Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-9
to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Click for more information on the subject.
predict future happiness for Americans if they can prevent the
from wasting the labors of the people under the pretense of taking care of them.
Sent by FERNANAGUIL7
National Parks Service
Hispanic Heritage Month
Patriots, American Revolution
East of Mississippi
Letters to the Editor :
Que trabajo tan soberbio el que mensualmente ustedes realizan.
Pero ojo, Soberbio en el siguiente sentido: "que destaca entre las de su clase por sus cualidades excelentes"
Por un soberbio 2009 para todos!
Primos Staff: .
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
John P. Schmal
Contributors to March Issue
Patricia Arredondo, Ph.D.
Ida Eblinger Kelley
Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.
Sylvia Carvajal Sutton
Henry J. Casso, Ph.D.
Charlotte De Vaul
Lauro Garza Arzamendi
Gilbert Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Rafael Jesus Gonzalez
Eva Maria Guerrero
Dr. Neo Gutierrez
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Randy Jurado Ertll
Raul N. Longoria
Joe Martinez, Ph.D.
Carlos Munoz, Ph.D.
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, Ph.D.
Jose M. Pena
Robert Perez Guadarrama
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Louis F. Serna
Margaret M. Sharon
Robert R. Thonhoff
Val Valdez Gibbons
Sylvia Villarreal Bisnar
SHHAR Board: Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Michael Perez, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal, Tomas Saenz.
|Hispanics Breaking Barriers, Part III By Mercy
Born Again American Video
Telemundo Launches 2010 Census Campaign, 'Hazte Contar!'
In light of the present financial crisis, read what Thomas Jefferson said in 1802:
'I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around the banks will deprive the people of all property until their children wake-up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered
Mario J. Molina
Mario Molina has been selected by U.S. President-elect Barack Obama to
form part of the Executive Office of the President Transition Team in
Science and Technology. He was also an advisor to President-elect Obama
Mario J. Molina was born in
Molina attended school in
1960, Dr. Molina enrolled in the chemical Engineering program at the
Universidad Nacional Automata de Mexico (UNAM); he finished his
undergraduate studies and earned a Chemical Engineer Degree from the
university. In 1965, Dr. Molina became
an Assistant Professor at the same university and set up the first
graduate program in chemical engineering.
Molina also studied in Germany, enrolled at Albert Ludwigs Freiburg
University in West Germany, he spent two years in kinetics of
polymerizations; he also studied various basic subjects in order to
broaden his background and to explore other research areas. Molina
earned a postgraduate degree and a Ph.D. degree in Physical Chemistry
Dr. Molina attended the
1982, Dr. Molina joined the Molecular Physics and Chemistry Section at
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The group investigated the peculiar chemistry
that promoted by polar stratospheric clouds, some of which consist of
ice crystals. They were able to show that chlorine-activation reactions
take place very efficiently in the presence of ice under polar
stratospheric conditions; thus, they provided a laboratory simulation of
the chemical effects of clouds over the Antarctic.
1989, Dr. Molina and his family moved to
contributed to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and a profound
impact on the global environment. Dr. Mario Molina eventually became a
professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dr. Molina
is one of the world's most knowledgeable experts on pollution and the
effects of chemical pollution on the environment.
1995, Dr. Molina received a Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in
atmospheric chemistry and the effect of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) on
the depletion of the ozone layer. He shared the Nobel Prize with Frank
Sherwood Rowland and Paul J. Crutzen. The Nobel was the first ever
awarded for research into the effect of fabricated objects on the
2005, Dr. Molina moved from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
to the University of California, San Diego, and then to Mexico City,
where he created a new center for strategic studies in energy and
environment. Molina’s earliest achievement consisted of explaining
some features in the laser signals-that at first sight appeared to be
noise as “relaxation oscillations.”
Molina is a member of the Pontifical Academy of Science, the National
Academy of Sciences, the
Perez was Secretary of the Maryland Department of Labor, Licensing and
Regulation under Governor Martin O'Malley. Tom Perez has been selected
to work with the Justice and Civil Rights Team for President Obama’s
administration. He is a member of the Obama Transition Project's Agency
Review Working Group responsible for the justice, health and human
services, veterans affairs, and housing and urban development agencies.
Perez is the youngest of five he was born and raised in Buffalo, New
York, his parents,
immigrants from the Dominican Republic Rafael Perezlara (1920-1974) and
Grace Perezlara, (a combination of last name used by family at the
time.) Perez parents
instilled in Tom and his sibling the importance of hard work, a sound
education, and looking out for the less fortunate. (Perez’s father
died when he was twelve years old). Tom’s three brothers are
physicians and his sister is a clinical psychologist. Tom Perez married
Ann Marie Staudenmaier, a public interest lawyer; they have two
daughters Amalia and Susana and a son, Rafael. As
a career prosecutor at the United States Department of Justice, he
prosecuted a number of the Department’s most profile cases, including
a deadly crime spree in
2002, Perez became the first Hispanic elected to the Council. In 2004,
on his third year on the Council, Perez was elected President, making
him the highest Hispanic elected official in
2001-2007, Perez was assistant Professor of Law at the
Blanco, Executive director of
Blanco was born in Mexico D.F., Blanco made her studies in
2001-2003 Blanco served as the National Senior counsel for the Mexican
American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF), formed in 1968, a
National nonprofit organization, their mission is to protect and promote
the civil rights of the millions of Hispanics living in
July 1, 2007, Blanco joined UC Berkeley Law School as the first
Executive Director of the Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Race,
Ethnicity and Diversity (Warren Institute). Blanco is a Boalt alumna
(’84) who brings more than 20 years of experience as a litigator and
advocate for immigrant rights, women’s rights and racial justice.
Blanco served as the executive director of the Lawyers’ Committee for
Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area. As
Executive Director of the Lawyers’ Committee, Blanco oversaw
litigation and policy work in the area of immigrant integration and
rights, securing the right to vote and expanding the franchise and their
regularly contributes to national and local media on school integration
and funding inequities, the importance of an independent judiciary and
civil rights challenges. She launched initiatives to increase minority
access to higher education, provide legal counsel for students in
substandard schools, and convene African-American and Latino community
leaders to discuss the impact of immigration reform.
Camuñez was born in 1960, son of Michael Christopher Camuñez and Mary
Agnes Long-Camuñez. Camuñez a
1991-1993, Camuñez worked for the bi-partisan U.S. Commission on
National and Community Service, serving as a Program Officer and
director of the National Service Demonstration Program. In 1993-1995, he
worked as Senior Policy advisor for the National Service in
2002, Camuñez was appointed to the state agency as a commissioner by
then Governor Davis, and was reappointed by Governor Schwarzenegger in
2005. Since 2006, Camuñez Co-chaired the California Volunteers
Commission with honorary Co-chair First Lady of California Maria Shriver,
shaped policies to increase volunteer and community service throughout
Camuñez is a member of the Board of Visitors of Stanford Law School,
the Chancery Club of Los Angeles, the Pacific Council on International
Policy, and is a Trustee of the Mexican-American Bar Foundation. He was
also a founding board member of Democratic Leadership for the 21st
Century in Los
as well as an at-large
has been recognized as a Southern California “Rising Star” in a
survey conducted by Law & Politics Media Inc. published in Los
Angles magazine and the Southern California edition of Super Lawyers
(2004-2007). In 2005, California Lawyer recognized Camuñez as one of
the state’s outstanding pro bono lawyers by conferring upon him its
inaugural Angel Award.
Commission is committed to supporting and equipping an informed
citizenry. Dedicated to upholding the public interest, the Commission
shapes, administers and enforces City ethics, campaign finance and
lobbying laws to ensure city elections and government decision-making
are fair, open and accountable.
Executive Joan Magagna, Director for Legal Services at the National
Disability Rights Network (NDRN) has been selected to work with the
Justice and Civil Rights for President Obama.
was a Professor of Law; she received her Bachelor of Arts’ degree from
Executive Magagna was a litigator in the Civil Rights Division of United
States Department of Justice for 26 years, she managerial and staff
Executive Magagna handled suits on behalf of the
Executive Magagna served as Chief of the Housing and Civil Enforcement
Section from 1997-2003 and prior to that as Deputy Chief in both the
Housing and Disability Rights Sections.
National Disability Rights Network is a non-profit organization
dedicated to the protection and advocacy on behalf of individuals with
|Great Video . .
Sent by Val Valdez Gibbons
TO RADIO-TELEVISION, ENTERTAINMENT AND POLITICAL EDITORS:
MIAMI, Feb. 3 /PRNewswire/ -- Telemundo, a leading producer of innovative and high-quality content for Hispanics in the U.S. and around the world, announced today the launch of "Hazte Contar!" (Be Counted!), a national initiative designed to increase awareness of the 2010 Census among U.S. Hispanics and increase their participation in this significant national process. The company-wide, year-long campaign will kick off on-air on April 1, 2009, and encompass all of Telemundo's properties across its broadcast
(network and stations), cable and digital platforms.
"Hazte Contar!" will create awareness among the U.S. Hispanic community about the Census process and promote community involvement as a means of gaining a more accurate representation of the U.S. Hispanic population. Telemundo is uniquely positioned to be the media company to get the word out on this important message to U.S. Hispanics of all ages and acculturations given its multiplatform portfolio and its ability to extend across the NBC
"The U.S. Census Bureau is required by the Constitution of the United States to conduct a count of the population which presents a historic opportunity to influence the future of our country. The 2010 Census will determine federal and state representation in government and determine what communities get billions of dollars in state and federal funding," said Don Browne, President, Telemundo. "We are proud to launch this effort to make sure that our Hispanic community is fully engaged in this critically important process in order to ensure that the dramatic growth in our Hispanic population is fully and accurately reflected in the Census. The mission of Telemundo is to inform, empower, inspire and entertain U.S. Hispanics and we believe "Hazte Contar!" is an essential part of that mission and will enable us to serve the greater interests of our U.S. Hispanic community."
Telemundo will implement elements of the campaign through various news and entertainment programming on its broadcast network and its Latino-youth cable network mun2, including plans to incorporate this significant issue into the storyline of its original novelas. Both the network and stations will produce a series of public service announcements featuring Telemundo talent to supplement the on-air portion of the campaign. A large digital component will serve as the ultimate resource for information on the 2010 Census via http://www.telemundo.com . Telemundo will also utilize the network's and stations' community affairs, promotions and sales resources to achieve the
goals of "Hazte Contar!" In addition, the network will partner with national Hispanic organizations to maximize awareness and visibility of the Census and "Hazte Contar!" at both local and national levels.
According to the Census Bureau's 2007 American Community Survey, 45.4 million or 15.1% of the U.S. population is Hispanic, making it the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the U.S. Between 2010 and 2050 the U.S. Hispanic population is projected to nearly triple, resulting in one in three people in the U.S. being of Hispanic origin. The economic clout of U.S. Hispanics will rise from $862 billion in 2007 to more than $1.2 trillion in 2012, accounting for 9.7% of all U.S. buying power.
Telemundo, a U.S. Spanish-language television network, is the essential entertainment, news, and sports source for Hispanics and a leading international player in the entertainment industry with presence in more than 100 countries worldwide. Broadcasting unique national and local programming for the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population, Telemundo reaches 93% of U.S. Hispanic viewers in 210 markets through its 16 owned-and-operated stations, 45 broadcast affiliates, and 800 cable affiliates. Telemundo is wholly owned by NBC Universal, one of the world's leading media and
SOURCE Telemundo 02/03/2009
CONTACT: Michelle Alban of Telemundo, +1-305-889-7585,
Michelle.firstname.lastname@example.org; or Liane Ramirez Swierk of Goodman Media International, 1-212-576-2700, Ext. 249, Lramirez@goodmanmedia.com/ http://www.telemundo.com /
A Class Apart, Daisy Wanda Garcia
v. the State of
The month of February marked the premier of the
PBS documentary, “A Class Apart” by filmmakers Carlos Sandoval and Peter Miller. This film
documents the struggle of Mexican Americans to end Jim Crow-style
The documentary premiered in Texas cities, San
Antonio, Dallas and Austin. The
documentary premiered on Wednesday, February 11, 2009, in the
According to the documentary, Mexican American
leaders were looking for the right case to challenge the Jim
Crow-style discrimination against Mexican Americans. Then in 1951 in
case was denied at all
Dr. Hector Garcia fully supported this case.
The American G.I.
Forum (AGIF), along with the League of United Latin American Citizens
(LULAC), was plaintiffs in the case. In addition to
participating in the lawsuit, Dr. Hector on his weekly radio program
on KCCT radio in
“They would come up to me and they would give you crumpled-up dollar bills and they’d give you coins. These were people who couldn’t afford it, but couldn’t afford not to,” recalled attorney Carlos Cadena, Gus Garcia’s partner in the case.
According to Dr. Ramiro Casso, “Everyone dug deep into their
LULAC raised money through its chapters
presented a brilliant argument before the court.
Gustavo Garcia so impressed Chief Justice Earl Warren that he
allowed Garcia an additional 16 minutes to finish his arguments. The
U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren and the rest of the
Supreme Court unanimously ruled in favor of Hernandez. In its
decision, Hernandez v. Texas (1954), the court ruled that
Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the
impact of this ruling was that the 14th Amendment now
protected all racial groups of the
Pedro Hernandez was granted a new trail. Oralia Espinoza, daughter of Joe Espinoza, said as a child, she never understood why so many lawyers defended her father's killer. Later she came to understand that it was “bigger” than a murder case.
The decade of the
1950’s was a man’s world. Women’s roles and participation in
society was limited to the homes. Consequently, all our Mexican
American leaders were males. Fifty years later, the daughters of
Gustavo Garcia, Carlos Cadena and Hector P. Garcia stand together to
honor our fathers. We their daughters and sons are carrying forward
their legacy and the legacy of the Mexican American civil rights
We as Mexican Americans owe a tremendous debt to the men who struggled to get us where we are today. Thank you Gus Garcia, Carlos Cadena, John Herrera, James DeAnda, Hector P. Garcia for opening the doors of opportunity for Mexican Americans and all Americans. Que dios los bendiga.
1 A Class Apart, PBS American Experience, produced by Carlos Sandoval & Peter Miller
Chicano rights film
A Latino film maker was recognized by the Texas Legislature Thursday for a project that chronicles a Supreme Court case many say was one of the most significant for Mexican Americans' civil rights. Carlos Sandoval was congratulated in a House resolution for his film 'A Class Apart,' which debuts on PBS' The American Experience series Feb. 23.
film maker recognized by state lawmakers for new PBS documentary
AUSTIN, February 11 - A Latino film maker was recognized by the Texas Legislature Thursday for a project that chronicles a Supreme Court case many say was one of the most significant for Mexican Americans’ civil rights.
Carlos Sandoval was congratulated in a House resolution for his film 'A Class Apart,' which tells the story of San Antonio attorneys Gustavo “Gus” Garcia and Carlos Cadena. The lawyers and their legal team challenged the status quo of the 1950s by arguing their Mexican American client Pete Hernandez was denied a jury of his peers during his murder trial in Jackson County, Texas.
“This is not just Latino history, this is not just legal history,” state Rep. Trey Martinez Fischer said at a pre-screening of the film at the state Capitol Wednesday. “This is U.S. history.”
Martinez Fisher, D-San Antonio, chairman of the Mexican American Legislative Caucus, who sponsored the event at the capitol. Like several others now familiar with the film, Martinez Fischer said the case was overlooked and its relevance to the Hispanic civil rights movement was never fully realized.
Even Sandoval, himself an attorney who studied at the University of Chicago’s School of Law, said he only learned of the case by reading an article on its 50th anniversary.
“I was reading the NY Times on the subway, the editorial page, one Saturday afternoon,” he said. “I actually practiced law and I had taken constitutional law and I had never heard of this case … I found out more and more about it and the more I found out the more intriguing it became.”
Sandoval said he and his partner on the project, filmmaker Pete Miller, began work on the project in May 2004 and finished the piece just last month.
The film isn’t a Hollywood “trial” movie where a last-minute witness or undiscovered DNA evidence ultimately proves a defendant’s innocence. Hernandez, who witnesses said walked into a bar and shot his boss in the chest after an argument, was indeed guilty of the charge. But the film is instead a modest documentary that explains how a Mexican-American defense team argued before the United States Supreme Court that because Jackson County didn’t allow Mexican-American jurors, Hernandez was not provided with a jury of his peers and therefore was denied his constitutionally guaranteed rights.
“The key issue for García was not whether Pete Hernandez shot Joe Espinosa; it was that like many Latino defendants before him, Hernandez’s fate would be decided by an all-Anglo jury,” explained film narrator Edward James Olmos.
The attorneys were eventually victorious and Hernandez was awarded a new trial. He was subsequently found guilty again but advocates say the fact the Court agreed that Mexican Americans as a group deserved protection under the Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment was a landmark ruling that was as important as the historic Brown v. Board of Education.
“This case had the potential to be as important, and I have to underscore ‘potential,’” said Sandoval. “And the reason that it had potential to be even more important than Brown is that its language is not race-based, its language is group based. If this case had gotten the traction that it should have gotten then women’s rights would not have been an issue. The rights of the disabled (and) gay rights could have been handled by this case.”
In fact, Eddie Aldrete, a senior vice-president of International Bank of Commerce, said oral arguments in the Hernandez case were heard in the week leading up to oral arguments in the Brown decision, which might have contributed to the lack of attention the Hernandez case garnered.
Aldrete said IBC sponsored the pre-screening reception at the state Capitol but his involvement was also fueled by personal experience.
“My father (Cris Alderete) was the state chairman in 1954 of the American GI Forum,” he said. “LULAC and the GI Forum were both heavily involved in this. Dad went (to Washington D.C.) on behalf of the GI Forum (and) he was really there to help support and do research.”
Cris Aldrete was also mentioned and honored in the House resolution and identified as one of the key members of the Hernandez defense team.
Sandoval, whose father is Mexican American and mother is Puerto Rican, said the case not only shed light on the legal repercussions of being a Latino in the 1950s, but the overall treatment of Hispanics as well.
“Not only did no one know about this case but no one knew about the Mexican American civil rights movement after the Second World War,” he said. “Generally I think the country does not know of the sort of discrimination that existed against Mexican Americans throughout the Southwest in that period. Even I, who grew up in Southern California in the 1950s, experienced some of that but the extent of it was it was a complete apartheid system.
We had separate schools, separate cemeteries, (were) not able to eat in restaurants and the like. So yes, people do not know this story.”
Before the film explains the details surrounding the shooting and the subsequent trail, the film explores what some could consider were atrocities committed against Mexican and African Americans in Texas. Signs outside restaurants explained patrons had to be white, as proprietors likened Hispanics and African Americans to dogs. A still shot showed what looked like Mexican field hands dead in a field with nooses around their necks while Anglo horsemen posed not too far behind from the corpses.
The film them moves steadily along and explains Hernandez v. Texas in a way that could leave some to wonder how things would have been different for minorities in Texas had the case been awarded with the attention some say it deserved.
'A Class Apart' debuts on PBS’ The American Experience series Feb. 23.
© Copyright of the Rio Grande Guardian, www.riograndeguardian.com, Melinda Barrera, Publisher. All rights reserved.
When I forwarded the “ A Class
Apart” information to a friend, he in turn did the same. The story below is
what he received in return. Please do read it as, I do believe so
many of you can relate to the event. I would like to express my
appreciation to Eva Maria Guerrero for taking the time and to giving
me permission to pass on her family story. Juan Marinez
Thanks for the notice about the PBS special about Mexican- Americans in the 1950's Rick. I will be sure to watch it and to invite my family to watch this documentary.
Just a few weeks ago I took my parents Alfonso and Fidela Jimenez to Cuero Texas to visit the graves of their parents. Enroute, my mother casually mentioned / pointed out the site of a diner in Woodsborough Texas where she and my father once stopped for lunch in 1945. They were traveling to Corpus Christi where they were to began their lives as a newly married couple.
My heart broke as my mother mentioned with just a breath of resent that the diner had refused to serve them because they were Mexican-Americans. My father had just returned from serving three years active duty in in the Army's (hoo ha) 473rd Infantry. He served in Italy, Rome and Tunisia and I can only imagine the nightmares he was living through after serving his country in those combat zones. Like many of our WWII veterans, my father still tears up when he is asked to recall his war experience. He refused to speak of the war until he was about 70 years old. It is painful today to listen to his recollections of war because, if I look closely at him, I can see in his eyes that he is back in those places of horror and isolation. But those stories have to be told if only for the sake of avoiding the repetition of war.
I wonder today what effect that dastardly racist encounter in Woodsborough did for my young father's pride and self esteem. A man, proud and safely home from war, with his bride in tow starting a new life. How personally shattering and humiliating that must have been for both of them. How paralyzing for their future as Americans. My parents, as so many of their generation, The Greates Generation, thankfully were of strong spirit and moral fiber. They addressed their issue to a local [then] start-up organization in Corpus Christi called the G.I Forum founded by a young Dr. Hector P. Garcia. My parents went on to lead their quiet lives and raised four children with love and disipline and taught us their values and ethics.
My father just celebrated his 89th birthday and my mother will be 90 in April. They are active in their church and they engage in the American process by voting at every election and watching the Superbowls as they come and go. It is hard not to resent events and attitudes of the past that may have changed the course of my parents lives but I am grateful that they had and continue to have the courage to live their lives as people who count and as Americans who have done their duty.
I wanted to share this one instance of how civil rights not distributed equally puts our country to shame and why your job is so important. Thanks Rick. Love to Niki
Eva Maria Guerrero email@example.com
In a message dated 1/28/2009 9:40:25 P.M.
|DEFEND THE HONOR|
|Thanks to Defend the Honor who on Feb 3rd sent out information on the
airing of A Class Apart in various locations with the
suggestion to view in groups and gatherings.
Gus Chavez organized an event in San Diego:
Hernandez vs Texas
Sent by Defend the Honor: Here is a story
that was published last week (Jan. 27,
2009) in LatinoLA, about A Class Apart:
PBS's American Experience premieres film
showing challenge of Jim Crow-style
discrimination against Mexican Americans, 2.23
In 1951 in the town of Edna, Texas, a field hand named Pedro Hernández murdered his employer after exchanging words at a gritty cantina. From this seemingly unremarkable small-town murder emerged a landmark civil rights case that would forever change the lives and legal standing of tens of millions of Americans. A team of unknown Mexican American lawyers took the case, Hernández v. Texas, all the way to the Supreme Court, where they successfully challenged Jim Crow-style discrimination against Mexican Americans.
On Monday, February 23, PBS's American Experience premieres A Class Apart from the award-winning producers Carlos Sandoval (Farmingville), and Peter Miller (Sacco and Vanzetti, The Internationale). The one-hour film dramatically interweaves the story of its central characters -- activists and lawyers, returning veterans and ordinary citizens, murderer, and victim -- within the broader story of a civil rights movement that is still very much alive today.
The film begins with the little known history of Mexican Americans in the United States. In 1848, The Mexican-American War came to an end. For the United States, the victory meant ownership of large swaths of Mexican territory. The tens of thousands of residents living on the newly annexed land were offered American citizenship as part of the treaty to end the war. But as time evolved it soon became apparent that legal citizenship for Mexican Americans was one thing, equal treatment would be quite another.
"Life in the 1950s was very difficult for Hispanics," Wanda Garcia, a native of Corpus Christi, explains in the film. "We were considered second-rate, we were not considered intelligent. We were considered invisible."
In the first 100 years after gaining US citizenship, many Mexican Americans in Texas lost their land to unfamiliar American laws, or to swindlers. With the loss of their land came a loss of status, and within just two generations, many wealthy ranch owners had become farm workers. After the Civil War, increasing numbers of Southern whites moved to south Texas, bringing with them the rigid, racial social code of the Deep South, which they began to apply not just to Blacks, but to
Mexican Americans as well.
Widespread discrimination followed Latinos from schoolhouses and restaurants to courthouses and even to funeral parlors, many of which refused to prepare Mexican American bodies for burial. During World War II, more than 300,000 Mexican Americans served their country expecting to return home with the full citizenship rights they deserved. Instead, the returning veterans, many of them decorated war heroes, came back to face the same injustices they had experienced all their lives.
Latino lawyers and activists were making progress at state levels, but they knew that real change could only be achieved if Mexican Americans were recognized by the 14th amendment of the US Constitution -- something that could only be accomplished by bringing a case to the Supreme Court.
In his law office in San Antonio, a well-known attorney named Gus García listened to the desperate pleas of Pedro Hernández's mother, who traveled more than one-hundred-and-fifty miles to ask him to defend her son. García quickly realized that there was more to this case than murder; the real concern was not Hernández's guilt, but whether he could receive a fair trial with an all-Anglo jury deciding his fate.
García assembled a team of courageous attorneys who argued on behalf of
Hernández from his first trial at the Jackson County Courthouse in Texas all the way to Washington, DC. It would be the first time a Mexican American appeared before the Supreme Court.
Hernández lawyers decided on a daring but risky legal strategy, arguing
that Mexican Americans were "a class apart" and did not neatly
fit into a legal structure that recognized only black and white
Americans. As legal skirmishes unfolded, the lawyers emerged as
brilliant, dedicated, humorous, and at times, terribly flawed men.
CHRISTOPHER SHERMAN, Associated Press Writer Christopher Sherman,
Associated Press Writer
ALAMO, Texas – The citizenship of hundreds, possibly thousands, of people who insist they are Americans is being called into question because they were delivered by midwives near the U.S.-Mexico border. The federal government's doubts have arisen as many people in the border region try to meet a June 1 deadline to obtain U.S. passports so they can freely cross from one country to the other.
The people delivered by midwives have documents such as birth certificates and medical records. But the agency that grants passports is challenging the credibility of those papers, citing a history of some midwives fraudulently registering Mexican-born babies as American.
The passport applications being questioned include those of children of Mexican women who crossed the border to give birth in the United States, and even employees of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection agency who were born on the border and now work to protect it.
The government has "effectively reduced to second-class citizenship status an entire swath of passport applicants based solely on their being of Mexican or Latino descent and having been delivered by midwives in nonhospital settings in Southwestern border states," according to a federal lawsuit against the State Department filed last year in the border town of McAllen, about 120 miles south of Corpus Christi.
Immigration attorneys and the American Civil Liberties Union hope to have the case certified as a class action because they believe thousands of people could be affected, with most still living near the border.
Since 1960, 75 Texas midwives have been convicted of fraudulently registering Mexican-born babies as American. At one point, the government assembled a list of nearly 250 "suspicious" midwives but never explained what made them suspicious.
State Department spokesman Andy Laine declined to comment because of the litigation. The agency also declined to release statistics on passport application refusals.
After June 1, anyone re-entering the United States from Mexico or Canada will have to show a passport, not just a driver's license and birth certificate, which are the only current requirements.
For families who have lived in the area for generations, the border is just a river in the middle of one community. Many people live on one side of the border and work on the other.
"Going back and forth is as natural for them ... as going across town is for the rest of us," said Lisa Graybill, legal director for the ACLU in Texas.
If the lawsuit is not resolved before June 1, families "will have to choose if you're going to live in Mexico or you're going to live in the U.S. You won't be able to cross," said Lisa Brodyaga, the immigration attorney who filed the lawsuit against the State Department.
Anna Karen Ramirez had to sue the State Department to get her passport, even though she had a birth certificate, medical records and receipts from her 1989 birth at a clinic in Hidalgo, just south of McAllen. She also had signatures of two police officers who witnessed the event.
Ramirez's parents lived in Mexico and raised their daughter there. But they decided to have their child in the United States.
With the deadline looming, and the State Department suspicious of her citizenship, the family met several times with U.S. consular officials to obtain a passport, but their request was refused.
Ramirez's father, Narciso, drives a taxi back and forth across the border every day. He said he was warned that the family's dogged pursuit of the matter could threaten the visa that allowed him to operate his cab.
Anna Ramirez sued, and while waiting, voted unchallenged in the U.S. presidential election. A month later, she received her passport but never got a clear statement of citizenship.
"Every 10 years she's going to have to prove she's a U.S. citizen" to renew her passport, said her attorney, Naomi Jiyoung Bang.
The State Department practices are "a holdover from an older, less-regulated world," said Mark Krikorian, executive director of the Center for Immigration Studies, which advocates for more restrictive immigration laws. "It's what happens when modern standards collide with old country practices."
Krikorian said the government cannot just believe everyone, nor can it turn down everyone delivered by a midwife.
Because Ramirez is young, her parents were able to find documents the government requested. The midwife who delivered her was still alive and able to testify. They could also afford to hire an attorney to help.
David Hernandez had a harder time locating evidence.
He was born in San Benito, Texas, in 1964, to a Mexican mother who was visiting friends when she went into labor. Hernandez was delivered by a midwife who appeared on the suspicious midwife list, though without a conviction. He returned to Mexico with his mother.
The two moved back to the U.S. a few years later. He attended schools in Texas and served in the Army.
In response to government requests, he collected mounds of documentation including papers from his military service, immunization and baptismal records, and witness affidavits. When he requested his school records, he was told that his elementary school papers no longer existed.
In April 2008, the government refused his passport application.
"I was born here," he said last fall when the ACLU took on the case. "I've lived and worked here and served in the Army. I feel betrayed, like my country is stabbing me in the back just because my mother didn't have the luxury of having me in a hospital."
|From: gus chavez <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Friends, Please read the following story published in the L.A. Times. The book banning action taken against "Bless Me, Ultima" by Supt. Rick Fauss is an assault on Rudolfo Anaya, a tremendous Chicano/Latino author, and the community, especially young writers and students in our school systems. Kudos to all, especially the teachers and parents at Orestimba High School, who have spoken against the banning of the acclaimed novel. Over 61% of the students at this school and county are Latino.
This is a must read book and its banning should give warning to all of us that the attack against our community continues not only by the ICE raids, high unemployment, school drop-out rates but also by weak spine school superintendents like Rick Fauss. Please send you concerns to:
Superintendent Rick Fauss
Members of the Board of Trustees
Newman Crows Landing Unified School District
890 Main St.
Newman, CA 95360
Fax: (209) 862-0113
In Rural California, Profanity Gets 'Bless Me, Ultima' Banned
of the Fields:
G. Gonzalez and Vivian Price, Co-Directors,
Hidden within the historical accounts of minorities, workers and immigrants in American society is the story of the millions of Mexico’s men and women who experienced the temporary contract worker program known as the Bracero Program. Established to replace an alleged wartime labor shortage, the Program was in fact intended to undermine farmworker unionization. Soldiers shows how several million men, in one of the largest state managed migrations in history, were imported from 1942 to 1964 to work as cheap, controlled and disposable workers. The documentary features the men speaking of their experiences, some even moved to tears when discussing their painful exploitation, and addresses what to expect from a new temporary contract worker program.
“They’d get us up at four in the morning…then a truck arrived to take us to the fields. They’d put a bucket of water at each end of the field trench and we couldn’t drink water until we finished hoeing the trench. And you couldn’t rest, if you did they’d get after you. And that was everyday.” Alfredo Gutierrez Castaneda, El Modena, California
Soldiers also centers the voices of wives and families who were left behind as an untold number of villages were virtually emptied of men. Villages were forced to adjust as they supplied workers for the largest US agricultural corporations. As the villages emptied of men who left to be contracted (successfully or not), wives and families, not knowing if or when they would return or where they were going to work, were deeply distressed. Family separation became an ongoing periodic experience for many villages, and for many the separation became permanent. Many speak of wives/mothers crying at night, while attempting to hide their loneliness and sadness from their children. In contrast to the dramatic economic improvement the program promised, over the 22 years of the Bracero Program the economy and living standards of the villages remained virtually unchanged
"We stayed with our families alone, with the animals, with the little that we had to work the fields instead of the men in order to survive. Well, we felt very sad and alone… we suffered a lot." Hilaria Garcia G., Ciudad Juarez, Mexico
The trailer can be viewed at http://vimeo.com/2904353. Your contribution will help provide the needed funds to complete the editing of the documentary. All contributions should be made out in checks payable to:
Fund for Labor Culture and History, I.D. No. 94 3371542 (501 ( c ) 3)
Send to: Fund for Labor Culture and History
224 Caselli Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94114
Sent by Dr. Gilbert Gonzalez email@example.com
Identity in America: Are Perspectives Shifting?
February 11, 2009
cultures may be redefining what it means to be American
WASHINGTON ( RushPRnews) 02/11/09-— Multicultural, plural, post-ethnic, post-racial. While these descriptors are widely debated among American scholars, writers, politicians and others, it is usually not debated that with the possible exception of the American Indian, to be American is to be, genealogically speaking, from somewhere else in the world.
In addition, the heritage of individual Americans increasingly is from more than one part of the patchwork that is the fabric of America. Questions such as “Where are you from?” or “What is your background?” can draw complex responses as these individuals use words to identify themselves such as “multiracial,” “multiethnic” or “hybrid.”
As a result of the mingling of many ethnicities, America may be evolving from a multicultural nation to a nation of multicultural people. According to the United States Census Bureau, by 2050, the total “minority” population, which includes everyone except non-Hispanic, single-race whites, is projected to be 235.7 million out of a total U.S. population of 439 million, or nearly 54 percent.
Accordingly, the number of Americans who identify themselves as being of two or more races is projected to more than triple, from 5.2 million in 2008 to 16.2 million in 2050. The Census Bureau started collecting multiracial information in 2000, when census respondents were for the first time given the option of identifying themselves in more than one category in the question on race.
The U.S. Office of Management and Budget decided in 1997 that “mark one or more races” should be included in the census based on “evidence of increasing numbers of children from interracial unions and the need to measure the increased diversity in the United States,” according to the Census Bureau.
The decision sparked debate in America on the social and political
impact of creating so many categories of race, but it also brought the
idea of multiracial identity to the country’s collective
consciousness. With the election of President Obama, who is of mixed
race, the question of race or ethnicity, how much it matters and what
Americans think about it has become a popular topic for discussion.
White man sitting with interracial child (AP Images)
SO WHO IS AN AMERICAN?
For the month of February, America.gov is joining the discussion and exploring how the ever-increasing diversity of the U.S. population is affecting the way Americans identify themselves. Can Americans choose how and when to use ethnic heritage in describing themselves? If so, how do they decide which ethnicity to use? Can Americans choose not to be identified by any ethnicity or to use other social descriptors? Are all these choices part of being American?
A number of recent polls and other reports point to trends indicating shifts in American attitudes toward race and ethnicity that may be influencing how Americans think about their identities.
In an ABC News poll conducted December 19, 2008, to January 4, 2009, more than half the respondents who were black said they think of themselves first as American. That 51 percent is up from 46 percent in September 2008. Blacks age 50 and older call themselves American first by a margin of 2 to 1.
In an October 2008 poll by the American Anti-Defamation League, 66 percent of respondents see the growth in “minority” populations in the United States as an advantage in building a strong economy. In 1992, only 39 percent held that view.
In his September 2008 report titled “The Kerner Commission Report Plus Four Decades: What Has Changed? What Has Not?,” Reynolds Farley, a sociologist at the University of Michigan’s Population Studies Center, details a number of “pervasive changes in the racial attitudes and beliefs of whites” and cites the significant increase in interracial marriages as an example.
In 1968, when the Kerner Commission, established by President Johnson to investigate the causes of race riots, issued its report, about 1 percent of black married men had white spouses. In 2006, that proportion had increased to 14 percent, Farley reports.
He also notes that in the 1996 General Social Survey by the University of Chicago, 92 percent of white respondents said they would vote for a black presidential candidate if their party nominated a qualified one.
JOIN THE JOURNEY
During February, America.gov will consider ideas and thoughts on race, ethnicity and identity through various elements, including pieces on the role of blogs in fueling the discussion and how public exhibits are introducing new ways of thinking, a review of American immigration history, a photo essay of people whose quotes provide food for thought, first-person documentation of personal experiences, videos of people who share their insights, interactive tools and more.
Come explore identity and diversity with America.gov.
Sent by firstname.lastname@example.org
|February 15, 2009
U.S. Military Will Offer Path to Citizenship
By JULIA PRESTON
Stretched thin in Afghanistan and Iraq, the American military will begin recruiting skilled immigrants who are living in this country with temporary visas, offering them the chance to become United States citizens in as little as six months.
Immigrants who are permanent residents, with documents commonly known as green cards, have long been eligible to enlist. But the new effort, for the first time since the Vietnam War, will open the armed forces to temporary immigrants if they have lived in the United States for a minimum of two years, according to military officials familiar with the plan.
Recruiters expect that the temporary immigrants will have more education, foreign language skills and professional expertise than many Americans who enlist, helping the military to fill shortages in medical care, language interpretation and field intelligence analysis.
"The American Army finds itself in a lot of different countries where cultural awareness is critical," said Lt. Gen. Benjamin C. Freakley, the top recruitment officer for the Army, which is leading the pilot program. "There will be some very talented folks in this group."
The program will begin small - limited to 1,000 enlistees nationwide in its first year, most for the Army and some for other branches. If the pilot program succeeds as Pentagon officials anticipate, it will expand for all branches of the military. For the Army, it could eventually provide as many as 14,000 volunteers a year, or about one in six recruits.
About 8,000 permanent immigrants with green cards join the armed forces annually, the Pentagon reports, and about 29,000 foreign-born people currently serving are not American citizens.
Although the Pentagon has had wartime authority to recruit immigrants since shortly after the Sept. 11 attacks, military officials have moved cautiously to lay the legal groundwork for the temporary immigrant program to avoid controversy within the ranks and among veterans over the prospect of large numbers of immigrants in the armed forces.
A preliminary Pentagon announcement of the program last year drew a stream of angry comments from officers and veterans on Military.com, a Web site they frequent.
Marty Justis, executive director of the national headquarters of the American Legion, the veterans' organization, said that while the group opposes "any great influx of immigrants" to the United States, it would not object to recruiting temporary immigrants as long as they passed tough background checks. But he said the immigrants' allegiance to the United States "must take precedence over and above any ties they may have with their native country."
The military does not allow illegal immigrants to enlist, and that policy would not change, officers said. Recruiting officials pointed out that volunteers with temporary visas would have already passed a security screening and would have shown that they had no criminal record.
"The Army will gain in its strength in human capital," General Freakley said, "and the immigrants will gain their citizenship and get on a ramp to the American dream."
In recent years, as American forces faced combat in two wars and recruiters struggled to meet their goals for the all-volunteer military, thousands of legal immigrants with temporary visas who tried to enlist were turned away because they lacked permanent green cards, recruiting officers said.
Recruiters' work became easier in the last few months as unemployment soared and more Americans sought to join the military. But the Pentagon, facing a new deployment of 30,000 troops to Afghanistan, still has difficulties in attracting doctors, specialized nurses and language experts.
Several types of temporary work visas require college or advanced degrees or professional expertise, and immigrants who are working as doctors and nurses in the United States have already been certified by American medical boards.
Military figures show that only 82 percent of about 80,000 Army recruits last year had high school diplomas. According to new figures, the Army provided waivers to 18 percent of active-duty recruits in the final four months of last year, allowing them to enlist despite medical conditions or criminal records.
Military officials want to attract immigrants who have native knowledge of languages and cultures that the Pentagon considers strategically vital. The program will also be open to students and refugees.
The Army's one-year pilot program will begin in New York City to recruit about 550 temporary immigrants who speak one or more of 35 languages, including Arabic, Chinese, Hindi, Igbo (a tongue spoken in Nigeria), Kurdish, Nepalese, Pashto, Russian and Tamil. Spanish speakers are not eligible. The Army's program will also include about 300 medical professionals to be recruited nationwide. Recruiting will start after Department of Homeland Security officials update an immigration rule in coming days.
Pentagon officials expect that the lure of accelerated citizenship will be powerful. Under a statute invoked in 2002 by the Bush administration, immigrants who serve in the military can apply to become citizens on the first day of active service, and they can take the oath in as little as six months.
For foreigners who come to work or study in the United States on temporary visas, the path to citizenship is uncertain and at best agonizingly long, often lasting more than a decade. The military also waives naturalization fees, which are at least $675.
To enlist, temporary immigrants will have to prove that they have lived in the United States for two years and have not been out of the country for longer than 90 days during that time. They will have to pass an English test.
Language experts will have to serve four years of active duty, and health care professionals will serve three years of active duty or six years in the Reserves. If the immigrants do not complete their service honorably, they could lose their citizenship.
Commenters who vented their suspicions of the program on Military.com said it could be used by terrorists to penetrate the armed forces.
At a street corner recruiting station in Bay Ridge in Brooklyn, Staff Sgt. Alejandro Campos of the Army said he had already fielded calls from temporary immigrants who heard rumors about the program.
"We're going to give people the opportunity to be part of the United States who are dying to be part of this country and they weren't able to before now," said Sergeant Campos, who was born in the Dominican Republic and became a United States citizen after he joined the Army.
Sergeant Campos said he saw how useful it was to have soldiers who were native Arabic speakers during two tours in Iraq.
"The first time around we didn't have soldier translators," he said. "But now that we have soldiers as translators, we are able to trust more, we are able to accomplish the mission with more accuracy."
Copyright 2009 The New York Times Company
Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.. Professor Emeritus, Department of Ethnic Studies
U.S. Is Arms Bazaar for Mexican Cartels
|February 26, 2009
U.S. Is Arms Bazaar for Mexican Cartels
By JAMES C. McKINLEY Jr.
PHOENIX - The Mexican agents who moved in on a safe house full of drug dealers last May were not prepared for the fire power that greeted them.
When the shooting was over, eight agents were dead. Among the guns the police recovered was an assault rifle traced back across the border to a dingy gun store here called X-Caliber Guns.
Now, the owner, George Iknadosian, will go on trial on charges he sold hundreds of weapons, mostly AK-47 rifles, to smugglers, knowing they would send them to a drug cartel in the western state of Sinaloa. The guns helped fuel the gang warfare in which more than 6,000 Mexicans died last year.
Mexican authorities have long complained that American gun dealers are arming the cartels. This case is the most prominent prosecution of an American gun dealer since the United States promised Mexico two years ago it would clamp down on the smuggling of weapons across the border. It also offers a rare glimpse of how weapons delivered to American gun dealers are being moved into Mexico and wielded in horrific crimes.
"We had a direct pipeline from Iknadosian to the Sinaloa cartel," said Thomas G. Mangan, a spokesman for the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives in Phoenix.
Drug gangs seek out guns in the United States because the gun-control laws are far tougher in Mexico. Mexican civilians must get approval from the military to buy guns and they cannot own large-caliber rifles or high-powered pistols, which are considered military weapons.
The ease with which Mr. Iknadosian and two other men transported weapons to Mexico over a two-year period illustrates just how difficult it is to stop the illicit trade, law enforcement officials here say.
The gun laws in the United States allow the sale of multiple military-style rifles to American citizens without reporting the sales to the government, and the Mexicans search relatively few cars and trucks going south across their border.
What is more, the sheer volume of licensed dealers - more than 6,600 along the border alone, many of them operating out of their houses - makes policing them a tall order. Currently the A.T.F. has about 200 agents assigned to the task.
Smugglers routinely enlist Americans with clean criminal records to buy two or three rifles at a time, often from different shops, then transport them across the border in cars and trucks, often secreting them in door panels or under the hood, law enforcement officials here say. Some of the smuggled weapons are also bought from private individuals at gun shows, and the law requires no notification of the authorities in those cases.
"We can move against the most outrageous purveyors of arms to Mexico, but the characteristic of the arms trade is it's a 'parade of ants' - it's not any one big dealer, it's lots of individuals," said Arizona's attorney general, Terry Goddard, who is prosecuting Mr. Iknadosian. "That makes it very hard to detect because it's often below the radar."
The Mexican government began to clamp down on drug cartels in late 2006, unleashing a war that daily deposits dozens of bodies - often gruesomely tortured - on Mexico's streets. President Felipe Calderón has characterized the stream of smuggled weapons as one of the most significant threats to security in his country. The Mexican authorities say they seized 20,000 weapons from drug gangs in 2008, the majority bought in the United States.
The authorities in the United States say they do not know how many firearms are transported across the border each year, in part because the federal government does not track gun sales and traces only weapons used in crimes. But A.T.F. officials estimate 90 percent of the weapons recovered in Mexico come from dealers north of the border.
In 2007, the firearms agency traced 2,400 weapons seized in Mexico back to dealers in the United States, and 1,800 of those came from dealers operating in the four states along the border, with Texas first, followed by California, Arizona and New Mexico.
Mr. Iknadosian is accused of being one of those dealers. So brazen was his operation that the smugglers paid him in advance for the guns and the straw buyers merely filled out the required paperwork and carried the weapons off, according to A.T.F. investigative reports. The agency said Mr. Iknadosian also sold several guns to undercover agents who had explicitly informed him that they intended to resell them in Mexico.
Mr. Iknadosian, 47, will face trial on March 3 on charges including fraud, conspiracy and assisting a criminal syndicate. His lawyer, Thomas M. Baker, declined to comment on the charges, but said Mr. Iknadosian maintained his innocence. No one answered the telephone at Mr. Iknadosian's home in Glendale, Ariz.
A native of Egypt who spent much of his life in California, Mr. Iknadosian moved his gun-selling operation to Arizona in 2004, because the gun laws were more lenient, prosecutors said.
Over the two years leading up to his arrest last May, he sold more than 700 weapons of the kind currently sought by drug dealers in Mexico, including 515 AK-47 rifles and one .50 caliber rifle that can penetrate an engine block or bulletproof glass, the A.T.F. said.
Based on the store's records and the statements of some defendants, investigators estimate at least 600 of those weapons were smuggled to Mexico. So far, the Mexican authorities have seized seven of the Kalashnikov-style rifles from gunmen for the Beltrán Leyva cartel who had battled with the police.
The store was also said to be the source for a Colt .38-caliber pistol stuck in the belt of a reputed drug kingpin, Alfredo Beltrán Leyva, when he was arrested a year ago in the Sinaloan town of Culiacán. Also linked to the store was a diamond-studded handgun carried by another reputed mobster, Hugo David Castro, known as El Once, who was arrested in November on charges he took part in killing a state police chief in Sonora.
According to reports by A.T.F. investigators, Mr. Iknadosian sold more than 60 assault rifles in late 2007 and early 2008 to straw buyers working for two brothers - Hugo Miguel Gamez, 26, and Cesar Bojorguez Gamez, 27 - who then smuggled them into Mexico.
The brothers instructed the buyers to show up at X-Caliber Guns and to tell Mr. Iknadosian they were there to pick up guns for "Cesar" or "C," the A.T.F. said. Mr. Iknadosian then helped the buyers fill out the required federal form, called the F.B.I. to check their records and handed over the rifles. The straw buyers would then meet one of the brothers to deliver the merchandise. They were paid $100 a gun.
The Gamez brothers have pleaded guilty to a count of attempted fraud. Seven of the buyers arrested last May have pleaded guilty to lesser charges and have agreed to testify against Mr. Iknadosian, prosecutors said.
In one transaction, Mr. Iknadosian gave advice about how to buy weapons and smuggle them to a person who turned out to be an informant who was recording him, according to a transcript. He told the informant to break the sales up into batches and never to carry more than two weapons in a car.
"If you got pulled over, two is no biggie," Mr. Iknadosian is quoted as saying in the transcript. "Four is a question. Fifteen is, 'What are you doing?' "
Copyright 2009 The New York Times Company
Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.
MEXICO UNDER SIEGE
|From the Los Angeles Times
MEXICO UNDER SIEGE
Hundreds arrested in U.S. probe of Mexican drug cartel
Fifty arrests in California and elsewhere are the latest among 730 targeting the Sinaloa cartel in a 21-month investigation.
By Josh Meyer
February 26, 2009
Reporting from Washington - The Justice Department announced Wednesday that authorities had arrested more than 730 people across the country in a 21-month investigation targeting Mexico's Sinaloa drug cartel and its infiltration into U.S. cities.
The arrests, including 50 on Wednesday in California, Minnesota, Maryland and the nation's capital, come amid growing concern in Washington that Mexican crime organizations are out of control and threaten the stability of parts of Mexico and the safety of U.S. citizens.
The Homeland Security Department has developed a plan to send more agents and other resources, and possibly military support, to the U.S.-Mexico border if the drug violence continues to spill over and overwhelm the agents stationed there, a department official confirmed.
The Pentagon is looking into a larger role in bolstering counter-narcotics efforts. Adm. Dennis C. Blair, the director of national intelligence, told Congress on Wednesday that the corruptive influence and increasing violence of the cartels had undermined the Mexican government's ability to govern parts of its country.
A recent State Department travel advisory warned U.S. citizens about the perils of travel in Mexico, likening the shootouts between authorities and the cartels to "small-unit combat." The U.S. National Drug Intelligence Center believes that Mexican cartels maintain drug distribution networks or supply drugs to distributors in as many as 195 U.S. cities.
And on Wednesday, Rep. Lamar Smith (R-Texas), the ranking member of the House Judiciary Committee, said the recent surge in drug-related violence on the Southwest border "has turned some American communities and neighborhoods into the Wild West."
"A battle is building on the border, and U.S. citizens are getting caught in the crossfire," Smith said, calling on House Democrats to hold a hearing on drug-related violence on the border. "Congress must address the violence before more lives are lost."
U.S. Atty. Gen. Eric H. Holder Jr., in his first news conference since taking over as the nation's top law enforcement officer, offered this as proof of the creeping spread of the Sinaloa cartel in the United States: the seizure of more than $59 million in illegal drug proceeds and large amounts of narcotics, including more than 24,000 pounds of cocaine, 1,200 pounds of methamphetamine and 1.3 million ecstasy pills.
Authorities also seized more than $6.5 million in other assets, 149 vehicles, three aircraft, three maritime vessels and 169 weapons.
"The dimensions of what we are breaking up today had nationwide implications here" in the United States, Holder said.
Special Agent Michele Leonhart, acting administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration, said the crackdown had denied at least $1 billion in drug revenue for the Sinaloa cartel, one of several syndicates fighting the Mexican government in a war that claimed the lives of more than 5,000 people in Mexico last year.
About 20 suspects have been arrested in Mexico as part of the crackdown, which has been coordinated by the DEA's Special Operations Division in close cooperation with Mexico and dozens of local, state and federal law enforcement agencies in the United States.
Holder and top DEA officials said most, if not all, of the senior members of the cartel remained at large.
Mexican authorities Wednesday extradited the former leader of a separate cartel accused of smuggling tons of marijuana and cocaine into the United States during the 1980s and 1990s.
The suspect, Miguel Caro Quintero, headed the so-called Sonora cartel and faces federal drug-trafficking charges in Arizona and Colorado. He is the brother of Rafael Caro Quintero, a kingpin who was convicted and sentenced in Mexico for the 1985 killing of a U.S. drug agent, Enrique Camarena.
Holder said he had met with Mexican Atty. Gen. Eduardo Medina Mora on Tuesday to discuss how the two countries could cooperate to dismantle drug-trafficking organizations and root out corrupt government officials on both sides of the border.
"International drug-trafficking organizations pose a sustained, serious threat. They are national security threats," Holder said. "They are lucrative, they are violent and they are operated with stunning planning and precision."
Some federal law enforcement officials said the results of the investigation were being announced, at least in part, to address growing accusations that some senior elements of the Mexican government are aiding Sinaloa drug dealers or selectively going after competitors, allowing factions of the Sinaloa cartel to grow. Major corruption arrests in Mexico recently showed that a Sinaloa faction had paid senior officials in the Mexican attorney general's office to notify it about impending enforcement actions.
A senior DEA official said top Mexican authorities were working closely with Washington to assess the damage from potential leaks from law enforcement officials, and to prevent them from happening.
Holder said the crackdown was considered one of the biggest binational successes against the Mexican cartels, but acknowledged that "this problem is one that will continue. This is an ongoing effort."
The investigation started with the arrests of some alleged Sinaloa cartel members in California's Imperial Valley and snowballed into as many as 160 inquiries in the U.S., Mexico and Canada, one senior DEA Special Operations official said.
One of its initial successes was the indictment of Victor Emilio Cazarez-Salazar, believed to be a leader in the Sinaloa cartel, DEA officials said. Cazarez-Salazar remains at large.
Holder and other officials said Wednesday that the Sinaloa cartel was responsible for bringing tons of cocaine, methamphetamine and marijuana into the United States through a sophisticated network of distribution and logistics cells in the country. It is also laundering millions of dollars in criminal proceeds, they said.
Those indicted in the cases have been charged with a variety of crimes, including engaging in a continuing criminal enterprise by violating various felony provisions of the federal Controlled Substances Act; conspiracy to import controlled substances; money laundering; and possession of an unregistered firearm.
Many of those in the United States were low-level operatives; some were illegal immigrants. At least several mid-level managers were believe to be in direct contact with leaders in Sinaloa, who also have been arrested, said the senior DEA Special Operations official, who spoke on condition of anonymity because the investigation is ongoing.
Thomas A. Schweich, deputy assistant secretary of State for international law enforcement in the Bush administration, said he saw good news and bad news in the Justice Department's announcement.
"The bad news is that it shows that the cartels are everywhere, they are dangerous, and they are trafficking in everything," he said. "The good news is that it shows that there are now cooperative, cross-border efforts to fight them. The cartels know no borders in what they do, and it is important that we know no borders in order to defeat them."
Times staff writer Ken Ellingwood in Mexico City contributed to this report.
Forwarded from San Diego Times
A LITTLE GUN HISTORY
In 1929, the Soviet Union established gun control. From 1929 to 1953, about 20 million dissidents, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
In 1911, Turkey established gun control. From 1915 to 1917, 1.5 million Armenians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
Germany established gun control in 1938 and from 1939 to 1945, a total of 13 million Jews and others who were unable to defend themselves were rounded up and exterminated.
China established gun control in 1935. From 1948 to 1952, 20 million political dissidents, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated
Guatemala established gun control in 1964. From 1964 to 1981, 100,000 Mayan Indians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
Uganda established gun control in 1970. From 1971 to 1979, 300,000 Christians, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
Cambodia established gun control in 1956. From 1975 to 1977, one million educated people, unable to defend themselves, were rounded up and exterminated.
Defenseless people rounded up and exterminated in the 20th Century because of gun control: 56 million.
It has now been 12 months since gun owners in Australia were forced by new law to surrender 640,381 personal firearms to be destroyed by their own Government, a program costing Australia taxpayers more than $500 million dollars. The first year results are now in:
List of 7 items:
Australia-wide, homicides are up 3.2 percent.
Australia-wide, assaults are up 8.6 percent.
Australia-wide, armed robberies are up 44 percent (yes, 44 percent)!
In the state of Victoria alone, homicides with firearms are now up 300 percent. Note that while the law-abiding citizens turned them in, the criminals did not, and criminals still possess their guns!
While figures over the previous 25 years showed a steady decrease in armed robbery with firearms, this has changed drastically upward in the past 12 months, since criminals now are guaranteed that their prey is unarmed.
There has also been a dramatic increase in break-ins and assaults of the ELDERLY. Australian politicians are at a loss to explain how public safety has decreased, after such monumental effort, and expense was expended in successfully ridding Australian society of guns. The Australian experience and the other historical facts above prove it.
You won't see this data on the US evening news, or hear politicians disseminating this information.
Guns in the hands of honest citizens save lives and property and, yes, gun-control laws adversely affect only the law-abiding citizens.
Take note my fellow Americans, before it's too late!
The next time someone talks in favor of gun control, please remind them of this history lesson. With guns, we are 'citizens'. Without them, we are 'subjects'.
During WWII the Japanese decided not to invade America because they knew most Americans were ARMED!
If you value your freedom, please spread this anti-gun control message to all of your friends.
The purpose of fighting is to win. There is no possible victory in defense. The sword is more important than the shield, and skill is more important than either. The final weapon is the brain. All else is supplemental. SWITZERLAND ISSUES EVERY HOUSEHOLD A GUN! SWITZERLAND 'S GOVERNMENT TRAINS EVERY ADULT THEY ISSUE A RIFLE. SWITZERLAND HAS THE LOWEST GUN RELATED CRIME RATE OF ANY CIVILIZED COUNTRY IN THE WORLD! IT'S A NO BRAINER! DON'T LET OUR GOVERNMENT WASTE MILLIONS OF OUR TAX DOLLARS IN AN EFFORT TO MAKE ALL LAW ABIDING CITIZENS AN EASY TARGET.
|Will Latino Civil Rights be included in Proposed Civil Rights Oral
La Nueva Raza Issue #10 – Spring 2009 has just been released!
La Nueva Raza Issue #10 – Spring 2009 has just been released!
Click the link below to check it out!
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In this issue:
UNITED STATES NATIONAL PARKS SERVICES
|A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary: Discover Our
Mission 2000 Return to the Tumacacori National Historical Park home page.
New Mexico Cliff Dwellings Reopen After Fire
Wiki Links to National Parks
Produced by the National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers in partnership with the American Express Company and the National Park Foundation. http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/amsw/
Mission 2000 is a searchable database of Spanish mission records of the Pimería Alta (southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico) containing baptisms, marriages, and burials from the late seventeenth century to the mid-nineteenth century. Names of persons associated with each event (i.e., priest, baptized, parents, godparents, husband, wife, witnesses, deceased, etc.) and personal information about each person are included. The ethnicity of names include O’odham, Yaqui, Apache, Seri, Opata, Yuma, Mexican, Spanish, Basque, Catalán, Gallego, Andalusian, Valencian, German, Swiss, Austrian, Bohemian, Italian, and others. Mission 2000 is an on-going project taken from the original mission records and updated weekly on the Internet. As of the first of May, 2005 it contained 8090 events and 22,031 names of people and their known personal information. A majority of the present information comes from the Guevavi, Tumacácori, Cocóspera and Suamca
Mission registers and the Tubac Presidio register, but watch for more information in the future from Arizpe, Átil, Bisanig, Caborca, Cieneguilla, Cucurpe, Cocóspera, Horcasitas, Magdalena, Oquitoa, Pitiquito, San Ignacio, Santa Ana, Tubutama, and Ures.
The search is based on names in the database. If you do not find what you are interested in, try a different spelling, or type only the first few letters of the name. Since ancient spellings varied greatly, a partial spelling will list all entries with those particular letters. Each person listed in the results will have a Personal ID Number shown in blue. Click on the number of the person you are interested in to see his or her specific personal information. Included with the personal information will be a listing of all Event ID Numbers, shown in blue, with which that person is associated. Click on any of those numbers for a display of information concerning that particular event.
Misión 2000 es un base de datos en el que puede buscarse nombres contenidos en los registros de las misiones españolas de la Pimería Alta (al sur de Arizona, EEUU, y al norte de Sonora, México), en el cual hay bautismos, casamientos, y enterrados desde el último del siglo diesisiete hasta el mitad del siglo diesinueve. Los nombres de las personas asociadas con cada evento (por ejemplo: sacerdotes, los bautizados, padres, padrinos, esposos, testigos, los muertos, etc.) e información personal de cada persona son incluidos. La etnicidad de los nombres incluye O’odham, Yaqui, Apache, Seri, Opata, Yuma, Mexicano, Español, Vasco, Catalán, Gallego, Andaluz, Valenciano, Tudesco, Suiza, Austriaco, Bohemio, Italiano, y otros. Misión 2000 es un proyecto en progreso sacado de los documentos originales y revisado cada semana en el Internet. Hasta el primer día de mayo de 2005 contuvo 8090 eventos y 22,031 nombres de personas y su información
personal conocida. Al presente, el mayor parte de la información viene del registro de las misiones de Guevavi, Tumacácori, Cocóspera y Suamca y el Presidio de Tubac, pero en el futuro busca información de Arizpe, Átil, Bisanig, Caborca, Cieneguilla, Cucurpe, Cocóspera, Horcasitas, Magdalena, Oquitoa, Pitiquito, San Ignacio, Santa Ana, Tubutama, y Ures.
La busqueda es fijada en los nombres del base de datos. Si Ud. no encuentra la persona en quien tiene interés, pruebe un otro deletreo, o marque solamente las dos o tres primeras letras del nombre. Porque los deletreos antiguos variaron mucho, un deletreo parcial dará todos los nombres con esas letras particulares. Cada persona registrada en la resulta tendrá un número personal de identificación (Personal ID) enseñado en azul. Marque el número de la persona con quien Ud. tiene interés a ver su información personal. Incluido con la información personal será una lista de los números de eventos (Event ID), también enseñados en azul, en cual esa persona está asociada. Marque cualquier número para un despliegue de información concerniente a ese evento particular.
Return to the Tumacacori National Historical Park home page.
N.M. Cliff Dwellings Reopen After Fire
By Margaret Foster | Online Only | Jan. 27, 2009
A mile-long swath of cave rooms carved out of New Mexico's cliffs more than 750 years ago has reopened to the public.
In 2000, the Cerro Grande fire spread across 45,000 acres and forced the closure of the Puye Cliff Dwellings National Historic Landmark. Last fall, the Santa Clara Pueblo, which owns and operates the site, started offering group tours of the cave ruins and an early 20th-century Harvey House. In May, the pueblo will reopen the landmark to the general public.
"We're thrilled. I don't think anybody was sure they would be able to open it again," says Steve Lewis, spokesperson for Santa Fe Convention and Visitors Bureau. "It's a very popular place. It's always a hit with visitors because it's a pretty remarkable ruin. It really speaks to the whole pueblo culture and the ancestral puebloans who live here today."
The 1,000 Tewa-speaking residents of Santa Clara Pueblo are descendants of the people who inhabited the cliff dwellings from 1250 until about 1580, when a drought forced them to abandon the cave rooms for their current location along the Rio Grande.
Tours of the Puye Cliff Dwellings begin at the Harvey House—the only one built on an Indian reservation. (The pueblo's development corporation renovated the hotel/restaurant, and transformed it into an interpretive center.) Then visitors can explore ruins of houses on top of the cliffs and hike along the cliff face for a glimpse of hundreds of cave rooms on two levels.
Lucretia Jenkins-Williams, Puye Operations Manager for the Santa Clara Development Corporation, said in a statement, "We have created a destination where people can experience the beautiful panoramic scenery of northern New Mexico, while learning of the ancient Pueblo people who called Puye Cliffs home."
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Acadia • American Samoa • Arches • Badlands • Big Bend • Biscayne • Black Canyon of the Gunnison • Bryce Canyon • Canyonlands • Capitol Reef • Carlsbad Caverns • Channel Islands • Congaree • Crater Lake • Cuyahoga Valley • Death Valley • Denali • Dry Tortugas • Everglades • Gates of the Arctic • Glacier • Glacier Bay • Grand Canyon • Grand Teton • Great Basin • Great Sand Dunes • Great Smoky Mountains • Guadalupe Mountains • Haleakala • Hawaii Volcanoes • Hot Springs • Isle Royale • Joshua Tree • Katmai • Kenai Fjords • Kings Canyon • Kobuk Valley • Lake Clark • Lassen Volcanic • Mammoth Cave • Mesa Verde • Mount Rainier • North Cascades • Olympic • Petrified Forest • Redwood • Rocky Mountain • Saguaro • Sequoia • Shenandoah • Theodore Roosevelt • Virgin Islands • Voyageurs • Wind Cave • Wrangell-St. Elias • Yellowstone • Yosemite • Zion
as many of the lands that make up today's national parks were the
spiritual homes for the indigenous tribes who lived there, they had a
profound and often spiritual impact on the settlers
who first saw them and
on the visionaries who fought tirelessly to preserve them as the common
Census of Agriculture Shows Growing Diversity in U.S. Farming
WASHINGTON, Feb. 4, 2009 – The number of farms in the United States has grown 4 percent and the operators of those farms have become more diverse in the past five years, according to results of the 2007 Census of Agriculture released today by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS).
"The Census of Agriculture is a valuable tool that provides the general public with an accurate and comprehensive view of American agriculture. It's also a set of benchmarks against which this Department must measure and demonstrate its performance to agriculture and the taxpayer," said Secretary Tom Vilsack.
" In the spirit of President Obama's call to make government more transparent, inclusive, and collaborative, I will be directing my team at USDA to review the findings of the 2007 Census and propose ambitious, measureable goals to make sure that the People's Department is hard at work for all the people – our diverse customers and the full diversity of agriculture."
The 2007 Census counted 2,204,792 farms in the United States, a net increase of 75,810 farms. Nearly 300,000 new farms have begun operation since the last census in 2002. Compared to all farms nationwide, these new farms tend to have more diversified production, fewer acres, lower sales and younger operators who also work off-farm.
In the past five years, U.S. farm operators have become more demographically diverse. The 2007 Census counted nearly 30 percent more women as principal farm operators. The count of Hispanic operators grew by 10 percent, and the counts of American Indian, Asian and Black farm operators increased as well.
The latest census figures show a continuation in the trend towards more small and very large farms and fewer mid-sized operations. Between 2002 and 2007, the number of farms with sales of less than $2,500 increased by 74,000. The number of farms with sales of more than $500,000 grew by 46,000 during the same period.
Census results show that the majority of U.S. farms are smaller operations. More than 36 percent are classified as residential/lifestyle farms, with sales of less than $250,000 and operators with a primary occupation other than farming. Another 21 percent are retirement farms, which have sales of less than $250,000 and operators who reported they are retired.
In addition to looking at farm numbers, operator demographics and economic aspects of farming, the Census of Agriculture delves into numerous other areas, including organic, value-added, and specialty production, all of which are on the rise.
The 2007 Census found that 57 percent of all farmers have internet access, up from 50 percent in 2002. For the first time in 2007, the census also looked at high-speed Internet access. Of those producers accessing the Internet, 58 percent reported having a high-speed connection.
Other "firsts" in the 2007 Census include questions about on-farm energy generation, community-supported agriculture arrangements and historic barns.
The Census of Agriculture, conducted every five years, is a complete count of the nation's farms and ranches and the people who operate them. It provides the only source of uniform, comprehensive agricultural data for every county in the nation. Census results are available online at www.agcensus.usda.gov .
Contact: Ellen Dougherty (202) 690-8122 Marci Hilt (202) 720-4623
By the year 2010, experts predict that the number will swell to as many as 48 million, and by 2050, more than 87 million Hispanic people will be engaged in purchasing, consuming,and disposing of goods, and service in the US.
According to the latest US Census Bureau statistics, the Hispanic population brings $856 billion spending power to the marketplace.Ever since advisers and marketers have created a niche for the Hispanic consumer in the US, we are more responsive to the advertising.
The Hispanic market currently represents some $900 billion in spending power and is expected to grow to $1 trillion by the year 2010. With income and wealth growing, new windows of opportunity will develop to fill the gap between Latino consumers’ needs and existing products and services.
Studies has shown that female Hispanic consumer is highly cognizant of trends and styles and likes to shop for fashion,” relates Kim Kitchings, director of research and strategic planning for Cotton Incorporated.
They like to jump on a trend as it’s happening, rather than catching it when it’s phased through the mainstream. Hispanic women are very much into their appearance and how they comes across ,” shares Evan Gordon, president and founder of Hispanicity, a Chicago-based Hispanic marketing agency.
Research has shown that Hispanic women tend to spend extra time and money on clothing and accessories so she can be one of the sharpest dressed people out there, 40% of the of these women buy the latest fashion at the beginning of the season, they are willing to spend 15% more.
Exploring the attitudes of the Hispanic credit card users, their socioeconomic and characteristics, where they consider credit cards generally useful. The industry and marketing strategies develop enhancements that appeal to changing customers needs, especially for the Hispanic market that is growing.
Traditionally, businesses have perceived the Hispanics as a low income group with little education and lacking credit cards. However, this perception may be changing, and for a good reason. Today, the Hispanic market numbers about 46 million in size with around $850 billion in spending power.
Asociacion Mundial de Mexicanos en el Exterior
Worldwide Association of Mexicans Abroad
150 N. Santa Anita Avenue. 3rd Floor
Arcadia CA 91006
Tel USA: (626)305-8477
Tel Mex: 52(55)5704-2010
Cel USA (213) 924-7038
|CDC Disease Detective Camp
U.S. Department of Education, Hispanic Outreach & Resources
The Hispanic Development Fund
Latino Civil Rights Group Fights to Keep Desegregation Order on the Books
Can a Burro be a Genius?
Outstanding Dissertations Competition 2009
President Blandina Cardenas Cites Health Reasons for Resignation
Valley Leaders Saddened by Resignation of UTPA President
Mimi: The Austin American Statesman story about Francisco Cigarroa as the first Hispanic to head a large univ ersity system in the United States is not accurate. Manuel Pacheco, now 61, is retiring after a lengthy tenure since 1997 as President of the University of Missouri System (/The Current/ Online.com, student newspaper, Monday, February 2, 2009).
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca
CDC Disease Detective Camp
|FREE!! The National Center for Health Marketing's Global Health Odyssey Museum is pleased to offer the 2009 CDC Disease Detective
Camp (DDC). DDC is an academic day camp for students who will be high school juniors and seniors during the 2009-2010 school year. Campers will take on the roles of disease detectives and learn how CDC safeguards the nation's health. The camp will be offered twice from June 22-26 and July 13-17. For more info and to apply to go www.cdc.gov/gcc/exhibit/camp.htm
. Deadline is April 20.
FREE!! The American Legion sponsors a week-long summer leadership program called Boys State. This year's program will be held at McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland from June 21-27. If you are a junior interested in a leadership opportunity see your guidance counselor right away for more information.
University of Maryland Young Scholars Program targets rising juniors and seniors who have a strong academic record and a desire to excel to experience college life while earning three academic credits. 14 courses are offered for three weeks from July 12 - 31, 2009. Visit www.ysp.umd.edu/pr
CITY YEAR, WASHINGTON DC (Americorps) - Graduating seniors who are not sure what they want to do after high school should consider applying for a paid community service position with City Year, Washington, DC., a group of 17-24 year olds committed to full-time service for ten months in the Washington, DC community. Benefits include: living stipend ($200 per week), health care coverage, free metro pass, and $4,725 educational scholarship. For more info: www.cityyear.org or email: firstname.lastname@example.org/dc or call:
202-776-7780, Amanda Seligman. Recruitment open houses will be held once a month at their headquarters: 918 U Street, NW, 2nd floor, Washington, DC 20001.
U.S. Department of Education, Hispanic Outreach & Resources
Because you are interested education issues pertaining to the Hispanic community, this message is to introduce you to some new and existing resources at the U.S. Department of Education.
New Secretary of Education
Arne Duncan was nominated to be secretary of education by President-elect Barack Obama and was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on Inauguration Day, Jan. 20, 2009. In his first days as Secretary, Duncan expressed that he wants to get America back on track to being #1 in the world in education. To better serve our nation’s 80 million students the Department will focus on scaling up proven and innovative strategies for success, rather than act as a compliance-driven bureaucracy; the Administration will involve leaders and educators across America with fresh and proven ideas for improving education; and, the Department is committed to involving the business, neighborhood, and philanthropic communities.
More immediately, the President has proposed an American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan (stimulus package) to jumpstart job creation and foster long-term economic growth. As part of the plan, certain needs will be addressed including equipping thousands of schools, community colleges, and public universities with 21st century classrooms, labs, and libraries. The Secretary is hopeful that the plan’s historic level of one-time education funding will not only save and create jobs but also lay the groundwork for a generation of education reform and progress. As he said yesterday in his remarks to the American Council on Education’s Annual Meeting: “Providing every child in America with a good education is both a moral imperative and an economic imperative.”
Arne Duncan comes from Chicago where he ran the Chicago Public Schools for seven years. He grew up in his mother’s tutoring program on the South Side and later started a small school before he took over the 3rd largest school system in the country. In Chicago, he boosted test scores, lowered the dropout rate, and earned a national reputation as a reformer who can work with everyone – unions, business, nonprofits, and elected officials.
To learn more about the Secretary, the Administration’s education agenda and policy developments, including the Recovery Plan, be sure to revisit the Department’s revised website - www.ed.gov.
New Director, Hispanic Outreach and Communications
I am delighted to serve as the new Director for Hispanic Outreach and Communications at the Department of Education. In this capacity I will serve as the liaison to Hispanic associations, community groups, and business organizations to foster a two-way conversation about policies, legislation and other resources. As part of this effort, I aim to collaborate with organizations like yours to provide Hispanic and Spanish-speaking students and families with the information and resources to facilitate educational success.
Please feel free to contact me with questions and to share your efforts. I look forward to working with all of you.
contact information is:
Recursos en español
The Department produces materials for Spanish speakers. Recursos en español is a portal of Spanish language resources on topics of particular interest to the Hispanic community, such as special education, financial aid, adult education, and more. Answers to frequently asked questions (FAQ’s) and publications are also available at the site. Please visit: http://www.ed.gov/espanol/bienvenidos/es/index.html?src=gu
Information Resource Center offers bilingual specialists who answer
hundreds of questions each week from parents, educators, students, and
citizens across the country. They are committed to excellence in
The Hispanic Development Fund
This is a very interesting, some of those
organization who are interested in setting up a system to educate
future Hispanics, might be interested in looking at the Kansas City
The Hispanic Development Fund (HDF) has served
the Greater Kansas City community since 1983. We currently have an
Advisory Board of 10 individuals that meet on a monthly basis to
select projects and funding levels. HDF has a current endowment of
approximately $3 million that the Fund plans to grow to $4 million by
A hearing begins today to determine whether Chicago's 29-year-old school desegregation case should be thrown out. The consent decree orders Chicago Public Schools to create as many integrated schools as possible. A lesser-known provision also spells out services the district must provide to students who don't speak English proficiently. That's the main reason some are fighting to keep the decree in place.
Related: An End for Racially Integrated Schools?
One of the groups that's pushing hardest to keep the consent decree around is the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, a Latino civil rights organization.
Maldef attorney Ricardo Meza says the consent decree requires CPS to do this:
MEZA: to basically treat English language learners in the same way that they treat the other students. That means students learning English are to be taught in equivalent facilities, with similar student-teacher ratios. And students are supposed to get materials and assistance in their native language until they make the transition to English.
But Meza says that despite nearly three decades under the consent decree, MEZA: There are still problems with the program. We still have children that are taught on auditorium stages. We still have children taught in the hallways. We have children who don't have any reading material in the Spanish language. We have children taught by teachers who are not certified in bilingual education.
People debate whether the consent decree has produced more equitable schools. But one thing is clear: it's created a lot of reports. A number of them document conditions Meza refers to.
Kelly High School comes up regularly.
There are about 52,000 English language learners in Chicago Public Schools—330 are here at Kelly, a school so overcrowded students come in three shifts.
From a basement office, in what used to be the bomb shelter, Efrain Gonzalez runs Kelly's bilingual education program—one of the biggest high school programs in the city. Reports have found that Kelly's failed to provide kids the bilingual services they're entitled to.
But Gonzalez says the reports don't take into account the sort of in-the-trenches decisions teachers have to make. Take a kid who needs an Information Technology class to graduate, Gonzalez says. Maybe the class meets at the same time as the bilingual American Literature class.
GONZALEZ: So I need to decide—what will be better for the kid? To graduate from high school? Or to take this class? And sometimes what's better for the kid does not always agree with policy.
Gonzalez says he has to think about the consent decree every day.
GONZALEZ: It's like part of my job description to sit with lawyers from the federal government and sit here for hours and answer the same questions I answered last year.
Gonzalez says he can't wait for the consent decree to come to an end, so teachers can determine what's right for kids, rather than lawyers. That's an opinion echoed by CPS's top attorneys.
Meza, the Maldef attorney, counters that everybody has a boss they've got to answer to. Schools that provide services required under the consent decree have nothing to worry about. And the consent decree only reiterates state and federal bilingual education laws already on the books. It just provides one more place for civil rights groups like Maldef to take a complaint.
MEZA: If the bilingual program has been so dismal while under the watchful eye of a federal judge, what will happen when we don't have it?
Meza is concerned about losing another provision of the consent decree as well—the one that sets aside seats for minority students at the district's best schools.
The federal judge who oversees the desegregation case asked for public comment on whether the decree should continue. Written testimony already submitted falls strongly on the side of keeping the decree.
One concerned citizen offered this spin on an old adage: "If it ain't fixed, don't break it."
What defines a genius? Many people still say Albert Einstein since that is the image that has been ingrained in us to symbolize a genius. Einstein was indeed a genius that I admire. However, the truth of the matter is that geniuses come in all forms, sizes, shapes, and colors.
A burro can also be a genius.
That is the point that Victor Villasenor is trying to make in his book titled Burro Genius. But the book goes beyond that enticing title and makes a point that geniuses are not limited to a specific skin color and that they can also be poor.
The story is really about Villasenor’s life experience while growing up as a Mexican American young kid in Oceanside, California . Incredibly, it took him forty two years to finally complete and finish the Burro Genius book. He continually kept revising it and in 2004 he decided to complete it and published it. He was not officially diagnosed with dyslexia until he was forty-four years old.
This explains the trouble he had with reading and writing in school. But many of his teachers thought that he was ignorant and stupid and treated him as sub human. Villasenor has written a revealing and powerful book about how Mexican American students were abused and discriminated against.
In his book he describes how in the 1940s schools did not allow Spanish to be spoken. If students did speak Spanish at school they were punished. Not just light punishment but through physical abuse such as slaps in the face. Imagine, being a small child and having one of your teachers beat you if you spoke Spanish?
I remember when I had just arrived back to the United States when I was five years old in 1978. I did not speak English and cried and cried so very much since I missed my grandmother and family who had stayed back in El Salvador . The teachers hated that I cried and they placed Scotch tape on my mouth so that I would not cry and they would threaten me that they would call “La Migra” – immigration agents so that my family and I would get deported.
Latino and African American students have historically encountered many barriers in obtaining a quality education in our public school systems. Many have been taught to be ashamed of their own culture and to reject it.
Latinos and African American students continue to have the highest school drop-out rates and the highest incarceration rates. There is a definite correlation between not being able to read or write and ending up in prison.
Our next President of the United States must make education a top priority and must demand that drop-out rates among minorities must be reduced.
We can no longer pretend that everything is o.k. while so many young children’s futures are destroyed. We also cannot expect that discrimination will all of a sudden disappear if Senator Barack Obama becomes our President. It will take time to make improvements in reducing discrimination throughout our great nation.
Obama and Villasenor serve as great examples of how they have become successful through perseverance and education. Villasenor did have some luck that his family owned a ranch and did not depend on hand outs from anyone. They were a proud Latino family who would uplift Villasenor at home. However, at school, he was being tortured and stepped on by inhumane adults.
Imagine children who are abused at school, in the streets, and at home by their own parents. What a cruel, painful, and unjust way to grow up.
Villasenor makes us look into our soul. How can we live with ourselves when children are being mistreated at school and at home?
It is no longer allowed to be physically punished but many educators continue to disrespect students who cannot learn certain subjects or those who cannot speak English. Words do hurt – especially if some teachers do scream or like to embarrass certain students in front of their classmates.
Some teachers even encourage students not to come to school or to drop out. Luckily, they are the few but these few teachers can destroy a child’s self esteem and future. Fortunately most teachers are humane, their lives calling is teaching and helping children.
Villasenor exposes the abuse he endured and how he survived it. He had a painful journey. He was made to feel less than others but Villasenor is a genius. He decided to overcome his weakness and he decided to write from his heart and soul. He has the courage to share his painful experiences.
Burro Genius takes on a magical journey and we feel Villasenor’s struggle. I saw my nephews – I saw myself when I read Burro Genius. My little nephew Carlitos who is in fifth grade once told me that he is a genius and now I believe him. Believing in one’s self with stubbornness and discovering our hidden talents are the first steps in becoming a burro genius.
It's o.k. to be a burro genius.
Randy Jurado Ertll, executive director of El Centro de Accion Social in Pasadena . www.elcentropasadena.org Contact: email@example.com
The American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE) and Educational Testing Service (ETS) are proud to announce the Outstanding Dissertations Competition 2009. AAHHE and ETS recognize the significant need to increase the number of Hispanics receiving doctoral degrees, entering higher education on the tenure track, and eventually serving in faculty leadership and administrative roles.
Although the Hispanic population is the fastest growing population in the country, Hispanics are underrepresented in higher education in all areas: undergraduate, graduate, faculty and administration. Gains are being seen every year in the number of doctoral degrees conferred to Hispanics and in the number in full-time faculty positions, but the percentages are not climbing commensurate with the population's growth.
By developing this competition, AAHHE and ETS are providing an opportunity to spotlight top doctoral students and, at the same time, are rewarding excellence in Hispanic student performance at the doctoral level. The goals are to encourage greater numbers of prepared students to enter and successfully complete doctoral programs and to enhance the quality of the dissertations they write.
If you have any questions about the Competition, please contact:
Dr. Patricia Arredondo
AAHHE Dissertation Chair
(414) 229-4503 firstname.lastname@example.org
RIO GRANDE NEWS
Cardenas Cites Health Reasons for Resignation
EDINBURG, January 20 - University of Texas-Pan American President Blandina Cárdenas announced her resignation due to health reasons Tuesday. The resignation will be effective at the end of January.
Below is her statement in full:
January 20, 2009
Dear Colleagues and Friends of The University of Texas-Pan American:
In her inimitable style, Professor Emerita Marian Monta has always given me the best advice about leading UTPA. “We want you to kill for UTPA,” she said when I underwent surgery last year, “not die for it.” In light of the pressures of the last few months, I took some time after graduation in early December to reflect long and hard on her words, and I concluded that I need to take greater care of this somewhat battered, mended heart. UTPA needs an intensely focused, passionate President, not one who needs to take it easy.
In late December, I informed Interim Chancellor Kenneth Shine of my desire to retire from the University effective January 30th. I look forward to writing a bright new chapter in my life – and to taking it a little easy.
We have much reason to be optimistic about the future of UTPA and our community. A historic inauguration that is taking place in Washington today can take us to a new level of common purpose and shared destiny and broaden the perspectives of all Americans about the leadership potential that exists in every community. We have a brilliant and caring new Chancellor of the UT System who knows South Texas and will help our dedicated Board of Regents to select the right UTPA leader for the coming years. My expectation is that these two powerful role models and your next President will inspire our students to public and community service and leadership as never before.
In the last four and one half years, you have demonstrated an inspiring dedication to making UTPA better on a daily basis. I will tell your new University President that the leaders, students, faculty, staff and friends of UTPA are capable and willing to do extraordinary things if given the freedom and the encouragement to pursue them. Indeed, in a very short period together we have accomplished far more than many resource-rich institutions have done in twice the time. In many cases, building on work begun before I came, we banded together, focused and accelerated our efforts. During this time, we have:
Our Student Government Association, other student organizations and Student Support Services have created a robust and serious student engagement climate that has blossomed over the last four years.
You have given life to the concept of a “Learner-centered Research University.” Faculty who are passionate about teaching and student development have reached new levels of scholarly productivity and are gaining national recognition.
Wherever I go I will tell people of the extraordinarily intelligent and dedicated staff at UTPA. In the last four years, you’ve built new and modernized existing buildings, developed a shuttle service and enhanced our emergency response system. You’ve modernized UTPA’s technology infrastructure for both business and academic functions, developed and embraced business processes that decentralize authority and responsibility and improve service and support to students and faculty. You’ve brought exciting exhibits, speakers and events to campus and hugely strengthened our relationships with our P-16 partners, South Texas College and Texas State Technical College. You established our UTPA Transfer Center in McAllen. Our outreach and engagement of community is enhanced by HESTEC, FESTIBA and our excellent programs in COSERVE. GEAR-Up and other P-16 programs are stars. Our Starr County Upper Level Center is transforming lives. You help to tell the UTPA story and nurture relationships that bring much-needed support. The best physical plant team in the country has deflected the damage of hurricanes and made our campus even more beautiful.
I do not want to move on without recognizing some very special people. The UTPA Foundation, the International Women’s Board and the UTPA Alumni Association have been outstanding partners in our efforts to advance the University. I will always be grateful for their generosity of spirit, friendship and support. The Valley Legislative Delegation, and in particular Senator Juan “Chuy” Hinojosa, have been stalwart supporters and good friends. And as many of you know, it would be difficult to exaggerate the tenacious attention and hard work that Congressman Ruben Hinojosa dedicates to UTPA and our students.
I am particularly grateful for the extraordinary professionalism, caring and dedication of the staff of the Office of the President. The matters that come to this office range from the bizarre to the frightening to the sublime. Their dedication and competence allowed me to walk out of that office on most days with a smile. They made me look good and the job easy.
I am confident that the progress we have made will continue because we have expanded and deepened leadership in every division of the University. Indeed the great promise of UTPA lies in the emerging leaders who serve as Department Chairs, Deans and Directors. You are led by outstanding Vice Presidents who are first and foremost good human beings who care about you and the work you do together. Their consistent willingness to work as a team to advance our shared mission has been exemplary. I hope they think we have also managed to have some fun along the way.
Thank you for four and one half beautiful years. Be good to each other as you have been to me. I wish you all the very best.
© Copyright of the Rio Grande Guardian, www.riograndeguardian.com, Melinda Barrera, Publisher. All rights reserved.
RIO GRANDE NEWS
Valley Leaders Saddened by Resignation of UTPA President
Community, political and education leaders in the Rio Grande Valley have expressed sadness at the resignation of Dr. Blandina "Bambi" Cárdenas as president of the University of Texas-Pan American. "The unexpected retirement by Dr. Cárdenas as president of UTPA is a tremendous step backward for the Rio Grande Valley," said Dr. Shirely Reed, president of South Texas College.
Valley leaders saddened by
resignation of UTPA president
EDINBURG, January 21 - State Sen. Juan “Chuy” Hinojosa says some people at the University of Texas-Pan American might be pleased to learn that Dr. Blandina "Bambi" Cárdenas is retiring as its president.
“UT-Pan Am was going nowhere when Bambi Cárdenas got there. It was adrift. She has made some very necessary changes, modernizing the university and raising education standards. When you make changes people sometimes feel uncomfortable. Sometimes you step on a few toes. There was some reaction by the faculty to that,” Hinojosa, D-McAllen, told the Guardian in a phone interview on Tuesday afternoon.
Cárdenas, aged 64, has been president of UTPA for four and a half years. In a letter sent to elected officials and colleagues on Tuesday, Cárdenas said she wanted to leave her post as president at the end of January. Cárdenas underwent quadruple heart bypass surgery in September 2007 and she cited ill-health as the reason for her pending departure.
“In her inimitable style, Professor Emerita Marian Monta has always given me the best advice about leading UTPA. “We want you to kill for UTPA,” she said when I underwent surgery last year, “not die for it.” In light of the pressures of the last few months, I took some time after graduation in early December to reflect long and hard on her words, and I concluded that I need to take greater care of this somewhat battered, mended heart. UTPA needs an intensely focused, passionate President, not one who needs to take it easy,” Cárdenas said, in a statement issued Tuesday.
“I informed Interim Chancellor Kenneth Shine of my desire to retire from the University effective January 30th. I look forward to writing a bright new chapter in my life – and to taking it a little easy.”
Click here to read the full statement.
Last October, the UT System began an investigation into allegations of plagiarism by Cárdenas while she was a college student. The investigation was started after materials were sent anonymously to UT System administrators and news organizations. The materials claimed Cárdenas plagiarized her doctoral dissertation while studying at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. The university said it would not investigate anonymous claims. With Cárdenas leaving UTPA, it is thought likely the UT System will drop its investigation.
Hinojosa said he did not want to discuss the plagiarism comments but rather focus on the “outstanding work” Cárdenas was doing at UTPA.
“Dr. Cárdenas' departure signals a significant loss for the University of Texas-Pan American and South Texas. Dr. Cárdenas set a standard for academic excellence and continuous pursuit of self-realization and personal enrichment. During her tenure, Dr. Cárdenas led UT-Pan American's efforts to further establish the university as a model institution of higher education, serving a highly diverse population and increasing the access to advanced degrees in South Texas,” Hinojosa said, in a news release.
“I wish Dr. Cárdenas the best in her future endeavors and congratulate her on her commitment to the South Texas community. She brought us a wealth of experience, perspective, and capacity for leadership. Dr. Cárdenas served as more than just president of UT-Pan American. In every way, she formed part of our culture, our community, and our everyday lives.”
Juanita Valdez-Cox, director of La Unión del Pueblo Entero, was equally fulsome in her praise. She said she was particularly pleased with the emphasis Cárdenas had placed in helping students from low-income families secure a college education. During Cárdenas’ tenure as president, UTPA increased financial aid to students from $84 million to over $111 million.
“In her short time at the university Dr. Cárdenas has done so much for low-income students. I saw a commercial she did with students when she announced that tuition would be free for students from families with a low income level. Those are the kinds of things that mark you down in history,” Valdez-Cox said.
Valdez-Cox said Cárdenas never forgot her roots as a border girl from Del Rio who worked as a migrant farm worker.
“Being a farm worker and coming through at that time was not easy for a woman. It has been such a difficult road to travel. And then for her to have made it so far… she was even in one of the administrations, working in Washington. She has accomplished so much,” Valdez-Cox said.
“When I saw the news in the Guardian it made me very, very sad. I hope that whatever medical problems there are, Dr. Cárdenas is able to take care of that and that she is with us for many years in another capacity. She has made a difference and we are going to miss her terribly. We want her to stay. Now that we have got her here we don’t want her to leave. We need her leadership. She can continue to make a difference in so many areas.”
Hidalgo County Judge J.D. Salinas said Cárdenas had played an “integral part” in preparing the future talent of Hidalgo County. He said that was crucial because the region’s dropout rate was about 50 percent.
“Dr. Cárdenas is going to be greatly missed. She was a
great advocate for the community, she was one of those who was
directly involved in making things happen. I hope that she continues
to play a role in trying to make sure our future talent gets
educated,” Salinas said, in a phone interview. Salinas said whoever
tries to fill Cárdenas’ shoes at UTPA will have a difficult time.
“The unexpected retirement by Dr. Cárdenas as president of UTPA is a tremendous step backward for the Rio Grande Valley,” Reed said.
“Dr. Cárdenas is a valued friend and colleague. She did much to nurture the relationship and partnerships between UTPA and STC. Under her leadership, UTPA and STC were able to forge many successful partnerships and collaborations all focused on student success.”
Reed said she has “every confidence” in new UT-System Chancellor Dr. Francisco Cigarroa finding the right successor to continue Cardenas’ sterling work at UTPA.
© Copyright of the Rio Grande Guardian, www.riograndeguardian.com,
Melinda Barrera, Publisher. All rights reserved.
|2009 Young Ambassadors Program
Earliest chocolate use found in what is now US
Joe Cuba: The Father of New York Boogaloo has passed
National Hispanic Cultural Center Foundation
"The Violin" by Francisco Vargas
22nd Solo Mujeres Annual Exhibition
Su Teatro among mayors' arts honorees
Ramos' win hits high note with Tejano fans
Unearthing Deep South Narratives from a Texas Graveyard
Finding musical common ground. What's in a name?
Young Latinas Have Webzine to Call Their Own
ABOUT THE PROGRAM: Young Ambassadors is a national leadership development program for high school seniors with the aim to cultivate the next generation of Latino leaders in the arts and culture fields through one-on-one interaction with artists, curators, historians, and other museum and arts professionals.
Students with an interest and commitment to the arts (e.g. film, dance, design, music, visual, performing, and/or literary arts) are selected to travel to Washington, D.C. for a week-long arts enrichment and leadership seminar at the Smithsonian Institution. Conducted by world-renowned experts in their respective fields, the seminar encourages youth to examine Latino identity and embrace their own cultural heritage through first-hand observation of the Smithsonian's Latino collections, lectures, and other activities. Following the seminar, students return to museums and other cultural institutions in their local communities, including Smithsonian affiliated organizations, to participate in a four-week summer internship. This program is made possible by Ford Motor Company Fund.
FEES AND EXPENSES: Participation is underwritten by Ford Motor Company Fund and includes meals and accommodations for the duration of the one-week seminar, as well as the cost of round-trip travel to Washington, D.C., and a program stipend. Students selected are responsible for all expenses during the four-week internship, including transportation, accommodations, and meals.
PROGRAM STIPEND: Upon completion of the program, participants will receive $2,000 towards their higher education. Students that do not complete the seminar and four-week internship will not receive the program stipend.
ELIGIBILITY: Admission is competitive. To be eligible for the program, you must:
Be a high school senior graduating in 2009
Be a U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident of the United States with a valid Social Security Number at the time of application
Have a minimum weighted cumulative grade point average (GPA) of 3.25 on a 4.0 scale
Be fluent in English
Commit to participate in the one-week seminar at the Smithsonian Institution and complete a four-week paid summer internship
Be enrolled full-time in a degree seeking program at a four-year accredited college or university (enrollment will be verified in the Fall 2009)
SELECTION: Up to twenty-four participants are selected through a competitive process, guided by a selection committee comprised of museum and arts professionals. The selection committee evaluates each application based on the following criteria:
1. Excellence in an arts discipline, including film, dance, design, music, visual, performing, or literary arts
2. Academic record
3. Leadership experience
4. Commitment to the arts
5. Community service
APPLICATION CONTENTS: The 2009 Young Ambassadors application includes:
A complete application form. The application includes an essay (250-750 words) on the topic of how Latino/Hispanic culture has influenced your art form, personal development, and long-term goals. An example of work in film, design, music, visual, performing, or literary arts. An unofficial transcript, which includes weighted cumulative grade point average. One to two (1-2) letters of recommendation that have been completed by instructors, mentors, and/or advisors.
APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS: Complete and submit the online application form for the Young Ambassadors Program directly at https://solaa.si.edu (Search for Smithsonian Latino Center Young Ambassador Program) or by linking to the site from www.latino.si.edu/education.
Please note: the application does not recognize special characters or accent marks. Please do not use when filling out the application.
1. Each recommender should submit an online letter of recommendation.
2. Upload the digital media of your work in film, dance, design, music, visual, performing, or literary arts to the online application. If your work is not compatible with the Smithsonian online application, please send one (1) CD or DVD of your work. If your work is not compatible with digital media, please provide six copies of the work with your application. Please be sure to include a cover sheet with your name and location clearly identified.
3. Send any materials that cannot be uploaded to the online application to the Smithsonian Latino Center. Materials received after the deadline will not be considered by the selection committee.
DEADLINE: All application materials are due in the Smithsonian Latino Center office no later than 5 pm March 31, 2009.
PRIORITY MAIL/EXPRESS DELIVERIES/UPS OR FEDEX
Young Ambassadors Program
Smithsonian Latino Center
600 Maryland Avenue, SW
Suite 7042 MRC 512
Washington, DC 20024
January 15, 2009 Application available at www.latino.si.edu/education
March 31, 2009 Application deadline
April, 2009 Application processing
Mid-April, 2009 Selection committee convenes
May 1, 2009 Selection process finalized
June 21 - 27, 2009 Seminar
July 6 - July 31, 2009 Internship
NOTIFICATION: All applicants will be notified of their application status in May 2009.
INQUIRIES: For more information please visit the Smithsonian Latino Center online at http://latino.si.edu , or contact Emily Key, Education Programs Manager at 202.633.1268 or email email@example.com.
Source: Prof. Carlos Navarro
Rafael Jesús González
P. O. Box 5638
Berkeley, CA 94705
Earliest chocolate use found in what is now US
by Randolph E. Schmid, AP Science Writer, Feb 2, 2009
ETWASHINGTON – Chocolate for your sweetheart this Valentine's Day? Folks may be surprised to know how far back chocolate goes — perhaps 1,000 years in what is now the United States. Evidence of chocolate was been found in Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, N.M., the earliest indication of the tasty substance north of Mexico, Patricia L. Crown of the University of New Mexico and W. Jeffrey Hurst of the Hershey Center for Health and Nutrition report in Tuesday's issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Drinking chocolate was associated with a variety of rituals in ancient Central America, including weddings, but Crown said she is not sure of its exact uses in her area.
The discovery, dated to between A.D. 1000 and 1125, indicates trade was under way between the Chaco Canyon residents and cacao growers in Central America.
But the nearest cacao plantation would have been more than 1,000 miles away, so importing the material would have been a major undertaking, she said. Chocolate was probably something not consumed often, she said in a telephone interview.
It also probably tasted bitter compared with what is available today. Central Americans didn't sweeten their chocolate and sometimes mixed in hot peppers. Crown said honey might have been available in new Mexico but she didn't know if it was used.
The research was prompted by a discussion about cylinder jars, when Crown was told the Maya used the jars for drinking chocolate.
She had pieces of ceramic that appeared to come from similar jars, so she had them tested for residue. There was theobromine, an indication of chocolate.
"This illustrates the importance of collections in archaeology," Crown said, "that we can return to material with new techniques and find out new things. Every artifact has a story to tell."
Chocolate was used in rituals in Central America as early as 1500 B.C. and was even a form of currency among the Aztec.
The new research was supported by the National Science Foundation, National Geographic Society, University of New Mexico and the Hershey Technical Center.
Sent by John Inclan firstname.lastname@example.org
The "Father of Boogaloo," Joe Cuba, passed away on Sunday, February 15, 2009 at 4 p.m. at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York. He was the most popular exponent of the boogaloo, a fused Latino and R&B rhythm that exploded onto the American top 40s charts during the turbulent 1960s & '70s. Hits such as "Bang Bang," "Push Push," "El Pito," "Ariñañara," and "Sock It To Me Baby," rocked the hit parades establishing Joe Cuba and his Sextet as the definitive sound of Latin New York during the '60s & '70s. The Joe Cuba Sextet's unusual instrumentation featured vibraphones replacing the traditional brass sound. His music was at the forefront of the Nuyroican movement of New York where the children of Puerto Rican emigrants, America's last citizens, took music, culture, arts and politics into their own hands.
Joe Cuba's Sextet became popular in the New York Latino community precisely because it fused a bilingual mix of Afro-Caribbean genres blended with the popular urban rhythm & blues of its time creating a musical marriage between the Fania and Motown sound. His was the first musical introduction to Latin rhythms for many American aficionados. The lyrics to Cuba's repertoire mixed Spanish and English, becoming an important part of the emerging Nuyorican identity.
"Joe Cuba's music validated the developing Nuyorican population whose language and music Cuba captured with his sound," underlines Giora Breil, CEO of Emusica, the company that now owns the Fania label and who has remastered many of the classics to a new generation of music lovers. "He led the urban tribe," pointed Breil, "into a united front of cultural warriors that were defining the social and political times they lived in."
Longtime manager and promoter Hector Maisonave recalls Cuba as "an innovator who crossed over into mainstream music at an early time. He was the soul of El Barrio. After Joe Cuba, El Barrio is just a street that crosses an avenue."
In 1962, Cuba recorded "To Be With You" with the vocals of Cheo Feliciano and Jimmy Sabater whose careers he spotlighted after the bands introductory appearance at the Stardust Ballroom prior to its summer stint in the Catskills.
Born in 1931 in the heart of Spanish Harlem, his Puerto Rican parents arrived in New York City in the 20s. Christened "Gilberto Miguel Calderón," Cuba was a "doo wopper" who played for J. Panama in 1950 when he was a young 19 year old before going on to play for La Alfarona X, where the young "congüerro/" percussionist replaced Sabu Martinez tapped to play with Xavier Cugat.
By 1965, the Sextet got their first crossover hit with the Latino and soul fusion of "El Pito" (I Never Go Back To Georgia), a tune Cuba recorded against the advice of the producer later to be "broken" by a DJ over WBLS FM in N.Y.. The Dizzy Gillespie "Never Go Back To Georgia" chant was taken from the intro to the seminal Afro-Cuban tune, "Manteca." Vocalist Jimmy Sabater later revealed that "none of us had ever been to Georgia." In fact, Cuba later comically described a conversation he had with the Governor of Georgia who called him demanding why he would record a song whose chorus negatively derided the still segregated Southern town. The quick thinking Joe Cuba replied, "Georgia is the name of my girl."
In 1967, Joe Cuba's band --–with no horns– scored a "hit" in the United States National Hit Parade List with the song "Bang Bang" - a tune that ushered in the Latin Boogaloo era. He also had a #1 hit, that year on the Billboard charts with the song "Sock It To Me Baby." The band's instrumentation included congas, timbales, an occasional bongo, bass, piano and vibraphone. "A bastard sound," is what Cuba called it pointing to the fans, the people, as the true creators of this music. "You don't go into a rehearsal and say 'Hey, let's invent a new sound, or dance.' They happen. The boogaloo came out of left field. " Joe Cuba recounts in Mary Kent's book:" Salsa Talks: A Musical History Uncovered. "It's the public that creates new dances and different things. The audience invents, the audience relates to what you are doing and then puts their thing into what you are playing," pointing to other artists such as Ricardo Ray or Hector Rivera as pioneers of the urban fused rhythm.
"I met Joe up in the Catskills in 1955," recalls nine time Grammy Award winner Eddie Palmieri. "When I later started La Perfecta," Palmieri muses, "we alternated on stages with Joe. He was full of life and had a great sense of humor, always laughing at his own jokes," chuckles the pianist. Palmieri pointed to Cuba's many musical contributions underlining the power and popularity of his small band and bilingual lyrics while providing a springboard for the harmonies and careers of Cheo Feliciano, Willie Torres and Jimmy Sabater. "He was Spanish Harlem personified," describes Palmieri recalling the "take no prisoners" attitude Cuba had when it came to dealing with those who reluctantly paid the musicians. Recalling their early recording days with the infamous Morris Levy, Palmieri cites the antics of Joe Cuba, Ismael Rivera and himself as the reason for Levy selling them as a Tico package to Fania label owner, Jerry Masucci.
Funny, irreverent and with a great humor for practical jokes, Joe Cuba, or Sonny as he was called by his closest friends, was raised in East Harlem. Stickball being the main sport for young boys of the neighborhood, Cuba's father organized a stickball club called the Devils. After Cuba broke a leg, he took up playing the conga and continued to practice between school and his free time. Eventually, he graduated from high school and joined a band.
"He was not afraid to experiment," said David Fernandez, arranger & musical director of Zon del Barrio who played with the legendary Cuba when he arrived in New York in 2002.
By 1954, at the suggestion of his agent to change the band's name from the Jose Calderon Sextet to the Joe Cuba Sextet, the newly named Joe Cuba Sextet made their debut at the Stardust Ballroom. Charlie Palmieri was musical director of the sextet before his untimely 1988 death from a heart attack.
Since then, the Joe Cuba Sextet and band has been a staple of concerts and festivals that unite both Latinos, African-Americans and just plain music lovers in venues all over the world.
In 2003, the following CDs were released:
* "Joe Cuba Sextet Vol I: Mardi Gras Music for Dancing"
* "Merengue Loco" and
* "Out of This World Cha Cha".
In 2004, Joe Cuba was named Grand Marshall of the Puerto Rican Day Parade celebrated in Yonkers, New York. Musician Willie Villegas who traveled with Joe for the past 15 years said, "It didn't matter where we played around the world Joe would always turn to me and say, To My Barrio…. With Love! " Joe Cuba is survived by his wife Maria Calderon, sons Mitchell and Cesar, daughter Lisa, and grandchildren Nicole and Alexis.
Condolences can be sent directly to Joe Cuba's widow: Maria Calderon @ email@example.com.
Source: Aurora Flores
Sent by Dorinda Moreno firstname.lastname@example.org
National Hispanic Cultural Center Foundation.
click the first link for the National Hispanic Cultural Center Foundation.
"The Violin" by Francisco
take time to see the film called "The Violin" by Francisco
A friend of mine from Apocalypto Gerardo Taracena is the Lead actor. The young Lead actor. DVD can be found at Blockbuster. Pedro Olivares email@example.com
"Future landscapes Designed by Women" expresses how women envision our times yet to come, what landscapes are women designing and how women see themselves in these times of change. The exhibition will feature: installations, paintings, sculpture, mixed media, fiber art and video.
The Solo Mujeres Exhibition at MCCLA has been serving Latina women artists for the last 22 years. Exhibition Dates: February 20 - March 27, 2009
MCCLA Galleries, 2868 Mission Street, San Francisco CA 94110 (415) 821 1155
Curator: Patricia Rodriguez
Artists selected for the Exhibition:
Jenny Badger Sultan
Bianca Ana Chavez
Maria Adela Diaz
Amy M Ho
Ana de Orbegoso
Anastasia Winter Schipani
The Counter Narrative Society
Consuelo Jimenez Underwood
Special Events related to Solo Mujeres
Cineastas de Granada, Films by Nicaraguan Women
March 5, 2009 7pm $5-10 MCCLA Theater
The program will include short films by the students of Cineastas de Granada followed by the award winning documentary "De Niña a Madre" by Florence Jaugey.
A night of women's live art
March 25, 2009 7-9pm $5 - $7 MCCLA Theater
Women artists from the Bay Area, Latin America, the Caribbean and beyond come together for one night of multidisciplinary performance art. One night where artists of traditional and contemporary expressions unite, driven by their common passion to share their unique voices and gifts with the world in celebration of women. Artists featured include Sandra Garcia Rivera (poet/vocalist), Lina G. Torio (vocalist/guitar), Ayla Davila (bassist/composer), Shefali Shah (dance), Gabriela Shiroma (dance), and more.
Book Release "Yolanda M. López"
by Karen Mary Dávalos
Friday, March 27, 7-9 pm $5 Main gallery
Ms Lopez's book is part of the series "A VER: Revisioning Art History" by UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center Press.
Artists talk: A conversation between Dr. Amalia Mesa Bains and Yolanda López
In this groundbreaking overview of Yolanda M. López's life and career, Karen Mary Davalos traces the artist's participation in Bay Area activism in the late 1960s and her subsequent training in conceptual practices. Davalos explores how López's experiences informed her art, which ranges from posters to portraiture and the highly influential Guadalupe series to later installations. López has consistently challenged predominant modes of Latino and Latina representation, proposing new models of gender, racial, and cultural identity. Yolanda M. López reveals the complexity of the artist's work over time and illuminates the importance of her contributions to Chicana/o art, Chicana feminism, conceptual art, and the politics of representation.
Dr. Amalia Mesa-Bains, director of the Department of Visual and Public Art, is an independent artist and cultural critic. Her works, primarily interpretations of traditional Chicano altars, resonate both in contemporary formal terms and in their ties to her community and history. As an author of scholarly articles and a nationally known lecturer on Latino art, she has enhanced understanding of multiculturalism and reflected major cultural and demographic shifts in the United States.
Dr. Amalia Mesa-Bains, has also written extensively on Chicano art and culture. Among her many awards is a 1992 Distinguished MacArthur Fellowship. She has served as a consultant for the Texas State Council on the Arts and the Arizona Commission on the Arts, and is a former Commissioner of Arts for the City of San Francisco. She holds a BA in painting from San Jose State University, an MA in interdisciplinary education from San Francisco State University, and an MA and Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the School of Clinical Psychology, Wright Institute in Berkeley.
More Info (415) 821-1155 www.missionculturalcenter.org
Mission Cultural Center for Latino Arts (MCCLA) was established in 1977 by artists and community activists with a shared vision to promote, preserve and develop the Latino cultural arts that reflect the living tradition and experiences of the Chicano, Mexican, Central and South American, and the Caribbean people.
The Mission Cultural Center for Latino Arts | 2868 Mission St. | SF | CA | 94110
A scene from El Centro Su Teatro's recent world premiere staging of "Braided Sorrow," about the disappearance of female Mexican workers from American-owned factories.
Su Teatro, Denver's only brown theater company, will be among the 2009 recipients of Mayor's Awards for Excellence in the Arts. In honoring Su Teatro, the Office of Cultural Affairs wrote: "Su Teatro was formed in 1972 in a classroom at the University of Colorado-Denver classroom and grew to become an important artistic arm of the Chicano self-identity and civil-rights movement. Su Teatro is the third oldest Chicano theater company in the United States, and has been recognized as a significant force in both the Chicano arts aesthetic and American Theater. Su Teatro's mission is to create produce and promote theater and other art that celebrates the experiences, history, language and heritage of Latinos in the U.S. and the Americas. "In 1989, Su Teatro emerged as the larger cultural arts center, El Centro Su Teatro. They expanded their offerings to include annual projects such as the XicanIndie FilmFest: Latino World Cinema, Neruda Poetry Festival, which includes the Barrio Slam competition, St. Cajetan's Reunification Project, Chicano Music Festival and Auction and a multi-tiered arts education program called the Cultural Arts Institute. "The organization is poised to expand once again with the purchase of a new space on Santa Fe Drive in Denver's historic Westside neighborhood. Though the organization continuously experiments with form and content, Su Teatro remains committed to education, social justice and community enrichment." The other 2009 honorees are Charles Burrell, Denver Young Artists Orchestra, and The Bloomsbury Review. The Mayor's Cultural Legacy Award will be presented to Noël Congdon. A free community reception and awards presentation will be held at 6:30 p.m. Feb. 18 at the Ellie Caulkins Opera House in the Denver Performing Arts Complex, 14th St. and Curtis St. Performances will include: Rocky Mountain Children's Choir, Sweet Edge Dance Company and Purnell Steen & Le Jazz Machine.
More information on the 2009 awardees (copy from the Denver Office of Cultural Affairs):
Dorinda Moreno firstname.lastname@example.org
Like a cool cat, El Gato Negro, Austin's Ruben Ramos strolled to the stage in Los Angeles Sunday to accept his Grammy award for best Tejano album for "Viva la Revolucion."
Then, surveying the stage packed by his band members, Ramos joked that Mexican Americans love to travel in large numbers.
That bit of fun is reported on the Austin Tejano Music Coalition's Web site, which gives Ramos' win the full treatment. The news was the buzz, too, on Austin-based email lists, including the Las Comadres social network.
Ramos beat "All That Jazz" by Austin-based Tortilla Factory, whose band leader, Tony "Ham" Guerrero, was profiled Sunday in a thought-provoking piece by American-Statesman writer Joe Gross.
Guerrero and his band were at forefront of La Onda Chicana, the Chicano music movement in the 1970s and '80s which blended traditional Mexican and German-influenced rancheras and polkas with jazz, funk, mambos and rock, creating a spicy caldo that was uniquely Texan.
"We were 'mericans, dude," said Guerrero, shown here with son Alfredo Antonio Guerrero. "I didn't grow up in Monterrey; I didn't grow up in Cuernavaca; I grew up in San Angelo with a bunch of damn rednecks. I talk like them, and I sound like them."
Sent by Dorinda Moreno email@example.com
When in 1984 I began working with U.S. Hispanics, I was not such a creature yet. To the best of my knowledge, I was simply a Cuban at that time. A friend of mine who had recently arrived from Mexico, felt the same. She saw herself as a Mexican.
Going deeply into the heart of the community as a journalist, making new friends from Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia, Peru, Spain and other countries, I eventually became a member of this largest minority group in the United States. But over 20 years later, I still ask myself what a Hispanic or a Latino is. Is the Hispanic community a nationality? Is it a religious group? Is it a racial or ethnic group? Or as the romantic ones say, is it a sentiment?
If you are a professional trying to marketing something to Hispanics/Latinos, answers to these questions would pay off because there are over 43 million Hispanics/Latinos in the United States with a purchasing power of more than $800 billion a year. Almost 16 million U.S. Hispanics are on the Internet, a cyberpopulation that outpaces those of Mexico, Spain, Argentina and Colombia.
Obviously the Hispanic community is not a national group as it is made up by people from 20 nationalities. It is not a racial group since you can find White Hispanics, Black Hispanics, Asian Hispanics, and Indian Hispanics. Although they are mostly Catholics, they are not a religious group. You can also find other Christian Hispanics who are not Catholics, as well as Jewish Hispanics, Muslim Hispanics, Hispanics with African religious roots as Yorubas and Lucumies, and Hispanics practicing indigenous rituals as Mayans and Aztecas.
Of course, you have probably met Chicanos, New York Ricans, Cuban Americans or many other Hispanics born in the United States whose understanding of Latin roots may be different from Hispanics who immigrate to America. Do not take a Mexican American for a Mexican, because they are not alike. Stop thinking of a New York Rican as if he or she were a Puerto Rican.
If you are not a Hispanic and this is confusing to you, you are not alone. In the early 80s a Los Angeles newspaper printed a story on U.S. Congressman Edward Roybal, a Mexican American politician. The paper said Roybal was a Puerto Rican. It was so annoying because we are talking about a Spanish-language newspaper and about a story written by a Mexican journalist.
Most experts say the Hispanic community is an ethnic group. According to the World Book Dictionary the word "ethnic" means "having to do with the various racial and cultural groups of people and the characteristics, language, and customs of each..." Not enough, but pretty close to what experts say about Hispanics. The dictionary reminds that the word has Latin roots after 'ethnicus' and Greek roots after 'ethnikós,' and that 'ethnos' means nation.
However, we find that most Mexicans have nothing to do with the African roots of Caribbean nations, while most Cubans have no relation with Mayan roots from Mexico and Central America, and most South Americans have nothing to do neither with African nor Mayan roots. But you can find a Mexican loving 'salsa' music; a Cuban enjoying 'fajitas,' a delicious Mexican food; both a Mexican and a Cuban reading books by Colombian writer Gabriel Garcia Marquez; and Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Central and South Americans watching movies made by Academy Award winner Pedro Almodovar, a Spanish filmmaker.
The point is that Hispanics coming from Latin America share a common language, Spanish; they share a common history as their countries were colonized for three centuries by Spain, a nation that left them a legacy of language, traditions that mixed with indigenous customs, a way to organize the society and do business, and a religion that was also a reference to understand the world. Spain also colonized Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado and California. So those U.S. states had Spanish roots even before becoming Mexican states in the early 1820s, and before becoming American states in the late 1840s.
On the other hand, Hispanics of second and third generations use English as their first language and share traditions with Anglos, African Americans and Hispanic immigrants they live with, as part of the mainstream. They didn't grow up with "Chespirito" on their TV sets but with "I Love Lucy". They don't know Latin soap opera celebrities but they are pretty aware of what Andy Garcia, Antonio Banderas and Salma Hayek are doing in Hollywood.
Two decades after sitting for the first time in a Spanish-language newsroom in Los Angeles, I prefer to believe that the U.S. Hispanic community is a cultural group made up by several ethnicities. Not racially nor ethnically but culturally homogeneous, Hispanics along with Anglos, African Americans, American Indians and Asians are building up a new mainstream across the United States. Corporate America knows it, politicians know it.
If you are non-Hispanic needing to learn how to deal with Hispanics, begin with a simple step used in 1976 by succesful businesswoman Tere Zubizarreta, founder of Zubi Advertising. It was a wise slogan for her company: "Erase Stereotypes."
But if you are a Hispanic taking for granted what you think Hispanics are, do two things: first, read this article once again; secondly, "erase stereotypes."
Sent by John Inclan firstname.lastname@example.org
She is trained as an anthropologist, was a social worker for many years, and writes like an angel. She uses the San Isidro Mexican cemetery in Sugar Land, Ft. Bend County, Texas, as the reference point, but the book is about subordination, sugar, Jim Crow/Jaime Crow Texas, Imperial Sugar, the Macario Garcia incident, Walter Winchell, the Aniceto Sanchez case, the Congressional Medal of Honor, the Pedro Hernandez case, post WWII-era lawyers such as Johnny Herrera and James DeAnda, and other cochinada. Her father, a mortician in this rural, now suburban Houston town, is still alive, and has seen a lot. He served as the translator in the 1950-51 Aniceto Sanchez case, which was a predecessor to Hernandez v. Texas.
Marie Theresa is not simply rooted in the past, as anyone reading her blog will discover, where she finds many other depradations and current cochinada:
www.dreamacttexas.blogspot.com . I include her email address here, as I am certain you will want to contact her to tell her how much you love this fascinating book: email@example.com . I intend to give some copies as Christmas gifts. I urge everyone to read this wonderful book, available in fine bookstores everywhere.
Michael A. Olivas
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. firstname.lastname@example.org
In the case of Planet Siqueiros Peña — an evening of socially conscious traditional world music, contemporary musical styles and spoken word at the Social and Public Art Resource Center (SPARC) in Venice — a name tells a whole lot.
Planet Siqueiros Peña is itself the derivative of two other names: the revolutionary Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros combined with traditional South American musical venues called "Pe"as."
"The Peña phenomena emerged during the 1950s in South America, especially Chile and Argentina," says Martha Ramirez, one of the founders of the evening and a former student of Siqueiros, and 32-year member of the Mascarones Theatre Group, "These popular gatherings of rural folk musicians would come together in mountain villages playing their traditional rhythms and singing about their everyday life.
"Later, in times of repressive governments, poets and artists were not allowed to assemble. The Peñas moved into private homes where musicians discreetly shared with family and friends, their food and wine, interweaving their songs of despair and hope for change."
It is in that spirit, and the spirit of Siqueiros himself, that Planet Siqueiros Pe"a began.
"David Alfaro Siqueiros's commitment to change through monumental art inspired many young Chicanas and Chicanos of the 1970s," continues Ramirez. "In the traditional downtown Placita Olvera, one of Siqueiros's murals, America Tropical re-appeared under the whitewash that censored the mural, painted in 1930. It was like an apparition that symbolized for many muralists, the renaissance of art for social change."
One of these young muralists was Judith F. Baca, who co-founded SPARC in 1976 and is now its artistic director. In the center's "Backspace," Baca directs a creative digital mural lab where she oversees the UCLA/ SPARC Cesar Chavez Digital Mural Lab community partnership, which she also founded.
The lab serves as an inspirational backdrop to the Planet Siqueiros Peña, which kicks off its second season from 7:30 to 10 p.m. Saturday, January 24th, at SPARC, 685 Venice Blvd.
The opening act calls itself, appropriately, the Santa Monica College Guitar Ensemble. Louise Quevedo, who has been going to Pe"as since she was a teenager, helped organize the trio of students from the Music Department.
"It's interesting because Edgar [Zaragoza] has a classical background, and then on the other hand we have Javier [Kistte], whose background is flamenco," says Quevedo. "And then myself, I have a background with Latin American folk styles. Together, we're learning to speak to each other in our different genres, through our instruments. We're learning the strengths of all the different styles. They're all beautiful but have different flavors. We're trying to find common ground musically."
Sounds like an emerging theme, no?
The headliners of the evening are The Lefteous Sisters, featuring Angi Neff, Ann Polhemus, Ericka Verba and Lisa Hornung, four friends who sing songs with meaning.
"The style of music that we enjoy singing and playing comes out of the folk tradition of purposeful songs that tell great stories, take us out of ourselves for a moment, ask questions of conscience and, hopefully, sound beautiful," says Angi Neff.
For the Planet Siqueiros Peña, the Sisters have come up with a special set list.
"We've come up with a set list of original and traditional songs (sung mostly in English) that not only reflect our current challenges as a people, but also revisit challenges and struggles of the past," says Neff. "We hope that the word 'folk' doesn't scare anyone away as it is a time-honored style that continues to tug at music lovers' hearts, generation after generation."
But when pressed as to why their music is inspirational, Neff deflects.
"I think the question is 'How has SPARC been inspirational to our music?'" she says. "This is a wonderful venue, created by lovers of rich, diverse cultures, and we have been inspired to come up with songs that beg to be sung in an art space and environment committed to social justice and human rights."
Information, (310) 822-9560, www.sparcmurals.org
February 2, 2009
By Suzanne Batchelor, WeNews correspondent
Four years ago two journalism students in Austin, Texas, decided that young U.S. Latinas need a magazine to call their own. Today they produce a Webzine and run workshops that train girls and teens to report, edit and keep asking questions.
AUSTIN, Texas (WOMENSENEWS)--Alicia Rascon and Laura Donnelly met as journalism students in a spring 2002 University of Texas-Austin class on Latino-Latina culture and the media.
Talking together, they knew what was missing: Latina teens and girls didn't have a magazine that was really about them.
"We had a stack of about 20 teen magazines and looked at all the covers," Rascon recalled. "There wasn't a single Latina on the cover. We didn't see Latina bylines."
"Most media for girls is not necessarily for all girls," added Donnelly, a native New Yorker of Cuban, Peruvian and Irish descent. "There were no youth-protagonists in films who were not like drug dealers, gang members. Even if you look at Jennifer Lopez, she's only played a Hispanic once or twice, and that was to be a maid."
Now, four years later, both women have graduated and are holding full-time jobs. On top of that they are also producing Latinitas, "Little Latinas," the only online media by and for Latina teens and girls. It reaches readers throughout the United States and as far away as Australia and Peru.
Although 17 million Latinas live in the United States, teen magazines showcase mostly whites, say Rascon and Donnelly.
To the extent the magazines did cover Latinas, they found an emphasis on teen pregnancy and drop-out rates.
"I wanted something deeper on why this is an issue and how do we overcome it," said Rascon. "When we decided the theme of the magazine, we decided it should be success-driven and empower the girls, highlight the positive things; how Latinas are being successful and accomplishing their goals."
New Content Monthly
Latinitas is actually two magazines on one Web site: one for high school teens, the other for those age 14 and under. New content is posted monthly.
"I've gotten e-mail from the only Latina in her school in Australia," said Rascon, a native of El Paso. "She said that kids were making fun of her and that we were the one place that made her feel great."
Putting out the magazine is a community-wide effort in Austin, a metro area that is about 35 percent Hispanic.
Working with the city school system and local philanthropies, the two entrepreneurs run six regular weekly after-school workshops--one at a high school, one at an elementary school and four in middle schools--where adult volunteers act as coaches for reporting and editing, Web design and photography. Other schools also invite the group to run occasional workshops.
"By the end of 2006, we anticipate we'll have served 1,000 girls through our direct programs," said Rascon.
Because many lower-income girls lack Internet access at home, Donnelly and Rascon are seeking advertisers and sponsors to add a print edition by late 2007. They say many Latina teens in their workshops want a magazine to take home and share with friends.
Rascon works in marketing at the Austin Children's Museum and Donnelly is a public relations freelancer. Neither has earned a penny from Latinitas, on which they each spend between 10 and 40 hours a week. Beginning in June 2007, both will begin receiving a stipend, Rascon said, but it won't be enough to let them to quit their other jobs.
The project's annual budget of $50,000--raised from local corporations, individuals, fundraisers and earned income--mainly covers equipment costs. IBM has donated some laptop computers, locally-headquartered computer maker Dell donated $2,000 and Austin Energy contributed $10,000.
The founders hope to some day offer compensation, if only $10 an article, to their young writers.
The two women started Latinitas as a college class project, launching a first edition in spring 2003, which they and other student volunteers wrote. Computer science major Angie Ayala volunteered as Web manager, a position she still holds.
A health article on smoking, a first-person account of battling a negative body image by a self-described borderline bulimic and a review of a local Mexican American rock band appeared in the first issue. Next came a "day in the life of a college Latina," by a first-generation college student.
After the first issue was launched without any publicity, a Nebraska elementary school teacher and a California college professor contacted Rascon and Donnelly, eager to share Latinitas with their students.
The founders then registered the site with search engines and began receiving e-mails from readers who said they were excited to find the magazine. They issued a round of press releases and Latinitas in August 2003 received its first news coverage, in the El Paso Times.
When the media class--along with free university Web-site hosting--ended, the class professor, Federico Subervi, donated $500 to purchase Web site hosting and domain names so Latinitas could continue.
Rascon and Donnelly continued the project as a nonprofit, volunteer effort while they completed college and worked other jobs.
Around that time they also had another inspiration: If they were serious about encouraging young Latinas, they should involve them in the editorial process. "Instead of being for Hispanic girls, we wanted it to be by and for them, to engage girls in developing media," said Rascon.
That's when they approached a Hispanic mother-daughter program sponsored by Austin's Junior League, part of the national organization that began in 1901 in New York City, when wealthy women raised money to aid Lower East Side immigrants. The Austin chapter knew that Hispanic girls were attending college at lower rates than non-Hispanics and wanted to support activities that would change that.
At that first workshop, Donnelly and Rascon assigned the girls to write newsletters about themselves and then had middle-schoolers interview those in high school about how they were preparing for college. "We collected that work and published a lot of it," said Donnelly.
"They were echoing a lot of the same concerns we had," Rascon said. "All the girls on the teen magazine covers had straight, blond hair, blue eyes, and they knew they did not fit that mold. It really affirmed I wasn't the only one feeling this."
The pair began thinking about how to create a structure for engaging girls and teens in the production process. The Austin school district welcomed their offer to create a weekly after-school program for middle-school girls, who would learn about writing for the magazine along with Web design and photography.
"I'm 35 and Alicia is 27," said Donnelly. "I work with the girls but we still don't really know what their teen issues are. The nonprofit program allows us to get direct feedback from girls."
Latinitas still operates without a physical newsroom. Workshop students as well as readers around the country submit by e-mail to teen editors in workshops who mull over submissions. All the material then goes by e-mail to three-year volunteer managing editor Sandie Taylor, who works out of her home to ready it for publication.
Krystella Rangel, 16, last spring saw Latinitas publish her diary about her struggle to quit smoking. Recently, she wrote about her strategies for getting good grades. Among them: "Dodge class distractions" and "Ask questions without hesitation."
Suzanne Batchelor is a Texas-based independent journalist.
Women's eNews welcomes your comments. E-mail us at email@example.com.
For more information: Latinitas magazine: http://www.latinitasmagazine.org
Sent by Rafael Ojeda RSNOJEDA@aol.com
Aztlan: US/Mexico Border Culture and Folklore, 4th Edition by Jose Villarino
The Last Prince of the Mexican Empire by C.M. Mayo
Claiming Rights and Righting Wrongs in Texas: Mexican Workers by Emilio Zamora
Ancestral Voices of the Past: Curbelo Family by Robert Perez
A one of a kind textbook; Aztlan: US/Mexico Border Culture and Folklore, 4th Edition published by McGraw-Hill Inc. ISBN-13: 978-0-07-353851-8, Co-authored by professors José “Pepe” Villarino (San Diego State University) and Arturo Ramírez (Sonoma State University)..
One of it's main features is bridging the gender gap. Of its 25 writers, 12 are women making this issue unique and one-of-a-kind an excellent choice for Women Studies and Chicana/Chicano Studies classes.
Foreword by Juan Gómez Quiñones
Rights and Righting Wrongs in Texas,
Emilio Zamora traces the experiences of Mexican workers on the
American home front during World War II as they moved from rural to
urban areas and sought better-paying jobs in rapidly expanding
Contending that discrimination undermined job opportunities, Zamora investigates the intervention by Mexico in the treatment of workers, the U.S. State Department’s response, and Texas’ emergence as a key site for negotiating the application of the Good Neighbor Policy. He examines the role of women workers, the evolving political struggle, the rise of the liberal-urban coalition, and the conservative tradition in Texas.
Zamora also looks closely at civil and labor rights–related efforts, implemented by the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and the Fair Employment Practice Committee.
EMILIO ZAMORA is an associate professor of history and associate of the Center for Mexican American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin.
Number Fifteen: Rio Grande/Río Bravo—Borderlands Culture and Traditions
Claiming Rightsand Righting Wrongs in Texas
978-1-60344-066-0 cloth $60.00x
978-1-60344-097-4 paper $27.95s
LC 2008024039. 6x9. 26 b&w photos. 336 pp. 8 tables. 2 apps. Bib. Index.
Mexican American History. Texas History. Labor HIstory. World War II.
In "Claiming Rights and Righting Wrongs in Texas", Emilio Zamora traces the experiences of Mexican workers on the American home front during World War II as they moved from rural to urban areas and sought better-paying jobs in rapidly expanding industries. Contending that discrimination undermined job opportunities, Zamora investigates the intervention by Mexico in the treatment of workers, the U.S. State Department's response, and Texas' emergence as a key site for negotiating the application of the Good Neighbor Policy. He examines the role of women workers, the evolving political struggle, the rise of the liberal-urban coalition, and the conservative tradition in Texas. Zamora also looks closely at civil and labor rights - related efforts, implemented by the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and the Fair Employment Practice Committee.
About the Author: EMILIO ZAMORA is an associate professor of history and associate of the Center for Mexican American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D. firstname.lastname@example.org
Ancestral Voices of the Past focuses on into the Curbelo family and their migration to San Antonio from the Canary Islands. It also address La Quinta, which was their homestead, but after the Battle of Medina, in 1813, housed over 300 Tejano females for about two months.
The book tells the story entitled, Buffalo for the King: A True, Documented Story of Spanish Colonial Texas during the Period of the American Revolution, excerpts taken from Robert H. Thonhoff's book. Jose Antonio Curbelo, will be honored by the Daughter's of the American Revolution as Spanish Patriot contributing to the cause of the American Revolution. He will be honored in a ceremony held at the Texas Cemetery in Austin, Texas on March 15, 2009.
Ruben writes, "I am currently writing another book which goes into Spanish Colonial times, my great-great Grandmother, Juana Navarro Vermendi Peres Alsbury and son, Alejo Peres/Perez. (That is where the name was changed). Both of them were living survivors of the Alamo and Alejo Peres is the last living survivor of the Alamo. Hopefully, through the writings, Hispanic children will also learn of their rich heritage as I have. "
Rueben M. Perez
13002 Prince Forest
San Antonio, Texas, 78230
This month featuring his grandfather Vicente Guerrero.
GUERRERO, LINCOLN AND OBAMA
By Ted Vincent 2009
Barack Obama admires Abraham Lincoln. Mexico’s first black president, Vicente Guerrero WAS his nation’s Lincoln. In 1829 he issued Mexico’s presidential slavery abolition decree (which led a few years later to Texas slave holders taking Texas out of Mexico).
There are other correlations between the three presidents. Obama and Lincoln are known for building coalitons that are teams of rivals. Guerrero built one when he was Commander-in-Chief of the Mexican army during the last three years of Mexico’s exhaustive 1810-1821 war for independence from Spain. A key actions by Guerrero to end the war was his spread of letters to Mexican officers who had been hired to fight for Spain. He convinced. many that opportunity awaited if they switched sides, the list included the top Mexican general for Spain, Agustin Iturbide. Guerrero’s subsequent team of rivals brought victory. Thus, Guerrero was said by his followers to be "the father of the country," i.e Mexico’s Washington, as well as it’s Lincoln. He also created, with Iturbi de, the design for the flag.
After the war Guerrero had to be personable to win over influential Mexicans who looked upon him with disdain for having Afro-Indio roots, and for being a mule driver - the occupation of his father and uncles. In those years muleteers were very plentiful in Mexico, thanks in part to Spain’s reluctance to pay to create roads for carts and carriages. A history of the drivers describes them being considered unpleasant rowdies by the well-to-do, but welcomed in rural villages for bringing the news of the day, latest songs and the latest jokes about authority figures. Mule trains often convoyed contraband. From this profession came many a fighter for Mexico in the war with Spain.
Guerrero was a descendant of enslaved Africans brought to Mexico during colonial times. Part Indigenous, he was raised in an Indio barrio in the mountain town of Tixtla in the state that carries his name. During the 1810 war his knowledge of native languages helped the future president rise in rank. As Lincoln rose in politics mobilizing down-state Illinois farmers, and Obama networked Southside Chicagoans, Guerrero organized village communities for the war effort, often using a speech in which he praised the Indio political system of elected councils and chiefs, while asking for allegiance to the fight for "the bigger democracy" at the state level.
During his presidency, Guerrero was viewed with no little apprehension by politicians entrenched in the20social elite of Mexico City. But for a time he had to be tolerated. Guerrero came out of the war with an immense following, notable for the Indios he had recruited into the fight. One member of the elite with whom Guerrero did work closely was the brilliant but consumptive drug addict, Ignacio Esteva. In 1828 the two men created the first "People’s Party" in Mexico and its followers put Guerrero in the presidency in April 1829.
Guerrero shares with Obama and Lincoln a record for eloquent speech. A much quoted example is his first address to congress in which he declared, "If we succeeds in spreading the guarantees of the individual, if equality before the law destroys the efforts of power and gold, if the highest title between us is that of citizen, if the rewards we bestow are exclusively for talent and virtue, we have a republic, and she will be conserved by the universal suffrage of a people solid, free and happy."
Guerrero wanted his presidency to reflect the broad coalition built during the 1810 war. He alloweda number of convervatives in his cabinet and accepted as Vice President Anastacio Bustamante who had spent most of the independence war in the uniform of Spain. Radical supporters of Guerrero criticized the president’s cabinet and other choices, and in the manner that Barack Obama has questioning friends who are more racially oriented than he, so too did Guerrero have his. One was Isidorio Montesdeoca, an Afro-Filipino campesino who rose=2 0to the rank of general under Guerrero during the1810 war. He called Guerrero’s references to racial equality achieved by asking everyone be judged by his or her "merits and virtues" wishful thinking in a country where many powerful people didn’t believe blacks or Indios had merits and virtues. Moreover, argued Guerrero’s critics from the left, congress had made it near impossible to organize against racial injustice through their passage of Law #310 that, though ostensibly in the spirit of equality, prohibited mention of anyone’s race in any public document, or in the records of the parish church. One consequence of this law has been that knowledge of the racial attitude of the elite toward Guerrero’s African roots are relegated to private letters and anonymous pamphlets against "the black" and many a modern history identifies him merely as of "peasant"or "laboring class" background.
The political coalition Guerrero built fractured six months into his office, not from abandonment by the left, but by the right. His abolition of slavery, his promotion of a wider suffrage and his imposition of a stiff progressive tax code cost him most of his few upper class supporters - including two cabinet members. In 1830 the conservatives rebelled, and led by Vice President Bustamante, they drove Guerrero from the capital. Most of the president’s legislation was rescinded, but not the abolition of slavery, which had wide public support.
In a subsequent civil war Guerrero was captured and assassinated by Bustamante hirelings, who included an Italian sea captain who kidnapped the president in Acapulco harbor and delivered him to a Cuban mercenary in Huatulco, who passed him to the son of a Spaniard who had been a general for Spain in the independence war. At a mock trial in Oaxaca the first judge resigned during the opening day, claiming illness. Bustamante ordered execution but feared an uprising if it happened in the city of Oaxaca. Guerrero was taken to a small town, where the mayor had fled and the priest who was scheduled to conduct the last rights was also missing. In last words to the firing squad, Guerrero said that whatever he had done it was in the interest of Mexico.
The execution infuriated many, including moderates, and Bustamante had to make peace with Guerrero’s lieutenants, who controlled the Pacific region from Puerto Vallarta down past Acapulco to the black town of Cuijinicuilapa.. An unusual political accord granted the Guerreroistas autonomy on condition they never attack the capital. Over the years the close aid of Guerrero, the Afro-Acapulcan Juan Alvarez wrote and spread many diatribes against the elite, some of which are still in print today. In 1855 Alvarez broke the peace pact, marched on Mexico City, overthrew dictator Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and became Mexico’s second black president. He included in his cabinet Benito Juarez, the pure-Zapotecan lawyer, who in his youth had campaigned for the election of Guerrero,20and who later served twelve years as president and champion of liberal causes..
Guerrero’s one offspring, Dolores, trained her children in the politics of her father, with whom she had been close. The intellectual contributions of her son Vicente are well known. Vicente was also a state governor under Juarez, as was brother Carlos. Dolores’s son Jose was a general, and daughter Javiera, though prohibited from holding office, was significant enough behind the scenes to warrant a large statue.. Generations of politicians and intellectuals poured from the family, including today’s prominent journalist Raymundo Riva Palacio. His writings include a 1987 anthology of his articles condemning the U.S. funding of the Contras against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.
Today, the National Museum of History in Chapultepec Park honors only one family with its genealogical tree depicted on a wall, the family begun by Vicente Guerrero and his wife Guadalupe Hernandez.
Two other presidents of Mexico had known African heritage. Juan Almonte fought in the independence war and at the Alamo on the Mexican side. His brief presidency is noted for his treacherous act of handing the rule of Mexico to the Austrian Duke Maximilian in 1864. President Lazaro Cardenas, a key figure in the 1910 revolution, nationalized oil and issued wide spread land reform. A popular biography notes in the opening paragraph that Lazaro’s grandfather was "a mulato."
The original of Guerrero’s address to congress reads, "Si se lograron hacer efectivas las guarantias del individuo, si la igualdad ante la ley destruye los esfuerzos del poder y del oro, si el primero titulo entre nosotros es el de ciudadano, si las recompensas se otorgan exclusivamente al talento y a la virtud, tenemos republica, y ella se conservara por el unanime sufragio de un pueblo solidamente libre y dichoso."
The Black Legend, Part 8: Searching for America by Felipe de Ortego y Gasca
March 28th: Espanola Convento: "The Price of Statehood"
Seeing More Than Black & White by Elizabeth Martinez
From Somos Primos: A Website Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues, March 2009
y Felipe de Ortego y Gasca
Scholar in Residence/Chair,
Department of Chicana/Chicano & Hemispheric Studies, Western New
Mexico University; Professor Emeritus, Texas State University
[Searching for America--Number 8 in a series on La
[Searching for America--Number 8 in a series on La Leyenda Negra]
1968 on the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. the National Council of
Teachers of English (NCTE) at its national convention in Chicago
approved a resolution by the membership to establish a Task Force on
Racism and Bias in the Teaching of English as a memorial to the slain
civil rights leader. I was fortunate to have been one of the founding
members of the Task Force which included the NCTE Black caucus, the
Chicano caucus, the Asian caucus, and the Native American caucus.
Ernece Kelley was Chair of the Task Force. Our charge was to survey
high school and college anthologies and readers (collections) of
American literature for their content–to ascertain how inclusive
they were vis-a-vis the minorities represented by the participating
caucuses. Needless to say that inclusiveness was practically nil. The
scathing Report of the Task Force published in 1972 entitled Searching
for America gave all the anthologies F’s for inclusiveness. That
years from 1945–the end of World War II–to 1972, American
minorities, including American Hispanics, went searching for America
only to discover that in almost three decades the United States had
paid little heed to its growing minority populations. The anthologies
of American literature–the texts most likely to exert the most
influence on Americans in the educational system–had relegated
American minorities to invisibility. Despite the U.S. Supreme Court
ruling in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, the public domain of
American society seemed determined to keep its minority groups secret,
notwithstanding the turmoil in the streets during the 60's.
emerged most evident in Searching for America was that there
were really two Americas: White America and the “Other
America”–the “non-white” America. In their search for America,
American Hispanics ran straight into the discrimination most of them
thought they had exorcized from the body politic of the United States
by their loyalty and sacrifices to the nation during its time of
1948, the authorities of Three Rivers, Texas, refused to handle the
funeral services for Felix Longoria (a native of the town) and to bury
him in the municipal cemetery. During the war, Longoria had been
killed in the Philippines and interred in a temporary ossuary there
until the body could be transported to the United States. When that
came to pass three years later, Longoria’s wife never imagined that
her hero husband would not be buried with honors in the town’s
the intervention of Dr. Hector P. Garcia, a physician from nearby
Corpus Christi and founder of the American G.I. Forum–a Mexican
American veteran’s organization–the community of Three Rivers was
adamant in its refusal to bury Longoria in the town’s cemetery. Dr.
Garcia turned to Senator Lyndon Johnson for help who immediately
arranged for Longoria to be buried in Arlington Memorial Cemetery with
full military honors.
Crow laws south of the Mason-Dixon Line were as obdurate south of the
Mexican-Dixon Line as they were south of the Mason-Dixon Line.
Miscegenation laws singled out Mexican Americans as much as they
singled out African Americans. The exclusionary practices of pre-war
America in the Hispanic southwest remained as rigid in post-war
America as they had been in the years leading up to and including the
end of World War II, American Hispanics returned to what they thought
would be a grateful nation, particularly since as a group they had won
more medals of honor than any other group and had distinguished
themselves not only in battle but by their numbers in the armed
forces. In 1945 estimates for the American Hispanic population vary
from 3 to about 4 percent of the American population of 132 million.
Of the 16 million Americans in uniform during World War II, the 1
million American Hispanics in the armed services constitute about
1/16th of the total. For a group comprising only 4 percent of the
American population that’s a significant constituency. American
Hispanics responded to the call of the nation as patriotic Americans.
Hispanics came home from the war, hung up their uniforms with their
plastrons of medals, and went about looking for America and their
place in it. Many of them went back to work at their old jobs in
factories and mills, many went on to college under the G.I. Bill, and
many strode to the horizon of American opportunity ready for the
challenges of the future. Despite the largesse of the G.I. Bill, many
Mexican American war veterans were discriminated against by the U.S.
Department of Veterans Affairs by denying them medical services for
combat wounds after they were discharged.
they were not prepared for was the status quo of discrimination
engendered in large part by the Black Legend. To counter this
discrimination Americans turned to the formation of Hispanic
organizations. Perhaps what best characterized American Hispanic
thought in the period from the end of World War II to the close of the
1950’s is that American Hispanics were divided about the promise of
America, for a significant number of them lived under conditions that
had changed little in almost a century. In fact, for many Mexican
Americans conditions had grown worse in their transition from an
agrarian people to an urban people. By 1960 statistics bore out that
almost 80 percent of Mexican Americans lived in urban environments and
were burdened with the additional problems of the urban
mere fact of desegregation in 1954 did not eliminate the myriad
educational problems confronting Mexican Americans. The truth of the
matter is that just as the educational system of the United States
failed to accomplish its objectives with Anglo American children, it
failed miserably to reach Mexican American children (Felipe de Ortego
y Gasca, “The Education of Mexican Americans,”
New Mexico Review, Part I, September 1969; Part II, October 1969).
fault of American education a propos Mexican American children was its
thoroughly lexocentric attitude toward instruction in any language but
English. Thus, Spanish-speaking Mexican American children were further
disadvantaged by their inability to deal effectively with the language
of instruction (see Carl L. Rosen and Philip D. Ortego (Felipe de
Ortego y Gasca), Issues in Language and Reading Instruction of Spanish-speaking Children,
International Reading Association, 1969, Problems
and Strategies in Teaching the Language Arts to Spanish Speaking
Mexican American Children, U.S. Office of Education, 1969,
“Language and Reading Problems of Spanish Speaking Children in the
Southwest,” Journal of Reading Behavior, Winter 1969).
December of 1959 the editorial of Alianza
Magazine asked: “Where do we go from here?” There was no
question that Mexican Americans saw change as necessary for their
amelioration, but the nature of that change was still dim and barely
apprehended, although some Mexican Americans were observing closely
the tactics of the Black Power Movement. Change was definitely in the
air, for Mexican Americans had gone looking for America and had not
found it. Perhaps what “did it” for Alianza
Magazine was the Denver incident in 1957 in which Charlotte C.
Rush, Patriotic Education Chairman of the Denver Chapter of the
Daughters of the American Revolution, decided that only “American
boys” would carry the flag at the State Industrial School for Boys,
saying “I wouldn’t want a Mexican to carry Old Glory, would you?
(“Daughter of the American Revolution Slurs Mexicans,” Alianza,
March 1957: 11).
Mexican Americans had taken up the gauntlet and were ready to
challenge the spurious venom of the Black Legend.
I attended a public forum at the Bataan Memorial auditorium in Santa
Fe, New Mexico focused on two books—the Black Legend and on The
Santa Fe Ring. Authors
and historians were on hand to provide perspective on revelations
contained within these books and to facilitate discussion with the
audience. The Black
Legend (Legend) was a characterization given decedents of the
Iberian Peninsula (i.e.
Santa Fe Ring was part of a concerted effort, fully supported by the
politicians at the time, including then territorial governor Vernon
Prince, to take away the lands and protections that had been
afforded by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to the indigenous
communities (Hispanic and Native American) of the American
Southwest. The Treaty
was supposed to have ended the war sparked by the illegal occupation
of The Alamo, in
of official government documents were displayed at the
Charles “Chuck” Montano, (505) 690-6911
Seeing More Than Black & White
A certain relish seems irresistible to this Latina as the mass media has been compelled to sit up, look south of the border, and take notice. Probably the Chiapas uprising and Mexico's recent political turmoil have won us no more than a brief day in the sun. Or even less: liberal Ted Koppel still hadn't noticed the historic assassination of presidential candidate Colosio three days afterward. But it's been sweet, anyway.
When Kissinger said years ago "nothing important ever happens in the south," he articulated a contemptuous indifference toward Latin America, its people and their culture which has long dominated U.S. institutions and attitudes. Mexico may be great for a vacation and some people like burritos but the usual image of Latin America combines incompetence with absurdity in loud colors. My parents, both Spanish teachers, endured decades of being told kids were better off learning French.
U.S. political culture is not only Anglo-dominated but also embraces an exceptionally stubborn national self-centeredness, with no global vision other than relations of domination. The U.S. refuses to see itself as one nation sitting on a continent with 20 others all speaking languages other than English and having the right not to be dominated.
Such arrogant indifference extends to Latinos within the U.S. The mass media complain, "people can't relate to Hispanics" - or Asians, they say. Such arrogant indifference has played an important role in invisibilizing La Raza (except where we become a serious nuisance or a handy scapegoat). It is one reason the U.S. harbors an exclusively white-on-Black concept of racism. It is one barrier to new thinking about racism which is crucial today. There are others.
Good-bye White Majority
In a society as thoroughly and violently racialized as the United States, white-Black relations have defined racism for centuries. Today the composition and culture of the U.S. are changing rapidly. We need to consider seriously whether we can afford to maintain an exclusively white/Black model of racism when the population will be 32 percent Latino, Asian/Pacific American and Native American - in short, neither Black nor white - by the year 2050. We are challenged to recognize that multi-colored racism is mushrooming, and then strategize how to resist it. We are challenged to move beyond a dualism comprised of two white supremacist inventions: Blackness and Whiteness.
At stake in those challenges is building a united anti-racist force strong enough to resist contemporary racist strategies of divide-and- conquer. Strong enough, in the long run, to help defeat racism itself. Doesn't an exclusively Black/white model of racism discourage the perception of common interests among people of color and thus impede a solidarity that can challenge white supremacy? Doesn't it encourage the isolation of African Americans from potential allies? Doesn't it advise all people of color to spend too much energy understanding our lives in relation to Whiteness, and thus freeze us in a defensive, often self- destructive mode?
No "Oppression Olympics"
For a Latina to talk about recognizing the multi-colored varieties of racism is not, and should not be, yet another round in the Oppression Olympics. We don't need more competition among different social groupings for that "Most Oppressed" gold. We don't need more comparisons of suffering between women and Blacks, the disabled and the gay, Latino teenagers and white seniors, or whatever. We don't need more surveys like the recent much publicized Harris Poll showing that different peoples of color are prejudiced toward each other - a poll patently designed to demonstrate that us coloreds are no better than white folk. (The survey never asked people about positive attitudes.)
Rather, we need greater knowledge, understanding, and openness to learning about each other's histories and present needs as a basis for working together. Nothing could seem more urgent in an era when increasing impoverishment encourages a self-imposed separatism among people of color as a desperate attempt at community survival. Nothing could seem more important as we search for new social change strategies in a time of ideological confusion.
My call to rethink concepts of racism in the U.S. today is being sounded elsewhere. Among academics, liberal foundation administrators, and activist-intellectuals, you can hear talk of the need for a new "racial paradigm" or model. But new thinking seems to proceed in fits and starts, as if dogged by a fear of stepping on toes, of feeling threatened, or of losing one's base. With a few notable exceptions, even our progressive scholars of color do not make the leap from perfunctorily saluting a vague multi-culturalism to serious analysis. We seem to have made little progress, if any, since Bob Blauner's 1972 book "Racial Oppression in America". Recognizing the limits of the white-Black axis, Blauner critiqued White America's ignorance of and indifference to the Chicano/a experience with racism.
Real opposition to new paradigms also exists. There are academics scrambling for one flavor of ethnic studies funds versus another. There are politicians who cultivate distrust of others to keep their own communities loyal. When we hear, for example, of Black/Latino friction, dismay should be quickly followed by investigation. In cities like Los Angeles and New York, it may turn out that political figures scrapping for patronage and payola have played a narrow nationalist game, whipping up economic anxiety and generating resentment that sets communities against each other.
So the goal here, in speaking about moving beyond a bi-polar concept of racism is to build stronger unity against white supremacy. The goal is to see our similarities of experience and needs. If that goal sounds naive, think about the hundreds of organizations formed by grassroots women of different colors coming together in recent years. Their growth is one of today's most energetic motions and it spans all ages. Think about the multicultural environmental justice movement. Think about the coalitions to save schools. Small rainbows of our own making are there, to brighten a long road through hellish times.
It is in such practice, through daily struggle together, that we are most likely to find the road to greater solidarity against a common enemy. But we also need a will to find it and ideas about where, including some new theory.
The West Goes East
Until very recently, Latino invisibility - like that of Native Americans and Asian/Pacific Americans - has been close to absolute in U.S. seats of power, major institutions, and the non-Latino public mind. Having lived on both the East and West Coasts for long periods, I feel qualified to pronounce: an especially myopic view of Latinos prevails in the East. This, despite such data as a 24.4 percent Latino population of New York City alone in 1991, or the fact that in 1990 more Puerto Ricans were killed by New York police under suspicious circumstances than any other ethnic group. Latino populations are growing rapidly in many eastern cities and the rural South, yet remain invisibile or stigmatized - usually both.
Eastern blinders persist. I've even heard that the need for a new racial paradigm is dismissed in New York as a California hangup. A black Puerto Rican friend in New York, when we talked about experiences of racism common to Black and brown, said "People here don't see Border Patrol brutality against Mexicans as a form of police repression," despite the fact that the Border Patrol is the largest and most uncontrolled police force in the U.S. It would seem that an old ignorance has combined with new immigrant bashing to sustain divisions today.
While the East (and most of the Midwest) usually remains myopic, the West Coast has barely begun to move away from its own denial. Less than two years ago in San Francisco, a city almost half Latino or Asian/Pacific American, a leading daily newspaper could publish a major series on contemporary racial issues and follow the exclusively Black-white paradigm. Although millions of TV viewers saw massive Latino participation in the April 1992 Los Angeles uprising, which included 18 out of 50 deaths and the majority of arrests, the mass media and most people labeled that event "a Black riot."
If the West Coast has more recognition of those who are neither Black nor white, it is mostly out of fear about the proximate demise of its white majority. A second, closely related reason is the relentless campaign by California Gov. Pete Wilson to scapegoat immigrants for economic problems and pass racist, unconstitutional laws attacking their health, education, and children's future. Wilson has almost single-handedly made the word "immigrant" mean Mexican or other Latino (and sometimes Asian). Who thinks of all the people coming from the former Soviet Union and other countries? The absolute racism of this has too often been successfully masked by reactionary anti- immigrant groups like FAIR blaming immigrants for the staggering African-American unemployment rate.
Wilson's immigrant bashing is likely to provide a model for other parts of the country. The five states with the highest immigration rates - California, Florida, New York, Illinois and Texas - all have a Governor up for re-election in 1994. Wilson tactics won't appear in every campaign but some of the five states will surely see intensified awareness and stigmatization of Latinos as well as Asian/Pacific Islanders.
As this suggests, what has been a regional issue mostly limited to western states is becoming a national issue. If you thought Latinos were just Messicans down at the border, wake up - they are all over North Carolina, Pennsylvania and 8th Avenue Manhattan now. A qualitative change is taking place. With the broader geographic spread of Latinos and Asian/Pacific Islanders has come a nationalization of racist practices and attitudes that were once regional. The west goes east, we could say.
Like the monster Hydra, racism is growing some ugly new heads. We will have to look at them closely.
The Roots Of Racism And Latinos
A bi-polar model of racism - racism as white on Black - has never really been accurate. Looking for the roots of racism in the U.S. we can begin with the genocide against American Indians which made possible the U.S. land base, crucial to white settlement and early capitalist growth. Soon came the massive enslavement of African people which facilitated that growth. As slave labor became economically critical, "blackness" became ideologically critical; it provided the very source of "whiteness" and the heart of racism. Franz Fanon would write, "colour is the most outward manifestation of race."
If Native Americans had been a crucial labor force during those same centuries, living and working in the white man's sphere, our racist ideology might have evolved differently. "The tawny," as Ben Franklin dubbed them, might have defined the opposite of what he called "the lovely white." But with Indians decimated and survivors moved to distant concentration camps, they became unlikely candidates for this function. Similarly, Mexicans were concentrated in the distant West; elsewhere Anglo fear of them or need for control was rare. They also did not provide the foundation for a definition of whiteness.
Some anti-racist left activists have put forth the idea that only African Americans experience racism as such and that the suffering of other people of color results from national minority rather than racial oppression. From this viewpoint, the exclusively white/Black model for racism is correct. Latinos, then, experience exploitation and repression for reasons of culture and nationality - not for their "race." (It should go without saying in
Does the distinction hold? This and other theoretical questions call for more analysis and more expertise than one article can offer. In the meantime, let's try out the idea that Latinos do suffer for their nationality and culture, especially language. They became part of the U.S. through the 1846-48 war on Mexico and thus a foreign population to be colonized. But as they were reduced to cheap or semi-slave labor, they quickly came to suffer for their "race" - meaning, as non-whites. In the Southwest of a super-racialized nation, the broad parallelism of race and class embraced Mexicans ferociously.
The bridge here might be a definition of racism as "the reduction of the cultural to the biological," in the words of French scholar Christian Delacampagne now working in Egypt. Or: "racism exists wherever it is claimed that a given social status is explained by a given natural characteristic." We know that line: Mexicans are just naturally lazy and have too many children, so they're poor and exploited.
The discrimination, oppression and hatred experienced by Native Americans, Mexicans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Arab Americans are forms of racism. Speaking only of Latinos, we have seen in California and the Southwest, especially along the border, almost 150 years of relentless repression which today includes Central Americans among its targets. That history reveals hundreds of lynchings between 1847 and 1935, the use of counter-insurgency armed forces beginning with the Texas Rangers, random torture and murder by Anglo ranchers, forced labor, rape by border lawmen, and the prevailing Anglo belief that a Mexican life doesn't equal a dog's in value.
But wait. If color is so key to racial definition, as Fanon and others say, perhaps people of Mexican background experience racism less than national minority oppression because they are not dark enough as a group. For White America, shades of skin color are crucial to defining worth. The influence of those shades has also been internalized by communities of color. Many Latinos can and often want to pass for whites; therefore White America may see them as less threatening than darker sisters and brothers.
Here we confront more of the complexity around us today, with questions like: What about the usually poor, very dark Mexican or Central American of strong Indian or African heritage? (Yes, folks, 200-300,000 Africans were brought to Mexico as slaves, which is far, far more than the Spaniards who came.) And what about the effects of accented speech or foreign name, characteristics that may instantly subvert "passing?"
What about those cases where a Mexican-American is never accepted, no matter how light-skinned, well-dressed or well-spoken? A Chicano lawyer friend coming home from a professional conference in suit, tie and briefcase found himself on a bus near San Diego that was suddenly stopped by the Border Patrol. An agent came on board and made a beeline through the all-white rows of passengers direct to my friend. "Your papers." The agent didn't believe Jose was coming from a U.S. conference and took him off the bus to await proof. Jose was lucky; too many Chicanos and Mexicans end up killed.
In a land where the national identity is white, having the "wrong" nationality becomes grounds for racist abuse. Who would draw a sharp line between today's national minority oppression in the form of immigrant- bashing, and racism?
None of this aims to equate the African American and Latino experiences; that isn't necessary even if it were accurate. Many reasons exist for the persistence of the white/Black paradigm of racism; they include numbers, history, and the psychology of whiteness. In particular they include centuries of slave revolts, a Civil War, and an ongoing resistance to racism that cracked this society wide open while the world watched. Nor has the misery imposed on Black people lessened in recent years. New thinking about racism can and should keep this experience at the center.
A Deadly Dualism
The exclusively white/Black concept of race and racism in the U.S. rests on a western, Protestant form of dualism woven into both race and gender relations from earliest times. In the dualist universe there is only black and white. A disdain, indeed fear, of mixture haunts the Yankee soul; there is no room for any kind of multi- faceted identity, any hybridism.
As a people, La Raza combines three sets of roots - indigenous, European and African - all in widely varying degrees. In short we represent a profoundly un-American concept:
Mexicans in the U.S. also defy the either-or, dualistic mind in that, on the one hand, we are a colonized people displaced from the ancestral homeland with roots in the present-day U.S. that go back centuries. Those ancestors didn't cross the border; the border crossed them. At the same time many of us have come to the U.S. more recently as "immigrants" seeking work. The complexity of Raza baffles and frustrates most Anglos; they want to put one neat label on us. It baffles many Latinos too, who often end up categorizing themselves racially as "Other" for lack of anything better. For that matter, the term "Latino" which I use here is a monumental simplification; it refers to 20-plus nationalities and a wide range of classes.
But we need to grapple with the complexity, for there is more to come. If anything, this nation will see more
A glimpse at the next century tells us how much we need to look beyond the white/Black model of race relations and racism. White/Black are real poles, central to the history of U.S. racism. We can neither ignore them nor stop there. But our effectiveness in fighting racism depends on seeing the changes taking place, trying to perceive the contours of the future. From the time of the Greeks to the present, racism around the world has had certain commonalties but no permanently fixed character. It is evolving again today, and we'd best labor to read the new faces of this Hydra-headed monster. Remember, for every head that Hydra lost it grew two more.
Sometimes the problem seems so clear. Last year I showed slides of Chicano history to a Oakland high school class with 47 African Americans and three Latino students. The images included lynchings and police beatings of Mexicans and other Latinos, and many years of resistance. At the end one Black student asked, "Seems like we have had a lot of experiences in common - so why can't Blacks and Mexicans get along better?" No answers, but there was the first step: asking the question.
Sent by Dorinda Moreno
|The Hook Up: Navy Flight Officer Lieutenant Roy Lopez
The Boys of Company E by Joe Olvera ©, 2007
Heroes in the War on terror: Sgt. Scott Montoya
First Junior enlisted soldier to receive full military honors at Arlington
Joe Rivera Memorial
Brutus, First K9 to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor
Veterans History Project, Library of Congress: Browse by Last Name
Indians in the War
|The Hook Up: Navy Flight Officer Lieutenant Roy Lopez
themun2 HOOK UP video > 13 year old Latina flies cross-country video
Navy flight officer Roy Lopez is in charge of millions of dollars
worth of equipment. He's also responsible for many lives when it comes
to prepping pilots and jets for take-off. Future top gun pilot
candidate Breean Farfan has dreams of one day soaring above the
clouds. Roy’s mission: can he prep this young (17 year-old) future
pilot for flight?
Well, he may have been prepared for defeat, but, the Boys of Company E had no choice. They too knew that to attempt the crossing was suicidal, but they were brave, they were Chicanos and, yes, they loved their United States of America enough to sacrifice their lives. The Army buried the story; now, finally, the group of men and their commander, Capt. Navarrete, are receiving their due.
Posted on October 5, 2007
It was a cold, freezing night – January 21, 1944. The treacherous Rapido River in southern Italy awaited them. They were the Boys of Company E, 2nd Battalion, 36th Infantry Division, U.S. 5th Army. They were boys mostly from Bowie High School, but their Commander Gabriel L. Navarrete, had graduated from Cathedral High School. Company E was known as an experienced intelligence gatherer and knowledgeable about evaluating the enemy’s strength.
The Boys from Company E were known as a rough and tough unit, one of the best in the U.S. Army. When Navarrete was ordered to lead a patrol across the Rapido River to reconnoiter, to determine the position of the enemy and to find a suitable crossing point to get vital information on the strength of the Germans, he received his seventh wound in action. However, he did return to report that in his opinion, crossing the Rapido River would be suicide.
He wasn’t alone. General Fred Walker, Commander of the 36th Infantry Division, was quoted as saying: “I do not know of a single case in military history where an attempt to cross a river that is incorporated in the main line of resistance has succeeded. So, I am prepared for defeat.”
Well, he may have been prepared for defeat, but, the Boys of Company E had no choice. They too knew that to attempt the crossing was suicidal, but they were brave, they were Chicanos and, yes, they loved their United States of America enough to sacrifice their lives. These brave boys turned men did not hesitate. They attempted the crossing under cover of night.
Roque Segura was the strongest swimmer in the unit. He volunteered to swim across the Rapido to set up a rope system that included small boats, which the men could then use to get to the other side. The freezing water made it very difficult, but Segura swam across the river time and time again to get as many troops across as possible. Other men followed, other men died. Segura was killed by enemy fire. Others died by that same violent upheaval created by the German Army. Many men died.
Before the crossing, however, when then-Captain Navarrete had reported his findings to Walker, the General only told him that he admired what he had accomplished and, word has it, would recommend Navarrete for the Medal of Honor. Navarrete, however, wasn’t having it. He knew that his men were going to be murdered, decimated by the eagerly awaiting Germans. Navarrete told Walker that if his men were sacrificed, despite the report, he would go gunning for justice. Walker did not heed Navarrete’s report, however, and ordered the crossing to proceed. The disastrous crossing claimed the lives of more than 1,700 men – including the 300 all-Chicano company from El Paso.
When Navarrete heard that his men had been sacrificed after all, he went gunning for whoever had ordered the fatal crossing. The Army wasn’t about to allow that to happen, so Navarrete was transferred out of Italy and to a stateside hospital to recover from his wounds. For years, then, the Boys of Company E languished in obscurity, prevented by the Army from talking about the fiasco. It was a total blunder for which the U. S. Army has not accounted. For years, they were the forgotten heroes of World War II, a war in which more Hispanics received Medals of Honor than any other ethnic group.
But, no more. Thanks to efforts of such stalwarts as Silvestre Reyes, U.S. Rep., D-El Paso, City Rep. Beto O’Rourke, and his wonderful staff person Diana Ramirez, Peter Brock, who works with Reyes, Santos Super Sanchez, Javier Diaz, Esther Perez, Julieta Olvera, Robert Navarrete, David Navarrete, Ricardo Palacios Jr., yours truly, and many others without whose help this couldn’t be possible, the Boys of Company E are on the verge of getting their due rewards, their long-awaited recognition.
Even as I write this, three representatives are in Washington, D.C., where they will be honored, feted, wined and dined by Reyes and his staff and by members of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute. They will receive a Resolution honoring their military service. However, only one of the three is an original member of the Company. Those few who remain are too ill to travel. But, Ricardo Palacios Sr. was healthy enough to go. His son, Ricardo Palacios Jr., is accompanying his elderly father. Another important member of this little party is David Navarrete, the son of Company E Commander, Gabriel L. Navarrete. After all these years, finally, acknowledgement of their bravery, of their fearlessness, of their love of country, love of city – El Paso – and love for each other. They were the rough and tumble guys of Company E. Recognition and honors have finally arrived. Thanks to everyone who made this happen.
Heroes' Archive: Heroes in the War on Terror
Sgt. Scott Montoya
Montoya received the U.S. military's second-highest award at Camp Pendleton for heroism stemming from his actions on April 8, 2003, two weeks into Operation Iraqi Freedom.
With his firearm in one hand engaging the enemy and a badly bleeding Marine in the other, he fought their way 500 yards to safety. He returned to the cross-fire again and dragged another - who'd been dazed by the concussion of a grenade blast - to a casualty collection point. In all, he rescued four injured Marines and one Iraqi civilian out of harm's way, according to his citation.
Montoya's "extraordinary heroism" arose out of the battle for Baghdad.
Montoya described it this way:
"I saw a hurt Marine and all my training came into play. It wasn't a cognitive thing; I just saw the situation and cared for my Marines."
Sgt. Jose N. Sanchez, a supply clerk with 2/23, has known Montoya for six years and wasn't surprised when he heard the news.
"The level he went - it's above and beyond the call of anyone, even a Marine," Sanchez said, adding: "What matters to him are his Marines, not the awards or the actions he took."
Montoya received the award in front of family, friends and the men of his unit. Orange County Sheriff Michael S. Carona was also present.
A deputy sheriff in Orange County, Montoya drew praise from many
of his co-workers - including Carona.
"Whether as a Marine or as a law enforcement figure, he is always putting the community or the country above his own personal safety."
Carona alluded to Montoya's rapid response under fire.
"These things happen in the blink of a second, and an individual has to decide to be a hero or not. He decided to be one."
In the end, Montoya said, “It's just a medal.”
"Service before self is something I teach in the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program," continued Montoya, a MCMAP instructor for his unit. "I feel the award represents the character of the Corps."
Col. Geffery L. Cooper, the battalion's commanding officer during Operation Iraqi Freedom, said Montoya's award was well-deserved.
"It means a great deal to me that the Corps can recognize such Marines of valor in combat,” said Cooper. (Montoya) is a man of integrity and leadership, and his loyalty is unquestionable. He is a great example and advocate for all reservists.”
Excerpts from article written by Lance Cpl. Daniel J.
Redding, The Scout, MCB Camp Pendleton
First Junior enlisted soldier to receive full military honors at Arlington
By Gina Cavallaro - Staff writer
Posted : Friday Jan 16, 2009
Spc. Joseph Hernandez, who died Jan. 9 in Afghanistan, will become the first junior enlisted soldier to receive full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. Until Jan. 1, this was only accorded to officers, Medal of Honor recipients and enlisted members who reach the highest possible enlisted rank of E-9.
Hernandez, 24, of Hammond, Ind., was killed by a roadside bomb while on patrol in Jaldak.
Two other soldiers, Maj. Brian Mescall, 33, of Hopkinton, Mass., and Sgt. Jason Parsons, 24, of Lenoir, N.C., were also killed.
The soldiers were with 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment, Hohenfels, Germany.
Hernandez’s service is scheduled for Jan. 23, and his military honors will include band, casket team, bugler, escort platoon and a firing party.
“His family opted to proceed without the caisson, in order to schedule the earliest possible date,” Kaitlin Horst, spokesperson for Arlington National Cemetery, said in an e-mail message.
The decision to make full honors available to all enlisted soldiers was made in December by Army Secretary Pete Geren, who said the honors will also apply to members of other services if requested and authorized.
Army assets that currently support military funeral honors at Arlington, he said, will be made available for those funerals.
The Army secretary is the executive agent for all matters concerning Arlington, considered the nation’s most hallowed military cemetery.
Under the new funeral honors policy, eligible enlisted soldiers will be those who were killed as a result of:
• Any action against an enemy of the United States.
• Any action with an opposing armed force of a foreign country in which the U.S. military is or has been engaged.
• Action while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in armed combat against an opposing armed force in which the U.S. is not a belligerent party.
• An act of any such enemy of opposing armed forces.
• An act of any hostile foreign force.
• An international terrorist attack against the U.S. or a foreign nation friendly to the U.S., recognized as such an attack by the Army secretary.
• Military operations while serving outside the territory of the U.S. as part of a peacekeeping force.
• Action by friendly fire — that is, non-enemy weapons fire while directly engaged in armed conflict, unless the soldier’s death was the result of the soldier’s willful misconduct.
Enlisted soldiers killed in a combat zone or hostile-fire area as the result of non-hostile actions not noted above will continue to receive standard military funeral honors at Arlington, the policy states.
“Arlington National Cemetery is an expression of our nation’s reverence for those who served her in uniform, many making the ultimate sacrifice,” Geren said in a statement released following his memo. “Arlington and those honored there are part of our national heritage. This new policy provides a unified basis for all Army soldiers killed in action.”
• Staff writer William H. McMichael contributed to this story.
Joe Rivera Memorial
RIVERA MEMORIAL - 5:15 p.m. - 6:15 p.m. AFGE National President John
Gage joins the Metropolitan Police Department Honor Guard, Washington,
D.C. area law enforcement officers, AFGE Council of Prison Locals
President Bryan Lowry, and union activists from all 50 states for a
candlelight vigil to honor the service and sacrifice of Jose Rivera, a
federal correctional officer who was killed in the line of duty at the
United States Penitentiary in Atwater, Calif. on June 20, 2008.
Location: National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial,
E Street, between 4th and 5th Streets NW.
Sent by Joe Martinez, Ph.D. email@example.com
First K9 to receive the
Congressional Medal of Honor
Brutus won the Congressional Medal of Honor last year from his tour in Iraq . His handler and four other soldiers were taken hostage by insurgents. Brutus and his handler communicate by sign language and he gave Brutus the signal
that meant 'go away but come back and find me'.
The Iraqis paid no attention to Brutus. He came back later and quietly took out one guard at one door and another guard at another door. He then jumped against one of the doors repeatedly (the guys were being held in an old warehouse) until it opened.He went in and untied his handler and they all escaped.
Sent by Sally Gidaro firstname.lastname@example.org
|Veterans History Project, Library of Congress: Browse by Last Name|
This is a great web site for our readers to check on their families or friend veterans names. Also if the names or not recorded, its a good reminder to submit their names and stories to this web site. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/vhp/html/search/browse-vets.html
Another excellent site. It can be searched by ethnic
preference. Sent by Rafael Ojeda
Indians in the War
NOVEMBER 1945: United States Department of the Interior--Office of Indian Affairs
Chicago 54, Illinois, Haskell Printing Department 2-15-46--15,000
|Rancheros y Vaqueros, South Texas Families, Part I, Vicente Flores
Ernest Jerry Garcia was accepted into the Sons of American Revolution
El Regimento de La Luisiana
Granaderos at Special Bernardo de Galvez Commemoration in Mexico City
Patriots of Peru During the American Revolutionary War by Granville Hough, Ph.D.
|Editor: Rancheros y Vaqueros is the first in a series on Tejano patriots, men and women who have the right to consider their ancestors, themselves and their descendants, Patriots of the American Revolution.|
Flores, whose full name was Vicente de la Trinidad Flores de Ábrego y
Valdéz, was born on February 28, 1757, in the Villa de San Fernando de Béxar (now San Antonio, Bexar
County, Texas), to
Francisco Flores de Ábrego y Valdéz and Doña Francisca Álvares
Travieso. According to Vicente’s baptismal record, his
Godfather was Franciso Flores de Ábrego of the
By the 1770s, the
Spain declared War on Great
Britain on June 21, 1779, and King Carlos
In order to help feed his
troops, Gálvez sent an emissary, Francisco García, from
Spanish Texas rancheros and their vaqueros, many of whom were mission Indians, trailed these cattle. Soldiers from the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, El Fuerte del Cíbolo, and Presidio La Bahía escorted the herds. Vicente Flores was one of the Tejano ranchers who both provided and trailed the Texas cattle in these first Texas cattle drives that helped win the American Revolution from which we gained the freedom and opportunity that Americans still enjoy—and defend—today.
Spanish documents verify
that Vicente Flores was one of the top ten major cattle exporters from
1779 to 1786, credited with exporting 1,259 head of cattle during this
period, most of them trailed from
After the American
Revolution, Vicente Flores, a true Tejano patriot, continued to live
I feel greatly honored to be one of his descendants.
Sylvia Ann Carvajal
Author: Sylvia Ann Carvajal Sutton email@example.com
Edited: Robert H. Thonhoff
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Baptismal Records, Archives of San Fernando Cathedral,
Baptismal Records, Archives of San Fernando Cathedral,
Thonhoff, Robert H. The
Thonhoff, Robert H. The Vital Contribution of
Weddle, Robert S. and Robert H. Thonhoff. Drama
& Conflict: The
[Ernest Jerry Garcia was accepted into the Sons of American Revolution on the basis of an early Spanish soldier who was among the first discoverers of San Francisco Bay on October 31, 1769. Plus read his military service.]
Ernest Jerry Garcia was born on April 17, 1937, in San
Gabriel, California, and spent his childhood in San Gabriel where
he attended parochial and public schools. He joined the US Army
after high school and later attended various colleges and
universities, including the Defense Language Institute in
Monterey, CA, where he learned Chinese Mandarin and German. Ernie
also speaks Spanish.
Regimento de La Luisiana
MORE INFORMATION WITH
to the official website of El Regimento de La Luisiana,
In 2002, individuals who had long replicated soldiers of the unit on their own came together to form a cohesive, single unit. Since that time, the unit has taken part in various events around Louisiana and the Gulf Coast of the United States, including the annual "Prelude to the Siege of Baton Rouge, 1779" in Vicksburg, Mississippi (site of Spanish Fort Nogales), the Bicentennial Ceremony of the Louisiana Purchase, and various other local events. Our unit is generally based in and around Louisiana, with members also located in Texas, Missouri, Maryland, Mississippi, and Florida as well. Membership in our unit is open to individuals 16 years of age and older. Basic requirements for participating with our unit are mainly: 1) meeting the minimum uniform requirements, and 2) paying the yearly dues to the Brigade of the American Revolution in order to attend B.A.R. events.
Sent by Bill Carmena JCarm1724@aol.com
Granaderos at Bernardo de Galvez Commemoration in Mexico City
Two new photo albums are now on display in our website, along with others that were posted earlier in the year. One new album shows photos taken at a special Bernardo de Galvez commemoration in Mexico City. The ceremony was sponsored by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Telmo and other groups from Madrid and Macharaviaya.
Stateside participating groups included the Nat. Soc. of the Daughters of the American Revolution, and the San Antonio and Houston chapters of the Granaderos y Damas de Galvez . I am writing a report of this important commemoration and will add it to our website in the near future.
The other new album shows photos of our Christmas Luncheon 2008.
Some of these photos were taken by my son, Sam; others, by Frank Galindo, and me.
We'll post any other digital photos taken of this activity by anyone else in attendance.
To view the photos:
1. Click on the following hypertexted address to our website: www.granaderos.org
2. Click on the "Media" tab,
3. Click on the "Online Photo Albums" tab,
4. Click on the photo album you desire to see.
Thanks for making 2008 a highly successful year!
Joel Escamilla, Governor, Founding Chapter
Santiago Tabara. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Querocotillo Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXIII:16.
Fernando Taboada. Lt,Mil Discip Cab de Huaura, 1797. Leg 7287:XIX:13.
Antonio Tafur. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huánuco, 1796. Leg 7286:V:7.
Dámaso Tafur. Lt, Mil prov Urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:14.
Francisco Tafur. Lt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:15.
José Manuel Tafur. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1787. Leg 7287:XIII:57.
Juan José Tafur. Lt, Mil Prov urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:13.
Justo Tafur de Cordoba. Lt, Mil Inf Española San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:16.
José Bernardo Tagle. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:49.
Pedro Tagle. Capt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:15.
José Antonio Tagle Bracho. Sgt Mayor, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1796. Leg 7286:II:4.
Buena Ventura Talavera. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:54.
Pedro José Talavera. Sgt, Comp sueltas Inf Española Mil Discip Inmemorial del Rey, 1792. Leg 7284:VII:7.
Bartolomé Tamayo. Lt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:17.
José Joaquin Tamayo. Cadet, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:61.
Mateo Tamayo. Alf, Comp Mil Discip Pardos de Cab de Regimiento de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XV:3.
Bernandino Tanola. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:65.
Martín Tapia. Alf, Mil Prov urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1798. Leg 7286:XVII:17.
Eusebio Tapia y Zuñiga. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:27.
Miguel Taranco. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XI:66.
Ildefonso Tarraga. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:17.
Carlos Tejada. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:XIII:42.
Domingo Tejada. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:43.
José Tejada. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Celendín, Partido de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IX:19.
Juan de Dios Tejada. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:57.
Mariano Tejada. Lt, Mil Urbanas Cab San Pablo de Chalaguez, 1797. Leg 7287:XI:23.
Mariano Ignacio Tejada. Mil Discip Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:4.
Casimiro Tejeda. SubLt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1792. Leg 7284:VIII:32.
Juan Bautista Tejeda. Sgt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1794. Leg 7285:VIII:49.
Pascual Tejeda. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Trujillo, Perú, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:22.
Evaristo Tejeda y Salazar. Ayudante Mayor Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:42.
Manuel Tejedo. Sgt 1st de la 7th Comp, Mil Españolas Cab de Luya y Chillaos, Prov de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:XX:16.
Blas de Telleria. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Carabayllo, 1797. Leg 7287:VII:17.
Juan Tello. Lt, Dos Coms sueltas de Mil urbanas de Inf de Anco, 1797. Leg 7287:I:5.
Manuel Tello. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1792. Leg 7284:XIX:15.
Martín Tello. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:124.
Victorino Tenorio. Capt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Casttro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:26.
José Terri. Ayudante. Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huamalies, 1800. Leg 7288:XVII:13.
Francisco Terrones. Sgt, Mil Prov de Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:31.
Cipriano Teves. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Nasca 6 Palpa, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:17.
José Teves. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:16.
Juan Evangelista Teves. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de los Valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXI:2.
Rafael Tiendas y Porras. SubLt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:49.
Gregorio Tinajero. Sgt, Mil Prov de Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:38.
José Tirado. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:21.
Juan Tirado. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:16.
Juan Antonio Tirado. Capt, Mil Discip de Cab de Huaura, 1797. Leg 7287:XIX:3.
Juan Pio Tirado. Lt, Mil Prov Discip inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:33.
Manuel Tirado y Abril. Alf, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:52.
Pedro Tiznado. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Cab de San Pedro de Chalaquez, 1798. Leg 7287:XI:46.
Justo Toledo. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:14.
Manuel de Toro. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Huambos, Partido Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:XVII:12.
Benito de la Torre. Cadet Comp sueltas Mil Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:23.
Diego de la Torre. Capt, sueltas Mil Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:4.
Diego de la Torre. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:62.
Felipe Antonio de la Torre. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:5.
Gregorio de la Torre. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:8.
Jerónimo de la Torre. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de Trujillo, Perú, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:20.
José de la Torre. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:12.
José Elias de la Torre. Portaguión, Mil Discip Dragones de Acari y Chala, 1796. Leg 7286:I:23.
Juan de la Torre. Sgt, Mil Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:29.
Miguel de la Torre. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:102.
Nicolás de la Torre. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1792. Leg 7284:III:21.
Nicolás de la Torre. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:57.
Miguel de la Torre y Sanchez. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XIV:26.
Miguel Torrejon y Velasco. Col, Mil Discip Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:1.
Agustín Vicente de Torres. Lt Col, grad Col, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:2.
Andrés Torres. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1794. Leg 7285:III:45.
Aniceto Torres. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:32.
Bartolomé Torres. SubLt, Mil Inf Española San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:22.
Enrique Torres. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:68.
Eusebio Torres. Cadet, Mil Urbanas Cab de San pablo de Chalaquez, 1792. Leg 7284:XVIII:48.
Gervasio Torres. SubLt, Mil Inf Española San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:25.
Graciano de Torres. Capt, Mil Urbanas Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:9.
José Torres. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Cab de San Pablo Chalaquez, 1797. Leg 7287:XI:52.
José Antonio Torres. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1794. Leg 7285:III:42.
José Gabriel Torres. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1794. Leg 7285:III:41.
Manuel Torres. Sgt Mayor, Mil Prov Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:4.
Manuel de Torres. SubLt de Granaderos, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:54.
Manuel Francisco Torres. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7289:XXIV:60. (It appears the Leg should be 7288.)
Marcelo Torres. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:87.
Martin Torres. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Tumbez, Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXIII:25.
Nicolás Torres. Lt, Mil Inf Española San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:13.
Pedro Torres. Sgt, Mil Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1797. Leg 7287:VII:35.
Romualdo de Torres. Sgt, Mil Inf Española San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:31.
Santiago de Torres. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayll9o, 1797. Leg 7287:VII:38.
Juan de Torres y Arrendondo. Capt, Mil Discip Dragones de pueblo de Querocotillo, Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXIII:7.
Angel Torres y Mato. Capt actuartelado, Mil Discip Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:8. (The duty of this officer is not clear, but it may have been something like billeting officer.)
Juan Capistrano Torrico. Lt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:11.
Pablo Travitazo. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:II:124.
Pedro Trecierra. Capt, Inf del Real Asiento de Paucartambo, 1798. Leg 7286:XIX:7.
Francisco Trelles Castro. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:56.
Juan Trillo. Sgt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:36.
Domingo Tristan y Moscoso. Comandante, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1792. Leg 7284:XIX:72. This may be the same person as the next entry for a Col, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:1.
José Joaquin Tristan y Murquiz. Lt Col, Mil Discip, Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:2.
Ramón Troconiz. Capt, grad Lt Col, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:44.
José Troncoso. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1794. Leg 7285:III:40.
José Trujillo. Alf, Mil Prov de Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:30.
Juan Trujillo. Sgt Mayor, Mil Prov Discip de Cab del Valle de Chincha, 1797. Leg 7287:XII:3.
Juan Trujillo. Ayudante, Comp sueltas de Inf del partido de Carelmappu, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:XIII:1.
Mariano Trujillo. Alf, Mil Prov de Cab de Huánuco, 1797. Leg 7286:VI:18.
Rudesindo Trujillo. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Cab de Huánuco, 1797. Leg 7286:VI:13.
Marcos Trujillo y Ordoñez. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:130.
Baltasar Tufiño. Lt, Bn Prov de Mil de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796. Leg 7286:XII:27.
Lucas Ubalde. Lt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1797. Leg 7287:VIII:13.
Juan de Ubillos. Sgt, Escuadrón Cab Mil Urbanas de los territorios de Huancabamba y Chalaco, Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXVI:9.
Leon Antonio Ubillos. Capt, Escuadrón Cab Mil Urbanas de los territorios de Huancabamba y Chalaco, Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXVI:2.
José Mariano de Ugarte. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Quispicanci, Cuzco, 1798. Leg 7286:XX:39.
Lorenzo Ugarte. Capt, Comandante, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Arica, 1795. Leg 7285:XI:3.
Francisco de Ugaz. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Huambos, Partido de Cajamarca, 1787. Leg 7287:XVII:11.
Manuel Claudio Ullauri. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:44.
Antonio Ulloa. Sgt 1st Comp Sueltas de Mil Discip de Cab del Partido de Carelmapu, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:XIV:3.
Gregorio Ulloa. Lt, Mil Urbanas de Inf de Huamanga, 1800. Leg 7288:XV:14.
Pedro Ulloa. Sgt 1st Comp sueltas Inf del Partido de Carelmapu, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:XIII:11.
Feliciano Urbina. Lt, Mil Discip de Cab de Huaura, 1797. Leg 7287:XIX:8.
Gregorio Urbina. Alf, Mil Discip de Cab de Huaura, 1797. Leg 7287:XIX:16.
Rafael Urbina. Ayudante Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:V:4.
Mateo Urdanegui. Lt, Mil Discip de la 8th Comp de Cab de Pardos Libres de Trujillo, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVII:2.
Apolinar Ureta. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:87.
Inocente Ureta. Sgt 1st Mil Dragones Prov de las fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:46.
José Ureta. SubLt, grad, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:82.
Manuel Antonio Ureta. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:92.
Mariano Ureta. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Aarequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:91.
Antonio de Uria. Lt Col, Comp sueltas, Mil Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:1.
José Antonio de Uria. Alf de Cab, Mil Discip Cab de Ica, 1797. Leg 7287:XX:35.
Alberto Urias Butron. Lt, Mil Discip Cab de Cumaná, 1795. Leg 7285:XII:18.
Andrés Uribe. Sgt 1st, Mil Discip de Cab de Huaura, 1797. Leg 7287:XIX:26.
Eusebio Uribe. Capt, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Ica, 1795. Leg 7285:XV:7.
José Uribe. Sgt, 1st, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Ica, 1795. Leg 7285:XV:46.
José Luis Uribe. Sgt, 1st Mil discip de Cab de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XX:37.
Martín Uriel. Sgt, 1st, Mil Discip de Dragones de Arica, 1796. Leg 7286:II:61.
Domingo Urquijo. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:16.
Juan de Urquizu. Lt, Veterano, grad Capt, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima,1800, Leg 7288:XVIV:27.
Manuel Urzaiz. Sgt 1st de Granaderos, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:92.
Juan Francisco Urribarre. Cadet, Inf Real de Lma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXV:141.
José Urribarri. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:47.
Pedro Urribarri. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:28.
Ventura Urriola. Portaguión, Mil Discp Dragones de Lima, f1792. Leg 7284:XIX:65.
José Félix Urrunaga. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:61.
José Manuel Urrunaga. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:34.
Jose Manuel de Urrunaga. Col, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:1.
Anastasio Urrutta. Sgt, 1st, Mil Discip de Cab Arnero de Chancay, 1800. Leg 7288:III:29.
Tomás Utiniano. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huamalies, 1800. Leg 7288:XVII:9.
Manuel Utrilla. Capt, Bn Prov de Milicias de Pardos Libres de Lima, 1796, Leg 7286:XII:20.
Esteban Uztariz. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:77.
(to be continued.)
Compilation of Hough's work
Wednesday, August 25, 1993 *Excelsior*
|In the united States the surname Flores (flowers) is the
16th most popular surname among modern Hispanic families. Known
since the 1100s and extended throughout Spain during the reconquest.
No common ancestor of origin. The given name Froyla or Fruela, were
patronymic for Froylez or Frolaz from which Florez came.
The earliest Flores in Nueva Espana is Francisco Flores in Santo Domingo in 1510 who joined the 1520 Narvaez entrada into Mexico. Francisco Flores was joined by another Flores, Cristoval on the Cortes entrada into Mexico City in 1521. Both received land grants in and around Mexico City.
Expansion north brought a Pedro flores into Saltillo in 1605. He became a prominent office-holder in the city of Saltillo. He had 5 sons and one daughter, Pedro, Nicolas, Tomas, Diego, Juan and Clara. A Pedro Flores, (possibly the son) served as the city attorney in Monterrey in 1642, 1654, 1658, 1661, and 1663 and was appointed acting mayor by the city council in 1670.
There were many Flores in northeast Mexico and Mexas in the colonial period, particularly in San Antonio. It is very popular in Texas today. The largest concentration of the surname is in Los Angeles and Houston, most are of Mexican ancestry.
Vivica Scott of San Francisco traces a direct maternal line back to
early grandparents from Nuevo Leon, Mexico, JOSE NICOLAS FLORES and Maria
Isabel Saenz (married c.1755) through their son Jose Vicente Flores
married (c.1780) to Maria Gertrudis Salinas.
Marriages between cousins was not encouraged, but not uncommon. Isolation of communities and tight family clans in friendship over the generations with other families frequently brought young people together in marriages requiring church investigation of sanguinity through blood or marriage. Dispensations from the Catholic Church were required for the marriage to be allowed. Why this couple was allowed to marry is unknown. A case on file showed a young man's petition for marriage, listing 17 young ladies ineligible because of familial closeness.
Thus on Miss Scott's pedigree are two Flores grandmothers, sisters,
Prima Feliciana Flores and Maria de Las Nieves Flores.
The son of the marriage of Anestacio Flores and Maria Teodora Sanchez
was Alberto Chapa, born in Sabinas Hidalgo, April 7, 1879. Alberto
is Miss Scott's great, great, great grandfather. "I wish I knew
more. Maybe someday the connection with the original Pedro Flores
will be made."
|She's the One by Mark Marquez
Changemakers is an initiative of Ashoka: About Dorinda Moreno
Kiko El Callejero, Andaliego, Arrimado y Engrido by Frank Sifuentes
A Stab at Canicas con La Connie Munoz that made me See Stars by Frank Sifuentes
Joaquin Murrieta Ride by Ben Romero
"She's the One"
If only Mom were here to give her seal of approval.
Mom was a fixer. Whether it was as simple as sewing a button back on a pair of faded overalls for one of her eight children, or repairing a broken tractor on the farm she ran single-handedly while holding down a full-time job, there was nothing she couldn't fix. And that included people, too. I'd often come home from school in the afternoons to find her sitting with a stranger at the kitchen table, sipping the cup of coffee that was forever in her hand.
"Who's that, Mom?" I'd ask once they'd gone. Mom would always take off her glasses, rub her eyes and say the same thing: "Just someone with a problem, who needed to talk." That's exactly what I was now, only Mom couldn't fix this problem for me.
Oh, she'd tried. On my wedding day, in particular. I'd been so careful with my new suit that morning. I had wanted everything to go perfectly: to settle down and make Mom proud. But I'd had second thoughts lately. The whole thing was happening so fast. And then my fiancée was late to the ceremony.
"She's not the one, Mark," Mom told me, standing there in a fancy dress. "It's not too late to call this off."
"But Mom! What about all the food? All those people?"
"Don't you worry," she said. "I can fix all that. The important thing is, she's not the one."
I knew Mom was right. But I was young and headstrong, and so eager to start a family of my own. I convinced my mother, and myself, that these were just cold feet. I went through with the wedding. Mom died of complications from diabetes a year later. My wife and I spent the next nine years trying to save the marriage we should never have rushed.
Now I was divorced, and my ex-wife and two children had moved clear across the state. Meanwhile I was barely making ends meet working as a mechanic in a factory. That's when I met Louise.
Louise had long blonde hair, soft eyes and a constant smile. Although what I first noticed about her was how easy she was to talk to. And we had plenty of time to talk, side by side, while I fixed the machines Louise worked on. It was the first time since Mom died that I'd found someone I could open up to. Louise was a great listener and, divorced with two kids herself, she really understood my problems.
Soon we were eating lunch together in the cafeteria. Louise knew money was tight for me and would pretend to make too much lunch for herself "by accident." Our conversations were continuing well past quitting time. It didn't take long for me to realize I was in love. I felt like the luckiest man alive when Louise said she was in love with me, too.
Louise and I spent all of our free time together, and
eventually I introduced her to my family. But whenever Louise
talked about marriage, I'd get nervous and change the subject.
After the divorce I lost a lot of confidence in myself and my
decisions. I knew Louise and I were right for each other: I'd
never been so happy. She was my best friend. We could finish each
other's sentences! But marriage had gone so badly for me before.
After Mom died one of my brothers and I took over the farm, but my mother's house was sold out of the family. I'd taken Louise to the farm many times, but she'd never seen the home I grew up in. One day I went to see the new homeowner about some hay baling that needed to be done on his portion of the property. I took Louise with me. We walked up to Mom's old front porch, and I knocked on the door. No answer. I promised Louise we would come back another time to look around inside. As we turned to leave, Louise stopped.
"I've been here before," she said quietly, staring out across the field.
"What?" I asked.
"I've been here before! Or at least I have been in a dream. I was sitting right here, on these steps, and there was a woman with me—an older woman. She was wearing glasses and drinking a steaming cup of coffee."
Louise said she'd had the dream a while back, right after we started dating. She hadn't thought about it again until now. "It was evening, and there was a nice breeze. The woman and I sat together for a long while."
"Did she say anything to you?" "That was the strange part," Louise replied. "She said, 'You're the one. That's it. Otherwise we sat in silence."
From that day on I didn't get that nervous feeling when I thought about a future with Louise. I knew as if the words had come straight from Mom's lips: "She's the one."
We've been married 13 years. And besides the four children we had between us when we met, we've got two more. We have a farm as well, and our own porch steps. Many times I've looked over at Louise sitting on those steps and realized how much like Mom she is. You see, Louise is a fixer, too. She single-handedly fixed one man's broken heart. Well, with a little help from an angel, who came to her in a dream and said those three little words that only I would understand.
This is how Dorinda is a Changemaker:
From my beginnings born to a Mescalero Apache father and Mexican mother, who began as farm laborers in the 40-50's, and resettled in San Francisco where together they developed a circle of extended famiies with people from throughout Mexico, Central & South America and the world. As a close family unit, our parent's lived in service to the community and being our brothers keeper. As a youth and then young mother, attended SF State, became involved with Alcatraz and the founding of a native-Chicano university, DQU (D-Quetzalcoatl University) which today is 40 years. I have served for the duration in service to its ideals as inspired by Richard Oakes, Mohawk leader of the Alcatraz Occupation/Indians of All Tribes/As Long As the Grass Shall Grow. Also, instituted La Raza, Native, Women studies and curriculum, publications, theatre, and numerous project for social change, youth leadership development, indigenous history and rights, global friendship circles, anti-war, in respect for our Mother Earth and All Our Relations.
The place for which Dorinda feels a fondness or connection:
New Mexico is the Land of Enchantment of my father and mother who joined two families, villages, honoring living in harmony. Though at times, the land is harsh, its lessons teach one to be strong in survival. Grandfather helped tame the land for the green chile, and red for tamales and chile con carne. Where big skies, fluffy clouds, and wonderful sunsets, compliment the summer rains bringing the most clean of aroma's from the rich red soil that offers the pottery and colors for dying wool, and the paints for the artifacts made by one's hand. The gift of a wonderful double rainbow, after a good rain. Here the paisano, known to most as the road runner, is the New Mexico official bird-- which makes its way onto our souls for holding sacred the legends of the ancestors.
The change Dorinda passionately wants to happen:
The peace, harmony and respect that comes from work that happens when humanity receives the dally lessons presented from adversity, and who struggle together toward resolve: our gifts are received from the elders who have passed down the crafts of those before them, and that technology has slowly threatened by diminishing, and which we must protect from being withered away. These, must be preserved by those who work in maintaining the respect for the knowledge and imperativeness of traditions, ethics, and the values of being one with nature, the land, and the seasons. We use all modern technologies in restoring the gifts of the past from the traditions and gifts of wisdom of the wise ones for passing to the new generations. By all artistic and academic means necessary. Aho!
I am a teacher, communicator, theatrist, poet, writer, novelist, cultural worker, grassroots internet'worker', convenor of elders, intergenerational mentor & guide, sister, mother, great grandmother, and friend. Have several publications that have been turned into performing arts themes and integrated into theatre sketches, and yet plan developing a play on the too brief life of leader and brave warrior of the Alcatraz Occupation, Richard Oakes, with his daughter Fawn Oakes, son, Richard Jr., and widow, Annie Oakes. Am mentor to the beloved elder, Norma Knight, Pomo, (Elders Caravan to Chiapas; respected God-mother of DQ University & 30-year member of Board of Directors.) Also, I aspire in developing a Cultural Commission that is recognized globally as the connect of Indigenous Artists, Educators, Activists, everywhere in the Four Directions, for uniting the Global family of humankind, to walk together in dignity in respect of the wise ones who have left us their gifts of knowledge.
The title I am giving in writing this story essay of my life is a daunting one. However,
it nevertheless describes what became the pattern of my existence from the time
our father -Benito Cazarez Sifuentes - died in late March 1938: Over 70 years ago.
Amazingly, I remember vividly my father's velorio: his wake. His coffin was placed next to Western side of la sala, the living room of Mamagrande's home with his head to the South. And by late evening a large number of relatives and friends had come to offer their condolences and to join our family in grieving over his tragic death.
And all Carmen, Ben and the rest his offspring could do was experience the trauma of the loss of his precious life. The curtains of our incessant play were closed, indeed.
I recall the pity many of the mourners heaped on me, when they first saw me. Some of them picked me up to express affection by pressing a few pennies in my right palm. It only added to my astonishment over the entire occurrence.
Why, I had to wonder, are folks giving me pennies, as if I was being rewarded for losing
my father.. so to speak! (The same thing happened the next say when funeral hearst arrived
and his body was placed in it to be taken to the cementery.)
Since we were still at the age of la lampara, the coal fuel lamp, the entire experience became mystical.
The night before the women had been in mourning agony, particularly Mamagrande, Juanita and our mother Clotilde, who was in total despair, not knowing what was going to happen to her -and to us, her five children: Ben, Jr. 9, Carmen, 7, me, 6, Juanita, 4, and Mary, 2.
The men had gathered in front and were passing whiskey bottles around and smoking cigarettes. Whether, they were imbibing alcohol to remember or to forget, I obviously cannot say.
The saying - el dicho - que los hombres no deben de llorar (that men are not supposed to cry) was in full play. And surely it remained clear that a man cannot weaken. I may even be able to claim that I remember being carried to be put into the black limosine, to be with mama, Ben and Carmen to ride behide our father being transport to his place of burial.
Of course my right hand was filled with pennies and I had more of them in my pocket: a sort
of mini-bonanza for having become orphaned of my dad. Surely it was bound to become a
source of guilt in my life, never fully erased
Benny was sitting on our mom's left and Carmen was on his right. They both were crying
uncontrollably, with mama in agony, as the limo descended via the narrow alley, filled with
stones and bumps, ever slowly until it reach the smooth and still relatively Eastern road
of La Calle Ancha, with the contrast of smoothness accelerating speed toward the cemetery.
The burial was very well attended since we had a large extended family, who also had many friends. And because our father was known as a caring and generous person. I remember how amazed some friends of the family were, and noted they had never seen so many cars lined up ready to follow the hearse with our father's corpse. In fact, when I heard the this amazement expressed I looked up the hill of East 9th and was unable to the the end of the line of cars; so I took off running and saw how the cars extended to the other side of Lydia. It has been long indeed considering that from Mamagrande's house to Lydia was well over two city blocks.
I remember best that Tio Tono had picked me up to sit me on his lap, while the on the spot funeral services were being conducted. No one could have provided me with most comfort uncle Tony. His eyes and his facial features were much like our father's. And to this day I vividly recalled his stoic stone face, with large tears streaming down his cheeks.
Most of all I recall seeing how totally distressed mama had become, and almost imagine her wanting to throw herself on dad's coffin, as the expression of a real desire to be buried with him: as I later say women in Italian movies. (Mama, remained frank about this, telling us freely that she literally wanted to die. She also related the story of how she could not stop crying, until one night our father appeared to her in a dream in which she could see him as clearly as in real life: and that he told her to stop crying, and assured her he would always be watching over us. Something I literally believed all my life: what better
way to express a feeling of profound gratitude for the wonderful life we the Sifuentes have had; and namely that we all have had a long life: Ben is 80. Carmen will be 78 in March, and I will be 77 in late May. Juanita will be 76 in March and Mary -the baby -will turn 74. And we had 20 off-spring: plus 47 grandchildren and 7 great grandchildren.
The days that followed the burial, remained tearful because Mama and Mamagrande Juanita could not stop grieving. As if was, it had only been the year before that Papagrande Antonio died And now both she and Mama were forced to face life without a husband provider.
Carmen and Ben were still in shock and in grief. For Carmen had been my dad's Princess and Ben had been passed the mantle of the man in the family, at age 9., a few hours before our father died.
"Take care of Kiko" were the last words he had heard from my father's mouth. And I have to wish he had not taken it so literally; for his own clear need to pursue happiness.
It was totally unfair to him. Most of all because as his three year younger brother I became destined to become a callejero, arrimabo and in a concrete manner, a free spirit.
Therefore, when our father was - in a manner of speaking - was still warm in his grave, I was already wandering off, all the way to the French Legion remains, on the corner of 9th and Lydia: an area where I would not have been able to hear my father's whistle announcing that if we did not show up immediately there were nalgadas to be had. (a spanking)
From that moment on mama - when she saw I was no where near - would ask: "Donde esta Kiko?" and then tell Benny to go looking for me.
In terms of my love for freedom I have to say that Ben was never able to convince me that he had become the father of our family, not that I ever became defiant and literally challenge him: It simply became silent knowledge.
I had already surveyed the area surrounding our home on East 9th, that was bordered by
La Calle Ancha to the West, los montes and a creek to the North, a row of homes to the South.
I had been on friendly bases with the Zapata boys - Pulga and Bugey - and was a good frined of Tony botello. I recall being invited to be with them inside their homes, at which time I discover how each home had it own unique scent.
The Botellos owned a model A Ford with they kept parked driveway of their home. And we were allowed to have fun playing inside of it, like pretending to be driving it. Someone released the handle to its breaks and I have to suspect it may have been me. I was on the right seat of the car. And has easy access to open it a bail out, when we
got alarmed because the Model A started rolling backwards.
I was able to see that it rolled all the way back the right side of the house belonging to
the Zapatas; and that it did not stop until it landed in the gully where the creek was. Tony Botello and another of our playmates remained inside for the joy ride of their lives.
Fortunately, they remained unharmed and the car did not have visible damage.
Come to think of it, our cousin Tony Garcia was the other one in the car. Tony was a little over a year older therefore an ideal playmate, having logged around 20% more days on Earth, and already familiar with our Tio Meme's playfulness: With a specialty in playing cowboys and Indians. Plus performing in the role of a gangster as if it came from real experience: Especially wonderful was his intensely dramatic way of dying from a couple of bullets in his belly: which filled me and Tony with glee, particularly because of the anticipation of his surprising recovery.. at which point he grabbed both of us pelted us with soft socks.
Tony was being raised by our dad and Mamagrande. And he surely became my permanent
sidekick. We became as inseparable as any two boys can become. Fortunately for me, Tony
was a sweet and gentle soul.
The picture of the area where 9th St. dead-ended remains intact in my mind. Mainly because I had the opportunity over the many years to visit there: Where I saw the foundation of the room below Mamagrande's house.
Seeing how small it was -what? 15 by 15 feet? How did mama and daddy fit all fives of us, and their large bed into that little bitty space.
I know the Alvarez who lived directly across us in a large quasi Victorian house, where
la Senora Alvarez starred down at us, sitting on her rocker on the porch.
Senor Alvarez worked for a company that made furniture. And we always saw him much
the way we saw furniture delivery men in movies: because he also seemed compelled
not to acknowledge us. Maybe, it was because of the tragedy our family had experienced.
They had three daughters who it seemed were compelled to ignore us.
I recall how when I entered into the constant state of being encanicado, I had a crush on
the youngest one.
Much later -during our high school days, I had the opportunity to attend a dance
sponsered no doubt by a church group. And she was there, among the girls waiting
for some handsome and charming boy to ask for a dance.
The chance I had been waiting for had come.
And since I had already become a real chiflado al la ballroom champeon, no less: The
prospect of it being a piece of cake began to bloom.
It would not have suprised me if she had said no, since she had been so unavailable as
a neighborhood playmate.
However, we had a dance together. She followed me with ease,although there was no
chance of making my cheek to cheek move of a Tejano enamorado.
Senorita Alvarez had to have been impressed with my leading role performance; however,
I did not have any class: since as soon as the dance was over, I headed back to my spot
leaving her on the dance floor.
And therefore gave her the opportunity to scold me.
Pendejo! If I had only taken her back to her seat, I might have had the opportunity to
converse with her and learn some of the mysteries of her family.
As I look back, it strikes me as if we belonged -not only to separate classes - but there
was also a huge cultural chasm: With a name like Alwarez they surely must have been moors.
Amazing how these kinds of experiences remain in our subconscious.
I recall having a dream when I was already well into my middle age, in which I entered and
spent a good while exploring the home of the Alvarez, and of course getting into a lot
of trouble, as a result.
What is really fascinating is that that entire block of East 9th is now fully into the hands
of the heirs of Manifest Destiny, but not without a fight on the part of the Guadalupe
Neighborhood Association, led by my brother Ben. The last holdout had been the heirs of the Alvarez family.
DICEN QUE POR TUS AMORES, UN MAL ME HARA DE SIGUIR: NO LE HACE QUE SEA DEL DIABLO..YO TAMBIEN ME SE MORIR
From La Balentina, Mexican song of the Revolucion
When I was getting close to 15 years old, I was stretching out and growing thinner:
Overcoming my image as Porky the Pig. But best of all the testosterone was kicking in
However, it had not been a vintage year in terms of canicas and the romanic department:
Miserable is more like it.. because never was my heart more readily set to go aflutter under
Cupid's magical spell. In short, I had become a hopeless romantic, filled with a desperate - and unrealistic - desire to have one of the many chulas de East Austin to love, who would love me in return.
Unfortunately I was the antithesis of what las chulas were looking for. Since it was already
obvious my face was becoming a pimple-making machine; and that my early childhood
gordura had not fully disappeared.
In those days being 'fat' was associated with being funny. However, I no longer liked
being called Porky. En otras palabras tenia complejos galore when it came to being
able to approach the super chulas my heart yearned for.
However I had a real forte since I had become a smooth talker on Alexander Graham Bell's
contribution to the communication arts.
I had fallen for a girl named Connie Munoz who had actually become a hero in my mind.
For I had seen her engage in the fight with two other girls on a dirt street just South
of Allan Jr. High in our final days as students there.
She was taller and clearly more matona than her two opponents put together, for she
had mastered the art of pulling hair and scratching up a storm.
Connie first flattened one of them and calmly went after the other with the efficiency of
a professional wrestler. And I had not realized how exciting it was to see women fighting.
And it of course resulted in her getting expelled.
Shortly after I became a one person boycotter of that school, first by playing hookey
for two weeks, so that when the truant officer came to our house to inform mama I
had not been showing up..I got on my knees and begged her to let me drop out, so that
I could go to work Pobre Mama, almost had no choice.
I naturally was unable to find a job; however now had all the time in world to call
girls as a budding 'telephonic lover'. And somehow had gotten Connie Munos' number.
Connie's usefulness in the world had increased, because she now spent her time at home taking care of her younger brothers and sisters. And after having seen her do battle I knew she had them under control.
She had no idea who I was but welcomed my amorous intentions, if for no other reason because taking care of her siblings must have been a drag.
I finally got up enough nerve to ask her to meet me at the Capital Theater where
they were showing Gone With the Wind. And to my surprise she accepted.
But like a big pendejo I told her to meet me inside in the lobby. . which was a dead give away revealing I didn't have enough coins for the two of us...a hell of a way to endear myself!
Sure enough she showed up and immediately saw I was still a mocoso who was not only chubby but also not as tall as she was. We walked in like two strangers who ended up sitting next to each other. Of course the drama of Gone With the Wind made it easy.
The funny part was that after the scene in which Atlanta was buring the movie stopped.
And I thought that it was was over and got up to leave, and Connie follwed suit. And she
immediately headed for the bus stop to take the Oil Mill bus home without even saying good-bye.
I didn't have a nickle left for the bus, so I had to walk home.
Sometime later during a dark night on Santa Maria St. I was visiting the home of Janie Martinez who was a super carinosa and as lovely as can be: with light -almost blond - hair and green eyes. And she was stacked like a movie star to boot.
Janie was a fully developed women, for she was more than a year older and the apple of the eye of many East Austin boys. She and her entire family - parents included - had accepted me as a friend. After all I had become a lively wizard of the English language, which they found entertaining.
One night I was happily conversing with Janie, when a guy I had known for a long time by the name of Rudy Herrera came to visit her. And she immediately expressed her delight.
Rudy had been a star basketball player at Allan and was a key member of the Pan Am Aces softball team who won the city championship the following year
Needless to say Rudy had his pick of la chulas. For he was thin and also had green penetrating eyes and had become a master of his fate.
And before long, he was making out with Janie like the heroes in hot movies made out with the girl.
I of course saw no future in staying there, so I walked outside into the darkness. And sat on
the stone wall in front of the Martinez abode: starring at the Milk Way and listening to the sounds of dog barking at a distance to the east.
To say I was feeling forlorn would be a understatement.
However, before too long I was approached by two batos locos. One whose name was Martin Cruz and the other Hector Estrada.
Martin was what we in those days called Un Maton. And he gladly dressed to look the part.
H even wore a thick leather jacket. So that as soon as he walked up to me, he pulled a
Dick Tracy gun and said with a tough dude tone of voice: Me dicen que andas chingando con la Connie.. something I could vehemently deny!
Then he put his hand on his gun and clicked it, before putting it back in his jacket.
However, he quickly pulled out his filero and pressed the push button that gave it a smart click. And then he put it's point ever so slightly on my throat, which of course made me pull back.
At which point he folded the knife back and put it into his pocket and then said to his side kick Hector: Dale un chingaso con la manopla!
Sure enough Hector pulled out his Brass Knuckles, placing it on his right hand: Then he gave me a short right hook in the jaw. And I fell back and hit the ground ,seeing more stars than I had seen in the Milky Way.
However, instead of feeling frightened and defeated, I went into a rage.. big time. I was so angry with Martin and Hector I was ready to strangle them both at the same time.
And I ran into the night shouting every obscenity I had ever learned, having been a good listener to stories told by World War II Vets who came back with a ton of English curse words, that were more than a match to life long Spanish curse words.
I kept shouting as I amost ran completely around the block. But if Martin el Maton and Hector heard me it had only been cause for getting a big patada for having antagonized me.
Finally feeling exhausted and instilled with a bitter sense of futility, I went home and went to bed.
I was so intent on revenge that in my imagination I found all kind of ways to destroy them: I hanged them on the highest Oak Tree; threw them in a pit of hungry voracious alligators, and even boiled them in oil.
The really funny thing was that a little over a year later Martin Cruz became one of the stars of a touch football team I was a member of: The Black Squad, which was made up of all the locos de La Calle Ancha I had been handing around with. Martin did not even remember who I was and was really friendly with me.
I even nick-named him Star because he was the one who caught more passes from Louis 'Bobby Lane" Lopez than anyone.
tirilin tiriin tirinO..este cuento ya se acabO
pancho de rancho ancho y ajeno yque?
The young, disheveled poverty-stricken man pushed his way into the cantina, drew a large revolver from his waistband and said, “Murders of Rosita, say your prayers in hell!” A volley of gunshots left three ruffians sprawled on the blood-stained wood planks of the 19th century California establishment.
I watched a movie of Joaquin Murrieta when I was thirteen years old and it made a great impression on me. It was about a Mexican peasant mining for gold in California during the gold rush. A group of bad men jumped his claim, stealing his gold and beating him senseless before raping and killing his young wife. In his vengeance, he killed his attackers and became an outlaw. At the same time, he championed the poor, acting as a western Robin Hood. In time he was tracked down by Captain Love and the California Rangers, who killed and decapitated him. By this time he was a legend. The head of Joaquin Murrieta was supposedly pickled in a jar as proof of his capture. His right hand man, Manuel Garcia, also known as Three Finger Jack, was killed along with Murrieta. His hand was hacked off by Captain Love and placed in a separate jar.
In 1980 I read about a group of caballeros who made a spiritual and historical journey retracing the steps of the famous Mexican outlaw. Their pilgrimage was from Madera, California to Arroyo Cantua, located in Cantua Creek, California. In my heart I longed to someday make the three day horseback journey.
In 2003 the opportunity presented itself and I knew I had to participate or regret it for the rest of my life. I met a man at a social fundraiser who captivated my interest when he mentioned he owned two Arabian racehorses.
Having once owned an Arabian mare, I remarked that I would very much like to ride a racehorse someday. He was pleasant and invited my wife and me to visit his ranch and share a barbeque with his family. Thinking he was just being polite, I almost declined. But when he mentioned he was the director of corporate sponsors and media chair for The Joaquin Murrieta Ride, I knew I had to get to know this man.
“It’s fate,” I told my wife on the drive home. “I’ve been wanting to make the ride for over twenty years and now I may have a chance.”
My wife tried to reason with me. “Aren’t you forgetting something?” she asked. “You no longer have a horse. Besides, the journey is at the end of July when the temperature is triple digits.”
“I don’t care about the heat. It will make the ride more authentic. The man owns horses. That means he must know someone who can loan or rent me a mount. Trust me, this is going to happen.”
On July 25, 2003, the 24th annual event began. We started gathering at dawn at a location on Avenue 17 in Madera and when the signal was given, paraded out on horseback, two by two to the sound of joyful Mexican music. Men, women, and children dressed in fine, colorful Mexican garb and western apparel filed out the gate and onto the dusty road towards Firebaugh - the first leg of the sixty mile journey. Two lead men carried American and Mexican flags, side by side, followed by beautiful señoritas on white horses. Many children, several on ponies - others on spirited horses, held their place in the parade. News photographers took pictures while relatives of group members made videos. Somewhere in the middle of the procession, wearing a black hat and wide smile, and mounted on a large chestnut gelding rode someone I hardly recognized. It was me.
By 10:00 AM the temperature was nearing ninety.
Two trucks pulled up alongside the group of riders. One was towing water tanks, the other porta-potties. As each rider took a turn giving his mount a few minutes of water time, volunteers offered us bottled water and soft drinks from coolers. Sweat trickled from under my hat and dust clung to my throat. I surveyed the faces of my fellow riders and saw great pride and joy. Our leaders urged the group to pick up the pace for the next two hours so we could enjoy a long leisurely lunch in a shaded area.
By noon our group had doubled in numbers. Latecomers had joined us from side roads, some had galloped from our staging area to catch up. We were spread out for a mile. From out of the corner of my eye, two youngsters of about fifteen joined the group. One was dark and heavyset, wearing a floppy black hat, long sleeved shirt, and riding a short, round, black horse. The other was lean, light-skinned, wearing a t-shirt and straw hat, and riding a tall mule. As they drew near, I heard floppy hat ask mule boy, “So, did you get her name?”
“Yes. I heard someone call her Blanca. Or maybe that’s just her nickname because she’s huera (blonde). What makes you think she‘ll notice you?”
“Why shouldn’t she notice me?” asked floppy hat. “I noticed her, didn’t I?”
“I’m your friend, so don’t take this wrong. I don’t think you should build up your hopes,” answered mule boy. “She may have too much class.”
Floppy hat straightened up in the saddle. His feet nearly dragged the ground on his short horse. “She’s got class all right. That’s why she’ll notice me. I’m going to talk to her when we stop for lunch. You’ll see.”
Temperatures were nearing triple digits when we reached the designated lunch site. After watering our mounts again, dismounting and securing the animals, everyone’s attention turned to the food. This group knows how to picnic. Tables were set by the time we arrived. Beans, tortillas, barbeque beef, salsa and any other Mexican food imaginable found its way onto my plate. Ice cold watermelon completed the meal.
Afterwards, I sat on the grass, legs crossed with my back against a fence post, lowered my hat over my eyes and dozed off to the sound of children playing. I wondered what it might have been like to run from the law after trying to find justice in a harsh land. According to legend, Joaquin became a bandit after pleading with authorities for justice. His brother had been lynched by the same men who raped and killed his wife. He was told by local authorities that in California it was not illegal to rape a Mexican woman, or to kill a Mexican. In fact, a fee was imposed on foreigners working the mines to dissuade them from competing with “real” Americans. Joaquin formed a gang of bandits who killed scores of miners, stole huge amounts of gold, rustled livestock, and formed a hideout in the San Joaquin Valley. After three years of banditry, he met his end on July 25, 1853 at Arroyo Cantua.
Three more hours of riding in harsh summer heat got our group to the Firebaugh Fair Grounds, where we were to enjoy a great dinner and camp for the night. With everyone looking tired, I envisioned a very quiet evening. I was mistaken. After rubbing down the horses we had dinner in festive fashion: loud music, children playing, people laughing. As evening shadows arrived, lights in the livestock area were turned on and everyone moved to the bleachers to watch the show. For the next couple of hours, many riders took turns displaying great feats of horsemanship. Caballeros dressed in their finest outfits paraded the grounds mounted on beautiful stallions with braided manes and tails. Teenage girls held barrel races and jumping contests - using horses they‘d ridden all day. It was the most entertaining Mexican rodeo I’d ever attended.
As I leaned back watching three young girls race their horses, floppy hat and mule boy ran up the bleachers and sat a couple of rows behind me.
“There she is!” exclaimed mule boy. “Wave to her and see if she notices you. You said you would talk to her at lunch. I think you‘re chicken.”
Standing up, floppy hat answered, “Let’s move close to the rail. She’s been hanging around with those other girls so I didn’t get a chance to talk to her yet. Come on.”
Watching them, I realized they were talking about a cute young girl of about fourteen. She rode a lean white mare that I’d noticed, not because of its appearance, but because of its speed. That little animal had stamina that lasted all day and into the night. As the girl got near the rail of the bleachers, mule boy decided to help his friend.
“Hey, Blanca,” he called. “My friend wants to talk to you.”
The girl turned to him and yelled back, “My name is not Blanca, Pendejo. That’s my horse’s name.” With that, she wheeled her horse around and galloped back to her group of friends.
Floppy hat socked his friend in the shoulder and the two of them ran off into the darkness, laughing.
As people started retreating to their tents for the night, my wife arrived to pick me up. She’d driven fifty miles after work to get me. “I’ll bring you back in the morning, in time for breakfast.”
We had just built a new swimming pool at home and wanted to take a night-time swim together. At that moment the thought of taking a dip sounded wonderful. I fell asleep in the car before we were halfway to the house. I slept like a baby that night and had to force my eyes to open when the alarm sounded at 5:00 AM. Every bone in my body ached as I rolled out of bed and into the shower. My poor wife had to drive me back to the group. Thank God it was a Saturday and she could go back home and get more rest.
The second day of riding seemed hotter than the first. The number of riders dwindled, but those of us who continued had great conversations and enjoyed every mile. The water truck found us every two hours and we stopped for another nutritious meal at noon. The afternoon sun was so hot, my hands burned. I put on a pair of gloves and kept my long sleeved shirt buttoned. At 3:00 we reached a ranch owned by one of the members and he turned on a six inch irrigation hose as we passed one of his orchards. As he held onto the hose, we rode in a single file to let our horses get a good spray. None of them seemed to mind. By mid-afternoon we’d reached our next campsite.
Our final destination was a church located just five miles from our camp. Morning Mass was held outside, and many horsemen remained mounted during the ceremony. My wife and children arrived shortly before the service and we huddled together in the shade.
My wife brought large chocolate bars to give to children, and handed them out before it got too hot. Some candies found their way to adults as well. I was pleased to see floppy hat take a candy bar and walk it over to the young girl with the white mare. They shared it and stayed together throughout the mass. Nearby, mule boy stood alone next to his animal. With a melting chocolate bar in his hand, he kept peering over at his friend. To the amusement of many, the mule suddenly grabbed the candy out of the boy’s hand with his teeth.
After mass, the group gathered at another location not far from a landmark known as Three Rocks, where tireless riders once again displayed their horseman skills. Trophies were awarded to the best riders and to the most beautiful animals. The young girl and her white mare were among the winners. Afterwards, names of all riders were announced and a keepsake plaque was issued to each of us.
On the way home I thought about Joaquin Murrieta robbing the rich, floppy hat stealing the young girl‘s heart, and the mule stealing his master’s candy bar.
Author of Chicken Beaks Book Series
|March 7th, "Hack your Hispanic Family Tree using Google" by Crispin
April 4th: Cesar Chavez, “Viva la Causa” Documentary to be viewed
Heart of the Orange Student Project Needs Donations for Books
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
Researchers, researchers come and learn how to get the speediest and most efficient results in your Google searches. Crispin Rendon will guide us through a live internet connection presentation on all the features Google has to offer.
We will see the use of commands for effective searches, including "AND, OR, " ", *, -, +, ~, .., site:, filetype: and how they can be used together with keywords to find what you are looking for. We will cover and use other google tools like Language Translation, Google Books and online library, Google News Archive, Google Blog Search,Google Images, Google Alerts, Google Maps, Google Earth, Google Toolbar and Google Home Page and
if time permits, more, Crispin will pull out more strategies for researching online.
For more information, please call Mimi at 714-894-8161
on Cesar Chavez, “Viva la Causa” to be viewed on Saturday,
April 4th at the Yost in downtown Santa Ana. This will be open & free to the public. For more information, contact Charlotte DeVaul firstname.lastname@example.org
Viva la Causa in Production
Recently, twenty five students at Cesar Chavez High School in Santa Ana were asked to identify a female role model other than a relative. "The results were shocking," says Rigo Maldonado, the OC Human Relations staff person heading up the Heart of the Orange Mural Project at the school. "Twenty-two students couldn't identify a single female role model. Three students named a Latina singer and one student named Paris Hilton."
With the help of a small grant from the city of Santa Ana , OC Human Relations has developed the "Heart of Orange" mural project to introduce students to art and positive female role models in their communities. The program will include guest speakers and field trips to historic sites in Southern California.
Maldonado wants to give each of the 25 students their own copy of the book, "500 Years of Chicana Women's History" by Elizabeth "Betita" Martinez to compliment the "Heart of the Orange" curriculum.
Your $25 donation can help these students gain a new perspective on role models! You can send a check for $25 to cover the cost of one book to: OC Human Relations , 1300 S. Grand Ave. Bldg. B, Santa Ana, CA 92705 . Please designate your donation for the: Heart of the Orange." We will acknowledge your donation by putting your name on the inside cover of each book you help us purchase. We encourage you to add a note of inspiration which we can also include in the book.
For more information, please contact Barbara Hunt at (714) 834-7181
Army Distinguished Service Cross Awarded to Los Angeles Native, Erik Oropeza
March 7: Exhibition: Women Artists on Immigration: Crossing Borders, Confronting
LA Board of Education votes names high School after Felicitas and Gonzalo Mendez
Nati Cano y Los Camperos, Dorinda Moreno, Continuing legacy
March 26-29, 2009: New Destinations in Oral History
Project One- wants to speak at your school!
Passing of Juan Rafael Santos, Champion of Myriad Causes
On Feb. 13, 2009 at Fort Irwin, CA Specialist Erik Oropeza, A Troop, 1st Squadron, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. Spc. Oropeza, a native of Los Angeles and a 2004 graduate of Roosevelt High School, Los Angeles, was awarded the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Army.
Spc. Erik Oropeza was being awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for demonstrating the highest degree of courage and fortitude while engaged in combat operations near Taji, Iraq, May 22, 2007. His actions following an ambush were responsible for preventing his vehicle and crew from being overrun by an enemy force. Spc. Oropeza, while under enemy fire, defended severely wounded crew members and defeated a five-man enemy ground-assault force. His actions and disregard for his own life saved the lives of three Soldiers of his Stryker vehicle crew.
The Distinguished Service Cross(DSC) is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Army for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be above those required for all other U.S. combat decorations but not meeting the criteria for the Medal of Honor. The Distinguished Service Cross is equivalent to the Navy Cross (Navy and Marine Corps) and the Air Force Cross (Air Force).
Spc. Erik Oropeza was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross on Feb. 13 at 10 a.m. by Lt. Gen. Joseph F. Peterson, deputy commanding general/chief of staff, United States Army Forces Command. Maj. Gen. Mark Hertling, 1st Armored Division commander, will also attend the ceremony. Hertling served as the division commander over 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment during Spc. Oropeza’s tour of duty in Iraq.
WHAT: A visual conversation by 40 women artists from California that examines our cultural, personal and political identities. A full color catalog accompanies the exhibition
The exhibit opened February 27 and will close on Saturday, March 7, 12:30 to 2 PM. Hosted by Southern California WCA in celebration of International Women's Day
WHERE: Korean Cultural Center Art Gallery, 5505 Wilshire Blvd. Los Angeles, 90036. For gallery hours and information, visit kccla.org or phone 323-936-7141
JUROR: Alma Ruiz, curator at The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
ORGANIZERS: Women's Caucus for Art and the Korean Cultural Center of Los Angeles
OVERVIEW: WOMEN ARTISTS ON IMMIGRATION examines social, political and cultural issues related to the dynamic topic of immigration. Each subtopic -Crossing Borders, Confronting Barriers, Bridging Identities - is amplified in the diverse perspectives of the contemporary works. Together, they inspire an ongoing dialogue about our cultural, political and personal identities. A full color catalogue accompanies the exhibition.
"Passport" by Yvonne Beatty, "Me and Dad" by Gilda Davidian, "Dirndl" by Alexia Kuzner, "A Two-Sided Border Story" by Lynn Elliott Letterman, "Immigration USA" by Linda Vallejo. ALSO ON VIEW: Selected immigration posters from the Center for the Study of Political Graphics.
Mariana Barnes, Yvonne Beatty, Alejandra Chaverri, Ching-Ching Cheng, Gilda Davidian, Cosette Dudley, Dwora Fried, Shelley Gazin, Elizabeth Gomez, Becky Guttin, Jennifer Maria Harris, Trudi Chamoff Hauptman, Judy Johnson-Williams, Niku Kashef, Arzu Arda Kosar and Gul Cagin, Patricia Krebs, Alexia Kutzner, Li 'n Lee, Lynn Elliott Letterman, Viviana Lombrozo, Poli Marichal, Michelle Montjoy, Carol Nye, Amparo J. Ochoa, Priscilla Otani, Lark (Larisa Pilinsky), Sinan Leong Revell, Patricia Rodriguez, Sandy Rodriguez, Ann Storc, Yuriko Takata, Luz Tapia, Tate Sisters, Linda Vallejo, Alicia Villegas, Sama Wareh, Sarah Wilkinson, Holly Wong.
MORE: The exhibition opens during the College Art Association conference
and WCA 2009 Art & Activism Confab in Los Angeles. It is part of The
Feminist Art Project and made possible, in part, by a grant from the Los
Angeles County Arts Commission
About the Women's Caucus for Art
The Women's Caucus for Art (WCA) is the leading national organization for women in the visual arts. Founded in 1972, it has 27 chapters including 6 in California and is an affiliate society of the College Art Association. Visit www.nationalwca.org <http://www.nationalwca.org/>
About the Korean Cultural Center
The Korean Cultural Center of Los Angeles (KCCLA) is the largest facility outside of Korea that provides insights into the rich cultural heritage of Korea through sponsored events, films and educational programs. Visit www.kccla.org <http://www.kccla.org/>
Sent by Dorinda Moreno
LOS ANGELES BOARD OF EDUCATION VOTES TO NAME NEW HIGH SCHOOL AFTER MEXICAN AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS LEADERS
Los Angeles – The Los Angeles Board of Education voted unanimously Tuesday to name the first high school to be built in more than 85 years in East Los Angeles after two Mexican American civil rights leaders Felicitas and Gonzalo Mendez.
The Felicitas and Gonzalo Mendez Learning Center is scheduled to open in Fall 2009 and will be located in Boyle Heights.
“Felicitas and Gonzalo Mendez paved the way for a more just educational system by combating segregation and discrimination,” said Board President Mónica García. “Their courage and struggle signifies the important role Latinos played in the fight for civil rights for all Americans. By naming this school after the Mendez family, we hope to preserve this legacy for future generations.”
The story of the Mendezes courageous fight against prejudice and segregation in public schools on behalf of their children dates back to 1943. It was that year the children of Felicitas and Gonzalo Mendez were denied entry into 17th Street School in Westminster, California because they were Mexican American. The Mendez v. Westminster School Dist. is a landmark desegregation case that successfully ended segregation in California and is a precursor to later court cases including Brown v. the Board of Education.
Sandra Duran Mendez, daughter, and Johanna Mendez-Lizardo, granddaughter of the Mendezes, were both present at the LAUSD Board meeting where they shed tears of joy and thanked everyone for the honor.
“On behalf of the Mendez family, we thank Inner City Struggle, the Boyle Heights Learning Collaborative, LAUSD Board President Mónica García, and all those that supported the naming of this school, especially the community and students.
We also would like to thank and acknowledge the other families that helped win this case: Ramirez, Estrada, Palomino and Guzman. It is important for families and students to know that we can change obstacles encountered along the way to success. ¡Muchisimas Gracias!”
Board members also received letters of support for naming the school after Felicitas and Gonzalo Mendez from elected officials, teachers, community members and organizations in Boyle Heights. “The Mendez name serves as a reminder that we are all part of a legacy of struggle and that change is possible,” said Lester Garcia, Executive Director of the Boyle Heights Learning Collaborative.
“Opening the new high school in East Los Angeles is important to relieve overcrowding at Roosevelt High School and helps increase graduation rates,” said Klayber Sanchez, a 9th grade student at Roosevelt High School, and a member of United Students. “Naming the new high school after people who have fought and struggled for their community is symbolic to students of this community.”
The new campus will feature two small learning communities that will house 1,025 seats and 38 classrooms, providing relief from overcrowding at Roosevelt High School. Amenities will include: classrooms and science labs, a library, a multipurpose room, food service facilities, a parent center, underground parking, a competition gym and outdoor physical education facilities. In addition, campus structures are planned to permit after-hours community access to the gym and athletic field.
Sent by Sylvia Mendez email@example.com
In l973, I published an anthology, La Mujer En Pie de Lucha, in
Mexico City. Upon my return the beloved Francisca Flores, Comision
Femenil Mexicana/Chicana Service Action Center, Regeneracion, a
devotee of Ricardo Flores Magon, held a reception for a book signing
at La Fonda, with Nati Cano y Los Camperos, and I never had a
picture of such a memorable occasion.
Dorinda Moreno firstname.lastname@example.org
Co-Sponsored by: LA as Subject
USC Doheny Memorial Library
California African American Museum
USC Libraries, Special Collections
UCLA Center for Oral History Research
UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center
Historical Society of Long Beach
Southwest Oral History Association 2008 Conference Committees
Registration and overview of conference: http://www.southwestoralhistory.org/docs/2009conference.pdf
| Editor: Even though the date
for the event is passed, I thought the concept and contacts are
important for youth leaders.
I hope you all had a good weekend. This past Saturday we had another incredible and informative Project One Music and Dialogue session, which featured legendary Hip Hop artist 2Mex, singer and song writer Noelle Scaggs and Grammy Award winning producers and song writers Harold Lilly Jr and KC Porter. This distinguished panel shared with our youth, knowledge on the music industry and personal stories regarding there music experiences and song writing process. Also, the youth participating were full of energy, ideas, solutions, hope and musical talent. In fact, one of this week's participants, who displayed her dedication to making her dream come true, went home with a gift from one of our product sponsors, a brand new Luna acoustic guitar! Project One is a free event for youth ages 14 – 18 to express and discuss deep social and political issues, but more importantly, how to process that information and turn it into a positive piece of musical art.
We would like to put the call out to all high school teachers and youth organizations in east, northeast, or downtown LA, Eagle Rock, Glendale,Pasadena or Burbank areas, if you would like our Project One team to visit and present Project One at your school, class or organization. Please call immediately the Project One hot line to schedule a visit before February 13 at (213) 874 7615. This weeks Music and Dialogue session features Hip Hop artist Bambu, Latina singer Claudia Gonzales of CAVA, and Grammy Award winning song writer JB Eckl.
This weeks Music and Dialogue Saturday February 14, 2009
Autry National Center, 4700 Western Heritage Way, Los Angeles, CA, 90027-1462
Please spread the word to any teachers or youth organizers. Blessings, Fidel Rodriguez
Project One: one love. one mic. one song. Calling on L.A. County youth ages 14-18 -- Rappers, Mcees, Singers, Songwriters, Poets, Beat Makers, and Musicians -- We Want Your Songs!
Project: One aims to promote social justice through music and encourage LA County youth to promote peace and speak out against and learn about racism, classism, sexism, homophobia, xenophobia and overall hatred towards others.
What: Project: One, a county-wide search for musically talented youth, ages 14-18.
Who: Calling on all Rappers, Mcees, Singers, Songwriters, Poets, Beat Makers, and Musicians.
When: Phase 1: "Music and Dialogue" sessions, where youth learn the power of using knowledge and life's experience into the music they produce. Event hosted by Human Relations Specialists and professional recording artists and producers. You must attend at least one Phase 1 session to apply and qualify for Phase 2. All sessions are FREE.
This weeks Music and Dialogue session February 14, 2009
*10AM - 1PM / 9AM Registration
Autry National Center
4700 Western Heritage Way
Los Angeles, CA, 90027-1462
Artists: CAVA, Bambu and JB Eckl
How: For info on Phase 2 and 3, locations, attending and to rsvp for Phase 1 call (213) 974-7615 or email: email@example.com Also log onto: www.zerohour.com/projectonela, www.myspace.com/projectonela, or zerohour Los Angeles as a friend on Facebook.
Project One is an initiative of zerohour: No Haters Here!
Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, Oneness Power 106
DIVINE FORCES MEDIA, Latino 96.3 Luna Guitars Jarritos KPFK
Contact Fidel Rodriguez FRodriguez@hrc.lacounty.gov
Sent by Dorinda Moreno firstname.lastname@example.org
At the third listing, one can contribute and
read memorial statements, as well as gain access to a wealth of Juan's
writings and other affirmative material.
Farewell to a dear friend, an individual who can easily serve as a
standard for humanitarian and environmental activism, and, in the final
reckoning, a successful champion of myriad causes. You were treasured
and you will be missed.
|"Lachryma Montis," the home of Gen. M. G.
Watsonville activist Luis Alejo to receive inaugural Tony Hill Award
California State Library SUTRO San Francisco
Early California Population Project
Flap over cut vine at park home
Officials say trellis at Gen. Vallejo house posed safety risk; descendant cries foul
Montis," the home of Gen. M. G. Vallejo. The former general built
the home, now part of Sonoma State Historic Park , in 1851. By
Bob Norberg, The Press Democrat
The removal of a grapevine at the home of Gen. Mariano Vallejo, a popular stop at Sonoma State Historic Park , has left a descendant of the general fuming.
arbor in gardens adjoining Gen. Vallejo's home.
The Tokay vine was cut down a month ago behind
Vallejo 's house, where it had been growing on a trellis for at least the past 50 years.
"There was no reason to remove it," said Martha Vallejo-McGettigan of Napa , his great-great-granddaughter. "I was appalled when I heard about it."
Park officials said, however, the vine wasn't there during Vallejo 's 35-year stay at the home and didn't fit in with the historical interpretation.
It also was being held up by a trellis that was failing, and the roots were pushing up the walkway, said Mary Pass , superintendent of California State Parks' Diablo Vista district.
"It was held up by wooden supports, and we had to figure out some way to shore it up," Pass said. "It was a safety issue."
Vallejo built the house in 1851 on land he acquired a half-mile from the Sonoma Plaza .
A winemaker, he had 3,000 vines and converted the barracks building, which at one time housed both Mexican and U.S. troops, into a winery in 1860.
Pass said Flame Tokay were the most likely grapes that Vallejo had planted on the property. The vine at the back of the house was not in a picture taken in 1934, but did appear in a 1951 photo.
"We had a cultural landscape report done on the whole landscape of the Vallejo home. . . . We are interpreting it to the 1880s to 1890s," Pass said. "The vine on the back side was not in the report, not considered a contributing factor to that time period."
Pass said they don't know if the vine was from Vallejo 's original vineyard, but they will use clippings from it to re-establish a vineyard when a cultural landscape plan is drawn up.
But Vallejo-McGettigan, 61, said the vine helped explain how important grape-growing and winemaking are to Vallejo 's story.
She said the vine was very old, measuring more than 7 inches in diameter, and was included in the docents' visitor tours.
"It doesn't matter that it wasn't exactly there," Vallejo-McGettigan said. "It was an important living artifact."
You can reach Staff Writer Bob Norberg at 521-5206
Sent by Lorri Frain email@example.com
Those who knew him best say that the late Santa Cruz community activist Tony Hill would have been elated to witness the election of the first African-American president in American history. But Hill, famously always focused on the local, may have been just as pleased at another development on Election Night 2008.
It was that night that lawyer and community activist Luis Alejo was elected to the Watsonville City Council. Hill, who died of a heart attack in August 2007, had counseled Alejo in the art of community activism and agitation.
"I consider him a mentor, someone I try to emulate," said Alejo of Hill. "Very few people in north Santa Cruz County do what Tony did, to come down to South County, reach out to Watsonville, make relationships and always be around when needed. He was a bridge-builder."
So when the time came to choose a recipient of the first ever Tony Hill Community Service Award, it made sense to look to the other side of that north-south bridge. And there stood Luis Alejo.
Alejo will be on hand to receive the inaugural Tony Hill Award on Thursday night at the Santa Cruz Civic Auditorium during the 25th annual Martin Luther King Jr. Convocation, an event, hosted by UC Santa Cruz, that Hill was instrumental in establishing. As part of the award, UCSC will give a cash gift in Alejo's name to the nonprofit of his choice.
"Luis Alejo is an example of the best of America," said George Ow Jr., who was part of the award's selection committee, which also included Hill's widow Melanie Stern-Hill and daughter Tara Kemp. "Luis is brilliant and hard-working and took advantage of his educational opportunities. He also has loyalty to his roots and has come back to help Watsonville become a better place."
Alejo's Obama-like life story has been held up as an inspiration for young people. A graduate of Watsonville High, Alejo followed an educational path that led him to undergraduate work at UC Berkeley, a law degree at UC Davis and a master's of education at Harvard University. After his formal studies, he returned to Watsonville, where he worked providing legal aid to low-income people.
"The thing that I'm most proud of when it comes to Luis is that he's a doer," said longtime Watsonville community activist, and Alejo friend, Daniel Dodge. "He went to Harvard and did all these amazing things. And when he came back here, he didn't take a high-paying job. He went to work with people less fortunate because that's where his values are."
Alejo worked with California Rural Legal Assistance upon returning to Watsonville in 2003. He has served on a number of local governmental boards before his election to the City Council. Currently, he works as a staff attorney with Monterey County Superior Court.
Long before he went off to college, Alejo helped found the Brown Berets, the sometimes controversial youth activist group, and led the Berets in the Peace and Unity March against gang violence, which has become an annual tradition. He's also shown a taste for the confrontational, having filed litigation against the Pajaro Valley Unified School District for violations of the Brown Act, and speaking out in school board meetings and other public forums. He also has been a regular contributor to the Sentinel's editorial pages.
"He is feared by some in the community," said Dodge, "because they like how things were in the good old days. And he doesn't represent the good old days. He represents change."
"He's absolutely fearless when it comes to speaking truth to power," said teacher Jenn Laskin, an Alejo ally and activist in the Brown Berets. "He has a sense of justice that he was born with. Luis carries that legacy in his blood."
Alejo's grandfather was an activist with the United Farm Workers union in the era of Cesar Chavez.
Alejo said the decision to come back to Watsonville after his education was reached before he even left.
"That decision was made when I was 19," he said. "At the time, Watsonville was having a major problem with local kids going off to pursue higher education and not coming back. It was a brain drain in Watsonville. I've always believed that to make meaningful, long-lasting change, who is better to do it than people born and raised here?"
One of those young people Alejo has actively helped follow his path is Watsonville High School graduate Magge Rodriguez, 19, now a freshman at UCLA. Alejo helped her land the prestigious Gates Millennium Scholarship, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
"I met him during the summer between the fifth and sixth grades," said Rodriguez, who says she plans to pursue a law degree and return to Watsonville. "He's been a great inspiration and a mentor for me and my family.
"He helped me out in so many ways, from guiding me through the application process to helping my family. He's a great mentor who's always taught me to keep fighting for what I believe in."
California State Library SUTRO San Francisco
480 Winston Drive, San Francisco, CA 94132
to the site of
Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens
The Early California Population Project (ECPP) provides public access to all the information contained in California's historic mission registers, records that are of unique and vital importance to the study of California, the American Southwest, and colonial America.
Within the baptism, marriage, and burial records of each of the California missions sits an extraordinary wealth of unique information on the Indians, soldiers, and settlers of Alta California from 1769 - 1850.
What will users be able to do with the information stored in this database?
• Community historians can study in greater detail the individuals and families who settled California’s first presidios and pueblos
After learning to use the different software programs to create my first digital story, my next project is collecting the stories of other Latinos living up north with the help of the Idaho Council on Humanities.
Una prima, Elena Rodriguez
Wickenburg Hispanic Pioneer Families
March 14: Crypto Jews of New Mexico
Hero Street, USA (Book)
The Julian Samora Legacy Project
Mexicans in Tempe by Santos C. Vega (Book)
Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón, founders of the Mexican Liberal Party
Wickenburg Hispanic Pioneer Families
Nuestras Memorias – Our Memories
Jamax Publishers Press is pleased to announce the first pictorial history of the early Hispanic settlers in the northern reaches of the great Sonora Desert. "Wickenburg Hispanic Pioneer Families – Nuestras Memorias" celebrates Wickenburg’s rich cultural heritage with photographs of and anecdotes about the first Mexican pioneers that helped tame this desert mining town, as well as their descendants that still live there today.
These cowboy traditions started in the Middle Ages with the Spanish. In the New World, cabelleros (Spanish gentleman) owned haciendas (ranches) where vaqueros worked for them. Anglo-European colonists, who managed their cattle on foot in small, fenced-in spaces, had no inkling about the Hispanics’ concept of ranching.
The vaqueros introduced the darle vuelta (dally
welter), and they branded their cattle as required by a branding
ordinance established in 1529 in Mexico City. The vaqueros wore a
sombrero (ten gallon hat) and chaparreras (chaps) for protection
from the elements. And the fashion of their pointy boots with the
high heels allowed them to slip a foot into the stirrups with ease
and then anchor it with the heel.
Jamax produces distinctive four-color regional outdoor guides and custom publications with state-of-the-art equipment for the travel industry and specialized outdoors guides.
US $25.00. Sent by David James firstname.lastname@example.org
If you ever wondered whether you had Jewish or other Middle East origins or just want to know more about the subject, I welcome you and invite you to attend. I will be presenting at the Wells Fargo Auditorium, of the National Hispanic Cultural Center on Saturday, March 14, at 2:00 PM. I will be accompanied by Emma Moya, noted Hispanic Jew researcher. The lecture is part of the "La Resolana" Series, hosted by Carlos Vasquez, History & Literary Arts Director, and will be about one hour in length. Admission is free.
The subject of the lecture will be "Crypto Jews of New Mexico". We will be speaking on the topic of the early history of the Hebrew / Jewish people and their migrations to Spain and the Inquisition that followed. We will also speak about the Inquisition in Mexico / New Mexico and the resulting "hidden Jews" experience in New Mexico.
Hero Street USA
of the dead and suffering of the living triggered an exodus from
Mexico to the United States that forever changed both countries.
Before the horrors of the Mexican Revolution, fewer than 10,000
Mexicans emigrated to the
Willie Sandoval was shot to death during a night patrol along the
Belgium-German border in October 1944.
Extract from the book: HERO STREET, USA by Marc Wilson
For author interview, please contact: Sandy See, Publicist,
405-325-3200 or email@example.com
The Julian Samora Legacy Project
Dear JSLP Friends and Supporters,
Ken Martinez has written another bill in support of funding JSLP. House Bill 650 was written to request recurring funds, thus embedding JSLP at UNM. This year it is most important that you write in support of the bill. I am sending you a suggested letter and the list of each of the members of the House Education Committee. Please take a moment to cut and paste the letter at the bottom of this message and send it to each committee member. Endorsements from other states carry significant sway and will demonstrate and reinforce my point that Julian’s legacy is of national importance. So if you live outside of Nm, please participate. I am sending my own letter to the committee with a recap of our accomplishments in the two years since we received state funds.
The bill is currently in the Education Committee and may be heard soon. Please make time to send your support in the next few days. When it goes to the House Finance Committee, I will send you a list of their names and email addresses, along with a suggested letter. Thank you so much for your continued support of the Project and for taking a few minutes of your busy day to send this message out.
Editor: Carmen has notified Somos Primos that the Bill passed the Education Committee, but must still pass another oversight level. Approval of the Bill will have to be passed by March 21st. No action after that will be effective.
Dear New Mexico House Education Committee Member,
Samora Legacy Project
Mexicans in Tempe by Santos C. Vega
Dear residents and friends of Tempe.
You are among the first to be informed that the book "Mexicans in Tempe" will be out after Feb. 23rd. Book Signings are planned, with the first scheduled for March 20, 7:00 p.m.at Barnes and Noble, Tempe Market Place. However, books will be sold at book parties and on-line at www.imzbuyer.com or by mail to Abrazo enterprises, 4138 W. Augusta Ave. Phoenix, AZ 85051-5748. Lisa and Jess have agreed to make a book party at their home, Santiago Moratto, Armando Ramirez, and Rosie Guaderrama also want to schedule a book party. I am looking for two or three more persons that will agree to make a book party in their home. We will toast the wonderful residents of Tempe, celebrate in round robin discussions, and books will be on sale. The book sells for $21.99. The price was set by Arcadia Publishing Company. I am going to order the number of books I will need to have enough for all of you who wish to purchase one from me at a book party. Email me back and let me know how many books to order for you. Lisa and Jess already ordered five because they are ordering for family, as well; Rudy and Rachel Arroyo want six, or you can order one book now and buy more later, the books are that wonderful, believe me. The book is a photographs and text history of Tempe based on early pioneer Mexican families, and is generational in presenting heritage, celebrations, traditions, sports, education, work, military, and remembrances. It's been a long time coming, and finally it is here.
Thanks and all kindness to you. Santos C. Vega SanVega@aol.com
Many great Mexicans have lived in El Paso attracted by the warm hospitality of the border community. This is the case of Ricardo Flores Magón, who lived for several months in 1906 in a small apartment in the heart of El Segundo Barrio. This place was located a few blocks from where the Centro de los Trabajadores Agrícolas Fronterizos is now located. His brief stay in El Paso was enough to leave us his revolutionary example and his vision of a system free of oppression end exploitation.
Ricardo Flores Magón was born in San Antonio Eloxochitlán, Oaxaca, in 1873, to a poor family. His parents were Teodoro Flores and Margarita Magón. He attended elementary and high school then went on to Law School in 1893. But he did not become an attorney, instead he became a journalist with "El Demócrata", an opposition newspaper. In 1900, along with his brother Jesús, he founded "Regeneración", a very radical and antigovernment paper that ended him in jail. After he was released from jail in 1902, he joined another opposition newspaper, "El Hijo del Ahuizóte." He was arrested again and in 1904, he was forced to escape to San Antonio, Texas, where he start to publish "Regeneración" again with the help of his brother Enrique. The persecution continues and they fled to St. Louis, Missouri in 1905, and continue publishing their newspaper. In this city, they founded the Mexican Liberal Party in 1906. In January of 1911, they directed the uprising of Baja California, and seized the towns of Mexicali and Tijuana. Francisco I. Madero, leader of the revolutionary movement against the Porfirio Díaz' dictatorship, attempted to bring the "Magonistas" to his side, but Ricardo Flores Magón, leader of the rebels, rejected him arguing that Madero was part of a "revolution of the rich."
A manifesto signed by Ricardo Flores Magón and Librado Rivera, addressed to all the anarchists of the world in 1918, was used by the North American government as a excuse to jail both. Librado was sentenced to 15 years in prison, while Ricardo Flores Magón was sentenced to 20 years. He was sent to the prison at McNeil Island, in the State of Washington. He got very ill and was moved to the federal prison of Leavenworth, Kansas, where he died in 1922.
Ricardo wrote two revolutionary plays: "Tierra y Libertad" ("Land and Freedom") and "Verdugos y Víctimas" (Executioners and Victims), works of very intensive social criticism and impressive realism. He wrote many essays, fiction and reports.
Ricardo Flores Magón
Posted by: "Carlos Callejo" firstname.lastname@example.org
Fifty Years of African Impact on Cuba: Click to Caribbean/Cuba section
veo en la televisión a esa pobre gente que en pateras intentan llegar a
nuestras costas de Huelva, viene a mi recuerdo lo que sería a partir del
siglo XV el tráfico de esclavos africanos para América.
ya había comercio de esclavos negros que llevaban desde la parte norte de
África para los mercados asiáticos, por esta parte de Europa la primacía
la tienen los portugueses, ya que en 1432 el navegante portugués Gil
Eanes trajo la primera remesa de esclavos africanos y desde entonces uno
de los importantes negocios fue para ellos el trafico de personas que hacían
primero entre África y
tal la importancia que adquirió este comercio, que se creó por el
jesuita Antonio Vieira,
siguieron otras nuevas asociaciones porque el negocio era muy “lucrativo”,
llevar hombres y mujeres fuertes que capturaban en zonas africanas
cercanas a la costa, y en condiciones infrahumanas los transportaban
hacinados en las bodegas hasta el recién descubierto Nuevo Mundo,
con el agravante que a los que no resistían la dureza del viaje,
cuando los veían muy enfermos e inservibles, los arrojaban al mar.
gobiernos de España, Francia, Holanda y especialmente Inglaterra, se
beneficiaron mucho de este comercio de seres humanos.
primer esclavo negro que pisó territorio americano fue Estevanico, que
iba al servicio del Capitán Andrés Dorantes, de Gibraleón y que partió
con la expedición de Pánfilo de Narváez. Hay que tener en cuenta que el
Duque de Bejar tenía en Gibraleón un importante mercado y al ser el
padre del Capitán Dorantes el administrador de los bienes del Duque,
tendría facilidad para conseguir que uno de los mejores esclavos fuera
para su hijo.
Hace unos días, en una investigación sobre Sebastián Álvarez,
que recurrió, por haber sido rechazado para ingresar en
Hace unos días, en una investigación sobre Sebastián Álvarez,
que recurrió, por haber sido rechazado para ingresar en
siempre había creído que la mezcla de raza blanca e india era el
mestizo y nada más, pero encontré que hay muchísimas mas
designaciones. Por ejemplo, la mezcla de indio con negra, se llama
zambo; la de castellano con negra, es mulato y la de mulata con
la unión era entre indio con mestiza, se llamaba coyote ó cholo y
el español con coyote, era harnizo. Al mulato con india, se le
denominaba chino, al chino con india, se decía que era cambujo y el
cambujo con india, era un sambaigo.
un albino se mezclaba con blanca y uno de ellos tenía un abuelo o
bisabuelo negro, se decía que era un salta atrás. Pero cuando un
salta atrás se unía a una mulata, se denominaba lobo.
mas denominaciones, como la mezcla de zambaigo con loba, se le
llamaba campa mulato y un campa mulato con una cambuja, tente en el
estas denominaciones, en muchos casos fueron utilizadas por poco
tiempo, porque se
desarrollaron unas denominaciones generalizadas que abarcaban a
varias de las mencionadas anteriormente y en el lenguaje popular
eran mestizos, mulatos, pardos, criollos ó zambos y pocas más.
ya lo hemos dicho alguna vez, el padre del mestizaje es considerado
que fue Gonzalo Guerrero, arcabucero, natural de Palos según unos
historiadores y de Niebla, según otros, que en 1511, cuando iba
desde Panamá a Cuba, su barco naufragó y con otros 12 compañeros
estuvo en un bote a la deriva, hasta que fueron apresados por los
se enamoró de Aixchel y se integró en la tribu, de tal forma que
cuando vinieron los castellanos a rescatarlo dijo: “aquí soy el
jefe, me he casado y tengo tres hijos, ¿Cómo me recibirían en
Castilla con las orejas horadadas y la cara labrada?”
en Puerto Caballos (Honduras) en 1536 luchando contra las tropas al
mando de Pedro de Alvarado.
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
en Odiel Información de Huelva, el 24 de febrero de 2009
Festival Images by George O. Jackson de Llano
September 26, 2007 through
April 20, 2008
Organized by the Mexico-North Research Network, Mexican Cycles celebrates Mexico’s cultural diversity and the creativity of the members of its Indigenous communities by exploring the annual cycle of their religious festivals as captured in the images of the Mexican-American photographer George O. Jackson de Llano. Based in Austin, Texas, Jackson de Llano is widely regarded as among the most accomplished photographers of Mexican ceremonial life today. Between 1990 and 2001, he photographed the religious festivals of Indigenous communities from across Mexico. The result is an unparalleled record of these festivals at the turn of the 21st century and of the complex interaction of Indigenous and European religious traditions out of which they emerged.
The National Museum of Natural History received federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center, to install this exhibition.
|Excerpt: 'Massive Funeral Complex' Unearthed
Prehistoric village is found near San Pedro River, Arizona
Andean Crops Cultivated Almost 10,000 Years Ago by Michael Abrams
13,000-year-old set of tools unearthed at Colorado home
By Miguel Angel
Archeologists have found a mass grave in Mexico City with four dozen human skeletons laid out in neat lines . . .
The 13-by-32-foot burial site differs from other conquest-era graves because of the reverential way the bodies were buried, following Christian customs of the time, unlike thousands of contemporary graves at other Aztec cities where bodies were thrown in at random.
Editor: Could it be that the reverence was given to these bodies because they were sacrificed by the Aztecs to Aztec gods. Or, since they suggest that they were "following Christian customs" could they been early converts to the Christian faith that died, fighting on the side of the Spanish, and were buried by other Christians??
The construction of the fence along the U.S.-Mexico border in 2007 led to the discovery of a prehistoric village east of the San Pedro River. Some of those findings were presented Thursday evening to the Tubac/Santa Cruz County Chapter of the Arizona Archaeological Society.
"The San Pedro is a special place," said archaeologist Maren Hopkins, 27, the project director. She said the village was probably the biggest data-recovery project that she has directed. Hopkins has been digging for 10 years in many places in Arizona, New Mexico and Mexico.
Evidence found at the "Upper San Pedro Village" indicates that it was a crossroads, or a type of
"gateway community," said Hopkins, who works for Northland Research Inc., which has offices in Flagstaff, Tempe and Tucson.
"It's sort of an area that's on the periphery of a lot of other areas that we do understand," Hopkins
said. "It's a peripheral site to the Tucson Basin ... it's peripheral to all these areas. So these people were kind of a mix of people. It was frontier then, just like it is now."
The village is believed to have existed from around A.D. 700 to 1200, Hopkins said, based on ceramics analysis. There appear to be some Hohokam characteristics, but it is uncertain who lived
there. Archaeologists found: 23 pit houses, 14 possible pit houses, 97 thermal pits, a number of storage pits, five dog burials and 69 human burials. As is customary in this region, the human remains have been repatriated to the Tohono O'Odham Indian Reservation.
There was an interesting artifact found at the site that Hopkins had not seen before. She calls it a "stone jaw bone." It has a serrated edge, and she believes that it was used for scraping animal hides. Several of these implements were found at the site, which also yielded "more deer bone than
I've ever seen in my life," she said.
Northland was contracted to do archaeological work for the U.S. Corps of Army Engineers and the U.S. Department Homeland Security so that they could comply with federal archaeological laws. In
October 2007, Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff pushed ahead with the fence, winning federal court approval of the waiving of environmental restrictions.
"It is a sensitive subject," Hopkins said of the border politics. She told the Tubac archaeology society how complicated her work was, because of the numerous government and private agencies involved. Those included ranchers on the U.S. and Mexico side, the U.S. Bureau of Land
Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife and the Arizona National Guard, just to name a few.
She described how one time "the No. 2 guy" from Homeland Security flew to the San Pedro River archaeological site in a Black Hawk helicopter and asked the scientists, "Are you OK?" Some of the nearby Mexican ranchers were delivering tacos, which the archaeologists had become accustomed to. The Homeland Security official asked, "Are they bugging you?" The archaeologists answered, "No."
Hopkins said there was genuine concern for archaeologists' safety when they were working in another site along the border. She was referring to the violent smuggling corridor of Altar Valley,
Ariz. Overall, the archaeologists dealt with multiple jurisdictions and a lot of curious people.
" ... we just had people around us all the time," she said.
Mexican archaeologists were among the interested parties, and their American counterparts are collaborating with them, Hopkins said. One restriction posed by the U.S. government was that the
archaeologists could only dig 5 feet deep, because that was as far as they were digging for the fence's footers. Below that depth, "The archaeology, I guarantee, keeps going," Hopkins said.
On another axis, the archaeologists were allowed to dig to a limit
of 60 feet wide. That dimension
January 15, 2008
Archaeologists have long thought that people in the Old World were planting, watering, weeding, and harvesting for a good 5,000 years before anyone in the New World did such things. But fresh evidence, in the form of Peruvian squash seeds, indicates that farming in the New and Old Worlds was nearly concurrent. In a paper the journal Science published last June, Tom Dillehay,
An anthropological archaeologist at Vanderbilt University, revealed that the squash seeds he found in the ruins of what may have been ancient storage bins on the lower western slopes of the Andes in northern Peru are almost 10,000 years old. "I don't want to play the early button game," he said, "but the temporal gap between the Old and New World, in terms of a first pulse toward civilization, is beginning to close."
The seeds aren't the only things that support the argument. Dillehay also found evidence of cotton and peanut farming and what seem to be garden hoes; nearby are irrigation canals. What puzzles him is why the ancients of the Nanchoc Valley would make the switch to farming from hunting and gathering when a walk of just an hour and a half would bring them to a forest filled with nutritious foods. Some clues point to contact with outsiders and the
exchange of foods and other products. The squash is not native to the area, and tools made from exotic cherts and jaspers from the highlands can be found in the same ruins. But there are also other factors, including the need for more food, both to feed a growing population and to use for ceremonies and other gatherings. "The general pattern," Dillehay says, "is
that there's a technological, socioeconomic cultural package that indicates something unique and interesting took place."
13,000-year-old set of tools unearthed at Colorado home
|Landscapers in Boulder, Colorado last May stumbled onto a
cache of more than 83 ancient tools buried by the Clovis people - ice
age hunter-gathers who remain a puzzle to anthropologists. The
home's owner, Patrick Mahaffy, thought they were only a century or two
old before contacting researchers at the University of Colorado-Boulder.
"My jaw just dropped," said CU anthropologist Douglas
Bamforth, who is leading a study of the find. "Boulder is a
densely populated area. And in the midst of all that to find this
What researchers found on the tools also was significant. Biochemical analysis of blood and other protein residue revealed the tools were used to butcher camels, horses, sheep and bears. That proves that the Clovis people ate more than just woolly mammoth meat for dinner, something scientists were unable to confirm before.
The cache was buried 18 inches deep and was packed in a hole the size of a large shoe box. the tools were most likely wrapped in a skin that deteriorated over time, Mahaffy said.
The Orange County Register, Feb 27, 2009
Angelita Galvan-Freeman email@example.com
2009 Clotilde P. Garcia Tejano Book Prize
March 7th: Trinidad Coy, Alamo Defender by Robert Garcia
March 9th: P. L. Buquor and the Texas Rangers Association
March 21: Nights of Wailing, Days of Spain by Jose Antonio Lopez
March 28th: Hispanic Genealogical Seminar with George & Peggy Ryskamp.
March 28th: Cortina, Defending the Mexican Name in Texas
In 2004 Henry Martinez started a family history project
April 4th and April 5th: Celebrating the First Texas Republic
Battle of Medina and the April Edition of Texas Monthly
Renato Ramirez, Banker Assists Others
Manifest Destinies: Where Mexican Americans Fit in the Early 21st Century Racial Order
The Mercurio Martinez Papers
Gone To Texas Pioneer Certificate
Hablas Valluco? Area Lingo a way of life for some, Confusing to others.
2009 Texas State Hispanic Genealogy Conference will be held
September 24-27, 2009 in
competition focuses on Tejano Heritage
and will facilitate these published books into the spotlight and
bring attention to Tejano Heritage,
history and contributions. A
panel of judges will determine the winner.
We will notify each entry of the receipt of their package as
indicated on your application form.
Deadline submissions must be postmarked by the close of
business on April 30th, 2009. Please
note that judges will read and consider submissions on an ongoing
basis, comparing early entries with later submissions.
The winner and two commendation awards will be
presented at the Saturday Awards Banquet September 26, 2009 at 7:00
Los Bexarenos March meeting
Date: March 7, 2009 9:30 am
San Antonio Public Library, 600 Soledad Street
The March presentation will be on Trinidad de los Santos Coy, a former soldier at the Presidio de San Antonio and a spy for the Alamo during the Battle of the Alamo in 1836. The presentation demonstrates the importance of family legends and how they can eventually be accepted by the historians.
“Late on February 22, 1836, the day before Santa Anna’s entry into San Antonio, Trinidad was on the lookout for General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and his army near the Medina River when he was captured by the troops of General Joaquin Ramirez y Sesma.” (From a manuscript submitted to The Handbook of Texas by Robert Thonhoff)
For the past 17 years, Mr. Garcia has been an active member of Los Bexarenos Genealogical Society and has served at various times as Director and Treasurer for the organization, and twice as President. Mr. Garcia was the Chairman of the 2003 State Hispanic Genealogical Conference that was held here in San Antonio and was attended by over 300 genealogists, many of them from across the country and from Mexico.
Mr. Garcia is the author of several books including, Tejano Participants in the Texas Revolution of 1835-1837; The Coy Family, Ancestors and Descendants of Jose Segundo de los Santos Coy, a Presidial soldier who married Maria Luisa Teresa de Rosas; Descendants of the Alferez, Francisco Hernandez, Soldier of the Presidio de Tejas de Bexar 1718; and Ancestors and Descendants of Francisco Xavier Chavez, Indian Interpreter and Scout at the Presidio de Bexar 1785.
For more information: Yolanda Patino 210-434-3530 firstname.lastname@example.org
Sent by Elsa Herbeck email@example.com
Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical Society
Saturday, March 21, 2009
2:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS, HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER BUILDING
Library Branch, 1937 E. Bustamante St. Laredo
For more information contact E. Gutierrez - 763-7415 or Bibi Garza Gongora - 723-8419
Sent by Jose M. Pena JMPENA@aol.com
Schedule of Events:
9-12 pm– Executive Salon 4: World renown George Ryskamp presents a seminar for the advanced genealogist. Author of numerous books on Hispanic Ancestry, such as, Finding Your Hispanic Roots, A Student’s Guide to Mexican American Genealogy, and Tracing Your Hispanic Heritage, Mr. Ryskamp will share his vast research expertise with seminar participants.
9-12 pm– Executive Salon 5: Peggy Ryskamp will present a seminar for the novice genealogists. This seminar will introduce the fundamentals of genealogy and guide the student to go beyond their immediate family and provide aids to find their family roots.
12-1 p.m. Lunch is included in the price of the seminar and will be served in the San Antonio Ballroom.
1-3 pm A town hall meeting with both presenters and all participants will follow lunch in the San Antonio Ballroom.
Admission $50.00 per person.
Please mail this form and your checks to: Los Bexareños
Before March 21, 2009, please circle your session preferences.
P.O. Box 1935
San Antonio, Texas 78297
Out of Town visitors can reserve rooms at $129.00 per night with code “LBJ.”
Phone 210-354-2800 fax 210-362-6444 https://resweb.passkey.com/go/LBJ
Los Bexareños publications will be on sale, cash or checks only.
For more information call Santiago Escobedo @ (210) 260-2253
Editor: George and Peggy
Ryskamp laid the foundation and lead the way for all Americans tracing
their Spanish heritage family research. The first books, manuals and
conferences were prepared by the Ryskamps. I will forever be grateful
to both of them for getting me started. I attended a conference
organized by George and Peggy in Riverside, California about 25 years
ago. It changed my life, started me on a life time adventure.
They inspired, encouraged, and directed . . . and are still
The Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin invites you to a luncheon featuring Dr. Jerry Thompson who will speak about, sell, and sign copies of his book---CORTINA, DEFENDING THE MEXICAN NAME IN TEXAS.
Nuevo Leon Restaurant, 1501 E. 6th St. Austin, Texas
Luncheon 11:30 AM –12:30
Speaker & Book signing 12:30 – 3:00
Attendees will have to pay for their own meals and any liquour.
There will be free chips and drinks.
Sent by Jose M. Pena JMPENA@aol.com
Remembering the Trinity Portland Cement Company in West Dallas
Who: Ledbetter Neighborhood Association and friends
What: Dedication of memorial and cemetery
When: Thursday, February 19 at 10am
Where: Parking lot of Wal-Mart at Cockrell Hill and I-30
Media Contact: Alberto Ruiz (214) 868-6920
Effort to preserve a family's history becomes a community treasure
In 2004 Henry Martinez started a family history project,
now it's a lasting testimony to the Mexican-American Experience in Oak Cliff.
Dallas, TX - February 19, 2009 - Henry Martinez, 79 year old, WWII veteran and native of West Dallas' grew up in the Ledbetter neighborhood of Oak Cliff in Dallas. In 2004, he began an effort to preserve his family's history by creating the Ledbetter Neighborhood Association. The association held regular monthly meetings with friends and family and participated in food drives and community building activities.
For Henry it all started with El Camposanto de Cemento Grande de la Compania Trinity Portland, or the Trinity Portland Cement Company Cemetery in West Dallas, and for over a decade it has been his passion. The tiny cemetery has about 200 graves, including those of his mother, sister and two brothers -- one of whom was a World War II soldier. "Its sacred ground," said Martinez, 79. He still has photographs and documents and tells stories about relatives who immigrated to Texas from Guanajuato during the Mexican Revolution.
"I just couldn't help but try and preserve the cemetery," he said. With hard work and persistence, the cemetery now dawns a custom made rot-iron arched gate. "I could not have made this happen without my family and members of the Ledbetter Neighborhood Association" Martinez recalls. Especially, with the support and assistance of Oak Cliff attorney Domingo Garcia who donated funds for the cemetery's entrance gate and pro-bono legal services to properly install the new monument in the Wal-Mart parking lot near Taco Cabana on Cockrell Hill and I-30."Hispanics in Dallas have a long history but it is not well documented" said Garcia. "This small granite monument gives a sense of history to present and future generations," he concluded.
Filling in the missing chapters of the Mexican-American experience is a race against time as waves of immigrants from the early 1900s age and local history is lost with their passing. Many projects rely on oral histories to piece together places like "little Mexico" and El Camposanto. Some, like Martinez's cemetery are small gestures, while others are sophisticated, such as a new series by the University of North Texas Press that aims to document Mexican-American history. These projects are of grand value for those who believe that Mexican-American history isn't fully explored in textbooks.
"My parents were invited to work at the Trinity Portland Concrete Company in the early 1900's", said Henry Martinez, the youngest child of parents from Guanajuato, Mexico. As a product of the segregationist south, the family experienced social and labor discrimination. Nonetheless, the family persevered and not only adapted but they found a special way to commemorate their humble beginnings.
On Thursday, February 19 at 10am in the parking lot of the Wal-Mart at Cockrell Hill and I-30 (near Taco Cabana), a tour of the Cemetery, monument and historic elementary school that still stands will be lead by Henry Martinez along with Ledbetter Neighborhood Association members and friends.
April 6th 1813, after a year of bloody warfare and having
driven all Spaniards out of
April 6th 1813, after a year of bloody warfare and having
driven all Spaniards out of
Perez, a well known TV personality from San Antonio
will emcee the events. Scheduled to speak will be scholars of Texas
History, Dr Andres Tijerina, author of several books on
us as we celebrate “The First Texas Republic.”
is a very large and diverse state that proudly boasts that we were a
Republic before we became a state in this great union, but the facts
are that we were a Republic on two different occasions, that we have
three written Declarations of Independence with three written
Constituents and that we have had seven sovereign flags that have
flown over Texas, not six.
Mexican-Americans have sacrificed their lives defending freedom and
democracy. Over a thousand Tejanos were killed in one battle alone in
defense of these causes, but this conflict was not on foreign soil.
Not on the beaches in Normandy, not in Korea or Viet Nam, although
Tejanos were there, but much closer to home, in South Texas, less than
twenty miles from San Antonio. The “Battle of Medina,” …the
forgotten history of the Tejanos, these first sons and daughters of
battle was between the Republican Army of the North consisting of nine
hundred Tejanos, three hundred Americans, and three hundred Native
Americans against a Spanish Army led by Juaquin de Arredondo. A little
known fact is that the Tejano leader Colonel Miguel Menchaca, in the
heat of battle, had been ordered to withdraw his men, whereas it is
said that he responded “Tejanos do not withdraw,” and plunged back
into the foray. Out of the 1500 that set out to fight only 100 would
survive. After the battle another 327 Tejanos would be executed in
|[Big story on my cousin in LMT
Today, January 20, 2009, Dr. Neo Gutierrez, firstname.lastname@example.org
Message: Hi from LA ... Renato Ramirez,featured in a big story in LMT today, is my primo hermano ! His father and my mom were bro/sis. He lives in Zapata, Tx., 50 miles south of Laredo. Also, he is the main provider for the orphanage in Guerrero, Mx., across the Rio Grande from Zapata.]
At a young age, Renato Ramirez learned about the strength of having a charitable, philanthropic heart. It is something that has transcended his life from youth to successful educator and South Texas banker. Ramirez, president and CEO of IBC-Zapata, believes he received a giving spirit from his family genetics.
"My father was very generous although not wealthy," Ramirez said Monday. "I feel extremely fortunate that I've had such good luck financially and believe it's my role to give some of it back."
Among his philanthropic activities are:
Making donations to the Zapata Boys and Girls Club
Supporting the Harmony Science Academy-Laredo
Making donations to Sacred Heart Orphanage and an orphanage in Ciudad Mier, Mexico
Supporting the Institute of Interfaith Dialog in Houston & Texas Civil Rights Project, Austin
Establishing scholarships at Laredo Community College & Texas A&M International Univ
Ramirez, who has been with IBC for more than 25 years, said IBC-Zapata includes branches in Beeville, Kingsville, Alice, Zapata, Roma, Freer, Hebbronville and Rio Grande City. "I have defined myself as pro-education, pro-children," Ramirez said.
Harmony in school, life
Ramirez was influential in establishing the Harmony Science Academy-Laredo, a college preparatory charter school. "I bought that building and we cleaned it up," he said of its location on San Francisco Avenue.
"Harmony Academy approached me about retrofitting the school. We did it in 116 days. In the process, I ended up putting in $500,000 for cost overruns. I didn't mind.
I believe in what they do to help children focus on high achievers. "They focus on discipline, math, science, technology ... I think that has been left behind a lot," Ramirez said.
Harmony Science academies were established by the Houston-based Cosmos Foundation, a nonprofit created in 1999 and funded in part by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Michael and Susan Dell Foundation.
According to its Web site, "The primary purpose of the Cosmos Foundation is to organize and operate exclusively for charitable, educational, scientific and literary purposes." Being involved with The Cosmos Foundation also led Ramirez into discussions with the Institute of Interfaith Dialog.
Crossing religious paths
Through Cosmos and Harmony, Ramirez found his paths crossing those of other religious beliefs, including Christianity, Buddhism, Judaism, Hinduism and Islam. "Up until a year ago, I had not met anyone of the Islamic religion," Ramirez said. "It's quite different than what others represented them to be in the mainstream media."
He started reading material about Islam and said he was surprised. "I read that Islam recognizes Allah as their God and that, to them, Jesus was a prophet," Ramirez said.
The IID is a group of highly educated Turkish Muslims, some of whom operate Cosmos and run some 19 charter schools across Texas.
Civil rights for all
From his perspective, Ramirez said the Texas Civil Rights Project steps in where people can't defend themselves. "For instance, migrant workers here in the Valley get roughed up and are forced into slavery or prostitution," he said. "The Civil Rights Project has a lot of guts. I liked what they were doing and contributed to their cause, helping to build offices in Pharr and El Paso.
"When there are civil rights violated by bullies at a local level, somebody has to take on those bullies. It doesn't matter whether they are Democrats or Republicans."
Ramirez was introduced to the TCRP by State Rep. Richard Raymond, D-Laredo. Jim Harrington, executive director of the Texas Civil Rights Project, said Monday he made contact with Ramirez a few years ago "because we became aware of his charitable activity and wanted to see if what we did appealed to him.
"He's helped support us for a number of years now," he said. Harrington said the thing that stands out most about Ramirez is that he's a very wealthy, successful person. "I think he's willing to put his financial support to where his heart is," he said.
"He's moved to help people out with a wide range of charitable activity. You don't see it happen very often out of people like him that have accumulated financial success over a number of years. "He tends to share his wealth with those who need it the most.
Our appeal to him has been toward helping abused and neglected immigrant women, as well as support our student leadership project at our Civil Rights Dinner."
What fulfills Ramirez most through his charitable acts? He looks back upon his time as a college educator and banker for perspective. "First of all, spending many years in education and watching kids grow and learn is worthwhile," he said. "It's the same thing as a banker ... watching as people grow and become successful gives me an incredible amount of pleasure."
Joe Rutland can be reached at 728-2529 or email@example.com
Sent by Jose M. Pena
9th Annual Commemorative Lecture in Mexican American History
“Manifest Destinies: Where Mexican Americans Fit in the Early 21st
Century Racial Order”
Although this event is passed, I thought Dr.Gómez' topic research of
particular interest at this time.
Dr. Laura E. Gómez, Professor of Law and Associate Dean for Faculty Development at the University of New Mexico School of Law, and Professor of American Studies, will honor us with her presence on Monday, February 2, 2009, by delivering the 9th Annual Commemorative Lecture in Mexican American History at the Lyceum in the University Union from 5-6 p.m. The lecture and book-signing reception immediately following are free and open to the public. Dr. Gómez's lecture is titled, “Manifest Destinies: Where Mexican Americans Fit in the Early 21st Century Racial Order.” Dr. Gómez's most recent book is Manifest Destinies: The Making of the Mexican American Race (New York University Press, 2007). In her book Dr. Gómez "examines how law and racial ideology intersected to create new racial groups and to restructure the turn-of-the-century racial order in the U.S."
The Commemorative Lecture Series in Mexican American History recalls the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848. This year marks the 160th anniversary of this historical event. The lecture and reception are sponsored by the Mexican American Studies Minor, which is administratively located in the Department of History, College of Arts & Sciences.
Prior to moving to the University of New Mexico she taught on the faculty of the UCLA School of Law for 12 years. Prior to the public lecture and book-signing reception, Dr. Gómez will present an informal talk in the Department of History Library (2nd floor, Wooten Hall) from 3:30-4:30 p.m., on Monday, February 2, 2009. The informal plática is intended for any and all graduate and undergraduate students who may be interested in participating, and for faculty who may want to meet Dr. Gómez and get to know her and her work in a more informal setting. Help us invite your students and any interested others to this pre-lecture plática.
The public reception is from 6-7 p.m. and will occur in the area immediately outside of the Lyceum following her lecture. Anyone interested in having dinner with Dr. Gómez once the reception is ended, please join us for dinner at a yet to be determined local eatery for food and conversation. If anyone has any questions they may contact any one of the three members of the lecture series committee in the Department of History, Drs. Denis Paz, Aaron Navarro, and yours truly, for specific details. Mil gracias!
Sincerely, Roberto R. Calderón, Ph.D.Associate Professor,
Department of History, University of North Texas
enton, Texas 76203-0650 Tel. 940.369.8929
“Laura E. Gómez is the author of two books including Manifest Destinies: The Making of the Mexican American Race (New York: New York University Press, 2007), and Misconceiving Mothers: Prosecutors and the Politics of Prenatal Drug Exposure (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997). Professor Gómez has lectured widely and has published numerous articles (including a 2000 article in Law & Society Review), book chapters, and op-ed commentaries. Additional journals in which Professor Gómez has published include the UCLA Chicano-Latino Law Review, UCLA Law Review, and Latin American Perspectives. She is past Associate Editor of the Law & Society Review and a current Member of the Editorial Board for Studies in Law, Politics and Society and past Editorial Board Member of SIGNS. She has also been a reviewer for the American Review of Sociology, Law and Social Inquiry, and Journal of Legal History. She is the President-Elect (Nov. 2008-May 2009) and future President (June 2009-May 2011) for the Law and Society Association. Before joining the UNM faculty in 2005, Dr. Gómez spent 12 years as Professor of Law at UCLA (with a joint appointment in the Sociology Department). She was a co-founder and the first co-director (with Jerry Kang) of UCLA’s Critical Race Studies Program, the first specialized program of study on race and law in any U.S. law school. Born in Roswell, but raised in Albuquerque, New Mexico, she holds a master’s and doctorate in Sociology and a law degree from Stanford University.
|[Don Mercurio Martinez family were our neighbors in the old barrio of La Azteca en Laredo. Texas.. Mercurio Jr. is my age, so we were friend in our teenage years. In fact in met his wife Rosa at our home because my sister Frieda is a friend of Rosa. So we are still see each as old friends. I send out the article sometime ago around 2006. I still have in file.
I hope you enjoy the article written by Luis Uribe, I believe?? Walter L. Herbeck Jr.
Sent by Elsa Herbeck firstname.lastname@example.org]
Another of the Gutierrez daughters, Ignacia, married Jose Dionicio Uribe, the son of Luis Uribe. She was widowed early and moved across the river with her young sons. One of these sons, Blas Maria Uribe, married Juliana Trevino, who was his third cousin and the daughter of Jesus Trevino and Viviana. Don Blas Maria eventually acquired more than half of his father-in-law's holdings and became a highly successful rancher and merchant. His daughter, Maria de Jesus Uribe, was Don Mercurio's mother.
[Mimi, I thought you might be interested in this being we have so many member from Texas. My cousin sent it to me.
Ignacio "Nacho" Pena Ipena777]
TEXAS STATE GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY
GONE TO TEXAS PIONEER CERTIFICATE
The Texas State Genealogical Society (TSGS) will issue Gone to Texas Pioneer Certificates to applicants who are direct descendants of settlers that resided in Texas prior to 1886. Eventually the information submitted will be published. In addition to receiving a Pioneer Certificate, applicants will be helping to p reserve the history of our ancestral pioneers.
ELIGIBILITY: To qualify for a Pioneer Certificate, the applicant does not have to be a TSGS Individual Member. The applicant must prove direct descent from a person who was in Texas prior to 1886.
The applicant need not be a resident of Texas nor have ever lived in Texas. A separate certificate may be issued for each ancestor proven. A payment of $15.00 will be required for each certificate issued. (Fee is not refundable.)
INSTRUCTIONS: There are four steps involved to complete an acceptable application.
1. Complete fill in the application.
2. Fill in the line of descent chart enclosed.
3. Send a copy of your acceptable source of proof. DO NOT SEND ORIGINALS
4. Send a check for $15.00 made payable to TEXAS STATE GENEALOGICAL
SOCIETY, to address shown below. (Fee is not refundable.)
Step 1: Fill in the application giving all of the requested information. We plan to build the
files in Gone to Texas Pioneers, and with that thought in mind, we hope you will
furnish us with as much information as you can.
Step 2: Fill in the attached line of descent chart.
Step 3: Attach one copy (at least one is required but please attach all you have) of original
document per generation as proof of linage. Acceptable items of proof are:
A. Copy of census page that shows year, county, volume or enumeration district,
and page number.
B. Copy of land records or plat book.
C. Birth record – need certificate, church record, Bible entry, etc.
D. Death record – death certificate, mortuary records, tombstone or cemetery
records and name of cemetery.
E. Copy of marriage record.
F. Copy of tax records.
G. Immigration or naturalization records.
H. Obituaries, newspaper clippings, family histories, county histories, published genealogies, personal papers, diaries, letters or journals. NOTE: Biographical statements in printed county histories are not acceptable as the ONLY proof of the date of entry into a county.
Contact TEXAS STATE GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY
c/o Wanda L. Donaldson
3219 Meadow Oaks Drive
Temple, TX 76502-1752
Lingo a way of life for some, Confusing to others.
Nota: Extendemos gracias a Jaime T. Chahin who sent this way back in December 2007 and I had not come across it until today while processing old email files. With that said, I noticed that this very short four-page dictionary of Valley-speak, or Valluco, as it's called in the attached pdf file does not have attribution. That is, no single or set of authors is identified although it is noted that a group of persons were asked for their opinion on this set of dictionary terms for Valley-speak. I had never heard the term Valluco myself, but I can readily see why it might be called by this term. I have copied and pasted the very brief introduction to this Valluco mini-diccionario and I hope that all of you enjoy reading and learning from it as I'm sure others have already. Mil gracias y vamos adelante!
Historia Chicana [Historia]
lingo, or Tex-Mex, or Spanglish, or Valluco, is engrained in
the local culture. It’s not just used by the poor and
uneducated; it is a common language spoken by all who live in
the Rio Grande Valley. Valluco is a mixture of Spanish and
English which forms a hybrid language that has been spoken in
the Valley for generations. Spanish is spoken in many dialects
throughout the world; there are at least 20 dialects to date.
In South America, indigenous languages are often combined with
Spanish. The same can be said in Hawaii, where Samoan and
Tongan are spoken with English. And though the people who were
polled to compile this list believe that one should learn
proper English and Spanish, they feel that Valluco is part of
what makes the Valley unique. The following is a list of
colloquialisms that are most often used by Rio Grande Valley
residents (Note: words are followed by English
translation and in proper Spanish, in some cases, with
La Wyfa – wife; esposa
Pisto – shot of alcohol / drink; trago
Sangre de chango – iodine; yodo
Menso – idiot; idiota
Mochate – share; compartir Ex. "You bought pizza? Mochate con un slice"
Cuete – drunk; borracho Ex. "Kiko se puso bien cuete"
Destrampado – drunk; borracho
Hasta al hood – drunk; borracho
Pedo – usually
means drunk; borracho…
but there are several different ways to use this term, for
Chiflado/a – spoiled; malcriado/a
Chamorro – calves; pantorrilla
Chanclas – flip-flops; sandalias
El papel – newspaper; periodico
Rata – thief; ladron
No te aguites – Don’t feel embarrassed; avergonzar
Vistas – movie theater; cine
Tickete – ticket; boleto
Guajolote – turkey; pavo
Turnio – cross-eyed; bizco
Si′mon – yes; si
Ex. "Did you bring lunch, today? Si’mon"
Chansa – chance; opportunidad
Ex. "Dale chansa" (Give him a chance)
Sonso – silly; bobo
Ex. If someone runs into a glass siding door, the response would be "sonso!"
Vironga – beer; cerveza
Ex. "Traime una vironga" (bring me a beer)
Frajo/Cigaro – cigarette; cigarillo
Ex. "Mochate con un frajo" (May I have a cigarette)
Guines (wee-nés) – franks, hot dog; salchicha
Cay’ke – cake; pastel
Troca – truck; camioneta
Mapear – to mop; trapiar
Encuerado – naked; desnudo
Codo – short for the Spanish word "codicioso," means stingy, greedy
Watcha – look ; mira
Hay te watcho – see you later; hasta luego
Calar – to try something; probar
Chamba – job; trabajo
Horquia – clothespin; pinza para tender ropa
Blanquillos – eggs; huevos
Biles – bills; cuentas
Ex. "Ya me voy para pagar los biles"
Parquear – to park; estacionar
Ex. "No hay room para parquear" (there is nowhere to park)
Safado – off his or her rocker; loco(a)
Ex. "The Martinez boy is safado"
Soflamero(a) - one who is melodramatic; melodramatico
Catos – punches; puňetazos
Ex. "Te voy a meter catos" (I’m going to punch you)
Bien de aquellas – cool; excelente
Ex. "Your new car has spinners, ta bien de aquellas"
Chillon(a) – crybaby; lloron(a)
Chillando – to cry; llorando
Feriar mi cheque – cash my check; cobrar
El bote – jail; carcel
La Pinta – jail; carcel
Escuelin – school; escuela
Lonche – lunch; almuerzo
Ranfla – car; auto
Canton – house; casa
Chante – my house, my turf
Chones – underwear; calzones
Cachucha – baseball cap; gorra
Sacatines – socks; calcetines
Flacucho(a) – super skinny, comes from the word flaco.
Gordiflon(a) – super fat; comes from the word gordo.
Nalgada – to spank; dar una zurra
Comelon – one who eats a lot, gloton
Triliado(a) – thrilled; emocionado
Cuates – twins; gemelos, gemelas
Papelera – drama queen
Pistiar – to drink alcohol
Ex. "My with wife said that I can’t go pistiar with you guys no more"
Porriar – to party
Ex. "My wife is out of town! Vamos a porriar"
Ese – dude, man.
Ex. Eh, ese, where did you get those Stacey’s from?
Vato – similar to "dude"
Cholo(a) – low class, gangster
Buey – (pronounced "whey") dude, friend; see "te sales" below for use in a sentence.
Pachuco(a) - another term for cholo; also called ‘chuco for short.
Cuartito – a small room. In the valley, it means the "utility room" or a "tool shed." Nearly every household has a cuartito or, at least, its equivalent.
La regas – to botch something
Ex. "You ate your carnalito’s birthday cake before the party, ese? La regas."
Te sales – similar to la regas.
Ex. "You stole $10 from your mom’s purse, buey? Te sales."
Sale – to leave; depart.
Ex. "I’m tired of this party, Sale!"
A todo dar – awesome.
Ex. "It was real hot yesterday, but I jumped in my little brother’s pool and it felt a todo dar, ese"
Ruco(a) – boy / girl; chico(a)
Vato – guy; chico.
El Bos – the bus; autobus.
Ex. "How did you get here? Response: Me vine en el bos."
Me das ride – give me a ride
Tirar a la leon – toss aside; to ignore something
Chimuelo(a) – missing teeth
Chamaco(a) – young boy / girl; chico(a)
Carnalito(a) / Carnal(a) – little brother or sister; brother / sister
Chale – whatever, or forget that
Ex. "You want me to mow the lawn for $10? Chale, ese! I’ll do it for $20."
Chismolero(a) – one who gossips; chismoso
Comadriando – women hanging out; gossiping
Primo – it means cousin, but can be used regarding a close friend as well
Ex. "Hey, primo, you got $5 you can lend me?"
Mano – short for hermano, but also used among friends; proper Spanish word for hand
Cornflays – cornflakes; cereal
Postostes – Post Toasties; cereal
Me caes peseta / me caes gordo – you annoy me
Mi / La jefita – my mother; jefa means female boss
Chongo – in Mexico and South Texas, it means ponytail
Sas! – a thump, similar to English words "Pow!" & "Bam!"
Ex. "He was walking in the kitchen and then, Sas! He ran into the screen door."
Palo – A sudden collision, similar to the term Sas!
"Juanito was walking down the street and then, Palo! The viejio Hernandez ran over him with his truck."
Jale – (several definitions)
"Tengo que ir al jale" (I need to go to work)
"Que es ese jale" (What’s that thing?)
"Puro jale" (a lot of jive / all work)
Chota – the police
Hasle – the verb, to do.
"Hasle call on the telephone"
"Hasle change al channel"
"Hasle un tattoo de la Virgin Mary"
Te aventaste – you did a great job; Bravo!
Beepiar – to beep; to page someone’s beeper (back in the day of "beepers")
Cherife – the sheriff
Se le callo la garra – going too far; to act up
Ex. "I gave Jose $20 to go to the Carnival and I expected change, but se le callo la garra, and he spent it all!
Saca la daga – job well done
Ex. "Pepito painted my ride, ese, y se saca la daga."
Cantar – to call someone out; incite an altercation
Ex. "Meme was mad at Chito y se las canto"
Te Bañas – literally means to bathe; parting phrase
"Orale, Chon, I’ll see you tomorrow. Eh, te bañas"
Borlote – commotion
Pasiguate – settle down
La migra – Border patrol
Pichioniar – to make out
Po’pe – wedgie
Fantocha – show off; ostentatious
Kool Lay – Kool-Aid
El H-E-B (el ay-shee-bee) – H.E.B. grocery store
Ex. "Where did you get those fajitas? En el H-E-B"
Donas – donuts
Piscar – to work in the fields
Bicks – Vick’s vapor rub ("vapo-rüb")
Welo(a) – short for abuelo(a); means grandpa and grandma
Bien arregladito – nice and tidy
Ex. "He’s got his room bien arregladito"
Hay que chula – how pretty
Churritos – curls
Chacheton – one with chubby cheeks
Patas – means paw or animal foot but incorrectly referred to as human feet; correct: pie(s).
Jambon(a) – a thief; ladron. Also see rata (rat).
El Cucuy – most Mexican children have been scared by the legend of El Cucuy, which pretty much means ghost or entity you’d rather not see when the lights are off. Note: very effective with those 8 years of age and under.
Chavalon(a) – small boy / girl; niño(a).
Wino/(a) – similar to the English synonym for alcoholics
Rines – rims on a car
Neta – for real; really
Milagros! – that’s surprising; similar to Spanish word milagro (miracle).
Ex. "Neta? Hector wants to go out tonight? Milagros! He never likes to go out."
Muncho – means mucho, a substantial number of people add "n" in the middle.
Pipa – smoking pipe; reference to plumbing pipes
N’ombre – reluctant to abide
Ex. "Can you pass the remote to the TV? N’ombre, you always put it on Lifetime"
Palomilla – the whole family; the whole gang
Ralea – the whole family; all the children
Esquina – to give support, especially in a quarrel
Ex. "Hey, vato, Chino and his brothers are coming over here to start pedo, me tiras esquina or what?
Pones gorro – meaning "you’re annoying"
Juega la fria – meaning "play it cool"
Ex. "Hey dude, juega la fria, I don’t want to get arrested"
Cojer – to
engage in sexual intercourse
Ex. "Do you know Rene? That guy is a mamon!"
Camote – friend; also used to describe a person who is always by your side. Literal translation (English): Sweet potato
Camarada – friend, pal; amigo
Ex. "You and Pepe are real camotes/camaradas? No?
No mames – meaning "stop lying" or "stop messing around"; Literal Translation (English ): "don’t suck."
Bronca – a problem which is sought to be resolved by a physical altercation
Ex. "Why are you looking at me? Trais bronca?"
Te meto la pompa andar – meaning "I am going to put a beating on you;" usually in response to the preceding phrase.
La cagas – a phrase used to express dislike for another’s actions; similar to Te Sales and La Regas (above).
Ex. "Why did you do that, dude? La cagas."
The Louisiana Division is a reference division which collects resources relating to the study of Louisiana and its citizens and to the city of New Orleans and New Orleanians. Other areas of concentration are the Mississippi River, the Gulf of Mexico, and the South. Included within the Division's collections are books by or about Louisianians; city, regional, and state documents; manuscripts, maps, newspapers, periodicals, microfilms, photographs, slides, motion pictures, sound recordings, video tapes, postcards, and ephemera of every sort.
The Louisiana Division also houses the City Archives, the official repository for the records of New Orleans municipal government (1769-present), and holds on deposit the pre-1927 records of the civil courts and the pre-1932 records of the criminal courts of Orleans Parish.
Special Collections maintained by the Division are the Rare Vertical File, the Carnival Collection, the Louisiana Photograph Collection, the Map Collection, the Menu Collection, the Postcard Collection, the Manuscript Collection, and the Rare Book Collection.
The Division's extensive Genealogy Collection contains books, periodicals and microfilms with emphasis on New Orleans, Louisiana, the Southeast United States, Nova Scotia, France, and Spain.
Louisiana History: Old and New Place Names
genealogy, history and culture
Louisiana History: Old and New Place Names
There are many references in the early Louisiana records to place names that have changed or some that remain the same but aren't incorporated areas. This page will provide the old and new names or a description of the old and current location.
Genealogy Reports; Surname Reports; Militia Rosters; Census Records; Acadian Exiles & Prisoners; Genealogy/History Books & Music CDs; Ship Records
Sent by Bill Carmena JCarm1724@aol.com
EXAMPLES OF THE KIND OF INFORMATION FOR LOUISIANA HISTORY
Repatriation of Mexican Community in Detroit
Yesterday I sent out some scans of a short history of immigrant struggles from the LA Committee To Defend the Foreign born and got this response from Elena Herada in Detroit that deserves sharing
Thank you for sending this important information. When our little group in Detroit began researching the story of the repatriation of our families during the Depression, we could find very little information. We could find less about who fought it, what some of the discussions were, who tried to stand up against the attacks, etc.
Thus began our journey of oral history in the Mexican community in Detroit. When i ask people to share their stories now, we do have people who call and ask to be interviewed, unlike the wall of silence we originally hit when we asked about this dark period. Our families were under such attack that they separated themselves from other Mexicans, moving away and losing their lifeline to community. When we began to record our history, we had to hold "Spanish for Chicanos" classes to be able to communicate sufficiently with the elders and those who had not returned to the US during the repatriation. That's when we began to piece together our history, thus, ourselves.
We had no idea what kind of spiritual and cultural massacre our elders had endured. That was our inheritance, but we did not know any of it. It's better now, but we have a long way to go.
We have a pretty different history in the midwest.
Since that time, we meet regularly to gather documents and information, hold meetings and gatherings in the communities around the state and ask for people to do these oral histories in their own families. We had a lot of discussion on where the materials would be kept. I was afraid that if there was ever a fire in my little old rasquache house in Detroit, i would lose ours and everyone else's original documents and histories we had written and recorded.
So it ended up in the Detroit Public library in the Burton Historical Collection.
The reason i take your important time to mention this is because it seemed to me at first that there was no record of resistance in Detroit. Mexicans like my family were displaced by freeways three times. My grandfather was certain the bulldozers followed him no matter where he went to avoid demolition. No one from the Catholic Church fought the deportations of the new and vulnerable community of auto workers and their families. Only Diego Rivera fought the battle and the people who joined with him in the Liga Obrera (for which we have named our Centro Obrero) ended up getting harrassed by the government and accused of communist activity. We learned much later why our community acts so conservative and hid from all census takers, etc. We had no idea why we act like we do. We could not even get our parents to fill out financial aid forms when we finally, in the 1970s got access to the University.
Future generations, like the current explosion of NAFTA babies come to claim their inheritance and it would be awful for them to think we did nothing in our own defense. Not much is written about the battles waged endlessly to defend our communities from bulldozers, discrimination, the fight for bilingual education, for inclusion in the most basic rights and services. That's why we urge people to record their own stories and donate copies of their stuff to the Detroit Public Library, where we can take our place in the official record of those who built Detroit.
We have been here for a long time, relatively speaking. 1920s. In the auto plants, in the beet fields, in the steel mills, in the orchards. And we are still invisible to the historic record.
Thank you again for your amazing and important work!!!
Sent by Rosalio Munoz email@example.com
Select by Parish
this unique one stop resource covering more than 6,100
cemeteries. The most comprehensive data available
for all 64 of Louisiana's parishes is presented in an
engaging format. http://www.la-cemeteries.com
The Michigan COMMITEEE TO HONOR CESAR E. CHAVEZ GOALS
is seeking funds
for their 2009 year for:
The Mission of the committee:
•Sustain the legacy of César E. Chávez, founder of the United Farm Workers. His tireless commitment inspired countless migrant farm workers and other community members to join the movement for social change.
•Advance the educational goals of Hispanic youth pursuing a college education, by raising $100,000 to endow a fund in order to award ten annual $1,000 scholarships a year. The Committee is just $15,000 away from reaching its goal. With your support it can be done! “Sí Sé Puede!”
•Honor organizations and distinguished individuals who have enhanced the Hispanic community.
The Committee to Honor César E. Chávez invites you to purchase a sponsorship level with marketing benefits at three high profile Hispanic community events for one price. We offer five sponsorship levels for your consideration. All proceeds will go directly to the César Chávez Fund.
In 2009, the Committee shall host the annual Hispanic Excellence Scholarship Gala, award six $1,000 scholarships, host the annual Social Justice March/ Excellence Awards, and Cinco de Mayo Celebration. The Committee shall also present the GRCC Foundation with a check toward the scholarship endowment fund. For more information, please contact us.
Lupe Ramos-Montigny, Chairperson Edward Sosa,
Sponsorships Omar Cuevas, Sponsorships firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Extraordinary Woman Award
are writing to invite you participate in
Extraordinary Woman Award event, which will be held on Sunday
march 8th 2009 at the Radisson Hotel in 2081 Post Road,
Warwick, R.I. at
Extraordinary Woman Award was initiated in March 2001 with the goal of
recognizing the outstanding work that women perform in different areas
of our community contributing every day to the improvement of the
have chosen to celebrate this event on March 8th of every
year, because this date also commemorates International Women’s Day.
We considered this a very important and historical date,
because from the beginning of humanity, women have been limited to
assume caregivers roles, as a result, women have been perceived as
playing a “secondary” role in the development of our society.
is our 9th year of recognizing women’s achievements in all areas of
social life, including Education, Professional and Business
Development, Community Involvement, Cultural Enrichment, Health,
Politics, Communications, Exceptional Mother and Extraordinary woman
for the Future. We would be honored if you join us in this year’s
celebration. If you choose
to participate as a sponsor, we will grant you a space in our adbook
Guest Speaker, this year will be the Senate President of
women we will be recognizing this year are: Grace
Gonzalez, Ida valentine, Rosa Quiñones Crowley, Denise Barge, Jenny
Rosario, Julianne Jennings,Carmen Tavarez, Teresa Paiva-Weed and
women we will be recognizing this year are: Grace
Gonzalez, Ida valentine, Rosa Quiñones Crowley, Denise Barge, Jenny
Rosario, Julianne Jennings,Carmen Tavarez, Teresa Paiva-Weed and
|16th Century Hacienda Galindo
Rebautizarán avenida en honor a Israel Cavazos
Don Antonio de Vedia y Dona Teresa Javiera de Pinto hijos
En homenaje a Enriqueta Ochoa
Martyrs of the Religious Persecution during the Mexican Revolution († 1916-37)
1524 la Malinche and her husband, Juan Jaramillo, lived in the
region of San Juan del Rio. Cortes suggested to Jaramillo that he
build a ranch for his wife. Although she passed away shortly
afterward, the family preserved the Mayorazgo de la Llave until
1582, when the property was divided marking the beginning of the
Hacienda de Galindo. Although the Mayorazgo de la Llave was
gradually reduced in size over the years, the Hacienda de Galindo
grew to become the most important in the region during the 18th and
19th centuries. On the 6,107 hectares bulls, cattle and sheep were
the Revolution the Hacienda de Galindo suffered the distribution of
its lands leaving only the construction which became a privately
owned museum endowed with magnificent works of art. However, the
history of de Galindo as a hacienda had come to an end.
Acquired by a hotel chain in 1971, the monumental task of restoration began to convert the property into a luxury hotel. As of 1997 the Hacienda Galindo forms part of the Fiesta Americana hotel chain, which refurbished the installations. Today this is a remarkable destination to live and enjoy history.
Rebautizarán avenida en honor a Israel Cavazos
La alcaldesa Cristina Díaz Salazar, señaló que el cambio de nombre de la avenida, que abarca desde la Colonia Rincón de la Sierra hasta los límites con Apodaca, se realizará el 2 de enero, día en que Cavazos Garza cumple 82 años de vida.
Guadalupe, NL.- Ayer, el municipio de Guadalupe aprobó cambiar el nombre de la Avenida México y rebautizarla como Avenida Maestro Israel Cavazos Garza.
La alcaldesa Cristina Díaz Salazar, señaló que el cambio de nombre de la avenida, que abarca desde la Colonia Rincón de la Sierra hasta los límites con Apodaca, se realizará el 2 de enero, día en que Cavazos Garza cumple 82 años de vida.
La alcaldesa explicó que el reconocimiento a Israel Cavazos Garza ocurre porque con su prolífica trayectoria como historiador, llevó el nombre de Guadalupe a un nivel internacional.
“La Avenida México llevará el nombre de un ilustre guadalupense, el maestro Israel Cavazos Garza, que ha puesto muy en alto a nuestro municipio con reconocimientos a nivel internacional”, expresó la funcionaria.
“Ha recibido la condecoración de la Orden de Isabel la Católica, del Rey Felipe en España, además de reconocimiento de universidades de Francia, Estados Unidos, América del sur, Portugal; es un hombre sabio”, afirmó.
La munícipe agregó que una vez que se publique el cambio de nombre en la Gaceta Municipal y el Diario Oficial del Estado, la Dirección de Vialidad deberá cambiar toda la nomenclatura para colocar la nueva con el nombre de Maestro Israel Cavazos Garza.
Source: Multimedios TV Canal 12, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Sent by: Manuel Quinones, Jr
1) Captain-Alcalde Vicente Vedia y Pinto, de Castilla, Espana se caso con Dona Maria-Severiana Trinidad Flores de Valdez, 02 Dec 1799, Iglesia San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon Mexico, hija de Don Jose Manuel Flores de Valdez y Ramon de Burgos y Dona Maria Josefa Mendiola Chapa.
i) Jose-Vicente-Saturnino Vedia-Flores, b. 01 Dec 1801, Vallecillo
ii) Isabel-del-Carmen-Aprocopia Vedia-y-Flores-de-Valdez, b. 11 Jul 1805, Vallecillo
iii) Jose-Patricio Vedia-Flores, b. 19 Mar 1807 Vallecillo, caso 12 Sep 1829 Vallecillo, con Maria-de-Jesus Lozano-Ruiz, hija de Don Juan Angel Lozano-Rodriguez y Dona Maria Ramona Ruiz-Rodriguez.
Hijos, Jose-Ramon, Jose-Sipriano, Jose-Vicente, Jose-Sabas , Cresencio ,
Jose-Angel, y Maria-de-Jesus .
iv) Jose-Manuel-Thorivio Vedia-Flores, b. 19 Apr 1809 Vallecillo
v) Jose-Juan-Luis Vedia-Flores, b. 24 Jun 1812 Vallecillo
vi) Maria-del-Carmen Vedia-Flores, b. 18 Nov 1814 Vallecillo, caso 12 Nov 1832 en Vallecillo, con Don Jose-Guadalupe Elizondo-de-los-Santos, hijo de Don Marciano Elizondo y Dona Maria Salome de los Santos Coy.
Hijos: Maria-Carlota, y Jose-Marcimiano.
vii) Maria-de-los-Dolores-Matiana Vedia-Flores, 02 Mar 1817 Vallecillo, caso
05 Sep 1833, Vallecillo, con Don Jose Carlos Elizondo de los Santos Coy,
hijo de Don Marciano Elizondo y Dona Maria Salome de los Santos Coy.
Hijos: Jose-de-Jesus, Maria-Micaela, Maria-Guadalupe, Jose-Carlos-Ascencio,
2) Don Santiago Vedia-y-Pinto de Monterrey, se caso 04 Feb 1801 Vallecillo, con Maria-Petra de-la-Santos-Cantu, hija de Capitan Juan-Eduardo de-los-Santos
Y Dona Maria-Petra Cantu.
Hijos: Domingo-Antonio y Maria-de-los-Dolores
Compilar: John Inclan-Canales
En homenaje a Enriqueta
Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico is honoring poet Enriqueta Ochoa this month. Enriqueta Ochoa is one of the most popular poets in Mexico. She passed away on January 12, 2008. I am also sending her Obituary. . . . Mercy Bautista Olvera
El Icocult Laguna presentará un libro
dedicado a Enriqueta Ochoa.
TORREÓN, COAH.- Como una ofrenda
verbal para la fallecida escritora lagunera Enriqueta Ochoa, el
Instituto Coahuilense de Cultura Laguna y escritores de la región se
unieron para confeccionar el libro Coral para Enriqueta Ochoa. Este
material será presentado el próximo 27 de enero de 2009 a las 8:00 de
la noche, en las instalaciones del Icocult Laguna con entrada libre.
Enriqueta Ochoa murió a principios de
diciembre de 2008 en la Ciudad de México a los 80 años de edad y
algunos meses antes había recibido un especial homenaje nacional
organizado en el Distrito Federal.
El Fondo de Cultura Económica publicó
su obra completa en un libro titulado Poesía Reunida, lo que constituye
sin duda el hito bibliográfico más importante que un lagunero haya
marcado en la historia de las letras mexicanas.
Tras la muerte de Enriqueta se han
realizado diversos homenajes a los cuales se une el Icocult Laguna con
la publicación de este libro que aunque es pequeño en dimensiones el título
Coral para Enriqueta Ochoa contiene textos que evidencian el respeto, la
admiración y el afecto que varios escritores de La Laguna tienen por la
autora de Retorno de Electra.
Cabe mencionar que la compilación, el
prólogo y el cuidado de la edición de Coral para Enriqueta Ochoa
estuvieron a cargo del reconocido escritor lagunero Jaime Muñoz Vargas,
asesor del área literaria en el Icocult Laguna.
la poetisa mexicana Enriqueta Ochoa
Dejó terminado un "Diccionario de imágenes poéticas",
que sería publicado por el Conaculta y el Instituto Veracruzano de la
México.-La poetisa Enriqueta Ochoa (Coahuila, 1928) falleció
esta tarde, víctima de una trombosis intestinal, informó su yerno, el
también escritor Alejandro Sandoval Avila.
La autora de libros
Sus restos serán velados esta noche en una agencia funeraria de
Félix Cuevas y cremados este martes.
"Fue una muerte prácticamente sin dolor. Su salud estaba
muy deteriorada pues padecía males cardiacos y renales", explicó
Alejandro Sandoval, quien le dio a Enriqueta Ochoa tres nietas:
Alejandra, Ana Sofía y Julia.
La poetisa dejó terminado un libro en el que trabajó durante 15
años. Se trata de un Diccionario de imágenes poéticas, que sería
editado por el Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (Conaculta)
y el Instituto Veracruzano de la Cultura (IVEC).
"Es un libro terminado, una idea muy interesante y agradable
porque trata sobre la manera cómo los poetas
Enriqueta Ochoa, perteneció a una generación de mujeres poetas
En esa misma ceremonia, el Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (INBA),
a través de su Coordinación Nacional de Literatura, le otorgó la
Medalla de Bellas Artes, como reconocimiento a su trayectoria literaria
y su influencia sobre las nuevas generaciones de poetas mexicanos.
Enriqueta Ochoa combinó las letras con el trabajo docente, el
periodismo y la promoción cultural. Entre sus obras literarias están
"Los himnos del ciego" (1968), "Las vírgenes terrestres"
(1969), "Cartas para el hermano" (1969), "Retorno de
Electra" (1973), "Bajo el oro pequeño de los trigos"
(1984), "Canción a Moisés" (1984) y "Enriqueta Ochoa de
Fue profesora en la Universidad Veracruzana, la Universidad Autónoma
del Estado de México, la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y en
la escuela de la Sociedad General de Escritores de México (SOGEM). Además,
impulsó talleres literarios para el INBA en
Miembro del Sistema Nacional de Creadores de Arte desde 1999, el
Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes y el gobierno de Coahuila
crearon en 1994 el "Premio Nacional de Poesía Enriqueta
Ochoa". Su obra forma parte de las principales antologías de
autores mexicanos y han sido traducidos al francés, inglés, japonés y
"Creo que Enriqueta se fue con la seguridad de que había cumplido", concluyó Alejandro Sandoval.
Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Martyrs of the Religious Persecution during the Mexican Revolution [I] ~ († 1916-37)
CRISTOBAL MAGALLANES JARA AND 24 COMPANION MARTYRS
Go to the site for more information.
30 January 1915 in Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)
1. DAVID GALVÁN BERMÚDEZ * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 29 January 1881 in Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)
15 August 1926 in Chalchihuites, Zacatecas (Mexico)
2. LUIS BATIS SÁINZ ** priest of the diocese of Durango
born: 13 September 1870 in Miguel Auza
(a.k.a. San Miguel del Mezquital), Zacatecas (Mexico)
3. MANUEL MORALES ** layperson of the diocese of Durango; married
born: 08 February 1898 in Mesillas, Zacatecas (Mexico)
4. DAVID ROLDÁN LARA ** young layperson of the diocese of Durango
born: 02 March 1902 in Chalchihuites, Zacatecas (Mexico)
5. SALVADOR LARA PUENTE ** young layperson of the diocese of Durango
born: 13 August 1905 in Berlín, Durango (Mexico)
17 January 1927 in Tecototlán, Jalisco (Mexico)
6. JENARO SÁNCHEZ DELGADILLO * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 19 September 1886 in Agualele, Jalisco (Mexico)
06 February 1927 in Durango City, Durango (Mexico)
7. MATEO CORREA MAGALLANES ** priest of the diocese of Durango
born: 23 July 1866 in Tepechitlán, Zacatecas (Mexico)
30 March 1927 in San Julián, Jalisco (Mexico)
8. JULIO ÁLVAREZ MENDOZA * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 20 December 1866 in Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)
11 April 1927 in San José Vidal, Vista Hermosa, Morelia (Mexico)
9. DAVID URIBE VELASCO *** priest of the diocese of Chilpancingo
born: 29 December 1889 in Buenavista de Cuéllar, Guerrero (Mexico)
13 April 1927 in Tototlán, Jalisco (Mexico)
10. SABAS REYES SALAZAR * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 05 December 1883 in Cocula, Jalisco (Mexico)
21 April 1927 in Yahualica, Jalisco (Mexico)
11. ROMÁN ADAME ROSALES * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 27 February 1859 in Teocaltiche, Jalisco (Mexico)
25 May 1927 in Colotlán, Jalisco (Mexico)
12. CRISTÓBAL MAGALLANES JARA * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 30 July 1869 in La Sementera, Totatiche, Jalisco (Mexico)
13. AGUSTÍN CALOCA CORTÉS * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 05 May 1898 in Teúl de González Ortega, Zacatecas (Mexico)
21 June 1927 in Zapotlanejo, Jalisco (Mexico)
14. JOSÉ ISABEL FLORES VARELA * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 28 November 1866 in Teúl de González Ortega, Zacatecas (Mexico)
26 June 1927 in Quila, Jalisco (Mexico)
15. JOSÉ MARÍA ROBLES HURTADO * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara;
founder, Hermanas del Corazón de Jesús Sacramentado
born: 03 May 1888 in Mascota, Jalisco (Mexico)
07 August 1927 in Colima City, Colima (Mexico)
16. MIGUEL DE LA MORA y DE LA MORA ***** priest of the diocese of Colima
born: 19 June 1878 in Tecalitlán, Jalisco (Mexico)
28 October 1927 in Ejutla, Jalisco (Mexico)
17. RODRIGO AGUILAR ALEMÁN * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 13 February 1875 in Sayula, Jalisco (Mexico)
12 November 1927 in Tulimán, Guerrero (Mexico)
18. MARGARITO FLORES GARCÍA *** priest of the diocese of Chilpancingo
born: 22 February 1899 in Taxco, Guerrero (Mexico)
22 November 1927 in Teocaltitán, Jalisco (Mexico)
19. PEDRO ESQUEDA RAMÍREZ * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 29 April 1887 in San Juan de los Lagos, Jalisco (Mexico)
05 February 1928 in Valtierrilla, Guanajuato (Mexico)
20. JESÚS MÉNDEZ MONTOYA **** priest of the diocese of Morelia
born: 10 June 1880 in Tarímbaro, Michoacán (Mexico)
25 February 1928 in Agua Caliente, Tequila, Jalisco (Mexico)
21. TORIBIO ROMO GONZÁLEZ * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 16 April 1900 in Jalostotilán, Jalisco (Mexico)
01 July 1928 in Las Cruces, Cuquío, Jalisco (Mexico)
22. JUSTINO ORONA MADRIGAL * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara;
founder, Hermanas Clarisas del Sagrado Corazón
born: 14 April 1877 in Cuyucapán, Atoyac, Jalisco (Mexico)
23. ATILANO CRUZ ALVARADO * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 05 October 1901 in Ahuetita de Abajo, Teocaltiche, Jalisco (Mexico)
05 October 1928 in Tepatitlán, Jalisco (Mexico)
24. TRANQUILINO UBIARCO ROBLES * priest of the archdiocese of Guadalajara
born: 08 July 1899 in Zapotlán el Grande (a.k.a. Ciudad Guzmán), Jalisco (Mexico)
11 February 1937 in Chihuáhua City, Chihuáhua (Mexico)
25. PEDRO DE JESÚS MALDONADO LUCERO priest of the archdiocese of Chihuáhua
born: 15 June 1892 in Chihuáhua City, Chihuáhua (Mexico)
competent diocese: Guadalajara
CCS protocol number: 1407 (* formerly prot. no. 117;
** formerly prot. no. 1255;
*** formerly prot. no. 1256;
**** formerly prot. no. 1257;
***** formerly prot. no. 1258)
type of cause: martyrdom
opening of diocesan inquiry: 22 August 1960
closing of diocesan inquiry:
decree on validity of diocesan inquiry: 24 May 1991
consignment of Positio to CCS:
session of historical consulters:
meeting of theological consulters:
congregation of CCS cardinals and bishops:
promulgation of decree on martyrdom: 07 March 1992
beatification: 22 November 1992
opening of diocesan inquiry on miracle for canonization:
closing of diocesan inquiry on miracle for canonization:
decree on validity of inquiry on miracle:
session of medical consultors:
meeting of theological consultors:
congregation of CCS cardinals and bishops:
promulgation of decree on miracle:
canonization: 21 May 2000
petitioner: Oficina de las Causas de Beatificación de Guadalajara, Calle Garibaldi 770,
Col. Centro, Guadalajara, Jal., 44100 , MEXICO
[Martyrs of Mexico (2): Miguel Flores de la Cruz and Andrés Galindo]|
Sent by Bill Carmena JCarm1724@aol.com
The Hagiography Circle is a body of young scholars bound by a common interest in “re-telling” the lives of contemporary models of holiness who, within the past seven years, have dedicated some of their time to reading, translating, and reflecting on biographies sent to us by promoters of beatification and canonization causes.
This generosity has enabled us to establish a collection of hundreds of biographies in English, Italian, Spanish, French, German, Polish, Latin, Chinese, Hungarian, and other languages, as well as thousands of photographs of these models of holiness.
This website is the result of years of research and collaboration between the members of the Hagiography Circle with the Congregation of the Causes of Saints and the petitioners of beatification and canonization causes. In establishing this website, we would like to share with our visitors the fruits of our labor and contemplation.
| NUEVO SANTANDER
Having been in Nueva España for almost 150 years, it was not until the new province of Nuevo Santander came into being that our ancestors firmly planted their roots, nurtured them and cultivated them into a lasting legacy. A brief review of how and why Nuevo Santander came into being is thus necessary since it played such an important role in the history of so many South Texas families.
In the early 1700’s those areas that today comprise the Mexican state of Tamaulipas and South Texas were still the domain of native Indian tribes. Spain had not yet attempted to settle those areas, but the English and French had a well known interest in establishing a presence in lands that Spain claimed as her own. The extension of Spanish settlements into northern Mexico and Texas was thus prompted by a desire to halt English and French encroachments into Spanish territory and by a need to populate those regions to stop the Indian raids into the more populated regions of New Spain. The man chosen to head the colonization effort was Lieutenant Captain General Jose de Escandon, a native of the province of Santander in Spain and a man with a distinguished military career in New Spain.
Escandon received his appointment in September 1746, with orders to map the region and submit a proposal for entering the region and a plan for subjugating the natives. Escandon first initiated a detailed exploration of the region by dispatching seven different expeditions to survey the region and record their observations. Each expedition started from a different point within New Spain and all were to converge at the mouth of the Rio Grande. The starting points for the seven expeditions were Tampico, Villa de Valles (modern day Ciudad Valles), Queretaro, Linares (in Nuevo Leon), Cerralvo (in Nuevo Leon), Monclova (in Coahuila), and the presidio of La Bahia (near modern day Goliad, Texas). The Cerralvo group, under the command of Blas Maria de la Garza Falcon, departed Cerralvo on January 21, 1747, and reached the mouth of the Rio Grande a few days before the Queretaro group arrived on February 24, 1747. The remaining groups arrived later, except for the La Bahia group which for some unexplained reason ended up at el Paso del Cantaro (near modern day Roma, Texas) and sent their report to Escandon.
After the initial expeditions, almost two years passed in making ready for one of the greatest colonization efforts ever undertaken in the New World. The initial caravan was headed by Escandon and left Queretaro in December 1748; it was comprised of 750 soldiers and 2500 colonizers. The caravan picked up additional colonizers as it traveled northward to San Luis Potosi and then onward to Tula. Settlements established by this caravan were:
Villa de Llera de Canales (modern day Llera, Tamaulipas, to the south of Ciudad Victoria) (website), was founded on December 25, 1748. Escandon named it in honor of his wife Josefa de Llera y Ballas (he subsequently added de Canales in honor of a general named Servando Canales). Left in charge of 44 families and 11 soldiers was Capt. Jose de Escajadilla.
San Fernando de Güemes (modern day Güemez, Tamaulipas, north of Ciudad Victoria) was established on January 1, 1749. Escandon named it in honor of the Viceroy Juan Francisco de Guemes Horcasitas Aguayo, the Count of Revillagigedo. Forty families and six soldiers remained there under the charge of Capt. Felipe Téllez Girón.
San Antonio de Padilla (modern day Padilla, Tamaulipas) was established about 10 leagues northeast of San Fernando de Güemes on January 6, 1749. Escandon named it in honor of Doña Maria Padilla, the wife of the Count of Revillagigedo. Placed under the command of Capt. Gregorio de la Paz, it was comprised of 30 families and 11 soldiers. The settlers were from Rio Blanco, Linares and Hidalgo.
Villa de Santander de los Cinco Señores (modern day Jimenez, Tamaulipas) (website) was established on February 17, 1749, and made the capital of the new colony of Nuevo Santander. Left in charge of 60 families and 12 soldiers was Capt. Guevara. Escandon named it after his home province of Santander in Spain. He also built his own home here and made the villa the capital of the new province of Nuevo Santander. This villa was the future birthplace of my father-in-law Mauro Alcala and the birthplace of several generations of his ancestors. It is quite probable they were descended from one of the original settlers, Jose de Alcala and his wife Maria Guadalupe, but I have not yet made that connection. In his inspection tour of 1757, Don Jose Tienda de Cuervo noted that Jose de Alcala had a hacienda of major livestock about 1½ leagues from the villa, had six children, all arms and ten horses.
Nuestra Señora de Loreto (modern day Burgos, Tamaulipas) (website) was founded a few days later with Capt. Jose Antonio Leal in charge of 30 colonists and 8 soldiers.
After the caravan was joined by a group of colonizers from Nuevo Leon led by Capt. Nicolas Merino, Escandon left this caravan and traveled northward to the point where the San Juan River enters the Rio Grande. Arriving there, Escandon discovered that the Cerralvo caravan was already there, busily establishing a settlement:
Nuestra Señora de Santa Ana de Camargo (modern day Camargo, Tamaulipas) was officially founded on March 5, 1749. Capt. Blas Maria de la Garza Falcon was in charge of 40 families, mainly from Nuevo Leon, and a few soldiers. Among the initial settlers were Diego Longoria and his family, including sons Matias, Vicente and Pedro. Camargo was the key settlement in our family history as many of our Longoria ancestors were among the initial settlers of Camargo. One branch of these Longorias, comprised of three sons of Matias Longoria, eventually resettled to a new settlement further down the Rio Grande. This new settlement became modern day Matamoros, across the river from Brownsville. It was in Brownsville that one descendant (Maria Lydia Garza Longoria) of that Matias Longoria branch became joined in 1939 with the Alcala family through her marriage with Mauro Alcala, whose family had arrived from Jimenez about 20 years earlier. And in 1968, another Longoria descendant (myself), this time from the Pedro Longoria branch, joined forever in holy matrimony with one of the Alcala descendants (Maria Minerva Alcala), further strengthening the ties between the two families and sprouting the Longoria-Alcala branch.
Before departing Camargo, Escandon authorized the establishment of a mission further upriver on the Rio Grande. This mission was to be called San Agustin de Laredo. Escandon then continued down the Rio Grande some 12 leagues from Camargo, where he encountered another settlement that had been already started by another caravan from Nuevo Leon:
Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Reynosa (modern day Reynosa, Tamaulipas) was officially founded on March 14, 1749, and was under the command of Capt. Carlos Cantu, with 40 families, mainly from Nuevo Leon, and 11 soldiers.
Escandon then departed the northernmost settlements and returned to resume the colonization efforts in the southern part of the new colony of Nuevo Santander.
Probably before Escandon could rejoin them, the remaining caravan that had started out from Queretaro founded the villa of San Fernando de la Llave (modern day San Fernando, Tamaulipas) (website) on March 19, 1749. Initially consisting of 40 families and 11 soldiers, it was joined by an additional 30 families soon thereafter. The settlers were from Cadereyta, Nuevo Leon, and were led by Fernando Sanchez Zamora.
After being rejoined by Escandon, Nuestra Señora de Las Caldas de Altamira (modern day Altamira, just north of Tampico, Tamaulipas) was founded on May 2, 1749. Escandon named it in honor of the viceroy Juan Rodriguez de Albuerne, Marques de Altamira. Capt. Juan Francisco Barberena was left in command.
The villa of San Juan Bautista de Horcasitas (previously known as Magiscatzin, but now modern day Gonzalez, Tamaulipas) (website) was founded on May 11, 1749, and placed under the command of Capt. Jose Antonio de Oyervides.
The villa of Santa Barbara (modern day Ocampo, Tamaulipas), a short distance southwest of the first settlement of Llera, was founded on May 19, 1749.
The Longoria-Alcala family has roots in many of the original Escandon settlements, most notably Camargo, Jimenez, Dolores, Laredo, Revilla, Mier and Reynosa. Of these, the settlement with the most roots is Camargo.
MUCH MORE INFORMATION . . GREAT SOURCE
PHOTOS < many
Second Symposium of Critical Practices in Caribbean Cultural Studies
Fifty Years of African Impact on Cuba: By David González López
Rethinking the Mangrove:
You are invited to submit a paper/panel proposal for an upcoming Caribbean Cultural
Studies Conference at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez. The trilingual CFP follows
and poster versions of it are attached. Please forward this information to interested
faculty, graduate students, artists, cultural workers, organizers an other contributors to
the field of Caribbean Cultural Studies.
Rethinking the Mangrove:
Second Symposium of Critical Practices in Caribbean Cultural Studies
October 15-17, 2009
University of Puerto Rico–Mayagüez
"Rethinking the Mangrove" is an invitation to reconceptualize Caribbeanness beyond the
limitations of nation, language and culture, focusing on the crosscurrents that traverse the
multiple and overlapping spaces and subjectivities of the Caribbean. The roots of the
mangrove, which hang above the water, evoke a Caribbean alternative to an ethno-
linguistically monolithic ideal of identity symbolized by the terrestrial root. This
conference solicits papers and panels in English, Spanish and French from across
humanistic and scientific disciplines that explore notions of "Caribbeanness,"
"Antillanismo" or "Antillanité" or any of its many aspects.
We invite paper and panel proposals in the following areas:
• Cultural theory of the anglophone, francophone and hispanophone Caribbean
• Caribbean anthropologies, histories and/or literatures
• Gender and sexuality in Caribbean cultural studies
• Caribbean diasporas and migrations
• Cultural policies in the Caribbean
• Caribbean popular culture
• Ecologies of the Caribbean archipelago
• (Post)foundational voices of Caribbean cultural studies
• (Counter)national discourses of the Caribbean
• Colonialism, neocolonialism and postcolonialism in the Caribbean
• Caribbean integration initiatives (political, economic, cultural)
• Atlantic studies and the Caribbean
• Discourses of race in the Caribbean
• Historical legacies of slavery in the Caribbean
• Afrodiasporic cultures and identities in the Caribbean
• Transcaribbean cultural expression
• Latin American/Latino cultures and the Caribbean
• Visual arts in the Caribbean
To submit paper or panel proposals please visit our website at
Please send your proposals by March 31, 2009
Queries may be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org
Please forward widely
Fifty Years of African Impact on Cuba: By David González López
TEMAS no. 56: 29-37, octubre-diciembre de 2008.
Fifty Years of African Impact on Cuba:
By David González López
Amílcar Cabral Chair. University of Havana.
A CubaNews translation. Edited by Walter Lippmann.
Any accurate characterization of post-1958 Cuban society would have to include its extraordinary interaction with Africa. And this not only as a consequence of the strong contrast with respect to the republican decades prior to the of the revolution's rise to to power -when official policies as well as the vested interests of the dominant social strata ignored and despised a continent that had made an enormous demographic and cultural contribution to Cuba. This is also due to the considerable renewed impact that the African continent has had on Cubans ever since, which has contributed to the formation of our present national and revolutionary profile in many ways.1
It is a well-known fact that in the almost four centuries of slave trade, Cuba experienced a strong human influx. The society built around slavery used blacks not only as a working instrument, but also -as Europe had also done- to construct in them the image of "the other" which would contribute to the strengthening of the white ego of the dominant classes, by attributing to Africans every defect and vice of which Europeans -and, to a lesser extent, their creole offspring- supposed themselves to be free by mere racial determinism. This did not prevent either the mixture of various colours nor the increasing closeness and, finally, the cultural fusion which occurred to create a new creole and racially-mixed reality. In certain cases it even produced the opposite effect and promoted this trend, due to the expectations and curiosities that the construct of the black myth would awaken.
The cultural fusion was to find its highest expression in the integration and convergence of ideals in our independence struggles of the 19th century which were to constitute -along the lines in which the Guinean revolutionary Amilcar Cabral defined this phenomenon a century later- the organized political expression of the culture of a struggling people, because it represented, on the one hand, a product or an act of culture and, on the other, a factor that would in turn produce, generate culture.
Nevertheless, with the frustration of the independence struggle following the US intervention in a war which creoles of different races, united, were already winning by far, the liberation ideals were also frustrated, starting out with those of building a republic of full racial equality. The so-called "little war" of 1912 signified a warning that blacks should accept their subordinate position, and everything black or emanating from some however far-away African origin would again become an object of rejection, contempt or mockery on the part of the dominant society. This was in spite, for instance, of its increasingly undeniable presence in the arts, literature and, most of all, music, and of the growing popularity -irrespective of racial barriers- of religious elements of African origin.
Although it is true that Africa practically did not exist as an independent political entity in the first half of the 20th century, it is also a fact that during the years of the frustrated republic formal diplomatic relations were established only with Ethiopia and, at a very late stage, with Egypt. Other developments closer to the grassroots cannot be overlooked, such as the return of a certain number of emancipated slaves to Africa, the popularity of Panafricanist ideas of the Garvey brand -with a greater influence, it is true, among Anglo-Caribbean immigrants- or meaningful albeit punctual events such as the mobilization of -mostly black and mulatto- intellectuals, led by historian José Luciano Franco, in reaction to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935.
The increasingly North-Americanized dominant culture reduced the image of Africa to what Tarzan films offered. A great many cultural contributions of African origin, such as the most popular forms of music, were despised or whitewashed by official culture or even simply banned, as happened most obviously in the case of many religious manifestations of the same roots, while overt and covert instances of racial discrimination tended to proliferate.
The policies which the triumphant revolutionary power began to implement after January 1959 would soon point in the direction of a redistribution of national wealth and, consequently, a remodelling of social -including racial- relations. The ambitious programs which were immediately put into effect, specifically in areas such as education, health, housing, employment, sports, etc., were to benefit, firstly, the poorest families, among which the black and mulato strata were over-represented in relation to their real demographic weight on the island. As for ethical principles, the new regime promoted the idea of a society directed by relations of solidarity among individuals, instead of the increasing mercantilization which had been the norm in pre-revolutionary society.
Those efforts in the sphere of internal policies were to find a perfect complement in the external projection of the revolutionary government. This was particularly in the inflexible defence of the principle of sovereign equality among nations, the extension of a constant and multi-faceted solidarity with underdeveloped countries, together with support for national liberation movements throughout the world. The deeply-rooted antagonism which successive US governments maintained toward Cuba had to do with the new Cuban project in internal policies as well as in its international actions, for which Africa would provide a privileged scenario for the following half century.
Many Cuban experts believe that one should not speak of a specifically post-1958 Cuban policy for Africa, arguing that what really exists is a wider policy encompassing the whole of the underdeveloped world. This has been expressed, for instance, in Cuba's active participation Non Aligned Countries Movement-which is now chaired by Cuba for the second time since its inception in 1961.
Nevertheless, there are a number of reasons to support the view that there is a clear and precise Cuban policy for Africa. Firstly, there is the declared perception of the revolutionary leadership with respect to the role that Africans and their descendents have played throughout our history and, beyond, the coincidence in time and ideals of the triumph of the Cuban revolution and the first wave of African independence. Even though the proclamation of the Cuban process as the opening of the second wave of Latin-American liberation clearly defined the major terrain of action and association of the new government, the latter could not avoid contemplating with enormous interest the events occurring at the time -and which would become massive after 1960- in Africa. It was towards Africa, more particularly towards the Congo, that Che Guevara and a group of Cuban combatants moved a few years later to put internationalist ideals to the test, before departing for the Latin-American highlands of Bolivia.
When reviewing almost half a century of bonds established by revolutionary Cuba with Africa, several salient features emerge to characterize its African policy, among them three which have primary importance:
* Its coherence: that is, the correspondence which exists between Cuba's official discourse and its concrete actions, or what is "said" and what is "done" throughout an extensive period of time; * * Its immutability: meaning the permanence of its basic principles throughout the years and in spite of certain adjustments and changes; * * Its adaptability: in other words, its capacity to operate in the changing scenarios and conditions that have affected Africa, Cuba and the world at large. * The praxis of Cuban foreign policy is predicated on its solidarity with the underdeveloped world, and even with humble social strata in the wealthy countries. The absence of profit or political, economic or other type of conditionalities when extending its solidarity has been one and the same for every region of the world. Nevertheless, the arguments which substantiate Cuban assistance to Africa have been clearly singled out by high Cuban officials. President Fidel Castro himself has argued in favour of "Cubans' duty to compensate" Africa as a result of the crucial role played by Africans and their descendents in every independence and revolutionary war in the country, in their contribution to the construction of the Cuban nation and in the creation of wealth that successive generations of Cubans of various races have enjoyed. Therefore, years before African demands for compensation for centuries of slavery which they suffered began to gain momentum, Cuba -a small island which had not been among the colonial powers which extracted benefits from the extreme exploitation of African slaves- adopted a vanguard position with respect to that issue , setting an example which -up to now- no former metropolitan power has dared to follow.
Strikingly enough, the altruistic nature of Cuba's African policy was an element that awakened a particular antagonism in the neo-conservative government of Ronald Reagan through most of the 1980s. The Reagan administration's "roll-back" strategists did not challenge the Cuban commitment of only taking from Angola "the remains of our deceased" once a peace agreement was signed on the grounds that this could have been a lie; quite the opposite. They argued that it was precisely because Cuba did not have any national interests (one must read mines, factories, firms, railroads, etc.) to protect in Angola, its military presence in that country was "illegitimate" and therefore "subversive" vis-à-vis the established international order.
By contrast, a few years earlier, in one of the brief moments of rationality in the White House, during the Carter administration, the US representative to the UN, Andrew Young, publicly expressed the view that Cuban troops provided a "stabilizing" factor in Angola.
Cuba never offered Africa leftovers, but shared what it had, even when not in great abundance. One first instance that was to set a precedent occurred in 1963, when practically half of the six thousand doctors the small island-state had in 1959 had emigrated. It was a moment when the revolutionary government had just began to implement ambitious plans to extend health services to regions of the country which lacked them since day one. At the very moment, recently independent Algeria -suddenly abandoned by almost all French specialized medical personnel- requested Cuban help. Cuba did not hesitate to immediately dispatch a health brigade which offered its vital services free of charge.
The praxis of supporting peoples in their just independence struggles was frequently costly because to a certain extent it antagonized certain European powers with which Cuba hoped to have good relations as a balance against US hostility. For instance, this happened with France and Spain as a consequence of Cuban support to Algerian patriots and solidarity with the Saharawi combatants. There have even been cases in which revolutionary Cuba has overlooked fairly essential aspects of its foreign policy when its close relationship with Africa required it to do so. One example was manifested when (countering its longstanding policy of not breaking off relations under any circumstance with any country whatsoever, thus rejecting the use of the same weapon that the US had used against Cuba when promoting the isolation of the revolutionary government in Latin America) Cuba severed diplomatic relations with Israel to join a concerted move by African nations to condemn the occupation of African territory -the Sinai peninsula- by Zionist troops in the Arab-Israeli war of 1973.
Twenty-one years later, in response to a request by the African National Congress, and taking into account the very special merits of the case, the Cuban government (which had consistently refused to take part in international operations of ballot observation, considering that this was solely the right and duty of the country which organizes the electoral process) agreed to send a group of Cuban experts to joint the UN Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA) to supervise the first free elections in that country.
During its first decades, Cuban cooperation was, of course, more intense with a group of countries whose governments had greater political affinities with their Cuban counterpart. Nevertheless, since the final years of the 20th century a trend towards close cooperation with the whole continent became more apparent. At present there are very few African countries which have never received Cuban experts on their soil or returning nationals trained in Cuba.
Even the exit from power of African governments in countries which had a longstanding relationship of cooperation with Cuba did not mean the cessation of the flow of assistance: it usually continued without any hiccups (these were the cases of the People's Republic of Congo in the mid-1960s, Guinea-Bissau in 1980 and 1999 or Zambia, Cape Verde and São Tomé e Príncipe in the 1990s) or was re-established after a brief period of readjustments (as in Ethiopia).
Until the later half of the 1970s, Cuban cooperation was extended free of charge to recipient countries, including travel costs to and from Africa for Cuban experts. But its growing popularity made the number of requesting countries enormously increase, and this led to a variant that was implemented as of 1977: recipient countries with the financial capability to compensate at least part of the costs -and Angola was at that time the only case due to its extraordinary incomes from oil production- would make that contribution in order to allow Cuba to extend its assistance to other countries which were not able to pay.(2) The new arrangement, however, was short-lived, because as soon as the Reagan administration took power in early 1981, the intensified war devastated Angola's economy and Cuba returned to the old practice of paying practically the total costs of the missions of cooperation.
Bartolome Ruiz de Estrada
Aparentemente, toda la familia viene de Toledo (España), de un pueblo llamado Añover de Tajo. En este momento, la familia está dispersa por medio mundo, ya que se puede encontrar gente con nuestro apellido a lo largo de todo el continente americano, además de en España.
Los Carmena más antiguos
El Carmena más antiguo del que se ha encontrado registro es Domingo Carmena, bautizado el 10 de febrero de 1516, e hijo de Antón Carmena.
Por las mismas fechas se tiene constancia de que un tal Diego Carmena completó la primera vuelta al mundo en barco, a bordo del Victoria, en la expedición que comandó Juan Sebastián Elcano.
En cuanto a la emigración a América, consta la existencia de Romualdo Carmena, nacido en Añover el 6 de febrero de 1763, bautizado por monseñor Carmena del Águila. Se casó el 13 de febrero de 1797, en San Gabriel, en el actual estado de Louisiana en Estados Unidos, con Josefa Morales, cuyos padres eran de Carrizal (Islas Canarias). Aún hoy hay una buena presencia de los Carmena en Louisiana, especialmente en la ciudad de Baton Rouge.
En 1785 nace en Argés el famoso guerrillero Ambrosio Carmena, alias "El Pellejero", que tuvo su centro de operaciones en los Montes de Toledo.
También hemos encontrado alguna referencia en México, en particular en el año 1874, en el que Jorge Carmena y señora compraron una hacienda en San Vicente Zacualpan, en Morelos. Al parecer, vivían en la calle San Agustín, 5, en la capital mexicana.
De poco después datan las obras de Luis Carmena y Millán, Jefe de administración militar y crítico taurino y musical español, nació y murió en Madrid (1845-1903), uno de los principales escritores sobre el arte taurino, sus obras son todavía hoy de consulta frecuente (ejemplo), con obras también como crítico musical.
En 1914 hay constancia de que Justo Carmena Ruiz era socio del ateneo de Madrid. Este Justo Carmena Ruiz, médico militar, con domicilio en el cuartel de la Guardia Civil situado en la calle de la Batalla del Salado, es el mismo que destacó por su participación heroica en el desastre del Barranco del Lobo, en la Guerra de África, y que fue no sólo condecorado, sino que una calle de Madrid recibió su nombre. De Justo Carmena fue hijo Francisco Carmena, que tuvo a mi padre, José Carmena. Del ateneo era también socio Fructuoso Carmena Pellicer.
Los Carmena en el mundo
Mucha de esta información ha sido recopilada por Lena Carmena, que escribió la documentación en 1963, y me ha llegado gracias a Camille Carmena (en la foto, con su marido Robert Teniente), que sigue viviendo en el sur de Estados Unidos, como Romualdo. El padre de Camille, Charlie Carmena, tiene su propia granja (Carmena Quarter Horses) en Central, Louisiana, con su propio sitio web. La hermana de Camille, Mary Catherine, tiene su propia granja en el sur de Texas.
También de Louisiana (de Baton Rouge), es la doctora Ursula Bogan Carmena, cuya empresa se dedica a evaluación de aptitudes. La nota por el fallecimiento de Janie Carmena da cuenta de muchos de los nombres de la familia por allí. También esta lista de enterrados en un cementerio de la ciudad.
El otro punto que ha sido destino de los Carmena de forma generalizada ha sido la República Argentina, de manera más reciente. Nos ha escrito por ejemplo, Sonia y su padre Alberto me contaron que que Pedro Carmena emigró a Tucumán en 1915 con sus cinco hijos, entre ellos Salomón Carmena, padre de Alberto, padre de Sonia. Pedro Carmena fue anarquista. En palabras del propio Alberto: "Yo soy Médico nutricionista y he vivido ralizando trabajos de investigación en USA, Francia, Alemania, Suiza, Cuba, México, Panamá y Venezuela. En 1986 regresé a la Argentina porque estaba exilado durante la dictadura militar. Ahora vivo en Rosario y estoy retirado como investigador, aunque sigo ejerciendo mi profesión y dando clases en la Universidad. Me casé en 1958 con Zulema Guadalupe Manrique con la que tuvimos tres hijos. Adrián que es ingeniero y vive en la ciudad de Santa Fe. está casado. Tiene un hijo Joaquín que es mi único nieto. Sonia es arquitecta y vive aquí en Rosario y Mariano que es licenciado en computación y vive en Buenos Aires. Está casado pero no tienen hijos.En 1974 me volví a casar con Dora Arpones, que es médica siquiatra con la que tuve una niña, María Fernanda que estudia Sicología". Alberto no me lo menciona en sus emails, pero parece que es un escritor con alguna importancia.
El resto de la familia de Salomón Carmena se estableció en Tafí Viejo, en la provincia de Tucumán.
También me cuenta que ha conocido otras personas con apellido Carmena, por ejemplo, cerca de Rosario, cuyo abuelo era un primo de Salomón y también procedente de Añover de Tajo. También me cuenta que conoció en Venezuela a Rafael Carmena, famoso y premiado médico cuyo padre parece que también nació en Añover de Tajo.
Curiosamente, recientemente me ha escrito Cristina Carmena, de Tafí Viejo. Me cuenta que su abuelo Demófilo Carmena viajó a la Argentina con sus hermanos Salomón, Perfecto y Moisés, y se instaló en Tafí Viejo, de lo que deduzco que Demófilo es hermano de Salomón, mencionado arriba. Parece que la familia de Demófilo y Salomón tenía una refinería de aceite en Añover.
Entre otras personas que me han escrito se encuentra Sebastián Carmena de Buenos Aires.
Algunos Carmenas con alguna relevancia pública
En la actualidad, hay una serie de personas de más o menos relevancia pública cuyo apellido es Carmena. Posiblemente la que tiene una presencia en medios más habitual es la jueza Manuela Carmena, y podemos mencionar más gente:
- Antonio Carmena, madrileño profesional de la danza que pasea su arte por medio mundo.
- José M. Carmena, de Valencia, es un investigador en los campos de bioingeniería y bielectrónica realizando su labor en los EEUU, en la Universidad de Berkeley. Incluso con algún experimento notable.
- Marcos Carmena, que ha dirigido algún departamento en empresas de telecomunicaciones en España, y particularmente en Colt Telecom. Y que ha participado en los comités de Mundo Internet.
- En el mismo sector trabaja Jesús Carmena, Director Territorial de Castilla y León de Telefónica Móviles.
- Ernesto José Carmena Riesco se ha destacado como escéptico.
- Fernando Carmena tiene un interesante libro sobre el Parque Natural de Ordesa y Monte Perdido
- Luis Carmena es el director general para España de la empresa Hella.
- Miguel Carmena Zamorano, que juega al fútbol de defensa en el Sporting de Gijón.
- Y yo mismo (modestamente), Juanjo Carmena Ayuso, que llevo muchos años en Microsoft España y es relativamente fácil encontrarme en Google.
Sent by Bill Carmena
BARTOLOME RUIZ DE ESTRADA
Bartolomé Ruiz “de Estrada”, para algunos historiadores, y “de Andrade” para otros, nació en Moguer hacia 1483, estaba casado con Bartola Martín, también de Moguer, y participó activamente en unión de Francisco Pizarro en la conquista peruana,
Acompañó a Cristóbal Colon en 1498 como grumete o paje, por su corta edad, en el descubrimiento de Paria.
En 1516 estaba con su barco en la Antigua y acompañó a Balboa en la fundación de Acia.
Su unico hijo Martín Yañez de Estrada y su hermano Bartolomé Díaz, acompañaron al piloto moguereño desde 1523, cuando Bartolomé Ruiz se asoció con Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro y el clérigo Hernando de Luque, para efectuar una primera exploración en el sur de Panamá, expedición que fue un fracaso.
Reunieron dinero y fuerza suficiente para construir dos nuevos barcos que fueron terminados en 1525 y Francisco Pizarro, con el piloto Hernán Peñate, emprendieron el camino, quedando en Panamá Almagro y Ruiz, que posteriormente le salieron al encuentro, lo que sucedió después de muchas vicisitudes, ya que Pizarro había encontrado a unos indios flecheros y les atacaban constantemente, por lo que se veían obligados a desviarse de la ruta prevista
Pizarro estaba enfrentado a los otros capitanes y cuando discutía en la Isla del Gallo,, trazó una línea en la playa con su espada y dijo que quien quisiera seguirle que cruzase la raya, lo que hicieron solo trece, entre ellos Bartolomé Ruiz de Estrada.
Cuando por fin, en 1527, Pizarro y Ruiz, llegaron al golfo de Guayaquil, y sabiendo la riqueza que contenían aquellas tierras, el conquistador decidió volver a Panamá y después a Castilla, donde firmó en 1529 unas capitulaciones con Carlos V en las que destacaba la ayuda del piloto de Moguer, nombrándole Hidalgo y Caballero de la Espuela Dorada, además Piloto Mayor del Mar del Sur, con un salario de 75.000 maravedíes anuales., no quedando muy contento por ello, ya que esperaba mayor reconocimiento.
Cuando supo que el Inca Atahualpa había sido apresado en Cajamarca, arribó al puerto con tres navíos, pero repentinamente se sintió enfermo y con fiebre, y murió a los 50 años de edad el que estaba considerado el mayor conocedor de la navegación por aquellos mares.
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Publicado en Odiel Información de Huelva, el 3 de febrero de 2009
How I traced my Arzamendi family back to Spain or “Lauro’s Golden Apple”
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How I traced my Arzamendi family back to Spain or “Lauro’s Golden Apple”By Lauro Garza Arzamendi
Lauro at the Archives of Arrasate, Spain holding documents from 1591 A.D. establishing the Arzamendi family as Hidalgos in Guipuscoa, Spain. |
The mythological symbol of the “golden apple” in many cultures of the world represents immortality. An unlikely candidate to be a hero receives a divine mandate that cannot be disobeyed to retrieve the “golden apple or apples”. The quest for the "Golden Apple" consisted of the Divine Commission, The Labors, and The Victorious Return. The individual attains heroic status because of the hardships, and impossible obstacles that must be overcome, these in Roman and Greek mythology are called the labors. The triumph occurs when the hero returns from his dangerous and impossible mission with the “golden apple”. This mission and all of its labors were a result of my oath to give my grandfather Luis Arzamendi earthly immortality instead ignominy. As long as cyberspace exists he will be known, only when mankind ceases to live will the internet fade. My labors brought back from Spain the impossible “Golden Apple” to my late grandfather Luis Arzamendi. We stood in the graveyard in November 2006 with my Aunt Victoria Martinez, the monument to my grandparents stood before us in the false Autumn of South Texas.
“What do we know about my grandfather Luis Arzamendi?”, I enquired. “Looking pensively at the graves of our relatives my Aunt replied, “Nothing”. A sense of honor and a repressed anger rose up in me, “Everyone deserves to be remembered!” was not only my statement, but it was an oath to do whatever was necessary to bring honor to my grandfather. So many times as a child I would go with my Abuelas and Tias to the "panteons", cemeteries, to remember and honor our ancestors. Respect, honor, and loyalty are virtues intrinsic to the Hispanic culture and they are the forces responsible for its continuation for more than 500 years in Nuevo Santander. I believe it is the reason why more Congressional Medals of Honor have been awarded to Hispanics than any other ethnic group.
My childhood in Rio Grande City, and McAllen, Texas was spent in close relationship with my extended family. My father, Lauro Enrique Garza Barrera was a descendant of Spanish Land Grantees and the founders of Mier and Camargo, Mexico. They also held Spanish land grants and were colonizers of Roma, Los Saenz, and Starr County, Texas. All these places were located in the ancient Spanish colony of Nuevo Santander. My mother, Delia Canales Arzamendi, was a descendant of the powerful Canales clan, also Spanish land grantees from Monterey, and Mier, Mexico and Starr County, Texas. The Canales were influential merchants, generals, and governors of Tamualipas, Mexico. The Barrera Guerras, a merchant family, were a highly respected family in Mier where streets are named after my great grandfather and great uncle for their heroic deaths in the Mexican revolution.
The descendants of the Garzas, Barreras, Guerras, Canales, and others who came as colonizers of Nuevo Santander nurtured me in my infancy and childhood with ancestral memories and fascinating anecdotes of individuals and events in the colonization and establishment of Nuevo Santander. Not only did I grow up hearing the fairy tales of Hans Christian Anderson, I also heard stories of the Mexican Revolution my Barrera Guerra and Canales relatives had experienced.
In the midst of all my childhood there was a great mystery; my mother's father, Luis Arzamendi and the Arzamendi family. My grandfather, Luis Arzamendi and the Arzamendis were hardly ever mentioned. Decades passed without a personal knowledge of my grandfather's family, until I determined to find out the truth. The search for the Arzamendi surname is not an easy one as it is a rare name, it is not even found in the list of the 50,000 most common names of the United States.
Just ahead was a fabulous adventure of great personal fulfillment. Whenever we make a righteous moral decision despite the conflicts, God rewards us with good fortune. My decision destined me to recover a lost heritage of the Arzamendis with more than 100 years of Spanish and Mexican military service as generals, colonels, majors and captains. My investigation proved that my Arzamendi ancestors were involved as military officers in the battles of the Mexican Independence from Spain, the French invasion of Mexico, the Mexican-American War, and the Mexican Revolution. Some also served in prestigious government positions, including banking and border customs and as other high level managers. Many Americans dream of going to Europe finding their roots and a family castle. My labor of three years was to result in a wonderful reunion with Arzamendi relatives in Spain and finding the castle!
Larry and his wife Linda Olsen Garza are founders of Heavenly Vision Ministries, a Christian humanitarian aid non- profit corporation. Previous to this he worked for Exxon and she worked on the NASA space station project. Their adventures have taken them to 47 nations of the globe. Lauro is the ninth generation of Spanish land grantees born in Starr County, Texas. Three of his four family lines are descended from the founders of the cities of Monterrey, Camargo, Mier, Mexico as well as Los Saenz, and Rio Grande City, Texas. Lauro’s great uncle was General Arzamendi who died in combat