Somos Primos

 October 2007 
Editor: Mimi Lozano
©2000-7

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
 
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

                                                



Photo taken by Richard Maher
Public Affairs and Communications, USPS
First Day Issue of Mendez Stamp
Gonzalo and Felicita Mendez Fundamental Intermediate School 
September 14, 2007, Santa Ana, California
Click for more information.

 

 

Editor: I was asked about the numbers in the content areas. If the issue is printed out and the photos are included, these numbers are approximate page numbers. 
Content Areas
United States
. . 3
National Issues . . 19
Action Items
. . 25
Education . . 30
Bilingual Educations . . 44
Business . . 45
Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Months . . 52
Baseball: The Great American Sport
. . 57
Culture
. . 65
Literature
. . 68
Cuentos
. . 74
Military & Law Enforcement Heroes
. . 78
Patriots of American Revolution
. . 89
Surname  . . 90
Orange County,CA
. . 91
Los Angeles,CA
. . 96
California 
. . 102
Northwestern US . .106
Southwestern US 
. . 111
African-American . . 113
Indigenous
. . 117
Sephardic 
. . 124
Texas  . . 128
East of Mississippi
. . 137 
East Coast
. . 140
Mexico
 
. . 141
Caribbean/Cuba
. . 163
Spain
. . 164
International
. . 199
History
. . 203
Family History
. . 204
Archaeology
 
. . 208
Miscellaneous
. . 210
Community Calendars
Networking 


                                 End

  Letters to the Editor : 

Thank you and keep doing the great job you are doing!!! 
Sent by Alfredo Valentin alfredo.valentin@hud.gov

Hi Mimi, As usual, your work is phenomenal!  Time Crump 
crumpta@msn.com

Buenas Tardes y Felicidades! 
The informative and knowledgeable Newsletter . . . is incredible.
Linda Torres7  LindaTorres 7

I share this web site and encourage others to educate themselves.  Be proud of who they are and where they come from. 
Robert Gonzalez  gonzalesr@cg63.navy.mil


Hello, Mimi:  I will post a piece about your excellent Hispanic history web site on the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route's blog for Monday, September 17. I was very happy to stumble upon your site, quite by accident--and by serendipity!  Please see www.w3r-commons.org/blog
Thanks for all you do


Kim Burdick
delaware@delawarehispanic.com
National Chairman
Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route (W3R-USA)
P.O. Box 40
Rockland, Delaware 19732-0040

Through the Lands of American's Ancient History connecting Florida, Mexico, and California.  The Highway will go from San Diego through, AZ, NM, TX, LA, MS, AL, GA to St. Augustine/Jacksonville, Florida. Involvement is welcomed. For more information on the Old Spanish Trail Project, click.


  Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor

Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Dorinda Moreno
Rafael Ojeda
Michael Perez
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Ted Vincent

  Contributors:  
apodaca@pacbell.net
Silas Abrego, Ph.D.
Judge Rick Aguirre
Dan Arellano
Beatrice Armenta Dever
Ray Armenta
Yeda Baker
Jamie Bufalino 
Kim Burdick
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Ana Belén Paniagua Lourtau  
Lorenzo Butler
Gloria Candelario Marsh 
Bill Carmena

Kathleen Carrizal-Frye
Tim Crump
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Madrigal A. Cuauhtlatoatzin 
Gus Chavez
ChuchoHuff
Sal Del Valle
Hector Diaz
Edna Yolanda Elizondo 
ERcheck
Richard Esquival
Richard Garcia
Angelo Falcon
Claudia Fanelli 
Lupe Fisher
Joshua Foster
Rafael Jesús González
Richard Gonzales
Robert Gonzalez
Ron Gonzales
Lorraine Hernandez
Manuel Hernandez 
Sergio Hernandez
John Inclan
Charlotte Kahl
Barry Kibrick

Larry Kirkpatrick
Julie Lugo Cerra 
Audrey Cleary 
Augie Lerma
Gilbert Lujan
Juan Marinez 
Antonio Martin

Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza
 Eric Moreno

Rafael Ojeda
Gloria Oliver
Elvira Prieto
Pamela Mann
Niria Ramos Marín 
Beth McCarty
Dr. Carlos Muñoz,Ph.D. 
Armando Rendon, Ph.D
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Sandra Robbie
Steve Rubin
Prof. George Ryskamp
Tony Santiago
Richard G. Santos
John  P. Schmal
Gil Sperry
Mary Sutton
Maria Tapia-Belsito
David Tijerina
Linda Torres
Stacy Torres
Leonardo de la Torre y Berúmen
Alfredo Valentin
Ricardo Valverde
Janete Vargas
Connie Vasquez
Ted Vincent
Ramón Vásquez Y Sánchez

SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Yolanda Magdaleno, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal. 


UNITED STATES


2007 National Hispanic Heritage Month theme
"Hispanic Americans: Making a Positive Impact on American Society."



Washington, D.C. Event Honors Mendez v. Westminster School District 
Santa Ana, CA, Commemorative Mendez Stamp, 1st Day Issue
Westminster School District Proclamation Honors Mendez Stamp
Text of the Proclamation by the City of Westminster
Westminster City Council Meeting, September 26th.
Still Separate, Still Unequal: 60 Years after Mendez v. Westminster
Stopping Segregation 
National Public Radio: Latino War Vets Changed World at Home, Abroad
Dr. Hector P. Garcia's legacy honored in Three Rivers, Texas
Let the Healing Begin, delivered by , Wanda Garcia, Dr. Garcia's daughter
Veterans, teacher inducted into Mexican American Hall of Fame
Postage stamp to honor Ruben Salazar 


Mendez v. Westminster School District, a 1947 federal court case that challenged racial segregation in California schools. Seven years before Brown v. Board of Education, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students into alleged "separate but equal schools" was unconstitutional. Several organizations joined the appellate case as amicus curiae, including the NAACP, represented by Thurgood Marshall. That same year, California Governor, and future Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, Earl Warren signed laws repealing the last remaining school segregation statutes in California.

The Federal Triangle Partnership, consisting of the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and the U.S. Postal Service on September 20th observed its National Hispanic Heritage Month event on September 20th by honoring the Mendez v. Westminster School District case on  in Washington, D.C.. The event was held in the Pavilion Room of the Ronald Reagan Building & International Trade Center.

The keynote speaker was Sandra Robbie, Emmy-winning writer/producer of the documentary Mendez vs. Westminster: For All the Children / Para Todos los Ninos. The U.S. Postal Service will be issuing a Mendez commemorative stamp during September, 2007. Sylvia Mendez, the daughter of plaintiffs, Gonzalo Mendez, a Mexican immigrant, and Felicitas Mendez, a Puerto Rican woman, will also be part of the program.


Ms. Robbie said, "this is a historical event, not to be used for political purposes". She also emphasized that we should take advantage of the new stamp to encourage Hispanics to finish college. There is nothing in the way to stop them.

Lt. to rt: Sandra Robbie, Producer of 
Mendez v. Westminster: For all the Children.
Seated Sylvia Mendez, daughter of Gonzalo and Felicitas Mendez. Behind her is Yeda Baker, Arlington Coordinator, Romney for President National Hispanic Steering committee who kindly sent this photo, taken by_____

 

Editor:  I live in the city Westminster, where 60 years ago,  the first effective, long-standing legalities took place that desegregated California schools, and eventually formed the foundation for the Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas ruling. 

Recognizing the opportunity of promoting the history of early civil rights efforts by Latinos, and with the support of the Westminster LULAC Council #3017, I contacted our State senator, Lou Correa, area Supervisor, Janet Nguyen, Mayor, Margery Rice, and Westminster School District Superintendent, Sharon Nordheim.  All prepared proclamations celebrating the issuing of the Mendez v. Westminster stamp.

 

The Commemorative Stamp First Day of issue  Mendez v. Westminster School District ceremony was held at  the Gonzalo and Felicitas Mendez Fundamental Intermediate School in the city of Santa Ana on September 14, 2007.  

Representatives from Washington, D.C. of the United States Postal Service included  Thurgood Marshall, Jr., Member, Board of Governors, United States Postal Service, David E. Failor, Executive Director, Stamp Services, Darlene Suarez Casey, Program Manager, Events & Promotions, Yvonne Yoerger, Media Relations Representative, Public Affairs and Communication.

Honored guests and dignitaries  included the Honorable Loretta Sanchez, United States House of Representatives, Gladys Limon, Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund.  

The Master of Ceremonies was Marie Therese Dominguez, Vice President, Government Relations, United States Postal Service.  Introduced were  Jane A. Russo, Superintendent, Santa Unified School District, William M. Habermehl, Orange County Superintendent, Rob Richardson, President, Board of Education. 

Sylvia Mendez spoke and a granddaughter of Gonzalo and
Felicitas, Mistala Mendez-Mooney read a poem.  The Mendez Fundamental Advanced School Band played under the direction of Director Sabrina Green and the Santa Ana High School ROTC Color Guard also participated.  It was a wonderful, uplifting event.  The auditorium was filled.  Only the students that were participating were able to attend. However, United States Postal Service gave each child a Mendez stamp pin, a token to always remember that education is a precious right. 

 



On September 13th, the Westminster School District passed a  proclamation in recognition of the Mendez case.  Special guest was Gonzalo Mendez, Jr.  welcomed with a standing ovation.

Westminster School District Board Trustees, left to right: Andrew Nguyen,  Sergio Contreras, Gonzalo Mendez Jr. David Bridgewater, JoAnn Purcell and Mary Margold.

The Westminster LULAC Council #3017 members and SHHAR, requested the proclamation: 
front row, from left Nora Barajas, Westminster City Commissioner on Aging, Gonzalo Mendez, Jr. Lupe Fisher,  Westminster City Cultural Arts Commissioner 
Mimi Lozano. Back row, Bea Dever, Napoleon Barajas.


 

PROCLAMATION
by the 
City of Westminster

UNVEILING OF UNITED STATES POSTAL STAMP
IN HONOR OF: 

"MENDEZ V. WESTMINSTER CASE"

 

       WHEREAS, Sixty years ago on April 14, 1947, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled that the California schools could not segregate on the basis of national origin in the Mendez v. Westminster School District of Orange County et al; and

       WHEREAS, Felicitas and Gonzalo Mendez changed the history of the State of California and the nation's education system for the better; and

        WHEREAS, their efforts were critical to laying the legal groundwork needed by Thurgood Marshall in his landmark Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas; and

        WHEREAS, the Mendez family's actions led to the breakdown of then legal racial discrimination, "Separate but Equal", existing within the State of California and the nation, resulting schools opening to all races, creeds and colors; and

        WHEREAS, personal sacrifice and determination were shared by the entire Mendez family, including Gonzalo Mendez, Jr., Sylvia Mendez and Geronimo Mendez; and

        WHEREAS, Sixty years ago while our World War II Latina and Latino veterans were fighting for freedom overseas, the Mendez family was fighting at the home front for civil and equal rights, and neither endeavor should ever be forgotten.

        NOW,THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that I, Margie L. Rice, Mayor of the City of Westminster, on the behalf of Mayor Pro Tem Kermit Marsh, and Council Members Frank G. Fry, Andy Quach, and Tri Ta, join the State of California and the nation in supporting the unveiling of the United States Postal Service's stamp in honor of the "Mendez v. Westminster Case", and recognize the Mendez family and their contribution to the education of children in the State of California, as well as children in our nation.

Dated: September 26, 2007

Margie L. Rice, Mayor


              Westminster City Council Meeting, September 26th.



Left to right, Lupe Fisher, Mimi Lozano, Cris Villasenor, President of LULAC Chapter 3017 receiving proclamation from Councilman Kermit Marsh, far right, Councilman Tri Ta.  Back row, Sergio Contreras, Westminster School Trustee, Councilman Andy Quach, Larry Loera, Councilman Frank Fry,  Mayor Margie Rice.

September 18th, California State University, Fullerton  
Panel on the current status of education of minorities.

Fredrick Aguirre

Paul Egly

Mikel Hogan

Michael Matsuda


Stopping Segregation 
Panel discusses significance of the Mendez vs. Westminster case
September 24, 2007, By Mimi Ko Cruz

In 1943, Sylvia Mendez went to school with other Mexican Americans. She wasn't allowed to attend the whites-only school in her neighborhood.

Schools all across the nation were segregated and it took a lawsuit by Sylvia's parents, Gonzalo and Felicitas Mendez, and others to desegregate public schools in Orange County. The 9th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled on April 14, 1947 that school districts could not segregate on the basis of race.

The ruling and how it influenced other cases — including Brown vs. Board of Education — was the topic of a Sept. 18 panel discussion "Still Separate, Still Unequal: 60 Years After Mendez vs. Westminster" on campus.

The panelists — Orange County Superior Court Judge Frederick P. Aguirre; retired Los Angeles County Superior Court Judge Paul Egly; Mikel Hogan, chair and professor of human services and field director for the Office of Civil Rights and State Department of Education; and Michael Matsuda, co-author of a children's book about the Mendez vs. Westminster case and a trustee of the North Orange County Community College District — spoke about the historic case and its relevance today.

“America has been a country that has struggled with its identity,” Matsuda said. “It comes down to how you treat others…. In the Mendez case, the parents only considered what was right to do.”

Matsuda called the case “a truly heroic American story” and challenged audience members to call their legislators to demand the case be taught to children as part of their grade-school curriculum.

Sixty years ago, more than 500,000 Mexican Americans fought in World War II as U.S. soldiers, Aguirre said. Mexican Americans were good enough to fight and die alongside Anglos, yet their children were not good enough to go to the same schools, he said.

There “was no reason for segregation,” Egly said, but “California was and still is a racist state.”

“People are afraid of people who are different, and until we get over that fear, we are going to have this problem,” Aguirre added. “The equality that we’re working for is equality of opportunity.”

In light of a recent UCLA civil rights project that found schools are re-segregating faster than they have since the 1990s when Supreme Court cases started dismantling desegregation policies, Hogan said raising awareness in schools and calling on elected officials to fund desegregation programs are “important to social justice and equality.”

The Supreme Court’s 5-4 decision in June, restricting any action by school districts to diversify schools, “resurfaced the need to educate our community about the Mendez case that set a precedent for the Brown vs. Board of Education to desegregate schools through our nation,” said Mark Kamimura-Jiménez, campus director of educational partnerships and one of the event’s organizers. “Only 60 years ago, California desegregated its schools; however, today we are faced with new challenges in our schools as diversity remains an empirical component to an enriched learning environment.”

The panelists, Kamimura-Jiménez said, engaged attendees “in a critical public dialogue on the historical and present issues of segregation in our schools and communities, and encouraged us to think about the implications of the Mendez decision.”

Hena Cuevas, a reporter on KCET’s “Life and Times” program, moderated the panel, which commenced after an unveiling of a new U.S. Post Office commemorative stamp honoring the 60th anniversary of the Mendez case.

The panel discussion, sponsored by Associated Students Inc., Student Affairs and Public Affairs and Government Relations, was part of last week's Constitution Day activities.

Sent by Dr. Silas Abrego
http://campusapps.fullerton.edu/news/inside/2007/mendez.html


In summary, Judge Fredrick Aguirre said that although the laws of desegregation are in effect, segregation is effectively still in place, created by the economic differences of families living within schools' districts. Varied solutions were discussed such as the Dream Act, charter schools, open school boundaries, and internet classes, such as advanced placement classes, usually not available in low income areas. 
 

 

National Public Radio
Latino War Vets Changed World at Home and Abroad, 5 Parts series
Richard Gonzales, National Correspondent
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=2100569
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14579935
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14600136
GO TO www.npr.org  click on Richard Gonzales for full series


Left Richard Gonzales, National Correspondent with National Public Radio interviewed WW II Army veteran throughout California. [Editor: I had the fun of watching Richard in action.]  Here Richard is recording a few parting comments by  Orange County resident, Ben De Leon.  Mr. De Leon entered as a private in 1942, but by 1946 was serving as Infantry Unit Commander. 

Upon returning home, Mr. De Leon found a job with the County of Orange.  He began in an entry level position.  He moved to the Claims Division of the Orange county Veterans Service Office.  Thirty-five years later, he retired as Director of the Orange County Veterans Service Office, an accomplishment that identifies Mr. De Leon as the very first Latino to serve in an executive management position for the County of Orange, California.

Among some of the voices that you will hear recorded on the program dated, Sunday September 23, 2007  are Afred Aguirre and Joe Juarez·
http://www.npr.org/templates/rundowns/rundown.php?prgId=10

After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, as many as 500,000 Latinos - predominantly Mexican-Americans - answered President Roosevelt's call to war.

Their service - and their return home - not only changed their lives, it created the building blocks for ending discriminative policies against minorities in the United States after the war ended.

For many Mexican-Americans, serving in the war was the first time they had participated in mainstream America. Like African-Americans, most Latinos throughout the Southwest experienced regular discrimination and segregation.
But unlike African-Americans, Latinos fought in integrated units.  Alfred Aguirre of Placencia, Calif., served with the Army Corps of Engineers, 96th Army Division. He earned a bronze star for bravery fighting in Okinawa. But when he returned home, he learned that the local schools were still segregated.

"We were all together. We lived together. We fight together. Everybody was there - Italians, Jews, whatever. We got along fine," Aguirre recalls. "And I said this was stupid to come home where I was born and be separated! And I said I'm not going to have my child go to school and be separated like that!"

Aguirre's son, Frederick, is now a Superior Court judge in Orange County, Calif. His father led Latino war veterans who rallied to challenge school segregation after the war. Fredrick Aguirre says the action Latino war veterans took led to the first federal court decision that declared that separate schools were inherently unequal.

"That busted up the Mexican-American schools here in Orange County. And it set the precedent seven years later for Brown vs. the Board of Education in 1954," Aguirre says.

Mario Garcia, a history professor at the University of California at Santa
Barbara, says Aguirre's generation of Latino World War II veterans pressed for civil rights not as a broad national movement, but at the grass roots.  Indeed, Alfred Aguirre founded a group called "Veterans and Citizens of Placencia" and he was eventually elected to the Placencia city council.

Like Aguirre, Joe Juarez says that serving in the war was life-altering for his family. The Orange County resident was seriously wounded fighting in the Philippines. His brother, Maurice, a tank commander, was killed in Germany. A third brother, Raymond, was stationed stateside as a military policeman guarding POWs.

Today, Joe Juarez doesn't like talking about the war. But he will say that when he returned, he realized he had changed in ways he never expected. "Because of the war I became a fighter, I was a winner and because of that I became a better man," he says.

Dr. Hector P. Garcia's legacy honored in Three Rivers, Texas, September 19th 

Alice Echo-News Journal: In accordance with House Concurrent Resolution No. 273, the American GI Forum-Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria Chapter of Corpus Christi  will conduct ceremonies celebrating the legacy of Dr. Hector P. Garcia in Three Rivers at 11 a.m. on Wednesday.  Daughter, Wanda Garcia  was the guest speaker.

The city of Three Rivers was chosen to conduct the ceremonies because of the history of Dr. Hector P. Garcia's involvement during the Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria incident in 1949.  http://www.aliceechonews.com/articles/2007/09/17/local_news/news02.txt

 


LET THE HEALING BEGIN
by Wanda Garcia
Received September 25, 2007

This past week I went to Three Rivers, Texas to participate in a ceremony honoring my father Dr. Hector P. Garcia. Three Rivers was where the Hispanic Civil Rights movement began. Where Dr. Hector got the national visibility that enabled him to be an activist in the movement.

The catalyst was the refusal of a funeral home director in Three Rivers, Texas to allow the family of Pvt. Felix Longoria the use of the funeral home. I had reservations about going to Three Rivers, considering the past history my father had with the community. But my belief that the type of energy you send out is returned to you prevailed. So, I agreed to speak in Three Rivers, TX. I was determined to send out healing to all parties.

On Sept 19, 2007, I drove up to the Three Rivers city hall about 10:00 am. Some American G.I. Forum members readily distinguishable by the American G.I. Forum cap were talking to a tall man. I got out of my car and approached the men. They were Santiago Hernandez, Willie Perez and Mayor John Liska.

The Pvt. Felix Longoria Chapter with Three Rivers Mayor James Liska.



After the preliminary introductions, Mayor Liska wanted to talk to me privately. Before he had an opportunity to talk, I assured him that I was in Three Rivers, Texas to honor my father and to bring words of healing for all the players in the Felix Longoria drama. Mayor Liska is a deeply religious man and he agreed with me that the time was at hand for the healing to begin.   



The experience was one of the most rewarding in my life. I saw Mexican American business owners, policemen and news reporters. I was introduced to the city council members. Three of the city council members were Mexican American. My father’s work bore fruit and this was the evidence. I was deeply gratified and proud of my father that he made the sacrifices to make this possible. It was a good thing.

Left to Right: Commander Willie Perez, Judge Westgreen, and Wanda Garcia.

 

Speech delivered by Wanda Garcia 

Mayor Liska, Honored guests and dear friends. Thank you for joining me today to honor my father on this historical occasion in Three Rivers, Texas.

Sixty years ago, a young Dr. Hector P. Garcia had a vision of a world without barriers for his people. He had returned from service in WWII after experiencing how different life was in other countries where discrimination did not exist for Mexican Americans. He returned to our country during a time when a Mexican American could only aspire to menial employment a life of poverty and no upward mobility.

Segregation existed everywhere, in the hospitals, the workplace and the schools. Hospitals placed Mexican American patients in segregated wards. When the segregated wards were full the hospitals placed, the patients in the halls when the Anglo wards were empty. Mexican Americans could not afford to pay for health care. So they died. Mexican American infants had a high rate of mortality and tuberculosis was rampant among the adults. The school situation was dismal with Mexican American students achieving third grad education before dropped out of grade school.

The situation for veterans returning from the Service was not helping either. They kept turning down medical treatment and benefit claims for these veterans. A claim filed by my father was turned down also.

When I was a child, I recall traveling with Dr. Hector and Willie Davila and Sonny Saavedra to organize GI Forum chapters in the state. We would drive for what seemed an endless journey to a rally held in some remote towns with the names of Mathis, Beeville and Alice. A parish priest from the local our Lady of Guadalupe church arranged the meetings. At the meetings, Dr. Hector would deliver his message to the crowds, "we don’t want handouts. All we want is opportunity."

He dedicated his life and energy to improving the quality of life for his people. He healed people’s bodies with his medicine and their souls with his caring. Through his leadership, my father changed the destiny of all Mexican Americans by securing opportunities through educational, legal and political means. For this purpose, Dr. Hector Garcia founded the American GI Forum.

Papa would always say if you want credibility, you have to speak with an organization behind you, or people will think you are a fool. To show that he had an organization behind him was the reason he wore his American GI Forum cap "cachucha" and demand that all American GI Forum members wear their hats.

Dr. Hector left us the legacy of the American GI Forum. He knew a strong organization could effect positive change. In turn, our responsibility is to ensure that the American GI Forum remains a respected, constant and dynamic force in the community. We cannot be content with yesterday’s triumphs but must grow by adapting to new directions while building on past techniques and strategies.

No meeting in Three Rivers, Texas would be complete without mention of the Felix Longoria Story. We are still discussing the many versions of what happened over 50 years ago in Three Rivers, TX. Sadly, the result was a veteran’s family was denied the use of the funeral home.

I believe nothing happens by accident and all events have a higher purpose. One afternoon as I was driving down Lake Austin Blvd. in Austin, Texas, the purpose came to me. This event gave national visibility to the discrimination against Mexican Americans in Texas. If it had not been for the national visibility generated by this event, Edna Ferber would have never written "Giant" the story of the Mexican American experience in south Texas. Thus, the civil rights movement may have been delayed by 20 years if these events had not transpired.

We are still frozen in time and bound to this incident because we have not forgiven one another. Before we can move forward, we must heal the wounds of our past. Today I ask that we unite in love and understanding, honor the key players in the Three Rivers Incident, and move forward. Therefore, I want to honor all the players in this drama, Private Felix Longoria for making the ultimate sacrifice in giving his life for his country, the Felix Longoria Family, the Kennedy family. Last of all I would like to recognize my father for doing the right thing and my family for their courage.

Sarah Posas, my baby sitter. Thank you for your bravery and courage and that of all the Longoria family for surviving what was a difficult episode in your lives.

I would like to recognize Beatriz Longoria and the members of the Longoria family for their courage and steadfastness in having to live through difficult and dangerous times.

I would like to acknowledge the members of the Kennedy family. I know they suffered as well.

Today, sixty years later we meet in front of city hall. What a contrast to the past when secret meetings were held in fields at night. Upward mobility and higher education is attainable for Mexican Americans. We can now aspire to obtain the American dream because of the vision of Dr. Hector P. Garcia.

The best tribute that we can give Dr. Hector is to continue his work and to tell his story to the nation. I ask your help to gain Dr. Hector the national recognition he deserves. I ask that you contact your elected officials to have a national and state holiday named for Dr. Hector. In addition, purchase the Don Brown’s AGIF and Justice for My People documentaries and give one to each school district in your respective states.

So thank you Dr. Hector for raising us up. For in opening the doors of opportunity for Mexican Americans, you liberated everyone. You are the "wind beneath our wings." Thank you.

 




Veterans, teacher inducted into Mexican American Hall of Fame
By Jennie Rodriguez  Record Staff Writer, August 23, 2007

STOCKTON, California  - Two military veterans and a veteran of the classroom will be the three "unsung heroes" to be inducted Saturday into the Mexican American Hall of Fame in Stockton.

"There are certain individuals involved in the community that get plenty of notoriety," said Richard Rios, a member of the committee that selected inductees Julian Sepulveda Jr. of Stockton, Maria Ramirez-McGuire of Tracy and Oscar Chapa of Stockton. "But there are also a lot of unsung heroes, whose names don't appear in the newspaper or aren't involved in politics.

"The Mexican Hall of Fame is reaching out to those unsung heroes that really need to be recognized that many of us don't know much about."

Rios nominated Julian Sepulveda Jr for the community service category.  Sepulveda, a Marine veteran, is past president of Stockton's Cursillo Movement, a social activist group of Catholic congregates started in the early 1960s.  Sepulveda has volunteered in a youth prison ministry, taught catechism and confirmation classes, and served as a lector at St. Gertrude's and Presentation Catholic churches.  "I feel that I'm emulating my father, because he did so much for the community," Sepulveda said.

"I'm most proud of is being a role model for youth in finishing education," he said. Owner of Sepulveda's Truck Painting & Body Shop in Stockton, Sepulveda went back to college at 55 to finish his vocational training.  

In 1983, Sepulveda joined the Private Industry Council board of directors, and he later joined San Joaquin County Workforce Investment Board. Recently, he became a volunteer for the county's mediation board, an assistance program for settling disputes.

Maria Ramirez-McGuire will be inducted in the education category. Ramirez-McGuire retired last year from Tracy High School after 30 years as an educator. She taught reading, basic math, bilingual and regular U.S. history, American government, economics and Spanish.  "I fell in love with education and with the love of learning. That's what I'm going to miss," Ramirez-McGuire said.

While at Tracy High, her student involvement did not stop at teaching. Ramirez-McGuire advocated for teachers and for lowering class sizes. She counseled at-risk students for two years and served as the adviser to the Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan Club, or MEChA, for 25 years, organizing field trips to university campuses. MEChA is a Latino student body organization that promotes higher education and Latino culture preservation.

"I think I feel most proud of being MEChA adviser," Ramirez-McGuire said. "That was where I did the most for my students, especially students who were limited in going to college." Also, she developed the first girls soccer team at Tracy High School and coached girls basketball, volleyball and softball. Ramirez-McGuire received the John Williams and Character Counts awards in 2005, presented by the California Teacher Association for her involvement with students and parents.

Oscar Chapa will enter the hall as humanitarian of the year.

Chapa, an Army veteran, has operated Oscar's Catering since 1940. Chapa helped provide lunches for thousands of Su Salud health fair volunteers in the late 1990s. And, through St. Mary's Dining Hall, he volunteered to drive truckloads of donated food and clothes to Mexico.

As a member of the San Joaquin County Sheriff's Air Posse, Chapa flew his personal airplane when needed by the Sheriff's Office.

Sepulveda, Ramirez-McGuire and Chapa will bring the total number of hall of famers to 111 since its inception in 1990. The hall of fame was started by Veto Ramirez in 1990 to recognize people making significant contributions for the advancement of Latinos, have become role models for youth, encouraged early involvement in community affairs or preserved Hispanic cultures. Ramirez is a retired counselor from Edison High School, where he worked for 36 years. He also started the Edison Hall of Fame and the Stockton Mexican Sports Hall of Fame. Ramirez is a University of the Pacific graduate, and he played professional baseball with the Stockton Ports and the Spokane Indians.

Contact reporter Jennie Rodriguez at (209) 943-8564 or jrodriguez@recordnet.com. Mexican American Hall of Fame was held at River Mill, 1672 W. Bowman Road, French Camp
Information:
(209) 952-0256 or (209) 472-7892

http://www.recordnet.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070823/A_NEWS/708230319&emailAFriend=1

 

 

Editor:  I am proud to say that Oscar Chapa is my dear uncle, one of the kindest men I have every known, noble and self-sacrificing.  To the left are some of my first cousins that were able to attend the event

First row: left to right, Alba Valdez Gibbons, Yolanda Valdez Auclair, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Dena Chapa Rupert, Eric Chapa, Robert Cortez.  Back row: Tania Lozano Scott, Laura Schultz Rettig, Yomar Villarreal Cleary, Raul Cortez, and Richard Cortez.
Photo by Audrey Cleary 

 

 


Postage stamp to honor Ruben Salazar 

The Los Angeles Times, September 25, 2007
Postage stamp to honor Salazar
The journalist, who was killed during a riot in L.A., is honored for 'giving voice to those who didn't have one.'

Ruben Salazar died Aug. 29, 1970, in East Los Angeles. He was 42.
By Louis Sahagun, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer 
September 25, 2007
In honor of trailblazing newsman Ruben Salazar's relentless efforts to chronicle the complexity of race relations in Los Angeles, the U.S. Postal Service in 2008 will issue a commemorative stamp of the former Los Angeles Times reporter and columnist.

"He was a groundbreaker for Latinos in this country, but his work spoke to all Americans," Postmaster Gen. John E. Potter said Monday. "By giving voice to those who didn't have one, Ruben Salazar worked to improve life for everybody. His reporting of the Latino experience in this country set a standard that's rarely met even today."
It was the way Salazar died that made him a martyr to many in the Mexican American community. His head was shattered by a heavy, torpedo-shaped tear gas projectile fired by a sheriff's deputy during a riot Salazar was covering in East Los Angeles on Aug. 29, 1970.

Salazar was 42.

"Ruben Salazar put an indelible stamp on the profession of journalism in Los Angeles," said Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa. "From the battlefields of Vietnam to the streets of East L.A., he reported the news with a rare combination of toughness and humanity. It's great to finally see his legacy honored on a national level with the issuance of this postage stamp."

Tens of millions of the first-class 41-cent stamps will be issued some time next year, Postal Service officials said. It will be among five stamps honoring U.S. journalists to be officially unveiled in Washington on Oct. 5.

"Ruben Salazar was a courageous and pioneering journalist, and we were honored to have him as a colleague at The Times," said Los Angeles Times Publisher David Hiller. "This commemorative stamp is a fine tribute to his legacy that lives on in the communities he served so resolutely."

Parks, schools, libraries and highways have been named after Salazar, and books, murals, plays and films have been inspired by his life.

Media and corporate foundations each year donate millions of dollars to honor Salazar through scholarships and awards.

Some Mexican Americans called him la voz de la Raza, the voice of the people, and his often blunt columns spoke to the desires and frustrations of a community. The year he died, he wrote:

"Chicanos feel cheated. They want to effect change. . . 

"That is why Mexican American activists flaunt the barrio word Chicano -- as an act of defiance and a badge of honor. Mexican Americans, though large in numbers, are so politically impotent that in Los Angeles, where the country's largest single concentration of Spanish-speaking live, they have no one of their own on the City Council."

When told that Salazar was to be honored with a stamp, Ray Reyes, principal of Ruben Salazar High School, a continuation campus of 260 students in Pico Rivera, said, "Awesome! I always wear my Ruben Salazar staff shirt on Fridays, and it's amazing how many people know who he was -- and I'm talking about students who weren't even born when he was writing his columns."

Postal Service officials said it was supporters like Olga Briseño, director of the University of Arizona's Media, Democracy & Policy Initiative, who made the idea of a commemorative stamp a reality.

Over the past two years, Briseño and a small army of Latino studies students, elected officials, organizations and entertainers, including members of the band Los Lobos, collected 10 pounds worth of petitions and resolutions, which were dispatched to the Postal Service.

"We never gave up," Briseño said. "We anticipated every possible way they could turn us down, then filled in those gaps."

Salazar was 8 months old when his parents moved from Juarez to El Paso, where he became a naturalized citizen. He attended the University of Texas at El Paso and earned a journalism degree.

He got his start in 1955 at the El Paso Herald-Post. In 1963, four years after he stepped into the Los Angeles Times newsroom, Salazar won awards for a hard-fisted series examining problems and issues that still plague the Latino community today: substandard education, disproportionate high school dropout rates, immigration and the search for identity in U.S. society.

As a Times correspondent in the 1960s, Salazar covered the Dominican Republic, the Vietnam War and Mexico.

In 1969 he returned to Los Angeles to report on the Mexican American community.

In January 1970, he left The Times to become news director for the Spanish-language television station KMEX. He was labeled a left-leaning Latino agitator by police, but that was an unlikely description of the man who had married a white woman, lived in an Orange County home with a swimming pool and called himself "middle class Establishment."

On a sweltering, smog-shrouded Saturday afternoon, about 20,000 marchers who had gathered in East Los Angeles to protest the Vietnam War clashed with sheriff's deputies. When the smoke cleared, millions of dollars worth of property had been damaged, 60 people were injured and three people were dead, including Salazar.

His death jolted those who admired him. Among them was Frank Sotomayor, a reporter with Army Stars and Stripes, who had arranged to meet Salazar for a job interview.

"On the day I was discharged from the Army, I opened the San Francisco Examiner and saw a story on the bottom of the front page saying Salazar had been killed," recalled Sotomayor, associate director of USC Annenberg's Institute for Justice and Journalism.

"As Mexican Americans," Sotomayor said, "we felt he spoke for us -- that he reflected what was in our heads and in our hearts, even if we didn't necessarily agree with every one of his opinions. I think this stamp will give him the wider recognition he deserves as a pioneer of journalism."

Inspired by Salazar's legacy, Sotomayor and the dozen Latino journalists working in Los Angeles at the time formed a professional organization, the California Chicano News Media Assn., to encourage other ethnic minorities to pursue careers in journalism. Over the years, the group, which has since changed it name to CCNMA Latino Journalists of California, has awarded nearly $700,000 in scholarships to 680 students and sponsored 29 journalism opportunity conferences.

Briseño, the Arizona journalism professor, had worked closely on the stamp project with the Salazar family, which gave the Postal Service permission to use Salazar's image.

In an interview, Lisa Salazar Johnson, 46, one of Salazar's three children, said, "When the Postal Service sent me a copy of the color image they planned to use, I cried. To see the '41 cents' on a real live U.S. stamp with Dad's picture on it made me utterly proud of his accomplishments.

"However, I think he would have laughed at this honor as ridiculous," she said. "Then he would have been deeply humbled by it."

louis.sahagun@latimes.com

Journalist Ruben Salazar, right, meets with Robert Kennedy in 1968. His postage stamp will be issued next year.

Sent by
Mercy Bautista Olvera : scarlett_mbo@yahoo.com
Dorinda Moreno dorindamoreno@comcast.net





National Issues   DEFEND THE HONOR CAMPAIGN  Continues

Photo Collage by Augie Lerma
Quote: Angelo Falcon, National Institute for Latino Policy, New York
Latino GIs earned place in 'The War'
National Assn of Hispanic Journalists Honors Dr.Rivas Rivas-Rodriguez
Preserving the Legacy of Hispanics of the WWII Generation
La Guerra - The War: A Film and Panel Discussion
Big sponsors flank 'The War' 


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Reaction to Latinos not being included in PBS "THE WAR" were seen across the nation.  These photos were taken on September 23rd in San Francisco. Defend the Honor activity, in front of KQED at 16th and Mariposa, right in the Mission. 

Great photo collage assembled by Augie Lerma.  
Sent by Armando Rendon  Email: armandorendon@sbcglobal.net   510-219-9139

"Of course, by blotting us out this way, Burns and PBS only feed into the anti-immigrant and anti-Hispanic sentiment so rampant in this country today," said Angelo Falcon, president and founder of the National Institute for Latino Policy in New York City.-- From New York Daily News' columnist Albor Ruiz, 9-16-07

Burns excuses . .

"The only thing more lame than leaving out Hispanics were the excuses they came up with for how it happened. First, Burns said that he had concentrated on four U.S. cities and suggested that maybe there weren't Hispanics in any of them; that might have been believable if one of the cities wasn't Sacramento, which has a large Hispanic population. Next, Burns claimed that Hispanics hadn't approached him with their stories; but that doesn't explain why he didn't go out and collect those stories himself, the way he did with other groups that he was sure not to leave out. And finally, Burns suggested that Hispanics go off and make their own documentary; not a bad idea, but one that doesn't absolve him of his responsibility to produce films for public television that actually reflect the viewing public. "

Extract: RUBEN NAVARRETTE JR.  THE UNION-TRIBUNE
For some, 'the war never ends',
September 26, 2007


Latino GIs earned place in 'The War'

By Marcos Bretón, Sacramento Bee Columnist
September 26, 2007

Before there was "The War," there was the battle over the initial exclusion of Mexican American voices from Ken Burns' epic documentary about World War II.
It wasn't racist. It was typical.

In history and popular culture, the stories of Mexican Americans -- and Latinos in general -- often are relegated to the fine print of mainstream storytelling.

It's part of living in a country where race is wrongly defined as black and white. And from a storytelling point of view, the Mexican American soldiers of World War II were harder to define in narrative terms than, say, Japanese Americans.

In the capital of California, we know about internment -- how Japanese American families from Sacramento and beyond were locked up on our soil during the war.

"What people don't understand is that before World War II, Latinos were invisible. ... (They) were almost like foreigners in their own country," Bill Lansford, a Latino and World War II veteran ultimately featured in "The War," told the Los Angeles Times.

We also know that many young Japanese American men went to war for the United States while trying to "prove" they were Americans. For some, that included denying their Japanese roots.

However, it wasn't unusual to see GIs with Spanish surnames who fought for Uncle Sam but kept part of the Mexican eagle in their hearts.

That embracing of two cultures brought its own set of problems -- now as then. "My mother was spanked by the Mercy nuns for speaking Spanish," said Diana Salgado Zuniga, whose family was deeply involved in the local war effort during World War II.

Her grandmother -- Enriqueta Andazola -- led a group of fierce women called the Mexican War Mothers, whose members were of Mexican ancestry but whose boys fought and died for Old Glory.  It marked one of the first times locally that Mexican Americans asserted themselves publicly while stating allegiance to the American flag in a most profound way.

"My grandmother loved this country, she embraced the best parts of the United States," Zuniga said. Today, the Stars and Stripes flies at Zuniga's east Sacramento home -- while the strains of Spanish-language music fill the house.

In the wake of the Burns "War" controversy, she eyes a family picture with pride: Her grandmother flanked by three sons who fought in World War II; another who fought in Korea; and a son-in-law, Zuniga's father, who also fought in World War II.
One uncle named Edgardo carried the middle name of Lincoln, after the American president. An Uncle Paul was at Omaha Beach and the Battle of the Bulge, one of the bloodiest ever.

"He lost his mind in the war," Zuniga says today. The family endured the toll of war without complaint, because that's what families did back then.

By most accounts, up to 500,000 Latinos fought in World War II -- with Mexican Americans the largest subgroup. Thirteen won the prestigious Medal of Honor.
It's a shame such a presence merited only an afterthought from Burns, who included some Mexican American voices in response to protests.

Some dismissed the protests as whining, but that's wrong. These stories deserve to be told because these people were there, their blood just as red.
The Spanish word for them is Patriotas.

Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.

National Association of Hispanic Journalists Honors the Best of 2006

Prestigious ñ and Journalism Awards Salute Leadership, Outstanding
Coverage of Latinos, Immigration; 

Awards Gala Set for Oct. 4 in Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C. - Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, a journalism professor who
helped spearhead a grassroots campaign for meaningful inclusion of
Latinos in the upcoming Ken Burns' documentary titled THE WAR, and Maria
Burns Ortiz, a college soccer columnist with ESPN.com and one of the
newer Latino voices in the country's newsrooms, are among those to
receive the prestigious ñ Awards next month from the National
Association of Hispanic Journalists.

Rivas-Rodriguez, from the University of Texas at Austin, and Burns
Ortiz will receive the Leadership Award and the Emerging Journalist of
the Year Award, respectively. 

Others honored with ñ Awards include Dianne Solis of The Dallas Morning
News for her thoughtful and sincere coverage of immigration, Gary
Coronado of The Palm Beach Post for his stunning photographs chronicling
the physical risks Central Americans take jumping trains to go north and
enter the U.S., and Rebecca Aguilar of KDFW-TV Fox 4 in Dallas for her
reporting work that gives a voice to those who typically don't have one
in the media. They will receive the Frank del Olmo Print Journalist of
the Year Award, the Photojournalist of the Year Award and the Broadcast
Journalist of the Year Award, respectively. 

All the Award recipients and winners in 14 other categories will be
honored at the 22nd Annual Noche de Triunfos Journalism Awards Gala on
Oct. 4 at the Capital Hilton in Washington, D.C., NAHJ's signature event
during Hispanic Heritage month. Gloria Campos Brown, news anchor at
WFAA-TV Dallas, the evening's honorary gala chair, and master of
ceremonies Antonio Mora, anchor at CBS 2 News Chicago, will host the
event attended by journalists, Latino leaders and the community at
large.
National Association of Hispanic Journalists (NAHJ)
1000 National Press Building
529 14th Street N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20045
(202) 662-7145
(202) 662-7144 FAX
Nahj@nahj.org ww.nahj.org

 

Preserving the Legacy of Hispanics of the WWII Generation

Constitution and Citizenship Day
Golden West College, Huntington Beach, CA 
September 18: East L.A. Marine: The Untold True Story of Guy Gabaldon
Shown twice by producer Steve Rubin, each session was followed by a panel discussion on Preserving the Legacy of Hispanics of the WWII Generation, moderated by Dr. Monte Perez. Panelists at one or both of the events were documentary producer Steve Rubin, Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Gus Chavez, Ben De Leon, and Mimi Lozano.

Photo, Left to Right: Keith Gabaldon, Grandson of Guy Gabaldon,  Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, and Steve Rubin, producer.



La Guerra - The War: 
A Film and Panel Discussion

September 19th
2:30-4:00

Welcome:
Philip Castruita, Chicano/a Studies Professor
Dr. Dagoberto Fuentes, Chicano/a Studies, Chair


Dr. Silas H. Abrego, Associate Vice President for Student Affairs,   Photo Above 
opened the event by presenting a historical overview of the military contributions of Hispanics, since colonial periods, sighting examples.




After watching the first half 
of the documentary East LA Marine: the Untold True Story of Guy Gabaldon, moderated by  Dr. Alexandro Gradilla, Chicano/a Studies Professor, the panelists each presented their perspective on the absence of proper and just representation of the Hispanic/Latino contributions to WWII. 
                                  Panelists: 


Dr. Robert Castro, Chicano/a Studies Professor
Charlene Riggins, Afro-Ethnic Studies Professor & co-author of 
     The Forgotten Patriots:  Mexican Americans in World War II

Steve Rubin, producer of  East LA Marine: the Untold True Story of Guy Gabaldon
Mimi Lozano, Editor
- SomosPrimos.com

Photos by: Madrigal A. Cuauhtlatoatzin 
member of Chicanos Unidos, Los Amigos of Orange County,
UMAVA:United Mexican American Veterans Association & AMVets Post 113


Hollywood Reporter, Sept 10, 2007 
Extract: Big sponsors flank 'War' By Gail Schiller, NEW YORK -- PBS has launched its largest marketing and promotional campaign ever for Ken Burns' 15-hour, seven-episode World War II documentary "The War," entering the engagement with General Motors, Bank of America and Anheuser-Busch.

PBS and its corporate sponsors are spending some $10 million on media including significant broadcast, cable and cinema ads from PBS as well as radio, print, online and billboard ads from PBS and its corporate partners, who also helped finance the production costs of the docu.

The campaign also includes such nontraditional marketing tactics as tune-in messaging on 25 million oranges and 623,000 dozen-egg boxes -- both items were rationed during WWII -- on 17,000 Bank of America ATM screens and on Budweiser beer cans and packaging distributed at military bases nationwide.

An outreach campaign to WWII veterans and their families by more than 100 local PBS stations nationwide to record their wartime experiences as part of the Library of Congress' Veterans History Project also is expected to raise awareness for the docu.

"Without a doubt, this is the largest marketing effort ever undertaken by PBS corporate underwriters, which is also a complement to this unprecedented national effort by PBS," said Lesli Rotenberg, senior vp brand management and promotion at PBS. "It goes beyond just dollars. It's the most effort in terms of creative energy, mobilization of people and resources to support a program on PBS.

General Motors has been the sole corporate sponsor of Burns' films since his acclaimed "The Civil War" docu in 1987.

Sent by Armando Rendon
Email: armandorendon@sbcglobal.net 
510-219-9139




Action Items
Cartoon by Sergio Hernandez, From the Halls of Moctezuma . . .
October 8, 2007 Defend the Honor Campaign meeting, Washington,DC
Caution: DO NOT PURCHASE . . . "THE WAR" 
Letter from Juan Marinez to
Paula Kerger, PBS, President & CEO
Burns burns me up! Ron Takaki commentary
Quote of the Week: Belinda Acosta, writer, Austin Chronicle, Sept. 21, 2007.

 

 

Apologies to Serg:  Great caroon, minor editing for youthful readers,   Mimi

 

 


Defend the Honor Campaign
National Association of Hispanic Journalists (NAHJ)
National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC)
National Institute for Latino Policy (NiLP)
National Latino Council on Alcohol and Tobacco Prevention (LCAT)
National Latino Media Council
 
Invite you to a
 
Defend the Honor
National Latino Town Hall Meeting
 
 
 Beyond “The War”
The Latino Battle for
Historical Accuracy and Respect
 
Monday, October 8, 2007
6:00-8:00pm
Gala Hispanic Theater
3333 14th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20010
(Columbia Heights Metro, Green Line)
 
Admission: Free

 
The Ken Burns 15-hour WWII documentary, “The War,” on PBS generated an unprecedented coming together of Americans of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban and other Latino and Hispanic heritages who fought to include Latinos’ role in securing freedom for our Nation. Through efforts of the Latino community, Ken Burns finally included 28 additional minutes, including interviews with two Mexican American veterans and one Native American.
 
In this Latino Town Hall meeting, the public is invited to join Defend the Honor founders Maggie Rivas-Rodríguez and Gus Chavez and others to review how “The War” handled the Latino experience in WWII.
 
Together, we will begin to answer several questions:
Was this inclusion meaningful enough? Was it tokenism? What of Ken Burns’ and PBS’ “blind spot” when it comes to Latinos? What can we all do, collectively and individually, to assure that Latinos’ contributions to our country are duly noted in books, documentaries, movies and the news media? What is the significance of this movement for the future of the Latino community in the U.S., and of this country as a whole? 
Where do we go from here?

 
For further information:
www.DefendTheHonor.org  or at (512) 471-1924


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CAUTION: DO NOT PURCHASE. 
HARMFUL TO THE SPIRIT & MEMORY OF OUR WWII LATINO AND LATINA VETERANS 

Friends, 
Released for sale today: THE WAR Cost per book $50 DVD $100 
Earlier today, September 11, I bought the book THE WAR An Intimate History 1941-1945 by Ken Burns and Geoffrey C. Ward, a 451 page publication with hundreds of photos, illustrations and extensive bibliography. The coverage given to White Americans, Japanese Americans and African Americans throughout the book is extensive and well done. 
After reviewing the book cover to cover I have come to the conclusion that the book, like the film documentary, is totally devoid of the WWII Latino and Latina experience. 
Findings: 
Introduction - No Latinos or Latinas (Photo of Ken burns father - Robert) 
* Written text - No Latinos or Latinas 
Photos - No Latinos or Latinas 
Illustration Credits - No Latinos or Latinas 
Acknowledgments - No Latinos or Latinas 
Extensive bibliography - No Latinos or Latinas 
Index - No Latinos or Latinas 
Film Credits - No Latinos or Latinas 

* only one reference to Mexicans when describing the population of Sacramento. It states "The city had been the gateway to the Gold Rush and the Western anchor of the transcontinental railroad, and it was home to some 106,000 diverse people-- including Mexicans, Italian, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino Americans." Other that this one reference to "Mexican," Latinos are excluded in THE WAR. 

It is incumbent for us, the Latino and Latina community, to sent a strong economic message to the publisher Alfred A. Knopf, Ken Burns, Geoffrey Ward and PBS that we will not spend our hard earned money on publications or films that excludes us from our nation's historical memory. 
Please join us in sending this message. 
BOYCOTT BOOK: THE WAR 
BOYCOTT THE WAR DVD 
Gus Chavez 
Defend The Honor Campaign


marinez@anr.msu.edu 
To: corporatesecretary@pbs.org
Sent from the Internet (Details) 

Paula Kerger, President & Chief Executive Officer, My name is Juan Marinez and I’m a faculty at Michigan State University. I had the good fortune to be invited to attend two showings of WKAR, PBS affiliate at Michigan State University. The first showing was on Sunday September 9, and the other was yesterday September 11, 2007. I have to tell you that WKAR  make an extra effort to include Latino WWII veterans from Michigan in the piece titled “Voice of Michigan” . 

Although, when it came to your National program by ken burns the previews shown made no mention of Latinos and their sacrifice to the WWII and or their participation in the home front. 

I know we Latinos participated because of personal knowledge from my family members as well as neighbors who sent their sons to fight in defense of America. 

To not mention our Latino contribution in a historical work like the one by burns is more than a travesty it falls into a cosmic historical mistake category. He has place us as Latino in the invisible category of Americans. I’m more then disappointed with what I saw in two the previews, don’t count on me watching the series because if I’m invisible in the history record by, my viewing  it I, would be participating in this complicity between PBS and ken burns. Thank you for taking a few minutes to read my message.  Juan Marinez


Burns burns me up! Ron Takaki commentary

Come on now, just 29 minutes of a 15 hour documentary! That's worse than insulting tokenism. That's like President Roosevelt refusing to integrate the U.S. Armed Forces.At least Roosevelt recognized that he had to do it right, or not at all. Burns chose not to do it right. And fpr the book which will influence a generation of students, he chose to do it not at all. There is something wrong with this picture.

This fight with Burns is a fight worth fighting for. We have nothing to lose, and much to win. The fight itself has already mobilized the Latino community across the country, and has helped to awaken America to our varied diversities. From this point on, television producers and also publishers will be more conscious of their reponsibility to portray America more inclusively and hence more accurately.

I wish we had taken on Steven Spielberg when he gave us, "Saving Private Ryan," without even giving us a glimpse of the Black troops on the beaches of Normandy unloading ammunition from the ships and feeding the white combat troops, without even giving viewers a hint that the U.S. was fighting the Nazis with a Jim-Crow army. But
that is damage already done.

Now, we are taking up arms against Burns and PBS. Let us declare that a mere 29 minutes is unacceptable! Doesn't Burns see the handwriting on the wall? Here the numbers do the telling: Latinos outnumber Blacks.
Latino voters gave the Democratic Party the 2004 victory for the House and Senate elections. They will also give
the party the White House in 2008. They will remember the terrible oversight. Omission by Burns and PBS.

Please let me apologize for my explosion of enraged disappointment at Burns and PBS. But to remain silent on this issue is to be complicit. I refuse to be complicit.Like Melville's Bartlesby, I prefer not to pretend this charade is
not happening.

Source: Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr.
Sent by Dr. Silas Abrego
sabrego@Exchange.FULLERTON.EDU

 

 

Quote of the Week: The War looks at World War II, as it does racism... as a snapshot of a powerful moment in history, detached from the present. Which in a weird way explains the omission of Latinos from The War. At this moment in time, when the hysteria around the "Mexican threat" is at an all-time high, it's no wonder Latinos are excluded from Burns' latest opus. It's messy. Like those who are more willing and able to help the poor across the globe while detesting the homeless person panhandling down the street, it's easier to deal with racism and the obscenity of war if it's something said and done in the past. To include the very real contribution of Latinos in World War II means not only being educated on why that war was a watershed moment in U.S. Latino history but also provokes a sobering look at the present. -- Belinda Acosta, writer, Austin Chronicle, Sept. 21, 2007.


Education
Cesar E. Chavez quote
Sharing the comments of an educator of 35 years
D-Q University, the first Indian-Chicano University
Scholarship Information
Latino Education and America: The Road Ahead
Growing Up Latino/a in the USA
Between the Lines . . Interviews by Barry Kibrick of authors. 



"It is not enough to teach our young people to be successful...so they can realize their ambitions, so they can earn good livings, so they can accumulate the material things that this society bestows. Those are worthwhile goals. But it is not enough to progress as individuals while our friends and neighbors are left behind."

Cesar E. Chavez
1927-1993

Sent by Ricardo Valverde 
RValverde@ochca.com


Sharing the comments of an educator of 35 years. . . .

Estimado Rafael:

I will talk and write more in depth to you as I am in the middle of several issues work and school related............

Parents, guardians, grandparents, relatives are all important to students, because in today's world there is no rule..........or nuclear family..........for Latinos/as or anyone else for that matter......

To participate in our children's education to be proactive is a learning process which too many schools and educational systems do not want because there is too much misspending of monies in education.

As you can see here for me the bottom line is that all the students that I mentor from every community understand that the educational system is here for us to take advantage ..........it is not our best friend
in terms of being user friendly............. but that is no excuse for lack of effort to learn............and then
top help others do the same........

I don't care what language the parents or guardians. speak, I do care that they are invited to schools, understand better the process and how they can learn to help their children. (if they are there to do so)
and that they empower themselves with information...........

As a mentor, the only thing that I want from my students is that they understand that I will help make them weave through the maze to their journey, but they have a responsibility to help others do the same............I don't want a gold star, a badge, money or anything else but that............... and my students don't let me down...............

I have been doing this for 35 plus years, made a lot of educational system enemies. but I have thousands of kids who have graduated from college presidents to doctors............. that is a blessing that no one can deny...........

Saludos, Richard Esquival

Cofounder: El Comite Consultivo de Padres MEChA JFK
JFK MEChA Parents Advisory Committee

CEO/ President, Western Trading Company Communications
Innovative Learning Concepts
2953 Bunker Hill Lane, Suite 400, Santa Clara , CA. 95054
http://www.westerntradinginc.com
resquivel@westerntradinginc.com
Wsterntr@aol.com

Forwarded by Rafael Ojeda

 

 


D-Q University, the first Indian-Chicano University

One of the people that backed me in the take over the Trans-Pacific Communications Military site where we established D-Q University, the first Indian-Chicano University (1970 the US Federal deeded the 640 acres to the Mexican American and Native American community) was ANNA RAMIREZ she became a warden and a couple of the "MACHETES" are with the California Correctional Dept. 

I agree and encourage the young folks I mentor to explore all aspects of the governmental systems as possible career options. However, in this regard I am very concerned that we are not more vigorously addressing the disaster that our "BARIOS are in. There are places where a handful of punks/gangs and drug dealers are running entire Mexican American neighborhoods. Any one with the slightest modicum of success (can afford to live somewhere else gets the hell out of "DODGE" as fast as they can.

Introspection, self study and analysis is not a bad thing. When I look at the numbers of our youth going to prison I cringe when I see our youth proud to be punks and as they perceive "chingones". When being "cool" is more important then college. When Mexican American low riders have a higher standing in the BARIO then Mexican American professors I wonder, where are we going wrong?

In a sense I fault ourselves and our leadership because we do not draw a very visible and hard line that simple establishes a position that we find no redeeming value in this non-sense that some how the "Bato-Loco syndrome" contributes something positive to our culture. 

Writing on peoples walls has become an honored endeavor to too many of our children. Yes art is beautiful. Let’s get our kids into art institutes and put an end to this "if you ruin some hard working Mexican American families home or neighborhood" you have done a neat thing. Just because we hold ourselves to a standard that would make our lives safer and more beautiful, does not make us anti Raza.

The issue of our youth filling prisons is like the issue of so many Mexicans dieing of thirst escaping from Mexico (thousands). We have seen thousands of children slaughtered in our barrios over the years. The number of Mexican Americans we have lost in IRAQ is negligible by comparison. My son returned from Iraq last December. I fear more for his life in the "HOOD" the in the middle of Bagdad. It may sound counter intuitive but count the numbers. It would be an interesting and valuable experiment to forget about the Gringo for a moment and take an honest look at what hurts us the most and our burden and obligation to address our collective dilemma. Many hugs and god wishes.

APO

apodaca@pacbell.net

 




Latino Education and America: The Road Ahead
By Manuel Hernandez-Carmona
mannyh32@yahoo.com

The numbers are undeniable. As the Latino population gets closer and closer to 50 million milestone, the relationship between America and Latino education is still undetermined and uncertain. According to United States Census projections, about 67 million people of Hispanic origin would be added to the nation’s population between 2000 and 2050. Their numbers are projected to grow from 35.6 million to 102.6 million, an increase of 188 percent. While these numbers are revealing, Latinos are the population with the highest high school dropout rate (58.4%). I am not a mathematician, but the road ahead for Latino education must be paved with a clear vision and defined strategies on how to meet and surpass the academic demands of the largest minority in the United States.

It has been said over and over again that an education is the key that unlocks the doors to a whole new world of opportunities. That has been the story of the American nation. The media moguls will be spending more than 4 billion dollars in Latino advertising this year. Both American political parties spend a lot of time, effort and dollars luring the so-called Latino vote, especially with 2008 just around the corner. They want to catch our attention. All attention right now should be directed towards the Latino dropout rate. When will Latino leaders wake up, speak out and unite on all fronts to redefine the education of their children? Fashion and music will not protect Latino children from the street sharks, earthly predators and neighborhood influences. The issue yesterday, right now and tomorrow is education.

What about the road ahead? There has been so much talk about what to do and how to do it but very little action set forth. In my book, effective action is determined by results. There are a lot of good things happening in the education of Latinos in America, but no one can deny that the dropout rate is the lowest of all. The key here is unity of purpose. The specific academic needs of a Latino teen in California and New York may be different, yet the goals are basically the same, a high school diploma and a doorway to higher education.

Unity of purpose means to set trifles aside and work towards a common goal. The forefathers of this great nation had so many differences but what united them was purpose. When there is purpose, a vision is born. It all begins and ends with proper family values. The process of improving educational attainment begins with Latino parents. City, state and government must provide parents with information, a voice and encourage parental partnerships with schools. Many Latino parents are recent arrivals themselves and stay away from school out of fear of being deported. Second, a strong English as a Second Language component, to new and recent arrivals is a must - develop strict identification and placement procedures and implement reliable diagnostic and assessment measures. Last, provide content-enriched academic programs across disciplines with authentic and practical young adult literature in English and continue to provide linguistic/academic support for at least one year after mainstreaming to ensure a successful transition. These are just three old ideas. But I cannot do it by writing and writing and writing about the issue. A Latino team with unity of purpose must be formed as soon as yesterday, not only to discuss but to redesign a national Latino Educational Vision that will be embraced by all Latinos across America.

 



Desert Development
Personal Essay by Joshua Foster

"Mister, but I can’t think of anything to write . . . my life’s too boring," Juan* said for the fifth time that morning. Our April deadline was closing in.

"What did you get from your interview?" I asked.

"I didn’t do it," he answered. "Well, I talked to my bro, but you know, I always do that."

Juan, a seventh grader I’d been working with since February, had a shaved head and proudly sported his bling. During the writing assignments he flirted with three or four different girls until the teacher—who had gladly agreed to let us, three graduate students, infiltrate her classroom for a semester to implement a family history project with an emphasis on personal narrative writing—would catch Juan dazing. She’d slide a desk to the back corner and make him sit alone. Juan would sulk the rest of class and bolt as soon as the bell rang.

This was the first time we were conferencing one on one. I crouched by his desk, asking questions while he, arms folded, stymied every one.

"How come you didn’t do your interview?"

"I had better things to do."

I was as frustrated as he. Worse off, I could see myself, eleven years prior, parrying a teacher’s advances in the same way—a run-out-the-clock situation. Who would want to spend a weekend interviewing a family member about educational aspirations? Wouldn’t any child, in their right mind, prefer to be playing basketball, or Xbox, or writing notes?

The bell rang. Stumbling through another sentence, Juan squeezed past me and eased next to Jessica, his favorite flirt. They rushed out of the classroom without looking back.

The following week, now just three class periods away from the book’s press date, I approached Juan with another proposition. We facilitators decided that if the students had not completed an interview we should encourage them to write about a personal experience in which they learned something, whether it be in school or at home. Many hesitant students took off with the new idea. But when I found Juan, he refused to pick up his pencil.

"Can you think of a time that you learned something?"

"No."

"I know you can—you can’t tell me you’ve never learned anything in your life. Let’s just pick an experience and then write about it." I looked at the clock—thirty more minutes, and then just two more class periods before one hundred pages of a book had to be filled. "Can you tell me a story about anything? I’ll just sit and listen."

Juan looked around the room, and told me this: "Last month I was hanging with my bro at his friend’s apartment. They weren’t big apartments, two stories, and they had this porch thingy outside the front door. We were playing Playstation or something, and my bro’s friend got this call on his cell saying he needed to go outside. My bro tells me to go hide in the bedroom and not open the door for anybody, so I did. But when I heard the front door shut, I went back out to the TV room and watched out the window. This car pulled up and my bro and his friend were standing out there talking to some gangsters. And then the dude driving pulled a gun. My bro’s friend put his arm up in front of his face to block or whatever, but they shot right through his arm. His head blew up and he fell down. My bro started running, and they started shooting at him too. Later, he found out he got shot in the side, but he was okay. The car peeled out and flew down the road and I could see my bro’s friend dead in the parking lot. I started shaking and called 911. My bro went to the hospital. But I just remember Eduardo trying to block with his arm, then pop pop, then going down. I was shaking so hard, I wouldn’t open the door for my brother, I was just sitting in the corner shaking."

As we sat in his white-walled, concrete-block classroom with no posters, only books and papers stacked up in corners and on unfrequented bookshelves, Juan shook. His bravado and stand-offishness were gone. He refused to look at me. "You think I should write about that?"

"I'm not supposed to show you this, but I have something that might help you choose what something to write about." Out came a draft of another student's work, from another one of our schools, a macho student who had refused to write or even participate until last week.

"Have you ever been in a fight?" I asked. The poem was called "First Fight". I left him the paper. When I returned, Juan was writing a love poem to one of his girls. I didn't disturb him. He wrote until the bell rang and stayed after to show me his draft.
Our final class, he wrote like mad. He decided against submitting his love poem-not manly enough, not hardcore-and produced one of my favorite works from those whirlwind four months. Before class ended, Juan read it aloud. Two weeks later, he would come alone to the university-dressed in a sleeveless black t-shirt, thick silver chain, black jean shorts-and share it to an auditorium filled with students, community members, and friends.

"My Chocolate Chip Cookie"
My first fight was in second grade. I fought this kid because he took my chocolate chip cookie. I asked him to give me my cookie back.

When I asked him, he ate it. I got mad and started to kick and swing. The kid started crying.

The teacher, Ms. Santa Cruz, wrote a note to my parents. Then she made me tell the other kid that I was sorry and give him a hug (although I didn't want to).
Now that I think back on it, I think it was stupid to fight over a cookie. But it was chocolate chip-who wouldn't?

#

I came to the GEAR UP project, a college access program, in a serendipitous way. I was twenty-four and a first-year graduate student. My wife and I had moved from our life-long home in Idaho for a new state and a new career in south Arizona. We left behind family and friends that had been the very center of our lives, but we felt it necessary to stake out a new claim, no matter the consequences. So we loaded up the U-Haul, trailered our Honda, and headed a thousand miles in a direction we had never before imagined. We did so quickly, as to avoid tears and second-guesses that often accompany such choices. If we had dilly-dallied, I'm not sure we would have ever left.
Formally, I am not a teacher. If anything, I had been trained as a day-laborer on my father's potato farm. The spring before, I had graduated with a bachelor's degree in English, which seemed ludicrous to my small-town compatriots, with whom I would exchange conversations such as these while in line at the local gas station:
"So, you're getting old enough to take over your Dad's farm there-you gonna stick around?"

"No, actually I'm moving at the end of the summer to go to grad school."

"Gonna be a doctor or something?"

"No, I'm going to graduate school in fiction writing. I like to write stories."

"Isn't that just kind of a hobby?"

I reverted to the benchmark equalizer: "There's a chance I could teach afterwards."
They'd immediately brighten. "Oh, you're gonna teach"

It was easier to not clarify that assertion. I had no intention of teaching. I was not a trained teacher. I could think of nothing more unpleasant as teaching boys if they were anything like me as a student. I had no patience for such immature, obnoxious hooligans. Teaching was clearly not for me.

"Can't believe you don't want to stick around and farm-you'd make way more, with all your Dad's land."

"Yeah, me neither." That would get a laugh, at least.

A month into my degree, I realized that an unfunded MFA was not the soundest financial move, and with my wife studying full-time, decided to find a job. In a week's time I had applied for a dozen or so, and had been interviewed with no callbacks. I was so discouraged I almost blew off the GEAR UP interview, which came on a Friday and at the tail end of another disappointing week.

I am still convinced I was hired on the precept that I spoke Spanish, a skill acquired from toiling with migrant workers. The cohort of students for the project were the children of immigrants, and oftentimes first- or second-generation US citizens. This was exciting, as I had missed the camaraderie frequently found among the Latino spectrum of America. It served as a pinched allusion to my former farming life, something much needed at the time.

Along with me, two other English grad students were hired: Bob, a poetry student (who had worked previously tutoring in a similar demographic), and Rebecca, a second-year Rhetoric and Composition Ph D. candidate who had taught at the university level and community volunteer. As far as experience and training, I was convinced I was the trout far from its mountain stream.

In concordance with our Project Director, we came up with this semester-long project: In a writing workshop setting, Bob, Rebecca, and I would train the students in interviewing skills. The students would interview a selected family member dealing with their own educational experience-successes, failures, regrets,

 accomplishments-to start a dialogue about college. The interview would be digitally recorded and burned to CDs. Students would draft, revise, and critique creative narratives based on the interviews. The works would be compiled in an anthology. Once the book was published, a huge bash would be coordinated at the local university where students could share their work and sign autographs.

We were cleared to work in five different middle schools. The three of us met with each school's principal, all of whom were amiable and excited, yet with a myriad requests: Would you mind working exclusively with some of our English language learners? Could you take on the semester-long responsibility of handling a daily class? Will you meet in the library? This sounds great-but is there some way you can work with every seventh-grader in our school? To which we chorused "Yes!" with little understanding of the atomic mushroom cloud that the Voices of GEAR UP project would quickly become. 

#
At one school we were given a class specifically stacked with students who were struggling with English acquisition. Plus we had to meet in the library. Plus there were twenty-four kids with a wait list of six more. After weeks of slowly sloshing through the curriculum, fighting language barriers, and training students on how to act and react in our nontraditional classroom model-to which they responded by only answering with their catchphrase "Hot Dog!" an inside joke that caused the other students to roar. A month in, I was surprised to find students not on our initial roster being sent to the workshops by their teachers.

Confused, I confronted some of the culpable instructors, as the sporadic additions disrupted the course plans. But I'm a softy, and the teachers explained that their other students-students who I thought were paying no attention to me and only responding by shouting, essentially, "Processed Meat!"-had improved so much they thought the additions were crucial. Reluctantly, albeit proudly, we agreed to accommodate one more students, Pedro.

Pedro was a mammoth thirteen year old with a scarred forehead, helmet hair, and a likeable innocence. Even though the other students were full-stride into their interviews, when I assigned Pedro to write or practice open-ended questions or read a peer's story, he would grin and take off, not knowing exactly where to go or how to do it, but striving nonetheless. On one condition: I was always in arm's length to assist him. His shyness and timidity were endearing.

Pedro's cooperation may have been my first clue that he was different from his peers. Again I thought back to my own middle grade experience and couldn't name a teacher with whom I felt I personal relationship. I thought I did with my P.E. teacher, who I'd often joke with, until one day I walked into class and my father was leaning against the wall. "Just so you'll stay on track," the teacher said. I resolved to not use scare tactics or other such nonsense on the students in my workshops-there had to be a more successful way to reach children than vague threats of running extra laps.

Pedro taught me much of that. As his peers laughed and joked, he listened intently. After every lesson, Pedro was the first to raise his hand and ask a question; in fact, he oftentimes had his hand up the entire lesson.

So in a school with many setbacks, Pedro stood like a lighthouse. He towered over all of the prepubescent boys, who harassed him for finishing assignments and staying on task.

As most of our students had no access to a computer at home, handwritten drafts were accepted. But one day a few weeks before our deadline, Pedro showed up to class with a typed draft of his long prose poem "Not Fiction"-named in confusion with a lesson on nonfiction writing-about traveling to Mexico for holidays to see his grandmother. Even though he was weeks ahead of the class he worked on his piece to the end of semester, switching out words, trying on new titles, and musing over lines.
When it came time to practice public reading skills, Pedro volunteered to showcase his work. An outgoing girl was the first to jump at my proposal to read in front of the class, and her classmates-for the fact it was free time to make a ruckus-wildly applauded. When she finished Pedro hesitated and shook his head no.

"Are you nervous?"

He nodded yes.

"No one's going to hurt you-we're all doing the same thing."

"Yeah, but still."

The classmates, having that ignorant cruelty of middle school, began to chant Barney! Barney! referring to Pedro's body shape. It didn't help that the school had maroon uniforms.

"I'll go with you," I said. "I'll help you read."

He came to the front. I held one corner of his draft and he held the other. Amid the chants and hassles, he began to read in a voice so soft even I strained to hear. The class quieted, and by the first stanza, the room was pin-drop silent. The students scooted to the front of their seats and cocked their heads. When he finished, an awe-filled silence rippled around, and then applause as rowdy as the first. Pedro smiled and shuffled, forgiving every grievance he may have harbored, although I'm sure he never had any in the first place. 

#
I believe that reading and writing saved my life. Not in some weird, existential way-that it was thrust upon me, that I had no choice, because what is life, if it isn't a series of conscious choices? Just as the Voices of GEAR UP chose five schools to work with, just as the students chose to participate, I chose to read and write. I just didn't know, at the time, it would serve as such a savior.

I was born second in a family of six, and of that the only boy. Being such, I had responsibilities on the farm that none of my sisters did-for which I was grateful. I spent summer days working on tractors and in fields. But at home, I read-Dave Barry's humor columns, picture books filled with ancient weaponry, Alex Haley's Roots in sixth grade while riding the transfer bus, Greek mythology, and any fat paperback from the grocery checkout.

During junior high, I tried on the various cliques associated with those years-skater, athlete, school band. To some degree, I found success in making teams and friends. But for sports I felt no passion, preferring that everyone won. I didn't have the guts to slam someone hard in wrestling or the tenacity to go after the ball. I played because my friends did.

Sophomore year I discovered the high school newspaper and wrote humor columns and movie reviews. This made much more sense to me, as people would stop me in the halls and laugh with me on some random line printed in the latest edition. It seemed win-win.

But because of the small-town attitude, and the group I ran with, I felt that athletic dominance was the only way to be somebody. My dad was a talented linebacker in his day; my mother a cheerleader. I heard their stories and began to train harder and more frequently, dreaming to achieve that prestige bestowed in high school hallways.
The summer before my senior year, all of that snapped tragically-or popped, rather- after a two-a-day football training camp. I had leaned over too far on my fourth set of squats and an awkward crack had shaken my lower back and stopped me cold. I couldn't move or straighten. A month later I had back surgery.

Doctor's orders: no sports senior year, no running for three months, possibly forever. That summer was the worse-no farm work, no canal swimming, nothing. I gained thirty pounds, played a borrowed video game consul, and stopped reading. I was depressed and chip-shouldered; why would I deserve this?

And then the life-saver-I was offered the editor-in-chief position of the high school newspaper. The advisor was the first teacher to really put some stake in my abilities. We won state and national awards, for which I was offered a college scholarship. Then, a few years later, I ended up in a nondescript general education English literature class and read Juan Rulfo, a Mexican author, for the first time. You can guess my elation when I learned that people could earn college degrees for reading and analyzing great works of written art.

#
"See one, do one, teach one" serves as a mantra for young doctors in their residencies. Deliberate practice is the burgeoning surgeon's pathway to success, and there's a certain degree of faking it until making it that exists in every occupation, from rock star to financial planner. But teacher, isn't one born with such a disposition?
Of the three of us, Rebecca was as close to being a natural teacher as any I'd ever encountered. I was amazed by her caring, all-in attitude towards the students. Angelica, a quiet girl who sat in the back, showcased the transcendence of the typical teacher/student relationship.

Angelica's school was a special case. The other four schools allowed us to come once a week for workshops, but her school arranged for us to come every day for the entire semester. This posed a problem, as none of us were formally trained middle school instructors.

The first day of class we were introduced to twenty students as their new teachers. Granted, we had never before set foot in their school, never before seen any of them, and for two of us, never before taught. The kids were so timid, I thought that at any moment three or four might burst into tears.

After two weeks, Angelica had only been in class twice. It seemed that no one in administration could figure it out. Angelica would come to school all day and then ditch our period. When I arrived to teach solo on Tuesdays, I would oftentimes see her in the hallway. We exchanged smiles, but when I called role, no one knew to where she had run. We were instructed to conference with her ASAP.

The next week we received a note from the school's Native American advisor outlining Angelica's complaint: too much Spanish was being spoken among peers and between students and teachers, which made her feel uncomfortable and ostracized. But the truth was, although the students bantered back and forth in their native language, we instructed in English.

Rebecca dove in to relieve Angelica's concerns. During the conference, the real reasons surfaced-it pained Angelica to talk about her family. They were poor, homeless, and abusive. Not only did she feel that they had no stories worth sharing, but the few stories they did have ("mostly about fights they've been in," Angelica said) embarrassed her. Rebecca, so caring, explained that everyone had stories to tell and that we would make an exception for Angelica. She could tell her own stories and bypass the family interview assignment. In lieu, Rachel assigned a contemporary short story by Sherman Alexie that dealt with a Native American struggling to find purpose and meaning in his life on the streets. Angelica resolved to write.

But the next week she didn't come to class, and we received news from the office she and a friend had smoked pot on school premises. The friend was expelled; Angelica suspended for a week. Both girls, it seemed, were too far gone to help. Writing was the least of their worries.

But when Angelica returned, it was clear she wanted to change. She became our model student. Not only did she write one of the most powerful poems in the book, she participated on a daily basis, asked questions about going to college, reading examples in front of the class.

At the final reading, a crowd showed up with Angelica. The change had touched her family. Hers was on of the largest section of the audience-grandparents, cousins, nieces, nephews. In a surprise twist, students were invited to speak about us, the instructors. Angelica explained how Rebecca took the time to help her, and that Rebecca had become a friend in the truest sense. As she spoke, an electric crackling rippled through me-that's what teacher means. 

#
The students worked hard on their writing. In the four schools where we taught only once a week, the students loved us, bemoaning the days we were late. We crawled towards our deadlines, and although absences, school activities, and vacation days threw the constant curveball, it appeared everything would connect and the book would be completed.

Why was this? Unanimously, the students had frowned and complained when asked if writing would engage them. Mister, writing is boring! Mister, let's play a game! Mister, why would anyone want to read about me! But two months later, I saw students put nub pencils to ragged notebooks and write-students that were athletes, flirts, thugs, preps; students who were acquiring English as a second language; lonely students who had no friends in the class, nor anyone to buoy them in their academic endeavors.
Months later, I read an article in Language Arts by Danling Fu and Nancy F. Shelton that connected some of these gaps. They facilitated a similar creative writing project in a similar area of poverty in the southeastern United States. They selected nine students achieving below their academic potential and facilitated a workshop that included peer edits, unassigned seating, uninhibited student interaction, mini-lessons, personal writing time, and contemporary literature. By the end of their project, six of the nine students passed their state-wide writing tests. More importantly they became "writers alongside their peers."

We bestowed the title of writer on our unknowing seventh graders. We set class rules and deadlines but encouraged them to ask a fellow student for help, or better yet, figure it out on their own. A common mantra, when asked "Can I do this?" was to look into their eyes and say "What do you think?" Usually the cogs clicked and the students figured it out on their own.

Sure, we had our fair share of problems-missed interviews, wasted class periods, behavioral challenges, and language issues. The book filled with engaging, heartfelt, heart- breaking, grammatically questionable truth, and all of it by our preset deadline.

#
The first day at Hector's school shocked me. We had been given twenty academically challenged students. Luckily, the school paired one of their most dynamic and caring teachers with the group. She relentlessly encouraged, promoted, and taught the power of reading and writing. But the students were stuck in a rut, whether from having her two years in a row, two periods a day, or from state-instituted writing tests, they could not catch the personal power of becoming writers.

The first day, I sat in the back and saw Hector-at least six inches taller than anyone in the room and a wispy moustache-bully his way into a seat on the back row. Next to him, a girl called her neighbor a bitch and threatened to slap the shit out of her.
I took the rambunctious group to the library, where we circled chairs around in a corner and worked. Those first weeks were terrible. I spoke at a normal library tone while the students texted, wrote notes, and fought. I had one fall back: scan the shelves and find a familiar book. I'd summarize the story but never give away the ending. After two or three times of this, the students listened intently to find out the storyline and characters, and they would go nuts when I wouldn't tell the conclusion.
For some reason, that won over Hector. When students became unruly and unmanageable, he would shout at his classmates to shut up.

He waited every day to show me his revisions. Once I made the mistake of saying that one specific section was my favorite. He erased entire paragraphs, revising and rewriting, and then would show them to me, questioning, "Which one is your favorite now? Still the second?" If so, back to the drawing board. He wanted everything to be perfect.

I received a call from Hector the morning of the university reading. He and his mom were lost. They finally pulled up in a beaten-down Dodge; his mother looking unpleasant, I assumed due to traffic.

Hector properly introduced me to his mother and sister. They both wore t-shirts and sweats, and whispered back and forth. Hector was decked out-new flat billed Yankee cap, ironed jeans shorts, and a striped polo shirt. After a while, he took me aside and told me how nervous he was-and that he wanted to read first.

"You sure you want to go first?" I asked.

"Well, it's my sister's wedding today, and my mom has a lot to do. You know, hair, food, stuff like that."

I was floored. I re-shook his mother's hand, expressing how proud I was of her son. Hector did a fantastic job, ending his essay with this: "This writing I have just done is a dedication to the GEAR UP program because without them you wouldn't have heard this nice and beautiful writing that I created. I hope you liked it."

#
"See one, do one, teach one." It makes sense now. Sure, I faked it for a while, but at the program's apex, I was as gung-ho as the students. Another axiom from my high school athletic days surfaced: "All kids need to succeed is a coach that motivates and encourages."

What happens when you tell a student they're a sprinter rather than a long-distance runner? They sprint harder. What happens when you say they're a swimmer and not a golfer? They buy goggles. And what happens when you tell someone that their writing made you smile, or laugh, or cry a little? Well, they sharpen their pencil.
We chose to help the student's be successful. We avoided critiquing grammatical and spelling errors until the very final edits, we encouraged students to depend on each other with questions and concerns, and ultimately emboldened them to communicate, rather than just write, the story of their family and themselves.

#
Due to a miscommunication over Spring Break, we lost track of Victor, one of our top students. Turns out, his family moved to a new part of town over that free week. By chance he turned up in one of our other schools, but we didn't find him until two weeks before the deadline. On press deadline, I had only one empty page, and it belonged to Victor. The printer was breathing down my neck. I promised the proofs would be there later that night.

A scramble of phone calls to school administration and GEAR UP coordinators, I arranged to pick up the final copy of Victor's essay at his house that afternoon. With little faith, I headed towards his place.

I circled the trailer park-a sea of sunburned, faded, tin-roofed homes in a not-so-great part of town-twice before finding his address. The rickshaw steps creaked as I stepped up and knocked on the door; Victor's mother answered and greeted me in Spanish. Behind her, Victor chickenpecked out his draft on a yellowed desktop computer.
"Maestro," she said and took my hand. "Gracias por todo."

Maestro. I thought back to me previous life, swearing this was the last thing I'd do. Had the sky split, a ray of light warming me, epiphany raining down? Was I, God help me, a teacher?

"Your son was great, he did it all," I said. Victor printed his essay.

After a few questions, I excused myself. But before I got back to my car, I returned.

"You're coming to the college for the reading, right?"

Victor said. "Wouldn't miss it. Be there for sure."

And, indeed, he was. In a suit and tie, no less. Victor, along with the others, had written their way to illumination. And to some degree, so had I.

joshua foster Recyclable Manuscript
3033 E 6th St. #D16 All Rights For Sale
Tucson AZ 85716 (208) 520.7362
joshuafoster9@gmail.com

Joshua Foster is currently enrolled in the University of Arizona's MFA 
program in fiction and nonfiction writing. 


 

"GROWING UP LATINO/A IN THE USA"

Amigo/as, I wanted to announce that I will soon be releasing my newest book entitled, "GROWING UP LATINO/A IN THE USA". This book is intended to help parents/teachers discuss history and culture with children.

I have developed activities that will teach kids about Indigenous History, Latin American geography, Latino/a Heroes (i.e. Simon Bolivar, Cesar Chavez, Sor Juana, Rigoberta Menchu-Tum) as well as activities about Latino food, Dichos, and Bilingualism.

You can pre-order "Growing Up Latino/a in the USA" and you can also review and purchase my other books on Cesar Chavez and the History of the San Fernando Valley at www.latinohistory4kids.com.

Thank you to all of you who have purchased books in the past or helped me spread the word. PLEASE FORWARD THIS MESSAGE TO ALL YOUR FRIENDS AND FAMILY- especially to TEACHERS!!! I have taught Elem. School for 10 years now and I know the value of teaching kids about HISTORY!!!  The age range is approx. 3-5th grade...

Visit www.latinohistory4kids.com and let me know how you have been using my books with youth across the country. SHARE YOUR STORIES ON THE GUESTBOOK on the website...

I just wanted to share with you that I have just launched my new website to advertise and sell my history activity books (for kids). YOU CAN NOW PURCHASE AND REVIEW THE BOOKS ONLINE!!! Please spread the word and go visit www.latinohistory4kids.com

Any questions (or to order books), please e-mail me at acervant@crsassociates.net or call me at (818) 388-9303.

GRACIAS, Angel R. Cervantes

 

Between the Lines . .  Interviews by Barry Kibrick of authors. 

I wrote Barry Kibrick asking what he was doing for Hispanic Heritage Month. Barry is with the Los Angeles School District.  He produces an program for the Los Angeles School District, interviewing authors.  He responded: 


Dear Mimi: Thanks again for alerting me to Hispanic Heritage Month. 
I'll be airing two episodes that might be of interest for you and Somos Primos.

On Tuesday night, Oct. 2 at 11:00 PM on KLCS-TV we will be airing an episode with Pulitzer Prize winning author Sonia Nazario and her Pulitzer Prize winning story Enrique's Journey.
Then on Sunday, Oct. 7 at 11:00 PM we will air an episode featuring Luis Rodriguez with his award winning book Always Running.

Thanks again for reminding me about Hispanic Heritage Month. Hope all is well.
Barry 

Other E-mail: Barry.KLCS@lausd.net
Home: KLCS 213-625-6958
Work: 213-633-7117
Fax: LA Unified School District
Cellular: 213-241-1000

 

Bilingual Education
Sp: HERENCIA HISPANA by Spaniard Ángel Custodio Rebollo

HERENCIA HISPANA

Acabo de leer que desde el 15 de septiembre hasta el 15 de octubre se celebra el "Mes de la Herencia Hispana en los Estados Unidos". Para mi, como español, es un orgullo que recuerden la herencia que aportamos llevando nuestra cultura y la civilización que teníamos entonces, aunque en algunos momentos nuestra presencia en aquellas
tierras no la recuerden con agrado, pero hay que pensar que eran otros tiempos y cuando los pueblos van a los lugares para conquistar, se cometen cosas y casos, de los que después nos mostramos muy arrepentidos.

De aquí de Huelva, donde yo vivo, partieron el 3 de agosto de 1492 las tres carabelas que al mando de Cristóbal Colón encontraron el Nuevo Mundo el 12 de octubre y la mayoría de las tripulaciones de los barcos eran naturales de esta zona. Aquí empezó todo y desde aquí miramos con gran cariño a todo lo que nos viene del otro lado del Atlántico. Actualmente en Huelva, viven y trabajan muchos americanos, especialmente ecuatorianos, dominicanos y colombianos, aunque hay también de otros países. Todos son bien recibidos y aunque en algunos momentos llegan ilusionados con un País de ensueño ven que, lamentablemente, esa no es la realidad. 

Gracias por recordar la herencia española y mis mejores deseos para todos mis buenos amigos de SOMOS PRIMOS.
                                                                                     Ángel Custodio Rebollo

 

 

 

Business
Minority Report
Hispanic Business Magazine on their 25th Anniversary celebration
Veteran Owned Small Businesses First 
Immigrants' labors helped build America
Latinos no longer a niche market for Nielsen

Minority report

Documentary explores how the quickly rising Latino population fits into U.S. society By John Wilkens, STAFF WRITER, San Diego Union Tribune,September 10, 2007

If the demographers are correct that Latinos will be a majority in California by 2042, filmmaker Phillip Rodriguez has a question: "Who are these new neighbors?"

CLAUDIA ROCHA
Comedian George Lopez learned to "walk a tightrope between ethnic authenticity and prime-time appeal," according to a new documentary.

He searches for answers in his documentary, "Brown is the New Green: George Lopez and the American Dream," which airs Thursday, on KPBS. The hour-long film explores the way Latinos are perceived by the media and marketers – and how they perceive themselves.

"Americans are in a collective state of confusion about Latinos," Rodriguez said.

He's not surprised. It starts with terminology. Most Latinos don't call themselves Latino; they are more likely to identify themselves by their country of origin. Hispanic? That's a term the federal government came up with for record keeping.  And it's a myth, Rodriguez said, to consider Latinos a homogenous group.

"What are the commonalities between a member of the Cuban bourgeois who came here in 1959, and a peasant from Michoacan who came here yesterday?" he asked during a phone interview from Los Angeles, where he lives. "Other than language, and maybe Catholicism, I'm not sure there are many."

Yet as his documentary shows, many media and marketing companies continue to treat Hispanics as monolithic, and that in turn is shaping how America understands the nation's largest (44 million) and fastest-growing ethnic group.

"Latinos are caught in a netherworld," Rodriguez said. "Mainstream media have largely ignored them, while Spanish-language networks and Hispanic ad companies have served up an exoticized image that has no basis in contemporary American reality."

One notable exception is comedian George Lopez, he said. Before being canceled this year after five seasons, "The George Lopez Show" was the longest-running English-language program with a Latino lead in TV history.

The documentary starts with footage of Lopez heading to a stand-up comedy appearance – first in a helicopter, then a limousine. He's arrived, in more ways than one.

Talking about his popularity, Lopez says: "Finally there is someone that you can invest in that looks like you, speaks like you, relates to things you relate to, and makes our culture OK to talk about."

CLAUDIA ROCHA

Filmmaker Phillip Rodriguez (left) with Lopez following the comedian's performance at the Long Beach Arena.

Rodriguez likened Lopez to Bill Cosby, whose 1980s sitcom "normalized" African-American life for a wider audience. Lopez, he said, "is a case study of someone who managed to introduce this brown Mexican-American identity to mainstream audiences."

By following Lopez around – to his stand-up act, to a sitcom writer's meeting, to the set of the show – the film addresses an important question, Rodriguez said: "How does an outside culture get on the inside?"

Cosby's show was criticized in some quarters as too bland; Lopez, too, has been accused of sanding off some of his sharp edges. He doesn't deny it.

"I've been in meetings with Warner Bros. when I wasn't particularly happy with what I was hearing," Lopez recounts in the documentary. "The Chicano in me would say, 'I'm leaving.' But when you leave, you're out. So I made myself stay. Probably a lot of people would say that's selling out. But it's not selling out. It's the way the business is set up."   Sent by guschavez2000@yahoo.com


First congratulations to Hispanic Business Magazine on their 25th Anniversary celebration. Viva!. And secondly to Maggie Rivas for being one of the top 100 Latinas/Latinos being acknowledged.

Again as we continue to celebrate our Hispanic Heritage Month, please call or write to those named as the Top 100 list if you know them or live near them. Another example of individuals that we can "Showcase" as our "Orgullos Hispanos".

http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/newsbyid.asp?id=77083 
Rafael Ojeda
RSNOJEDA@aol.com

 

Veteran Owned Small Businesses First 

On June 20, 2007, VA implemented Public Law 109-461; legislation which provides VA with expanded authority to contract with service-disabled veteran owned small businesses (SDVOSB) and veteran owned small businesses (VOSB). This is a logical extension of VA's mission of caring for and serving the veteran. Information Letter (IL) 049-07-08 implements P.L. 109-461. P.L. 109-461 authorizes a unique "Veterans First" approach specific to VA contracting. This approach changes the priorities for contracting preferences within VA, placing service-disabled veteran owned and veteran owned small businesses, first and second, respectively, in satisfying VA's acquisition requirements. When conducting market research, please search the Veterans Information Pages (VIP) database to find SDVOSBs and VOSBs. This database is located at www.vip.vetbiz.gov. If you have questions about P.L. 109-461 and IL 049-07-08, contact Deborah Van Dover, Senior Procurement Analyst, VA Office of Small &Disadvantaged Business Utilization, at 202-461-4255 

Alejandro Ramos
Center for Minority Veterans
810 Vermont Ave., NW (00M) 
Washington, DC 20420 
202-273-6708 
Fax 202-273-7092 
http://www1.va.gov/centerforminorityveterans
Sent by Juan Marinez marinez@anr.msu.edu

 



Immigrants' labors helped build America

ANNE T. DENOGEAN
Tucson Citizen, 9/21/07

Some Arizonans undoubtedly have taken heart from recent news reports - largely speculative - that illegal immigrants are preparing to self-deport to Mexico once the state's tough new employer sanctions law takes effect in January.

Perhaps they should hold off on the good-riddance party and replace it with a history lesson. Any unseemly rejoicing ignores the role immigrants have played in the building of America and the vibrant economy we enjoy.

"This is a nation peopled by the world," said Ronald Takaki, an internationally recognized scholar on multiculturalism.

The factors that "pushed" people out of their countries are varied, but there is one consistent reason the U.S. has "pulled" them here, he said.
We needed them - for their labor - and we still do.

Takaki, a professor emeritus of ethnic studies at the University of California, Berkeley, and the author of 11 books, will speak Tuesday evening at the YWCA Tucson.

"The reason I study the past is because I'm concerned about the present and the future. I've spent 40 years of my life as a scholar studying the history of America's diversity, and I want to connect it with what's happening in the present, especially with this raging and, at times, acrimonious debate over illegal immigrants coming from Mexico," he said during a phone interview.

The roots of a multicultural America are found in the earliest colonial days when the English settled among the indigenous peoples in 1607 and a Dutch ship brought in the first 20 Africans for sale, probably, as indentured servants rather than slaves, Takaki wrote in his 1994 book "America in a Different Mirror: A History of Our Diversity."

Slave labor evolved and would become the foundation of the Southern tobacco/cotton agricultural economy.

The Chinese started coming more than 150 years ago, seeking "Gold Mountain," as they called California. A mostly Chinese labor force built the first transcontinental railroad.  "My grandfather came from Japan, and he would not have come here had it not been for the demand for his labor in the cane fields of Hawaii," Takaki said.

The Irish came in large numbers to escape British colonialism. Once here, they labored in factory, construction and domestic positions.

Catholics in a "fiercely" Protestant society, they faced nativist hostility, Takaki wrote.
Still, the lure of the American dream was strong. The Italians, the Poles, the Greeks and the Russians Jews came, as did more Asians from Japan, Korea and the Philippines.

Today's burgeoning Hispanic population is largely a result of Mexicans crossing the border both legally and illegally.

But initially the border crossed them with the American annexation of Texas and the U.S.-Mexican War of 1846-1848 that resulted in the U.S taking over what became California, Nevada and Utah and parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Wyoming.

Later, during World War II, the U.S. brought in tens of thousands of Mexican farm laborers to work in our fields and harvest food for the nation, Takaki said.

All these immigrant groups, including Mexicans in our country today, have been met with discrimination and derision.

The Chinese were stereotyped as exotic heathens who could not be assimilated, Takaki wrote. Despite the contributions of the Chinese workers, Congress passed the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, the first law to prohibit the entry of immigrants based on nationality.

The Japanese were placed in internment camps during World War II. The Irish were labeled as convicts and drunks.

The Naturalization Law of 1790 excluded nonwhites from citizenship. The law was on the books until 1952, Takaki said. It prevented his grandfather from ever becoming a citizen.
Each new wave of immigrants has been the easy scapegoat for our nation's ills, whether that be a high unemployment rate or a rising crime rate.

Does any of this sound familiar? We've all heard the arguments about how Mexicans supposedly don't want to learn English. We've seen the commentators who seem to take great joy in reporting on any crime committed by an illegal immigrant, as if that person were representative of the millions who quietly make their homes here.

There's lots of talk these days about the impending destruction of American culture posed by the growing population of Mexican immigrants, but Takaki likes to remind people that much of what we think of as "American" has ethnic origins.

"God Bless America," a song so loved that some Americans would like to see it replace "The Star-Spangled Banner" as our national anthem, was written, Takaki noted, by a Russian Jewish immigrant named Israel Baline, commonly known as Irving Berlin.

I expect to hear from readers who will hit me with the same old refrain: They love legal immigrants, really. But just what part of illegal don't you understand, missy?

My answer is that it's irrelevant when assessing the contributions of Mexican immigrants to the American economy and placing it in a historical context.

No less an expert than Alan Greenspan, the ex-chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, has acknowledged their importance to the economy, Takaki said.

The traditional hostility toward immigrants is rooted in a fear of the changing color of America, Takaki said.

Minorities are becoming the majority.
"We really have nothing to fear but this fear itself because diversity is America," Takaki said. "Can you imagine the tremendously successful economy we have today without diversity? These were the workers of the world that transformed the American economy."
Far from being damaged by massive immigration, Takaki said, we are the beneficiaries of it.

Anne T. Denogean can be reached at 573-4582 and adenogean@tucsoncitizen.com. Address letters to P.O. Box 26767, Tucson, AZ 85726-6767. Her columns run Tuesdays and Fridays.

Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr. cmjr@berkeley.edu

 



TELEVISION
Latinos no longer a niche market for Nielsen
The move is a nod to the clout of the Spanish language market.

By Meg James, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
August 27, 2007
After decades of being shunted to the sidelines, Spanish-language media outlets have now joined the big leagues of TV research.

Ratings giant Nielsen Media Research today plans to pull the plug on a separate service that it created 15 years ago to measure the size of Latino TV audiences. Latinos are now so important to the overall TV ratings picture that it would be misleading to relegate them to a separate system.

So Nielsen's sole source for national ratings will come from its influential "people meter" survey, which is produced daily from the TV program choices made by viewers in about 12,000 homes equipped with Nielsen set-top boxes. That panel includes about 1,400 Latino families.

"We've had to work real hard to get to where we are today," said Hector Orci, chairman of La Agencia de Orci & Asociados, a Los Angeles advertising firm. "Trying to get Nielsen to change its methodology is like moving a mountain -- a very big mountain. This move says that Latinos make up an important market that continues to grow."

Said Danielle Gonzales, managing director of Chicago-based Tapestry, a top agency that specializes in Latino media: "This is a turning point -- the television industry has acknowledged the strength of the Hispanic population."

The move to one system comes as major media companies and advertisers are eager to reach Latino consumers. There are more than 44 million Latinos living in the U.S., making up about 15% of the total population. Some studies have estimated the collective buying power of Latinos in the U.S. at more than $800 billion a year.

"We are approaching a critical mass of consciousness by the industry and marketers who have discovered the enormous economic buying power of Hispanics," said Don Browne, president of Telemundo, the Spanish-language network owned by NBC Universal. "They see who is moving through their stores and who is buying their products and services -- and it's increasingly Hispanics."

The history of the separate Hispanic Television Index that Nielsen is now scrapping shows just how much Spanish-language TV has evolved.

When it debuted in 1992, the system, which measured viewing by Latinos of both English- and Spanish-language programs, was considered groundbreaking for seeking to figure out what Latinos were watching.

Nielsen had created the special index after Spanish-language-network executives complained that ratings were artificially low because of a shortage of Spanish speakers in Nielsen's sample audience. Univision and Telemundo subsequently agreed to pay $40 million to help finance the creation of a separate system.

In 1992, Univision and Telemundo were the primary Spanish-language broadcast networks. Together they attracted an average 2.5 million viewers in prime time. That year, Spanish-language TV advertising revenues reached $220 million.

Last year, ad spending on Spanish-language TV topped $3 billion, according to Nielsen Monitor-Plus. There now are four major Spanish-language broadcasters, including Univision-owned TeleFutura and Azteca America, which is affiliated with Mexico's second-largest media firm, TV Azteca.

Big media companies also have embraced Spanish-language TV. Five years ago, General Electric Co.'s NBC spent $2.7 billion to buy Telemundo and its small cable channel, mun2. Others added cable channels that target Latinos, including such recognizable brands as Fox Sports en Espanol, Discovery en Espanol, CNN en Espanol and MTV Tr3s.

Doug Darfield, Nielsen's senior vice president for Hispanic services, said there were several reasons for having a separate survey. Nielsen's national people meter sample audience in the early 1990s was about a third of the size that it is today. And, at that time, Latinos made up a smaller slice of the U.S. population.

There were about 500 Latino homes in Nielsen's people meter audience, which was too small a number to provide accurate ratings for shows that ran on the Spanish-language networks, Darfield said.

"You needed a more robust sample size," he said. Nielsen's Hispanic Index was made up of 1,000 homes in which the head of the household was Latino.

Nielsen also encountered obstacles when it tried recruiting Latino families to join. Some people, including recent immigrants, were wary of letting the Nielsen representatives and their electronic equipment into their homes.

Ceril Shagrin, who designed and managed the system during her 27-year career at Nielsen, said the Hispanic survey immediately gave Spanish-language networks more credibility with advertisers. And over time, she said, Nielsen documented the growth of the Latino audience, which encouraged companies and advertisers to enter the market.

But, ultimately, the system became problematic.

There was no easy way to blend the data from the Hispanic Index with Nielsen's larger national people meter sample. Side-to-side comparisons didn't match up either. Estimates of viewership for Spanish-language programs produced from the two separate surveys often varied widely. That's because there were different families in the two panels that watched different shows.

"It was very difficult," Gonzales of Tapestry said. "Advertisers wanted to go after the total market, but the question was what to do with all of this different data. For some advertisers, it became too much trouble and they would tell us, 'We'll talk about it later.' "

There also were debates about whether Nielsen's sample was accurately representing the Latino population. Did the sample audience have too many or too few Spanish speakers?

Another big problem was that many of the most influential advertising buyers paid little attention to the increasingly big ratings of Spanish-language shows. Univision's and Telemundo's numbers, for example, did not show up in the overnight Nielsen ratings.

Instead, executives at boutique ad agencies monitored those ratings, and handled the buys for Spanish-language networks. More than five years ago, Univision began lobbying Nielsen to do away with the separate Hispanic survey.

By last year, Nielsen had increased the size of its people meter sample audience and the number of Latinos included. Univision and Telemundo began subscribing to that service. Ratings for Spanish-language networks were being reported along with those of ABC, CBS, NBC and Fox.

Nielsen's Darfield said the move was made to provide the most accurate measurement.

"It reached a point that if you are not getting the Hispanics right, then you are not getting the rest of the population right either," Darfield said. "Hispanics are a significant part of the population, and that's particularly true in places like Los Angeles, where Hispanics make up so much of the population."

In the Los Angeles television market, the prime-time telenovelas that play on Univision's local station, KMEX-TV Channel 34, regularly out-rank the shows that run on the English-language networks ABC, CBS, NBC and Fox.

"It's made a huge difference. People now recognize the size of our audience and the loyalty of our viewers," Univision's Shagrin said. "Hispanics are part of mainstream America and they should be part of the mainstream measurement."

meg.james@latimes.com

Sent by Viola Sadler  Vrsadler@aol.com


 

Resources: Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month

Posters, New/Old, some free and some cost
A Proclamation By the President of the United States of America
Uncovering America: The Hispanic experience today . . .
Women Military Memorials
Hispanics and the Medal of Honor DVD
TELEMUNDO . . .and Hispanic Heritage Month
Nielsen Builds Partnerships for Hispanic Heritage Month

 

Threads in the American
Fabric
Hispanic/Latino Organizations:
Developing Stronger Leadership
Serving our Homeland


http://diversitystore.net/ds/index.cfm?currentpage=2&fuseaction=category.display&
category_id=42&CFID=551277&CFTOKEN=33984550
 

http://www.oneamerica.net/index.php?main_page=index&cPath=8

This year's poster designed by Everardo Sanchez who is currently attending Mount San Antonio College in California. The image illustrates the many positive contributions that Hispanic Americans have made in our society since the birth of our nation. The image of the military person is SFC Garcia; Equal Opportunity Advisor for the United States Army, now stationed at Fort Irwin, California, and has served our country proudly for 19 years.

 

Hispanic Heritage Month Posters, free downloads 
Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute

At this site, you may request an electronic file of the poster you wish. Please indicate in the e-mail the poster that you would like from those shown.  A copy of the electronic file will be e-mailed to you as an attachment. 

Although the posters are from previous years, it would be good to build up a collection for your classroom, library, or organization.

https://www.deomi.org/Observances%20&%20Demographics/JPEGRequest_Hispanic.htm  

Sent by Rafael Ojeda


National Hispanic Heritage Month, 2007

A Proclamation By the President of the United States of America

Hispanic Americans have strengthened our country and contributed to the spirit of America. National Hispanic Heritage Month is an opportunity to honor these contributions and celebrate the rich cultural traditions of our Hispanic-American community.

Hispanic Americans have helped establish America as a place of freedom and opportunity, and their contributions have illustrated what is best about our great Nation. Their hard work, love of country, and deep commitment to faith and family have shaped the character of our country and helped preserve the values we all cherish. By sharing their vibrant culture and heritage, Hispanic Americans have also enriched the American experience and helped define the unique fabric of our Nation.

Americans of Hispanic heritage have carried on a proud tradition of service to our Nation. In times of great consequence, they have answered the call to defend America as members of our Armed Forces. These brave men and women bring honor to America, and we are grateful for their service and sacrifice. In our towns and communities, Hispanic Americans have also shown the good heart of our Nation by volunteering to help their fellow Americans. Their kindness and compassion have made a difference in the lives of others and have made our country a more hopeful place for all.

During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we celebrate the diversity that makes America stronger, and we recognize the many ways Hispanic Americans have enriched our Nation. To honor the achievements of Hispanic Americans, the Congress, by Public Law 100 402, as amended, has authorized and requested the President to issue annually a proclamation designating September 15 through October 15 as "National Hispanic Heritage Month."

NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 15 through October 15, 2007, as National Hispanic Heritage Month. I call upon public officials, educators, librarians, and all the people of the United States to observe this month with appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twelfth day of September, in the year of our Lord two thousand seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-second.

GEORGE W. BUSH

 

 

Uncovering America: The Hispanic experience today . . .
Special Reports from CNN.com

What does it mean to be Hispanic in America today? Is there an "Americano Dream"? Is it being achieved? CNN takes a look at the challenges confronted by the Hispanic community and its growing influence in the realms of politics, culture and business. 

http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2007/hispanic.heritage/ 
Sent by Rafael Ojeda

 

Women Military Memorials
http://www.womensmemorial.org 

Here is another great research site plus an opportunity for us to register our Latina veterans. I know that during WWII over 200 nurses from Puerto Rico, plus some from NY and San Antonio TX served in the Navy. I have a copy of the 2003 Women Memorial calendar and it show some great photos of our WWII women that can probably be borrowed or get permission from the Women Memorial to use in the local PBS stations during the aring of "The War".  Thank you.

Rafael Ojeda RSNOJEDA@aol.com

 

 

 Hispanics and the Medal of Honor

I found another source of pride for our Hispanic veterans. It is an October 2002 issue of Hispanic Magazine. The feature article touted the premier of the THEN upcoming History Channel TV program entitled, "Hispanics and the Medal of Honor." It aired on October 6, 2002, at 7:00 p.m.

The History Channel (THC) formatted this 50 minute DVD program so that it can be presented to classrooms from grades 5-12. It is available for sale at only $24.95. For more details, go to:

http://www.history.com/classroom/admin/study_guide/archives/thc_guide.2007.html

It tells the story of a group of Los Angeles veterans, who have erected a monument in LA dedicated to preserving the memory of Hispanic-American veterans, who distinguished themselves in their military service to the USA.

Of particular interest, they traveled across the country and personally interviewed 5 Hispanic World War II veterans who had earned the Medal of Honor, and/or their immediate family members. The honorees are:  
Rudy Hernandez
Al Rascon
Silvestre Herrera
Lucian Adams
Eugene Obregon

Their memories were remarkably fresh and inspiring. I hope that you can pass this information along to whoever may be able to see this video for themselves, and pass it along to others.

Source: David Tijerina from Lansing, Michigan 
Sent by Juan Marinez marinez@anr.msu.edu

 

TELEMUNDO . . .and Hispanic Heritage Month

http://www.901am.com/2007/yahoo-telemundo-kicks-off-hispanic-heritage-month-
with-two-mini-sites.html

Sent by Alfredo Valentin alfredo.valentin@hud.gov




Nielsen Expands Outreach to Latino Communities Builds Partnerships for Hispanic Heritage Month

LOS ANGELES, Sept. 19 /PRNewswire/ -- In recognition of Hispanic Heritage Month, The Nielsen Company will be expanding its on-going outreach to the Hispanic community in television markets throughout the United States. With new, electronic Local People Meter (LPM) Technology deployed in the top 13 media markets, Nielsen is engaging Latino communities to explain who Nielsen is, and how the TV ratings service assures the most accurate measure of TV viewing behavior so that "every view counts."

Local People Meters are advanced electronic devices that continuously record television viewing behavior in real time all year long. The meters, placed in sample homes, accurately record who is watching what programs, and allows the measurement of various kinds of TV viewing activities, including broadcast and cable television, mobile video devices, Digital Video Recorders, video on demand and video games.

"Nielsen places a high priority on educating communities on the importance of who we are, what we do and the importance of accurately measuring TV viewing behavior," said Monica Gil, vice president of community affairs and communications for Nielsen. "Nielsen ratings are an accurate reflection of what people are watching on television. This information helps TV programmers decide what shows to schedule, and advertisers to decide what shows to sponsor. Hispanic Heritage Month is an excellent time to share this message among our friends in the Latino community."

Over the remainder of the summer and fall 2007, Nielsen will sponsor and/or participate in a variety of Hispanic/Latino focused events:
-- El Grito Celebracion, Los Angeles
-- Fiestas Patrias, Seattle
-- Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Dinner, Seattle
-- Hispanic Heritage Month Celebration, Chicago
-- Latino Book Festival, Houston
-- Latina Tribute, Los Angeles, Sponsored by Nielsen, The Hollywood
Reporter and Billboard Magazine
-- Latino Voter Education Program, Seattle
-- Minority Executive Directors Coalition Dinner, Seattle
-- Special Performance of the Nielsen Telenovela, October 11th, Mexican
National Museum of Art, Chicago

In addition to local community involvement, Nielsen established a first- of-its-kind relationship with the nationally recognized Hispanic research and policy organization, the William C. Velasquez Institute (WCVI). Their academic team of nationally recognized Latino social scientists is working with Nielsen to analyze all aspects of the Nielsen measurement system, including systems design, sampling, recruitment and field training for the country's premier television ratings company. These samples are the foundation for the television estimates reported by Nielsen.

The U.S. Hispanic/Latino population has grown 19.4% percent in the last five years. Hispanic television households have increased by 4.4%, according to Nielsen, with Los Angeles as the number one market, followed by New York, Miami, Houston and Chicago, respectively.

About The Nielsen Company: The Nielsen Company is a global information and media company with leading market positions and recognized brands in marketing information (AC Nielsen), media information (Nielsen Media Research) business publications (Billboard, The Hollywood Reporter, Adweek), trade shows and the newspaper sector (Scarborough Research). The privately held company has more than 42,000 employees and is active in more than 100 countries, with headquarters in Haarlem, the Netherlands and New York, USA.
For more information, please visit, http://www.nielsen.com .

SOURCE The Nielsen Company



 


BASEBALL, THE GREAT AMERICAN SPORT


Carmelita Provisions, early 1930s
Los Angeles, California 


FROM THE BARRIOS TO THE BIG LEAGUES

History of the Mexican American Baseball Players
in Los Angeles

This exhibit will open October 1 to November 30, 2007

POMONA PUBLIC LIBRARY
625 Garey Avenue
Pomona, CA 91769
909-620-2043


Source of article: 
California Council for the Humanities, Summer 2007

Followed by personal commentaries by siblings 
Beatrice and Fritz Armenta and cousin Chuck Anthony Armenta, recalling the Armenta love and involvement in the great American sport of baseball. 

The four Armenta brother played on numerous city and company baseball teams, starting in the 1930s..  


IF YOU WERE A MEXICAN AMERICAN IN LOS ANGELES IN THE 1940S, '50S OR '60S, THERE WAS ONLY ONE PLACE TO BE ON A SUNDAY AFTERNOON: DOWN AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD DIAMOND FIELD WATCHING A BASEBALL GAME 

Families congregated at fields all over Los Angeles to support their favorite teams, sitting on the sidelines or in makeshift stands drinking beer, eating tacos and tamales, and gossiping and laughing with friends as mariachis strolled nearby.  One of the legendary teams of the time was the Carmelita Chorizeros, called the New York Yankees of barrio baseball and sponsored by the owner of a chorizo factory. Many other teams flourished in the postwar years and produced outstanding professional and semi-pro baseball players. Yet, almost no attention has been given to this aspect of baseball history or the role that baseball played in Mexican American culture.

Now an exhibit of oral histories, photographs-and memorabilia spanning from amateur teams to superstar big league pitcher Fernando Valenzuela, who helped the Dodgers win the World Series in 1981, takes a big step toward giving Mexican American baseball its due. "Mexican American Baseball in Los Angeles: From the Barrios to the Big Leagues," which has been on display at several venues over the past year and is scheduled to open at Pomona Public Library this October and at other libraries and institutions in 2008, was funded by the Council under the California Story Fund.

The exhibit was the brainchild of Terry Cannon, founder of the Baseball Reliquary, a small nonprofit organization dedicated to fostering an appreciation for American art and culture through the context of baseball.

Cannon first got the idea for the exhibit after reading an article about barrio baseball in prewar Los Angeles around the time he formed his organization. But it wasn't until 2004 as a student in the library program at Pasadena City College that the idea began to take shape.

                                   

 

Ramon (Ray)Armenta and Jesus Armenta, L.A. 1936

"I was at the library at California State University Los Angeles interviewing a circulation technician for a course I was taking [Cannon works as a library assistant at Alhambra High School in addition to directing the Reliquary], and I noticed the display cases in the library. The student body is heavily Latino, and I could imagine those cases filled with photographs and artifacts related to Mexican American baseball history. I mentioned "" my idea to the technician, who put me in touch with Cesar Caballero, acting university librarian, who loved the idea and connected me to Francisco Balderrama, professor of Chicano Studies and History.

"This was truly a collaborative effort between the university and our small grassroots organization," Cannon said. .

"I originally thought we might be able to find work-study students to gather oral histories, but Balderrama was so impressed with the project idea that he designed an oral history class around it and offered it during the 2005 fall semester, and then again in fall 2006," Cannon said.

Balderrama's students collected photos and artifacts and interviewed players who Cannon was able to identify through his organization's contacts. "The course was so popular that people kept calling me to get in long after the enrollment period closed," Balderrama said.

The students interviewed former players, coaches, families of ball-players and even concession stand workers at Dodger Stadium. They delved into the history of Chavez Ravine, where Dodger Stadium now stands, which was home to generations of Mexican Americans before the City of Los Angeles evicted the residents and leveled the area.

Although the original focus was on teams in the Los Angeles area, Cannon also identified teams in other parts of California to document, including one in Corona made up of citrus workers.

"Teams were often sponsored by businesses or growers, who reasoned that if people could play baseball as a team they would transfer those skills to the work-place," Balderrama explained. But Mexican Americans often used the teams for their own purposes."

Added Cannon, "The citrus workers started going to management to ask for better working conditions. When they traveled to other towns to play baseball, they would use that as an opportunity to find out about working conditions else-where. There was a definite link between baseball and the politics of the time."

"Mexican American Baseball in Los Angeles: From the Barrios to the Big Leagues" opened in March 2006 at the John F. Kennedy Memorial Library at Cal State Los Angeles. The exhibit, put together by Cannon and Cal State L.A. Librarian Caballero, with help from one of Balderrama's students from the oral history class, captured the imagination of the public, attracting hundreds of people during its ten-week run. A story about the exhibit made the front page of the Los Angeles Times, and ballplayers connected to the project appeared on radio and television programs to talk about their days playing ball and the communities that cheered for them.

"This is a vital part of baseball history, and it was exciting for people to see it acknowledged and celebrated," Canon said. "The exhibit also came at a time when people were marching in the streets for immigrant rights, so it gave people something positive to celebrate."

By the time the exhibit ended in June, word had gotten out. Instead of packing up the materials and handing them over to Caballero for archiving at the university's library, which will eventually happen, Cannon arranged to have the exhibit presented at other institutions. Los Angeles Trade-Technical College contacted him almost immediately about featuring the exhibit on its campus, and the exhibit was on display there for two months at the end of 2006. Then in spring 2007, he got an inquiry from Eric Reyes, head of the Institute for Socio-Economic Justice, a grassroots storefront nonprofit serving migrant workers in the Imperial Valley town of Brawley, about bringing the exhibit there. The exhibit, which Cannon and his wife transported themselves in a rented van, was presented in Brawley this past spring and featured stories of Imperial Valley Mexican American ballplayers that Reyes had collected.

Meanwhile, this past November, 25 former members of the famed Carmelita Chorizeros served as grand marshals of the second annual Boyle Heights Multicultural parade. Los Angeles City Council member Jose Huizar, who represents East Los Angeles, has said he wants to have a special day at City Hall to honor Mexican American ballplayers. And Cannon has received out-of-state inquiries about the exhibit, including one from Texas. "Mexican Americans were playing baseball in many parts of the country, and I would love to see this project serve as a model for similar projects in other states," he said.

Now, said Cannon, the project needs more support than his small organization can provide if it is to keep on touring and evolving. "My hope is that the university will become more involved," he said, "so that the project can continue and grow."

When Cannon began the project, he had no idea how successful it would be. "The community and the media discovered an important aspect of Mexican American cultural history that they didn't even know existed," he said.

Added Balderrama, "The once-flourishing culture of amateur and semi-professional baseball was an important means for Mexican American to celebrate ethnic identity and instill community pride But it was also a way for Mexican Americans to find a place for themselves in American society. It's an aspect of Mexican American history that has been ignored until now."


Bea Armenta Dever . . . . 

The first ten years of my life, my parents Ray and Teresa Armenta lived in an apartment located behind my grandfather's Meat Market and Grocery Store on Santa Barbara Avenue between Figueroa and San Pedro Place in Los Angeles. (This street has since been renamed Martin Luther King Boulevard.) Paralleling the store was an alley way and growing up one of the stories we heard often was of the many movie stars who used this alley way to travel to Wrigley Field out of the public's eye. 

The actor George Raft was mentioned the most since my aunts were enthralled with him. Those of you that are not familiar with Wrigley Field it housed the Pacific Coast League. It was built in 1925 as a replica of Chicago's Wrigley Field and was located what is now South Central Los Angeles on 42nd Street and Avalon Boulevard. The Los Angeles Angels played there from 1925 to 1957 and the Hollywood Stars used the stadium when the Angels were on the road from 1926 to 1935. In 1939 Gilmore Field was built near the intersection of Beverly Boulevard and Fairfax near Hollywood as the home for the Hollywood Stars team.



Alianza Mexicana Baseball Team, 
Los Angeles, CA  Nov. 1932
Armenta Brothers 
Oscar (20 yrs), Paul (28 yrs), Tony (21 yrs)
 and Ray (Ramon, 22 yrs)


My recollection of my Dad, Ray Armenta, playing baseball was of his great love and passion for the game. However, he was not the only Armenta with this passion. His brothers, Joe, Paul, Tony and Oscar also played and often times on the same teams in the 1930's and 1940's. Eventually, Joe moved to Tucson, Arizona and the remaining brothers continued to play. Paul ventured into umpiring and continued umpiring for another twenty years.

When Dad played at Evergreen Park located in the Boyle Heights section of East Los Angeles my mom, Teresa de la Fuente Armenta, would cart the first four children who were ten and under to watch him play and enjoy family picnics at the park. Dad played on several teams, but I believe he was playing with the Carmel ita Provisions team at this time.

Dad was fearless when challenging umpires decisions. To this day I remember sitting in the bleachers watching Dad as he stood nose to nose with umpires when he disagreed with their calls (which was most of the time)! Dad continued playing until he was in his fifties when he played for the Minnesota Mining and then the Shell Oil Company teams in Torrance.  Recently, I found a trophy that Dad received when he was playing with the Shell Oil Company team that they won the 1961 Championship! Over the years, he sustained several injuries, but it never stopped him from playing. It was just an inconvenience!

I just wish that my four younger siblings could have experienced these memories. However, the love and passion for the game has continued in the Armenta family through the generations that have followed.

Bea Armenta Dever
Garden Grove, CA

 




Fritz Armenta  . . .

My name is Fritz Armenta and my father was Ray Armenta. My father played for Carmelita Provisions. I can't give you accurate dates, but it had to be early 1940's. He use to take his whole family to Evergreen Park in East Los Angeles and Griffith Park. I don't care how old you were, if you were anywhere near that baseball diamond and my Dad was playing you had to stop and watch him play because he played with so much passion. He played 3rd base, 1st base and sometimes he would catch. He was always whistling or chattering - encouraging his pitcher and his teammates or discouraging the batter and the other team. Even when the team was taking infield practice before the game he was so excited. When he fielded ground balls, he would dig the balls up and would give a little hop and then throw to whatever base the opponents were running to. He never quit if he made a mistake. He never put his head down, he just kept trying to help his team win the ball game. He wasn't afraid 
of the baseball.

Ramon (Ray) Armenta, July 1931, 
Trinity St/Santa Barbara, Los Angeles

When he played 3rd base, he was always playing up close so the batter couldn't drag bunt. I remember one time when he was playing 1st base, the throw pulled him off the base towards the runner and as he ran by my Dad he tagged him and as he did, his hand tore between his thumb and his index finger. All he did was have someone tape it together and he finished the game at 1st base.

On offense he was a switch hitter. He could hit for average and power. Whenever he came to bat, the defense would be watching him to see what he was going to do. When he would bat left handed, you knew he was going to bunt. He would twirl his bat and if he like the pitch, he would stick his bat out to make contact with the ball while he was already running to 1st base. It was beautiful to watch! Right handed he would hold his bat a little different and when he liked a pitch he would drop the bat behind him to hit the ball while he was already taking a step or two towards first base. He knew that most teams knew the signals he gave when he drag bunted, but it was a challenge to Dad and he would drag bunt anyway.

My Dad was so competitive that one day when he was on the field at the Coliseum in Los Angeles someone asked him if could throw a ball out of the Coliseum. So, of course, he tried and in the process he threw his arm out.

I don't know if it was a rumor or fact but it cost my Dad a tryout with the New York Yankees.

Ray Armenta was proud to be Mexican American and he loved the game of baseball. He showed it by the way he played - with enthusiasm

Ray Armenta, April 1948


A reply from the Barrios to the Big Leagues,                                         

Antonio (Tony) Oros Armenta played baseball from the 30's to the late 40's. He was a Pitcher for the L.A. Aces and the Carmelita Team. Back in those days they faced a lot of Pacific Coast League ball players that went on to the big leagues. He won games against some of the best pitchers in the league. My dad had three brothers that all played for the same teams. As I recall my dad and my uncle Ray started with the Mario Lopez Carmelita Chorizo Team. Lopez was the manager of the team when my dad and uncle played ball for him. I had a lot of memorabilia of my dad but they were all lost in a fire. I kept the tradition of playing city ball going for a few years; the League we were in was the Muney League. We won the championship in 1960 for Ranch Cafe in South L.A. and again in 1962 for the L.A. Bears in south Los Angeles. I still hold a lot of great memories from those times and I am very glad I was able to follow in my fathers footsteps.
                                                                    Written by his son, Chuck Anthony Armenta

                  

 

 

Culture

Joe Bravo's Acrylic Paintings on Tortillas 
Austin Latino Music Association, ALMA
Melinda Del Toro Sera Una de las Actrizes


Joe Bravo's Acrylic Paintings on Tortillas 

Joe Bravo hs become quite well known for his innovative use of tortillas as a ground for traditional painting. Here's what he has to say about his works: I use the Tortilla as a Canvas because it is an integral of the Hispanic Culture and my heritage. For the subject matter of my tortilla painting, I use imagery that is representative of Latinos conveying their hopes, arts, beliefs, and history. As the tortilla has given us life, I give it new life by using it as a art medium.

http://www.joebravo.net/tortilla/tortilla.htm 
bravoart@sbcglobal.net


Kathleen Carrizal-Frye
kec1952@sbcglobal.net 

Austin Latino Music Association, ALMA
http://www.austinlatinomusic.com/trail_bio.html

Calendar of musical events: Trail of Tejano Legends Biographies

The Grand Plaza at the Mexican American Cultural Center has been named in honor of the PEREZ & RAMOS FAMILIES

The Perez – Ramos Families have a long musical tradition that stretches back several generations.  The two families are connected by brothers Don Louis Perez and Don Tranquilino Perez.  Don Louis Perez and his wife Trinidad are the parents of Elvira Perez who is the mother of Ruben Ramos and Alfonso Ramos.  Don Tranquilino Perez and his wife Carolina are the parents of Blas Parez who is the father of Ernest Perez and Ruben Perez.

Ruben Ramos, Alfonso Ramos, Ruben Perez and Ernest Perez have all led their own Tejano orchestras.  Ruben and Alfonso have often performed and recorded together.  Many of Ruben and Alfonso’s brothers were and continue to be members of their musical groups.  In recognition of their accomplishment, Ruben Ramos and Alfonso Ramos have both been inducted into the Tejano Music Hall of Fame.  As a member of Los Super Seven, Ruben Ramos is a grammy award winner. 

Accomplished local musicians such as Alfonso Ramos and Manuel “Cowboy” Donley played with the Ruben Perez Orchestra early in their careers.  In addition to leading his own orchestra, Ernest played in his brother’s orchestra for many years as well as other local groups such as Johnny Degollado and Los Cinco Reyes. 




MELINDA DEL TORO SERA UNA DE LAS ACTRIZES

BAILANDO Y CANTANDO OPERA EN LA OBRA "MARIA LA O"

marisol@melindadeltoro.com

La música de Lecuona enmarca una historia de amor que se desarrolla dentro de un círculo efervescente de cambios sociales, tabúes religiosos y la siempre presente diferencia de clases y razas. Su música sin embargo nos transporta a los escenarios sociales mediante la utilización de diferentes ritmos de cadencias africanas, como la Danza de las Chancleteras o de inolvidables interpretaciones de la música clásica cubana.

La zarzuela es considerada como un género popular lírico. Su nombre proviene del Palacio de la Zarzuela donde fue presentada por primera vez por la realeza española del siglo XVII.

"María La O" se estrenó en La Habana, Cuba, el 1 de marzo de 1930. Inmediatamente se convirtió en uno de los espectáculos más populares del país. En 1936 fue llevada a la pantalla con el mismo nombre.

La historia se desarrolla en una ciudad colonial a principios del siglo XIX. El personaje de María La O es una mulata cuya belleza y singularidad le permite desplazarse entre extranjeros y criollos. Joven, alegre y atrevida, María no teme enamorarse del joven aristócrata Fernando de Alcazar sin saber que éste, está comprometido con La Niña Tula, hija del Marqués del Palmar. Enterada del eminente enlace, María trata de convencer a Fernando, quien a pesar de su amor por ella debe de cumplir con su palabra de casamiento por el honor y casta de su familia.

En un estallido de violencia y celos María convence a uno de sus peones que asesine a Fernando. Cumpliéndose así el círculo trágico que marca la separación de las clases más allá del amor.

La Fundación Bilingüe de las Artes presentará esta adaptación en el Teatro Alex de Glendale el día 22 de septiembre a las 8 p.m. únicamente. Luego, reanudará la temporada con María La O en su Teatro Carmen Zapata a partir del día 28 de septiembre y hasta el día 14 de octubre de este año. Las funciones en el Teatro Carmen Zapata están programadas para los días jueves, viernes y sábados a las 8 p.m. Domingos matinée a las 3 p.m.

La dirección artística es de Margarita Galbán, la dirección musical de Teresa Díaz y la coreografía de Mari Sandoval. El vestuario es de Carlos Brown, con escenografía y producción de Estela Scarlata. Diseño de luces deEdward Motts. Funciones en español únicamente.

El reparto incluye a Gabriela Crowe, Joseph Gárate, David Carreño, Edna Ceballos, Angela Estrada, Andrea Kim Walker, Kiko Mahetcha, Gilbert Moret, María Teresa Díaz, Raúl Avila, Rachel García, Leslie Carrera, Michelle Gil, Lina Montalvo, Carmen María González, Heliodoro García, Henry Madrid, Melinda Del Toro, y Sergio J. De Oliveira.

Para más información, llamar al Alex Theatre al 818 243 ALEX


 

Literature

Bilingual: The Fan . . . El Abanico by Vincente Riva Palacio
Bilingual: Prayer to the Full Moon in Times of Outrage, Rafael J. González



THE FAN
EL ABANICO


by Vicente Riva Palacio, translation by Ted Vincent




The following short story is from "Cuentos del General," the Riva Palacio anthology published shortly before his death in 1896 in Madrid. He was then Embassador from Mexico to Spain and his familiarity with the social elite no doubt assisted him in drawing this humorous account.

 

The Marquis determined to marry and had communicated his desire to his friends. The news flew with lightening speed through all of high society. It gave a shot of alarm to all mothers of marriageable age daughters, and to all young women who were in position and had the desire to get married, of which there were many.

Because that was so, the Marquis was considered a grand find, as was said among worldly people. He was thirty-nine years of age, had high title, much money, was handsome, and felt worn from having to run the world, always playing a leading role among the men of his age inside and outside his country.

Moreover, one tires of a life of dissipation. Threads of silver had made their appearance in his black beard and in his silky hair; and being a man of intelligence and of no little reading, he determined to settle down and look for the woman of his dreams to whom he would give his name and share the pains and joys of home life for the many remaining years that he intended to live on this earth.

With the news of his resolution he received no shortage of seductive offers, nor of maternal care, nor of romantic and happy attention from the beauties. None of these fit his ideal, and days, weeks and months passed without a choice being made.

"But Senor," his friends asked him, "How long are you going to wait to decide?"

"It’s that, I have yet to find the woman that I seek."

"It could be because you see little to gain in marriage among the women following you. Yet women in abundance are available. Is not the Countess of the Gold Mine attractive?"

" She is too occupied with her jewels and fine outfits She thinks more of a string of pearls than of a mate. She’d neglect her child for the chance to buy a dress at the Worth."

"And the Baroness of Rainbow?"

"Very pretty and a good woman, with a sculptured figure, but it is well known that with her comes the danger that she would lose her attractiveness and become a bore to her husband, and she would be dangerous in her new state of faded beauty."

"And the Duchess of Clear Light?"


"A superb beauty. But she thinks only of amusing herself and would leave me dying in my house in order not to miss a function at the Royal hall, and she wouldn’t hesitate to leave her sick child alone all night to attend a dance at the embassy."

"And the Marquise of Summit Mountain? Is she not both attractive and a model of virtue?"

"Certainly. But she is more religious than a husband needs. No pain, no infirmity in the family would impede her from spending all morning in the church, and she could never chose the bedroom of her child over a sermon at Lent."

"Truly, you seek an impossible woman."

"No, not impossible. I know that someday we will meet. And she will not be extraordinarily beautiful, because beauty is, for a marriage, no more than the appetizer for the lunch. To look for that will not fill the appetite. Hunger isn’t quelled with appetizer, and for this, one who seeks marriage doesn’t demand complete beauty."

* * *

It was an axiom of the Marquis, fruit of readings and of his worldly experience, that as they say for men and as well for women, one should not measure them by great deeds, but for insignificant and day to day actions, for the great acts, as documented by witnesses or references are always more from calculation than from one’s own inspiration, They fail to translate accurately the impulses of the heart and mind. But through their small actions one sees in women the spontaneity and intelligence and feelings that these moments are, as the old saying goes, sufficient for the sample."

* * *

One night there was a grand ball at the British Embassy. The halls were literally full of beautiful good looking ladies and wealthy gentlemen - all the flower and cream of the most aristocratic classes of society. The Marquis was in the dining room, where the young Countess of the Valley of Gold had come. She was a woman of twenty years, intelligent, sympathetic and distinguished, but who drew little attention from her looks, nor was she one of those beauties whose name always comes to mind when the conversation turns to fascinating women.

The young Countess was orphaned on her mother’s side, and lived with her well known and well considered father. 

The Countess, after sipping a cup of tea, conversed with a few friends before returning to the salons. 

"But why didn’t I see you last night at the Royal hall? They sang Tannhauser most admirably," one of them said to her. 

"Well, I had dressed for it. I wanted very much to hear Tannhausen. I just love that opera."

"And what happened?"

"Its that, I already had the door open, when the Doncella advised me that Leonor was quite ill. I went to see her, and nothing could take me from her side."

"And this Leonor?" asked the Marquis, breaking into the conversation, "Is she someone in your family?"

"Almost Marquis. She is the governess that my mother had; and as she never left us and I loved her dearly, I see her as of my family."

"What a precious fan you carry!" said one of the young people who was speaking with the Countess.

"Without doubt I am enchanted with it, a gorgeous painting and the ribs and everything, I guard it as if it belongs with my eyes. It is a present from my father on my Saint’s day. He bought it in Paris."

"Let me see!, Let me see!" they all exclaimed, and they gathered tightly around the little Countess, who, with a degree of childlike satisfaction, fluttered the fan in front of her eyes. It was genuinely an artistic marvel.

At this moment one of the servants arduously crossed between the women carrying in his hands an enormous tray of ice-cream. He tripped, comically, and without the power to stop himself, the tray hit against the fan, open at that moment, shattering it to pieces. The ribs were cracked, the cloth torn to shreds and little was left except fragments that injured the hand of the little Contessa.

"What a brute!" said one of the elder women.

"An oversized animal!" Exclaimed a caballero.

"He apparently has no eyes," said a young woman.

The poor servant, red with shame and dripping with sweat, could scarcely mutter an intelligible pardon.

"Don’t worry. Nobody’s dead," said the Countess with the utmost tranquility. "It wasn’t your fault. We were blocking your path." 

And gathering in her left hand the remains of the fan, she took with the right hand the arm of the Marquis, saying quite naturally, "They are playing a waltz, and I believe I have promised you one. Would you take me to the dance hall?"

"Yes, Countess; but I will not dance this waltz with you."

"Why?"

"Because at this moment I go to find your father to tell him that tomorrow morning I will ask him permission to make you my wife, and within eight days, sufficient time for all to be informed, I will know the resolution."

"But Marquis, " said the startled countess, "You’re just needling me." 

"No Senora, more, a point of honor."

* * *

Three months after the wedding celebration, displayed in a bright showcase under glass in one of the drawing rooms of the palace of the newlyweds were the remains of the broken fan.

El Marqués estaba resuelto a casarse, y había comunicado aquella noticia a sus amigos. La noticia corrió con la velocidad del relámpago por toda la alta sociedad como toque de alarma a todas las madres que tenían hijas casaderas, y a todas las chicas que estaban en condiciones y con deseos de contraer matrimonio, que no eran pocas.


Porque eso sí, el Marqués era un gran partido, como se decía entre la gente de mundo. Tenía treinta y nueve años, un gran título, mucho dinero, era muy guapo y estaba cansado de correr el mundo, haciendo siempre el primer papel entre los hombres de su edad dentro y fuera del país. 



Pero se había cansado de aquella vida de disipación. Algunos hilos de plata comenzaban a aparecer en su negra barba y entre su sedosa cabellera; y como era hombre de buena inteligencia y no de escasa lectura, determinó sentar sus reales definitivamente, buscando una mujer como él soñaba para darle su nombre y partir con ella las penas o las alegrías del hogar en los muchos años que estaba determinado a vivir todavía sobre la tierra. 

Con la noticia de aquella resolución no le faltaron seducciones ni de maternal cariño ni de románticas o alegres bellezas; pero él no daba todavía con su ideal, y pasaban los días y las semanas y los meses, sin haber hecho la elección. 

"Pero hombre," le decían sus amigos- 
" hasta cuándo no vas a decidirte?" 

AEs que no encuentro todavía la mujer que busco." 


"Será porque tienes pocas ganas de casarte que muchachas sobran. No es muy guapa la Condesita de Mina de Oro?" 


"Se ocupa demasiado de sus joyas y de sus trajes; cuidará más de un collar de perlas que de su marido, y será capaz de olvidar a su hijo por un traje de la casa de Worth.


"Y la Baronesa del arco de Iris?" 

 "Muy guapa y muy buena; es una figura escultórica, pero lo sabe demasiado; el matrimonio sería para ella el peligro de perder su belleza, y llegaría a aborrecer a su marido si llegaba a suponer que su nuevo estado marchitaba su hermosura."

"Y la Duquesa de Luz Clara?" 

"Soberbia belleza; pero solo piensa en divertirse; me dejaría moribundo en la casa por no perder una función del Real, y no vacilaría en abandonar a su hijo enfermo toda una noche por asistir al baile de una embajada." 

"Y la Marquesa de Cumbre-Nevada, no es guapísima y un modelo de virtud?" 

 
Ciertamente; pero es más religiosa de lo que un marido necesita: ningún pena, ninguna enfermedad de la familia le impediría pasarse toda la mañana en la iglesia, y no vacilaría entre un sermón de cuaresma y la alcobita de su hijo." 

AVamos; tú quieres una mujer imposible. 

"No, nada de imposible; ya verán como la encuentro, aunque no sea una completa belleza; porque la hermosura para el matrimonio no es más que el aperitivo para el almuerzo; la busca sólo el que no lleva apetito, que tiene hambre no necesita aperitivos, y el que quiere casarse no exige el atractivo de la completa hermosura." 

* * * 

 Tenía el Marqués como un axioma, fruto de sus lecturas y de su mundanal experiencia, que a los hombres, y quien dice a los hombres también dice a las mujeres, no debe medírselas para formar juicio acerca de ellos por las grandes hechos, como tienen siempre muchos testigos presentes o de referencia, son resultado más de cálculo que de las propias inspiraciones, y 1no traducen con fidelidad las dotes del corazón o del cerebro; al paso que las acciones insignificantes hijas son del espontáneo de la inteligencia y de sentimientos, y forman ese botón que, como dice el refrán antiguo, basta para servir de muestra." 


*  * *  

Una noche se daba un gran baile en la Embajada de Inglaterra. Los salones estaban literalmente cuajados de hermosas damas y apuestos  caballeros, todas flores y nata de las clases más aristocráticas de la sociedad. El Marqués estaba en el comedor, adonde había llevado a la joven Condesita de Valle de Oro, una muchacha de veinte años, inteligente, simpática y distinguida, pero que no llamaba, ni con mucho, la atención por su belleza, ni era una de esas hermosuras cuyo nombre viene a la memoria cada vez que se emprende conversación acerca de mujeres encantadoras. 

La joven Condesa era huérfana de madre, y vivía sola con su padre, noble caballero, estimado por todos cuantos le conocían. 

La Condesita, después de tomara una taza de café, conversaba con algunas amigas antes de volver a los salones. 

 APero, cómo no estuviste anoche en el Real? Cantaron admirablemente el Tannhauser,"  le decía una de ellas.  

APues mira: me quedé vestida, porque tenía deseos, muchos deseos, de oír el Tannhauser; es una opera que me encanta. 

"Y qué paso?

A Pues que tenía el abrigo puesto, cuando la doncella (criada) me avisó que Leonor estaba muy grave. Entré a verla, y no me atreví a separarme de su lado. 

"Y esa Leonor,  dijo el Marques terciando en la conversación, A ¿es alguna señora de la familia de usted? 

ACasi, Marqués; es el aya que tuvo mi madre; y como nunca se ha separado de nosotros y me ha querido tanto, yo la veo como de mi familia. 

AQué abanico tan precioso traes!  dijo a la Condesita una de las jóvenes que hablaba con ella. 

ANo me digas, que estoy encantada con él y lo cuido como a las niñas de mis ojos; es un regalo que me hizo mi padre el día de mi santo, y son un primor la pintura y las varillas y todo él; me lo compró en París.

"A ver, a ver, a ver! dijeron todas, y se agruparon en derredor de la Condesita, que, con una especia de infantil satisfacción, desplegó a sus ojos el abanico, que realmente era una maravilla del arte. 

En este momento, uno de los criados que penosamente cruzaba entre las señoras llevando en las manos una enorme bandeja con helados, tropezó, vaciló, y sin poderse valer, vino a chocar contra el abanico, abierto en aquellos momentos, haciéndolo pedazos. Crujieron las varillas, rasgóse en pedazos la tela y poco faltó para que los fragmentos hirieran la mano de la Condesita. 

AQue Bruto!  dijo una señora mayor. 

AQue animal tan grande! exclamó un caballero. 

AParece que no tiene ojos! dijo una chiquilla. 


Y el pobre criado, rojo de vergüenza y sudando de pena, podía apenas balbucir una disculpa inteligible. 


"No se apure usted, no se mortifique, dijo la señorita con la mayor tranquilidad;  Ano tiene usted la culpa; nosotras, que estamos aquí estorbando el paso.  

Y reuniendo con la mano izquierda los restos del abanico, tomó con la derecha el brazo del Marqués, diciéndole con la mayor naturalidad: "Están tocando un vals, y yo lo tengo comprometido con usted. 

"Me lleva usted al salón de baile?

"Sí Condesa; pero no bailaré con usted este vals. 

"Por qué?" 

"Porque en este momento voy a buscar a su padre para decirle que mañana iré a pedirle a usted por esposa, y dentro de ocho días, tiempo suficiente para que ustedes se informen, iré a saber la resolución. "

"Pero, Marqués, dijo la Condesita trémula,
"  es esto puñalada de pícaro? 

"No señora; será cuando más, una estocada de caballero 

* * * 

Tres meses después se celebraban aquellas bodas; y en una rica moldura bajo cristal, se ostentaba en uno de los salones del palacio de los nuevos desposados el abanico roto. 


Prayer to the Full Moon
in times of outrage


Moon, moon, moon,
godmother of dreams,
lady of the tides,
lay your soft hands of light
upon us & give us comfort;
nightmares gallop
through the plains of grief,
rage fills us to the bone,
& our marrow is frozen by fear,
for on the thrones of power
sit rabid dogs
& in the cradle of writing
blood soaks the sand.

Moon, moon, holy moon,
you who know of madness,
we have wounded the Earth,
& in the halls of government
criminals crowd.
Godmother, give us comfort,
& for the struggle, courage.


© Rafael Jesús González 2007

Rafael Jesús González
P. O. Box 5638
Berkeley, CA 94705

http://www.rjgonzalez.blogspot.com (English)

 


Oración a la luna plena
en tiempos de ultraje


Luna, luna, luna,
madrina de los sueños,
señora de las mareas,
pone tus suaves manos de luz
sobre nosotros y danos consuelo;
las pesadillas galopan
por los llanos de la tristeza,
la furia nos llena hasta los huesos
y el tuétano se nos congela de miedo
que en los tronos del poder
se sientan perros rabiosos
y en la cuna de la escritura
la arena se empapa de sangre.

Luna, luna, santa luna,
tú que sabes de locuras,
hemos herido a la Tierra
y en las salas de gobierno
se amontonan criminales
Madrina, danos consuelo
y para la lucha valor.


© Rafael Jesús González 2007
rjgonzalez@mindspring.com
http://www.rjgonzalezg.blogspot.com (español)





Cuentos

Sam Cerra, Looking Back, One of the quiet ones by Julie Lugo Cerra  
The Winning Pig was a Bato Loco By Richard G. Santos




Sam Cerra 
Looking Back, One of the quiet ones…..

Some of us stand out in front, doing what we love and then there are the others who quietly work in the background, the towers of strength in our families. They are often the real backbone of the community, rarely talk about themselves, and ask very little of others.

When I first went to work in the City Treasurer’s office in the late 1960s, I found someone in every department who could answer questions. Sam Cerra was the one in Engineering. Sam was quiet, helpful, accurate and an enigma. And he could find anything! The city was his daytime family. He was known for his fairness as the loan officer for the credit union, and he enjoyed bowling in a league with his work buddies.

The Cerras came to California from Yonkers, NY, in 1945—in search of a better life. The youngest of five children, Sam lived near city hall with his Italian immigrant parents, three brothers and sister. The Korean "conflict" scuttled his college plans, and after returning from his Army tour with malaria, he stopped into city hall’s Veterans office. Noting his printing skills, and his time with the Army Corps of Engineers, they sent him up to the city’s Engineering Department. It took him 40 years to get out!

Sam was a very private person. I learned his father died while he was in Korea, so on his return he helped his mother care for two brothers with Multiple Sclerosis. After she passed, the five children decided to raze the California bungalow and rebuild a structure for their purposes. Sam’s buddy, Bill Plach, referred to it as a "Ginney-minium."

Sam never expected to marry, not to mention have a child. But marry we did in 1974, at home, so his remaining bedridden brother could be with us. My "happy Italian" was such a favorite at city hall, they threw a party for us in the council chambers. On Christmas day the following year, our best gift ever came home with us from the hospital. And to my delight, she had her daddy’s dimples.

The wonderful uncle transitioned into a supportive husband and consummate "Daddy." He was always there for us. He passed along his calligraphy and camera skills to Michele, and even participated in Y-father/daughter camping with her, not exactly his forte. On Father’s Day weekend, he loved driving her back home from college. He was delighted when she studied in Italy and found some of his cousins there. He took pride in her continuing accomplishments, and when she did something silly, he would chide her with "This is my Phi Beta Kappa?" When he was diagnosed with heart/lung problems, his biggest worry was walking our daughter down the aisle without his oxygen tank, which he did two years ago. And he loved "our red headed son" we acquired by marriage.

Sam delighted in "needling" that he was first Republican president of the employees union, where he fought for benefits better than steel-toed shoes. He was honored as an outstanding employee more than once, and it was his "Old English" that appeared on the old city proclamations and commendations.

Sam’s research skills made him a natural in the Culver City Historical Society where he served as historic sites chair, (pinpointing the site of Camp Latham), and president. He loved to read and play cards with "the boys," and left the PR to "his girls." He always had time to tend bar at fundraisers, fold historical society newsletters- or napkins, and other necessary chores, like picking our grapes so I could make jelly. He even took out the trash and recycled.

My family was his family. Sam was all about family and friends. Sam Cerra died on August 30. Like so many quiet folks, he will leave a hole in our togetherness.

(There will be no memorial service- he will be in our memories. Donations-unnecessary, but he would probably say Culver City Historical Society or one’s own favorite charity.)

Julie Lugo Cerra 9-2-07

Photo Caption- Sam was proud to walk Michele, his little ballerina grown up, down the aisle in 2005.

Julie Lugo Cerra
Cerra Enterprises
4022 Lincoln Avenue
Culver City, CA 90232

Phone  310 558-3818      Fax 310 559-7310
Email    julie@cerraenterprises.com

 

 

THE WINNING PIG WAS A BATO LOCO

By
Richard G. Santos
richardgsantos@yahoo.com


             In the early 1960’s Pepe was a high school football star who, with his closes friends, surprisingly joined the Future Farmers of America. He knew nothing about ranching, raising animals or agriculture. Nonetheless, he decided to raise and enter a pig in competition. In fact, his father owned the Mexican theatre in the barrio that was later converted into the Salon Ideal dance hall. In time the dance hall was relocated and renamed The Wishing Well.  The theatre showed Spanish Language movies and hosted the vaudeville shows featuring top Mexican stars such as Pedro Infante, Jorge Negrete, Luis Aguilar, Mario Moreno Cantinflas  and others. The dance hall on the other hand featured traditional Tejano conjuntos with the accordion as the lead instrument performing the polkas (Germanic origin), chotiz (Polish schottische), redovas (Polish mazurka) and the huapangos of Tamaulipas origin with the 15th. Century Italian chirana called jarana in Mexico. 

The dance hall also featured the early Tejano groups (combos and bands) lead by young up-coming teenage musicians such as Sunny and The Sunliners,  Little Joe and the Latinairs, El Conjunto de  Paulino Bernal, and even the slightly older Isidro (El Indio) Lopez, Amalia Mendoza, Beto Villa, Ruben Ramos y La Revolucion, Oscar Lawson’s Royal Jesters featuring Dimas Garza as the Latin Breed, and others. Country Western music featuring local artist George Strait as well as early sixties artists such as Charlie Pride and Ernest Tubb were also featured at the famous Wishing Well dance hall.

Notwithstanding that Pepe knew nothing about caring and raising animals and the FFA, he decided to raise a pig! “Feeding the pig corn soon became expensive. Therefore I started collecting the popcorn kernels at the theatre to feed the pig. I also started giving him the left over beer from my father’s Back Cat Bar  that was collected in a fifty gallon tank,” says Pepe laughing at his own shenanigans. “The pig ate the popcorn kernels, left over popcorn, drank beer and grew big and fat,” he says laughing! 

“One day the FFA teacher asked for our reports and thought I had not kept a record of expenses as my card was blank. I told him what I was feeding the pig and he did not believe me. The following week the teacher took the entire class on a field trip to check our animals. Everyone laughed as my pig was big, fat, drunk with popcorn and kernels all over his pen. The pigs in the other pens were up and moving around and mine just lay there glassy eyed with what seemed a smile on his face!”

“The FFA livestock show finally came around.  I bathed, scrubbed, oiled and perfumed the now large, fat, whitish-pink pig and waited for the judges to check and rate all animals. Nobody gave me and my pig a chance but we won! I got $250 and also got my pig back as the buyer decided not to take my alcoholic, beer drinking pig. My father slaughtered the pig and we had lots of food,” says Pepe chuckling as he recalled the experience with glee. At this point it is imperative we tell any young reader “not to try this at home” or better yet, not in your FFA school project! 

Incidentally, high school football star, bato loco pig raiser José Pepe Treviño joined the Navy and served in the submarine service. Aboard the diesel powered Picuda, his submarine was among those patrolling the Caribbean during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Stationed at Guantanamo Bay the stories he tells of the submariners’ club (The Gitmo Hilton) are hilarious. On a more serious level, most top-secret assignments during the Cold War are still classified and cannot be openly discussed. Let us say the public still does not know the extent to which the submarine service with its bugging, black-bag jobs contributed to the demise of the porous Iron Curtain and Communist Russia. With the U-2s in the upper atmosphere, satellites in space, the submarines under water and agents in the trenches, the U.S. was able to keep detailed track of all sensitive goings-on behind the Iron Curtain. Nuf zed. 

Incidentally, last week’s comments on the Hollywood Park lechuza attacking non-Hispanics is making the rounds via the internet. Juan Marinez in Michigan posted the column. Consequently he and I are getting comments from readers from various states. Internet magazine Somos Primos asked and received permission to carry the column. Meanwhile, I myself emailed it to friends here and there and they are also forwarding the column to others and more comments are coming in. It seems a number of Hispanics, Latinos and Tejanos have fond childhood memories of lechuzas. However, I must note reports of vampire lechuzas leaving bruises on the throat and neck, as well as scratches on the back seem to be limited to the Winter Garden Area of Texas and particularly historic Espantosa Lake. That reminds me of the time I was able to unravel and unmask a report of a Llorona (wailing woman) at the Espantosa who turned out to be a gritona (screaming woman). But that’s a different story. Hmmmmmmm. 

Finally, documentary producer Ken Burns and PBS National specifically erred in excluding Hispanics from their World War II documentary. No amount of excuses or mea culpas can ever correct the damage they have done to the memory, contribution and sacrifices of all Hispanics who served in the war. 

Not only did Hispanics serve heroically, many earned Medals of Honors, Silver and Bronze stars and an untold number of Purple Hearts and combat medals in appreciation for their sacrifices. There is no excuse, none will be accepted, and any and all monetary contributions by Hispanics to the local PBS stations that carried the erroneous and highly insulting documentary will be impacted most negatively. We note that even though many local PBS stations produced respective documentaries on Hispanics in World War II, they did not object and without considering the insult to the Hispanic veterans, viewers and contributors, they aired the insulting program. This is especially harmful when one considers the Burns-PBS National documentary will be aired for years to come and shown in schools for present and future generations. Surely there will be an accompanying book and even classroom material and ALL WITHOUT INCLUDING THE HISPANIC MEN AND WOMEN WHO SERVED IN WORLD WAR II. In other words, the insult to those who died in battle, surviving veterans and their families is unacceptable. PBS National, the so-called “educational channel” and Mr. Burns the so-called prime documentary producer and the local stations that aired the series need to be taught a thing or two. The absence of George Washington in their wallets and bank accounts is one way of getting the message across. Que pena PBS, what an unforgivable shame.

Added note: José Pepe Treviño he is the City Manager of Pearsall, Texas.

Zavala County Sentinel – 26-27 September 2007
Sent by Juan Marinez marinez@anr.msu.edu



 

Military and Law Enforcement Heroes

Enrique "Kiki" Camarena, A Hero's Legacy 
Army and Navy (Marine Corps) Medals of Honor Recipients, Part 8


A 2004 survey by the Rand Corporation found that 45 percent of Hispanic males and 31 percent of Hispanic females between ages 16 and 21 were very likely to serve in the Armed Forces, compared to 24 percent of White men and 10 percent of White women.      

Sent by Dr. Carlos Munoz, Ph.D.



Enrique "Kiki" Camarena

A Hero’s Legacy

By
Mercy Bautista-Olvera

In October as schools nationwide will declare "Red Ribbon" week, it is perhaps an ideal time to reflect on the life of Enrique "Kiki" Camarena. "Kiki" was a Special Agent of the Drug Enforcement Administration in Guadalajara, Mexico. On February 7, 1985, Enrique Camarena and his pilot, Alfredo Zavala Avelar, were kidnapped, tortured, and murdered, by Mexican drug traffickers.

Enrique "Kiki" Camarena, born on July 26, 1947 in Mexicali, Mexico; was the son of Daniel Camarena and Dora Salazar-Camarena. His father originated from Tepic, Nayarit, and his mother from Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Enrique had two brothers and six sisters, Eduardo, Ernesto, Bertha, Norma, Myrna, Sandra, Lourdes, and Diana. The oldest, Eduardo would be killed during the Vietnam War.

To his mother, Enrique was the protector who took responsibility to help her in whatever she needed. He was a role model for his brother and sisters and worked hard to provide for the family. To his siblings, he was a noble and caring brother who continuously encouraged them to obtain a good education. In 1966, "Kiki" as he was called by his family and friends graduated from Calexico High School in Calexico, California. 

In1968, Enrique joined the U.S. Marine Corps for two years. After an honorable discharge from the Marine Corps and demonstrated his courage as a firefighter for the City of Calexico. Two years later, he earned an Associates Degree from Imperial Valley College.

In May 1973, he joined the Police Department and eventually he was assigned to work as a Narcotics Investigator. He then joined the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in Calexico. After three years working in Calexico, he was re-assigned to the Fresno District Office in Northern California. In 1977, he was transferred to Guadalajara, Mexico. In Guadalajara, Enrique investigated Mexico’s biggest marijuana traffickers.

During his 11 years with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Enrique "Kiki" Camarena received two "Superior Performance Awards", a "Special Achievement Award" and posthumously, the Administration’s "Award of Honor," the highest award granted by the Drug Enforcement Administration.

Geneva" Mika" and Enrique Camarena

On February 7, 1985, Enrique and his wife Mika, planned to meet for lunch; however, five-armed men kidnapped Enrique as he left the U.S. Consulate. Enrique was 37 years old when he was tortured and killed. 

His wife Mika and their three children, Enrique, Daniel and Erik were devastated to have lost a loving and devoted husband and father.

Enrique’s childhood and youth witnessed much pain and despair among his peers and their use of drugs. This influenced him to take the initiative and become involved in the war against drugs, unfortunately and ultimately, it cost him his life.

On March 8, 1985, Agent Camarena's body returned to the United States for burial. For the DEA and the American public, the 1985 torture and murder of Agent Camarena marked a turning point in the war on drugs. His violent death caused Americans to see how violently and deeply, drug trafficking, affected our nation. Enrique "Kiki" Camarena was a hero and tried hard to stop the brutality of drug trafficking.

Congressman Duncan Hunter and Enrique’s high school friend, Henry Lozano, launched youth clubs in Kiki’s hometown of Calexico, California. Calexico High School teacher, David Dhilon, encouraged honoring Kiki Camarena’s sacrifices by wearing red ribbons, and pledging to lead drug-free lives.

Red Ribbon Week gained momentum all over California and nationwide. Club members presented "The Camarena Club Proclamation" to First Lady Nancy Reagan, bringing the program national attention. In 1988, First Lady Nancy Reagan involved herself by promoting the wearing of Red Ribbons in schools nationwide. The same year the National Federation of Parents organized the first national Red Ribbon Week, an eight day-event proclaimed by the U.S. Congress and chaired by President Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan. Red Ribbon Week also became a symbol of support for the Drug Enforcement Association’s efforts to promote drug prevention and education programs.

The tragedy of losing Enrique "Kiki" Camarena generated a sense of hope nationwide, Red Ribbon events have had an increasing number of Americans saying "yes’ to a drug free life.

One teacher, Diana Holly and her 5th grade class from Lugonia Elementary School in Redlands, California, decided to launch an Enrique "Kiki" Camarena Postal Stamp campaign. Mrs. Holly retired in 2003 and has not given up; she is still active collecting petitions to reach this goal.

If readers wish to campaign for a stamp honoring Enrique "Kiki" Camarena, correspondence may be sent to the Citizen's Stamp Advisory Committee, c/o Stamp Management, U.S.  Postal Service, 475 L'Enfant Plaza, SW, Room 4474EB, Washington, D.C.  20260-6756. 

On February 8, 2005 Dora Camarena, mother, of DEA agent Enrique "Kiki" Camarena, attended a memorial service at the Calexico Police Department where a bust of her son was unveiled. Family and friends paid their respects as well as about 200 people to honor Enrique Camarena.

NANCEE E. LEWIS / Union-Tribune

"Unfortunately, a man had to lose his life in order to move a country, but I can tell you, a country was moved," Oren Fox, a retired Imperial County sheriff, told the gathering. Camarena's death, he said, brought much-needed attention and funding to a raging drug war that until then was largely ignored by politicians and the public.

"I believe America was just outraged" by the murder, said Calexico police officer Eric Hackett. "Americans finally realized how terrible these drugs are. And they understood that if they can kidnap and torture a Federal Agent, they can do anything to any of us."

In schools, libraries, and public buildings; statues and portraits of Enrique "Kiki" Camarena are display not only nationally, but in Mexico as well. In the U.S., schools have been re-named in his honor and as recent as 2006 in Mission, Texas, in a newly constructed school was named after Enrique "Kiki" Camarena.

Special thanks to Myrna Camarena and Maria Krueger, (Mrs. Holly’s daughter), who through their kindness and time, provided additional information to this article.

Resources:
The Library of Congress:
www.congress.gov
SignOnSanDiego:
www.signonsandiego.com
2007 Redlands Daily Facts:
http://www.redlandsdailyfacts.com/
The Hero
: www.myhero.com

 

 



Army and Navy (Marine Corps) Medals of Honor

Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients

Part 8

By Tony (The Marine) Santiago




This is the eighth part of the Hispanic Medal of Honor series which consists of the short biographies of Vietnam War recipients Emilio A. De La Garza*, Ralph E. Dias*, Daniel Fernandez* and Alfredo "Freddy" Gonzalez*

Unfortunately, these four heroes made the ultimate sacrifice by giving their lives in order to save their fellow men. It would be nice if we could follow the example of my friend Rafael Ortega and honor all of our Medal of Honor recipients at least once a year, by creating displays with the intention of educating our children so that the memory of these brave soldiers will live on forever.

Lance Corporal De La Garza placed himself between two Marines and ensued the blast from a grenade; Private First Class Dias was wounded several time before destroying at least a couple of enemy machine gun emplacements, saving the lives of his fellow comrades; Specialist Fourth Class Daniel Fernandez, like De La Garza, threw himself on a live grenade, and sacrificed his life to save lives of the soldiers around him. Sergeant Alfredo Cantu Gonzalez and his platoon were fired upon by the enemy with rockets and automatic weapons. Almost single-handedly, Sgt. Gonzalez neutralized the enemy with a barrage of LAW rockets. He was shot and killed.

I would like to thank my friend ERcheck who authored three of the articles.

Note: "*" after a name indicates that the person was awarded the MoH posthumously.


 

Emilio A. De La Garza

By: ERcheck

Lance Corporal Emilio A. De La Garza, Jr.,


Emilio Albert De La Garza, Jr. (1949-1970) was a United States Marine Corps lance corporal who was posthumously presented the nation's highest honor — the Medal of Honor — for his heroism in April 1970 in Vietnam.

Early years

Emilio Albert De La Garza, Jr. was born on June 23, 1949, in East Chicago, Indiana, and graduated from Washington High School there in 1968. For a year, he was employed by Inland Steel in East Chicago.

Marine Corps career

De La Garza enlisted in the United States Marine Corps on February 4, 1969, in Chicago, Illinois. He received recruit training with the 2nd Recruit Training Battalion, Recruit Training Regiment at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, California.

Upon completion of recruit training, he was ordered to the Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, California, where he joined the 2nd Infantry Training Regiment and underwent individual combat training with the 1st and 2nd Battalions, and weapons training with the Basic Infantry Training Battalion.

Promoted to private first class on July 1, 1969, he arrived in the Republic of Vietnam on the July 25, 1969 for duty as an ammo carrier with Company H, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Marines, 3rd Marine Division. On September 29, 1969, he was reassigned to the 1st Marine Division and served as a Marine Corps exchange man with Headquarters and Service Company, 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines, until the following December. He was promoted to lance corporal on February 1, 1970.

Corporal De La Garza then joined Company E, 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division. While serving as a machine gunner on a squad size patrol with the 3nd Platoon of Company E, approximately four miles south of Da Nang on April 11, 1970, he was mortally wounded by a grenade as he placed himself between the blast and two fellow Marines.

His medals and decorations include: the Medal of Honor, the Purple Heart, the Combat Action Ribbon, the National Defense Service Medal, the Vietnam Service Medal with one bronze star, and the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal.

Medal of Honor citation

LANCE CORPORAL EMILIO A. DE LA GARZA, JR.

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS

CITATION:

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a machine gunner with Company E, Second Battalion, First Marines, First Marine Division, in the Republic of Vietnam on April 11, 1970. Returning with his squad from a night ambush operation, Lance Corporal De La Garza joined his Platoon commander and another Marine in searching for two enemy soldiers who had been observed fleeing for cover toward a small pond. Moments later, he located one of the enemy soldiers hiding among the reeds and brush. As the three Marines attempted to remove the resisting soldier from the pond, Lance Corporal De La Garza observed him pull the pin on a grenade. Shouting a warning, Lance Corporal De La Garza placed himself between the other two Marines and the ensuing blast from the grenade, thereby saving the lives of his comrades at the sacrifice of his own. By his prompt and decisive action, and his great personal valor in the face of almost certain death, Lance Corporal De La Garza upheld and further enhanced the finest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service.

 



Ralph E. Dias

By: Ercheck

Private First Class Ralph E. Dias


Private First Class Ralph Ellis Dias (1950-1969) was a United States Marine who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism in Vietnam in November 1969.

Ralph Dias was born on July 15, 1950, in the Pittsburgh DMA, specifically Indiana County, Pennsylvania. He graduated from elementary school in 1965, then attended Elderton Joint High School in Shelocta, Pennsylvania, for two years.

He enlisted in the United States Marine Corps on October 9, 1967, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and underwent recruit training with the 2nd Recruit Training Battalion, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina.

Upon completion of recruit training in December, he was transferred to the 2nd Infantry Training Battalion, 1st Infantry Training Regiment, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, for special infantry training. In February 1968, he was ordered to the Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, California, for duty with Company B, 1st Battalion, 28th Marines, 5th Marine Division.

In April 1969, he was ordered to the Republic of Vietnam for duty as a rifleman with Company D, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force. Private Dias was killed in action on November 12, 1969, while participating in combat in Quang Nam Province. His heroic actions on that date were recognized with his nation's highest military honor — the Medal of Honor.

His medals and decorations include: the Medal of Honor, the Purple Heart, the Combat Action Ribbon, the Meritorious Unit Commendation with one bronze star, the National Defense Service Medal, the Vietnam Service Medal with three bronze stars, the Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit Commendation (Gallantry Cross Color) with palm and frame, the Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit Commendation (Civil Action Medal, First Class Color) with palm and frame, and the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal with device.

Medal of Honor citation

 

PRIVATE FIRST CLASS RALPH E. DIAS

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS

for service as set forth in the following CITATION:

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, while serving as a Rifleman with Company D, First Battalion, Seventh Marines, First Marine Division in the Republic of Vietnam on November 12, 1969. As a member of a reaction force which was pinned down by enemy fire while assisting a platoon in the same circumstance, Private First Class Dias, observing that both units were sustaining casualties, initiated an aggressive assault against an enemy machine gun bunker which was the principal source of hostile fire. Severely wounded by enemy snipers while charging across the open area, he pulled himself to the shelter of a nearby rock. Braving enemy fire for a second time, Private First Class Dias was again wounded. Unable to walk, he crawled fifteen meters to the protection of a rock located near his objective and, repeatedly exposing himself to intense hostile fire, unsuccessfully threw several hand grenades at the machine gun emplacement. Still determined to destroy the emplacement, Private First Class Dias again moved into the open and was wounded a third time by sniper fire. As he threw a last grenade which destroyed the enemy position, he was mortally wounded by another enemy round. Private First Class Dias' indomitable courage, dynamic initiative, and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in service to his country.

In memory

The name Ralph E. Dias is inscribed on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial ("The Wall") on Panel 16W, Line 063 .


Daniel Fernandez

By: Ercheck

Specialist Fourth Class Daniel Fernandez


Daniel Fernandez (born June 30, 1944- February 18, 1966) recipient of the Medal of Honor. Fernandez awarded the United States' highest military decoration for valor in combat for his actions in Hau Nghia Province, Republic of Vietnam in February 1966 — throwing himself on a live grenade, he sacrificed his life to save lives of the soldiers around him.

Medal of Honor citation

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Fernandez demonstrated indomitable courage when the patrol was ambushed by a Viet Cong rifle company and driven back by the intense enemy automatic weapons fire before it could evacuate an American soldier who had been wounded in the Viet Cong attack. Sp4c. Fernandez, a sergeant and 2 other volunteers immediately fought their way through devastating fire and exploding grenades to reach the fallen soldier. Upon reaching their fallen comrade the sergeant was struck in the knee by machine gun fire and immobilized. Sp4c. Fernandez took charge, rallied the left flank of his patrol and began to assist in the recovery of the wounded sergeant. While first aid was being administered to the wounded man, a sudden increase in the accuracy and intensity of enemy fire forced the volunteer group to take cover. As they did, an enemy grenade landed in the midst of the group, although some men did not see it. Realizing there was no time for the wounded sergeant or the other men to protect themselves from the grenade blast, Sp4c. Fernandez vaulted over the wounded sergeant and threw himself on the grenade as it exploded, saving the lives of his 4 comrades at the sacrifice of his life. Sp4c. Fernandez' profound concern for his fellow soldiers, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.

In memory

Daniel Fernandez has his name inscribed on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial ("The Wall") on Panel 05E, Row 046

Daniel Fernandez is buried in Santa Fe National Cemetery.



Alfredo Cantu Gonzalez

By: ChuchoHuff

 

Sergeant Alfredo Cantu Gonzalez


 

Sergeant Alfredo Cantu Gonzalez (also known as Alfredo Gonzalez and Freddy Gonzalez) (born May 23, 1946 in Edinburg, Texas; died February 4, 1968 in Hue City, Vietnam), United States Marine Corps sergeant who posthumously received the Medal of Honor for service in the Vietnam War during the Battle of Hue.

Early life

Freddy Gonzalez was the child of Andrés Cantu and Dolia Gonzalez. He was raised by his mother in Edinburg, where he played on the Edinburg High School football team and graduated in 1965. On June 3 of that same year, Gonzalez travelled to San Antonio, Texas, to enlist in the United States Marine Corps Reserve. A little more than a month later, on July 6, he enlisted in the regular Marines Corps. Pvt. Gonzalez went through recruit training in September and individual combat training in October before being transferred to Vietnam in January 1966. That same month, Pvt. Gonzalez was promoted to a Private First Class.

First Tour: January 1966 to January 1967

PFC Gonzalez served as a rifleman and squad lead during his first tour in Vietnam. He was promoted to lance corporal in October and to corporal in December.

Cpl. Gonzalez returned to the United States in January 1967. He was stationed at Camp Lejeune in North Carolina to prepare recruits for guerrilla warfare; he ultimately wanted to be transferred to the Naval Air Station in Corpus Christi, Texas. Here he would be 150 miles (approximately a two hours' drive) away from Edinburg, where his mother, girlfriend (Delia Becerra) , and other friends lived. Cpl. Gonzalez's plan was to spend the rest of his time in Corpus Christi, then return home to Edinburg when his time with the Marines was over.

However, several months after Cpl. Gonzalez returned to the United States, he learned of an entire platoon that was ambushed and killed. Cpl. Gonzalez felt responsible for the deaths of some of these men as some of them had served under him while he was in Vietnam. Cpl. Gonzalez then volunteered for a second tour.

Second Tour: July 1967 to February 1968

Cpl. Gonzalez was transferred to Camp Pendleton in California in May 1967 in preparation of sending him back to Vietnam. He was promoted to sergeant on July 1 and shipped out later that month.

On January 31, 1968, Sgt. Gonzalez was the platoon sergeant of a platoon of marines that was bringing relief to Hue City, Vietnam via a truck convoy. As the truck convoy neared the village of Lang Van Lrong, Viet Cong soldiers, dressed as civilians, attacked. Gonzalez and his troops counter-attacked and drove the enemy soldiers away. One Marine who was atop a tank was hit and fell off the tank. Sgt. Gonzalez was wounded when he ran through heavy fire to retrieve the wounded Marine. Several days later, on February 3, he was wounded again, but refused medical treatment, ordering the medics to take care of the other Marines.

On February 4, Sgt. Gonzalez and his platoon engaged the Viet Cong, who were holed up in St. Joan of Arc Catholic Church in Hue City, firing at the Americans with rockets and automatic weapons. Almost single-handedly, Sgt. Gonzalez neutralized the enemy with a barrage of LAW rockets. When it became quiet, it was thought that all of the Viet Cong inside the church had been killed. However, one had survived, and he shot and killed Sgt. Gonzalez.

Military Awards and Other Honors

Sgt. Gonzalez is buried at Hillcrest Cemetery in Edinburg. The Hidalgo County Historical Museum, also in Edinburg, has his uniform and medals on display.

In addition to the Medal of Honor, Sgt. Gonzalez also received the following military medals:
the Purple Heart
the Vietnam Presidential Unit Citation
the National Defense Service Medal
the Vietnam Service Medal with two bronze stars
the Vietnam Gallantry Cross with palm
the Vietnam Military Merit Medal
the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal
the Texas Legislative Medal of Honor

The USS Gonzalez, a destroyer commissioned for the United States Navy, is named in his honor. Sgt. Gonzalez's sacrifice has also been honored by the following:
Alfredo Cantu Gonzalez American Legion Post in Edinburg, Texas
Alfredo Gonzalez Athletic Award at Edinburg High School in Edinburg
Alfredo Gonzalez Boulevard at Camp Lejeune in North Carolina
Alfredo Gonzalez Dining Hall at the Naval Air Station in Corpus Christi, Texas
Freddy Gonzalez Drive in Edinburg
Freddy Gonzalez Elementary School in Edinburg
Alfredo Gonzalez Veterans Home, McAllen, Tx
Alfredo Gonzalez Hall, Instructor Training Battalion Headquarters Building, The Basic School, Quantico, VA

Sgt. Gonzalez's name can be found on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. It is located on panel 37E, row 021.

I hope that you all are enjoying this series. In next months issue of "Somos Primos" you will learn about Miguel Keith*, Carlos James Lozada*, Alfred V. Rascon and Louis R. Rocco.

 

 

 

Patriots of the American Revolution

Oct 7: Noon to 4 pm
 Hispanic Participation in the American Revolution, 
Sully Historic Park, Chantilly, VA

 

Did you know that Hispanics were significant contributors to the success of the American colonies in their struggle for independence from Great Britain?  Did you know that Spain provided funding, supplies, and military intelligence to George Washington's army?  Did you know that Hispanic soldiers from the Americas as well as the Spanish peninsula fought against the British?  You're cordially invited to attend Hispanic Participation in the American Revolution and learn about these well documented, yet little know, facts of our country's history.

Historical reenactors will present scenes of 18th century military and civilian life.  Activities will include tactical demonstrations with live musket fire, lectures on Hispanic contribution to the American Wary of Independence, recreated military camp, period music, and children's activities. Bring along your family and friends to this unforgettable event.

Contact: Hector Diaz
hldiaz60@hotmail.com

 

SURNAME

The Heritage of your Spanish surname

Know the origins and history of your noble surname. From the names early beginning in the ancient Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, to how it settled in the New World. You carry a Spanish surname now know where it began, along with a corresponding Coat of arms.

Ramon Vasquez Y Sanchez has been a Spanish Heraldry consultant in San Antonio, Texas, since 1979. He studied under the auspices of Don Fernando Muñoz Altea, king of Arms to Royal Highness, Prince don Raniero Barbón dos Sicilias. Knight of the "Sacra Orden Militar Constantiniana de San Jorge." Vasquez Y Sanchez is a former columnist of "La Prensa de San Antonio" where he wrote the "Apellidos." Articles have been written about his work and he was recently featured as a guest speaker in Good Morning San Antonio on Channel 5 T.V. He has also lectured in different organization, clubs and universities.

His services "Origins," a packet of the origins and history of a family’s surname, a history of the Spanish surnames and how they came to be, a short history of Spanish Coat-of-Arms and a color copy or original of the corresponding Coat of Arms.

To get more information on Ramón Vásquez Y Sánchez contact him at rvasquezysanchez@yahoo.com or write to him at Ramón Vásquez Y Sánchez at 759 Marquette Dr. San Antonio, Texas 78228



ORANGE COUNTY, CA

Backpacks for Kids, distributed at the Abrazar Center in Westminster 
Oct 6th:  Veteran interview on Westminster City Cable 3,  5 pm  
National Public Radio
Orange County Register 
Orange County 1800s Cultural Intermarrying 
The Basque Connection in Orange County


BACKPACKS FOR KIDS
Westminster, CA September 8, 2007



Backpacks for Kids Program collected and purchased nearly 1000 backpacks stocked with school supplies for students in the Westminster School District.

Sergio Contreras, (far right, blue shirt), Westminster School Board Trustee, assisted by School Board Trustee David Bridgewater organized the Backpacks for Kids Program and with the help of members of LULAC Chapter 3017 and the following sponsors:   
Gold Sponsors

Baskin Robbin's of Westminster Center
OC Supervisor Janet Nguyen
Kinecta Federal Credit Union
Shoreline Ambulance
Wescom Credit Union
Gloria Reyes, Abrazar Inc.
Boys and Girls Club of Westminster

Silver Sponsors

California School Employees Association
Hal Woods, President of Centerstone Communities
Southern California Gas Company

 

 

Bronze Sponsors

U.S. Congresswoman Loretta Sanchez
California State Senator Lou Correa
Mayor Margie L. Rice
Councilman Tri Duc Ta
Councilwoman Michele Martinez 
Westminster School Board Trustee Sergio
     Contreras
Bolsa Chica Self Storage
Huntington Westminster Independent Senior
     Community
Orange County Young Democrats
Pacific Ambulance
Rainbow Disposal Co., Inc.
Westminster Kiwanis Club
Westminster Mall
Westminster Police Officers Association


Westminster City Mayor Margie Rice, first row and a red blouse. Behind, Mayor Rice, carrying a backpack is State Senator, Lou Correa. In the center, Gloria Reyes, Abrazar Director sits next to Westminster School District Superintendent, Sharon Nordheim.
Sergio Contreras, School Board Trustee, blue shirt on the far right.

 



On Saturday October 6th, Westminster City cable 3,  5 pm

The third in a series of three Latino veterans interviews, facilitated by Westminster LULAC Chapter 3017 and SHHAR.  Lupe Fisher, Cultural Arts Commissioner, does a marvelous job as the interviewer.  Do try and catch the last in the series.  The other two interviews are being shown sporadically throughout the week. 

Sept 22: Ben De Leon, WW II veteran
Sept 29: Tony Mendez WWII
Oct 6: Frank Ramirez, Korean

LaVada Cordasco is the City Cable TV Production Supervisor.  
The series has been very well received.  We are hoping to do more interviews with our veterans.  Please take the time to call the city and tell them how much you enjoyed the program.  714-898-3311   

National Public Radio,  aired a program by Richard Gonzales on Latinos Veterans of WWII on Sunday September 23.  Go to www.npr.org, click on Richard Gonzales to hear the program.  

For Hispanic Heritage Month, the Orange County Register is doing a series of profiles on Hispanic veterans of World War II 

Read the story of the late Henry Romo Martinez, a medic who created art of what he saw in the China Theater, at http://www.ocregister.com/news/martinez-lomeli-war-1849756-see-orange
His daughter Raquel Lomeli and other family members speak of their memories.

Read the story of Jess Saenz, who fought in the Ardennes, at http://www.ocregister.com/ocregister/homepage/abox/article_1845095.php

Read the story of James Perez who served his country on horseback and from the bench.  

I invite you to share these links with others who may be interested.
Ron Gonzales, Orange County Register, (949) 454-7334

World War II Daily is a website produced by Steve Rubin. It has a website with a daily radio program produced from records of the times. www.WW2daily.com 

Check Local Listings to see when it is airing on your local PBS station.  Let us honor our family members who served in WWII by letting media producer and distributors know if they have aired something appropriate to the month.

 


Congratulations to Richard Garcia, organizer of Sycamore Street Festival 
Santa Ana Memorial Park Neighborhood Association
Held on 2100 block, S. Sycamore St. Santa Ana



 

A full afternoon of activties were planned for the neighborhood.  Social, Civic, public, and business booths were set up on the street. In addition to exhibits such as the fancy souped-up low-rider cars, the Fire Department explained the Fire truck capabilities. A stage was set up at the end of the street.  When the entertainment started, many people came out of their homes and watched.  Well done!!
 



ORANGE COUNTY 1800s CULTURAL INTERMARRYING
Children of: Juan Pacifico Ontiveros & Maria Martina Osuna
The Ranches of Don Pacifico Ontiveros by Virginia L. Carpenter, 1982

Juan Pacifico Ontiveros was the grandson of a soldier who come from Mexico to California in 1781. Juan received the Rancho San Juan Cajon de Santa Ana grant in Orange County. He married Maria Martina Osuna in 1825. Their children's and grandchildren's and great grandchildren's marriages demonstrate the cultural mix and intermingling of Spanish blood lines with other groups. Notice the great grandchildren have lost Spanish given names, as well as surnames.

1831 Maria Petra de Jesus Ontiveros-- August F. Langenberger
Grandchildren of Juan Pacifico Ontiveros and Maria Martina Osuna:
Carola -----Louis Halberstadt 
Maria Regina ---George Crockett Knox
Adelaide -----Edward Schubert

1833 Maria de la los Dolores Ontiveros/ Prudencio Yorba 
Angelina----Samuel Kraemer 
Zoraida -----J. Coleman Travis

1835 Ramon Gulllermo Domingo Ontiveros/Magdalena Perez 
Marta Antonia --James W. Goodchild 
Adela -----John T. Goodchild

1837 Juan Nicolas Ontiveros/Marta Eustaquida Serrano 
Francisco----Clara Wegis 
Celeste Cregoria--Crisonogo Chapman

1840 Jose Florentine Ontiveras/Tomasa Arellanes 
1866 Esequel/Eva Mary Estudillo de la Guerra 
Great grandchildren of Juan Pacificio Ontiveros/Martina Osuna. 
Lawrence Frank----Evelyn Thornton 
Alfonso T. Peter---Gertrude Brinkman 
Clarence Z.-----Mildred Hartman 
Bernie A. -----Jessie M. Miller 
Marcella Thelma Mary-Crystal Marion Clover 
Richard B. -----Anna Sawyer 
Daniel Martin ----Dolores Revane

1842 Maria Rita Ontiveros/Juan Baptiste Ruifz 
David------Olivia Sturgeon
Maria Presentacion- Bernard Pemassee 
Estanis------lnez Foxen

1844 Salvador Ontiveros/Maria Zoraida Olivera 
Zoraida Gabriela--Louis F. Hughes 
Salvador Fulgencio--Henrietta Lee Lancaster 
Maria Erolinda---Jacob Portenstein 
Ernest Lesandro--Estelle Heller

1846 Jose Dolores Ontiveros/Augustia Flores 
Abner------Carolee Butts
Hortensia-----Ramon Goodchild
Delilah-----Patrick E. Hourihan

1848 Abraham Ontiveros/Doraliza Vidal
Eramus -----Edith Blanche Benett Frances 
Edmund----Frances Plummer 
Ida------Charles Nelson Fowler


The Basque Connection in Orange County

The Pyrenees mountain range separates Spain and France. The Basque occupy the range, speaking both the language of their county and the Basque language of Euskara. Their relationships with one another do not appear to observe the political boundaries, interacting freely with each other. Many Hispanics researchers have stumbled upon Basque lines on their pedigrees. Between 1860-1890, Basque migrated to Southern California and entered into sheep raising and general farming.

The following couples established homes and have descendants in Southern California:

DOMINGO BASTANCHURY-MARIA OXARART
BAUTISTA DUHART-----MARIE YDELARAY
JEAN PIERRE DAGUERRE-MARIE DUGENIA DUQUET
JOHN ERRAMUSPE-----GRACE ETCHEVERRIA
MIGUEL ERRECA----- MARIE ORONOS
FRANCISCO ERROCART--JUANITA ESPINAL
JOSE SANSINENA------DOLORES ORDOQUI, 1ST
YSIDORO ESEVERRI----DOLORES ORDOQUI.2ND
MARTIN LABAT-------MARIE CASSOU
SALVADOR LABAT-----YSABEL ARAMBELL
STEVE OYHARZABAL----LUCY DARIOUS
FELIX YRIARTE------CELESTINE LOREA
BERNARD ARROUES----MARCELINA YTURI

Orange Family History Center Mini-Class Schedule, October 2007
For more information, call: 714-997-7710

Oct

Tues.

Oct. 9

6:30 – 7:30 p.m.

Memoirs and More**

Tom Underhill

Wed.

Oct. 10

1:00 – 2:30 p.m.

Pedigree Resource File Secrets Revealed

Joe Leavitt

Sun.

Oct. 14

7:00 – 8:00 p.m.

Introducing the New Family Search Website *

Joe Leavitt

Tues.

Oct. 16

7:00 – 8:30 p.m.

Family History: Research and Results for Beginners

Jean Wilcox Hibben

Thurs

Oct. 18

7:00 – 8:30 p.m.

Using Heritage Quest Website at the FHC

Wynn Christensen

Tues.

Oct. 23

6:30 – 7:30 p.m.

Memoirs and More**

Tom Underhill

Wed.

Oct. 24

7:30 – 8:30 p.m.

Making Genealogy Fun

Tim Wagner

Thurs

Oct. 25

7:00 – 8:00 p.m.

Beginning Your Genealogical Research

Wynn Christensen

Fri.

Oct. 26

11:00 – Noon

Beginning Your Genealogical Research

Celia Christensen

Tues.

Oct. 30

6:30 – 7:30 p.m.

Memoirs and More**

Tom Underhill


LOS ANGELES, CA

Congratulations to Elizabeth Swartz
 Until Oct 14th: David Alfaro Siqueiros Exhibit Continues
Center for the Study of Political Graphics
Until Oct 27: Young Korean-American Artists and Chicano Art Icon


Elizabeth Swartz

By
Mercy Bautista-Olvera

Elizabeth with mother, Mercy
Elizabeth Maricella was born in Los Angeles, California. 
She is the maternal granddaughter of
 Marcelino R. Bautista and Anastacia Nuñez.

 

To allow her single-working mother to provide for the single-parent family, Elizabeth attended Graham Child Daycare Center in Los Angeles; eventually she would be in the care of loving neighbors, Jose and Cruzita Solórzano. Cruzita’s care and love for Elizabeth was a blessing, her small family loved Elizabeth as their own and her sons treated her as a little sister. To allow Elizabeth’s mom to continue her education, Elizabeth and two older sisters were regularly cared for by an older cousin.

Elizabeth with Cruzita

Upon her mother’s remarriage, Elizabeth and the family moved to Monterey Park, California. Here she attended pre-school and Bella Vista Elementary School. On Saturday mornings, she attended the Los Angeles Music and Art School. Enrolled in singing lessons, she performed in such musicals as "Annie." Elizabeth now states that her stepfather and mother were very influential with her beliefs about education. Furthermore, she says that during her childhood her parents were always enthusiastic about her schoolwork and activities and helped her with her homework. Her stepfather brought her books from the library and continuously encouraged her to read. Her mother, working as a Teacher’s Assistant at the time, often brought her to her school to participate in activities. On one such activity, Elizabeth was dressed as an Elf and her mother as Santa Clause. Elizabeth stated recently that she always admires her parent’s hard work and strong beliefs in education.

While Elizabeth’s maternal grandmother, Anastacia "Mamá Tacha" took care of her sometimes as a toddler, she passed away when Elizabeth was just 2 years old.

Elizabeth loved spending time with her grandfather "Papá Chelo." A gentle and loving man he would give her animal crackers and made time to play with her,

Elizabeth with "Papá Chelo

In the early 1990’s the family moved to La Puente, California, Here Elizabeth attended Sunset Elementary School. Here during the school’s annual "Talent Show," she sang and danced a Whitney Houston song. She would later attend Edgewood Intermediate School and when the family moved to West Covina, she attended and then graduated from Nogales High School.

  Elizabeth in Dream Street Singers Elizabeth with Kenpo Karate award



During her freshman, sophomore and junior years at Nogales High, Elizabeth performed in many choir groups such as "The Silhouettes", "Madrigals, and "Dream Street Singers." The choirs competed against other schools, and school districts. These competitions performed at such locations as Fullerton College and other campuses. One of her favorite performance was at Disneyland.




During this time, she enrolled in Kenpo Karate classes. For four years, she trained and competed in San Bernardino and within the Southern California area; she ultimately reached the level of "purple belt."

In her junior year in high school, Mr. Ludlow became her favorite teacher.  He taught history in a Socratic way (the art of questioning about our beliefs and doubts about history).  This form of teaching helped her to prepare for college and what was expected of her in the future. It also helped her not to take education for granted.

Elizabeth states that during her high school years. God was her inspiration and role model, "If it was not for Him, I would not be where I am today." The church was very inspirational and encouraged her to strive for higher goals.  Julie Papavic was a great friend and teacher to Elizabeth. When Elizabeth became a teen leader in the teen ministry, it inspired her to become more of a role model and counselor.

After graduating from High School, Elizabeth moved out and lived with her friends from church. She attended Citrus College in Glendora, California, and later, Mt. San Antonio College in Walnut, California.

Elizabeth worked part-time at a Robinsons-May department store and in various accounting firms. She has maintained a busy life: working, college, and church. It was a struggle working full-time and taking college classes at night, but she persevered.

 




Elizabeth met Jeff Swartz in California; they fell in love and married in Kansas on August 25, 2001, where Jeff’s maternal grandparents Robert De Forest and DeMaye Pruitt-De Forest live. The couple decided to make Paola, Kansas their home, eventually moved to Lee’s Summit, Missouri.

Working full time, Elizabeth found time to attend MidAmerica Nazarene University in Olathe, Kansas. On May 8, 2005, Elizabeth received her Bachelors Degree in Psychology and later on May 5, 2007, she received her Master of Arts in Counseling with a 4.00 GPA and a Dean’s list recipient on both occasions.

Elizabeth did her undergraduate internship at Lake Mary Center in Paola, working with emotionally disturbed adolescents. She loved helping them with their schoolwork and being a personal mentor. Her second internship was at Advice and Aid Pregnancy Center in Overland Park in which she counseled young women.

Elizabeth’s graduate practicum was at Safehome, which is a domestic violence shelter. She helped lead family group counseling for shelter clients based on play-therapy techniques. In addition, she provided individual and family counseling for outreach clients who did not live in the shelter. She also worked full-time simultaneously during graduate school as a Case Manager for the State of Kansas at SRS (Social Rehabilitation Services) in Overland Park, KS.

Elizabeth has become a most amazing and ambitious young women. She is a high achiever in all academic areas and a great role model for her nieces and nephews, most especially her younger siblings, and a source of pride and encouragement from her older sisters are as well (not to mention her parents),

Elizabeth strives to obtain her goals, with integrity and self-assurance. She is proud of her heritage and living in Kansas has not always been easy for her. As most of the people have been very nice, she has encountered some difficulties as a Mexican-American in an area that is pre-dominantly Anglo. Nevertheless, with her strong beliefs in God, she is able to show love and respect in return. Elizabeth counsels under-privileged people, encouraging them for a better life. She is proud to educate her peers about the Mexican culture. She has no tolerance for prejudice and is a positive role model to Hispanics and others. She says that her Hispanic culture represents a people who are hardworking, persevering, loyal, loving and family-oriented.

After taking a year off from school for a well-deserved rest, Elizabeth is planning to return to school and complete a Doctorate Degree program in Psychology. Her long-term goal is to become involved or manage her own recreational/counseling teen center for inner-city youth. Such a center she feels could help deter youths from gangs, drugs and alcohol. Her wish for all minority adolescents is to be encouraged, challenged, and supported; and given more opportunities to be successful while serving people in the community. Elizabeth and Jeff are planning to make California their home in the near future.

 

 


David Alfaro Siqueiros Exhibit at José Vera Fine Art and Antiques . . Until Oct 14th

José Vera Fine Art and Antiques is currently featuring  David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896 - 1974) exhibit. Siqueiros is known as one of Mexico’s “three greats”, along with Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco. 

Born in Chihuahua and trained at the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes in Mexico City, Siqueiros was a political activist as well as an artist. His exterior frescoes (or murals) focused on dynamic revolutionary themes to inspire the lower classes. His bold and vivid paintings depicted the struggle against fascism and other progressive themes. In the final decade of his life, Siqueiros set up a workshop in Cuernavaca and painted his most ambitious work, a huge mural called "The March of Humanity." 
The exhibit at José Vera Fine Art and Antiques features approximately forty of Siqueiros’s originals.
 
José Vera Fine Art and Antiques is located in historic Eagle Rock, at 2012 Colorado Blvd. The exhibit runs until Sunday, October 14th. 
In addition to this remarkable exhibit, the gallery specializes in important rare cultural and architectural pieces, including original period Arts and Crafts & Mission furniture, pottery, tiles and other decorative arts; Native American art and textiles; Mexican and Chicano art by top-tier artists. 
 
José Vera Fine Art and Antiques specializes in the following: Arts and Crafts, Mission Furniture, Pottery, Tiles and Decorative Arts Collection

Native American Art and Textiles: The gallery offers an excellent selection of hard-to-find Native American Art and textiles, including antique Navajo rugs.
 
Mexican and Chicano Art: The gallery also offers an excellent selection of fine art by well known Mexican artists, including Rufino Tamayo, Jose Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Pablo O'Higgins, Carlos Merida, Jose Luis Cuevas, Miguel Covarrubias, and other artists from Mexico's great Taller the Grafica Popular. This Chicano fine art collection includes work by such famous artists as Patssi Valdez, Carlos Almaraz, Irene Carranza, Cici Gonzalez, George Yepes, David Botello, and many more.
 
Many available items from our collection on our website: www.joseveragallery.com , or by visiting the gallery. The gallery is located at 2012 Colorado Blvd., Eagle Rock, CA 90041. 
Regular Business Hours are Wed – Sunday from 11 am – 6 pm. Gallery Phone: 323.258.5050
 
For more information, please contact: José Vera, Owner
José Vera Fine Art and Antiques  323-258-5050   tania@joseveragallery.com 
 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

 

Center for the Study of Political Graphics: 
Celebrate the Art of Resistance

Saturday, October 13, 2007
6:30pm
Union Station, 800 North Alameda
Downtown L.A.

The Center for the Study of Political Graphics (CSPG) invites you to celebrate 18 years of using art to inspire social change at the historic Union Station in Downtown Los Angeles.  There will be a fantastic dinner, entertainment, great company, a dynamic poster presentation, and an auction of vintage posters and original artworks, and Please join us as we honor these outstanding individuals:

- Barbara Hadsell, civil rights attorney, and 
  Douglas Hadsell,
history professor, will receive the Culture of Liberation Award.

- Barbara Kruger, feminist artist, will receive the Art of Resistance Award.

- Rudy Acuña, activist historian, will receive Historian of the Lions Award.

CSPG is an educational and research archive that collects, preserves, documents, and circulates domestic and international political posters relating to historical and contemporary movements for social change. With more than 60,000 domestic and international graphics, CSPG has the largest collection of post-World War II political graphics in the country. Through traveling and online exhibitions, presentations, and publications, CSPG is reclaiming the power of art to inspire people to action. Visit our website
www.politicalgraphics.org to find digital exhibitions, descriptions of traveling exhibitions, online shopping, and more.  If you need more information, contact Mary Sutton or Katy Robinson at 323.653.4662.  http://www.politicalgraphics.org/home.html






Crusin' with Magu - Young Korean-American Artists and Chicano Art Icon
September 15 - October 27, 2007
Artists Reception: Saturday, September 15, 6-8pm
600 Moulton Ave., #303, Los Angeles, CA 90031

ANDLAB in association with the Ministry of Culture presents: Cruisin' with Magu, a cross cultural artistic exploration between one of the founding artists of the Chicano Art Movement, Gilbert "Magu" Lujan, and a group of local Korean-American youth artists. A reception for the artists and their new work will be held on Saturday, September 15th, 6:00-8:00 pm, at the ANDLAB, located in the Brewery Arts Complex at 600 Moulton Avenue. #303, Los Angeles, CA 90031. Free admission and parking. The exhibit will run through October 27, 2007. Designed as part of ANDLAB's education program, Cruisin' with Magu brought together a group of Korean-American youth who spent three months utilizing Magu's color palette as a point of departure. These young artists ventured into Chicano art forms and context, adding their own sense of creativity and cultural information. The resulting work is two mural size canvases that are startling renditions of contemporary vision and ancient tradition, which reflect many facets of living in a pluralistic, transnational and multi-culturally modern Los Angeles.

Sunook Park, Director of ANDLAB and associate professor at California State University, Long Beach's Department of Art, states: "These students have been committed to an intense training in art and design disciplines, highlighted by the mentorship of Magu and ANDLAB's teaching staff. As part of their ongoing education they are challenged to apply their design and artistic expressions to create a collaborative piece that not only builds a 
bridge between generations, but more importantly, across cultures."

Park adds, " These students are first and second generation Korean-Americans who are still developing their identity. At home they live with immigrant parents who embody the values of an ancient culture, and outside they live side by side youth who are predominantly Latino/Chicano. At home they subscribe to My Space like many others, but at the same time to cyworld, the Korean version of My Space. They are at a critical point of their young lives where their future interaction with their neighbors depends on their present involvement."

Gilbert "Magu" Lujan is universally regarded as one of the early leaders of the Chicano Art Movement, and was a founding member of the group LOS FOUR, the first group of Chicano artists to get an exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Over the years he has continued to inspire and mentor artists through his own work, including numerous public art projects, his Mental Menudo forums, several collaborative spaces, as well as his teaching and publications.

For more information about ANDLAB, please visit http://www.ANDLAB.com/art or 
call 323-222-2225 Email: info@andlab.com 
Information on the Ministry of Culture, please visit http://www.MinistryOFCulture.org    

Sent by Gilbert Lujan magu4u@hotmail.com 
and Rafael Ojeda RSNOJEDA@aol.com 



CALIFORNIA

Letter to State Superintendent of Public Education, Jack O'Connell
Oct 14: North Park, San Diego First Annual Mariachi Festival
California Newspapers in the Digital Age


Boycott


Boycott


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Boycott


Boycott



September 13, 2007
 
Jack O’Connell
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
1430 N Street
Sacramento, California 95814
 
Kenneth Noonan, President
California State Board of Education
1430 N Street
Sacramento, California 95814
 
Re:  Book THE WAR An Intimate History 1941-1945 and PBS Film Documentary by Ken Burns excludes the Latino & Latina WWII Experience
 
Dear Mr. O’Connell and Mr. Noonan,
 
I bring to your attention a very serious concern that affects the education of all present and future students in California schools. The current enrollment of our Latino and Latina students in California public schools is now 3,026,956 or 48.15% of the total enrollment of 6,286,943. Soon Latinos will be the largest ethnic group enrolled in the schools and in many districts the enrollment of Latinos is already in the high 70% -90% level.
 
It is because of our concern and push for all students to receive the best education possible that I, on behalf of the national Defend The Honor Campaign, bring to your attention this issue on the historical, military, social and economic exclusion of the Latino and Latina WWII experience in the just released (September11, 2007) book THE WAR An Intimate History 1941-1945 and soon to be aired (September 23, 2007) PBS 15 hour Documentary by Ken Burns and Geoffrey C. Ward.
 
The issue of the exclusion of the Latino and Latina WWII experience is not new to you because it was brought to your attention in a letter (attached) dated May 30, 2007 by Mr. Nick Aguilar, Trustee District 2 of the San Diego County Board of Education. Mr. Aguilar is a Vietnam veteran (Airborne) and highly respected member of our community. His words then and now more than ever are crucial and consistent with our opinion on THE WAR book and film documentary. He states that these two products do not meet “California’s adoption standards for evaluating classroom materials.”  He states unequivocally that education policy on materials require all education products to:
 
  • “present accurate and a variety of perspectives based on the best recent scholarship”
  • “include the contributions of different demographic groups with emphasis on California’s heritage”
  • “project cultural diversity and instill in each child a sense of pride in his/her heritage”
 
Like Mr. Aguilar, we, Defend The Honor Campaign, believe these requirements are not met by the just released book THE WAR An Intimate History 1941-1945 nor the 15 hour film documentary THE WAR by Ken Burns and PBS.  We have reviewed all 451 pages; hundreds of photos and illustrations in the book and our findings are the following:
 
  • Introduction – no Latinos or Latinas
  • Written text -  No Latinos or Latinas
  • Photos – No Latinos or Latinas
  • Acknowledgements  - No Latinos or Latinas
  • Illustration Credits – No Latinos or Latinas
  • Extensive Bibliography – No Latinos or Latinas
  • Index – No Latinos or Latinas
  • Film Credits – No Latinos or Latinas
 
We believe a through review analysis of THE WAR film documentary will result in the same finding with the exception of two Hispanic WWII veterans being “added-on” to the documentary in an attempt to appease the Latino community.  We are of the strong opinion that two extremely short add-on interviews of approximately 15-18 minutes in a 15 hour national documentary do not represent the Latino and Latina WWII experience and worst, is a misrepresentation of our history. Our history is a “heritage of valor” and these two products represent a complete disservice to our community and dishonor our American patriots.
 
We request that your review of the materials results in a disqualification “due to gross inaccuracies” and against the standards set by your office and the California Board of Education. We would appreciate a respond to our request.  Thank you.
 
Respectfully,
 
Gus Chavez, Co-founder
Defend The Honor Campaign
 
4674 Esther Street
San Diego, California 92115



NORTH PARK TO COMMEMORATE HISPANIC HERITAGE MONTH WITH FIRST ANNUAL MARIACHI FESTIVAL.

(SAN DIEGO, CA)- Claire De Lune Coffee Shop, North Park is pleased to present an afternoon of the finest in family entertainment, spotlighting the best in Hispanic music, vocals and dance. The day’s event will be emceed by Gil Sperry, author of the award winning, best selling book, "Mariachi for Gringos" and will feature three spectacular mariachi bands and dancers.

Where: Sunset Ballroom, Adjacent to Claire De Lune 2904 University Ave, North Park, San Diego

When: Sunday, October 14th (Noon - 5pm)  Cost: $25
Family Special:
one child, 14 and under, will be admitted free with each paying adult
Info:
619-887-9288, 619-688-9845, or 760-564-3112

Performers will include Miguel de Hoyos, Baja California's internationally acclaimed acoustical guitarist/vocalist; Sol de Mexico Ballet Folklorico, the award winning Riverside County dance troupe; and Mariachi Real de San Diego, our city's ultimate masters of their genre. In addition, Claire de Lune will be preparing the finest in ethnic foods, beverages, and desserts that will be available for purchase before, after, and during the festival's intermission.

For the past twenty years, Senor de Hoyos' elegance and virtuosity have captivated worldwide audiences of all ages. After earning his post-graduate degree at the Universidad Regiomontana in his hometown of Monterrey, MX, he toured his country and Europe with the concert group, La Guitarra Por El Mundo. A small sampling of his many credits includes performing: for Nobel Laureate in Literature, Octavio Paz; at Guanajuato's world famous Cervantino Festival, at Valle de Guadalupe's "Fiesta de la Vendimia," at the 10th Annual Dresden (Germany) Guitar Festival; with Spain's Rafael, Peru's Tania Libertad, Mexico's Jorge Muniz, and with Romania's "Le Fette De La Music,"sponsored by the governments of France and Holland. He has also recorded three CD's that will be available at the event: "Sevilla Suite," "Celebration," and "Serenade Romantica." This is a rare local appearance by this guitar legend.

Sol de Mexico Ballet Folklorico were the winners of this year's ' University of California, Riverside Annual Folklorico Competition. Four recent appearances testify to their consummate professionalism and artistic sensibility: the Mariachi Holiday Festival at the Pond in Anaheim, the Los Angeles County Fair in Pomona, the National Date Festival in Indio and the Mexican Independence Celebration at Riverside Plaza. Their directors...Carmen Dominguez, Rosalinda Salvadori, Edgar Farias, and Stevan Flores... are all dedicated to the common goal of furthering 'la belleza, la cultura, la danza.

Mariachi Real de San Diego
was founded in 1978 by Senor Pedro Gonzalez. The band has played at two NFL Super Bowls, Major League Baseball's World Series, as well as its All Star Game, and countless festivals & special events. Recent appearances have included last 'Cinco de Mayo' at Old Town San Diego, the 'Fiesta Con los Padres" at Petco Park and the local area 'Championship of Off-Road Racing' event. Mariachi Real de San Diego have also appeared in movies (with stars as diverse as Chuck Norris and James Garner) and television commercials (most recently for the Del Mar Racing Season). But what they do best is play and sing the mariachi classics. Their best selling CD, "Ultimate Mariachi" will also be for sale following their performance.

Gil Sperry is a teacher in the Chula Vista Elementary School District. He and his wife visited Puerto Vallarta in 1975 and fell in love with mariachi. Fast-forward to May of 2003. His son, Matthew, a classically trained, professional musician who had recorded with the likes of Anthony Braxton, David Byrne, and Tom Waits, had just returned from a trip to Jalisco. He had recorded two CDs with local huapangueros. While visiting his son's Oakland home, Sperry listened with great enthusiasm to the recordings. He recalled his initial exposure to mariachi and, with his son's encouragement, vowed to write a book that would help, as his son put it, to clarify this ".... bridge between cultures. " Three weeks later, Matthew was killed when a truck ran a red light leaving behind his beautiful wife, Stacia, and their two-year old daughter, Lila. Three and a half years after that, "Mariachi for Gringos," was finally published, a 'labor of love' dedicated to his late son. Since then, it has given many people (gringos and not-so-gringos alike) much pleasure.

"Mariachi for Gringos" will be available for sale and Gil Sperry will hold a book signing and discussion during the day’s events.  For more information or interview requests please call Gil Sperry at 619-887-9288 or contact him via e-mail at: gilsperry@yahoo.com 
Chris at 760-564-3112, or Claire at 619-688-9845

 

CALIFORNIA NEWSPAPERS IN THE DIGITAL AGE: 
MAKING OUR HISTORY AVAILABLE A CONFERENCE IN CELEBRATION

Riverside Convention Center
Friday, October 19, 2007
9am-5pm

This conference will celebrate the creation of the California Digital Newspaper Collection (
http://cdnc.ucr.edu), a free digital resource containing over a half century of California newspapers, and discuss this milestone in the larger context of preserving and accessing
California newspapers.

Attendance is free and includes continental breakfast, lunch, and an afternoon cocktail reception. A limited number of grants are available to teachers to defray the cost of a substitute. Travel grants are also available for public librarians.


PRE-REGISTRATION IS REQUIRED. FOR CONFERENCE AGENDA, ONLINE
REGISTRATION, AND INFORMATION ON APPLYING FOR A GRANT SEE:

http://cbsr.ucr.edu/newspaper_conference

Conference sessions will be devoted to the importance of the newspaper as an historical source, the changing publishing environment, the implications of the electronic age for newspaper preservation, and the value of newspapers for professionals and the general public. This conference will provide publishers, journalists and scholars as well as teachers, librarians, and genealogists, the forum in which to engage in a dialogue about the important issues yet unresolved regarding access to and preservation of California newspapers.

Currently, issues of the Daily Alta California and the San Francisco Call are being added to the California Digital Newspaper Collection, providing a run of San Francisco newspapers from 1850-1910. Forthcoming titles include the Los Angeles Herald, Amador Ledger, and Imperial Valley Press. As the process of developing the Collection is ongoing, conference participants will have the opportunity to contribute to its creation. The history of California as preserved in its newspapers belongs to all of us and we are eager to tailor the collection to the needs of our users statewide.

The conference will take place at the Riverside Convention Center in beautiful downtown Riverside. The historic Mission Inn, a 101-year-old property with Moorish architecture, and a pedestrian mall lined with boutiques, antique shops and cafes are just a short walk away. In addition, the city boasts more than 20 museums and galleries, 10 golf courses and a 40-acre botanical garden on the University of California, Riverside campus. Join us!

Sent by Jamie Bufalino  jamiebufalino@hotmail.com

 

 

NORTHWEST UNITED STATES

10ª Conferencia Anual de Historia Familiar Hispana
19 de octubre, Spanish language, Salt Lake Conference

Fort Nunez Gaona- Diah Veterans Park
Nunez Gaona Biography



Un curso de jornada completa sobre metodologías avanzadas de la investigación genealógica en España y Latinoamérica – 19 de octubre de 2007

El viernes 19 de octubre de 2007, el día antes de la conferencia anual de historia familiar hispana, George R. Ryskamp, profesor de historia y director precedente del Centro de Historia Familiar y Genealogía en Brigham Young University, ofrecerá un curso de jornada completa sobre metodologías avanzadas de la investigación genealógica. Se tratarán registros y técnicas más allá de los comunes. Se enfocarán las presentaciones en dos temas:

1. Finding & Using Sources that Tell the Story (El encuentro y uso de las fuentes genealógicas que cuentan la historia)

2. Research before 1650 in Spain & Mexico (Investigando registros de antes de 1650 en España y México)

El curso se hará en dos partes, de 8:00 a 12:00 horas y de 13:00 a 17:00 horas, en el aula de clases en el piso Main de la Biblioteca de Historia Familiar en Salt Lake City. El curso se ofrece gratuitamente.

 

10ª Conferencia Anual de Historia Familiar Hispana

Sábado 20 de octubre de 2007

Horario de clases

 

Primer Piso

Sala de computadoras

(Manos en obra)

Primer Piso
Sala de clases

(Investigación para México)

2nd Floor

Classroom

(English Sessions)

Piso Subterráneo 1
Salón de clases

(Investigación básica)

Piso Subterráneo 2
Salón de clases
(Investigación intermedia y avanzada)

9:30

Regístrese en el vestíbulo de la Biblioteca de Historia Familiar

10:00

Introducción al

FamilySearch.org

(Elder Orrantia)

Buscando antepasados mexicanos en el Internet

(Lynn Turner)

How to begin Spanish language research
(Jennifer Kerns y Candela Romero)

Cómo empezar la búsqueda de antepasados

(Leandro Soria)

Usando el IGI y otros índices en la investigación genealógica avanzada
(George y Peggy Ryskamp)

11:00

PAF para principiantes


(Elder Orrantia)

Censo mexicano de 1930

(Ruth Schirmacher)

Parish and Civil Registrations

(Peggy Ryskamp)

La investigación en registros parroquiales y civiles(Lynn Turner)

Investigación en archivos nacionales de España y Latinoamérica desde los Estados Unidos
(George Ryskamp)

12:00

Almuerzo (por su propia cuenta)

1:00

Cómo preparar nombres para TempleReady

(Elder Orrantia)

Cómo leer y entender los registros

(Ruth Schirmacher)

How to read Spanish records

(Lynn Turner)

Cómo hacer mas interesante su historia familiar
(Karina Morales y Leandro Soria)

El uso de archivos municipales

(George Ryskamp)

2:00

FamilySearch Indexing en español

(Ruth Schirmacher)

Genealogía y la geografía de México

(Peggy y George Ryskamp)

Helping people overcome obstacles
(Karina Morales y
Jennifer Kerns)

Cómo usar el catálogo de la Biblioteca de Historia Familiar (FHLC)
(Irene Jiménez)

Cómo usar y entender catálogos de los archivos

(Lynn Turner)

3:00

Panel de consultas de investigación genealógica - B1

 

FORT NÚÑEZ GAONA – DIAH VETERANS PARK

On the shores of what is now called Neah Bay the Spanish constructed the first European settlement in the Continental United States West of the Rockies and North of San Francisco. This historic settlement was called Fort Núñez Gaona. Alferez Manuel Quimper landed in his sloop, the Princesa Real, near this site on July 24, 1790. He named the bay, Bahía de Núñez Gaona after Admiral Manuel Núnez Gaona, a high ranking naval official. Quimper took formal possession of Núñez Gaona Bay, already inhabited by the Makah people, in the name of Spanish King Carlos IV of Castile and Leon on August 1, 1790.

Although Núñez Gaona Bay was not well suited for mooring large ships, it offered a ready base for the control of the entrance to the San Juan de Fuca Straits which were considered at that time to be the possible passage to the Atlantic. In that regard, it was seen as helping Spain’s political, commercial and scientific interests in this region. This bay played a significant role in international history and intrigue during this period of the 18th century, as other European powers challenged Spain’s claim to the Pacific Northwest in an attempt to expand their own naval and commercial influence here and vie for dominance.

On May 29, 1792, Lt. Salvador Fidalgo, following the orders of Count Revillagigedo, the Viceroy of New Spain, guided the Spanish frigate Princesa to this shore and officially established the Spanish settlement Fort Núñez Gaona. Aboard were Spanish, Mexican, and Peruvian born settlers, led by Spanish Commander Salvador Fidalgo, First Pilot Antonio Serantes, Second Pilot Hipolito Tono, Chaplin Jose Alejandro Lopez de Nava, Surgeon Juan de Dios Morelos, seventy seamen, and thirteen soldiers. The colonists cleared the land along the stream behind where this monument now stands and constructed their settlement across the stream from the Makah villages.

On June 6, 1792 the Spanish schooners Sutil and Mexicana, under the command of captains Dionisio Alcala Galiano and Cayetano Valdez, were welcomed by Chief Tetako, considered the most important native leader in this region. The chief was invited on board one of the Spanish ships and sailed across the Strait of Juan de Fuca with the Spanish, serving as the ambassador for his native people. The drawings of the fort, bay, crew and Chief Tetako were works done by artist Jose Cardero, a crew member of the schooner Sutil.

The settlement of Fort Núñez Gaona consisted of an infirmary, storehouses, dwellings, place of worship, bakery and a battery for mounting canons. There were also corrals for pigs, sheep, cows, and goats. For sustenance, the men planted vegetables, grains and fruits. From this settlement the Spanish conducted the first international trading with the native people of Washington, completed scientific studies of local flora and fauna, recorded and preserved the language, songs, religion and, customs of the Native people and mapped and named key geographical points. Even as the settlers underwent these important activities, they also brought their own culture. Steel implements, ceramics, and other technology were introduced as well as agricultural plants and livestock that are now the foundation of Washington’s economy. The fort was occupied until September 29th 1792 when Fidalgo received orders to abandon the bay and move to Nootka, a more developed port facility on Vancouver Island. Spain officially relinquished its claim to this region in 1819 under the Adams-Onis Treaty.

Spain sent some of its best scientists and mariners to investigate, map and explore the Pacific Northwest from 1774 to 1795. The most noted were: Juan Perez, Esteban Jose Martinez, Bruno de Hezeta, Juan Francisco Bodega y Cuadra, Antonio Mourelle, Ignacio Arteaga, Gonzalo Lopez de Haro, Francisco de Eliza, Manuel Quimper, Salvador Hidalgo, Alejandro Malaspina, Dionisio Alcala Galiano, Cayetano Valdez, Jose Maria Narváez, Jose Camacho, Juan Martinez Zayas, Tomas de Suria, Jose Bustamante, Mariano Moziño, Jose Maldonado, Jose de Echevarria, Jacinto Caamaño, Felipe Bauza, Jose Cardero y Ramon Saavedra. These explorers and scientists left us an historical legacy in the state of Washington.

This monument should serve to recognize a shared past and honor the accomplishments of two important nations, one native and one foreign, whose path of destiny intersected on this site resulting in the birth of a new and indelible chapter in the history of this region.

Sent by Rafael Ojeda

 

Nunez Gaona Biography

In the year of 1767 he ascended to the office of Alferez of the Navy, continuing with his navigations and missions until in the month of January 1771 he rose to the office of Teniente of the Navy.

In the following year of 1772 he received his first command of the ship San Carlos in which fulfilled again the dictates from the King to capture north Africans when he took as fifty-eight prisoners from the regency of Argelina and transported them to Cadiz.

He then returned immediately to sea to continue his mission. As he ventured out he spied a ship from the North African region of Argelina which he chased to an area beneath an armed castle in the area that had canons as the arabs were hoping for protection. Manuel Nunez Gaona succeeded in capturing the ship there but when he found it dismantled and full of holes he realized it could not be saved so he decided to set the ship on fire.

In the month of April in the year 1774 due to the many honors of merit that he received , he was raised to the post of teniente de navio and at the same time he was given the command of the ship San Jose which was sent on a trip to and from Veracruz, Mexico

without incident; the trip went smoothly and there were no problems with navigation.

Upon his return, he was given the command of the ship Garzota in which he made trips throughout the Mediterranean as well as the Atlantic ocean, always on a mission of protecting maritime traffic.

In the month of May in the year 1779 he ascended to the post of Capitan and took command of the ship Santa Monica that was part of the fleet of General don Luis de Cordova.

Upon the cessation of the hostilities between the United Kingdom and Spain, his ship was assigned to the division of General don Antonio de Ulloa, and he was sent on a mission to the Azores but due to a strong storm he became separated from his fleet and for that reason was sighted by the British ship Pearl which had 32 canons while the Spanish ship only had 26 canons.

Therein ensued a tremendous battle which lasted for two and a half hours but in that time the Santa Monica had suffered the loss of thirty-five dead and fifty eight wounded leaving the ship badly depleted of crew and for that reason without the possibility of getting away. Since more than half of the crew was gone and the ship was useless there was no other option but to surrender.

In the year of 1767 he ascended to the office of Alferez of the Navy, continuing with his navigations and missions until in the month of January 1771 he rose to the office of Teniente of the Navy.

In the following year of 1772 he received his first command of the ship San Carlos in which fulfilled again the dictates from the King to capture North Africans when he took as fifty-eight prisoners from the regency of Argelina and transported them to Cadiz.

He then returned immediately to sea to continue his mission. As he ventured out he spied a ship from the North African region of Argelina which he chased to an area beneath an armed castle in the area that had canons as the Arabs were hoping for protection. Manuel Nunez Gaona succeeded in capturing the ship there but when he found it dismantled and full of holes he realized it could not be saved so he decided to set the ship on fire.

In the month of April in the year 1774 due to the many honors of merit that he received, he was raised to the post of teniente de navio and at the same time he was given the command of the ship San Jose which was sent on a trip to and from Veracruz, Mexico

without incident; the trip went smoothly and there were no problems with navigation.

Upon his return, he was given the command of the ship Garzota in which he made trips throughout the Mediterranean as well as the Atlantic Ocean, always on a mission of protecting maritime traffic.

In the month of May in the year 1779 he ascended to the post of Capitan and took command of the ship Santa Monica that was part of the fleet of General don Luis de Cordova.

Upon the cessation of the hostilities between the United Kingdom and Spain, his ship was assigned to the division of General don Antonio de Ulloa, and he was sent on a mission to the Azores but due to a strong storm he became separated from his fleet and for that reason was sighted by the British ship Pearl which had 32 canons while the Spanish ship only had 26 canons.

Therein ensued a tremendous battle which lasted for two and a half hours but in that time the Santa Monica had suffered the loss of thirty-five dead and fifty eight wounded leaving the ship badly depleted of crew and for that reason without the possibility of getting away. Since more than half of the crew was gone and the ship was useless there was no other option but to surrender.

The ship was taken to Plymouth from where it was later returned to Cadiz.

As was the custom, Manuel Nuñez Gaona had to go before a war tribunal in order to clarify the circumstances of his surrender. Once the tribunal saw the conditions under which the surrender was made, they declared all of the judgments in his favor with no loss to his reputation.

In the month of May in 1782, he received a new command as the Second Capitan on the ship Santísma Trinidad that was part of the fleet assigned to General don Luis de

Córdova.

The fleet of General Don Luis de Córdova was assigned to protect the blocking of the Rock of Gibraltar and for that reason was present at the battle of Cape Espartel between the Spanish fleet and the British fleet of Admiral Howe. The crew of the Santisima Trinidad could not prevent Admiral Howe from arriving at Gibraltar with his men.

Consequently, the British were able to take control of the Rock of Gibraltar.

Due to his merits, in the month of December of the same year 1782, he rose to the office of Capitan of the Navy, passing immediately to the command of the ship Santa Isabel that was part of the same fleet of the General don Luis de Cordova and with him, he proceeded to block the Rock and to fire upon that area until a peace treaty was signed between Spain and England.

In the year 1784, he was named Mayor General of the Department of Cadiz, but it was for a short time as his presence was required for active duty in the navy and therefore he was named to the position of Chief of the Naval Forces of Algeciras under which the forces in his command remained in constant alert for the protection of Spanish areas in North Africa.

He carried out multiple attacks against the forces of Argelina, not allowing the Arab Berbers to take hostages at their own bases and using the strategy of constant movement, bombing the various castles and forts and other points of power along the entire

Barbarry Coast.

In the month of May in the year of 1787, he rose to the position of Brigadier, being chosen and named immediately as the mayor General of the Armada, a position that they bestowed upon him for the great wisdom and skill he demonstrated. Despite the fact that he had just risen to the position of Chief of the Fleet, in the month of January in the year of 1793, he continued demonstrating in his work his accustomed expertise and wisdom which was in itself a validation of his capacity to assume such a great responsibility.

In the year 1802, he rose to the new level of Teniente General, and therefore there was no other option but to abandon the position of Mayor General de la Armada.

SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES

Border Bandits,  Hidden History:  A film on the Texas Rangers.


Panel Discussion was held Sept 13, 2007 at the UT-Austin Texas Union Theater
Border Bandits,  Hidden History A film on the Texas Rangers.
Documentary by Kirby Warnock, Producer

In every community’s past, there is a hidden history.
Why should we claim our hidden history?

"Warnock's documentary blows the doors off of the myths of the heroics of the Texas Rangers of the early 1900s," said Rivas-Rodriguez. "These days, the Rangers include men and women of color. But those of us who grew up in Texas grew up knowing that there was this other horrible, unacknowledged history of lynchings of Mexicans and Mexican Americans by the Rangers -- and how that was part of the theft of thousands of acres of land from them. Warnock goes about connecting the dots calmly, but forcefully."

Warnock chose the "Hidden History" title because the film, and the ensuing dialogue, has spurred interest in a chapter of Texas history that is not in the history books, but easily proven by existing records and documents.

Border Bandits is based on a story that filmmaker Kirby's grandfather, Roland Warnock, told him nearly 30 years ago. In 1915 Roland was a 19-year-old cowboy working on the Guadalupe Ranch near present-day Edinburg, Texas. He told his grandson that a notorious "bandit" raid on the nearby McAllen Ranch was really an attempted revenge killing aimed at rancher James B. McAllen for keeping a 14-year-old Mexican girl in his house. In retaliation, Texas Rangers killed two Mexican-Americans living nearby, even though neither man was involved in the "raid."

"As a baby boomer that grew up with The Lone Ranger, I was always fascinated and disturbed by my grandfather' s story," recalls Kirby. He spent nearly five years tracking down the descendants of the dead men, poring over Ranger reports and interviewing historians to find out what actually happened. The result is Border Bandits, a film that is both compelling and disturbing as it tells of a turbulent time in Texas history, when 3,000-5,000 Mexican-Americans were killed in the lower Rio Grande Valley.

Using period photos and re-enactment footage, Border Bandits is a true tale of justice gone awry during a time when American citizens of Hispanic descent were summarily killed for their lands. It has sparked intense interest in Texas, because of the state's growing Hispanic population and its absence from Texas history books. The film caused Rep. Aaron Pena to introduce a bill in the 79th Texas legislative session after viewing the film, and even passed a House Resolution (HR 2140) honoring it.

"It tells all of our stories, even those parts we'd rather leave out," wrote Alejandro Perez for the San Antonio Current.

For more information, visit http://www.borderbanditsmovie.com , or e-mail kirby@bigbendquarterly.com , or phone 214.942.4905. http://www.hideouttheatre.com 

Sponsored by: School of Journalism, with a grant made possible by the Carnegie Corporation Center for Mexican American Studies (CMAS) College of Communication Latino Media Studies Program

Introduction: José Limón, Mody C. Boatright Regents Professor in American
and English Literature and Director, CMAS

Speakers:
Kirby Warnock, Producer, Border Bandits
Dan Arrellano, Historian, The Battle of Medina
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Associate Professor, School of Journalism, who is involved in efforts to include the Latino experience in a Ken Burns/PBS documentary this fall.
Moderated by: Charles Ramírez Berg, Distinguished Teaching Professor, Department of Radio-TV-Film

Sent by Center for Mexican American Studies
The University of Texas, Austin
Sent by Dan Arellano


African-American

In Memoriam: Juan Bonilla Flores
A new day for Blacks in Ecuador
WWII meant opportunity for many women, oppression for others




In Memoriam: Juan Bonilla Flores
www.americanlynching.com

Born: June 25, 1905
Died: March 25, 2007

Many assume that only African-Americans were greatly victimized by lynching as tragic American phenomenon. Juan Bonilla Flores, a kind, gentle and wise man late of Odessa, but once of his cherished Porvenir, Texas – would have proved the lie to such thinking.

He was only a boy a few months shy of thirteen when his entire childhood as wrenched away during a single horror-filled night in January, 1918. U.S. Cavalry soldiers came to his village in that terrible moment of history, and local white ranchers, and Texas Rangers. All were complicit or were perpetrators in the mass lynching that came to be known as The
Porvenir Massacre and claimed the lives of fifteen men and teenaged boys, including Longino Flores, Juan Bonilla’s beloved father. The poor villagers of Porvenir were tejanos -- Mexicans living in Texas but trying to be Americans.

Throughout his long life, Mr. Flores was haunted by memories of his father and the others murdered by so many gunshots that their mutilated bodies were virtually unrecognizable. But until he reached his nineties, most details of what had happened were barely uttered, and the snippets he did reveal in his nightmares were considered dark fantasies by his
children and descendants.

Finally, it was time to tell the truth, no matter how painful.

I met him once he’d reached age 97, in 2002. By then, he’d "come out" to his children and descendants as the last survivor of Porvenir’s tragedy. I was touched by his sense of humor and civility, but mostly by his courage. He agreed to be interviewed for American Lynching: A bDocumentary Feature and to share his horrific story with the world while
my film crew and I learned how the long ago events in Porvenir had in fact impacted the entire Flores family in simple but incalculable ways.

I will miss this gentle human being greatly. Most of all, I lament the bitter truth that we could not complete our production before he died this year at age 101.

Gode Davis
Sent by Dorinda Moreno, Carlos Munoz, Ph.D. and Juan Marinez
 

 

A new day for Blacks in Ecuador
The New Crisis, Nov/Dec 2002 
by Lori S. Robinson

When 23 Africans aboard a wrecked Spanish slave ship liberated themselves and created a palenque, a free Black community, in October 1553, they set a standard of resistance and empowerment that would in spire their descendants hundreds of years later. Today,
Black Ecuadorians honor their ancestors by celebrating the National Day of Black People the first Sunday of October. This year, festivities included sports competitions, music concerts and an Afrocentric Catholic mass. 

Those courageous Africans might be disappointed with their commemoration, however. There are few celebrations and ceremonies. In fact, says might Brine disappointed not a national holiday and it their comnot even well known. News about it is spread only
within Black communities." Declared in a resolution by Ecuador's National Congress in 1997 after intense lobbying by Black organizations, the National Day of Black People is nevertheless considered a significant triumph. Considering the political and social environment in which Black Ecuadorians live, it is nosurprise that this resolution is a very big deal. 

Today in Ecuador, a South American nation of 12.1 million people with a land area about the size of Colorado, employers advertise for job applicants with a "good appearance," a euphemism for White or European characteristics. Landlords openly reject applications
from Blacks looking for housing in middle-class areas. In Ecuador, you can see Whites in blackface on television and logos of major companies featuring caricatures of Blacks designed to look more like monkeys than humans. 

In rural Black areas, lack of government investment is evident. In the province of Esmeraldas, which has the highest concentration of Afro-Ecuadorians, entire towns are without electricity, schools and other basic services and infrastructure. Many communities that live off the land there are being forced out as lumber, oil, mining and shrimp-farm companies (many of them U.S.-owned) exploit the natural habitat. 

The percentage of Ecuadorians living below the poverty line jumped from 34 percent in 1995 to 56 percent by the end of the decade. The poverty rate grew fastest over the last decade in the coastal region of the country, where there is a higher concentration of
Blacks. 

Many Blacks are fleeing to major cities, but even the capital city, Quito, and the largest city, Guayaquil, offer them few modern amenities. "The urban [Black] community lives on the periphery of the city. There are no basic services, insufficient electricity, housing of very poor material. And there are few schools to attend," explains Ibsen Hemandez, president of Afroamerica XXI, a civic group in Guayaquil. "They don't tell you that you can't study, but subtly they are saying that you can't." 

"Marginalized, exploited, excluded from national development," is how Oscar Chala describes the daily reality of Ecuador's African descendants. An anthropologist in Chota, the northern valley region with a significant Black population descended from enslaved Africans, he says, "We are terribly vulnerable. We are the greatest mass of poor people in
the country." 

"The majority [of Blacks live] in misery. The majority is very poor. They are illiterate, unemployed, without health care, education," says Josefina Orovio, a federal official. 

Tenacious racism and overwhelming poverty paint a grim portrait of Black life in Ecuador. Add to that a citizenry devoid of racial consciousness and it's easy to understand why Black oppression seems so intractable. But a bustling movement of activists is stirring up change, spurred by the triumphs of the bold political movement of Ecuador's indigenous people and inspired by Black activism throughout the Americas. 

"There's this fervor to organize," says Sheila S. Walker, who holds the Cosby Endowed Chair for the Humanities at Spelman College. Walker has visited every South American country except Guyana, as well as much of Central America and the Caribbean. As a guest of the U.S. Embassy in February, she made her first sojourn to Ecuador, where she gave Black History Month lectures around the country. "As compared to every place else I was, there were more [Black] organizations in Ecuador." 

Blacks Don't Count: Known for eco-tourism, Ecuador boasts the world's highest active volcano (located in the Andes Mountains), a tropical Pacific coast and part of the Amazon rainforest. Ecological diversity is a source of national pride. Human diversity is another story. 

In Ecuador, where African slavery lasted from 1534 to 1854, Spanish colonizers sought to forge a homogenous population through blanqueamiento, a policy of "whitening" or making the population as visibly and culturally European as possible through race-mixing. Today, most Ecuadorians are considered mestizos, a Spanish-indigenous mix, although many identify themselves as White. 

"Race-mixing, the center of national identity, involved indigenous people and Whites. Although indigenous people have been suffering tremendously from racism throughout history, they nevertheless are included in this ideological biology of national identity, while Blacks aren't," explains Jean Muteba Rapier, an anthropology professor at Florida
International University in Miami. 

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

 


WWII meant opportunity for many women, oppression for others
Carolyne Zinko, San Francisco Chronicle Staff Writer, September 26, 2007


A man's role in World War II was clear - if he was able-bodied, he went off to fight. The iconic image of women in World War II is Rosie the Riveter, a made-up character in a poster promoting the need for women to step into manufacturing jobs vacated by men. But there also were women in the armed forces and others who tended to the home fires. Like men, many of them never forgot "The War," as a few tell filmmaker Ken Burns in his new seven-part PBS series that began Sunday on PBS.
 
World War II saw an unprecedented number of women join the workforce - more than any other time in U.S. history. The experience of women, however, was not universal.
 
White women and some Asians had opportunities to build and fly planes. Japanese Americans had none - it was off to internment camps after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. And African Americans suffered, too. Their lives became worse in the Bay Area as the influx of black and white shipyard workers from the deep South brought Jim Crow attitudes to a part of the country that largely had been free of segregationist sentiment.
 
Some historians believe women's entry into industrial jobs hastened societal and economic changes already occurring in the American landscape and might have lit a fuse that contributed to the women's rights movement 20 years later.
 
Mills College history Professor Marianne Sheldon says that while previous wars also put women to work, the seeds of significant social change for American women were planted during World War II.
 
"Maybe in general, war dislocates but does not become an agent of lasting change. However, war and World War II specifically did encourage questioning, the full implications of which take time to become evident," she says. "In some ways, the domestic circumstances of the war fostered the roots of the civil rights movement and the women's rights movement that built on it. Many women who lived through World War II came to want different lives for their daughters."
 
One thing is certain: Women's roles in the workforce in World War II indelibly imprinted on the public consciousness that women were capable of all sorts of roles in society in addition to those of wife and mother - and of being independent in ways previously not socially acceptable - whether or not they wanted to make a career of them.
 
Across the Bay Area, as across the nation, women felt the effects of war personally and professionally in ways that would affect their lives for years to come. Six who lived through the tumultuous time talked about their divergent experiences during World War II.
 
Betty Reid Soskin, 84, is an African American who works as a ranger giving tours at the Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front Historical National Park in Richmond. At the time of the war, she was 20 years old and married to an African American man who was a seventh-generation Californian. She worked as a file clerk during the war at a segregated union hall for African American shipyard workers. The shipyards created by industrialist Henry Kaiser, she says, imported workers from the Deep South who had segregationist attitudes.
 
The war did not necessarily bring new employment opportunities to black women, who had been working outside the home as domestic workers since the time of slavery to make ends meet.
"The Rosie the Riveter story is a white women's story - a story of the emancipation of the middle-class white women working outside the home," Soskin says.
 
For her and her husband, she says, World War II was a period of humiliation because it brought segregation to a Bay Area that previously had not known it.
 
Though the union hall where she worked was only a couple of miles from the shipyards, "I never had a sense of being anyone other than pushing papers," she says. "I wasn't even always sure who the enemy was."

 
Soskin says that before the war, African Americans could live virtually anywhere in the Bay Area. There were so few African Americans between Sacramento and Monterey at that time that there was only "informal discrimination," she recalls. After the war, she and her husband hired an architect and built a house in Walnut Creek. They were the only African American family for miles around and only the second to move to Diablo Valley.
 
"We were subject to death threats," she says. "That would not have happened to us before the war. We really and truly had to learn a whole new way of living. And I began to learn the importance of racial identification."
 
Life was different for Betty Budde, 87, of Concord, who got her first chance to get out and see the world as a member of the military in World War II.
 
She became a member of the Women's Airforce Service Pilots, which ferried planes from one air base to another and freed men up for combat missions.
 
"It was a big deal when I left, and my mom thought I'd never come home," she says. "It was scary. I didn't know how to act in the outside world. But I had to do it. It was exciting, something new. And you felt good doing something besides typing."
 
Dolores Callero, 82, of Windsor was a teenager when war broke out and enlisted in the Marines when she turned 20, the minimum enlistment age at the time.
 
After boot camp on the East Coast, she worked in personnel at the Marine Corps headquarters on Harrison Street, which oversaw the Pacific theater. If it wasn't glamorous or exciting, it was better than her other options, as she learned when she was discharged in 1946. She had met and married a man in the service and had gone to work for Livingston Bros. on Grant Avenue, where she sold hats to wealthy society women for three months before getting fed up. When women were allowed to rejoin the Marines as reserves, she did.
 
"You might say I had a higher purpose," she says. "Outside the home, I felt I was contributing to the war effort."
 
Inga Ferris, now 83 and living in a Veterans Affairs hospital in Martinez, was working in a bakery as an 18-year-old when war broke out. She went to work for a plant that polished and finished radio crystals for the Army Signal Corps. Later, she joined the Marines and learned in boot-camp testing that she had an aptitude to become an aviation machinist. She was sent to El Toro, a Marine air base outside Los Angeles, to work on Corsair fighter planes.
 
"I've talked to women Marines of today who said we were the pioneers who led the way for them. They're doing everything - fighting the battles and dying. I don't know whether I wanted to start that or not," she says of her wartime experience. "I didn't consider myself a pioneer or patriotic. I just did it."
 
Tami Takahashi, 92, of San Francisco, who retired last year after closing the Takahashi Import company that she and her husband started after the war, was sent to an internment camp with her family after Pearl Harbor, but not before the U.S. government tried to press her into service as a translator.
 
She was at UC Berkeley studying environmental design when war broke out. Unfortunately, the only Japanese she could speak was rudimentary - she was born in the United States.
 
"It was a foreign language to me - I didn't know military nomenclature," she says. "The words I had learned in floral arranging and dancing were not in the vernacular. I wanted to help and live up to their expectations. Instead, I'd sit there and cry."
 
In the camps, she and other women forged friendships and developed skills they didn't know they had.
 
"The camps gave an opportunity to all the women to become self-sufficient and recognize the leadership ability of women and their divergent talents," she says.
 
When people were released from the camps, she says, many women used their leadership skills to take jobs they otherwise wouldn't have thought to do.
 
"Many became teachers," she says. "They wouldn't have done that prior to World War II - they'd have married a farmer or a dentist. Teaching was a field where they were accepted despite their racial background. And they enjoyed it."

 
Maggie Gee, 84, a retired physicist from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory who grew up in Berkeley, says she was one of two Chinese American women to fly an airplane in the military as a Women's Airforce Service Pilot. Gee was a freshman when she left UC Berkeley to become a draftsman at Mare Island to help with the war effort. It wasn't exciting enough for her, so she became a WASP.
 
She and two other women in the drafting department saved their money, cashed in their war bonds and went to Minden, Nev., to take flying lessons. Gee was sent to an air base in Las Vegas, where she trained men coming back from war to renew their instrument ratings.
 
"I think it changed the dynamic - and gave women confidence that they could earn a living," she says of the war. "You didn't have to be dependent on the male. Being a housewife is an honorable job. But with women who were out in the world, they didn't feel subservient to the man anymore.
 
"The women I knew in the WASPs are strong women, though, and that does make a difference. A woman who would go out to learn to fly is a strong woman, a little different already. I've seen others, though, of my generation, who did some job during the war whether working in the post office, something they wouldn't have ordinarily done, and when the war was over, and they were supposed to give up their job, but they didn't want to."

 Sent by Dr. Carlos Muñoz, Jr. cmjr@berkeley.edu




 

INDIGENOUS

Indigenous Internet Chamber of Commerce            
Elk Soldier, A Soldier's Dream Pow-Wow Songs
Mexico's 1921 Census: A Unique Perspective
Jasper Hostler - tribal leader, Marine veteran
Me-Wuk woman carries on tradition
Native American Times - America's Largest Independent, Native American News Source
Native Americans 
Ishi loved his land, Yahi tribe

http://www.iicoc.com  http://www.amazon.com/Soldiers-Dream-
Elk-Soldier/dp/B000JRYOJC



Mexico's 1921 Census: A Unique Perspective

In response to a query to Somos Primos concerning indigenous research in Mexico, Board member John Schmal responded:  

Dear Alma: I just gave a lecture in Austin, Texas, about doing indigenous research in Mexico and determining tribes of origin and it can be very complex and unique for each individual, depending upon the dynamics of each community (i.e., what were the indigenous tribes of the area, did other Indians from other areas settle in the area, war, disease, mestizaje, assimilation, etc.), but you can read these articles which may help you understand some of these dynamics:
http://houstonculture.org/mexico/states.html
http://houstonculture.org/mexico/chihuahua.html
http://houstonculture.org/mexico/durango.html
http://houstonculture.org/hispanic/connection.html
http://houstonculture.org/hispanic/research.html

Also, check Peter Gerhard's "North Frontier of New Spain," which has information specific to given areas of Mexico. I can probably check it on the weekend for you.

And last, but not least, for an overall look at Indigenous Mexico:
http://www.houstonculture.org/mexico/ling.html

John has done a very definite study on the indigenous presence in Mexico,
Mexico's 1921 Census: A Unique Perspective click.




Jasper Hostler - tribal leader, Marine veteran
September 17, 2007
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/09/17/BANNS5L10.DT\
L&feed=rss.bayarea

Jasper Hostler Jr., a leader of one of Northern California's 
largest Indian tribes and a career Marine who served in three wars, has died at
his home on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation in Humboldt County. He was 90 when he died Sept. 5.

Mr. Hostler, raised on the reservation in Hoopa, went into the military at his grandmother's urging. She feared that Indians, stripped of their culture, were also losing their discipline.

"His grandmother wanted him to join the military to have a life of discipline and protect what we had left" as a tribe, said his great-niece, Allie Hostler. "She saw there was something better out there for us, better than poverty and drug addiction, and she felt the way out was through discipline."

Mr. Hostler, who enlisted in 1941, served in World War II and the Korean War, and did three tours of duty in Vietnam. He was the oldest of seven brothers - four of whom also served in the military.

Upon his return to Hoopa in the 1970s, he shared stories of his time in the service. He told his grand-niece he was in boot camp when Pearl Harbor was attacked. "We were not going to let Japan take our country or let Hitler take over," he said.

He saw service in the campaigns to take the Marshall Islands and, later, Okinawa. He talked, too, of the soldiers' hardships during the Korean War, of the unbearable cold and the months without fresh food. He went to Vietnam for the first of his tours in 1965.

Back in Hoopa, he became active in tribal politics and development. He served as a Hoopa Tribal Council member and member of the tribe's medical board. In the 1980s, he was a leader in the tribe's effort to control the timber-rich 147,000-acre reservation. Other tribes, notably the Yuroks, also wanted control. Eventually, the land was split 
into two parts, allowing the tribes to oversee their own ancestral homelands.

He also spent his time raising horses and cattle and was instrumental in getting the Hoopa fire department built. Members of the local fire department attended his funeral, held Wednesday, as did a Marine detachment from Redding, which performed a color guard ceremony.

Married to his second wife - the "love of his life" - for 35 years, Mr. Hostler never had children of his own, but made it a point to embrace his many nieces and nephews.

"We became his children," said nephew Clarence Hostler. "I got to know him when he retired from the Marines. I had resisted the military, so I was a bit unsure. His voice and bearing were very much like a master sergeant. But over time, I realized that he was really about family values and caring - and had some of that U.S. Marine discipline."

Hostler recalled his uncle's fastidiousness. "Even cutting firewood, it had to be 18 inches," Hostler said with a laugh. "If there were two or three pieces out of length, we had to correct it. If I went to him and my hair was even touching my collar, he would ask about it. I'd say, 'I just got it cut.' He'd hand me $10 and say, 'Have them finish the job.' "

Source: porthuanian@yahoo.com porthuanian 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Comments by Father Ralph John Monteiro, o.s.a., former pastor of Blessed Kateri 
Tekakwitha Catholic Ghurch in Hoopa, California. Sep 22, 2007 

It is with great sadness that I read of the death of another great leader of the Hoopa nation. I had the privilege of meeting Jasper many times both socially in family gatherings, at tribal dances as well as meetings concerning tribal issues during my fifteen years on the Hoopa reservation. 

The legacy he has left with his spirit for you to now embody in your lifetime continues the urging of his grandmother to keep the culture of the Hoopa people alive... 

I had seen at least five generations of hope in one family in Hoopa during my time there... may Creator continue to bless you all as you celebrate the life of another elder who has passed among us... 

In ncanativeeventsandnews@yahoogroups.com
Sent by Dorinda Moreno



Me-Wuk woman carries on tradition

Sat Sep 22, 2007 2:58 am (PST)

Intricately woven traditions, like basketry, have been handed down through generations to Tuolumne Me-Wuk Jennifer Bates, who now keeps her Indian heritage and customs alive by teaching others. 

"I have basket weavers throughout my family," Bates said. "I can trace my great-great-
great-great-grandmother. Some of the baskets are on display in museums."

Bates, 56, a resident of the Tuolumne Rancheria, will share her vast knowledge of Me-Wuk history and basketry at the Tuolumne County Library in Sonora, California at 7 p.m. on Sept. 28.

The word Me-Wuk — also spelled Miwuk, Mi-Wok, or Miwok — means "people," in their native language and there are four subgroups — Valley and Sierra Me-Wuk, Coast Me-Wuk, Lake Me-Wuk and Bay Me-Wuk.  Tuolumne Me-Wuk are part of the first subgroup and were generally a hunting and gathering people who built teepee-like homes called umachas, which were made from pine poles, grapevines, and cedar bark.

Bates is one of the founding members of the California Indian Basket-weavers Association and began weaving traditional Me-Wuk Indian baskets at age 17.  

She learned about basketry from her grandmother and tribal elders, but for the most part was self-taught.  "When it comes to making a basket, it helps to look at old baskets," she said. "I like to use willow, big leaf maple, bracken fern, red bud and deer grass."

Bates has taught and mentored many on the intricacies of starting and stitching classic Me-Wuk patterns and styles of baskets. Traditional Me-Wuk baskets are both twined and coiled and were used for a variety of things ranging from sifting acorn meal, storing seeds and dry goods like acorns. Additionally, coiled Me-Wuk basketry was used for boiling — aided by the use of heated stones — serving, and for parching meal or seeds by shaking them with intermixed embers.

Bates, who prefers to weave in the natural sun light of her porch, said the intricate and tightly woven patterns require strong hands, focus and a proper frame of mind.  
"You have to have a lot of patience and be in a good mood to weave," Bates said. "I have to be in a good place."

Time to weave has been hard to come by lately for Bates, who in February took on the position of personnel development manager at the Black Oak Casino in Tuolumne.

"I love it because I get to help tribal members pursue their goals," Bates said. "I like helping people and watching them grow."

In addition to her duties at the casino, Bates has served as a panel member of the Alliance for California Traditional Arts Living Cultures Grants Program, on and off, over the past 15 years, overseeing grant proposals for Native Americans.

Bates considers speaking at the opening Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of the American Indian, in Washington, D.C., as one of the pinnacles of her life. She holds her Me-Wuk heritage close to her heart and continues to help other native people connect with these traditions through classes, demonstrations and talks.

"At one time I was one of few, if not the only, Me-Wuk basket weaver," Bates said. "Now there are 30 to 50 weavers and I've had the privilege of watching that number grow."

<
http://www.kumeyaay.com/news/news_detail.html?id=4754>

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

 

 


Native American Times - America's Largest Independent, Native American News Source  http://nativetimes.com/index.asp?action=displayarticle&article_id=8955

Richard Esquivel  WSternTr@aol.com
Cofounder, El Comite Consultivo de Padres MEChA JFK, JFK MEChA Parents Advisory Committee

 

http://nativetimes.com/index.asp?action=displayarticle&article_id=8955 
Acknowledging the contributions of our Native Americans as well as our own Latino contributions will unite us and elect qualified people that will fight for our causes.
Rafael Ojeda


Jerry George: 'Digger's' Journal: Ishi loved his land, Yahi tribe
Saturday, August 25, 2007

I spend my days tromping about country other people call wild. At night by lantern light, I read the accounts of those who have tromped before me. On my short list of heroes who have learned to know and live in the wilds, the chairman of the board is a humble Indian they called Ishi.

I read Theodora Kroeber's classic "Ishi in Two Worlds" when I was in high school. Ishi was the last of his tribe. His survival tale slipped under my teenage skin and planted a lifelong itch.

When he was discovered at a butcher's corral near Oroville (Butte County), Ishi was emaciated and near death. He had burned off his hair in mourning. The people assumed he was there seeking (read, stealing) food and put him in jail, supposedly for his own protection.

Anthropologist Alfred Kroeber heard about the "Wildman of Oroville" and rescued him from his cell. As Ishi showed over the next five years while he lived at the anthropology department of UCSF, he was a man of remarkable skill in making traditional tools and using them to provide food.

Recently I had a chance to scratch that old itch by visiting Ishi's still rugged world in the deeply incised volcanic lands south of Lassen National Park.

Blue and live oaks, rich with acorns, carpet the savanna grasslands where Ishi's mountains begin their climb out of the Central Valley north of present-day Chico. It was an enervating 110 degrees among the oaks, but clear and cool water ran in ponderosa pine-shaded Antelope, Mill and Deer creeks. As we slogged from swelter to shade and back into swelter, we saw hunter-wary deer and jackrabbits disappear into the brush.

Ishi's native country was rich in both food and shelter. There Ishi and his small band of survivors of an 1865 massacre had hidden from white "Indian hunters" for more than 40 years. When attacked, they ran in all directions to assure that some would survive. But over the years the hunters persisted, and the numbers in Ishi's band dwindled until there
was only one surviving Yahi.

On a slope looking out over this vast area, I could imagine the Indian hunters approach and the Yahi know they were coming long before there was any real threat. It's hard to sneak about in nature. There are certain creatures in every natural community that serve as security. Birds sing more than sweet tunes of love. Their alarm calls tell the world - the world that knows to listen - that something is amiss.

But just as we celebrate Ishi's skills, we also should acknowledge that his adversaries weren't clueless. The Indian killers' skills may not have matched those of Ishi's people, but they did know their way around a tree and how to stalk a deer.

The quest to exterminate California's Indians tested both parties. That Ishi and his people survived so long speaks volumes about their tenacity.

A civilization-fattened Ishi led anthropologists into these lands to demonstrate how his people had managed to survive for all those years. The experience of the scientists on that trip changed how California's native peoples were seen.

Because Ishi never spoke his own name, we don't know that part of his identity. The name Ishi, the Yahi word for man, was given to him by one of the anthropologists when a reporter asked his name. He endeared himself to all who knew him during the final five years of his life, but we can't know how he saw the alien world of "civilized" San Francisco.

As a wildland tramper, though with nowhere near the skills possessed by Ishi, I see his knowledge of his world differently from most people. He was too capable on his native land to have starved by accident. His home was too rich.

Sadly, the Yahi who came to be known as Ishi went to Oroville to die. White men had killed all his relatives. He had no reason to expect a different fate. He was a deeply lonely man in mourning who knew there were no others like him anywhere.

As I sat on the south fork of Antelope Creek and watched the stream tumble through the dappled sunlight, the peace I felt was that of a white man. The territory had been taken.

Everyone who knew the last Yahi said he was both intelligent and deeply caring. Living so profoundly alone for the last two years of his native life, meeting no one who could speak his name, made the last Yahi want to rejoin his people in another world.

Fortunately for us and graciously tolerated by him, Ishi the man's reunification with his people was delayed by five years.

The visit scratched my itch, but it ain't gone. Many generations, Indian and European American, have been inspired by the story of the last Yahi. Having tramped in his tracks, let me tell you, that Ishi was one tough dude, and a heck of a fine human.

Freelance writer "Digger" Jerry George sends his journal "letters" home to the Bay Area from Yellowstone National Park - or wherever he happens to be observing nature. E-mail him at home@sfchronicle.com 

This article appeared on page F - 5 of the San Francisco Chronicle
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/08/25/HOF1QVDB8.DT\L
Sent by Dorina Moreno




SEPHARDIC

Oct 19: Aleph Learning Center: The West Side Institutional Synagogue
Tu Boca en Los Cielos: El Judeo-Espanol de los nuestros
Book: The Jews in New Spain
The Jewish pirate by Edward Bernard Glick
History of Jewish Texans





October 29, 2007 at 7PM

Voces de Haketia and the American Sephardi Federation present
Tu Boca en Los Cielos: El Judeo-Espanol de los nuestros
Center for Jewish History | 15 West 16th Street | New York City

Artist Gladys Benaim Bunan will discuss her new book, presenting the culture and Judeo-Spanish (Haketia) language of the Sephardim of Morocco.  Ms. Bunan, born and raised in Tangiers, Morocco, combines her father's words with her own lush, watercolor illustrations, creating a rich, multi-layered graphic synthesis, bringing many facets of Sephardic culture to life. Her original watercolors will be on view.  Following Ms. Bunan, international performer and comedian, Solly Levy, will bring his wit and talent to our stage.  Born in Tangiers, he performs in Spanish, Haketia, English, Hebrew and French.  Well-loved throughout the Sephardic Diaspora, Levy captivates the hearts and souls of his audience in live performance and on his weekly Radio Sefarad program.

A reception will follow. For more information and to purchase tickets call the Center Box Office at 917.606.8200  Tickets: $15  Sent by info@americansephardifederation.org

 


Professor Seyour B. Liebman in his book, The Jews in New Spain, writes that in Mexico, adherents to the Law of Moses carried on their traditions surreptitiously for almost three centuries.  It is not coincidental that the expulsion of the Jews in Spain, and the sailing of Columbus to the New World both took place in 1492.  Thousands of Sephardics left Spain, merchants, scholars, bakers, soldiers.  Entire families sailed to a new life.

In the process of pursuing personal family histories, many Southwest Hispanics have stumbled on their Sephardic lines.  Some individuals have returned to their Jewish heritage, joined Jewish congregations, and even changed their names.

For fear of persecution, the Catholic faith was practiced openly, but Jewish traditions were still practiced quietly in the home.  Some Sephardic families eventually lost their Jewish faith, and became committed Catholics.  Descendants of those early Jewish families in Mexico continued colonizing the Southwest, enriching their communities with their skills. Gloria Golden's book Remnants of  Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans is a collection of interviews, primarily in New Mexico, individuals sharing their moment of awareness that although practicing Catholics, they had Jewish blood.

The Discovery Heritage Center will be a tool to acknowledge and promote the Sephardic presence and Jewish contributions to Early California, and those also of other minority groups whose story is not well known. California's story is one of continuing assimilation and eventual inclusion of all groups, an important message to discover.




The Jewish pirate by Edward Bernard Glick
http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShow
Full&cid=1150885985930


One of the things I do since I retired from Philadelphia's Temple University in 1991 is lecture on cruise ships. My signature talk is the 50-century-old history of piracy, whose practitioners I call the Seafaring Gangsters of the World.

A few weeks before my first gig, I sent a draft of the talk to my history-buff sister, Phyllis. She liked it, but she was very unhappy that I had not mentioned Jean Lafitte.

She said I simply had to talk about Lafitte because he was unique. He was a Sephardi Jew, as was his first wife, who was born in the Danish Virgin Islands. In his prime, Lafitte ran not just one pirate sloop but a whole fleet of them simultaneously. He even bought a blacksmith shop in New Orleans, which he used as a front for fencing pirate loot. And he was one of the few buccaneers who didn't die in battle, in prison or on the gallows.

Though I didn't lecture about Lafitte at first, a circumstance of serendipity has made me do so ever since. I was flying to Norfolk, Virginia. The man in the seat next to me wore a skullcap, and he began chatting with me in Gallic-accented English. Though born in France, the friendly passenger now lives in Switzerland.

We quickly established that we were both Jewish and that both of us had taught in Israel. Then we had the following conversation:

"What are you doing on this plane?" I asked.

"I'm a mathematician. I work for an American company and I'm flying to Norfolk today because it has the US Navy's largest naval base and my company is trying to get a Navy contract. Now, what are you doing on this plane?"

"My wife and I are picking up a cruise ship in Norfolk."

"Taking a vacation?"

"Not entirely. I'll be giving lectures on the ship, as many in fact as there are full days at sea."

"What do you lecture about?"

"Cruise lines frown on controversial topics. I have talked about Israel once or twice. But I usually talk about Latin America, which is my second specialty, or the Panama Canal, or Mexico's Isthmus of Tehuantepec, or Prince Henry the Navigator, or Portuguese explorations after Prince Henry, or Alfred Thayer Mahan's belief in the supremacy of sea power, or the political economy of the 21st century, or the voyages of Captain Cook to the South Pacific. But I always begin a cruise with a lecture on pirates. The kids love it, and the old folks like it, too."

"Are you are going talk about Jean Lafitte?"

"No," and I repeated what my sister had told me.

He pulled out his wallet and handed me a business card. It had "Melvyn J. Lafitte" written on it. Then he said, "I could tell you that as we were chatting I printed this card on a nano-sized printing press hidden in my pocket. And of course, you wouldn't believe me. But the truth is that I am a direct descendant of Jean Lafitte. Your sister, Phyllis, is absolutely right.

"Our family, originally named Lefitto, lived in the Iberian Peninsula for centuries. When Ferdinand and Isabella reconquered Spain and expelled the Muslims and the Jews in 1492, most of the Jews fled to North Africa. Others went to the Balkans or to Greece and Turkey. But some Sephardi Jews, my ancestors among them, crossed the Pyrenees and settled in France, where Jean was born in about 1780. He moved to French Santo Domingo during the Napoleonic period. However, a slave rebellion forced him to flee to New Orleans. Eventually, he became a pirate, but he always called himself a privateer because that label has a more legal ring to it.

"In 1814, the British sought his aid in their pending attack on New Orleans," he continued. "However, he passed their plans to the Americans and helped General Andrew Jackson beat them in 1815. A grateful Jackson, not yet president, saw to it that Lafitte and his family became American citizens. And by the way, did you know that there is a town of Jean Lafitte, as well as a Jean Lafitte National Historical Park in Southwestern Louisiana?"

I was flabbergasted, not so much by the saga of Jean Lafitte as retold by a proud descendant, but by the fact that the two of us had met so coincidentally in the skies over Georgia.

Melvyn Lafitte lives in Geneva and I live in Portland, Oregon. These cities are 5,377 miles apart. Unlike him, I am mathematically challenged, so I don't know what the statistical probability is that a descendant of the Franco-Jewish-American pirate Jean Lafitte would board an airplane and sit next to me, as I was agonizing over whether to mention his famous ancestor in a forthcoming talk.  Do you?

Sent by John Inclan  fromGalveston@yahoo.com

 

 

History of Jewish Texans
Source: Wikipedia encyclopedia

Spanish Texas did not welcome easily identifiable Jews, but they came in any case. Jao de la Porta was with Jean Laffite at Galveston, Texas in 1816, and Maurice Henry was in Velasco in the late 1820s. Jews fought in the armies of the Texas Revolution of 1836, some with Fannin at Goliad, others at San Jacinto. Dr. Albert Levy became a surgeon to revolutionary Texan forces in 1835, participated in the capture of Béxar, and joined the Texas Navy the next year. [4] The first families were conversos and Sephardic Jews. Later settlers such as the Simon family came in the 1860s and contributed to the construction of synagogues and monuments such as the Simon Theatre. B. Levinson, a Jewish Texan civic leader, arrived in 1861. [5] Today the vast majority of Jewish Texans today are descendants of Ashkenazi Jews, those from central and eastern Europe whose families arrived in Texas after the Civil War or later. [6]

Houston, Texas had the first synagogue in 1859. It was an Orthodox synagogue that fifteen years later became a Reform congregation, Beth Israel. The oldest Reform congregation was established in 1868 in Galveston as Temple B'nai Israel. [7] Temple Emanu-El of Dallas, was founded in 1875, was the first Reform Jewish congregation in North Texas. Temple Beth-El (San Antonio, Texas), originally founded in 1874, is the oldest synagogue in south Texas. Temple Beth-El is a Reform Jewish congregation. Known as one of San Antonio's contemporary places of worship, Temple Beth-El is very open in their support of the Jewish and GLBT community. [8] The B'nai Abraham congregation in Brenham, Texas, presently led by Leon Toubin, was organized in 1885. [9]

The Galveston Movement operated between 1907 and 1914 to divert Jews fleeing Russia and eastern Europe away from crowded East Coast cities. Ten thousand Jewish immigrants passed through Galveston, Texas during this era, approximately one-third the number who migrated to Palestine during the same period. B'nai Israel's Rabbi Henry Cohen is credited with helping to found the Galveston Movement. [10]

Sent by John Inclan  fromGalveston@yahoo.com



TEXAS 

Oct 9th: The Cesar E. Chavez Statue Unveiling Ceremony
Oct 12th:
3rd Annual Tejano Symposium
Oct 19-20: Asia in Latin America: Across Four Continents
Book: Guerrero Viejo Revealed

It’s true, Somos Primos
"A Mi Nieto" Poem
Tejano Battle of Medina



The Cesar E. Chavez Statue Unveiling Ceremony
  Main Mall, October 9, 2007 at 11 A.M.
A full week of activities are planned around the statue unveiling.

The Project: The idea to erect a statue of a Latina(o) at the University of Texas at Austin Campus was one that students had for sometime. With this purpose in mind, some of our Latina(o) students formed a group called "We are Texas Too" in the Fall semester of 2000. "We are Texas Too" in conjunction with the Latino Leadership Council conducted a student referendum in the fall of 2002 semester. Cesar Chavez was the leader that students selected through the referendum to be honored with a bronze statue at our university. Cesar Chavez was a civil rights and labor leader whose work as a spiritual figure reflected his commitment to social change. He is recognized as one of the most heroic figures of our time.
During the Spring 2003 semester, "We are Texas Too" worked with Student Government and the Orange Jackets to have two statues erected. The Orange Jackets is one of the oldest student organizations on this campus and they saw the need to honor a female with a statue at UT Austin. They selected Barbara Jordan as the person that they wanted to honor. Because of the hard work of these three groups and the support of the student body, a referendum was passed to collect a fee increase for a total of $2.00 per student, per long semester and summer session, into a statue fund (this involves a $1.00 allocation per statue). The effort of students made the Cesar Chavez and Barbara Jordan statues a reality!

http://deanofstudents.utexas.edu/cesarchavez/rsvp.php  
http://www.cesarchavezstatue.org  
Information please call at (512) 471-5017 or e-mail at:
wbrune@mail.utexas.edu.  
	Sent by Stacy Torres" torres_sm@mail.utexas.edu 
	Forwarded by Elvira Prieto



October 12 : 3rd Annual Tejano Symposium
Historic Gathering of Tejano Historians to be held at UTSA

(San Antonio, Texas) Sept. 27, 2007 - Texas Tejano.com, a San Antonio-based Tejano History research and publishing company has partnered with the University of Texas-San Antonio and The Boeing Company to produce a one-of-a-kind Tejano Symposium on October 12, 2007 at UTSA's Downtown Campus.

This scholarly and education event will be held from 9:00am-3:30pm in the Buena Vista Auditorium and will feature seven of the most distinguished Texas and Tejano historians in the field today.

"This is an extremely important accomplishment for Texas Tejano.com and our partners," says Texas Tejano.com President and Founder Rudi R. Rodriguez. "From the beginning, we have strived to make everything we produce be of the highest scholarship. With this first-ever Tejano Symposium in San Antonio, we feel that we have an event that will significantly contribute to the scholarly library of Tejano History."

Seven of the most respected historians and authors of Texas and Tejano History will present information at the Symposium entitled: Texas Tejano Legacy and Heritage: 1821-1845.

"This year's Symposium promises to be the best ever," says Dr. Jude Valdez, UTSA Vice President for Community Services. "UTSA is proud to host this important event."

The speakers for this year's speakers are: Dr. James E. Crisp (North Carolina State University), Dr. Jesus F. de la Teja (Texas State University-San Marcos), Dr. Stephen Hardin (The Victoria College), Mr. David McDonald (San Antonio), Mr. Alonzo Salazar (Houston), Dr. Andrés Tijerina (Austin Community College) and Rev. Robert Wright (San Antonio).

"The story of those long neglected Tejano leaders who helped modern Texas come into existence is an opportunity to unite all Texans in the search for the ties that bind us as a society," says Dr. Jesus Francisco de la Teja, State Historian of Texas and Chairman of the Dept. of History for Texas State University-San Marcos.

The event is free and open to the public; a $20 admission fee will be charged to attend a special luncheon that features a special presentation by UTSA Professor of History Dr. Felix Almaraz. Registration is available online at
www.texastejano.com.

"We at Boeing are very proud to be sponsors of this unique, cultural and historical event," says Mr. Tony Gonzalez, Jr., Senior Liaison Engineering Manager of Boeing. "It has always been said that you can never know where you are going until you know where you have come from. This event will help let all Hispanics in Texas know about their Tejano legacies."

Seating is limited for the Symposium and the luncheon. For more information, please visit
www.TexasTejano.com or contact them at (210) 673-3584.

MEDIA ADVISORY
CONTACT: Eric Moreno at 210.673.3584

And sent by Larry Kirkpatrick
elindio2@hotmail.com




Oct 19-20: Asia in Latin America: Across Four Continents
Conference exploring the histories, literatures, & ideologies of Asians in the Americas


Friday, October 19
Avaya Auditorium (ACE 2.302)
9:00- 10:15 Jeffrey Lesser, Emory University, Keynote Speaker
"How Shizuo Osawa became 'Mario the Jap' and other Stories of Brazilian Ethnicity"
10:30-12:15 Panel "Asia's America: Historical Overviews"
1:30-3:15 Panel "Four Continents, Five Oceans: Systems of Labor and Migration"
3:30-5:15 Panel "Border Contestations: Comparing Mexican and Asian Migration and
Settlement"

Saturday, October 20
Connally Room, Etter-Harbin Alumni Center (UTX)
9:00-10:45 Panel "Asian Mexicans"
11:00-12:45 Panel "Inscribing a Latin American Orient"
Support for the Asia in Latin America Conference is Provided By:
The Center for Asian American Studies
The Teresa Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies
College of Liberal Arts
Barron Ulmer Kidd Centennial Lectureship
Division of Diversity and Community Engagement
South Asia Institute
History Department
Conference is free of charge and open to all audiences.
For more information please contact The Center for Asian American Studies
(512) 232-6427 :: Email: aas@austin.utexas.edu :: www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/aas/
Sent by : lvg@mail.utexas.edu, johannah@mail.utexas.edu

 

 


Image: Church of Nuestra Señora del Refugio as seen from the plaza
By Everardo Castro Medellín

Guerrero Viejo Revealed
Photographs by Everardo Castro Medellín and W. Eugene George, 1983-2005


An exhibit and reception was held on September 27, 2007 at the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas Libraries. Curator: Mary Carolyn George

Revilla, founded as a Spanish community in 1750, was renamed for the insurgent Vicente Guerrero after Mexican independence in 1821. In 1953, the town site, known today as Guerrero Viejo, was flooded by the completion of the International Falcon Reservoir on the Rio Grande. Due to the receding waters of Falcon Lake in recent years, the buildings and the central plaza of Guerrero Viejo have become a tourist mecca. Several important buildings have been stabilized by Mexican preservation programs.


Sent by pamela.mann@mail.utexas.edu

 

It’s true, Somos Primos. 

Attendees at the 28th Annual Texas Conference on Hispanic Genealogy and History received a free CD that proves that they are truly primos. 

Thanks to the generosity of the Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin, 200 CDs were given out. The CD entitled "The Descendants of Diego Treviño and Beatriz Quintanilla" by Crispin Rendon is an 11-generation body of work. Don Diego and Doña Beatriz, an early Northern Mexican family, are the progenitors of the majority of Texas Hispanics. 


SHHAR Board members, Crispin Rendon, 
Viola Rodriguez Sadler and John Schmal
University of Texas Tower reception.


This indexed and hyper-linked work contains over 47,000 individuals, over 16,000 families covering over 1,300 surnames. This has never been done before and would seem impossible, collecting this much work and being able to publish it too. 

It started with SHHAR members networking. Crispin solicited records from fellow members and merged them with his own records. The benefits were immediate and dramatic. Researchers can only do so much because each only has a limited amount of resources especially time. Working alone you can only do so much. Working as a team is the way to go. 

Many participants now have their ancestry back to European royalty. What started at SHHAR with the help of the Internet expanded to members of Hispanic genealogy groups across the country and to people in other counties too! Not everyone is convinced that sharing his or her research is a good idea. After all that work doing research why share it? Many want help but are not interested in helping others. It is sad when researchers take all that work to the grave. Others have found their brick walls crumble by being team members. 

Their work added over 11,000 records to the endeavor last year along. Creating this CD was a gamble. Will the records still come in or will researchers help themselves and not give back? Crispin is betting on the former. If he is right, we may be seeing an updated CD next year at the 29th Annual Texas Conference hosted by the East Texas Hispanic Genealogy Society in Nacogdoches.

This one couple with four children in the 1500’s probably have 1 million descendants today so there is still plenty of work to do. If you want to contribute, Crispin Rendon’s email address is crisrendon@earthlink.net


Dr. Jesus (Frank) de la Teja, is the official historian for the state of Texas. He was formerly with the Office of Land Records.  Currently he is a history professor at Texas State Univ at San Marcos. This was taken at the awards banquet at the Bob Bullock Museum. Frank de la Teja was the keynote speaker.  

John Schmal, author  and SHHAR Board member was one of the keynote speakers at the conference.

John Schmal, Adan Benavides,  librarian at the Nettie Benson Library  author of the Index to the Bexar Archives., which has more information than just Bexar County.  The banquet was an awards banquet recognizing contributions to Tejano history.  That's is  why Adan is dressed the way he is--a Tejano. My "costume" was a comfortable white dress with a red shawl.

 


Dan Arellano with hat and Gloria Candelaria Marsh at the Tejano Genealogy
Society of Austin Gala Hispanic History and Genealogy Conference in Austin
Sept 15 in period attire at the Bob Bullock Museum.

 

"On Saturday night, the conference enjoyed a gala banquet at the Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum where many of the participants dressed in period clothing to celebrate Tejano heritage. State Representative Juan M. Escobar, District 43, presented an official state resolution recognizing the twenty-eight years of contributions to Tejano heritage by the Hispanic genealogy societies of Texas. The banquet was an awards ceremony, presenting a $500 Tejano Book Prize to Dr. Jerry Don Thompson of Texas A&M International University in Laredo for his book "Cortina: Defending the Mexican Name in Texas" published by Texas A&M University Press. One of the highlights of the evening was in the official greeting by bank President Renato Ramirez as representative for IBC BANK, the major sponsor of the event. Ramirez launched into a dramatic recital of the traditional poem "A Mi Nieto" by famous Mexican poet Delfín Sánchez Juárez. Reciting the lengthy poem by heart, Ramirez drew cheers and an extended standing ovation."

Next year's conference is scheduled to be held in Nacogdoches, the first capital city of Texas. For more information, the Tejano Genealogy Society of Austin, Inc. can be reached by e-mail at nosotrostejanos@yahoo.com  or at our website www.freewebs.com/nosotroslostejanos .

 

A MI NIETO
LIC. Delfin Sanchez Juarez

Cuando puedas leer este mensaje
Es possible que yo ya me haya ido
Pero me habre llevado en ese viaje
El brillo de tus ojos y el sonido
De tu inocente voz como equpaje

Yo so aquel, el que te intuyo primero
Que al verte nacer, cambio de estado
El que con chaparrera y sombrero
Va montando el caballo colorado
De la pintura grande del sillero

No es gesto de altanera bisarrilla
Si clavo mi mirada en la ontonanza
Es tan solo una llama de alegria

Llegara el dia de revivir con sangre mi esperanza
Esa sangre es la mia,
Heredada del padre de mi padre y de su abuelo,
Sencilla estirpe que jamas manchada
Supo mirar la vida sin recelo
Y ahora empieza en ti nueva jornada

No busques ni oro o plata en mi escarcela
Lo que herede, en tu manita cabe,
Te dejo algo mejor, la suave y dulce hombria
Del bien que me formo en su escuela
Y mantendra mi vida hasta que acabe.

Cuando puedas usar mis chaparreras
Cuando te queden justos mis arciones
Cuando mi espuela fije en tus talones
Lleve el compas de un jarabe con giro retozones

Cuando en tu joven labio apunte el bozo,
Domines el vigor de un cuaco entero
Y entres como senor al coleadero
Y rubores esconda algun rebozo
Porque te vieron bravo y caballero

Entonces y solo entonces, de mis sillas
Podras seleccionar la que te guste
No pienses en bordados ni en hebillas
A la hora de elegir, elige el fuste
Que puedas dominar con tus canillas.

Un charro es al nacer un caballero
Ante el mundo que envidia su figura
Ha de llevar seguro en la silla un machete
Fino acero, y la mejor pistola en la cintura
Uno y otra no deben ser motivo
Para sentirte fuerte y dominante,
Si eres fuerte, se humilde, no agresivo
Si buscas amistad, se consecuente.

Austro Alberto Aragon, viejo espadero,
En su rustica fragua de antequera
Templo las hojas de todos mi machetes

Con cualquiera
Puedes formar un circulo de acero
Imitalos, manana se come ellos
Limpio y resplandeciente en la contienda
Ecegueciendo todo mal con tus destellos
Y no hiriendo sin causa que te ofenda

Y cuando mi pistola este en tus manos,
No la saques sin razon o causa
Esta limpia de sangre, en ocasiones
Es mejor ignorar a los enanos
Que enterrar en sus tumbas sus baldones

Yo ya no lo vere, pero es mi anhelo
Que en fiesta nacional
Como es constumbre,
Con tu mirada retadora al cielo,
Vibre al verte pasar la muchedumbre
Cabalganado en la silla de tu abuelo

Information for the Texas conference supplied by the Honorable Manuel Juan Escobar, Texas House of Representatives, Sent by andrest@austincc.edu
Viola Sadler, and Cris Rendon

 

Tejano Battle of Medina

This is the 2007 "Tejano Battle of Medina," in Pleasanton , Texas. The group is the Mountain Warriors from San Antonio with Author Dan Arellano. The finale was taps and a rifle salute to commemorate the Tejanos that lost their lives fighting for freedom and independence 194 years ago.   Sent by Dan Arellano darellano@austin.rr.com

 

 

SouthCentralTexas.Net is an online community designed to promote Associations, Organizations, and Small Businesses

Wonderful calendar http://www.southcentraltexas.net 
Sent by Gloria Candelario Marsh  candelglo@sbcglobal.net



EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI

Oct 4: Mendez v. Westminster, a 30 minute documentary, Kansas City
             Library, Missouri 

Oct 30: Chicano & Latino Writers Festival Celebrates 10 Years 

                                                

Hispanic Heritage Month Kicks Off At KC Library With "La Guerra (The War)"

(Kansas City, Missouri) – On Tuesday, September 18, at 6:30 p.m. at the Central Library, 14 West 10th Street, The Kansas City Public Library, in association with KCUR, will bring the contributions of Latino World War II veterans to light in the panel discussion, La Guerra (The War). A reception will precede the discussion at 6 p.m.

La Guerra will be moderated by KCUR’s Sylvia Maria Gross, host of KC Currents. Her panelists include World War II veterans Roque Riojas and Bob Cotero. Riojas served from 1942-45 as a Private First Class. In his division, the 34th Infantry of the National Guard, Riojas’ outfit spent 600 days in combat in North Africa and Italy, more than any other American unit in the war. Cotero served from 1944-48 as an Electrician Mate Third Class in the United States Navy.

La Guerra highlights a month filled with Hispanic Heritage events. On Saturday, September 22, at 11 a.m. the Latino Writers Collective will conduct a bi-state writing workshop at I.H. Ruiz Branch, 2017 West Pennway, and the Argentine Branch of the Kansas City, Kansas Public Library. During the three-hour event, teens will be introduced to the fundamentals of creative writing at Ruiz Branch while adults focus on the art at the Argentine Branch.

The festivities conclude on Sunday, September 30, at 2 p.m. with a performance by El Ballet Folklorico Atotonilco at the Central Library. Members of the company will lecture on the history and evolution of Mexican folk dance, and its music. The event will also highlight the influences of Mexico's indigenous populations as well as the mark left by European countries. During the lecture, the company will perform dances from several Mexican states, demonstrating intricate footwork and costumes. On Thursday, October 4, at 6 p.m. at Ruiz Branch, local historian Rudy Padilla will show Mendez v. Westminster, a 30 minute documentary examining the case that desegregated schools in Orange County, California in 1947.

Admission to all of the events is free, but reservations are recommended. 
To register, call 816.701.3407 or log on to kclibrary.org.

Forwarded Lorenzo Butler lorenzobutler@kclibrary.org
Source: Maria Tapia-Belsito
Sent by Juan Marinez marinez@anr.msu.edu

 

 


OCT.30-NOV.15:CHICANO/LATINO WRITERS FEST/ST.PAUL PUBLIC LIBRARY

Chicano & Latino Writers Festival Celebrates 10 Years
Festival dates are October 30-November 15
Events are free and open to the public.
For more information, call 651-222-3242 or
friends@thefriends.org

September 11, 2007 SAINT PAUL, MN – Since beginning in 1997, the Chicano & Latino Writers Festival has a tradition of working with local and national talent to present the only Twin Cities literary festival focusing on Chicano and Latino writers. Help us celebrate 10 great years in 2007, with returning favorites and new writers to experience! 

The Festival kicks off on Tuesday, October 30, with a special reception and 10th anniversary celebration, featuring a reading from Michele Serros, author of the newly released ¡Scandalosa! Named by Newsweek as "one of the top young women to watch for in the new century," Serros is the author of Honey Blonde Chica, a young adult novel set in Southern California, and its sequel, ¡Scandalosa! In addition to being an award-winning poet, Serros has been a featured contributor for the Los Angeles Times' children's fiction section and a commentator for National Public Radio. Serros is also the author of Chicana Falsa and How to Be a Chicana Role Model, which became a Los Angeles Times bestseller. The celebration and reading takes place at the Paul & Sheila Wellstone Center, 179 E. Robie Street, Saint Paul, at 7 p.m.

On Thursday, November 1 at 7:30 p.m., acclaimed poet, novelist and essayist Ana Castillo reads from her new novel, The Guardians. Set in a small New Mexican border town, The Guardians is brimming with unforgettable characters and keen insight-serving as a testament to enduring faith, family bonds and cultural pride. Ana Castillo is the award- inning author of several books, including Peel My Love Like an Onion, So Far from God, Watercolor Women/Opaque Men, and The Mixquiahuala Letters. The reading takes place at the Paul & Sheila Wellstone Center, 179 E. Robie Street, Saint Paul.

The Festival continues on Wednesday, November 7, when Manuel Muñoz reads from his new story collection, The Faith Healer of Olive Avenue, a dazzling array of work set in a Mexican-American neighborhood in central California. In a place where misunderstandings and secrets shape people's lives, the characters cross paths in unexpected ways and reveal a community that is both embracing and unforgiving. Muñoz is the author of a previous story collection, Zigzagger. His work has appeared in a number of publications, including Glimmer Train, Boston Review, and Epoch. He reads at 7 p.m., at the Riverview Branch Library, 1 E. George Street, Saint Paul.

On Wednesday, November 14, 7 p.m., Alex Espinoza and Liliana Valenzuela present a bilingual reading of Espinoza's debut novel, Still Water Saints-or, Los santos de Agua Mansa, California-at the Riverview Branch Library, 1 E. George St., Saint Paul. Still Water Saints is called "fresh, beautiful, and evocative," as Espinoza creates a fictional southern California town where the dramatic stories and woes of the townspeople weave together with those of Perla Portillo, on whose healing power the town depends. Still Water Saints was named a Barnes and Noble "Discover Great New Writer" selection for spring, 2007. His 
essays have appeared in the New York Times Magazine and Salon, and he teaches in the English department at Fresno State. Liliana Valenzuela is the award-winning translator of works by Sandra Cisneros, Julia Alvarez, Nina Marie Martinez, and was recently elected a Director of the American Translators Association. Her work has appeared in Indiana Review, Edinburgh Review, BorderSenses, among other publications.

The final event of the Festival is Our Voice, an annual program of original work by students at the Guadalupe Alternative Program (GAP) on Thursday, November 15 at 7 p.m. Young writers share their work on intergenerational relationships, clashes of culture, and the struggle of how to create art at the Riverview Branch Library, 1 E. George Street, 
Saint Paul.

Chicano & Latino Writers Festival programs are free and open to the public. The Festival is coordinated by The Friends of the Saint Paul Public Library, with the assistance of many community partners, especially GAP, Micawber's Books, and Neighborhood House. Programs are made possible, in part, by funds provided by the Metropolitan Regional Arts Council through an appropriation by the Minnesota Legislature, and the Saint Paul's Cultural STAR program. For more information, please call The Friends at 651/222-3242 or go online at www.thefriends.org.

Alayne Hopkins
Programming Coordinator
The Friends of the Saint Paul Public Library
325 Cedar Street
Suite 555
Saint Paul, MN 55101
651/222-3242
alayne@thefriends.org

Sent by Dorinda Moreno



EAST COAST

The Perils of a day in DC…. Connie Vasquez


So this is like my 50th time in DC and for the first time in many years, I have a totally free morning with a meeting scheduled at 3:30 pm, so what to do?? 

I arrived quite late last night from El Paso.  One of my buddies from Junior College was here in DC with this girlfriend, celebrating his 57th birthday.  I was invited to have dinner with them at a Spanish bistro. I arrived close to desert time, but they had waited for me. We reminisced and shared. It was a great evening, but I was so tired.  

I slept late that night, and after having breakfast I went to the White House Visitor Center just to see what was new.  

I learned about the First Families’ pets which have included horses, bird, roosters and even a guest alligator, not only dogs and cats, interesting.  It took me about two hours to go through the exhibit so I walked to the National Archives where I heard there was another Presidential exhibit on the President’s school days and interestingly enough there was a report card of George W with straight A’s. A letter in French written by Kennedy and I did not know that Nixon played the Violin. 

Prior to this First Families' Pets exhibit, I went to see a movie. Compliments of Hispanic month activities, it was about the incident at "Lemon Grove" California. You historians know about it, but I was clueless about its content. I was floored by the dialogue which is no different today from the segregation arguments given in the 1930’s. Sometimes I wonder if discrimination is over or not? 

I sat there musing and a gentlemen asked me, what do you think about the information in the display? I admitted my ignorance on the subject, and we started chatting. Daniel Ayala  did not look Hispanic, but was, and we eventually realized we had a friend in common, who else but the famous editor of Somos Primos: Mimi Lozano. 

Well, with that in our plate of conversation, plus the PBS documentary on the war that excluded Hispanics, the Gabaldon feat rounding up Japanese on his own, we ended up having lunch together.  Since I was running late, Daniel Ayala kindly drove me to my meeting,  so now I have a new friend in DC.

Back from my meeting, I went out walking and passing by St. Mathew’s Cathedral, I joined the crowd waiting to attend the free concert celebrating The Feast of St. Matthew the Apostle, Evangelist and Patron Saint of Civil Servants. The singers were the famous "The Schola Cantorum, Festival Singers and the Chamber Orchestra of the Cathedral, plus famous local and world Sopranos, mezzo sopranos and a baritone". The Program: Handel’s Messiah Parts II and III. I am fairly acquainted with the first movement, but never paid much attention to these two movements. It was an hour and a half of cheer joy,  and when the chorus began singing: "Hallelujah! For the Lord Omnipotent Reigneth"  everyone spontaneously rose in adoration.  How could we not? Praising the Lord with that music was a joyous occasion, tears fell from emotion, I felt so blessed to be there,  and praise the Lord in one of the world’s most magnificent Cathedrals!!!! Wow what a moment, I still get chills remembering it. And so ended my first day in DC. . . .  this time around.

Connie Vasquez  cvasquez_us@yahoo.com

Connie is  an English Language Officer and Spanish Interpreter.  She  works as an independent contractor for the US Department of State facilitating the visits of International Leaders from all over the world, that come to the US invited to experience America and meet their counterparts.

 

MEXICO

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla 
Mexico" 1921 Census: A Unique Perspective
Archivo de la Parroquia La Inmaculada Concepción de Jerez, 1708-1732
The Descendents of Don Juan de Valdez
Our Lady of Charity
Forum Universal de las Culturas en Monterrey N. L. México 
Las letras del Centenario
The Descendents of Don Domingo de Alderete y Guerrero

 

 

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla

Father of Mexican Independence

By

Mercy Bautista-Olvera



Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla

 

As September 16 is approaching to celebrate Mexican Independence, in Mexico is the most celebrated event for the country. Cinco de Mayo is not as popular in Mexico as it is in United States. The father of the Mexican Nation and Liberator of Mexico Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla fought bravery to gain independence from Spain under the leadership of Ferdinand VII.

Miguel Hidalgo was born to a Criole family (any Mexican of Spanish descent, but broadly any Mexican of pure or predominate European ancestry) on the Corralejo Hacienda near Penjamo, Guanajuato, on May 8, 1753. Miguel was the son of Cristobal, a middle-class Creole background who served as the hacienda’s administrator. Growing up in the hacienda Hidalgo developed and early sympathy for the unskilled Indian workers.

As a young man, Miguel Hidalgo studied at the Colegio San Nicolas in Valladolid, now Morelia. Hidalgo receiving his Bachelor’s degree in Theology in 1773 and was ordained in 1778. Hidalgo was a Mexican priest and revolutionary rebel leader. He is the founder of the Mexican War of Independence. As a priest, he also had an interest in political and social issues. His first parish where he served was in the town of Dolores, now called Dolores Hidalgo, in a central Mexican state of Guanajuato. He learned several indigenous languages, wrote texts in the Aztec language and organized local communities.

Napoleon’s invasion of Spain was not accepted in both Spain and the Americas in order to replace the authority of the king Ferdinand VII, as he was held hostage by Napoleon in Bayonne, France.

In 1809, Hidalgo together with Ignacio Allende, a young officer from the town of San Miguel who was also a Creole as well as Indians were frustrated with racism, which preferred advance immigrant Spaniards rather that people born in Mexico to hold political jobs. Ignacio Allende, natives of Mexico wanted to work in the colonial administration, but saw that the jobs were only for these immigrant Spaniards, who were taking advantage of the Indians by mistreating them. During this time, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was a priest in the Roman Catholic Church. However, after seen people suffering in Mexico he launched a colonial independence who was struggling against Spain that had become oppressive.

Hidalgo troops losing the battle with only 40.000 men Hidalgo was defeated at Aculco on November 7 by General Felix Calleja. General Ignacio Allende with more experience was frustrated by Hidalgo who did not followed his orders, Hidalgo turned back toward Guadalajara, Hidalgo entered Guadalajara in triumph and able to raise his force to 100.000 soldiers. All the city’s dignitaries and officials believed that Hidalgo represented a better future for Mexico.

Hidalgo concentrated his entire force at Calderon Bridge at the eastern outskirts of the city. General Felix Calleja entered Guadalajara and Hidalgo and Allende regrouped their forces at Zacatecas. Allende was in command and demoted Hidalgo to a civilian post in charge of political affairs, they heard of a new rebellion in San Antonio de Bejar, what is today San Antonio, Texas. They moved north to join in, however their troops were attacked in the state of Coahuila and were turned over to the Spanish authorities.

Hidalgo was excommunicated and no longer a priest and was known that he had two daughters out of wedlock. The historian Miguel Miguelez remarks, "The intention was to discredit Hidalgo by whatever means possible, and if the latter erred in making use of religion to further the work of independence, the former were equality guilty in employing the same means to surpress it."

Hidalgo peasant army fought hard with bravery, the towns of San Miguel, Celaya and Guanajuato were in war, with peaceful citizens the victims of mob violence. In Valladolid, the courageous cannon of the cathedral met and decided to make it a truce.

A committee whose secret plan was to obtain independence from Spain however, through the treachery of one of the members, the committee and its workings were exposed to the colonial Government and the order to seize all those connected with the plot.

On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo and Allende received from Doña Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez (La Corregidora" from Queretaro) a warning that the authorities were planning to attach them. Hidalgo denounced the "Gachupines" as the Spaniards were called, a term for the Spanish born overlords. Hidalgo openly declared for Independence on September 16, 1810 the day which his forces most of them Indians, who joined him along the line of march and selecting he banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe for his standard, marching to the city in Guanajuato.

El "Grito de Dolores" was the name given to Hidalgo’s cry for independence that took place on September 16, 1810. "The shout from Dolores" and the "Cry for Pain" that Spanish rule caused the people of Mexico. He demanded the exile or arrest of all Spaniards in Mexico.

Quote: "My children, this day comes to us a new dispensation. Are you ready to receive it? Will you be free? Will you make the effort to recover from the hated Spaniards the lands stolen from your forefathers three hundred years ago?"  

- Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. September 16, 1810

 

Hidalgo rang the church bell to gather his congregation calling out, "¡Viva la Virgen de Guadalupe! ¡Viva Fernando VII! ¡Abajo el mal gobierno!" (Long live Our lady of Guadalupe and the king Fernando VII! Down with the bad government! Hidalgo tried to take over the government after this speech but eventually defeated.

.

Miguel Hidalgo captured on March 21, 1811 and  executed on July 30, 1811

The four leaders of the revolution, Hidalgo, Allende as well as Jimenez and Aldama held in the Chihuahua Federal Palace. (Palacio Federal) Miguel Hidalgo was executed by firing squad on July 30, 1811. Hidalgo expressed regret for the bloodshed unleashed by the revolt but remained firm on is conviction that Mexico had to be free. The corpses of the four leader's decapitated bodies were taken to Chihuahua as a way to scare off the insurgents.

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was a war hero, who fought against the injustices of the Spaniards against Indians and Creoles in Mexico.

Mexico finally won its independence. Hidalgo body was disinterred from his burial in the San Francisco Temple in Chihuahua and re-buried in Mexico City after the Independence was finally gain.

Monuments, schools, streets etc., are named after Hidalgo including statue in the state of Guanajuato. Dolores Hidalgo a city in Guanajuato carries his name to Honor Miguel Hidalgo.

Hidalgo is remembered today as the "Father of the Mexican Nation" and "Liberator of Mexico".

After a decade long of struggle, the Spanish Viceroy recognized Mexico’s Independence in 1821. Since the late 19th century, a re-enactment has become a tradition in Mexico. The President of Mexico rings Hidalgo’s bell now at the National Palace on the Zócalo in Mexico City and repeats Hidalgo’s words every year at 11.00 p.m. on the night of September 15. On the following day, September 16, a military parade starts in the Zócalo and ends at Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City.

References:
Wikepedia: http://wikipedia.org
Catholic Encyclopedia: www.newadvent.org

http://images.search.yahoo.com

  • Hamill, Hugh M. Jr. The Hidalgo Revolt: Prelude to Mexican Independence. University of Florida Press, 1966.
  • The Birth of Modern Mexico, 1780-1824, Ed by C. I. Archer. Scholarly Resources Inc., 2003.
  • Hemnett, Brian. Concise History of Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

 

 



MEXICO’S 1921 CENSUS: A UNIQUE PERSPECTIVE

By John P. Schmal (© 2007)

 


In the aftermath of the Mexican revolution, Mexico’s Departamento de la Estadística Nacional administered a census that would be unique among Mexico’s census counts administered between 1895 and 2005. In this new census, the Mexican Government decided to ask Mexicans about their perception of their own racial heritage. In the 1921 census, residents of the Mexican Republic were asked if they fell into one of the following categories:

1. "Indígena pura" (of pure indigenous heritage).
2. "Indígena mezclada con blanca" (of mixed indigenous and white heritage).
3. "Blanca" (of White or Spanish heritage).
4. "Extranjeros sin distinción de razas" (Foreigners without racial distinction).
5. "Cualquiera otra o que se ignora la raza" (Either other or chose to ignore the race)

States With the Largest "Indígena Pura" Population

The results were a remarkable reflection of México’s own perception of its indigenous and mestizo identities. Although only three states had more than 50% pure indigenous populations (Oaxaca, Puebla and Tlaxcala), a total of eight states had more than 40% of the same classification (Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Chiapas, Guerrero, Campeche, Yucatán, and México).


The five states with the largest populations of "indígena pura" were:

The Most Indigenous State: Oaxaca

The most indigenous state, in terms of absolute numbers and percentage was Oaxaca, in which 675,119 persons out of 976,005 inhabitants were classified as indígena. In effect, this meant that 69.17% of Oaxaca’s population had a pure indigenous identity.

Not all of "pure indigenous" population of Oaxaca, however, spoke indigenous languages. Only 482,478 individuals five years of age or more spoke thirty indigenous languages. This represented 49.43% of the population five years of age and older and 57.18% of the entire state population. [Children up to the age of four in indigenous households were not included in the tally of languages.]

Another 274,752 residents of Oaxaca described themselves as "mezclada," representing an additional 28.1% of the population. The combination of the indigenous and mezclada categories represented 949,871 individuals who had possessed some element of indigenous descent and represented 97.32% of the entire state population.

As a matter of contrast, only 13,910 persons were categorized as "blanca," while another 11,124 did not claim a designation and 1,100 were "extranjeros" (foreigners).

The Second Most Indigenous State: Puebla

The State of Puebla had the second largest "pure indigenous" population, with 560.971 (who represented 54.73% of the entire state population). In addition, 403,221 residents of Puebla were classified as mezclada, representing another 39.34% of the population. Puebla had the sixth largest number of mezclada inhabitants. Combining the pure indigenous with the mezclada element, we can estimate that 964,192 persons were of some indigenous origin, representing 94.07% of the total state population of 1,024,955.

As with Oaxaca, however, a smaller element of the population spoke native tongues. In all, 247,392 individuals five years of age and older spoke a wide range of indigenous languages, representing only 24.14% of the entire state population.

Puebla had a much higher number of blanca residents: a total of 58,032 inhabitants, who made up 5.66% of the state population.

The Third Most Indigenous State: Veracruz

Veracruz has the third largest "indígena pura" population with 406,638, representing 35.06% of the state population. Veracruz also had the fourth-highest number of mezclada residents: 556,472 (or 47.97%). Combining the two indigenous classifications, we observed that 963,110 persons out of a total population of 1,110,971 claimed some indigenous descent and that this group represented 86.69% of the state population.

In striking contrast, however, only 120,746 residents of Veracruz spoke indigenous languages, representing 10.87% of the state population and 12.62% of residents five years of age or more.

The Fourth Most Indigenous State: México

The State of México had the fourth largest indígena pura population, 372,703, equal to 42.13% of the state population. Together with the mestizo/mezclada population, which numbered 422,001 (47.70% of the state population), the total population with an indigenous heritage was 794,704, or 89.84% of the population.

In stark contrast, only 172,863 residents of the State of México spoke indigenous languages, representing only 19.54% of the total state population.

Other states with significant numbers of indígena pura population are as follows:

5. Guerrero - 248,526 persons (43.84%)

6. Hidalgo – 245,704 persons (39.49%)

7. Chiapas – 200.927 persons (47.64%)

8. Jalisco – 199,728 persons (16.76%)

9. Michoacán – 196,726 persons (20.93%)

10. Distrito Federal– 169,820 (18.75%)

11. Yucatán – 155,155 persons (43.31%)

12. San Luis Potosí – 136,365 persons (30.60%)

13. Tlaxcala – 97,670 persons (54.70%)

Because the populations of the various states vary widely, the percentage of pure indigenous persons in a given state provide us with a different set of results. The contrast between absolute numbers and percentages of the pure indigenous population was largely contingent on the population of each state. For example, Tlaxcala actually had the third largest percentage of indígena pura inhabitants but, because of its small population, was in thirteenth place in terms of percentage.

And Jalisco’s largely pure indigenous population of 199,728 represented only 16.76% of its total population of 1,191,957. Jalisco, as a matter of fact, had the largest population of any state in México, followed closely by Veracruz (1,159,935), Puebla (1,024,955) and the Distrito Federal (906,063).

States With the Largest "Indígena Mezclada Con Blanca" Population

In the 1921 census, the status "Indígena Mezclada con Blanca" implied that a person was of mestizo origin. Persons classified by this identity probably did not speak Indian languages, but still felt an attachment to their indigenous roots and probably had indigenous facial features.. The eight Mexican states with the largest populations of "Indígena Mezclada con Blanca" were:

1. Jalisco - 903,830 (75.83%)

2. Guanajuato - 828,724 (96.33%)

3. Michoacán - 663,391 (70.59%)

4. Veracruz - 556,472 (47.97%)

5. Distrito Federal - 496,359 (54.78%)

6. México – 422,001 (47.71%)

7. Puebla – 403,221 (39.34%)

8. Sinaloa – 335,474 (98.30%)

9. Zacatecas – 326,615 (86.10%)

10. Hidalgo – 320,250 (51.47%)

In terms of percentages, the states with the largest mezclada population were Sinaloa (98.30%), Guanajuato (96.32%), Durango (89.10%), Zacatecas (86.10%), and Querétaro (80.15%).

The State With the Largest Mezclada Population: Jalisco

As with the other classifications, the percentage of "indígena mezclada con blanca" in each state varied widely because of the level of assimilation and the states’ overall population. For Jalisco, the large number of mestizos in the state was a reflection of Jalisco’s mestizaje over the centuries. The combination of Jalisco’s mezclada and indígena pura populations (903,830 and 199,728) indicated that 92.58% of Jalisco’s total population (1,103,558 out of 1,191,957 people) had an indigenous background. In addition, 87,103 residents of Jalisco claimed to be White (7.31%).

Although the inhabitants of Jalisco had a strong link to their indigenous origins, only 195 persons in the entire state spoke indigenous languages. Two languages dominated within this small group of indigenous speakers (99 Huichol speakers and 81 Náhuatl speakers).

Guanajuato: The Second Largest Mezclada Population

Guanajuato was settled early in the colonial period and underwent mestizaje at an early date. 828,724 of Guanajuato’s population of 860,364 classified themselves as indígena mezclada con blanca, representing 96.33% of the state population. Only 25,458 persons claimed pure indigenous background (representing 2.96%) of the population and another 4,687 classified themselves as blanca. In contrast, only 220 inhabitants of Guanajuato spoke indigenous languages. [All but one of these indigenous speakers spoke the Otomí tongue.]

Sinaloa: The State with the Largest Percentage of Mezclada

In the 1921 Mexican census, 335,474 persons were classified as mezclada, representing an extraordinary 98.30% of the state population. Incredibly, a mere 3,163 people (or 0.93% of the state population) identified themselves as pura indígena. The number of person classified as white was smaller yet: only 644 people out of a total state population of 341,265.

Zacatecas: A State Without Indigenous Speakers

Zacatecas posed one of the most interesting cases in this analysis. With 8.54% of its inhabitants identified as "pura indígena" and another 86.1% classified as mestizo, 94.64% of Zacatecas’ inhabitants identified with their indigenous origins. At the same time, not a single inhabitant of the state claimed to speak an indigenous language. This would lead one to speculate that in some parts of México, persons who spoke Indian languages may, in fact, have denied this fact.

States With the Largest Blanca Population

The states with the largest populations of "Blanca" or White persons were:

1. Distrito Federal - 206,514
2. Chihuahua - 145,926
3. Sonora - 115,151
4. Veracruz - 114,150
5. México - 88,660

In terms of percentage, the "blanca" classification was most prominent in these states:

1. Sonora - 41.85%
2. Chihuahua - 36.33%
3. Baja California Sur - 33.40%
4. Tabasco - 27.56%
5. District Federal - 22.79%

One of the most interesting aspects of the 1921 census is that several Mexican states contained very small numbers of Indigenous speakers but had significant populations of people who were identified as "pura indígena." Some examples of these states are:

Coahuila

The State of Coahuila had 44,779 individuals who were identified as "indígena pura," representing 11.38% of the state population. If you combined the pure indigenous and mestizo populations, you would recognize that 89.26% of Coahuila’s population had some kind of indigenous heritage. However, in the entire state of 393,480 inhabitants, only 293 persons spoke an indigenous language. [All of these indigenous speakers spoke the Kikapóo language.]

Tamaulipas

Tamaulipas presented a similar issue. In 1921, 39,606 inhabitants of the state were recognized as of pure indigenous background, representing 13.80% of the population. The combined "indígena pura" and mestizo population was calculated at 83.16%. However, in the entire state only 237 persons spoke more than 15 indigenous languages, of which only one (Huasteca) was actually native to the State.

San Luis Potosí

San Luis Potosí, with large indigenous areas in its eastern regions, boasted a total "indígena pura" population of 136,365, which represented 30.6% of the state population. With a mestizo population tallied at 61.88%, the combined percentage of persons with some indigenous origins was 92.48%. However, only 1,738 inhabitants of the state claimed to speak one of the state’s six indigenous languages (Huasteco, Mayo, Mazateco, Náhuatl, Otomí and Totonaco).


The Overview Below

Racial Makeup of the Mexican Republic (1921 Census) © Copyright 2007, John P. Schmal

State

Indígena Pura (% of Total State Population)

Indígena Mezclada con Blanca (% of State Population)

Blanca (% of State Population)

Extranjeros sin distinción de razas (% of State Population)

Aguascalientes

16.70%

66.12%

16.77%

0.41%

Baja California

7.72%

72.50%

0.35%

19.33%

Baja California Sur

6.06%

59.61%

33.40%

0.93%

Campeche

43.41%

41.45%

14.17%

0.60%

Coahuila

11.38%

77.88%

10.13%

0.61%

Colima

26.00%

68.54%

4.50%

0.12%

Chiapas

47.64%

36.27%

11.82%

4.27%

Chihuahua

12.76%

50.09%

36.33%

0.82%

District Federal

18.75%

54.78%

22.79%

3.26%

Durango

9.90%

89.10%

0.01%

0.15%

Guanajuato

2.96%

96.33%

0.54%

0.15%

Guerrero

43.84%

54.05%

2.07%

0.04%

Hidalgo

39.49%

51.47%

8.83%

0.21%

Jalisco

16.76%

75.83%

7.31%

0.10%

México

42.13%

47.71%

10.02%

0.14%

Michoacán

20.93%

70.59%

6.90%

0.08%

Morelos

34.93%

61.24%

3.59%

0.22%

Nayarit

18.32%

66.04%

5.24%

0.24%

Nuevo León

5.14%

75.47%

19.23%

0.08%

Oaxaca

69.17%

28.15%

1.43%

0.11%

Puebla

54.73%

39.34%

5.66%

0.22%

Querétaro

19.40%

80.15%

0.30%

0.11%

Quintana Roo

13.08%

26.90%

9.63%

13.64%

San Luis Potosí

30.60%

61.88%

5.41%

0.24%

Sinaloa

0.93%

98.30%

0.19%

0.58%

Sonora

13.78%

40.38%

41.85%

2.05%

Tabasco

18.50%

53.67%

27.56%

0.27%

Tamaulipas

13.80%

69.36%

13.54%

2.69%

Tlaxcala

54.70%

42.44%

2.53%

0.08%

Veracruz

35.06%

47.97%

9.84%

0.82%

Yucatán

43.31%

33.83%

21.85%

0.91%

Zacatecas

8.54%

86.10%

5.26%

0.10%

The Mexican Republic***

29.16%

59.33%

9.80%

0.71%

Classifications:

Indígena Pura (Pure Indigenous Origins)

Indígena Mezclada con Blanca (Indigenous Mixed with White)

Blanca (White)

Extranjeros sin distinction de razas (Foreigners without racial distinction)

One percent of the population of the Republic of Mexico chose a fifth option: "Cualquiera otra o que se ignora la raza" (persons who chose to ignore the question or "other."

Source: Departamento de la Estadística Nacional, "Annuario de 1930" (Tacubaya, Distrito Federal, 1932).

© 2007, John P. Schmal. All rights reserved.

Sources:

Departamento de la Estadística Nacional, "Annuario de 1930" (Tacubaya, D.F., Mexico, 1932), pp. 40, 48.

The 1921 census figures for each state were published in individual volumes by state. Each volume was published by the Departamento de la Estadística Nacional between 1927 and 1929 under the titles of "Resumen del Censo General de Habitantes de 30 de Noviembre de 1921."

About the Author

John Schmal is the coauthor of "The Indigenous Roots of a Mexican-American Family" (available as item M2469 through Heritage Books at http://heritagebooks.com). Recently, he also published "The Journey to Latino Political Representation" (available as item S4114).







Archivo de la Parroquia La Inmaculada Concepción de Jerez
PARTIDAS Y CERTIFICACIONES DE DEFUNCION (1708-1732)
Libro Tercero

Paleografía de Leonardo de la Torre y Berúmen 
escorpio0671@yahoo.com.mx


· AGUSTIN, indio, párvulo, hijo legítimo de Cristóbal Flores y de Petra de la Cruz. Sepultado con entierro menor en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Falleció en el Salitrillo el 18 de octubre de 1732. Foja: 47v.

· Al margen: "Xerez y Marzo 8 de 1742. Visitado y reconocido en esta Visita General." Foja: 50.

· ALONSO SEBASTIAN, indio de Tepichitan, fue casado con Ana Cecilia, india, y ambos vecinos del pueblo de Tepilchitan y curato de Taltenango. Murió el 27 de diciembre de 1725 de estocadas en el Guijote y se sepulto en el Hospital de la villa de Jerez, de limosna. Fue su muerte a deshora de la noche y nadie tuvo noticia ni avisaron. Foja: 4v.

· ANTONIA, párvula, mestiza, hija legítima de Cristóbal Cepeda y de María Efigenia. Sepultada con entierro menor en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Falleció en el puesto de (...) el 7 de febrero de 1732. Foja: 50. 

· BAENA José, notario, fue casado con Bernarda Sargero. Le administró los santos sacramentos de la eucaristía y extremaunción el Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. No tuvo que testar. Falleció en Jerez el 3 de abril de 1726. Foja: 5v.

· BAÑUELOS Catarina, viuda, Se le administraron los santos sacramentos que se los dio el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega. No testo por no tener de que. No testó. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez y se le canto una misa de cuerpo presente que le mandaron decir sus hijos. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 30 de mayo de 1720. Foja: 57. 

· BAUTISTA Gregorio, indio del Barrio de San Miguel, inmediato a la villa de Jerez. Fue casado con Gregoria de Ayala, mestiza. Se enterró en el hospital de la villa de Jerez. Recibió los santos sacramentos. Falleció el 26 de julio de 1726. Foja: 7. 

· CABRAL Lucia, mestiza, en el puesto de la Cañada tierras de Jorge de Olague. Fue casada con Julián de la Cueva, coyote. Le administró los santos sacramentos. Sepultada en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 10 de septiembre de 1726. Foja: 8. 

· CABRERA Cristóbal, español, del puesto de La Boca de Los Calderas Fue casado con Salvadora Pérez Piña, española. Le administró los santos sacramentos de la Sagrada Eucaristía y de la Santa Extremaunción. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 18 de enero de 1727. Foja: 9v.

· CALDERA Isabel, española, viuda. Residente en el puesto de La Boca, donde falleció el 25 de diciembre de 1717. Se confeso con el Bachiller don José Osorio Melgarejo, quien le administro los santos sacramentos de la eucaristía y extremaunción. Sepultada con entierro mayor en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez, no se le dijo la misa aquel día por no ser ora competente. No testo por no tener de que. Foja: 48.

· CARRILLO Isabel, india, del Barrio de San Miguel, quien fue casada con Juan Diego, indio de dicho Barrio. Sepultada en el hospital de la villa de Jerez. Le administró los sacramentos el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 16 de abril de 1726. Foja: 5v. 

· CASTAÑEDA María de la Rosa, murió de repente no alcanzo los santos sacramentos. Era casada con Juan de Aparicio. Sepultada con entierro mayor en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Falleció de repente en la estancia de Los Órganos el 11 de diciembre de 1731. Foja: 48v.

· CID CALDERA Isabel, mujer legítima de Clemente de Acuña. Falleció el 10 de diciembre de 1723. 

· CID José, español, casado y velado con María de Piña, españoles, Recibió todos los santos sacramentos. Se confesó cuatro veces con el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Sepultado por la hermandad con entierro mayor, misa y vigilia. No testó por no tener que. Falleció en el puesto de La Boca el 4 de octubre de 1721. Foja: 60. 

· CORDERO José, español, soltero, se confesó y recibió el Santísimo Sacramento de la eucaristía y el de la extremaunción. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 15 de marzo de 1717. Sepultado de caridad con vigilia y misa de cuerpo presente en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. No testó porque no tuvo. Foja: 44v-45. 

· DE ACOSTA Juan José, mestizo, soltero, se le administraron los santos sacramentos. No se confeso porque le dio un dolor que cuando llegó acá el que vino a llamar, ya era difunto y no obstante se puso por diligencia. El y pero A media legua resolvieron al confesor, y para esto se hicieron testigos de la brevedad con que si había andado. Falleció en el puesto de Los Juárez el 18 de julio de 1720. Foja: 59. 

· DE ANGON Lucia, casada con Juan Carrillo. El Bachiller José Osorio Melgarejo le administro el sacramento de la extremaunción y no los otros por haber llamado en tiempo que ya no hablaba y aunque había tres días que había cumplido con la iglesia no testo por no haber sido su muerte repentina. Sepultada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 26 de marzo de 1720. Foja: 56v.

· DE ARAIZA Andrés, mulato esclavo de Manuel de Olague Atulain en el puesto que llaman de Salas. Fue casado con Petrona Efigenia, mestiza. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez. Recibió los sacramentos. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 8 de octubre de 1726. Foja: 8. 

· DE ARELLANO Rita, española, doncella, hija del Capitán Bartolomé Félix de Arellano en el puesto del Tesorero. El Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete le administro los santos sacramentos. Su cuerpo fue sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 30 de abril de 1727. Foja: 11.

· DE ARROYO Francisco, español, soltero, el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega le administró todos los santos sacramentos, y al tercer día murió. Sepultado con entierro mayor en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. No testó porque cuando quiso estaba moribundo, a pesar de haber tenido caudal diciendo hizo poder sin escribano. Falleció en el puesto de San Juan de Tepetongo el 18 de octubre de 1720. Foja: 60.

· DE ARROYO María, española, en la estancia de San Juan Tepetongo. Fue casada con Jerónimo de Trejo, español. Recibió los sacramentos de eucaristía y extremaunción. Hizo su memoria. Fue sepultada con misa y vigilia de cuerpo presente en la parroquia de la villa de Jerez. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 4 de septiembre de 1726. Foja: 8.

· DE AVALOS Cristóbal, español, vecino de la Ciénega del Conde de Santa Rosa, donde vivió. Casado y velado con Lucia de Arellano, española, vecina de la ciudad de Zacatecas. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez. El Bachiller Salvador de la Vega le administró los santos sacramentos. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 20 de abril de 1727. Foja: 10v.

· DE AVILA CALDERA Capitán Don Juan, español, quien vivió en el puesto del Ojo de Agua inmediato al Huejote. Fue casado y velado con doña Antonia de la Torre. Recibió la extremaunción porque cayó sin habla enfermo. Sepultado con misa y vigilia de cuerpo presente en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez. Comunicó a don Pedro de Esparza cinco o seis días antes de su muerte. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 28 de enero de 1727. Al margen: el Capitán Don Juan Dávila Caldera. Fojas: 9v-10. 

· DE AVILA José Manuel, español, soltero, del rancho de Los Haro. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez. Recibió los santos sacramentos. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 21 de octubre de 1726. Foja: 8v.

· DE AVILA Julián, mulato libre, falleció entre el 8 y 30 de junio de 1720 en la labor del General Ron. Casado y velado con María de Ordóñez. Le administró los santos sacramentos el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega Sepultado con cruz alta en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. No testó porque era pobre. Foja: 58. 

· DE AVILA Nicolasa, española, viuda, vecina que fue de la villa de Jerez. Recibió todos los santos sacramentos. Sepultada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Falleció el 27 de julio de 1726. Foja: 7. 

· DE AVILA Pedro, español, vecino de La Labor de los Ríos. Fue casado con Paula Ortiz. Le administró los santos sacramentos el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega. Sepultado de limosna en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Falleció el 18 de octubre de 1725. Foja: 4.

· DE BARRIOS José, lobo, casado y velado con Ana de Santiago. La confesó el Bachiller don Nicolás Carlos de Godoy y le administró el santísimo sacramento de la extremaunción no recibió el de la eucaristía por estar indispuesto. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. No testó por no tener que. Falleció en el puesto de Jimulco el 26 de marzo de 1718. Foja: 50.

· DE CENICEROS DE LA TORRE Francisco, español, de 15 años de edad, hijo legítimo de Francisco de Ceniceros, difunto y de doña Rosa de la Torre. El señor Cura del Monte de Escobedo le administró los santos sacramentos y no se supo si el de la eucaristía. No testó. Sepultado con licencia del párroco del Monte de Escobedo con misa y vigilia en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Falleció en el puesto de Las Adjuntas el 14 de enero de 1732. Foja: 49.

· DE CHAVEZ Teresa, doncella, se le administraron los santos sacramentos por el Bachiller don Nicolás Carlos de Godoy. Sepultada por el Bachiller don José Osorio Melgarejo con misa de cuerpo presente en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. No testó por no tener de que. Falleció en el puesto de Las Tetillas el 23 de marzo de 1718. Foja: 50. 

· DE EL PRADO Leonor, mestiza de la hacienda del Cuidado, fue casada con Cristóbal Parada. Le administró los sacramentos el Bachiller don José Osorio Melgarejo capellán de la hacienda de El Cuidado. Se enterró el 4 de octubre de 1725 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Foja: 4.

· DE ESCOBEDO Inés, española, vecina de La Gavia, casada y velada que fue con Nicolás Márquez, vecino del puesto de la Gavia. Sepultada con entierro mayor, misa ofrendada de cuerpo presente y su vigilia. Le administró los santos sacramentos el Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete. No testó. Dejo poder al dicho su marido para testar. Falleció el 26 de julio de 1726. Foja: 7.

· DE ESPARZA Pedro, español, casado con doña María Rosa de la Torre. Le administro los santos sacramentos de la penitencia y extremaunción el teniente de cura del monte de Escobedo. No testó. Sepultado con entierro mayor misa y vigilia en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con beneplácito del señor Cura del Monte de Escobedo. Falleció el 10 de febrero de 1732 en el puesto de Las Adjuntas, jurisdicción del Monte de Escobedo. Foja: 50. 

· DE HARO José Francisco Javier, español, soltero, vecino en el puesto que llaman de Los Haro, donde vivió. El Bachiller Salvador de la Vega le administró los santos sacramentos y el 9 de diciembre de 1725 fue sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con entierro mayor, misa de cuerpo presente y vigilia. Foja: 4v.

· DE LA CRUZ Inés, mujer legítima de Pablo de Aguilar, indios ambos sirvientes de doña Inés de Reveles. Se le hizo un entierro bajo. Se confeso ante el Bachiller don José Melgarejo no se le dio el viático por tener vómitos y no testó por no tener de que. Falleció en Jerez el 2 de junio de 1720. Foja: 57v.

· DE LA CRUZ José, indio, soltero, del Barrio de San Miguel. Recibió los santos sacramentos de la comunión y extremaunción. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez. No testó. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 6 de noviembre de 1726. Foja: 8v. 

· DE LA CRUZ Juana María, india, mujer legítima que fue de Juan González, indios del partido de Jerez. Casado y velado le administró los santos sacramentos el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega. No testó. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Falleció en el puesto del Guejote entre el 22 y 30 de mayo de 1720. Foja: 57. 

· DE LA CRUZ Lucas, indio casado con María de la Rosa. Le administró los santos sacramentos el Bachiller don Salvador de la Vega. Sepultada en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez. Falleció en la labor de Santa Gertrudis el 26 de marzo de 1720. Foja: 56v.

· DE LA CRUZ María, india, mujer legítima de Marcial Martín, mulato libre, sirviente de dicho rancho. Le administró los santos sacramentos de la eucaristía y extremaunción e Bachiller don José Osorio Melgarejo. Sepultada con entierro mayor en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez el mismo día que falleció. No testó por no tener de que. Falleció en el puesto de Chula el 16 de octubre de 1717. Fojas: 46v-47. 

· DE LA CRUZ María, india, soltera, Se confeso y se le administraron los santos sacramentos de la eucaristía y extremaunción. No testo por no tener de que. Falleció en la hacienda del General Ron el 16 de marzo de 1718. Sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Foja: 49v. 

· DE LA CRUZ María, mulata esclava de Andrés García. Se le administraron todos los santos sacramentos que le administro el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega. Sepultado con entierro bajo en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. No testó. Falleció en el puesto de La Gavia el 30 de agosto de 1720. Foja: 59v.

· DE LA CRUZ Miguel, indio, quien dijo que era casado, sin decir de donde era el ni su mujer. El Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete le administro todos los santos sacramentos y el viático. No testó por ser muy pobre. Sepultado de limosna con entierro mayor en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 7 de octubre de 1731. Foja: 47v. 

· DE LA CRUZ Pascual, indio, sirviente de Manuel de Castañeda. Se le administraron los santos sacramentos que se los administró el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega. Sepultado con entierro bajo en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez. No testó por no tener que. Falleció en el puesto de los Órganos el 11 de agosto de 1720. Foja: 59v.

· DE LA CRUZ Pascuala, casada con Baltazar, a quien llaman el Fustero. Le administró los santos sacramentos. Falleció en el hospital el 8 de abril de 1720. Foja: 56v.

· DE LA CRUZ Pascuala, india, casada y velada con Asencio Díaz, indio de la hacienda de Chula. Sepultada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. No testó por no tener nada. Falleció en el puesto de Chula el 7 de junio de 1720. Foja: 58.

· DE LA CRUZ Petrona, india, casada con Sebastián Chico. Se confesó con el Bachiller don José Osorio Melgarejo, quien le administró el santísimo sacramento de la eucaristía por viático y el de la extremaunción. Sepultada en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. No testó por que no tuvo. Falleció en el puesto de los Órganos el 28 de octubre de 1717. Foja: 47.

The Descendents of
don Juan de Valdez
Compiled by John D. Inclan
 
Generation No. 1
1. JUAN1 DE VALDEZ He married ANTONIA PONCE in Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
Children of JUAN DE VALDEZ and ANTONIA PONCE are:
i. MARIA2 DE VALDEZ-Y-PONCE, b. 02 Apr 1607, Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
2. ii. LICENCIADO JUAN-JOSE DE VALDEZ-Y-PONCE, b. 11 Jun 1610, Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
 
Generation No. 2
2. LICENCIADO JUAN-JOSE2 DE VALDEZ-Y-PONCE (JUAN1 DE VALDEZ) was born 11 Jun 1610 in Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico. He married ANDREA LAGAET-DE-ROJAS 28 Apr 1641 in Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico, daughter of ANDRES LAGARTO-DE-LA-VEGA and MARIA-LEONARDA DE ROJAS.
Children of JUAN-JOSE DE VALDEZ-Y-PONCE and ANDREA LAGAET-DE-ROJAS are:
i. JOSEPH3 DE VALDEZ-Y-ROJAS, b. 29 Jan 1645, Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
ii. JUAN DE VALDEZ-Y-ROJAS, b. 26 Jul 1650, Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico; m. LEONOR DAZA-Y-CANO, 07 Feb 1683, Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico; b. 05 Feb 1648, Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
3. iii. ANDREA DE VALDEZ-Y-ROJAS, b. 21 Jun 1652, Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
 
Generation No. 3
3. ANDREA3 DE VALDEZ-Y-ROJAS (JUAN-JOSE2 DE VALDEZ-Y-PONCE, JUAN1 DE VALDEZ) was born 21 Jun 1652 in Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico. She married JOSEPH DE ANAYA 14 May 1677 in Asuncion, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
Children of ANDREA DE VALDEZ-Y-ROJAS and JOSEPH DE ANAYA are:
i. MARIA-TERESA-DE-SAN-JOSEPH4 DE ANAYA-Y-ROJAS, b. 24 Feb 1679, Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
ii. JOSEPH-ANTONIO DE ANAYA-Y-VALDEZ, b. 09 Mar 1681, Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
iii. ANDREA-MANUELA DE ANAYA-DE-VALDEZ, b. 06 Jan 1684, Asuncion, Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.

 

MIMI GET PHOTO 

The martial image of Our Lady of Charity, aka "La Generala," in the church of La Caridad in the city of San Cristóbal de Las Casas, illuminates a dark episode in the troubled history of Chiapas.  

ESPADANA PRESS

Exploring Colonial Mexico 
http://www.colonial-mexico.com
Sent by Richard Perry 

 

Saludando a todos los del grupo, Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza

Hoy dio inicio el Forum Universal de las Culturas en Monterrey N. L. México que durara 80 dias, estaremos con mas de 1000 eventos, para que esten enterados la págnia del forum es www.monterreyforum2007.org para los que deseen asistir a algun evento .  Edna Yolanda Elizondo González ednaelizondo47@yahoo.com.mx

 


Las letras del Centenario
Por: Niria Ramos Marín 

El Siglo De Torreón
 09 de sep de 2007.


Así como se celebran cien años de historia también se celebra un Centenario de producción literaria, durante los cuales los torreonenses se han inspirado en el paisaje desértico, el clima extremoso y la calidez y pujanza de su gente para dejar huella a través de su pluma, nutrida con la llegada de muchos talentos que hicieron de ésta su tierra. Ejemplos son muchos, pero algunos de los que han trascendido al tiempo y otros que están haciendo de ésta una nueva generación de verdaderos escritores han dejado su huella en las páginas de los libros. Las mujeres no pueden faltar en este recuento, pues en general los torreonenses han demostrado cómo pueden convertir las ideas en palabras y las palabras en esencia. 

GRAFÍAS EN FEMENINO El primer nombre que viene a la mente cuando se habla de las letras del Centenario es, sin duda Magdalena Mondragón, quien nació el 14 de julio de 1913 en Torreón y cursó la secundaria en San Antonio, Texas, regresando a su ciudad natal para cursar una carrera comercial.

Culminó su carrera de Letras en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México en 1950, pero Magdalena Mondragón no sólo se destacó como escritora, sino que logró ganar el Premio Nacional de Periodismo en dos ocasiones, en 1983 y 1987.
Es autora de seis novelas y dos volúmenes de poesía y en su producción destaca su novela Yo Como Pobre.

Entre sus reconocimientos destacan el premio del Ateneo Mexicano de Mujeres en 1937, la creación de la Medalla Magdalena Mondragón por la Asociación de Periodistas Universitarias para premiar a colegas destacadas con 30, 40 y 50 años de labor periodística ininterrumpida, a la que también fue acreedora.

Y es que Magdalena Mondragón ingresó a los 14 años de edad como secretaria de El Siglo de Torreón, en donde más tarde tuvo la oportunidad de publicar sus primeros trabajos a través de las columnas tituladas Sin Malicia y Cuentos Dominicales. Luego haría lo propio en La Prensa de San Antonio, Texas, en El Excélsior, El Universal y La Prensa de la Ciudad de México, siendo en ese momento la primera mujer reportera en la fuente policiaca y convirtiéndose en la primera directora de un diario capitalino.

A sus 27 años, Magdalena también dirigió el Boletín Cultural Mexicano durante los 12 años que fue el órgano de difusión cultural de América con distribución internacional (1946-1958). La escritora y periodista murió en la Ciudad de México el cinco de julio de 1989, dejando un legado difícil de borrar.

LETRAS EMBLEMÁTICAS

No se puede hablar de las letras en Torreón sin mencionar a Saúl Rosales, escritor torreonense nacido en 1940. Y es que Saúl no sólo ha obtenido logros literarios de forma individual, sino que ha dedicado gran parte de su vida a formar a las nuevas generaciones de escritores de la ciudad, convirtiendo sus talleres del Teatro Isauro Martínez en verdaderos semilleros de talento.

Rosales es miembro correspondiente de la Academia Mexicana de la Lengua y autor de varios libros de cuentos, poesía, ensayo, así como de la obra de teatro Laguna de Luz.

Es director de la revista de literatura Estepa del Nazas, editada por el Teatro Isauro Martínez de Torreón, en donde también coordina el taller literario. Además ha compilado diversos libros colectivos de cuento y ensayo.

Por su trayectoria y éxito en las letras, en 1998 se le concedió el reconocimiento como Creador Emérito de Coahuila.

Algunos de sus trabajos son Memoria del Plomo (cuento), Autorretrato con Rulfo (cuento), Vuelo Imprevisto (cuento), Floración del Sueño (poesía), Esquilas Domésticas (poesía), Vestigios de Eros (poesía), Transparencia Cotidiana (poesía), Huellas de La Laguna (ensayo), Laguna de Luz (teatro) y más recientemente Iniciación al Relámpago.

LA GENERACIÓN DEL INGENIO

Representante digno de la generación que surgió de los alumnos de Saúl Rosales es Gilberto Prado Galán, nacido en Torreón en 1960.

Prado Galán es maestro en letras por la New Mexico State University y ha publicado una docena de libros en las principales editoriales mexicanas.

Además ha obtenido, entre otros, los premios internacionales Malcolm Lowry, Garcilaso Inca de la Vega y Lya Kostakowsky.

Es director de la revista ArteletrA, y autor de más de nueve mil palíndromos. Prado Galán es actualmente miembro del Sistema Nacional de Creadores de Arte.

LA PLUMA PURISTA

Marco Antonio Jiménez Gómez del Campo es el nombre que surge cuando de hablar de poesía natural y pulcra se trata.

Técnica y sensibilidad son otras de las palabras que ineludiblemente aparecen al pensar en cualquiera de los poemas de este creador, que lo mismo ha gustado de escribirle a su tierra como a los estados del ser humano, a la naturaleza y a los cuatro elementos, entre muchos temas más.

Marco Antonio nació en 1958 y es autor de los poemarios Es Sólo el Fuego en Otras Palabras, Entrar a la Antivíspera y Arena de Hábito Lunar. Su obra se encuentra publicada, además, en 14 antologías.

En 1983 fue ganador del Premio Nacional de Poesía Joven, convocado por el Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y también ha obtenido dos becas del Fondo Estatal para la Cultura y las Artes de Coahuila. Desde 1998 coordina el taller literario de la Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreón.

TALENTO MULTIPREMIADO

Jorge Valdez Díaz-Vélez es un escritor y diplomático mexicano nacido en Torreón en 1955. Destacan entre los diferentes premios que se le han otorgado el Premio Latinoamericano Plural (1985), el Premio Nacional de Poesía Aguascalientes (1998) y más recientemente el Premio Internacional de Poesía Miguel Hernández-Comunidad Valenciana este año dotado con 12 mil euros, por su poemario Los Alebrijes.

Ha escrito los libros de poesía Voz Temporal, Aguas Territoriales, Cuerpo Cierto, La Puerta Giratoria, Jardines Sumergidos, Cámara Negra, Nostrum, en colaboración con el artista plástico Aldo Menéndez; Arte y Naturaleza, Tiempo Fuera y Los Alebrijes.

Además, parte de su obra ha sido incluida, entre otras, en las antologías Ruido de Sueños / Panorama de la Nueva Poesía Mexicana, La Poesía y el Mar, Poesía en Segundos, Cien Años de Sonetos en Español, La Coma de la Luna-Antología de Poesía Mexicana 1945-2003 y Tigre la Sed-Poesía Mexicana Contemporánea 1950-2005.

Como Miembro de Carrera del Servicio Exterior ha servido en las embajadas de México en Argentina, España, Costa Rica y Cuba, y en el Consulado General de su país en la ciudad estadounidense de Miami, Florida.

POEMAS DEL CORAZÓN

Perteneciente a una generación de mujeres poetas que afirmó la presencia de las letras femeninas en México, Enriqueta Ochoa nació en Torreón en 1928 y desde temprana edad mostró indicios de ese talento, que hizo de ella una de las leyendas de la poesía emanada desde La Laguna para el mundo.

Su voz singular ha aportado una poesía cuya esencia es intimista y a la vez abierta a las reflexiones profundas del ser humano. Su estancia en Europa y África está presente en muchos de sus versos. Ha acompañado su excelente quehacer poético con estudios de literatura y periodismo y se ha desempeñado como profesora en diversas instituciones de educación superior. Su trabajo literario ha sido reconocido a través de premios y homenajes.

Pero no sólo ha dejado su herencia en textos, sino que su hija Marianne Toussaint ha seguido sus huellas y hoy forma parte de los escritores de una nueva era que vienen pisando fuerte.

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera
scarlett_mbo@yahoo.com

 

 

The Descendents of
Don Domingo de Alderete y Guerrero
Compiled by John D. Inclan
 
Generation No. 1
1. DOMINGO1 DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO He married ISABEL FLORES-DE-VALDEZ, daughter of JUAN FLORES-DE-VALDEZ.
Children of DOMINGO DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO and ISABEL FLORES-DE-VALDEZ are:
2. i. CARLOS2 DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO.
3. ii. LUCIA-TERESA-ANTONIA DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO, b. 05 Jul 1703, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
 
Generation No. 2
2. CARLOS2 DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO (DOMINGO1) He married MARIA-GUADALUPE FLORES-DE-ABREGO 09 Feb 1726 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico1, daughter of SEBESTIAN FLORES-DE-ABREGO and FRANCISCA-JAVIERA FLORES-DE-VALDEZ.
Child of CARLOS DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO and MARIA-GUADALUPE FLORES-DE-ABREGO is:
i. MARIA-GERONIMA3 GUERRERO-FLORES, b. 06 Dec 1728, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
 
3. LUCIA-TERESA-ANTONIA2 DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO (DOMINGO1) was born 05 Jul 1703 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. She married ANTONIO DEL BOSQUE.
Notes for LUCIA-TERESA-ANTONIA DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO:
A.K.A. Lucia Teresa Guerrero
Children of LUCIA-TERESA-ANTONIA DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO and ANTONIO DEL BOSQUE are:
4. i. DIEGO3 DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE.
5. ii. DOMINGO DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE.
6. iii. JOSEPH-ANTONIO DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE.
7. iv. MARIA-ROSALIA DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE.
v. JOSEPH-IGNACIO-FERNANDO DEL BOSQUE, b. 09 Jun 1737, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
 
Generation No. 3
4. DIEGO3 DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE (LUCIA-TERESA-ANTONIA2 DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO, DOMINGO1) He married MARIA-JOSEFA RODRIGUEZ-CEPEDA 10 Jan 1760 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of DIONISIO RODRIGUEZ-ARISPE and MARGARITA DE CEPEDA-FLORES.
Children of DIEGO DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE and MARIA-JOSEFA RODRIGUEZ-CEPEDA are:
i. JOSEPH-MIGUEL4 DEL BOSQUE-RODRIGUEZ, b. 16 May 1763, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
ii. JUAN-FELIPE-DE-JESUS DEL BOSQUE-RODRIGUEZ, b. 07 May 1772, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
 
5. DOMINGO3 DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE (LUCIA-TERESA-ANTONIA2 DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO, DOMINGO1) He married (1) ROSA RAMOS-DE-LA-FUENTE 07 Jan 1745 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of NICOLAS RAMOS and ANTONIA DE-LA-FUENTE. He married (2) MARIA-MICHAELA DEL RIO-RODRIGUEZ 08 Jul 1754 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-ANTONIO DEL RIO and MARIA-JOSEFA RODRIGUEZ-DE-MONTEMAYOR.
Children of DOMINGO DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE and MARIA-MICHAELA DEL RIO-RODRIGUEZ are:
i. MARIA-GERONIMA4 DEL BOSQUE, b. 11 Oct 1757, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; m. JOSE-MARIA BAROCIO-Y-GOMEZ-DE-CASTRO, 02 Oct 1781, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
ii. JUAN-ANTONIO DEL BOSQUE-DEL-RIO, b. 10 Jun 1759, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; m. JUANA-MARGARITA DE ANDA, 05 Sep 1782, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
iii. MARIA-TRINIDAD DEL BOSQUE-DEL-RIO, b. 10 Jun 1759, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
iv. JOSEPH-MIGUEL DEL BOSQUE-RIO, b. 26 May 1761, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
v. JOSEPH-DOMINGO DEL BOSQUE-RIO, b. 25 Dec 1763, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
8. vi. JUAN-JOSE DEL BOSQUE-RIO, b. Abt. 1765.
vii. JOSEPH-JOAQUIN DEL BOSQUE-RIO, b. 06 Apr 1766, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
viii. MARIA-GERTRUDIS DEL BOSQUE-DEL-RIO, b. 22 May 1768, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
 
6. JOSEPH-ANTONIO3 DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE (LUCIA-TERESA-ANTONIA2 DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO, DOMINGO1) He married MARIA-FLORENSIANA MALDONADO-SANCHEZ 02 Dec 1753 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of DIEGO MALDONADO and MARIA SANCHEZ.
Children of JOSEPH-ANTONIO DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE and MARIA-FLORENSIANA MALDONADO-SANCHEZ are:
i. JUAN-IGNACIO4 DEL BOSQUE-MALDONADO, m. ANA-MARIA ELIZONDO, 03 Feb 1788, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
ii. MARIA-DOROTHEA DEL BOSQUE-MALDONADO, b. 17 Feb 1759, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
iii. MARIA-ISABEL DEL BOSQUE-MALDONADO, b. 04 Jul 1768, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
iv. MARIA-JUANA-LUCIANA DEL BOSQUE-MALDONADO, b. 14 Jan 1778, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
 
7. MARIA-ROSALIA3 DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE (LUCIA-TERESA-ANTONIA2 DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO, DOMINGO1) She married JOSEPH-FRANCISCO QUINTANILLA-VALDEZ 09 Feb 1756 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, son of JOSEPH-FRANCISCO DE QUINTANILLA and ROSA VALDEZ.
Child of MARIA-ROSALIA DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE and JOSEPH-FRANCISCO QUINTANILLA-VALDEZ is:
i. JOSEPH-ANDRES4 QUINTANILLA-DEL-BOSQUE, b. 09 Dec 1757, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
 
Generation No. 4
8. JUAN-JOSE4 DEL BOSQUE-RIO (DOMINGO3 DEL BOSQUE-ALDERETE, LUCIA-TERESA-ANTONIA2 DE ALDERETE-Y-GUERRERO, DOMINGO1) was born Abt. 1765. He married JUANA-FRANCISCA MORALES-BORREGO 08 Nov 1786 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of ANTONIO MORALES and GREGORIA BORREGO.
Children of JUAN-JOSE DEL BOSQUE-RIO and JUANA-FRANCISCA MORALES-BORREGO are:
i. MARIA-DOLORES5 DEL BOSQUE-MORALES, m. JOSE-MIGUEL ARAMBULA-MALDONADO, 19 Oct 1801, San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 07 Jun 1773, San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
ii. JOSE-EULOGIO DEL BOSQUE-MORALES, b. 23 Mar 1796, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
iii. JUAN-DIONICIO DEL BOSQUE-MORALES, b. 17 Oct 1798, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
 
 
Endnotes
1. Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, and Baldomero Vela, Jr., Page 266. [#59-4]..

 

CARIBBEAN/CUBA

I Could Never Be a Cuban 

Esta Italiana dice que no puede ser cubana.  Es una joven italiana-americana que tiene un blog en el Internet. Este es un escrito que puso en su blog.  Claudia Fanelli   http://www.claudia4libertad.com/

I Could Never Be A Cuban"

Since I started this blog and because I have been investing so much time reading, writing, learning and talking about Cuba, some people have been teasing me. I knew this would happen eventually.

Now, instead of asking me "Claudia, why do you care so much about Cuba?" they say, "So, do you want to be Cuban now?" "No, I am proud and content being Italian-American," I always say, "and I do not want to, nor could I ever be, Cuban." Although many Cubans whom I have encountered as a result of my blog have bestowed upon me the lofty title of "honorary Cuban," I truly am not worthy of it.

It's not that I don't appreciate the richness of the Cuban culture. It's not that I wouldn't like to claim the same heritage as artists such as Andy Garcia, Paquito D'Rivera, Arturo Sandoval, Desi Arnaz and Celia Cruz.

It's not that I wouldn't be proud to say my lineage is the same as luminaries in the world of writing like Guillermo Cabrera Infante, Oscar Hijuelos, Cristina Garcia and José Martí, or intellectuals like Carlos Eire and Antonio de la Cova.

It's not that I wouldn't like to be able to cook Ropa Vieja, Maduros, Vaca Frita and Congri to perfection every time I try. It's also not because I wouldn't love to be able to lay claim to a culturally rich community in South Florida, full of people just like myself, who share the same history and heritage.

It's certainly not because I wouldn't want to say that my family is part of a group of over 125,000 Cuban-owned businesses in the US that genera te billions and billions of dollars in sales annually. Could it be because I would not want to be associated with a culture that is responsible for creating Salsa music or the lively steps of the Mambo or the Cha-cha? Of course not.

So with all of these contributions to the world for which Cubans are responsible, why would I not want to be Cuban? Aren't I practically Cuban already? I mean, I'm of Italian descent, they're largely of Spanish descent; Italian and Spanish both come from Latin. My mother's side is from Sicily- that's an island, like Cuba is. Italians and Cubans have similar family values and traditions. Italy has produced many artists, writers, scientists and entertainers and so has Cuba. It wouldn't be much of a stretch. Except that's pretty much where the similarities end.

I could not be Cuban because I don't have the guts. I could not bear to see so many of "my people" suffer the way the Cubans have for almost 50 years. I am in awe of Cuban-Americans and the dangerous and brave ways in which they have managed to leave the island. I get choked up every time I read about a raft-load of Cubans making it to land in Florida. I give a little cheer for them. However, I could not do something as courageous as that, and I don't have the stamina to watch it happen to my own compatriots. No, I could not be a Cuban.

I couldn't be Cuban because I'm not strong enough. If I were here in the US, I could not bear to think of my family members still trapped in that island prison with run-down living quarters, not enough to eat, and no chance to improve their lives. I could not bear the thought of never seeing my family members again; the ones who didn't want to leave with me, or could not. I do not know where Cuban-Americans get their fortitude from to be able to look ahead to the future and to persevere under such dismal circumstances but I do know that perseverance is not one of my character traits. I don't know with what I could fill the hole in my heart to stop the pain of not having my family with me, and I don't know how Cubans do it. So, no, I could not be a Cuban.

I could never be Cuban because I am not ingenious enough. Cubans are the Latin American MacGyvers- they make sandals out of plastic bottles and boats out of cars and trucks. I can't even figure out how to work the DVD player with cable tv. Cubans both here and on the island have a spirit of entrepreneurship and practical understanding, qualities both driven by the will to survive. A taxi driver in Cuba is savy enough to negotiate a fare in advance and turn off the meter so he can make a little extra money; bakers will water down the bread dough to stretch it and sell the extra loaves on their own. Cubans came here and not ones to be satisfied with indefinitely living off the helping hands they are offered, they make their own way, work menial jobs and build their own businesses. And not just a few little businesses, thousands upon thousands of them.

That perseverance on the island keeps them alive and in the United States, helps them to attain a dream. Me? I give up on the DVD player and watch Lifetime. I'm a quitter; I could never be a Cuban.

I could not be a Cuban because Cubans do not know what freedom is. I enjoy freedom of speech, the freedom to complain, to use the internet, to visit any hotel I can afford, to dine as frequently or infrequently-- anywhere I would like, to watch whatever television show I want and to read whatever I want. The government does not "own" my brain (and probably wouldn't want it) just because it subsidized my Pennsylvania state college education. If I want to leave the country, I can. And, I can take my brain with me. With that in mind, I still don't want to be a Cuban.

I couldn't be Cuban because in spite of what Michael Moore says, the Cuban healthcare system is a joke. I don't have to wait in line to go to the doctor or the hospital. I don't have to worry about the sanitary conditions of the local hospital or count the bugs crawling around on the floor. I don't have to go to run-down facilities while Canadians and Europeans travel to my country for treatment in state-of-the-art facilities where I am not allowed to be treated. I don't have to do without medication because there is a shortage, while foreigners get whatever they need. While the US healthcare system is not perfect, I can't complain. I have had six surgeries, countless injections, physical therapy, orthopedic devices and medications on my right knee to prevent me from having to have total joint replacement before I am fifty. My medication, because I have a good job and insurance, costs me a few dolla rs per prescription and is available whenever I need it. The cost of treatment for just my right knee so far is in the tens of thousands-I've paid a few hundred in co-pays. My doctor's visits, again because I have good insurance, cost $10. I've been lucky enough to have the same doctors, who knows me and my case well, treat my knee for the past twenty years and I don't have to worry about them being sent to Venezuela in exchange for oil. So, nope. Neither my knee nor I could be Cuban.

I could not be Cuban because there is no better place in the world to live, in my opinion, than the United States. Cubans, sadly, can no longer say that, since although before the revolution, the once beautiful and prosperous Cuba received over one million immigrants in a thirty-two year period, Cubans will now risk their lives to leave. Furthermore, nobody is fleeing TO Cuba. That tells me that there are much better places to live than Cuba. If I were Cuban, knowing that would break my heart, especially if I had been around before Fidel Castro destroyed the island.

So, I'm sorry, but although I accept the "honorary Cuban" title with pride, in reality, I could never cut it as a Cuban. I'm just not qualified.


Sent by Sal Del Valle sgdelvalle@surewest.net


SPAIN

Emigración extremeña en tiempos de la Colonia

 

 Por  Ana Belén Paniagua Lourtau

 Universidad de Extremadura, España.

 Publicado en: DOCIENSO

 Revista del Doctorado Interinstitucional en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades

 AÑO 1 NÚMERO 2 ENERO - JUNIO 2002

 Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes

 Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana

 

 Enviado por Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza
cherrera1951@hotmail.com

 

I.1.  INTRODUCCIÓN

A fines del siglo XVI, España vive un momento glorioso como potencia política, militar y cultural. En1492 termina la Reconquista, que tanto influyó en la conformación del ser hispano.  El 12 de octubre de ese mismo año, Colón entrega un nuevo mundo a la corona, y los Reyes Católicos organizan un Estado moderno, echando las bases del Imperio. Pero ya en el siglo XVI, la economía comienza a debilitarse por los conflictos con Francia, el papado, los turcos y protestantes, que dieron lugar a grandes y costosas guerras en las que se invierte el oro americano. 
      La juventud con gran patriotismo se enrola en los famosos tercios españoles que se pasean triunfantes por Europa. Todas las clases sociales buscando fama, riquezas y aventuras o con ánimo de evangelización y espíritu misionero se embarcan hacia América - hidalgos, caballeros, clero y pueblo, sin olvidar a los pícaros y delincuentes.

Así se abría la expansión ultramarina de España, a la que Extremadura aportó gran parte de sus hombres.

Hasta aquí la imagen mitificada e idealizada que todos hemos aprendido, pero nada más lejos de la realidad, una realidad que obligará a andaluces, castellanos y sobre todo a extremeños a abandonar sus hogares y marchar al Nuevo Mundo en busca de mejores expectativas de vida.

La Extremadura del siglo XVI que dejan atrás se caracteriza por una fuerte base agraria, que apenas deja actuación a los ámbitos artesanales y comerciales. Además el campo estaba marcado por una gran concentración de la propiedad siendo los nobles y caballeros los que recibían la mayor parte de los beneficios generados que invertían en gastos suntuarios, a lo que hay que añadir las dificultades del campesinado para acceder a la tierra, por lo que optarán por la roturación de tierras incultas, ocupando espacios comunales. El bajo poder adquisitivo era otra de las características de la población extremeña, una población que en esta centuria va a experimentar un crecimiento más tardío y menos significativo que en el resto de España debido a las continuas y fuertes crisis agrarias y a las numerosas epidemias que hacían estragos entre los habitantes.

Por otra parte, el comercio y la artesanía estaban relacionados con las necesidades básicas de la población, y la producción no era suficiente como para cubrir la demanda, lo que hacía necesaria la importación de determinados productos.

 

2.  EMIGRANTES

La necesidad de abandonar una miserable vida y la esperanza de conseguir unas posibilidades económicas razonables (Carta 1), son parte de los factores que explican y permiten comprender la emigración extremeña a Indias.

La emigración se convierte en una experiencia difícil tanto por las distancias como por el hecho de enfrentarse a un espacio desconocido, de ahí que la emigración adquiriera un carácter co­lectivo, buscándose la compañía de familiares para realizar el viaje y adaptarse al nuevo entorno. En definitiva, se trata de emprender una nueva vida en compañía.

Dentro de este fenómeno de migración, la emigración familiar alcanza tal proporción que se convierte en un modelo específico, con rasgos particulares y distintivos del período moderno. Si bien durante la primera mitad del siglo XVI, cuando se llevan a cabo las grandes conquistas del Nuevo Mundo, hay un predominio de salidas indivi­duales, será en la segunda mitad de la centuria cuando emi­gren unidades familiares, en un momento de descubrimien­to, conquista y colonización de inmensos territorios, don­de será necesario favorecer una estabilidad y continuidad poblacional.

Así, tal como ha señalado R. Sánchez Rubio, el 50% de los emigrantes del siglo XVI se embarca en compañía de uno o más miembros de su familia, tal como aparece reflejado en los libros de asientos y pasajeros. Además, el embarque conjunto por lazos familiares no supera el 24% de las salidas realizadas entre 1509 y 1555, mientras que en la segunda mitad de la centuria supondrá un 61%.

Este desajuste entre ambas etapas también ha sido estudia­do por el profesor Pereira, el cual establece las siguientes relacio­nes entre la emigración familiar extremeña y los datos globales de viajeros de Extremadura a América, arrojando unos porcentajes del 11.1 % para la primera etapa y del 63,5% para la segunda, siendo a partir de 1554 cuando se observa realmente esta diferencia, coincidiendo con la obligación de la Corona de que los maridos viajen acompañados por sus esposas, tal y como podemos observar en los datos que a continuación se presentan:

 

 

                       Tabla 1

     Salidas de emigrantes extremeños

 

                Decenio                         Personas

                         1509-1519 ------------------  77

                              1520-1529 ------------------  32

                         1530-1539 ------------------ 144

                         1540-1549 ------------------   25

                         1550-1559 ------------------  503

                         1560-1569 ------------------ 1135

                         1570-1579 ------------------ 1009

                         1580-1589 ------------------ 316

                         1590-1599 ------------------  83

 

                         Fuente: Catálogos de pasajeros del Archivo de Indias

    

 

    En el cuadro se observa un claro aumento del número de emigrantes a partir de 1540, lo que en cierto modo se puede explicar por la creciente información que sobre Indias iban recibiendo los extremeños, pero sobre todo por la normativa adoptada por Carlos V que prohibe a los maridos viajar sin sus esposas.

Este patrón de emigración desarrollado en Extremadura y caracterizado por la relevancia de los grupos familiares es igualmente válido y se puede aplicar al fenómeno llevado a cabo en Andalucía y Castilla a lo largo de este mismo siglo.

Sin embargo, este modelo se trunca a mediados del siglo XVII, momento en que la composición de la emigración es simi­lar a la de comienzos de la época colonial, destacando de nuevo los varones, que en numerosas ocasiones terminarán casándose con criollas, factor de gran importancia en el mestizaje. En estos años se irán incorporando las zonas costeras cantábricas, que muy lentamente irán sustituyendo a las regiones interiores, como prin­cipales aportadoras de hombres a la colonización del Nuevo Mundo.

De nuevo el siglo XVIII va a conocer la salida de familias, principalmente gallegas y canarias, hacia tierras americanas, siguiendo las directrices marcadas por la política poblacionista de la corona, pues se intentan poblar zonas marginales como la Patagonia, el Río de la Plata, etc., que hasta entonces habían estado olvidadas.

Antes de continuar, es necesario matizar lo que se entiende por emigración familiar; pues bajo esta denominación se incluyen dos realidades bien distintas: por un lado podemos citar a los individuos que parten primero e inician el camino para que otros familiares les sigan hasta el Nuevo Mundo, mientras que en otras ocasiones será la unidad familiar, de diversa composición y di­mensión, la que marche buscando nuevas oportunidades.

Ambas manifestaciones ponen en evidencia el peso que la estructura familiar tuvo en el proceso migratorio, que supuso la puesta en marcha de unas personas que buscan una vía de susten­to más digna y sobre todo más llevadera,  lo que en principio hacen de forma aislada, implicando a los menos miembros posi­bles de la familia en tan arriesgada aventura.

 Existen por lo tanto distintos modelos de emigración familiar, pero el más común se centra en la familia nuclear, compuesta por un matrimonio con o sin hijos. De esta forma, el 70% de las migraciones tendrá como protagonista a la pa­reja, caracterizada por la juventud de sus integrantes, pues la edad de los hombres se sitúa en torno a los 20 años mientras que la de las mujeres se reduce a los 15. Estos matrimonios viajarán normalmente con sus hijos, cuyo número dependerá de la edad de la pareja, y si bien el número es muy variado, la media establecida para este período es de 2,7 hijos por fami­lia, tal como señala Rocío Sánchez Rubio, aunque son muy comunes las familias numerosas o las que sólo viajan con uno o dos hijos, que en ocasiones pueden ser fruto de distintos matrimonios.

 

                                       Tabla 2

                                         Clasificación de las familias según el número de hijos

 

                                                          No. de hijos                           Familias

                                                         1    -------------------------   151

                                                         2 ---------------------------    111

                                                         3 ---------------------------     82

                                                         4  --------------------------     36

                                                         5  --------------------------     21

                                                         6  --------------------------     12

                                                         7  --------------------------      3

                                                         8  --------------------------      3

                                                         9  --------------------------      1

 

 

                                                            Fuente: Archivo General de Indias. Contratación.

 

En cuanto a la edad de los vástagos, podemos afirmar que el 24,6% de la emigración global es menor de 15 años, lo que evidencia el peso de la población infantil en la emigración.

 

    

 

                                                                 Tabla 3

                                              Edades de lo menores de 15 años

 

                                             Edad en años                           Individuos

                                             Menor que 1 ---------------------64

                                                       1 --------------------------54

                                                       2 --------------------------56

                                                       3 -------------------------------61

                                                       4 -------------------------------55

                                                       5 --------------------------43

                                                       6 --------------------------41

                                                       7 --------------------------50

                                                       8 --------------------------46

                                                       9 --------------------------51

                                                     10 --------------------------55

                                                     11---------------------------35

                                                     12 --------------------------44

                                                     13  -------------------------33

                                                     14  -------------------------45

                                                     15  -------------------------40

 

 

                                                  Fuente: Archivo General de Indias. Contratación

 

 

Por otra parte, la ausencia de descendencia se rela­ciona con parejas constituidas recientemente o con matrimonios jóvenes que deciden dejar a sus hijos en España, con la intención de no someter a los más pequeños al peligro de un viaje tan inseguro(1), Al mismo tiempo se busca mantener los vínculos con el linaje en España, pues si por una parte es lógico relacionar emigración familiar con asentamiento definitivo, esta instalación no implicaba ruptura, pues se seguían manteniendo los lazos con la familia en España, pues hay que tener en cuenta que la familia en los tiempos modernos aunque estaba organizada en células nucleares, formaba parte de un todo caracterizado por el establecimiento de fuertes lazos.

 

 

(1) Muchos matrimonios dejaban a sus hijos al cuidado de sus familiares en España, tal como lo atestiguan las cartas por ellos enviadas y los protocolos notatiales que informan de ello, como es el caso de Alonso Gil, vecino de Cáceres, que emigró con su mujer dejando a su hija Juana al cargo de su cuñado Alejo, tal como se indica en el Archivo Histótico ptovincial de Cáceres, Sección Protocolos, Legajo 4086, libro 21.

 

 

 Por otra parte, los matrimonios con muchas hijas optarían por la alternativa americana, en búsqueda de mejores condiciones de vida.

Pero además, a la familia nuclear se le unen otras variantes en las que la tipología del parentesco en relación con el titular de la petición o licencia abarca prácticamen­te toda la gama de vínculos familiares: padres, suegros, hermanos cuñados, nietos, yernos, tíos, sobrinos y primos, alterándose así la estructura familiar, un ejemplo lo encon­tramos en la familia de Juan García Manchego que salió de Miajadas (Cáceres-Extremadura) en 1621 a los 61 años, procurando el bienestar de sus hijos y nietos; con Inés Jiménez, su segunda esposa, había tenido dos hijos, Pedro García de 20 años y Catalina Gómez, casada con Tomé Hernández. Con ellos también se dirigía hacia Nueva España la hija mayor del primer matrimonio, Juana Hernández, casada y madre de tres hijos, la mayor de 7 años.

 

 

                                               Árbol genealógico

 

Otro ejemplo es el de un joven matrimonio de Zalamea de la Serena (Badajoz-Extremadura), Francisco Balsera y Catalina Rodríguez , quienes en 1631 viajaron hasta el Perú con su hija de dos años, María; también viajó el hermano de Catalina, Francisco García. En la misma flota iba otro hermano de Catalina, Miguel Mateos, con su mujer, María Blázquez y una hija de un año. En esta misma flota se comprueba que también viajaba un hermano de la citada María Blázquez, Juan Hidalgo de Cáceres, con su mujer, María González Merchán y una hija de tres años.

 

                                                                                      Árbol genealógico

 

También estos núcleos familiares verán modificada su es­tructura y aumentada su composición al agregárseles otros acompañantes como servidores, observándose un distinto comportamiento al respecto según las clases socioprofesionales. En muchos casos los servidores eran en realidad parientes, pues bajo esta prác­tica muchos afectados por las medidas restrictivas de la corona viajaron a las Indias.

Por otra parte hay que destacar que si bien es el varón quien como cabeza de la familia nuclear toma la iniciativa para viajar a América, no se puede excluir a la mujer del proceso mi­gratorio, aunque viajará inserta en una importante red de lazos de sangre, ya que viajará como madre, esposa, hija o criada. La presencia femenina supuso en torno al 25% del volumen global de salidas: por lo que respecta a la población infantil, la participación de ambos sexos fue similar, las diferencias se agudizan entre la población adulta:

 

           Tabla 4

           Participación en las migraciones por sexo

 

 

Solos %

Acompañados %

Hombres casados

6.74

93.25

Mujeres casadas

44.41

55.59

Hombres viudos

10

90

Mujeres viudas

33.33

66.66

 

Fuente: Archivo General de Indias. Contratación

 

Por otra parte cabe destacar que las viudas constituyen el sector de la población más diversificado, pues fueron las únicas que ocasionalmente encabezaron la titularidad de una licencia convencidas de que América les ofrecería mayores posibilidades.

 

Pero dentro del papel jugado por la mujer su relevancia es que fue el soporte de la estructura familiar, ya que a través del elemento femenino perdura el linaje pues muchos matrimonios trataron de unirse en América con los parientes de la esposa, o se trasladaban con parientes enlazados por vía femenina.

Fuera de este ámbito la presencia de lo femenino se reducía, y la personalidad femenina aparece muy desdibujada en las fuentes: se le va a designar por el nombre de María y unos pocos más, y casi nunca va a aparecer con los dos apellidos, práctica muy común entre los hombres. Esta simplificación se debía a su escasa proyección fuera de un círculo exterior al familiar, aunque hay que tener en cuenta que a pesar de la posición subordinada en el proceso de la emigración consecuencia de una legislación que buscaba preservar la moralidad de las nuevas sociedades coloniales, la mujer disfrutó en América de una capacidad legal completa para poder llevar a cabo cualquier actividad económica y cultural.

 

Esta fuerte salida de familias al Nuevo Mundo estuvo influida por noticias que de amigos o familiares allí asentados llegaban sobre las riquezas de sus tierras, desarrollándose lo que Ortiz de la Tabla llama de tirón familiar; que permite explicar el aumento de la emigración familiar en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI: muchos no dudaron en volver sus tierra, resolver sus asun­tos, vender sus bienes y regresar a América acompañados de sus familias, parientes o amigos.

Así, la existencia de un precedente familiar será la causa para marcharse a América, aunque hay que tener en cuenta que la posibilidad de abandonar el pueblo natal se meditaba largamente, pues emigrar a las Indias suponía cambiar de vida y de entor­no, de ahí que la existencia de parientes en América, con inten­ción de favorecer y beneficiar al resto de la familia se convirtiera en un factor decisivo en la marcha al Nuevo Mundo.

 

 

En este sentido es de destacar que la mayor parte de la correspondencia que los extremeños enviaron a. su tierra natal tenía como casi exclusivo objeto el reclamo de los familiares ( Cartas 3, 4, 5 Y 6), pues la añoranza, el anhelo de compañía, el deseo de abandonar una vida miserable y la esperanza de lograr una rique­za soñada son elementos que explican que a la llamada de un precursor la respuesta sea un seguimiento en grupo, convirtiéndo­se éste en el auténtico modelo de emigración familiar. Un ejemplo sería el del extremeño Alonso de Herojo que escribió a su mujer e hijos para que se reunieran con él en la ciudad andina de Tunja (2), adquiriendo un gran significado las palabras en las que se expresa: "[oo.] y me dicen que cual es el hombre que no trae a su mujer e hijos a esta tierra y los quita de las necesidades y miserias de España:'

Así, de las 104 cartas de la recopilación realizada por E. Otte se reclama en 78 de ellas a parientes próximos para que realicen el viaje, destacando los siguientes tipos de parentesco:

 

                                                                      Tabla 5

                                                 Tipos de parentesco

 

                                  Tipo de parentesco                       No. de cartas en que aparece

 

                              Esposa e hijos ----------------------------- 21

                              Hijos   ------------------------------------- 15

                              Hermanos ---------------------------------  27

                              Sobrinos ----------------------------------- 12

                              Primos ------------------------------------- 2

                              Padres y hermanos --------------------------1

 

 

                                                   Fuente: Archivo General de Indias.

 

 

 

(2) Primera ciudad colombiana fundada en los Andes centrales por Gonzalo Suárez Rendón, de la villa cacereña de Alcántara.

 

 

 Asimismo, y dentro de esas 78 cartas reclamando a los familiares, en 45 de ellas se establece además el compromiso de hacerse cargo de los gastos ocasionados por el viaje, bien a su llegada o enviando el dinero previamente, pues hay que tener en cuenta el gran desembolso que había que realizar, el cual no estaba a la altura de las economías de la mayor parte de los extremeños, tal como se puede apreciar en la carta del extremeño Alonso Ortiz dirigida a su mujer Leonor de Zafra, enviada desde México en 1574 (Carta 2).

Estas marchas hacia América eran siempre un camino muy difícil a cubrir tanto para los hombres como aún más para las mujeres, y una de las formas de hacerla menos traba­joso era hacerla en compañía, no sólo con su familia, sino también con amigos y vecinos procedentes de la misma pobla­ción, y con destinos también comunes, como se verá más ade­lante.

 

Ello también demuestra que estamos ante un tipo de emigración que produce la reunificación de la familia com­pleta que se había quedado en Extremadura por la marcha del padre. Este fenómeno se observa a partir de árboles genealógicos que muestran una emigración agrupada, como es el caso de la familia de los Aréchiga de Plasencia, cuyo árbol muestra cómo a finales del siglo XVI , 1597, abandonó la península Diego Flores de Casares, su cuñado Domingo de Aréchiga tenía intención de seguir su ejemplo y también obtu­vo licencia, pero finalmente- permaneció en Plasencia en su puesto de alguacil mayor. Cuando este Domingo murió, Diego Flores de Casares debió de afrontar el mantenimiento de la numerosa familia de su hermana Isabel, la viuda, la cual en 1615 le envió al mayor de sus hijos, de 14 años, Tomás de Aréchiga Álvarez. Además, en 1633 sus tres hermanos solte­ros, Francisca, Gerónima y Diego embarcaron también, ade­más de la hermana mayor Catalina, casada y acompañada de su marido, Juan García Robles y el hijo de ambos, Francisco de 6 años, su hijo más pequeño se quedó en España con lo que este nuevo eslabón suelto mantendría futuros nexos.

 

                                                            Arbol genealógico

 

En resumen, la familia extremeña que durante el siglo XVI emigra completa a América es toda ella fundamental­mente completa, viajando sus componentes juntos o separa­damente, pero en la mayoría de loa casos buscando su reunificación y, que a pesar de constituir un hogar indepen­diente mantiene su solidaridad, despliega su acción sobre to­dos los miembros, compartiendo honor y deshonor, éxitos y fracasos, extendiéndose para acoger a los parientes que necesi­taban su apoyo afectivo y económico, por lo que la estructura familiar no se rompe con la separación, sino que crea una red amplia con ramificaciones en España y América, lo que supo­nemos que jugó un importante papel ala hora de perfilarse las estructuras familiares en la América Hispana.

Así, emigrar en familia se convirtió en un mecanismo reproductor para trasladar a América la organización social de la península ibérica y su código de valores. El dirigismo estatal promovió el asentamiento de familias legalmente cons­tituidas como respuesta a la necesidad de poblar los nuevos territorios, con el fin de afianzar y dar validez a la conquista. La emigración familiar se realizó siguiendo la ruta de parien­tes y en grupo, por lo que quienes emigraron en el siglo XVII no encontraron ya un Nuevo Mundo, pues lo nuevo no era tan desconocido con la presencia de familiares y amigos dispues­tos a iniciar una nueva vida en compañía.

 

3. COLONIZADORES

 

Como es lógico, para la colonización y explotación de los vastos territorios descubiertos, se necesitó una creciente base de contingente humano que, sobre todo al principio, pro­cedían de los reinos hispanos peninsulares, cuyas dos po­tencias, España y Portugal solicitan del papado la sobera­nía sobre los territorios de infieles para evangelizarlos, mi­sión que el papado delega en los príncipes castellanos. (3)

Hay que señalar que el modelo migratorio español no se fundamenta en el establecimiento de factorías, como fue el caso de Portugal, sino que se buscó la creación de núcleos de asentamiento estable, pues la Corona consideró que sólo era posible mantener el dominio de sus territorios si existía un contingente poblacional estable.

 

(3) Castilla no sólo obtuvo la soberanía espiritual, sino también la temporal, pues alega que así evangelizaría a la población más rápidamente.

 

Los primeros viajeros fueron fundamentalmente sol­dados o colonizadores pues llevaron a cabo la consolida­ción de los territorios recientemente descubiertos. Siguie­ron una pléyade de clérigos, sobre todo frailes - ya en el se­gundo viaje los llevó Colón-, para evangelizar a la población aborigen, a la vez que para atender las necesidades religiosas de los españoles. No faltaron funcionarios reales con la finali­dad de organizarlos administrativa y políticamente, conforme a las normas castellanas del imperio español.

Además hay que señalar a los artesanos y prácticos de todos los oficios que normalmente viajaron con toda su familia. Baste recordar la expedición del extremeño Nico­lás de Ovando, de Brazas (Cáceres), que salió de San1úcar el 13 de febrero de1502 y llega a Santo Domingo el 15 de mayo de 1502, tras muchos contratiempos y la pérdida de 120 hombres, con 30 navíos y 2,500 emigrantes, de los que 1,200 eran extremeños de origen socioprofesiona1 múl­tiple, entre los que había artesanos, profesionales y sacer­dotes, siendo el inicio del pob1amiento antillano y la in­corporación del pueblo a la tarea colonizadora.

Igualmente nos encontramos a hidalgos y miembros de la nobleza con sus familias y criados, muchos de los cuales se colocaron sirviendo a una familia simplemente para eludir el pago del pasaje.

Así, el origen socioprofesional fue variado, pues prácti­camente se traslada a América toda la sociedad española, aun­que hay que destacar que los polos de la sociedad, tanto los pobres como la aristocracia, no viajaron. Los primeros, debi­do a sus limitados recursos económicos, pues no podían hacer frente a los altos costos que el viaje suponía. Los segundos estarán más interesados en permanecer cerca de la corte ma­drileña, y sólo partirán hacia el Nuevo Mundo si se les conce­den altos cargos políticos.

Por otra parte, la consolidación de los grupos nobiliarios en América no se produce hasta principios del siglo XVII, pues la Corona en el XVI apenas concedió títulos de nobleza, a excepción de los otorgados a Pizarra, Hernán Cortés, Colón y su hijo. De este modo, se ha veni­do considerado a la sociedad americana acéfala, pues no tiene cúspide, ya que la diferencia entre nobles y plebeyos no existe en América, pues por el simple hecho de ser espa­ñol no se pagaban impuestos a la Corona.

Entre las profesiones de los emigrantes extremeños es de destacar la labor realizada por colonizadores, explo­tadores, religiosos, arquitectos, maestros de obras y cante­ros, sobre todo trujillanos, cuya obra aún perdura, se con­templa y se extiende como un auténtico trasplante a las Indias de gran parte de la región extremeña. (4)

 

(4) Es muy de destacar la labor de Diego de Noreda, el primero que pasó a las Indias en 1514, seguido del gran constructor Francisco Becerra y sus discípulos Martín Casillas, Alonso Pablo y Jerónimo Hernández, entre muchos otros.

 

 Las mujeres tampoco dejaron de embarcarse para re­unirse con sus esposos o, en el caso de solteras o viudas, para buscar una mejor situación económica y tal vez senti­mental. No debemos pasar por alto a los mercaderes y co­merciantes, entre los que se incluyen a extranjeros, que ob­tuvieron pingües beneficios con sus negocios.

 

Otros pobladores fueron los esclavos africanos ne­gros y filipinos, si bien Felipe II prohibió la trata de estos últimos.

Antes de continuar, hay que matizar que la emigra­ción española no supuso una salida forzada, sino que fue voluntaria, al mismo tiempo que no fue una emigración espontánea, ya que el paso a América estuvo reglamentado por numerosas leyes que imponían una serie de limitacio­nes a la hora de marchar al Nuevo Mundo, tanto de carác­ter político, pues se intentaba salvaguardar la integridad de los territorios impidiendo que personas que no fueran súbditos de la Corona viajasen a América, como de carác­ter religioso e ideológico, buscando conseguir una integri­dad étnica, religiosa, ideológica y cultural.

De este modo, el "emigrante ideal o tipo n debía ser un cristiano viejo, es decir, debía de pertenecer a una fami­lia cristiana con una antigüedad mayor de 200 años; y una persona de buenas costumbres. Estos requisitos debían de­mostrarse documentalmente por medio de una informa­ción de limpieza de sangre, que se expedía en el lugar de origen del emigrante.

Además, el movimiento migratorio requería un permiso que controlaba a los viajeros proveyéndolos de una autoriza­ción regia "por que sepan las personas que van e de que cali­dad e oficio son cada una de ellas") según se desprende de las órdenes que los Reyes Católicos dieron ya en el segundo viaje a Colón. Previamente la persona que pretendía iniciar el viaje debía de formalizar una petición de licencia pulsada a la Co­rona en la que se especificaban lo motivos que le movían a hacer el viaje. Las razones que se solían alegar era la existencia de algún pariente en América o la pobreza en la que vivían en España.

Tras la creación en Sevilla de la Casa de Contratación en 1503, este organismo será el encargado de vigilar y expedir los permisos, inscribiendo a los pasajeros en un registro en el que se indicaba el oficio. Si bien, hay que señalar que según las necesidades coloniales, el control de la veracidad de lo regis­trado no era muy riguroso, por lo que en muchas ocasiones las especialidades no se correspondían con lo que figuraba en el registro. Así Carlos V se vio obligado a conceder una licencia más amplia a fin de que se poblaran las Indias, sobre todo desde el descubrimiento del Perú, para explotar sus numerosas riquezas, lo que dio lugar al despob1amiento de las Antillas. Sin embargo Felipe III recortará las licencias por la despob1ación que en España, sobre todo en Extremadura y Andalucía causaba la emigración.

La Casa de Contratación tenía la tarea de impedir que pasaran a las Indias determinadas clases sociales como:

--  Judíos que no abrazaron la fe cristiana.

--  Los moros que no se bautizaron en el reino de Gra­nada.

--  Estas prohibiciones también se extendieron a los judíos y moros conversos, para no

     poner en peligro la evangelización, así como a los cristianos nuevos cuyos

     ascendientes no se hubieran convertido al cris­tianismo hacía al menos 200 años.

--  También se prohibía el embarque a los perseguidos por la Inquisición como herejes. 

     Para evitar falsifi­caciones en los testimonios se exige en 1552 un certificado de

    "cristiano viejo JJ expedido por las autoridades locales. Ya en 1502 los Reyes

    Católi­cos ordena a Ovando que no consienta en La Espa­ñola a "moros, judíos,

    herejes, ni reconciliados ni personas nuevamente convertidos a nuestra fe". Esta

   disposición contradice la de Fernando el Católico dada en 1511 a la Casa de

   Contratación para que dejen pasar a los "[...] naturales, vezinos y morado­res de estos

   reinos que quisieren ir a ellas, sin pedir­les información [...] por facilitarles el pasage, res­

  pecto al deseo que tenía de que las Indias se pobla­sen y ennobleciesen 10 que se

  pudiere".

-- Los gitanos, aunque muchos llegaron a América vía Portugal y Brasil, lo que motivó

    que Felipe II ordenara su regreso a España.

--Los presidiarios, aunque en un principio fueron reclutados como soldados y

   colonizadores, tampoco fueron autorizados a viajar al Nuevo Mundo posteriormente.

-- Los extranjeros, pues además de hacer competencia a los comerciantes españoles,

    podían fomentar la difusión de doctrinas luteranas. Excepcionalmente se concedieron

   algunos permisos otorgados a cier­tos técnicos, navegantes y religiosos para que

   cris­tianizaran los territorios que los misioneros espa­ñoles no podían atender. Otro de

   los mecanismos que explica la presencia de extranjeros es la carta de naturalización así

   como el pago de una suma de dinero en momentos de apuros económicos de la

   corona, la composición.

 

 Muchos delincuentes, pícaros, holgazanes y vagabun­dos que lograron llegar, fueron trasladados a la metrópoli por Orden Real.

Sin embargo, es conveniente matizar que el control que se hizo, fue alterado por distintos motivos como el soborno a fun­cionarios, la escasez de marineros, la venta de licencias para llevar sirvientes, la falsificación de permisos de emigración o el embar­que desde otros puertos como Canarias donde los controles eran menores. En ocasiones también se llegaba a falsificar la descrip­ción fisica del emigrante en el informe personal, en el que se incluía el nombre, edad, estado civil y una descripción muy ex­haustiva del rostro para evitar suplantaciones: a Alonso García de Cáceres en 1576 se le describe así como una persona "[...] de mediano cuerpo, mellado de dambos dientes de la lumbre de arriba e una señal por cima de la ceja yzquierda que paresce aver sido allí herido de muy muchacho e ha sido e tiene su rrostro un poco pecoso de viruelas:' (5)

 

(5) Según señala R. Sánchez Rubio

          

La Corona por lo tanto no pudo evitar que se desobedecieran sus ordenanzas, a pesar de establecer incluso penas de muerte, y aunque a la llegada se revisaban las listas de embar­que, también se eludía ese control.

En definitiva, la legislación migratoria lo que procura­ba es que América se poblara de colonos útiles y dignos de confianza, sobre todo de familias de campesinos y artesanos, en los que en ocasiones se les regalaba el pasaje, sin que ello les obligara a permanecer por la fuerza con los hacendados, care­ciendo de validez jurídica cualquier obligación que el emi­grante contrajera con los patronos americanos.

La presencia en la conquista del vagabundo y otros aven­tureros y el empeño de la Corona por evitar que eso se propa­gase al Nuevo Mundo, originó una legislación en pro de la emigración de mujeres hacia las Indias Occidentales, fomentándose la partida de familias, exigiéndose en los pri­meros contratos de colonización que "los emigrantes fueran casados y llegaran con sus familias completas:'

Así, Carlos V prohibió en 1530 que los casados fueran a América sin sus mujeres, lo que obligó a la Casa de Contra­tación a averiguar si las acompañantes eran esposas o amantes, pues muchos dejaban a sus mujeres en España:

 

Declaramos por personas prohibidas para pasar o embarcarse en las Indias, a todos los casados y desposados de estos reynos, si no lle­vasen consigo a sus mujeres, aunque sean Virreyes Oidores, Gober­nadores o nos fuesen a servir en cualquier cargos y oficios[...]

 

También Carlos V obligó a los casados a volver a Es­paña a por sus mujeres o no retornar más. Por el contrario, a las mujeres solteras, a las que se les ofrecían buenas posibilida­des de matrimonio, se les facilitaba la emigración, permitién­dose el embarque sin la licencia real. Sin embargo, Felipe II por orden dada en 1575 suprimió tales licencias porque en el Perú se quejaban de que "llegaban allí demasiadas mujeres disolutas", procurando que no arribaran mujeres de vida li­cenciosa.

           Sin embargo, hay que tener en cuenta que todas es­tas normativas la mayoría de las veces eran desatendidas, de ahí la importancia de la emigración ilegal, que dificulta establecer un número preciso de extremeños que partieron hacia América.

Con todo este bagaje y teniendo en cuenta las lagunas in­formativas de los "Libros de asientos de pasajeros" y las "Infor­maciones y Licencias de pasajeros de la Casa de Contratación", R. Konetzke estima que según los promedios de los asientos en el Catálogo de 1534 a 1538 serían unas 1,500 personas, que uni­dos a la fragmentación de las Actas y los emigrantes ilegales, pueden suponer un montante anual de 2,000 a 3,000 viajeros, según lo cual, durante el siglo XVI podrían haber viajado unas 300,000 personas, de las cuales una parte sólo permaneció aquí transitoriamente, estimándose por N. Sánchez Albornoz, que la población asentada en América a finales del siglo XVI fue de unas 150,000, coincidiendo con el cosmógrafo J. López Velasco quien afirma en su Geografía y descripción universal de las Indias que había 225 ciudades y villas de españoles, en las que residían 23,000 vecinos que a 6 por cabeza, equivale a la cifra estimada por Sánchez Albornoz.

Konetzke determina también la procedencia regional para los años 1509 a 1534, en los que según el catálogo aparecen los nombres de 7,64 1 emigrantes, siendo los más numerosos de procedencia andaluza, seguidos por extremeños.

Así, Boyd-Bowman, partiendo de documentos públi­cos y privados, afirma que fueron 56,000 los que emigraron en el siglo XVI. De los 5,481 entre 1493-1519, los más nu­merosos fueron los andaluces (36,9%), seguidos de los extre­meños de Badajoz y Cáceres (16,4%). A continuación se sitúa Castilla la Nueva con un 15,6%, Castilla la Vieja con un 14%, Y León con un 4%. Estas zonas de España aportan casi el 90% de las personas que marchan buscando mejores posibilida­des de vida, mientras que el resto de las regiones no tienen una presencia significativa. Este investigador también con­tabiliza 141 emigrantes de origen extranjero, sobre todo portugueses e italianos.

Entre las provincias actuales, las más representativas son

Sevilla, Badajoz, Toledo, Cáceres y Valladolid que envían el 50% de los emigrantes a América, aunque hay que matizar que las cifras dadas para la localidad sevillana, estimadas en unos 10,000 emigrantes, están considerablemente abultadas, pues al llegar para embarcar se permanecía en la ciudad por un largo período de tiempo, por lo que en ocasiones se decla­raban vecinos de esta población.

Ya dentro de las ciudades, destacan, con más de 200 emigrantes a América, Sevilla, Toledo, Trujillo, Salamanca, Madrid, Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz), Cáceres... y así hasta 32 ciudades, que representan el 60% de las localida­des que más vecinos aportan al Nuevo Mundo, lo que pone de manifiesto el origen urbano de los emigrantes, que va a tener una gran relevancia a la hora de determinar su ocu­pación laboral.

En este fenómeno tiene un gran significado la impor­tancia de las vías de comunicación, destacando en Extremadura la Ruta de la Plata, que lleva directamente a Sevilla, principal puerto de embarque a lo largo del siglo XVI. A medida que nos desplazamos hacia el Sur, las localidades que aportan más emigrantes son más numerosas, pues están situadas más cerca de Sevilla. La otra vía importante es la que comunica la región extre­meña con Madrid, lugar donde debía gestionarse la licencia de embarque.

­

 

4.  PRINCIPALES DESTINOS

 

La marcha fue un camino duro y lleno de dificultades, lo que aconsejaba para mitigarlo en lo posible, realizarlo en compañía. Esto motivó que los lugares a los que se dirigían, que también podía ser penoso por lo desconocido, agruparan a familias, ami­gos y conocidos para ayudarse en la consecución de sus objetivos y para paliar en cierto modo la añoranza de la tierra natal, según vemos en las cartas de los emigrantes (Carta 3).

Como consecuencia, toda la geografía americana conoció el establecimiento de extremeños que, abandonando sus lugares de origen buscaban un futuro más alentador en el Nuevo Mundo.

El modelo migratorio que se lleva a cabo va a desembocar en una sociedad ordenada en base a vínculos de cohesión y depen­dencia, donde el criterio de origen intervenía como elemento estructurador de la república de los españo1es (6), grupo que incluía a todos aquellos que hablaban bien castellano, vestían como los españoles y se comportaban según las costumbres españolas.

 

(6) Desde el siglo XVI se crea en América una sociedad dual mediante la separación de dos estratos, conquistadores y conquistados. Estas dos sociedades están separadas y cada una tiene su propia legislación. En un principio la Corona considera que estas dos realidades deben vivir unidas para que los conquistadores" civilicen" a los indios, pero se arrepiente por los abusos de los conquistadores y la disminución de la población indígena debido a las enfermedades.

 

 

         Los prejuicios de este estrato social con respecto al resto de los grupos de mezcla irán aumentando con el tiempo, hasta el punto de desembocar en una endogamia racial para defender sus privile­gios y afirmarse como etnia.

Así, el asentamiento en América en grupos de paisanaje se dio desde el primer momento, pues quien emigra prefería iniciar la empresa entre sus vecinos, buscando la compañía y seguridad de rodearse de gente de su entorno. Además, se ga­rantizaba el mantenimiento de los lazos y comunicación con el lugar de origen.

Por otra parte, hay que señalar la gran utilidad de la existencia de estos círculos de relaciones en cualquier tipo de gestión que necesitase el apoyo de testigos, pues en estas oca­siones los que comparecían eran los convecinos, o en cualquier otra actividad que exigiera un mayor grado de confianza como es el envío de dinero o la protección de familiares o la verifi­cación de testamentos.

Hay que matizar que el sentido único del establecimiento de estas redes de vínculos radica en la defensa conjunta de intere­ses comunes, pues se actuaba como una oligarquía en la que cada cierto tiempo se producían incorporaciones de españoles, necesa­rias para mantener la pureza del ser español.

Por otra parte, la existencia de fuertes vinculaciones fami­liares y la proliferación de colonias de conciudadanos son ele­mentos indispensables a la hora de abordar el tema de la distribu­ción de la propiedad y el poder en la sociedad colonial, pues se conocieron niveles importantes de endogamia y concentración de la propiedad, ya que el emigrante se va a insertar en una sociedad dual que separará claramente a los españoles y a los indios, dando lugar a la "república de los españoles", de carácter estamental aunque sin diferenciación entre nobles y plebeyos, pues simple­mente por el hecho de ser español no se pagaban impuestos.


Así, grupos de vecinos que bien emprendían la mar­cha juntos o se reunían en lugares determinados, hicieron posible que toda la geografía americana, desde Florida y California hasta Tierra de Fuego supiera de la presencia extremeña.

Son los territorios y las nuevas ciudades fundadas por ex­tremeños, tales como Ovando en la Española, Alvarado en Cen­tro y Sudamérica, Valdivia en Chile, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, descubridor del mar del Sur o Pacífico en Panamá, Hernando de Soto en Florida, Orellana en Perú y la Amazonía, los que se convirtieron en los principales lugares de destino.

Pero sobre todo fueron Nueva España y Perú, con más del 50% ambas, los principales focos de atracción, debido a que fueron las zonas mejor y más rápidamente hispanizadas (7). Con sus dos capitales de virreinato, México, cuya traza levantaría García Bravo por encargo de Cortés en la antigua Tenochtitlán, y la Ciu­dad de los Reyes, Lima, a cuya fundación el 18 de enero de 1535 acude el propio Marqués Francisco Pizarro, que con anteriori­dad había erigido San Miguel de Piura, la primera en este reino y donde" se hizo el primer templo a honra de Dios Nuestro Se­ñor" (8) según narra el cronista extremeño Pedro Cieza de León.

 

(7) Tal como señalan R. Sánchez Rubio e   I. Testón Núñez.

(8) P. Cieza de León, Crónica del Perú.

 

Tanto México como Perú, y el resto de las ciudades serán fiel reflejo de las españolas, y debido a la disponibilidad de espa­cio y por ser de nueva construcción adquirieron una uniformidad no posible en los viejos núcleos peninsulares, pues siguen las indi­caciones de Fernando "el Católico" a Pedrarias Dávila en 1513 y las posteriores ordenanzas urbanas de Felipe II en 1573. Estas ordenanzas recomendaban que las ciudades "se tracen a cordel y regla, comenzando desde la plaza mayor"(9). A ellas se transplantaron tradiciones, costumbres, juegos, fiestas religio­sas y profanas por los emigrantes, famosos o desconocidos, que atravesando el Atlántico se instalaron en nuevas tierras donde rehicieron sus vidas y haciendas.

 

(9) Felipe II,  Ordenanza 113. Miguel Rojas Mix, La plaza mayor. El urbanismo. Instrumento de dominio colonial, Muchnik Editores, Barcelona, 1978.

 

5. HÉROES DE LA MAR

 

Durante los siglos XV al XVIII adentrarse en la mar océa­no era una verdadera aventura que comenzaba en la tierra natal del viajero, hasta llegar a Sevilla o Cádiz, puntos de embarque, dados los escasos medios de la época y la dificul­tad de los recorridos, que incluso se realizaban a pie(10), y que continuaba con los peligros y penurias que había que sufrir una vez embarcados.

 

(10) Según relata Fray Tomás de la Torre algunos dominicos tardaron 33 días en trasladarse de Salamanca a Sevilla.

 

Una vez obtenido el permiso de la Corona había que conseguir un pasaje, que a finales del siglo XVI costa­ba 20 ducados de plata para toda clase y condición social, si bien a principios del siglo XVII se pagaba el aviamiento, vestuario y matalotaje a los religiosos, ya que , “los pasaje­ros han de prevenir, embarcar y llevar todo el matalotaje y bastimento que pudiera menester para el viaje, suficiente para sus personas, criados y familias".

El aprovisionamiento de la población estaba a cargo de los proveedores y era repartido y administrado por los maestres de raciones. El agua, escasa, era común para todos.

Como los barcos eran pequeños y su mayor espacio se dedicaba a mercancías, tripulación y aprovisionamiento, se de­duce que las provisiones y equipajes de los pasajeros no serían grandes.

Teniendo en cuenta la mentalidad y religiosidad de la época, se recomendaba antes del viaje la confesión y la comunión, así como resolver los pleitos, deudas, hacer testamento, y celebrar misa antes y después del viaje para prepararse ante los peligros y agradecer a Dios una buena travesía:

 es saludable consejo que el curioso mareante ocho o quince días antes que se embarque procure de alimpiar y evacuar el cuerpo, ora sea con miel rosada [...] porque naturalmente la mar muy más piadosamente se ha con los estómagos vacío que con los repletos de humores malos.(11)

 

(11)  Fray A. Vázquez Espinosa, citado en la obra de J. L. Martínez.

 

De esta forma comenzaba otra aventura, distinta de las anteriores para llegar a Sevilla, obtener los permisos y pa­saje, además de la preparación de todo 10 preciso para el via­je, que suponía adaptarse a una nueva y dura forma de vida en el barco durante 2 ó 3 meses.

El primer enfrentamiento era con el océano y los mareos que el movimiento del barco producía, tal como señala Eugenio Salazar en sus cartas:

donde entrando la fuerza del mar, hizo tanta violencia en nuestros estómagos y cabezas, que padres e hijos, viejos y mozos quedamos del color de los difuntos y comenzamos a dar por el alma y juntamente a lanzar por la boca todo lo que por ella había entrado.

 

Superado esto, el emigrante comenzaba a percibir lo que le rodeaba: malos olores, suciedad y estrecheces. También tenía que buscar un lugar seguro para las pertenencias y vigiladas continua­mente por los robos, además de espacio para situarse en el barco, a veces entre animales sujetos por un sistema especial.

Una vez situado tenía que satisfacer las necesidades fí­sicas, comenzando por comer, siendo al mediodía la única comida caliente que podía realizarse, y si el despensero lo permitía: "[...] es privilegio de Galera que ninguno no sea osado de ir a aderezar de comer cuando le hubiere gana [...] si primero no tiene tomada amistad con el cocinero" (12). Con re­ferencia al agua, su calidad tampoco era digna de mención, pues Salazar dice que" era necesario perder gusto, olfato y vista para poder beberla sin sentirla".

 

(12) Tal como señala Guevara.

 

Pero si incomodidades tenía la comida y el agua ello no era comparable con las que comportaba satisfacer el resto de las necesidades físicas: "[...] todo pasajero que quisiere purgar el vientre [...] y lo que sin vergüenza no se puede dezir ni mucho menos hacer tan públicamente, le han de ver todos asentado en la necesaria como le vieron comer en la mesa" (13).

 

(13) Según relata fray Antonio de Guevara en op. cit.  

El dormir también tenía sus dificultades ya que el que disponía de una colchoneta tendría que encontrar lugar para extenderla y el que no, se tenía que acurrucar en algún rincón de la cubierta, todo ello unido al balanceo del barco, los ma­los olores, el constante voceo de los pajes, los chinches, piojos, 1irones, ratones y pulgas que hacían más incómoda la navega­ción. Salazar relata: "[...]hombres, mujeres, mozos y viejos, sucios y limpios, todos van hechos una mololoa y mazamorra, pegados unos con otros[...]"

En esta situación, pensamos que la mente de los viaje­ros estaría más ocupada en el deseo por sobrevivir que en dis­traerse para olvidar estas penurias, sin embargo J. L. Martínez indica que se realizaban peleas de gallos con las aves de corral que se llevaban, además de hablar, leer, jugar y las celebraciones religiosas que frecuentemente se realizaban por los peli­gros que acechaban: enfermedades, ataques de los piratas, pla­gas y tormentas.

Pero a pesar de todos estos inconvenientes, si no apare­cía ninguna enfermedad podría darse gracias a Dios, siendo entre ellas la más frecuente el escorbuto descrita por Pigaffeta: "Nuestra mayor desdicha era el vemos atacados de una enfer­medad por la cual las encías se hinchaban hasta el punto de sobrepasar los dientes, tanto de la mandíbula superior como de la inferior, y los atacados por ella no podían tomar ningún alimento” (14)

 

(14) Según relata en la "Travesía de Magallanes por el Pacífico".

 

Finalmente podemos citar como otro gran peligro el de la piratería, cuyos ataques a los barcos españoles tenían como objetivo las mercancías y objetos de valor de los pasajeros, de ahí que Carlos V en 1524 para que los barcos hacia las Indias navegaran en convoy y bajo protección. Ello obligaba a pro­veerse 4e cañones y armas, sin embargo esto se descuidaba con frecuencia con el fin de llevar más mercancías, lo que creaba situaciones no muy deseadas.

 

 

8. APÉNDICES

 

Carta 1

Alonso Morales a su primo Juan Ramiro, en Trujillo.

Puebla, 20-11-1576

 

Señor hermano:

 

[...] así que me haréis muy gran placer de quietaros desa miseria y veniros acá, porque para vos será provechoso y para mi muy gran contento veros en esta tierra, [...] Hacedme tanto placer que os vengáis con el que las cartas lleva, que es compa­dre de vuestro hermano, y se dice Francisco Márquez, porque a él se 10 hemos encargado yo y vuestro her­mano. [...]

ALONSO MORALES  

 

Carta 2

Alonso Ortiz a su mujer Leonor Gonzá1ez, en Zafra

México, 08-03-1576

 

Señora mía:

 

La presente es para por ella os rogar que hagas por mi vos y vuestros hermanos solteros [...] señora recibiré por muy gran merced que, vistas estas cartas, que os determineis luego a aviar vuestro viaje, y de que se venga Melchor Gonzá1ez a Sevilla, y allí hallará ciento cincuenta pesos de oro común [...] porque lo determines y que vengas, porque si no ve­nís perderán mucho vuestros hijos y míos, y también porque se acabe más aína mi soledad y pena, porque es muy grande [...]

México en el barrio de San Pablo en la tenería de Ronda, donde quedo bueno de salud, sea Dios loado, amén. Vuestro soy y a vuestro servicio quedo.  

ALONSO ORTIZ

 

Carta 3

Alonso González a su hermano Juan Rubio, en Trujillo.

México, 08-03-1578

 

Señor hermano:

 

Esta flota pasada escribí una carta con un criado de Gonzalo de las Casas, en la cual 1e dije cómo había llegado bueno, bendito Dios, aunque había llegado harto fatigado y aquí he hallado buen refrigerio, donde gano de comer. Y no he habido res­puesta, dame mucha pesadumbre dejaros con tanta pobreza y no poder remediado de presente [...]

Envíole [...] cuarenta y dos ducados del pedazo de casa que le vendí y con la demás hacendilla que dispondrá se podrán venir él y Juan Gozález, mi hermana y mis sobrinos que será salir de ruín tierra [...] véngase con la primera armada en todo caso, y procure venir con el más contentamiento que pudieren, y si saliere gente de la tierra, vengase en su compañía.

De México y de marzo 8, 1578 años, servidor de v.m. su hermano  

ALONSO GONZÁLEZ, CLÉRIGO

 

Carta 4

Francisco González de Castro a Diego Jiménez y Juana González en la ciudad de Trujillo, en los portales de la pla­za en Extremadura

 

Santa Marta, 5.ILI568 Muy magníficos señores:

 

[...] Ahí os envío un pedazo de oro de ley [...] Esto recibirán vs.mds. para ayuda a casar sus hi­jas.

 

[...] Si vs.mds. me enviaren su hijo, traiganlé a Sevilla, y entreguenle a éste a Juan Anto­nio, que digo que éste, le pasará acá y traerá a donde yo estoy, ...y envienme con él dos docenas de perniles que sean buenos y tres o cuatros arrobas de queso de la tierra [...]

De Santa Marta, hoy cinco de febrero de este presente año de mil y quinientos y sesenta y ocho años, besa las manos de vs. mds.  

FRANCISCO GONZÁLEZ DE CASTRO

 

Carta 5

Antonio Mateos a su mujer María Pérez, en Alcuescar

Puebla, 27.XII.I558

 

Muy deseada señora mujer:

 

Habrá año y medio que os escribí, de­seando mucho saber de vos y de vuestra salud, y de mi hijo Aotón Mateos [...] en que por ella os avisaba cómo con Juan de Ocampos os envié cincuenta ducados [...], pensando que viniérades acá, y con este deseo de vues­tra venida fuime a Valle de Adixco [...], para que allí acabáramos nuestra vida [...]

De esta ciudad de Los Ángeles, día de San Juan de 1558 años, ado quedo.  

ANTONIO MATEOS


Carta
6

Andrés Pérez Maturanga a su hermano Francisco Gutiérrez) en Alburquerque, y por su ausencia al señor Antonio Gutiérrez en la villa de Cáceres.

Puebla, 8.VIII.I559

 

Señor hermano:

 

Hemos recibido una carta de v.m. y otra  con placer que recibimos con ella que, primero que la le­yésemos nos hartamos de llorar en saber que erais vivo.

[...] en Sevilla os darán cincuenta du­cados un mercader que se dice Nusio de Colindes [...], os podéis venir a Sevilla y ahí os darán los cincuenta ducados, y allí os enviará mi hermano conque vengáis vos y la señora vuestra mujer e hijos [...] acá a esta tierra y estemos todos juntos.

[...]que le traiga a esta tierra antes que yo me muera [...] De esta ciudad de Los Ángeles de la Nueva España, a 8 días del més de Agosto de milquinientos cincuenta y nueve años, do quedo al servicio de vuestra merced.  

ANDRÉS PÉREZ MATURANGA

 

   

BIBLIOGRAFÍA

 

Boyd-Bowman, P., "La emigración extremeña a América en el siglo XVI", en Revista de Estudios Extremeños, XLN, 1988.

Guevara, Fray Antonio de, LIbro de los inventores del arte de marear y de muchos trabajos que se pasan en las galeras, Valladolid, 1539. Fuente citada por J. L. Martínez.

Hernández Bermejo, Ma. A., Santillana, M., Testón, 1., El contexto familiar de la emigración extremeña a Indias en el siglo XVI, Universidad de Extremadura, Historia de la Baja Extremadura, Hoy, Badajoz, I986.

 Martínez, J. L., Pasajeros de Indias, Alianza Editorial, Ma­drid, I983.

Ortiz de la Tabla, J., Emigracion a Indias y fundacion decapellanías en Guadalcanal.  I Jornadas de Andalucía y América I, Huelva, I98I.

Otte, E., Cartas privadas de emigrantes a Indias, Sevilla,1983.

Pereira, J. L. y Rodríguez, M., Emigracion extremeña a las indias en el siglo XVI, (Catálogos de pasajeros).

Pérez Mallaina, P. E., Los hombres del océano. Vida coti­diana de los tripulantes de las Botas de Indias. Siglo XVI, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevillal Sevilla, 1992.

Pigaffeta, Travesía de Magallanes por el Pacífico. Recopilación de las Leyes de los Reinos de Indias, Libro IX, T. IV, títulos 26 y 27, Ediciones de Cultura Hispá­nica, Madrid, 1973.

Salazar, E. de, La mar descrita por los mareados. 1573. .... Carta escrita al licenciado Miranda de Ron.......en que pinta un navío y cómo lo pasan los que hacen viajes por el mar. Fuente citada por J. L. Martínez.

Sánchez Rubio, R., Emigración en Extremadura y Amérca. I. Encuentro entre dos mundos, vol. III Parte emigra­ción. I Política migratoria de la Corona, Hoy, Badajoz.

Testón Núñez, I., La mujer en la Extremadura del siglo XVI,          Mérida, 1980.

Vázquez de Espinoza, fray A, «Tratado Verdadero del via­je y navegación que este año de seiscientos e veinte e dos que hizo la flota de Nueva España y Honduras...)), en Revista de indias, n° 36, enero-junio, 1976.

Vicens Vives, V. Historia de España y América social y económica, vol. III, Barcelona, 1978.


Emigración extremeña en tiempos de la Colonia

Por  Ana Belén Paniagua Lourtau

Universidad de Extremadura, España.

 

Publicado en: DOCIENSO

Revista del Doctorado Interinstitucional en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades

AÑO 1 NÚMERO 2 ENERO - JUNIO 2002

Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes

Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana

 

 Enviado por Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza
cherrera1951@hotmail.com

 

I.1.  INTRODUCCIÓN

A fines del siglo XVI, España vive un momento glorioso como potencia política, militar y cultural. En1492 termina la Reconquista, que tanto influyó en la conformación del ser hispano.  El 12 de octubre de ese mismo año, Colón entrega un nuevo mundo a la corona, y los Reyes Católicos organizan un Estado moderno, echando las bases del Imperio. Pero ya en el siglo XVI, la economía comienza a debilitarse por los conflictos con Francia, el papado, los turcos y protestantes, que dieron lugar a grandes y costosas guerras en las que se invierte el oro americano. 
      La juventud con gran patriotismo se enrola en los famosos tercios españoles que se pasean triunfantes por Europa. Todas las clases sociales buscando fama, riquezas y aventuras o con ánimo de evangelización y espíritu misionero se embarcan hacia América - hidalgos, caballeros, clero y pueblo, sin olvidar a los pícaros y delincuentes.

Así se abría la expansión ultramarina de España, a la que Extremadura aportó gran parte de sus hombres.

Hasta aquí la imagen mitificada e idealizada que todos hemos aprendido, pero nada más lejos de la realidad, una realidad que obligará a andaluces, castellanos y sobre todo a extremeños a abandonar sus hogares y marchar al Nuevo Mundo en busca de mejores expectativas de vida.

La Extremadura del siglo XVI que dejan atrás se caracteriza por una fuerte base agraria, que apenas deja actuación a los ámbitos artesanales y comerciales. Además el campo estaba marcado por una gran concentración de la propiedad siendo los nobles y caballeros los que recibían la mayor parte de los beneficios generados que invertían en gastos suntuarios, a lo que hay que añadir las dificultades del campesinado para acceder a la tierra, por lo que optarán por la roturación de tierras incultas, ocupando espacios comunales. El bajo poder adquisitivo era otra de las características de la población extremeña, una población que en esta centuria va a experimentar un crecimiento más tardío y menos significativo que en el resto de España debido a las continuas y fuertes crisis agrarias y a las numerosas epidemias que hacían estragos entre los habitantes.

Por otra parte, el comercio y la artesanía estaban relacionados con las necesidades básicas de la población, y la producción no era suficiente como para cubrir la demanda, lo que hacía necesaria la importación de determinados productos.

 

2.  EMIGRANTES

La necesidad de abandonar una miserable vida y la esperanza de conseguir unas posibilidades económicas razonables (Carta 1), son parte de los factores que explican y permiten comprender la emigración extremeña a Indias.

La emigración se convierte en una experiencia difícil tanto por las distancias como por el hecho de enfrentarse a un espacio desconocido, de ahí que la emigración adquiriera un carácter co­lectivo, buscándose la compañía de familiares para realizar el viaje y adaptarse al nuevo entorno. En definitiva, se trata de emprender una nueva vida en compañía.

Dentro de este fenómeno de migración, la emigración familiar alcanza tal proporción que se convierte en un modelo específico, con rasgos particulares y distintivos del período moderno. Si bien durante la primera mitad del siglo XVI, cuando se llevan a cabo las grandes conquistas del Nuevo Mundo, hay un predominio de salidas indivi­duales, será en la segunda mitad de la centuria cuando emi­gren unidades familiares, en un momento de descubrimien­to, conquista y colonización de inmensos territorios, don­de será necesario favorecer una estabilidad y continuidad poblacional.

Así, tal como ha señalado R. Sánchez Rubio, el 50% de los emigrantes del siglo XVI se embarca en compañía de uno o más miembros de su familia, tal como aparece reflejado en los libros de asientos y pasajeros. Además, el embarque conjunto por lazos familiares no supera el 24% de las salidas realizadas entre 1509 y 1555, mientras que en la segunda mitad de la centuria supondrá un 61%.

Este desajuste entre ambas etapas también ha sido estudia­do por el profesor Pereira, el cual establece las siguientes relacio­nes entre la emigración familiar extremeña y los datos globales de viajeros de Extremadura a América, arrojando unos porcentajes del 11.1 % para la primera etapa y del 63,5% para la segunda, siendo a partir de 1554 cuando se observa realmente esta diferencia, coincidiendo con la obligación de la Corona de que los maridos viajen acompañados por sus esposas, tal y como podemos observar en los datos que a continuación se presentan:

 

 

                       Tabla 1

     Salidas de emigrantes extremeños

 

                Decenio                         Personas

                         1509-1519 ------------------  77

                              1520-1529 ------------------  32

                         1530-1539 ------------------ 144

                         1540-1549 ------------------   25

                         1550-1559 ------------------  503

                         1560-1569 ------------------ 1135

                         1570-1579 ------------------ 1009

                         1580-1589 ------------------ 316

                         1590-1599 ------------------  83

 

                         Fuente: Catálogos de pasajeros del Archivo de Indias

    

 

    En el cuadro se observa un claro aumento del número de emigrantes a partir de 1540, lo que en cierto modo se puede explicar por la creciente información que sobre Indias iban recibiendo los extremeños, pero sobre todo por la normativa adoptada por Carlos V que prohibe a los maridos viajar sin sus esposas.

Este patrón de emigración desarrollado en Extremadura y caracterizado por la relevancia de los grupos familiares es igualmente válido y se puede aplicar al fenómeno llevado a cabo en Andalucía y Castilla a lo largo de este mismo siglo.

Sin embargo, este modelo se trunca a mediados del siglo XVII, momento en que la composición de la emigración es simi­lar a la de comienzos de la época colonial, destacando de nuevo los varones, que en numerosas ocasiones terminarán casándose con criollas, factor de gran importancia en el mestizaje. En estos años se irán incorporando las zonas costeras cantábricas, que muy lentamente irán sustituyendo a las regiones interiores, como prin­cipales aportadoras de hombres a la colonización del Nuevo Mundo.

De nuevo el siglo XVIII va a conocer la salida de familias, principalmente gallegas y canarias, hacia tierras americanas, siguiendo las directrices marcadas por la política poblacionista de la corona, pues se intentan poblar zonas marginales como la Patagonia, el Río de la Plata, etc., que hasta entonces habían estado olvidadas.

Antes de continuar, es necesario matizar lo que se entiende por emigración familiar; pues bajo esta denominación se incluyen dos realidades bien distintas: por un lado podemos citar a los individuos que parten primero e inician el camino para que otros familiares les sigan hasta el Nuevo Mundo, mientras que en otras ocasiones será la unidad familiar, de diversa composición y di­mensión, la que marche buscando nuevas oportunidades.

Ambas manifestaciones ponen en evidencia el peso que la estructura familiar tuvo en el proceso migratorio, que supuso la puesta en marcha de unas personas que buscan una vía de susten­to más digna y sobre todo más llevadera,  lo que en principio hacen de forma aislada, implicando a los menos miembros posi­bles de la familia en tan arriesgada aventura.

 Existen por lo tanto distintos modelos de emigración familiar, pero el más común se centra en la familia nuclear, compuesta por un matrimonio con o sin hijos. De esta forma, el 70% de las migraciones tendrá como protagonista a la pa­reja, caracterizada por la juventud de sus integrantes, pues la edad de los hombres se sitúa en torno a los 20 años mientras que la de las mujeres se reduce a los 15. Estos matrimonios viajarán normalmente con sus hijos, cuyo número dependerá de la edad de la pareja, y si bien el número es muy variado, la media establecida para este período es de 2,7 hijos por fami­lia, tal como señala Rocío Sánchez Rubio, aunque son muy comunes las familias numerosas o las que sólo viajan con uno o dos hijos, que en ocasiones pueden ser fruto de distintos matrimonios.

 

                                       Tabla 2

                                         Clasificación de las familias según el número de hijos

 

                                                          No. de hijos                           Familias

                                                         1    -------------------------   151

                                                         2 ---------------------------    111

                                                         3 ---------------------------     82

                                                         4  --------------------------     36

                                                         5  --------------------------     21

                                                         6  --------------------------     12

                                                         7  --------------------------      3

                                                         8  --------------------------      3

                                                         9  --------------------------      1

 

 

                                                            Fuente: Archivo General de Indias. Contratación.

 

En cuanto a la edad de los vástagos, podemos afirmar que el 24,6% de la emigración global es menor de 15 años, lo que evidencia el peso de la población infantil en la emigración.

 

    

 

                                                                 Tabla 3

                                              Edades de lo menores de 15 años

 

                                             Edad en años                           Individuos

                                             Menor que 1 ---------------------64

                                                       1 --------------------------54

                                                       2 --------------------------56

                                                       3 -------------------------------61

                                                       4 -------------------------------55

                                                       5 --------------------------43

                                                       6 --------------------------41

                                                       7 --------------------------50

                                                       8 --------------------------46

                                                       9 --------------------------51

                                                     10 --------------------------55

                                                     11---------------------------35

                                                     12 --------------------------44

                                                     13  -------------------------33

                                                     14  -------------------------45

                                                     15  -------------------------40

 

 

                                                  Fuente: Archivo General de Indias. Contratación

 

 

Por otra parte, la ausencia de descendencia se rela­ciona con parejas constituidas recientemente o con matrimonios jóvenes que deciden dejar a sus hijos en España, con la intención de no someter a los más pequeños al peligro de un viaje tan inseguro(1), Al mismo tiempo se busca mantener los vínculos con el linaje en España, pues si por una parte es lógico relacionar emigración familiar con asentamiento definitivo, esta instalación no implicaba ruptura, pues se seguían manteniendo los lazos con la familia en España, pues hay que tener en cuenta que la familia en los tiempos modernos aunque estaba organizada en células nucleares, formaba parte de un todo caracterizado por el establecimiento de fuertes lazos.

 

 

(1) Muchos matrimonios dejaban a sus hijos al cuidado de sus familiares en España, tal como lo atestiguan las cartas por ellos enviadas y los protocolos notatiales que informan de ello, como es el caso de Alonso Gil, vecino de Cáceres, que emigró con su mujer dejando a su hija Juana al cargo de su cuñado Alejo, tal como se indica en el Archivo Histótico ptovincial de Cáceres, Sección Protocolos, Legajo 4086, libro 21.

 

 

 Por otra parte, los matrimonios con muchas hijas optarían por la alternativa americana, en búsqueda de mejores condiciones de vida.

Pero además, a la familia nuclear se le unen otras variantes en las que la tipología del parentesco en relación con el titular de la petición o licencia abarca prácticamen­te toda la gama de vínculos familiares: padres, suegros, hermanos cuñados, nietos, yernos, tíos, sobrinos y primos, alterándose así la estructura familiar, un ejemplo lo encon­tramos en la familia de Juan García Manchego que salió de Miajadas (Cáceres-Extremadura) en 1621 a los 61 años, procurando el bienestar de sus hijos y nietos; con Inés Jiménez, su segunda esposa, había tenido dos hijos, Pedro García de 20 años y Catalina Gómez, casada con Tomé Hernández. Con ellos también se dirigía hacia Nueva España la hija mayor del primer matrimonio, Juana Hernández, casada y madre de tres hijos, la mayor de 7 años.

 

 

                                               Árbol genealógico

 

Otro ejemplo es el de un joven matrimonio de Zalamea de la Serena (Badajoz-Extremadura), Francisco Balsera y Catalina Rodríguez , quienes en 1631 viajaron hasta el Perú con su hija de dos años, María; también viajó el hermano de Catalina, Francisco García. En la misma flota iba otro hermano de Catalina, Miguel Mateos, con su mujer, María Blázquez y una hija de un año. En esta misma flota se comprueba que también viajaba un hermano de la citada María Blázquez, Juan Hidalgo de Cáceres, con su mujer, María González Merchán y una hija de tres años.

 

                                                                                      Árbol genealógico

 

También estos núcleos familiares verán modificada su es­tructura y aumentada su composición al agregárseles otros acompañantes como servidores, observándose un distinto comportamiento al respecto según las clases socioprofesionales. En muchos casos los servidores eran en realidad parientes, pues bajo esta prác­tica muchos afectados por las medidas restrictivas de la corona viajaron a las Indias.

Por otra parte hay que destacar que si bien es el varón quien como cabeza de la familia nuclear toma la iniciativa para viajar a América, no se puede excluir a la mujer del proceso mi­gratorio, aunque viajará inserta en una importante red de lazos de sangre, ya que viajará como madre, esposa, hija o criada. La presencia femenina supuso en torno al 25% del volumen global de salidas: por lo que respecta a la población infantil, la participación de ambos sexos fue similar, las diferencias se agudizan entre la población adulta:

 

           Tabla 4

           Participación en las migraciones por sexo

 

 

Solos %

Acompañados %

Hombres casados

6.74

93.25

Mujeres casadas

44.41

55.59

Hombres viudos

10

90

Mujeres viudas

33.33

66.66

 

Fuente: Archivo General de Indias. Contratación

 

Por otra parte cabe destacar que las viudas constituyen el sector de la población más diversificado, pues fueron las únicas que ocasionalmente encabezaron la titularidad de una licencia convencidas de que América les ofrecería mayores posibilidades.

 

Pero dentro del papel jugado por la mujer su relevancia es que fue el soporte de la estructura familiar, ya que a través del elemento femenino perdura el linaje pues muchos matrimonios trataron de unirse en América con los parientes de la esposa, o se trasladaban con parientes enlazados por vía femenina.

Fuera de este ámbito la presencia de lo femenino se reducía, y la personalidad femenina aparece muy desdibujada en las fuentes: se le va a designar por el nombre de María y unos pocos más, y casi nunca va a aparecer con los dos apellidos, práctica muy común entre los hombres. Esta simplificación se debía a su escasa proyección fuera de un círculo exterior al familiar, aunque hay que tener en cuenta que a pesar de la posición subordinada en el proceso de la emigración consecuencia de una legislación que buscaba preservar la moralidad de las nuevas sociedades coloniales, la mujer disfrutó en América de una capacidad legal completa para poder llevar a cabo cualquier actividad económica y cultural.

 

Esta fuerte salida de familias al Nuevo Mundo estuvo influida por noticias que de amigos o familiares allí asentados llegaban sobre las riquezas de sus tierras, desarrollándose lo que Ortiz de la Tabla llama de tirón familiar; que permite explicar el aumento de la emigración familiar en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI: muchos no dudaron en volver sus tierra, resolver sus asun­tos, vender sus bienes y regresar a América acompañados de sus familias, parientes o amigos.

Así, la existencia de un precedente familiar será la causa para marcharse a América, aunque hay que tener en cuenta que la posibilidad de abandonar el pueblo natal se meditaba largamente, pues emigrar a las Indias suponía cambiar de vida y de entor­no, de ahí que la existencia de parientes en América, con inten­ción de favorecer y beneficiar al resto de la familia se convirtiera en un factor decisivo en la marcha al Nuevo Mundo.

 

 

En este sentido es de destacar que la mayor parte de la correspondencia que los extremeños enviaron a. su tierra natal tenía como casi exclusivo objeto el reclamo de los familiares ( Cartas 3, 4, 5 Y 6), pues la añoranza, el anhelo de compañía, el deseo de abandonar una vida miserable y la esperanza de lograr una rique­za soñada son elementos que explican que a la llamada de un precursor la respuesta sea un seguimiento en grupo, convirtiéndo­se éste en el auténtico modelo de emigración familiar. Un ejemplo sería el del extremeño Alonso de Herojo que escribió a su mujer e hijos para que se reunieran con él en la ciudad andina de Tunja (2), adquiriendo un gran significado las palabras en las que se expresa: "[oo.] y me dicen que cual es el hombre que no trae a su mujer e hijos a esta tierra y los quita de las necesidades y miserias de España:'

Así, de las 104 cartas de la recopilación realizada por E. Otte se reclama en 78 de ellas a parientes próximos para que realicen el viaje, destacando los siguientes tipos de parentesco:

 

                                                                      Tabla 5

                                                 Tipos de parentesco

 

                                  Tipo de parentesco                       No. de cartas en que aparece

 

                              Esposa e hijos ----------------------------- 21

                              Hijos   ------------------------------------- 15

                              Hermanos ---------------------------------  27

                              Sobrinos ----------------------------------- 12

                              Primos ------------------------------------- 2

                              Padres y hermanos --------------------------1

 

 

                                                   Fuente: Archivo General de Indias.

 

 

 

(2) Primera ciudad colombiana fundada en los Andes centrales por Gonzalo Suárez Rendón, de la villa cacereña de Alcántara.

 

 

 Asimismo, y dentro de esas 78 cartas reclamando a los familiares, en 45 de ellas se establece además el compromiso de hacerse cargo de los gastos ocasionados por el viaje, bien a su llegada o enviando el dinero previamente, pues hay que tener en cuenta el gran desembolso que había que realizar, el cual no estaba a la altura de las economías de la mayor parte de los extremeños, tal como se puede apreciar en la carta del extremeño Alonso Ortiz dirigida a su mujer Leonor de Zafra, enviada desde México en 1574 (Carta 2).

Estas marchas hacia América eran siempre un camino muy difícil a cubrir tanto para los hombres como aún más para las mujeres, y una de las formas de hacerla menos traba­joso era hacerla en compañía, no sólo con su familia, sino también con amigos y vecinos procedentes de la misma pobla­ción, y con destinos también comunes, como se verá más ade­lante.

 

Ello también demuestra que estamos ante un tipo de emigración que produce la reunificación de la familia com­pleta que se había quedado en Extremadura por la marcha del padre. Este fenómeno se observa a partir de árboles genealógicos que muestran una emigración agrupada, como es el caso de la familia de los Aréchiga de Plasencia, cuyo árbol muestra cómo a finales del siglo XVI , 1597, abandonó la península Diego Flores de Casares, su cuñado Domingo de Aréchiga tenía intención de seguir su ejemplo y también obtu­vo licencia, pero finalmente- permaneció en Plasencia en su puesto de alguacil mayor. Cuando este Domingo murió, Diego Flores de Casares debió de afrontar el mantenimiento de la numerosa familia de su hermana Isabel, la viuda, la cual en 1615 le envió al mayor de sus hijos, de 14 años, Tomás de Aréchiga Álvarez. Además, en 1633 sus tres hermanos solte­ros, Francisca, Gerónima y Diego embarcaron también, ade­más de la hermana mayor Catalina, casada y acompañada de su marido, Juan García Robles y el hijo de ambos, Francisco de 6 años, su hijo más pequeño se quedó en España con lo que este nuevo eslabón suelto mantendría futuros nexos.

 

                                                            Arbol genealógico

 

En resumen, la familia extremeña que durante el siglo XVI emigra completa a América es toda ella fundamental­mente completa, viajando sus componentes juntos o separa­damente, pero en la mayoría de loa casos buscando su reunificación y, que a pesar de constituir un hogar indepen­diente mantiene su solidaridad, despliega su acción sobre to­dos los miembros, compartiendo honor y deshonor, éxitos y fracasos, extendiéndose para acoger a los parientes que necesi­taban su apoyo afectivo y económico, por lo que la estructura familiar no se rompe con la separación, sino que crea una red amplia con ramificaciones en España y América, lo que supo­nemos que jugó un importante papel ala hora de perfilarse las estructuras familiares en la América Hispana.

Así, emigrar en familia se convirtió en un mecanismo reproductor para trasladar a América la organización social de la península ibérica y su código de valores. El dirigismo estatal promovió el asentamiento de familias legalmente cons­tituidas como respuesta a la necesidad de poblar los nuevos territorios, con el fin de afianzar y dar validez a la conquista. La emigración familiar se realizó siguiendo la ruta de parien­tes y en grupo, por lo que quienes emigraron en el siglo XVII no encontraron ya un Nuevo Mundo, pues lo nuevo no era tan desconocido con la presencia de familiares y amigos dispues­tos a iniciar una nueva vida en compañía.

 

3. COLONIZADORES

 

Como es lógico, para la colonización y explotación de los vastos territorios descubiertos, se necesitó una creciente base de contingente humano que, sobre todo al principio, pro­cedían de los reinos hispanos peninsulares, cuyas dos po­tencias, España y Portugal solicitan del papado la sobera­nía sobre los territorios de infieles para evangelizarlos, mi­sión que el papado delega en los príncipes castellanos. (3)

Hay que señalar que el modelo migratorio español no se fundamenta en el establecimiento de factorías, como fue el caso de Portugal, sino que se buscó la creación de núcleos de asentamiento estable, pues la Corona consideró que sólo era posible mantener el dominio de sus territorios si existía un contingente poblacional estable.

 

(3) Castilla no sólo obtuvo la soberanía espiritual, sino también la temporal, pues alega que así evangelizaría a la población más rápidamente.

 

Los primeros viajeros fueron fundamentalmente sol­dados o colonizadores pues llevaron a cabo la consolida­ción de los territorios recientemente descubiertos. Siguie­ron una pléyade de clérigos, sobre todo frailes - ya en el se­gundo viaje los llevó Colón-, para evangelizar a la población aborigen, a la vez que para atender las necesidades religiosas de los españoles. No faltaron funcionarios reales con la finali­dad de organizarlos administrativa y políticamente, conforme a las normas castellanas del imperio español.

Además hay que señalar a los artesanos y prácticos de todos los oficios que normalmente viajaron con toda su familia. Baste recordar la expedición del extremeño Nico­lás de Ovando, de Brazas (Cáceres), que salió de San1úcar el 13 de febrero de1502 y llega a Santo Domingo el 15 de mayo de 1502, tras muchos contratiempos y la pérdida de 120 hombres, con 30 navíos y 2,500 emigrantes, de los que 1,200 eran extremeños de origen socioprofesiona1 múl­tiple, entre los que había artesanos, profesionales y sacer­dotes, siendo el inicio del pob1amiento antillano y la in­corporación del pueblo a la tarea colonizadora.

Igualmente nos encontramos a hidalgos y miembros de la nobleza con sus familias y criados, muchos de los cuales se colocaron sirviendo a una familia simplemente para eludir el pago del pasaje.

Así, el origen socioprofesional fue variado, pues prácti­camente se traslada a América toda la sociedad española, aun­que hay que destacar que los polos de la sociedad, tanto los pobres como la aristocracia, no viajaron. Los primeros, debi­do a sus limitados recursos económicos, pues no podían hacer frente a los altos costos que el viaje suponía. Los segundos estarán más interesados en permanecer cerca de la corte ma­drileña, y sólo partirán hacia el Nuevo Mundo si se les conce­den altos cargos políticos.

Por otra parte, la consolidación de los grupos nobiliarios en América no se produce hasta principios del siglo XVII, pues la Corona en el XVI apenas concedió títulos de nobleza, a excepción de los otorgados a Pizarra, Hernán Cortés, Colón y su hijo. De este modo, se ha veni­do considerado a la sociedad americana acéfala, pues no tiene cúspide, ya que la diferencia entre nobles y plebeyos no existe en América, pues por el simple hecho de ser espa­ñol no se pagaban impuestos a la Corona.

Entre las profesiones de los emigrantes extremeños es de destacar la labor realizada por colonizadores, explo­tadores, religiosos, arquitectos, maestros de obras y cante­ros, sobre todo trujillanos, cuya obra aún perdura, se con­templa y se extiende como un auténtico trasplante a las Indias de gran parte de la región extremeña. (4)

 

(4) Es muy de destacar la labor de Diego de Noreda, el primero que pasó a las Indias en 1514, seguido del gran constructor Francisco Becerra y sus discípulos Martín Casillas, Alonso Pablo y Jerónimo Hernández, entre muchos otros.

 

 Las mujeres tampoco dejaron de embarcarse para re­unirse con sus esposos o, en el caso de solteras o viudas, para buscar una mejor situación económica y tal vez senti­mental. No debemos pasar por alto a los mercaderes y co­merciantes, entre los que se incluyen a extranjeros, que ob­tuvieron pingües beneficios con sus negocios.

 

Otros pobladores fueron los esclavos africanos ne­gros y filipinos, si bien Felipe II prohibió la trata de estos últimos.

Antes de continuar, hay que matizar que la emigra­ción española no supuso una salida forzada, sino que fue voluntaria, al mismo tiempo que no fue una emigración espontánea, ya que el paso a América estuvo reglamentado por numerosas leyes que imponían una serie de limitacio­nes a la hora de marchar al Nuevo Mundo, tanto de carác­ter político, pues se intentaba salvaguardar la integridad de los territorios impidiendo que personas que no fueran súbditos de la Corona viajasen a América, como de carác­ter religioso e ideológico, buscando conseguir una integri­dad étnica, religiosa, ideológica y cultural.

De este modo, el "emigrante ideal o tipo n debía ser un cristiano viejo, es decir, debía de pertenecer a una fami­lia cristiana con una antigüedad mayor de 200 años; y una persona de buenas costumbres. Estos requisitos debían de­mostrarse documentalmente por medio de una informa­ción de limpieza de sangre, que se expedía en el lugar de origen del emigrante.

Además, el movimiento migratorio requería un permiso que controlaba a los viajeros proveyéndolos de una autoriza­ción regia "por que sepan las personas que van e de que cali­dad e oficio son cada una de ellas") según se desprende de las órdenes que los Reyes Católicos dieron ya en el segundo viaje a Colón. Previamente la persona que pretendía iniciar el viaje debía de formalizar una petición de licencia pulsada a la Co­rona en la que se especificaban lo motivos que le movían a hacer el viaje. Las razones que se solían alegar era la existencia de algún pariente en América o la pobreza en la que vivían en España.

Tras la creación en Sevilla de la Casa de Contratación en 1503, este organismo será el encargado de vigilar y expedir los permisos, inscribiendo a los pasajeros en un registro en el que se indicaba el oficio. Si bien, hay que señalar que según las necesidades coloniales, el control de la veracidad de lo registrado no era muy riguroso, por lo que en muchas ocasiones las especialidades no se correspondían con lo que figuraba en el registro. Así Carlos V se vio obligado a conceder una licencia más amplia a fin de que se poblaran las Indias, sobre todo desde el descubrimiento del Perú, para explotar sus numerosas riquezas, lo que dio lugar al despob1amiento de las Antillas. Sin embargo Felipe III recortará las licencias por la despob1ación que en España, sobre todo en Extremadura y Andalucía causaba la emigración.

La Casa de Contratación tenía la tarea de impedir que pasaran a las Indias determinadas clases sociales como:

--  Judíos que no abrazaron la fe cristiana.

--  Los moros que no se bautizaron en el reino de Gra­nada.

--  Estas prohibiciones también se extendieron a los judíos y moros conversos, para no

     poner en peligro la evangelización, así como a los cristianos nuevos cuyos

     ascendientes no se hubieran convertido al cristianismo hacía al menos 200 años.

--  También se prohibía el embarque a los perseguidos por la Inquisición como herejes. 

     Para evitar falsificaciones en los testimonios se exige en 1552 un certificado de

    "cristiano viejo JJ expedido por las autoridades locales. Ya en 1502 los Reyes

    Católi­cos ordena a Ovando que no consienta en La Espa­ñola a "moros, judíos,

    herejes, ni reconciliados ni personas nuevamente convertidos a nuestra fe". Esta

   disposición contradice la de Fernando el Católico dada en 1511 a la Casa de

   Contratación para que dejen pasar a los "[...] naturales, vezinos y morado­res de estos

   reinos que quisieren ir a ellas, sin pedir­les información [...] por facilitarles el pasage, res­

  pecto al deseo que tenía de que las Indias se pobla­sen y ennobleciesen 10 que se

  pudiere".

-- Los gitanos, aunque muchos llegaron a América vía Portugal y Brasil, lo que motivó

    que Felipe II ordenara su regreso a España.

--Los presidiarios, aunque en un principio fueron reclutados como soldados y

   colonizadores, tampoco fueron autorizados a viajar al Nuevo Mundo posteriormente.

-- Los extranjeros, pues además de hacer competencia a los comerciantes españoles,

    podían fomentar la difusión de doctrinas luteranas. Excepcionalmente se concedieron

   algunos permisos otorgados a ciertos técnicos, navegantes y religiosos para que

   cris­tianizaran los territorios que los misioneros españoles no podían atender. Otro de

   los mecanismos que explica la presencia de extranjeros es la carta de naturalización así

   como el pago de una suma de dinero en momentos de apuros económicos de la

   corona, la composición.