-priest. One way to know whether each danza troupe is following the original native ways is to ask them what each ritual means and, in particular, its relationship to religion. What appears to be constant in Andre´s Segura's followers is the consciousness of the pre-Columbian connection as exemplified by Jose´ Flores Peregrino and his association with Xinachtli.13  Other conchero troupes share the same responsibility, i.e., to return to the pre-  Columbian teachings as directed by the last ruler of the Confederation of Anahuak. Bruce Pacho Lane, in his documentary entitled, The Eagle's Children, captures several addresses by jefes or generales of danza in Mexico.  
The concept of returning to roots is also inherent in Flores' address; in this case it is the  Euro/Anglo-dominated society that is taking away the language, culture and heritage of Chicanos: "That is why we are drawn here, to search for our roots..."15   In the hierarchy of the danzantes, the general de generales is equivalent to the highest ranking general in the military. Manuel Luna (recently deceased) achieved that rank and, when he spoke, he spoke with the greatest authority. In the annual pilgrimage to Chalma, he alluded to the importance of the authority and lineage of the past great elders of Mexico...he prays for their souls and the souls of all concheros, be they in purgatory or heaven.16 Florencio Gutierrez, as a general de danza from Guadalajara, Mexico, is an example of mestizaje as he alludes to the infinite power of the ancestors and the Apostle of St. James in the same light:
. . . St. James the Apostle appeared in the heavens and we recognized the Christian God had conquered the old Gods...That is why we say ¡E´l es Dios! (God is He!)17
The question of performance vis-a-vis sacred ritual is distinguished by traditional steps, discipline and teaching. Andre´s Segura believes that the majority of conchero danza groups are not interested in the rigid traditional steps that have a spiritual basis. Jose´ Flores Peregrino explains the traditional steps:
The steps are always in a circular motion; it always begins to the left but will always go to the right...whatever steps are made in one direction, have to be repeated in the other direction but always completing a sacred quartet of steps...Many do not follow this; there are groups that do it only for performance and, as such, do not follow the tradition. In California, they are doing whatever they want; likewise in San Antonio.18
Dora Meshoulan, a "Malinche" of danza in Mexico City, speaks of the movement as a dance of life:
Practice is not is a feeling inside, when captured, the movement is ours. One doesn't think about it, you become one with the movement; it is the movement of life, it is the dance of goes beyond the circle, to the home; it is total commitment, it is total sacrifice; it is nourishment that is purely spiritual...We must teach this way of life of the Mexica, Tenocha and Zapoteca, also...The real prehispanic danza, unfortunately, has been turned to folklore..."19
 Members of conchero groups in the United States included Donalyn Torres, Mario Aguilar and Florencio Yescas. Donalyn Torres is a Mescalero Apache from New Mexico who speaks of the similarities to the Mexica culture; she notes similarities to the Apache in the dance form, the steps, the rhythm. Mario Aguilar, a capitan de danza of Mexicayotl in San Diego, remembers his first contact with concheros in 1974: "It was in 1974 when we went to the Chicano Teatro festival in Mexico City that we saw Andre´s Segura's conchero group...I came back inspired by the danza...Then I saw Florencio's group in Tijuana and before I knew it, they were here." Florencio Yescas heads the Aztec danzas in New Mexico; as a teacher, he must also be a warrior:
Danza teachers, each one as warriors, has to find a place to fight...As Chicanos, in our blood, we are Indian--It is a quantum step to go from Mexican, to Chicano, to Indian...It is the poor people that have made the danza survive, unlike the upper classes who lost it has happened in Mexico as well as in the United States with Chicanos...20
 In Danza Azteka de Anahuak, a television documentary on Aztec dancers, we note the influence and impact of danzantes from Mexico on danza troupes from New Mexico. What is apparent is the addition of painted faces and danza steps.21 To the traditional danza groups, i.e., Segura's students, this would call for disciplina. Flores asserts that none of his group would ever be permitted to deviate with paint and non-traditional steps. He objects to the idea of "making tradition". The teacher from Mexico here, recognized as el Venado (the deer) by Flores, declares, 
We bring the word of the ancestors...we engage in living tradition because that is what we are; while we live, we engage in the tradition; when we die, we will leave the tradition [to continue]..



School Built on Cemetery Provides Lesson in History
Toledo was once the capital of a thriving Jewish community. 
Recharging Batteries with 419 Year old Experience 

School Built on Cemetery Provides Lesson in History 
By Victoria Burnett Source: Toledo,Spain Journal, Published: July 1, 2009 

School Built on Cemetery Provides Lesson in History 

David Stoleru, who works to preserve Jewish heritage in Spain, at a construction site in Toledo where Jewish remains have been unearthed. Michael Kamber for The New York Times

TOLEDO, Spain — As this medieval hilltop city baked in the afternoon heat, a group of Jewish leaders gathered beside a freshly dug grave and lowered into it small bundles of flaking, ancient bones. With prayers and a plea for forgiveness for disturbing the peace of more than 100 medieval souls, they laid them to rest in the cool, reddish earth.  Toledo was once the capital of a thriving Jewish community. 

The quiet ceremony in late June concluded months of delicate negotiations between Jewish groups and Spanish authorities over the fate of the remains of 103 Spanish Jews whose graves were excavated last year during the construction of a school building in a suburb of this historic city. 


Toledo was once the capital of a thriving Jewish community. 
The New York Times Michael Kamber for The New York Times


Tombstones at one of Toledo’s two medieval synagogues are reminders of Spain's Jewish heritage. 

The exhumation drew international condemnation from Jewish representatives and became an important battleground in the quest to preserve Jewish cemeteries all around Spain, remnants of a thriving community that made Toledo its capital before being expelled by Spain’s Roman Catholic monarchs in 1492.  The dispute pitted the exigencies of modern society against the rights 
of a scattered people for whom a permanent tomb is a crucial religious requirement. It stirred friction between Jewish groups eager to protect their heritage but divided over how to deal with a secular government. 

“Toledo is central to Jewish history,” said David Stoleru, a co-founder of the Center of Studies Zakhor in Barcelona, a research group dedicated to preserving Jewish heritage. “The state has a duty to protect that legacy.”

“This issue has international repercussions,” Mr. Stoleru said. “It’s not just affecting the Jewish community in Spain but the sensibility of an entire people.” 

The controversy began in September, when builders digging a new foundation at the Azarquiel High School discovered dozens of graves, believed to be part of a Jewish cemetery dating from around the 13th century. The cemetery may extend well beyond the grounds of the school; Mr. Stoleru said he recently saw bones in the ground at another nearby construction site.

The government of Castilla-La Mancha, the parched region of which Toledo is the tourist-mobbed capital, halted the digging and stored the remains at a museum pending discussions with the Federation of Jewish Communities of Spain, which represents Spain’s 40,000 Jews. 

Jewish representatives suggested building a raised foundation to sit above the graves but were told this would be difficult and expensive, according to rabbis and government officials involved in the talks. 

María Soledad Herrero, who runs the regional government’s culture department, said the authorities had to balance the needs of history with those of students. 

“Nobody knows the importance of Spain’s Jewish heritage better than we in Toledo,” she said by telephone. “But we can’t put 1,000 pupils on the street.” 

As talks dragged on, the economic pressure grew, and in February the authorities ordered construction to restart. The facts on the ground built their own momentum: by mid-June, a foundation had been laid and the skeleton of a two-story building stood above the grave site. 

Meanwhile, international protests spread to New York, Israel and Canada. Rabbi David Niederman, president of the United Jewish Organizations of Williamsburg, visited Spain to protest the exhumation, which he said was tantamount to a second expulsion. Thousands of black-clad Orthodox Jews gathered in a Brooklyn hotel in May to mourn the desecration. 

Finally, on June 18, the parties agreed to bury the remains close to the original graves but clear of the construction site. 

Dalia Levinsohn, secretary general of the Federation of Jewish Communities of Spain, hailed the agreement as the best solution available and dismissed criticism from groups that advocated a harder line. 

“We did what we could,” she said by telephone. “If you kick up a big fuss, the next time someone finds remains they won’t say a word to us.” 

However, Toledo’s symbolism made it an important, and distressing, precedent, preservationists and religious leaders said. 

“This is not an example we want to repeat,” said Rabbi Moshe Bendahan, Spain’s chief rabbi, who helped to broker the agreement. “The model would be to not excavate the remains in the first place.” 

Religious representatives in Toledo said the city should seize on a revival in interest in Spain’s Jewish past to promote understanding. The city, which is home to two of Spain’s last three medieval synagogues, but has virtually no practicing Jewish population, flaunts its history: its cobblestone streets are lined with shops selling swords, pottery and medieval figurines, and a small tram packed with tourists curls past its monuments. 

The regional government has shown a willingness to sacrifice modern construction for the sake of preserving historic sites: three years ago it stopped plans by a private developer to build 1,300 apartments in Toledo after diggers uncovered a Visigothic town. The 210-acre site is now protected and is set to be transformed into a museum and research center. 

Toledo is by no means the first city to face controversy over a Jewish burial site in Europe, where preservationists have battled exhumations from Prague to Vilnius, Lithuania. The remains of more than 150 people were exhumed from a medieval cemetery in Tarrega, in the Catalonia region, two years ago and reburied in a cemetery in Barcelona. 

Nor is the news all negative: in May, Catalonia’s regional government declared the Jewish cemetery on Mont Juic, in Barcelona, a cultural heritage site. 

Ms. Levinsohn said the federation would seek to sign protocols with Spain’s 17 regional governments to better safeguard Jewish cemeteries. Under Spanish law, when ancient human remains are found they are exhumed and stored for archaeological study. Jewish preservationists said Spain should also identify and map what Jewish leaders say they believe could be hundreds of unmarked cemeteries. 

For Mr. Stoleru, the issue of Jewish graves raises questions about how modern, secular Spain reconciles itself with dark chapters of its history, like the expulsion and forced conversion of thousands of Jews and Muslims during the Inquisition. 

“We need to reflect much more deeply about the expulsion and use history to inform our daily actions,” he said. “Jewish heritage in Spain should not be a museum piece. It should be a tool for teaching tolerance and diversity.” 

Sent by José R. Oural


Richard G. Santos




              As I said last week, there comes a time when one senses a change looming over the horizon. Feeling somewhat restless, I decided to recharge my soul’s batteries by tumbling forward into the past 419 years ago. Not being able to go to Mexico City to visit the site of El Quemadero at Plaza San Hipolito where many of my ancestors were burned at the stake or the Cathedral where the Inquisition hung their sanbenitos, instead I spent last weekend retracing their footsteps through the ancient pre-historic sea now known as the Pecos River Valley. The area has many memories for different people who traveled the old Highway 90 route before I-10 made the drive easier and safer.

               Specifically, I am referring to Texas Highway 290 between Ozona and Sheffield. For some, including Zeke Romero, the steep drop immediately south of the Pecos River on the curving road reminds him of when he used to walk along his father’s truck with a block of wood ready to place it behind the tires to keep it from rolling backwards. Many others recall going downhill and the entire steep drop smelling of burning brakes and clutches.

               To attorney Charlie Jones who majored in geology before going to law school and becoming a lawyer, the ancient pre-historic sea is a natural wonder.

 I myself delight in counting the four to five still visible strata of the ancient sea on the cliffs and mountain sides and checking for fossils along the side of the road.

               There is another aspect of the Pecos River Valley in the vicinity of Sheffield along Highway 290 that draws me periodically. It began in 1586 when the Inquisition first arrested most of my ancestors. Don Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva, founder of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon and the cities now called Monclova, Monterrey, Cerralvo and Cadereyta, was arrested and tried by the Mexico City based Inquisition for knowingly harboring and not reporting that his sister and her entire family as Crypto (secret) Jews. Dona Francisca de Carvajal y de la Cueva wife of Francisco Rodriguez de Matos, four daughters and one son were arrested and tortured. Two sons escaped to Salonika, Greece and two sons-in-law including my direct ancestor and child, also escaped. Don Luis died in prison of unknown causes in February 1590 while his sister and all her daughters and son Luis Iosef  chose to be burned alive at the stake in 1596 rather than renounce their religious beliefs.

               When arrested, Don Luis had left the Nuevo Reyno de Leon, now composed of Nuevo Leon, Coahuila and parts of Tamaulipas, Veracruz and South Texas in the hands of three captains. They were Portuguese Sephardic Jew Alberto del Canto (founder of Saltillo), Diego de Montemayor at the village of San Luis which he later renamed Monterrey, and Portuguese Sephardic Jew Gaspar Castano de Sosa at Almaden, now called Monclova, Coahuila. Once it became know that Don Luis had died in prison, the three captains split the 1580 colonists of Nuevo Leon. Del Canto stayed at Saltillo, Montemayor stayed at San Luis, but Gaspar Castano de Sosa decided to move the entire population of Almaden (Monclova) to El Nuevo Mexico de la Santa Fe de San Francisco. Hence it was in August of 1590, that the 160 families of Almaden crossed the Rio Grande and entered the Pecos River Valley.

               So there I was (again) last weekend, standing at the roadside rest area at the beginning of the steep drop and winding road looking at the Pecos River slithering far below. In my mind and soul I could see the 160 families with their three large carretones walking upstream along the Pecos River. They had chosen life and survival. They had chosen to risk rattlesnakes, wild game and possible hostile Native Americans instead of falling into the hands of the Inquisition. In my mind I could see 12 year old Catalina walking along her pet fawn and the outriders scouting the area searching for fresh water and camping sites.

               Gaspar Castano de Sosa and the original founding families of Almaden (Monclova) reached upper New Mexico north of Taos in January 1591. However, less than two months later, an arresting party of the Inquisition arrived, arrested everyone and escorted them to Zacatecas. Captain Castano de Sosa was taken to Mexico City in chains where he was tried and found guilty of trying to colonize New Mexico without a permit. He was found guilty and sent to the Philippine Island where he was killed in battle. The majority of the families made their way back to Saltillo and in 1598 joined Diego de Montemajor in the third and final founding of the city he called Monterrey. In 1688 many descendants of the Castano de Sosa group joined General Alonso de Leon in the third and final founding of Alamden that he renamed Monclova. A small handful of the Castano de Sosa families in 1598 joined the New Mexico colonization charter of Juan Perez de Onate who himself was of Basque Sephardic Jewish descent and married to a grand daughter of Hernan Cortes de Monroy.

               Many of the descendants of the Castano de Sosa families were among the founding families of Spanish colonial Texas at San Fernando de Bexar (now San Antonio), Nacogdoches, Goliad and Laredo. Others did not migrate north of the Rio Grande until the 20th Century and settled in the Winter Garden Area, Bexar and beyond. Unknown to them, this last weekend I paid my respects and honored the memory of those 1590 would-have-been New Mexico colonists who chose survival. Thus I quietly recharged my soul-batteries by tumbling forward into an extremely important but little known historic event 419 years old.

               As to the ancient, prehistoric sea, it is interesting to note that as far northeast of the Pecos Valley at Imperial, Texas thirty-some odd miles east of Fort Stockton, the water table in a mere 20 to 200 feet below ground level and that it is salt water! I visited a shrimp farm at the town and marveled not only at the shrimp farm where least expected, but at the fact that the ancient sea is still with us but now a mere 20 feet below ground level. If you are not familiar with the area, I strongly recommend you consider visiting the area traversed by the ancestors of many readers of this column. Consider what they went through to make sure you would be around 419 years later. As I have said before, this is the blood of my (and our) veins, the DNA of my (and our) genes.

Zavala County Sentinel  ………………..  5-6 August 2009

Sent by Juan Marinez



Battle of Medina Memorial Service Losoya Texas August 15, 2009
Sept. 5: Wickenburg Fiesta
Hispanic Heritage Center 
Sept. 24-27: Texas State Hispanic Genealogical Conference
Obituary: Jesus M. Benavides
The Texas House of Representatives Honors Charlie Gutierrez
Flu and Folk Remedies of Texas

Battle of Medina Memorial Service Losoya Texas August 15, 2009

Dear Mimi,
The 4th annual service was a huge success with over 350 people in attendance. Losoya will be the permanent home of this memorial service that is dedicated to the over 1400 people that fought and died for freedom, that to this day have 
remained unknown and unrecognized 
for their ultimate sacrifice. A film crew was there and a documentary is in the making. The Master of Ceremony was
Maclovio Perez. 
Dan Arellano

For more on Maclovio Perez is the morning weathercaster for News 4, and can be heard every weekday morning on San Antonio's First News on News Radio 1200 WOAI.


In case you missed it, below is the article that the San Antonio Express-News published this morning.  Let’s hope that one day soon, August 18, 1813, will be given the respect and dignity that it deserves in the telling of mainstream Texas history. Regards, Joe Lopez
Battle of Medina
By Joe Lopez - Express-News Guest Voices   
Every school child in Texas knows about the deaths of 189 men at the 1836 Battle of the Alamo, but the 1813 Battle of Medina, where more than 800 Tejanos from Bexar died for the same principles of equality, freedom, liberty and justice for all, is all but forgotten.  
The Texas Historical Commission calls it the greatest battle ever fought on Texas soil. More Texas patriots died there than in all the 1836 battles combined. And it happened on this date 196 years ago.
Why was the Battle of Medina fought? The spark that led to Texas independence began on Sept. 16, 1810, when Don Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara answered Father Miguel Hidalgo’s call for independence from Spanish colonial rule.  
So impressed was the warrior priest, he appointed Don Bernardo as a lieutenant colonel in the Mexican Republican Army. Knowing Tejanos were fiercely independent, Hidalgo also named Don Bernardo as the chief general of the Army of the North (Texas Army).
After building his army with Tejanos, Native Americans and Anglo volunteers, Don Bernardo quickly won five battles and occupied the regional capital of San Fernando (San Antonio). He became president of the First Republic of Texas and on April 6, 1813, signed Texas’ first Declaration of Independence.  
Don Bernardo’s hope of complete victory over Spanish forces vanished quickly when he was betrayed by members of his military staff. Due to that and his taking responsibility for the brutal killing of the Spanish governor and some of his officers, Don Bernardo was relieved of command and forced into exile in Louisiana.  
Under a different commander, the Tejano Army was outmaneuvered at the Battle of Medina by an experienced Spanish general on a hot August afternoon. The Tejanos were encircled and defeated about 20 miles south of San Antonio, bringing an end to the First Republic of Texas.
As a warning to future rebels, the Spaniards left the Tejanos’ bodies on the battlefield where they stayed for nearly nine years. In 1821, after Mexico’s independence from Spain, the bones were gathered by a military escort and buried.
No one knows exactly where the mass grave is located, nor the exact location of the battle. These forgotten patriots first showed the way to Texas liberty, yet their sacrifice is rarely mentioned in mainstream Texas history books.
So, pause today for a moment and remember. Look to the south and imagine the battle action within earshot of San Antonio. Listen for the distant sound of bugles, bullets, cannon fire, cavalry charges, and the agony of the first brave defenders of Texas independence, our Tejano ancestors.  
Joe Lopez is a local author and speaker on early Texas history (



21st Annual Fiesta Septiembre
Fiesta Septiembre - Saturday, Sept. 5, 2009
Press Release
Salsa Entry Form
Viva! Margarita Information and Entry Form


Learn about Wickenburg Hispanic Pioneer Families – Nuestras Memorias


Sponsored by: 
Wickenburg Chamber of Commerce
Location: Wickenburg Community Center, 
160 N. Valentine Street
Time: 11:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.


Schedule of activities:
11:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m. PIONEER FAMILIES-PHOTO EXHIBIT – Banquet Room
Family History Clearing House & Message Board- Main Auditorium
11:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m. Arts/Crafts Mercado, food booth, cerveza and margarita cantina - Outdoors 
11:00am - 2:00 pm  KIDS ZONA-Banquet Room
Entertainment  Main Stage -Auditorium
11:05 am - 12:15 pm Mariachi Alegre
12:45 - 1:50 pm  Ballet Folklorico De Santa Maria 
1:00 - 2:30 pm Salsa Contest - north patio
2:05 - 3:45 pm Barrio Latino
3:30 - 5:00 pm Viva! Margarita Contest - north patio
4:00 - 5:20 pm Maricachi Corazon de Phoenix 
5:30 - 6:00 pm Contest Awards Presentation 
Sunday, Sept. 6th
7:30 a.m. – Historic Walking Tour of Garcia Pioneer Cemetery-North Tegner Street
With family members: David Rubio, Christine Garcia Mooney, Sylvia Cordova Herndon, Theresa Garcia McMillan, Julia Macias Brooks and many other cousins in attendance
See for more information or contact The Chamber (928) 684-5479 or:

Muchas Gracias, Julia
Julie Brooks - Executive Director



Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas  


Dear Tejanos & Texians:
Viva the Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas! On January 28, 2009, the IRS officially
declared our organization a 501c.3 and issued us a final letter of official determination as such! This great news now allows us to formally declare ourselves as a public IRS non-profit entity, begin to solicit funding for our endeavor and proceed to request land at HemisFair Park for the Center's new home.
For over 150 years the story of the Tejanos and their impact to the tapestry that is
the Lone Star State has been untold. The Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas hopes to
change that with a state-of- the-art facility that we hope will be located in downtown San Antonio on the grounds of HemisFair Park. The purpose of the center will be to educate, elevate, and celebrate the Texas Hispanic experience.
On July 15, 2009, we will be holding a press conference to officially announce the
Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas, as well as the potential interim location for the Center's headquarters to be located in the Gulf Insurance Group Building at HemisFair Park.

Local politicals, key stakeholders, friends and supporters are being invited to attend in
support of the center. The media conference will take place at the base of The Tower
of The Americas, in front of the Gulf building. Please click here for the fact sheet on the media conference.
As such, you are invited to please join us at HemisFair Park on July 15, 2009 at 10:00 a.m. to help in making the Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas a reality. If you have any questions or require additional information, please contact me at (210) 892-0136.
Viva Tejano Texas!!!
Rudi R. Rodriguez
Hispanic Heritage Center of Texas



Texas State Hispanic Genealogical Conference, 
Sept. 24-27


It is being hosted by the Hispanic Organization for Genealogy and Research of Dallas -HOGAR de Dallas of which I am President and Co founder -  
See our web site at
This will be a first time it will be held in the Dallas area for the 30th year that it has been presented by the different Hispanic genealogical organizations of Texas.  We are expecting attendees from throughout the U.S.  and Mexico.  It is hoped that you will make plans to attend. The deadline, September 3, 2009, is fast approaching in order to take advantage of the discount rates for the hotel and the conference sessions' fees. 
If you have already registered, we thank you. 
For further information see the conference web site: 
If you need further information, contact me at (214) 324-3677 
Thank you every much and hope to see you at the conference. 
Dorina Alaniz Thomas, Ph.D.
President and Co founder of HOGAR de Dallas
Coordinator of the 30th Texas Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conferece
1822 Gross Road
Dallas, Texas 75228 
(214) 324-3677


Obituary: Jesus M. Benavides

Benavides, Jesus M. went home to the Lord August 18, 2009. Born January 2, 1933 in Laredo, Texas, he lived a full and joyful life in Dallas, Texas since 1958. Preceded in death by son, Daniel Benavides. Survived by his loving wife of 53 years, Gloria Hernandez Benavides, daughter Arcie and her husband Randall Adams, daughter Cindy Benavides and her husband Rafael Luna, and son David Benavides and his wife Teri. Jesus was a graduate of Martin High School in Laredo in 1950. He served in the army during the Korean War and returned to receive his BBA degree from the University of Texas at Austin in 1958. He worked and retired from Federal National Mortgage Association. Jesus had several nicknames endeared to him by his friends and family - Chuy and Jerry were the most commonly used.
Jerry was very active in the church and community where he served in many organizations and the Jaycees. His most passionate hobby was genealogy where he was founder of H.O.G.A.R., a genealogy association in Dallas. For the past 6 years, he wrote a genealogy journal published for the group and made many friends across the world who shared his passion in family history. In addition to his immediate family, Jerry is survived by grandchildren, Kathryn & Joshua Adams, Erica and Roth Thlang, Jeanette and Corinna Luna, Marissa, Gabriela, John and Jacob Benavides. He is survived by sisters, Magda Benavides, Guadalupe Benavides and Otila Cerecero. Jerry has many extended family members in Laredo and San Antonio, Texas. Jerry lived a great life and will be missed by many people who enjoyed his love of life, family, and never ending stories. A rosary will be recited at 8:00 pm, Friday, August 21, 2009 at Sparkman Hillcrest Funeral Home Chapel, 7405 W. Northwest Hwy, Dallas, Texas. Family and friends viewing from 4:00 pm - 8:00 pm prior to the rosary, August 21, at Sparkman Hillcrest Northwest Hwy Chapel. Mass of Christian Burial will be celebrated Saturday, 10:00 am. August 22, 2009, St. Philip, the Apostle Catholic Church, 8131 Military Pkwy, Dallas, TX 75227 presided by Rev. Stephen Mocio. Internment will follow at Calvary Hill Cemetery, 3235 Lombardy Lane, Dallas, TX 75220. In Lieu of flowers, please make memorial contributions to the American Heart Association.
Source: Obituaries The Dallas  Morning News
Sent by Tom Saenz to


Judicial System
Selected Topics are Hot Linked

To order the almanac and pay with PayPal hit the button below. It will take you through the steps. We will pay shipping and tax for the first 100 purchasers. Your total cost: $79.95.


The Texas House of Representatives Honors
Charlie Gutierrez


I am attaching the State's Honorary Bill showing the honor bestowed unto our own CHARLIE GUTIERREZ -- who is now living in Seguin, husband of Terry (Teresa) Gomez, our cousin. Charlie's accomplishments have made it to the State honoring him with a fantastic and once-in-a-lifetime Resolution and we are very, very proud that he is our own HOMETOWN boy! May you be as happy in this honor as we are of you Charlie & Terry! LOV YOU HOMETOWN BOY!
Gloria Candelario

HIS EMAIL IS if you want to send him a "tha-a-boy" email! 


WHEREAS, Carlos Reynaldo Gutierrez of Seguin has bridged Latin and Anglo cultures for more than five decades as a musician in Central Texas; and

WHEREAS, Born in Victoria on February 16, 1943, "Charlie" Gutierrez demonstrated his love of music at a young age; his uncle, Rudy Martinez, played in a big band and served as his mentor, buying him his first musical instrument and giving him extensive lessons; 
a gifted saxophonist, flutist, and vocalist, Mr. Gutierrez was invited to play weekend shows alongside his uncle as a teenager; he joined the orchestra of Dario Perez in 1959 and graduated from St. Joseph's High School two years later; and

WHEREAS, During the 1960s and 1970s, Mr. Gutierrez played with Joe Camacho's band, which pleased audiences with both Mexican music and popular tunes of the day; after Mr. Camacho passed away, Mr. Gutierrez joined with other members of his ensemble to form the Crystals, playing across Texas and for many Victoria civic and social functions into the 1990s; and

WHEREAS, This dedicated musician also began performing from time to time with Austin big band legend Nash Hernandez; after Mr. Hernandez passed away in 1994, his son, Ruben, took on leadership of the Nash Hernandez Orchestra, and he hired Mr. Gutierrez as lead singer in 1999; and

WHEREAS, While excelling as a performer, Mr. Gutierrez has enjoyed success as a businessman as well; in all his endeavors, he enjoys the love and support of his wife of 45 years, Terry Gutierrez, their two daughters, Christine Welty and Cathy Biggins, 
and their grandchildren, Kristin Gutierrez and Skyler Biggins; and

WHEREAS, An outstanding citizen and a captivating vocalist, Mr. Gutierrez continues to blend cultures and delight a host of fans as he sings Latin favorites, American jazz standards, and classic R&B with the longest-running big band in the capital of the Lone
Star State; now, therefore, be it

RESOLVED, That the House of Representatives of the 81st Texas Legislature hereby honor Charlie Gutierrez for his remarkable musical career and extend to him sincere best wishes for continued success; and, be it further

RESOLVED, That an official copy of this resolution be prepared for Mr. Gutierrez as an expression of high regard by the Texas House of Representatives.

[Editor: This included a listing of the entire house of Representatives.]

Speaker of the House 

I certify that H.R. No. 2184 was adopted by the House on May 27, 2009, 
by a non-record vote.

Chief Clerk of the House 




Richard G. Santos


            The World Health Organization (WHO) has elevated the H1N1 flu to a  pandemic status. This does not mean it is more severe and causing more deaths. What it does mean is that more people world wide are contracting the H1N1 flu. It must be remembered though, that so far the new flu has affected people from infants to under 30 years of age. Over that age bracket, the new H1N1 mutant of  human+avian+swine flu has been fatal for some people with weak immune systems. The majority of cases and deaths have been in third world countries where health hygienic practices and medical services are lacking. The United States and other medically advanced and health conscious nations have been lightly impacted.
            Such was not the case in March 1918 to January 1919 when a pandemic flu caused an estimated 50 million deaths world-wide. The United States and Texas were not immune as the nation reported at least 675,000 deaths. That figure does not include those who died of the flu before it was identified as an epidemic or who were misdiagnosed. It also does not include the many poor, ethnic and racial minorities who were not afforded, or outright denied, medical attention.
            The earliest cases of the flu in Texas were identified and reported as such on September 23, 1918 in Bosque, Kaufman and Williamson counties. A month later the flu had spread to 77 counties with 26,062 reported cases and 2,181 deaths. These figures then and now are thought to be inaccurate and too low as the flu continued to spread to early 1919. Again, ethnic and racial minorities as well as the poor were denied medical attention and assistance as they were barred from segregated hospitals. Some large cities did have a Mexican, German or Black hospital, but smaller and especially rural communities did not. 
            The Center for Disease Control, Homeland Security, Emergency Management, World Health Organization, Medicare, Medicaid as well as local neighborhood clinics and hospital open to all regardless of ethnic, racial and economic background did not yet exist in 1918-19. Also not existing at that time were television and the internet with numerous health oriented programming and information. Anti-viral, anti-bacterial soaps, disinfectants and wipes also did not exist. Consequently, neither the medical profession nor elected officials knew how to react, or how to combat, the pandemic flu. Nonetheless, the Texas State Board of Health recommended a “disinfectant be scattered over the floor and all woodwork, desks, chairs, tables and doors should be wiped off with a wet cloth soaked with linseed, kerosene or turpentine.” The Board also recommended suspending any student who coughed, sneezed, spat or came to school in wet clothing or wet feet.
Since the vast majority of people walked in town, going to school bare footed was common as shoes were primarily used to attend religious services on Sunday or on very special occasions (weddings, funerals, baptisms, social functions, etc). Moreover, streets were not paved and school grounds were covered with rocks, pebbles and weeds. Consequently, even a light rain made streets impassable and mud puddles were found in abundance. A heavy rain, storm or hurricane meant no motor vehicular traffic as streets, roads and highways became muddy rivers. Therefore, many relied on horse or mule-drawn carts and wagons to get around. 
The poor, ethnic and racial minorities barred from hospitals with no medical attention or services relied on folk medicine. Chicken soup and “grandma’s special tea” were generally prescribed. Tejanos (pre 1836 families) and Mexican refugees and exiles from the 1910 Mexican Revolution relied on either local folk healers or recently arrived Mexican doctors IF they resided in the specific town or neighborhood and IF they bartered for services. Otherwise, te de yerba/hierba buena (mint tea) or boiling Vicks then having the patient cover his/her head with a towel or cloth over the pot was commonly used. Vicks, a mustard plant or aloe vera (savila) concoction spread on the chest and covered with a warm as possible towel or cloth were also used. This writer personally knows a person who still dabs Vicks on his nostrils “to help clear the lungs and breathing passages”. Of course folk remedy depended on whether the person was seen as having catarro (common cold), malesito (cold with a slight fever), telele (seizures) or la gripa (flu) and all of the above or any combination thereof. 
Making matters worse was the lack of sewer and water purification and distribution systems. Every household and business had an outhouse on the backyard. Usually located as far as possible from the home or business, in too many instances the outhouse was not far enough from the property’s water well. Consequently, the water used for drinking, bathing, washing was contaminated and had to be boiled. Not taking water tables, aquifers and under ground water streams into consideration and thinking their water well was far enough from their own and their neighbors’ outhouses, many did not boil their water. The pandemic flu of 1918 thus spread rapidly. Large cities (including Laredo and San Antonio, Texas) had mass burial grounds for unidentified victims of the 1918-1919 flu.
           Adding to the spread of the pandemic 1918 flu was the distrust of doctors, hospitals and medicine. Hospitals were seen (and some still see them) as a place where one walks into the building but is carried out in a hearse. As for medical prescriptions, many when prescribed 30, 50 or 100 capsules quit as soon as they feel somewhat better and save the rest for another bout of whatever ailed them. In fact, some people today still see doctors as too eager to operate, “do a procedure” and make enough money to send their children to college and pay their mortgages. It must also be remember that until the early 1960s for sure, and in some cases later, many mothers exposed their children to pox and measles at an early age. Both were seen as fatal if contracted as adults.
            Such was the United States and Texas during the pandemic flu of 1918-1919 and such is the case in many third world countries today. The World Health Organization and the Center for Disease Control are therefore cautioning the public that the present H1N1 pandemic flu is expected to mutate and return even stronger next winter. In Mexico, meanwhile, the flu was reported last week as spreading in the rural communities of the northern states bordering the United States. Modern medicine and a health conscious United States may have stemmed the H1N1 flu locally, but such is not the case world-wide. Moreover, only the creation of an H1N1 vaccine might be able to deter it from repeating the 1918 experience this coming winter. In the meantime, we wait not knowing what to expect by year’s end. One final note, does your town or community have a Mexican or Black cemetery dating from that period and does your town or city cemetery have a mass burial site for the victims of the 1918-1919 flu pandemic? If so, please let me know at <> Also, send me some of your childhood home remedies.
 Zavala County Sentinel …………… 24-25 June 2009 
Sent by Juan Marinez





Knowledge of the Filipinos in Louisiana
Canary Islands Locales and their Associated Louisiana Families
Francisco Rodriguez
New Americans in the Keystone State

I have scant knowledge of the Filipinos in Louisiana, however....

"Some Canary Island Locales and Their Associated Louisiana Families"

Compiled by: Paul Newfield III

3016 45th Street
Metairie, La. USA 70001

"Some Canary Island Locales and Their Associated Louisiana Families (Based upon Diocese of Baton Rouge's published records, volume 2)", by Paul Newfield III, published in Louisiana Genealogical Register (the quarterly of the Louisiana Historical Society), v.35, #1 (March 1988), pp.23-26.

"More Canary Islands Locales and Their Associated Louisiana Families (From the Archdiocese of New Orleans Sacramental Records, volumes 3 & 4)", by Paul Newfield III, published in 'L'Heritage' (the quarterly of the St. Bernard Genealogical Society), v.13, #50 (April 1990), pp.118.

The scope of this article is limited, and it should NOT be taken as a complete listing of Canarian family names. In each of my earlier articles I began with the seven major islands of the Canarian archipelago, listing their particular towns and villages. Then, using the geographic data from the published sacramental records of the Diocese of Baton Rouge and from the Archdiocese of New Orleans, I assigned those family names to the respective islands and/or villages. In attributing a certain family name to a certain island or village, I have been very careful to provide at least one specific citation to that effect. Those books are cited as "BR 2" (1770-1803), "SRNO 3" (1772-1783), and "SRNO 4" (1784-1790) respectively (see References).

This compilation covers most of the settlement areas in Louisiana where the newly arrived Isleños established themselves: New Orleans, Barataria (in Jefferson Parish), Terre aux Boeufs (Tierra de Bueyes in St. Bernard Parish), Valenzuela (along Bayou La Fourche in Assumption and Ascension Parishes), and Galveztown (in Ascension Parish). The three source books for this report do not cover the area of New Iberia, where some Isleños may have settled in c.1779, along with the Malagueños from southern Spain. Consequently, that area is NOT addressed by this report.

A further note: In compiling these lists, I disregarded any entry from the published sacramental records that gave no specific geographic information other than the words "... of the Canary Islands". Consequently, this listing will NOT include all Canary Islands families who came to Louisiana. It lists ONLY those that have been specifically associated with any particular island, town or village.

Use your computer's Control - F function to quickly find any name (surnames only). After locating the respective name(s), you should consult the original record as cited.

Sent by Bill Carmena who writes: 
" Excellent research tool . Thanks to Paul Newfield"  



Francisco Rodriguez
By Georgia Pabst of the Journal Sentinel,  July 8, 2009


Word started traveling this week through a chain of e-mails from Texas to Wisconsin that long time activist Francisco Rodriguez has died at his home in Madison. He
recently retired from the state Department of Workforce Development’s Bureau of Migrant, Refugee and Labor Services.

“He was part of a generation of migrants who came post WWII to resettle here and
became involved in a very broad array of civil rights activities, from farm worker
rights to urban services and education,” said Jesus Salas, a former University of
Wisconsin Regent, who can be counted in that group of leading activists.

Salas and Rodriguez, both 67, grew up together in Crystal City, Texas where their
families were friends, fellow business owners and migrant farm workers. In the
1960’s, Crystal City became one of the centers of the growing chicano movement
and the two were active both here and there.

Under former Gov. Tony Earl, Rodriguez was the first Latino to head the Hispanic
desk in the governor’s office at a time when there wasn’t such a thing as a Latino
desk, Salas recalled. Rodriguez became involved in migrant programs, served
on the Governor’s committee on migratory labor and later joined the bureau of
migrant, refugee and labor services.

A graduate of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, he headed chicano recruitment
efforts in Madison, said Salas.

Editor: A beautiful collection of 22 memories and comments about Mr. Francisco Rodriguez have been gathered by Mark & Brenda Mittelstadt.  Please contact them to have the file sent to you,



New Americans in the Keystone State: 
Pennsylvania's Immigrants, Latinos, and Asians Are a Political and Economic Powerhouse


WASHINGTON, July 29 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The Immigration Policy Center has compiled research which shows that immigrants, Latinos, and Asians not only wield political power in Pennsylvania, but are an integral part of the state's economy and tax base. As workers, taxpayers, consumers, and entrepreneurs, immigrants and their children are an economic powerhouse. As voters, they are a growing political force. Yet anti-immigrant groups are exaggerating the alleged fiscal "costs" imposed by unauthorized immigrants, and are completely discounting the many economic benefits which immigrants, Latinos, and Asians bring to the Keystone State.

Sent by Juan Marinez



Pensacola's 450th Birthday Party


On August 15th, the 450th anniversary of the founding of Pensacola was celebrated in downtown Pensacola. The celebration included the dedication of a Spanish soldado statue at the Plaza de Luna.  A reenactment of don Tristan de Luna landing. Catholic Mass with Bishop Ricard on Pensacola Beach at Fort Pickens Gate Park.  Featured was the world's largest birthday card, historic reenactors, a time capsule, a parade, musicians, fireworks and other activities to honor its early history.

Sent by Bill Carmena


La Familia Cantu-Gonzalez by Dahlia Guajardo-Cantu de Palacio
Angelita Cantu-Gonzalez,
        Part I, First 3 Generations by by Dahlia Guajardo-Cantu de Palacio
1st Annual Cantu Family Reunion
Personajes en la Historia de Mexico by Jose Leon Robles de la Torre
Y-DNA of Marcos Alonso GARZA ARCON by Crispin Rendon
The daughters of Beatriz Quintanilla by Crispin Rendon

La Familia Cantu-Gonzalez

de  La Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey,

Nuevo Leon, Mexico

  by Dahlia Guajardo-Cantu de Palacios.



Dahlia Guajardo Cantu de Palacios has done exhaustive, exacting research on her Cantu  line.  This is the first in a series to share her family information. Many with heritage in Northern Mexico and South Texas will find connections with Dahlia.  Meet your primos!!

[Surnames included with her first three generations of Cantu ancestors are: 
Alejandro, Ammann, Bermea, Chapa, Cordova, De la Garza, Flores, Gallegos, Garza, Gonzalez, Guajardo,  Jimenes, Moreno, Navarro, Palacios, Perales, Ramones, Rios, Robles, Rodriguez,  Salinas, Sanchez, Saucedo, Spikre, Teets, Trejo, Trevino, Velasquez, Villarreal, Zambrano.]



Angelita Cantu and Ynes Guajardo


In Memory of
Angelita Cantu Gonzalez
De Guajardo

By Dahlia Guajardo
Cantu de Palacios

The Family of Cantu and Gonzalez
of La Hacienda del Mezquital
Nuevo Leon




La Familia de Defina Gonzalez y Martin Cantu 

LtoR: Rosa, Alfredo, Florinda, Bernarda, Agapita, Angelita (my mother) and Jose. Sitting are Martin II, Martin Cantu-de La Garza and Delfina Gonzalez-Villarreal, my grandparents.

Just as biologists try to uncover the material intricacies of human life through mapping DNA, genealogists seek to unravel the lineage of generations to gain a perspective of what the living have inherited. What I have gleaned from genealogy is a perspective apart from a particular family or series of individuals. I have developed a spiritual outlook that has helped me through the grieving process upon the death of my mother seven years ago. After perusing sources from birth records to grave stones, I feel closer to accepting death as a facet of human existence. My mother used to tell stories or throw out details related to family members I had never known. Through tracing her genealogy, I possess a more intimate knowledge of many of the figures she spoke of. My discovery of their identities was a process of transcending death. I realized that their lives continue, not only through my mother’s lucid accounts, but also through the research contained in this book.  

My Mother, Angelita  Cantu-Gonzalez, passed away at the age of 92. She had a sound mind and could recount numerous scenes from her past and upbringing in Hacienda del Mezquital, Nuevo Leon, Mexico and in Pearsall , Texas. After her death, I began the difficult task of sifting through her belongings. As I disturbed the various objects tied to her long life, I came to the realization that she was the historian in our family. On old pictures I found in drawers I had never opened and albums I had forgotten about, entire family names were scrupulously recorded. After puzzling over names I was unfamiliar with and recalling those I did know, I felt compelled to finish what she began. I found that each face staring at me from the square boundaries of the picture, formed memories that led back to my mother. In my mind, the names of family members she had written evoke her voice. I imagined her repeating them to me: “oh! ella es Santitos! hermana de mi papa” (oh! that is Santitos! my father’s sister) and “mi pobre hermanito, des pues de su fortuna tanta trajedia” (my poor brother, after his success, then such tragedy). As I find more names connected to her family, I feel that she would be pleased. Each new child, wife, sister-in-law, brother, or uncle I discover is like receiving back a part of my mother.

 I have completed the following genealogy of the Cantu-Gonzalez family through the help of the Latter Day Saints (LDS) Family History Center . They provided the Personal Ancestry Family (PAF) program, which I utilized for my work. I wish to thank skilled genealogists and friends for their assistance in my journey through the past: Crispin D. Rendon, John D. Inclan, Carol Brewer, Dahlia Guajardo-Ammann as well as countless other individuals who kindly advised me in my search. I also wish to thank the Simi Valley LDS History Center and the Catholic Archives in San Antonio , Texas . I especially want to thank Aurora Cantu de Rodriguez, my first cousin who provided additional pictures from my grandmother’s archives and encouraged my mother to write down additional information on our familias.  Not to be forgotten are my immediate family, my husband Tomas Palacios and my children and grandchildren who patiently watched and supported me as I appeared engrossed in past centuries and foreign places. The genealogy I have recorded here is an ongoing process. If there is anyone who might be added to the family tree, please contact me at 2795 Goldfield Place ,

Simi Valley , CA 93063 or email me at so that I might further the extent of my work. I have not intentionally omitted any information and welcome aid in procuring an accurate genealogical account. After I finish taking a break from genealogy, I intend to delve into the descendants of my father’s family, Guajardo-Sanchez. The following lineage has been compiled, researched, and edited in loving memory of Angelita Cantu-Gonzalez de Guajardo.  

Only appropriate that I submit this information to “Somos Primos” on 8/2/2009, 100 years from the day my mother was born.  

Dahlia Guajardo-Cantu de Palacios



Ancestors of


Part I, First 3 Generations



1 CANTU-GONZALEZ, born 2 Aug 1909 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 15 May 1910 in Parroquia del Sagrado Corazon de Jesus, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 13 Dec 2001 in Simi Valley, Ventura County, California, daughter of 2. MARTIN CANTU-DE LA GARZA and 3. DELFINA GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL.  She married on 10 Mar 1928 in Pearsall, Frio County, Texas YNES GUAJARDO-SANCHEZ, born 29 Mar 1904 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 11 Sep 1950 in Nix Medical Center, San Antonio, Bexar, Texas, son of ALBERTO GUAJARDO-JIMENES and MA. LUISA SANCHEZ-ALEJANDRO.  

      Children of ANGELITA CANTU-GONZALEZ and YNES GUAJARDO-SANCHEZ were as follows:

                  i           Bertha GUAJARDO-CANTU, born in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas; christened in Our Lady of Guadalupe, Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas.  She married on 20 Apr 1947 in Our Lady of Guadalupe, Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County , Texas Victor SAUCEDO-RODRIGUEZ, born  in Crystal City , Zavala County , Texas , son of Miguel SAUCEDO-BERMEA and Concepcion RODRIGUEZ-NAVARRO.

                  ii          DAHLIA GUAJARDO-CANTU, born  in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas; christened in Our Lady of Guadalupe, Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas.  She married on 3 Jul 1955 in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County , Texas  TOMAS PALACIOS-FLORES, born in Pearsall, Frio County , Texas , son of  MARCOS PALACIOS-MORENO and  Brijida FLORES-GONZALEZ.

                  iii         Martin Luis GUAJARDO-CANTU, born in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas; christened in Our Lady of Guadalupe, Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas.  He married (1) in 1971 Pamela SPIKRE, born abt 1950; (2) on 10 Apr 1977 in Chatsworth, Los Angeles County , California Gretchen Lee AMMANN-TEETS, born  in   California , daughter of Harold Charles AMMANN and Edna Mae TEETS.


Generation 2  

2. MARTIN2 CANTU-DE LA GARZA, born 29 Jan 1868 in San Nicolas de Los Garza, San Nicolas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 30 Jan 1868 in San Nicolas Tolentino, San Nicolas de Los Garza, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 13 Dec 1938 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of 4. J. MAURICIO CANTU-DE LA GARZA and 5. MA. AGAPITA DE LA GARZA-DE LA GARZA.  He married abt 1894 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico 3. DELFINA GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born 24 Dec 1873 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 10 Jan 1874 in Nuestra Senora del Roble, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 1 Jan 1958 in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas, daughter of 6. JOSE HESIQUIO GONZALEZ-DE LA GARZA and 7. MA. ANTONIA VILLARREAL-ZAMBRANO.



                  i           Florinda1 CANTU-GONZALEZ, born 15 Mar 1895 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 12 Dec 1946 in Ciudad Frontera, Coahuila,  Mexico.  She married abt 1915 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Vidal GARZA-CANTU, born 16 Jan 1884 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 27 Jun 1884 in San Francisco de Asis, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 27 Feb 1947 in Ciudad Frontera, Coahuila,  Mexico, son of Jesus GARZA-GARZA and Paula CANTU-DE LA GARZA.

                  ii          Agapita1 CANTU-GONZALEZ, born 18 Jul 1896 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 31 Aug 1896 in Sagrado Corazon, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 27 Nov 1961 in San Antonio , Bexar County , Texas .  She married on 20 Apr 1912 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Jesus RODRIGUEZ-RIOS, born 22 Apr 1890 in Rio Verde, San Luis Potosi, Mexico; died 15 Jan 1974 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas, son of Lorenso RODRIGUEZ and Salome RIOS.

                  iii         Alfredo1 CANTU-GONZALEZ, born 10 Dec 1899 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 21 Oct 1979 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married Josefa GALLEGOS-CANTU, born abt 1904 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 18 May 1983 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of Apolonio GALLEGOS-PEREZ and Ma. de Jesus Santiaga CANTU-GARZA.

                  iv         Bernarda1 CANTU-GONZALEZ, born 11 Jul 1900 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 9 Jul 1901 in Sagrado Corazon, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 29 Jan 1981 in , Bexar, Texas.  She married in 1923 in Pearsall, Frio County, Texas Elias SANCHEZ-ALEJANDRO, born 25 Nov 1897 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 24 Jan 1961 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas, son of Santiago SANCHEZ-FLORES and Ma. Eduvijen ALEJANDRO-GUAJARDO.

                  v          Rosa1 CANTU-GONZALEZ, born 30 Aug 1904 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 24 Mar 2002 in Pearsall, Frio County, Texas.  She married on 19 Jan 1925 in Pearsall, Frio County, Texas Francisco CANTU, born 5 Mar 1897 in China, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 27 Mar 1978 in Pearsall, Frio County, Texas.

                  vi         Jose1 CANTU-GONZALEZ, born 1906 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 10 Apr 1961 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married on 5 May 1934 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Olivia GARZA-GONZALEZ, born 6 Oct 1910 in Villa Juarez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 2 May 1988 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of Pedro GARZA-GONZALEZ and Gumecinda (Ma. Francisca) GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL.

      1          vii        ANGELITA1 CANTU-GONZALEZ, born 2 Aug 1909 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 15 May 1910 in Parroquia del Sagrado Corazon de Jesus, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 13 Dec 2001 in Simi Valley, Ventura County, California.  She married on 10 Mar 1928 in Pearsall, Frio County, Texas YNES GUAJARDO-SANCHEZ, born 29 Mar 1904 in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 11 Sep 1950 in Nix Medical Center, San Antonio, Bexar, Texas, son of ALBERTO GUAJARDO-JIMENES and MA. LUISA SANCHEZ-ALEJANDRO.

                  viii       Martin1 CANTU-GONZALEZ, born 6 Dec 1911 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 19 May 1993 in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas.  He married on 12 Jul 1937 in Crystal City, Zavala County, Texas Maria Elodia ROBLES-VASQUEZ, born 9 Mar 1918 in Roma, , Texas; died 24 Feb 2009 in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit, Texas, daughter of Juan ROBLES and Brijidad VASQUEZ.

                  ix         Pauline1 CANTU-GONZALES, adopted, born 1935 in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County , Texas .  She married on 3 Dec 1953 Carlos GONZALES II, son of Carlos GONZALES and Leonor GONZALES.


Generation 3  

4.  MAURICIO3 CANTU-DE LA GARZA, born 21 Sep 1841 in Estancia de Los Garza, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 29 Sep 1841 in Sagrario Metropolitano Catedral, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 27 Jan 1868 in San Nicolas de Los Garza, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of 8. J. MAXIMO CANTU-DE LA GARZA and 9. MA. LUSGARDA DE LA GARZA-SALINAS.  He married on 25 May 1864 in San Nicholas Tolentino, San Nicholas De Los Garzas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico 5. MA. AGAPITA DE LA GARZA-DE LA GARZA, born 20 Sep 1843 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 24 Sep 1843 in Sagrario Metropolitano Catedral, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of 10. J. ANDRES DE LA GARZA-TREVINO and 11. MA. FRANCISCA M. DE LA GARZA-CANTU.


      Children of J. MAURICIO CANTU-DE LA GARZA and MA. AGAPITA DE LA GARZA-DE LA GARZA were as follows:

                  i           Paula2 CANTU-DE LA GARZA, born 1 Mar 1865 in San Nicolas de Los Garza, Nuevo Leon , Mexico; christened 21 Mar 1865 in San Nicolas Tolentino, San Nicolas de Los Garza, Nuevo Leon,  Mexico; died in Torreon, Coah, Mexico.  She married abt 1883 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Jesus GARZA-GARZA, born 17 Nov 1859 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 20 Nov 1859 in Hacienda de San Francisco, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 2 Oct 1934 in Torreon, Coah, Mexico, son of Jose Luciano GARZA-VILLARREAL and Ma. Juana GARZA-CHAPA.

                  ii          Librado2 CANTU-DE LA GARZA, born 16 Aug 1866 in Matamoros , Tamaulipas , Mexico ; christened 27 Aug 1866 in Nuestra Señora del Refugio, Matamoros , Tamaulipas , Mexico ; died 6 Jul 1939 in Pearsall, Frio County , Texas .  He married Ma.Teresa CANTU-DE LA GARZA, born 18 May 1865 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 23 May 1865 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 11 Apr 1938 in Pearsall, Frio County , Texas , daughter of Jesus CANTU-RODRIGUES and Ma. Ygnacia del Carmen de La GARZA-GARZA.

      2          iii         MARTIN2 CANTU-DE LA GARZA, born 29 Jan 1868 in San Nicolas de Los Garza, San Nicolas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 30 Jan 1868 in San Nicolas Tolentino, San Nicolas de Los Garza, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 13 Dec 1938 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married abt 1894 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico DELFINA GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born 24 Dec 1873 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 10 Jan 1874 in Nuestra Senora del Roble, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 1 Jan 1958 in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas, daughter of JOSE HESIQUIO GONZALEZ-DE LA GARZA and MA. ANTONIA VILLARREAL-ZAMBRANO.



6. JOSE HESIQUIO3 GONZALEZ-DE LA GARZA, born 17 Nov 1838 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 23 Nov 1838 in Sagrario Metropolitano Catedral, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of 12. J. P. CALLETANO GONZALEZ-DE LA GARZA and 13. MARIA GERTRUDIS CONCEPCION DE LA GARZA-CANTU.  He married in a Civil Ceremony 7. MA. ANTONIA VILLARREAL-ZAMBRANO, born 7 Apr 1849 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 9 Apr 1849 in Sagrario Metropolitano Catedral, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 26 Oct 1942 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of 14. J VICTORIANO VILLARREAL-ELIZONDO and 15. MA. DE LOS SANTOS DE JESUS ZAMBRANO-GUAJARDO.



                  i           Cayetano2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born abt 1866 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married Josefa MARTINEZ.

                  ii          Anna2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born abt 1867 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                  iii         Antonia2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born abt 1870 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                  iv         Ma. de Jesus2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born 17 Dec 1871 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 19 Jan 1872 in San Francisco de Asis, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 7 Nov 1956 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  She married on 26 Oct 1888 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Jose Francisco GARZA-GONZALES, born 26 Oct 1866 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 30 Oct 1866 in San Nicolas Tolentino, San Nicolas de Los Garza, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 31 Oct 1950 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of Ramon GARZA-GARZA and Ma. Juana GONZALEZ-GARZA.

      3          v          DELFINA2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born 24 Dec 1873 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 10 Jan 1874 in Nuestra Senora del Roble, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 1 Jan 1958 in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County , Texas .  She married abt 1894 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico MARTIN CANTU-DE LA GARZA, born 29 Jan 1868 in San Nicolas de Los Garza, San Nicolas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 30 Jan 1868 in San Nicolas Tolentino, San Nicolas de Los Garza, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 13 Dec 1938 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of J. MAURICIO CANTU-DE LA GARZA and MA. AGAPITA DE LA GARZA-DE LA GARZA.

                  vi         Natalio Francisco2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born 26 Jul 1875 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 3 Sep 1875 in San Francisco de Asis, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died abt 1965 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married Celia GARZA-GARZA, born abt 1878 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of Cosme GARZA-GONZALES and Rita GARZA.

                  vii        Ma. de Los Santos Guadalupe2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born 11 Apr 1877 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 7 Jun 1877 in San Francisco de Asis, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  She married abt 1895 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico Jose David Concepcion GARCIA-GARZA, born 19 Nov 1871 in Puesto de Santa Rosa , Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 17 Dec 1871 in San Francisco de Asis, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of Ramon GARCIA DE LA GARZA and Ma. de La Luz  Lucita de La GARZA-VILLARREAL.

                  viii       Francisco2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born abt 1879 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  He married (---) SEVERITA.

                  ix         Gumecinda 2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born 19 Apr 1884 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 12 Aug 1884 in San Francisco de Asis, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 14 Feb 1976 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  She married in 1905 in Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Pedro GARZA-GONZALEZ, born 6 Mar 1879 in Villa Juarez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 14 Jun 1955 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of Jose Luis de Jesus Maria GARZA and Francisca GONZALEZ-GARZA.

                  x          Lucinda 2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born 19 Apr 1884 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 12 Aug 1884 in San Francisco de Asis, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

                  xi         Cesaria Chalita2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born 18 Feb 1886 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 12 Mar 1886 in San Francisco de Asis, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  She married on 31 Dec 1905 in Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico Jose Salome de La Concepcion GARZA-RAMONES, born 26 Jul 1883 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey , Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 26 Jul 1883 in San Francisco de Asis, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of Octaviano GARZA-GONZALES and Maria Mariana RAMONES.

                  xii        Josefa2 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, born abt 1887 in Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; died 14 Mar 1959 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  She married in 1910 Genovebo TREJO-CORDOVA, born abt 1854; died 1944 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of Dionicio TREJO-PERALES and Ignacia CORDOVA-VELASQUEZ.


My grandparents arrived on 9/9/1915 in the United States crossing the border in Laredo, Texas. My grandfather Martin Cantu-de La Garza was born 1/29/1868, in San Nicolas de Los Garza, San Nicolas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. My grandmother Delfina Gonzalez-Villarreal was born on 1/24/1872 in n Hacienda del Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. They first lived in the Pearsall, Frio County area. They were sharecroppers in various ranches in the area. My grandfather brought his family to the United States to avoid the turmoil associated with the Revolution and to seek a better life. My grandfather followed his brother Librado Cantu-de La Garza and his family , they had arrived to the area a few years earlier. My mother Angelita Cantu-Gonzalez married Ynes Guajardo-Sanchez on 3/10/1929 at EL RANCHO DE MR. RICHARD as the invitation reads. The family settled in Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas, where I was born (at the Bennett Ranch) it's between Carrizo and Eagle Pass, Texas.


1st Annual Cantu Family Reunion
Gathering of the descendants of Martin & Delfina Cantu

Saturday, September 19, 2009
10am till 5pm
Comanche Park, 2600 Rigsby Ave., San Antonio, TX


It will be a day full of food & fun for the whole family!! Mariachis…DJ…Playscape for the kids. Feel free to bring yard games. Bring your family pictures. BBQ meal will be provided. Anyone local to San Antonio is asked to contribute a dessert to the dessert table. Non-alcoholic drinks will be provided. You are welcomed to bring your own alcoholic beverages, but no glass containers are allowed in the park.  Cost: $9.00/person

For more information, please contact Dahlia Cantu Guajardo: 
or write to Bertha Saucedo, P.O. Box 10416, San Antonio, TX 78210 for reservations. 

'09 Cantu Family Reunion t-shirt are being printed for the event. These can be ordered on the reservation form, and will be delivered to the park.  Please order ASAP!!









Don Agustín de Iturbide, coronado Primer Emperador de México, asistió a la Catedral de la Ciudad de México para la misa solemne, vistiendo el uniforme de gala, de Coronel del Regimiento de Celaya, Gto., Méx.  

Tomo I, libro 5o. primera parte, de mi obra "La Independencia y los Presidentes de México", inédita, y que en este caso se refiere al consumador de la Independencia de México, don Agustín de Iturbide, a la cabeza de varios jefes insurgentes. Este libro, comprende, entre otras cosas: Plan de Ayala, Ejército Trigarante, Tratados de Córdova, destitución del Virrey Apodaca, don Juan O'Donojú, último Virrey de la Nueva España, que no llegó a tomar posesión, junta provisional gubernativa, primera regencia, capitanías de Yucatán, Chiapas y Guatemala.

Por más que algunos escritores tratan de restar méritos a don Agustín de Iturbide, la verdad es que él fue el que encabezó la consumación de la Independencia y el propio General Vicente Guerrero lo reconoció como jefe máximo y se puso a sus órdenes con su ejército de más de tres mil quinientos soldados, sellando el pacto en el famoso Abrazo de Acatempan.

Iturbide fue un valiente capitán de los ejércitos virreinales hasta alcanzar el grado de Coronel. Fue bravo perseguidor de los insurgentes, pero cuando vio que era necesario independizarse de España, tomó la causa de la Independencia con mucha más fuerza y muchos de sus compañeros de armas, también se le unieron cuando lanzó. Este personaje, nació en Valladolid después Morelia, el 27 de septiembre de 1783, con el nombre de Agustín, Cosme y Damián, hijo legítimo de don José Joaquín de Iturbide y de doña Ma. Josefa Arámbula, dueños de la hacienda, cercana a Valladolid.

Se casó el 27 de febrero de 1805 con doña Ana María Duarte Núñez.

El 25 de enero de 1821 giró una carta a don Vicente Guerrero, comunicándole su proyecto por la Independencia con su Plan de Iguala proclamado el 24 de febrero de 1821.

Don Juan O'Donojú, fue el último virrey nombrado para la Nueva España en sustitución de don Juan Ruiz de Apodaca, pero O'Donojú, no llegó a tomar posesión de su cargo debido a la declaración de independencia, firmándose los tratados de Córdoba el 23 de agosto de 1821 completándose el contenido del Plan de Iguala.

La entrada triunfal a la Ciudad de México del Ejército Trigarante fue el 27 de septiembre de 1821, desfilando por la Ciudad de México el Ejército más numeroso nunca visto con 16,134 miembros de todas las armas, encontrándose a la cabeza, como general en jefe don Agustín de Iturbide, con 12 secciones de infantería y 16 de caballería. Al llegar al Palacio de los Virreyes, desmontó su caballo y pasó a uno de los balcones junto con don Juan O'Donojú para ver el interminable desfile del Ejército Trigarante y luego pasaron a la Catedral para la celebración de una misa solemne. Después se formó la Junta Provisional de Gobierno con 38 individuos, quienes eligieron por unanimidad como presidente al propio Iturbide, quien de inmediato convocó a una junta para firmar el acta de independencia el 28 de septiembre de 1821.

Datos del Tomo I, del libro 5o., de mi obra inédita "La Independencia y Los Presidentes de México", segunda parte. La Primera Regencia se disolvió por el Congreso, al destituir a tres de sus miembros, que fueron el obispo de Puebla don Antonio Pérez, al Dr. don Manuel de la Bárcena y a don Manuel Velázquez de León el 11 de abril de 1822.

Se nombró una Segunda Regencia con don Agustín de Iturbide como Presidente, con don Nicolás Bravo, el Conde la Casa de Heras y Miguel Valentón, al no aceptar Fernando VII la Independencia de México en que se le proponía como Emperador. Después de esa negativa, los miembros de la Junta y el Congreso estaban abiertamente en favor de que Iturbide fuera nombrado Primer Emperador de México, a la usanza de muchos imperios europeos de la época. Lo apoyaban los siguientes militares importantes: Gral. don Anastasio Bustamante, don Antonio Andrade, don Luis Quintanar, don Manuel Soto Rivas, don Antonio López de Santa Anna, don Luis Cortázar y don Vicente Filisola. Otros estaban a la espectativa o en contra, como el Gral. Vicente Guerrero don Miguel Barragán, don Juan Antonio de la Garza don Pedro Celestino Negrete, don Guadalupe Victoria y otros.

En el Congreso de la Unión, el que propuso a Iturbide para Emperador, fue el Dr. don Valentín Gómez Farías que en la sesión del 18 de mayo de 1822, dijo un importante discurso lleno de emoción, votando la mayoría en favor de la coronación de Iturbide, cuya corona rechazó Fernando VII.

El Soberano Congreso expidió el decreto correspondiente, decretando que la monarquía mexicana, además de ser moderada y constitucional, es también hereditaria".

El acto solemne de la coronación de Agustín Primero fue el 21 de julio de 1822, adornando la fachada del Palacio con Gallardetes, guirnaldas y colgaduras vistosas. Desde el amanecer empezaron a repicar las campanas y los 21 cañonazos cada hora. Se nombraron dos comisiones de 24 diputados cada una, para acompañar al Emperador desde su casa hasta Catedral. Iturbide iba vestido con el uniforme de gala, de Coronel del Regimiento de Celaya. Bajo toldo, se dirigió a la Catedral por las calles de Plateros, Portal de las Flores y frente al Palacio.

Poco duraron las glorias del Imperio porque comenzaron las conspiraciones y el rechazo de la gran logia masónica, agrandándose los resentimientos entre el Congreso y el Emperador, que además de Santamaría, lo eran el ecuatoriano Roca Fuerte, don Miguel Ramos Arizpe, don José Mariano Michelena y en Veracruz don Antonio López de Santa Anna, así como don José Dávila, que estaba posesionado del Castillo de San Juan de Ulúa y en Tamaulipas, don Felipe de la Garza. A las 12 del día dos de noviembre de 1822 se presentó el brigadier don Luis Cortázar ante el Congreso y lo disolvió por órdenes del Emperador, Junta Institucional, creada por Iturbide, para remediar en parte la disolución del Congreso, estaba compuesta por diputados de algunas provincias, encabezándola el Obispo de Durango Márquez Castañeda. Ante la gravedad del asunto, Iturbide abandonó México el 20 de marzo de 1823 y desde Tacubaya envió al Congreso su dimisión al trono y abandonó el país.

Se formó la Junta del Supremo Poder Ejecutivo del uno de abril de 1823 hasta el 14 de julio de 1824.

Iturbide regresó al país, fue aprehendido y procesado el 19 de julio de 1824 le notificaron la sentencia de muerte, tenían mucha prisa, pues a las tres de la tarde fue ejecutado. Firme dijo: "Muero por haber venido a ayudaros y muero gustoso entre vosotros...". Sus restos están actualmente en la Catedral de México.

Source: El Siglo de Torreón newspaper

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera



Y-DNA of Marcos Alonso GARZA ARCON
By Crispin Rendon


I think it is fair to say that most Hispanics with roots from the Mexican States of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas descend from Marcos Alonso Garza Arcon and Juana Trevino so it is not unexpected to see more that a dozen people who have Y-DNA test results that bear it out. You can find their test results at The Genealogy of Mexico web site. Some of the tested people have been able to trace their direct male line all the way back to Marcos Alonso Garza Arcon. One fellow made the connection by way of Alonso Trevino, two others by way of Blas Garza Falcon and this week someone made the connection by way of Pedro Garza. That is three of the seven boys this couple had eleven generations ago. 

With each generation there is a possibility of mutations occurring. Variations in test markers are expressions of mutations. Why would you care about the variations if you have done your family tree and found the connection? You probably would not care. The people who have done the testing but have not made the connection care. The test results link them to Marcos Alonso Garza Arcon but to which of his children they may ask. The person that linked back to Pedro Garza this week has test results very similar to a few other people that
have not been able to make the connection. Do you think they may be asking, who are the children of Pedro Garza? I think so and as a result have created the table on the following pages of all individuals I found in my records that share Pedro Garza’s Y-DNA. First let me share the table below with you. It has each of the boys followed by a column with the number of individuals found in my records and then of that number how many share YDNA

             Descendants of Capitan Marcos Alonso Garza Arcon & Juana Trevino.
Sons Descendants With same Y-DNA
Capitan Alonso Trevino 43,396  267
Capitan Pedro Garza 41,398  175
Marcos Alonso Garza 5,187  1
Capitan Blas Garza Falcon 44,656  847
Capitan Diego Trevino 1
Capitan Francisco Garza 26,804  361
Caudillo Joseph Trevino 12,768  123


The daughters of Beatriz Quintanilla by Crispin Rendon


Great, great, …..grandmother of many people from the Mexican States of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas and from the U.S. border States

Beatriz was the mother of four children, three girls and a boy; Maria Trevino, Isabel Quintanilla, Juana Trevino and Joseph Trevino. She gave each of them something only a mother can give, her mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Her son Joseph had children but without her mtDNA. Juana Trevino gave her mother’s gift to her seven children all boys; Alonso Trevino, Pedro Garza, Marcos Alonso Garza, Blas Garza Falcon, Diego Trevino, Francisco Garza and Joseph Trevino. It served them well, as they all multiplied, but none of them could pass their mother’s gift to their children because only a mother can pass mtDNA to the next generaton. It fell on her daughters Maria Trevino and Isabel Quintanilla who both had three girls to extend the maternal line. The ebb and flow of the maternal line scenario continued with each generation. Beatriz probably has a million descendants now. The author has a PAF database of over 62,000 of them but only about 1,500 carried the secret to Beatriz’s maternal ancestry. A secret that will be revealed someday by testing someone who can follow their mother’s ancestral line back to Beatriz. Hopefully the table on the following pages will aid in finding the answer that so many are waiting for.

Here is an example of the fifteen-generation mother-daughter direct line starting with Beatriz and ending with the late Ignacia Gutierrez of South Texas: Beatriz Quintanilla, Maria Trevino, Sebastiana Trevino Quintanilla, Maria Rodriguez, Clara Fernandez Renteria, Maria Garcia Renteria, Gertrudis Trevino, Maria Teodora Villarreal, Ana Maria Gonzalez Solis, Maria Rafaela Gutierrez, Maria Gertrudis Vela, Maria Asuncion Uribe, Maria Benicia Zapata, Maria Josefa Vidaurri, Ignacia Gutierrez.

A related report on the mtDNA of Beatriz Quintanilla can be found at:

From time to time this report will be updated with additional data.
Compiled by Crispin Rendon
June 30, 2009



Extract from Pew Hispanic Center information
Benicio de Toro Receives Award from Cuban Artists and Writers

Extract from Pew Hispanic Center information

A majority of the 4.1 million people calling themselves Puerto Ricans were born outside of the island as well, but they identify themselves with the culture of the U.S. territory that currently functions as a commonwealth.
The largest concentrations of Puerto Ricans in the mainland are in New York (26 percent), Florida (18 percent), New Jersey (10 percent) and Pennsylvania (8 percent). About 220,000 Puerto Ricans reside in the Metro Orlando area, making up the majority of the local Hispanic population.
* Puerto Ricans are the second-largest Hispanic population in the United States, making up 9.1 percent of all Latinos.
* Puerto Ricans have a national median age of 29, younger than the national average of 36, but older by Hispanic standards.
* Most Puerto Ricans have a high school diploma and 971,000 have college degrees, but their educational attainment and incomes are proportionately lower than the average for the U.S. population.
* 2.5 million Puerto Ricans report that they do not speak English at home, but 1.8 million of those say they can speak English very well. Another 1.2 million say they only speak English at home.
Related links: 
Document: Full fact sheet, Puerto Ricans in the United States, 2007
Víctor Manuel Ramos can be reached at He is also on Twitter at Blog subscribers can read and comment on the original post at
Source: NILP  Sent by Rafael Ojeda



Benicio de Toro Receives Award from Cuban Artists and Writers

Cuban News Agency, Jul 31, 2009  acnnews 3

HAVANA, Cuba, Jul 31 (acn) Puerto Rican actor Benicio del Toro received on Thursday the Tomas Gutirrez Alea  ward, granted by the Cuban Union of  Writers and Artists (UNEAC). The award, consisting of a work by painter Agustin Bejarano, was given to del Toro by UNEAC president Miguel Barnet, in a ceremony held at the Martinez Villena Hall in this institution.

   Accompanying del Toro were other outstanding Hollywood actors like Robert Duvall, James Caan and Bill Murray, producers Steve Bing and Laura Bickford. 

   The Puerto Rican star said he would share this award with the Cuban artists, since all of them are on the same ship and that he feels very proud to accept the distinction because Gutierrez Alea was one of the professionals that influenced him the most, since he saw his movie ‘Death of a Bureaucrat’.

   Benicio said he had not had the good fortune of meeting Alea personally, but he had met several of his disciples, such as Daisy Granados, Jorge Perugorria and Luis Alberto Garcia.

   Meanwhile, Barnet said that it was a bright afternoon in which they all met a group of important US and Puerto Rican actors; he stressed the occasion revealed the respect felt for the American and Caribbean culture despite the obstacles, like the US blockade against Cuba.

   Perugorria, who worked along del Toro in Steven Soderbergh’s ‘Che’, highlighted the human side of the Puerto Rican actor, of whom he praised his professionalism and his commitment not only to current social and political causes, but also to the history and reality of the Latin American countries and the rest of the world.

   The entertainment was provided by pianist Guillermo Tuzzio who played a selection of domestic and international works, and who was spontaneously accompanied by Bill Murray when he played the soundtrack of mythical ‘Casablanca’.

Entregan a Benicio del Toro Premio Tomas Gutierrez Alea
Sent by Dorinda Moreno





The Wedding Gown That Made History



Lilly Friedman doesn’t remember the last name of the woman who designed and sewed the wedding gown she wore when she walked down the aisle over 60 years ago. But the grandmother of seven does recall that when she first told her fiancé Ludwig that she had always dreamed of being married in a white gown he realized he had his work cut out for him.

For the tall, lanky 21-year-old who had survived hunger, disease and torture this was a different kind 
of challenge. How was he ever going to find such a dress in the Bergen Belsen Displaced Person’s camp where they felt grateful for the clothes on their backs?  Bergen-Belsen was a concentration camp near Hanover in northwest Germany,

Fate would intervene in the guise of a former German pilot who walked into the food distribution center where Ludwig worked, eager to make a trade for his worthless parachute. In exchange for two pounds of coffee beans and a couple of packs of cigarettes Lilly would have her wedding gown.

For two weeks Miriam the seamstress worked under the curious eyes of her fellow DPs, carefully fashioning the six parachute panels into a simple, long sleeved gown with a rolled collar and a fitted waist that tied in the back with a bow. When the dress was completed she sewed the leftover material into a matching shirt for the groom.

A white wedding gown may have seemed like a frivolous request in the surreal environment of the camps, but for Lilly the dress symbolized the innocent, normal life she and her family had once led before the world descended into madness. Lilly and her siblings were raised in a Torah observant home in the small town of Zarica, Czechoslovakia where her father was a me lamed, respected and well liked by the young yeshiva students he taught in nearby Irsheva.

He and his two sons were marked for extermination immediately upon arriving at Auschwitz. For Lilly and her sisters it was only their first stop on their long journey of persecution, which included Plashof, Neustadt, Gross Rosen and finally Bergen Belsen .  

Lilly Friedman and her parachute dress on display in the Bergen Belsen Museum

Four hundred people marched 15 miles in the snow to the town of Celle on January 27, 1946 to attend Lilly and Ludwig’s wedding. The town synagogue, damaged and desecrated, had been lovingly renovated by the DPs with the meager materials available to them. When a Sefer Torah arrived from England they converted an old kitchen cabinet into a makeshift Aron Kodesh.
“My sisters and I lost everything – our parents, our two brothers, our homes. The most important thing was to build a new home.” Six months later, Lilly’s sister Ilona wore the dress when she married Max Traeger. After that came Cousin Rosie. How many brides wore Lilly’s dress? “I stopped counting after 17.” With the camps experiencing the highest marriage rate in the world, Lilly’s gown was in great demand.

In 1948 when President Harry Truman finally permitted the 100,000 Jews who had been languishing in DP camps since the end of the war to emigrate, the gown accompanied Lilly across the ocean to America . Unable to part with her dress, it lay at the bottom of her bedroom closet for the next 50 years, “not even good enough for a garage sale. I was happy when it found such a good home.”
Home was the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington , D.C. When Lily’s niece, a volunteer, told museum officials about her aunt’s dress, they immediately recognized its historical significance and displayed the gown in a specially designed showcase, guaranteed to preserve it for 500 years.

But Lilly Friedman’s dress had one more journey to make. Bergen Belsen , the museum, opened its doors on October 28, 2007. The German government invited Lilly and her sisters to be their guests for the grand opening. They initially declined, but finally traveled to Hanover the following year with their children, their grandchildren and extended families to view the extraordinary exhibit created for the wedding dress made from a parachute.

Lilly’s family, who were all familiar with the stories about the wedding in Celle , were eager to visit the synagogue. They found the building had been completely renovated and modernized. But when they pulled aside the handsome curtain they were astounded to find that the Aron Kodesh, made from a kitchen cabinet, had remained untouched as a testament to the profound faith of the survivors. As Lilly stood on the bimah once again she beckoned to her granddaughter, Jackie, to stand beside her where she was once a kallah. “It was an emotional trip. We cried a lot.”

Two weeks later, the woman who had once stood trembling before the selective eyes of the infamous Dr. Josef Mengele returned home and witnessed the marriage of her granddaughter.

The three Lax sisters – Lilly, Ilona and Eva, who together survived Auschwitz, a forced labor camp, a death march and Bergen Belsen – have remained close and today live within walking distance of each other in Brooklyn. As mere teenagers, they managed to outwit and outlive a monstrous killing machine, then went on to marry, have children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren and were ultimately honored by the country that had earmarked them for extinction.

As young brides, they had stood underneath the chuppah and recited the blessings that their ancestors had been saying for thousands of years. In doing so, they chose to honor the legacy of those who had perished by choosing life.



It is now more than 60 years after the Second World War in Europe ended This e-mail is being sent as a memorial chain, in memory of the six million Jews, 20 million Russians, 10 million Christians and 1,900 Catholic priests who were murdered, massacred, raped, burned, starved and humiliated with the German and Russian peoples looking the other way!  Now, more than ever, with Iraq, Iran, and others, claiming the Holocaust to be ‘a myth,’ it’s imperative to make sure the world never forgets, because there are others who would like to do it again.  

Posted by Patti




The victors will indeed write the history books


AUSTIN — Texas students should learn about the virtue of American democracy, including the country's founding biblical principles, some State Board of Education members emphasized Thursday.

Others, meanwhile, argued that honest history means textbooks must include some of the warts.

And be careful about erasing folks like Henry Cisneros from those history books just because of some distant indiscretion, warned Mary Helen Berlanga, D-Corpus Christi.

One expert reviewer appointed by the board has recommended Cisneros be yanked from the history books because the former San Antonio mayor and Clinton Cabinet secretary created legal troubles for himself in the 1990s by not fully disclosing support payments he had made to a one-time lover.

“No one is perfect. To delete someone who is of Hispanic descent because of some issue that somebody has with him is not fair — unless they're going to put everybody on that same chopping block,” she said.

If Cisneros goes, so should Thomas Jefferson, Berlanga said.

Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers, produced out-of-wedlock children with one of his slaves.

The board will spend the coming months deciding new social studies curriculum standards for 4.7 million Texas public school children.

About 75 teachers, principals, social studies coordinators, college professors, retired teachers and ordinary residents are developing the new curriculum standards.

The so-called “writing teams” are taking guidance from six expert reviewers appointed by the board. The first draft is expected to be finished before the board's September meeting. Public hearings will follow before the board acts next spring.

But some of the expert recommendations already are drawing controversy — suggesting, for example, that biographies of George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and Stephen F. Austin shouldn't be included in books for early grade school children.

And some of the experts want to emphasize the role of the Bible and the Christian faith in the settling of the original colonies.

The suggestions already are drawing the attention of the national media, which lampooned Texas earlier this year when the board struggled with the teaching of evolution in public schools.

In an article this week, the Wall Street Journal noted that two of the expert reviewers have strong Christian perspectives.

David Barton is founder of WallBuilders, which pushes America's Christian heritage. The Rev. Peter Marshall is a Christian minister who preaches that Watergate, the Vietnam War and Hurricane Katrina were God's judgments on the nation's sexual immorality, the Journal reported.

But board members said Thursday they are optimistic they will avoid repeating the rankling that brought attention to the debate over new science curriculum standards.

“I don't see at all that we will divide into factions,” said new board Chair Gail Lowe, R-Lampasas.

Bob Craig, R-Lubbock, said of the task: “It's very difficult. It's very emotional. I hope we would keep it factual.”

Emphasizing the nation's Biblical principles remains “a hotly debated topic,” but religion influenced the founding fathers, who declared in their independence from Great Britain that all people were “endowed by our creator with certain unalienable rights,” Don McLeroy, R-College Station, said.

“This country has so many rights and principles because it goes back to the heritage that you will find in Biblical principles,” he said “That's why America is an exceptional place.”

Mavis Knight, D-Dallas, said it was important for school history books to chronicle the historical contributions by minority groups and emphasized a need for a balanced view of history.

“Everything is not lovey-dovey in the founding of our country,” she said. “If you don't have a look at the ugly side balanced against the positive side, you have kind of rewritten history.”

Sent by Esther Bonilla Read




Grandma's Hands
El arte de cuidar la Historia
FamilySearch Labs
How to Bring Old Memories Back to Life
Finding NARA Genealogy Records Online



The photo, shown below, features the hands of a Grandmother, Mother, Sister, Niece and Great-Niece,  a special keepsake.  Isn't this a beautiful idea  . . 

Grandma, some ninety plus years, sat feebly on the patio bench. She didn't move, just sat with her head down staring at her hands. When I sat down beside her she didn't acknowledge my presence and the longer I sat I wondered if she was OK. 

Finally, not really wanting to disturb her but wanting to check on her at the same time, I asked her if she was OK. She raised her head and looked at me and smiled. 'Yes, I'm fine, thank you for asking,' she said in a clear strong voice. 

'I didn't mean to disturb you, grandma, but you were just sitting here staring at your hands and I wanted to make sure you were OK,' I explained to her.  'Have you ever looked at your hands,' she asked. 'I mean really looked at your hands?' 

I slowly opened my hands and stared down at them. I turned them over, palms up and then palms down. No, I guess I had never really looked at my hands as I tried to figure out the point she was making. 

Grandma smiled and related this story: 

Stop and think for a moment about the hands you have, how they have served you well throughout your years. These hands, though wrinkled shriveled and weak have been the tools I have used all my life to reach out and grab and embrace life. 

They braced and caught my fall when as a toddler I crashed upon the floor.

They put food in my mouth and clothes on my back. As a child, my mother taught me to fold them in prayer. They tied my shoes and pulled on my boots. They held my husband and wiped my tears when he went off to war.

They have been dirty, scraped and raw, swollen and bent. They were uneasy and clumsy when I tried to hold my newborn son. Decorated with my wedding band they showed the world that I was married and loved someone special. 

They wrote my letters to him and trembled and shook when I buried my parents and spouse. 

They have held my children and grandchildren, consoled neighbors, and shook in fists of anger when I didn't understand. 

They have covered my face, combed my hair, and washed and cleansed the rest of my body. They have been sticky and wet, bent and broken, dried and raw. And to this day when not much of anything else of me works real well these hands hold me up, lay me down, and again continue to fold in prayer. 

These hands are the mark of where I've been and the ruggedness of life. 
I will never look at my hands the same again. . 


FamilySearch Labs: Future Tools to Dig Up the Past

FamilySearch Labs showcases new family history technologies that aren't ready for prime time. Your feedback will help us refine new ideas and bring them to market sooner. Have fun playing with these innovations and send your feedback directly to our development teams.

How to Bring Old Memories Back to Life


Send your senior questions to: Savvy Senior, P.O. Box 5443, Norman, OK 73070, or visit Jim Miller is a contributor to the NBC Today show and author of "The Savvy Senior" book.




El arte de cuidar la Historia

Colección Histórica Luciano Guajardo de la Biblioteca de Laredo.

Jueves, 25 de Junio de 2009


José Moreno es encargado del cuidado de la Colección Histórica Luciano Guajardo de la Biblioteca de Laredo.
La Colección Luciano Guajardo, invaluable tesoro cultural, guarda documentos frágiles e únicos acerca del pasado y fundación del sur de Texas y Nuevo Laredo. He aquí un pequeño vistazo a este acervo que se resguarda con toda la dedicación que merece.
Lo más importante es el trato que se le da a cada pedazo de historia, ya sea esté plasmada en un libro, una foto, una postal o un mapa; la luz y la temperatura juegan un papel muy importante para la conservación del tesoro cultural, que guarda la Colección Histórica Luciano Guajardo.

Esta colección está resguarda con sumo cuidado y seguridad en las instalaciones de la Biblioteca Pública de Laredo, ubicada en la calle Carlton.

"Los documentos de aquí son frágiles y únicos, si algo les pasa no se pueden reemplazar, además se tiene que tener precaución con el manejo, la mano de uno suda, tiene grasa y ácido, si se toca una foto se deja la huella, se queda años y con el tiempo mancha", explicó José Moreno, bibliotecario de la colección especial Luciano Guajardo.

Se atesoran documentos, textos, mapas, fotos y colecciones que datan de siglos pasados, que contienen parte de historia y fundación de esta región del Sur de Texas.

"Aquí tenemos colección histórica de Laredo y Nuevo Laredo, casi todo tiene que ver con la fundación de la región, cuando llegó José Escandón, enviado del virrey español para que estableciera estas tierras", compartió Moreno.

Tan pronto como ingresas a esta zona de la biblioteca, que es la de más seguridad en el manejo, te sientes en otro espacio de tiempo en el pasado de la historia de esta región.

Tal vez, de los más fascinante que se puede encontrar son los sucesos de la separación de los dos Laredos.

"Fue el 15 de junio de 1848, con el Tratado Guadalupe Hidalgo que la ciudad de Laredo y Nuevo Laredo se separan", manifestó Moreno.

De esta manera se establece Nuevo Laredo del lado mexicano y San Agustín de Laredo en el lado americano.


La sala de la colección consta de seis estantes movibles, que mediante un código de seguridad se mueven, de manera que este sistema permite tener mayor espacio y mayor cantidad de documentos archivados.

"Se escribe un código en el estante que se quiere mover, esto lo hace compacto y hace que se pueda guardar más material en cada estante", aseveró Moreno.

Otras de las razones por las que existe este sistema de estantes movibles, es para que más documentos se archiven en cajas para que no les de la luz, ya que ésta deteriora el papel.

Otra razón es para controlar la humedad y que ésta no hinche el papel, el aire acondicionado se tiene que tener siempre en una temperatura constante de 68 o 69 grados.

Los libros más antiguos datan del año 1855, que son después que se formó Laredo como parte de los Estados Unidos.

Son libros y documentos del Concilio de la ciudad de Laredo, lo que son las leyes que pasaron.

"Algo interesante es este libro, no es tan antiguo es del año 1917, es la lista de entierros del cementerio de la ciudad, dice el nombre de la persona, en qué parte del cementerio está enterrado, nombre de la funeraria", expresó.

Dijo Moreno que hace poco se hizo una investigación con motivo de la reciente epidemia de la influenza que azotó y sigue afectando a esta región, ya que se tiene conocimiento que en esta área de Texas hubo una epidemia como esta en el siglo pasado.

A través de este libro se contabilizó el número de muertos en julio de 1917 y julio de 1918.

"El número de personas fallecidas aumentó considerablemente en octubre de 1917 fueron 33 personas y en octubre de 1918 fallecieron 123, un aumento considerable", informó.

Aunque no se continuó con la investigación, se cree que pueda existir información y datos importantes con respecto a este tema.


El área más visitada es la colección de genealogía, que significa buscar información de los antepasados y acerca de la historia de los dos Laredos.

Laredo y Nuevo Laredo eran la misma ciudad antes de 1848, la mayor parte de la gente que acude a este lugar privado de la historia de la región son de ambos Laredos y están en búsqueda de sus antepasados.

"No todos encuentran información, pero la sección de genealogía es muy amplia, tenemos libros de personas que ya desarrollaron su genealogía y también tenemos colección de las iglesias, documentos de matrimonios de los años 1700 y 1800", aseveró.

Laredo se fundó en el año 1755, en ese entonces la ciudad de Guerrero ya existía, mucha gente de los dos Laredos tiene descendencia de esa ciudad.

"Si quieres conocer tus raíces, si quieres saber cómo eran, cómo vivían, cómo se llamaban y qué hacían tus antepasados aquí es el lugar para encontrar esa información", añadió.


Esta colección histórica que se conserva en la Biblioteca Pública de Laredo lleva el nombre de Luciano Guajardo, quien estuvo al frente de la biblioteca por 30 años, cuando ésta se encontraba en el centro de la ciudad.

"Él es responsable de la mayor parte de las colecciones acerca de las costumbres locales y del folklore de la región, cuentos de espantos, música local, a consecuencia de eso tenemos una colección fuerte de folklore y costumbres", informó Moreno.


Diariamente José Moreno, bibliotecario de esta sección de la biblioteca, se da a la tarea de investigar qué libros están en venta y qué intereses a esta región.

De las últimas adquisiciones destacan una tesis de un texano en el comercio del peyote en esta zona, otro más es referente a la cultura de los indios Lipanes del Sur de Texas.


Desde 1980 José Moreno está a cargo de la Colección Histórica Luciano Guajardo, ya son más de 20 años inmerso entre libros y textos, que cuentan la historia de Laredo y Nuevo Laredo.

Moreno pertenece a la Sociedad Histórica de Nuevo Laredo y a la Genealogical Society.

Desde que recuerda le han apasionado los libros, estudió la carrera de bibliotecario, posteriormente hizo dos maestrías.

Nació en Panamá cuando su padre se encontraba de servicio en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, ahí conoció a su madre Brígida Falcón Moreno.

Él fue el único de cuatro hermanos que nació en ese país, desde bebé llegó a vivir a Austin, donde hizo su carrera de bibliotecario.

"Esta es mi carrera, llegué aquí a Laredo a estudiar ciencias en la biblioteca en lo que hoy es TAMIU", dijo.

Desde muy niño cultivó el amor por la lectura, no tiene un tema predilecto para leer.

"Leo mucha variedad, me gusta leer de todo", manifestó.


De las 9:00 de la mañana a las 6:00 de la tarde de lunes a viernes.

En estos momentos están en exposición fotografías de Laredo y Nuevo Laredo de principios del siglo pasado.

Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia
"Haz tu Arbol Genealogico...El Arbol mas Hermoso de la Creacion"

Por medio de la historia familiar descubrimos el árbol más hermoso de la creación: nuestro árbol genealógico.
Sus numerosas raíces se remontan a la historia y sus ramas se extienden a través de la eternidad.
La historia familiar es la expresión extensiva del amor eterno; nace de la abnegación y provee la oportunidad de asegurarse para siempre una unidad familiar”.
(Élder J. Richard Clarke, Liahona julio de 1989, pág.69


Finding NARA Genealogy Records Online


June 17, 2009
Looking for census, naturalization, WWI draft registration or other National Archives records for your ancestors?  They're not on the National Archives Web site, but here's a list of places where you can find them online.

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is the custodian of a range of popular US genealogy records. Rather than digitize and post these records on its own Web site, NARA has approached the records access part of its mission by partnering with sites such as FamilySearch, Footnote and to digitize documents and put them online . Under these nonexclusive agreements, NARA receives copies of digitized records and makes them free at NARA facilities. (Read more about these partnerships on NARA's Web site.)

We’ve put together the following ist of popular NARA records you can find on genealogy database sites, linked to the referenced databse. Footnote, and World Vital Records are fee-based (your local Family History Center may offer Footnote access; your library may offer Ancestry Library Edition); FamilySearch’s Record Search Pilot site is free. HeritageQuest Online is accessible through subscribing libraries—check your library’s Web site or ask at the reference desk.

Also remember to check volunteer-run sites such as USGenWeb and run Web searches on the record type and county name to find indexes for your ancestors' time and place that individual researchers or organizations may have posted online.

Civil War Pension Index Cards, 1861 to 1917
FamilySearch Record Search: index only
Footnote $ $: extends to 1934

Civil War Widows' Pension Files
Footnote $

Federal Census Records $: all available federal censuses
FamilySearch Record Search: 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1900, 1920 (no images for 1880 and 1920; databases are at varying levels of completion)
Footnote $: 1860 and 1930
HeritageQuest Online: some years have incomplete indexes.

Freedmen’s Bank Records
FamilySearch Record Search: 1865 to 1874 $

Homestead Records
Footnote $: Nebraska

Indian Censuses, 1885 to 1940
Footnote $ $

Naturalization Records
Footnote $: records for various districts and years $: records for various districts and years

Passenger Manifest Lists for US arrivals $: all US ports
Castle Port of New York, 1820 to 1892
Ellis Port of New York, 1892 to 1924
World Vital Records $: Port of New York, 1892 to 1924
FamilySearch Record Search: Ellis Island

Passport Applications $: 1795 to 1925
Footnote $: 1795 to 1905

Revolutionary War Pension Files
Footnote $
HeritageQuest Online (accessible through subscribing libraries)

Revolutionary War Service Records
Footnote $ $

World War I Draft Registration Cards $

World War II Draft Registration Cards $
FamilySearch Record Search (database not yet complete)


The Birth of the Song 'Precious Lord'
Ennio Marchetto
Back in 1932, I was a fairly new husband. My wife, Nettie and I were living in a little apartment on Chicago's south side.One hot August afternoon I had to go to St. Louis where I was to be the featured soloist at a large revival meeting. I didn't want to go. Nettie was in the last month of pregnancy with our first child. But a lot of people were expecting me in St. Louis. I kissed Nettie good-bye, clattered downstairs to our Model A and, in a fresh Lake Michigan breeze, chugged out of Chicago on Route 66.
However, outside the city, I discovered that in my anxiety at leaving, I had forgotten my music case. I wheeled around and headed back.
I found Nettie sleeping peacefully. I hesitated by her bed; something was strongly telling me to stay. But eager to get on my way, and not wanting to disturb Nettie, I shrugged off the feeling and quietly slipped out of the room with my music.
The next night, in the steaming St. Louis heat, the crowd called on me to sing again and again. When I finally sat down, a messenger boy ran up with a Western Union telegram. I ripped open the envelope. Pasted on the yellow sheet were the words: YOUR WIFE JUST DIED.
People were happily singing and clapping around me, but I could hardly keep from crying out. I rushed to a phone and called home. All I could hear on the other end was 'Nettie is dead. Nettie is dead.'
When I got back, I learned that Nettie had given birth to a boy. I swung between grief and joy. Yet that same night, the baby died. I buried Nettie and our little boy together, in the same casket. Then I fell apart.
For days I closeted myself I felt that God had done me an injustice. I didn't want to serve Him anymore or write gospel songs. I just wanted to go back to that jazz world I once knew so well. But then, as I hunched alone in that dark apartment those first sad days, I thought back to the afternoon I went to St. Louis. Something kept telling me to stay with Nettie. Was that something God? Oh, if I had paid more attention to Him that day, I would have stayed and been with Nettie when she died.
From that moment on I vowed to listen more closely to Him.. But still I was lost in grief. Everyone was kind to me, especially one friend. The following Saturday evening he took me up to Maloney's Poro College, a neighborhood music school. It was quiet; the late evening sun crept through the curtained windows.
I sat down at the piano, and my hands began to browse over the keys. Something happened to me then. I felt at peace. I felt as though I could reach out and touch God. I found myself playing a melody, once into my head they just seemed to fall into place: 'Precious Lord, take my hand, lead me on, let me stand, I am tired, I am weak, I am worn, through the storm, through the night, lead me on to the light, take my hand, precious Lord, lead me home.'
The Lord gave me these words and melody, He also healed my spirit. I learned that when we are in our deepest grief, when we feel farthest from God, this is when He is closest, and when we are most open to His restoring power.
And so I go on living for God willingly and joyfully, until that day comes when He will take me and gently lead me home.  -Tommy Dorsey-
For those too young to know who he is, Tommy Dorsey was a band leader in the Thirties and Forties.


Ennio Marchetto is a world renowned and awarded comedian who has created his own theatrical language mixing mime, dance, music and quick change costumes made out of  card-board and paper. In 18 years Ennio has  performed in over 70 countries for more than a  million people. His show has received numerous awards and international critical acclaim.  It really is creative.

.....He is from Italy . He does impressions of stars and singers using these paper costumes that transform  from one person into another.  He is a barrel of fun to watch!! 




12/30/2009 04:49 PM