Somos Primos

APRIL 2009
112th Issue Online

Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-9

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

Alamo Plaza . .  A Vision for Historical Inclusion
The reconstructed defensive lunette and main gate become the new gateway. 
Photos (c) Native Sun Productions
Click for more information.



Content Areas
United States 
National Issues
Action Item
National Parks

Bilingual Education


Anti-Spanish Legends
Military/Law Enforcement 

Patriots, American Revolution
Orange County,CA  
Los Angeles,CA

Northwestern US 
Southwestern US


East of Mississippi
East Coast


Family History



Telling History Correctly is a Matter of Justice 

Signs carried by Defenders of the Honor 
protesting Ken Burns, March 24th. For more, click.


  Letters to the Editor : 

Mimi,  My home based travel agency has a commemorative cruise on Father Serra to Loreto. Here are details.
Bill Roddy, Great-grandson of 
Encarnacion Ortega

Mimi, as usual, another beautiful issue!  What 
a talent you have for putting together such diverse topics and make them appear so seamless in Somos Primos.  Thank you.  
Marge Vallazza

According to Adam & Eve:  we are all primos!!
Don Milligan

Mimi, I enjoyed the Rio Grande Valley section on language. It brought back a few laughs and memories. I don't recall hearing all of those, but others I remember like I just heard them yesterday.  We love it up here in Maine. We have tons of snow!!!
I want to thank you for all your hard work and I truly appreciate your efforts.
Sincerely, Pat Grisotti



 Somos Primos Staff:   .
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Dorinda Moreno
Michael Perez
Rafael Ojeda
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Ted Vincent

Contributor to April Issue
Rodolfo F. Acuña, Ph.D.
Javier Almaguer
Dan Arellano
Armando A. Ayala, Ph.D.
David Bacon
Georgette Baker
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Chris Burgard
Jaime Cader
Roberto R. Calderon, Ph.D.
Bill Carmena 
E. Apomayta Chambi
Gus Chavez
Jack Cowan
Dr Raul De La Rosa, Ph.D.
Frank Dominguez
F. A. Echeverrìa Herrerìa
Jim Estrada
Martin Esquivel
Corine Fairbanks 
Gary Fleming
Gary Foreman 
Lorri Frain
E. Elizabeth Garcia
James E. Garcia
Pat Grisotti
Robert Guadarrama Perez
Elsa/Walter Herbeck
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Corri Jimenez
Juan Marinez 
Debbie Martinez
JV Martinez, Ph.D.  
Don Milligan
Charles Montaño
Dorinda Moreno
Carlos Muñoz, Ph.D.
Fernando Muñoz Altea 
Paul Nauta
Paul Newfield III
Rafael Ojeda
Teresa M. Olivas
Guillermo Padilla Origel
Richard Perry
Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, Ph.D.
Jose M. Pena
Rueben M. Perez
Marco G. Prouty
Sara Puig Laas 
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Jaime Rendon Hernandez
Rogelio Reyes, Ph.D.
Cintli Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Jorge Rodriguez
Bill Roddy
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Ruben Ruiz
Samuel Benicio Sanchez Garcia
Tom Saenz
Tony Santiago
Gill Sperry
José Mª San Martín Pérez
Paul Trejo
Marge Vallazza
Ricardo Valverde
Ted Vincent  
Kirk Whisler
Don White
Carlos Yturralde


SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Michael Perez, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal, Tomas Saenz.



Alamo Plaza, A Vision for Historical Inclusion
Edna Ferber and Dr. Hector P. Garcia
By Daisy Wanda Garcia
Casting a 'Giant' Shadow
Ed Pena Honored at 27th United States Hispanic Leadership Institute
Latinos Have Opportunity to Transform U.S. Society
Hispanics Breaking Barriers, Part IV by Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Astronaut Joseph M. Acaba by Tony (the Marine) Santiago
New Data on Hispanic and Foreign-Born Populations in the U.S.
President Harry Truman

Alamo Plaza . .  A Vision for Historical Inclusion


A New Era
A New Opportunity
A New vision

A bird's eye view looking north. 

New Center for Texas History, a 300,000 of world class multi-media center & Museum. 

Editor: Many heritage and historical groups in Texas have come together to promote a history of Texas, inclusive of the important role played by the earliest of colonizers and all immigrants attracted to the great state of Texas.  

On a personal level, I was born in San Antonio and my ancestors were among the soldiers protecting the earliest of colonizers.  My direct grandfather, many, many generations back was Juan Bautista Chapa. His book, Texas and Northeastern Mexico, 1630-1690 is considered the first official History of Texas.  

Published by the University of Texas, Austin, in 1997, "This book offers the only accurate and annotated English translation of Chapa's Historia. Drawing on the Discourses of Governor Alonso de Leon (the elder), which cover the years 1580 to 1649, and on his own experiences as permanent secretary to the governors of Nuevo Leon, Chapa traces the history and colonization of Texas and Northeastern Mexico from the 1630s onward.  he present the only account of the Spanish expeditions in the 1660s against the Cacaxtle Indians, who had raided south of the Rio Grande for horses and slaves, and the only diary account of Alonso (the younger) de Leon's 1686 expedition to the Gulf of Mexico in search of la Salle's French settlement.

Chapa was also an authority on the local Indians, and his Historia lists the names and locations of over 300 Indian tribes.  This information, together with descriptions of the vegetation, wildlife, and climate in seventeenth-century Texas, will be of interest to ethnographers, anthropologist, biogeographers, and other scholars."

New Center for Texas History
The site of the center is also of particular personal interest.  The specific site is located on a part of the original Spanish land grant of one line of my ancestors, the Curbelo family.  Ancestor Juan Curbelo was one of the sixteen Canary Islands families who as newly arrived Spanish citizens in 1731 founded La Villa de San Fernando, currently known as San Antonio, Texas.  

Following all the required steps of homesteading, the eldest son Jose was eventually given the land deed to the home that he had built and occupied. That home, in 1845, became the first United States Post Office in Texas.  [Ancestral Voices of the Past, Curbelo by Rueben M. Perez,]

A new post office was built on the site and now plans are underway to renovate the structure to become the New Center for Texas History.  Through the efforts of non-Hispanics and Hispanics, the contributions of the Spanish colonists hopefully will be fully included in the center. Visitors will have an opportunity to understand the current Mexican-American presence.  This insight is greatly needed.

In February, I once again participated in the George Washington Celebration in Loredo, riding in the parade on the Texas Connection to the American Revolution float.  As I looked out on the faces of the families, young people and babies in arms, yelling "Viva Tejas," I was moved with a deep longing for them all to know, to the core of their being,
. . . .  that their ancestors played an important, a crucial, a vital role in the establishment of the United States.  They were just not celebrating George Washington, they had the historical right to celebrate their ancestors. These young ladies are the wives and mothers of tomorrow, the children. . . . the future.


To assist the movers and builders of this vision, please contact:

Jack Cowan 210-213-5852
Governor of the Granaderos and Damas de Galvez, San Antonio Chapter
Founder of the Texas Connection to the American Revolution

Gary Foreman 219-928-0200

Don White  210-614-5678




Edna Ferber and Dr. Hector P. Garcia

By Daisy Wanda Garcia  



While Edna Ferber was preparing for her great Texas novel, Giant, which eventually was made into a movie, staring [Elizabeth Taylor, Rock Hudson, and James Dean] she contacted my father Dr. Hector P. Garcia.  Ms. Ferber wanted to capture the true local flavor of the state of Texas, including the Anglo attitudes towards Mexican Americans and discrimination. 

The national visibility of the shameful discrimination against Army Prvt. Felix Longoria caught the attention of Edna Ferber.  As a historical novelist, she wanted to gather factual data.  She felt my father Dr. Hector P. Garcia, whose monumental efforts had brought public awareness to the incident, was the right consultant, the proper resource, and made arrangements to visit us in Corpus Christi.

Ms. Ferber's visit lasted about three weeks.  During the three weeks, she accompanied my father during his hospital rounds, through the Mexican parts of town and attended the AGIF meetings.  She traveled with Forum members through the state.  On one occasion, my father drove Ms. Ferber on a tour of the King ranch. My mother, my brother and I accompanied them.  Papa took us by some of the dwellings for the ranch hands.  As I recall these were one room shacks with no sanitary facilities.  I recall how shocked Ms. Ferber was when she saw the living conditions of the ranch workers.  Ms. Ferber addressed the members during one of the American GI Forum (AGIF) meetings.  She said during her speech that the Texians stole Texas from Mexico.  Judge Leo Duran was upset by her statement announced that no one could talk about his state that way. Otherwise Ms. Ferber was well received by the AGIF.  

Ms. Ferber spent time visiting our family and talking to my mother and me.
Although, I was only 4 years old, I recall Ms. Ferber being a very distinguished lady with snow-white hair and wearing beautiful pearls.  I was very impressed.  We were all sad when Ms. Ferber returned to the north.  I never saw her again. 

When the movie Giant made its preview, there were similarities in the plot with our lives.  Some of the characters, I feel were based on family members.  Of course my father was the Mexican American doctor.  The reference to the returning body of the Mexican American veteran was based on the Felix Longoria incident. The denial of service to the Mexican American family at a restaurant was based on what happened to us in Gonzales, Texas.  In the movie, there was mention about a veterans group being formed. My mother always enjoyed saying the Elizabeth Taylor’s role of Leslie was based on her since she came from Italy and Elizabeth Taylor was a foreigner in Texas.  In retrospect Bick Benedict’s daughter Luz’s character might have been based on me.  Luz was the child that carried on her father’s business.  

Later Ms. Ferber sent my father a signed book and a check to cover his expenses.  Papa never cashed the check.  Under the check, Papa wrote, “Date of Check, May 3rd, 1950.  Miss Edna Ferber sent me the check for payment on a history book of Texas I sent her. I never cashed the check.”  Instead he made many Xerox copies of the check and distributed the copies to his friends and family.  I have at least 3.  


I believe that events in life come around full circle.  On a spring day while taking my customary walk, I met a friendly neighbor.  During our conversation, I introduced myself  by name to him, and he said that his name was John King.  I asked if he was related to the South Texas King ranching family.  To which he replied, yes.  I did not mention who my father was.  Instead, I walked on, meditating on the ironies of life that the daughter of Dr. Hector Garcia and the son of one of the King Ranchers were neighbors, and met under circumstances so different at the present, from the past. Who would have thought in 1950 that circumstances could have changed so much.  And this I leave with you.


Casting a 'Giant' Shadow
Taylor, Hudson, and Dean, 1956

Fifty years ago, Giant — a saga about modern Texas — earned 10 Oscar nominations. Around the World in 80 Days won Best Picture — but Giant should have. Director George Stevens, Giant's lone Oscar winner, made his adaptation of Edna Ferber's 1952 best-selling novel as sprawling as the vast Texas plains, yet as intimate as a campfire tale. Rock Hudson, Elizabeth Taylor, and James Dean each does some of the best work they had (or would) ever put forth. In Dean's case, it was also the very last. Days after he shot his final scenes, he died in a horrific car crash (Giant earned him his second posthumous Oscar nomination). Click through the following screens for 7 rare photos culled from the Warner Bros. archives, courtesy of Turner Classic Movies. 0,,20009882,00.html




Ed Pena Honored at 27th United States Hispanic Leadership Institute


Eduardo Peña received the 2009 National Hispanic Hero Award on March 20, 2009 in Chicago, which included a video tribute. The award was presented by the United States Hispanic Leadership Institute (USHLI) during the organization's 27th annual conference, was attended by over 6,000 past, present and future leaders representing 40 states. 

Eduardo Peña joins Cesar Chavez, Hank Lacayo, Dr. Antonia Pantoja, Dr. Hector Garcia, Dr. Antonia Novello, Willie Velasquez, Raul Yzaguirre and Dolores Huerta among other National Hispanic Heroes whose lives and careers have made America a better and stronger nation and improved the quality of life and opportunities for the Hispanic community.]

The video was produced by 4-time Emmy Award winner Hector Perez, President of Rocket Productions. Click to view video tribute to Ed Pena,, which you can access by clicking on his logo shown along the left column of the e-newsletter.

Editor: I receive this information from about a dozen people . .   thank you all!!


Latinos Have Opportunity to Transform U.S. Society
By Nicolas Kanellos



Copyright 2009 Houston Chronicle, March 3, 2009

Former San Antonio mayor and HUD Secretary Henry Cisneros recently surprised the Washington audience at the launch for a new book he edited, Latinos and the Nation's Future, by declaring that the country's first Hispanic president "has already been born."

Of course, surprise is unjustified. The inauguration of the first black President was a tangible reminder for the entire country, and the rest of the world, of what demographers have long known: The face of America is changing. And the majority of that change comes from Latinos.

Just look at U.S. Census projections based on Latinos already in this country and it becomes clear that it's time to accept the premise of inevitable and monumental Latino population growth. What exactly this means for the future of the country is still uncertain. But here's one guarantee: The United States' ballooning Latino growth will have significant implications for practically all segments of social and economic life in the United States.

Mainstream dialogue about Latino population growth has been dominated for years by debates over immigration, much of it very nasty, and completely focused on negative potential. But consider this — given the falling birth rate and rising population of retired workers in the United States, continued immigration is actually what fuels the country's economic engine and allows it to grow and expand. And let's not forget that it's young Latinos entering the workforce as the economy heals who will pay the Social Security benefits of our aging population as they head into retirement.

It's time to engage in a productive national dialogue about what this Latino growth means for the country, and how it will inevitably shape the American Dream of the future. 

Here are my predictions:

While English will remain the "official" language of the United States, Spanish will become the "unofficial" second national language. After all, at universities, Spanish departments are already separating themselves from foreign language divisions in recognition that Spanish has always been an important language in this country, and has an expanded role in the future.

As for the media — and this holds true for other corporate sectors as well — economic growth will require accessing Hispanic markets. Just look at Univision if you need proof of the economic potential of marketing to the Latino population: The current programming originating in Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela, and the Spanish-speaking United States, and distributed from Los Angeles and Miami, is unrivaled by any of the English-language networks. If you are not a native Spanish speaker you may never have heard of Univision's show Sábado Gigante, but it actually dwarfs shows like David Letterman in audience size. 

Latinos will also forge new paths in the work force. As long as U.S. Hispanics remain disproportionately working class, they will ascend to the leadership of movements for worker's rights and unions, as well as reform of immigration policy. Despite the high number of uneducated Hispanic immigrants and natives, their children already make up the fastest growing segment of college enrollments, in spite of unusually high dropout rates. Their children are already on the first rungs of the ladder to leadership in industry, entertainment, communications and education. Soon, they will also become part of a rupture of the glass ceilings in these fields. 

The growing economic integration of the Americas will lead to cultural integration as well: The history, culture and civilization of Hispanics will increasingly be seen as part of the national American culture, one shared by all. Of course, the rise of Hispanics into the middle class will not be accomplished through the traditional path of leaving the "old country" culture behind in order to become "Americans," purified through a melting-pot process. In fact, the opposite will be true; a bilingual-bicultural citizenry capable of navigating cultural differences at many levels will emerge. Dual citizenship will be more common and university systems will expand across borders to prepare graduates capable of operating in this new culture.

Over time, American racism will no longer limit the access of Hispanics to American opportunities, for their sheer numbers will transform politics and policy, once the population reaches voting age. But more important than demographics and voting power, Hispanic culture has always fostered a dynamic of racial and cultural blending. The Latino influence will further accelerate interracial and interethnic marriage, and along with it the tendency to identify with the rest of the countries and cultures of the Americas rather than solely with Europe

Latinos have the potential to create a new society in the Western Hemisphere that goes beyond national boundaries or cultures. This society will be the inspiration for a New American Dream.

Kanellos is the director of Arte Público Press of the University of Houston, and contributor to the new book Latinos and the Nation's Future. 



Part IV


Mercy Bautista-Olvera  




In the coming months this series “Hispanics Breaking Barriers” will present the   contributions of Hispanics in United States government and leadership. Their contributions have improved not only the local community but the country as well.   Sadly, they have not always received their due recognition. Their struggles, stories, and accomplishments will by example, illustrate to our youth and to future generations that everything and anything is possible.  

George Muñoz: Attorney and Certified Accountant

Victor Mendez: Arizona Department of Transportation Director

Emanuel Pleitez:  Financial Analyst

Alejandro Mayorkas: Civil Rights Attorney

Ray Rivera: Political Director for American Federation of State County & Municipal Employees (AFSCME)


George Muñoz  

George Muñoz has been selected to work in Export/Import-OPIC (Overseas Private Investment Corporation) Review Team for president Obama’s administration. Muñoz is an internationally recognized leader in business and law. He has overseen and directed complex transactions, and serves as an advisor to major industry and government leaders.    

George Muñoz was born in 1951. Muñoz received a Bachelor’s degree in Accounting at the University of Texas at Austin (1974), Master’s degree on Public Policy at Kennedy School of Government (1978), a Juris Doctor degree from Harvard Law School (1978) and Master of Law in Taxation; DePaul University (1984).   

Muñoz is a member of the Board of Directors of Marriott International (MAR), Altria Group (MO), the National Geographic Society, and the Wheeling- Pittsburgh Steel Corporation (WPSC). He served as President of the Chicago Board of Education (1984-1986), Trustee Master of Law in Taxation DePaul University and Illinois International Port Authority (1987-1992). Muñoz worked in law and investment banking in Chicago prior to moving to Washington, D. C.   (1989-1992). He was a partner in the investment-banking firm of Stevenson, Colling & Muñoz (1990-1993). 

President Bill Clinton appointed Muñoz as Assistant Secretary and Chief Financial Officer of the U.S. Treasury Department (1993-1997). He was Executive Vice-Chair of the CFO (Council of the Federal Government 1994-97). He oversaw the Treasury’s budget, financial statements and management policies. Muñoz worked closely with the Treasury Bureaus including, the IRS, Customs, and the Secret Service. Muñoz served as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (1997-2001), an independent agency of the Federal Government.  

George Muñoz’ was on the Hispanic Business magazine as one of the "TOP 100 INFLUENTIAL" (2003). As CEO, he oversaw an 18 billion dollar portfolio of loans, guarantees and political risk insurance on private sector investments in the emerging markets.  Muñoz worked closely with the business and government leaders of Asia, Africa, Southeastern Europe and Latin America . Muñoz has over 20 years of experience performing financial advisory and legal services, including, valuations, fairness opinions, tax planning, commercial and political risk assessments on overseas investments, and has structured and negotiated business transactions including mergers and acquisitions, project finance and private equity ventures.  


Victor Mendez  

Victor Mendez, Arizona ’s Director of transportation (ADOT) has been selected to work for President Obama’s Department of Transportation Group, Mendez is also a registered professional engineer in Arizona and a member of the American Public Works Association.  

At Arizona State University Mendez earned a Bachelor’s of Science degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Texas at El Paso and a Master’s degree   in Business Administration from the Arizona State University .  

Mendez worked as a civil engineer with U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest service in Oregon and Flagstaff , Arizona . Mendez serves as Deputy Director since 1985. He has also served as Agency Deputy State Engineer for the Valley Transportation Group, Assistant State Engineer with Statewide project management. Under Mendez’ leadership, a plan was developed and implemented to accelerate the Regional Freeway System, advancing its completion from 2014 to 2007.  

In 2001, Mendez became an award recipient of the Arizona Governor’s Award for Quality from the Arizona Quality Alliance, for the agency’s leadership in quality initiatives. In 2005, Mendez was a recipient of the Paul J. Fannin Award from the Arizona / Mexico commission for the agency leadership and impact on relations between Arizona and Sonora . He is a former president of the American Association of state Highway Transportation Officials and the Western Association of State Highway Transportation Officials.  

In 2006, Mendez was appointed as president of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO.)


Emanuel Pleitz

    Emanuel A. Pleitez   

Emanuel Pleitez is a financial Analyst; he has been selected to work with the Economics and International Trade Team for the Obama’s administration. He served as a political aide as a member of the Obama-Biden Presidential Transition Team for the U.S. Treasury Department.  

Emanuel Alberto Pleitez was born on December 15, 1982 in East Los Angeles , his single mom, Isabel Bravo, raised him and his younger brother. Pleitez graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in El Sereno. Pleitez graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in Urban Studies from Stanford University .  

Pleitez served as a Council Aide for then Council Member Antonio Villaraigosa, co-coordinating efforts to increase civil participation in El Sereno. Pleitez has served as a Financial Analyst in the securities division at Goldman Sachs. During the John Kerry-John Edwards Presidential campaign in 2004, Pleitez served as a field organizer in Missouri and Florida . He worked as an intern under U.S. Senators Tom Daschle and Hillary Clinton on the senate Democratic steering and Coordination Committee, and the Venture Philanthropy Organization, Full Circle Fund.

Pleitez has worked with the Quest Scholars Program at Stanford University to develop partnerships nationally with summer programs and school districts serving low-income high school students. He has also served as a volunteer coordinator for the voter outreach organization Voto Latino. Pleitez has held various roles for the Hispanic Heritage Foundation in Washington , D.C. Pleitez has been a mentor for the Center for a New Generation of the Peninsula Boys & Girls Club.  

A former National Hispanic Heritage Youth Award Winner, he continued serving the Hispanic Heritage Foundation as a member of the Foundation's Business Advisory Committee.  

Alejandro Mayorkas

Alejandro Mayorkas has been selected to work with the Justice and Civil Rights Team for President Obama’s administration.  

Alejandro Mayorkas was born in Havana , Cuba , the son of Charles Robert Mayorkas and Anita Gabor-Mayorkas (1930-1999). He is married to Tanya Fawn Nathan-Mayorkas. Mayorkas earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California , Berkeley and a Judis Doctor degree from the Loyola University . Mayorkas has also taught trial advocacy at Loyola Law School .  

Mayorkas is a litigation partner with extensive jury trial experience, having been before a jury in more than 30 cases in both federal and state courts. He handles complex civil and criminal matters, internal corporate investigations, in addition, serves as national coordinating counsel for companies involved in related cases around the country.  

Mayorkas created the Civil Rights Section to prosecute hate crimes and other acts of intolerance and discrimination more effectively. He developed an innovative program to address violent crime by targeting criminals’ possession of firearms, applying Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) to the prosecution of street gangs, but also provided federal resources to develop after-school programs in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.  

As a litigation partner at O'Melveny, Mr. Mayorkas represents Fortune 100 and other companies in their highest profile and most complex and sensitive matters throughout the country and the world. He advises boards of directors and top executives, tries cases, leads internal investigations, and litigates company matters in a wide array of industries, including telecommunications, health care, consumer safety, sports and entertainment, aerospace, media, and real estate.

Mayorkas served as n Assistant U.S. Attorney for nine years, Mayorkas served as a trial lawyer in complex federal criminal and civil matters. From 1996 to 1998, he served as Chief of the Office's General Crimes Section. Throughout his service in the U.S. Department of Justice, Mayorkas received many law enforcement and community awards, including the U.S. Postal Inspection Service's highest award for his successful prosecution of a man who murdered a postal service worker during a racially motivated crime spree. He also earned commendations from FBI Director Louis J. Freeh and others for his successful trial work, including his prosecution of Operation Polarcap, then the largest international money laundering case in the nation. During his tenure as U.S. Attorney, Mayorkas served as Vice-Chair of the Attorney General's Advisory Subcommittee on Civil Rights.  

In 1998, President Clinton nominated Mayorkas to serve as the United States Attorney for California Central District; he was only 39 years old, the youngest U.S. Attorney in the nation, also the first in the Central District of California.  

Mayorkas also expanded the Office’s community outreach programs, and broadened the Office’s cooperation with other nations in an effort to address the increasing globalization of criminal conduct. He led an office of 240 Assistant U.S. Attorneys who prosecuted and unprecedented number of significant and   in varied areas of law enforcement; including public corruption, high- tech computer-related crime, organized crime, investment fraud, and international money laundering.  

Mayorkas was awarded O’Melveny’s Values Award, an annual award given to two partners worldwide who exemplify the firm’s values of leadership, excellence, and citizenship. He serves on O'Melveny's Policy Committee and is the Chair of the Warren Christopher Scholarship Committee, which awards college scholarships to sophomores from the Los Angeles Unified School District who has overcome significant economic and other challenges to achieve academic excellence and superior citizenship. Mayorkas also is the Chair of the Board of Bet Tzedek Legal Services, a non-profit organization dedicated to providing the disadvantaged with access to justice, and is a member of the Board of Directors of United Friends of the Children, a non-profit organization devoted to the well-being of foster youth in Los Angeles County . He was a member of the California Senate-appointed Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice, has taught trial advocacy at Loyola Law School , and carries a significant pro bono caseload at O'Melveny. The National Law Journal named Mayorkas one of the “50 Most Influential Minority Lawyers in America .”  

Ray Rivera

Ray Rivera has been selected to work for President Obama’s Department of Health and Human Services Team. Rivera was a member of the Obama Transition Project’s Agency Review Working Group. Rivera was recently State Director for the Obama-Biden Campaign in Colorado , and was state Director for the Colorado Caucus and served as Northeast Field Desk out of Chicago headquarters.  

Ray Rivera is 29 years old, born and raised in Albuquerque , New Mexico ; he graduated from Manzano High School in 1997. Rivera’s family had their roots in New Mexico , Rivera’s father is Hispanic, served in the military in Vietnam , and Rivera’s mother Carolyn Arashiro is Asian. His bi-racial parents have encouraged him to continue his education and inspired a strong work ethic. In high school, Rivera earned an internship in the Mayor’s Office (Mayor Martin Chavez). In 1996, Rivera became part of the Mayors’ staff throughout his college education ending his career there as a Legislative Director.   

Rivera has also worked at the Salt Lake Tribune and at two newspapers in New Mexico , where he got his start as a sports reporter and editor. He became a Political Director for the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), one of the largest unions in United States . Rivera was also a public employee labor union and union organizer. In 2001, Rivera graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in Political Science from the University of New Mexico,  

In the same year, Rivera was awarded a special citation for investigative reporting from the National Education Association for special education coverage. The award was named in honor of the late Dr. Ahn, (a Korean American who was raised in Arkansas and Texas ). She rose to become a successful physician, neurologist and inventor).  

In April of 2007, Rivera was named one of Four Field Directors (Northeast) across the nation. A few months later Rivera was selected to his current position of State Director/Colorado.    

Rivera has been a staff writer for the Washington Post, for the Seattle Times where he wrote "Suspicion in the Ranks," a Nine-part investigative series chronicling the origins and collapse of the spy case against Chaplain James Yee. For five years in Seattle , Rivera also wrote newspaper stories on higher education and federal courts.    

Ray Rivera is the 2005 recipient of the Asian American Journalists Association (AAJA's) award. It encourages young Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders to enter the ranks of journalism




Joseph Michael Acaba

By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago  





I found out about Joe Acaba when he was still an astronaut candidate and wrote a short biography about him in Wikipedia. One of the things that we have in common is that he  was once a Marine. I wanted to know what was his participation in the USMC and got in touch with him via NASA. We became friends and he even sent my granddaughter Isabel an autographed picture and some astronaut stuff. After Joe passed the NASA training and became officially an astronaut, I got in touch with Puerto Rico Secretary of State Kenneth McClintock, who is also a good friend of mine, and told him. Everyone in Puerto Rico was unaware about Acaba and I wanted him to be the first to know. I also recommended that the Puerto Rican Government honor him. As I stated before no one in Puerto Rico knew about Acaba and when McClintock called the local newspapers, he told them "I know something that you guys don't know". On March 2008, the Government sent for Acaba and honored him, Acaba even held a conference in "El Parque de las Ciencias" in the City of  Bayamon. On March 15, 2009, Acaba became the first “Boricua” in space and to honor his heritage he took with him the Flag of Puerto Rico and requested that the Puerto Rican folk song “Que Bonita Bandera” be played on the 5th mission day as the wake up call for the whole crew aboard the Discovery Space Shuttle.                                           

Joseph Michael "Joe" Acaba  (born May 17, 1967) is an educator, hydrogeologist, and NASA astronaut. In May 2004 he became the first person of Puerto Puerto Rican heritage to be named as a NASA astronaut candidate, when he was selected as a member of NASA Astronaut Training Group 19. He completed his training on February 10, 2006 and is currently assigned to STS-119, which was launched on March 15, 2009 to deliver the final set of solar arrays to the International Space Station.                                    

Early years  
Acaba's parents, Ralph Acaba and Elsie Herrero, moved from Puerto Rico in the mid-1960s to Inglewood, California. They later moved to Anaheim in the same state.  Since his childhood, Acaba enjoyed reading, especially science fiction. In school, he excelled in both science and math. As a child, his parents would always expose him to educational films, but, it was the 8-mm film showing Astronaut Neil Armstrong's Moon landing which really intrigued him about outer space. During his senior year in high school, Acaba became interested in scuba diving and became a certified scuba diver through a job training program which the school had. This experience inspired him to further his academic education in the field geology. In 1985, he graduated with honors from Esperanza High School in Anaheim.    

Academic education  
In 1990, Acaba received his Bachelor's Degree in Geology from the University of California - Santa Barbara and in 1992, he earned his Master's Degree in Geology from the University of Arizona. Acabá was a Sergeant in the United States Marine Corps Reserves where he served for six years.. He also worked as a hydrogeologist in Los Angeles, California. Acaba spent two years in the United States Peace Corps and trained over 300 teachers in the Dominican Republic in modern teaching methodologies. He then served as Island Manager of the Caribbean Marine Research at Lee Stocking Island in the Exumas, Bahamas. Upon his return to the U.S., Acaba moved to Florida where he became Shoreline Revegetation Coordinator in Vero Beach. Acaba taught one year of science and math in high school and four years at the Dunnellon Middle School.  

On May 6, 2004, Acaba and ten other people where selected from 99 applicants by NASA as astronaut candidates. NASA's administrator, Sean O'Keefe, in the presence of John Glenn, announced the members of the "19th group of Astronaut Candidates", an event which hasn't been repeated since 1958 when the original group of astronauts was presented to the world.

Acaba, who is an Educator Mission Specialist, completed his astronaut training on February 10, 2006 along with the other ten Astronaut Candidates. Upon completion of his training, Acaba was assigned to the Hardware Integration Team in the International Space Station branch, working technical issues with European Space Agency (ESA) hardware.

Acaba is assigned to the crew of STS-119 as Mission Specialist Educator, which was launched on March 15, 2009 at 7:43 p.m., after NASA engineers repaired a leaky gas venting system last week, to deliver the final set of solar arrays to the International Space Station. Acaba, who carried on his person a Puerto Rican flag, requested that the crew be awakened on March 19th (Day 5) with the Puerto Rico folklore song "Que Bandera Bonita, La Bandera Puertorriqueña" (What a Beautiful Flag, The Puerto Rican Flag), written in 1971 by Florencio Morales Ramos (Ramito) and sung by Jose Gonzalez and Banda Criolla.

On March 18, 2008, Acaba was honored by the Senate of Puerto Rico, which sponsored his first trip to that American territory since being selected for space flight.  During his visit, which was announced by the President of the Puerto Rican Senate, the Honorable Kenneth McClintock, he met with schoolchildren at the Capitol, as well as at the Bayamón, Puerto Rico Science Park, which includes a planetarium and several surplus NASA rockets among its exhibits.  



New Data on Hispanic and Foreign-Born Populations in the U.S.


The Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center, today released updated statistical profiles of the Latino and foreign-born populations in the U.S. Derived from the 2007 American Community Survey, these profiles feature downloadable data on detailed characteristics of the Latino and foreign-born populations at the national level. The Center is simultaneously releasing demographic profiles of the Hispanic and non-Hispanic populations at the state level for 2007.

The Center has also made several improvements to its web site to ease access to its public opinion research, databases and other resources. A search feature allows users to find questions from all national Pew Hispanic Center polls since 2002. The results of the search also yield links to associated tabulations and reports. Easy to navigate buttons and drop down menus now offer ready access to survey databases, state fact sheets, statistical profiles, publication archives and other resources.

The Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center, is a nonpartisan,  non-advocacy research organization based in Washington, D.C. and is funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts..

Contact: Mary Seaborn,  202-419-3606
 or Paul Fucito,, 202-419-4372 


President Harry Truman

Harry Truman was a different kind of President. He probably made as many important decisions regarding our nation's history as any of the other 42 Presidents. However, a measure of his greatness may rest on what he did after he left the White House.
The only asset he had when he died was the house he lived in, which was in Independence Missouri. His wife had inherited the house from her mother and other than their years in the White House, they lived their entire lives there.
When he retired from office in 1952, his income was a U.S. Army pension reported to have been $13,507.72 a year. Congress, noting that he was paying for his stamps and personally licking them, granted him an 'allowance' and, later, a retroactive pension of $25,000 per year.
After President Eisenhower was inaugurated, Harry and Bess drove home to Missouri by themselves. There were no Secret Service following them.
When offered corporate positions at large salaries, he declined, stating, "You don't want me. You want the office of the President, and that doesn't belong to me. It belongs to the American people and it's not for sale."
Even later, on May 6, 1971, when Congress was preparing to award him the Medal of Honor on his 87th birthday, he refused to accept it, writing, "I don't consider that I have done anything which should be the reason for any award, Congressional or otherwise."
As president he paid for all of his own travel expenses and food. Today, many in Congress have found a way to become quite wealthy while enjoying the fruits of their offices. 




Mexico Under Siege, Drug cartels' New Weaponry Means War
State of War By Sam Quinones
Recommended DVDs: Drug Wars by G. Fleming and Border by C. Burgard
Crossover Appeal, Mexican folk songs to dissuade immigrants
"Crime, Justice, and the Border" Conference, March 31-April 2
Day Labor Centers
2007 ACS Data Tool: Demographic & Social Characteristics
Maps of the Foreign Born Residing in the United States
Dr. Francisco G. Cigarroa, Fifteenth Annual Eagle Pass Business Journal Awards
Unopened claims letters hidden at VA offices


Phoenix, AZ, The Associated Press by Jacques Billeaud, 3/6/09

"The abduction this month was one of nearly 1,000 kidnappings reported in Phoenix over the past three years in a surge of lawlessness . . . . "




Drug cartels' new weaponry means war

Felipe Salinas / Associated Press
Police officers drive past a burning police vehicle in Zihuatanejo, Mexico. In a three-week period, five grenade attacks were launched on police patrols and stations. 

Narcotics traffickers are acquiring firepower more appropriate to an army -- including grenade launchers and antitank rockets -- and the police are feeling outgunned.

By Ken Ellingwood and Tracy Wilkinson
LA Times, March 15, 2009
Reporting from Zihuatanejo, Mexico, and Mexico City -- It was a brazen assault, not just because it targeted the city's police station, but for the choice of weapon: grenades.
The Feb. 21 attack on police headquarters in coastal Zihuatanejo, which injured four people, fit a disturbing trend of Mexico's drug wars. Traffickers have escalated their arms race, acquiring military-grade weapons, including hand grenades, grenade launchers, armor-piercing munitions and antitank rockets with firepower far beyond the assault rifles and pistols that have dominated their arsenals. 
Most of these weapons are being smuggled from Central American countries or by sea, eluding U.S. and Mexican monitors who are focused on the smuggling of semiauto- matic and conventional weapons purchased from dealers in the U.S. border states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California.
The proliferation of heavier armaments points to a menacing new stage in the Mexican government's 2-year-old war against drug organizations, which are evolving into a more militarized force prepared to take on Mexican army troops, deployed by the thousands, as well as to attack each other.
These groups appear to be taking advantage of a robust global black market and porous borders, especially between Mexico and Guatemala. Some of the weapons are left over from the wars that the United States helped fight in Central America, U.S. officials said.
"There is an arms race between the cartels," said Alberto Islas, a security consultant who advises the Mexican government.
"One group gets rocket-propelled grenades, the other has to have them."
There are even more ominous developments: Authorities reported three thefts of several hundred pounds of blasting material from industrial explosives plants in Durango during a four-day period last month. Authorities believe the material may have been destined for car bombs or remotely detonated roadside devices, which have been used with devastating effect in Iraq, killing more than 1,822 members of U.S.-led forces since the war there began nearly six years ago.
The Mexican army has recovered most of the material, and there has been no reported use of such devices.
Grenades or military-grade weapons have been reported in at least 10 Mexican states during the last six months, used against police headquarters, city halls, a U.S. consulate, TV stations and senior Mexican officials. In a three-week period ended March 6, five grenade attacks were launched on police patrols and stations and the home of a commander in the south-central state of Michoacan. Other such attacks occurred in five other states during the same period.
At least one grenade attack north of the border, at a Texas nightclub frequented by U.S. police officers, has been tied to Mexican traffickers.
How many weapons have been smuggled into Mexico from Central America is not known, and the military-grade munitions are still a small fraction of the larger arsenal in the hands of narcotics traffickers. Mexican officials continue to push Washington to stem the well-documented flow of conventional weapons from the United States, as Congress holds hearings on the role those smuggled guns play in arming Mexican drug cartels.
There is no comprehensive data on how many people have been killed by heavier weapons.
But four days after the assault on the Zihuatanejo police station, four of the city's officers were slain in a highway ambush six miles from town on the road to Acapulco. In addition to the standard AK-47 and AR-15 assault rifles, the attackers fired at least six .50-caliber shells into the officers' pickup. The vehicle blew up when hit by what experts believe was a grenade or explosive projectile. The bodies of the officers were charred.
"These are really weapons of war," said Alberto Fernandez, spokesman for the Zihuatanejo city government. "We only know these devices from war movies."
U.S. law enforcement officials say they detected the smuggling of grenades and other military-grade equipment into Mexico about a year and a half ago, and observed a sharp uptick in the use of the weapons about six months ago.
The Mexican government said it has seized 2,239 grenades in the last two years, in contrast to 59 seized over the previous two years.
The enhanced weaponry represents a wide sampling from the international arms bazaar, with grenades and launchers produced by U.S., South Korean, Israeli, Spanish or former Soviet bloc manufacturers. Many had been sold legally to governments, including Mexico's, and then were diverted onto the black market. Some may be sold directly to the traffickers by corrupt elements of national armies, authorities and experts say.
The single deadliest attack on civilians by drug traffickers in Mexico took place Sept. 15 at an Independence Day celebration in the central plaza of Morelia, hometown of President Felipe Calderon and capital of Michoacan. Attackers hurled fragmentation grenades at the celebrating crowd, killing eight people and wounding dozens more.
Amid the recent spate of attacks in Michoacan, federal police on Feb. 20 announced the discovery of 66 fragmentation grenades in the fake bottom of a truck intercepted in southern Mexico, just over the border from Guatemala. The two men arrested with the cargo told police they were transporting the grenades to Morelia.
Grenades used in three attacks in Monterrey and Texas were linked to a single Monterrey warehouse, packed with explosives and high-caliber guns, reportedly belonging to the Gulf cartel. Mexican authorities raided the warehouse in October and seized the cache, which contained South Korean-manufactured grenades similar to the American M67 fragmentation grenade.
Grenades from the same lot were used in a Jan. 6 attack on the Televisa television station in Monterrey, which caused damage but no injuries, and during an Oct. 12 attack against the U.S. Consulate in Monterrey. The device at the consulate did not detonate.
Late on the night of Jan. 31, a Saturday, a man tossed a grenade into the El Booty Lounge in Pharr, Texas. Three off-duty Texas police officers were there, though authorities would not say whether they were the target. The explosive, which did not detonate, was traced to the Monterrey warehouse.
Traffickers using M203 40-millimeter grenade launchers last year attacked and killed eight Mexican federal police officers in Culiacan, the capital of Sinaloa state. In the northern border city of Nogales, the Sonora state police commander was killed Nov. 2 in an ambush by purported traffickers firing AK-47s and lobbing grenades. He had been returning from a meeting with U.S. authorities in Arizona to discuss gun smuggling.
In the western state of Durango, three people, including a 3-year-old child, were killed in a grenade attack in January.
The firepower has gone beyond grenades. Armed with light antitank weapons, would-be assassins went after the nation's top counternarcotics prosecutor in December 2007. The assailants were intercepted before they reached Jose Luis Santiago Vasconcelos, who was not hurt. The weapons seized were linked to the notorious Sinaloa cartel.
"They were betting on being able to escalate with a spectacular strike precisely to terrify society," Santiago Vasconcelos said at the time. (He was killed in November in a plane crash.)
Beyond the weaponry, drug gangs for several years have demonstrated the ability to form squads and employ military tactics, including the use of assault rifles, hand grenades, grenade launchers and fully automatic weapons to pin down army forces. This has enabled them to attack army patrols frontally, as they did with lethal results Feb. 7 in the central state of Zacatecas, killing one sergeant and critically wounding a colonel.
"At this stage, the drug cartels are using basic infantry weaponry to counter government forces," a U.S. government official in Mexico said. "Encountering criminals with this kind of weaponry is a horse of a different color," the official said.
"It's not your typical patrol stop, where someone pulls a gun. This has all the makings of an infantry squad, or guerrilla fighting."
The fear of guerrilla warfare was compounded in February when 270 pounds of dynamite and several hundred electric detonators were stolen from a U.S. firm in the state of Durango. On Valentine's Day, about 20 masked gunmen, led by a heavyset man wearing gold rings and chains, stormed the warehouse of a subsidiary of Austin Powder Co., an industrial explosives manufacturer, according to official accounts. They overpowered guards and emptied the warehouse. Two similar thefts were reported within four days in the same area.
Although the Mexican army recovered most of the dynamite, the incident augurs an even bloodier trend, officials said.
"There is only one reason to have bulk explosives," said Thomas G. Mangan, spokesman in Phoenix for the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. "An improvised explosive device. A car bomb."
In addition to grenades, high-powered guns such as the .50-caliber Barrett sniper rifle have become a weapon of choice in narcotics traffickers' arsenals, Mangan said. Unlike grenades and antitank weapons, the .50-caliber guns can be obtained by ordinary citizens in the U.S. and smuggled easily into Mexico, like the tons of assault rifles and automatic pistols.
Mexican law enforcement, such as the police in Zihuatanejo, is grossly outgunned. Officers have protested, seeking better protective gear, weaponry and pay.
Shortly after the Zihuatanejo attacks, police officers staged a brief work stoppage outside their headquarters, where scars from the grenade attack were still visible. One of the blasts left a cereal bowl-shaped divot in the stone pavement and pockmarks on the front of the police building. It went off 100 feet from the nearest street, prompting some officers to suspect that the assailants employed a grenade launcher.
Police have piled sandbags 4 feet high around the compound and security is tight. Commanders have bought 10 bulletproof vests, but say they need at least 280 to equip the city's 343 officers.
The police commander, Pablo Rodriguez, said his officers are terrified. They are armed with semiautomatic .223-caliber rifles made in Italy, Germany and Mexico. The rifles, with folding stocks, are snazzy, but they are no match for the weapons being stockpiled by the drug cartels.
"They are good weapons, but to counteract the types of weapons they're using against us, they're not equal," Rodriguez said.
His officers know they don't stand a chance. Not five days after the highway attack that blew up the police truck, Rodriguez had jobs to fill. Twenty-two of his cops had abruptly quit.
Sent by Jose M. Pena



State of War 
By Sam Quinones, March/April 2009
Mexico’s hillbilly drug smugglers have morphed into a raging insurgency. Violence claimed more lives there last year alone than all the Americans killed in the war in Iraq. And there’s no end in sight.

What I remember most about my return to Mexico last year are the narcomantas. At least that’s what everyone called them: “drug banners.” Perhaps a dozen feet long and several feet high, they were hung in parks and plazas around Monterrey. Their messages were hand-painted in black block letters. They all said virtually the same thing, even misspelling the same name in the same way. Similar banners appeared in eight other Mexican cities that day—Aug. 26, 2008.

The banners were likely the work of the Gulf drug cartel, one of the biggest drug gangs in Mexico. Its rival from the Pacific Coast, the Sinaloa cartel, had moved into Gulf turf near Texas, and now the groups were fighting a propaganda war as well as an escalating gun battle. One banner accused the purported leader of the Sinaloa cartel, Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán Loera, of being protected by Mexican President Felipe Calderón and the army. After some time, the city’s police showed up politely to take the banners down.

I’d recently lived in Mexico for a decade, but I’d never seen anything like this. I left in 2004—as it turned out, just a year before Mexico’s long-running trouble with drug gangs took a dark new turn for the worse. Monterrey was the safest region in the country when I lived there, thanks to its robust economy and the sturdy social control of an industrial elite. The narcobanners were a chilling reminder of how openly and brazenly the drug gangs now operate in Mexico, and how little they fear the police and government.

That week in Monterrey, newspapers reported, Mexico clocked 167 drug-related murders. When I lived there, they didn’t have to measure murder by the week. There were only about a thousand drug-related killings annually. The Mexico I returned to in 2008 would end that year with a body count of more than 5,300 dead. That’s almost double the death toll from the year before—and more than all the U.S. troops killed in Iraq since that war began.

But it wasn’t just the amount of killing that shocked me. When I lived in Mexico, the occasional gang member would turn up executed, maybe with duct-taped hands, rolled in a carpet, and dropped in an alley. But Mexico’s newspapers itemized a different kind of slaughter last August: Twenty-four of the week’s 167 dead were cops, 21 were decapitated, and 30 showed signs of torture. Campesinos found a pile of 12 more headless bodies in the Yucatán. Four more decapitated corpses were found in Tijuana, the same city where barrels of acid containing human remains were later placed in front of a seafood restaurant. A couple of weeks later, someone threw two hand grenades into an Independence Day celebration in Morelia, killing eight and injuring dozens more. And at any time, you could find YouTube videos of Mexican gangs executing their rivals—an eerie reminder of, and possibly a lesson learned from, al Qaeda in Iraq.

Then there are the guns. When I lived in Mexico, its cartels were content with assault rifles and large-caliber pistols, mostly bought at American gun shops. Now, Mexican authorities are finding arsenals that would have been incomprehensible in the Mexico I knew. The former U.S. drug czar, Gen. Barry McCaffrey, was in Mexico not long ago, and this is what he found:

The outgunned Mexican law enforcement authorities face armed criminal attacks from platoon-sized units employing night vision goggles, electronic intercept collection, encrypted communications, fairly sophisticated information operations, sea-going submersibles, helicopters and modern transport aviation, automatic weapons, RPG’s, Anti-Tank 66 mm rockets, mines and booby traps, heavy machine guns, 50 [caliber] sniper rifles, massive use of military hand grenades, and the most modern models of 40mm grenade machine guns.

These are the weapons the drug gangs are now turning against the Mexican government as Calderón escalates the war against the cartels.

Mexico’s surge in gang violence has been accompanied by a similar spike in kidnapping. This old problem, once confined to certain unstable regions, is now a nationwide crisis. While I was in Monterrey, the supervisor of the city’s office of the AFI—Mexico’s FBI—was charged with running a kidnapping ring. The son of a Mexico City sporting-goods magnate was recently kidnapped and killed. Newspapers reported that women in San Pedro, once one of Mexico’s safest cities, now take classes in surviving abductions.

All of this is taking a toll on Mexicans who had been insulated from the country’s drug violence. Elites are retreating to bunkered lives behind video cameras and security gates. Others are fleeing for places like San Antonio and McAllen, Texas. Among them is the president of Mexico’s prominent Grupo Reforma chain of newspapers. My week in Mexico last August ended with countrywide marches of people dressed in white, holding candles and demanding an end to the violence.

In Monterrey, most were from Mexico’s middle and upper classes, people who view protests as the province of workers and radicals. In all my time in the country, I had seen such people turn to protest only once: during the 1994 peso crisis, when Mexico was on the brink of economic collapse.

I’ve traveled through most of Mexico’s 31 states. I’ve written two books about the country. And yet I now struggle to recognize the place. Mexico is wracked by a criminal-capitalist insurgency. It is fighting for its life. And most Americans seem to have no idea what’s happening right next door.

What happened in the four years I was gone? Fueled by American demand, dope was always there, of course. So was a surplus of weapons and gangs to use them. When I lived in Mexico, drug violence was a story, but not the story it is today.

I remember grander concerns back then: Mexico peacefully shedding 70 years of one-party authoritarian rule and dreaming of becoming a stable and prosperous democracy. But Mexico’s one-party state, led by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), gave way to the control of a few parties, which were as inert and unaccountable as their authoritarian forebears. They bickered about minutiae in congress, and the hoped-for reforms didn’t come. The PRI’s centralized political control was gone, but nothing effectively took its place. This vacuum unleashed new opportunities for criminality, and Mexico’s institutions weren’t up to the new threats that emerged.

Most of the cartels that now battle for drug routes into the United States emerged in the Pacific Coast state of Sinaloa—a mid-sized Mexican state with an outsized drug problem. Mexican drug smuggling began primarily among rural and mountain people from lawless villages who are known to be especially bronco—wild. Marijuana and opium poppies grow easily in Sinaloa’s hills. A narcoculture has evolved there, venerating smugglers and their swaggering hillbilly style, called buchon. Hicks became heroes. They moved into wealthy neighborhoods and fired guns in the air at parties. Bands sing their exploits; college kids know how they died. Sinaloa is that rare place where townies emulate hayseeds, and youths yearn to join their ranks.

These renegades have grown into a national security threat since I’ve been away from Mexico. One reason is that regional drug markets have changed a lot in the past few years. The Colombian government grew more successful against narcotraffickers who had taken over large parts of Colombia. Enforcement in the Caribbean also improved. Once-settled Mexican smuggling routes suddenly became the best way to move dope through Latin America and into the United States. Those routes were now up for grabs, and much more was at stake. Old gang enmities exploded. Mexico’s cartels could not let their rivals take over new drug routes for fear they’d grow stronger. The gangs began vying for turf in an increasingly savage war with a constantly shifting front: Acapulco, Monterrey, Tijuana, Juárez, Nogales, and of course Sinaloa.

With war raging between Mexico’s narcogangs, and with plenty of cash available from drug sales to Americans—$25 billion a year, by one reliable estimate—cartel gunmen began to grow discontented with the limited selection of arms found in the thousands of gun stores along the southern U.S. border. Instead, they have sought out—and acquired—the world’s fiercest weaponry. Today, hillbilly pistoleros are showing signs of becoming modern paramilitaries.

Mexico’s gangs had the means and motive to create upheaval, and in Mexico’s failure to reform into a modern state, especially at local levels, the cartels found their opportunity. Mexico has traditionally starved its cities. They have weak taxing power. Their mayors can’t be reelected. Constant turnover breeds incompetence, improvisation, and corruption. Local cops are poorly paid, trained, and equipped. They have to ration bullets and gas and are easily given to bribery. Their morale stinks. So what should be the first line of defense against criminal gangs is instead anemic and easily compromised. Mexico has been left handicapped, and gangs that would have been stomped out locally in a more effective state have been able to grow into a powerful force that now attacks the Mexican state itself.

The first sign of trouble was Nuevo Laredo in late 2005. The Gulf and Sinaloa cartels staged street shootouts and midnight assassinations for months in this border city, which the Gulf cartel had controlled. One police chief lasted only hours from his swearing-in to his assassination. The state and municipal police took sides in the cartel fight. Newspapers had to stop reporting the news for fear of retaliation.

Enter Calderón, who took office in late 2006, determined to address the growing war among Mexico’s cartels. He broke with old half-measures of cargo takedowns that looked good but did little to damage the cartels. Calderón wanted arrests. He also began extraditing to the United States the capos and their lieutenants—more than 90 so far—who were already in custody and wanted up north.

But when Calderón looked across Mexico for allies to help him escalate the war on the narcogangs, he found few local governments and police forces that hadn’t been starved to dysfunction. So he has had to rely on the only tool up to the task: Mexico’s military. Calderón has also turned to the United States for help. The Merida Initiative, launched in April 2008, is a 10-fold increase in U.S. security assistance to a proposed $1.4 billion over several years, supplying Mexican forces with high-end equipment from helicopters to surveillance technology.

Fighting criminal gangs with a national military is an imperfect solution, but Calderón has scored some victories. He has captured or killed key gang leaders. Weapons seizures have been massive. Last November, the Mexican Army seized a house in Reynosa that contained the largest weapons cache ever found in the country, including more than 540 rifles, 500,000 rounds of ammunition, and 165 grenades.

The cartels have responded to Calderón’s war with the kind of buchon savagery that so struck me upon returning to Mexico. In addition to fighting each other, the cartels are now increasingly fighting the Mexican state as well, and the killing shows no sign of slowing. The Mexican Army is outgunned, even with U.S. support. Calderón’s purges of hundreds of public officials for corruption, cops among them, may look impressive, but they accomplish little. The problem isn’t individuals; it’s systemic. Until cities have the power and funding to provide strong and well-paid local police, Mexico’s criminal gangs will remain a national threat, not a regional nuisance.

There’s little reason to believe 2009 won’t look a lot like 2008. And there’s reason to fear it will be worse. The financial crisis is hitting Mexico hard. How long it can hang on is unclear. The momentum still favors the gangs, meaning the bloodshed will likely subside only when they tire of warring.

Americans watch this upheaval with curious detachment. One warning sign is Phoenix. This city has replaced Miami as the prime gateway for illegal drugs entering the United States. Cartel chaos in Mexico is pushing bad elements north along with the dope—enforcers without work and footloose to freelance.

Phoenix—the snowbird getaway, the land of yellow cardigans and emerald fairways—is now awash in kidnappings—366 in 2008 alone, up from 96 a decade ago. Most committing these crimes hail from Sinaloa, several hundred miles south. In one alarming incident, a gang of Mexican nationals, dressed in Phoenix police uniforms and using high-powered weapons and military tactics, stormed a drug dealer’s house in a barrage of gunfire, killing him and taking his dope.

Phoenix is hanging tough—for now. Its capable local police, so desperately lacking in Mexico, are managing to quarantine the problem. No one unconnected to smuggling has been abducted, police say, and no kidnapping victim has been lost in a case they have been asked to investigate. As a result, most Phoenix residents live blithely unaware that hundreds of people in the smuggling underworld are kidnapped in their midst every year.

Still, violence and criminality are moving north at a rapid pace, and Americans would be foolhardy to imagine capable police departments like Phoenix’s going for long without cracking under the pressure. As one Phoenix police officer told me, “Our fear is, we’re going to meet our match.”

Sam Quinones, a reporter with the Los Angeles Times, is author of two books on Mexico. His Web site is

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.



Drug Wars, Silver or Lead, Plata o Plomo
by Gary "Rusty" Fleming

Border, Divide between the American Dream & the American Nightmare by Chris Burgard




Crossover Appeal, By Ashley Surdin
Mexican folk songs to dissuade immigrants

Washington Post, March 15, 2009
WASHINGTON, DC - To its arsenal of agents, fences and stealthy sensors skirting our nation's southern border, the U.S. Border Patrol may soon add another weapon in the fight against illegal immigration: a follow-up album. Yes, as in CD. With singers, guitars. Accordions.
In what may be among the lesser-known deterrents exercised by our nation's security forces, the Unites States Border Patrol (USBP) is deploying up-tempo Mexican folk songs about tragic border crossings to dissuade would-be undocumented immigrants.
The agency has paid - how much, it won't say - a D.C.-based advertising company to write, record and distribute an album, "Migra Corridos," to radio stations in Mexico. Its title, its makers say, is intended to mean "songs of the immigrant" but "migras" [sic] is commonly understood as a code word for Border Patrol in much of Mexico.
The first CD of five songs was recorded in 2006 and distributed over the past two years. Another CD in the works is scheduled to be ready by May. There are also tentative plans for a collection of similarly themed songs with styles of music more geared toward would-be undocumented immigrants from Central America.
Many of the stations in Mexico that play the songs and the listeners who request them are seemingly oblivious to who is behind the bouncy ballads of death, dashed dreams and futile attempts at manhood.
Before you cross the border, remember that you can be just as much a man by chickening out and staying, Because it's better to keep your life than ending up dead.
- "Veinte Años" ("20 Years")
"It's pretty slick," says Jason Ciliberti, a spokesman with the USBP in Washington.
The music is part of the Border Safety Initiative, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection's push to squash smuggling and increase safety along the border. As part of that effort, the USBP launched "No Mas Cruces en la Frontera," a campaign aimed at educating communities with many potential undocumented immigrants about the dangers of crossing.
Undocumented immigrants can encounter severe hazards on their journey: professional smugglers and bandits who beat, rob, rape and abandon them; bitingly cold or scorching temperatures; snakes, scorpions; drowning; and death by dehydration or exhaustion. 
"No Mas Cruces en la Frontera" (which means both "no more crossings on the border" and "no more crosses on the border") has primarily relied on newspaper, television and billboard ads. In one poster, men walk in a line, with some of their shadows showing as crosses rather than bodies. In another, someone has collapsed in a seemingly endless desert. "Before crossing to the other side," the poster advises, "remember that the burial plots are full of the valiant and the macho."
The most recent twist on the media blitz is "Migra Corridos," a brainchild of Elevación, a D.C.- based advertising boutique, with 20 or so employees, that specializes in Hispanic market advertising - producing jingles, television spots and billboards. Elevación, which had already been working on the border campaign, sold the Border Patrol on the idea of songs-as-deterrents.
The five-song album draws on corridos, popular Mexican narrative ballads with roots in Spain's Middle Ages. Re-energized in recent decades by such popular Mexican groups as Los Tigres del Norte, the genre reverberates deeply with Mexican and Mexican American communities, says Martha I. Chew Sanchez, the author of "Corridos in Migrant Memory" and an associate professor at St. Lawrence University in New York.
The songs, Sanchez says, humanize the experiences of those communities with tales of love, death, migration, globalization and social and political events. More recently, there has been an explosion in the popularity of narco-corridos - ballads that recount the drug traders, their violent exploits and, often, their deaths. 
Among the perils mentioned on "Migra Corridos": a cousin who dies from dehydration, a mother who is raped and beaten by a child-killing smuggler, one man's suffocation in an airtight tractor-trailer.
He put me in a trailer
There I shared my sorrows
With 40 illegals
They never told me
That this was a trip to hell.
- "El Respeto" ("Respect")
Whatever the subject, the songs can strike a chord with listeners, as long as they tell a compelling narrative, Sanchez says. "If it's a good story, the people will like it. And no matter what generation, they will listen to it, dance to it."
"Migra Corridos" lives up to its dance-inducing predecessors, despite its somber stories. The music is peppy, even cheerful. Drums tippity-tap along with piping accordions and strumming guitars. The songs were distributed to six Mexican states, where, according to Elevación's research, many migrants left for the border: Zacatecas, Michoacán, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco and Chiapas. Elevación contacted stations and asked them to play the songs as part of the border initiative.
"When we approached the Mexican media, we approach it as a humanitarian campaign," says Pablo Izquierdo, vice president of Elevación. "We didn't tell them who was behind it because consumer research indicated that it wasn't going to be as well-received."
But, Izquierdo says, there's nothing fake about the songs. "There is no commercial message. It's all heartfelt, and it's all from the point of view of the people."
After some hours
Abelardo opened his eyes
And in the middle of the cold night
Discovered his dead cousin at his side.
"El Más Grande Enemigo" ("The Biggest Enemy")
Izquierdo says that feedback from the stations was positive and that even though the CDs were not for sale, listeners started requesting the songs. Research done by Elevación in the communities where the songs were being played found that the songs became "the talk of the town," Izquierdo says.
It is difficult to measure how effective the corridos have been in aiding the government's overall effort, but the Border Patrol's Ciliberti cites a steady decline in deaths and rescues along the Southwest border over the past four years. He attributes it to the agency's broader approach to undocumented immigration. According to Ciliberti, 492 people died along the Southwest border in 2005. Last year, 390 deaths were recorded. In terms of rescues in that same area, the Border
Patrol assisted 2,550 people in distress in 2005. Last year, 1,263 were rescued. 
"What we're doing now, that we really haven't done before, is take a more holistic view of border security," he says. "There's no mention of being punitive in any of these corridos. These are simply about the dangers." 
But whatever its intent, the program raises questions about whether the Border Patrol should be doing this at all. The U.S. has long used music, art and other forms of cultural diplomacy as a way of reaching and influencing people in other countries, but those efforts have been relatively out in the open. The Border Patrol's involvement is not mentioned, nor is it traceable on the brown glossy CD cover with "migra corridos" printed in gold. More-discerning eyes might notice "bsi" (for Border Safety Initiative) at the bottom right-hand corner inside the cover. 
Still, the agency defends the approach despite the lack of transparency. "I think the message we're putting out is real, and it's a message that needs to be heard," says Steve Cribby, also with the USBP. "Whether people decide to hear it or not is up to them. We're not making anything up. We're educating people." 
Juan Flores, a drummer in a Stockton, CA-based band that plays corridos, says the USBP approach is a smart one. "They are thinking outside the box," he says. "It's propaganda, in a good way." 
A number of the professional writers, musicians and singers for the "Migra Corridos" project are Mexican nationals now living in Washington and New York. And all were aware of Border Patrol's involvement - and concealment - in the project.
Rodolfo Hernández, who works for Elevación, wrote the lyrics for the corridos, inspired by newspaper clippings. He said any initial hesitation among the musicians was eased knowing the CD's release would benefit their country. "Mexico is suffering a lot," says Hernández, 35. "The effect of immigration is not just what happens at the border, it's what we leave behind." 
And the backing of the USBP didn't give pause to New York-based Rubén Flores, who sang two of the tracks on the CD: "En la Raya" and "Veinte Años."
"I thought it was a smart thing to do, to have that kind of approach," says Flores, who once sang for a popular musical comedy show in Mexico. To those in his native country who might feel deceived by the project, Flores says, "I would like them to think of their parents, their brothers and sisters - the people who are left behind if somebody dies - and how they would feel," he says. 
"I would say that if they really listen to the lyrics and what the song is about, that is the most important thing," he says. 
"It wouldn't be important where the message is coming from, but the essence."
Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.
Professor Emeritus
Department of Ethnic Studies


 "Crime, Justice, and the Border" 
Conference, March 31-April 2

New Carpa Theater Co. and the Border Justice 2009 "Crime, Justice, and the Border" conference,  March 31 – April 2,
Arizona State University, West Campus,   
4701 W. Thunderbird.
Fletcher Library Lawn
“People’s Theater Performance”
“Operation Wetback”
Directed by James E. Garcia
6 p.m. - 7 p.m., March 31
A symbolic statement against the United States government’s ongoing policy of immigration raids versus humane reforms. 
We need “citizen actors” and experienced actors of any age, race or gender to volunteer to play the roles of immigrants deported in the 1950s era Operation Wetback in this short improvisational reenactment.
The performance starts at 6 p.m. If you’d like to volunteer to be a “citizen actor”, please arrive by no later than 5 p.m. on the lawn of the Fletcher Library at ASU West 4701 W. Thunderbird Rd. (Take I-17 to Thunderbird, go West about three miles).  CONTACT: James E. Garcia, 602-460-1374
For information about the Border Justice 2009 conference,




LOS ANGELES, CA - 10FEBRUARY09 - In an old building at the edge of Los Angeles' downtown garment district, and under a freeway in West L.A., day labor centers are places where immigrant workers look for work, find shelter and friendship, and organize themselves to pursue better wages and their rights. Downtown workers hold a raffle to see who will clean the center that morning. The winners are the first people who will be sent out to work. In West L.A. young men play soccer while waiting for contractors to arrive, and then gather around the center coordinator to sign up for work. Meanwhile, another day laborer paints the name of the West Los Angeles Day Labor Center on a post under the freeway. The centers are a project of IDEPSCA, and affiliated with the National Day Labor Organizing Network.

For more articles and images on immigration:

Just out from Beacon Press:  Illegal People --  How Globalization Creates Migration and Criminalizes Immigrants 

See also the photodocumentary on indigenous migration to the US
Communities Without Borders (Cornell University/ILR Press, 2006) 

See also The Children of NAFTA, Labor Wars on the U.S./Mexico Border (University of California, 2004) 

David Bacon, Photographs and Stories 



2007 ACS Data Tool: Demographic & Social Characteristics

The 2007 American Community Survey data are here! We are pleased to update our popular fact sheets about immigrants residing in each state and the nation overall. Simply go to the 2007 ACS/Census tool, select a state, and then choose the "Demographic and Social Characteristics" fact sheet.

The other three fact sheets on the foreign born — covering language and education, workforce, and income and poverty — will also be updated with the 2007 data in the upcoming months.

* Nearly half (48 percent) of all immigrants in the United States reported Hispanic or Latino origin, compared to one in ten among the native-born population.

* Of the 45.4 million Hispanics residing in the United States in 2007, 40 percent were foreign born. Immigrants accounted for a much larger share of the Hispanic population in the District of Columbia (60 percent), Georgia (55 percent), and North Carolina (55 percent). In contrast, 96 percent of Hispanics in Montana were US born.

* Individuals born in Latin America accounted for 54 percent of all foreign born living in the United States in 2007 compared to 44 percent in 1990. The share of European born dropped from 23 percent in 1990 to 13 percent in 2007 while the share of Asian born changed only slightly (from 26 percent in 1990 to 27 percent in 2007).

For more information, go to the 2007 ACS/Census tool and select the desired state.


Maps of the Foreign Born Residing in the United States

Two in three immigrants lived in just six states in 2007; North Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas, and Nevada were among 13 states that experienced 200 percent or more growth of their immigrant population between 1990 and 2007. Our updated map "States with the Largest and Fastest-Growing Immigrant Populations" shows the six states that were home to 66 percent of all immigrants in the United States in 2007 and the states with more than 200 percent growth of their immigrant population since 1990.

Other maps show the settlement patterns of the top five origin countries — Mexico, the Philippines, India, China, and Vietnam. The maps show in which states and metropolitan areas these immigrant groups resided in 2006.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


Dr. Francisco G. Cigarroa
Fifteenth Annual Eagle Pass Business Journal Awards 


Nota: Below is the text of a keynote address delivered by Dr. Francisco G. Cigarroa at the Fifteenth Annual Eagle Pass Business Journal Awards in Eagle Pass, Texas, on January 24, 2009.  According to one account in the local print media, Dr. Cigarroa's appearance at this community event constituted "his first official function as Chancellor of the University of Texas System.  Dr. Francisco G. Cigarroa headlined the 15th Annual Eagle Pass Business Journal Awards.  Dr. Cigarroa discussed the challenges and opportunities facing the Texas-Mexico border as well as the salient demographic changes within the State of Texas in the next 40 years" (see, Eagle Pass Business Journal 16:5 (January 29, 2009), 1).  The newly appointed University of Texas System Chancellor, Cigarroa was presented with a "Lifetime Achievement Award for his outstanding leadership and vision as a physician and public servant" after his presentation.  Cigarroa is the first Mexican American to assume the lead administrative post in the history of the institution.  May there be many more.  He is originally from Laredo, Texas.  Adelante.


Sent by Roberto R. Calderón , Ph.D.

Fifteenth Annual Eagle Pass Business Journal Awards
January 24, 2009

Francisco G. Cigarroa, M.D., President
and Professor of Pediatric and Transplantation Surgery
The University of Texas Health Science Center

After the address, Dr. Cigarroa was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award. 

Thank you for that kind introduction. I would especially like to convey my appreciation to you for inviting me to deliver the keynote address. Thank you for allowing me the privilege of sharing with you the current conditions and outlook for underrepresented minorities in academic medicine and the health care field, and what we are doing to improve these conditions.  I recognize that I am speaking with a distinguished group of community leaders.  I hope my insights will add value to your perspectives.

Let me begin by stating that a strong education for all citizens is fundamental to a vibrant nation and a high performing health care system. The disciplines- art, science, philosophy, literature, mathematics- required for an integration of true learning and innovation in all fields, including health care, must be strengthened into the fabric of American students' academic backgrounds. Our educational system is not where it needs to be and, in fact, is more strained than ever before. 

Listen to these disturbing statistics: in the United States, only 71% of entering ninth graders graduate from high school, only 39% enter college, only 27% enroll for a second year in college, and only 18% graduate within a six year time frame. Only 18 out of 100 ninth graders, in other words, graduate from college within six years. This problem only worsens for students who are raised, through no fault of their own, in low socioeconomic environments, many of whom are under-represented minorities such as Hispanic and African-American students. And this is the population which is to exponentially grow over coming decades. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, minority students will compose the majority of students, increasing to 54% by 2050. 

Given my background having been educated through public schools in one of the poorest cities in the United States, my training as a Pediatric and Transplantation Surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital and at John Hopkins Hospital, and as the first Hispanic President of a major academic health science center in the United States, every step of my collective educational and life experiences provided me with the attributes helpful in leading an academic health center and acquiring the trust of faculty, students and staff alike. 

My upbringing as a Hispanic educated in the public school system in Laredo, Texas and my subsequent education and training provided me with a unique insight to carry out the mission of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and oversee a medical, dental, nursing, health professions and graduate school of biomedical sciences with more than 3,000 students and 5,000 faculty and staff members. It has also given me an unparalleled experience and understanding to lead the UT System as its chancellor. 

As President of the Health Science Center,  I made it a priority to implement programs that nurture and encourage minorities in the health professions. Health services research has shown that minority health professionals are more likely to serve minority and medically underserved populations; yet there is a severe underrepresentation of minorities in the health professions. Presently African Americans, Hispanic Americans and American Indians account for less than 9% of nurses, 6% of physicians and only 5% of dentists, according to a report of the Sullivan Commission entitled "Missing Persons: Minorities in the Health Professions." 

The numbers are far worse in academic medicine, as "underrepresented minorities account for only 4.2 percent of medical school faculties in the United States, less than 10 percent of the baccalaureate and graduate nursing school faculties, and 8.6 percent of dental faculties." 

The gap between health care providers and the diverse populations they serve will only increase if changes are not quickly instituted. The U.T. Health Science Center, for example, serves South Texas whose demography includes a population which is 80% Hispanic. It is a severely medically underserved region, as you well know. Let me paint for you the landscape. 

Nationally, there exists an average of 266 physicians per 100,000 people. In South Texas, it is much less than half of that, with only 113 doctors per 100,000 people. Nationally there are 61 dentists per 100,000 people, and along the Texas Mexico Border Region there are 19 dentists per 100,000 people. 

Compounding the issue of a shortage of providers are other severe problems. Large numbers of persons in South Texas lack health insurance. 31% of the population falls below the federal poverty level. Moreover, the challenges regarding health care resources led the Health Resources and Services Administration of the federal Department of Health and Human Services to designate this area of our nation as a medically underserved region. 

To address this problem, the U.T. Health Science Center established a Regional Academic Health Center along the Texas-Mexico Border in Harlingen and Edinburg with both a health professional education and medical research division. Working with the State of Texas Legislature, we have acquired capital funding, and we are partnering with major hospital systems as well as recruiting the Veterans Health Care Administration in order to provide additional clinical venues for the education of our students. 

We have acquired annual recurrent funding to recruit clinical faculty for medical education for both undergraduate students, residents and for the recruitment of scientists to begin biomedical research on diseases that particularly affect the population along the Texas Mexico Border Region such as: diabetes, mental health disease, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, hepatitis C and cancer. 15% of our medical students are completing their third and fourth year clinical rotations in these regional campuses. Thus far, we have educated more than 660 medical students who have done their third and fourth years of medical school at the Regional Academic Health Center. 

Fifty percent of physicians completing their residencies in our border campuses are staying there to practice, and many also are responding to the care of the uninsured by choosing to practice in federally qualified health clinics.

Our campus in Laredo is also creating a new model of dental health care. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services notes that the dentist-to-population ratio for the Laredo area is 75% below the state and national averages. Laredo is one of the fastest growing communities in the United States and the shortage of dental professionals is expected to significantly worsen unless considerable measures are taken not only here but throughout the nation. 

To help address this, The UT Health Science Center is working to establish a Border Regional Academic Health Center focused on Dentistry. We aim to establish additional dental student training programs through this initiative. We have established a partnership with the City of Laredo, Gateway Community Health Center, the Laredo Health Department, and the Laredo dental community to provide clinical training sites for students, residents, and faculty. Our goal is to establish this dental regional education program and create, for Laredo, one that will become a national model. 

For more than 12 years, we have had physician assistant students complete clinical rotations in Eagle Pass with six different clinical locations, including hospitals in the area. 

We now have two students from Eagle Pass in our physician assistant studies program. Our health professions programs have also included a summer program called Camp Get Fit, a nutrition and exercise program for overweight and obese children, and the first two years of this camp took place right here in Eagle Pass. In the summers, there were 250 children who participated in the camp and our physician assistant, occupational therapy and dental hygiene students volunteered as camp counselors and teachers for the month-long program. Camp Get Fit is sponsored and funded by Methodist Health Care Ministries, and many entities in Eagle Pass also supported the program, such as the public schools, school bus drivers, the city swimming pool, and federal food programs. Great differences have been found in many of the children and their families who participate… families are more active, and children have asked their parents to buy cauliflower and broccoli! Camp Get Fit exemplifies partnerships where the children truly win. The demand for this camp has been tremendous and because of the wonderful example modeled here in Eagle Pass for two years, the camp has moved to other locations that include Crystal City, Carrizo Springs and Bracketville.

I strongly believe that this paradigm in establishing programs and regional academic health centers will be an important means of addressing access to health care, serving as catalysts to increase opportunities for students of all backgrounds to pursue health professional education, especially those who might have otherwise felt that their dream to become a health care professional was impossible. 

Let us ensure that incredible choices and junctures are open for future generations of health care providers through the choices we are making. We must ensure that the student pipeline to health professional education remains wonderfully competitive, diverse, open and bountiful; that our students from kindergarten through college pursue knowledge through a deep love of learning which can cross disciplines in creativity and flashes of brilliance; 
and ensure that our academic health centers become conduits to serving the underprivileged and the vulnerable in our changing America.

This moment in history demands such a collective effort. Let us choose to seize the moment and follow inspired decisions to their realization. This will make a world of difference for the next generation of health care providers. 


Unopened claims letters hidden at VA offices  


By Rick Maze - Staff writer Army Times, Mar 4, 2009 

A new report about Veterans Affairs Department employees squirreling away tens of thousands of unopened letters related to benefits claims is sparking fresh concerns that veterans and their survivors are being cheated out of money.

VA officials acknowledge further credibility problems based on a new report of a previously undisclosed 2007 incident in which workers at a Detroit regional office turned in 16,000 pieces of unprocessed mail and 717 documents turned up in New York in December during amnesty periods in which workers were promised no one would be penalized.

“Veterans have lost trust in VA,” Michael Walcoff, VA’s under secretary for benefits, said at a hearing Tuesday. “That loss of trust is understandable, and winning back that trust will not be easy.”

Unprocessed and unopened mail was just one problem in VA claims processing mentioned by Belinda Finn, VA’s assistant inspector general for auditing, in testimony before the House Veterans’ Affairs Committee.

Auditors also found that the dates recorded for receiving claims, which in many cases determine the effective date for benefits payments, are wrong in many cases because of intentional and unintentional errors, Finn said.

The worst case uncovered by auditors involved the New York regional office, where employees testified that managers told staff to put later dates on claims to make it appear claims were being processed faster. A review found that 56 percent of claims had incorrect dates, although no evidence was found of incorrect or delayed benefits payments. Finn said workers reported that this practice had been used for years.

The new report comes as VA is trying to resolve an earlier controversy involving documents essential to the claims process that were discovered in bins awaiting shredding at several regional offices, which raised questions about how many past claims had been delayed or denied because of intentional or unintentional destruction of documentation.

‘It is impossible not to be shocked’

Kathryn Witt of Gold Star Wives of America said survivors trying to receive VA benefits have long complained about problems getting accurate information and missing claims. “When they call to check on the status of the claim, they are often told that the VA has no record of their claim and that they should resubmit their paperwork,” she said.

In one case, a woman claimed she had to submit paperwork to VA three times to prove she was married and had three children, Witt said.

And having to resubmit the same claim, she added, does nothing to reduce the backlog that already forces survivors to wait six to nine months for simple claims to be approved.

“It is impossible not to be shocked by the numbers from Detroit,” said Rep. Harry Mitchell, D-Ariz., who chairs the House Veterans’ Affairs Committee’s oversight and investigations panel. “Shredding documents or burying them in the bottom drawer is a breach of trust. Whether that breach of trust comes as a consequence of inadequate training or negligent or deliberate behavior, Congress must not and will not tolerate it.”

It is unclear, however, whether there is any short-term fix.

A permanent solution is to have a fully electronic claims process to establish a record of when documents are received and their status as they move through the process. A fully electronic system will not be in place before 2011, VA officials said.

Kerry Baker of Disabled American Veterans said a short-term answer could be to scan all documents related to claims into computer systems. Baker, DAV’s assistant national legislative director, said this could be done at one or more large-scale imaging centers that would transform paper into electronic records.

“A large section of the veterans community and representatives of the community have long felt that the Veterans Benefits Administration operates in such a way that stalls the claims process until frustrated claimants either give up or die,” Baker said.

He said that although he doesn’t believe that is true, something must be done.

“Denying earned benefits by illegally destroying records should serve as the proverbial wake-up call that signals the urgency of this overdue transformation,” he said.

Geneva Moore, a senior veterans service representative from Winston-Salem, N.C., who testified on behalf of the American Federation of Government Employees, a union that counts about 160,000 VA workers among its members, said backdating claims and document shredding are signs of a claims system under stress. “Clearly, if the disability claims process were already paperless, many of the problems being considered at this hearing today would no longer exist,” she said.

"It is a shame how the V.A. treats our Veterans. I have assisted various friends access services at the V.A. and even though their treatment has improved it still lacks the quality of service and attention our veterans deserve."   
Ricardo J. Valverde



Cesar E. Chavez National  Holiday Petition Drive
Benito Abeytia spent life as an activist
Dream Act: The Time is Now!
English in the Workplace
Future Landscapes Designed by Women
National Association of Latino Independent Producers Holds PBS Accountable
Citizen Action Taken in Response to a Community Forum Meeting

Cesar E. Chavez National Holiday Petition Drive

Mercy Bautista-Olvera


                 “ One of the heroic figures of our time.”

-Robert F. Kennedy-



"< /i>Cesar Chavez left a legacy as an educator, environmentalist, and a civil rights leader.” And his cause lives on. As farm workers and laborers across America continue to struggle for fair treatment and fair wages, we find strength in what Cesar Chavez accomplished so many years ago. And we should honor him for what he’ s taught us about making America a stronger, more just, and more prosperous nation. That’ s why I support the call to make Cesar Chavez’ s birthday a national holiday. It’ s time to recognize the contributions of this American icon.”

- - Barack Obama




Cesar Chavez was a labor leader and Civil Rights activist; he deserves national recognition to honor his legacy by having a Cesar Chavez National Holiday.    

Cesar Chavez was born Cesario (Cesar) Estrada Chavez on March 31, 1927 in Yuma , Arizona . Cesar, the son of Librado Chavez and Juana Estrada-Chavez, immigrants from Chihuahua , Mexico , Cesar was named after his paternal grandfather. The family lived on a farm in an adobe house. His father Librado agreed to clear acres of land and in exchange believed he would receive the deed of land that adjoined his home. Dishonest landowners broke the agreement and sadly, the family lost their home. The mistreatment of his father caused young Cesar to learn of the many social injustices that exist. Cesar Chavez later would say, "The love for justice that is in us, is not only the best part of our being, but it is also the most true to our nature."  

Chavez childhood education, was not the best however, later in life, education was his passion. The walls of his office in La Paz (United Farm Worker Headquarters) are filled with hundreds of books ranging from philosophy, economics, cooperatives, and unions, to biographies on Gandhi and the Kennedy’ s. 

Cesar Chavez left school after the eighth grade to help support his family, together with thousands of other displaced families; they migrated throughout the Southwest to labor in the fields and vineyards.  Cesar Chavez believed that, "The end of all education should surely be service to others," a belief that he practiced until his death. Although he possessed a thirst for learning that, he would exhibit this passion throughout the course of his life .

In 1943, sixteen year-old Cesar in attempt to probe that each citizen shared in this country’ s civil rights was arrested in a segregated movie theatre for sitting in the “ Whites Only,” section in Delano , California . Soon after, Chavez joined the Navy at the age of seventeen. He served two years and in addition to discrimination, he experienced strict regimentation. In 1946, Cesar Chavez was discharged from the U.S. Navy and returned to work in the farm fields of California .  

In 1948, Cesar married Helen Fabela; they settled in Delano , California and started their family. They had eight children, Fernando, Sylvia, Linda, Paul and four more children followed. Cesar returned to San Jose , California where he met father Donald McDonnell. They talked about farm workers and strikes. Cesar began reading about St. Francis and Gandhi and non-violence.   

In the 1950’ s Chavez’ s life began as a community, he became a full-time organizer helping Latinos become citizens, with the Community service Organization (CSO), a self-help group among Mexican-Americans. He organized voter registration drives, battled racial and economic discrimination, organized 22 chapters across California and Arizona , together, with Fred Ross, a well-known union organizer. Under Chavez’ s leadership, the CSO became an effective civil rights group. After working nearly 10 years for the organization, Chavez resigned and moved to begin organizing farm workers.  

In 1962, he moved his family to Delano , California to establish the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA). Chavez battled police brutality and pressed for

community improvements when Dolores Huerta, joined Chavez, she created the slogan “ SI SE PUEDE” (It can be done) and the patronage of the Virgin of Guadalupe. “ She is a symbol of faith, hope and leadership,” said Huerta.  

Cesar would forge a legacy of service, conviction and principled leadership that serves as a beacon for all Americans. Under his stewardship a broad coalition of unions, religious groups, students, minorities, and consumers joined to pursue social justice. The same year Richard Chavez designed the UFW eagle and Cesar chose black and red colors. Cesar referred to the flag by stating, “ A symbol is an important thing, “ that is why we chose an Aztec eagle; it gives pride… when people see it they know it means dignity.”  

During this time there were endless farm labor strikes, the farm workers and supporters carried banners with the black eagle imprinted with the words; HUELGA (strike) and VIVA LA CAUSA (long live our cause). The labor Strikes demanded higher wages, better living conditions and fair hiring practices from the grape growers. Cesar Chavez was determined to improve the living conditions of farm workers.  

On Mexican Independence Day September 16, 1965 the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA), a union of comprised of 1,200 members, voted to strike against Delano area grape growers. After a 340-mile march from Delano to the steps of the State Capitol to bring awareness to the suffering of farm workers and after a four-month boycott, Stanley vineyards negotiated and came to an agreement with NFWA – the first genuine union contract between a grower and a farm worker’ s union in United States history.  

United States Senator Robert F. Kennedy conducted subcommittee hearings on agricultural labor. Kennedy had supported the National Farm Workers Association, the grape strike and boycott.  

In the spring of 1968, Chavez fasted for 25 days to rededicate his movement to non-violence. Martin Luther King Jr. also supported Cesar Chavez. In a telegram to Chavez, Dr. King wrote, “ Our separate struggles are really one, a struggle for freedom, for dignity and humanity.” Cesar later said, “ Our lives are all that really belong to us, so it is how we use our lives and determines what kind of men we are.”

         ;                        & nbsp;           Courtesy of Bettmann/CORBIS/Google image Photo:


On July 25, 1970, in San Rafael , California , Chavez spoke to one of the largest rallies of various Northern California farm unions.  

In 1986, Cesar Chavez campaign of “ Wrath of Grapes’ focused attention on the use of pesticides poisoning farm workers and their children, he led a five-year nonviolent boycott against California grape growers, protesting poor working conditions and the use of pesticides.  

In July and August 1988 when Cesar Chavez was 61 years old, he conducted his longest (36 days) fast in Delano . He never gave up helping his people, after recovering Chavez continued to press the grape boycott and aid farm workers.  

In the spring of 1993, Cesar Chavez was helping United Farm Worker’ s attorneys defend the union against a lawsuit by Bruce Church Inc; a Salinas California based lettuce and vegetable producer Mr. Church demanded that the farm workers pay millions of dollars in damages resulting from UFW boycott of its lettuce during the 1980’ s. The second multimillion-dollar judgment for Church Inc. was rejected by an appeal’ s court and the company signed a UFW contract in May 1996.  

"Cesar gave his last ounce of strength defending the farm workers in this case… [Church vs. U.F.W.] he died standing up for their First Amendment right to speak out for themselves. Chavez believed that the farm workers were right in boycotting Bruce Church Inc.  Lettuce during the 1980’ s and he was determined to prove that in court."

 - - Arturo Rodriguez

On April 23, 1993, Cesar Chavez died peacefully in his sleep at the home of Mrs. Maria Hau, a former farm worker and friend. Cesar Chavez was 66 years old. On April 29, more than 50.000 people attended Cesar’ s funeral at Delano , California . A personal condolence was sent from Pope John Paul II at his funeral services. Among the Honor Guard, were celebrities, who had supported Chavez throughout his years of struggle for farm workers civil rights. Farm workers, family members, friends and union staff took turns standing vigil over the plain pine coffin, which held the body of Cesar Chavez. It was the largest funeral of any labor leader in the history of the United States .  

In 1991, Mexico awarded Cesar Chavez the “ Aguila Azteca” award its highest civilian award to people of Mexican heritage that have contributed outside Mexico .  

In August 8, 1994, at a White House ceremony Helen Chavez, Cesar’ s widow accepted the Medal of Freedom, for her late husband from President Clinton as a testimony for his lifelong contributions to humanity.  

In that summer day in 1994, when Helen Fabela-Chavez received the Medal of Freedom, it was President Clinton’ s remarks that perhaps best summarized the life and impact of Cesar E. Chavez.  



“ Born into Depression-era poverty in Arizona in 1927, he served in the United States Navy in the Second World War, and rose to become one of our greatest advocates of nonviolent change. He was for his own people a Moses figure. The farm workers who labored in the fields and yearned for respect and self-sufficiency pinned their hopes on this remarkable man, who, with faith and discipline, with soft-spoken humility and amazing inner strength, led a very courageous life. And in so doing, brought dignity to the lives of so many others, and provided for us inspiration for the rest of our nation’ s history.”


_ _ Bill Clinton











Below is a website to download petition for Cesar E. Chavez National Holiday  

Downloaded petition: liday.pdf



Benito Abeytia spent life as an activist
Man was a guard for Cesar Chavez
Died February 18, 2009


He was a man who lived by his principles, often unyielding but with the kind of passion that drew admiration.  If you were with him, it was an easy road. If you were of a different view, it was a battle to change his mind. Benito Abeytia's ability to hold firm to his ideals was both a strength and a weakness, said his son, Jaime Abeytia

"He was a complex guy and a man of a thousand abilities." Benito, a longtime civil-rights activist in Arizona who joined Cesar Chavez's crusade to protect farm workers, died Feb. 18 from complications of Hepatitis C. The Phoenix resident was 62.

Benito, who worked as a migrant farm worker as a young adult, was drawn to Chavez for his heart and compassion but also because of his adamant stand for improving working conditions.

Benito first joined Chavez in about 1967 and went on to serve as his bodyguard and personal aide. Benito, who grew up in Phoenix, became an advocate for the Valley's Hispanic community and was a member of the United Farm Workers of America.

The group, which was organized by Chavez, pushed for improvements with a goal of non-violence.

There were plenty of marches and boycotts and Benito took his place among the protestors.

"I guess I got it in my system - I'll always be marching or picketing," Benito said during an interview with The Arizona Republic in 1996.

Jose Cortez, a media specialist with Chicanos Por La Causa in Phoenix, knew Abeytia for about 40 years.

Cortez also served as one of Chavez' bodyguards. "He was a fighter, definitely, a fighter," Cortez said of Benito. "Ever since I've known him, no matter what he had going, if he was called on to participate, he would." A hip replacement slowed Benito down a bit, but not his desire to take part, Cortez said. "When he was fighting for social justice, there was nothing that could keep him back." Mary Rose Wilcox, a member of the Maricopa County Board of Supervisors, grew up with Benito.

"He was fun but he was always focused on the issues," she said. "He lived and breathed it, always devoted to righting the wrong."

Standing tall was something that Jaime said he now greatly appreciates of his father.

Like in many families, father and son didn't always agree "He was a strict disciplinarian and ran a tight ship," Jaime said. To teach his children life's lessons, Benito favored parables.

His teaching methods had a few quirks, like how Jaime learned the order of the planets.

"He taught me using beer bottles and beer cans," he said. Mercury was Coors Light. "Mercury is closest to the sun and the Coors can then was yellow. It was a visual thing. I couldn't read at the time," Jaime said and laughed.

As he remembers his father, Jaime reflected on his father's last days. "He made time to mend fences and build bridges," he said. "My father had a hard time expressing his feelings to those closest to him, even though he was so outspoken. I think he wished he had told mom more often that he loved her."

Jaime said he'll never forget his father's advice: to be your brother's keeper, adding, "He taught me the object of life is like baseball: to get home safe."

Reach the reporter at connie.sexton@arizonarepublic .com or 602-444-8894.



DREAM Act: The Time is Now!


What is the DREAM Act?
The Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act is
bipartisan legislation that addresses the situation faced by young
people who were brought to the United States years ago as undocumented
immigrant children, and who have since grown up here, stayed in
school, and kept out of trouble.

Why is the DREAM Act needed?
Each year about 65,000 U.S.raised students who would qualify for the DREAM Act's benefits graduate from high school. These include honor roll students, star athletes, talented artists, homecoming queens, and aspiring teachers, doctors, and U.S. soldiers. They are
young people who have lived in the U.S. for most of their lives and desire only to call this country their home. Even though they were brought to the U.S. years ago as children, they face unique barriers to higher education, are unable to work legally in the U.S., and often
live in constant fear of detection by immigration authorities. 

Our immigration law currently has no mechanism to consider the special equities and circumstances of such students. The DREAM Act would eliminate this flaw. It is un-American to indefinitely and irremediably punish them for decisions made by adults many years ago. By enacting the DREAM Act, Congress would legally recognize what is de
facto true: these young people belong here.  DREAM Act students should be allowed to get on with their lives. If Congress fails to act this year, another entire class of outstanding, law-abiding high school students will graduate without being able to plan for the future, and some will be removed from their homes to countries they barely know. This tragedy will cause America to lose a vital asset: an educated class of promising immigrant students who have demonstrated a commitment to hard work and a strong desire to be contributing members of our society.

What can I do to support the DREAM Act right now?
Talk to Principals and Administrators in your schools and organizations.
Consider writing a letters of support your local newspaper or television station.
Reach out to others about the importance of the Dream Act to students in our schools today.
Sign the Dream Act petition at:

Call your Senator or House member and explain the importance of this legislation 
(Capitol Switchboard: 202-224-3121)

For more information contact Iris Chavez at LULAC National Office,
202-833-6130 x13 or 


English in the Workplace


The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights has voted to re-open the record for public comments regarding the December 12, 2008 briefing on English in the Workplace.

Comments will be accepted until April 20, 2009.

This is a great opportunity for service agencies, labor unions, community groups and concerned citizens to speak up against discriminatory employment practices such as English-only rules

Mail or e-mail comments to: 
English in the Workplace Comments
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
624 Ninth Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20425

Sent by Juan Marinez



"Future Landscapes Designed by Women"

Editor:  Although past, I thought it interesting that art and theater are being applied to the problem.

Friday, March 27, 6-7pm $2-$5 
The Counter Narrative Society will be presenting an hour of participatory actions in response to the societal conditions prisoners are forced to experience and their families are forced to bare witness in USA control units.  The Sensible Housing Unit (SHU) is a fabric replica of a prison cell, a month long multimedia installation and live-art project that merges irony, facts and audience participation to act, reveal and respond to the effects of USA prison's "segregation housing units", "control units" or "supermax".  www.thecounternarrative   Sent by events@missionculturalcen 



Defend the Honor 



Dear Defenders of the Honor,
The National Association of Latino Independent Producers has been promoting the advancement, development and funding of Latino/Latina film and media arts for ten years now. Today, they sent a civil, but firm, letter to PBS CEO Paula Kerger and the head of diversity for PBS, Haydee Rodriguez, scoffing at PBS's Diversity Initiative on Content. DTH will forward that report to you as it becomes available. But we wanted to share this NALIP letter with you, in which NALIP basically say: PBS, you can't be serious! Kudos to NALIP for insisting that PBS take this issue seriously.

Here is the letter, which was on NALIP letterhead, which included its hard-working board of directors, board of trustees and executive staff. You might want to visit to see more about this impressive organization. 

March 4, 2009

Ms. Paula Kerger, Chief Executive Officer
Ms. Haydee M. Rodriguez, Director, Diversity Initiative
Public Broadcasting Service
2100 Crystal Drive
Arlington, VA 22202-3785

Dear Ms. Kerger and Ms. Rodriguez:

We would like to thank you for the PBS Diversity Initiative on Content (November, 2008). As you know, NALIP strongly supports and encourages PBS in its efforts to accurately reflect the diversity of American life in its programming and staffing.

While we applaud the effort to generate an assessment of the system's diversity practices, we are concerned by the report's statement that PBS "cannot paint the full picture of its 'diverse' content or the diversity of its staff."

NALIP recognizes the unique character of public television as both a non-profit and a decentralized agency. However, we believe it continues to be the responsibility of PBS to provide accurate and verifiable diversity data from its member stations. In particular, we are concerned by the lack of data regarding staffing and content themes from the National Programming Services' signature series such as Frontline, NOVA, Nature, American Experience and American Masters. Data for the prime-time strands, and the major producing stations responsible for their production, should have been included in the report.

Our organization is concerned that after an internal effort on the part of PBS, this data continues to be unavailable. NALIP is also concerned that the report provides incomplete andoften anecdotal information regarding diversity. A case in point is the report's inclusion of the "Aztec Massacre" episode in the Secrets of the Dead series as an example of Latino programming. Though this episode may have been a unique component of the series, we do not feel it is an example of public television addressing the concerns of the U.S. Latino community. Furthermore, according to the information about that episode's hiring practices, "production also uses some local crew on location." A diversity report befitting public television can and should do better.

NALIP is happy to celebrate PBS's many successes, including the continued support of successful, oncamera journalists such as Ray Suarez and Maria Hinojosa, the excellent job that children's programming (both in broadcast and online) is doing to address issues of diversity, and the ongoing and consistent efforts of series like Independent Lens and P.O.V. to incorporate diverse programming. Similarly, we commend American Experience's recent efforts to incorporate Latino programming and to work with Latino producers. We hope that this is part of a sustained effort to incorporate Latino themes and to work with Latino producers for future programs.

At this stage, we would like to reiterate our request, first made in 2005, for employment data (including number of writers, directors and producers hired) from the prime-time strands and the major producing stations for, at minimum, the past 9 years. We are eager to discuss a timeline for receiving this data, so that together we can form a baseline from which to identify trouble areas and record improvements. In addition, NALIP would like to see Latino representation at the executive level on one or more of the prime-time strands, as well as on the National Program Service's editorial board. We believe that these steps will help PBS diversify and to grow the audiences of the future.

We are very pleased that you will be addressing NALIP producers at our tenth annual conference in Newport Beach next month. We would also like to extend an invitation for you to have a conversation with our Board of Directors, which will be in session on Friday, April 17th from 10:30 am - 12:30 pm, prior to the NALIP 10 Conference opening lunch. We gladly welcome the opportunity to hear your thoughts, as well as to brainstorm strategies for the future.

We thank you in advance for reviewing our requests, and look forward to our continued partnership with PBS.

Sincerely, Diversity Committee, 
The National Association of Latino Independent Producers

Cc: Congresswoman Nydia M. Velazquez, Chair, Congressional Hispanic Caucus
Angela Palmer, CPB
Orlando Bagwell, Ford Foundation

Gus Chavez & Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, 
Co-Founders, Defend the Honor 

Citizen Action Taken in Response to Community Forum Meeting


                                                                                      Editor: addressed included in original letter
December 2. 2008

Mr. Ike Leggett  
County Executive  
Office Building  
101 Monroe Street
, 2nd Flr  
, MD 20850

Dear Mr. Leggett,

This morning I received a press release (copy enclosed) of the pending “ Community Forum” to be held on December 8, 2008, scheduled to be held at the Rockville Public Library.  

I wish to voice my resentment and objection that County public facilities will be used to hold this event which in my view is implicitly a rabid and tragic undertaking.  I am not the least bit impressed that the notice relates to the memory of Maryland and District of Columbia citizens.  To use that rouse as a measure of unsubstantiated fear to encourage attendance to the forum is beyond any civil decency.   

In particular, I resent the obvious association of illegal aliens with gang members and sense here again the fear factor plays a role in this undertaking.  Also, to suggest that Casa de Maryland is guilty implicitly as being an  agent in harboring illegal aliens and gang members is wrong.  It is totally against democratic principles to judge a party guilty without allowing for due process.  If the organization is operating unlawfully, the means and authority to challenge its operations is extant.  If the judicial authorities are failing to invoke their duties and responsibilities in this regard, an investigation of the failure of the authorities to implement the law is not only appropriate but should be carried out post-haste.  

The event may be cited as a “ community” event but it doesn’ t represent my community as I have lived in Montgomery County for a bit over thirty years.  Thus, the community I have come to know and enjoy will not stand for allowing our county government to sanction this Community Forum.  To that end, I will support any non-violent demonstration to convey strong disfavor of this event.  

I hope you will agree with my disposition on this matter.  

                                                                            Sincerely,   J. V. Martinez

Encl:  as stated  



Monday, December 8, 2008, 7PM
Rockville Library, 1st Floor Meeting Room
21 Maryland Avenue, Rockville 20850
Directions, Metro, Parking, 240-777-0140< /strong>


Frederick County Sheriff Chuck Jenkins
“ Federal ICE 287g Officer Training”
Judicial Watch President Tom Fitton
“ Sanctuary Policy Busters”

Contact: Brad Botwin, Director, HSM, 240-447-1884

Forum Objectives:

  • Mandate Federal ICE 287g training for Montgomery County Police Officers
  • Require Federal ICE screening for all arrested individuals held by the Montgomery County Department of Correction and Rehabilitation
  • Remove Maryland ’ s sanctuary policies desi gned to protect illegal aliens
  • Eliminate state and county funding for the illegal alien support group CASA of MD
  • Require CASA of Maryland to release names of all registered day laborers to Federal ICE for background screening checks


  • “ Mooney” Wang, 24, Gaithersburg – Arrested - Manual Antonio Berahona – Illegal Alien – MS-13
  • Mary Frances Havenstein, 63, Bethesda – Arrested - Jose Juan Garcia-Perera – Illegal Alien-Day Laborer-MD Drivers’ License
  • Tai Lam, 14, Silver Spring – Arrested - Hector Mauricio Hernandez – Illegal Alien – MS-13
  • Virginia & Michael Spevak, 67 & 68, Chevy Chase – Arrested - Perio E. Fuentes Hernandez – Illegal Alien – Day Laborer – MD Drivers’ License
  • Lila Meizell, 83, Wheaton – Arrested - Jose Antonio Alvarado, Ana L. Roda, Ramon Alberto Alvarado – Illegal Aliens – Day Laborers – MD Drivers’ Licenses


                                                                                         Editor: address included in original
February 17, 2009


Mr. Ike Leggett  
County Executive
Office Building  
101 Monroe Street, 2nd Floor  
, MD 20850

Dear Mr. Leggett,  

In view of my attempts to preserve and support the civility I have enjoyed in Montgomery County for nearly 35 years, I was appalled by reports that the County is considering joining forces with the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) by signing a 287(g) agreement which would deploy County officers in its implementation.   In this regard, I wish to voice my strong opposition to proceeding with the action.  

In an earlier letter to you, copy enclosed, I objected to initiation of a discourse that I found partial to the wishes of individuals that feel that the predominance of crimes are made by illegal/undocumented County residents.  The point I hoped to convey is that the County already has the infrastructure, legal standing, and personnel to deal with any crime.  The reason the illegal/undocumented Country residents are singled out for particular attention is beyond me.  They are not the only ones that commit crimes in the County.  

Complying with the 287(g) agreement will require additional resources and without an influx of external funds, such as from the federal government, such funds will tap the limited County resources.  In my view signing the agreement is totally foreign to the values upheld by the far majority of County residents I have had the pleasure of knowing.  I have always felt that dealing with illegal immigration is a federal duty and recruiting local sources is tantamount to delegating a service that was designed and should remained confined solely to the federal government.  In that regard, I am pleased to read in the New York Times (February 14, 2009 issue, “ Lawmakers Want Look At Sherriff in Arizona ,” page A9) that the U.S. Justice Department plans to reassess section 287(g).  I feel the section is reckless and can only serve to polarize the citizenry that prompt acts of violence within it as have already been demonstrated in several incidents reported throughout the nation.  

In closing, I wish to emphasize my appeal that you act in a manner that will preclude the County from not only signing the 287(g) agreement but will promote the civic values that have historically distinguished the County and its residents.  


National Parks

Why Chief Tenaya is not mentioned in Yosemite National Park Information
Inclusive History will Happen When
San Antonio Defenders of the Honor will Not Stand Down

Why Chief Tenaya 
is not mentioned in Yosemite National Park Information

A couple of years ago after several new interpretive signs were put up in Yosemite National Park some Paiutes who had direct ancestry to the Yosemite area questioned Yosemite National Park why the story of Chief Tenaya and the original Yosemite Indians was not displayed. The interpretive signs were created with the assistance of Yosemite Association and the Yosemite Fund..

Yosemite National Park’s Indian Liaison, who is white, explained the Park starts their Indian historical program around the turn of the 1900s and not at first discovery. That was quite a surprise to Paiutes because the history of Yosemite starts before white people entered the Valley. The history of the California Native American Indian people starts thousands of years before whites entered the state. Why would the Park Service start around the beginning of the 19th century instead of at first encounter?

So we requested documents from the Park to see why this was the case and we were surprised. In a report from Yosemite National Park Service, written by K. P. Wells and Yosemite’s white Indian ethnologist Craig D. Bates called “Ethno history and Material Culture of Southern Sierra Miwok: 1852-1880” included the answer why the Park started the Indian history at the turn of the century.

In the Acknowledgement the report said “"The National Park Service, in conjunction with the American Indian Council of Mariposa County, Inc., decided during meetings conducted in the summer of 1981 to change the focus of the Indian Cultural Interpretation Program at Yosemite National Park. From 1976 through 1981, THE INDIAN CULTURAL PROGRAM ATTEMPTED TO INTERPRET THE ETHNOHISTORY OF THE YOSEMITE MIWOK PRIOR TO 1851, OR BEFORE CONTACT WITH NON-INDIANS. IT WAS DECIDED AT THESE MEETINGS THAT THE INTERPRETIVE TIME PERIOD WOULD CHANGE TO 1870-1880, OF AFTER CONTACT. In order to accurately interpret the time period the first priority of the 1982 summer program was to be a research project, the findings of which were to be used as the ethno-historic background to interpret 1870-1880 Yosemite Indian Culture."

This was a shock to us. Reading the report’s Acknowledgement page in the early 1980s Yosemite National Park Service wanted to “interpret” the ethno-history of Yosemite National Park. So the Park contacted the non-profit American Indian Council of Mariposa, also called The Southern Sierra Miwuks, who are going for federal recognition, and were also current and former employees of the Park, to assist them create a Yosemite Indian
Interpretive cultural program. The Park was unaware that many of those in the non-profit were not original Yosemite Native people. Some were descendents of the enemies of the original Yosemite Indians who lived in the Valley. A few in the leadership of this non-profit were from the Indian scouts of the military that helped clear out the Indian people of Yosemite. In actuality the original Indians of Yosemite were not Miwoks, but Paiutes.

The Park proposed that the Yosemite Indian Cultural Interpretation Program start prior to 1851, before contact with the whites. That would make sense, right? Since there were Native indigenous people living in Yosemite before 1851. But after the meeting with the Southern Sierra Miwuks, whom the Park believes were the original Indians of Yosemite, the Park agreed with them to start the Indian history of Yosemite at 1870 – 1880 instead of prior to contact. That certainly didn’t make any sense to the Paiutes because that would leave out the pre-contact of Yosemite. That would leave out first contact with the whites which was the Spring of 1851, and the decades after the ‘discovery’ of Yosemite. How do they explain the ancient “Great Basin” rock art located in Yosemite? Great Basin in that area means Paiute.

To some Paiutes they believed that some people didn’t want Yosemite National Park to start prior to contact and first contact, because the true history of the Indian people of Yosemite would come out.

Here is why some allege the non-profit might have not wanted the Park to start at the beginning:

Yosemite Valley was also called Ahwahnee. Ahwahnee or Owahnee is place in Paiute history and legend. The place was even documented in a couple of books by W. A. Chalfant and Julian Steward. It was actually an area. Ahwahnee was destroyed and the people scattered. That is where some believe that the Monos and Paiutes in the area split because they went in different directions. A handful of the Ahwahnees, lead by their former chief, took a group of survivors to the shores of Mono Lake. There the Ahwahnees were taken in by their cousins the Mono Lake Paiutes. The chief of the Ahwahnees married a Mono Lake Paiute woman and they conceived a son. That son was  Tenaya. Tenaya grew up amongst the Mono Lake Paiute people. He learned the ways of his mother’s band until he was of age. Tenaya then married a Mono Lake Paiute woman and had children at Mono Lake. As an adult a medicine man advised Tenaya that it was safe to return back into the Sierra Nevada and reclaim the territory that was once his birthright. Tenaya took about 200 to
300 Indians from Mono Lake and went back into Yosemite Valley. There Chief Tenaya established, what is documented as, the Paiute Colony of Ahwahnee. This happened years before the whites ventured into the California Mountains in search of gold.

Years later gold was discovered and non-Indians flooded the Sierra Nevada in search of the precious metal. Several enterprising men, like Charles Weber, the founder of the city of Stockton, made agreements with San Joaquin Valley floor Indians to go dig gold for them in exchange for provisions. That is how some men became rich. One man took it a little step further. His name was James Savage. Savage made alliances with chiefs, married several of the women, and learned their languages. He created a trading post at the entrance of Yosemite Valley, which had not been discovered yet, and in December of 1850 Indians attacked and burned down his trading post. They also kept killing whites who ventured high up in the Sierra Nevada. The whites decided to remedy that situation and had Savage call in his Indian allies. Savage had his allies Chief Bautista and Cypriano call in all chiefs
in the area, but Bautista said two groups would not come in. They were the Chowchilla Yokuts and the “Yosemites”. Yosemite in the Miwok language means “They Are Killers” and that is where the name for the Valley comes from. The Miwok chiefs said their people were afraid to enter Yosemite Valley.

The whites created a militia called the Mariposa Battalion to collect and clear out the ‘troublesome’ Indians in the High Sierra. The first Indian camp the militia stumbled on happened to be the camp of Cow’ chitty, who was a sub-chief. He recognized his old friend James Savage and cheerfully volunteered to help capture his enemies, the Yosemite Indians. On route to capture the Yosemites, Chief Tenaya came in voluntarily to give his people a chance to escape across the mountains to their cousins the Mono Lake Paiutes. The Mariposa Battalion followed and captured some of his band. They were taken to the reservation where Tenaya was miserable. His former enemies from the Western tribes taunted him, where they once feared him. Tenaya and his people escaped and fled back into the mountains.

More gold miners were attacked so the Mariposa Battalion again went to capture Tenaya and his band. This time they were led by Cow’ chitty, whose name is now prominently shown in an interpretive sign in the “Yosemite Miwok Village” in Yosemite. Cow’chitty and the Indian scouts found Tenaya’s rancheria and the whites said without their help they would have never seen any Indians. The Indian scouts even blocked the escape passage of Tenaya and his people. In the scuffle one of Tenaya’s sons was shot in the back and
Tenaya, holding back his grief in front of the white men, angrily cursed the whites and their Indian scouts. His speech is very famous.

The scouts helped capture more of Tenaya’s people and then Tenaya was again taken back to the reservation. He scolded the western tribes at the reservation who were now wearing bright red scarves, shirts and ‘pantaloons’ that the whites had given them. Tenaya and his people left in disgust and this time went to live with his cousins over the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Paiutes of Mono Lake.

The Mono Lake Paiutes took Tenaya in, who it was written they considered one of their own. They gave him and his band an allotment at Mono Lake to live and welcomed him back. In 1853, two years after the whites ‘discovered’ Yosemite Tenaya grew restless. While the Mono Lake Paiutes were off raiding Spanish rancherias in the south Tenaya and his band decided to leave and return back to Yosemite Valley. Some of Tenaya’s men stole the horse of the Mono Lake Paiutes as they returned to the Valley. When the Mono Lake Paiutes returned they were incensed that their hospitality had been repaid with theft. The Paiutes tracked Tenaya and his band back into Yosemite Valley. As Tenaya and his men lay, bellies full of stolen horse meat, the Paiutes pounced on the Ahwahneechees. The young chief of the Mono Lake Paiutes picked up a rock and crushed Tenaya’s skull and the Ahwahnees were almost all wiped out. The Paiutes didn’t kill the elderly and about eight men escaped. The remaining surviving women and children of Tenaya’s band were taken back to Mono Lake and absorbed into the Paiute population. The only Indians the whites saw the next year in 1854 were Paiutes returning to tend the black oak acorn crop in Yosemite Valley.

Interestingly, a year before Tenaya’s death in 1853, James Savage, the man who caused so much grief for the Ahwahneechees and the death of Tenaya’s son was murdered. James Savage was killed by another white man in 1852 named Harvey. Savage had struck the man and he pulled a gun a shot James Savage to death. The word of his death spread quickly and Savage’s Indian workers ran to his body and wailed over his corpse crying “Our white father is dead”.  That is documented. There is no doubt that was not any of Chief Tenaya’s
people, because they hated James Savage.

Later the white military and settlers moved into Yosemite along with some of their Indian workers, who now claim to be the original Native people of Yosemite.

There is so much more to the Indian history of Yosemite, but this is the main part of pre-1870 history that Park does not inform the general public. Instead how could Yosemite National Park Service let a non-profit that wants to become federally recognized, dictate when the history of the Indian people of Yosemite should start? If the Park did start at the beginning they would have discovered the real true Indian history of Yosemite, and it was
not Miwok.

That is why you won’t find any mention of Chief Tenaya on signs, books, and pamphlets in Yosemite National Park because it appears the Park let a non-profit tell them to start the Indian history at 1870-1880, and that is not the beginning of Yosemite’s Indian history.
Sent by Dorinda Moreno   




Inclusive History Will Happen When. . . .


Check out  / for the following comment:

Ken Burns will go down in history as the portrayer of American history from the viewpoint of those in power: "The Civil War" from the Union viewpoint, "The War" from the allied victors' viewpoint, and "National Parks" from the park owner's--i.e. the federal government's--viewpoint. One might argue that the federal government represents the people of the United States and that, therefore Burn's "National Parks" reflects the views of the American people. But time and again, we've seen that Burns' "documentaries" reflect a relatively narrow sector of the so-called American people.  His "The War" stirred up such a national polemic over the omission of Latinos in that historic moment that Burns' was ultimately forced to backtrack and splice in, as afterthoughts, a couple of episodes about Latinos and Native Americans. 

Now, Burns' monumental "National Parks" seems to portray these federal lands as if they had always had the same owner--what about Mt. Rushmore and the 1868 Treaty of Fort Larramie, which "granted" the Black Hills, where Mt. Rusmore is located, to the Lakota Sioux in perpetuity, then seized them by force after the Great Sioux War of 1876-77? Any discussion of this in "National Parks"?

In my opinion, only when Native Americans, Latinos, and other national minorities, currently dispossessed of their rightful place in history, are able to produce, direct, and broadcast their own works over PBS and other publicly owned media will Ken Burns and his "documentaries" be seen for what they truly are.

Rogelio Reyes





March 24, in San Antonio, while Ken Burns previewed his upcoming documentary on the National Parks, San Antonio Defenders of the Honor demonstrated in front of the Lila Cockrell theater. 
See the story by Elaine Ayala in the San Antonio Express-News,
To receive news briefs about the activities of Defend the Honor, contact:
DETROIT (AP) — General Motors Corp. is ending its 22-year support for Emmy Award-winning documentary filmmaker Ken Burns.  GM spokeswoman Kelly Cusinato calls Burns "the gold standard of documentary filmmaking," but says the financial crisis "has forced GM to rein in such spending." A figure for GM's aid to Burns isn't known. Information from: The Detroit News,

Editor:  Let us hope that Latino voices protesting Burn's exclusion of Hispanics influenced GM's decisions.  



HCM/Latino News Clips
Ruben Ruiz, author of The Richest Latino In America
Latina Women Of NASA of The Month - Dr. Marla E. Pérez-Davis
Chicana Latina, Teresa M. Olivas
Hispanic Women Tapped for The California Wellness Foundation Board 

HCM/Latino News Clips


Editor:  A highly recommended collection of news articles previously posted by Hispanic Consumer Market (HCM) for its members and clients is available at .

The distribution of these articles by Estrada Communications Group, Inc is intended to demonstrate the range of news coverage related to Latinos in the United States.  In addition to articles on business, successes and trends, topics include other related Latino issues, such as labor, education, social agencies serving Latinos, and outstanding Latinos in many fields of endeavor.

Estrada Communications Group, Inc. is 100% Latino owned.  Jim Estrada is the CEO/President with a 40 year history of corporate marketing.  Bio information at:


Ruben Ruiz, author of The Richest Latino In America

A money management presentation was held March 26th in Terrace, IL hosted by Dinero Corporation Ivestment Services.   Latinos in Business: Stories have the power to change the destiny of companies, an industry, a nation, and—ultimately—the world.
Photo courtesy of Ruben Ruiz

According to Ruben Ruiz, the secret to building wealth in America is not purchasing cars and appliances and homes, it is good saving habits and no debt. “Save, America.” It’s time to get back to the principles of yesterday, with good saving habits and no debt. It’s time to stop,” is the battle cry of the author of The Richest Latino In America.

“If Americans could just stop spending so much money, we’d get ourselves out of this whole mess,” says Ruben Ruiz about the current economic recession.

In his book, The Richest Latino in America, Ruben Ruiz follows one character’s journey from his middle class blues to economic stability and understanding. “It’s not about hot stocks or big real estate deals. It’s not about getting rich quick. It is about transforming a pay check into net worth,” said Ruiz recently. 

A native of Texas, Ruben Ruiz has been preaching money management principles for years. Ruiz, who operates Money Concepts Financial Planning Centers in San Marcos and San Antonio, is also the author of The 12 Vows to Financial Empowerment and The One-Hour Hispanic Millionaire, this last one an A to Z guide to handling personal finances. 
According to Ruiz, he wrote The Richest Latino in America in a story format for people to enjoy reading about finances. “I wanted people to be entertained, but also take something with them,” says Ruiz about his book that tells the story through the eyes of a middle-aged Latino family.

Ruiz will be signing books at the event to benefit The DuPage County Hispanic Chamber of Commerce this coming Thursday in Oakbrook Terrace. Sponsored by American Family Insurance, Mr. Ruiz will speak about Creating Wealth in the Latino Community. Leticia Rodríguez, Vice President of the DuPage County Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, will also speak about protecting your wealth and the role of the Hispanic Chamber in DuPage County. 

About Ruben Ruiz
Mr. Ruiz serves on the Board of The International Association of Registered Financial Consultants, (IARFC) and was President & Chairman of the Board of the Financial Planning Association (FPA) of San Antonio and South Texas. As the Regional Director for Money Concepts International, he provides management and business development to 42 offices in Texas.

For more information and to RSVP by phone, please call Leticia Rodríguez at 630-543-8009 or send an email to:




Latina Women Of NASA of The Month - Dr. Marla E. Pérez-Davis

Dr. Marla E. Pérez-Davis is the Chief, Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) located in Ohio . 

Dr. Pérez-Davis, chosen one of  Hispanic Business Magazine's 25 Elite Women for 2009. /

To read more about Dr. Pérez-Davis, visit

Sent by Debbie Martinez


Chicana Latina, Teresa M. Olivas

With the doom and gloom news about, wish to share a brief good hearted human interest story of a Chicana Latina making her way to becoming a successful business woman after change in her job status. Click on the link below for the TV coverage on ABC TV Ch. 7 which aired, Tues.March 17th. Some of you in the South Bay may recognize her.  
Teresa M. Olivas, of San Jose, Ca. and graduate of San Jose High has experienced some things many other minority women have before. Teresa took charge of herself and researched out for support to help her make some wise decisions.
Ms. Olivas connected in being a client for the non profit group Women's Initiative who empower women in their quest and helping to save the economy. Just over or nearly a year ago, Teresa began and moved forward. She enjoyed making various coffees and took it as a business venture.  Applying her skills and the love of what she does, helped her make the step forward. 
With the Women's Initiative guidance and support, Teresa was able to propose her small business to The National Hispanic University in San Jose, California. There was not a cafe shop at NHU, so the timing also helped in her quest and acceptance to producing her business there. Along with developing a catering business, it has of course grabbed the attention of her peers, students and the enjoyment of her fellow San Jose High School Alumni.
Ms. Olivas vision has her sights on producing her small business at the San Jose Mineta Airport as part of the restaurant businesses there.   
I'm sure that will become a reality soon. The Women's Initiative have supported and guided many in the 20 plus years of their existence. Many Chicanas Latinas in the South Bay are becoming clients at the new offices of Women's Initiative in Silicon Valley, on advising, loans and educating them to help make their dreams of starting and owning their own small business come to pass. Teresa Olivas, is a fine role model and inspiration for her family and for other young women who can take initiative in making of themselves to where they wish to be. 
If you're in the area of The National Hispanic University located at 14271 Story Road, San Jose, Ca. 95127, stop by and say hello to Teresa, if she's there when you do. Let her know you heard of her news.

As in the words of Cesar E. Chavez, Teresa can also say; "Si Se Puede!".  
Reminder that Cesar E. Chavez celebrations are currently under way throughout almost all of California, Chicano Latino student associations at Universities, and Latino theaters, museums, retreats and more starting next week.   


Click on link below for story if you didn't see it on ABC TV 7. 



Hispanic Women Tapped for California Wellness Foundation Board 

The California Wellness Foundation, one of the state's largest foundations, recently announced the board appointments of two prominent Hispanic women.

Elizabeth Gomez, a member of the board since 2005, became the new chair. Gomez is the executive director of Los Angeles Youth Network, which provides shelter, food and counseling to homeless, runaway and high-risk youth.

M. Isabel Becerra, a new board member, is the CEO of the Coalition of Orange County Community Clinics, a network of 19 health centers providing health care to low-income and uninsured people. 

Created in 1992, The California Wellness Foundation is a private independent foundation that makes grants for health promotion, wellness education and disease prevention. Its top eight priorities for funding are diversity in the health professions, environmental health, healthy aging, mental health, teenage pregnancy prevention, violence prevention, women's health, and work and health. 

"We are aware this will be a challenging year for the foundation," Gomez said in a statement. "The board will continue to work diligently to provide the leadership the foundation needs, and to continue to promote the health of those in need in the state of California."

Prior to joining LAYN in 1989, Gomez was assistant director of youth services for Traveler's Aid Society of Los Angeles' Teen Canteen. She is actively involved in the leadership of numerous youth-serving organizations and serves on the boards of the California Coalition for Youth and the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Previously, she was a commissioner for the California State Commission on Juvenile Justice, Crime and Delinquency Prevention.

Meanwhile, Becerra has enjoyed an extensive career with community health centers targeting underserved populations. Prior to starting her current post with Coalition of Orange County Community Clinics, she worked in program planning, operations, health policy and development activities at various community-health centers from Seattle to San Diego.

The board of directors also announced two other new appointments, David S. Barlow and Elisabeth Hallman. 

Barlow, a member of the board since 2005, was named the vice chair. He is vice president of finance and administration at the Stuart Foundation, an independent family foundation dedicated to the protection, education and development of children and youth.

Hallman is the health systems director of enterprise information services at Cedars-Sinai Health Systems in Los Angeles, where she oversees new technology and replacement of existing systems, and provides oversight of the inpatient clinical systems.

Source: (c) 2009. All rights reserved. 
Sent by Rafael Ojeda



A Class Apart
For the first time, Hispanic children are the majority in Texas’ first-grade classrooms
Candamo Scholarship Available for Puerto Rican Students Who Give Back
Mendez case at center of new curriculum, California State Board of Education
Hispanics Become More Prevalent on College Campuses

A Class Apart


Estimada Mimi,  A great letter from my good friend Dr Raul De La Rosa, former WA State Office Supt. of Public Inst (OSPI), as director or Migrant & Minority education Dept.  I can imagine that this PBS brought many tears and memories to our Latino elders.
Rafael Ojeda

To: Rafael Ojeda
24 Feb 2009 

Thank you for letting me know about last night's program of the Texas Legal Case in which Hispanic attorneys challenged the Texas legal system by successfully arguing their case all the way to the U. S. Supreme Court. What a magnificent historical account of the conditions we, "dirty ignorant greasers", faced -and I literally mean we faced because I lived in the Rio Grande Valley at the time- and how enlightening it was to see just how awful we were treated.  I do remember seeing my dad receiving and paying for hamburgers by  way of the back door of the establishment.  I was young but clearly understood the significance of the treatment.  I knew this because we all knew that those who lived on the north side of  the railroad and state highway knew they lived in the barrio.  It was rare and only if it was go to the movie theater that we justifiably cross this main divide on to the Anglo side.
In 1953, we left Pharr, Texas for good and the previous year, I'm proud to say I challenged the manner in which a 6th grade teacher treated me.  She literally whacked me in the shin rather than spanking me on the buttocks. I got up, told her that I would not submit myself to such treatment, that while she had a right to spank me ( As you may know, Texas public school teachers had the authority to spank students under  corporal punishment policy granted them by the state department of education.) I would not allow anyone to treat me that way.  I got up, walked out of her room, but not without the teacher demanding I sit down.  I told that I was leaving her classroom and did, but knowing that I could not go beyond the school grounds, I remained outside the classroom door until the noon bell rang.  As soon as the bell rang, I went home and gave my mother a full account, including showing her the welt on my shin. The following day, my oldest brother, who represented my dad, successfully challenged the principal not by demanding an apology but by demanding I be transferred to another classroom. The principal at first rejected the demand but when she saw the welt, she knew that I had a legitimate case.  She reluctantly acceded to my brother's demands and gave the authority to allow me to transfer.  Interestingly though, she told my brother that because I a "slow learner" she would not accept responsibility for my failure, which she guaranteed would be the case.  I told my brother that I would take my chances, that I would not fail.  Thanks to God, I was able to successfully complete the 6th grade.
Little did I know, not until last night, the significance of my bold act, both by walking out of the classroom and by my family challenging the "system.  Obviously, I need not tell you that I was enrolled in a segregated elementary school. . 
The following year our family settled in Lebanon, Indiana where I was able to successfully graduate and go on to attend both undergraduate and graduate institutions of learning, including studying in Madrid, Spain and being accepted to Stanford University!
Thank you Rafael. You helped more than you can imagine.



For the first time, 
Hispanic children are the majority in Texas’ first-grade classrooms

For the first time, Hispanic children are the majority in Texas’ first-grade classrooms
We have known for years that Texas will soon again be predominantly Hispanic.  
What we have not known so clearly — until a couple of recent reports — is that the white population is dwindling.  
In a new report on population trends in public schools, the Texas Education Agency reports that Texas now enrolls 130,000 fewer white children than 10 years ago. For the first time, Hispanic children dominate first-grade classes, adding about 4,000 children last year to become the outright majority with 50.2 percent of students.  
But Hispanic children would have become dominant without even one new student, because white first-grade enrollment dropped by about 2,000.  
White children are now fewer than one-third of the first-graders in Texas.  
If this is a surprise to us, it’s not one to Karl Eschbach of the University of Texas-San Antonio, appointed by Gov. Rick Perry as the official state demographer.  
"What people don’t realize is the sheer inevitability of this change," Eschbach said Friday.  
It isn’t about immigration, he said. It’s about native-born Texan and American children growing up. 
Some white conservatives — not all of them but certainly all the ones with radio shows — fear the "Latinization" of Texas. No reason to fear. "It’s already happened," Eschbach said.  
In a separate new report on population projections, Eschbach and the Texas State Data Center now predict that Texas will become predominantly Hispanic within 10 years, and that the current white population of about 11.5 million is near its peak and will begin shrinking as baby boomers die out between 2020 and 2040. (The African-American population will grow, but more slowly.)  
If you’re wondering why all this is important, it’s because aging white Texans will face decisions about taxes and education for a generation of mostly minority children.  
"If the state is going to be healthy, we have to invest in children," Eschbach said, repeating part of the presentation he gives across the state. "We have to invest in education. We have to invest in preparing children for a global economy."
In other words, Texas’ future depends on how well we prepare today’s minority children. Eschbach was blunt.  
"The children who don’t 'look like us’ will have the greatest say in the state’s future success," he said.
If Texas were surrounded by a wall tomorrow and all illegal immigrants were removed, the result would be the same.
(According to federal estimates, only 1 in 4 Hispanic schoolchildren in Texas is the child of an illegal immigrant, and only a small percentage are illegal immigrants themselves.)  
"If you live your life in the Anglo-majority-dominated world" — like suburban North Texas, one of the whitest parts of the state — "then you might not see the change," Eschbach said.  
"But it would be tough to find a schoolchild who thinks of Texas as Anglo. With every passing year, Texas is going to be more Hispanic."  
This isn’t about how we teach the Texas Revolution, or whether our 4.7 million schoolchildren learn more than one language.
It’s about our shared future as Texans.
Sent by Juan Marinez
February 16, 2009  Posted on Sun, Feb. 15, 2009  



Scholarship Available for Puerto Rican Students Who Give Back
Legacy of Manuel Candamo Lives On

Over the past three years, The Manuel Candamo Memorial Scholarship Program Is made available a total of $17,500 in financial support for Puerto Rican college and college-bound students residing in the continental U.S. and Puerto Rico.

In 2009, $10,000 is available in scholarships ranging from $500 to $2,500.  

Manuel Candamo was a well-regarded businessman and entrepreneur in Washington, D.C., and in his native Puerto Rico. Manuel lost his battle with cancer in July 2006 at the age of 46.

"The Manuel Candamo Scholarship Program helps students who are committed to giving back to their communities, just as my late husband did through his work as an entrepreneur," said Janet Farrell, wife of the late Manuel Candamo. "To my husband, education was the most powerful tool to create change in one's community."

To be eligible for the scholarship, students must: be Puerto Rican or of Puerto Rican descent, be a U.S. citizen residing in Puerto Rico, be or plan to be enrolled full-time as an undergraduate student at an accredited university in the U.S. (including Puerto Rico) for the 2009-2010 academic year, have earned and maintained a cumulative Grade Point Average of no less than 3.0 on a 4.0 scale, and demonstrate financial need.

Students are highly encouraged to apply at,pageID.165/default.asp 

Contact: Lisa Sandoval
Director of Communications for the Hispanic College Fund
(202) 296-5400
Sent by Juan Marinez


Mendez case at center of new curriculum  

State Board of Education is asked for suit to be included in framework update.

By Theresa Cisneros, The Orange County Register , March 18, 2009  



ANAHEIM,  A group of local educators unveiled new curriculum Wednesday aimed at informing youth about Mexican American history and Mendez v. Westminster, the court case that ended school segregation in California and paved the way for desegregation nationwide.  

The materials were outlined during an event at the Tiger Woods Learning Center, which included a play by high school students and remarks by Sylvia Mendez. Mendez's parents, and others, successfully sued the Westminster School District in 1945 when their children weren't allowed to attend an all-white school. 

The case was cited in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education suit, which ended school segregation at the national level. 

"My mother and father fought for all of us," Sylvia Mendez said Wednesday. "It's important for students to know that they can study and work hard and live the American dream that I am living today." 

The curriculum, which adheres to state standards, is geared toward fourth and 11th graders. It touches on topics related to Mexican American history and the civil-rights movement, like then Mendez case, migration trends and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – the document that ended the 
Mexican-American War. 

The information is intended to help students see that Mexican Americans have a long history in this country, and set the stage for better relations and understanding between students of all ethnic backgrounds, said Jose Moreno, a Cal State Long Beach professor who helped develop the curriculum. 

"America is a wonderful and important project but has had its history of imperfections," he said. "The more we know about the errors in the past, in context, the better we can avoid them in the future and pull America together."

The curriculum could be downloaded from the Internet and used in classrooms across the state starting in the 2010-11 school year, if the topic is approved as a framework by the state board of education, said development committee member Michael Matsuda, a coordinator for quality-teacher programs for the Anaheim Union High School District. 

Susan Martimo, an administrator of curriculum frameworks for the state department of education, said the state board has asked the committee currently charged with updating the guidelines to include the Mendez case in history-social science framework for K-12 public schools.

Although the details are still being hammered out, the Mendez case could make it into framework slated to go into effect no later than next May, she said. 

Contact the writer: or 714-704-3707
Sent by Ricardo Valverde

50 Years Desegregation, a promise to fulfill:  THE LEGACY OF MENDEZ AND BROWN
IDRA The Legacy of Mendez and Brown



Hispanics Become More Prevalent on College Campuses

Nota by Roberto R. Calderón, Ph.D. []:

The latest press release from the US Census Bureau News reports that the percentage of Latino college students has increased through 2007. The report containing the info, School Enrollment in the United States: 2007, is the source of the information. To quote the first paragraph from the press release:

"Hispanic students comprised 12 percent of full-time college students (both undergraduate and graduate students) in 2007, up from 10 percent in 2006, according to U.S. Census Bureau tables released today. Hispanics comprise 15 percent of the nation's total population."

The effect of the relatively increasing number of Latino college students is not only being felt here in Texas but is a nationwide process. I've only glanced the actual tables reporting the data, the trend, but it's available for those interested in viewing it in greater detail. The educational data for Latinos and all other population groups may be accessed at this link:

Hispanics Become More Prevalent on College Campuses

Hispanic students comprised 12 percent of full-time college students (both undergraduate and graduate students) in 2007, up from 10 percent in 2006, according to U.S. Census Bureau tables released today. Hispanics comprise 15 percent of the nation's total population.

School Enrollment in the United States: 2007 contains eight detailed tables based on statistics collected in the October School Enrollment Supplement to the Current Population Survey. The national-level data are shown by characteristics such as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, family income, type of college, employment status and vocational course

Women continue their majority status, comprising 55 percent of undergraduates and 60 percent of graduate students.

Other highlights:

-- In 2007, 53 percent of Hispanic 4-year-olds were enrolled in nursery school, up from 43 percent in 1997 and 21 percent in 1987.

-- In 2007, 27 percent of the population 3 or older were enrolled in classes -- from nursery school to graduate studies.

-- More than half (59 percent) of all 4-year-olds and 39 percent of 3-year-olds were enrolled in nursery school.

-- Students in grades one through 12 made up 64 percent of people 3 and older enrolled in school.

-- Students 35 or older comprised 15 percent of people enrolled in college. They made up 7 percent of the full-time college students and 36 percent of those attending part time.

Statistics from sample surveys are subject to sampling and nonsampling error. For more information on the source of the data and accuracy of the estimates, standard errors and confidence intervals, go to .

Robert Bernstein
CB09-36  Public Information Office
Detailed tables  301-763-3030/763-3762 (fax)   Release, March 4, 2009




Bilingual Research Journal, Guidelines for Book Reviews
40 Years of Youth Liberation

Bilingual Research Journal

Guidelines for Book Reviews
Updated October 15, 2008



The Bilingual Research Journal welcomes book reviews that are between 1500 – 2000 words in length and review one book.  Essay reviews, consisting of 3500 words, are also acceptable and can concern two or more books.  An essay review is different from a single-book review in that it reviews two or more books—similar in research topic—within the same essay; the goal is to apply a conceptual framework to these works and discuss in more depth their findings’ implications for practice and/or future research.  Coverage should be balanced for each book.   

All books reviewed should be academic research studies; textbooks will not be considered as appropriate book review material.  (Editors may make exceptions to these two criteria on occasion.)  Book topics to be considered for review, in general, should reflect the intrinsic and inherent value of bilingualism, biliteracy, and linguistic democracy.  Topics related to this include, but are not limited to:  bilingual education; bilingualism in society; language policy in education; immigration and education; research in practice, which documents the experiences of teachers and other practitioners.  In addition, books considered for review should have a publication date that is no more than three years old.  The review itself should provide readers a critical, engaging, and informative discussion of the work and should follow APA style guidelines.  

Book reviews submitted to the BRJ should not be under review elsewhere nor previously published in other journals or outlets.  

Suggestions in Writing the Book Review:

  • Avoid a chapter by chapter summary of the work
  • State who the intended audience for the book is and who would find it useful.
  • Describe the main ideas and major objectives of the book and how effectively these are accomplished.
  • Analyze soundness of methods and findings.
  • Make a comparison with other works on this subject.
  • Provide constructive comments about the strength and weaknesses of the book.

The header of your review should include:

  • Author(s)’ or editor(s)’ first and last name(s)
  • Title of book
  • Year of publication
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Number of pages
  • Price (please indicate paperback or hard cover) if available
  • ISBN

At the end of your review, please include:

  • Your first and last name; institutional affiliation

Sent by Roberto R. Calderon 


40 Years of Youth Liberation

New America Media, Commentary, Roberto Dr. Cintli Rodriguez,
Posted: Mar 15, 2009


In my class, History of Red-Brown Journalism & Communications, at the University of Arizona, I see the future mayor of Tucson. I see it in her eyes. In another student, I see the next Sandra Cisneros. I hear it in her Xochitl In Cuicatl – in her poetry and song. I also see the next Ruben Salazar. In others, I’m not sure if I’m seeing Malcolm X, Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta or Barack Obama. In still others, I see temixtianis or great teachers, members of the noblest profession.

These same students are found in every corner of the nation. Some of them are former students of Raza Studies at Tucson Unified School District. Others are direct descendants of the 1969 Chicano Youth Liberation Conference, convened by Denver’s Crusade for Justice. Others are members of Movimiento Estudiantli Chicano de Aztlan or MEChA, also founded 40 years ago.

I can proudly say that I was part of that movement in its incipient Stages. Not as a founder, but simply as a youngster who was swept up in this youth liberation movement. I was not even Chicano, but what one of my students terms a Mexican Mexicano. I never got be a Mexican American, much less Hispanic. In spirit, this volcanic political eruption was akin to the Mexican Independence Movement of 1810 and also the Mexican Revolution of 1910. We rebelled, not simply because of a war or because of the daily denigration in the schools, the streets or the factories, in the cities and fields; more than anything, we rebelled against dehumanization.

Often missing from history’s pages is preeminent American-Indian scholar Jack Forbes, who was part of the founding of another movement in the early 1960s: Movimiento Nativo Americano or the Native American Movement, which at its core called upon people of Mexican, Central and South American origin to reclaim their Indigenous roots. This was the antecedent for the Chicano Movement.

And now, we know that Mexican youth in this country had actually rebelled in the previous generation, creating the Mexican American Movement. Pioneer University of Southern California journalism professor Felix Gutierrez, whose parents were part of this national organization, recalls that they did not use acronyms in those days. But they, too, fought for their human rights.

If you dig deep enough, you find that Mexicans in this country have been rebelling against oppression since 1848. That’s what the students in my class are finding out. Particularly, they are finding writers from the 1800s and early 1900s – many of them women – who led and/or documented many of these struggles. But it is said that the rebellions actually started even earlier, when the first arrow was shot at the Spanish conquistadores.

This 1960s Movement was tumultuous and convulsive. Some of what was created was romantic or idealistic. And some of it was not very liberating. Chicanas had to rebel to assert Chicana Power! Mexicanos/Mexicanas, Central/South Americans, Indigenous peoples, or peoples from the LGBT community weren't included in the liberation, either.

All these communities continue to have to assert their rights as full human beings. Yet, it cannot be denied that a tornado-like force was unleashed that created something unique, including the discipline of Raza or Chicano/Chicano Studies. Where once people denied their Mexicanness and/or their Indigeneity – and meekly accepted their subjugation--people began to grasp for anything that affirmed our right to exist.

Whereas a generation ago young Chicanos, including Mechistas, competed to see who was the most Chicano/Indigenous and revolutionary, we now see them express more clearly a broader concern for all of humanity. I see it in their opposition to yet another interventionist war, their fight against the criminalization and incarceration of youth of color and in their battles against Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio (who is now being investigated by the feds for racial profiling). I have seen it when these youth, some as young as 10, testify before bureaucrats in defense of and for the expansion of Raza Studies. They fight not simply for their rights, but the rights of all peoples.

Forty years later, the fire remains. So, too, the courage, love and intelligence. And it continues to evolve. It’s called Ollin or movement. Wisdom or 52 years is around the corner, and with it, human liberation. Not simply resistance, but Creation.

Rodriguez, who writes columns for New America Media, including Arizona
Watch, can be reached at:

Sent by Ricardo Valverde




Difficult to Find Book Published in Mexico
Hispanic Links Weekly Book Reviews

Difficult to Find Books Published in Mexico
Contact >  > Carlos Yturralde

Carl Sauer, COLIMA DE LA NUEVA ESPANA EN EL SIGLO XVI. This book was first published in English in 1948 by the University of California, Berkeley and because of excellent research and documentation on Colima it was later published as part of the Colección Peña Colorada. Still attached to the book is an excellent map of the provincias and pueblos visited by Lebrón.  The lower left corner of the book has some water damage, but not severe.  Mexico, 1976, 126 pp., soft cover.  Prior owned, good condition, $49.00

CRONICA DE LA SANCTA PROVINCIA DE XALISCO POR FRAY FRANCISCO MARIANO DE TORRES.  “Esta crónica de Fray Mariano Torres, escrita en Cocula a mediados del siglos XVIII según estudio del mismo Fray Luis, no solo es el relato de los hechos de la Conquista de la Nueva Galicia, sino que abarca una extensa región de Mexico: Michoacán, Colima, Nayarit, Coahuila, California, etc.  Y es enfocada en su doble aspecto de conquista material y espiritual.”  Ernesto Ramos.  México, 1960, 113 pp., soft cover.  Prior owned good condition with some chipping at the  top of the front and back pages, this is  book 35 of a limited edition of 200 copies.  $89.00. 

ALBUM FOTOGRAFICO DE LOS INDIOS APACHES,  Testimonio de un conjunto de pueblos hoy práticamente extinguidos, la colección de fotos de apaches que se guarda en el Archivo General de la Nación corresponde a las últimas décadas de su vida colectiva como etnia diferente, después de siglos de resistencia y luchas sociales contra la ocupación de su territorio ancestral. México, 2003, 126 pp., soft cover.  New, $49.00.

Chantal Cramaussel, LA PROVINCIA DE SANTA BARBARA.  “En este campo … nos ofrece los frutos de labor que iniciara, hace ya más de diez años, en torno a los albores del período colonial en el sur del actural estado de Chihuahua.  Hurgando en los archivos y otras fuentes, sigue de cercria el proceso de poblamiento de la zona para hablarnos de las razones que llevaron a los españoles a descubrir y explorar el Septentrión y a fundar la Provincia de Santa Bárbara, describiéndonos las características de las distintas fases que marcaron el desarrollo de la colonización en el periodo comprendido entre 1563 y 1631.”  Mexico, 2004, 160 pp. soft cover. Prior owned, like new, $16.00.

Luis Cardaillac, MORISCOS Y CRISTIANOS: UNENFRENTAMIENTO POLEMICO (1492-1640).  “La convivencia en España de dos poblaciones tan distintas como la cristian y la morisca, antes y después de la toma de Granada por los Reyes Católicos, tenía que determinar, como efectivamente determinó, una virulenta polémica entre los arrogantes venedores cristianos y la minoria dominada, que defendía con pasión, pero con compresible prudencia, sus ideas religiosas y sus modos rituales de vida cotidiana.”  Mexico, 2004, 568 pp. soft cover. New, $42.00

Jose Ortega S.J., CONQUISTA DEL NAYARIT: MARAVILLOSA REDUCCION Y CONQUISTA D LA PROVINCIA DE SAN JOSEPH DL GRAN NAYAR Y DESCUBRIMIENTO D LOS P.P. KINO Y SEDLMAYER EN LA PIMERIA ALTA.  Libro I: Apostolicos Afanes de la Compaña de Jesus escritos por un Padre de la misma sagrada religion de su provincia de Mexico.  Libro II: De los principales progresos y descaecimiento de la espiritual conquista de la provincia de primeria alta por la muerte del padre Eusebio Francisco Kino. Editorial Layac, Mexico, 1944, 445 pp. soft cover.  Prior owned, good condition, some wear.  $390.00.

José Ignacio Conde y Diaz-Rubín con Javier Sanchiz Ruiz.  HISTORIA GENEALOGICA DE LOS TITULOS Y DIGNIDADES NOBILIARIAS EN NUEVA ESPANA Y MEXICO.  CASA DE AUSTRIA (SIGLOS XVI-XVII).  “Durante el período virreinal, la concesión de títulos nobiliarios por la corona de Castilla a un reducido numero de pobladores en la Nueva España ….  En este estudio se recoge la transmisión de estos titulos nobiliarios hasta la actualidad.”  UNAM, Mexico, 2008, 434 pp. soft cover..  New.  $100.00.

Hispanic Heritage Project - 1400 Oak Hill Drive #811 - Escondido, CA 92027-1158
760-420-6955 - cyturralde@cox net

Please add to each purchase a shipping cost of $3.50 for the first book and $1.75 for each book thereafter.  All books are shipped media mail.  Master Card and Visa are accepted and institutions with a purchase order can be billed.



Hispanic Links Weekly Book Reviews, 
Sent by Marco G. Prouty


César Chávez, the Catholic Bishops, and the Farmworkers’ Struggle for Social Justice
Marco G. Prouty

208 pp. / 6.0 x 9.0 / 2006
Paper (978-0-8165-2731-1) [s]
University of Arizona Press

Provides extensive research regarding the relationship of Chavez’s movement to the Catholic Church.

CésarChávez and the farmworkers’ struggle for justice polarized the Catholic community in California’s Central Valley during the 1965–1970 Delano Grape Strike. Because most farmworkers and landowners were Catholic, the American Catholic Church was placed in the challenging position of choosing sides in an intrafaith conflict. Twice Chávez petitioned the Catholic Church for help. Finally, in 1969 the American Catholic hierarchy responded by creating the Bishops’ Ad Hoc Committee on Farm Labor. This committee of five bishops and two priests traveled California’s Central Valley and mediated a settlement in the five-year conflict. Within months, a new and more difficult struggle began in California’s lettuce fields. This time the Catholic Church drew on its long-standing tradition of social teaching and shifted its policy from neutrality to outright support for César Chávez and his union, the United Farmworkers (UFW). The Bishops’ Committee became so instrumental in the UFW’s success that Chávez declared its intervention “the single most important thing that has helped us.” Drawing upon rich, untapped archival sources at the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Marco Prouty exposes the American Catholic hierarchy’s internal, and often confidential, deliberations during the California farm labor crisis of the 1960s and 1970s. He traces the Church’s gradual transition from reluctant mediator to outright supporter of Chávez, providing an intimate view of the Church’s decision-making process and Chávez’s steadfast struggle to win rights for farmworkers. This lucid, solidly researched text will be an invaluable addition to the fields of labor history, social justice, ethnic studies, and religious history.

Corridors of Migration, The Odyssey of Mexican Laborers, 1600-1933
Rodolfo F. Acuña
424 pp. / 6.0 x 9.0 / 2007
Cloth (978-0-8165-2636-9) [s]
Paper (978-0-8165-2802-8) [s]
University of Arizona Press

In the San Joaquin Valley Cotton Strike of 1933, frenzied cotton farmers murdered three strikers, intentionally starved at least nine infants, wounded dozens of people, and arrested more. While the story of this incident has been recounted from the perspective of both the farmers and, more recently, the Mexican workers, this is the first book to trace the origins of the Mexican workers’ activism through their common experience of migrating to the United States.

Rodolfo F. Acuña documents the history of Mexican workers and their families from seventeenth-century Chihuahua to twentieth-century California, following their patterns of migration and describing the establishment of communities in mining and agricultural regions. He shows the combined influences of racism, transborder dynamics, and events such as the industrialization of the Southwest, the Mexican Revolution, and World War I in shaping the collective experience of these people as they helped to form the economic, political, and social landscapes of the American Southwest in their interactions with agribusiness and absentee copper barons.

Acuña follows the steps of one of the murdered strikers, Pedro Subia, reconstructing the times and places in which his wave of migrants lived. By balancing the social and geographic trends in the Mexican population with the story of individual protest participants, Acuña shows how the strikes were in fact driven by choices beyond the Mexican workers’ control. Their struggle to form communities graphically retells how these workers were continuously uprooted and their organizations destroyed by capital. Corridors of Migration thus documents twentieth-century Mexican American labor activism from its earliest roots through the mines of Arizona and the Great San Joaquin Valley cotton strike.

From a founding scholar of Chicano studies and the author of fifteen books comes the culmination of three decades of dedicated research into the causes and effects of migration and labor activism. The narrative documents how Mexican workers formed communities against all odds.

"This is one of the most ambitious and significant works in Mexican, Chicano, and labor history, as well as the history of Mexico–United States relations to appear in recent years. . . . This is a classic, and with its sweeping grasps, massive documentation, and strong writing, it will stand as the greatest scholarly contribution in Acuña’s illustrious career." —Dr. Dionicio Nodín Valdés, author of Al Norte: Agricultural Workers in the Great Lakes Region, 1917–1970

Juana Briones of Nineteenth-Century California Jeanne Farr McDonnell
288 pp. / 6.0 x 9.0 / 2008
Cloth (978-0-8165-2586-7) [s]
Paper (978-0-8165-2587-4) [s]
University of Arizona Press

Juana Briones de Miranda lived an unusual life, which is wonderfully recounted in this highly accessible biography. She was one of the first residents of what is now San Francisco, then named Yerba Buena (Good Herb), reportedly after a medicinal tea she concocted. She was among the few women in California of her time to own property in her own name, and she proved to be a skilled farmer, rancher, and businesswoman. In retelling her life story, Jeanne Farr McDonnell also retells the history of nineteenth-century California from the unique perspective of this surprising woman.

Juana Briones was born in 1802 and spent her early youth in Santa Cruz, a community of retired soldiers who had helped found Spanish California, Native Americans, and settlers from Mexico. In 1820, she married a cavalryman at the San Francisco Presidio, Apolinario Miranda. She raised her seven surviving sons and daughters and adopted an orphaned Native American girl. Drawing on knowledge she gained about herbal medicine and other cures from her family and Native Americans, she became a highly respected curandera, or healer.

Juana set up a second home and dairy at the base of then Loma Alta, now Telegraph Hill, the first house in that area. After gaining a church-sanctioned separation from her abusive husband, she expanded her farming and cattle business in 1844 by purchasing a 4,400-acre ranch, where she built her house, located in the present city of Palo Alto. She successfully managed her extensive business interests until her death in 1889. Juana Briones witnessed extraordinary changes during her lifetime. In this fascinating book, readers will see California’s history in a new and revelatory light.

House of Houses
Pat Mora
320 pp. / 5.25 x 8.0 / 2008
Paper (978-0-8165-2796-0)
University of Arizona Press

Combining poetic language and the traditions of magic realism to paint a vivid portrait of her family, Pat Mora’s House of Houses is an unconventional memoir that reads as if every member, death notwithstanding, is in one room talking, laughing, and crying. In a salute to the Day of the Dead, the story begins with a visit to the cemetery in which all of her deceased relatives come alive to share stories of the family, literally bringing the food to their own funerals. From there the book covers a year in the life of her clan, revealing the personalities and events that Mora herself so desperately yearns to know and understand.

“Poet Mora’s complex and dramatic family history comprises more than personal reminiscences: it also embraces resonant aspects of Mexican American history. Mora recounts her family’s traumatic exodus from Mexico to escape the violence of Pancho Villa and his forces and their struggles to begin new lives in another country. To anchor her psychologically rich, dramatic, sometimes funny, often touching multigenerational tale, Mora uses the image of a house—the house of houses—during a single year, a fruitful metaphor that allows her to dwell on the bright beauty of flowers, birds, and trees, emblems of the loving legacy of her nurturing family.”—Booklist

“Mora has created an ingenious structure for these recollections of her extended family, of their lives and the tales they share about the family’s history. Woven in with these memories are recipes, fragments of songs and poetry, folk remedies, and jokes, all of the small matters that most reveal a family’s identity. In a language deftly mingling the natural cadences of speech and precise, poetic imagery, Mora believably summons up both a group of tough, loving, idiosyncratic survivors and a vivid, detailed portrait of life in the Southwest in [the last] century.” —Kirkus Reviews

Renaming the Earth, Personal Essays by Ray Gonzalez
216 pp. / 6.0 x 9.0 / 2008
Paper (978-0-8165-2407-5)
Cloth (978-0-8165-2410-5) [s]
University of Arizona Press

In his distinctive and spirited way, Ray Gonzalez, the well-known essayist, poet, fiction writer, and anthologist, reflects on the American Southwest—where he was raised and to which he still feels attached (even though he has lived much of his life elsewhere). It is a place that tugs at him, from its arid desert landscapes to its polyglot cities—part Mexican, part Anglo, part something in-between—always in the process of redefining themselves.

Nowhere does the process of redefinition hit Gonzalez quite as hard as in his native city of El Paso, Texas. There he finds the “segregated little town of my childhood” transformed into “a metropolis of fast Latino zip codes . . . a world where the cell phone, the quick beer, the rented apartment, and the low-paying job say you can be young and happy on the border.” Readers will wonder, along with the author, whether life along the “new border” is worth “the extermination of the old boundaries.”

But there is another side of the Southwest for this “son of the desert”—the world of dusty canyons, ponderosa pines, ocotillo, and mesquite. Here, he writes, “there is a shadow, and it is called ancient home—structures erased from their seed to grow elsewhere, vultured strings searching for a frame that stands atop history and renames the ground.”

Rooted in the desert sand and in the banks of the Rio Grande, the muddy river that forms the border between nations, these essays are by turns lyrical, mournful, warm to the ways of the land, and lukewarm to the ways of man.


Don Marco - The Master Caryola Artist
Canciones Tradicionales Infantiles
Falleció Irma González, legendaria soprano y pilar de la cultura mexicana 
Former teen music group members reunite for a 60th birthday bash
Am I Chicana?
Hispanic Health Paradox
Latino Print Network
Ana M. Valdez, Hispanic Association for Corporate Responsibility

Don Marco..... The Master Crayola Artist 

Don Marco was born in Northern Minnesota in the late 1920's.  His interest in art was evident even before starting school. As a young adult in the Army Air Corp, he began his life's career in Air Traffic Control, which continued until his retirement from  Honolulu International   Airport in 1973. Much of his spare time was spent as a professional artist. 

Before retirement, Don started developing a technique to create fine art, using Crayola Crayons. Shortly after retiring, he published his first print. Living in Southern California, his work was in demand, including commissions from Burt Reynolds and a one-man show at his Dinner Theater in Florida. 
Hard to imagine these are done with crayons!!! 

Sent by Jose M. Pena

Bert Reynolds

Tom Arnett

Tom Selleck

Clint Eastwood




Canciones Tradicionales Infantiles

Georgette Baker documents, translates and records 
traditional songs from Spanish-Speaking countries
Published on LatinoLA: March 2, 2009

In an effort to preserve traditional children's songs from latin America, Georgette Baker began documenting, translating and recording songs from her childhood.
Now her collection CANTEMOS CHIQUITOS is available in libraries throughout the USA. Her favorites are "Periquito" and "Vengan a Ver Mi Granja" which she performs in schools throughout Southern California in her popular assembly "Latin American Adventure", a one woman show sharing the heritage she loves.
Georgette was born in Aruba and raised in Venezuela, where she lived 18 years. She speaks five languages, is a certified teacher and plays several musical instruments.
Georgette lived in Ecuador where she began performing on television and festivals throughout the country, traveling to remote places to sing and gather unusual artifacts. Georgette was an on camera field reported in South America in the early 80's for the international television show YOU ASKED FOR IT, going alligator hunting, watching witch doctors and filming memorable stories.
She is the author of five books and 9 CD/books of traditional music from Spanish speaking countries.  She is a professional storyteller/singer and has been featured on KCET's "Mr. Piggley's Playhouse" and "Los Niños en su Casa" and currently wrote for HAPBN radio as a freelance editor.
For more information and her calendar of performances, log on to the author's website.



 Usted está aquí: viernes 5 de diciembre de 2008 Cultura   Pablo Espinosa
Triunfó en muchas casas de ópera en el mundo y formó a varias voces nacionales

Falleció Irma González, legendaria soprano y pilar de la cultura mexicana



La cantante en imagen tomada del libro Irma González, soprano de México, publicado por la UNAM  La cantante en imagen tomada del libro Irma González, soprano de México, publicado por la UNAM

Ayer a las 11:10 horas y a los 92 años, en su hogar, expiró la maestra Irma González, una de las más grandes sopranos de México y de muchas casas de ópera en el mundo.

Luego de triunfar en los escenarios y salas de grabación, consagró medio siglo para formar a varias generaciones de las mejores voces nacionales. Es una leyenda, un auténtico pilar de la cultura mexicana. Ayer sus restos fueron honrados en una agencia al sur de la ciudad y hoy a las 12 horas recibirá un homenaje de cuerpo presente en el Palacio de Bellas Artes, donde formó parte de lo que es conocido como la “época de oro” de la ópera en México, en las décadas 40 y 50 del siglo pasado.

Su biografía, contada por ella misma a La Jornada cuando se publicó el libro Irma González, soprano de México, en 1994 y después en entrevistas durante los varios homenajes que se organizaron en su plenitud, culminó de una manera bondadosa.

“No padecía de ninguna enfermedad. Simplemente le dio tos hace unos días, ni siquiera neumonía, simple tos”, comentó Raúl Herrera, pianista acompañante de la soprano y editor del libro mencionado.

Legado artístico y pedagógico

“Murió de edad y casi en coincidencia cronométrica con la poeta Enriqueta Ochoa, quien se fue el lunes: ellas dos se fueron en una suerte de santidad laica, en estado de gracia”, dijo Ignacio Toscano, quien fue responsable del renacimiento del género operístico en Bellas Artes en los años 80, hazaña en la que participó Irma González.

“Deja un legado enorme tanto con su trabajo artístico como pedagógico. Tuvo una vida muy plena en tan diversos sentidos como el familiar y vivió una muy larga existencia. A pesar de eso no deja de ser dolorosa su pérdida”, expresó el maestro Raúl Herrera.

“La Gran Irma. Sin duda una de las más grandes sopranos que ha dado México y que por fortuna también triunfó en el mundo. Será inolvidable la Butterfly que hacía. Su disciplina es uno de sus máximos legados. Es toda una generación la que se va con ella. No podemos más que estar agradecidos por las grandes escenificaciones que nos brindó en Bellas Artes y todo lo que dio a México,”

Irma González inició su carrera en 1935 y tan sólo cuatro años después, con Carlos Chávez dirigiendo a la Sinfónica de México (hoy Sinfónica Nacional), realizó el estreno local de la Suite de la ópera Lulú, del compositor austriaco Alban Berg. Fue alumna de piano de Manuel M. Ponce y discípula de canto de la legendaria María Bonilla. Su debut operístico fue bautizado por Mozart: en 1941 cantó La flauta mágica y eslabonó leyenda hasta la fecha de su retiro, en 1980, con su insuperable Madame Butterfly.

Participó en más de mil funciones operísticas en Bellas Artes y en 15 países, además de medio millar de presentaciones en conciertos y recitales. Durante sus presentaciones en el Metropolitan Opera House de Nueva York fue contratada para grabar una versión de la Novena Sinfonía de Beethoven bajo la batuta de otro gigante, el director de orquesta austriaco Bruno Walter. Además de ese registro histórico (discos Columbia, New York Philharmonic Orchestra), realizó grabaciones con la Boston Symphony bajo la batuta de Serge Koussevitsky y también trabajó con Leonard Bernstein, Erich Kleiber, Sergiu Celibidache, sir Thomas Beecham, Rafael Kubelik, Ernest Ansermet, Otto Klemperer, Igor Markevich y Joseph Krips entre otras figuras históricas.

El jueves 30 de diciembre de 1976 cantó, acompañada por la Orquesta Filarmónica de la UNAM, obras novohispanas y fue en consecuencia la primera solista en la historia de la Sala Nezahualcóyotl, que esa noche se inauguró.

Entre las figuras del canto que Irma González formó figuran Francisco Araiza, Flavio Becerra, Ignacio Clapés, María Luisa Tamez, Gabriela Herrera y Alicia Cascante.

Anoche en la funeraria se repetía una frase al pie del féretro: “Gracias, Irma, por todo lo  que nos diste”.

Mexico City Newspaper La Jornada

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera



Former teen music group members reunite for 60th birthday bash
15 minutes of fame lasts 3 years for Victorians

Victoria Advocate, March 15, 2009

As in most cases in the mid-60s, Victoria Hispanics making it big was a taboo, and nothing to be disseminated by the city's news media.
A group of Victoria teenagers rose above that and became successful, known nationwide but never locally.
Few people remember and even fewer know of Victoria's Los Luceros del Norte.
The name translates into "Stars of the North." In a short, whirlwind existence, they made a mark in the annals of Tejano conjunto music that opened the door for many of Victoria's Mexican-American musicians and left Los Luceros members with many memories.
On Feb. 14, they reunited to celebrate the 60th birthday of one of their own, accordionist Joe Garcia, known today as Joe Kino.  Almost 45 years ago, someone forgot to tell the four teenagers that 15 minutes of fame is only that: 15 minutes.
Theirs lasted almost three years. The group included García, John Alegría on bass, Gregorio "Goyo" Paredez on bajo and Natie Padierna on drums. The forgotten star of the group was Jimmy Cisneros on bass, who performed with the group for a short period of time before being inducted into the U.S. Marine Corps at 17.
However, like most Victorians of that genre of music during that time, a lack of financial resources and backing led to the eventual breakup of the band.
"Another reason was that our manager was drafted into the military," said García, whose brother, Jesse, was that manager and the owner of their only transportation, a 1964 Chevy Malibu.
Known more as a copy band, they recorded only three 45s: "Limonadas Verdes" ("Green Lemonades"), "Bonito Lucero" ("Beautiful Star"), composed by Julian Gauna of Victoria and "Saldremos a Mano" ("We Will Be Equal"), their own composition written by Kino's brother, Arturo García.
During their three-year run they traveled to California, Arizona, New Mexico, Illinois, Washington and Florida in musical caravans. The caravans were sponsored by recording labels of the day such as BeGo, Joey and Zarape, with Tejano, national and international stars headliners.
Conjunto Bernal, Freddie Martinez, Los Relámpagos del Norte, Los Dinos (before Selena) were only some of the headliners. The name Los Luceros was printed along with the popular big names, and they have the posters to prove it.
For the teenagers who had never traveled outside the Victoria region and had no real formal musical training, this was a dream come true.
Paredez recalls taking band classes at Patti Welder Middle School but never completing any courses. "It was our love for music and the times that led us to our career," he said during a break while in the studio recording with his most recent group, Cuatros Rosas. "We fooled around in the practice rooms but most of our learning was by playing in the bars and by listening to other groups."
Cisneros knew he was leaving, but the idea of working with his childhood friends and performing with who they would perform with on the tours was, for him, a way out.
"This was a chance for us to travel, escape into the big time," Cisneros said. "How else would kids our age get a chance at the big time without money?"
He, too, performed with most of the big-name groups in Victoria and Corpus Christi and was even sought by Mariachi Vargas de Tecalitlan to audition for what is known as the best mariachi group in the world.
Kino appreciates the experiences, livelihood and lessons that Tejano music provided him because it opened the door for what he considers his musical success - gospel music.
"It was beautiful, it was great, unforgettable and rewarding, and I would not trade any of it," he said. "But more important, it led me to my most rewarding and fulfilling experience performing for Jesus."
In his last 28 years, as a gospel musician, he has recorded 54 albums and traveled the country performing his ministry for Jesus, he said.
Another of their lasting memories is their selection by promoters to be the backup band for Lucha Villa on one of their California tours. Villa, an internationally famous Mexican movie and recording star, was known for her mariachi style but was impressed with the group's talent and asked that they be the backup for her performance in her Norteño segment.
Alegría also had his chance at the big time but timing and money were always his nemesis. Raised in Victoria's Dutch Lane, Alegría explains that, like the others, his career began performing at local bars, where their only pay was tips they made. He worked for the local and area stars of those days such as Roberto Sustaita and Alcario Cavazos, among many others.
"There was also a time that I performed with a R & B group from Houston made up of Black musicians and myself as the lead singer," he said.
"What Natie won't tell you is that at only 14 he was asked by Buck Owens to leave Los Luceros and become the Buckaroos' drummer," said Alegría of his lifelong friend.
However, Padierna admitted that he was homesick at the time and the thought of not making it back to Victoria scared him a bit.
"We were teenagers. We loved music but had very little experience in the music business outside of the Victoria area," Padierna said.
"It was bad timing. We had been on the road for some time, and we were ready to come home," he said. "Anyway, Buck Owens wasn't the famous Buck Owens then."
Manuel De Los Santos Jr. is the assistant local editor of the Victoria Advocate. To suggest column ideas, contact him at or at 361-574-1298.
Sent by Sara Puig Laas


Am I Chicana?


Tuesday March 13, 3am, the rain continues. Suddenly I think of the word Chicano, (go figure, why would I think of this at 3 o'clock in the morning?). I log into the web and pulled dozens of pages, looking for the meaning of the word and it's root. Chicano is a term I learned when I came to Brownsville. It was a term use to refer to people like me, who lives in the US, but speaks Spanish. Still, I really (and I am ashamed to say) did not know the real meaning of the word. So this morning, I learned that the Chicano term, In the early 30’s when Mexicans from the State of Morelos, who spoke Nahuatl called themselves “Mexicanos” sounded in their native language as “Mesheecanos” using the common pronunciation of their dialect. In the Mexican language, we don’t have a use for the “sh” as in the Nahuatl dialect, instead we make a use of the “ch” thus the sound became “Mechicanos” and later on “Chicano” for a short term. At that time, the term was use with a bad connotation as an insult to identify people by this name. But later in the 60’s The term was taken by the Mexican-American activists (i.e. Cesar Chavez and La Raza movement) to
create a new identity for their culture and movement.

I like to use the term to reclaim my indigenous heritage broken when our ancestors were displaced by colonialism and our culture displaced by imperialism. As the news writer Ruben Salazar (killed by the police during the National Chicano Moratorium March in 1970, in LA.) said: “A Chicano is a Mexican-American with a non-Anglo image of himself”    That is what I am, an Indigenous Mexican-American, A Chicana!...

Viva La Raza!
E. Elizabeth Garcia 
Brownsville, TX 78521
On 3/14/09,




"Hispanic, health paradox"


   Most of us were told by our grandmothers, aunts and other elders about the nutritional and medicinal value of various foods, especially plants. Many of us either paid it no attention or forgot. Now, health stores and news sources about health often provide advice that we should have remembered from earlier teachings.

  Case in point: A common "weed", Verdolaga (known by many different names throughout Spanish speaking nations and populations) called Purslane (purslen) in English has been shown to contain many valuable Omega 7 fatty acids as well as having many health benefits.

 The same can be said for "folk remedies" and recipies containing cinnamon, sage and oregano which provide all sorts of health benefits (e.g. against diabetes), and are also tasty.

  Perhaps that is what contributes to the "Hispanic, health paradox" of how those who follow "traditional" diets are in better health than those more assimilated to U.S. diets (especially those high in fats, sugar and empty calories). For more information on verdolaga/purslane just type that it the search box. The same goes for the others. And, of course there are all sorts of similar "traditional" foods and practices (dark chocolate, red wine-in moderation, which beat "popping pills", "hands down". 

Buen provecho.
On 3/13/09, Gil Chavez 

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Latino Print Network,
Volume 7, Number 20  March 25, 2009
Editor: Kirk Whisler, Hispanic Marketing 101


I  met Kirk Whisler at the NCLR conference in San Diego and have been receiving his very informative newsletter. He covers a wide variety of topics, pertinent to marketing to Latinos.

I thought it was cute that Kirk included a Ralph Waldo Emerson poem in his March 25th  newsletter, very positive and uplifting.

"For each new morning with its light,
For rest and shelter of the night,
For health and food, for love and friends,
For everything Thy goodness sends."
~Ralph Waldo Emerson

In addition, I frequently find bits of information, that I've not come across, such as:

Ana M. Valdez Named
Hispanic Association for Corporate Responsibility New Executive Director
Ana brings over 15 years corporate and management experience with two of the nation's renowned companies: Sprint and General Electric.

The Kansas City-native has been active in community-based activities, ranging from the Greater Kansas City Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, the Latino Leadership Institute (a board-of-directors certificate program at the University of Missouri-KC), and The Hispanic Development Fund, to the LULAC National Educations Service Center (LNESC), MANA de Kansas City, and the SkillBuilder Fund. Ana was instrumental in the creation of the Kansas City chapter of the National Society of Hispanic MBAs and served as the founding President

"Her knowledge of Corporate America is supported by an impressive track record with nonprofit organizations and community development initiatives," said HACR President & CEO, Carlos Orta. "Ana is a proven advocate for initiatives that advance our community, its youth and women."

Ana has been recognized as one of Kansas City's "25 Up-and-Coming Latinos" by Dos Mundos newspaper, one of Ingram's Magazine "40-under-Forty" recognition that is awarded to top community and professional leaders in Kansas City, and Project Equality's "Up and Coming Award" which is presented to young community leaders influencing change in the areas of equality and diversity.

Ana holds a Masters of Business Administration degree in Organizational Development from Avila University and a Bachelor of Business Administration in Marketing & Finance from Rockhurst University.

NACR is considered one of the most influential advocacy organizations in the nation representing 13 national Hispanic organizations in the United States and Puerto Rico.



Riva Palacio Series by Ted Vincent, "Visuals in  . . .Mexico a Traves de los Siglos"  
Conquest Mexico and Chicano Literature By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

Vicente Riva Palacio Series

"Visuals in  . . . 
Mexico a Traves de los Siglos" 

Selections by Ted Vincent  


Above is the standard cover for volumes of the encyclopedia
Mexico Through the Centuries, subtitle History general and complete of the development social, political, religious, military, artistic, scientific and literary of Mexico from the most remote antiquity to the present era.  Although originally published in the late 19th Century, it is still being reprinted in the 21st Century, and  runs of its 4,430 pages have been large.  For instance, 15,000 of the set were printed in 1983 and another 31,000 were run in 1987.  Below the title in each volume one reads, Published under the Direction of Vicente Riva Palacio, who was the organizer of the large team of scholars for the massive work, and the writer of a fifth of the text. 

High quality printing is said to explain some of the continued popularity of Riva Palacio's project.  The glossy paper was meant to last, and the dual column style is fitting for tall and thick volumes.  The text is adorned with hundreds of lithographs and woodcuts, and there are 72 plates in color.  At the time of the 1887-1889 first run color printing was done mainly by chromolithography, which was a tedious process of layering oils and water on metal plates. While the process was then common for playing cards and cereal boxes, it was rare for scenes of people or landscapes.  And yet director Riva Palacio and publisher Santiago Ballesca insisted financing be found for chromolithography in Mexico a Traves de los Siglos. Close to 45% of the encyclopedia is devoted to the pre-Spanish and Colonial periods. Each historical section is introduced with a chromolithograph that highlighted the content in the pages ahead.      

The colonial period is introduced with a depiction of a priest attending to the people. A recurrent topic in the text for this period is the effects of the caste system upon society, and one can note that the litho shown here includes differing people in line in front of the padre, including a black.




Daily life in Mexico before the Spaniards came is given color treatment.  Below is a litho of the ball game court and players standing about as in a time out. The game dates from around the time 
of Christ and was something of a cross between basketball and soccer.  Major contests were played between tall walls, seen here from
Siglos.  The game was outlawed by the Spaniards.


A sub-text to the Colonial story in Siglos is that the pre-Columbian civilization was still evolving at the time of the arrival of the Europeans.  One addition was the discovery of pulque, the beer like beverage which gained great popularity in Mexico, resulting in taverns in the cities that were called pulquerias.  Today, the drink is rare.  Because the fermentation process is on-going in pulque it is hard to bottle the drink and it has lost popularity to bottled beer - a less bitter drink.  The chromograph below depicts the young woman who discovered how to make the beverage bringing a sample to the Toltec ruler, Queen Xochitl. ..  


Mexico a traves de los Siglos devotes much space to pictures of ruins. Accompanying text editorializes with calls for excavation and restoration at the sites of the ancient monuments. One of the first projects for workers in the budding field of archeology was the restoration of Teotihuacan, the city of the dead that features the great pyramids that are in size second only to those in Egypt.

In Siglos a chromolith in pale beige shows the Teotihuacan pyramids of the sun and moon in their yet cleaned state, with trees on the sides  of the structures.



  Black and white lithographs of jungle ruins are plentiful in Siglos, and show vines, trees and grass consuming crumbling rock structures.  The pictures could stand for movie posters for the Raiders of the Lost Arc.  Two lithographs of Palenque are shown here and are from among a large number in Siglos that feature this beautiful and mysterious city.   Funding for the original excavations at Palenque was pushed by Riva Palacio during his 1876-1880 term as the government Minister of Fomento (Development).  


Today’s tourists to pre-Columbian ruins see mostly bleached temples and towers.  The once brilliant colors washed away in rains and the damp soil that collected on the structures over the centuries.  It is a pity, considering Mexico’s tradition of dramatic creativity with color – the multiciplicity of utilizations of which are displayed in the Elena Pomiatowska and Amanda Holmes book, “Mexican Color.”.   The compilers of “Siglos” devoted a chromograph montage specifically to color patterns found still in existence on assorted ruins.  










An important figure in Pre-Columbian life was the sorcerer/magician/witch/healer  known as the “hechicero,.” who typically lived alone and was feared for having special powers  Folk tales about “hechicero ” are numerous, and some have found their way into literature, “La Mulata de Cordoba” for one.  The “hechicero” chosen for display in “Siglos” is one on a wall in the ruins of Chichen Itza.

The figure above has a thick beard (atypical for Indigenous) and curly hair and butterfly wings on his head.  Throughout the Yucatan and Chiapas centuries old tales are common of blacks with sorcerer powers who could fly and who hid in the forest.  Stories of the black sorcerers are numerous enough for a collection of them to be gathered in the 1950s by anthropologist Julio de la Fuente (himself a native of the black city of Yanga) and another collection was produced in 1998 by the Chiapan Carlo Antonio Castro.

Historic maps produced in “Siglos.” show the slow spread of conquest and settlement onto Indigenous land. 










Above is the top half of a map of Mexico in the year 1800.  Technically, Spain ruled all the territory shown West of Louisiana.  But much was barely secure.  The map depicts in color those areas settled enough to have the Spanish equivalent of statehood, and in white are areas not yet substantially settled and/or areas where the natives were not yet conquered.   One can note that New Mexico is a state – a long thin one suggestive of a gerrymandered United States congressional district of today.  Not yet settled enough, or conquered enough to warrant the Spanish equivalent of statehood is the Pacific coast above Baja, from San Diego up past San Francisco, and also Texas, Arizona and the present state in Mexico of Tamaulipas.

“Mexico a traves de los siglos” carries the history up through the 1810-1821 independence war to the defeat in 1867 of the French/Austrian effort of Arch Duke Maximilian re-make Mexico a European colony.  Visuals are fewer in these sections and especially so for color plates.  



By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca


Scholar in Residence and Chair, Department of Chicana/Chicano & Hemispheric Studies, Western New Mexico University; Professor Emeritus, Texas State University SystemSul Ross; recipient of the Patricia and Rudolfo Anaya Critica Nueva Award, University of New Mexico, 2005; recipient of the Letras de Aztlan Award, National Association of Chicana and Chicano StudiesTejas Foco, 2007; author of Background of Mexican American Literature (first study in the field), University of New Mexico, 1971; and The Chicano Renaissance, Journal of Social Casework, May 1971.  


Despite the outpouring of Chicano literature since the 1960’s, relatively little is known about the icons of pre-conquest Mexico in the development of Chicano literature. The paucity of information about how these icons were selected by Chicano writers to be part of their works is generally glossed over by reviewers and critics in favor of story and structure. It was no accident that the founders of the first Journal of Mexican American Thought organized Quinto Sol Publications in 1967 as the venue for that journal. Quinto 
was the epochal “fifth sun” of the Lords of Aztlan, the rulers of pre-Cortesian Mexico. They were children of the “fifth sun” which would someday perish as did the four previous suns. The rulers of pre-Cortesian Mexico called their dominion Aztlan (watering place of herons), after their mythic homeland from which they had to flee ages ago. It was no accident that the vanguard writers of the Chicano Renaissance turned to the icons of pre-conquest Mexico to validate their work. Rejected as they were by mainstream American publishers, early Chicano writers found succor in the myths and icons of their indigenous forebears. In this work I survey the conspectus of pre-Cortesian icons that appear in the development of Chicano literature.  

Miguel León-Portilla, the renowned Mexican ethnographer, tells us that the literary production of ancient Mexico was far more prolific than is generally recognized (173). I would not come to know this until 1969, the year I read León-Portillas work; the year I began my study of Backgrounds of Mexican American Literature (first study in the field) at the University of New Mexico.

León-Portillas work figured prominently in my research as I sought to create a taxonomical scaffold for the history of Mexican American literature. What started out as the organization of a course in Mexican American literature led to my research in Backgrounds of Mexican American Literature and has turned out to be a passion in my academic career which now spans almost 60 years. 

In the summer of 1969 I was on leave from New Mexico State University in Las Cruces as a Teaching Fellow in the English Department at the University of New Mexico at Albuquerque when Louis Bransford, recently appointed head of the embryonic Chicano Studies program at UNM, asked me to put together a course in Chicano literaturea term that would gain prominence from that year on. Of course, I assured him, naively thinking 
the task would be like organizing any other course. Little did I know what lay in store for me.

As a consequence of that course I came to realize what a trove of literature Mexican Americans had produced since 1848 when Mexico was dismembered and more than half its territory seized by the United States as plunder of the war against Mexico (1846-1848). As the first literary history in the field, Backgrounds of Mexican American Literature would only be a starting point. Addressing the New World roots of Mexican American Literature, I wrote:  

The taproots of Mexican American literature are not only planted in the Hispanic literary tradition, which reaches back to the Spanish peninsula and to the heart of the Mediterranean world, they are planted also in the literary soil of the new world (17).  

Adding that:  

We should bear in mind, as Willis Barnstone reminds us in his Introduction to Ignacio Be-rnals work on Mexico Before Cortez (1963), that the Mexican [American] has a profound sense of cultural continuity extending back into [Mexicos] prehistory (18).  

Its important to remember that the Spaniards did not bring civilization to Mexico. When Cortez passed between the high volcanos of Popocatepetl and Ixtazihuatl on his way to the valley of Mexico (Tenochtitlan), he was traveling in the land of a people who had already achieved a high state of civilization, its grandeur no less diminished when compared to the civilization of the European invaders.

The Aztecs were expert horticulturalists. In fact, according to Foster and Cordell, crops of Meso-American origin, sustain a large proportion of the Earths present population (xiv). And in The Columbian Exchange, Alfred Crosby maintains that the fact that American crops thrived in adverse conditions gave them a critical role in the world population boom of the past two centuries; such a boom probably could not have occurred without them (cited in Foster and Cordell, xiv-xv).

There were grand botanical gardens in Mexico long before the Europeans had them. Pre-conquest Mexico was not a land of savages and brutality as depicted in historical accounts. It was, in every sense of the word, a developing nation. Bernal Diaz del Castillo, Cortez chronicler of the True History of the Conquest of New Spain, captured the wonder of the new world when he wrote:  

And after we saw so many cities and towns built on the water, and other cities on the surrounding land, and that straight and level causeway which entered the city, we were amazed and said that it was like the enchanted places recounted in Amadis de Gaula, because of the great towers and buildings which grew out of the water, all made of stone and mortar, and some of our soldiers even asked whether what they saw was not a dream, and so no wonder that I write in this way, for there is so much to ponder in all these things that I do not know how to describe them. We saw things never heard or dreamed about before (LXXXVII)  

Consider Bernal Diaz observation compared to 18th century comments that characterized the indigenous peoples of the Americas as brutish savages still using crude implements of bone and stone, incapable of the organization and marshaling of resources necessary for building cities or maintaining imperial institutions (Borah and Cook, 1-2).  

The New World ancestors of Mexican Americans were not only a highly cultured and highly urban people, they were a literate people as well. As Stan Steiner put it, no people in the New World have an older written history than the Mexican Indians (24). Indeed, the Olmec writing system, for example, dates back to at least 600 BC. Before the arrival of the Spaniards in Mexico there existed a rich autochthonous literature. Unfortunately, much of the pre-Columbian literature of Mexico was destroyed by the fiery antipathy of Spanish clerics who incinerated what Indian writing they could get hold of because to them it represented a pagan tradition spiritually opposed to their own. The indigenous texts were destroyed because they were thought to be heretical products of the devil with their iconographic / pictographic figures and symbols. At the time, Bishop Landa of Yucatan has been quoted as saying: We found a large number of books of these characters [codical writing], and as they contained nothing but superstition and lies of the devil, we burned them all (Peterson, 240).

    The literature of the vanquished is always the first victim of any conflict, especially cultural conflicts. Though Fray Juan de Zumarraga and Fray Diego de Landa sought to extinguish those heretical texts, some of them escaped the fire and were later rendered into western writing. Fortunately, the Popol Vuh, the Mayan bible or the Quiché Book of Being, was one of those works which survived and which has been translated into Spanish and English. The Mayan book of the Jaguar Priest, the Chilam Balam, and the Annals of the Xahil also survived. In all, fourteen codices survived, but ironically they are reposited today elsewhere than in Mexico. Only copies exist there. Some of the works of King Nezahualcoyotl (d. 1472) of Texcoco, the poet-King or the David of the Aztecs, survived and have also been translated into Spanish and English. At every turn, the Spanish colonial administration in Mexico sought to suppress the intellectual productivity of the indigenous people.

   After the conquest, Fernando de Alva Ixtilzo-chitl wrote of the exploits of his ancestor with the same name, Ixtilxochitl, Prince of Texcoco, during the conquest, translating the Aztec writing into Spanish. Today, the quality of pre-Hispanic literature may be surveyed in a number of works including The Broken Spears: the Aztec Account of the Con-quest of Mexico (Beacon Press, 1962) by Miguel León-Portilla, or in his other work on Aztec Thought and Culture (University of Oklahoma Press, 1969). Other works on New World literature include Daniel G. Brintons Ancient Nahuatl Poe-try (Philadelphia, 1890), John H. Cornyns Aztec Literature in the XXVII Congress International des Americanistes (Mexico, 1939), Angel Maria Garibay-Ks Historia de la Literatura Nahuatl (Mexico, 1935), and Antonio Peñafiel  (Editor),  Colleccion  de  Documentos Para la Historia de Mexico, 6  Volumes (Mexico,1897-1903).  

The pre-Columbian literature of Mexico consisted entirely of codices; that is, a long, screen-like, accordion-pleated parchment of animal skin or  amate (paper) made smooth in a solution of lime with writing on both sides. (Post-conquest codices were constructed of cloth. Paper was used in Aztec rituals and was an important item of trade and tribute in pre-Cortesian Mexico. The town of Cuernavaca paid its tribute in paper to the Aztec emperor).These codices dealt with a variety of subjects. The Mexicans had books on agri-culture, botany, law, magic, medicine, poetry, sports, songs, etc. For example, the Tonalamatl was the sacred almanac which recorded the tonalpohualli, the count of souls in the year. The scribes were called tlacuilos, and they recorded on codices the most minute events of Mexican life.

While the Mexican languages were essentially phonetic in utterance they were rendered on codices in ideographic form, comparable to Chinese and Japanese writing. A codex could be opened and read in a number of ways. Though relatively little pre-Hispanic Indian literature survived the Spanish holocaust, Peterson opined hopefully:        

there is always the possibility that some ancient codex lies forgotten in a trunk in some attic in Europe, or is a jealously kept secret in some town in Mexico, or is hidden under dusty files in a library, and will eventually add to our store of information (Op. Cit., 241).  

One of those ancient codices, the de la Cruz-Badiano Codex,  albeit written in 1552 some 30 years after the conquest of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) by Cortez, was returned to Mexico in 1990 by Pope John Paul II from the Vatican library almost 440 years after it left Mexico. The codex was the Latin version translated by Juan Badiano, an Aztec nobleman, from the Nahuatl version (which did not survive) written by Martin de la Cruz, an Aztec physician, both of whom were members of the College of Santa Cruz in Tlatelolco (Byland, iii).  

While the literature I am discussing here is part of the indigenous pre-Columbian literary legacy of Mexicans, it is also the indigenous pre-Columbian literary legacy of Mexican Americans, the historical baselineits roots, so to speak. Particularly since many of the symbols of the Chicano Movement were appropriated from that indigenous past, symbols like the Quinto Solas in Quinto Sol Publicationsand Flor y Canto for literary and cultural gatherings. Quinto Sol was the fifth sun under which the Nahuas believed they lived. Four previous suns (worlds) had been des-troyed. In the pre-Columbian indigenous society of Mexico literary and cultural festivities were celebrated with flowers and songsflor y canto, the name appropriated for Chicano literary events. What is remarkable about the Chicano Movement is its iconography, particularly its identification with the pre-Cortesian icons of Mexico.

The significance of the Chicano Movement and its off-spring the Chicano Renaissance lies in how the Chicano Movement became instrumental in the identity formation of Mexican Americans. Before the Chicano Movement, Mexican Americans tended to regard them-selves via perspectives Anglo America had of themthat they were Coronados Children. The Chicano Movement helped Mexican Americans in coming to terms with the duality of their identitythat they were not only Coronados Children but also Montezumas Children. To be wholeunless they were purely indigenousthey had to acknowledge the mestizaje (blending) that produced them as la raza as they came to consider themselves collectively. Chicano parents of the 60s readily gave their children Nahuatl names.

The first issue of El Grito: Journal of Mexican American Thought published by Quinto Sol Publications in the Fall of 1967 proclaimed editorially that Mexican Americans (becoming Chicanos) would say who they were, not mainstream or Anglo America which saw them as simple-minded but lovable and colorful children who because of their rustic naïveté, limited mentality, and inferior, backward traditional culture, choose poverty and isolation instead of assimilating into the American mainstream and accepting its material riches and superior culture. Inasmuch as the mainstream rhetoric about them was a grand hoax, a blatant liea lie that must be stripped of its esoteric and sanctified verbal garb”–henceforth they would reject that institutional and missionary main-stream rhetoric about them and their heritage for a rhetoric that exalted them as heirs of a heritage richer than the one being imposed on them. Only Mexican Americans themselves could bring about the collapse of that intellectually spurious and vicious mainstream rhetorical structure about Mexican Americans by exposing its fallacious nature via the development of intellectual alternatives.  

El Grito has been founded for just this purpose to provide a forum for Mexican-American self definition and expression on this and other issues of relevance to Mexican-Americans in American society today (Romano, 4).  

         Henceforth, Chicano readers would be judges of Chicano literature which would create its own critical strictures and its own critical aesthetic. El Grito was the manifesto of Chicano liberation from Anglo-American intellectual traditions that marginalized non-privileged perspectives. In a quantum leap, the consequence of that editorial prompted Mexican Americans to look back to their pre-Columbian indigenous roots while, at the same time, helping them to take stock of their blended evolution. Jose Vasconselos, the great Mexican educator, was right: los mestizos had become la raza cosmicathe cosmic people.

         For Mexican Americans, what was missing was mythosan epic saga of la raza and its dias-pora in the United States. Mexican Americans (now Chicanos) revivified the myth of Aztlanthe ancient homeland of the Aztecsas an allegory for a Chicano homeland, an icon that has en-gendered ideological wariness because of its putative designation for the Aztec place of origin. The Hispanic Southwestthat part of Mexico which was dismembered and annexed by the United States per  the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848 terminating the U.S. War Against Mexicowould become Aztlan.

No one is sure where Aztlan was, except that in Aztec lore the Aztecs emerged from the bowels of the earth through the seven caves of Chicomostoc located in the heart of Aztlan. During the fourth sun (Quarto Sol) of creation, a great tidal wave destroyed Aztlan and forced the Aztecs to flee at the dawn of the Fifth Sun (Quinto Sol). That flight resulted in the seven peregrinations of the tribe, an odyssey that took them from the original place of Aztlan across many lands over many generations all the while keeping an eye out for the sign that designated the place for their new homeland. Where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus, holding in its beak a serpent, there would be their new homeland. The city they built on the island surrounded by Lake Texcoco in the valley of Anáhuac they called Tenochtitlan after their designation as tenochcas.

Rendering meaning from Aztec symbols is difficult because the Nahuatl language provides for three levels of meaning for any given word--the li-teral, the connotative, and the syncretic. Some scholars suggest that by its very name, Aztlan must have been an island homeland. Morphologically, Aztlan may have been originally Azatlan (as inscribed in the current place word Mazatlan) with the morphemes az, atl, and an. The morpheme a generally designates water in the Nahua language, and the tl is a noun marker. An is a place designation. Az has been variously rendered as the word heron. Thus, Azatlan  could mean the watering place of the herons. Or the home of the herons mid the waters. And Mazatlan means watering place of the deer. The fact that after their long trek the Aztecs found an eagle perched on a cactus and holding a serpent in its beak on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco lends credence to the  suggestion that their original homeland could have been an island surrounded by watera place where herons migrated to. The mor-pheme az may also be rendered as eagle. The sign completes the mystery, particularly since the eagle was the national bird of the Aztecs.

   A corollary bit of information raises an intriguing suggestion. When we look at the word Atlantic we see the morphemes atl, an and tic. Some scholars see a linguistic correspondence between the word Atlantic and Azatlan of the Aztecs. By extension, those scholars suggest that Aztlan could be the Atlantis of fable mentioned in Platos Cratylus. Far-fetched as that may sound, the linguistic connection is not easily laid aside.

      Much of what we know about the Aztecs, los  Señores de Mexico as they have come to be called, comes to us not from the Aztecs themselves nor from primary sources but from sources considerbly removed from the historical moments of the Aztecs. And the primary sources that could have been of some use to us in understanding the Aztecs were burned by the early prelates, like bishop Zumárraga, as pictographic representations of the devil. We do know that on the eve of conquest, the population of the Aztec empire may have been as high as 50 million (Borah and Cook, 4), twice the population of present-day Iraq.

    Added to this were the post-Cortesian accounts of the Aztecs as barbarous and blood-thirsty cannibals. However, according to Miller and Taube, for the Aztecs the eating of human flesh was neither common nor casual (54). Spanish efforts to denigrate further the Aztecs made them out to be a derivative culture, always borrowing from other cultures to enhance their own, much like the Romans appropriating Greek culture to enhance their own. One such enhancement is reputed to have occurred during the Aztec sojourn in the Toltec city of Tollan.

Be that as it may, iconically Aztlan has be-come an important symbol for Chicanos, for it has come to represent ideological aspirations of the Chicano Movement. In terms of the latter, Aztlan has been identified as the territory of the Mexican Cession through which the Aztecs migrated in their diasporic search for their new homeland. In the search for Aztlan some scholars place it in central Oregon at a site some 10,000 years old. Others suggest that the Aztecs could be the ancient Hohokam people of the Southwest four corners area, particularly since the Hohokam played a game with hard rubber balls similar to the game of the Aztecs. The Tanner-Disturnall map so central to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo points to the Casa-grande Ruins in Arizona as the ruins of the second houses of the Aztecs. And a site for Aztlan has been marked on the coast of North Carolina, furthering the suggestion that the Aztecs could have come from some Atlantic site, making ground on the eastern shore of what is now the United States.  

Surprisingly, present-day Aztecs are not considered reliable informants about Aztlan. There are still some 1.2 million Aztecs who live in south central Mexico and who speak Nahuatl, though centuries removed from the Nahuatl of the Aztec empire before Cortez. Ideologically, locating Aztlan is of no import to the future of Chicanos. For Aztlan is a country of the mind. Thats how it began, much like the origins of Camelot, another country of the mind. And perhaps thats where it needs to stay.

     As a country of the mind we are free to cogitate about Aztlan however we may, to endow it with whatever characteristics we will. Its not important how congruent our sense of Aztlan is with the actualities of Aztlan, for no one really knows what Aztlan may have been like save for the remnant accounts we have in the surviving literature of the Aztecs. For that matter, we know precious little about the Aztecs except for the accounts passed on to us by the Spaniards. The Aztecs received as bad a press from the Spaniards as Mexican Americans have received from Anglos in the American South-west since 1848.

     Until 1980 when I began researching the Aztecs for the play Madre del Sol / Mother of the Sun commemorating the 450th anniversary of the Virgin de Guadalupe (commissioned by Arch-Bishop Patrick Flores of San Antonio), I had bought into the history of the Aztecs as described in various textsbloodthirsty and serving up hundreds of human sacrifices daily. But my research for Madre del Sol / Mother of the Sun turned up no pre-Cortesian sources for the mal-characterization of the Aztecs. If the Aztecs regularly sacrificed so many humans, I asked, where were the skulls? When the Leakeys were excavating in the Olduvai Gorge they uncovered thousands of skulls from antiquity. Surely such remains from Aztec times would have been unearthed during excavation for the Mexico City subway. Many other things turned up but no cache of skulls.

      Anyway, Aztlan seems to have been an apt icon for the Chicano Movement, particularly since the Chicano Movement sought to elevate prominently the indigenous roots of Mexican American identity, an identity that even in Mexico had become pervasive. Chicanos were not seeking to eradicate their Spanish roots. Like the dual creatures in The Dark Crystal, Chicanos sought to reconcile the two parts of their identity--they were Indian and they were Spanish.

     By promoting pride in their Indian roots, Chicanos of the Chicano Movement were building pride among Chicanos about who they were. They were Mexicos children in the United States in a land once theirs; more importantly they were Montezumas Childrenthose who had survived the Spanish holocaust. Their Aztec forebears epitomized a great civilization in which medicine, mathematics, philosophy, art, architecture, and engineering were taught; where books were printed and writing was valued.  Their writing (and they had it in a full sense) was Ideographic (Gates, xxxviii).

    Important to Chicanos in choosing Aztlan as an icon of the Chicano Movement was that it heralded Chicanos as descendants of an illustrious historical heritage. In this sense, Chicanos moved mejicano identity beyond the Eurocentric. As a consequence of the Chicano Movement and Aztlan, Chicanos gave notice to the American mainstream that Chicano identity would be what Chicanos said it was and not what the American mainstream said it was. Reaching across the centuries to link up with Aztlan gave Chicanos a historical center they did not have simply as an unanchored diasporic people trying to come to terms with the infran-gibility of their present and their past.

     Aztlan need not be real. Lots of people claim mythic homelands. The English have Avalon and Camelot; the Germans have Valhalla; the Tibetans have Shangri-la; the French have San Souci. The strength of myth is the strength of pride that it engenders. Is it important to know exactly where Aztlan was? What may be more important is that for one brief and shining moment it was and is still in the imagination of Chicanos where, like Miltons unsightly root, in another country it bore a bright and golden flower.


Borah, Woodrow Wilson and Cook, Sherburne Friend. The Aboriginal Population of Central Mexico on the Eve of the  Spanish Conquest, University of California Press,        1963.  

Byland, Bruce. Introduction to An Aztec Herbal: The Classic Codex of 1552 20000.

Diaz del Castillo, Bernal. True History of the Conquest  of New Spain (A.P. Maudslay  translation, 1958).

Foster, Nelson and Linda S. Cordell (Eds.), Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World, University of Arizona Press, 1992.  

Gates, William, “Introduction to the Mexican Botanical System,” An Aztec Herbal:   The Classic Codex of 1552, 1939.  

Leon-Portilla, Miguel. Pre-Columbian Literatures of Mexico, 1969.  
Miller, Mary and Taube, Karl. An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of        Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 1993. 
Ortego y Gasca, Felipe de. Backgrounds of Mexican American Literature, University of New Mexico, 1971. 
Peterson, F. Ancient Mexico: An Introduction to the Pre-Hispanic Cultures, 1959. 
Romano, Octavio, ed. El Grito: Journal of Mexican American Thought, Volume 1,   Number 1, 1967. 

Steiner, Stan. La Raza: The Mexican Americans, 1969. 
Copyright 2007 by the author. All rights reserved.  



Dedication of the TSDAR Patriot Monument, Texas State Cemetery.
Mexico Society of the Sons of the American Revolution
SAR-TALK  Genealogy Policies/ Fall Leadership Conference
Trip to Spain May 10 - 20, 2010
Spain's Patriots of Peru by Granville Hough, Ph.D. (Va through Velasco) # 18

Dedication of the TSDAR Patriot Monument, Texas State Cemetery

3/15/2009 8:02:41 P.M. Pacific Daylight Time, writes:

Hi Mimi:
Just to let you know, today was the day the honored the Spanish Patriots: Jose Antonio Curbelo, Vicente Flores, Patricio Antonio Rodrigues, Francisco Manuel Salinas, and Pedro Xavier Salinas.  I will attach some pictures of the Texas Society Daughters of the American Revolution - Dedication of the TSDAR Patriot Monument, Texas State Cemetery.  I will also send you a short brief e-mail and than put the booklet in the mail.  
Rueben M. Perez


Lft. to Rt:  David Bowles, President San Antonio Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution, Judge Edward Butler, President General 2009 - 2010, National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Rueben Perez, Vice President San Antonio Chapter SAR and descendant of Jose Antonio Curbelo

Rueben and sister Dorothy Perez, descendants of Jose Antonio Curbelo



Wall plaque of Spanish American Patriots
Wall Plaque of Spanish American Patriots

Joel Escamilla, Granaderos y Damas de Bernardo Galvez, Rueben Perez, Peter Baron, Vice President of S.A. Chapter of SAR, and Color Guard of Granaderos y Damas de Bernardo Galvez.  The new President for the Granaderos is Jack Cowen.

Monument erected by the Texas Daughters of the American Revolution with names of Spanish and American Patriots.  

Judge Robert H. Thonhoff, distinguish author and historian.  Author of, Texas Connection to the American Revolution.  Both Judge Butler and Judge Thonhoff have made significant contributions to opening the doors for our Spanish Ancestors being recognize as Patriots and descendants being eligible for membership into the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Sons of the American Revolution.  Membership is encourage to join the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, website address:


Mexico Society of the Sons of the American Revolution


Muchas Gracias

We are grateful for the considerable assistance provided by the officers and members of the Mexico State Society, NSDAR, as we established the Mexico Society of the SAR. The MXSDAR has chapters in Mexico City, Guadalajara, Chapala, and Baja. Please visit their Web site at

Why Did We Start an SAR Society in Mexico?

Mexico and the United States share a common heritage. Our pasts are intertwined.

The Mexico Society of the SAR was instituted on February 17, 2002, with Judge Edward F. Butler, Sr., as president. Judge Butler will also serve as the National Trustee for Mexico until the election at the next Annual Congress of the SAR in July 2002.

There are now over seventy members in the MXSSAR. Many live and work in Mexico, travel there often for business, or are retired and live all or part of the year in Mexico. Others are dual members who have strong ties to Mexico but have primary membership in another State Society.

On the same day as the MXSSAR was instituted, the members approved a petition to form our first chapter, located in Ajijic. We also hope to have chapters in Monterrey, Nuevo Laredo and Matamoros, Mexico; and in Central and South America We will form chapters wherever the members wish. The DAR has chapters in Mexico City, Guadalajara, Ajijic, and Baja, California.

We Are Seeking Mexican Nationals for Members

We hope to form a Spanish-speaking chapter, which will conduct meetings in Spanish and say a pledge to the Mexican flag. Many Mexican nationals are eligible to join the SAR because they are descended from Carlos III -- King of Spain in 1775, from General Bernardo de Gálvez, or from donors or members of the Spanish armed forces in New Spain. See the recently-established
          [starball] New Spain eligibility guidelines
for patriot ancestors and the list of
          [starball] New Spain reference materials
to help find your patriot ancestor from New Spain, developed by MXSSAR founding president Ed Butler.

What is the SAR?

The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR) is a non-profit corporation within the meaning of Sec. 501 (C) 3 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. It's home office is at 1000 So. 4th St., Louisville, KY, USA, 40203. The SAR is a patriotic society of men who can trace their ancestors back to those who fought in the American Revolutionary War or provided assistance to that cause. Sixteen of the last 24 U.S. Presidents -- including George W. Bush and George H. W. Bush -- were eligible for and joined the SAR. Extensive information about the SAR is available through
[starball] the main SAR Web site.

As an example of typical state society activities the Texas SAR annually recognizes outstanding American history teachers around the state, and sponsors Americanism essay, oration, and poster contests in our schools. It also recognizes outstanding R.O.T.C. cadets, and provides colonial uniformed color guards at schools and in parades. The SAR awards medals to outstanding members of law enforcement and fire protection communities; to everyday heroes and to outstanding civic leaders. It's veteran's program is widespread. The Texas SAR sponsors genealogical seminars to help document one's ancestry.

For further information about the Texas Society, Sons of the American Revolution, see it's Web site at

Articles by Judge Butler

Spain's Involvement in the American Revolutionary War:
[rosette] About the Author
[rosette] Part 1: Preparing for War
[rosette] Part 2: Bernardo Galvez Drives the British from the South
[rosette] Part 3: Spain's Involvement in Texas; Patriots of the American Revolution
[rosette] Bibliography for this Article
[rosette] Spain's activities in Louisiana and Florida
[rosette] Chronology of Events Surrounding Spain's Participation in the American Revolutionary War
[rosette] Bibliography; How to Find Your Hispanic Ancestor

Other Articles of Interest

[rosette] Arizona's History and how it relate to the American Revolution by Martha Beeching Jones

Mexico Society Founder -- Judge Edward Butler

Judge Edward F. Butler, Sr., is the founding President of the Mexico Society SAR and is also Chancellor General of the National Society. He is a retired U.S. Administrative Law Judge and has served as Genealogist for the Texas Society, Vice President of the Texas Society, Genealogical Editor of The Texas Compatriot (the magazine of the Texas Society), Vice President of the San Antonio Chapter, and SAR Ambassador to Mexico and Central America.





Go to home pages for the National Society SAR / Mexico Society SAR
For information about this page, contact the Page Manager
Explanations and Disclaimers
URL: /mxssar/mxssar-e.htm



SAR-TALK  Genealogy Policies/ Fall Leadership Conference


Compatriots,  On March 6, 2009, the Genealogy Committee met during the Leadership Conference, and several items were approved that Chairman Fetzer and Genealogist General Dooley would like to bring to your attention.

New SAR Genealogy Web Pages: Please go to, and see the newly revised SAR Genealogy webpages.  Drafts of these revised web pages were circulated among members of the Committee, who voted to approve these revised pages.  Hopefully, these revised pages will make clearer, and will disseminate more widely, what the SAR's policies are on various genealogical matters.
New Program: SAR Genealogy Assistants:  As you can see on the revised SAR genealogy web pages, the SAR now offers a new type of contact for potential new members: SAR Genealogy Assistants.  Unlike New Member Helpers, who in most state societies refer potential new members to a local chapter, SAR Genealogy Assistants should provide more "hands on" help for potential new members, to include collecting documentation and preparing applications.  Please see the revised website for more details.

HELP WANTED:  If you think you would like to volunteer your help as an SAR Genealogy Assistant, please read the description of an SAR Genealogy Assistant on the website, be familiar with SAR genealogy policies, and let us know so we can add your name and contact information to the list on the website.

Contact Chairman Fetzer,, and Genealogist General Dooley,, to be added to the list of SAR Genealogy Assistants.

Acceptability of DAR Applications:

As Secretary General Ed Butler has already indicated in his notice on SAR-Talk on March 14, 2009, a proposal was made to revise the current SAR policy regarding the acceptability of DAR applications as documentation for lineage or patriotic service.  The current policy provides that DAR applications may be considered only insofar as specific facts are sufficiently documented on any given DAR application.  The proposal to revise this policy would provide for DAR applications with "center check marks" to be accepted as documentation for lineage or patriotic service.  Examples were given of DAR applications with "center check marks" that were based on old DAR applications that had insufficient or no documentation.  The proposal failed, and the policy remains unchanged.

Use of DNA in the SAR Application Process:

Current policy provides that the SAR may consider DNA evidence in cases relying on the preponderance of evidence when 36 out of 37 markers on the Y-chromosome match between an applicant and a known solid-line male descendant of a known and approved patriot.  This policy has now been revised to allow for either 36 out of 37 markers, or 65 out of 67 markers.  Please see the revised website for more details.

Formation of a Joint Sub-Committee to Review Current Policy on Residents of New Spain as Qualifying Patriots:

The Genealogy Committee and the Membership Committee have formed a Joint Sub-Committee to clarify the current policy and guidelines for the acceptability of the residents of New Spain as qualifying patriot ancestors.  Tim Ward, OHSSAR President and Vice Chairman of the Membership Committee, was named Chairman of this Joint Sub-Committee.

Fraternally, Richard L. Fetzer, Chairman
NSSAR Genealogy Committee

Joseph W. Dooley
NSSAR Genealogist General





Trip to Spain May 10 - 20, 2010


      Marshall Bernardo de Gálvez
The SAR is sponsoring a trip to Spain May 10 - 20, 2010, with an optional 3 day extension that will allow you to visit Gibraltar and Tangier, Morocco. DAR, SR, Founders and Patriots, TCARA, Granaderos de Galvez, Society of 1812 and other lineage and historical groups are invited to participate. Robin and I will be leading the trip, supported by David Eld, the travel agent who put together this trip as well as the SAR 1997 trip to Spain.

Compatriots,  Please join us for a wonderful 10 day trip to Spain, May 10-20, 2010. We will visit the Cathedral in Malaga, where the church members donated the money for the second tower of the church to Gen Bernardo Galvez, for guns, ammunition, and supplies to fight the English up the Mississippi and along the Gulf Coast. There will be time for lounging on the beach along the Costa Del Sol. Savor the scenic side trips in the south of Spain to the exotic Alhambra Palace near Granada; enjoy a celebration in the small home town of Gen. Galvez; delight in the magnificent vista from Rhonda, historic Gibraltar, and an optional day trip to explore Tangier, Morocco.

In Madrid tour the Royal Palace and Armory, and hopefully have an audience with SAR member King Juan Carlos. In Madrid we will visit the incomparable Prado Museum, see El Cid’s huge sword at the Army Museum and marvel at the ship models in the Naval Museum. There will be time for a casual stroll through the magnificent Plaza Major, where you can savor some tapas. Side trips include visits to historic Toledo and stately Escorial, burial place of many Spanish kings.

Judge Ed Butler
SAR Spain Trip Coordinator


by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

(Surnames Va through Velasco)  # 18


Manuel Esteban de la Vaca. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:42.
Diego Vaez. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:32.
Francisco del Val. Alf, Mil Discip Cab de los valles de Palpa y Nasca, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXK:23.
Joaquin Valcarcel. Sgt Mayor, Veterano, Brigadier, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:5.
Juan José Valcarcel. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:86.
Mariano Valcarcel. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:51.
Pedro Nolasco Valcarcel. Ayudante Mayor, Mil Prov Discip Dragones de Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:11.
José Valcarcel y Cornejo. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:68.
Pedro Pablo Valcayo. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:54.
Tomás Valda. SubLt, Inf Real de Lima, 1796. Leg 7287:XXIV:65.
Ignacio Valderama. Cadet, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:65.
Nicolás Valderama. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:27.

Bartolomé Valdes. Capt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:22.
Faustino Valdes. Sgt, Inf del Real Asiento de Paucartambo, 1798. Leg 7286:XIX:29.
Gregorio Valdes. Lt, grad Capt, Mil Discip Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:15.
José Fulgencio Valdes. Cadet, Mil Discip de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:66.
Juan Valdes. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:63.
Juan Valdes. Capt, grad Lt Col, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:19.
Manuel Valdes. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica 1800. Leg 7288:II:42.
Teodoro Valdes. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:30.
Vicente Valdes. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:44.

José Valdivia. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:55.
Manuel Valdivia. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:11.
Manuel Valdivia. Lt de Granaderos, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:27.
Rafael Valdivia. Lt de la 6th Comp, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lamabayeque, 1795. Leg 7285:XVII:12.
Vicente Valdivia. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huamalies, 1800. Leg 7288:XVII:25.
Esteban Valdivieso. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:105.
Juan Manuel Valdivieso. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:121.
Pedro Valdivieso. Sgt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:108.

Apolinar Valencia. Lt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:24.
Juan Valencia. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:23.
Juan Valentin Gonzalez. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:9.
Tomás Valenzuela. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:12.
Agustín Valer. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:27.
Mariano José Tomás Valer. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:28.
Martín Valer Medina de Guzman. Comandante, Lt Col, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:1.
Juan Valera. Abanderado, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoya, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:4.
Miguel Valera. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:6.
Basilio Valiente. Lt, Mil Discip de Pardos y Morenos de Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIII:10.
Gabriel Valiente. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Lambayeque, 1793. Leg 7284:XXVII:19.

Bernardino Martín Valverde. Dapt, Comp Veteranas de la dotación de Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:XI:3.
Fernando Valverde. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:8.
Gabino Valverde. LSgt, Mil Discip Cab de Trujillo, Perú, 1800. Leg 7288:XXXI:27.
Narciso Valverde. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1788. Leg 7283:II:138.
Agustín Valladolid. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:17.
Antonio de Valle. Capt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:23.
Juan Evangelista Valle. Sgt, Mil Españolas de Cab de Luya y Chillaos, Prov de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:XX:12.
Tomés de Valle. Lt de la 5th Comp, Mil Discip de Cab, prov de Cañete, 1797. Leg 7287:VI:14.
Vicente Valle. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Ica, 1795. Leg 7287:XV:23.
Joaquin Vicente Vallejos. Sgt, 1st, Veterano, Mil Discip de Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:64.
Valerio Vardales y Herrera. Capt de la 8th Comp, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:5.
Felipe Antonio Varela. Lt, Comp sueltas Mil Discip Inf de Ica, 1800. Leg 7288:XIX:8.

Tomás Varga. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:21.
Ambrosio Vargas. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:4.
Diego Vargas. Sgt, Mil Discip Cab de Camaná, 1798. Leg 7286:XIV:32.
Eugenio Vargas. Sgt, 1st of Fusileros, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:IV:29.
Félix Vargas. Lt, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:18.
Francisco Javier Vargas. Sgt, Comp Veteranos de la Dotación de Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:XI:10.
Jacinto Vargas. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Arica, 1800. Leg 7288:II:34.
José de Vargas. Col, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:1.
José Antonio Vargas. SubLt, Momp Sueltas Inf, Partido de Calbuco, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:V:7.
Juan José Vargas. Lt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:48.
Juan Ventura Vargas. Lt, Comp sueltas Inf, Partido de Calbuco, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:V:5.
Julián Vargas. Capt, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Cuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:XVII:43.
Justo Vargas. Cadet, Escuadrón Mil Discip de Cab de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:X:11.
Justo Vargas. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:97.
Lareano Vargas. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:69.
Luis Vargas. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:37.
Manuel Vargas. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:33.
Mariano Vargas. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas de Dragones de Quispicanchi, Cuzco, 1798:, Leg 7286:XX:28.
Miguel Vargas. Sgt, Mil Dragones Prov de las Fronteras de Tarma, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIX:47.
Miguel Vargas. Lt, Mil prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:40.
Nicolás de Vargas. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de San Antonio de Cajamarca, 1797. Leg 7287:III:27.
Pedro José Vargas. Sgt 1st de Granaderos, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:52.
Ramón Vargas. Capt de Granaderos Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:18.
Antonio Vargas Machuca. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Calca, 1797. Leg 7287:V:23.
Fernando Vargas Machuca. Sgt, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:38.
José Vargas Machuca. SubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793. Leg 7284:II:28.
Miguel Vargas Machuca. SubLt Bn de Mil Prov Discip inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXV:22.
Manuel José de Vascones. Capt Comandante, Escuadrón de Cab Mil Urbanas de los territorios de Huancabamba y Chalaco, Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXVI:1.

Agustín Vasquez. SubLt de Bandera, Mil Discip de Inf de Cuzco, 1800. Leg 7286:XXIV:32.
Alfonso Vasquez. Lt Col, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Carabayllo, 1800. Leg 7288:IV:6.
Antonio Vazquez. Cadet, Inf Real de Lima, 1794. Leg 7285:IX:122.
Antonio Vazquez. Sgt, Mil Urbanas de Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:34.
Bernardino Vazquez. Sgt, Mil Discip Dragones de Querocotillo, Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXIII:22.
Joaquin Vazquez. Alf, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:28.
José Vazquez. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:36.
Lorenzo Vazquez. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Castro, Chiloe, 1800. Leg 7288:IX:61.
Luis Vazquez. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragoes de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:47.
Manuel Vazquez. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:25.
Narciso Vazquez Caicedo. Lt, Mil Urbanas Inf Moyobamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXIX:12.
Pedro Ignacio Vazquez Caicedo. SubLt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moy9bamba, 1797, Leg 7287:XXIX:21.
Pedro María Vazquez Caicedo. Capt, Mil Urbanas inf Moyobamba, 1797l Leg 7287:XXIX:4.
José Vazquez Franco de la Parra. Col, Mil Discip Prov Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:2.
José Vazquez de Novoa. Portaestandarte, Mil Discip Cab de Huaura, 1797. Leg 7287:XIX:18.
Mariano Vazquez de Ocaña. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Chota, 1797. Leg 7287:XIII:23.
Pedro Vazquez de Velasco. Alf, Mil Discip Dragones de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIV:52.

Antonio de la Vega. Capt, Mil Españolas Cab de Luya y Chillaos, prov de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:XX:3.
Francisco de la Vega. Lt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1793, Leg 7284:II:16.
Gaspar de la Vega. Lt, Mil Discip Cab Trujillo, Perú, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVI:11.
Isidro Vega. SubLt, Bn Mil Urbanas Inf de Andahuaylas, 1799. Leg 7286:XXII:19.
Juan Manuel Vega. Capt, Mil Prov Discip Cab de Zuzco, 1792. Leg 7284:XVII:44.
Manuel Vega. Cadet, Mil Prov Urbanas Cab de Huanta, 1794. Leg 7285:III:43.
Simón de la Vega. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Abancay, 1792. Leg 7284:II:35.
Tadeo Vega. Portoguión, Mil Prov Urbanas Dragones de Palma, Partido de Jauja, 1800. Leg 7288:XXI:21.
Félix de la Vega y Caceres. Capt, Mil Inf Española de San Juan de la Frontera de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:VI:11.
Conde de la Vega del Rhin. Cadet, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:63.
Juan Vegu. Sgt 1st de la 6th Comp, Mil Española Cab de Luya y Chillaos, Prov de Chachapoyas, 1792. Leg 7284:XX:15.
Diego Vela. Lt, Mil Provinciales Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:20.
José Antonio Vela. Sgt, Comp Mil Discip Pardos Cab del Regimiento de Ferreñafe, 1797. Leg 7287:XV:6.
Leonardo de Vela. LSLubLt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:38.
José Ildefonso Velando. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:58.

Agustín Velarde. Lt, Mil Prov lDiscip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:39.
Antonio Velarde. Sgt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Huanta, 1800. Leg 7288:XVIII:59.
Bernardo Velarde. Cadet, Inf, Real de Lima, 1794. Leg 7285:IX:117.
Gabriel Velarde. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Lambayeque, 1797. Leg 7287:XXII:35.
Ignacio Antonio Velarde. Cadet, Mil Urbanas Inf Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:40.
Jerónimo Velarde. Capt, Mil Prov Urbanas Inf de Urubamba, 1797. Leg 7287:XXXVIII:8.
José Velarde. Lt, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:35.
Manuel Velarde. Cadet, Mil Prov Discip de Inf de Lambayeque, 1795. Leg 7285:XVII:37.
Mateo Velarde. Capt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1797. Leg 7287:VIII:7.
Pedro Velarde. LSgt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Caraveli, 1796. Leg 7287:VIII:35.
Nicolás Velarde y Emagaray. Capt, Mil Urbanas Inf de Moquegua, 1797. Leg 7287:XXVI:6.
Francisco Velarde y Neira. Sgt 1st de Carabineros, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Arequipa, 1797. Leg 7287:II:58.
Juan Antonio Velarde y Neira. SubLt, Mil Prov Discip Inf de Arequipa, 1800. Leg 7288:I:49.

Antonio Velasco. Lt, Bn Prov Mil Discip Inf Española de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXIII:36.
Fernando Antonio Velasco. Alf, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:22.
Fernando Mariano de Velasco. Alf, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:18.
Francisco Velasco. SubLt de Bandera, Inf Real de Lima, 1800. Leg 7288:XXII:71.
Gregorio Velasco. Sgt, Escuadrón Cab Mil Urbanas de los territorios de Huancabamba y Chalaco, Piura, 1800. Leg 7286:XXVI:8.
Mariano Velasco. Sgt, Mil Prov Discip de Cab de Cuzco, 1797. Leg 7287:X:33.
Pedro Velasco. SubLt, Bn Mil Prov Discip de Inf de San Miguel de Piura, 1795. Leg 7285:XXI:25.
Vicencio Velasco y Rodriquez. Alf, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones de Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:40.
Patricio Velasco y Zuñiga. LSgt, Mil Prov Discip de Dragones del Valle de Majes, 1797. Leg 7287:XXV:40.

(to be continued)




By Felipe de Ortego y Gasca

Scholar in Residence/Chair, Department of Chicana/Chicano & Hemispheric Studies, Western New Mexico University; Professor Emeritus, Texas State University System—
Sul Ross

[The Historian and the Lion--Number 9 in a series on La Leyenda Negra]  



An old African proverb avers that the history of the hunt will always favor the hunter until lions have their own historians. What gave impetus to the necessity for American Hispanics to have their own historians was the emergence of the Chicano Movement in 1960, sparked by the solicitation of their votes by the election campaign of John F. Kennedy. This was the year Bert Corona, the legendary California activist, and others founded the Mexican American Political Association (MAPA). In 1961, the Political Association of Spanish-Speaking Organizations (PASSO) was formed in Texas. The first fruits of Chicano politics in California elected Edward Roybal from Los Angeles to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1962. That same year, Cesar Chavez organized the National Farmworkers Association in California.  

The following year (1963) Mexican Americans achieved a singular success in Crystal City, Texas, when they captured the city government. And in New Mexico, the Alianza Federal de Mercedes was founded by Reies Lopez Tijerina, a firebrand who sparked a rise in Mexican American militancy advocating for restitution of land grants in New Mexico. By 1964 Mexican American activists like Jose Angel Gutierrez, Corky Gonzalez, and Willie Velasquez were laying the groundwork for La Raza Unida political party which in 1972 fielded candidates with astonishing success throughout the Hispanic Southwest. From 1962 to 1966 Command Central for raza activism in South Texas was Texas A&I University in Kingsville, Texas, where Jose Angel Gutierrez and Carlos Guerra were undergraduate students. Their efforts were all directed toward counteracting the effects of the Black Legend and the discrimination it had spawned.  

The flashpoint of Mexican American militancy came in 1965 when Cesar Chavez called for a strike against the Delano, California, grape growers with the cry of “Ya Basta!—Enough is Enough!” By 1966 Mexican American activists had become Chicanos—transmogrifying a pejorative term into a self-identifying term of pride. In 1967 President Johnson convened a Mexican American Summit in El Paso, Texas, to take up the concerns of Mexican Americans (see Philip D. Ortego (Felipe de Ortego y Gasca), “The Minority on the Border: Cabinet Meeting in El Paso,” The Nation, December 11, 1967).  

In 1969 in response to a directive by the U.S. Department of Justice to desegregate its schools, the Dallas Independent School District re-labeled Mexican American students as white (removing them from the “other” category they had been historically counted as) and mixed them with African American students in a ploy of compliance. The Justice Department rebuked the school district’s actions. The Census count of 1970 revealed little progress in the education of Mexican Americans. In 1960 Mexican Americans had attained an average of 3.5 years of schooling; in 1970 that average had increased to 4.8 years (see Philip D. Ortego (Felipe de Ortego y Gasca, “Montezuma’s Children,” The Center Magazine, Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, November/December 1970).  

In 1967 there occurred an event of extraordinary magnitude: El Grito: Journal of Mexican American Thought was published by a cohort of Mexican Americans at Berkeley, California, almost all of them

students with the exception of Octavio Romano who was a professor of anthropology and who was listed simply as an associate editor for the first two issues though the project was his brainchild. In concert, Romano and the students formed Quinto Sol Publications Inc. in a tiny office above a candy story in Berkeley with barely enough money to get the venture off the ground (“Quinto Sol Publications: Magazines Give La Raza New Voice,” The Denver Post, May 1971). The vision of the Quinto Sol founders was articulated in an editorial of the first issue of El Grito establishing the tone and direction of the Chicano Renaissance.  

I was fortunate to have been part of that first wave of Quinto Sol writers with a number of works in the first and subsequent volumes of El Grito. Though the editorial is a bit long, it bears examination in its entirety.           

Contrary to the general pattern of ethnic minorities in the history of the United States, Mexican Americans have retained their distinct identity and have refused to disappear in The Great American Melting Pot. Not having the good graces to quietly disappear, we have then compounded our guilt in America’s eyes by committing the additional sin of being glaringly poor in the midst of this affluent, abundant, and over-developed society.

    In response to this embarrassing situation, American ingenuity has risen to the occasion and produced an ideological rhetoric that serves to neatly explain away both the oppressive and exploitative factors maintaining Mexican Americans in their economically impoverished condition, and Mexican Americans’ refusal to enthusiastically embrace The American Way of Life with its various trappings. Although recitations of this rhetoric vary in emphasis and degree of sophistication, the essential message is the same: Mexican-Americans are simple-minded but loveable and colorful children who because of their rustic naiveté, limited mentality, and inferior backward “traditional culture,” choose poverty and isolation instead of assimilating into the American mainstream and accepting its material riches and superior culture.

    Formulated and propagated by those intellectual mercenaries of our age, the social scientists, this rhetoric has been professionally certified and institutionally sanctified to the point where today it holds wide public acceptance, and serves as the ideological premise of every black, white, and brown missionary’s concept  and policy towards Mexican Americans. Yet this great rhetorical structure is a grand hoax, a blatant lie—a lie that must be stripped of its esoteric and sanctified verbal garb and have its intellectually spurious and vicious character exposed to full view.

    Only Mexican Americans themselves can accomplish the collapse of this and other such rhetorical structures by the exposure of their fallacious nature and the development of intellectual alternatives. El Grito has been founded for just this purpose—to provide a forum for Mexican American self definition and expression on this and other issue of relevance to Mexican Americans in American society today.


This editorial was the manifesto of the “The Chicano Renaissance”—to tear down the spurious defamations, distortions, slanders, libels and stereotypes of American Hispanics by providing American Hispanics with alternatives like El Grito where they could read the truths about themselves. Surfeited with the plethora of writings about them, writings which depicted them in a variety of literary contexts resorting to the most blatant stereotypes and racial clichés, publication of El Grito sparked a wave of Hispanic publications determined to confront and offset the effects of the Black Legend. These publications gave voice to the realities of Hispanic life and culture.  

Because the images of Hispanics in American life were hard to put aside, Hispanic writers who sought in print to break the long-standing and readily accepted stereotypes about American Hispanics found little or no favor with magazine editors (See Cecil Robinson, With the Ears of Strangers: The Mexican in American Literature, University of Arizona Press, 1963). El Grito became to the Chicano Renaissance what Partisan Review, for example, became to the New Criticism. As the lion in the old African proverb, Chicanos now had their own historians. This has not, unfortunately, ended the spurious defamations, distortions, slanders, libels, and stereotypes of American Hispanics engendered by the Black Legend.  

 During the 60’s some Hispanic writers managed to find literary outlets, but at the expense of their art as Hispanics. Like the market for black literary works, the market for Hispanic literary works was limited to those who wrote what most editors  expected; and what most editors of mainstreet presses  expected was the image of Hispanics (especially Mexican Americans) as indolent, passive, and humble who lived for fiestas and mañana. In 1968 an editor of a high school multi-ethnic text approached me for a story about Mexican Americans. I sent him “Chicago Blues,” a story about a Mexican American musician in Chicago. The story had won a European competition judged by Richard Wright. He rejected the story directing me to a ninth-grade reader in which J. Frank Dobie’s popular story “The Squaw Man” appeared, explaining that would provide me with an idea of the kind of material he was seeking for the multi-ethnic text. He was, of course, looking for the “queer,” the “curious,” and the “quaint” kind of “folksy” story most editors then had come to expect about Mexican Americans (Felipe de Ortego y Gasca/Philip D. Ortego, Background of Mexican American Literature, University of New Mexico 1971, 206).  

In 1970 I sent a piece on “Chicano Poetry: Roots and Writers” to Richard Ohman, editor of College English, who sent it back to me with a note that he didn’t think the readers of College English would be much interested in the piece. The essay was later published in New Voices in American Literature edited by Edward Simmen (Pan American University, 1971) and reprinted in Southwestern American Literature (Spring 1972). These were the obstacles many Hispanic scholars encountered in those days (see Felipe de Ortego y Gasca/Philip D. Ortego, “Huevos con Chorizo: A Letter to Richard Ohman,” personal correspondence, Felipe de Ortego y Gasca archives, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas at Austin).  

Owing to the Black Legend, it is still difficult for mainstream America to accept American Hispanics as Americans and that American Hispanics are a bilingual, bicultural, and binational people. The vibrant language of American Hispanics is ridiculed as “Spanglish” (poor Spanish and poor English), of little worth, reflecting the “mongrel” roots of their origins. Today’s Hispanic Renaissance is but the manifestation of a people’s coming of age which has been long overdue. Like Milton’s unsightly root.



History Channel Seeking Hispanic Veterans with Tatoos
Filipinos who fought for the US during WW II to receive checks
Government Resources and Military Tax Breaks


Join Us! Visit Our Website:

The ‘History Channel – Seeking Hispanic – American Veterans & Active Duty Warriors’ request is sent to us by Ms. Sandra Alvarez, Producer of the History Channels “Marked.” She is in the process of identifying our Veterans and Warriors with Tattoos that have military meaning and why particular tattoos were chosen. 

As most of you already know, the History Channel is part of the A&E Network and are heavily involved with Hispanic contributions. Please read her request below carefully as she is requesting contacts in the Southern California and New York City areas.

It was General Huelswede “El Sueco” that had her contact us so that we could assist her in this endeavor.

In particular, those of you that live or have close ties to family and friends in those areas, please have them contact her. Sandra’s contact information is listed below and the attachment gives a detailed explanation of the History Channel needs.

Jess Quintero, HWVA Secretary
Wireless, 202-439-8028

-----Original Message-----
From: Sandra [] 
Sent: Tuesday, March 17, 2009 7:20 PM
Subject: History Channel- seeking Hispanic-Americans

Dear Mr. Quintero,

It was so nice to speak with you!!! As I mentioned, I am a producer in New York City (NYC), and am working on a new series for the History Channel entitled, MARKED. Each episode of MARKED explores a different world of tattoos. We are currently working on an episode all about military tattoos. 

I am contacting you directly, because I want to make sure that Hispanic-American military personnel (active or veterans) are represented in our show. We are looking for personable individuals with compelling military-related stories, told through the imagery of their tattoos. Participation will include an interview about the tattoo/s.

In this episode, we plan to travel inside the minds of soldiers as they explain what the symbols decorating their bodies mean, how they relate to their branch of the military and discover their personal significance. We are interested in giving the viewer a unique understanding of the members’ dedication to their group and the values and ideologies they espouse. 

We will be in Southern California on March 24-26, and we would love to meet with anyone who is interested in participating. We are also searching for anyone on the east coast, about a 5-6 hour drive from NYC. 

If you know anyone who may be interested, please send them my way! Please have them send me their contact information, and a photograph of themselves and their tattoos.  Should you have any questions please don't hesitate to give me a call.

Thanks for your help! 
Sandra Alvarez, 
History Channel’ Marked”


Filipinos who fought for the US during WW II to receive checks

This on Feb. 23, 2009- CNN

By Josh Levs 
(CNN) -- More than 60 years after reneging on a promise to the hundreds of thousands of Filipinos who fought for the United States during World War II, the U.S. government will soon be sending out checks -- to the few who are still alive.

Veteran Franco Arcebal says, "we are loyal to the United States, except that the United States has forgotten us." "For a poor man like me, $15,000 is a lot of money," said 91-year-old Celestino Almeda.  Still, he said, "After what we have suffered, what we have contributed for the sake of democracy, it's peanuts. It's a drop in the bucket."

During the war, the Philippines was a U.S. commonwealth. The U.S. military promised full veterans benefits to Filipinos who volunteered to fight. More than 250,000 joined.
Then, in 1946, President Truman signed the Rescission Act, taking that promise away.

Today, only about about 15,000 of those troops are still alive, according to the American Coalition for Filipino Veterans. A provision tucked inside the stimulus bill that President Obama signed calls for releasing $198 million that was appropriated last year for those veterans. Those who have become U.S. citizens get $15,000 each; non-citizens get $9,000.

"I'm very thankful," said Patrick Ganio, 88, the coalition's president. "We Filipinos are a grateful people."

Ganio was among the tens of thousands of Filipinos at the infamous battle of Bataan, a peninsula on Manila Bay opposite the Philippine capital. He was captured and beaten by Japanese troops before ultimately being freed, suffering from malaria and then resuming his service to the U.S. military.

"The record of the Philippine soldiers for bravery and loyalty is second to none," Truman wrote to the leaders of the House and Senate in 1946. "Their assignment was as bloody and difficult as any in which our American soldiers engaged. Under desperate circumstances they acquitted themselves nobly."

Though Truman said the Rescission Act resulted in "discrimination," he signed it.
"There can be no question but that the Philippine veteran is entitled to benefits bearing a reasonable relation to those received by the America veteran, with whom he fought side by side," he said. "From a practical point of view, however, it must be acknowledged that certain benefits granted by the GI bill of rights cannot be applied in the case of the Philippine veteran."

Some historians say financial concerns were paramount: The cost of funding full veterans benefits to all those Filipinos, particularly in the wake of the costly war, would have been a heavy burden.

The National Alliance for Filipino Veterans Equity offers a different explanation. "In 1946, discrimination against people of color was the rule of law," the group says in a document it submitted to the Obama-Biden transition team in November.

"The second-class treatment of Filipino World War II veterans is another example from this historical period."

For decades, Filipino activists and their supporters have fought for the full benefits. They've petitioned and picketed. Almeda, a widower who now lives in Virginia with his daughter, once chained himself to the fence outside the White House. 

"I was fined $50 for civil disobedience and was arrested," he says now, chuckling. He says he was just looking for answers.  Despite encouraging words from U.S. presidents, including George W. Bush and Bill Clinton, the benefits were never restored.

"Only 70,000 Philippine veterans remain alive, and they hope to stay alive long enough to see those benefits reinstated," CNN reported in 1997. "There's a bill, stuck in committee in Congress, that would do just that."

That effort, just like so many before, fell apart.  "We were loyal to the United States. Even up to now, we are loyal to the United States, except that the United States has forgotten us in many ways," said Franco Arcebal, another leader of the American Coalition for Filipino Veterans. "It's only now, because of the insistence of Sen. [Daniel] Inouye in the Senate, he was able to act on this."

Inouye, D-Hawaii, inserted the language in the stimulus bill, calling it "a matter of honor."

The honor comes too late for the many Filipino veterans who passed away waiting for this moment. Families of deceased veterans are not eligible to receive the money.
For those who are alive, the checks could make a real difference.

"Practically all of us are below the poverty line now at this age. We have no way of earning a living," Arcebal said.

But, he emphasized, "it does not correct the injustice and discrimination done to us 60 years ago. ... We were not granted school benefits. We were not granted hospital benefits. ... And in the 60 years, several billion dollars were saved by the U.S. government for not paying 250,000 of us.

"Now we are only 15,000. And the amount that they're giving us is a small amount. But we appreciate that. Because it will finally recognize our services ... as active service in the armed forces of the United States."    ###

Sent by Gus Chavez & Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Co-Founders, Defend the Honor 


Government Resources and Military Tax Breaks


My Dear Friends, Please help us put out the word to our Latino families that have their loves one serving in our Military.  This is great news for our Active Service members and the spouses of our Fallen Heroes. Remember even if they fail to claim this in this year IRS tax return, they can still amend their IRS within the next three years.

This goes along with the Military tax break and help when our active duty members and the spouse of our Fallen Heroes have to sell their homes.





Wednesday, March 10, 1993 * EXCELSIOR *

Volviendo a Nuestras Raices heraldica



The 13th most popular name among modem Hispanics, Gomez has its base in a Gothic word "goma" meaning man. The surname originated in the mountains of Burgos, spread to Navarre and Castile, and from there throughout Spain and its former colonies.

Two of the earliest first settler in Nueva Espana were Gomez men with Gomez on both their paternal and maternal sides. Pierrez Gomez, son of Pierrez Gomez and Catalina Gomez arrived in Santo Domingo in 1505 from Flanders. Gonzalo Gomez, 12 year old, son of merchant Juan Gomez and Beatriz Gomez arrived in the Indies in 1510.

GOMEZ is frequently found in combination with other surnames, place names in particular. In 1518-1519, we find a Rodrigo Gomez de Avila, don Pedro Gomez de Caceres, Juan Gomez de Hen-era, Hemando Gomez de Jerez, Ines Gomez de Paz, Gonzalo Gomez Saavedra. By the late 1500's a Francisco Gomez Medina and brothers Domingo and Manuel Gomez Navarro were in Nueva Espana. In the 1700's numerous prominent combined Gomez names are found in the Nuevo Leon area. Many Gomez Castros held important positions in Nuevo Leon. Antonio Gomez Castros (died 1740) and Juan Jose Gomez de Castro (died 1781) both served as deputy governor, local magistrate and judge in Cerralvo. Bias Jose Gomez de Castro in Linares and Jose Vicente de Castro in Vallecillo served in the same capacity.

Another distinguished combined Gomez name, is Antonio Ramon Gomez de Canalizo y Buenvecino, bom in Veracruz in 1739. Antonio Ramon received a Doctoral degree in philosophy, 22 February 1769. Ramon taught and eventually served as lawyer to the Real Audiencia, supreme court or tribunal of the colonial Americas. Considered court of last resort, the court served as a representative of the king. Decisions were final and only the King could reverse them.

Jose Luis GOMEZ, an Irvine resident traces his lines back to 1795 in Nuevo Leon, to JUAN Jose GOMEZ and Maria Gertrudis Garcia. The family were ranchers in the Cerralvo area. Descendants of Juan Jose and Maria Gertrudis still live on the original property, "Rancho Los Gomez."

Jose Luis Gomez's grandparents were Espectacion GOMEZ Garcia married to Juana Rios Garcia. Espectacion purchased and raised his family on "Rancho Loma Blanca" in Nuevo Leon.

In 1949, at the age of 23, Jose Luis' father, Jose Gomez left the family ranch. Working as a field worker, Jose traveled from Arkansas, to Mississippi, Lousiana, and then Texas, where he met and married Aurora Leal of Raymonville, Texas in 1954. Soon after they moved and settled in Fresno, California. Jose Gomez got a job working in the fields, but slowly, worked himself up, from field labor, to carpentry, to construction contractor.

Jose Luis Gomez, one of 3 sons and one daughter remembers well picking grapes as a youth in Fresno. "My Dad used to say. If you like this work, Hijo, fine. You don't have to worry about school. You can do this for the rest of your life." Jose Luis said that the intent of the statement was not lost on him. Even though his family roots were in ranching, family respect for education was always in evidence.

Jose Luis received a Bachelors in math and computer sciences from UCLA and a Masters in Business Administration in 1991 from UCI. "A special memory that I have is my Father's joy in getting his High School equivalency degree, his GED at the age of 45. We were both going to school at the same time. Seeing him set the example, working hard during the day and then studying at night, made my studying easier. His pride in me gave me positive reinforcement."

"My ancestors were hardworking and industrious. I wonder how they managed the harshness of the ranches," Jose Luis stated. "Doing my family research has taught me much about people. I've learned compassion by encountering the tragedies of my ancestors and their families. My trips to Mexico are therapy. When the family is together they spend 80% of their time laughing and talking."

Jose Luis said his interest in family research was stimulated when he and his wife first started their family. "I wondered about all those little cells multiplying, little genes, where they came from, and what they carried. Now I know what the genes have embedded, a long, distinguished and rich culture."

Other surnames on this line are Garcia, Martinez, Rios, Perez, Ochoa, Rodriguez.

Compiled by Mimi Lozano, (c) 1993, member of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research.




What an Honor by Mimi Lozano
Somos Primas by Wanda Garcia



I could hardly believe the news. I had received an email from Orlando Lozano, a first cousin who lives in San Antonio.  He said he had been contacted by a Garcia cousin, who said they were related through Dr. Cleotilde Garcia, sister of Dr. Hector P. Garcia.  I reasoned that if Orlando was related to Dr. Cleotilde, than he was related to Dr. Hector (as Wanda Garcia calls her dad).  

If Orlando and I are cousins, sharing a Lozano grandfather and Garcia grandmother, then I too must be related to Dr. Hector.  I was so delighted, proud, pleased, excited.  Dr. Hector  is one of my heroes. He sacrificed his entire adult life, fighting for the rights of all people, but thankfully targeted the needs of Mexican Americans, because no one was speaking up for Mexican-Americans.   

I quickly sent Orlando's email to a couple of Tejano SHHAR Board members, and then called Orlando to get as much information as I could.  

However,  I was greatly disappointed to find out that the connection was not on the Garcia line that Orlando and I share, but on another Garcia line.

I was very disappointed. To have a blood connection with a man of such strength of character, dedication and sacrifice awed me, to find that I did not, sadden me. 

However, dear Crispin Rendon, our amazing computer whiz, sent me a little message:

Hello Mimi,

Here are three way you are related:

Dr. Hector P. GARCIA and Mimi LOZANO are 8th cousins.  Their common ancestors are Jose MARTINEZ GUAJARDO and Nicolasa GARZA.

Dr. Hector P. GARCIA and Mimi LOZANO are 9th cousins.  Their common ancestors are Pedro FLORES VALDES and Melchora ABREGO.

Dr. Hector P. GARCIA and Mimi LOZANO are 9th cousins.  Their common ancestors are Capitan Blas GARZA FALCON and Beatriz GONZALEZ HIDALGO.

Wow . .   was that great news.  Thanks to genealogists and historians our family lines are being compiled and shared, and I found I had many family connections to the great Dr. Hector P. Garcia.   

Dr. Hector's daughter, Daisy Wanda Garcia and I met by phone in 2006 and had been communicating back and forth, ever since.   I sent her the wonderful news that we were primas, and we rejoiced that beyond being the friends that we had become, we were actually related!!

Last month Wanda and I had the fun of spending a day together.  I went to San Antonio to participate in the 112th annual George Washington Celebration as a member of the Texas Connection to the American Revolution.  Wanda gave me a taste of the German influences in San Antonio.

Mimi Lozano on the left & Wanda Garcia on the right

There is certainly something about the familiarity of blood connections.  Being with Wanda, I felt like I was con familia . .  warm and comfortable.   Mimi




When I got the news from Mimi Lozano that we were related through the Garcia line, I must admit I was not surprised. I was on vacation in Rockport , TX when I received the email. I was so excited about the news that I talked non-stop to the Inn clerk about my newfound relative. 

Mimi and I met in person in 2007 when Rick Leal (President of the Hispanic Medal of Honor Society), Jack Cowan (Texas Connection to the American Revolution) and accompanied me to the Texas State Capitol to meet with Texas Representatives in support of  identifying  a day on the state calendar recognizing Dr. Hector P. Garcia.  Mimi Lozano encouraged me to write articles about my father and eventually publish a book.  We have been collaborating about my articles since 2006, and on January 2007, my first article appeared in Somos Primos.

The confirmation of a familial relationship through the Garcia line explains many things to me.  We share the same interests, history, genealogy and a commitment to advancing the Hispanic cause - interests that run in the Garcia family.  I admire Mimi’s commitment to public service and her strong work ethic, which is another familial trait.

Two weeks after the “revelation”, Mimi traveled to Texas .  I picked her up in Schertz , TX , and we spent the day in historic Gruene , TX .   We had this time to visit and bond and do what we enjoy most immersing us in history. 

Sadly, the day ended quickly.  Though we were together just a short period, I felt we had known each other for a lifetime.





April 18: Family History Fair 2009. A New Era 
Networking in Orange County
April 4th: Mexican American Heritage & Cultural Center of Orange County
Tiny Latino neighborhood has resisted joining Anaheim
Fists of Steel

Family History Fair 2009 
With Special Focus on the New Family Search Features
Saturday April 18, 2009
8 AM to 5 PM
free, everyone welcomed

Orange Multi-Regional Family History Center
674 S. Yorba St.
Orange, CA

Spanish Research Track

Session I: 10 am
(in English) by Mike Brady
Session II:  11:20 - 12-20
by Mike Brady

By Mimi Lozano Holtzman

Session III  1:20 - 2:20
(bilingual) By Mimi Lozano
Session IV 
(bilingual) by Viola Sadler
Session V
(Bilingual) by Viola Sadler 

Full schedule of workshops: 
More Information:  714-997-7710


Networking in Orange County 

Ruben Alvarez:  Emerging Markets Network:
Nellie Kaniski:  Social issues:

Santa Ana Historical Preservation Society
Maintained by Chris Jepsen, works at the OC Archives, is a board member  of the OC Historical Society.  His blog has lots of great local history, photos, and current historical happenings.


Newly Formed Organization 
Mexican American Heritage and Cultural Center of Orange County 


Mission Statement: 
The Mexican American Heritage and Cultural Center is dedicated to preserve, promote, and celebrate Mexican American heritage and culture in Orange County , California , 
through education and the arts. 

The fourth and final session of "Strategic Planning" for the Mexican American Heritage and Cultural Center is scheduled for Saturday, April 4, 2009 at 1 p.m. at the Anaheim's Downtown Community Center. Discussion at the meeting will be the organization's goals and objectives as they adhere to the organization's vision, values and mission. All parties interested in becoming involved in this monumental venture are encouraged to attend. The meeting's final objective will be the nomination and placement of the organization's first Board of Directors. The goal here is to have Directors that are representative of the community's diverse interests. 

Tiny Latino neighborhood has resisted joining Anaheim  


Colonia Independencia

Email Picture  

Christina House / For The Times

Ray Ontiveros, a third-generation La Colonia resident who owns several homes in the community, talks with neighbors. He supports annexation because he thinks Anaheim can better deal with local problems. “It’s like the Wild West here,” he said.

Orange County's unincorporated Colonia Independencia rejected annexation in 2005, but some residents think cityhood would fix blight and gang violence. Anaheim offers to accept properties one by one.

By Tony Barboza
March 6, 2009

Even at 10 miles from the sea, they live on an island. Their mailing addresses say Anaheim, but for generations the families of Colonia Independencia have lived in a municipal no man's land, a barrio settled long ago by the migrants who worked Orange County's farmland.

Now, the roughly 200 families in the generations-old Latino immigrant neighborhood are being urged -- pressured, some say -- to become a part of one of the state's largest cities.

It's not a simple question in a place where residents have invested so much. They have poured the cement for the neighborhood's basketball court, planted the grass in the park, operated their own water district and gathered as their children were baptized and married at the Misión del Sagrado Corazón, the neighborhood's 83-year-old Catholic church.

Yet in the eyes of some, the three-block neighborhood of simple wood and stucco houses sitting on large lots is feeling its age and could use a helping hand.

Paint peels from abandoned houses that have stood empty for years. Makeshift plumbing and rickety storage sheds have popped up in the absence of steady code enforcement. Nearly every night, teenagers throw trash over backyard fences at the sheriff's cruisers patrolling for gang activity.

Southern California is peppered with neighborhoods that have resisted being pushed into cityhood, from historic barrios to planned subdivisions -- holdouts such as tiny Rossmoor along the Los Angeles-Orange County line and Hacienda Heights in the San Gabriel Valley.

But the debate in Colonia Independencia runs deep. Some worry that the neighborhood's character and sense of independence will wither if it throws in with Anaheim; others think becoming part of Anaheim is the only way to root out gang violence and blight.

La Colonia, as residents call the neighborhood, is tucked into a 500-acre unincorporated swath known as the Southwest Island, surrounded by Anaheim, Garden Grove and Stanton. Residents, used to relying on strained county government for basic services such as street sweeping and policing, have been warned for years that county officials are eager to get such outposts off their hands and dump the expenses on local cities.

Residents of La Colonia rejected annexation in 2005. Government officials have changed tacks, now going after residents house by house and urging them to agree to become part of Anaheim.

To officials in Anaheim, taking on the neighborhood is simply the right thing to do: It would consolidate the city with surrounding communities, give residents more reliable services and provide the expanded voting rights and steadier hand of a city government.

"It's inevitable that all that area will be part of a city," Anaheim Mayor Curt Pringle said. "It's not going to be some island forever."

The specter of city-hood has stoked fear and suspicion in La Colonia. Adopting the mostly residential area would cost the city more than the tax money it would gain, and many residents wonder why Anaheim even wants them.

Neighborhood skeptics fear that if residents give in, Anaheim will raze their neighborhood for redevelopment and transportation improvements, including the current widening of nearby Katella Avenue.

Liz Sepeda, 66, who has lived in the neighborhood since she was 19, worries that becoming part of Anaheim would make it easier for the government to drive out property owners, one home at a time.

"You can give me $800 million, but I'm never leaving," she said.

The people of La Colonia are mostly descendants of Mexican farmhands and construction workers who built their homes next to citrus groves in the 1920s and '30s. Every year, they hold community reunions to leaf through old photo albums and recall the days when pastimes included cheering on Mexican American baseball teams such as the Sunkist Guadalupanos.

Back then, dozens of barrios sprouted outside city limits along Southern California's train tracks, giving migrant workers easy access to jobs and transportation. Many were displaced by tract homes, but La Colonia remains.

As they put down roots, residents had to take care of the community themselves, fighting for sidewalks, streetlights and a community center in the old schoolhouse.

"We're like a stepchild to the county," said Alice Conatser, 52, who has not made up her mind on annexation. "We do what we want, and nobody tells us what to do."

In 2005, more than half of the registered voters in the Southwest Island signed a petition defeating an annexation attempt. But last October, the county returned. In a letter that began, "Dear Island resident," Orange County Supervisor Chris Norby asked each property owner to "take another look" at the advantages of incorporation, which include better tax revenues from tourism.

Under the new plan, city-adjacent property owners could individually apply to join Anaheim. In exchange, the Orange County Local Agency Formation Commission would waive the normal $7,200 fee, and Anaheim would absorb some of the other costs.

At a community meeting last month, Carolyn Emery, senior project manager for the boundary agency, said new Anaheim residents would see few changes other than more frequent street cleaning and the protection of Anaheim police officers instead of sheriff's deputies.

Anaheim, she said, is willing to sweep streets for as few as five homes, should they choose to join the city.

Since the fall, the agency has received more than 90 applications from Southwest Island property owners, but only four are from La Colonia.

Fueling the debate, the Assn. of Orange County Deputy Sheriffs mailed out fliers opposing annexation because it reduces their patrol area. The group has opposed such incorporation moves in the county in the past.

Ray Ontiveros, 51, a third-generation La Colonia resident who owns several homes in the community, supports annexation because he thinks Anaheim can better deal with the local gang problems and crack down on unapproved construction projects, unlicensed catering-truck businesses and deteriorating homes.

"It's like the Wild West here," Ontiveros said. "Anyone can build a house here without permit. It's been going on for years."

Others worry that piecemeal annexation will divide the neighborhood, with some families claiming allegiance to Anaheim and their next-door neighbors to the county.

"I don't like to see something fixed that's not broken," said Alberto M. Blackwood Sr., who has lived in La Colonia nearly 50 years. "I like it the way it is."

He also wonders if eminent domain looms and if the 40-foot flagpole that has sat in his frontyard for years flying the POW/MIA and U.S. flags would be a target of Anaheim code enforcers.

Pringle, the mayor, said that nothing of the sort is planned. The city has a policy prohibiting it from taking property for private use, he said, and officials would work with homeowners to grandfather in any unconventional uses -- even the raising of livestock.  "If they have a potbellied pig, there's not going to be city code enforcement taking it away," he said.  

Conatser, for one, is torn about La Colonia's future. She fears that the annexation debate itself could erode the sense of community in the neighborhood, spreading confusion and speculation.

"How can you be in one city and the neighbor's not?" she wonders. It's a question she's hoping to put off until another day.

Colonia Independencia

Children play outside a boarded-up house in Colonia Independencia, an unincorporated area of Orange County bordered by Anaheim, Garden Grove and Stanton.

  Colonia Independencia  
Mariah Branch, 3, follows along during a dance lesson at the community center. La Colonia, as the three-block neighborhood is called, gets its services from the county instead of a city, so many community resources are the result of residents' efforts. 

Colonia Independencia

Before new structures were built for the purpose, this building in La Colonia was used as a church and a community center. Now Anaheim-adjacent property owners in the unincorporated neighborhood can individually apply to join the city.

Sent by Ricardo J. Valverde

Fists of Steel Still Motivates

Editor:  Sorry I didn't receive this until after the event. If anyone attended, I would welcome a report.  Good to see two types of role models represented, an athlete and a writer.

Fists of Steel Still Motivates
Hall of Fame boxer Carlos Palomino to speak at Latino Youth Leadership Conference, March 27
By Isaiah Aguirre
Published on LatinoLA: February 27, 2009

Boxing Hall of Famer Carlos Palomino is slated to speak to hundreds of local teens at the 3rd Annual Latino Youth Leadership Conference. The event takes place Friday, March 27 in Garden Grove and is hosted by Coastline Community College and the Orange County Chapter of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC).
Carlos, aka "Fists of Steel," is a well-known boxing Hall of Famer and is regularly recognized for his many appearances on film and television. Although he has been awarded several titles in the sport of boxing, he prides himself most on a title he awarded himself: "The only person ever to hold both a Boxing World Championship and a college degree at the same time," as stated in his autobiography.
Today, Carlos Palomino spends his time focusing on encouraging kids to stay in school and away from drugs and gangs through various school programs. As keynote speaker at the Latino Youth Leadership Conference, he hopes to spread this message to hundreds of local teens.
Coastline and LULAC first teamed up in 2006. Their immediate goal was to nourish the leadership skills of Orange County's Latino youth as well as to contribute and coordinate academic activities that improve student success rates in the transition from high school to college. Each year, the planning committee for the annual event has sought out positive Latino role models that would offer great insight for youth.
"Carlos has a powerful story of overcoming many obstacles in his life," said Dr. Richard Baiz, co-chair of the event's planning committee. "The students will be motivated and encouraged to seek a life surrounded by education."
This year's conference, entitled "Ethics, Trust and Loyalty," will also feature tongue-in-cheek columnist Gustavo Arellano (famous for his "Ask a Mexican" column in O.C. Weekly and segments on KROQ 106.7fm radio) as well as Timothy Canova, Associate Dean and Professor of International Economic Law at Chapman University School of Law.
Local teens are invited to attend, but pre-registration is required. For details on the event, visit or call (714) 241-6370.
Coastline Community College has an international reputation as one of the nation's most innovative institutions. Founded in 1976, Coastline is committed to student success through accessible and flexible education within and beyond the traditional classroom. Classroom instruction is held at approximately 30 sites within Orange County, with main learning centers located in Costa Mesa, Garden Grove and Westminster. For more information on Coastline Community College, please visit




L.A. Storytellers - My Journey, My Rights
Bilingual Foundation of the Arts
Anthony "Tony" Quinn's memoir, The Original Sin: A Self-Portrait

LA Storytellers - My Journey, My Rights


L.A. Storytellers - My Journey, My Rights
Share Your Story:
Have you lived in another city or country?
Were your human rights challenged during your journeys?
Did you witness anything that changed your perception of human rights?
How have these experiences shaped you, living in Los Angeles ?

 Now in its third year, LA Storytellers, an Active Arts® at the Music Center program, is a unique gathering and sharing opportunity for Angelenos to exchange life stories, vivid memories, oral histories, and engaging experiences, uncovering voices that represent a constantly changing city.

As part of the International Day of Sharing Life Stories, LA Storytellers invites you to tell us your life stories and experiences around this year's theme: "Journeys Toward Justice: Capturing the Stories of Human Rights in the Context of Migration"

Human rights/immigrant rights life stories in all languages (we ask that you provide English translation) will be accepted in one of the following formats: Submissions are due April 5th. 

  • ext i.e. words only (1,000 words or LESS)
  • Photo essay (Ten photos or LESS)
  • Audio (Five minutes or LESS)
  • Video (Five minutes or LESS)

Submitted materials will not be returned. Selected stories will be shared at the LA Storytellers open house public event/exhibit on May 16.

For more information on International Day of Sharing Life Stories visit

Registration Required. Register online from March 3 to 30, 2009. Space is limited, must be at least 18 years old to participate.





Bilingual Foundation of the Arts Schedule

Bilingual Foundation of the Arts
421 North Avenue 19
Los Angeles, CA 90031

The House of Bernarda Alba, February 27- April 5
Memorias de Tango, July 10-July 25
Don Juan Tenorio, September 25-November 8



Anthony "Tony" Quinn's memoir, 
The Original Sin: A Self-Portrait

On 2/22/09, Calderon, Roberto < wrote:
Nota: El infatigable historiador y conocido académico y activista chicano, el Dr. Rodolfo F. Acuña, sends this wonderful passage from Anthony "Tony" Quinn's memoir, The Original Sin: A Self-Portrait (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1972).  Rudy has long been subscribed to our efforts to promote Chicano history through this listserv list and his articles have frequently appeared on this foro.  He sends his own prefatory note to the selection for our reading (see below).  The particular selection is set during one of Anthony Quinn's sessions with his newly-arrived-to-Los Angeles psychiatrist and occurs during the days of World War II.  Quinn explains his Mexican-Irish ancestry, his family's coming to the States through Juárez-El Paso, the reason he became involved in the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee's work of supporting the civil rights of those youth who had been falsely accused, and describes his general support for progressive causes, unions and labor movement included.  He also ascribes political and creative courage to his boss at the studio he worked for, Darryl Zanuck, for not cutting him off from his contract for taking what were perceived as risky political positions in a time of serious anti-Mexican bashing in the Southland (and across the nation).  Call it courage under fire.  All in all it makes for interesting reading.  And as before, it's time to say that every public school library, every college and university library, should have a copy of not only Anthony Quinn's memoir in their shelves and collections, but also the newly released three-volume set from which this selection is taken.  See, Rodolfo F. Acuña and Guadalupe Compeán, eds., Voices of the U.S. Latino Experience, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008, p. 689.  Have your libraries order copies pronto. Y buen provecho.  Adelante.

Roberto R. Calderón
Historia Chicana [Historia]

From: Rodolfo F. Acuña []
Sent: Sunday, February 22, 2009 
Excerpts from Anthony Quinn, /The Original Sin: A Self-Portrait/, 1972

Anthony Quinn (1915–2001), undoubtedly the greatest actor of Mexican ancestry in the United States, was born in Chihuahua, he was a two-time Academy Award winner, he earned Oscars for his roles in /Zorba the Greek/ and /Viva Zapata/. His grandfather was an Irish immigrant to Mexico and his mother was Mexican. He put his career in jeopardy by supporting the Sleepy Lagoon defendants. They were the 22 Mexican American youths who were indicted for the alleged murder of José Díaz (17 stood trial). The leader of the Sleepy Lagoon defendants was Henry Leyvas whose mother was Quinn's mother's god
child. These excerpts are from his autobiography and they give the reader a window into the lives of Mexican Americans during the war years. These excerpts also express the culture conflict that Quinn experienced as told to his therapist.[--Introductory passage by
Rodolfo F. Acuña and Guadalupe Compeán]

"Here it is. It tells about your being born in Mexico during the revolution." [The psychiatrist says.]
"Yes. April twenty-first, 1915."
"It goes on to say that your mother and father both fought on the side of Pancho Villa. Correct?"
"Yes, I suppose so."
"Why do you say it like that?"
"I mean the period is all mixed up. I'm sorry. Yes, they did fight with Pancho Villa."
The doctor nodded. "I'm afraid all I know about the Mexican Revolution is what I saw in the picture /Viva Villa/ with Wallace Beery. Was Villa like that?"
"I thought Beery was great in the part, but I don't think he caught the burning intensity of Villa."
"What do you mean?"
Then I told him an anecdote related to me by my father, about when Villa rode to the top of the hill and saw the Pacific Ocean for the first time. He had stared at the ocean's immensity for many minutes without saying a word. Then he'd reined his horse and started back down the hill. His lieutenant, riding behind him, said, "Quite a sight, eh, jefe?" "It's too small to quench my thirst," Pancho had said over his shoulder.
"That's quite a remark," said the doctor. "When did your father tell it to you?"
"When I was a kid."
"And it stayed with you all these years?"
"Do you feel the ocean is too small to quench your thirst, Mr. Quinn?"
If there had been any doubt in the doctor's mind about my being sick, I felt it had been dispelled by my answer. To hell with him. Let him earn his money, I thought. The man had a good poker face, however, and went on examining the clippings.
"It goes on to say here that your father was an Irish adventurer and your mother an Aztec princess."
I had to laugh out loud. He looked up. 
"Why do you laugh? Isn't it true?"
"My father was part Irish, that part is true. But I was laughing at the Indian princess crap."
"My wife and I thought it was very romantic when we read it."
"I guess that's what Paramount Pictures publicity wanted you to feel. They didn't think it was romantic enough for my mother to be plain Mexican."
"Why was that?"
"What the hell, Doc, you live in Los Angeles. You know what most people here feel about Mexicans."
"I don't. I've only been here a couple of years, Tony. May I call you Tony?"
The question about Mexicans irritated me. He had begun to look like a red-necked Texan already.
"Sure, if I can call you by your first name."
He roared with laughter. "You can call me anything you want—and that isn't all you're going to call me before you're through."
"Well, being a Mexican in Southern California is not exactly an /open sesame/. For years they used to have signs at dance halls and restaurants: 'No Mexicans allowed.' Mexicans were lazy, thieves, greasy; they were either Zoot Suiters or /pachucos/, marijuana smokers.…"
"He started coming around when I began acquiring things I thought would please him. [His other self or alter ego] The first time I saw him was when I bought the jazzy house on Sunset Boulevard. He was standing on the lawn one day wondering what the hell I was doing with such a mansion. It was during the war and big houses were going a begging so I thought what the hell, I'll buy it. The boy began to make me feel guilty about it so I used to let people use it to raise money for good causes. The only time I ever saw the son of a bitch smile approvingly was the night I gave a party to raise funds for the 'Sleepy Lagoon' case. That night the kid and I walked around the garden like real pals."
"What was the 'Sleepy Lagoon' case?"
"Around 1944 or 1945, twenty-two Mexican boys were being tried for murder. It seems there had been a party in East L.A. and it had ended in a rumble, which wasn't unusual at those parties. Some kids from another gang had tried to crash, there had been this fight, and one boy had been killed. Twenty-two Mexican boys were rounded up and now they were being tried for murder. Certain groups in Los Angeles were up in arms; they felt the
kids' were being railroaded. They called it another Scottsboro case, where a group of Negroes had been found guilty of rape in the South. The case was becoming a political football. Some Los Angeles papers were saying that Mexicans had bad Indian blood in them which made them violent. They were fermenting a great deal of anti-Mexican feeling.
"I was making a war picture at Camp Pendleton at the time and one Saturday, after I'd finished work, some marines who were working with us came and asked if I wanted to join them. They were going up to Los Angeles to 'beat up some Mexicans.' Those poor misguided bastards. They were trying to tell me they considered me one of them. I guess my name being Quinn, they never thought I was Mexican. I got into a fight with the asshole who had invited me. He was a big bruiser. I guess luckily someone pulled us apart.
"One day I got a call at the studio from my mother. She asked if I had read about the 'Sleepy Lagoon' case. Christ! Even my mother was caught up in it. I said of course, the papers talked of nothing else.
"'One of the boys' names is Leyvas.'" 'So?'
"'You wouldn't remember her but when we first arrived in Juarez from Chihuahua she was the first person to help us. We were starving and she made us some scrambled eggs.'
"I had to laugh thinking how Mother remembered the menu. She went on.
'Anyway, she called this morning and was crying. It seems that everything points to the fact that her son will go to the electric chair.'
"'Yes, I know,' I said. 'It looks like he was the ringleader.'
"'I promised her that you would get him off,' my mother announced.
"'You what?'
"'They have no money, Tony. They can't afford a good lawyer. All she wants is for her son to get a fair trial. All these years she's never asked for a favor in return.'
"'Mama, I can't become involved in a murder case. Jeez, you've read the papers. Everybody who has come to the defense of the kids is being called a Communist. That's all I would need. Mama, we could be run out of the country!'
"'Maybe we wouldn't be in the country if it wasn't for Trini Levas.'
"'Why, because she fed us some scrambled eggs?'" 'Perhaps she saved our lives.'
"'Christ, Mama, how much do we have to pay for those goddamned scrambled eggs? All right, I'll give you a thousand dollars. You can give it to her. That should be more than enough payment for those eggs.'
"'No, Tony. She doesn't want the money. She wants her son.'" I argued. I pleaded for her to let me off the hook. She wouldn't.
"That night I called a friend of mine. He and his wife, Goldie, were good people. They were always fighting for causes. Whether it was the lettuce strikers, the dock workers, or the 'Sleepy Lagoon' case.
"I told them I would like to help the boys. What could I do? He said there was a committee being formed for their defense. I could help them raise money.
"I had had no experience with such things so I took the direct approach. I went to actors and directors that I knew and asked for cash. Most of them responded generously. Some were afraid they would be implicated politically. One famous star who had made his reputation playing gangster parts turned me down flat. He said the whole movement for the defense of the kids was being run by 'Reds.'
"I began making speeches at ladies' club luncheons. The papers picked up the news and one day I was called in by Darryl Zanuck, at whose studio I was then under contract. He told me that my involvement was endangering the investment they had in my pictures.
"'Darryl, you have been one of the most courageous men I've ever seen in this business,' I told him. 'You've made pictures like /The Ox-Bow Incident, Grapes of Wrath, Gentleman's Agreement./ You've never been afraid. Why do you want me to run scared now?'
"I explained the circumstances that had caused me to become involved. Now that I was in it, I said, I had begun to realize there were some ugly forces working against the boys.
"He nodded and said, 'A hell of an expensive plate of scrambled eggs!'
"When I walked away, I didn't know whether I would be dropped by the studio. I wasn't. I have always been proud to know that some people in my business stand for more than mere self-interest. Darryl Zanuck certainly proved it that day. 
"Soon after, there was a big benefit party at my house in Beverly Hills. We charged a huge entrance fee and some of the most famous people in Hollywood came to entertain, all for the cause.
"That night as I went about the garden welcoming the guests, 'the boy' walked beside me. I had never seen him so happy. It was the first time in years he seemed to approve of me. I thought he'd leave me alone after that. He didn't."
The doctor had listened patiently. Once or twice I'd seen him scribble on the papers he kept on me.
"Tony, would you mind discussing your political views with me someday?" I must have given him a strange look because he threw back his head and laughed.
"I am not a representative of the Un-American Activities Committee." The pains they had caused friends of mine kept me from joining in his laughter.
"No, Doc, I have nothing to hide. Let me say at the outset that I wouldn't give a damn if you were from the Un-American outfit. Sometimes I almost wished they had called me. To tell you the truth, I think 'the boy' hoped they would. He always prods me to stand up and be counted. I have never been a Communist. I have never attended a cell meeting and,
believe it or not, I was never proselytized or asked to join any so-called subversive movement. I was pro-labor for humanitarian reasons.
I was anti-Fascist and anti-Nazi because they preached racial and nationalistic superiority, which was diametrically opposed to my philosophy.…
My wife and I are looking for a farm to buy, and when we saw your charming house my wife let out a scream, "There it is, exactly the house we are looking for."
"The woman looked agape, first at me and then over toward my wife, sitting in the car. Then she turned and saw the tire tracks that had destroyed her beautiful, neat field.
"Tomorrow,' I jumped in, 'I will send some workmen to hoe and replant the field.'
"'What's your name?' she asked, beginning to soften. "'Anthony Quinn,' I smiled.
"'Could it be that you're Irish?' she asked, with a faint brogue." I nodded. 'My grandfather was from Cork.
"'Was he now?' she smiled. 'Me and my husband come from Killarney.'
"'Is that a fact?'
"'Well,' she said finally, 'won't you and you dear wife come to the house and join us for a spot of tea?'
"During tea, the lady scoffed at my offer to have her field fixed.
She assured us that she had three very able-bodied Mexicans working for her who would fix it in no time. Katie shot me a warning glance and I made no comment. She promised us that if she ever thought of selling we would be the first to hear about it. As we left her house, she said that she was sure that I could charm a snake, like all good Irishmen."
The doctor enjoyed the story. "Is it true, Tony? I mean, are there moments when you can tell that you're being Mexican or Irish?"
"Which is easier to live with?'"
"The Irish, but then nobody ever called me a dirty mick. I never had to take a beating because I was Irish. I only had the shit kicked out of me because I was Mexican. So I decided to be it most of the time."
"What do you suppose your life would have been like if you'd spent more time charming your way through life, rather than fighting it the way you do?"
"Christ only knows. Anyway, it had all been decided back there when I was a kid and fought against the Irish kids on the banks of the Los Angeles River, on the side of the Mexican boys."
"Do you ever wonder about your Irish parentage?"
"Yes, often. I have a picture of my grandfather. He's a blond version of my father. When I was a kid I would stare at him for hours. I wanted to love him so much. I made up all sorts of stories about him, then I'd stop myself because I wondered if he could love his dark grandson."
"And now?"
"I love him very much, but I'm still afraid. I wonder if he approves of me."
"Don't you think he would be proud of all you've done?"
I laughed. "Doctor, the kid doesn't think I've done a damn thing. I don't know if Father and my grandfather would agree with him."
"What about your mother's father? How do you feel about him?" "Fuck him. He's one ghost I've killed and buried. He didn't have the balls to acknowledge his responsibility."
The doctor made an imaginary cross in the air. "One down, and how many ghosts to go?"
"An army."
"Don't you feel we're getting rid of some of them?"
"Yes, some of them have lost by default. They've died on me." The doctor started to tidy up his desk. I got up to put my jacket on. "When are you supposed to leave for Europe to start your new picture?"
"In a week or ten days."
"Well, we have to win the war soon, don't we? Where the hell do we find the bomb to blow up all the ghosts?"

As we headed down the hall, the doctor repeated that we'd have to work hard. He felt it would be dangerous for me to go to Europe in the middle of therapy. He explained that there were postoperative complications that could develop from mental therapy, just like those from any major operation. He walked me to my car. "The man you're going to play, Paul Gauguin, was a driven man himself, wasn't he?" "Yes, poor bastard; but at least he made it."  "Did he think he'd made it?"

/Source/: Anthony Quinn, /The Original Sin A Self-Portrait/ (Boston:
Little, Brown and Company, 1972), pp. 10–11, 81–84, 293–294.

Citation: Acuña, Rodolfo F, Guadalupe Compeán, eds. /Voices of the U.S.
Latino Experience [Three Volumes]/ . p 689. Westport: Greenwood, 2008.
Greenwood eBooks. 22 February 2009.




Eyes to the Past - Pictorial History, Families of Azusa, Baldwin Park & Irwindale
April 2:  Mariachi for Gringos Songbook, Book-Signing by Gil Sperry
April 3-4:  Righetti High School Marimba Band & Ballet Folklórico
Continues till April 18: Fotwaddle Cosmico/A Twenty Year Retrospective
Juana Briones story included in NTHP's Women's History Month 
California Council for the Humanities Awards Grants
April 13: Chicano Latino Youth Leadership Project
California Heritage Calendar

“Eyes to the Past - 
A Pictorial History from Families of Azusa, Baldwin Park & Irwindale”
John Arvizu and Rosanne Gonzales-Hardy



ith the previous century now just a memory and written into history, two authors, John Arvizu and Rosanne Gonzales-Hardy, natives of Azusa have joined in bringing to light their family photographs. Buried in attics and closets for decades and hidden from the outside world, images from selected families from Azusa, Baldwin Park and Irwindale have now spilled onto pages of their book, “Eyes to the Past - A Pictorial History from Families of Azusa, Baldwin Park and Irwindale.”  

One of the oldest pictures in their book, dates back to 1859, with many family photos taken during the early 1900’s. The pictorial chapters in this joint creation feature “Children from the Past”, “Weddings”, “The Builders along Historic Route 66”, “School Days”, which includes class pictures of elementary schools in Azusa and Baldwin Park dating back to 1945. Other chapters included are also “Los Soldados”, “Los Cabelleros”, and finally a chapter called “Family and Friends.”  

Both these authors, cousins in fact, share a love of California history and images of their ancestral past. John and Rosanne are happy to share with the world what they both hold dear to them.

From the back of the cover:
When John's grandma, Louisa Romero Arvizu, passed away in 1958, she left to her 8 children a lifetime of memories, which she and her husband, Abran, had built together  for many years.  The old trunk in which she kept the family memories was a treasure chest.  Among the riches found within her trunk were several hundred old pictures dating back to the early 1830s, a family album of her children, friends of old Azusa and a family log dating back to 1866.

"The treasure within this book chronicle our family's history in the Azusa, Irvindale and Baldwin Park region of the San Gabriel Valley.  Our history parallels the history of many other Latino families as they helped to develop the communities within the San Gabriel Valley.  To us, the treasures in the trunk, boxes and framed photos are the keys to the past.  With eyes to the past, we can look at the faces in the pictures of our ancestors and were read the old Spanish script, just like in Domingo's log, and can feel as he did when he first penned the names of all his children, some 140 years ago."

"We hope that by sharing our pictures, other families will recognize a face of that of a loved one and know that they are not forgotten."

John Arvizu and Roseanne (Rose) Gonzales-Hardy

Book will be available at www.//




April 2:  Mariachi for Gringos
Book-Signing by Gil Sperry
50 Most Popular Songs
Spanish-English Lyrics, Sheet Music

Latino Books Y Más 
Latino Books Y Más is located in the heart of beautiful downtown Palm Springs, California. We are the premier book store in the Palm Springs area for Books in English and Spanish by Latin American Authors, Latin American Literature, Mexican Folk Art, Latino Music, Movies from the Golden Age of Mexican Cinema, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo prints. Our literature selection of over 2000 titles includes the very best of Latin American titles/authors that accurately reflect themes, characters, and customs unique to U.S. Latino culture.

For more info and pictures on all of our cultural activities please click on our calendar to see all of our events and also check us out on MySpace. Please click on the YouTube link or cut and paste to your browser for a tour of our store:  180 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way  Palm Springs, CA 92662

Editor:  This is a delightful book, history, music and words of well-known folk and popular Spanish songs, great for classroom and youth programs.



April 3-4:  Righetti High School Marimba Band & Ballet Folklórico


The Righetti High School Marimba Band & Ballet Folklórico will present its 32nd annual "Big Show" performance on Friday, April 3, and Saturday, April 4 , at Santa María High School's Ethel Pope Auditorium, located at 901 South Broadway in Santa María. Showtime is at 7:30pm. Tickets can be purchased at the Student Business Offices at Righetti, Pioneer Valley, and Santa María High Schools. Advance sale tickets are priced at $8 for all age groups. Tickets may also be purchased at the door before each show for $10.

The “Big Show” is a two and one-half hour program featuring the music and dances of Righetti High School’s Marimba Band and Ballet Folklórico. The program is festive and colorful, and is filled with a great variety of exciting songs and dances reflecting the diverse world of Mexican and Latino music and folk dance. The “Big Show” is considered the group’s biggest and best program of the year, and has gained recognition as one of the cultural highlights of the Santa María Valley.

This year’s Big Show program will feature:

5 Traditional Folk Dance Regions: The States of Jalisco, Nuevo León, Nayarit, and Vera Cruz, and selections from the Mexican Revolution of 1910.
Traditional Mariachi-style songs by Lucero, Rocío Durcal and Juan Gabriel.
Contemporary Chicano-Latin Rock by Los Lonely Boys, Ozomatli and Santana.
Tropical and Latin music by Celia Cruz, Elvis Crespo and Los Lobos.
Contemporary “Cumbia” style music and dance.

Additional Group Information

The Righetti High School Marimba Band and Ballet Folklórico was organized in 1975 by group Director, Ricardo Gabaldón as the cornerstone of the school's Bilingual-Bicultural Program. The group was created to develop a positive sense of cultural identity and pride
in accomplishment, to involve Chicano students in the life of their school, and to develop an acceptance of, and appreciation for Mexican culture. The group consists of 47 talented musicians and dancers, and emphasizes the beauty and value of preserving traditional music and dance. The group’s repertoire includes traditional favorites from long ago, modern hits, and even popular selections by contemporary Latino musicians. The group begins each show with Las Gaviotas, the first song learned by the school’s first group in 1975. Songs and dances are “passed on” from one group to the next. "Dance leaders" are given the responsibility of sharing their craft with new dancers. Songs are learned by studying CD’s and learning them "note by note.”

Throughput its 34 performing seasons, the Righetti High School Marimba Band and Ballet Folklórico has distinguished itself by developing a tradition of quality and excellence in presenting Mexican folk dances and music for our schools and the community-at-large. In
1998, the group helped the City of Santa María win "All-America City" honors with an outstanding performance in Mobile, Alabama. In 1999, the group represented Santa Barbara County at the Inauguration Celebration of Governor Gray Davis in Sacramento. In August, 2006 the dance troupe had the distinguished honor of performing at the Mariachi
Festival at the Santa Barbara Bowl with headliners, Beatríz Adriana and Mariachi Vargas de Tecalitlán. Since 1975, the group has given over 1,300 performances, and has distinguished itself by developing a tradition of quality and excellence in presenting Mexican folk dances and music.

The Righetti High School
Marimba Band & Ballet Folklórico
941 E. Foster Road, Santa María, California 93455
Ricardo Gabaldón, Director
School (805) 937-2051, Ext. 2502 Home: (805) 937-3067 Cell: (805) 714-3828

Sent by Dorinda Moreno 

"Fotwaddle Cosmico/A Twenty Year Retrospective"
Photo Show by Francisco J. Dominguez, continues through April 18. 


Sacramento City College Library
Learning Resources Center, 
Third Floor, Special Events Room 
3835 Freeport Blvd. Sacramento, CA



Juana Briones story included in 
National Trust for Historic Preservation's Women's History Month 

Here is an excellent report featuring Juana Briones, by Corri Jimenez. 
Lorri Frain  
Hello Everyone!
I submitted a blog article to the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Women's History Month on Juana Briones, and WON, something I did not expect and am excited about!  I am currently the first blog the Trust has posted for Women's History Month.  Granted, I had to put together a 400 word article, which was somewhat difficult for me since I have the tendency to be long winded, and probably comes from my training as an architectural historian.
I hope that I have done Juana some justice and I overall felt it was my duty to post something for Women's History Month on this remarkable woman, historic place, and our cause in saving it.  I had so much to say but had to stick to the basics. To view the blog article, please click on either of the below links: 
Thank you all for your own diligence to the cause, and please enjoy the article!  


California Council for the Humanities

California Council for the Humanities is a state-based affiliate of the National Endowment for the humanities.  Humanities Network is a published three times a year and mailed to anyone who requests if from the San Francisco office.
The mission of the California Council for the Humanities is to foster understanding between people and encourage their engagement in community life thorough the publics use of the humanities.
Seventeen film, radio, and new media projects to provide fresh views of California have received funds. Two touching Latino themes are:

Cruz Reynoso: A Man for All Seasons, producer: Abby Ginzberg $80,000

Whitewashed Adobe: The Rise of Los Angeles and the Remaking of its Mexican Past
Project Director:  Walter Dominguez $7,500

Now  En Espanol
Producer: Andrea Meller  $7,000

The guidelines for the next round of funding for the California Documentary Project will be available on the Council's website  June 2009.
312 Sutter St., Suite 601
San Francisco, CA  94108



April 13: Chicano Latino Youth Leadership Project 

Chicano Latino Youth Leadership Project
 For anyone working with high school students:

The Chicano Latino Youth Leadership Project (CLYLP) organizes an annual Sacramento conference for our state's future leaders. Students participate in various leadership activities including a mock Assembly house session on the Capitol Assembly Floor, legislative committee hearings in the Capitol and workshops.

The application is open to 10th and 11th graders. The deadline is April 13, 2009.  I am hoping that  more students in rural communities learn about this opportunity as well. I am available for assistance to students interested in applying.

Vianey Nunez . . . . or call (559) 790-4691
Sent by Dorinda Moreno



California Heritage Calendar


Mike Ford, Heritage Preservation Chair 
2123 Brutus St, Salinas, CA 93906 maintains a Heritage Calendar of upcoming events, primarily focused on California history.  Information may be mailed to him at  or call at (831) 449-0601

Sent by Tom Saenz

Editor:  If you are an Early California descendant and just getting started, I strongly suggest that you view the websites of  Los Pobladores and Los Californianos.  

Los Pobladores 200 is an Ancestral Heritage Association, founded in 1981 by Joseph Murillo Northrop (a founding family descendant) and his wife Marie E. Northrop. The primary goal was to locate and organize present day descendants of the original founding families of Los Angeles .Since then the organization has grown to 250 current members with descendants throughout the US. The name Los Pobladores 200 was used because it was organized on the 200th anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles, Sept. 4th 1981. Los Pobladores means "the towns' people". It's main purpose is to perpetuate Los Angeles' early history through its involvement and ongoing research in genealogy and family history. Our membership is comprised of direct descendants of the original 11 families and 4 escort soldiers (escolta). The original Founding Families names are listed on our Members page along with current descendants and membership quidelines.  email:

To ask questions about Los Californianos, descendants of the early Hispanic settlers
(also called Californianos or Californios) of Alta California, please fill in the form found in Member Services; write Los Californianos, P.O. Box 600522, San Diego, CA 92160-0522; or e-mail the Web master at 


 Drawings by Don Marco, the Master Crayola Artist, 
for information on the artist, click.





The Loretto Chapel, Miracles of the Amazing Stairs in San Fe, New Mexico
Celebration of the First Thanksgiving, April 24,and 25th, 2009, San Elizario,
40 Years of Youth Liberation

Statehood bought with Hispanic losses  

The Loretto Chapel
Miracles of the Amazing Stairs in San Fe, New Mexico


Photo by Don Staab

Santa Fe, New Mexico - Santa Fe's Loretto Chapel - Miracle Staircase

The chapel was built by French and Spanish artisans who modeled the chapel after Sainte Chapelle in Paris. The story is that the sisters prayed for a carpenter to build them a stairway to the choir loft. An unknown carpenter came along and built the spiral stairway without the use of hammer or nails. He left before he could be paid and no one is quite sure who he was or how he completed the masterpiece. Engineers still marvel at this carpenters accomplishment.

Sent by Eddie Grijalva



Celebration of the First Thanksgiving 
April 24,and 25th, 2009
San Elizario, Texas

Dear Friends:
I would like to formally invite you to participate, attend or be informed about our celebration of the First Thanksgiving in San Elizario.
This year it will be April 24,and 25th, 2009. 
On April 24th, we are having a conference....This gathering of scholars and representatives of organizations will expose and discuss what was happening, happened and is happening in reference to the arrival of Don Juan De Onate into this area.
We intend to record this event and use it as an educational tool.
Also the President and Executive Director of the National Thanksgiving Center who happens to be in Dallas,Texas will attend and give us a talk on "Texas, how it became the center of the Thanksgiving Celebration for Texas, the USA and the World"   This organization drafts the Presidential Thanksgiving Proclamation every year for our National Thanksgiving Day in November.
Also as our organization  is fully aware there is a rift between the Muslim world and the West.  So, the local Turkish Center will present a UN initiative called "Alliance of Cultures" where Spain and Turkey are trying to find common ground after the bad feelings festering for years due to the Ottoman invasion of Spain, the Crucades and the ousting of the Muslims from Europe after the conquest of America.  They are also hosting a reception after the conference on Friday together with Club de Espana.
Anyway there are scholars coming in from the Univ of Texas at San Antonio and Chihuahua and leaders of our tribal people (Mansos and Tiguas) here in El Paso.
We are aware that for our indigenous people this was a devastating event but it happened and forever changed our Southwest.  We, El Pasoans, are the product of this blending of cultures.
This is also an event which brought Christianity to this area, our Missions are the oldest working Missions in the country. 
Our very own and world-renowned Embajadora Cultural -  Rosa Guerrero will be the Key Note Speaker for the lunch on Friday.  The San Elizario Geneology and Historical Society is co-sponsoring and  also participating vigorously. The conference is free to the public and it will start at 8 am. All events will take place at the Adobe Horseshoe Dinner Theater which presently houses the El Paso Mission Trail Office.
You are welcome as well as on Saturday when we will continue wrapping up our conference and finish at 5:00 pm with the First Thanksgiving Re-enactment where David Mills and Hector Serrano are again in charge of our mayor event.  We will finish with a wonderful Fiesta with music and food stands at the Veterans' Plaza by the San Elizario church.
We have also partnered with a local west side winery Zin Valley on The Juan de Onate Trail and will unveil a MIssion Trail wine label in order to highlight the importance of this industry here in El Paso.
This is our very unique event, part of the history of the area and we will be honored if you can attend or help us spead the word amongst your friends about what is happening in El Paso .   Every year we have been attracting more and more out of town visitors. 
I have been all over the country in St Augustine, the Alamo, Williamsburg, Alexandria, Jamestown with International Visitors invited by the US Department of State and believe me that our event is just as impressive and worthwhile.  We should all be acquainted with this type of event right here in our midst.
I have enclosed a poster, the draft of our program and an invite from our President Efrain Mendoza and hope you can help us spread the word.
Blessings, Connie Vasquez
a Board member of the El Paso Mission Trail Association.
PS You will see PAs and advertisements as well as billboards on the surrounding cities as we try to gain credibility, market our event and follow in the legacy of Mr. Sheldon Hall and that wonderful event we had in the Quadricentennial 1998. 
From the Diamond in the Desert and the First Thanksgiving of the SW.......El Paso and San Elizario, Texas  USA.......



40 Years of Youth Liberation

New America Media, Commentary by Dr. Cintli Rodriguez
Posted: Mar 15, 2009



In my class, History of Red-Brown Journalism & Communications, at the University of Arizona, I see the future mayor of Tucson. I see it in her eyes. In another student, I see the next Sandra Cisneros. I hear it in her Xochitl In Cuicatl – in her poetry and song. I also see the next Ruben Salazar. In others, I’m not sure if I’m seeing Malcolm X, Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta or Barack Obama. In still others, I see temixtianis or great teachers, members of the noblest profession.

These same students are found in every corner of the nation. Some of them are former students of Raza Studies at Tucson Unified School District. Others are direct descendants of the 1969 Chicano Youth Liberation Conference, convened by Denver’s Crusade for Justice. Others are members of Movimiento Estudiantli Chicano de Aztlan or MEChA, also founded 40 years ago.

I can proudly say that I was part of that movement in its incipient Stages. Not as a founder, but simply as a youngster who was swept up in this youth liberation movement. I was not even Chicano, but what one of my students terms a Mexican Mexicano. I never got be a Mexican American, much less Hispanic. In spirit, this volcanic political eruption was akin to the Mexican Independence Movement of 1810 and also the Mexican Revolution of 1910. We rebelled, not simply because of a war or because of the daily denigration in the schools, the streets or the factories, in the cities and fields; more than anything, we rebelled against dehumanization.

Often missing from history’s pages is preeminent American-Indian scholar Jack Forbes, who was part of the founding of another movement in the early 1960s: Movimiento Nativo Americano or the Native American Movement, which at its core called upon people of Mexican, Central and South American origin to reclaim their Indigenous roots. This was the antecedent for the Chicano Movement.

And now, we know that Mexican youth in this country had actually rebelled in the previous generation, creating the Mexican American Movement. Pioneer University of Southern California journalism professor Felix Gutierrez, whose parents were part of this national organization, recalls that they did not use acronyms in those days. But they, too, fought for their human rights.

If you dig deep enough, you find that Mexicans in this country have been rebelling against oppression since 1848. That’s what the students in my class are finding out. Particularly, they are finding writers from the 1800s and early 1900s – many of them women – who led and/or documented many of these struggles. But it is said that the rebellions actually started even earlier, when the first arrow was shot at the Spanish conquistadores.

This 1960s Movement was tumultuous and convulsive. Some of what was created was romantic or idealistic. And some of it was not very liberating. Chicanas had to rebel to assert Chicana Power! Mexicanos/Mexicanas, Central/South Americans, Indigenous peoples, or peoples from the LGBT community weren't included in the liberation, either.

All these communities continue to have to assert their rights as full human beings. Yet, it cannot be denied that a tornado-like force was unleashed that created something unique, including the discipline of Raza or Chicano/Chicano Studies. Where once people denied their Mexicanness and/or their Indigeneity – and meekly accepted their subjugation--people began to grasp for anything that affirmed our right to exist.

Whereas a generation ago young Chicanos, including Mechistas, competed to see who was the most Chicano/Indigenous and revolutionary, we now see them express more clearly a broader concern for all of humanity. I see it in their opposition to yet another interventionist war, their fight against the criminalization and incarceration of youth of color and in their battles against Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio (who is now being investigated by the feds for racial profiling). I have seen it when these youth, some as young as 10, testify before bureaucrats in defense of and for the expansion of Raza Studies. They fight not simply for their rights, but the rights of all peoples.

Forty years later, the fire remains. So, too, the courage, love and intelligence. And it continues to evolve. It’s called Ollin or movement. Wisdom or 52 years is around the corner, and with it, human liberation. Not simply resistance, but Creation.

Rodriguez, who writes columns for New America Media, including Arizona
Watch, can be reached at:

Sent by Ricardo Valverde


Prof. Rodriguez writes that an exhibit that showcases the media from different time periods has been developed which could be replicated anywhere in the country. A symposium and program where students will present their works on the 5th of May is being prepared. 

As a highlight, students will publish their work in a commemorative issue based on their research. For these events, we are looking for newspapers, magazines, posters/flyers, artwork, etc. from the 1960s-'70s for the exhibit. If you have access to these kinds of materials, please contact Prof. Rodriguez at .

Finally, if you would like to help Prof. Rodriguez  fund the symposium/program, or help his student publish a special commemorative issue and/or to bring guest speakers to his media class, gifts of any size are welcomed, $25 and up. 



Statehood bought with Hispanic losses  
By Charles Montaño,


At a recent Hispanic Historical Forum in Santa Fe, two books, Tree of Hate by Wayne Powell and The Santa Fe Ring by Rubin Salaz, were used to facilitate a discussion of land-grant developments.

Tree of Hate introduces the "Black Legend," which characterizes Hispanics — the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula and their far-flung descendants — as intrinsically evil, and therefore unworthy of trust, respect and humane treatment. The legend is rooted in historic animosities between England and Spain, competing powers during the Age of Empire. France used the legend against Spain, as well, as did the Church of England to undermine its nemesis, the Catholic Church.

The legend took root around the world because of illiteracy and reliance on storytellers for news. When Europe arrived in the New World, these stories also crossed the ocean, thus setting the stage for the Mexican-American War and later abuses. The war resulted when U.S. citizens occupied the Alamo — a mission church-turned government building constructed during the 200-year period that Spain ruled over the American Southwest. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ending the war, required that Mexico cede today's Southwest to the United States, and that the U.S. respect the rights and interests of those already residing there — Hispanic and Native American alike.

The Santa Fe Ring, supported by Territorial Gov. Bradford Prince, was an organized effort to undermine the Treaty. The Ring consisted of a group of attorneys, judges and politicians from Washington, D.C., to New Mexico whose mission it was to swindle as much land as possible from Hispanics and their heirs. Thomas Benton Catron alone amassed more than a million acres of land.

Local newspapers assisted The Ring by failing to publish notices of land-grant challenges, or by attesting falsely that the notices had been placed. Government officials, surveyors and judges assisted by refusing to recognize the legality of Spanish documents. Legislators passed laws to protect land-grabbers, and in the process, rendered the living destitute, while at the time stealing the birthrights of their descendants. Particularly disheartening is the fact that of the 25 territorial legislators at the time 20 were Hispanic.

In the 1956 movie Giant, Elizabeth Taylor portrays an Eastern socialite, Leslie Benedict. Rock Hudson plays Texas ranching baron, Jordan Benedict Jr. While researching the history of Texas, her new home, Leslie Benedict concludes that it was stolen from Mexico — much to her husband's chagrin. Giant went on to win several academy awards. But the myth of the Alamo endures.

Manifest Destiny, a popular doctrine in the mid-1800s, proposed that U.S. possession of all lands between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans was God's will. Thus, removal of lands from Hispanics and their descendants was not only justified, it was divinely ordained. It was also patriotic because Spanish land grants represented a roadblock to statehood.

The first Spanish settlers arrived in New Mexico with Juan de Oñate in 1598. The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in 1620. Hundreds of New Mexicans were hung for treason in the aftermath the Mexican-American War; their crime — protecting their families from an invading U.S. Army. Our ancestors were naïve, perhaps, for believing in the benevolence of their elected representatives, or in an occupying force whose world view differed vastly from their own.

Our ancestors relied on the land. They valued their faith, family and community, but suddenly found themselves at the mercy of forces subliminally influenced by the Black Legend, and by those who value personal wealth, and the power it bestows, above all else. New Mexico became a state in 1912. The rest, as they say, is history.

The Española Hispanic Historical Forum will host another forum on recent land-grant developments aided by a discussion of the two books on Saturday (March 28) at the Misión Museum y Convento in Española from 12:45 to 4:30 p.m. Admission is free.

Charles "Chuck" Moñtano lives in Santa Fe.



Afro Mexicanas/os and  Mexican Revolution
Ebony & Jet Magazines are on the Verge of Financial Collapse
Possibly individuals of African origin among Columbus crew Members

 Afro Mexicanas/os and  Mexican Revolution


Colegas: The Guadalupe Cultural Arts Center in San Antonio is applying for a Humanities Texas grant to, among other activities/events, screen and discuss LA NEGA ANGUSTIA (1940), directed by Matilde Landetta, which focuses on mulata guerilleras

We are looking to identify a scholar or scholars whose work is on Afro-Mexicanas/os, and/or the Mexican Revolution,  who would be able to join a panel and/or do a brief presentation on  Afro-Mexicanos and the Mexican Revolution.

If you know anyone whose work is on 20th century Afro-Mexicanas/os, please forward name and any contact information you may have to me. 

Mil mil gracias, Antonia Castaneda

Sent by Dorinda Moreno



Ebony & Jet Magazines are on the Verge of Financial Collapse


Two of the most notable permanent fixtures in every black household over the years were Ebony and Jet magazines.

If you wanted to learn about your history, the plight of black  America, current issues facing us, how the political process of America affects us, how politics works, who the fastest rising actors  are, successful black television shows, who was recently married, which cities had black mayors, police chiefs, school superintendents, how to register to vote, which cars offer the best value, how to apply for college scholarships, etc, More likely than not, either Ebony or  Jet provided answers to those questions.

We have recently been informed that Johnson Publishing Company is currently going through a financial crisis.  The company is attempting a re-organization.  Many JPC employees have  already lost their jobs with a company that has employed thousands of
black Americans during the course of its existence.

In order to support this effort to save OUR magazine, my friends and  myself have pledged to get a subscription to both Ebony and Jet  magazine, starting with one year. We are urging EVERY everyone who  comes across this plea, to do the same. Please post on any blog that
you may own, or support. Please email this to all you know. Let them  know that Ebony and Jet magazines have been part of black American  culture for 3 quarters of a century.

How about throwing a subscription party where people can sign up for  their subscriptions on the spot.  Please share this idea with all you  know - sororities, fraternities, lodges, VFW posts, churches, civic  groups, block clubs, etc.

It would be a shame to lose our historic magazine during the same year  of such an historic event as the election of our first  African-American President.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno




Possibly individuals of African origin among Columbus crew Members

Skeletons that may represent the remains of crew members from Columbus' second excursion to the New World in 1493-94 were exhumed in 1990. The burials were a part of La Isabela on the island of Hispaniola, now a part of the Dominican Republic and that was the first European settlement in the New World. Credit: Fernando Luna Calderon, provided courtesy of T. Douglas Price

Teeth from exhumed skeletons of crew members Christopher Columbus left on the island of Hispaniola more than 500 years ago reveal the presence of at least one African in the New World as a contemporary of the explorer, it was announced.

Three of the individuals' teeth subjected to isotopic analysis by the Wisconsin group were males under the age of 40 and had carbon isotope profiles far different from the rest, suggesting an Old World origin (Africa or Europe).

Despite its brief existence, historians and archaeologists believe La Isabela was a substantial settlement with a church, public buildings such as a customhouse and storehouse, private dwellings and fortifications. It is also the only known settlement in America where Columbus actually lived.

Although the town has been the subject of previous archaeological studies, the work by Price, Burton and their colleague Vera Tiesler and Andrea Cucina of the Autonomous University of the Yucatan is revealing new insight into the people who lived and sailed with Columbus, and who died on the shores of a strange new world.

Histories of La Isabela, named after Spain's queen and Columbus's patron and located in what is today the Dominican Republic, suggest its population was made up only of men from the fleet of 17 vessels that comprised Columbus's second visit to the New World.

But the new analysis of the remains of 20 individuals excavated two decades ago by Italian and Dominican archaeologists portray a different picture, suggesting that living among the Spaniards at La Isabela were native Taínos, women and children, and possibly individuals of African origin.

Sent by John Inclan




We Shall Remain: Upcoming PBS Mini-series on Native American History
Geronimo's kin sue Skull and Bones over remains
Salvadoran Indigenous legends
April 6-7, Traditional Hopi and Western Sciences Braiding Conference 
April 25,  Honoring "Indians Of All Tribes" and the Legacy of Richard Oakes Carpinteria School Board to Decide Mascot Issue, the War Over the Warrior

We Shall Remain 
Upcoming PBS Mini-series on Native American History

Crayola drawing by Don Marco, click


We Shall Remain is a groundbreaking mini-series and provocative  multi-media project that establishes Native history as an essential part of American history. Five 90-minute documentaries spanning three hundred years tell the story of pivotal moments in U.S. history from the Native American perspective. 

Episode 1 After the Mayflower (PBS PREMIERE ON APRIL 13, 2009) 
In 1621, the Wampanoag of New England negotiated a treaty with  Pilgrim settlers. A half-century later, as a brutal war flared between the English and a confederation of Indians, this diplomatic gamble seemed to have been a grave miscalculation.

Episode 2 Tecumseh's Vision (PBS PREMIERE ON APRIL 20, 2009) 
In the course of his brief and meteoric career, Tecumseh would become one of the greatest Native American leaders of all time, orchestrating the most ambitious pan-Indian resistance movement ever mounted on the North American continent. 

Episode 3 Trail of Tears (PBS PREMIERE ON APRIL 27, 2009) 
Though the Cherokee embraced "civilization" and won recognition of tribal sovereignty in the U.S. Supreme Court, their resistance to removal from their homeland failed. Thousands were forced on a perilous march to Oklahoma. 

Episode 4 Geronimo (PBS PREMIERE ON MAY 4, 2009) 
As the leader of the last Native American fighting force to capitulate to the U.S. government, Geronimo was seen by some as the  perpetrator of unspeakable savage cruelties, while to others he was the embodiment of proud resistance.

Episode 5 Wounded Knee (PBS PREMIERE ON MAY 11, 2009)
In 1973, American Indian Movement activists and residents of the Pine Ridge Reservation occupied the town of Wounded Knee, demanding  redress for grievances. As a result of the siege, Indians across the country forged a new path into the future.

PBS Television Series 
At the heart of the project is a five-part television series that shows how Native peoples valiantly resisted expulsion from their lands and fought the extinction of their culture -- from the Wampanoags of New England in the 1600s who used their alliance with the English to weaken rival tribes, to the bold new leaders of the 1970s who harnessed the momentum of the civil rights movement to forge a pan-Indian identity. We Shall Remain represents an unprecedented collaboration between Native and non-Native filmmakers 
and involves Native advisors and scholars at all levels of the project.

Web & New Media 
An in-depth Web site will serve the general public, educators, and students, offering educational resources and several hours of streaming video. Part of PBS Online, one of the leading dot-org sites on the Internet, the We Shall Remain site will feature Web-exclusive 
videos exploring contemporary topics such as language revitalization efforts, Native enterprise and tribal sovereignty. The site will also host behind-the-scenes production stories, streaming of the ReelNative films, and information about upcoming events across the nation. 

This unique project offers Native Americans a venue to share their stories with a national audience. At workshops in Arizona, Massachusetts, and Oklahoma, participants ranging in age from fourteen to fifty-five were taught to produce short films. Quirky, touching, funny, and profound, the films reveal the diversity of the contemporary Native experience and testify to the resilience of Native people and culture.

Community Engagement Campaign 
A nationwide community outreach campaign is engaging Native communities and organizations, Native radio, public television stations, universities, museums, schools, and libraries. The events, activities, and dialogue that come out of these relationships will 
extend We Shall Remain's crucial message to invite audiences to tune in to the broadcast.

Educator Resources 
The We Shall Remain Web site will launch an extensive Teacher's Guide for social studies educators. The guide will incorporate video segments from the five documentaries into social studies resources, offering both viewing and comprehension aids and classroom 
activities. This resource will inspire and support teachers to integrate Native history and issues into their curricula and encourage them to present Native history as an integral part of  American history.

National Library Initiative 
WGBH is working closely with the American Library Association (ALA) and its 2007-2008 President Loriene Roy (White Earth Anishinabe) to build awareness of the series among librarians, Native organizations, scholars, and writers. Ms. Roy is also collaborating with WGBH to develop innovative ideas for how to use We Shall Remain materials to serve the unique needs of local communities and tribal libraries. A library event kit developed specifically for public, college, school, and tribal libraries will be distributed to 17,000 public libraries,  as well as to all tribal libraries. The kit offers programming ideas  and resources to help libraries organize and deliver engaging events 
related to We Shall Remain. Features include storytelling days,  Native literature reading circles, cross-cultural art projects for youth, discussion forums, guidelines for evaluating media about  Native peoples, and an extensive bibliography of book, film, and  Internet resources. 

Native American History: We Shall Remain
PBS Series to begin April 13

Sent by Dr. Armando A. Ayala 
Lecturer Emeritus 2003 
Ca. State Univ.-Sacramento Multilingual/Multicultural Ed. Dept. College of Education
and Juan Marinez and

For more information on the military contributions of Native Americans, go to:

Geronimo's kin sue Skull and Bones over remains
By Associated Press Writer Stephanie Reitz, Wed Feb 18, 2009

Crayola drawing by Don Marco, click


HARTFORD, Conn. – Geronimo's descendants have sued Skull and Bones — the secret society at Yale University linked to presidents and other powerful figures — claiming that its members stole the remains of the legendary Apache leader decades ago and have kept them ever since.

The federal lawsuit filed in Washington on Tuesday — the 100th anniversary of Geronimo's death — also names the university and the federal government.

Geronimo's great-grandson Harlyn Geronimo said his family believes Skull and Bones members took some of the remains in 1918 from a burial plot in Fort Sill, Okla., to keep in its New Haven clubhouse, a crypt. The alleged graverobbing is a longstanding legend that gained some validity in recent years with the discovery of a letter from a club member that described the theft.

"I believe strongly from my heart that his spirit was never released," Harlyn Geronimo said.

Both Presidents Bush, Massachusetts Sen. John Kerry and many others in powerful government and industry positions are members of the society, which is not affiliated with the university.

After years of famously fighting the U.S. and Mexican armies, Geronimo and 35 warriors surrendered to Gen. Nelson A. Miles near the Arizona-New Mexico border in 1886. Geronimo was eventually sent to Fort Sill and died at the Army outpost of pneumonia in 1909.

According to lore, members of Skull and Bones — including former President George W. Bush's grandfather, Prescott Bush — dug up his grave when a group of Army volunteers from Yale were stationed at the fort during World War I, taking his skull and some of his bones.

Harlyn Geronimo, 61, wants those remains and any held by the federal government turned over to the family so they can be reburied near the Indian leader's birthplace in southern New Mexico's Gila Wilderness.

Their lawsuit also names President Barack Obama, Defense Secretary Robert Gates and Army Secretary Pete Geren as defendants.

"I want them to understand we mean business," said Harlyn Geronimo, who lives in New Mexico. "We're very serious. We're tired of waiting and we're coming after them."

Neither members of Skull and Bones, who closely guard their secrecy, nor the Russell Trust Association, the organization's business arm for tax purposes, could not be reached for comment.

Justice Department spokesman Andrew Ames said the government will "review the complaint and respond in court at the appropriate time."

Fort Sill spokeswoman Nancy Elliot declined to discuss the lawsuit, but said officials have always maintained there is no evidence supporting the descendants' claims.

Yale officials declined to comment Wednesday, saying they had not yet seen the lawsuit. Spokesman Tom Conroy noted the Skull and Bones crypt is not on Yale property.

Membership into Skull and Bones marks the elite of the elite at the Ivy League school. Only 15 Yale seniors are asked to join each year.

Members swear an oath of secrecy about the group and its strange rituals, which include devotion to the number "322" and initiation rites such as confessing sexual secrets and kissing a skull. The atmosphere makes Skull and Bones favorite fodder for conspiracy theorists.

Its most enduring story is the one concerning Geronimo's remains, and in 2005, Yale historian Marc Wortman discovered a letter written in 1918 from one Skull and Bones member to another that seemed to lend validity to the tale.

The letter, sent to F. Trubee Davison by Winter Mead, said Geronimo's skull and other remains were taken from the leader's burial site, along with several pieces of tack for a horse.

"The skull of the worthy Geronimo the Terrible, exhumed from its tomb at Fort Sill by your club and Knight Haffuer, is now safe inside the T — together with is well worn femurs, bit and saddle horn," Mead wrote.  

Wortman, however, has said he is skeptical the bones are actually Geronimo's.

Geronimo's descendants say in their lawsuit that they want to uncover any information that people know, but have been keeping to themselves.

"To assure that all existing remains of Geronimo and funerary objects are recovered by Geronimo's linear descendants, the Order of Skull and Bones and Yale University must account for any such articles that are or have been in their possession, or on their property, and persons with knowledge must provide any facts known to them concerning the claims," the descendants' lawsuit says.

If the bones at Yale aren't those of Geronimo, Harlyn Geronimo believes they belonged to one of the Apache prisoners who died at Fort Sill. He said they should still be returned.

Harlyn Geronimo wrote to President George W. Bush in 2006, seeking his help in recovering the bones. He thought that since the president's grandfather was allegedly one of those who helped steal the bones, the president would want to help return them.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Salvadoran Indigenous legends


The online Nicaraguan magazine Temas Nicaraguenses is publishing the translations of Salvadoran professor Dr. Rafael Lara-Martinez. Apparently this is the first time that a translation is being made directly from the Pipil-Nahuat language into Spanish of a work that was published many years ago (I have a copy of that book). That book has a Spanish translation, however it was translated from the German translation of the Pipil-Nahuat original.. To read these new translations, go to You need to then click where it says "Revistas anteriores." These translations and commentaries start with the tenth volume of the Temas Nicaraguenses magazine. It may take about ten more volumes to complete this work. 

Sent by Jaime Cader

Traditional Hopi and Western Sciences Braiding Conference 
April 6-7 in Flagstaff, Ariz 


Internationally acclaimed scientists, teachers and artists, including water science pioneer Masaru Emoto, are featured in the film "What the BLEEP Do We Know!?" Quiet Axis creator, painter and environmental/space artist Lowry Burgess of Carnegie Mellon University and artist/muralist Michael Kabotie of the Hopi Tribe will soon gather with Hopi traditional leaders and teachers, including Keeper of the Pipe Jerry Honawa and former Hopi Chairman Vernon Masayesva, to explore what new paradigms of understanding arise from the braiding of Western and traditional Hopi sciences.

Through dialogue and explorations focused on the two systems of knowing and their unique approaches to the nature, actions and teachings of water, 16 distinguished core dialogue participants and conference attendees will share knowledge and experience to generate new understandings of the world we live in. The dialogue and discussions will be held April 6-7 in Flagstaff, Ariz., and will be led by Leroy Little Bear, former director of Native Studies at Harvard University and 2003 Canadian Aboriginal Person of the Year.

Unlike efforts to blend traditions, work at the conference will be more akin to the way in which dark and light threads are bound together before being woven into Hopi fabric. Like that single black and white strand – that strand that gives to Hopi weaving its unique character and endurance – the system of inquiry developed through conference dialogue will draw strength and quality from its respect for the integrity of traditional and Western approaches. As with all Hopi weaving, the work will draw energy from the optimistic hope of the weaver that the braiding of two into one will yield a singularity stronger, more beautiful, and more responsive to contemporary need and challenge than could be created from either on its own.

Conference registration will be limited to 200 persons. It will include both adult learners and some 40 indigenous youth whose attendance is intended to deepen their appreciation of traditional science and knowing, enhance their sense of identity, and promote more purposeful learning, especially in science and mathematics, as prerequisites for their effective leadership of their people in the years ahead.

Registration forms and information are available by e-mail at or by mail at BMT Braiding Conference, P.O. Box 30396, Flagstaff, AZ 86003, and at the Black Mesa Trust Web site, Registration for the Conference including all meals, banquet attendance and materials is $175, which may be paid by check or by credit card through PayPal.

Other members of the core group of dialogue participants include: Angelita Borbon, Pasqua Yaqui practitioner of sacred science and Mesoamerican oral traditions; Phillip Duran, physicist and former dean of science and mathematics at Northwest Indian College; Alan Hamilton, president of Rio Grande Return; Rabbi Nina Perlmutter, emeritus faculty and former chair, Philosophy and Religious Studies, Yavapai College; Al Qöyawayma, Hopi scientist, engineer and artist; Thomas Sisk, professor of Ecology and graduate programs director, Center for Sustainable Environments, Northern Arizona University; and Eric Weislogel, executive director of Metanexus Institute, an international transdisciplinary network in science and religion.

The conference is sponsored by Black Mesa Trust, Northern Arizona University, the Museum of Northern Arizona and others. Funding for the conference is provided by the Christensen Fund, the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians, the Marguerite Casey Foundation, the SB Foundation, and others, including individuals. Persons and institutions interested in providing additional support to expand conference access and opportunity or to underwrite the work of Black Mesa Trust generally can contact Black Mesa Trust Executive Director Vernon Masayesva at

Dorinda Moreno
Elders of 4 Colors 4 Directions
Hitec Aztec Collaborations/FM Global

Gathering and Honoring "Indians Of All Tribes"
and the Legacy of Richard Oakes, Mohawk Warrior

April 25, 2009


*Booth application deadline is Friday, April 3rd. Non-profits free. $35 for vendors & fee includes 2 tickets to KFOK Spring Concert. *For KFOK Concert tickets contact Mignon, 530-333-0298, and mention Richard Oakes & Indians of All Tribes, FM Global shall receive $l for each ticket sold in our name. A sell-out concert is expected, so please act now. Only $12.50 in advance or 15.00 at the door. Concert proceeds to benefit KFOK (Licensed to American River Folk Society, a 501(c) 3, IRS EIN# 68-0422260).

Consider a donation to help cover travel & lodging, Four Directions and MexicaAzteca danzantes in helping cover expenses. Make check payable to Moreno & Associates, 1130 E Clark Ave #150-126, Orcutt, CA 93455.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Carpinteria School Board to Decide Mascot Issue
The War Over the Warrior

Carpinteria School Board to Decide Mascot Issue: The War Over the Warrior
March 12, 2009, Santa Barbara Independent
By Cathy Murillo
It seemed clear enough to Eli Cordero—the Warrior mascot images displayed all over his high school campus were offensive and should be removed. They are caricatures of Native American people, he thought. Many incorporate feathers, which are considered sacred to his Chumash spiritual tradition. And overall, how could a race of people serve as a plaything for a publicly funded school?
But the issue of removing the Carpinteria High School images—murals, sculptures, tile art, letterhead logo—turned out to be anything but clear and simple. After Cordero proposed the change last spring, a “save the mascot” movement was launched to preserve what some people see as years of sports history and tradition. A faction of the community refused to accept the board’s 3-2 vote to keep the Warrior name but get rid of the Indian-themed icons.
After a year of community tension, the Carpinteria mascot controversy may be settled on Tuesday, March 17, when school board trustees are scheduled to review recommendations of the Native American Imagery Committee, a group of people appointed by the board to evaluate each individual mural, artifact, and emblem. Based on the committee’s findings, the images may be retained, removed, or altered.
Certain factors work against Cordero’s proposal. For example, last November’s election changed the makeup of the school board and Cordero’s supporters believe the votes are there to rescind the prior decision. Also, the school district secured a legal opinion that states “continuing use of Native American imagery and the Warrior nickname does not violate any federal, state, or local law on its face.”
Eli Cordero, now 16, understands better than anyone that his battle is all uphill. After months of delay and acrimony—he’s received two death threats—Cordero is just as passionate as the day he presented his petition signed by 50 fellow students, as well as a stack of documents related to Indian mascot challenges nationwide.
Paul Wellman
Eli Cordero
“Coming from a native perspective, it’s hard to explain to other people. They don’t understand why I have long hair, that I’ve been raised in the culture, having danced my dances and sung my songs,” Cordero said. “The images are run-of-the-mill stereotypes of Native Americans. They are on floor mats and tables, they get walked on and eaten on. It’s very disgraceful and demeaning.”
Cordero is not alone in his fight against the Warrior mascot. Individuals and organizations have formed CARE (Coalition Against Racism in Education) to support his cause. A sampling of its 27 members includes the American Civil Liberties Union of Santa Barbara, American Indian Movement West, Black Student Union of Santa Barbara City College, El Congreso Students Association of UCSB, and the Fund for Santa Barbara.
On the other side, a strong showing is expected from people supporting the Warrior Spirit Never Dies campaign. Businessman Don Risdon is a lifelong Carpinteria resident who graduated from Carpinteria High in 1975. He especially defends the logo used by the school and its athletics department—a design of the letter “C” with an arrow and two feathers. The student who designed it came to one of the heated board hearings and explained the elements, he said.
“The ‘C’ is for Carpinteria, and the arrow is for moving forward, and the feathers are a symbol of peace,” said Risdon, who played on the school’s tennis team. “So I don’t think that is offensive.” Risdon also believes the imagery committee wrongly included “outsiders”—people from Goleta, for instance. And he points to the school board election as proof that Carpinterians want to retain the mascot images.
Recently seated boardmember Lou Panizzon ran and won on a platform strong on keeping the mascot images. Panizzon, formerly a coach and principal at the high school, acknowledges that Cordero finds the Indian images offensive, but “lots of things offend people. Like smoking. So we’ve made rules dealing with smokers, but we haven’t banned smoking,” he said.
“Most people in this community just want the school to drag itself out of the 19th century and into the 21st century,” — Leslie Deardorff
Providing a contrast to Panizzon is his fellow trustee Leslie Deardorff. She hopes the current board respects last year’s vote and urges her colleagues to honor the recommendations of the committee, whatever those may be. Deardorff refers to a statement by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights condemning the use of Native American images and nicknames as sports symbols. Published in 2001, the statement claimed the images are “particularly inappropriate and insensitive in light of the long history of forced assimilation that American Indian people have endured in this country.”
“Most people in this community just want the school to drag itself out of the 19th century and into the 21st century,” she said.
The legal opinion from the school district’s attorneys, which can be found on the Carpinteria Unified School District’s Web site (, is a fascinating overview of mascots that various ethnic groups claim are offensive. While it states the Warrior images are legal, it also cites case law that school districts are within their legal rights to reject such icons and monikers.
It also reveals that Carpinteria is in the company of schools that refuse to get rid of “Rebels” references and images of the Confederate flag, even though African-American students protest such representations as a result of their connections to slavery. Conversely, the Los Angeles Unified School District eliminated all American Indian mascots in its system in 1997. Carpinterians both in favor of and opposed to the Warrior mascot will no doubt be eagerly awaiting March 17 to find out whether their high school will decide to be like those that cling to their past, regardless of accusations of racism, or those that validate such claims by shedding the contentious icons.
I love seeing young students empowered to express their rights. Although deep seeded community spirit runs the gambit in Carpenteria, I find it wonderful that there is still a Native American voice coming from our youth.
I'm trying to figure out how Carpinteria High School celebrates it's Native American roots, if not by respecting its people and their beliefs. It is so crystal clear to me how these racial issues got put in place, more in a time when racism was less subtle. This change will be good for all.
whatsername (anonymous profile)
March 12, 2009 at 9:53 a.m. (Suggest removal)
Eli is a brave young man and his family should be commended for raising him in the Native traditions. I am an educator in Indiana but lived in Santa Barbara and graduated from UCSB. Ultimately the side favoring mascots want to keep the "team spirit" for sports. So, sports are more important than the overwhelming evidence that race based mascots are harmful to the education of all students. Got it. And the outsiders who support Mr. Cordero? Wonder what country Mr. Panizzon's family hails from? I am guessing that the Carpenteria Mafias would be OK with him. Have a mascot with slicked back hair dance out singing a tune with Cosa Nostra prominent in the lyrics. Students chanting to the other team "rub-em-out" or "fuggedaboutit" when the other team scores? Outsiders changed the south from the parochial racism that plagued the ignorant locals. Outsiders must also teach in the schools since there is no college in Carpenteria. Outsiders ship food, gas, and other goods to Carpenteria. Oh, I get it, outsiders are welcome only if they bring something needed or wanted to the town. Well, in this case, you need some learning. And the first thing to learn is Indians are no longer honored by the macot. Children in school suffer from the use of that mascot. As an educator, the last is convincing enough for me.
Johnnie (anonymous profile)
March 12, 2009 at 10:54 a.m. (Suggest removal)
Not to nitpick folks, but it's CarpInteria, not Carpenteria.
That aside, as a former student of this high school, and someone who still resides in Carpinteria AND being of partial Native American descent myself, I think I can see both sides of it.
From my perspsective, though, until this person spoke up, I never really saw the Warrior symbol or mascot as anything but a source of pride, a nod to the heritage of the area.
I have to wonder if I'm not alone in thinking that perhaps it's an overreaction based on VALID concerns about how native Americans are portrayed in symbol.
I might be able to understand it better if the association with a Warrior were extremely negative, violently sterotyped or antiquated. But, it's not. I'm sure the case might be made that Native Americans, particularly Chumash were incredibly peaceful people, but history and other symbolic portraiture of them made by Native American groups shows them as proud, and somewhat warrior-like. I wonder if the symbol could be changed to reflect a more agraian individual that is in keeping with the realism of what Chumash life was like in the valley.
By the time I was attening Carp High in the late 1980s, there were no Indian chants at sports events or overtly arcane references to Indians. I never felt that Warrior Pride was anything other than a noble symbol.
I'm still confused as to how this "hurts children" but I do feel encouraged that there are still children who are willing to stand up for something they believe in, whether or not that belief is something I agree with.
It saddens me that this has brought out the worst behavior of the adults in the community.
I think the saddest part of this entire issue is that people don't seem to have the introspection to realize that sometimes a symbol isn't as important as the collective mindset of a town. In this case, it's turned nasty and that's much more offensive than that old statue ever could be, in my opinion.
Native1 (anonymous profile)
March 12, 2009 at 11:30 a.m. (Suggest removal)
Could we live without these symbols of Native American Indians? What would we gain? What would be lost if we were to abandon them? American Indians would feel less ridiculed and stereotyped as bucked toothed, savages, and or stupid if we did not use them. We as Americans would accomplish removing one more reminder of our past insensitive and inappropriate behavior. Maybe it would help to restore some of the self esteem taken away from the American Indian people. The removal of these reminders of our racism could help heal the rift between American Indians and white people. Our Schools would be forced to give up a traditional mascot and find another. Maybe these schools have had these mascots for generations? It is their own sense of history that would have to be set aside. Booster clubs, athletic teams, and retailers would lose revenue in items already manufactured. I guess the biggest loss would be to the fans that saw these mascots as familiar. Familiarity is important in people accepting anything. A person feels connected to an event or community with the use of symbols. In this case, the use of mascots are the symbols athletic teams use to help build cohesiveness with their fans.
I think American Indian racism continues today for the all the wrong reasons and is totally unacceptable. As a government we have spent billions of dollars to teach awareness of African American heritage, African American history, and we even celebrate African American leadership. What we seem to be incapable of is celebrating an indigenous people such as Native American Indians. What do we teach our children in American Indian Heritage Month? Most people don’t know there is one. Where are the American Indian leaders? In my opinion, the major reason racism continues today is we have hidden our shame. Our shame is the American Indians. We have made them invisible to us. The reservations are in very rural areas. Our education of their culture is nonexistent in suburban schools. Until there is a civil rights movement that centers on the Native American Indian there will continue to be Indian racism.
Source: Corine Fairbanks 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno




Marc Simmons: Archaeologist unearthed Pueblo life
Who Discovered Machu Picchu?
La Cultura Mesoamericana de Cuicuilco 

Marc Simmons: Archaeologist unearthed Pueblo life
February 16, 2009  

"In the Museum of New Mexico's photo archives is an extraordinary image of the members of the 1910 archaeological field school taken at their camp by the ruins in Frijoles Canyon, now Bandelier National Monument.  In the picture are 10 stalwart young men, several of whom would gain fame as first-rate archaeologists. Shown with them is Dr. Edgar L. Hewett,  (with the jacket) head of training for the field school and the museum's newly appointed director.

In the picture are 10 stalwart young men, several of whom would gain fame as first-rate archaeologists. Shown with them is Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, head of training for the field school and the museum's newly appointed director.

Standing to one side of the men in their work clothes are two hawkish-faced young women, dressed incongruously in Victorian style white blouses and floor-length skirts.  The pair are Miss Maud Woy of Denver and Miss Barbara Freire-Marreco of Oxford, England. They, too, had signed on to learn the basics of archaeological investigation."

"Trail Dust: Female archaeologist unearthed pueblo culture". 
Marc Simmons Feb 13, 2009

At this early date, the excavation of ancient ruins was considered to be strictly a male occupation. Hewett, however, had taken his doctorate at a Swiss university where he had female students in his classes. That convinced him that women could and should become archaeologists, if they had a genuine interest in the field.

But as it turned out, having two unattached ladies in camp with so many youthful men proved to be an unworkable situation. Dr. Hewett, therefore, decided to detach the Misses Woy and Freire-Marreco and have them begin collecting ethnographic data at nearby pueblos.

Maud Woy seems to have faded from the scene, perhaps having no true vocation for such work. On the other hand, Barbara Freire-Marreco eventually built a professional career from that experience.

Hewett knew people at most of the Tewa pueblos north of Santa Fe, and hence he easily made arrangements for Barbara to not only gain admission to Santa Clara, but also to reside there off and on through 1913.

Upon beginning work, she was 21. In 1908, she had been one of the first anthropology graduates from prestigious Oxford University in her native England.

The Santa Clarans took to their English guest at once. Part of the reason was that she learned to speak Tewa, no little achievement. Further, Miss Freire-Marreco obtained and preserved much information on many old Native customs that were on the point of extinction.

Although Dr. Hewett seemed to give his lady-student free rein in the kind of material she should collect, he appears to have pointed her toward "women's issues," believing that such interviews conducted by a woman ethnologist would more likely be successful.

Barbara recorded a variety of processes and customs related to maintaining the Indian household, ranging from corn grinding to belt- or sash-weaving. She also seemed to have a special interest in agriculture, the traditional economic mainstay of all the pueblos.

Hewett's student also directed her attention to identifying elements of Hispanic folklore that long ago had been assimilated into the culture of Santa Clara. In her day, all the elderly people there conversed easily in Spanish, something that is no longer true.

For instance, one of her informants was José Naranjo, who related several folk stories deriving from Spain that were heavily Indianized in the telling. "He gave them to me," Barbara reported, "in a mixture of Spanish, Tewa, and English — the last supplied by his wife."

In another instance, Barbara learned of a New Mexican woman, a curandera (healer) "who was much employed by the Santa Clara Indians" and "had a well-known reputation for treating cases of difficult labor."

That seems to suggest that the curandera was also a midwife, but not necessarily. She may have just dispensed her remedies without assisting in delivery.  Barbara discovered, too, that New Mexicans living in the neighborhood who were sick, in hopes of being cured sometimes made a vow to join in the Indian dances at Santa Clara. To do so they obtained permission from the cacique, or religious leader of the village.

Dr. Hewett made a wise decisions when he elected to place Barbara Freire-Marreco at Santa Clara Pueblo. For her part, she made good use of her time.

Note: During the past century, some 50 or more women archaeologists and ethnologists worked in the Southwest, certainly an extraordinary number.
Sent by Dorinda Moreno



Who Discovered Machu Picchu?

By Peter Eisner, Smithsonian magazine, March 2009


Controversy swirls as to whether an archaeologist's claim to fame as the discoverer of Machu Picchu has any merit  


Harry Bingham's father's crowning achievement was his exploration of Machu Picchu almost 100 years ago. Yet Hiram Bingham III's status as the "discoverer" of the ruins is in dispute, and the Peruvian government has demanded that Yale University, where Bingham taught, return all the artifacts he took home from Inca lands.
Bingham's persistent search for the fabled Incan capital culminated on July 24, 1911. Weary from hiking for hours, directed by a friendly pair of local farmers, he marched into the mountains accompanied by a local guide and a Peruvian policeman until "suddenly we found ourselves in the midst of a jungle-covered maze of small and large walls," he wrote in an account published in Harper's Monthly in April 1913.
"Surprise followed surprise until there came the realization that we were in the midst of as wonderful ruins as any ever found in Peru," he wrote. He had come upon Machu Picchu ("old peak" in Quechua). While there was evidence of graffiti left by a local mule driver, he added, "It is possible that not even the conquistadors ever saw this wonderful place."
Bingham's chronicle brought him acclaim ("The greatest archaeological discovery of the age," the New York Times called it), but now archaeologists in Peru contend that he was not the first outsider to come upon the 15th-century Incan city's ruins, as well he should have known.
"The presence of several German, British and American explorers is recognized, and that they had drawn up maps," says Jorge Flores Ochoa, a Peruvian anthropologist. Bingham "had more academic knowledge.... But he was not describing a place that was unknown."
The contention is not new. For example, in a September 8, 1916, letter to the Times, German mining engineer Carl Haenel said he had accompanied the explorer J.M. von Hassel to the area in 1910, though he offered no documentation of such a journey. But even Bingham admitted that "it seemed almost incredible that this city, only five days' journey from Cuzco, should have remained so long undescribed and comparatively unknown."
Richard L. Burger, a professor of anthropology at Yale, where Bingham taught Latin American history from 1907 to 1915, says he's skeptical of the Peruvian assertions. If others did visit, he says, they either came to pillage or didn't recognize the site's importance. Besides, he adds, Bingham "never claimed to have been the first modern person to have set foot in Machu Picchu." In Peru, some people have called Bingham the "scientific discoverer of Machu Picchu," Burger says. "I think that is fairly accurate."
Yale, for its part, is embroiled in a dispute with the government of Peru over the artifacts and bones that Bingham brought home. In 2007, the university agreed to return most of them in exchange for keeping some for further research. In a lawsuit filed last December in federal court, however, the government of Peru said Yale must return the entire collection.
Thomas Conroy, a Yale spokesman, said the university respects Peru's interests. "We still have the same goal, to seek an ongoing collaboration which reflects Peru's interest in the material and the rest of the world's interest," Conroy says. "And Yale does think such an agreement could serve as a model or an example of how [similar] disputes could be settled."
Bingham (in Peru in 1911) wrote of a "jungle-covered maze."
Granger Collection, New York





La Cultura Mesoamericana de Cuicuilco


La colección de objetos e instrumentos de la cultura mesoamericana de Cuicuilco se encuentra desde hace 52 años en poder de la institución.

Mexicali, BC. La Universidad de Berkeley de California entregará al gobierno de México una colección de piezas arqueológicas de la cultura mesoamericana de Cuicuilco, que desde hace 52 años se encuentra en su poder.

Representantes del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) recibirán la colección de objetos e instrumentos por parte de la institución estadunidense en la sede del Consulado de México en Calexico.

El cónsul Pablo Arnaud ponderó la repatriación a nuestro país de las piezas arqueológicas porque desde hace 52 años se encuentran en poder del centro universitario.

La cultura cuicuilca se asentó en el sur de la ciudad de México -en la zona de Tlalpan- hasta el siglo I de nuestra era cuando se expandió la cultura de Teotihuacán.

Source: Juarez, La Jornada Mexico
Antonio Heras, corresponsal, Publicado: 10/03/2009 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno


La Inquisicion
La Inquisicion en Peru

La Inquisición en Perú



En 1568, Felipe II nombró a Don Francisco de Toledo, Conde de Oropesa, Virrey del Perú, en quien confiaba que consolidara los derechos y privilegios reales frente a los encomenderos, al mismo tiempo que pusiera los medios para que finalizaran las sublevaciones de los indios.

El virrey Toledo está considerado por la historia como el organizador del virreinato peruano, ya que estableció las bases del sistema colonial en el Perú. Fue el que implantó la “mita”, un sistema de trabajo por turnos, que movilizaba una cantidad de mano de obra muy importante y que beneficiaba tanto a las autoridades incas como al virreinato.

La riqueza minera de Potosí, cuya primera mina había sido registrada por el español Juan de Villarroel en 1545, se beneficiaron mucho por el sistema de la “mita”, que en lengua quechua quiere decir “turno”, y a finales del siglo XVIII, se producían mas de 250.000 marcos de plata al año.

Otra de las obras que emprendió Francisco de Toledo, fue la implantación del Tribunal de la Inquisición en Lima, para lo que habían sido nombrados por el entonces inquisidor general, el cardenal de Sigüenza, como primeros inquisidores Andrés de Bustamante y Servan de Cerezuela, con la fatalidad que el primero falleció en pleno viaje cerca de Panamá y fue solo Cerezuela el que tomó posesión el 29 de enero de 1570.

El virrey se trajo a Lima como confesor y como consultor en materias de jurisprudencia para la formación de códigos y ordenanzas, al Dr. Pedro Ordóñez y Florez, que había sido Rector del Colegio de la Orden de Alcántara en Salamanca y estaba doctorado en Cánones por la Universidad de San Marcos, a quien nombró inquisidor en sustitución de Cerezuela

El inquisidor Pedro Ordóñez  estableció una ejemplar jurisprudencia y aunque se habían suprimido las torturas a los indios por haber sido considerados neófitos en la fe, cuando el Dr. Ordóñez regresó a España, después de diecisiete años de mandato, dejó la exorbitante cantidad de 184.225 presos. Aunque en la historia del Tribunal de Lima, solo hubo 32 victimas.

En su regreso a tierras castellanas fue nombrado presidente del Tribunal de Contratación de Sevilla y consejero de Indias. En 1613 tomó posesión del Arzobispado de Santa Fe, en cuya condición falleció.

Custodio Rebollo
Publicado en Odiel Información el 4 de marzo de 2009




Leía hace unos días un informe sobre la Inquisición y su forma de actuar y percibía lo terrible que sería para aquella pobre gente que fueron sometidos a juicios y tormentos monstruosos, que movidos y dirigidos por el temor creado por los inquisidores, llegaban a delatarse ellos mismos.

Cuando un Inquisidor llegaba por primera vez a una zona o comarca, lo primero que hacían era instaurar el miedo y para ello en la misa del domingo o día festivo, en la que estaba toda la familia y los criados, después del sermón, el  inquisidor sostenía un gran crucifijo y pedía que se persignaran y repitieran la firme promesa de ayudar a la Inquisición , denunciando los casos que conociesen, incluso de ellos mismos, con lo que serían tratados con mas benevolencia que si la denuncia partía de otra persona.

En el Manual del siglo XIV se decía textualmente: “ Debemos recordar que el propósito principal del juicio y la ejecución no es salvar el alma del acusado, sino alcanzar el bien público y dar temor a los otros.”

Surgían delaciones como la de Aldonza Vargas que fue acusada en Canarias por haber sonreído cuando se nombró a la Virgen María o la de Alonso de Jaén que fue procesado por haber orinado en los muros de una iglesia.

El miedo a los vecinos era muy fuerte, ya que una denuncia infundada, muchas veces por envidia o celos, daba origen a un proceso en el que difícilmente podrían salir incólume. Hubo denuncias entre familias, incluso entre padres e hijos y todo por salvar el pellejo.

Cuando sufrían torturas,  las confesiones eran crueles como la de Maria Álvarez, de Granada, que denunció como herejes a su madre, hermanas y algunos parientes.

Como la información que tenían los inquisidores procedían de lo que le decía la gente y no realizaban averiguaciones, eran los propios delatores los que materialmente dictaban las formas de justicia.

En la Inquisición los testigos tenían muchas mas ventajas que en cualquier tribunal secular, por la muy sencilla razón que se ocultaban sus nombres, justificando esta necesidad para evitar que fueran asesinados antes de testificar.

Afortunadamente la Inquisición fue abolida, aunque aún quede mas de uno que se cree que es Inquisidor.

                                     Custodio  Rebollo         

Publicado en Odiel Informacion, de Huelva, el 25 de marzo de 2009



San Fernando Mission Event, circa 1940-01
April 2, Artist, Carmen Lomas Garza, 7th Annual . .  A Viva Voz!
April 7, Semana Santa, photo exhibit by Jesse Herrera, runs through May 31st
New César Chávez exhibition opens in San Antonio
April 4th, Reenactment, Tejano Declaration of Independence
Recommended websites for Texas History
Hidden History
Los Texas Wranglers Ballroom Extravaganza "Waltz Across Texas"
Nuevo Santander by Raul N. Longoria
Los B's Networking online
Texas universities see record number of applications
Archivo Digital de Documentos, Sobre Guerras de Texas, 1835, 1846-1848.

San Fernando Mission Event, circa 1940-01

Dear Mimi, 

I thought that you might use these pictures in your next issue of Somos Primos in Texas history or Family genealogy. They were taken at the San Fernando Mission in San Antonio Texas, circa 1940/41 at either a Fiestas Patrias celebration or a Christmas pageant per my sister, Maria, who is now in her mid-seventies. My sister was maybe 6/7 years at the time. My brother was 4/5. My mother, Sapopa Rendon Hernandez, hand sewed these outfits for both my brother Francisco, in the blue page boy costume and Maria, in the pink princess costume. An interesting point about this picture is that unknown to my mother, who is now deceased, and to my siblings at that time, is that they were wearing these outfits in a Mission that was built in the honor of King Fernando 111, their grandfather, approximately 18 generations removed!! 

My parents, now deceased, migrated from  Abasolo Coahuila via Piedra Negras circa 1920, and lived in San Antonio from 1920 through 1944 and then migrating to the Lettuce Bowl Capitol of the World, Salinas, California in 1944.  Five of my siblings were born in San Antonio and the younger three were born in Salinas.  To this day I have many relatives who still reside in San Antonio as well as Coahuila and Monterrey N.L.

Sincerely, Jaime Rendon Hernandez


These two photos were taken circa 1938, 
in San Antonio TX.  Again, my brother Francisco is in the soldier outfit.  He is holding something in his right hand?  What, I do not know!!!.  

Maria Del Refugio Hernandez is in the white dress with boots.  My oldest brother, Dagoberto Hernandez is sitting in the middle!!  

My son Jaime is on the left.   On the right is my Father, his grandfather, Ramon Rubio Hernandez.  You can see a lot of resemblance in this photos.  My son, was born 7 days after my Father passed on.   


Artist, Carmen Lomas Garza 
Seventh Annual . . .  A Viva Voz! 
Thursday, April 2, 2009
4:30 – 6:30 p.m.

You are cordially invited to a presentation by renowned Chicana artist Carmen Lomas Garza 
at the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection.
This event is the seventh annual A Viva Voz! Celebration of U.S. Latino culture sponsored by the Benson Latin American Collection and includes an exhibit of Carmen Lomas Garza’s extraordinary work.
 Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection
The University of Texas Libraries, Sid Richardson Hall Unit 1 
Parking in Lot 38, adjacent to Sid Richardson Hall. Entry from Red River Street.
RSVP to Eve McQuade at or call 512-495-4363

Sent by Roberto Calderon



Semana Santa, photo exhibit by Jesse Herrera
Semana Santa, photo exhibit by Jesse Herrera, currently on display at the Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS), WMB 5.102, through May 31, 2009.  A CMAS PláticArte by Jesse Herrera has been scheduled for Tuesday, April 7, 2009, at 12 noon in the Chicano Culture Room of the Texas Union (4.206).
The photo exhibit Semana Santa is a representation of photographer Jesse Herrera's documentation of a religious ritual common to Spain and Mexico. The images are a comparison of the differences and parallels in these rituals and how the respective populations celebrate them. For Herrera, photographing the confradias was professionally satisfying, but more importantly, they allowed him to de-mistify and understand a culture seeped in religious tradition and professions of faith.


New César Chávez exhibition opens in San Antonio

Liz Bohman Barger



All my life, I have been driven by one dream, one goal, one vision: To overthrow a farm labor system in this nation which treats farm workers as if they were not important human beings. Farm workers are not agricultural implements; they are not beasts of burden to be used and discarded. That dream was born in my youth. It was nurtured in my early days of organizing. It has flourished . . .”

– César Chávez, address to the Commonwealth Club of San Francisco, November 9, 1984

Portrait of César Chávez and his "Huelga" car taken during the Delano Grape Strike, J.D. Marlin Ranch, Tulare County, California, by unknown photographer, c. 1965. United Farm Workers Collection. Courtesy of the Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University. Photo reprinted with permission of the César E. Chávez Foundation.

On March 31st, César Chávez Day, we commemorate the man behind this determined dream and the lifetime of achievements that followed in its wake. A hero in his own time, César Chávez devoted his adult life to bringing justice, dignity, and equality to U.S. farm workers. As a founding leader of the United Farm Workers, Chávez not only established the first permanent union for farm workers, but also won labor contracts improving conditions for tens of thousands. His dedication to the movement inspired millions to take up his seemingly impossible struggle in their own communities. All the while, Chávez held steadfast to his vision of a better, more equal America.

Humanities Texas brings this civil rights hero to life with a new exhibition, In His Own Words: The Life and Work of César Chávez, now on display at The University of Texas at San Antonio’s Institute of Texan Cultures. Curated in collaboration with John C. Hammerback, Ph.D., affiliate faculty member in communication at the University of Washington, the exhibition depicts Chávez’s accomplishments. Thirty-eight photographs paired with autobiographical reflections from Chávez’s own speeches, interviews, and writings illustrate his emergence as a leading figure in the farm workers movement and his successes in pursuing his dream.

The exhibition tells the story of the twentieth-century labor leader through his own voice, beginning with his childhood. Although born into a family that owned land and ran a local store near Yuma, Arizona, Chávez came face to face with the harsh realities of migrant life at an early age. His family lost their land during the Great Depression, headed west in search of work, and eventually settled in California. Migrant life brought difficult times. In communities where the family traveled, worked, and lived, Chávez suffered the pain of physical labor as well as the sting of racial discrimination. When Chávez joined the Navy in 1944, he was exposed to deeper discrimination and openly challenged segregation at a movie theater in Delano, California, the first of many confrontations.

These early experiences left a permanent scar on Chávez. After his tour in the Navy, Chávez returned to California, where he studied the teachings of the Catholic Church and began organizing in the community. Incorporating ideals and strategies from his parents, his religion, and his mentors, Chávez cultivated a strong and unwavering commitment to social justice. From then on, he dedicated his time to organizing a successful farm workers’ union. As founding leader of the United Farm Workers, Chávez worked tirelessly to secure fair pay, job safety, better living conditions, and other essential protections for farm workers. Through strikes, boycotts, marches, and other nonviolent tactics, Chávez’s vision became a reality—the fulfillment of his childhood dream.

In His Own Words documents Chávez’s contributions to the improvement of farm workers’ conditions and to the betterment of American society. Throughout the research process, Humanities Texas collected photographs from the United Farm Workers Collection in the Walter P. Reuther Library at Wayne State University, as well as the César E. Chávez Foundation and the Farmworker Movement Documentation Project. With excerpts from his dynamic speeches, interviews, and authoritative writings, the exhibition provides detailed insight into Chávez’s life from his own perspective.

In His Own Words will be on display at The University of Texas at San Antonio’s Institute of Texan Cultures through May 25. If your organization is interested in renting this exhibition, please contact our exhibitions coordinator Lindsey Wall at or 512.440.1991. For more information please see the exhibition's page.

In His Own Words is a We the People initiative of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

César Chávez addresses an enthusiastic crowd, ca. 1966–1968. Photograph by Jon Lewis. Courtesy of the Farmworker Movement Documentation Project.

© 2007 Humanities Texas, the state affiliate of the National Endowment for the Humanities

Sent by Roberto Calderon


April 4th, Reenactment
“Tejano Declaration of Independence,”

The public is invited to attend the third annual reenactment of the “Tejano Declaration of Independence,” to be celebrated in two places this year. In Austin Saturday April 4th at 12 noon at the Austin Community College Riverside Campus 1020 Grove Blvd Building G. Room 8100 at 12 noon. In San Antonio on Sunday April 5that 2 P.M. in front of the Spanish Governors Palace 105 Plaza de Armas.
On April 6th 1813, after a year of bloody warfare Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara Uribe, leader of the revolution declared that Texas was free and independent of Spanish rule.
Maclovio Perez, a well known TV personality from San Antonio will emcee the events. Scheduled to speak will be scholars of Texas History. Dr Gilberto Hinojosa, author and historian from The University of Incarnate Word will speak in San Antonio along with LULAC National President Rosa Rosales and “Defend the Honor,” Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Associate Journalism Professor from the University of Texas at Austin. Dr J. Frank de la Teja, the official state historian will speak in Austin. And as always special guest, Robert Thonhoff past president of the Texas State Historical Association, and authors Joe Lopez and Dan Arellano
Join us as we celebrate the most important day in Tejano History “The First Texas Republic” and the “Emerald Green Flag.” The events are free and open to the public. These events are sponsored by the Latino/Latin American Studies (el centro) Austin Community College, the Bejareno Genealogy Society of San Antonio and the Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin.
For more information: Dan Arellano

Recommended websites for Texas History

The following links are from the Pre America. Revolution to the Independence of TX. They include information on both Jose Galvez, and his son Gov. of Louisiana Bernardo Galvez: 
The three previous web sites continue with this chapter of the History of Mexico and Mexico Ind. from Spain.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


“Hidden History”

“Hidden History”
The Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin is proud to announce that one of our members, Dan Arellano, Author/Historian and our Vice President will be in the April Edition of Texas Monthly. Texas Monthly has a readership of approximately 2.3 million readers which means that the First Texas Republic and the “Battle of Medina” a part of Texas history, will finally receive the recognition it deserves.
Texas is a very large and diverse state that proudly boasts that we were a Republic before we became a state in this great union, but the facts are that we were a Republic on two different occasions, that we have three written Declarations of Independence with three written Constitutions. We have been taught that we have had six flags that have flown over Texas and that is not true, we have had seven. We have been taught that we are a nation of immigrants and that is not true. Our ancestors did not immigrate to the United States and we crossed no borders, the border crossed us.
Many Mexican-Americans have sacrificed their lives defending freedom and democracy. Over a thousand Tejanos were killed in one battle alone in defense of these causes, but this conflict was not on foreign soil. Not on the beaches in Normandy, not in Korea or Viet Nam, although Tejanos were there, but much closer to home, in South Texas, less than twenty miles from San Antonio. The “Battle of Medina,” …the forgotten history of the Tejanos, these first sons and daughters of Texas, unknown and unrecognized for their ultimate sacrifice.
On August 18, 1813 the battle between the Republican Army of the North consisted of nine hundred Tejanos, three hundred Americans, and three hundred Native Americans against a Spanish Army led by Juaquin de Arredondo. Out of the 1500 that set out to fight only 100 would survive. Ninety of those survivors were American, which proves beyond any shadow of a doubt that the Tejanos stood and fought to the last man. After the battle another 327 Tejanos would be executed in San Antonio and another 100 would be slain as they fled towards Louisiana, making it the bloodiest struggle for freedom ever fought on Texas soil. 
Geneva Sanchez, President 
Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin 
Fore more  information contact Dan Arellano 


Los Texas Wranglers Ballroom Extravaganza 
"Waltz Across Texas"

Los Texas Wranglers Ballroom Extravaganza "Waltz Across Texas"
Friday June 26, 2009 
The Monarch Event Center at  Lincoln Village  
Dear Friends,  

As we enter our 10th year as Los Texas Wranglers, we cordially invite you to our first social event. It will be held at the very lovely and luxurious Monarch Event Center at Lincoln Village in Austin, Texas. This is a ballroom setting, Black Tie and Evening Gown Ball. It's the Ballroom Extravaganza "Waltz Across Texas" with Los Texas Wranglers.
Sincerely, Julian Fernandez
2912 Govalle Avenue
Austin, Texas 78702 
(512) 933-1485 
Advance Tickets $25.00 per couple
Los Texas Wranglers | 2912 Govalle Avenue | Austin | TX | 78702


NUEVO SANTANDER website by Raul N. Longoria

The marvelous website of  Raul N. Longoria, mounted 2001

The site includes history of South Texas and includes a database, surname list, name index, family charts, ancestral origins, homelands, nobility, surname origins, history of 

Having been in Nueva España for almost 150 years, it was not until the new province of Nuevo Santander came into being that our ancestors firmly planted their roots, nurtured them and cultivated them into a lasting legacy. A brief review of how and why Nuevo Santander came into being is thus necessary since it played such an important role in the history of so many South Texas families.

In the early 1700’s those areas that today comprise the Mexican state of Tamaulipas and South Texas were still the domain of native Indian tribes. Spain had not yet attempted to settle those areas, but the English and French had a well known interest in establishing a presence in lands that Spain claimed as her own. The extension of Spanish settlements into northern Mexico and Texas was thus prompted by a desire to halt English and French encroachments into Spanish territory and by a need to populate those regions to stop the Indian raids into the more populated regions of New Spain. The man chosen to head the colonization effort was Lieutenant Captain General Jose de Escandon, a native of the province of Santander in Spain and a man with a distinguished military career in New Spain.

Escandon received his appointment in September 1746, with orders to map the region and submit a proposal for entering the region and a plan for subjugating the natives. Escandon first initiated a detailed exploration of the region by dispatching seven different expeditions to survey the region and record their observations. Each expedition started from a different point within New Spain and all were to converge at the mouth of the Rio Grande. The starting points for the seven expeditions were Tampico, Villa de Valles (modern day Ciudad Valles), Queretaro, Linares (in Nuevo Leon), Cerralvo (in Nuevo Leon), Monclova (in Coahuila), and the presidio of La Bahia (near modern day Goliad, Texas). The Cerralvo group, under the command of Blas Maria de la Garza Falcon, departed Cerralvo on January 21, 1747, and reached the mouth of the Rio Grande a few days before the Queretaro group arrived on February 24, 1747. The remaining groups arrived later, except for the La Bahia group which for some unexplained reason ended up at el Paso del Cantaro (near modern day Roma, Texas) and sent their report to Escandon.

After the initial expeditions, almost two years passed in making ready for one of the greatest colonization efforts ever undertaken in the New World. The initial caravan was headed by Escandon and left Queretaro in December 1748; it was comprised of 750 soldiers and 2500 colonizers. The caravan picked up additional colonizers as it traveled northward to San Luis Potosi and then onward to Tula. Settlements established by this caravan were:

Villa de Llera de Canales (modern day Llera, Tamaulipas, to the south of Ciudad Victoria) (website), was founded on December 25, 1748. Escandon named it in honor of his wife Josefa de Llera y Ballas (he subsequently added de Canales in honor of a general named Servando Canales). Left in charge of 44 families and 11 soldiers was Capt. Jose de Escajadilla. 

San Fernando de Güemes (modern day Güemez, Tamaulipas, north of Ciudad Victoria) was established on January 1, 1749. Escandon named it in honor of the Viceroy Juan Francisco de Guemes Horcasitas Aguayo, the Count of Revillagigedo. Forty families and six soldiers remained there under the charge of Capt. Felipe Téllez Girón. 

San Antonio de Padilla (modern day Padilla, Tamaulipas) was established about 10 leagues northeast of San Fernando de Güemes on January 6, 1749. Escandon named it in honor of Doña Maria Padilla, the wife of the Count of Revillagigedo. Placed under the command of Capt. Gregorio de la Paz, it was comprised of 30 families and 11 soldiers. The settlers were from Rio Blanco, Linares and Hidalgo. 

Villa de Santander de los Cinco Señores (modern day Jimenez, Tamaulipas) (website) was established on February 17, 1749, and made the capital of the new colony of Nuevo Santander. Left in charge of 60 families and 12 soldiers was Capt. Guevara. Escandon named it after his home province of Santander in Spain. He also built his own home here and made the villa the capital of the new province of Nuevo Santander. This villa was the future birthplace of my father-in-law Mauro Alcala and the birthplace of several generations of his ancestors. It is quite probable they were descended from one of the original settlers, Jose de Alcala and his wife Maria Guadalupe, but I have not yet made that connection. In his inspection tour of 1757, Don Jose Tienda de Cuervo noted that Jose de Alcala had a hacienda of major livestock about 1½ leagues from the villa, had six children, all arms and ten horses. 

Nuestra Señora de Loreto (modern day Burgos, Tamaulipas) (website) was founded a few days later with Capt. Jose Antonio Leal in charge of 30 colonists and 8 soldiers. 
After the caravan was joined by a group of colonizers from Nuevo Leon led by Capt. Nicolas Merino, Escandon left this caravan and traveled northward to the point where the San Juan River enters the Rio Grande. Arriving there, Escandon discovered that the Cerralvo caravan was already there, busily establishing a settlement:

Nuestra Señora de Santa Ana de Camargo (modern day Camargo, Tamaulipas) was officially founded on March 5, 1749. Capt. Blas Maria de la Garza Falcon was in charge of 40 families, mainly from Nuevo Leon, and a few soldiers. Among the initial settlers were Diego Longoria and his family, including sons Matias, Vicente and Pedro. Camargo was the key settlement in our family history as many of our Longoria ancestors were among the initial settlers of Camargo. One branch of these Longorias, comprised of three sons of Matias Longoria, eventually resettled to a new settlement further down the Rio Grande. This new settlement became modern day Matamoros, across the river from Brownsville. It was in Brownsville that one descendant (Maria Lydia Garza Longoria) of that Matias Longoria branch became joined in 1939 with the Alcala family through her marriage with Mauro Alcala, whose family had arrived from Jimenez about 20 years earlier. And in 1968, another Longoria descendant (myself), this time from the Pedro Longoria branch, joined forever in holy matrimony with one of the Alcala descendants (Maria Minerva Alcala), further strengthening the ties between the two families and sprouting the Longoria-Alcala branch. 

Before departing Camargo, Escandon authorized the establishment of a mission further upriver on the Rio Grande. This mission was to be called San Agustin de Laredo. Escandon then continued down the Rio Grande some 12 leagues from Camargo, where he encountered another settlement that had been already started by another caravan from Nuevo Leon:
Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Reynosa (modern day Reynosa, Tamaulipas) was officially founded on March 14, 1749, and was under the command of Capt. Carlos Cantu, with 40 families, mainly from Nuevo Leon, and 11 soldiers. 

Escandon then departed the northernmost settlements and returned to resume the colonization efforts in the southern part of the new colony of Nuevo Santander.
Probably before Escandon could rejoin them, the remaining caravan that had started out from Queretaro founded the villa of San Fernando de la Llave (modern day San Fernando, Tamaulipas) (website) on March 19, 1749. Initially consisting of 40 families and 11 soldiers, it was joined by an additional 30 families soon thereafter. The settlers were from Cadereyta, Nuevo Leon, and were led by Fernando Sanchez Zamora. 

After being rejoined by Escandon, Nuestra Señora de Las Caldas de Altamira (modern day Altamira, just north of Tampico, Tamaulipas) was founded on May 2, 1749. Escandon named it in honor of the viceroy Juan Rodriguez de Albuerne, Marques de Altamira. Capt. Juan Francisco Barberena was left in command. 

The villa of San Juan Bautista de Horcasitas (previously known as Magiscatzin, but now modern day Gonzalez, Tamaulipas) (website) was founded on May 11, 1749, and placed under the command of Capt. Jose Antonio de Oyervides. 

The villa of Santa Barbara (modern day Ocampo, Tamaulipas), a short distance southwest of the first settlement of Llera, was founded on May 19, 1749. 

The villa of Real de los Infantes (modern day Bustamente, about 13 leagues north of Tula, Tamaulipas) was founded on May 29, 1749. Jacinto de Salazar initially petitioned Escandon to found this settlement after discovering mineral deposits in the area. 
Escandon then returned to Queretaro to report on the colonization effort. Shortly thereafter, on October 23, 1749, an official decree was signed in Spain making Jose de Escandon a Knight of Santiago and giving him the title of Count of Sierra Gorda.

In 1750, inspection tours of the existing settlements were begun. During his tour through Reynosa in July 1750, Escandon was petitioned by Miguel Martinez (the great-great-great-great-grandfather of Ana Treviño, wife of Eugenio Longoria, through her maternal grandfather’s branch) to start a new settlement about 20 leagues upstream from Camargo. Three months later, the governor received a similar request from Vicente Guerra, who stated that 26 families were already at the location.

Jose Vasquez Borrego, owner of a large hacienda in Coahuila, also made a similar request to start a new settlement, to be located on the left bank (the Texas side) of the Rio Grande even further upstream from the site requested by Martinez and Guerra.
Soon after Escandon’s inspection tour, the last 7 of the 19 new settlements were established:

After approving Borrego’s request, Nuestra Senora de Dolores (modern day Dolores, a few miles north of San Ygnacio, Texas) was founded on August 22, 1750, with 13 families. The founder of this settlement, Jose Vasquez Borrego, was the great-great-great-great-grandfather of Ana Treviño, the wife of Eugenio Longoria, through her maternal grandfather’s line. 

The villa of Soto la Marina (website) was founded on September 3, 1750. Originally located near an arroyo with good water, the site was moved to its present location in 1810 after a yellow fever epidemic decimated the population. 
The villa of Santa Maria de Aguayo (modern day Ciudad Victoria, the capital of Tamaulipas) (website) was founded on October 6, 1750. In 1825, it became the capital city of Tamaulipas and its name was changed to Victoria to honor the first president of Mexico, Don Guadalupe Victoria. 

After approving Guerra’s request, San Ignacio de Loyola de Revilla (referred to as Revilla, it became modern day Guerrero, Tamaulipas) was officially founded on October 10, 1750. The initial settlers were from Coahuila. 

The villa of Escandon (modern day Xicoténcatl, Tamaulipas) (website) was founded on March 15, 1751, with approximately 100 families under the command of Capt. Nicolas Alvarez. Initially named after Escandon himself, the name was subsequently changed to honor the Tlaxcalteca hero, Felipe Santiago Xicoténcatl. 

At this point the colonization effort slowed. But several noteworthy settlements were founded in the subsequent years. The next settlement to be officially founded was located about halfway between Camargo and Revilla, near a crossing on the Rio Grande named “El Paso del Cantaro”. The site had actually been the location of a ranch since 1734 and had initially been placed in the jurisdiction of Camargo by Escandon. Finally, in 1752, Escandon approved the official establishment of a separate settlement there.

La Purisima Concepcion de Mier (modern day Mier, Tamaulipas) was officially founded on March 6, 1752 and placed under the command of Capt. Jose Florencio Chapa. The settlement which had existed there prior to that time had been under the jurisdiction of Camargo. Many of the families living in Mier had close ties with those living in Camargo. 
Santo Domingo de Hoyos (modern day Hidalgo, Tamaulipas) was founded on May 19, 1752. Under the command of Capt. Domingo de Unzaga, it was settled initially by 180 settlers. 

Santillana (modern day Abasolo, Tamaulipas) (website) was founded on October 26, 1752. It initially had 18 families. 

There were several other settlements that had been made over the years by individuals without the proper authorization. Subsequent to 1752, some of these were approved by Escandon and were elevated in status to official settlements. In 1754, while Escandon was in Revilla, he was again approached by Jose Vasquez Borrego, who requested permission for Tomas Tadeo Sanchez to establish another settlement on the left bank (the Texas side) of the Rio Grande.

After Escandon gave his consent, the settlement of San Agustin de Laredo (modern day Laredo, Texas) (website) was officially founded on May 15, 1755. The founder, Tomas Tadeo Sanchez, was the great-great-great-grandfather of Ana Trevino Vidaurri, wife of Eugenio Longoria Villarreal, through her maternal grandfather’s line. 
The final two settlements, inhabited since before Escandon received his appointment, were located in the extreme southwestern corner of Nuevo Santander. They were not quite the frontier outposts that the other Escandon settlements were, but they apparently had never been officially recognized.

The settlement of Palmillas was officially recognized in 1756. 
The settlement of Jaumave (website) claims it was established by Escandon on May 19, 1744; however, this date is before Escandon received his appointment and before he initiated the colonization of Nuevo Santander. When it actually received official status is unclear. 

The Longoria-Alcala family has roots in many of the original Escandon settlements, most notably Camargo, Jimenez, Dolores, Laredo, Revilla, Mier and Reynosa. Of these, the settlement with the most roots is Camargo.  


Sent by Walter Herbeck

LOS B'S . . Online

Elsa & Walter Herbeck have organized a private network for  sharing  genealogy, historical, cultural, arts, music and entertainment events in South Texas.  Please contact them directly.  Los B's is seeking Tex/Mex researchers for networking purposes and for sharing  information in genealogy, historical, cultural, arts, music and entertainment events.

Texas universities see record number of applications
By Mark Norris  McClatchy-Tribune  Feb. 15, 2009

The economy may be tanking, but college-bound students are continuing to flood Texas universities with admission applications.

All four universities with January admission deadlines — Rice, Southern Methodist University, the University of Texas and Texas A&M — saw record numbers of freshman applicants for their fall 2009 classes. UT-Austin received more than 31,000 applications by its Jan. 15 deadline — a jump of about 1,800 over last year.

Texas A&M officials credit an effort between its regional offices and its home base in College Station for boosting applications 6.7 percent.

Ron Moss, SMU’s dean of undergraduate admission, said SMU is projected to have more than 9,000 applications for the first time in the school’s history. Rice had the earliest deadline in the state, Jan. 2, and received more than 11,000 applications.  

Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.


Archivo Digital de Documentos 
Sobre la Guerra de Texas, 1835, y la Guerra Mexico-Estados Unidos, 1846-1848.

Nota: I had been meaning to post this excellent digitized archival source for some time and am only now getting around to actually doing it.  The description accompanying the introductory page to the archive, housed at Mexico's Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores' Web site, is copied and pasted below; the link is also provided. The online archive is titled, "Archivo Digital de Documentos Sobre la Guerra de Texas, 1835, y la Guerra Mexico-Estados Unidos, 1846-1848."  The principal parties responsible for this digital archival project include the following (and I quote directly from the site's home page):
"La realización de este trabajo se llevó a cabo al amparo del convenio de colaboración entre The University of Texas Pan-American y el Acervo Histórico Diplomático de la Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores, instituciones que aportaron recursos humanos, técnicos y materiales. Por otra parte, The Summerlee Foundation otorgó el financiamiento para el desarrollo del proyecto. El Consulado de México en Mc Allen realizó valiosas acciones de gestoría".
One of the two principal archivists/librarians responsible for the project is the talented Hugo Huerta, who is now a librarian at the University of Texas at Dallas.  We met in October 2008 at the Third Annual Dallas International Book Fair, which is the work of the Dallas Public Library, and the feria del libro's founding director Miriam Rodriguez, Associate Director of the Central Dallas Public Library.  Thanks to George A. and Virginia H. Gause for the mutual introduction.  When he worked on this project, most of the time anyway, Hugo was working as a librarian at the University of Texas-Pan American, in Edinburg, Tejas.  We thank Hugo for sharing this link to the digitized archive and hope there will be many more projects to come.  Please bookmark it as one of your favorite sites, and pass it on to others who may be interested.  Adelante.

Roberto R. Calderón

Historia Chicana [Historia] 


It was great meeting you at the Dallas Public Library International Book Fair. I am interested in history and the preservation of documents by digitizing them. 

Here is a link of a project I worked on for approximately four years After I left UTPA for UTD the project was still not finished. I volunteered to complete the project and had a wonderful time completing it. The prototype I did had a search engine and the original plan was to have a search engine of the PDFs using ColdFusion. But after I left UTPA ColdFusion was dropped and had to re-write the HTML code to what it is now posted on the internet. 

Hugo Huerta


Por primera vez, en formato digital y a través de Internet, se ponen a disposición de los historiadores, la comunidad académica, los centros de investigación y el público en general, documentos para el estudio de las relaciones entre México y Estados Unidos que se encuentran bajo custodia del Archivo Histórico Genaro Estrada del Acervo Histórico Diplomático de la Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores de México.  

Se trata de 51 legajos que contienen datos, pormenores y circunstancias que se revelan a la luz de la correspondencia entre los protagonistas y personajes clave que participaron en dos acontecimientos históricos que modificaron el territorio, las relaciones exteriores y la economía de México y de su vecino del norte durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX: la guerra de Texas en 1835 y la guerra México-Estados Unidos de 1846-1848.  

La cuestión de Texas es el antecedente inmediato de la invasión a México en 1846 y formó parte de la estrategia de la expansión territorial estadounidense, que concluiría con la anexión de aquel territorio a Estados Unidos. 

Pocos hechos históricos recuerda el pueblo de México con mayor gravedad que el siguiente capítulo del expansionismo estadounidense sobre México: la invasión de las tropas de ese país que terminaría con la pérdida de la Alta California y Nuevo México, lo cual no sólo trazaría el destino de nuestro país y de Estados Unidos, sino que transformaría el conjunto de las relaciones interamericanas.

 Los documentos del Archivo Digital forman parte del fondo documental denominado Legajos Encuadernados, colección integrada por 2, 421 legajos que abarcan el período 1771-1982. Los 20,000 folios de este Archivo son reproducciones elaboradas directamente de los documentos originales mediante la tecnología digital, que ofrece a los lectores la posibilidad de apreciar su estado de conservación, formato, colorido y analizar con mayor detenimiento su contenido. El lector podrá encontrar, entre otros temas, información sobre:

 Guerra de Texas, 1835

 Proyecto de Estados Unidos para adquirir Texas; proceso de colonización en Texas por los europeos; medidas de seguridad adoptadas en Texas en caso de rebelión de los colonos norteamericanos; venta de terrenos y proceso de colonización en Texas; expedición militar del presidente Antonio López de Santa Anna para combatir la rebelión de colonos texanos que buscaban independizarse de México; aprehensión de López de Santa Anna en San Jacinto, Texas; toma del fuerte El Álamo y de la plaza de Béjar por López de Santa Anna; entrevista del ministro mexicano con el secretario de Estado de Estados Unidos sobre el proyecto de independencia de Texas; bloqueo de puertos para evitar el paso de víveres para las tropas mexicanas; negativa del gobierno mexicano para reconocer la independencia de Texas; informes y recortes de prensa sobre independencia y reconocimiento de Texas por el gobierno de Estados Unidos y los gobiernos de Francia, Holanda, Bélgica e Inglaterra; protesta del gobierno mexicano ante tal actitud; liberación de López de Santa Anna; movimientos de las tropas de López de Santa Anna y documentos sobre el Tratado de Paz y Alianza [entre] Texas e Indios Comanches, 1842.

 Guerra México-Estados Unidos, 1846-1848

 Movimientos de tropas; toma de ciudades y puertos por Estados Unidos; llamados de los gobernadores patriotas a la población a mantener la resistencia frente al invasor; expulsión de estadounidenses de la ciudad de México; batalla de la Angostura; Casimiro Solano cede la mitad de su salario como maestro y pone a disposición del gobierno a sus ocho hijos para combatir a los invasores; reacciones de los habitantes de la ciudad de México contra los invasores; batallón de San Patricio, sus integrantes y prisioneros.

 La realización de este trabajo se llevó a cabo al amparo del convenio de colaboración entre The University of Texas Pan-American y el Acervo Histórico Diplomático de la Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores, instituciones que aportaron recursos humanos, técnicos y materiales. Por otra parte, The Summerlee Foundation otorgó el financiamiento para el desarrollo del proyecto. El Consulado de México en Mc Allen realizó valiosas acciones de gestoría.

 Con la difusión de este Archivo Digital se pone al servicio de los investigadores mexicanos y extranjeros un avanzado sistema de consulta de imágenes que contribuirá a impulsar la realización de nuevos proyectos de investigación sobre las relaciones entre México y Estados Unidos. 

Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores

The Summerlee Foundation
, Dallas, Texas
The University of Texas Pan-American


Sister Mary Drumsticks and the New Orleans All-Star Kazoo Band (1941)
Dispensations and other University of Notre Dame Records

Sister Mary Drumsticks and the New Orleans All-Star Kazoo Band (1941)
Sent by Paul Newfield III



Dispensation and other University of Notre Dame Records


University of Notre Dame
First few pages . . 
Sent by Bill Carmena 

1799 Jan. 4 Trahan, Juan Maria 
Dispensation asked by Trahan to marry Adelayda Lejeune 
1799 Trahan, Juan M(ari)a  New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
to Bishop (Luis Penalver y Cardenas New Orleans, Louisiana) 
Trahan, a native of Mosle in Brittany and a resident of Valenzuela is engaged to Adelayda Lejeune, a native of Nantes and resident of his parish. He is the son of M(ari)a Magdalena Leblanc and Juan Bautista Trahan, son of Rene Trahan, son of Jose Trahan and Magdalena Melanzon. Adelaida is the daughter of Anastacia Lebron and Aman Lejeune, son of Maria Trahan and German Lejeune, son of Jose Trahan and Magdalena Melanzon, therefore related in the third degree. Adelaida's father is dead and her mother is very old and poor. Trahan, who has a little land, could take her out of this poverty. He asks for a dispensation. Father (Isidro) Quintero notes at the beginning of this letter that Trahan appeared. 
D. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 4 
Penalver y Cardenas, Bishop Luis (New Orleans), Louisiana 
The testimony is to be heard.  A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 4 Quintero, Father Isidro New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Trahan appeared and swore to (information already given above and) that he is 20 and single.  A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 4  Quintero, Father Isidro New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Pablo Leblanc, resident of Valenzuela, appeared and swore (to information already given above). He is 50.  A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 4 Quintero, Father Isidro New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Alexo Lejeune appeared and swore to (information already given above). He is 30. 
A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 4 Quintero, Father Isidro New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Penalver grants the dispensation under certain conditions of confession and prayers. Quintero notifies Trahan and the pastor of Valenzuela. 

A.D.S. (Spanish)  V-2-d D., A.D.S. (Spanish) 9pp. 4to. 14 


1799 Jan. 9 Masias, Francisco 
Dispensation asked by Masias to marry Angela Sanchez. 
1799 Jan. 9 Masias, Francisco  New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Masias, a native of (Telde) Terde in the Canary Islands and a resident of Galveston, appeared and stated that he wishes to marry Angela Sanchez, native of Galveston, but they are related in a second degree spiritual affinity because Angela was godmother of Masias' son. Masias married M(ari)a Hern(ande)z and had one son about seven months old. Angela's father is dead and her mother has only the house which the king assigned when the colonists came in. She will bring up the boy with more affection.  D. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 9 Penalver y Cardenas, Bishop Luis  (New Orleans), Louisiana
The testimony is to be received. Father Isidro Quintero acts as notary.  D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 9 Quintero, Father Isidro  New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Masias appeared and swore that he is the son of Luis Masias and Tomasa de Orgas, single, being the widowed of Maria Hernand(e)z. He is 30. A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 9 Quintero, Father Isidro  New Orleans, (Louisiana)
Romualdo Carmena, a resident of Galveston, appeared and swore to (the same information as already given above). He is 31 and signs.  A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 9 Quintero, Father Isidro  New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Cosme Jose de Vera appeared and swore (to the same information as already given). He is 25.  A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 9 Quintero, Father Isidro New Orleans, Louisiana 
Penalver grants the dispensation under certain conditions of confession, prayers and alms. Quintero notifies Masias and the pastor of Galveston of the decree. 
V-2-d D., D.S., A.D.S. (Spanish) 9pp. 4to. 8 


1799 Jan. 11 Sognie, Eduardo 
Dispensation asked by Eduardo Sognie in order to marry Dionicia Arcenau. 
1799 Jan. 11  Sognie, Eduardo  New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
to Bishop (Luis Penalver y Cardenas)  New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Sognie, resident of Caabanose, appeared and stated that he had discussed marriage with Dionicia Arcenau of the same place. He is a native of St. James' parish, son of Maria Bro and Jose Sognie, son of Santiago Sognie. Dionicia is the daughter of Juan Carlos Arcenau and M(ari)a Josefa Babin, daughter of Basilio Babin and Ana Sognie, daughter of Santiago Sognie. So they are related in the second and third degree. There has been gossip about them, quieted by the pastor and Commandant. He asks for a dispensation. Father (Isidro) Quintero at the beginning of the letter states that Sognie appeared.  D. (Spanish) 

1799 Jan. 11 Penalver y Cardenas, Bishop Luis  New Orleans, Louisiana 
The information is to be received.  D. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 11 Quintero, Father Isidro  New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Sognie appeared and swore that he was single and 25 years old.  D. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 11 Quintero, Father Isidro   New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Simon Richard of the same parish appeared and swore to (the same information as already given above). A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 11 Quintero, Father Isidro  New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Nicolas Derusel appeared and swore to (the same information already given). He is 31. 
A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 11 
Penalver grants the dispensation under certain conditions of alms, confession and prayers. Quintero adds that he notified Soigne and sent a letter to the pastor of Caabanose. 
D.S. (Spanish)  V-2-d D., D.S., A.D.S. (Spanish) 11pp. 4to. 12 

1799 Jan. 12 (Penalver y Cardenas), Bishop Luis   New Orleans, Louisiana 
It being necessary to appoint a notary public in St. Augustine, Florida in (Penalver)'s diocese and acting with his vicar, Father (Michael O'Reilly) Miguel O'Reily and whoever else succeeds him, (Penalver) appoints Juan Climaco Gomez to act in the vicariate of St. Augustine. Father Isidro Quintero certifies that this is a copy of the appointment. (On the back of the document is written) Fran(cis)co Broutin. V-2-d D.S. Copy (Spanish) 3pp. 4to. 5 

1799 Jan. 16 Aucoint, Alexo 
Dispensation from second and third degree relationship asked by Aucoint in order to marry Ana Duga. 
1799 Jan. 16 Aucoint, Alexo  New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
to Bishop (Luis Penalver y Cardenas New Orleans, Louisiana) 
Aucoint, a native of St. Malo and resident of Valenzuela, widower of Fran(cis)ca Henry wishes to marry Ana Duga, native of Nantes and resident of Valenzuela. He is the son of Jose Aucoint and Maria Josefa Hebert, daughter of Juan Hebert and Clara Duga, daughter of Jose Duga and Clara Burque. Ana Duga is the daughter of Anastacia Barriox and Jose Duga, son of Maria Hebert and Jose Duga, son of the other Jose Duga and Clara Burque. Aucoint has two children by his first marriage, one 4 and one 2 1/2. It is impossible for him to attend to them and to his work. Since nearly all in the parish are Acadians nearly all are related. Father (Isidro) Quintero notes at the beginning of the letter that Aucoint appeared. 
D. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 16  Penalver y Cardenas, Bishop Luis  (New Orleans), Louisiana 
The testimony is to be received. Quintero certifies this and adds that he notified Ocoint. 
A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 16  Quintero, Father Isidro New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Ocoint appeared and swore (in addition to information given above) that he is 35 and unmarried.  A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 16 Quintero, Father Isidro  New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Pedro Ocoint appeared and swore (to information already given above). He is 36 and signs as Pierre AuCoin.  A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 16 Quintero, Father Isidro New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Simon Guillot appeared and swore (to information already given above). He is 27 and signs. A.D.S. (Spanish) 
1799 Jan. 16  Quintero, Father Isidro  New Orleans, Louisiana 
Penalver grants the dispensation under certain conditions of confession and prayers. Quintero adds that he notified Aucoint and sent word to the pastor of Valenzuela. 

A.D.S. (Spanish)   V-2-d D., A.D.S. (Spanish) 11pp. 4to.  13 

1799 Jan. 17 Zamora, O.M.Cap., Father Pedro de 
Accounts of the parish of St. Landry of Opelousas from 1791 to December 1798 ... (For calendar see original of 7 cards). 

Cross references: 
1. Opelousas, Louisiana 
2. Father Theodoro Thirso Henrique Henriquez 
3. Nicolas Forstall 
4. Father Isidro Quintero 
5. Martin Duralde 
6. Bishop Luis Penalver y Cardenas 
7. Juan Gradenigo 
8. Mr. Baudorai 

V-2-d D.S., A.D.S. (Spanish) 22pp. 4to. 8 


(1799) (Jan. 22) 

1798  Arcenau, Francisco 
Dispensation asked by Arcenau in order to marry Margarita Rom. 

1798 Nov. 6  Arcenau, Francisco  New Orleans, (Louisiana)  
to Bishop (Luis Penalver y Cardenas  New Orleans, Louisiana) 

Arcenau, a native and resident of St. James parish of Caabanose, son of Miguel Arcenau and Mariana Andres appeared before (Penalver) and stated that he wished to marry Margarita Rom, native of the parish of St. John Baptist. Mariana Andres is the daughter of Pedro Andres and Mariana Himel. Margarita Rom is the daughter of Alexo Rom and Magdalena Andres, daughter of Pedro Andres and Mariana Himel. Margarita is an orphan and poor and lives with her married brothers. Father (Isidro) Quintero notes at the beginning of the letter that Arcenau appeared.  A.D. (Spanish) 

1798 Nov. 6 Penalver y Cardenas, Bishop Luis  (New Orleans), Louisiana 
The testimony is to be received. D.S. (Spanish) 

1798 Nov. 6  (Quintero, Father Isidro) New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Arcenau appeared and swore (in addition to information already given above) that he is 27 and single. A.D. (Spanish) 

1798 Nov. 6 (Quintero, Father Isidro) New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Mig(ue)l Cantrel, commandant of Caabanose appeared and swore (to information already given with the exception that he states that Margarita is from St. James parish). He is 47 and signs as Miguel Cantrelle.  A.D. (Spanish) 

1798 Nov. 6 (Quintero, Father Isidro) New Orleans, (Louisiana) 
Renato Arnau appeared and swore (to information already given and that) Margarita was a native and resident of the parish of St. John Baptist of the Second German Coast. He is 36 and signs as Witness Rene Arnaud.  A.D. (Spanish) 

1798 Nov. 8 Penalver y Cardenas, Bishop Luis (New Orleans), Louisiana 
Penalver grants the dispensation under conditions of confession, prayers and fasts. The pastors of St. John Baptist and St. James are to be notified.  D.S. (Spanish) 

1799 Jan. 22 Brunete, (O.M.Cap.), Father Mariano (Second German Coast, Louisiana 
to Father Isidoro (Quintero) (New Orleans, Louisiana) 
(Quintero) is to inform (Penalver) that Arseno has fulfilled the penances required for obtaining the dispensation.  A.L.S. (Spanish) 

(1799) (______)  Penalver y Cardenas), Bishop (Luis)  (New Orleans, Louisiana) 
From the above letter from the pastor of St. John Baptist it appears that Arsenau has fulfilled the conditions and the pastor is directed, upon completion of the penances on the part of the fiancee, to proceed with the marriage. Quintero notified Arcenau of this decree and sent it to the pastor.  D.S. (Spanish) V-2-d D., D.S., A.D., A.L.S. (Spanish) 12pp. 4to. 12 


1799 (Jan. 28)  Duforest, Marie Angelique Revoil 
to Bishop (Luis Penalver y Cardenas) (New Orleans, Louisiana) 
Maria Angelica Revoil, widow of Juan Josef Duforest appeared before (Penalver) ... (For calendar see original of 5 cards). 

Cross references: 
1. Bishop Luis Penalver y Cardenas 
2. Juan Josef Duforest 
3. Santiago Vanuxen 
4. Herman Josef Lambaert 
5. Pedro Pedesclaux 
6. Father Isidro Quintero 
7. Pedro Domingo Robert 
8. Pedro Estevan Duponseau 
9. Carlos Griffond 
10. Miguel Fortier 
11. Juan Ventura Morales 
12. Miguel Gomez 
13. Felipe Guinault 
14. Santiago Lemaire 

V-2-d D.S., and Copy (Spanish) 12pp. 4to. 14 


(1799 Jan. 29) (Penalver y Cardenas, Bishop Luis) 
Proceedings for rebuilding part of the roof of the Cathedral. ... (See original for calendar of 21 cards). 

Cross references: 
1. Manuel Gayoso de Lemos 
2. Gilberto Guillemard 
3. Andres de Almonester y Roxas 
4. Antonio Ramis 
5. Father Juan de Dios Valdes 
6. Hilario Boutte 
7. Joaquin de la Torre 
8. Nicolas de Finiels 
9. Francisco Broutin 
10. Father Isidro Quintero 
11. Roberto Dow 
12. Antonio Boudrequie 
13. Felipe Guinault 

V-2-d L.S. Copy, A.D.S., D.S., L.S., A.L.S. (Spanish) 39pp. 4to. & 8vo. 13 


King Juan Carlos and Queen Sophia, Pensacola, Florida
Fashioning a Royal Visit, Pensacola News Journal

February 19, 2009 
King Juan Carlos and Queen Sophia 
Pensacola, Florida

King Juan Carlos and Queen Sophia visited Florida, February 19, 2009 for the celebration and dedication of a historical plaque. National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution Spanish Task Force had representatives there.  
Sent by Sylvia Ann Carvajal Sutton

King Juan Carlos Toast  

Toast by his Majesty the King of Spain at the National Navel Aviation Museum.


Governor Crist, Senators Nelson and Martinez, Authorities, Congressman Miller, Ladies and Gentlemen. Thank you very much for your kind and generous words.


Thank you also for the warm welcome you have given to the Queen and myself in this dear city of Pensacola,  A city with strong ties to Spain, to the origins of the United States, and to the old friendship that has enriched relations between America and Spain, on both shores of the Atlantic.


A friendship that flourished during the United States’ fight for Independence, when Spain actively poured financial, political and military aid into assisting the American Patriots.


This excellent Museum, a witness to the rich history of navel aviation in the United States and Pensacola, inspires us to highlight how intrepid men have contributed decisively to forging the national histories of both Spain and the United States .


They were free, sincere and clear-headed men who knew how to assume their responsibilities to serve their country and other friendly peoples.


Among them, Bernardo de Galvez, to whom one of my eighteenth-century ancestor, King Charles the third, granted a coat of arms to mark the heroism and spirit of service he showed in Pensacola.


The figure of General Galvez reminds us that today many other men and women, from the United States and Spain, from countless industries and professions are devoting their best efforts to strengthening the relationship between our two countries.


The Queen joins me in thanking, once again, the city of Pensacola, its authorities, its citizens and its associations for the great and noble effort they are making day to day to carry on the memory of our shared history.


A memory that will always be the seed of friendship between the United States and Spain . Thank you, Admiral, for your generous hospitality here in this interesting and attractive National Navel Aviation Museum .


And now, may I ask you to raise our glasses to toast you all and most especially the members of “Celebrate Pensacola” and those who proudly develop our common historical and Cultural heritage in this lovely city.

King Juan Carlos


Fashioning a Royal Visit
Pensacola News Journal


The thing about the visit of King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia of Spain to Pensacola next week is, they're not really interested in the exploits of that first settlement leader 450 years ago, but they are interested in an Indian tribe that was wiped out when accidentally infected by another Spanish explorer.
     Not to take away from the herculean effort by Celebrate Pensacola to get the royal couple here, recounted in a Pensacola News Journal story, side notes were shared by Pensacola Archaeologist Judy Bense at the recent St. Augustine Historical Society annual meeting.
     "The Spanish don't like losers," she said. "And despite good intentions, Tristan de Luna led a settlement expedition that was destroyed by a hurricane within a month of its arrival. What they want to see is the site of the Battle of Pensacola, where the Spanish Count Bernardo de Gálvez aided the Americans in the Revolutionary War, defeating the British and re-conquering Florida for Spain.     

     "They also want to learn more about the early native population, and the only area tribe was the Pensacola, wiped out before any records were made," Bense noted. "We're working on a reasonable description."
     The visit February 19 is only their second to the United States. The first: to St. Augustine in 2001. This visit is heralded as the opening of a series of commemorations of Spain's influence on the earliest development of America, including the Ponce de Leon Quincentenary in 2013 and the 450th anniversary of our Nation's Oldest City in 2015.


The link above is the compilation work by Hector Diaz, a resource for historians and students that want to know more about Spain contribution to the War of Independence.
Rafael Ojeda
Please note when he mentions King Carlos III permitting Galvez to put his ship The Galvezton and the words, "Solo Yo" on his Coat of Arm.

Rafael Ojeda



Exploring Colonial Mexico
XIII Reunion de Historiadores de Mexico, Estados Unidos y Canada
Arbol Genealogico de la Familia Ricoy
Arbol Genealogico de la Familia Iduñate
Nueva Vizcaya Books by Frank Dominguez
Blogs sobre Historica de Mexico

Exploring Colonial Mexico

"Fit for a Queen"

La Casa de la Cacica. Teposcolula

To the west of the great Dominican priory of St. Peter and St. Paul Teposcolula, in the Mixteca region of Oaxaca, stands the so-called "Casa de la Cacica," a walled compound and palace, or tecpan, built to house the local native nobility and serve as an administrative center.

As the name indicates, the Mixtec lord or, in this case, lady in question was a 16th century "queen" of Teposcolula and the prehispanic community of Yucundaa, currently an archeological work site.

Overshadowed by the imposing colonial priory , this unique early colonial complex was built during the 1560s. Contemporary with the main period of priory construction,        Teposcolula priory, Casa de la Cacica in foreground
it was later abandoned, possibly                                ©James B. Kiracofe
following the plague of 1576.

Currently in the final phase of restoration and reconstruction (above left: site in 2009 ©Robert Jackson ) all the structures display plain but well laid ashlar stonework. The main building, or "palace," is the most elaborate, fitted with shaped stone openings and banded at roof level by ornamental disk friezes, signifying an elite residence in the Mexican tradition* .

Casa de la Cacica, arched opening

©James B. Kiracofe


Casa de la Cacica, disk frieze (detail) ©Felipe Falcón
The Friezes

The striking Casa friezes are of special interest. They feature "floral" medallions carved in light colored stone and set in a matrix of dark basalt with red borders. While the precise meaning of these motifs is debated, the alternating circular and petalled disks are thought to signify kingship or royal authority and further, may refer to the hallucinogenic plants datura and morning glory.

The petalled disk (right) also recalls the pre hispanic 4ollín glyph, or Fifth Sun of Aztec cosmology. Similar motifs can be seen adorning the church front at neighboring Yolomecatl, just west of Teposcolula, as well as many other early colonial monuments across Mexico, including numerous early churchyard crosses.Although remnants of other tecpan and early palace structures are known at Coixtlahuaca and Cuilapan, the remarkable Casa de la Cacica at Teposcolula, as reconstructed, is the most complete such complex to survive in Oaxaca, and in all Mexico.

Exploring Colonial Mexico©

The Espadaña Press Web site

Artist Ernesto Apomayta Chambi 


1993 Pintura Mural "Historia de Ecatepec" 
Casa de la Cultura de Ecatepec e Morelos, Estado de México


Estimados amigos de Ecatepec de Morelos, Edomex., Mexico.

Muchos saludos les enviamos desde la Ciudad de Suzhou, China, en donde actualmente nos encontramos viviendo y trabajando en calidad de expertos extranjeros invitados después de las olimpiadas de “Beijing 2008” y a continuación le quiero comentarles que nos conocemos desde los 90’s con mi amigo Benjamen Gonzales del Despacho de Cultura del Ayuntamento de Ecatepec y les quiero preguntarles si es posible hacer un link del mural que he realizado en 1993 en la Casa de Cultura “Jose Maria Morelos” de Ecatepec? Le puedo llamar a ese teléfono directo 58361581 sobre pinturas murales, protección, restauración y cuidado de parte de la ciudadanía en general?. 

Ya que ahora veo que tienen mas casas y centros culturales, hasta universidades, institutos y hasta una escuela de arte y oficios, felicitaciones por todo ese progreso que están haciendo, porque una ciudad con cultura tiene mucho mas futuro…. He visitado la pagina en internet sobre Ecatepec y he encontrado este articulo que les envio con todo aprecio por valorar la Deversidad Cultural que vivimos en todas partes del mundo.

Ernesto Apomayta Chambi
Suzhou, China

Nací en 1955 en el distrito de Ácora, Puno, Perú. Mis estudios de educación primaria los realice entre 1963 y 1968, en las comunidades campesinas de Juruhuanani y Ccaritamaya; entre 1969 y 1973 realicé la secundaria en el Glorioso Colegio Nacional de "San Carlos" y entre 1974 y 1978 hice estudios en las escuelas de formación artística de Puno, Juliaca, Cusco y Arequipa. Estudios en el exterior entre 1984-1988, en el Instituto Central de Bellas Artes de China en Beijing y entre 1993-1994 en la Unversidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Más información:



XIII Reunion de Historiadores de Mexico, Estados Unidos y Canada


Nota: La previa reunion de los Historiadores de Mexico, Estados Unidos y Canada tomo lugar en Vancouver, British Columbia hace tiempo. La proxima sesion sera en Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico del 26-30 de octubre de 2009. En seguida los datos pertinentes para submitir sus propuestas que tiene de fecha ultima el 30 de abril proximo. En la previa reunion hubo quienes participaron y presentaron trabajos sobre la historia chicana. Habra quienes lo hagan en este ciclo? Esperamos que si. Se buscan ponencias que tenga que ver con el tema general: Mexico y Sus Revolucoines. Adelante.

Roberto R. Calderon
Historia Chicana [Historia]

Plazo final para entrega de propuestas: 30 de abril de 2009
Mayores informes:


Arbol Genealógico de la Family Ricoy



I.-Don Ramón María Rcoy
Se casó el 16 de noviembre de 1818 en el sagrario de la ciudad de México, D.F., con (Doña Ana Josefa Mancera) y fue su hijo entre otros:

II.-Don Agustín Ricoy Mancera, bautizado el 5 de julio de 1826, en el sagrario de la ciudad de México, D.F. y fue su esposa ( Doña Micaela Arteaga ) y fue su hijo entre  otros:

III.-Don Ramón María Eustacio Ricoy Arteaga, nace por 1846 y se casa con (Doña Carlota Carrero ) y residen en Pachuca, Hgo. en 1892, y fue su hijo entre otros:

IV.-Coronel después General Don Miguel Ricoy Carrero, nace por 1870, vivió en la calle  de la Paz   no. 141 en León, Gto. Y se casó con (Doña Ignacia Cortés Victón) h.l. de Don Agustín  y de doña Josefa, radicados en México, D.F. y fueron sus hijos entre otros de Don Miguel y de Doña Ignacia, radicados en León, Gto. :

1.-Don Jesús Salvador Ricoy Cortés, nacido en 1892  

2.-Doña Carmen Ricoy Cortés, casada con (Don José Páramo Martínez), h.l. del lic. Manuel Páramo y Josefa Martínez, originarios de Morelia, Mich., siendo sus abuelos paternos: Don Rafael Páramo y Doña Gregoria Landín y fueron sus hijos de Don Manuel y de doña Carmen , nacidos en León, Gto. :

a.-Doña Carmen Páramo Ricoy, casada con Don Eduardo Wood, con sucesión.

b.-Don José Páramo Ricoy, casado con doña María Luisa Camacho, originaria de San Luís Potosí, con sucesión.  

c.-Don Alberto Páramo Ricoy,  casado con una sra. De Veracruz, con sucesión.  

d.-Don Rafael Páramo Ricoy, murió joven.  

e.-Ing. Don Miguel Páramo Ricoy, casado en 1933 en México, D.F., con Doña María Teresa Méndez Ortega, y fueron sus hijas:  

Doña Carmen Silvia Páramo  R. Méndez, soltera  

Doña María Guadalupe Páramo  R. Méndez, casada en primeras nupcias con Don Joaquín Regalado, y fue su hija Karina y en segundas nupcias con Don Daniel Mc Carney y fue su hija Clarise.  

Doña Rosa María Páramo R. Méndez, casada con Don Adolfo Jiménez Hicks, con sucesión.  

Doña María Teresa Páramo R. Méndez, casada con su deudo Don Ulises Ricoy, con sucesión.

Guillermo Padilla Origel
Padilla y Asociados S.C.
Madero #320-7 Centro
Leon, Gto.México
Tel:  01-477-716-65-92
Fax: 01-477-716-64-38

ID: 52*11*18825



Arbol Genealogico de la Familia Iduñate


I.-Don Juan José de Iduñate, casado el 16 de octubre de 1769, en la iglesia de Santa Maria de las Parras, Coahuila, con Doña Juana Zeferina Ramírez, y fue su hijo entre otros:

II.- Don José Ascencio Iduñate Ramírez, bautizado el 25 de mayo de 1776, en el templo de San Francisco de Asís, del pueblo de General Zepeda, Coahuila y se casó el 11 de junio de 1796, en el mismo templo con Doña Mariana Josefa Lliberino, y fue su hijo entre otros:

III.-Don Pablo José Iduñate Lliberino, bautizado el 8 de marzo de 1807, en el templo de San Francisco de Asis , del pueblo de General Zepeda, Coahuila,  y se casó el 5 de noviembre de 1829, en Santa María de las Parras, Coahuila, con Doña María de la Asunción Eusebia Traversa Vargas, h.l. de Don Bartolomé Traverso y de María de Jesús Vargas, casados el 4 de diciembre de 1802 en Parras, Coahuila y fue su hijo de Don Pablo y de doña María de la Asunción,  entre otros:

IV.-Don José Eulalio de Jesús Iduñate Traverso, bautizado el 11 de febrero de 1831, en Santa María de las Parras, Coahuila, y se casó el 11 de mayo de 1854, en el mismo lugar con Doña María Trinidad Méndez, y fue su hijo entre otros:

V.- Don José María Iduñate Méndez, nace por 1882, en Santa Maria de Parras, Coah., y se casa con Doña Lucía Acosta Chávez, h.l. de Don Andrés y de Doña Carmen, vecinos de Fresnillo, Zacatecas, y fue su hija entre otros:

VI.- Doña María del Consuelo Iduñate Acosta, nacida el 27 de junio de 1920, en Parras, Coahuila, y se casa con el Dr. Don Heraclio Figueroa Guerra, h.l. de el Dr. Don Heraclio Figueroa Méndez y de Doña Emma Guerra Martínez de Castro, originaria de Encarnación , Jalisco, y fueron sus hermanos del Dr. Figueroa Guerra: Luís Manuel, Carlos, Bertha e Ignacio Figueroa Guerra, y fueron sus hijos de el Dr. Heraclio  y María del Consuelo, nacidos en Torreón, Coahuila :

1.-Don Guillermo Figueroa Iduñate, casado con Doña Magali Wolf , con sucesión.

2 .-Dra. Doña Teresa del niño Jesús Figueroa Iduñate, soltera.  

3.-Don Francisco Javier Figueroa Iduñate, casado con Doña Patricia Ruelas, con sucesión.

4.-Don Ignacio Figueroa Iduñate, casado con Doña Martha Alicia Martínez, con sucesión.

Guillermo Padilla Origel


Nueva Vizcaya Books by Frank Dominguez


Census of 1777, Parral, (present day Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua, Mexico) 
Census of 1779, Valle de San Bartolome
Both books have Index & Transcription

$25.00 plus shipping ($3.75) per book 
California sales tax ($2.05 for California residents ONLY).
Order from: GSHA-SC, PO Box 2472
Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670-0472




From: [] On Behalf Of H-MEXICO []
To: Grupo sobre historia de México
Subject: los blogs de febrero

Primero eran pocos, luego fueron más, luego...
Activos en febrero de 2009
Aculco, lo que fue y lo que es, de JLB ("Una era construye ciudades. Una hora las destruye.- Séneca")
Ancient Mesoamerica News Updates, de Erik Boot
La batalla de Monterrey, 1846, de Pablo Ramos
Calixtlahuaca Archaeological Project, de Michael E. Smith, Juliana y Cindy Informal reports from current archaeological research
Clionáutica. ("Entre el pasado y el presente está la historia ") de Arno Burkholder de la Rosa
Clíotropos, de Felipe Castro Gutiérrez ("Crónicas del amor (y el desamor) de los historiadores con el mundo virtual")
De aquí pa´l real, de Iván Escamilla
Difundiendo la historia, de El Rul (Artículos sobre la enseñanza de la historia)
Los fotógrafos de la revolución. La H.J.Gutiérrez, de Arturo Guevara Escobar
Imágenes volantes, de Helia Bonilla
Maya News Updates, de Erik Boot
Maya Decipherment, de David Stuart y Mayoid  A Weblog on the Ancient Maya Script
Mayistas, de Rocío García Valgañón y otros autores  Dedicado al comentario y debate de temas mayas y mesoamericanos
Mexique Ancien (varios autores)  Information archéologique sur la Mésoamerique
Monedas de México, de Silectes
Publishing Archaeology, de Michael E. Smith
Hay desde luego blogs de otra temática que incidentalmente publicaron notas  de interés sobre historia de México  No he incluido a los que reproducen contenidos publicados originalmente en
otros medios.
Los interesados en blogs hispanoamericanos sobre historia en general  pueden acudir al "agregador" argentino PlanetaHistoria, en

ADDENDA: Blogs que estuvieron activos en 2008:
Lo histeriable, de Marco Antonio Flores Moreno
Los protagonistas, de  Arturo Guevara Escobar  "La creación artística tiene su valor por sí misma, conocer a su creador la  hace más tangible. Heliodoro J. Gutiérrez - Aurelio Escobar C."
Cordialmente, Felipe Castro Gutiérrez
Mensaje distribuido por H-MEXICO  
Grupo virtual sobre historia de México
Sent by Roberto Calderon, Ph.D.




Caribbean Business


The attachment is an article covering awards of contracts to scientist in Puerto Rico.  Carlos (Raulito) Cabrera is the son of a close friend of mine -- and a friend of mine.  He is already a recognized scientist and is researching types of materials that can be used by NASA. 
Congratulations, Raulito, muchos aplausos.  Abrazos, Joe

Sent by Jose M. Pena



Nuestros Paisanos
Villafranca de Oria
Coronas de Indias 




Hace unos días repasaba un mapa de todo el continente americano, en el que tengo reflejados los nombres de poblaciones onubenses que también poseen ciudades de aquel continente y me quedé muy asombrado, porque tan solo había una y esa ya la conocía. Era una población que se llama Almonte y está en Canadá, concretamente en la provincia de Ontario.

Cuando conocí que había una población con el nombre de Almonte, de esto hará mas de veinte años, me puse en contacto con entidades de allí, y me enviaron un completo dossier con información de la población y su zona, y pude averiguar que no había sido ningún almonteño su fundador.

 Yo había sospechado que podía ser alguno de los muchos pastores de la zona del Condado que marcharon entre los siglos XVI y XVII, para organizar y cuidar el ganado en los primeros años, y que pudo ser algún paisano nuestro el que había creado el asentamiento. Pero lamentablemente no se confirmó.

Seguí buscando y encontré varios Cádiz, y Granada, Jaén, Toledo y Córdoba, y algún Madrid, Burgos, y hasta pueblos más pequeños, como Chiclana y Trujillo, pero onubense ninguno. No había ninguna Huelva, ni Palos, ni Moguer, de donde habían salido tantos marineros en los primeros viajes y me disgustó que algunos de nuestros paisanos que fundara una población en aquellos contornos, que los hubo, nunca consiguiese designar con el nombre de Huelva, Palos o Moguer a la entidad recién fundada.

Aunque fue tan importante la labor de nuestros pilotos y de los tripulantes, aunque partiesen de aquí muchos para repoblar y colonizar aquellos contornos, aunque muchos recibieron encomiendas y quedaron allí bien con su familia española o con la que formaron en el Nuevo Mundo, los nombres de nuestras poblaciones allí no han perdurado.

Cerré el plano de América y lo he guardado en lo mas profundo del cajón, ya que no quiero volver a verlo para no preguntarme aquello de, ¿tan insignificantes eran nuestros paisanos ¿. Yo creo que no, que tenían suficiente importancia para haber decidido sobre el tema, y haberle puesto nombre onubense a muchas de las poblaciones americanas.

Sin embargo hay un Lepe en las Islas Británicas.


                                              Custodio Rebollo

Articulo publicado el 10 de marzo de 2009 en Odiel Informacion de Huelva



Villafranca de Oria

Genealogia Blog
Cuando me fue encomendada por el Ayuntamiento de Villafranca de Oria (actual Ordizia) la grata tarea de organizar y catalogar su rico archivo municipal, experimenté una de las mayores satisfacciones que he tenido en mi larga dedicación a los trabajos de investigación, pues en anteriores visitas había hecho notar a los municipes el desorden y abandono de estos fondos, significándoles lo que éstos representaban para la historia de esta población, verdadero enclave dentro de la provincia de Gipuzkoa.

Basta echar una ojeada a la admirable monografía de los señores Echegaray y Mújica, para darse cuenta de la intensa actividad que siempre desplegó Ordizia desde los tiempos de su fundación, tanto en la guerra como en la paz. Fue visitada por reyes y príncipes en diferentes ocasiones, sufrió cercos, litigó largos pleitos y prohijó varios pueblos circundantes, que más tarde se emanciparon no sin complicados litigios, en los que sienta verdadera jurisprudencia el seguido sobre los términos de Enirio y Aralar, sobre el que existe en este archivo abundante documentación, con diversas reales provisiones y sentencias de vista y revista, sin que el transcurso de varias centurias haya puesto punto final aún a tan enconadas discrpancias.

Los ricos fondos a que aludo, no sólo versan sobre esta población, sino que son valiosa fuente de antecedentes para la historia de Altzaga, Arama, Astigarreta, Ataun, Beasain, Ezkioga, Gaintza, Gudugarreta, Itsasondo, Lazkao, Legorreta, Olaberria, Zaldibia y Zerain, a través de los diversos pleitos tanto civiles como criminales, que nos muestran una serie de facetas, muchas de las veces desconocidas, en la historia y costumbres del noble pueblo guipuzcoano.

Los litigios, de las más diversas índoles, nos ofrecen la visión de una justicia rigurosa, donde se velaba celosamente por las buenas costumbres, existiendo órdenes muy estrictas sobre el cierre de las tabernas, que se verificaba a las ocho de la noche, la prohibición de juegos a partir de esa hora, el control de los precios que regían en los mercados y hasta ciertas disposiciones sobre los que vivían amancebados que, por lo visto, eran bastantes. Ello no quiere decir que todo transcurriese en un remanso de paz, pues pese a tantas prevenciones edilicias, muchas veces se dirimían las cuestiones apunta de buenos garrotes aprovechando las sombras nocturnas, de lo que resultaban pleitos y costillas rotas.

La mendicidad era tolerada en algunos casos y gozaba de cierta protección, pues había pobres locales reconocidos como tales, quienes podían situarse en lugares estratégicos, a la salida o entrada de los templos, para implorar la caridad de sus vecinos más pudientes. En contraste con esto se perseguía implacablemente a los pedigüeños de tránsito que pretendían hacer su agosto en ferias y mercados, a los que en ocasiones se les aplicaba la Real Ordenanza de Levas, enrolándose al servicio de S. M. sin más contemplaciones.

En 1699 son detenidas varias personas en Legorreta acusadas de agotes, definición un tanto ambigua incluso en nuestros días, lo que da origen a unos expedientes de “limpieza de sangre” de los encartados, que tratan de demostrar a toda costa su condición de “cristianos viejos, guipuzcoanos originarios, limpios de toda clase de mácula o sospecha”, sustanciándose así una serie de probanzas nobiliarias de interesante estudio.

Durante la ocupación francesa se robaron algunas ovejas del caserío de Bezunza, señalándose como autores de la sustracción a las tropas de guarnición en Ordizia. Los perjudicados acudieron ante las justicias locales, entonces bastante menguadas en su autoridad, y éstas, quizás sin grandes esperanzas, recurrieron al jefe militar gabacho, quien, informado del sumario que se llevó a efecto, concluyó presentando excusas y prometiendo efectuar las consiguientes indemnizaciones. Lo que no sabemos es si éstas se llevarían a efecto.

Estando los carlistas en Ordizia por el año 1836, se hizo un minucioso inventario de cuantos útiles poseía en su casa palacio el marqués de Valmediano, por el “administrador de los bienes embargados a los ausentes y desafectos a S. M. don Carlos V”, por orden de la Diputación a Guerra de la Provincia de Gipuzkoa, donse se detallan los más peregrinos enseres que entonces albergaba tan señorial mansión. Después de transcurrido más de un siglo, mis ilustres amigos los marqueses de Argüeso tuvieron la paciencia de escuchar de mis labios la lectura de este interesante documento, haciendo un recorrido mental por los salones descritos en el secuestro y de los muebles y efectos que entonces les adornaban.

El tan debatido pleito sobre San Martín se refleja en uno de los expedientes de hidalguía que en 1756 se siguió por don Iñigo Rafael de Echeverría y sus hijos, estudiándose la ascendencia de doña Teresa Bautista de Loinaz de manera exhaustiva, quien para su mayor lucimiento documenta su parentesco con el santo, aportando pruebas de la naturaleza de éste, que sitúa en Beasain.

En este archivo hay una importante sección dedicada a las Hidalguías y Limpiezas de Sangre que se litigaron entre los siglos XVI al XIX, bastante completa en su género, donde se observa la preocupación social de aquellos tiempos por demostrar ser descendiente de “casa y solar conocido”, premisa indispensable para ser admitido en nuevas vecindades con las exenciones que se disfrutaban en el lugar de origen. Estos expedientes se efectuaban en bastantes ocasiones para trasladarse a Indias, y venían a ser como una especie de salvoconducto para el país de emigración, donde los que portaban sus papeles nobiliarios en regla eran admitidos en los cargos y oficios reservados a los hijosdalgo a fuero de España.

Generalmente estos expedientes probaban cuatro apellidos y llevaban la aprobación de la Provincia, aunque otros más celosos de su estirpe llegaban a acreditar la condición de ocho o más, quizás en su afán de curarse en salud contra posibles autos del Santo Oficio, tan diligente en aquella época ante la más leve sospecha de judaísmo.

Estas probanzas son de linajes generalmente guipuzcoanos, aunque también las hay del resto de provincias vascongadas, navarros, aragoneses e incluso franceses. Los expedientes sobre mayorazgos, capellanías, dotaciones para doncellas y fundaciones por el estilo, nos ofrecen abundante información sobre muchas familias ordiziarras y sus descendencias en los países de América, citándose personajes muy ilustres entre los que provenían de Villafranca.

Este “Nobiliario de Villafranca de Oria”, producto de las investigaciones realizadas en este archivo, y otros de Madrid, está basado principalmente en el estudio de las genealogías contenidas en los expedientes aludidos, donde se dan prolijas noticias de varios centenares de apellidos, con sus respectivas pruebas de nobleza, así como algunos escudos de armas, incluyéndose una serie de noticias de carácter histórico o anecdótico, que, a buen seguro, serán del agrado de los lectores amantes de estas disciplinas.

Estoy convencido de la gran importancia de estos fondos, ahora perfectamente ordenados y al alcance de cuantos sienten inquietudes por las cosas de Ordizia, a quienes brindo la oportunidad de esas pequeñas historias inéditas la mayor parte de las veces, ofreciendo modestamente mi “primera piedra” a los autorizados “alarifes” que con sus brillantes plumas sabrán coronar tan soberbio edificio.




Coronas de Indias

Enviado por: "José Mª San Martín Pérez"  
Mié, 18 de Mar, 2009 12:06 pm

Ediciones San Martín se complace en informar que ya está disponible la obra "Genealogía de los Títulos Nobiliarios concedidos en Indias (Coronas de Indias)". Tomo I, de Margarita Zabala Menéndez.
Con datos ampliados, corregidos y actualizados. Incluye índices onomásticos, árboles genealógicos y escudos de armas.
Prologada por el Conde de la Vega del Pozo, D. Fernando Muñoz Altea y D. Luis Rosas Roa.
Tomo I.
Títulos tratados:
Ducado de Atrisco; Marquesados de Acapulco, de Aguas Claras, de Almendares, de Alta Gracia, de Altamira, de Altamira de La Puebla, del Apartado, de Apezteguía, de Arcos, de Arecibo, de Argüelles, de los Atabillos, de Avilés, de Aycinena, de Balboa, de Bariñas, de Bayamo, de Bellamar, de Bellavista, de Bellestar, del Buen Suceso, de Buenavista, de la Cadena, de Camarines, de Campo Ameno, de Campo Florido, de Campo Santo, de Candelaria de Yarayabo, de Cañada Hermosa de San Bartolomé y de Cárdenas de Montehermoso; Condados de Alastaya, de Alcaraz, de los Andes, del Asalto, de Avilés, de Bagaes, de Bassoco, de Baynoa, de Buenavista, de Buenos Aires, de la Cadena, de Calderón, de Campo Alegre y de Canimar; Vizcondados de Bahía Honda de La Real Fidelidad y del Buen Paso; Baronía de Ballinari y Señorío de Atrisco.
Su presentación se realizará próximamente en Madrid.
José Mª San Martín Pérez
sanmartin@tejada. info
http://www.tejada. info
Fernando A. Echeverrìa Herrerìa
422 Eddy Glover Boulevard, New Britain, CT 06053
Tel: 860-992-6088  Home E-mail:
Moderador de: Ecuador, Ecuagen, Bolivia, Caribe,Chile, Paraguay, Filipinas y Uruguay Genealogia.



Chasquis promueven al Titicaca como maravilla natural
Letras mexicanas en París
El primer desterrado de Venezuela 
Chasquis promueven al Titicaca como maravilla natural

Punored: Los Andes, ueves 12.03.2009 
Chasquis promueven al Titicaca como maravilla natural


AYAVIRI. Partieron de Caylloma y se van para Bolivia

A Chasqui playing a conch shell

La ciudad de Puno recibirá hoy a unos 10 chasquis que están recorriendo todo el circuito turístico del sur del Perú y que tienen previsto llegar hasta el vecino país de Bolivia, buscando promocionar estos lugares y fortalecer las campañas del Cañón del Colca y del Lago Titicaca, como maravillas naturales del mundo.

Así lo anunció el Gerente de Turismo y Desarrollo Económico de la Municipalidad Provincial de Puno, Juan Palao, quien afirmó que se ha preparado una ceremonia especial para el recibimiento de los atletas.

En este mismo marco se darán los primeros pasos para firmar un convenio de apoyo mutuo, entre la municipalidad de Puno y la de Caylloma (promotora del recorrido de los chasquis), con el fin de que las votaciones para el Colca y el Titicaca vayan juntas.

Los jóvenes corredores partieron hace tres días de la región Arequipa y ayer estuvieron en los distritos de la zona norte de la región Puno, según informó el funcionario.

Como se sabe, en el momento el Lago Titicaca se encuentra en el octavo puesto de su categoría. Se calcula que con la votación mutua se apoyará a ambas lugares turísticos, a fin de que cada una escale en sus propios grupos.

Una numerosa delegación de chasquis y danzarines encabezados por el alcalde de Caylloma, Jorge Modesto Cuevas y bajo los acordes de los Wititis, ayer llegaron a Ayaviri. “Nos dirigimos a la Paz, donde el presidente Evo Morales nos recibirá y firmará su compromiso de trabajar por los candidatos a maravilla natural”, dijo Cuevas.

Thanks to Tom Saenz who sent this Wikipedia information on the term, Chasquis:  

The Chasquis (also Chaskis) were agile and highly-trained runners that delivered messages, royal delicacies and other objects throughout the Inca Empire, principally in the service of the Sapa Inca.

Chasquis were dispatched along thousands of miles, taking advantage of the vast Inca system of purpose-built roads and rope bridges in the Andes of Peru and Ecuador. On the coast of what is now Peru their route ran from Nazca to Tumbes. Chasqui routes also extended into further reaches of the empire into parts of what are now Colombia, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile.

Each chasqui carried a pututu (a trumpet made of a conch shell), a quipu in which information was stored, and a qipi on his back to hold objects to be delivered. Chasquis worked using a relay system which allowed them to convey messages over very long distances within a short period of time. Tambos, or relay stations, were constructed at key points along the road system, often consisting of a small shelter with food and water. Chasquis would start at one tambo and run to the next tambo where a rested chasqui was waiting to carry the message to the next tambo. Through the chasqui system a message could be delivered from Cusco to Quito within a week.




Letras mexicanas en París

Inicio :: Cultura vie 13 de mar, 2009
Letras mexicanas en París
La 29 edición del Salón del Libro de París recibe a partir de hoy a un invitado especial: México. A través de 40 escritores, los lectores franceses podrán descubrir la producción literaria mexicana, que más allá de las grandes plumas, es aún poco conocida de este lado del Atlántico. Desde este viernes y hasta el próximo miércoles 18, la diversidad y la creatividad de obras que no habían sido traducidas al francés estarán al alcance del lector europeo que visite este espacio dedicado al comercio de las letras.
Protagonista. El escritor Carlos Fuentes durante las actividades previas al Salón del Libro en París a celebrarse a partir de hoy y hasta el próximo 18 de marzo.

Novelista, ensayista, dramaturgo, cronista, Carlos Fuentes y su "mundo multipolar" abrió en París la antesala a la literatura mexicana con su conferencia en la Biblioteca Nacional de Francia: "La Novela Latinoamericana de Hoy", dictada el miércoles pasado ante un auditorio completo que lo recibía, entre aplausos y flashes, como una de las figuras más importantes de la literatura de América Latina.

Entre los asistentes a la charla estaba Thomas, un joven profesor de español originario del Sur de Francia. Llevaba entre sus manos una edición en castellano de "La Región más Transparente" (1958). En sus páginas se podían apreciar las notas que años atrás escribía cuando se preparaba para presentar el concurso que le llevaría a tener hoy una plaza dentro de la educación nacional francesa. Para él, Fuentes es simplemente "El Maestro".

Y es que en esta edición de Salón de Libro de la capital francesa, el autor de "La Voluntad y la Fortuna" (2008) es una de las firmas de la literatura mexicana más conocidas y traducidas en este país. Los lectores franceses le esperan este domingo por la tarde cuando se presente en el pavillón construido en honor a México dentro de la superficie donde se difundirá y comercializará por seis días la producción de las casas literarias francesas.

Para esta ocasión, el arquitecto mexicano Bernardo Gómez Pimienta diseñó un espacio colorido denominado "Mozaico de Diversidades" donde se pueden encontrar las principales casas de edición mexicanas, una exposición de objetos-libros creados por artistas mexicanos, un ciclo de encuentro con escritores, entre otras actividades.

Desde obras claves de la literatura de México como "El Laberinto de la Soledad" (1950), de Octavio Paz; o "Pedro Páramo" (1955), de Juan Rulfo, los lectores europeos se muestran ya atentos a descubrir la obra de otras firmas como Paco Ignacio Taibo II, Jorge Volpi, Homero Aridjis, Carlos Montemayor, Ignacio Padilla, Fabio Morábito, Héctor Manjarrez, Alberto Ruy Sánchez, Tomás Segovia, Sergio Pitol, entre varios escritores más.

Pero también hay un espacio dedicado a las voces femeninas de la literatura y poesía mexicana como Helena Poniatowska "La Noche de Tlatelolco" (1971), Vilma Fuentes "Castillos de Infierno", Margo Glantz "Saña" (2008), Pura López Colomé "Santo y Seña" (2007), Elsa Cross "Jaguar" (1991), Carmen Boullosa "Llanto" (1992) o Guadalupe Nettel "El Huésped" (2006).

Otra oferta interesante para el lector europeo resulta el abanico de escritores que se expresan en lenguas indígenas como la maya bajo las obras de Briceida Cuevas Cob o a través del mazateca de Juan Gregorio Regino; o aquéllos que insisten en desmarcarse de una literatura norteña o fronteriza como Sergio González, Daniel Sada o David Toscana.

Invaden con sus textos
Como una muestra de la importancia de la literatura mexicana en Francia, el Salón del Libro de París abrió hoy su edición 2009, teniendo a este país como invitado de honor y con la presencia de más de 40 escritores.

Escritores como Margo Glantz, Enrique Serna, Homero Aridjis, Paco Ignacio Taibo II, entre otros, se dieron cita en el Salón del Libro de París, en el Centro de Exposiciones de la Puerta de Versalles, donde fue inaugurada la cita cultural que se prolongará hasta el próximo día 18.

El escritor mexicano Enrique Serna, autor de El Miedo a los Animales y El Seductor de la Patria, entre otras novelas, aseguró que Francia es uno de los países más abiertos a conocer todas las literaturas del mundo.
Sent By Mercy Bautista-Olvera


Artículo publicado el: 25/02/09
Diario El Carabobeño

Historia y Tradición
El gran cacique Manaure, "El primer desterrado de Venezuela"
Eumenes Fuguet Borregales (*)

Los caquetíos ocuparon gran parte del territorio que hoy ocupan los estados Falcón, Zulia, Yaracuy, la costa carabobeña e inclusive las islas de Aruba, Curazao y Bonaire; a diferencia de otras etnias los caquetíos eran pacíficos, dueños de su destino y sus tierras, dedicados a la agricultura y al trabajo, obedientes y no belicosos; diferenciados de los jiraharas ubicados al norte de Lara que eran canibales. La historia y tradición nos relata a Manaure jefe máximo de los caquetíos, valeroso, prudente e inteligente, mejor conocido como el Gran Cacique y el Diao, es decir máximo cacique entre los caciques, patriarca, líder religioso, político, administrador y guía de sus caciques y su pueblo, permanente negociante de la paz como medio de vida; ubicados en Todariquiba, cerca de la región Curiana en la desembocadura del río Mitare al oeste de la futura ubicación de Coro. Es Manaure hijo de Caujarao y Benkela que al ser bautizada se llamaría Sara, Manaure se une con Yamara, procreando tres varones y cuatro hembras, una de ellas Judibana casada con Hurihurebo cacique de Paraguaná, recibirían al bautizarse los nombres de Fernando y Juana; Judibana será la Primera heroína de Venezuela; otra hija, Cuabana al ser bautizada se llamaría Inés, casada con el español Antonio Martínez Ampies, iniciaron el mestizaje en Venezuela. En Aruba se encontraba Gonzalo de Sevilla subordinado del aragonés Juan de Ampies Martínez, instalado en "la Española" hoy Santo Domingo desde 1511, Manaure envía en 1523 a los caciques Baracuyra y Baltasar como emisarios para coordinar un encuentro amistoso; los representantes de Manaure son recibidos y atendidos cortésmente, manteniendo una relación de amistad y apoyo mutuo. En 1525 de Los Taques en Paraguaná son llevados por piratas más de ciento treinta indios a Santo Domingo para ser vendidos en el mercado de esclavos; Manaure informa este abuso que llega a oídos de Ampies, éste actúa para lograr la liberación de estos indígenas caquetíos y su regreso a Paraguaná, actitud que motiva a un Manaure agradecido invitarlo a su región Curiana. A Coro llega el capitán Juan de Ampies Avila hijo de Juan de Ampies Martínez, dotado del poder emanado de la legalidad, junto a Manaure y por delegación de su padre, funda Coro el 26 de julio de 1527 día de Santa Ana, madre de la Virgen María, de allí el nombre de Santa Ana de Coro. Al regresar a Santo Domingo Juan de Ampies hijo, su padre que se encontraba en esa isla, se traslada a la región Curiana siendo recibido con muestras de alegría y amistad por parte de Manaure, sus caciques y caquetíos; ambos se cruzan palabras y regalos, realizando "el primer pacto diplomático entre los españoles y los nativos". Ampies se aloja en lo que los cronistas denominan la "Casa de Coro" o "Casa Fuerte" ubicada, en la desembocadura del río Mitare donde es visitado por Manaure y su corte de caciques. El día 23 de noviembre de 1528 día de San Clemente, bajo un frondoso cují se llevó a cabo la "Primera Misa" en Venezuela. En el sitio ubicado en la zona colonial de Coro una cruz de cují conocida como de San Clemente, recuerda esta primigenia actividad religiosa en nuestro país. Ese día son bautizados los caquetíos con Manaure a la cabeza recibiendo el nombre de Martin Martínez, Coro "Raíz de Venezuela" se ufana de ser el lugar donde se llevaron a cabo los "primeros bautizos en el país". Los reyes españoles Fernando e Isabel tuvieron varios hijos entre ellos a Juana conocida como "la loca" por su delicada salud mental, casada con el príncipe alemán Felipe "el hermoso"; Carlos, el hijo, heredó de su padre el imperio alemán y por parte de su madre Juana a España y sus posesiones en América; este Carlos I de España y V de Alemania tenía deudas con los banqueros alemanes Antonio y Bartolomé Welser y como pago les dio la Gobernación de Venezuela el 28 de marzo de 1528 por capitulación que incluía la explotación comercial, la dirección política y militar de la provincia venezolana, pudiendo nombrar a su antojo a gobernadores y alcaldes. Los Welser designan a Ambrosio Alfinger (1500-1533) al frente de trescientos soldados, los cuales llegan a Coro el 24 de febrero de 1529, sería el "primer capitán general de Venezuela"; Ampies al recibirlo le entrega la responsabilidad del mando político y militar. Los nuevos jefes no están de acuerdo con el buen trato dado por Ampies a los caquetíos y lo expulsan a Curazao con la disposición de no regresar a Curiana. Alfinger maltrataba a los indios violando la disposición del Papa Pablo III (1468-1549), que estipula: "los indios son seres humanos y no pueden ser esclavizados" (Bula Sublimis Dei de 1537). Alfinger instala en Coro en 1529 "el primer Cabildo de Venezuela" a la usanza española. En 1533 Manaure es encarcelado por reclamar el robo de unas canoas por parte de los alemanes. Ante las vejaciones opta por abandonar su terruño; algunos historiadores indican el movimiento hacia San Fernando de Apure, Apure, unos hacia Casanare en la Nueva Granada, otros hacia Capatárida, e inclusive Cojedes o Yaracuy; lo cierto es que el Gran Cacique Manaure ante los abusos prefirió desterrarse antes que ser humillado, por eso cruza la historia con gran dignidad. Yaracal en el estado Falcón es capital del municipio Cacique Manaure, que recuerda el legado de: "Jamás empeñó palabra y cosa que no cumpliera".

(*) Gral. de Bgda (Ej.)

Artículo enviado desde la página web del Diario El Carabobeño
Sent by        Robert Guadarrama Perez




Why Spanish Harlem Celebrates St. Patrick's Day

On St. Patrick's Day, everyone's Irish. Even Latinos put aside their Medallas, Dos Equis and Presidentes for a pint of Guinness. However, our commemoration to the shamrock and salute to the Emerald Isle has a more interesting foundation than the excuse to consume Irish stout (as if we needed an excuse).

In fact, we can trace our connection to the folks of Éire to before Christianity – and before Latin America became "Latin" or "America."

The Lebor Gabála Érenn, (Book of the Taking of Ireland) is one of the most influential books of Irish culture and history, almost comparable to the Old Testament of the Israelites. It was compiled and edited by an anonymous scholar in the 11th century who blended
history with dubious accounts of places, people and events. However, there is a consensus that much of the origins of modern Irish culture point to the same historical mark: the Iron Age associated with the Celtic invasion of Ireland.

The Celts invaded Ireland in waves throughout the last centuries leading to Christianity. The last of these invading Celts were known as Gaels, who came from the northeast region of the Iberian Peninsula known today as the province of Galicia, in modern Spain. The Gallaeci (or Callaeci) tribes of Celts in Galicia were given that name by the Romans because they worshiped the Celtic goddess Cailleach.

Early Irish people also referred to themselves as Milesians -- sons of Míl Espáine (the Iberian Peninsula).

By this account, it is not surprising that the harp and other folkloric elements of Galicia resemble those of Ireland more than traditional Spanish culture. And when the Spanish began to conquer the Americas (and spread the Spanish language and Catholic religion
to the native civilizations), they brought with them their Galician brothers and sisters -- and their Celtic bloodline.

However, as we scan through history, we find more recent Latino/Irish connections in the post-Columbus and Cortés narrative of the Americas.

In Argentina, and especially in Buenos Aires, along a street called "Reconquista," all-night long parties are celebrated in honor of St. Patrick. The street is named that way remembering the take over of the city after it had been invaded and occupied by a detachment of the British Army for 46 days in 1806 (a second British force occupied Montevideo in 1807, remaining for several months). Today, while much of the popularity of St. Patrick's Day is due to the sympathy and solidarity with the Irish struggle against the
British and the continued occupation of Northern Ireland, the colonization and subsequent war over Las Islas Malvinas (Falkland Islands) certainly plays a role as well.

Even before the British Empire carved a line below Northern Ireland, the idea of a superpower clutching part of another country has rarely sat well with the Irish. When the United States annexed the Republic of Texas, a former part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas, the two countries went to war.

Having served in the British and US Armies, Jon Riley was an experienced soldier fed up with imperial occupations of other countries. Together with fellow Irishman Patrick Dalton, Riley formed the Batallón de San Patricio (St. Patrick's Battalion). The battalion would grow to 800 fighting Irish, Germans, Swiss, Scots and other Roman Catholics of European descent, who went on to engage US forces in 5 major battles. The St. Patrick's Battalion was responsible for some of the toughest fighting (and the heaviest casualties) that the US Army had faced in the Mexican-American War of 1846 to 1848. The Battalion fought under a flag bearing the Harp of Erin with "Erin Go Bragh" ("Ireland Forever" in anglicized Gaelic) written beneath.

Today, the Mexican flag flies daily in the town center of Riley's native Clifden, County Galway, in Ireland. A statue, donated by the Mexican government in 2004 to the Irish in recognition for the bravery, honor and sacrifice of the St. Patrick's Battalion, also stands in Clifden's town center.

Then in 1912, a young Puerto Rican by the name of Pedro Albizu Campos is awarded a scholarship to study Engineering at the University of Vermont. In 1913 he transfers to Harvard University before volunteering in the US Infantry at the outbreak of WWI.
Although he was proud to serve, he was also exposed to racism after being placed in a 'negro unit.' This experience began to mold his view of Puerto Rican and US relations. After an honorable discharged as a First Lieutenant, he returned to Harvard, where he was elected president of Harvard's Cosmopolitan Club. His exposure to WWI and brush with racism opened his mind to social and political struggles around the world. He hung out with Irish nationalists in school, making a conscious connection between British rule over Ireland and the US colonization of Puerto Rico. Albizu helped establish clubs and centers throughout Boston where young Irish congregated and discussed the independence of their homeland. Albizu's solidarity with the Irish struggle led him to a meeting with Éamon de Valera (who's father was Spanish-Cuban), who invited young Albizu to assist in the drafting of the Irish Free State constitution.

After Harvard, Albizu returns to Puerto Rico and joins the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, and within a relatively short period, becomes its leader. Albizu would reorient the Nationalist Party using the Irish Republican Movement as a model. Today, while much of Ireland experiences the world as a sovereign republic, Puerto Rico remains a colonial territory of the United States.

Back in County Galway in Ireland, we find that Jon Riley was not the only Irishman with a historical connection to the Latino community.  In 1715, an Irishman by the name of Patrick Lynch, native of Galway, journeys to a Basque region of Spain known as Bilbao. From there, he travels to South America, visiting many regions of the continent before settling down in Argentina, where he becomes a prosperous merchant. The Lynch family gives birth to Ana Lynch in 1868, who in 1900, gives birth to Ernesto Guevara Lynch. Mr. Guevara Lynch marries a lady by the name of Celia de la Serna y Llosa in 1927 and together have two daughters and three sons. Of the boys grows up to become a figure of note in Latin American history: Ernesto Guevara de la Serna, better known as "Che" Guevara.

In this immigrant nation, it is not difficult to trace political and cultural crossings and exchanges of all sorts. The Irish/ Latino connection came to mind because in Spanish Harlem, a bar/restaurant has become renowned for, among other things, its frequent servings of Guinness pints -- not to Irish or British patrons, but to the Hispanic community from and around El Barrio. In fact, the bar's principal owners, Orlando Plaza and Raúl Rivera, founded Camaradas El Barrio back in 2004 after working in Downtown Irish pubs, such as Puck Fair and Ulysses, and befriending the owners, who were gracious in sharing their experience and guidance. So when Orlando and Raúl embarked on their own pub-style establishment, in honor of their working class descendents, they were mindful in paying homage to their Irish friends by offering one of the finest pints of Guinness north of 96 Street.  

San Patricios: Mexico honors Irish-American turncoats
Soldiers switched sides in 1840s war; hailed as heroes
by Chris Hawley, The Arizona Republic

From behind the bullet-scarred walls of an ancient fortress, the wail of bagpipes and a thundering bass drum echoed through a plaza in the center of Mexico City.

Passers-by stopped in their tracks. Children craned for a look as a platoon of Mexican bagpipers marched through the gates in tribute to a strange and divisive chapter of Irish-American history.

The bagpipers play each month in honor of the St. Patrick Battalion, a group of 600 Irish-American soldiers who switched sides to fight for Mexico in the 1846-1848 Mexican-American War. Mexico lost half its territory to the United States as a result of the war.

To the United States, the deserters are traitors. But to Mexicans, the "Irish martyrs" are heroes, honored in street names, plaques and St. Patrick's Day celebrations around the country. The battalion's name is written in gold letters in the chamber of Mexico's House of
Representatives, and a ceremony is held in a Mexico City park every year to commemorate the executions of the group's members.

"It's a little bit of a weird twist on history . . . and quite romantic for the Irish community," said Myles Doherty, the Irish consul in Mexico City.

Immigrants turned soldiers

The battalion's story begins with Ireland's Potato Famine of the 1840s, which forced thousands of Irish to emigrate to the United States and other countries. In May 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico in a dispute over the boundaries of Texas. Many of the desperate Irish were recruited for the war, sometimes within days of landing in New York, said Carlos Mayer, a historian and expert on the battalion.

Most of the American commanders were Protestants, and they treated these Catholic immigrants badly, Mayer said. Mexico, meanwhile, was offering land and higher wages to its recruits. As the fighting wore on, some of the U.S. recruits began to grow restless.

"Many of them began to realize that Mexico was a fellow Catholic country that was being invaded and that was really defenseless in the face of the American military superiority," he said. "So they began switching sides."

The deserters were led by John Riley, an artilleryman who had previously fought in the British Army. They were joined by a few Swiss, French, Scottish and German recruits, most of them also Catholic.

Called los colorados, or "the redheads," by their Mexican comrades, they fought against the Americans at the key battles of Monterrey, Buenavista and Cerro Gordo.

The Americans eventually reached the outskirts of Mexico City on Aug. 20, 1847. Mexican troops, with the remaining San Patricios handling the artillery, pounded the American forces from a monastery-turned-fort on the Churubusco River until they ran out of

Thirty-five San Patricios died in the battle, 85 were captured and another 85 retreated with the remnants of the Mexican army.

On Sept. 13, 1847, the Americans seized Chapultepec Castle in the war's last major battle.

San Patricios who had deserted before the war were branded with the letter "D" on one cheek. The rest were hanged, including 30 who were executed at the foot of Chapultepec Hill.

"They were hanged at the moment that the American flag was raised over the castle of Chapultepec so that they would take that sight to hell with them," Mayer said.

Mexicans consider the war a blatant land grab by the United States, and the loss continues to haunt relations between the two countries today.

Awareness today
The former monastery of Churubusco, where the San Patricios were defeated, is now a national museum dedicated to the invasions Mexico has suffered. The bullet holes are still on the walls, and the cannons commanded by John Riley stand outside.

The first Sunday of every month, the St. Patrick Battalion Pipe Band plays in the soldiers' honor. And on several weekends each year, an actor portraying Riley gives talks to schoolchildren and tourists. The San Patricios were seen much differently in the United States, even by fellow Irish immigrants, said Ian McGowan, archivist at the Institute for Irish-American Studies at the City University of New York.

"In the military particularly, there was a sense of shame," McGowan said. "For a good 40 or 50 years they were almost completely forgotten about. The unofficial position of Irish who were looking to become Americans in the 19th century was not to discuss them."

Recently, however, Americans have begun to pay more attention to the battalion. Historians have written a number of books about it in the past decade, McGowan said, and in 1999 MGM released a movie about Riley, One Man's Hero.

Bernard Brennan, an Irish-American tourist from San Francisco, said he had become curious about the battalion after discussing it with a Mexican friend. On a recent afternoon, he snapped pictures of a carved stone plaque marking a Mexico City plaza where 16 of the
Irish soldiers were hanged. The plaque reads: "In memory of the Irish soldiers of the heroic St. Patrick Battalion, who gave their lives for the cause of Mexico during the unjust American invasion of 1847."

Brennan said he doesn't see the soldiers as traitors. "As an Irish-American, I'm proud of them," he said. "Sometimes you have to stand up and say, 'What my country is doing is wrong.' I think they're heroes, heroes of conscience."

Sent Juan Marinez



Status of New FamilySearch Digitizing Projects  
Researching Family History in the National Archives
Cultural Attitudes about Family Research
Family History Centers in Mexico
Status of New FamilySearch Digitizing Projects  

Argentina Censo 1869 - Cordoba y San Luis



Argentina Censo 1869 - Corrientes y Entre Rios



España Lugo Registros Parroquiales [Part 1]



España Ávila Registros Parroquiales



Nayarit – Censo de Mexico de 1930



Nicaragua, Managua Civil Records



Perú Lima-Registros Civiles



Sonora – Censo de Mexico de 1930