Somos Primos

March 2007 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


This is only one group of 8 full buses who traveled to the Texas State Capitol January 9th, to witness the swearing in of new Texas State Representative, 
Juan Garcia. 

Click for his support of a Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day.

Photo by Rick Avolio, International Pictures, FX



Prayer given in Kansas at the opening session of their Senate, by Minister Joe Wright.

"Heavenly Father, we come before you today to ask your forgiveness and to seek your direction and guidance. We know Your Word says, 'Woe to those who call evil good,' but that is exactly what we have done.

We have lost our spiritual equilibrium and reversed our values.
We have exploited the poor and called it the lottery.
We have rewarded laziness and called it welfare.
We have killed our unborn and called it choice.
We have shot abortionists and called it justifiable.
We have neglected to discipline our children and called it building self esteem. 
We have abused power and called it politics.
We have coveted our neighbor's possessions and called it ambition.
We have polluted the air with profanity & pornography and called it freedom of expression.
We have ridiculed the time-honored values of our forefathers and called it enlightenment. 

Search us, Oh, God, and know our hearts today; 
cleanse us from every sin and set us free. Amen!"

The response was immediate. A number of legislators walked out during the prayer in
protest. In 6 short weeks, Central Christian Church, where Rev. Wright is pastor, logged more than 5,000 phone calls with only 47 of those calls responding negatively. The church is now receiving international requests for copies of this prayer from India, Africa and Korea. Commentator Paul Harvey aired this prayer on his radio program, "The Rest of the Story,"and received a larger response to this program than any other he has ever aired.

With the Lord's help, may this prayer sweep over our nation and wholeheartedly become our desire so that we again can be called "one nation under God."

Sent by Lillian Glover

Table of Content Areas
United States
. . 4
Action Item
   National Issues
   Bilingual Education


Anti-Spanish Legends . .42
Military & Law Enforcement Heroes
. . 45
. . 68
. . 77
. . 79
Patriots of American Revolution
. . 82
Orange County,CA . .95
Los Angeles,CA
. . 98
. . 108
Southwestern US 
. . 121


African-American . . 126
. . 129
. . 132
Texas  . . 135
East of Mississippi
. . 147 
East Coast
. . 151
. . 152
. . 168
. . 171
. . 177
. . 179
Family History . . 182
. . 184
SHHAR Meetings 
January 27 Researching on the Internet
March 17: Writing Family Histories
April 29: Family History Conference    
May 26: Naturalization Records and 
               Using Batch files
August 25: Hispanic Political Pioneers

  Letters to the Editor : 

YI, I sent several links to SP and many remarked how they enjoyed reading the articles in your publication.  I also got a comment from a Hispanic that she did not realize that there were professional upper middle class Hispanic families and Hispanic women who achieved. 
Wanda Garcia

Dear Prima Mimi,
Over the years I have enjoyed your monthly compilation of wealth-filled articles. Thank you for being in the vanguard in presenting the story of our culture and heritage. It is a story we can all be proud of.
Jose rafael Vasquez

Hello Mimi - 
Thank you for the most recent issue of Somos Primos. Great reading, as always! It arrived before my new email address took effect. New email address:
Saludos, Virginia & Bill McEwan   

It seems as if "Somos Primos" gets better and better with every new edition.   Take care.  Tony Santiago a.k.a. Tony the Marine

MIMI: The February edition of Somos Primos is simply wonderful. Thanks to all your contributors and staff. Sometime this year I would like to add something to your page from the Puerto Rican past history.
Emilia Badillo Joy

Dear Mimi,
Thank you so much for your support. Each year I teach a summer course at the University of New Mexico called Social Justice & Education and I am realizing that Somos Primos would be a fabulous resource for my graduate students who are always looking for materials for their timelines about various groups in the US. Thanks for providing such a valuable resource to our community. I'll have to spread the work around about Somos Primos in New Mexico.
Once again, mil gracias.
Leila Flores-Duenas, Ph.D.  


  Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor

Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Dorinda Moreno
Michael Perez
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Ted Vincent
Dan Arellano
Dr. Armando Ayala
Emilia Badillo Joy
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Arturo A. Bienedell
Jaime Cader
Roberto Camp y Lewis 
Bill Carmena
José L. Castillo
J. Chapa
Gus Chavez
Ted Cheng
Ruben Alvarez

Jack Cowan
Sal DelValle
Sara Duenas Flores
John Inclan
Felicia Escobar
Wade Falcon
Leila Flores-Duenas, Ph.D
Lorraine Frain
Bernard Frost
Antonio Garcia
Wanda Garcia
Lillian Glover
Ray Gonzalez
Deena J. González
Lila Guzman,Ph.D.
Elsa Herbeck
Santiago R. Hernandez
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Larry Kirkpatrick
Juan Fidel Larrañaga
Rudoloph Lewis
Larry Luera
Alfredo Lugo
Donna Lynch
Virginia & Bill McEwan
Brian McGinn
Robert Morast
Jorge Mariscal 

Dorinda Moreno
Eric Moreno
Cecilia Mota
Carlos Munoz, Ph.D.
Guillermo Padilla Origel
Sal Osio, JD
Regina Peck
Jose M. Pena
Arturo Ramos Pinedo
Joseph Puentes  
Sam Quito
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Connie Rodriguez
Maggie Riva-Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Linda Rushton
 Viola Sadler
Virginia Sanchez
Tony Santiago
Howard Shorr
Brandon Josef Szinavel
Pat Trevino
Ernesto Uribe
Janete Vargas
Jose Rafael Vasquez 
Ted Vincent
Floyd E. Vasquez
Alfonso Vijil 
Dr. Francisco J. Zamarripa

We are what we repeatedly do. 
Excellence then, is not an act, but a habit.
Sent by Ruben Alvarez

SHHAR  Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Yolanda Magdaleno, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal. 


Action Item
The War, 14-hour documentary on WWII with NO Latinos included
Editor Questions and Suggestions
Comments by Alfredo Lugo, Producer 
Carlos Guerra: PBS' WW II film no longer on Diez y Seis, but still no Latinos 
Some of Ken Burns' WW II Heroes are Missing in Action by Jorge Mariscal
Action taken by Dan Arellano,Ccommander of Tejano in Action
Letter from Professor Deena J. González, to Ms. Anne Harrington
Letter from Ted Vincent to Ms. Anne Harrington
Letter from Floyd E. Vasquez to Ms. Anne Harrington
Status update sent by Dr.Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez
Letter by U.S. Congressman Bob Filner to Paula Kerger

National Issues
Sen. Salazar Re-Introduces Latino Museum Commission Act 
Three Rivers, Texas to name post office, why not Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria
Medal of Honor for Guy Gabaldon, Please give it to him
U.S. Postal Stamp, Mendez v. Westminster School District 60th Anniversary
Please support the grassroots efforts of the "Cesar E. Chavez National Holiday Coalition"
U.S. Born Babies of Undocumented Face Challenges
2003 Dorinda Moreno, Cesar E, Chavez & Robert F. Kennedy: Lifetime Achievement Award

Bilingual Education
Demand for English Lessons Outstrips Supply
117 Individual languages require translation in federal courts.

October 30, 1947, Letter by Dr. Hector P. Garcia, 
Jan 31, 2007, Intolerable: Texas' high dropout rate will lower incomes while hobbling the state
Youth, Identity, Power
Chicana persistence in higher education
Book: Drug Lord, true story

Art Review of Martin Ramirez (1895-1963)
Artist Carlos Callejo, Cesar E. Chavez sculpture and El Paso Mural

Hispanic Marketing 101
Macy's Community Star Award
Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce
Immigrants boost most California workers' pay 
Colorado to use inmates to fill migrant shortage



Action Items  

The War, 14-hour documentary on WWII with NO Latinos included

Curriel's excellent cartoon was sent by numerous readers. 
I am grateful for the opportunity of sharing it.

March 6th: MEETING WITH PBS -- Gus Chavez,  the San Diego organizer of this effort, Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez,and Marta Garcia, the chairwoman of the National Hispanic Media Coalition, have a meeting scheduled with Paula Kerger, president and CEO of PBS, and John Boland, chief content officer, on March 6, at their Washington, DC, office. 
No body watching the store, editor questions and suggestions  . . . 

I am REALLY glad to read that a meeting has been scheduled for March 6th in Washington, D.C.  We need to act aggressively to this insult to our heritage.  It is a slap in the face of our fathers, uncles and brothers who fought in World War II.

I would like to know. . .
How much did the documentary cost to produce?
Was it 100% funded by the government?
If not, who were the corporate sponsors?  Were those funds tax-deductible?
In short, how much total finances came from tax-payer subsidized funds?

It appears that we are facing an on-going problem, the East coast interpreting U.S. history, excluding the Southwest. Burns was born in Brooklyn, NY and earned  his BA at Hampshire College, Amherst, Massachusetts.

Does Ken Burns past work show an anti-Hispanic bias or exclusion in other documentaries produced or directed by him?

"Some critics say Burns’ films are overly sentimental and reflect idealized Americana without challenging it. Others accuse him of serious omissions and dangerous revisions of history.  However, Burns does not claim that any of his films are the authoritative history of their subjects. "1

A Ken Burns' quote: "I subscribe to William Faulkner’s view that history is not just about what we were before, but who we are now. " 2  1 and 2

If Burns were attempting to explain who we are as a nation now, in leaving the growing Latino presence out of the 14-hour documentary, he missed making his point entirely.

Not only that, he squandered the funds which could have been used to clarify the presence of Mexican and Latin American citizens in the U.S. forces,  to strengthen and unify our nation.

Excluding us does the exact opposite . .  it weakens us as a cohesive nation.  The documentary, in its exclusion,  answers no questions to the rising social problems.

Inclusion of Latinos would have produced a atmosphere of positive problem solving concerning immigration.  It would be a media tool helping find solutions, instead of reinforcing the position of many uninformed who in their ignorance can honesty ask,
"What have the Latinos ever done for this country?"  Burns has willifully kept them in their ignorance.

My Suggestions in degrees of rejection of the documentary:

That the documentary be dumped, as dangerous to the welfare of our nation, and will remain unaired. PERIOD.

2.  That this costly mistake be aired only if  EACH of the 14 segments carry a DIFFERENT 15 minute-introduction with an apology, identifying the contributions of Hispanics/Latinos.  AND that the information be printed and included with the print materials that have been prepared. 

3. If those two positions are rejected, then demand that any PBS station that contracts to air the series, be required to also air during that same time period, either before or after,  a documentary on the contributions of Latinos. 

In addition, expect and ask that the National PBS headquarters help to identify and distribute appropriate documentaries for that purpose, assisting in the task of informing PBS station the means by which those documentaries can  be obtain.

4.  Further, it is only fair that PBS fund a documentary (Galvez to Gabaldon & Beyond )  of at least 4-hours concerning  the historical contributions of Hispanic/Latinos in the formation, building, and continuing support of the United States.  And . . that the documentary be produced with an oversight committee to include Hispanic/Latino historians with editing rights,
before the final versions are aired to the public. 

This problem goes back to the funding and oversight at the inception of the project. Most of the documentarians rely on funds from the government and sponsors.  They will get approval on a concept, not the final script.  So the end result is the voice of the documentarian, slanted to their perspective, their prejudice. 

The pain is . .  that it is mostly public funds that are being used to tell stories that exclude us. I would say that most of those making funding decisions are not really aware of the continuing presence of Latinos throughout the history of the U.S. . . and sadly some choose not to see it, or present it. 

A few years ago, the documentary of the History of Mexico was produced.  I was excited for the effort.  However, it was very slanted against the Spanish. One of the professors said twice, "the Spanish were just not very nice people."  This on a PBS program.  

I ended up crying in anger and frustration and turned it off. I spoke to quite a few other Mexican-Americans that had reacted the same way.  We knew it was incorrect history, but uninformed viewers would not know that.  I can understand novels and dramas taking liberties. . .but this was a PBS documentary. 

he prejudice of the documentarian was expressed in the negative generalization in a documentary produced with public funds  (and corporations).  The program on the History of Mexico will remain as exceedingly damaging to any child of Mexican heritage who is subjected to viewing that program. And it will prejudice other children in their view of that child.   

The exclusion of Hispanic/Latinos from THE WAR, and the continuing negative generalizations at a time when very soon Hispanics/Latinos will be 50% of the population seems particularly callous and ill conceived. 

We should use this 14-hour documentary as a rally call to demand national changes in PBS programming.  This is a perfect opportunity to yell for major changes.  I suggest: 

1. That any US historical documentaries produced with PBS funding include our presence. . because, in fact,  we were there!!

2. That on a local level,  PBS programs reflect the demographics of their community.  National funding to be withheld if the station does not program according to the community profile.

I will continue putting stories, comments, information about this issue In Somos Primos . . Please send along what you want to be included.  We must make a change . . .  our kids need to see themselves in the picture of America!!

Mimi Lozano

Dear Friends and American GI Forum Members and the 11th Airborne Division Association: 


There have only been a limited number of documentaries on PBS depicting the contributions and sacrifices of Latino/Hispanic veterans. There are several documentary producers and producers of plays like Enrique Castillo's "Veteranos" that tell of the courage and sacrifice of Latino/Hispanic veterans. Maggie Rivas Rodriguez is doing a great job with her Latino & Latina Oral History Project as well as Judge Frederick Aquirre's Veterans Day event in presenting personal stories by our veterans. Efforts are still going on for funding the Eugene A. Obregon Congressional Medal of Honor Memorial Foundation by Founder, Bill Lansford.Producers, Paul Espinosa, Hector Galan, Severo Perez as well as myself have produced programs on PBS and are knowledgeable of the history of Latino/Hispanic veterans.

While attending a National PBS conference some years back I questioned why Ken Burns was getting another two million dollars for a series on baseball and an executive softly told me that Ken Burns is their [PBS] "Golden Child."

Some years back I was informed by KOCE that I was to assist the producer from WLIW on their documentary "Mexican-Americans." When we met I informed him that again an Anglo producer is producing a documentary on Mexican-Americans, and why wasn't a qualified Latino asked? He smartly replied, "Well I was assigned and I'm going to do it." 
I replied that if I see anything that would be negative and made us look bad that I was going to speak up and get the organizations to not watch it.

This is PBS.
Many of the other networks have listened and have made SOME changes, not many but PBS has not made much in efforts toward the Latino community. What they have provided has not been much. While Ken Burns is getting millions per project, NALIP, the National Association of Latino Producers in PBS only get a couple of millions to share with many Latino producers on their projects.

This is PBS. 
Please read all of the info that was sent to me and have your members send letters and make PBS change their thinking and have our producers write and produce more about the great contributions of Latinos/Hispanics to this great nation.

(Note: I have been out of PBS for some years and there may have been some changes but it doesn't appear as though there have been.)

Thank you, Alfredo Lugo,

Producer of "The Men of Company E" and "Guy Gabaldon...American Hero" (Another Latino veteran has passed without getting the Congressional Medal of Honor of which he deserved.)"I do not want to Depict the Latino Experience, I want to Validate It" 



Sent by Carlos Munoz, Ph.D.

Carlos Guerra: PBS' WW II film no longer on Diez y Seis, but still no Latinos 

Web Posted: 02/23/2007 10:49 PM CST

San Antonio Express-News
When Maggie Rivas-Rodríguez joined the faculty of the University of Texas to teach journalism, it was after earning a doctorate and serving as the Dallas Morning News' border bureau chief in El Paso.

In the process, she was alerted to the substantial contributions of Mexican Americans and other Latinos in the defeat of the Axis powers during World War II, and how their service in that struggle changed how they viewed their country and how their country viewed them.
Unlike World War I - in which few Mexican Americans served, in large part because a now-debunked plot cast doubts on their patriotic loyalty - the attack on Pearl Harbor and subsequent declaration of war on the Axis powers prompted many Mexican Americans and other Latinos to sign up for military service, between 250,000 and 750,000 (nobody was counting) of them before it was over.

Many - among them, 11 Mexican Americans and two Puerto Ricans were awarded Medals of Honor - distinguished themselves in combat, earning record numbers of citations for valor.

And when they returned to the home front, it was to an American society they would change profoundly for themselves and for their progeny.

After harrowing parachute drops into the pitch-black abyss of night over enemy territory, or deadly frontal assaults on heavily fortified bunkers in Europe and thick jungles on South Seas islands, the returning Latino vets were in no mood to accept refusals or second-class service from the wait staffs of Southwestern restaurants or other public accommodations, much less from government-run agencies.

It was these returning veterans who rejuvenated the ranks of the League of United Latin American Citizens, and who created the American GI Forum, and later, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, and what would become the National Council of La Raza.

But World War II ushered in other changes too, Rivas-Rodríguez says.

The huge void left in America's labor market was filled with Mexican braceros, she says, the guest workers who toiled on farms to put food on American tables during the fight against totalitarianism.

Over the past five years, Rivas-Rodríguez, staff members and volunteers of the U.S. Latino and Latina World War II Oral History Project have been gathering these stories, dutifully archiving them and detailing them into one book already out and others that will come soon.

So when she heard the Public Broadcasting Service would air a seven-hour documentary about World War II - originally slated to air on Diez y Seis de Septiembre -she assumed producer Ken Burns would include tales of Latinos in the epic struggle.

She was wrong.

Of the 60-plus interviews Burns and company conducted, not a single Latino or Latina was questioned.

Not surprisingly, Latino groups from coast to coast have expressed their outrage to federally funded PBS.

"Their response has been: '(The documentary and accompanying book) is in the can and nothing can be done,'" Rivas-Rodriguez said. "But just yesterday, PBS sent out a press release saying they have moved the premiere to Sept. 22nd without mentioning reasons (for not premiering it on Diez y Seis).

"They say they are really emphasizing the local programming that local stations will be doing," she says, "but that's crumbs. The documentary that is going to sit in people's bookshelves, that's going to be available on DVD, is Ken Burns' documentary." 

And at this point, it won't include a single Latino or Latina. 

HISPANIC LINK                   Length: 550 words
   By Jorge Mariscal
   Hispanic Link News Service
   Ralph Mariscal, Jr. graduated from Roosevelt High School in East Los Angeles in 1941. Only a few months later, he would be a U.S. Marine.  Like thousands of other young Mexican Americans, he deployed to the Pacific Theater and served for the duration of the war.
   My father is 84 years old now and his memory is fading quickly. One thing he does remember is his time in the service, his travels to Hawaii and Okinawa, landing with the 5th Marine Division at Sasebo a few weeks after the destruction of Nagasaki, and his participation in the occupation of Japan at war's end. 
   With old age slowly robbing him of these and many other pieces of his personal and family history, there is little we can do except to watch with a deep and gnawing sadness.
   An individual's loss of his history and identity is unsettling. But the loss of an entire community's history can be even more tragic.
   Since Tom Brokaw announced that the World War II generation was to be known as the "greatest generation," Mexican Americans have struggled to ensure that their contributions be included. The efforts of professor Maggie Rivas-Rodríguez at the University of Texas, Austin, have led to an incredibly rich archive of materials known as the U.S. Latino & Latina WWII Oral History Project.
   Now we learn that next September PBS will premier "The War," Ken Burns' seven-part documentary on World War II," According to all reports, Mr. Burns' film completely erases the Mexican-American experience in that worldwide conflict from our national consciousness.
   While Burns' company has not issued an official statement regarding the exclusion of Latinos, his production team says the film isn't about ethnic groups but individuals and regions. The individuals featured in the film come from Mobile, Ala., Waterbury, Conn.; Luverne, Minn., and Sacramento, Calif.
   Surely there are surviving Mexican-American veterans from the Sacramento area. Did Burns and his team seek them out so that his film would not inadvertently reinforce stereotypes that portray all Mexican Americans as foreigners or recent arrivals?
   The contributions and sacrifices of Mexican Americans in every U.S. war since the mid-19th century are well documented  But in Burns' 14-hour production, no one will tell the story of Sgt. Vicenta Torres of Arizona, who was among the first troops to land in Italy. How will young Latinas learn about the many "Rosita the Riveters" who built and even flew military aircraft?
   What about the scores of valiant young men named Molina, Villa and Baca who died in the Pacific, in North Africa, and on the beaches of D-Day?
   Burns himself has yet to respond to numerous inquiries from Mexican-American academic, veterans' and political organizations. The national outreach coordinator at WETA, the PBS station that will oversee distribution of "The War," was asked for a description of the film's content. That was a month ago and still no reply.
   If Burns were the brilliant historian that PBS and others claim he is, how could he create a seven-part documentary that erases rather than recollects a significant portion of our nation's memory?
   (Jorge Mariscal is a veteran of the U.S. war in Viet Nam and professor of literature at the University of California, San Diego. Reach him at
   © 2007

Sent by Carolos Munoz, Ph.D.



From: Professor Deena J. González
Chair, Department of Chicana/o Studies
One LMU Drive, UNH Suite 4400
Loyola Marymount University
Los Angeles, CA 90045

Dear Ms. Harrington: 

As a senior professor and historian of Chicana/o Studies, I have worked on several PBS projects, including the award-winning U.S.-Mexican War Series. 

Many years ago, I was interviewed by a Ken Burns associate for a discussion on women in the western United States. More likely than not, despite a lovely dinner in Pasadena, my response to a burning question of his about Mexican-origin women was unsettling. He asked, “how in one word would you describe women of Mexican origin in the western United States?” The answer was easy, and so I said, “as fierce.” No Mexican-origin women appeared in the aired documentary. Twenty-four years of research in archives across the southwest still lead me to the same answer; Mexican-origin women were hardly servile, existed as more than saloon girls, and resisted all manner of oppression and discrimination, fiercely. 

I have learned from a listserv to which many scholars of ethnic America subscribe that the new Ken Burns documentary on WWII omits Latinos, Mexican-origin/Chicanos entirely. Tell me that in this day and age of many oral history projects, of bookshelves full of scholarly, readable books, anthologies, and encyclopedias that this is not the case. Chicanos were the most decorated soldiers of any ethnic group serving in WWII battalions. To overlook this does those veterans, now nearly gone, a disservice, but more than that, explains as well why Latinos (the largest ethnic group in this country today) support less and less PBS. I think PBS’ programming does not reflect our histories, realities, or experiences, sadly, and exists, in terms of Latino/as, still under an apartheid system.

I served as co-editor in chief of the award-winning comprehensive encyclopedia, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the U.S. (2005). Could I ask that you make it recommended reading for filmmakers of all stripes (and please consult our many entries on WWII)? Only when your executives and fundraisers take a lead in this will the situation of willful neglect and of oversight be corrected. Given that some decades from now the electorate who support and vote for politicians and elected officials who determine the uses of public tax dollars and of grants will soon be Latino/a, it might also be in the interest of PBS to do something immediately and not wait for future boycotts, rancor, and angry public receptions; this will surely accompany the airing of what sounds like a long, overdue examination of an important event in U.S. history. I would venture that if you polled the viewers of the documentary, you will find a very healthy percentage of Spanish-surnamed and/or Latino/as who will surely be disappointed. 

Thank you for reading. Please share my letter with your executives.

Professor Deena J. González
Sent by Howard Shorr

ken burns ignores latinos


Dear Anne Harrington:

It is with dismay that I learn that Latinos are excluded from the Ken Burns documentary on World War II.

A rough half million served in the war and 17 won congressional medals for acts of special bravery.

Today, there are families and whole communities that are proud of the elders who fought for freedom in WW II, and who would have appreciated an acknowledgement, if not of their own personal hero, then at least of somebody from the Latino sector of society.

One town with strong memories of a hero in the United States Airforce during World War II is Coyuca de Benitez, Guerrero, Mexico. Arturo Mongoy, of a Mexican contingent in the airforce, won many medals and for a time held the record for Japanese airplanes shot down by U.S. pilots. In 1998 I went to Coyuca for history research on General Francisco Mongoy of the 1810 Mexican war for independence from Spain. When I asked townfolk about Francisco, the typical responses were, "You must mean Arturo. He is our hero." Said one, "Go see his grave. It is in the upper left corner' of the cemetery."

The Mongoy family is descended from Filipinos brought in slavery to Acapulco during Spanish colonial years. Now mixed with Indigenous, Spanish and African ancestors, the family is sizable in Coyuca and is honored on web sites devoted to Filipinio and African heritages in Mexico.

This is a photo of Martha Guadalupe and Norma Angelina Mongoy Maganda. Their brother lives in Chicago. I know they would like the series to include Latinos.

Ted Vincent


Dear Ms. Harrington,
            John M. Garcia, Secretary of the New Mexico Department of Veterans Services and President of the National Association of State Directors of Veterans Affairs, received the following email today concerning Ken Burns’ World War II documentary.  The topic of the email, a feared absence of the Hispanic/Latino experience in the documentary, may not have the same resonance in Maryland as it does here in New Mexico (not to mention Texas, California, etc.).  Hispanics/Latinos have played a major role in the region’s rich, honorable and unique military legacy (see:  We have not seen the Ken Burns’ documentary, but if it is true that the unique flavor of the Hispanic/Latino experience/culture in World War II is not reflected in this major work, it would be an unfortunate and arrogant oversight by the producers and PBS.   For a little perspective on the “brown out”, please see this publication of the National Association of Hispanic Journalists:
           Writing personally and behalf of New Mexico veterans, to include our Medal of Honor recipients, Bataan Death March Survivors, Code Talkers, Rough Riders, Buffalo Soldiers, and especially all of our fathers and grandfathers who served in World War II, I am writing to inform you of the existence of a proud and patriotic tradition of military service among Hispanics/Latinos, and to express a hope and expectation that Hispanic/Latino faces and our unique experience and contributions are reflected in the work.  
           Respectfully yours, 
Floyd E. Vasquez



Saturday, February 24, 2007 3:59 AM
Update:  Update 2-24-07
From: Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez

Hi, all,
Here is the weekly update on the Burns WWII documentary, scheduled to air on PBS this fall, which excludes the Latino WWII experience.

Carlos Guerra has written a column that appeared in today's San Antonio Express-News. His previous column, published on 2-9-07, has been picked up throughout the country. If you google Burns and Latinos,  you'll find websites where it has been posted.

2. RELEASE DATE MOVED AND COMMUNITY OUTREACH EMPHASIZED PBS issued a news release on Thursday, Feb. 22, emphasizing the outreach effort by local PBS affiliates and also saying it would air the documentary on Sept. 23. The original press release, which can still be found at, had the release date as Sept. 16, Mexican Independence Day.  The news release does not provide a reason for the change. It is known, however, that many letters to PBS (and relayed to Gus Chavez in San Diego and me) noted that airing this documentary, which excludes any mention of Latinos and, most importantly of the Latino WWII experience, on the 16 of September was a particular slap in the face of the Latino community. The press release also emphasizes that local PBS affiliates will be conducting their own community outreach. To which we respond: not enough; the national, Burns documentary is the one that will be available for sale and will be re-broadcast for several years and that will be viewed by the entire country. While it is also important to have the Latino perspective in the local programs, it is essential that the national documentary also include the Latino experience.

The National Association of Hispanic Journalists sent a letter to Paula Kerger, President and CEO of PBS, with ccs to all the sponsors, CPB.  I'm attaching that letter, and it's also posted at the yahoo group site:

Tejanos in Action, out of Austin, has sent a letter to Congressman Lloyd Doggett, asking for ask Congress to pass in a joint resolution a call for a full and complete accounting of Hispanic-Americans in the annals of American History. (letter attached)

4. MEETING WITH PBS -- Gus Chavez,  the San Diego organizer of this effort, me, and Marta Garcia, the chairwoman of the National Hispanic Media Coalition, have a meeting scheduled with Paula Kerger, president and CEO of PBS, and John Boland, chief content officer, on March 6, at their Washington, DC, office. We think it's important to meet with them face-to-face and give them the opportunity to address the problem.  Many of you are already contacting us, with various suggestions to make things happen. It is very apparent to both Gus and I that there is a great pent-up frustration not only with PBS, but also, in general, with several other omissions concerning WWII and Latinos over several years.

5. BOOK-SIGNING IN WASHINGTON, DC, SUNDAY NIGHT, MARCH 4 -- To help defray the costs of our DC trip, as well as to meet with our supporters and well-wishers in the DC area, we'll be holding a book-signing event in Washington on Sunday night, March 4. We have one sponsor so far: HISPANIC LINK NEWS SERVICE. We're looking for other sponsors for our book-signing. Sponsorship entails lending your organization's name, and getting the word out, via email. The time is short, so it will entail phone calling, etc. For sale will be the book, A Legacy Greater than Words: Stories of U.S. Latinos & Latinas of the WWII Generation ($30 in cash or check made out to the University of Texas at Austin). All proceeds go to the U.S. Latino & Latina WWII Oral History Project. Gus and I will also be on hand to discuss the Burns Documentary and possible strategies for the future. Please contact me with commitments (and make sure you have the OK of the group) to add your organization to our list of sponsors. Our location is still to be determined -- we have a few people scouting for a good place. It will likely be a little late in the evening, 7:30-8:30, as Gus, coming completely across the continent, will be coming in later...

Gus and I have received several emails from folks around the country, throwing their support behind this effort. It is very heartening to hear from everyone. More importantly, we know that organizations and individuals are contemplating sending letters to people at PBS and Mr. Burns, and the documentary's sponsors. Addresses and contact information are available at the yahoo groups site set up at

Some of you very busy folks are asking us to write letters so that you can print them out and send them. Neither Gus nor I feel that is appropriate (nor do we have the time to do that). Our job is to create an awareness of the problem. If you wish to communicate with people who should hear your concerns, the above website provides contact information, of people at PBS, at Florentine Films (Burns' production company), and the documentary sponsors.

More to come next week.
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, School of Journalism
University of Texas at Austin
1 University Station A1000
Austin, Texas, 78712

Also: Director, U.S. Latino & Latina WWII Oral History Project






For contacting U.S. Congressmembers, the website below will take you to a state's site which includes the phone, fax number and URL for every elected official in that state.  Remove the double XX and type in your state's 2-letter postal code abbreviation.


National Issues

U.S. Senator Ken Salazar

Member: Finance, Agriculture, Energy, Ethics and Aging Committees

  2300 15th Street, Suite 450 Denver , CO 80202  
| 702 Hart Senate Building, Washington , D.C. 20510

                  CONTACT:    Cody Wertz – Comm. Director 303-350-0032  

Sen. Salazar Re-Introduces Latino Museum Commission Act


WASHINGTON , D.C. – United States Senator Ken Salazar, together with Senator Mel Martinez (R-FL) and Senator Bob Menendez (D-NJ), re-introduced legislation that would establish a Commission to study the potential creation of a National Museum of the American Latino Community in Washington , D.C.  Senator Salazar previously introduced the bill during the 109th Congress as a companion bill to legislation introduced by Congressman Xavier Becerra’s (D-CA) in March 2006. Earlier this year, Congressman Becerra reintroduced the bill (H.R. 512) and today it was passed by the House.

 “I believe we must celebrate the diversity of our Nation and Latinos have been a significant part of American history. They have contributed to the arts, business, and served in our Nation's military with distinction,” said Senator Salazar. “This bill would take the first step in commemorating the rich contributions of the Latino community to American life.  The end result will be a more enhanced experience for the 20 million visitors that come to our Nation’s capitol to learn the full history of America .”

 If signed into law, the National Museum of the American Latino Community Commission Act will create a 23-member commission to lead the effort. The Commission will be charged with: convening within 18 months a national conference to bring stakeholders, experts, policymakers and other interested parties together to discuss the museum's viability; developing a fundraising plan to create an extensive public-private partnership; and submitting to Congress within 24 months of its national conference a detailed report recommending a plan of action for taking the museum from concept to reality.

 Other cosponsors of the Senate bill are Senators Hutchison (R-TX), Bayh (D-IN), Biden (D-DE), Bingaman (D-NM), Boxer (D-CA), Clinton (D-NY), Domenici (R-NM), Durbin (D-IL), Feinstein (D-CA), Kennedy (D-MA), Kerry (D-MA), Lautenberg (D-NJ), Lieberman (D-CT), Lugar (R-IN), McCain (R-AZ), Nelson (D-FL), Obama (D-IL), Reid (D-NV), Schumer (D-NY), Brown (D-OH) and Feingold (D-WI).

Sent by Felicia Escobar

If you want to sound off on an issue, pro or con, you can call the White House "comment line" at 202-456-1111 during the weekday business hours .


Three Rivers, Texas to name post office, why not Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria
Sent: Tuesday, February 13, 2007 8:08 AM
Subject: Requesting Letters of Support

Queridos Hermanos y Hermanas,

Please read the attached letter to Congressman Ruben Hinojosa, who represents District 15 in Texas.  The American GI Forum, along with the support of LULAC and other advocacy groups, has introduced HR915 on Feb 8, 2007 that would designate the post office in Three Rivers, Texas as the "Veterans Memorial Post Office."  Congressman Hinojosa has omitted the name of Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria to this designation.  My letter to him explains the details and I respectfully request letters of support to either his office or to me requesting that he add Pvt. Longoria's name to this recognition.  I appreciate you help.
Santiago Hernandez

February 11, 2007

The Honorable Ruben Hinojosa
United States House of Representatives
2463 Rayburn House Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20515
Dear Sir,
It has come my attention that you introduced H.R. 915 on February 8, 2007 that would designate the United States Post Office located at 110 East Alexander in Three Rivers, Texas as the “Veterans Memorial Post Office.”  The Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria Chapter of the American GI Forum of Corpus Christi, the American GI Forum of Texas, the Committee to Recognize Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria, LULAC, the citizens of Three Rivers, Texas and the family of Pvt. Felix Longoria fought tirelessly and unsuccessfully to rename this same post office in honor of Pvt. Longoria and I pray that this is just an oversight from your office and that the matter will be corrected. 

It is clearly documented that the Mexican-American soldiers, upon returning from the bloodiest war in history, suffered discrimination due to their color of their skin and ethnicity. Even the brave recipients of the Medal of Honor were not spared the prejudice that became a barrier for Mexican-Americans during the economic prosperity after World War II.  The American GI Forum, founded by Dr. Hector P. Garcia in 1948, gained national recognition by responding to blatant discrimination of a Three Rivers, Texas soldier by the name of Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria.  Pvt. Longoria was killed in 1945 while on voluntary patrol in the Cayagan, Luzon, Philippines.  His distinguished service to our country earned him the Bronze Star, the Purple Heart, the Good Conduct Medal, and the Combat Infantryman’s Badge.  Long after his death in combat, Pvt. Longoria’s remains were returned home in January 1949.  Beatriz Longoria, the soldier’s widow, asked the owner of the only funeral home in Three Rivers to use the chapel for a wake in his honor.  Her request was denied by the owner citing that the local “whites would not like it.”  Dr. Hector P. Garcia, with the assistance of then-Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, was able to conduct a decent burial ceremony, with military honors, for Pvt. Longoria at Arlington National Cemetery on February 16, 1949, thus becoming the first Mexican-American to be buried at Arlington National Cemetery.  This incident propelled the American GI Forum into the forefront of the Mexican-American civil rights movement and brought attention to the plight of discrimination against Mexican-American war veterans.  Pvt. Longoria is to the Mexican-American civil rights movement as Rosa Parks is to the Black civil rights movement.  I am disappointed that this long overdue recognition of Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria and his contribution to the history and culture of Mexican-Americans throughout our great country are again being questioned.  

During my research phase of Pvt. Felix Longoria, which began in March 2002, I noticed that it wasn’t until I brought the idea of recognizing Pvt. Longoria for his role in Mexican-American civil rights that there was an “opposition.”   The “opposition” decided to push to recognize all the veterans instead of just Pvt. Longoria.  If the “opposition” was so supportive of the veterans, they should have thought about renaming the post office then and not until I brought the idea of recognizing Pvt. Longoria to Congressman Lloyd Doggett in February 2004.  The local veterans have been respectfully recognized with the following:

·        On April 30, 1935, Texas State Highway 281, which runs through Three Rivers, Texas, is designated as the “American Legion Memorial Highway” and is dedicated to all of the deceased veterans of all wars.   This highway serves as the only highway in the nation dedicated to such a cause.

·        The Live Oak County Municipal Airport displays a marble monument with the names of the Live Oak County veterans.

·        The VFW and American Legion War Martial is a Texas historical marker erected in 1967 and is located on the Live Oak County Courthouse lawn in George West, Texas.  It is in memory of those who served, and gave their lives for freedom and defense of their country.   

           Three Rivers, George West, and Live Oak County have more than enough honors for veterans and it is obvious that certain people are against promoting the civil rights history of Americans of Mexican descent and are trying the brush the name of their native son, Pvt. Felix Longoria, under the rug.  It is difficult to change the status quo of Three Rivers, or the way things are.  Why?  Because the status quo tends to block solutions to the needs of Mexican-Americans.   Because power concentrations usually run on established tracks that have not traditionally taken the Mexican-American into account.  Because Mexican-Americans have always been a part of American society.  Because we need to discover and then articulate how we have always been here and what we have done.  Because many of the citizens of Three Rivers, Texas and around this great state do not know about our Mexican-American accomplishments and the nature of the lives of previous generations.  Because Mexican-Americans have not been seen as players, participants, and doers.  I urge you to also consider the following facts:

·        Published in 2003 by the University of Texas Press, a book written by Patrick Carroll, a Professor of History at Texas A&M University in Corpus Christi, Texas, and entitled, “Felix Longoria’s Wake: Bereavement, Racism, and the Rise of Mexican-American Activism,” provides the first fully researched account of the Pvt. Longoria’s funeral arrangements and its far-reaching consequences.  By putting Pvt. Longoria’s wake in a national and international context, Mr. Carroll clarifies why it became such a flash point for conflicting understandings of bereavement, nationalism, reason, and emotion between two powerful cultures---Mexicanidad and Americanism.

·        A resolution (#6058), signed by Mayor Felipe Martinez, was passed by the city of Three Rivers, Texas on April 12, 2004 stating that the Three Rivers City Council had no opposition in renaming the post office in recognition of Pvt. Felix Longoria.

·        A resolution, signed by Mayor Felipe Martinez, was passed by the city of Three Rivers, Texas on April 11, 2005 proclaiming April 16, the birth date of Pvt. Felix Longoria, as “Pvt. Felix Z Longoria Day.”  This became the first time a Mexican-American from Three Rivers, Texas was recognized with their own day.

·        A march to celebrate “Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria Day” was conducted in Three Rivers, Texas on April 16, 2004 and attended by many local citizens, politicians, the Longoria family and Hispanic advocacy groups.  A 21-gun salute conducted by the American Legion Post 633 concluded this successful event.

·        Texas House State Representative Yvonne Gonzalez-Toureilles introduced H.R. 1843 recognizing Pvt. Felix Longoria on May 27, 2005 on the House floor.

·        I have received letters of support from the Tejano Democrats, MALDEF, the National Association of Letter Carriers, LULAC, Mr. Patrick Carroll, the National Council of La Raza, and Mr. Henry Cisneros, just to name a few.

·        An article written by Three Rivers columnist, Mrs. Celia Ruiz, dated August 25, 2004 for the local newspaper in which she states, “A great injustice was done to Pvt. Felix Longoria.  We need to restore the honor to his name and regain the dignity back to our hometown.  This is our one chance to redeem ourselves and correct this by naming the Three Rivers post office in his honor.”   She continues to state, “If we do not do it now, the world will not care.  They will only continue to say, ‘Nothing has really changed in Three Rivers.’”

·        An editorial on the Corpus Christi Caller Times dated August 18, 2004 in which the article states, “..the council members-confronted by a rare second chance-should do the right thing: formally endorse the name change honoring Longoria-and, by extension, the civil rights struggle of which he became a symbol.”  

         I have sent you letters dated November 15, 2006 and January 4, 2007 to your Washington office and district office in Beeville, Texas requesting meetings with you to discuss the post office issue.  On November 14, 2006 at approximately 12:00pm, I spoke to Mrs. Judy McAda from your district office in Beeville, Texas and made such a request.  When she asked what my concern was about and asked for my name, she stated, “I recognize your name.  The constituents already have spoken about that issue and they don’t want that.”  Mrs. McAda appeared very frustrated that I had brought this issue up again and stated, “I’ll call you back if the Congressman wants to meet with you.”  It appeared as though Mrs. McAda already had made a decision for you and has yet to return my phone calls.  Your Washington office, on the other hand, was more professional and courteous toward my request and I appreciate the help of Mrs. Bernadatte Laniak.  Not only does she return my phone calls, she also takes the time to email me and request information on your behalf.  

          On July 22, 2004, during the second session of the 108th Congress, you cosponsored H.R. 4911, introduced by Congressman Lloyd Doggett, which would have designated the post office in Three Rivers, Texas as the “Private Felix Z. Longoria Veteran’s Post Office,”  which would have satisfied the “opposition’s” request of recognizing veterans and our request of recognizing Pvt. Longoria.  With all due respect, I have to ask: Why did you omit Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria’s name from H.R. 915, a bill you are sponsoring?  Are you aware how disrespectful this is to Pvt. Felix Longoria’s heroic service in World War II, our Mexican-American veterans, to the Longoria family, and to the American GI Forum?  Being Mexican-American yourself, do you know how symbolic the recognition of Pvt. Longoria, coming from you, would have meant to many Mexican-Americans around this community, this state, and this nation?   

           Therefore, on behalf of the Private Felix Z. Longoria Chapter of the American GI Forum of Texas and the Longoria family, I would like to remind you that it is not a duty to recognize Pvt. Felix Longoria, but a privilege and I respectfully request that you reconsider H.R. 915 and designate the United States post office in Three Rivers, Texas as the, “Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria Veterans Memorial Post Office.”

Respectfully yours,  
Santiago R. Hernandez, Civil Rights Chairman
American GI Forum-Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria Chapter; Corpus Christi, Texas
cc:       Antonio Morales, National Commander; American GI Forum
            Dr. C. P. Garcia, State Commander; American GI Forum
            Willie Perez, Commander; American GI Forum-Pvt. Felix Longoria Chapter
            Rosa Rosales, National President; LULAC
            Janet Murguia, President; National Council of La Raza
            John Trasvina, President and General Counsel; MALDEF

Subject: Medal of Honor for Guy Gabaldon, Please give it to him
Sent: Wednesday, February 07, 2007 12:09 AM
I've read his account many times from different sources, I've seen his story in the battle of Saipan movies. I truly believe this kid from the hard knock streets of East L.A. is a true American hero. What he did helped end the battle on that island, and undoubtedly saved dozens of US marine lives. The battle dead ratio was about 35:1 so if he brought back 1,000 enemy pow's, then he saved 28 American lives.
He risked his life not once but dozens of times, and put himself in harms way. In a split second he could have been rushed and shot, but he kept his cool, Chicano style, American style, he was the hero of the moment, all the right moves. I don't think there would be another Havard or Yale grad. that could do what he did. He should be given the Medal of Honor.
It also shows learning the language of your adversary is a great advantage.
Please give it to him.
Sincerely yours, 
Ted Cheng
San Gabriel, Ca. 91776
Tel: 626-757-1771 cell

U.S. Postal Stamp, Mendez v. Westminster School District 60th Anniversary

Mendez v. Westminster School District
A World War II-era legal case in which a group of civic-minded parents in California successfully sued to end segregation based on national origin in their schools, Mendez et al. v. Westminster School District of Orange County et al., will be remembered on a U.S. postage stamp during its 60th anniversary.

As immigrants who came to the United States when they were children, Gonzalo and Felicitas Mendez dreamed the American dream. He was born in Mexico and she was from Puerto Rico, but they met and married in California. So it came as an insult when, in 1944, the elementary school in Westminster, a farm community south of Los Angeles where Gonzalo and Felicitas made their home, closed its doors to their three children.

Segregated public schools were common at that time. In California and throughout the Southwest, children of Mexican descent attended specially designated and frequently inferior "Mexican school" facilities.

Discriminatory practices were also common in movie theaters where Mexican patrons were required to sit in the balcony and at public swimming pools where they were welcome only on designated "Mexican days."

After the Mendez children were turned away from the Westminster School in the autumn of 1944, Mr. Mendez discussed the situation with school officials. The school board offered his children "special admission"- but on March 2, 1945, Gonzalo Mendez and several other Latino parents sued four school districts (Westminster, Santa Ana, Garden Grove, and El Modena) on behalf of some 5,000 children. Their groundbreaking lawsuit became known as
Mendez v. Westminster.

Arguing for the plaintiffs in court, attorney David Marcus attacked the prevailing notion of "separate but equal," a rationalization that it was acceptable to offer separate public facilities based on national origin or other criteria so long as the facilities were comparable. Marcus argued that they were not comparable, presenting testimony from parents and students as
well as sociologists and educators, who testified that "separate but equal" treatment made children feel inferior and prevented them from entering mainstream American culture.

The plaintiffs argued successfully that such practices on the part of California schools violated their constitutional rights. On Feb. 18, 1946, Federal District Judge Paul J. McCormick ruled that merely providing the same textbooks, courses, and comparable facilities in separate schools doesn't give students equal protection under the law, and that social equality is "a paramount requisite" in America's public school system.

The school districts appealed, but the decision was upheld when the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled on April 14, 1947, that the schools could not segregate on the basis of national origin. On June 14, 1947, a bill outlawing segregated schools was signed into law by California Governor Earl Warren, who later was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court.

The Mendez decision set an important precedent for cases in other states and at the national level. In 1954, Warren was chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court when it issued its ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, declaring segregation illegal nationwide. Earlier, Thurgood Marshall was one of the authors of a "friend of the court" brief submitted by the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in the Mendez case. That brief later served as a model for the argument used in Brown v. Board of Education. The American Civil Liberties Union, the American Jewish Congress and the Japanese American Citizens League were also among those who filed friend of the court briefs in the Mendez case.

In 1998 the Santa Ana School Board named a new school in honor of Gonzalo and Felicitas Mendez. An exhibit commemorating the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History included details on Mendez v. Westminster as well. In 2004, the Mendez family was honored at the White House for playing an important part in the history of American civil rights.

According to stamp art director and designer Ethel Kessler, the illustration by Rafael Lopez, a native of Mexico City who maintains his studio in San Diego, California, "masterfully integrated the look of the Mexican muralists with the idea of looking forward to the light." The stamp typography is by Greg Berger.

Freelance illustrator Lopez also created one of four stamps honoring the contributions of Latino art to American culture, the Merengue stamp of the "Let's Dance" stamp sheet, which also featured the Cha-cha-chá, Salsa and Mambo. The "Let's Dance" stamps were issued in September 2005.

Sent by

artist: Carlos Callejo

Dear Friend,

Please support the grassroots efforts of the "Cesar E. Chavez National Holiday Coalition".

Cesar was in Sen. Robert F. Kennedy's words, "one of the heroic figures of our time." He led the historic non-violent movement for farm worker rights and dedicated himself to building a
movement of poor working people that extended beyond the fields  and into cities and towns across the nation.

He inspired farm workers and millions of people who never worked on a farm to commit themselves to social, economic and civil rights activism. Cesar's legacy, like the legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., continues to educate, inspire and empower people from all walks of life. He is a role model for all Americans and for generations to come.

Please help us ensure all Americans learn about Cesar's life and work. The Cesar Chavez National Holiday Coalition is gathering signatures on petitions asking Congress to designate March 31, Cesar's birthday and the day the UFW was founded, as Cesar Chavez Day. Sign the petition today. Help ensure Cesar's legacy is recognized and celebrated throughout our nation with a federal paid holiday and a day of service and learning in our public schools.

Go to:

Mercy Bautista Olvera


U.S. Born Babies of Undocumented Face Challenges
La Prensa (Riverside), Posted: Feb 10, 2007
Sent by Howard Shorr

Riverside, Calif.—Latinas give birth to more babies in the U.S. than other ethnic group, but many obstacles stand in the way of those who are undocumented, reports Southern California’s Spanish-language weekly La Prensa. Latinas working in the U.S. without papers are the least likely to take maternity leave compared to women of other ethnicities. One Latina said she had to quit her job in order to have a baby. Many undocumented Latinas are also afraid to go to the hospital. In 2005, of 550,000 babies that were born in California, 283,000 were Latino and more than half were of undocumented mothers, according to the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2013, six out of ten children born in the U.S. will be born from a Latina mother, according to the California Department of Finance.

March 31, 2003, 
Dorinda Moreno, Award Recipient, 
Cesar E, Chavez & Robert F. Kennedy: Lifetime Achievement Award
Celebrating a Legacy of Social Justice 

Photo above: Family and comadres at event: left to right, Irma Garcia Sinclar, John Kouns, Dorinda Moreno, Federico Chavez, Marcia Campos, Rose Rodriguez Gabaldon, Diane Woods, bottom, Mariana Chuquin.

Dorinda with John Kouns, photojournalist for the Cesar Chavez, United Farm Workers
Sent by Dorinda Moreno


Bilingual Education
February 27, 2007
The New York Times

Demand for English Lessons Outstrips Supply

MOUNT VERNON, N.Y. - Two weeks after she moved here from her native Brazil, Maria de Oliveira signed up for free English classes at a squat storefront in this working-class suburb, figuring that with an associate's degree and three years as an administrative assistant, she could find a good job in America so long as she spoke the language.
The woman who runs the classes at Mount Vernon's Workforce and Career Preparation Center added Ms. Oliveira's name to her pink binder, at the bottom of a 90-person waiting list that stretched across seven pages. That was in October. Ms. Oliveira, 26, finally got a seat in the class on Jan. 16.
"I keep wondering how much more I'd know if I hadn't had to wait so long," she said in Portuguese.
As immigrants increasingly settle away from large urban centers - New York's suburbs have had a net gain of 225,000 since 2000, compared with 44,000 in the city - many are waiting months or even years to get into government-financed English classes, which are often overcrowded and lack textbooks.
A survey last year by the National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials found that in 12 states, 60 percent of the free English programs had waiting lists, ranging from a few months in Colorado and Nevada to as long as two years in New Mexico and Massachusetts, where the statewide list has about 16,000 names.
The United States Department of Education counted 1.2 million adults enrolled in public English programs in 2005 - about 1 in 10 of the 10.3 million foreign-born residents 16 and older who speak English "less than very well," or not at all, according to census figures from the same year. Federal money for such classes is matched at varying rates from state to state, leaving an uneven patchwork of programs that advocates say nowhere meets the need.
"We have a lot of folks who need these services and who go unserved," said Claudia Merkel-Keller of the New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, noting that her state has waiting lists in every county, "from beginner all the way through proficient level." New Jersey, like New York and many other states, does not keep statewide figures on how many people are on waiting lists.
Luis Sanchez, 47, a Peruvian truck driver for a beer distributor in New Brunswick, has been in this country 10 years - and on the waiting list for English classes in Perth Amboy five months. "You live from day to day, waiting to get the call that you can come to class," Mr. Sanchez said in Spanish, explaining that he knew a little English but wanted to improve his writing skills so he could apply for better jobs. "I keep on waiting."
Mr. Sanchez is unlikely to get the call soon: Perth Amboy's Adult Education Center recently discovered that it was operating in the red and canceled 9 of its 11 evening classes in English as a second language, including all at beginner and intermediate levels. In Orange County, N.Y., where the immigrant population doubled in the past 16 years, the Board of Cooperative Education Services' adult education program has stopped advertising for fear its already overflowing beginner classes will be overwhelmed.
In Framingham, Mass., 20 miles west of Boston, hundreds of people used to spend the night in line to register for English as a second language, so the program now selects students by picking handwritten names from a big plastic box.
"With the lottery, everyone has the same chance," said Christine Taylor Tibor, director of Framingham's Adult E.S.L. Plus program. "Unfortunately, you might have to enter the lottery several times before you get in."
Census figures show that in the United States there were 32.6 million foreign-born residents 18 years or older in 2005, up about 18 percent from the 27.5 million counted in 2000 (and nearly twice the 17.1 million in 1990). Federal spending on adult education, about $580 million last year, has increased 23 percent since 2000 and more than tripled since 1990; some 45 percent of the money is devoted to English.
But financing varies widely across the states, which are required to allocate at least one quarter of what was provided by the federal government: Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota and Texas spent the minimum in 2003, according to the Education Department, while California and Connecticut each spent about seven times that.
In New York, the state Education Department added $76 million to the federal government's $43 million for the 2005 fiscal year. That year, according to a recent report by the Center for an Urban Future, a nonprofit research group based in Manhattan, there were about 86,500 people enrolled in government-sponsored adult programs for English as a second language, serving about 5 percent of the state's 1.6 million adults with limited English skills.
Last fall, Arizona voters approved an initiative banning illegal immigrants from benefiting from all state-financed programs, including English instruction; administrators of English-as-a-second-language classes in several other states said they do not check for documentation when registering students and thus do not know how many of them may be in the country illegally.
Advocates for more English classes say the state-federal financing split leaves an adult education system whose quality and reach vary widely from place to place - and is lacking most everywhere. Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee, where the immigrant population has tripled since 1990, largely because of an influx of Mexicans, sponsored a bill last year that would have given legal immigrants $500 vouchers to pay for English classes since so many of the free ones were full.
"Most education policy is the prerogative of state and local governments, but I would argue that the prerogative to help people learn our common language is a federal responsibility," said Senator Alexander, aRepublican who was education secretary under the first President George Bush. "If we make it easier for people to learn English, they will learn it. I think that ought to be a priority of our government, and I don't think it has been."
The government-financed classes are most often run by school districts or worker training centers and generally require only a registration fee of perhaps $10. Libraries, churches and community centers often also provide free or inexpensive classes, like the English Language Institute at Westchester Community College in Valhalla, N.Y., which offers nine levels of instruction for $76 to $247 per three-month session. Then there are private programs like the one at Pace University in Pleasantville, N.Y., which costs $790 for two classes a week for 14 weeks.
With immigrants accounting for half of the growth in the nation's labor force from 1990 and 2000, and expected to make up all of the growth in the two decades to come, "the issue of English proficiency has become an issue of economic development," said Tara Colton, the author of the Center for an Urban Future report. Indeed, some business owners, frustrated at the lack of low-cost classes, have begun teaching immigrants English at work.
At Skyline Furniture Manufacturing Inc. in Thornton, Ill., a suburb of Chicago, about half of the company's 60 employees have learned English at the factory over the past five years, under a state program in which the government pays to bring teachers to work sites if companies pay workers for the hours in class.
"It makes sense to us because our workers can do their jobs better, and it makes sense to them because they can advance in their jobs," said Cinthia Nowakowski, the plant's manager, adding that three of the company's eight foremen were promoted after completing the program. "Besides, it's convenient. The guys don't have to worry about having to arrange transportation to get to school or getting there and finding that there's no room in the class."
In Newburgh, N.Y., an Orange County town where one in five of the 29,000 residents are immigrants, Blanca Saravia has amassed an impressive portfolio of odd jobs since arriving from Honduras in 2004: gas station attendant, office janitor, cook's helper, and, for the last 14 months, packager at a local nail-polish factory. Speaking in her native Spanish, Ms. Saravia said that she has been able to get by with co-workers' translating, but that "when the boss gives orders, I don't understand."
So earlier this month, Ms. Saravia joined 30 others in a cramped classroom learning to conjugate the verb "to be" as part of the adult English program in Orange County, where the immigrant population doubled in the last decade - and the number of free English classes has jumped to 26 from 2 in 1995.
"If I tell her, 'We're full, come back in a couple of months,' chances are she'll get discouraged and never come back," said Ramón Santos, who runs the Newburgh program.
Carl DeJura, director of adult basic education at Brookdale Community College in Long Branch, N.J., said he has lately crammed as many as 40 students into a class - "double what it should be."
"If you have to cut back on textbooks, supplies and materials to serve the people who need it," he said, "that's what you do."
In Mount Vernon, Haitian, Chinese, Somali, Arab, Mexican and Brazilian students flock to the beginner class each morning at 8:30 before heading out to work or to look for work. Ahmed Al Saidi, 49, who works at a gas station and moved from Yemen in 1994, said in halting English that he wants to learn the language "for better work and to talk to people when I go to the store."
Ms. Oliveira, the immigrant from Brazil, said she still knows too little English to venture into the marketplace; her husband, who is American born and supports the couple financially, encouraged her to enroll in the classes, held five mornings a week.

"I hope that when I'm speaking a little better, I'll be able to find a job where I can use the English I learned here and the skills I have from back home," she said in Portuguese. "When I was on the waiting list, there were times I thought this time would never come."

Sent by Carlos Munoz, Ph.D.

117 Individual languages require translation in federal courts.

Spanish leads the list at 95 percent—that's 205,550 calls for an interpreter. The number of cases requiring language help has seen double-digit growth in recent years, owing to an increase in immigration filings. Certified interpreters are paid $355 per day and $50 per hour overtime. Certification programs are in place for Spanish, Navajo, and Haitian-Creole. The pay is good even for non-certified interpreters:

$171 per day. For information about becoming an interpreter, go to

Spanish 205,550
Mandarin 1,480
Vietnamese 988
Arabic 908
Korean 871
Cantonese 868
Russian 610
Portuguese 492
Haitian-Creole 447
Punjabi 375




Letter by Dr. Hector P. Garcia, October 30, 1947
South Texas War Dead Have Returned.
Sent by Daughter, Wanda Garcia 

On March 26th 1948, Dr. Hector P. Garcia founded of the American GI Forum. Many social historians identified that meeting as the beginning of the Hispanic Civil Rights movement. The meeting was held at the Lamar Elementary School in Corpus Christi, Texas.

Thirty six years later, March 26, 1984, Dr. Garcia was recognized for his service and received the highest U.S. Presidential honor given to a civilian, the Medal of Freedom from President Ronald Reagan.

Sixty Years later, the Problem is not solved.

Intolerable: Texas' high dropout rate will lower incomes while hobbling the state, Jan 31, 2007, Written by Editorial Board, Houston Chronicle

UNLESS self-correcting, a social problem cannot be relieved unless it is acknowledged. Most Texans and all of their elected representatives should be aware of this state's horrendous dropout problem, but the Intercultural Development Research Research Center in San Antonio has provided a useful and timely reminder.

According to the center, each year high school graduation classes in Texas have 120,000 fewer students than started high school. The center's researchers estimate that 2.5 million children have dropped out during the past 20 years.

Estimates vary widely, but the consensus of those who have studied the problem is that between one-fourth and one-third of Texas students leave school before graduating. Texans must be grateful the rate is not higher.

In urban areas such as Houston, the dropout rate climbs to 50 percent. For black, Hispanic and low-income students of any race or ethnicity, according to Eileen Coppola, a researcher with Rice University's Center for Education, the rate climbs to 60 percent.

Unless more students finish high school and go on to higher education, the state income level will drop as the cost for public safety and social services increases. While leaders in Austin say they recognize the problem and its gravity, little is done to change the governmental and financial equation.

In recent years the Houston Independent School District has adopted an antidropout approach novel for its simplicity and directness. Educators and volunteers seek out students who don't show up in class and urge them to come back to school.

A spokesman for Houston Mayor Bill White noted in an e-mail that White writes to all ninth-graders, urging them to pledge to stay in school. Expectation: graduation, a partnership between the mayor, HISD and other school districts, retrieved a reported 1,300 dropouts last year and returned them to school.

State Rep. Rick Noriega, D-Houston, is right to say that if Texans and their representatives tolerate a dropout rate of 30 percent to 40 percent year after year, spending a paltry $275 per student in dropout prevention and college readiness, low graduation rates will become the state's de facto public policy. The financial and social costs visited on Texas will be capable of inducing shock and awe.

Sent by Larry Luera


Youth, Identity, Power
Dr. Carlos Munoz realized the need for self-identity among Latinos in 1968.  He writes: " That's why some of us decided to create Chicano Studies back in 1968. 
I am proud to say that we have produced lots of books aimed at documenting our missing chapter in U.S. history. My book on the Chicano movement won a book award but I get lots more satisfaction when I hear from a young man or woman who tell me about how much pride they feel after reading my book. It remains a best seller since it was published in 1989. I am now working on the 2nd edition after 13 printings."

Hard Copy, $60
Paperback, $20. Carlos Munoz, Jr.

Editor: I don't know of any book that has been published 13 times within a 35 year period.
Bravo to Dr. Munoz!!  
Forwarded by Dr. Armando Ayala, Viola Sadler, Elsa Herbeck
Chicana persistence in higher education

From: "Pedro Ramirez"
Date: January 31, 2007 11:00:42 PM PST
To: Joaquin Galvan

We have a student who enrolled at UC Berkeley this year and found some staggering numbers focusing on Chicana and Chicano achievement rates...these are sobering reminders of the work that we all need to continue to fight for. Please post this on the list-serve, gracias, Pedro

Hey Mr. Ramirez:

I hope that all is going well for you. I was just e-mailing you to say hello and to share something incredibly shocking that I found while gathering information for a research project.

I am currently working with a group of students on some research regarding undocumented college students at community colleges and their sense of belonging at these institutional settings.

While trying to find some previous research on my topic, I ran into some disturbing statistics that I just needed to share with you and other Chicano educators. Perhaps you've seen these statistics before. Nevertheless I find the need to share this information again and again.

I was disturbed to find that out of 100 CHICANA students , 56 are expected to drop out at some point in the K-12 educational pipeline, and only 44 will go on to graduate from High School. 

Of the 44 who graduate from High School, only 24 will on to community colleges and only 11 will go to a 4-year institution. 

Hence, most CHICANA students who pursue a postsecondary education will enter a community college. Unfortunately, of the 13 students who begin at the community college, only 1 will transfer
to a 4-year institution. Furthermore, of the 11 students who went directly to a 4-year college, 7 persist into 3rd year of college. Next, whether their college experience began by transferring from community college or at a 4-year university, only 6 CHICANA students will graduate with a
baccalaureate degree. Finally, 2 students will continue on to graduate from a graduate or professional school, and less than 1 (yes less than 1 !!!) will receive a doctorate degree.

Shocking isn't it? But that's not all!
In addition, at the postsecondary level, although there have been absolute or numerical increases in CHICANA/LATINA college enrollment in the last 20 years, there are three patterns that have been observed by Social Scientist that prove this increase to be no more then a simple disclaimer:
1. the increase is not proportionate to the overall growth of the CHICANA/LATINA population
2. the increase is located in 2 year community colleges from which the transfer rate to 4 year institutions is low 
3. and finally there is a disproportionate number of part-time college students These conditions only begin to explain the educational inequalities that lead dismal educational outcomes for CHICANA/LATINA students. Not to forget cultural and language barriers.

Though this particular document that I was reading only concerns CHICANA/LATINA students I hope that you share this with the entire Puente Class. In the bottom of my heart I know that Puente is doing the right thing by helping change these statistics. On the road to my personal research topic of undocumented community college students and their sense of belonging in institutional settings I have found some shocking information that I wish to share with Chicano educators like yourself.
This e-mail is not to discourage or degrade our community but to simply become aware of the problem that our community faces. I hope that by sharing this to the Puente Class, students will realize that there is a true need to young Chicanos and Chicanas in education. I just want to say

(the statistical information was based on Daniel G. Solorzano and Armida Ornelas' article "A Critical Race Analysis of Advanced Placement Classes: A Case of Educational Inequality")

- Arnold SJDC Puentista

by Terrance Poppa

About a billionaire Mexican drug lord who flew the skies with 727s loaded with cocaine, about Mexican presidential families with tens of millions of dollars of reputed payoffs stashed in Swiss bank accounts, about people routinely machine-gunned to death in border town turf battles, about a borderland seemingly turned into a safe haven for traffickers by government eager to cash in on the drug trade. 

Demand Publications of Seattle is proud to present to you the only book that has ever penetrated the secrets of the Mexican underworld and made sense of the growing volume of media reports about this disturbing reality. 

Drug Lord, by award winning journalist Terrence Poppa, a tale of drug dealing, murder and endemic corruption that reaches into the highest levels of the Mexican government. It is a first-hand account that focuses on Pablo Acosta, a border bandit and drug baron who smuggled a staggering sixty tons of cocaine per year into the United States.  
Using materials based on daring interviews with Acosta and other narcotics traffickers, the author traces the drug lord's rise and fall: from humble beginnings, his evolution in the border criminal underworld, the succession of drug lords who controlled the region's crime until Pablo Acosta was able to take over with the help of high-level protection within the government of Mexico. 

Go to the website for a Foreword, Cast of Characters, Table of Contents, and Sample Chapter

There are vivid descriptions of shoot outs, showdowns and OK Corral gunfights over control of the region's crime operations, most notably the drug smuggling up and down the border. There are action-packed profiles of the people surrounding the drug lord, and 
insights into the political system that allowed all of this to happen. Chapter after chapter, it is a unique voyage into the heart of a treacherous nether world. 

In this web site, we are offering you a rare glimpse of this world and an introduction to a book that is worthy of the attention of anyone concerned about the exploding drug problems of America today. You will find photos taken by the author of Pablo Acosta only six months before the drug lord's death in a muddy Rio Grande village. You will learn about the early career of Amado Carrillo Fuentes, Pablo Acosta's partner who later became one of the most powerful drug traffickers in the world - "The Lord of the Skies." 

You can hear selections of taped interviews with the Mexican drug lord, who, in broken English, between swigs of El Presidente brandy and tokes of crack laced Marlboro cigarettes, brags to the author about murders, smuggling, payoffs, charitable works, and much much more. 

Additionally, you will find selections from this book, one of them an analysis of the structure of crime protection in Mexico, and a sample chapter showing how this nefarious system used and used up a series of traffickers even before Pablo Acosta came on the scene. An insightful foreword to Drug Lord written by Peter Lupsha, an internationally recognized expert on drug trafficking and transnational organized crime, places the importance of this book in its context and explains the extraordinary circumstances surrounding the books origin. 

Finally, we are offering you the opportunity to order this fascinating book directly from the publisher. For your convenience, we have set up a toll-free line to take your order and have your copy sent the very same day! Or, you can opt to email an order form or send a check or money order.

Demand Publications
2608 Second Avenue, #2450, Seattle, WA 98121 Send check or money order 

Call toll free: 1 (888) 622-7311 or Call: (512) 288-5021 
Credit card: Visa, M/C, American Express, Discover (check other on-line bookstores too) All major credit cards 

Cost per single copy is $14.95 plus $3.95 for shipping and handling. Add $2.00 for shipping and handling for each additional copy. For information about institutional or retail discounts, please call our toll-free number.


Extract: Art Review of Martin Ramirez (1895-1963)
By Roberta Smith, New York Times,  January 26, 2007

Never-ending journey: A drawing by Martin Ramírez, who worked in the late 1920s on the railroad in Northern California.  Go to the article for the full text and site for more photos.

Sent by Roberto Camp y Lewis

The American Folk Art Museum’s transporting exhibition of the scroll-like drawings of the Mexican artist Martín Ramírez. Ramírez, who created the roughly 300 drawings that make up his known work between 1948 and 1963 while confined to a mental hospital in Northern California, is simply one of the greatest artists of the 20th century. He belongs to the group of accessible, irresistible genius draftsmen that includes Paul Klee, Saul Steinberg and Charles Schulz. Well selected and beautifully installed by Brooke Davis Anderson, a curator at the folk art museum, this show of 97 drawings, some mural-size, is the first museum exhibition of Ramírez’s work in New York and one of the best shows of the season.

He might orchestrate the curved lines into stepped, hivelike hills punctuated by dark tunnels where ornate trains and buglike cars or buses chug in or out along extravagantly banked roadways or railroad beds defined by further lines. The straight lines might form fluted, beautifully shaded proscenium stages that bring to mind old-time movie screens. Here we usually find the caballero aiming his pistol in one direction while pointing his reined-in steed in another, as if ready to wheel and dash to safety. 

Ramírez had an indelible style built on a supreme sense of economy and shot through with a mix of sly humor and sunny optimism that coats deeper, darker feelings. He had his own way with materials and color — buoyed by an unerring sensitivity to the power of blank paper — and a cast of unforgettable characters, including mounted caballeros, levitating Madonnas, and deer and dogs on high alert. But most of all Ramírez had his own brand of pictorial space, which he regulated with rhythmic systems of parallel lines, curved and straight. He played spatial illusion as if it were an accordion, expanding and contracting it in a mesmerizing play of stasis and movement.

He was thought to have migrated from Mexico around 1915, not 1925, to work on the railroads being built in Northern California, where he was hospitalized in the early 1930s and shortly thereafter found to have schizophrenia. He lived out his years in DeWitt State Hospital in Auburn, near Sacramento. (It was later discovered that the initial years of his confinement were at Stockton State Hospital.)

At DeWitt in 1948, a psychologist and artist of Finnish descent named Tarmo Pasto discovered Ramírez and began to save the large drawings he made on available bits of paper glued together with a paste made of bread or potatoes and saliva. In the first gallery at the Folk Art Museum, note the handle of a brown-paper shopping bag at the top edge of a tall, narrow landscape dominated by winding stairs interspersed with white churches and roadside chapels.

Dr. Pasto began bringing Ramírez art materials, and at one point lived on the grounds of DeWitt, a former Army camp, so he could observe Ramírez every day. In the early ’50s he helped arrange four solo shows of Ramírez’s work, most of them on college campuses, including Syracuse. In 1955 Dr. Pasto sent 10 drawings to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, but never heard back. A museum intern rediscovered them in the mid-1990s, and they were officially accessioned in 1997; all of them have been lent to this exhibition.

“Martín Ramírez” continues through April 29 at the American Folk Art Museum, 45 West 53rd Street, Manhattan; (212) 265-1040. It will also be seen at the Milwaukee Art Museum, Oct. 6 through Jan. 6, 2008.

Artist Carlos Callejo 

(1995) Google Video of Carlos Callejo briefly talks about his mural "Our History." The mural is located inside the atrium of the El Paso County Courthouse. The video includes a marvelous view of the whole mural.. . which is huge, covers both sides of the wall, the back, and the ceiling too.  Stunning . . . take the time. It is a 2 minute, 35 seconds video by Marisal video.  The figures are active, caught in motion, varying sizes, proud, respected. vibrant colors. Periods of times tripping over themselves. 

The sculpture on the left eventually ecame a realization.  The commission was given to a sculpturer.  Happily, he writes: " I was able to give  my input to the selection committee--- Being that I am a muralist not a sculpturer --I wanted to create a glass mosaic on the surface of the base that held the sculpture."


Melanie Slone
Hispanic Marketing 101
voice: (760) 434-7474
Latino Print Network · 2777 Jefferson St., · Ste. 200 · Carlsbad · CA · 92008

Exciting online contest that Macy’s will start on from March 1st. We hope many Latinas can add their votes to nominate a very special candidate:  Macy’s proudly invites you and people you know to raise their voice and nominate their favorite Latina candidate to become the Macy’s Community Star. Macy’s wants to recognize Latinas that give something back to their community and we know there is someone out there that has the characteristics of this Community Star.  

Karina Barrionuevo
account services / planning vision + culture + strategy= latinvoxt 
(415) 946 2454 x. 12c (510) 725 2718576 Folsom St, 1st floor
San Francisco, CA 94105

Sent by Theresa Ynzunza, President of the National Latina Business Women Association


Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce
Advocacy on state and federal issues has been a priority of the L.A. Area Chamber of Commerce since 1888. As the oldest business organization in Los Angeles, our founders understood the powerful and essential role that business could play in lobbying for the best interests of the community in Sacramento and Washington, D.C.  For 118 years the Chamber has been a trustee of the region, not simply an advocate for business on business legislation.

As trustees for the future we must champion economic growth and quality of life for the L.A. region. Our mission is to ensure the growth and sustainability of this region, which has been blessed with so many physical assets and a constant flow of talented people.

We implement this mission by championing an annual advocacy agenda, which in broad terms, sets forth the most important initiatives that the L.A. region needs addressed in our state and nation's capitol. Our top priorities for 2007 include:

+ Improve California’s business climate for existing companies and entrepreneurs, while enhancing our image as a state that welcomes and embraces companies that offer the promise of creating new and higher paying jobs.
+Ensure that California businesses are not overly burdened by excessive taxation, government regulations, workplace standards and other employer costs that cause companies to select other locations. 
+Invest in the unique status of L.A. as one of the world’s leading international ports and airports.
+Relieve congestion and gridlock to assure that the transportation infrastructure of our region meets the demands of citizens, businesses and the goods movement industry in the 21st century.
Achieve full health care access and lower costs for all Californians.
Increase the availability of affordable housing and reform the state’s land use laws to assure adequate housing. 
+Reward and recognize public schools that dramatically improve their high school graduation rates and increase the number of students who pursue post-secondary education.
+Implement environmental policy that, through incentives rather than penalties, balances and promotes public health and economic growth.
+Develop a national immigration policy that addresses the economic realities of our future work force needs and recognizes the positive contributions that immigrants, both past and current, have had on the California economy.  

The Chamber cannot make progress in these important initiatives if we act alone. We will seek to build coalitions with other organizations with which we share common goals. When we visit Washington, D.C. in March and Sacramento in May, we will go in partnership with other business organizations and local government officials who share this common vision for the future of our region. 

Most importantly we need you. Learn more about our advocacy agenda and sign up now for Access Washington, D.C., March 26 - 29. There is no substitute for individuals and business owners who take the time to communicate with their legislators.  

There is no more important effort in which we must engage.  It was true 118 years ago and it is true today. 

And that’s The Business Perspective. 

Gary L. Toebben
President & CEO
Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce

The Business Perspective is a weekly opinion piece by Gary Toebben, President & CEO of the Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce, produced with the input of Senior Policy Advisor Rusty Hammer.

Sent by Cecilia Mota

Extract: Immigrants boost most California workers' pay By Susan Ferriss - Bee Staff Writer, Sacramento Bee,  February 27, 2007

A just-released analysis of four decades of Census data found that immigrants have increased rather than decreased the wages of most native-born workers in California.

Between 1990 and 2000 alone, when new immigrants accounted for a 20-percent increase in California's employment, the average real wages of native workers in California rose by 4 percent, according to Giovanni Peri, a University of California at Davis economist.

Native-born high school dropouts, the group assumed to suffer the most negative impact, saw the least gain - 0.2 percent - which is "not much, but it's certainly not a negative," Peri said in an interview.

"In the end it's the data that tells me this," Peri said. "It seems to me there is no hard economic ground for believing that immigrants hurt natives' wages."

Peri produced the report, "How Immigrants Affect California Employment and Wages," for the Public Policy Institute of California in San Francisco.

Peri analyzed wage rates for workers based on age and education levels and found some differences among groups when it came to wage increases.

In his report, which was released Tuesday afternoon, he wrote: "These results should certainly be taken into account by policy-makers as they consider immigration reform. The findings would seem to defuse one of the most inflammatory issues for those who advocate measures aimed at 'protecting the livelihood of American citizens.' "

If California were a country, Peri pointed out, it would be second only to Russia in the number of immigrants it receives. The Golden State, he said, is worth studying to help decide future national policy.

He called what he found in his analysis "remarkable" because it contradicts previous research concluding that immigrants drive down wages for native-born workers because they increase the labor pool and pit immigrants against the native-born in direct competition.

Instead, Peri wrote, "in California, where immigrants are more concentrated, they are specialized in jobs and tasks more complementary to those of natives."

Peri found that between 1990 and 2004, natives with a high school diploma or a college degree saw wages increase by about 3 percent. Native workers with some college education saw wages increase by about 7 percent.

The group whose wages were driven down by continuing immigration, Peri said, are the foreign-born who arrived before 1990. Because they are in more direct competition with new immigrants, they lost between 17 and 20 percent of their real wage between 1990 and 2004, according to the analysis.

However, Peri said, this outcome is not necessarily grim for many immigrants who have been here longer because many have relatives - a wife or a son - who are new immigrants and they are able to pool resources for households.

Peri said he was able to isolate the impact of California's immigrant influx by isolating and controlling the data from other phenomenon that affect wages, including business cycles and technological changes.

Previous academic research by some other economists has focused on immigrants vs. native workers as a whole, or on African Americans only. Some reports found that black high school dropouts' saw their wages significantly depressed by immigrants.

Peri said he didn't divide the groups of workers he based his research by ethnic group.

He said he believes his research is more valid than many other studies, however, because he used more years of immigration and workplace data than many other studies and compared immigrants and the native-born based on age and education levels rather than as two whole groups.

"The skills are different," he said.

Immigrants with low levels of education are not competing with natives who are highly skilled, Peri said. He also said immigrant labor spurs the economy and boosts demand for natives to step into jobs that require more skill - even if it's the ability to speak English, including work as supervisors or more complex tasks. He cited construction work as an example.

"Natives come up and make supervisors," he said. "This shields them from the wage impact."   


Colorado to use inmates to fill migrant shortage
Tough laws passed last year against illegal immigration have created
a need for farmworkers.

By Nicholas Riccardi,
Times Staff Writer, February 28, 2007

Ever since passing what its Legislature promoted as the nation's toughest laws against illegal immigration last summer, Colorado has struggled with a labor shortage as migrants fled the state. This week, officials announced a novel solution: Use convicts as

The Department of Corrections hopes to launch a pilot program this month * thought to be the first of its kind * that would contract with more than a dozen farms to provide inmates who will pick melons, onions and peppers.

Crops were left to spoil in the fields after the passage of legislation that required state identification to get government services and allowed police to check suspects' immigration status.

"The reason this [program] started is to make sure the agricultural industry wouldn't go out of business," state Rep. Dorothy Butcher said. Her district includes the city of Pueblo, near the farmland where the inmates will work.

Prisoners who are a low security risk may choose to work in the fields, earning 60 cents a day. They also are eligible for small bonuses.

The inmates will be watched by prison guards, who will be paid by the farms. The cost is subject to negotiations, but farmers say they expect to pay more for the inmate labor and its associated costs than for their traditional workers.

Advocates on both sides of the immigration debate said they were stunned by the proposal.

"If they can't get slaves from Mexico, they want them from the jails," said Mark Krikorian of the Center for Immigration Studies in Washington, which favors restrictions on immigration.

Ricardo Martinez of the Denver immigrant rights group Padres Unidos asked: "Are we going to pull in inmates to work in the service industry too? You won't have enough inmates * unless you start importing them from Texas."

Farmers said they weren't happy with the solution, but their livelihoods are on the verge of collapse. "This prison labor is not a cure for the immigration problem, it's just a Band-Aid," said farmer Joe Pisciotta.

He said he needed to be sure he would have enough workers for the harvest this fall before he planted watermelons, onions and pumpkins on his 700-acre farm in Avondale. But he's not thrilled with the idea of criminals working his fields.

"I've got young kids," he said. "It's something I've got to think about."

Pisciotta said he hoped the program highlighted what he viewed as the absurdity of Colorado's position * dependent on immigrant labor but trying to chase migrants away. He said the people leaving were not just those who entered the country illegally.

"Some of them have said, 'We think our paperwork is in order, but how about if it's not and we get caught on a glitch,' " he said.

Ever since the Democratic-controlled Legislature took a tough turn on immigration, the new requirements have worried those in the country legally and illegally.

Immigrant advocates allege that some sheriffs have authorized deputies to pull over Latino drivers on supposed speeding violations and ask them whether they are in the country legally.

And more stringent requirements put into effect last year made it harder to get a driver's license. Numerous U.S. citizens, including the daughter of a state legislator, were refused licenses because they lacked proper proof of citizenship. A judge has since ruled that the requirements must be revised.

Social service agencies say they have discovered few illegal immigrants on public assistance since the laws were passed.

Immigrant and business groups agree that the heated rhetoric has led to an exodus of Latinos * though no one is sure how many. Businesses including car washes and construction firms have complained of a worker shortage.

"It's like, 'Don't go visit that house, there's a guy with a shotgun at the door,' " said state Rep. Rafael Gallegos, who represents a heavily Latino agricultural district in south-central Colorado. He voted against most of the legislation.

Farmers on Monday met with state officials at the Capitol here to discuss using inmate labor. The Department of Corrections expects to begin sending about 100 prisoners to work on farms near Pueblo this month.

Some of the state's 22,000 prisoners have agricultural experience. Convicts can participate in programs on prison grounds to break wild horses and grow crops. About 700 inmates work in other jobs outside prison, such as on fire crews.

Ari Zavaras, the executive director of the Department of Corrections, said he knew of no other prison system in the nation using convicts to fill agricultural labor shortages.

In California, where growers also have complained about a lack of workers, inmates have not labored in private fields since the 1940s. Prisoners then were used as farmhands while laborers were fighting in World War II, said Terry Thornton, a spokeswoman for the
California Department of Corrections.

"The idea [of using prisoners on farms] has been floated before, but these are not unskilled jobs. They're jobs that require a lot of training and supervision," said David Kranz, a spokesman for the California Farm Bureau Federation. "It doesn't seem like a very practical alternative."

Krikorian, of the Center for Immigration Studies, said the Colorado prison experiment was "a sign that there are solutions other than importing foreign labor."

He said "ultimately they're going to have to improve the wages and working conditions" to attract legal workers, as well as to mechanize parts of their farming operations.

Colorado's experience shows that hard-line measures have an effect on illegal immigrants, Krikorian added, noting that arrests had dropped along the U.S.-Mexico border since security was increased last year.

"We're seeing enforcement work, not just in Colorado," he said, "but all over the country."

Sent by Carlos Munoz, Ph.D.



March 31, 2003, 
Dorinda Moreno, Award Recipient, 
Cesar E, Chavez & Robert F. Kennedy: Lifetime Achievement Award
Celebrating a Legacy of Social Justice 

Photo above: Family and comadres at event: left to right, Irma Garcia Sinclar, John Kouns, Dorinda Moreno, Federico Chavez, Marcia Campos, Rose Rodriguez Gabaldon, Diane Woods, bottom, Mariana Chuquin.

Dorinda with John Kouns, photojournalist for the Cesar Chavez, United Farm Workers
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Anti-Spanish Legends

Our Hispanic Roots: What History Failed to Tell Us!
Historical question from a Los Angeles County Camp Youth Leader
Lost Vivaldi Opera Finally Gets its Music and Words Together

Our Hispanic Roots: What History Failed to Tell Us

February 23, 2007

Dear friend of Carlos B. Vega,

We are proud to announce the upcoming release of Carlos B. Vega’s new book Our Hispanic Roots: What History Failed to Tell Us!

The Hispanic contribution to the making of the United States has been blatantly glossed over by most historians for the past three hundred years, despite the gallant effort of a handful of them who sought to do justice and set the record straight. This misrepresentation of the historical facts has rendered a whole nation to become oblivious to its true beginnings and formation, crippling its character and jeopardizing its future. This book, based on established and undisputed historical records, is a new attempt to bring out the whole truth, to make us realize how this nation really came into being. The making of present-day United States did not begin in 1607, nor was it confined to thirteen unsettled colonies barely occupying a minute portion of a vast continent. We need to set the historical clock back and then forward, from 1513 on through well past 1776, and give due credit to Spain and other Hispanic countries, such as Mexico, for laying down many of the foundations that made us what we are today. We need also to be proud of our Hispanic heritage, and trumpet it with equal fervor and appreciation as we do it with other less deserving ones. It is only then that we would be able to define our character both as a nation and as a people.

We are offering you an opportunity to secure your personal copy of Carlos B. Vega’s exceptional book, at the special pre-release discount price of $19.95. Please fill out the coupon below and mail it today, or order online using the direct link shown at the top of this letter!

Make your check payable to PublishAmerica, 
and mail to P.O. Box 151, Frederick, MD 21705.

Paperback, 6" x 9", ISBN 1-4241-6582-2, 339 pp., retail $24.95, ships upon coming off the press. 
For orders outside the U.S.A., credit card payments only
. Please add the following for shipping: Canada (US)$3.50 for the first book, (US)$2.00 per each additional copy. For all other countries please add (US)$8.00 for the first book, (US)$5.00 per each additional copy.



Historical question. 
Date: 2/12/2007 
From: R. Hernandez HernRob7

Dear Ms. Lozano: I teach in a L.A. County youth camp.  The majority of student/minors are Latinos with a high percentage being of Mexican heritage (as I am).  I came across a theory, many years ago, that the "new world," was explored, conquered and dominated by former Spanish prisoners.  The idea: No person in their right mind wanted to follow Columbus, and those who followed him (particularly Cortez), to the New World.  To sail in uncharted seas full of creatures that would destroy their ships and consume them (some still believed that the earth was not round), was out of the question! King Fernando was given the idea to offer any prisoner the choice to remain in jail or freedom if they would inscribed as soldiers sailing for this new land. I've been searching for supporting documents, but have not found any.  A principal reason for this research and interest is motivated by a question a student asked me based on biological/sociological ideas, "Do some mestizos have an inclination toward criminal behavior?" "If so, was it passed on to us from our Spanish heredity?"  This question made me remember the Spanish prisoner in the New World theory.  Thank you for any information or direction you may lead me to.  R. Hernandez

P.S. Can you remember many years ago when Fidel Castro did something similar and Florida (especially Miami) was inundated with former Cuban prisoners, psychiatric patients and people considered rift-raft by the Cuban government?

Answer from Mimi Lozano

Dear R. Hernandez. . .

You are not going to find history to support that theory because it is totally incorrect.

Countries that were settled by the English many times sent criminals (Australia/New Zealand) or those in debt to a company, trying to pay it off.  Many were indentured servants.

Spain was trying to colonize, to settle vast areas.  They needed people that they could count on. . not only soldiers, but tradesmen.  They kept meticulous records which can still studied.  It was the best of the best that sailed.

Even those that might have sailed (to escape) were not criminals, they were most likely Spanish Jews.  Many Spanish Jews came to Mexico.  They were skilled, literate, visionaries.  Many came from families that had money, but were land poor because of the system of dividing land among children.  old saying . . first son>land, second son> priest, third son> military.   They came, married and stayed.

Our ancestors sailed in ships believing to be surrounded my sea monsters to lands filled with unknown creatures.  If there is anything in our DNA . . it is the genes for bravery and am ability with our hands that challenges most. 

Our youth have every reason to be proud of their ancestors.  If they would understand history they would be filled with a sense of wonder that in their veins is the potential for greatness.

Gangs and poverty grow out of ignorance . .

What Castro did was to meant to take our system down.  He was not practicing historical colonizing.  He was getting rid of his problems, with the purpose of causing problems in the U.S.

Please don't buy into the concept that we are inferior.  It is the furthest from the truth.  Look around and see that despite being put down for 500 years (in Europe and here), you and I are communicating.  We have not given up . . . we are not giving in. . . we are looking to improve life for those around us.  That is what we are capable of .   

Please go to the latest issue of Somos Primos and look at the 4 young Mexican students in the US that beat out the best US schools in the nation with their electronic robot. It is the first article under Education.  Let your kids read about that. That is US!!   The URL is below.  

I have added your email to receive monthly notification when the new issue of Somos Primos is online. You will find articles that will encourage your youth.  I also suggest that you look at the Somos Primos webpage, Celebrating Hispanic Heritage. That was written to help put some facts into the memory banks of our youth.

God bless you, Mimi

Mimi Lozano
Editor, Somos Primos
President, Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
P.O. Box 490
Midway City, CA  92655-0490
714-894-8161   fax: 714-898-7063   emagazine     <  Celebrating Hispanic Heritage
Answer from  John P. Schmal

I echo Mimi's thoughts that the "prisoner theory" is pretty far-fetched.  I never heard of it, although maybe it happened on some small level somewhere.  On the other hand, some Australians and New Zealanders do take pride in the fact that their ancestors came from England to Australia as prisoners and triumphed in their new land.  As a matter of fact, a couple of my German ancestors were wanted by the law when they came to the U.S.  (for dodging the draft and taking part in the 1848 revolution).
Every impression I have from my readings and research is that a lot of people from all over Spain were anxious to come to the Americas for new opportunities, and obviously they must have had a pretty adventurous spirit too.
Personally, I think that if we are going to be concerned about our genetic inheritance and the "bad genes" or "good genes," I would just look one or two generations back and go from there and remember that each of us makes choices. 

Each one of us has 2,048 great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandparents; that's a lot of DNA coming from a lot of different people. 

John (P. Schmal)

Dear Ms. Lozano and all those named who received the Cc's,

Un millon de gracias!  My students will benefit greatly from the wealth of information and resources you have provided me with.  I care about our locked up youth. I have to do my part to fulfill the educational condition of their probation.  I might as well make it worthwhile.   
R. Hernandez


You are very welcomed . .   to the facts.  Unfortunately, we have not had the support of having our history mainstreamed.  It is a terrible loss.  Everyone of those young people that end up in prison is a resource lost to our nation.  If those young people could understand that it was our ancestors who laid the foundation to this nation, they would feel a part of it . . Instead of dropping-out, they could shape it . . .
Our kids are so bright, creative, talented, strong, capable . . .  but their lives have been filled by people not seeing their worth.  

May the Lord bless you in your activities to guide them in meeting the challenges of life . . .

[[Editor:  It appears the European composers of the 1700s contributed to the Black Legend.]] 

Lost Vivaldi Opera Finally Gets its Music and Words Together  
by Alan Riding,  June 13, 2005

ROTTERDAM, the Netherlands, June 12 - Antonio Vivaldi returned to his hometown, Venice, early in 1733, eager to reclaim his place as the Venetian republic's most popular composer. During his five-year absence, younger Naples-trained musicians had come to the fore with their own "dramas with music," but now, at 55, Vivaldi was ready to take them on with a daringly modern opera inspired by Hernán Cortés's conquest of the Aztecs.

Forum: Opera: René Seghers for The New York Times  (The cover of the opera's libretto.)  How the work, "Motezuma," was received at its premiere at the Teatro di Sant'Angelo in Venice in the fall of 1733 is not known. But it can be assumed that it did not revive Vivaldi's fortunes. He wrote at least two more operas in Venice before moving to Vienna in March 1740 to seek the patronage of the Hapsburg Empire. And it was there, reportedly in a state of penury, that he died on July 28, 1741.

The existence of "Motezuma" has long been known, because its libretto survived, even inspiring Alejo Carpentier's 1974 novel, "Baroque Concert." Now, thanks to the efforts of a German musicologist, Steffen Voss, its score has also finally been found. And on Saturday evening, in a concert version at De Doelen, a concert hall here, lyrics and music were heard together, perhaps for the first time since 1733.

In reality, Mr. Voss came across only about 70 percent of the score when he was looking for lost Handel cantatas in the archives of the Sing-Akademie in Berlin in February 2002. Although the score's cover page was missing, since he was familiar with the libretto of "Motezuma," he immediately recognized the names of the voice parts and felt sure he had found a missing treasure. Kees Vlaardingerbroek, De Doelen's artistic director and himself a Vivaldi expert, agreed. "This is the most important Vivaldi discovery in 75 years," he said, "since Vivaldi's own archives were found in the 1920's."

Vivaldi's choice of the conquest of Mexico as his subject was unsurprising, since exotic stories set in distant lands were all the rage in 18th-century Europe. In 1755, Frederick the Great of Prussia himself wrote a fiercely anti-Catholic libretto for Carl Heinrich Graun's "Montezuma." And another "Montezuma" libretto a decade later by Vittorio Amedeo Cigna-Santi was set to music by no fewer than seven composers through 1781.

In Vivaldi's case, although it is uncertain whether the libretto was by Alvise Giusti or Girolamo Giusti, the author seemed less interested in history than in recounting a fictitious love story between the Aztec emperor's daughter, Teutile, and Cortés's brother, Ramiro. "Opera has a template," Mr. Talbot said. "Mismatched lovers at the beginning of an opera get matched by the end of the opera, and that's more important than whether it is set in Mexico or China."
Since the score for the first seven scenes is missing, Saturday's performance opened with Cortés already in control of the Aztec capital of Tenóchitlan. Motezuma - the librettist invented this spelling over the more familiar Montezuma or the Mexican Moctezuma, perhaps for simplicity's sake - is in despair, ready to order Teutile's death for falling in love with Ramiro. But Motezuma's strong-willed wife, Mitrena, stands up to Cortés.

Sent by John Inclan

Military and Law Enforcement Heroes
Austin post office renamed for Sgt. Henry Ybarra
U.S. Mexican, Latin American War Contributions at University of Texas
Book: Mexican Americans and World War II by Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez 
Honor your World War II Veterans 
Latinos & WWII, Interview of Carlos Samarron by Cliff Despres 
Michael E. Lopez-Alegria breaks U.S. Spacewalk Record
Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients Part 2 by Tony (The Marine) Santiago 
Permanent location for Legacy of Valor Display Being Considered


Austin post office renamed for fallen soldier 
                    HENRY YBARRA 
the first Austinite to die in the Iraq war.


U.S. Rep. Lloyd Doggett, D-Austin, sponsored legislation that passed in the U.S. House on Monday to rename the post office at 3903 S. Congress Ave. the Sergeant Henry Ybarra III Post Office Building. The name change needs Senate approval. 

"With this memorial naming, new generations will learn of Sgt. Ybarra's selfless sacrifice and be inspired by that service," Doggett said in a speech Monday in Washington. 

Ybarra was born and raised in South Austin. Shortly after graduating from Johnston High School, he followed in the footsteps of his father, a Vietnam veteran, by joining the Army. He served for 13 years. Ybarra helped supply his attack helicopter squadron with replacement parts during the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. 

He was survived by his wife, two daughters and a son.
Sent by Dan Arrellano

U.S. Mexican, Latin American War Contributions 
article by Halie Pratt, 6/5/06
The Daily Texan and Texas Student Publications

PFC Guy "Gabby" Gabaldon distinguished himself by single-handely capturing 1,500 of the enemy in WWII, and to date has not received the Medal of Honor. 
U.S. Mexican, Latin American war contributions focus of new book by Halie Pratt
U.S. Latinos are being recognized for their World War II participation in a new book, "A Legacy Greater than Words." 

"An interview I did in 1992 for the Dallas Morning News was about Mexican-American civil rights. In the course of it, I realized that the people who had been most active in Mexican American civil rights were all World War II-era people," said Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, associate professor of journalism at the University. "I felt, as a journalist, I could do something to document their history." 

 Dr. Rivas-Rodriquez is seated.  
Lindsey Fitzpatrick, Juliana Torres and Melissa Dipiero-D'sa,
Media Credit: Shaun Stewart | UT OPA 

 (Article among the archives of Dorinda Moreno.
If you can identify any of the other individuals in the photos, please do send it along.)

Rodriguez launched the U.S. Latino and Latina WWII Oral History Project in 1999. The project blossomed when she realized the need for documentation of Latino World War II veterans' stories. The first book that stemmed from the project focused on Mexican Americans involved in World War II, and the current book expands the vision to all Latin Americans. 

"The contributions that Latin Americans made is one that has been historically marginalized," said journalism senior Lindsey Fitzpatrick, who helped assemble the book. "These people were integral to the fabric of modern American society." 

Fitzpatrick, Spanish and journalism senior Juliana Torres and Melissa Dipiero-D'sa, administrative assistant in the College of Communication, helped document, compile and edit the book. Torres and Fitzpatrick were hired to assist Rodriguez after completing a journalism class with her. Fitzpatrick became inspired after writing a story on a woman who participated in the New Mexico silver mine strike. Now that she has graduated, Fitzpatrick plans to teach English in the Rio Grande Valley and intends to contribute to the narratives project.

"One of my big goals is to do something like this with my students," Fitzpatrick said. "I hope they can interview their grandparents and start up a mini-project."

Torres is unsure whether she will continue working on the narrative project, as she is currently doing an internship in New York for "People en Espanol" magazine. 

"I didn't work on a particular story for the project," Torres said. "The way I became involved was pretty casual. Maggie asked me if I needed a job because she needed somebody to help edit the stories, and I needed a job." 

Sixty years ago, the United States faced an immigration battle similar to the ongoing situation today. Anti-immigration leaders wanted immigrants out of the country. Those in favor of immigration wanted equal opportunity and recognition for foreign-born Americans. 

During this time, Latin American immigrants played leading roles in World War II. They were sailors, infantrymen and nurses. They worked in the factories that produced artillery and loaded bomber planes. 

Pete Tijerina, founder of the Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund, used the G.I. Bill to fund his education after serving in the war, Rodriguez said. Virgilio Roel of the League of United Latin American Citizens went on to become a reformer of civil rights after serving in the war. 

"When people returned, they realized the discrimination they were facing after World War II, and that many of the same issues they were fighting against existed in America," said Luis Figueroa, legislative staff attorney for MALDEF. "They're very aware of inequities that exist today."

At 80 years of age, Sam Dominguez is a prime example of an active veteran. After serving in World War II, he is now the executive secretary-treasurer of the American GI Forum. The forum is dedicated to addressing the discrimination faced by Hispanic veterans. Veterans of all ages are welcomed, including those returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. 

"They joined the military to fight for this country, and they must be considered. Millions of Hispanic Americans have been in wars: WWII, Korea and Vietnam," Dominguez said. "Even now, non-U.S. citizens are fighting our war." 

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the 2004 population included 40 million Hispanics. At least 11 million people in that population are undocumented migrants, according to a March estimate by the Pew Hispanic Center. [[Editor: Half of those numbers are over-stayed visas.]]

Despite facing a discriminating country upon return from war, Latin American veterans continued breaking ground as patriotic Americans. Some re-enlisted in the military while others started their own businesses or returned home to their families.

"The men and women we interviewed kept their heads up, promote getting education, worked hard and are good people," D'sa said. "They deserve recognition for their contribution to society."

Mexican Americans and World War II
Edited by Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, University of Texas Press

This text makes a valuable contribution to the growing literature on the Mexican American experience." -Western Historical Quarterly

"This book provides a much-needed resource for historians of World War II and as a historical backdrop to the generational origins of the Chicano civil rights movements." Hispanic Outlook

"This book as a whole is a very valuable one and the first significant scholarship on Mexican Americans in World War II." Mario T. García, Professor of History and Chicano Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara

Up to 750,000 Mexican American men served in World War II, earning more Medals of Honor and other decorations in proportion to their numbers than any other ethnic group. Mexican American women entered the workforce on the home front, supporting the war effort and earning good wages for themselves and their families. But the contributions of these men and women have been largely overlooked as American society celebrates
the sacrifices and achievements of the "Greatest Generation." To bring their stories out of the shadows, this book gathers eleven essays that explore the Mexican American experience in World War II from a variety of personal and scholarly perspectives.

The book opens with accounts of the war's impact on individuals and families. It goes on to look at how the war affected school experiences; how Mexican American patriotism helped to soften racist attitudes; how Mexican Americans in the Midwest, unlike their
counterparts in other regions of the country, did not experience greater opportunities as a result of the war; how the media exposed racist practices in Texas; and how Mexican nationals played a role in the war effort through the Bracero program and through the Mexican government's championing of Mexican Americans' rights. As a whole, the collection reveals that World War II was the turning point that gave most Mexican
Americans their first experience of being truly included in American society, and it confirms that Mexican Americans of the "Greatest Generation" took full advantage of their new opportunities as the walls of segregation fell.

Maggie Rivas-Rodríguez is Associate Professor of Journalism at the University of Texas at Austin. In 1999, she launched the U.S. Latino and Latina World War II Oral History Project, which has so far gathered more than 450 interviews. This book is, in part, an outgrowth of that research.  

Sent by Juan Fidel Larrañaga
Paperback, List price $19.95 writes:
Honor Your World War II Veterans
By Regina Peck

While reading Kathy Dracup's posting 
( concerning finding out about her father's service in the Navy during World War II, I thought readers might like to be reminded about the official National Park Service website honoring veterans of World War II. 

This website is connected to the World War II Memorial that opened on 29 April 2004 on the mall in Washington, D.C.--right between the famous Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Memorial. Unknown to most Americans, there are very few surviving records concerning World War II veterans--most of them where lost in a storage warehouse fire 
decades ago. The government has records on service men who died during the war, but almost no records on who fought and survived the war. This site allows family members to register their veterans by following simple guidelines posted on the site. It is free to 
register veterans. The only cost is $10 if you would like to upload a picture of the veteran to the site. The site can be accessed and searched by anyone from either the Internet or from a kiosk right at the Memorial in Washington, D.C. 

It was great fun to take my children to Washington, D.C. this past summer to see the memorial and be able to go over to the kiosk and show them pictures of their grandfather and his brother (Eugene L. and Robert A. PECK) and let them read a brief summary of their service in the Pacific and Europe. Except for registering at this website, there is no other way that their service will be officially remembered as the records are gone. We are losing hundreds of veterans every day. Their sacrifices for our freedoms were and still 
are important. It is very important to not let those sacrifices be forgotten after they are gone. 

To register a World War II veteran or to look one up, go to and follow the simple instructions. You will need to know their full name, their home state, and something about when, what branch (Army, Navy, etc.), and where they served. Your 
submission will be reviewed and needs to be approved before it is posted to the site. To upload a picture for $10 you will need a credit card. 

Pass the word. Most people have no idea there are no surviving government records of World War II servicemen who lived through the war. It is a simple, but meaningful way to say thank you.  RootsWeb Review, 07 February 2007, Vol. 10, No. 6


Latinos & WWII, Interview of Carlos Samarron by Cliff Despres 

Three weeks after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Charles "Carlos" Guerra Samarron, of San Antonio, Texas, joined the fight and enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps, beginning a four-year stint in the military and opening the door for a lifetime of memories. 

As part of the 3rd Marine Division, 3rd Amphibious Tractor Ballatalion, Mr. Samarron would survive perilous beach assaults on the islands of Guam and Iwo Jima, face down the possibility of invading Japan and exit the war in 1946 with a new perspective on life. 

"You know you're mortal and you can die anytime," he said. "I feel more of a kinship with my fellow man than I did before." 

The war had changed him in other ways, Mr. Samarron said in an interview last summer. He would return and work as a civil servant, monitoring the rights of Hispanic sailors, trying to further the Mexican American people's stake in the U.S. 

A privileged youth 
Mr. Samarron was born in San Antonio in July 16, 1922, but after his father died in a train accident just four years later, Mr. Samarron's mother, Elisa Guerra Leos, married Ines White Samarron - the man from whom Mr. Samarron took his last name. 
The stepfather brought his wife and her two sons and daughter to San Angelo in 1930, where Mr. Samarron would stay until he joined the Marines in 1942. 

Because very few Mexican Americans had any kind of education, Mr. Samarron said they were relegated to low-paying jobs like cotton picking and sheep shearing. 

However, growing up with a stepfather who cleaned the insides of train engines at a nearby railroad station afforded Mr. Samarron a wealthier-than-average childhood that wasn't shared by many Mexican Americans during the time of the Great Depression. 

"Hispanics in those years didn't get choice jobs, believe me," Mr. Samarron said. "The majority of Mexican Americans worked in the field, and they had to go where the work was. We were fortunate that my stepfather worked at the railroad, he made good money because he always had a steady job." 

Not having to supplement his stepfather's income and help take care of the family with a job of his own, Mr. Samarron received an education in San Angelo - sitting in the same classes as white students and watching the same movies beside them, unlike in other cities across the Southwest. 

"We sat right next to the white people at movie theaters and in school," Mr. Samarron said. "The ones that were segregated were blacks, so segregation wasn't as pronounced for Mexican-Americans." 

In the pre-war years, Mexican Americans in the Southwest often had separate public facilities, including schools.Mexican-Americans were constantly passed over for jobs in stores and hotels in South Texas towns, derogatory names like "pepperbellies" and "greasers" were often heard. 

According to Mr. Samarron, however, the discrimination emerged from a lower socio-economic class of people in South Texas. 

"The name-calling principally came from the poor section of Anglos, and it wasn't the middle-upper class whites," Mr. Samarron said. "Whenever I went to school, the whites were nice - they invited us to their homes and picnics - only the poor whites called names." 

Mr. Samarron left San Angelo High School in June of 1940 to join the Civilian Conservation Corps. 

"I joined the CC Corps when I was 16 because I wanted a job, and it was a good way for Mexican Americans to earn money," Mr. Samarron said. "You could also get clothing, food and the chance to pick up a trade. You could learn how to build bridges or study forestry." 

The Corps, a program that stemmed from President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal outreach, helped find jobs for unemployed Americans, and was instrumental in finding jobs for Mexican Americans. 

Mr. Samarron left the Corps and returned to high school six months later. In January, 1942, he volunteered for the U.S. Marine Corps, leaving San Angelo and heading to San Diego. For the next 23 months, the Marine Corps prepared Mr. Samarron for the war in the Pacific with basic infantry training and techniques to use during amphibious landings. 

"They'd put a pack on you and throw you into a pool, and you'd have to get the pack off before you drowned," Mr. Samarron said. "The training was rigid." 

But, if the training was rigorous, an entirely new "nightmare" awaited Mr. Samarron on the shores of Guam and Iwo Jima. 

On The Battlefield 
In November of 1943, Mr. Samarron departed San Diego and arrived in New Caledonia, a French port where troops began preparations for the invasion of Guam, an island in the Pacific which the Japanese had captured from Allied forces. 

American forces launched an attack on Guam to re-secure the island, and Mr. Samarron was part of the beach assault. 

Mr. Samarron reached the beach via an armored vehicle, where he feverishly began to dig a trench while Japanese mortars exploded all around him. 

"It was a nightmare - my first combat," Mr. Samarron said. "You had to dig a hole and hope to God a shell doesn't hit where you're at. Digging a hole, you think it's too small, but when the shells start landing you think you dug it too big." 

As Japanese mortars rained upon the beach, Mr. Samarron watched American fighters light up the night sky when they dropped flares into the hills - spotlighting the locations of Japanese troops for U.S. ships so they could barrage the hills with 16-inch shells. 

"We had the upper hand with the ships and planes, and our naval vessels pounded the crap out of them," Mr. Samarron said. "By the morning we had driven the Japanese back." 

The Allies retook Guam, and Mr. Samarron had emerged from the fighting with his life. 

"It never entered my mind that I'd be killed," Mr. Samarron said. "When we were in camp a lot of guys started writing letters to loved ones that said 'I don't think I'm gonna make it.' A lot of people had premonitions about dying, but I never got that feeling." 

Mr. Samarron also survived the Battle of Iwo Jima a year later in February of 1945. He was then sent to Hawaii to train for the anticipated invasion of Japan. 

"The Japanese were fanatics, they were never gonna give up, so just how many lives were we going to lose trying to land on Japan and capture it?" Mr. Samarron said. "We were elated when Japan got bombed." 

After the U.S. ended WWII in 1945 by dropping nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Mr. Samarron was discharged in January of 1946 - and his new status afforded him greater opportunities back home. 

"As a veteran you have equal rights like everybody else, so it gave Mexican Americans new opportunities to go back to school or get benefits," Mr. Samarron said. "It gave us a feeling of being equal." 

The Post-War Era 
Returning to San Diego, where his family was located after following him there in 1942, Mr. Samarron enrolled in San Diego Junior College, but did not graduate. 

Instead, he found work at the Federal Civil Service, where he spent the next 30 years as a deputy equal employment officer for the Navy. 

In addition to hearing and resolving complaints, he was in charge of examining each unit and exploring the reasons why there were few Hispanics enlisted. 

"It was just a question of recruiting those who had the wherewithall," Mr. Samarron said. 

At the same time he began his work with the Navy, Mr. Samarron also became actively involved in the American G.I. Forum - a veterans' organization dedicated to securing rights for Mexican Americans in both the workforce and education. 

"Our local chapter tried to find all the returning Mexican Americans still looking for jobs or job training and get those people jobs," Mr. Samarron said. "We established communications with the powers to be - the mayor, city council and people who knew the inside-outs." 

Even though Mr. Samarron has retired from both his profession and community service, he still harbors strong feelings for Mexican American involvement in society. 

"There's always gonna be a need for Hispanics to have a voice and express their concerns," he said. "The best thing to do is get educated and try to do something with your life that's beneficial not only to you and your family, but also to your community." 

(Mr. Samarron was interviewed in San Diego in 2000 by Rene Zambrano.) 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno 
Source: Juan Fidel Larrañaga

Michael E. Lopez-Alegria 
breaks U.S. Spacewalk Record

Mercy Bautista-Olvera


Photo: NASA


Michael Eladio Lopez-Alegria was born on May 30, 1958 in Madrid, Spain, his parents Eladio Lopez-Alegria and Luisa Lopez-Alegria.

Michael Lopez-Alegria was raised in Mission Viejo, California and graduated from Mission Viejo High School in 1976. Michael received a Bachelor Science Degree in Systems Engineering from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1980.

After Michael Lopez-Alegria’s flight training, he was designated a Naval Aviator on September 4, 1981 and became a flight instructor in Pensacola Florida. After two years, he served as a pilot and Mission Commander of EP-3E aircraft in the United States Navy.

In 1986 he was assigned to a two-year cooperative a Test Pilot school in Patuxent River, Maryland. He then was assigned to NASA at the Naval Air Test Center as an engineering test pilot and program manager. Michael accumulated more than 4,500 test pilot hours in over 30 different aircraft types.

Michael Lopez-Alegria completed his training at the Johnson Space Center in August 1992 and he also served as NASA director of operations at the Yuri Gargarin Cosmonaut Training Center, Star City, Russia.

Michael Lopez-Alegria space flight experience:

STS-73 Columbia, October 20 to November 5, 1995 was launched and returned to land at the Kennedy space Center, Florida, Michael Lopez Alegria served as the flight engineer, this mission was completed in 15 days 21 hours and 52 minutes and traveled over 6 million miles in 256 Earth orbits.

STS-92 Discovery, October 11-24, 2000 Lopez-Alegria totaled 14 hours and 3 minutes of EVA time in two space walks, was launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida and returned to land at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

STS-113 Endeavour, November 23-December 7, 2002 was the sixteenth Shuttle mission to visit the International Space Station. This mission was to bring home the Expedition 5 crew from their 6 month stay aboard the space station. Lopez-Alegria performed three Extra-vehicular activity missions totaling 19 hours and 55 minutes. The space shuttle orbited the Earth 216 times and traveled 5.7 million miles.

As of February 4, 2007, Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria has spent more time walking in space than any other American. He surpassed the previous U.S. record of 58 hours and 32 minutes through his chores with fellow astronaut Sunita Williams.

"They were all three extremely difficult (spacewalks), and you guys made them look not necessarily easy, but the way they should look," Mission Control said, "You did an excellent job."

The spacewalk is the first time three spacewalks have been done in such a short period without a space shuttle docked to it. Lopez-Alegria new U.S. record is 61 hours and 22 minutes. Williams who broke a record for female spacewalkers, now has 29 hours and 17 minutes of walking in space.

His father Eladio resides in Madrid and his mother Luisa, deceased. Michael married Daria Robinson of Geneva, Switzerland, they have one son.


In this image from NASA TV, international space station commander Michael Lopez-Alegria, top, and flight engineer Sunita Williams are shown during a spacewalk on Feb. 4, 2007. Lopez-Alegria set the U.S. record for most spacewalks and most time walking in space on Feb. 8, 2007 (AP Photo/NASA TV, HO)



Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients

Part 2

By Tony (The Marine) Santiago


This is the second part of the Hispanic Medal of Honor series which consists of the short biography of David Bennes Barkley, the only Hispanic MoH recipient in World War I plus, the biographies of three World War II recipients: Lucian Adams, Rudolph B. Davila and Marcario (Macario) Garcia.

Barkley was the first and only Hispanic Medal of Honor recipient of World War I. His Hispanic background was discovered in 1989 and thus he became the first Hispanic-American member of the regular U.S. Armyto be awarded the medal. I must point out that Joseph H. De Castro was the first Hispanic-American to be awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the American Civil War. Unlike Barkley, De Castro was not a member of the regular Army, instead he belonged to the 19th Massachusetts Infantry which was an all volunteer unit assigned to the Army.

It is a shame that many soldiers who belonged to minority groups were denied their rightful recognition's because of prejudice and racial discrimination. Such was the case of First Lieutenant Rudolph B. Davila, of Hispanic and Filipino descent. Davila's wife, Harriet Davila, lobbied Army officials and Congress for years to award the Medal of Honor to her husband. Finally, in the year 2000, after 65 years, Davila and 21 Asian-Americans were awarded the Medal of Honor.

What is the correct first name of S/Sgt. Garcia? Is it Marcario or Macario Garcia? It is unfortunate but there seems to be some confusion in regard to S/Sgt. Garcia's first name. This may have been due to a typo error made in his citation or because of a change of name. The reason that I will referrer to Sgt. Garcia as Marcario is because the majority of the sources which I researched referrered to him as such. In one instance I found that the official website of the city of Houston cites a "S/Sgt. Marcario Garcia St." however, the name that appears on said street is "S/Sgt. Macario Garcia Dr." The important thing that we should all remember about Staff Sergeant Garcia is that he was the first Mexican immigrant whose heroic actions were recognized when he became a recipient of the Medal of Honor.

Note: An asterisk (*) after the name indicates that the award was given posthumously.

World War I

David B. Barkley*

By: ERcheck

David Bennes Barkley Medal of Honor

(1903-42 Army version)

Private David Bennes Barkley (March 31, 1899 - November 9, 1918), often spelled Barkeley, was a United States Army private who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions during World War I in France. After successfully completing a scouting mission behind enemy lines, he drowned as he swam back across the Meuse River.

Barkley was born in Laredo, Texas to Josef and Antonia (Cantú) Barkley, and grew up with his Mexican-American mother. He enlisted in the U.S. Army when the United States entered World War I, using his Anglo father's name to avoid being segregated into a non-combat unit.

As a part of Company A, 356th Infantry, 89th Division in France, he and Sgt. M. Waldo Hatler swam across the Meuse River near Pouilly-sur-Meuse to get behind German lines and gather information about troop strength and deployments. They were able to gather the needed information; however, returning across the river, Barkley succumbed to muscle cramps and drowned on November 9, 1918. Sgt. Hatler survived to bring the information back to their unit.

Barkley was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions. He was one of three Texans to be awarded the Medal of Honor for action during World War I. Additionally, France awarded him the Croix de Guerre, and Italy the Croce al Merito di Guerra.

Private Barkley lay in state at the Alamo, the second person to ever receive this honor. He was then buried at the San Antonio National Cemetery.

Medal of Honor citation:
"When information was desired as to the enemy's position on the opposite side of the Meuse River, Pvt. Barkeley, with another soldier, volunteered without hesitation and swam the river to reconnoiter the exact location. He succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, despite the evident determination of the enemy to prevent a crossing. Having obtained his information, he again entered the water for his return, but before his goal was reached, he was seized with cramps and drowned."

In memory:
Barkley has received three notable posthumous recognitions. In 1921, an elementary school in San Antonio, Texas was named in his honor. On January 10, 1941, the U.S. Army installation, Camp Barkeley, was named in his honor. A clerical error resulted in the discrepancy in spelling. Finally, in 1989 when his Hispanic background was discovered, Barkley was recognized as the U.S. Army's first Hispanic Medal of Honor recipient.

Awards and decorations:
David Bennes Barkley's awards and decorations include the following:
Medal of Honor
Purple Heart
Croix de Guerre
Croce al Merito di Guerra (War Merit Cross)-Italy

* D. López. Saving Private Aztlan: Preserving the History of Latino Service in Wartime. Diálogo Magazine. Retrieved on July 14, 2006.
* Texas Medal of Honor Recipients. .
^ Myers, James M. (2005). Camp Barkeley. Handbook of Texas Online.
^ David Barkley, Hispanic Heritage, Medal of Honor, World War I. Hispanic Americans USA..
^ Medal of Honor Recipients. Celebrating Hispanic Heritage., U.S. Army.
* David Barkley, World War I Medal of Honor,
* Camp Barkeley.

World War II

Lucian Adams

By: ERcheck

Lucian Adams Medal of Honor

(Army version)

Staff Sergeant Lucian Adams (October 22, 1922-March 31, 2003) was a U.S. Army soldier during World War II who was awarded the Medal of Honor for single-handedly destroying enemy machine gun emplacements to re-establish supply lines to U.S. Army companies. He was also awarded the Bronze Star and Purple Heart for his heroic actions in Italy.

Lucian Adams was born on October 22, 1922, in Port Arthur, Texas. He enlisted in the Army after his graduation from Port Arthur High School. After serving in the European Theatre during World War II, he returned to Texas where he worked for the Veterans Administration for over 40 years before retiring in 1986. He died on March 31, 2003, in San Antonio, Texas, and is buried in the Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery in San Antonio.

Medal of Honor citation:
While serving with the 30th Infantry, 3rd Infantry Division, in France, SSgt Adams' company was attempting to open supply lines; he single-handedly eliminated the enemy positions. His citation reads:

"For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty on October 28, 1944, near St. Die, France. When his company was stopped in its effort to drive through the Mortagne Forest to reopen the supply line to the isolated third battalion, S/Sgt. Adams braved the concentrated fire of machineguns in a lone assault on a force of German troops. Although his company had progressed less than 10 yards and had lost 3 killed and 6 wounded, S/Sgt. Adams charged forward dodging from tree to tree firing a borrowed BAR from the hip. Despite intense machinegun fire which the enemy directed at him and rifle grenades which struck the trees over his head showering him with broken twigs and branches, S/Sgt. Adams made his way to within 10 yards of the closest machinegun and killed the gunner with a hand grenade. An enemy soldier threw hand grenades at him from a position only 10 yards distant; however, S/Sgt. Adams dispatched him with a single burst of BAR fire. Charging into the vortex of the enemy fire, he killed another machinegunner at 15 yards range with a hand grenade and forced the surrender of 2 supporting infantrymen. Although the remainder of the German group concentrated the full force of its automatic weapons fire in a desperate effort to knock him out, he proceeded through the woods to find and exterminate 5 more of the enemy. Finally, when the third German machinegun opened up on him at a range of 20 yards, S/Sgt. Adams killed the gunner with BAR fire. In the course of the action, he personally killed 9 Germans, eliminated 3 enemy machineguns, vanquished a specialized force which was armed with automatic weapons and grenade launchers, cleared the woods of hostile elements, and reopened the severed supply lines to the assault companies of his battalion."

He was awarded the Medal of Honor on March 29, 1945.

Awards and Recognitions:
Among Lucian Adam's decorations and medals were the following:
Medal of Honor
Bronze Star Medal
Purple Heart Medal
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
American Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal

* U.S. Army Hispanic Medal of Honor Recipients. U.S. Army Center of Military History, United States Army.
* World War II Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient, U.S. Army S/Sgt. Lucian Adams.
* Lucian Adams (1922-1930). Find A Grave. Retrieved on November 21, 2006.
* La Medalla de Honora Recipientes: Adams, Lucian (Spanish). Hispanic Americans in the United States Army. U.S. Army.


Rudolph B. Davila

By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago


Rudolph B. Davila Medal of Honor

(Army version)

First Lieutenant Rudolph B. Davila (April 27, 1916-January 26, 2002) born in El Paso, Texas, was a United States Army officer, of Hispanic-Filipino descent, who was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in Italy during World War II. He was the only person of Filipino ancestry to receive the medal for his actions in the war in Europe. He was initially awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, however after an extensive review, in 1998, his medal was upgraded to the Medal of Honor.

Early years
Davila was born to a Spanish father and a Filipino mother in El Paso, Texas. His family moved to Watts, California when he was a child, there he was raised and received his primary and secondary education. Davila enlisted in the Army in Los Angeles.

World War II
Davila, was a US Army Staff Sergeant assigned to Company H of the 7th Infantry Division. On May 28, 1944, his company was involved in an offensive, near Artena, Italy, which broke through the German mountain strongholds surrounding the Anzio beachhead. His company was under a heavy enemy attack and for some unknown reason his machine gunners were reluctant to risk putting their guns into action. Realizing that his company was in danger, Davila crawled 50 yards to the nearest machine gun and fired over 750 rounds into the enemy strongeholds in the foothills.

His fellow machine gunners, reacted and Davila directed their firepower with hand and arm signals until the two enemy hostile machine guns were silenced. Despite being wounded by the enemy, he continued his assault by engaging the enemy from the turrent of a burnt tank.

Davila then spotted what he believed to be a rifle barrel in a farmhouse window. He grabbed a rifle and two grenades and went inside the farmhouse. He tossed the grenades at the attic and shot at the troops inside, destroying two more enemy machine gun nests. The enemy was forced to abandon their prepared positions.

Davila received a battlefield commission to Lieutenant and even though a Captain in the rifle company said he would recommend Davila for the Medal of Honor, the highest honor for battlefield valor, Davila was instead awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the Army's second highest military honor.

Davila continued to serve with his company after he recovered from his leg wound. A few months after the Artena attack, Davila found himself in France's Vosges Mountains. He received a chest wound from a shell which ricoheted off a tree as he was ordering his men to storm a German tank. The tank shell caused injuries that left his right arm paralyzed.

Back home
Davila was treated for his wounds at a hospital in Modesto, California. There he met a nurse by the name of Harriet and three months later they were married. He continued his education and earned a bachelor's and master's degrees from the University of Southern California], and became a high school history teacher in Los Angeles. He moved to Vista in 1977 with his wife after he retired from teaching.

His wife, Harriet Davila, lobbied Army officials to award the Medal of Honor to her husband based on the actions he performed during the Allied offensive in Italy, after she became aware of her husbands heroic actions. For years, she petitioned the government for her husband's medal. Harriet Davila made phone calls, wrote letters and researched military records to prove her husband deserved the Medal of Honor. No reply ever came.

DSC upgraded to Medal of Honor

In 1996, Hawaii Senator Daniel Akaka secured a Congressionally mandated review of records for Asian-Americans who had earned the Distinguished Service Cross in World War II. Congress reviewed the records to determine whether they were unfairly denied the military's highest award for valor.

On June 21, 2000, President Bill Clinton, bestowed the Medal of Honor on Davila and 21 other World War II servicemen of Asian descent at a White House ceremony. Only seven of 22 recipients were still alive when the medals were handed out. Previously only two of the 40,000-plus Asian-Americans who served in World War II had been awarded the Medal of Honor.

Army Secretary Louis Caldera inducted the soldiers into the Pentagon's Hall of Heroes on June 22. Harriet Davila, his wife had died six months before, on December 25, 1999.

Medal of Honor citation:

Davila, Rudolph B.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company H, 7th Infantry.
Place and date:Artena, Italy, 28 May, 1944
Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif.
Born:27 April 1916, El Paso, TX

"Staff Sergeant Rudolph B. Davila distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action, on 28 May 1944, near Artena, Italy. During the offensive which broke through the German mountain strongholds surrounding the Anzio beachhead, Staff Sergeant Davila risked death to provide heavy weapons support for a beleaguered rifle company. Caught on an exposed hillside by heavy, grazing fire from a well-entrenched German force, his machine gunners were reluctant to risk putting their guns into action. Crawling fifty yards to the nearest machine gun, Staff Sergeant Davila set it up alone and opened fire on the enemy. In order to observe the effect of his fire, Sergeant Davila fired from the kneeling position, ignoring the enemy fire that struck the tripod and passed between his legs. Ordering a gunner to take over, he crawled forward to a vantage point and directed the firefight with hand and arm signals until both hostile machine guns were silenced. Bringing his three remaining machine guns into action, he drove the enemy to a reserve position two hundred yards to the rear. When he received a painful wound in the leg, he dashed to a burned tank and, despite the crash of bullets on the hull, engaged a second enemy force from the tank’s turret. Dismounting, he advanced 130 yards in short rushes, crawled 20 yards and charged into an enemy-held house to eliminate the defending force of five with a hand grenade and rifle fire. Climbing to the attic, he straddled a large shell hole in the wall and opened fire on the enemy. Although the walls of the house were crumbling, he continued to fire until he had destroyed two more machine guns. His intrepid actions brought desperately needed heavy weapons support to a hard-pressed rifle company and silenced four machine gunners, which forced the enemy to abandon their prepared positions. Staff Sergeant Davila's extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army."

Later years:
Subsequently, Davila was honored by the city of Vista. He served as the guest speaker at the Veterans of Foreign Wars' Memorial Day ceremony in 2001.

Davila died of cancer on January 26, 2002, in Vista, California. He was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. At the time of his death Davila was survived by his three sons, Roland, Jeffrey, Gregg and two daughters Jill and Tana, and nine grandchildren.

Awards and Recognitions:
Among Davila's decorations and medals were the following:
Medal of Honor
Distinguished Service Cross
Purple Heart Medal
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
American Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal

^ Hispanic Recipients of the Medal of Honor
^ Rudolph B. Davila, Second Lieutenant, profile
^ News releases
^ Defense News Articles
^ Davila's Medal of Honor citation
^ Arlington National Cemetery

Marcario Garcia

By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago


Staff Sergeant Marcario Garcia Medal of Honor

(Army version)

Staff Sergeant Marcario Garcia or Macario Garcia (January 20, 1920-December 24, 1972) born in Villa de Castano, Mexico, was the first Mexican immigrant whose heroic actions as a United States Army soldier near Grosshau, Germany during World War II lead to the United States President awarding him the Medal of Honor - the United States' highest military decoration.

Early years: 
Garcia immigrated to the United States from Mexico in search of a better way of life. He lived in Sugar Land, Texas where he worked as a cotton farmer.

Garcia joined the Army upon the outbreak of World War II at the recruiting station in his adopted hometown. He was assigned to Company B, 22d Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Division.

World War II
On November 27, 1944, Garcia was the squad leader of his platoon which found itself engaged in combat against the German troops in the vicinity of Grosshau, Germany. Realizing that his company could not advance because it was pinned down by enemy machinegun fire, Garcia, his own initiative went alone and destroyed two enemy emplacements and captured four prisoners. Despite being wounded himself, he continued to fight on with his unit until the objective was taken.

On August 23, 1945, the President of the United States, Harry S. Truman presented Staff Sergeant Macario Garcia with the Medal of Honor at a ceremony in the White House.


President Truman bestows the Medal of Honor on Garcia

Medal of Honor citation: Marcario Garcia

Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, US Army B Company 1st Battalion 22nd Infantry, 4th Infantry Division.
Place and date: Near Grosshau, Germany---27 November 1944.
Entered service at: Sugarland, Texas
Born: 20 January 1920, Villa de Castano, Mexico
G.O. # 74 1 September 1945.

:"Staff Sergeant Marcario Garcia, Company B, 22nd Infantry, in action involving actual conflict with the enemy in the vicinity of Grosshau, Germany, 27 November 1944. While an acting squad leader, he single-handedly assaulted two enemy machine gun emplacements. Attacking prepared positions on a wooded hill, which could be approached only through meager cover. His company was pinned down by intense machine-gun fire and subjected to a concentrated artillery and mortar barrage. Although painfully wounded, he refused to be evacuated and on his own initiative crawled forward alone until he reached a position near an enemy emplacement. Hurling grenades, he boldly assaulted the position, destroyed the gun, and with his rifle killed three of the enemy who attempted to escape. When he rejoined his company, a second machine-gun opened fire and again the intrepid soldier went forward, utterly disregarding his own safety. He stormed the position and destroyed the gun, killed three more Germans, and captured four prisoners. He fought on with his unit until the objective was taken and only then did he permit himself to be removed for medical care. S/Sgt. (then Pvt.) Garcia's conspicuous heroism, his inspiring, courageous conduct, and his complete disregard for his personal safety wiped out two enemy emplacements and enabled his company to advance and secure its objective."


Staff Sergeant Marcario Garcia died on December 24, 1972 and was buried with full military honors in the Houston National Cemetery in Houston, Texas. The local government of Houston has honored his memory by naming a middle school after him and on June 27, 1981 the city renamed part of 69th Street- S/SGT Macario Garcia Drive.

Awards and recognitions:

Among Staff Sergeant Marcario Garcia's decorations and medals were the following:
Medal of Honor
Purple Heart Medal
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
American Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal

Further reading:
The following books make references to Marcario Garcia's exploits:[4]
Medal of Honor: Historical Facts And Figures, page 167, by Ron Owens
The Battle of Hurtgen Forest (West Wall Series) (West Wall), page 133, by Charles Whiting
The Quest for Tejano Identity in San Antonio, Texas, 1913-2000 (Latino Communities: Emerging Voices--Political, Social, Cultural and Legal Issues), page 56, by Jr., Richard Buitron and Richard Buitron 
ÁRaza Sí! ÁGuerra No!: Chicano Protest and Patriotism during the Viet Nam War Era, page 36, by Lorena Oropeza
Moon Handbooks Charleston and Savannah (Moon Handbooks), page 115, by Mike Sigalas


Out of 43 Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients, 
9 were born in Texas. That's almost 25%
Tony Santiago

Permanent location for  Legacy of Valor Display Being Considered

Rick Leal, President of the Hispanic Medal of Honor Society is looking for a site for the display dedicated to Medal of Honor recipients and other heroes.  On February 19th, Richard Perez, San Antonio City Councilman hosted a dinner to discuss various possibility of San Antonio receiving the collection.  The University of Texas, Institute of Texan Cultures is a three story structure with both permanent and rotating displays.

From left to right, at Mi Terra restaurant in San Antonio. Rudi Rodriguez, President, Texas/, Jack Cowan, Texas Connection to the America Revolution, TCARA, Judy Perez, San Antonio Councilman, Richard Perez, Rick Leal, Yolanda and Richard Holgin.  Richard is on the City Commission on Veterans Affairs.

The discussion for the evening was correct and inclusive history. Happenstance historian 
Dr. Howard Peacock was viewing the historical painting on the wall behind the group. Dr. Peacock was introduced to the group and consented to a photo (on the left) with Rick Leal and A.G. Rodriquez, President of the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce of San Antonio.

The following day, Jack Cowan, Corinne Staacke, Texas State Registrar for the Daughters of the American Revolution, and I toured the the Institute of Texan Cultures. Jack and Corinne explaining our purpose to Ed Johnson. 



Good Old Days by Wanda Garcia
An Effort to Create a Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day in Texas
La Virgen de Guadalupe by Wanda Garcia
The Iceman Cometh to 2010 East 7th St. Austin, Texas by Frank Sifuentes
The Day I went up to the Mountain: A "WOW" Moment
Recuerdos de Concepcion 'Chonito" Prieto



by Wanda Garcia
Daughter of Dr. Hector P. Garcia

In 1918, a revolution was brewing in Mexico, So, Jose Antonio Garcia, Dr. Hector’s father and my grandfather, decided to move his family to Mercedes, Texas. Young Hector was about 4 and would tell me that he remembers revolutionaries patrolling the tops of buildings with rifles. When Jose Antonio attempted to cross the border, Texas Rangers pistol-whipped him.

Jose Antonio was a professor in Mexico and Faustina, my grandmother, was a teacher. When Jose Antonio sought employment in the Texas school system, no Texas school would allow him to teach. So, Jose Antonio became partners with his uncles and brothers in a mercantile store in Mercedes, TX. The store was successful and drew envy of the Anglos. In 1922, the Anglos torched the store. Eventually the Garcias rebuilt the store. Jose Antonio Garcia wrote several books and according to Dr. Hector built a camera and developed small pox vaccines. He inspired a strong work ethic in his children and valued education. The girls were held to the same standards as the boys and were expected to get an education. The family regarded the one Garcia daughter who eloped as the black sheep because she did not complete her education.

Jose had only enough money to pay for J.A. ‘s (the first born son) education. J.A. became a medical doctor and according to the plan, once J.A. would become established, he would pay for his brothers and sisters education. Jose Antonio inspired 4 males and 2 females to become physicians out of seven surviving Garcia siblings.

During the Good Old Days in Texas the message was clear for Hispanics --no matter how educated and smart you are you are never good enough! When I was growing up in the 1950’s the American dream was not a reality for Hispanic Americans. The average Hispanic could only aspire to be a menial in a rich person’s house or provide a service. Hispanics were not expected to complete grade school. They were perceived as "lazy", "dirty" and "dumb". I quickly learned some Anglos felt entitled to exercise their right of free speech by insulting Hispanics to their face because we were viewed as less than human.

Dr. Hector felt obligated to spend his entire life proving his worthiness because of this prejudice. When Dr. Hector enrolled in the public school system in Mercedes, Texas, one teacher told him that she would not give a Mexican an "A". So, Dr. Hector worked hard and the teacher relented and gave him an "A".

Dr. Hector graduated "summa cum laude" from the University of Texas Medical Branch, which put him at the top of his class. When it came time for Dr. Hector to intern in a Texas hospital, not one would take him because he was Mexican. So, he had to intern in a hospital in Omaha, Nebraska.

One of Dr. Hector’s favorite stories was when he enlisted in the army as an infantry officer. The military needed medics because this was during WWII in the European theatre. General Eisenhower learned that Dr. Hector had an M.D. Dr. Hector was standing at attention with the rest of the troops, and when General Eisenhower saw him, Eisenhower pulled the "castles" off his lapels and replaced it with the "caduceus." So this is how Dr. Hector became a medic in the U.S. Army in Italy where he met my mother, Wanda Fusillo.

The Europeans considered the American veterans heroes because the Americans liberated Europe from the Nazis. Europeans did not discriminate against Hispanics. So, when the Hispanic G.I.s returned home from the war, they were determined to make changes in their living conditions because they had a taste of a better life.

The prejudice extended to death as in life. Hispanics were buried in segregated graveyards and not allowed to use the Anglo funeral homes. Private Felix Longoria was killed on active duty at the battle of the Luzon and was returned to his family a decorated hero for reburial in Three Rivers, TX. The Longoria family wanted to use the Rice funeral home, but the T.W. Kennedy; the proprietor would not allow it because "the Anglo’s would not like it." I can remember my father making many phone calls and sending telegrams to Senator Lyndon Johnson and Representative Lloyd Bentsen to enlist their help to investigate the incident. As a result of Senator Lyndon Johnson’s intervention, Private Felix Longoria was buried in the Arlington, VA National cemetery. Dr. Hector and the Longoria family received many death threats because they challenged the status quo and Dr. Hector’s efforts earned him an investigation by The Good Old Boys in Texas Legislature. Eventually Dr. Hector was exonerated. There was no Hispanic elected officials in the Texas Legislature who would support Dr. Hector. The poll tax was effective in keeping Hispanics from voting because Hispanics were too poor to pay the tax. These were frightening times for the members of my family because of the intensity of the hatred generated towards us.

The Felix Longoria incident propelled the American G.I. Forum (AGIF) and Dr. Hector into the national spotlight. The national visibility from the Felix Longoria incident was the reason Edna Ferber, the author, contacted my father. Ms. Ferber was researching material for her novel "Giant." Dr. Hector drove her, my mother and me through the King Ranch. I remember her shocked reaction when she saw the living conditions of the Hispanic workers-the one room shacks with no sanitary facilities. While in Corpus Christi, TX, Ms. Ferber would visit us at our house, sit on the couch and talk to me as well as my parents. She was a beautiful intelligent lady with white hair and always wore pearls. Later, Edna Ferber sent Dr. Hector a check. He never cashed the check but would proudly display the check to anyone who asked. Several characters in "Giant" were based on my family members.

In 1949, when I was a child of 3, my mother and a couple went to a restaurant in Three Rivers, TX, a small Texas town to have lunch. The proprietor told us that he refused to serve us because "they would not serve Mexicans." The proprietor’s tone and the atmosphere in the restaurant were hostile. I had a hard time understanding what was happening because I wanted a burger and had no desire to eat "Mexicans".

In the good old days, pharmacies would not fill prescriptions written by Hispanic doctors. So, Dr. Hector bought a pharmacy in my mother’s name and hired a Hispanic pharmacist. I remember noticing in addition to medicines, the pharmacy carried many herbs which Hispanic families used daily such as sassafras, alum.

During the 1950s, Dr. Hector had an AGIF meeting in San Antonio, TX. The whole family went along. When we arrived in San Antonio, TX, Dr. Hector attempted to register in one hotel after another. They were all "filled". We drove around for what seemed hours and finally had to stay in a cheap, less than sanitary motel. As a result, my brother Hector became ill from an illness he caught from sleeping on an infected mattress in the motel.

I could go on with one story after another. What I learned from my father is not to be a victim. Dr. Garcia turned a bad situation around and through his efforts made the world a better place for his children and others. When my father was asked why he was involved, he would respond that he wanted to make Texas a better place for his children.

The effects of discrimination have long-range effects on the individual and are institutional in our society. Despite all my father’s accomplishments, including receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom, I observed that Papa never felt good enough. He always had to prove himself. Even today in some circles, Hispanics will not ever be the equal of their Anglo counterparts.

What is the best way to honor our ancestors? By never forgetting their courage, bravery and sacrifices that made this a better world for us. Let us honor their memory and experiences by passing on their stories to each succeeding generation.

Effort to create a Texas Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day

Wanda Garcia is leading an effort to identify a Dr. Hector P. Garcia Day. On February 20th met with Juan Garcia, newly elected Texas State Representative to discuss an appropriate date. Highly favored is March 26th, the day that the GI Forum was formed and also on that date that 36 years later Dr. Garcia received the highest U.S. Presidential honor given to a civilian, the Medal of Freedom from President Ronald Reagan. 

From left to right, Rick Leal President of the Hispanic Medal of Honor Society, Juan Garcia, Wanda Garcia, Mimi Lozano, President of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, and Jack Cowan, President of the Texas Connection to the American Revolution.


By Wanda Garcia
Daughter of Dr. P. Garcia

As a very young child in the forties and early fifties, I can remember my father going to organize and speak to crowds in the small towns surrounding Corpus Christi, TX. Our destinations would be the Alice, Beeville, Bishop, Three Rivers and Agua Dulce. We would leave around 5:00 p.m. after Papa made his hospital rounds and treated his patients. Joining us were Willie Davila, Sonny Saavedra and sometimes my mother. Willie would drive Papa’s Frazier. The Frazier had a large rear window with an ample rear deck. I would crawl into this space and look at the stars or nap during the trip. I still remember the experience and the beauty of the stars in the darkness of the night. To a small child, the trips seemed to take forever.

Papa said when you want to find "La Gente"* you should look up the address of the local Our Lady of Guadalupe churches. So, when he would organize a chapter in a town or speak, he contacted the priest at La Virgen de Guadalupe Church who would in turn pass the time and location of the meetings to the interested locals. He would also open the telephone book and phone the Hispanics and invite them to the meeting. He had to carry a lot of loose change for this purpose.

[Photo by permission:: Dr. Hector P. Garcia Papers, Special Collections & Archives, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Bell Library.]

Upon arrival in the targeted small town, we drove to the church and got directions from the parish priest were the meeting would be. The parish priest always was supportive of the effort. They were first hand witnesses of the injustice towards and the poverty of the Hispanic people. They always attended the meetings and encouraged their parishioners to attend. "La Gente" had been hearing about the dynamic Hector P. Garcia and that he had words of hope and a possible solution. So, the meetings were always crowded.

The meetings would be held under the cover of darkness in the outskirts of the town because of the danger involved and the fear of reprisal from the Anglo community.

I remember on one occasion sitting on the front porch of a house and watching the fireflies. I had not been in the country, and did not know what fireflies were. Sonny Saavedra helped me catch the fireflies in a mason jar and would tell me about them. I would observe the silhouette of my father speaking to the crowds and his dynamic words in Spanish urging the men to unite and join his organization. After his speeches, there would be long lines of men signing up to join. The women had a big role too. They raised money for the cause by holding cakewalks or selling tamales. They could be more outspoken then the men because the men feared losing their job.

Sonny Saavedra is no longer with us. He passed into spirit about 2 years ago. I will always remember Sonny being a part of our lives. May God bless him and his family for their contribution and support. Willie Davila hid my father in the trunk of his car from the Texas Rangers and saved his life. Willie is the reason that I am not an orphan and that the civil rights movement for Hispanics was born. My father was deeply devoted to La Virgen de Guadalupe. On a spiritual level, I know that "La Virgen" was protecting my Papa from harm as well so he could accomplish his work.

My father may have been one of the most decorated individuals in the US, but he was just Papa to me. Though I always had a deep respect for him and his work and knew on a higher level, that he was doing God’s work on this earth. I miss him every day of my life.

*"La Gente" was an affectionate term Dr. Hector used in referring to the Mexican or later Hispanic people.

                       [Photo by permission:: Dr. Hector P. Garcia Papers, Special Collections & Archives,    
                                                           Texas,  A&M University-Corpus Christi, Bell Library.]


THE ICEMAN COMETH to 2010 East 7th St. Austin, Texas
Frank Sifuentes

The ‘hielera’ – icebox - we had during the early l940’s required a 25 pound piece of ice. And either was bought second hand or handed down by close family. It was early l900 model but it worked wonderfully during the long hot summers to prevent our beans and milk from spoiling. Better yet to allow us to make raspadas!

Today few can remember how critical it was to have ice delivered before the advent of electric refrigerators.. 

In East Austin the ice business thrived during the 30’s and clear through the late l940’s.. For this reason Richard Moya’s became well known. Little did we know he was destined to become our first successful politician After all, few Mexicanos in Austin voted since it required paying a poll tax.

In fact later when the community developed a larger social consciousness the League of United Latin American Citizens(LULAC) would organize dances where folks who were citizens could pay poll tax to enter.

Richard was a pleasant and animated teen-ager. My sister Carmen recently confessed that she had had a crush on Richard; She added that ‘all the girls did’ but she offered no details, I’m afraid. No offense to him but something like that never occurred to me.

What I remember was seeing Richard and his father’s truck arrive. And quickly running to the back end to watch them take a couple of well directed picks at a larger block to magically extract a 25 pounds piece of ice. And then swiftly carry it through our porch, hallway, and mama’s bedroom and to the kitchen. The only real risk factor was our front steps, which were not always in good repair.

Obviously Richard or any other person who delivered ice was agile and true professionals. We’d often took the ice out and put it on the table to make raspadas and no doubt lost a lot it via meltdown.

And though it could not have been expensive, I do recall there were times we went without ice because mama was embarrassed over not having paid the ice bill. And as soon as she could she’d let the Moya’s know.

There were times when the bill was forgiven to give us a new start. I’d be curious to know what may have been the sum total of the bills that were never paid to the Moya’s. Probably enough to send Richard to U.T. or Notre Dame.

I am going to do a little research by asking my sister Carmen and brother Ben about this. And surely Richard knows that for many East Austin families the depression didn’t end at the same time as it did for others.

Richard became a real persona because as skinny as he was he had to have been powerful to spend so many days from early a.m. to afternoon delivering precious blocks of ice.

My fascination with ice began at an early age when we lived on Red River around l935 close to the Ice House.  I remember standing around just starring at the place and hearing the noise of the ice being manufactured. And how there seemed to always be a nice little pile of snow we could from time to time enjoy eating.

I wonder how many hundreds of times I walked by there on my way to Uncle Tony’s and Tia Rebecca’s to enjoy the company of my primos and primas. Their home was really neat. As I recalled it was kind of underground; and that they had a long table with room for a bunch of children, including me from time to time. That surely was a time of pure happiness. My cousin were lovely and gracious. And Tia Rebecca was a sweetheart.

They undoubtedly were able to ‘fetch’ their ice from the nearby Ice House on a red wagon.

Dr. Francisco J. Zamarripa

(This story took place in Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi. I was born when my mom was old; she was ashamed to have me born in our house. Across the dry river bed lived an Indian midwife who lived in a cave. That is where I was born. I am a real cave man.)

Have you ever had a “wow!” moment?  I’ll tell you about mine.  It will live with me the rest of my life.  It was the time I was about 15 years old and my father took me FROM Texas to see my godfather, Cipriano Galicia.  He was a butcher who had his own store for many years in La Paz.  He packed an Indian bag with three Bimbo soft drinks, a can of sardines, and a loaf of fresh French bread.   We started up the mountain and passed by the house that used to be ours.  My father did not even bother to visit those who lived there.  He had given that house to those relatives of my godfather.  We passed by the Nopalera full of tuna fruits the size of a big pear. 

Since we got to the city, he had been looking and asking for a man named Serapio.  Since he asked wherever we went, I thought he must have been a very important friend, the way he asked for him.  Not finding him, we went with my “padrino” up the mountain.  The city looked smaller and smaller as we hiked up.  Sometimes we passed patches of clouds and it looked like rain.  My father found a special bush which gave a small pear-like fruit.  He wanted me to taste it.  It was a special and wonderful taste.  I have not tasted a fruit like it since.  We were quite high now and the object of the trip was to show me the water spring which was up on top of El Fraile (mountain).  We went past a huge mine shaft about 50 feet high.  It was a dry strontium mine that he said he had discovered when he worked for the ASARCO mining company.  There was a red fox in the entrance that looked at us with curiosity, but did not run.  We continued up and had to take refuge in the cavity of a mountain side that resembled an entrance to a cave, but it was only a cavity which we used to escape from the rain.  There my padrino took out the sardines and we shared everything.  It was the best picnic that I remember having as long as I live.  God bless my padrino and my father. 

It was decided to return as the rain made further climbing dangerous.  On the way down, I could see the city as if it were a miniature town in a strange but beautiful land.  My father asked me if I was thirsty and showed me the cavities in the rocks which once housed precious stones.  There was water like if God was giving us to drink of his best.  It was refreshing and pure. 

Suddenly, I saw what looked like an old man, only that he moved like an athlete, running and jumping up the mountain like a goat.  That was the Serapio that my father had been looking for, an old man that looked like he was in his seventies, burned by the sun, with thick skin from being outside all his life.  He was a shepherd who had lived all his life in the mountain taking care of the goat herds.  He knew the mountains up and down like the palm of his hand.  In the old days, he had been a miner who worked with my father in the mines.  He was a very humble man.  My father had been looking for him, as if he was the most important man in the world, yet he was a humble shepherd.  My father never distinguished between people or his friends.  He treated everybody as if they were his brothers.  That day, my father taught me the most important lesson in my life.  Everybody is important!  He did not tell me this.  He showed me the way to love one’s fellowman, but his intention had not been to teach me, that was the way he was.  That is why I always believe “that you know the tree for its fruit,” not but what a man preaches, as God also punished the Jews because they made a religion of his Love.  God wanted men to be real not hypocrites.  And Jesus said the same thing the Pharisees.

Frank Sifuentes

Sarah's tio Chon that I first met at our wedding engagement gathering at his place with her Tia Jesus 'Chuey', her mom's sister. They had four children, Frank, Mamie 'Dora', Mary Lou and Bobby and they were truly like real brothers and sisters.

I knew that and when Sarah told me a few days ago, that her Tio Chonito who was he strongest father, and gave her unconditional love and respect. Sarah in turn was the older sister and role model.

For me  Tio Chonito became a wonderful friend and role model too! Chonito was 68 years old, thin, all bones and  muscles. He was strong from doing hard labor, starting when he was about 13 years old. His hands were hard and powerful. Knowing him and instantly connecting as close kin was amazing.

This was the summer of l954 before my wedding on August 7th. It was that very evening he started telling me stories from his life. He was being raised in his grandfather's hacienda in Rio Ondo cerca de Rio Arriba, Jalisco.

Apparently Papagrande Prieto treated his family, servants and peones as the ruler of his domain alike and was something of a miser by hoarding gold and silver coins and hid his treasures under a corn bin.

Chonito told the story of how his apagrande Don Prieto heard that the French were 'conquering' Mexico and lusting after Jalisco and its beautiful women, but not without the taking it's precious gold and silver, first.

His grandfather took quick action. He and his trusted servant Panfilo extracted the precious coins they had hidden. But not before sending everyone to the river to not be able to learn
what they were doing.

Don Prieto and his servant Panfilo sacked and loaded a big strong donkey them. They were seen but quickly disappeared as the evening sun fell. Finally his grandfather sights a place to bury his assets; but he told Panfilo that he had to wait for him, because he didn't want him to know where he buried it.

With so much time having passed Panfilo was sound asleep when Prieto came back. 
Life went on with Don Prieto and decided to leave his wealth hidden until an appropriate time.

Chonito then told of how his grandfather remained fit clear up to the time he was 101 and wasn't about to contemplate on his mortality. Especially when he went around riding like the younger men his on a white horse. However as hard luck would have it, his horse started running towards a small rock wall and was unable to stop it before hitting the fence, throwing his papagrande over and falling on his head.

He lived though he was paralyzed and speechless. And was never able to tell anyone where he buried his treasure. Not even Panfilo had the slightest idea where it was still buried.

Chonito's mother had died when he and his sister were toddlers; and shortly after his father remarried.  Chonito did not like the new 'mother' at all. He mostly stayed close to his sister and maintain an independence from both their dad and step-mother.

They were enterprising and at an earliest age started becoming useful via work assignments and chores, and still sought and maintain a freedom from parent rule.

Their grandmother most unfortunately did not pay a bit attention to their needs or guidance. Chonito described her at big and fat, sitting on the floor drinking hot chocolate
and dunking pan dulce in it, to feed her cats.

Chonito and his sister had stared at her intently to give her a hint it would be nice if she gave
them pan dulce dipped in chocolate.

Finally at the ripe age of 13, fortunate to have grown tall real fast, he felt the time for his independence had come. He had been gathering resources for the occasion; and planned it well, with a new trunk full with things needed for a magic act he had that could earn him coins, along the  way towards Juarez to cross to El Paso.

He said he paid two cents to cross over the El Paso for this was 190l and the call for work crews, from El Paso to Arizona and on to California. He made his way to the mines in Globe, Arizona, or was it Miami?

When he worked their the had to work everyday except Christmas and New Year's Day. Sunrise to the evening twilight.

Finally a leader among them emerged (Munoz?) and he organized them to go on strike on a certain day. The night before they heard the sounds of trains constantly. As they came out of their homes they look up to the mountain around them and saw they were filled with Federal Troops.

They prevailed and sent Munoz packing, as persona non- grata. And the rest of them went to work, having to hustle a bit harder.    

Later  Chonito settled in Dominguez and worked at farm labor for Japanese landowners during the 20's and 30's, and through the 60's. At one point -during the 20's the farm workers in the area went of strike to prevent the owners from lowering their wages from 12 cents to 10 cents an hour.  They called our the Federal Troops and arrested the organizers. Chonita had been one of them. They had to go before the court in the Westside LA.

Chonita said that he had been accused of being a communist. And when the Judge asked him if he was one. He asked the Judge to give a definition of Communism and that he would tell him if he was one or not.

The Judge explain how everything belong to everyone to assure a distribution of resources with equity.  In that case Chonito told him, he was a communist.  The Socialists from the Westside defended him and paid the bail. They ended up winning the strike and got the same wages.

Chonito had been an organizers for Associacion Mutualista de Obreros in which people were able to have a small policy for funerals. The raised funds independently and raised enough to build a worker's hall in Wilmington. He said they had chapters all over from Santa Monica to Chino and South to San Pedro. The workers of the area were ready when the Dock Workers
needed to be organized.

Concepcion "Chonito' Prieto died February 14th l980. He had been born in 1888 in Rio Hondo, Jalisco. He spend 75 years in the United States; most of it in California.


Catalina de Erazu by Vicente Riva Palacio

Doña Catalina Erazu (La Monja Alférez)
As depicted in Vicente Riva Palacio "Mexico a traves de los Siglos"

Vicente Riva Palacio


In the year 1650 there died at Cuitlaxtla the famous Dona Catalina de Erazu, known as the Lieutenant Nun. Dona Catalina de Erazu was born at Guipucosa, a village near San Sabastian, Spain, February 10, 1585. At four years of age she was placed in the convent of San Sebastian under the tutorship of Ursula de Unza, and there she professed her devotion, according to some of her biographies. At fifteen years of age, or a little before, she fled the convent because of a terrible hatred between her and another Nun. Dona Catalina hid herself in a military barracks, where she found clothes to dress as a man and to commence from that point to live the long and scandalous carrier that has provided much to write about for historians, poets and novelists.
She was, at times, a clerk, a mule driver, a valet, and merchant’s assistant. Dona Catalina toiled a few years in Spain before embarking for Peru, where she had a quarrel during which she wounded two men, for which she was apprehended and made to serve punishment in stocks. Later in Lima she joined the military, and her company was assigned to Chile, where she quarreled with and wounded her brother Miguel de Erazu. Dona Catalina battled gallantly against the Indigenous in the assault of the villa de Valdiva, and for her bravery she was named Lieutenant.
Dona Catalina’s continual quarrels with officers and soldiers obliged the governor of Chile to banish her to the fort at Aranco, from which she escaped and fled to Potosi where she went into mule driving, but her business did not last long, because she fought with a land owner in Charcas where she had gone for cargo. With a sword in each hand, Dona Catalina gave her adversary two thrusts, leaving him dead. She fled back to Potosi, where she seized the opportunity to provide valuable assistance to Sheriff Don Rafael Ortiz to defeat Alonso de Ibanez, who had gathered supporters in an uprising against the government. Her work in the enterprise earned Dona Catalina the rank of Aide to the Sergeant Major.
She participated in the conquest of Dorado, a project of many months and numerous battles. However, a period of retirement in a church was ordered after she wounded a man, a case in which it was ultimately shown she had acted in self-defense and was thus released.
A multitude of scandals and scuffles followed in Peru; and finally, badly wounded in a gaming house, she was at the point of death, and had no sooner recovered than justice caught up with her. Pursuers were about to apprehend Dona Catalina and she took on the officers, killing one and wounding various others. Only with the utmost effort did they disarm her and carry her to where her judgement waited.
The court was called and proceeded to condemn her to death. Then her confessor discovered the secret of her true sex. He petitioned the King for a pardon, in consideration of her twenty-four years of service, and thanks to the Bishop of Cusco, sentence was delayed, a pardon granted and she returned to Spain, wearing the clothing of a nun.
The arrival of her boat at Cadiz was a grand event. She passed to Sevilla, then visited the King before making a trip to Rome to speak with the Pope, and according to one old account, the voyage across the sea to Rome was marked by her fight with a Frenchman who she threw overboard. While he drowned, Dona Catalina was attacked by his French companeros and Dona Catalina found herself in the water, but she managed to survive thanks to a buoy thrown down by one of the sailors.
The Pope conceded to Dona Catalina, among other gifts, his permission for her to wear men’s clothing. And to ensure that no one jeered at such an apparently indecent concession, the Pontiff declared, with satisfaction, "Give me another Lieutenant Nun and I will concede her the same."
The King, not to be left behind, granted her a pension of 1,500 pesos annually, to be extracted from the Royal money houses of Manila, Mexico or Peru.
The Lieutenant Nun arrived in Mexico when the governor of New Spain was the Marquis de Cerralvo, and on a trip between Veracruz and Mexico she fell in love with a young woman. The parents forced their daughter to move to Mexico City and marry when they learned that Dona Catalina was a woman, although dressed in the clothing of a man. Her passion aroused, Dona Catalina was furious and demanded battle with the husband. A letter to him read:
"When a person of my quality enters a house, carrying nobility, they are assured of the promise of good treatment, and seeing that my behavior did not exceed the limits of your Honorableness, it is improper to impede me from entering your home, and what’s more, to give me assurance that if I go by your street I can expect death, and even though I am a woman, and it may seem impossible for me to claim this much dignity, and odd that I demand the satisfaction I want, I await you under San Diego from one until six."
A number of people of importance managed to stop the duel.
The Lieutenant Nun dedicated herself in New Spain to mule driving, and in 1650, on the road from Veracruz, she took sick and died, making sure before the event that she would have a sumptuous funeral, and that her grave stone would have an honorable epitaph.
Translation by Ted Vincent
[One of her biographies relates that a few days after the duel was canceled, Catalina de Erazu was strolling the street and saw three hoodlums attacking the man she had challenged. It is said that she drew her sword and drove away the attackers.
The sugar plantation hacienda at Cuitlaxtla where Catalina de Erazu died of yellow fever was in Veracruz lowlands where non-residents were discouraged from the mule driving business because they lacked immunities and took sick and left mule teams unattended. Viceregal decrees prohibited non-locals from running mules at all during the worst fever months of the year. Dona Catalina fought many a man and won, but she met her match in a little mosquito.
Various spellings for Catalina’s last name include: Erauzo, Erazo, and Erauzu, as well as Erazu. The spellings with a last "u" put an accent on that letter.]


General Bernardo de Gálvez Hero of Baton Rouge, Mobile,and Pensacola

The interesting and exciting story of a Spanish warrior who served his country and his king by holding Spain's American empire at the time of the American revolution. He defeated English armies repeatedly, securing the Mississippi River, Illinois Territory, West Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico for Spain and, by extension, the United States. Some historians say his victories at Mobile and Pensacola were among the most important of the American Revolutionary War. Today he is regarded as a hero in Spain, but unfortunately, he is almost totally ignored in the United States. In the long run of history, his battles against the English had a more profitable impact on the United States of America than on Spain. Although ignored in American history and American lore, he had a significant part in the creation of the United States. This small book is an attempt to bring to light part of the debt the United States owes to Gálvez and the men from Hispanic America who in many significant ways contributed to the victory at Yorktown.

The text above is from a book which is still not out on the market.  Dr. Vela Múzquiz sent the 260 page book, as Proof copy.  I am including it here to emphasize the great interest in  General Bernardo de Gálvez by historians across the nation.  


We propose that General Bernardo de Gálvez be designated “Honorary Citizen of the United States,” based on his contributions to the cause of American Independence.

Precedents to our proposal is the designation of “Honorary Citizen” to the French officer Marquis Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier Lafayette a few years ago. I have read that such an honor was also given to Admiral/Marquis François Joseph Paul de Grasse in the form of land grants. Admiral de Grasse died before he could take advantage of these grants, but his daughters came and established families of native-born Americans. So there are ample precedents for our proposal, and General Gálvez’ contributions are on a par with those of Marquis de Lafayette and Admiral de Grasse.

When he took over as Acting Governor of Louisiana in Jan 1777, he expedited movement of money, materials, and gunpowder up the Mississippi River to General George Rogers Clark, who was able to extend the jurisdiction of the United States from the rim of the Appalachian chain to the Mississippi River. This doubled the territory of the potential
country. When war was declared by Spain in 21 June 1779, General Gálvez moved upriver to capture Baton Rouge, followed by Mobile, then Pensacola (all of West Florida). He worked with the King’s representative Don Francisco Saavedra de Sangronis in establishing the de Grasse-Saavedra Convention which governed the Spanish/French conduct of operations in the Western Hemisphere. The first step in those operations was to strike a blow in the Chesapeake Bay area which would secure American independence; however, de Grasse did not have enough money. Saavedra, with later approval of General Gálvez, was able to find the money in Santo Domingo and Havana; allowing the French fleet to sail and support the capture of the British army under Cornwallis at Yorktown.

Why was not this victory the end of the war? Actually, the British held re-invasion bases at Charleston, New York, Penobscot, and Detroit. They simply had no manpower to use them. They placed a higher priority on the sugar islands of the West Indies. They were losing these islands, one by one, until Admiral de Grasse was captured by British Admiral Rodney at the great naval battle of Les Saintes. The British then put most of their resources into defense of Jamaica, even moving regiments from New York for that purpose. (This gave General Washington time to suppress the Tories, consolidate his gains, and unite America.)

Spanish and French pressure on the British continued. General Gálvez concentrated a Spanish invasion force on Haiti, and The French Expeditionary Force, which had fought so well at Yorktown, was redeployed to Venezuela. An invasion force was assembled in France and Spain under Admiral d’Estaing to move to the West Indies. But the force
the British feared was the fighting Spanish general named Bernardo de Gálvez, waiting on Haiti to be unleashed. The British sued for peace. One can argue that the greatest contribution made by General Gálvez was his diversion of British thinking away from America and into the West Indies.

Just whom would it benefit to make General Gálvez an honorary citizen? Let’s put it this way: We in the NSSAR are in the business of sowing the seeds of pride and patriotism. If we can get a line or two in history texts stating that General Bernardo de Gálvez became an “Honorary Citizen” for his contributions to American independence, we will have
students of Hispanic ancestry reading these lines for years to come. They will be proud, some for a moment, some for a day, some until the next test, and some for the rest of their lives. And just think how many of those children there are.

Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Citizen Galvez, Feb 2007.
South Coast Chapter, CSSAR

Apellido expendido por la Península, procedente de Guernica (Vizcaya). Con casas en Aragón, Cataluña y Andalucía.  Una rama pasó a Indias. - 

Armas: En campo de plata, un árbol de sinople y dos lobos de sable atravesados a sun tronco y cebados de sendo corderos.  

Otros traen escudo partido: (1)el escudo anterior, y (2), en campo de plata, tres veneras de azr, bien ordenadas.  

Los de Lorca traen: en campo de plata, tres bandas de azur, ondeadas.  

En 20 de mayo de 1783 se autorizó al teniente gerneral D. Bernardo de Gálvez para que añadiese a sus armas un cuartel de azur con una flor de lis de oro. 

Los de Aragón traen: encampo de oro, un león rampante de púrpura, acompañado de cuatro cabezas de sierpe de sinople, una en cada ángulo del escudo.  Los de Villafranca traen: en campo de gules, un águila al natural picada de oro. Los de Murcia y la Argentina traen: en campo de plata, tre bandas de azur ondeadas.

Informacion: Diccionario Heraldico y Nobiliario por Fernando Gonzalez_Doria, 

Patriots of the American Revolution

Group says state's role in Revolution overlooked
Wills of a Father and Son & a Contribution to the American Revolution
2003 Letter from Granville Hough, Ph.d. to Leslie S. Whitaker, Ph.D. 
2002 Bibliography for General/Viceroy Bernardo de Gálvez, 
    Prepared for Long Beach event.

Laredo Parade, Feb 17, '07 Photo by Corinne Staacke

In front wearing blue musician's uniforms are three Granaderos Fife & Drum Corps members: Jesse Benavidez (drummer) and Julie Villa-Soto (middle) and Crystal Benavidez (right side). The horseman on the white horse is Mark Collins (portraying George Washington) and Joel Escamilla (portraying Bernardo de Galvez).  Mark Collins played the role of George Washington on the PBS documentary of the American Revolution. It was a wonderful experience.

Group says state's role in Revolution overlooked
By Art Chapman, Star-Telegram Staff Writer

Texas history comes to mind in the fading days of February. It is the eve of Washington-on-the-Brazos and the Texas Declaration of Independence; and of the Alamo and its 13-day siege.

But in some parts of Texas, the American Revolution is the history at hand. In Laredo, along the Mexican border, residents just concluded a month long celebration of George Washington's birthday. It is an unusual event that includes a Martha Washington Ball, an event to honor Princess Pocahontas and a re-enactment of the Boston Tea Party.

Residents of the mostly Hispanic city say it isn't unusual for them to honor Washington. They say he was revered in more places than the United States; he was also a model for liberators such as Father Miguel Hidalgo in Mexico and Simon Bolivar in Central America and South America.

An organization in San Antonio believes that Texas' contribution to the American Revolution is too often overlooked and that it should be added to school history books. That Texas was in any way involved in the American Revolution comes as a surprise to a lot of people.

"Obviously, there is a resistance to include the Spanish contribution to America," said Jack Cowan, president of the Texas Connection To America's Revolution Association. "It is kind of human nature, but it is something to overcome. History has not included the contribution of Spain in Texas or Louisiana, and it played a gigantic part in American history. Our goal is to educate and make these people known."

The figure Cowan and his organization focus on is Bernardo de Galvez. Galvez has not been ignored by historians, but neither has he been celebrated. Cowan, 
a retired Army lieutenant colonel, believes the Spanish governor of Louisiana     
Laredo Parade, Feb 17, 07 Photo by Corinne Staacke
during the American Revolution should 
hold a higher place in our national record.

Cowan and many historians in his organization of more than 50 people believe Galvez's contributions were invaluable. The Handbook of Texas explains that Galvez aided American patriots even before Spain entered the Revolutionary War: "He corresponded directly with Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson and Charles Henry Lee, personally received their emissaries ... and responded to their pleas by securing the port of New Orleans so that only American, Spanish and French ships could move up and down the Mississippi River."

Spain declared war on Great Britain on June 21, 1779, and Galvez was ordered to launch a campaign against British forces along the (Mississippi River and the) Gulf Coast. The link between Texas and the Revolution came when Galvez sent an emissary to Texas Gov. Domingo Cabello y Robles requesting delivery of cattle to Spanish forces in Louisiana.

Historical accounts say that between 1779 and 1782, 10,000 cattle were rounded up. "From Presidio La Bahía, the assembly point, Texas rancheros and their vaqueros trailed these herds to Nacogdoches, Natchitoches, and Opelousas for distribution to Galvez's forces," the handbook says.

The Texas cattle provided a "walking commissary," Cowan says. They fed the troops all along the Gulf Coast, where in battle after battle -- Manchac, Baton Rouge, Natchez,  -- Galvez defeated the British. The campaign ended in Pensacola where Galvez and his (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban) and Spanish troops again routed the British.

Less well known is the fact that (Galvez sent the French Admiral Francois de Grasse who was under his command for the impending invasion of Jamaica) then sailed with 40 ships to Virginia, where Washington needed help at Yorktown. The French troops assembled at Yorktown were suffering from poor morale. France was broke and its soldiers and sailors had not been paid in months. Plans for the Battle of Yorktown were beginning to unravel, Cowan said.

"Galvez('s second, Francisco de Saavedra, took a fast ship) couple ships and sailed to Cuba where he raised funds for the American battle," Cowan said.

The figures vary slightly from account to account, but on average, the historical records show that Galvez gathered almost $6 million in gold and silver.

"That money came from 28  (citizens of Spanish Cuba)," Cowan said. "I have their names. That money financed the Battle of Yorktown. We hear all about the battle, but you never hear about the 28 citizens of Spanish Cuba. This is exciting stuff for people who care about Texas, America and history."



Wills of a Father and Son 
A Contribution to the American Revolution

Virginia Sanchez

© 2004

The soldiers of the Santa Fe Presidio were located in Spain’s most northern area and therefore could not participate in active duty on behalf of the American Revolution. However, they honored the request of the King of Spain and gave money to the cause, even though they were sometimes not paid in full or paid in pesos de la tierra (e.g., crops) as opposed to pesos firma (cash).

On January 9, 1765, a soldier lay ill at the Royal Presidio in the Villa Capital of Santa Fe and asks his teniente (lieutenant) to document his last will and testimony. In this will, Cristobál Madríd affirmed his faith in God, his guardian angel, and the saints. He requested of his named executors, his wife Francisca Herrera and son Juan Antonio Madríd, to be buried in the San Miguel parish church in Santa Fe and that his body be shrouded in the habit of Saint Francis. Most notably, he listed among his possessions six horses and his complete military equipment with which he "served the King."

On January 4, 1768, Cristobal’s son, Antonio Xavier Madríd, enlisted in the Spanish military "in place of his father," and in all probability, used his father’s military equipment. This recruit signed by the mark of a cross to signify his understanding of his responsibilities as a soldier. Antonio Xavier, age 25 and described as having a swarthy complexion with black hair, eyebrows, and eyes, was assigned to the Tropa de Cuera, the Leather Jacket troop, at the Presidio of Santa Fe.

Spanish Archives of New Mexico, SANM II, Roll 11, Frame 124-127, Document #6, Troop Report and Inspection, Santa Fe Presidio, Soldier #11, Cuera Troop - Antonio Madrid, present.


Antonio Xavier Madríd served in the Spanish military in colonial New Mexico when Spain actively supported the revolution of the American Colonies. During this time, Spain’s northern territory included almost all of the United States west of the Mississippi, Louisiana, and Mexico. Spain and its colonies in America played a significant role in the American Revolution by providing military support, loans, and gifts of cash—historical facts of which most United States citizens are still unaware.

When the American colonies waged a war for independence against England, King Carlos III of Spain sought opportunity to regain land Spain lost to England in 1773. Spain agreed to join France as an ally and covertly shipped arms, munitions, cattle, uniforms, medicine, blankets, and money to the American colonies using France as the go between. Visitor-General José de Gálvez, Spanish secretary of the Indies and his nephew, Count Bernardo de Gálvez, provided secret aid to the American cause by allowing guns, ammunition, and tons of supplies to be shipped up the Mississippi to patriot forces in the north. By 1777, Spain had sent a large shipment of the following from a French port by way of Bermuda to Boston: 215 bronze canons, 4,000 field tents, 12,826 grenades, 30,000 muskets, 30,000 bayonets, 30,000 uniforms, 51,314 musket balls, and 300,000 pounds of gunpowder. Money and supplies were funneled through the French and handled by a third party—appearing as open business transactions.

Spain’s support for the American colonists remained secret until June 21, 1779, when Spain officially entered into war with England. Thomas Jefferson wrote to Bernardo de Gálvez on November 8, 1779 and expressed his thanks for Spain’s assistance to the revolutionary cause. History books in United States schools relate the aid France gave to the American Colonists and mention very little about the aid given by Spain.

As stated by Thomas E. Chavez, "…United States history is a story of a country born out of English colonies, the role of Spain has not been genuinely recognized. Nor…have the sacrifices of Spain’s colonies been acknowledged. Eighteenth-century Spanish subjects, who lived in areas that make up the present states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, answered Carlos III’s call for a special [donation] to help with the war and, in the end, secure American independence." In March of 1780, Carlos III decreed that to sustain the war "his vassals in America" were to contribute a one-time donativo (donation) of one peso (approximately $30 by today’s standard) per Indian and other castes and two pesos per Spaniard and noble. Collectors went to towns and pueblos in the New World and collected one peso per Indian over 18 years old and other castes, and two pesos from each Spaniard. Donativos were collected from soldiers and citizens throughout Cuba and Spain’s hard-pressed North American colonies, including the provinces of California, New Mexico, and Texas.

New Mexico Governor Juan Bautista de Anza was officially notified of the decree in a letter dated August 17, 1780 from Teodoro de Croix. With regard to donativos made by the Indians of the Province, Anza obtained permission to exempt the Indians of the Zuni and Hopi pueblos. (In the Province of California, Fray Junípero Serra used church funds to pay the [donations] for mission Indians.)

By 1783 a total of 3,677 pesos (approximately $110,300) had been collected from soldiers and citizens in the Province of New Mexico; 247 pesos came from soldiers of the Santa Fe Presidio. The donativos were shipped to "Mexico then shipped to Havana and transferred to the American colonies, sometimes via French carriers."

Supplies and aid to the American cause came from almost every part of the Spanish empire and currently, historians and genealogists throughout Spain, Mexico, and the United States are reviewing historical documents in an effort to rightfully give Spain and its Colonial Patriots credit for their aid.

The Sons of the American Revolution and the Daughters of the American Revolution are two national lineage societies that are interested in Spain’s involvement in the American Revolution and they are reaching out to descendants of all Spanish soldiers to research their lineage and apply for society membership. By submitting their genealogy, these Colonial Patriots can be catalogued in the SAR and DAR national repositories of genealogical and historical information, and thereby become a part of America’s history.

Some activities recognized by the SAR and the DAR include service in the Spanish military, service in the militia, service as Indian auxiliaries, making voluntary contributions to defray expenses of the War, Spanish cowboys (in Texas) who drove cattle to feed the American colonial troops, and mission priests who lead public prayers on behalf of Spain’s support of the American Revolution. Because many priests did not leave descendants, the SAR’s interest is in locating and marking their graves as patriots. For example, California’s Franciscan mission priest, Fray Junípero Serra, led a prayer for the success of the American colonists "because we believe their cause is just and that the Great Redeemer is on their side."

Antonio Xavier Madríd’s military possessions listed in his will dated January 3, 1813 include two rifles (muskets); a Spanish military uniform consisting of a hat, an old blue wool cape, and a heavy woolen waistcoat; an ardaga (shield); a pair of boots and spurs; and miscellaneous garments. Also listed among his possessions are a mule, a horse, a donkey, and an additional musket. According to the Reglamento of 1729, a presidial soldier’s uniform should conform in some measure or common standard and each soldier was required to have six horses and a mule. Even though maintaining any uniformity in military dress was difficult in New Mexico due to short supply and minimal replacements, Antonio Xavier’s uniform and arms on the most part met the day’s requirements.

Spanish Archives of New Mexico, SANM II, Roll 611, Frame 1552. 
Last Will and Testament of Antonio Xavier Madrid

To his son, Juan Nepomuceno Madríd, he left a musket from the armament; a cartridge belt without cartridges; and his hat, old blue cape, aged waistcoat, and miscellaneous garments. To another son, José Antonio Madríd, he left a musket, a pair of boots and spurs, and his blue uniform, and shield. His daughter, María Josefa, was married to Josef Manuel Sena, armorer of the Presidio and one of the executors named in his will. In addition, Antonio Xavier entrusted his son-in-law to "guard" 22 pesos. Josef Manuel Sena and two other named executors, brothers-in-law Juan Nepomuceno Madríd and Miguel Rodriguez, were asked to "collect the horse owed" Antonio Xavier by his brother, Juan Antonio Madríd. (For detailed information on the Madríd family genealogy, refer to the following article by Henrietta Christmas.)

Based on the time Spain was at war with England and the Spanish military service records of New Mexico Colonial Patriot Antonio Xavier Madríd, we know he donated two pesos ($60) toward the cause of the American colonies. At this time, the Province of New Mexico was rather poor and sparsely populated. His sacrifice to the cause of the American Revolution came at a time when cash was hard to come by and soldiers were sometimes not paid in full or paid in pesos de la tierra (e.g., crops) as opposed to pesos firma (cash).

Antonio Xavier Madríd’s father, Cristobal Madríd, listed as possessions in his will dated 1765 six horses and his complete military equipment with which he ‘served the King’. In Antonio Xavier’s will dated 48 years later, all that remained as symbols of honor and service were some muskets, a cartridge belt; a shield, various articles of military attire, a mule, and two horses. Like his father, Antonio Xavier affirmed his belief in God and the saints and asked that his body be shrouded in the habit of Saint Francis.

From their wills and from research, we can piece together only a portion of their lives. From their contributions we can document an important part of history that recognizes significant contributions to the American cause by the eastern as well as the southwestern parts of these United States. Only years later would many learn of the significant roles Spain and its colonies played in the American Revolution.

For a Patriot to be recognized by the SAR and the DAR, descendants of Patriots must research and document their lineage and apply for membership. One source of vital information is the Spanish enlistment papers, which provide service dates, physical descriptions, and occasionally name of a soldier’s parents. The list of Spanish enlistments for the Province of New Mexico, as excerpted from Hough and Hough, Spain's New Mexico Patriots During Its 1779-1783 War with England, is available on NMHS Vice President José Esquibel’s website at; and in Virginia Langham Olmsted’s, "Spanish Enlistment Papers of New Mexico, 1732-1820," published in the December 1979 issue of the National Genealogical Society Quarterly. The SAR accepts male applicants, 18 years or older, who can prove lineage back to a Patriot ancestor who contributed to the American cause between the 1779-1783 timeframe, the time Spain officially was at war with England.

The DAR’s criterion for descendants of New Mexico Colonial Patriots is slightly different. Female applicants, who are descendants of New Mexico Colonial Patriots, must be able to prove that the Patriot soldier was at the Presidio of Santa Fe between April 3, 1782 and November 18, 1782, and that he was discharged after November 1782. April 3, 1782 is the date Governor Anza authorized collection of the donativos within the Province of New Mexico. November 18, 1782 represents the date of Anza’s letter to Croix informing him that all but three donativos were collected. The list of New Mexico Patriots and Alcalde Mayores who qualify for DAR patriot status is available on the New Mexico Genealogical Society’s website at and from the author’s website at

As stated by Robert H. Thonhoff, "An important door of recognition has been opened for many thousands of Hispanics if they but do their genealogical homework." Consider the number of descendants of Spanish Colonial Patriots who served under the Spanish flag (including Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico) who, as a result of Spain’s aid, can say their ancestors aided in the American Revolution and can now be officially recognized through societies such as the SAR and the DAR. Thomas Chavez adds, "Hispanic families in the United States range from recent arrivals to people whose ancestors settled in what is today the United States before Jamestown or the Puritans and Pilgrims." Members of these families can now be included in stating that their ancestors aided the American cause. There is no better way to "open that door of recognition" than to document the contributions of our Colonial Patriots and get their information officially recognized, microfilmed, and catalogued in historical documents.

Antonio Xavier Madríd was but one of many Spanish soldiers and citizens who contributed to the American cause. For generations, descendants of New Mexico Colonial Patriots have made significant contributions by proudly serving in defense of their countries. During the period when New Mexico was under Mexican rule, José Antonio Sena, Antonio Xavier Madríd’s grandson, was recognized for valor in recognition of his service against the aventureros tejanos (adventurous Texans) in 1841. Manuel Armijo, commanding officer and Governor of New Mexico, recommended Sena for an escudo de honor, the Mexican equivalent of the Medal of Honor. This honor was granted to Sena by the President of the Republic of Mexico, along with a promotion to Captain.

Continuing in this tradition, descendants of New Mexico Colonial Patriots as United States citizens have continued to proudly serve their country. As stated by the Eugene A. Obregon / Congressional Medal of Honor Campaign, "unquestioned service to the country is part of the ethos of the Latino community…. Out of a total of 3,427 medals granted by the U.S. Congress, 38 have been given to citizens of Latino ancestry, making Latinos the largest single ethnic group, in proportion to the number who served, to earn this prestigious award."

To date, only about ten New Mexico Colonial Patriots have been recognized by the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Sons of the American Revolution; and joining these types of societies isn’t everyone’s "cup of tea." However, there is no better way to honor our Patriot ancestors than by working to ensure that future generations will be aware of the contributions of Spanish Colonial Patriots to the American cause. If you take the number of New Mexico Colonial Patriots, add to that number all their descendants, we would have an impressive number of newly found daughters and sons who can impact and change what traditionally was taught about American colonial history. Through the actions and support of our Spanish Colonial Patriot ancestors, we, as their descendant daughters and sons, solidify our right and privilege to be called Americans.

About the Author:

Virginia Sanchez is an author, historian and genealogist.  She has published articles in cultural and genealogical journals, and family histories she has written are cataloged in libraries in Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming.  She worked for a Fortune 500 telecommunications
company for 20 years as a senior writer and has been researching her family genealogy for 15 years.  She received her Bachelor's degree in Music from the University of Wyoming and received a Master's degree in Technical Communication from the University of Colorado at Denver. She is a member of several genealogical and historical societies and she regularly presents her findings at their annual conferences. She serves as webmaster for the Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy. Her application to the DAR, which honors her eighth great-grandfather, New Mexico Colonial Patriot, Soldado de Cuera Antonio Xavier Madríd, was approved July 3, 2002.

Additional Information:

Any interested male descendant of a New Mexico Patriot can contact any of the following for additional information about the SAR: Charles Martinez y Vigil at, the New Mexico Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Box 525, Placitas, NM 87043; your local SAR chapter; or visit Any interested female descendant of a New Mexico Patriot can contact Virginia Sánchez at; New Mexico DAR State Regent Mary Ann Thornton at; your local DAR chapter; or visit . Application and membership fees apply. Chapter membership is optional.



Ralph E. Twitchell, Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Series 1, Roll III, Frame 116.

Virginia Langham Olmsted, Spanish Enlistment Papers of New Mexico, 1732-1820, (National Genealogical Society Quarterly), December 1979, Vol. 67, (297).

Ralph E. Twitchell, Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Number 611, Frame 1552.

Ibid. Roll 11, March 1781, Frame 217.

The Vital Contributions of Spain in the Winning of the American Revolution: An Essay on a Forgotten Chapter in the History of the American Revolution, Robert H. Thonhoff, 2000, (2) , self published, 617 N. Esplanade St., Karnes City, TX, 78118-2522, (830) 780-3582.

Edward F. Butler, Sr., "Spain’s Involvement in the American Revolutionary War, Part 1,

Ibid. Part 2.

Thomas E. Chavez, Spain and the Independence of the United States, (213-214).

Robert H. Thonhoff, The Vital Contributions of Spain in the Winning of the American Revolution: An Essay on a Forgotten Chapter in the History of the American Revolution, 2000, (2), self published, 617 N. Esplanade St., Karnes City, TX, 78118-2522, (830) 780-3582 (

Thomas E. Chavez, Spain and the Independence of the United States, (214, Note 9) and Ralph E. Twitchell, Spanish Archives of New Mexico, 2, translated extract.

Thomas E. Chavez, Spain and the Independence of the United States, (214).

Ibid. (Note 11).

Ibid. (214).

Ibid (Note 14).

Max L. Moorhead, "The Soldado de Cuera: Stalwart of the Spanish Borderlands," Journal of the West, 1969 (46) and Viceroy Marques de Casafuerte, Reglamento para todos los presidios de las Provincias Internas de ésta Governación (Mexico, 1729).

Electronic correspondence from Harriet McCallum, Regent of the Santa Fe DAR Chapter in Santa Fe, to Donna Santistevan, DAR Spanish Task Force, April 17, 2002.

Robert H. Thonhoff, The Vital Contributions of Spain in the Winning of the American Revolution: An Essay on a Forgotten Chapter in the History of the American Revolution, addendum dated March 18, 2002 (self-published, 617 N. Esplanade St., Karnes City, TX 78118 (

Thomas Chavez, "Spanish Sacrifice," The Santa Fe New Mexican, Section F, July 4, 1999 (F1).

Robert J. Torrez, La Crónica de Nuevo Mexico, Historical Society of New Mexico, March 2002.

Obregon/CMH Foundation, Eugene A. Obregon / Congressional Medal of Honor Campaign, May 21, 2002,


3 Apr 2003

Leslie S. Whitaker, Phd
Senior Associate
Philliber Research Associates
1125 Olivette Executive Parkway, Suite 110
Saint Louis, MO 63132

Dear Dr. Whitaker:

As a Professor Emeritus from California State University, Fullerton, my post-teaching career has been in genealogy and in the particular types of American history which embody genealogy. I have found the Spanish participation in the American Revolution is generally inaccurately and incompletely presented in our textbooks and standard references. Our historians simply did not take advantage of available records, or else they held biases against the Spanish Empire which reflected in their work. I agree to be a consultant for the Gálvez Project during the
planning phase to develop better educational materials.

My specialty is identifying the names of individuals who served as soldiers, sailors, or citizen patriots during the Revolutionary War. Working with my daughter, N. C. Hough, who researches and edits, I personally prepared the most complete listing ever made of individuals
under General Bernardo Gálvez in his campaigns in what are now these United States. Then I made a partial listing, but still the most complete ever made, of those who served under General Gálvez after he became commander of the Spanish armies of the West Indies. We continue to add to this West Indies list in our on-going work.

Probably as well as any historian, current or past, I understand what General Gálvez could and could not do, what authority he had, and what he did not have. I have studied his relationship with the personal representative of King Carlos III, Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis, and how they worked together after Pensacola to conduct operations along with the French within the Western Hemisphere. Few American historians are aware of the de Grasse-Saavedra Convention of July 1781 which governed the conduct of the war in the Western Hemisphere: how its goals were specifically to strike a blow to secure the independence of the American Colonies, then regain the strategic islands in the West Indies which had been taken by British, then eliminating the British presence in the West Indies by taking Jamaica. The first goal resulted in Yorktown Sep/Oct 1781, the second in the recapture of the West Indies islands in 1781/82, and the third was in progress in April 1782 when the British won a naval victory over the French at Les Saintes. The Jamaica invasion had to be replaned and indeed it was.

General Gálvez concentrated 10,000 troops on Hispanola, the French moved Rochambeau’s Expeditionary Force, which had been so decisive at Yorktown, from Boston to Venezuela in Dec 1782, and an invasion fleet gathered at Cadiz under Count d’Estaing to move reinforcements to the West Indies. Marquis de Lafayette was prepared to become the Governor of Jamaica. The British, with excellent intelligence information, realized they probably faced certain defeat and negotiated their way into an end of the war. So it was an invasion which did not occur, but led by General Gálvez chomping at the bit, which tied down British forces and
prevented a re-invasion of the American Colonies. This changed Yorktown from an event into a lasting victory.

So I can explain to the Gálvez Project that contributions by General Gálvez were in three parts: first, his leadership as Governor of Louisiana in capturing Baton Rouge, Mobile, and Pensacola; second, his collaboration with and support of Francisco Saavedra in arranging for de Grasse to sail to the Chesapeake Bay; and third, his holding the British forces in the West Indies from the time of Yorktown until peace was negotiated.

I am unable to travel, but I can work through regular mail or by email. My goals in supporting the project are to make the educational materials as complete and accurate as possible.

Yours sincerely,

Granville W. Hough
Professor Emeritus, CSUF 


Bibliography for General/Viceroy Bernardo de Gálvez.
[Prepared in 2002 for the Long Beach event. Not considered complete. Good foundation.]

With the increasing interest in the life and work of Bernardo de Gálvez, it is worth noting what is currently available and in our libraries. We can start with the Library of Congress and then go on to more specialized libraries. We see there are obituaries, epic poems, engravings and likenesses, genealogies, diaries, children’s books, and serious studies of his campaigns and contributions.

Baker, Maury and Margaret Bissler Haas, Eds. “Bernardo de Gálvez’s Combat Diary for the Battle of Pensacola, 1781,” Florida Historical Quarterly,Vol LVI (Oct 1977):176-99. (in English.)

Beerman, Eric. “The French Ancestors of Felicite de St. Maxent,” Louisiana Review, Vol VI (Summer, 1977):69-75. This sketches the ancestry of the wife of Bernardo de Gálvez, the St. Maxent family of France and Louisiana.

Beerman, Eric. “’Yo Solo’ not ‘Solo’: Juan Antonio de Riaño,” The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol 58, #2, (1979):174-184. This short study of Bernardo’s brother-in-law shows how he was with Bernardo commanding another vessel in the famous crossing of the sandbar at Pensacola Bay leading the invasion of Pensacola. After fighting with distinction there, Riaño was promoted, married Bernardo’s sister-in-law, Victoria de St Maxent, then transferred to the Spanish Army when Bernardo became Viceroy of New Spain. After forty years service, Riaño
was killed 28 Sep 1810 as Governor of Guanajuato in the Hidalgo uprising, along with his son Gilberto. Another son was killed in 1812 in the battle of Cantle de Amilpas. His surviving children were son Honorato, who married Victoria Setien y Riaño, and dau Rosa, who married
Miguel Setien.

Boeta, José Rodulfo. Bernardo de Gálvez, Madrid, Publicaciones Españolas, 1977.  This is a study of how Bernardo carried out the wishes of Carlos III of Spain in supporting the Americans during the American Revolution. (Available through loan from FHL INTL Film, #1573156, item 7.)

Caughey, John Walton. Bernardo de Gálvez in Louisiana, 1776-1783, Gretna, LA, Pelican Pub. Co., 1972. This is the standard and most available reference in English for Governor Gálvez. The foreword is by Jack D. L. Holmes.

Churchill, Charles Robert. Bernardo de Gálvez: Services to the American Revolution, LA Society, Sons of the American Revolution, 1925, 1996. Compatriot Churchill was a leader in developing understanding of the Gálvez contributions, and descendants of Louisiana soldiers serving under Gálvez have been accepted into the SAR and DAR since his work, 1920-25.

Coleman, James Julian, Jr. Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent: The Spanish-Frenchman of New Orleans, New Orleans, Pelican Publishing House, 1968. This book covers all the sons and daughters of the outstanding St. Maxent family of Louisiana, daughters who married Spanish officers at the highest level, and sons who served in the Spanish Army. Gálvez, Bernardo de. Engraving, undated, part of the picture collection, LSU Libraries. How this engraving looks is not known to the author of this list; however, there are on the internet Gálvez likenesses at for quick viewing, and for detailed downloading at

Holmes, Jack David Lazarus. The 1779 “Marcha de Gálvez”: Louisiana’s giant step forward in the American Revolution, Baton Rouge Bicentennial Corporation, c 1974. This monograph was published as part of the American Revolution Bicentennial, 1776-1976. The title is taken from an actual musical work, the “Marcha de Gálvez,” which commemorates Governor 
Gálvez, and was commissioned by the LSU Bicentennial Program Office. The author is Dinos Constantinides, and the music is for soloists, mixed chorus and instrumental ensemble; poetry by Julien Poydras; translated by Leon Phillips, 1976.

Larrañaga, Bruno Francisco. El sol triunfante, Mexico, D. F., Frente de Afirmación Hispanista, 1990.

Parks, Virginia, ed. Siege! Spain and Britain: Battle of Pensacola, March 9-May 8, 1781, with contributors Jesse Earle Bowden and others, Pensacola, FL, Pensacola Historical Society, 1981.

“Poesa sobre el sirrey [!] Gálvez,” Mexico, 1787, 4 pamphlets in 1 volume, authors not listed.

Reparaz, Carmen de. Yo solo: Bernardo de Gálvez y la toma de Panzacola en 1781: una contribución española a la independencia de los Estados Unidos, Barcelona, Serbal, Madrid: ICI, 1986.

Roberts, Russell. Bernardo de Gálvez, Bear, DL, Mitchell Lane Publishers, c 2003, a children’s book.

Rojas y Rocha, Francisco. “Poema epico,” Mexico, F. de Zúñiga y Ontiveros, 1785.

Santa Maria y Sevilla, Manuel de. “Suspiros que en le muerte del exmô, señor cond de Gálvez, exsaló,” Mexico, Inprenta nueva de J. F. Rangel, 1786.

Souviron, Sebastian. Bernardo de Gálvez, virrey de Méjico, un infante de la marina española, Malaga, 1946.

“Spain furnishes authentic coat of arms of Gálvez,” Galveston Daily News, no date, no page, no author, but apparently the City of Galveston, TX had requested and received a coat of arms for use in their city to commemorate their namesake.

Stanford, Donald E. Louisiana laurels. (various artists contributed articles, portraits, and other items to commemorate Louisiana heroEs), Baton Rouge, LA, for the Arts Council of Greater Baton Rouge by Printing, Inc, c 1991.

Valdez, Manuel Antonio. “Apuntes de algunas de las gloriosas acciones del exmô. Señor d. Bernardo de Gálvez, conde de Gálvez, virey, gobernador y capitan general que fué de esta Nueva España, &c.” Mexico, F. de Zúñiga y Ontiveros, 1787.

Valery S., Rafael. Miranda in Pensacola:génesis de la independencia hispanoamericana, Los Teques (Miranda, Venezuela), Biblioteca de Autores Y Temas Mirandinos, 1991. It is easy to overlook the ideas generated among the young Hispanic officers, born in the Americas, as they saw the successful struggle of the Americans for independence. Within a generation, nearly every part of Hispanic America was in an independent nation. The time had come, and the example was before these young officers.

De Varona, Frank. Bernardo de Gálvez, Milwaukee, Raintree Publishers, c 1990. This is designed for juveniles with both Spanish and English, (juxtaposed, if I recall correctly) and is from the Raintree Hispanic stories.

De Ville, Winston. Yo solo: the battle journal of Bernardo de Gálvez during the American Revolution, with comments from E. A. Montemayor, Eric Beerman, Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, and Gerald R. Ford. English edition.

Woodward, Ralph Lee, Jr. Tribute to Don Bernardo de Gálvez: royal patents and an epic ballad honoring the Spanish Governor of Louisiana, Baton Rouge, Historic New Orleans Collection, 1779.

Works Progress Administration (LA). Louisiana Militia under Don Bernardo de Gálvez, 1770-1797. This is a work which the author of this list did not learn about while working on Louisiana Patriots. It was done during the Great Depression as a make-work enterprise for historians. It is available from FHL US/CAN Film #1794157, item 5.

Submitted by Granville W. Hough, 2002.


SHHAR Quarterly meeting, March 17, Speaker: Dr. Jose de la Pena
Multicultural Center, Coalition Conference, Orange County Great Park
Nellie Kaniski has accepted a seat on MANA's National Board of Directors. 


Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

"Writing Family Histories "
José F. de la Peña, 
Author, Educator, Genealogist

Saturday, March 17, 2007 @ 2:00 p.m.

Orange Regional Family History Center

674 S. Yorba, Orange, CA

Light refreshments will be served.

No membership dues. All are welcomed!

My interest in genealogy began more than 30 years ago when I discovered that José Felipe de la Peña had been "Alcalde" mayor of Revilla in 1824. My grandfather was, José Felipe, but the "Alcalde" was my grandfather's grandfather. Then, I was given a copy of the Mexican land grant, great-grandfather José Felipe received in 1835. The 22,000 acre land grant located in Zapata County (Texas) was known as "las Ánimas."

About 1970, my interest in learning more about this man was overwhelming. My first book, Los Peña de Revilla/Ciudad Guerrero began with the intention of doing just that. Once my family search was started, my interest in history became compulsive.
This compulsion has led to 18 family history publications. Over the years I have discovered that family research is a rewarding life-long process.

March SCHEDULE at Orange Family History Center

Tuesday – Thursday 9:00 a.m.- 9:00 p.m.
(Second Thursday) 9:00 a.m. -7:00 p.m.
Friday – Saturday 9:00 a.m .- 5:00 p.m.



7:00–8:30 p.m.

Those Other Records: Land and Probate Research

Caroline Rober



7:00–8:30 p.m.

Powerful & Friendly Research-Organizing with PAF Insight

Wynn Christensen



2:00–4:00 p.m.

Hispanic Research Group (Relief Society Room)

Group Meeting



1:00–2:30 p.m.

Legacy tips and Techniques for all Users

Joe Leavitt



7:00–8:00 p.m.

Beginning Your Genealogical Research

Wynn Christensen




Beginning Your Genealogical Research

Celia Christensen



10:00–2:00 p.m.

African American Genealogy Group (Room 22)

Group Meeting



7:00–8:30 p.m.

Family Search.Org - Treasures Beyond "Search"

Alan Jones


Saturday, February 3, 2007
First Conference Multicultural Leaders

Although the program was identified as the first conference, the concept for the Multi-cultural Center, as part of the Orange County Great Park design, has been in the hearts and minds of a group of dedicated volunteers, lead by the vision of Najma Quader for almost 10 years.  The goal of this conference was to enlist the support of leaders in Orange County representing the multi-ethnic background of Orange County.  

The group stands in front of a mural, one of 1,500 different murals created around the world, through the leadership of Joanne Tawfilis, chair for the International Group Outreach Committee. In photo from Left to Right: Viola Rodriguez Sadler, Viola Myre, Ruben Alvarez, Victoria Jaffe, Mimi Lozano, Yolanda Magdaleno.  

The 200 people in attendance represented 25 cultural groups.  However, only about 10 of us represented the Latino community.  Three SHHAR Board members, your editor, Yolanda Magdaleno and Viola Sadler. The three of us volunteered to help increase Hispanic participation, Yolanda on the Local Group Outreach Committee, Viola on the International Group Outreach and me on the Public Survey Committee.  

Other Latinos were Viola Myre is Office Director for the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce,   Ruben Alvarez, Board of Directors for the Empowerment Zone in Santa Ana, and OC Latino 100.  Victoria Jaffe, Director, Career development services, Concordia University. 

We are hopeful that other Hispanic/Latino organizations will participate.  If we are to have a presence in the activities of the Great Park, we need to voice our interest . . now.  For you or your organization to participate, please contact any of the committee chairs:

INTERNATIONAL GROUP OUTREACH: Joanne Fouad Tawfilis (760) 758-5489
LOCAL GROUP OUTREACH:Jo Cranston  (714) 505-6958
NEWSLETTER COMMITTEE: Mehrnaz Jahansoozi (949) 474-5951
WEBSITE/BLOG COMMITTEE: Ardishir Rashidi-Kalhur (909) 981-2444
FINANCE/FUNDRAISING: Rose Cheung (949) 823-1946
BUSINESS PLAN COMMITTEE: Vladimir Goren  (949) 856-9926
PUBLIC SURVEY COMMITTEE: Paul Gilbert  (949) 552-4495
CONFERENCE COMMITTEE: George Faas (949) 955-7830
VISION/TECHNICAL DESIGN: Ardishir Rashidi-Kalhur  (909) 981-2444

Exciting announcement:  Past President and current Director of Education and Cultural Awareness – Nellie Kaniski has accepted a seat on MANA’s National Board of Directors.  This is quite an honor for our chapter!  Nellie, we are very proud of you!  Thank you for making sure that our Orange County Chapter is represented.  

MANA, A National Latina Organization  
1725 K Street NW, Suite 201  
Washington , DC 20006  
(202) 833-0060
(202) 496-0588 Fax

2007 Annual Educational and Training Conference
May 24-26, 2007 Santa Fe, New Mexico



Dionicio Morales - The Mexican American Legend
March 9th: The 16th Annual Latina History Day Conference
The Founding of El Pueblo de Los Angeles -4 September 1781
Mosaic Los Angeles



A Biographical Tribute by Sal Osio, JD

Conceived in Mexico. Born in the United States. Providence bestowed on him two cultures, a fusion of which he has embraced throughout his life. A bi-cultural heritage which he has shared with family and friends, always enhancing and promoting the respect among the American communities. His cause is well illustrated by his auto biography: "A Life in Two Cultures."

'Don Dionicio' - as he is respectfully addressed by his many friends and colleagues - is a man of destiny and a legend in his life time. In the Hispanic American urban communities he has become an inspirational leader and a beacon of hope.

A descendant of the proud Tarascan culture that inhabited the States of Guanajuato and Michoacan, and the adjacent territories in the El Bajio (lowlands) of central Mexico, seeking refuge from the ravages of the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the Morales family embarked for the promised land to the North - not unlike all immigrants, past and present, who make up the diversified citizenry of the United states. Don Dionicio's father, Severo Morales, reminiscent of pioneers before him who crossed the Great Plains to reach California, crossed the Chihuahua desert to establish a beachhead in Moorpark for his family. Subsequently, he was followed by Dionicio's mother, Narcisa Arenas, and accompanying relatives, who crossed the Sonora desert, primarily riding the rail box cars, encountering every conceivable ordeal, made their way after crossing the border, on foot, to Yuma, Arizona. Broke and starving, with Narcisa in advanced pregnancy, they were given shelter in an Indian reservation by the Quechan tribe of 1st Nation Americans.

The Quechan community embraced Narcisa and provided all the necessary comforts, shelter and nutrition, enabling her to give light to a healthy first born - born in the new country of their quest for a better life. He was named 'Dionicio' in honor of the patron saint of the community on whose name day he was born. This event was embedded in Dionicio's psyche by his mother who was eternally grateful to the Quechan and who forever remembered the community in her prayers. The moral he always has lived by since his birth - the brotherhood of man eclipses political boundaries and national agendas - was learned by the example of this selfless, loving and caring community.

Once in Moorpark, an agricultural community in Ventura County, California, Dionicio experienced the hatefulness of white supremacy - a prejudice based on pigmentation of skin and ethnicity. His setbacks were also offset by the just and equitable treatment he and his family experienced from their patrons and neighbors. In this polarized society of love and hate, Dionicio chose love and determined at a young age to defeat the forces of hate. He mused, if America is to survive based on its ideology of justice and equality for all, it must eradicate the cancer of prejudice that is a social epidemic. The cure, he concluded was enlightenment, the defeat of ignorance. Education was the equalizer.

An episode in his teenage years as a student of his local high school, defined his lifelong pursuit of justice and equality for all and to champion the rights of the less privileged members of society, particularly his brethren who were discriminated against by virtue of the color or their skin. Dionico became an accomplished trumpet player and became the 1st trumpet of the Moorpark High School band. As a reward he was invited with the school dance band to attend a performance by Henry Busey, the famous trumpet player, who was his idol, at Ocean Park Dance Pavilion in Santa Monica, a landmark venue at the time. Upon arrival he was refused entrance because "Mexicans" were not allowed. Nonchalantly his instructor and fellow students gained entrance and he was made to wait for them at the entrance for their return. Humiliated and freezing in the cold, his anger provided him with a new strength. And he resolved, right there and then, to champion the rights of his people, and other persons of color, to prevent a similar assault and degradation to their human dignity. He did not know it at the time, but this was the birth of the Mexican American Opportunity Foundation ("MAOF") which he subsequently founded in his adulthood.

Dionicio received the formal education that his undergraduate school teachers had discouraged, because he was Mexican, and prepared himself for his life long task. However, before he completed his college education, in the 1930's, before launching his crusade, he had to overcome a life threatening illness, tuberculosis, which was a widespread disease at the time. Several of his friends and relatives had already succumbed to T.B. and his medical providers had given him a grim prognosis, a slim chance of survival. He was advised that T.B. was the disease predominantly afflicting Mexicans. He reached deep into his spiritual arsenal bestowed upon him by his mother and sought the guidance of the Virgin of Guadalupe, the brown skin virgin Mary that had appeared to a Mexican Indian in the 1500's and who had become the symbol of respect and appreciation for their ethnicity - a pride of being Mexican. He prayed to the Blessed Mother and his prayers were answered. Within two years of convalescence, following lung surgery, Dionicio conquered the disease, to which he and his mother attributed as a miracle of the Virgin of Guadalupe.

An event which provoked a young Dionicio into action took place in Moorpark at the local theatre. He was forcibly evicted, by a former class mate, no less, who was the attending usher, for daring to sit in the Anglo section. This public humiliation, reminiscent of his degradation at the Ocean Park ballroom, finally forced him into an activist strategy. Enlisting the participation of a sage man in the community, together they sought the protection of the Mexican Consulate in Los Angeles. Together they ascertained that discrimination on the basis of race or national origin was prohibited in California and each offense was punishable by a substantial fine. Armed with this knowledge and institutional support they organized a protest and before it became necessary to manifest their complaint, the theatre management, advised of the movement, capitulated. From that moment on there was no discrimination in seating arrangements. Dionicio experienced the taste of victory for the first time. And the lesson learned: Strategic alliances, legal research, plan of action and collective leverage.

Armed with a post graduate education, Dionicio engaged in several causes designed to protect his fellow Mexican Americans. Among these was the protection of immigrant contract workers from Mexico, known as Braceros, who were grossly abused and existed in deplorable conditions, in violation of the bracero program rules and regulations. As an enforcement officer working for the government's compliance unit, Dionicio would infiltrate bracero camps and communities and report violations. He accepted a post in San Antonio, Texas, effectively as a barrio ombudsman. Nothing had prepared him for the extreme degradation of human dignity, rampant prejudice and discrimination, and reckless disregard for the basic safety and well being of the Mexican American residents. The barrios may as well have been located in the impoverished areas of India, he concluded. "And, if you think San Antonio is bad, you should go to the rural areas. There they have been victims of undesirable and subhuman treatment," a close confidant advised him. Dionicio learned to organize the neighborhoods, like action cells, in order to counter the violation of human rights. The Catholic Church became a strategic ally. This was a long range program which eventually succeeded.

Upon his return to California Dionicio honed his skills in protecting the rights of workers. He was employed as an organizer and recruiter of Mexican workers by labor unions. These organization skills and collective bargaining strategies set the stage for his lifetime legacy: The organization in 1963 of a non-profit community based service organization - The Mexican American Opportunity Foundation ("MAOF").

In its early years MAOF survived through the efforts and subsistence of Dionicio and his wife, Maria. Ever the partner and inspiration at his side, always sharing his ideals and altruism, were it not for her, MAOF would have remained nothing more than a dream ... far from a reality. Dionicio sought the help of other community service organizations, such as the Urban League and the Jewish Federation conglomerate of human service agencies. Several close friends and community leaders joined Dionicio in the early days of survival. And finally, through perseverance and sacrifice, the big brake came through, in the person of Vice President Lyndon Johnson, the author of the Great Society.

As a direct result of the White House meeting with Lyndon Johnson, MAOF was funded by the government to pursue equal opportunity employment opportunities. As significant, at Dionicio's invitation, the Vice President attended a conference in Los Angeles, wherein he addressed over one thousand of the Mexican American leaders and opened the door to the recognition of affirmative action programs to elevate the opportunities for the Mexican American community to climb up the corporate ladder. Corporate America took notice and found in Americans of Mexican heritage equal partners in the quest for economic growth and global competitiveness.

Thereafter, MAOF became the vanguard in social programs to improve the quality of education of its young, the civic education of its community, the participation of its senior citizenry, in the continued contribution to its welfare, in the reformation of its imprisoned population, in the enhancement of women's rights and, in general, in the active participation and contribution of Americans of Mexican heritage in the general welfare of their country, the United States of America. Last, but not least, Dionicio became the ambassador of goodwill, de facto, between the two of the great nations of the North American Hemisphere - Mexico and the Unites States.

In recognition of his many achievements, Don Dionicio has been accorded numerous well deserved accolades: The County of Los Angeles renamed Belvedere Park in East Los Angeles after him; he was accorded honorary citizen status by the two Mexican states that host the Tarascan cultural heritage, Guanajuato and Michoacan; he was awarded the Life Achievement award by Hispanic Business, 
                      Photo source: County of Los Angles Public Library

the leading media in the Hispanic business community; and, in addition to the previous, he has received 121 tributes, including three Life-Time Achievement Awards from the University of California at Santa Barbara (his alma mater) and his own MAOF Board of Directors - all in the year 2006. He is a legend in his own time. But, the accolades never get to his head. His wife, Maria, always makes sure of that by reminding him that his duty is to take out the trash weekly on pick up day.

Today, MAOF is the largest American Hispanic community service organization with a budget of $60 +/- million. The preschool program is nationally recognized by preparing bicultural children with self esteem and a pride of their heritage in the awareness of their privileged status as Americans. MAOF educates its preschool children to enter the school system as English language participants with a significant advantage over their predecessors to graduate from high school and enter post graduate education institutions of learning. In Southern California, where Mexican Americans comprise over 50% of the population, his contribution is the hallmark of America's future well being.

And yet, his biggest reward, is the offspring and successors who carry his baton forward. His daughter, Margarita, an educator, is an eloquent and philosophical messenger of his legacy. His son, Tim, is a community activist. His other daughter, Magdalena, is the safe keeper and oversight of his legacy. Her twin brother, the light of his life, Dionicio, Jr., was born with Down's syndrome and lives at home. His wife, Maria, continues as his inspiration and lifetime partner in the quest for a better society. His extended family, includes Martin Castro, his protégé, who is the competent administrator who, after Dionicio's retirement, took over the reigns as the President of MAOF, supported by a loyal cadre of board members who unselfishly dedicate their time and resources to the well being of the organization.

His legend is the pursuit for man's quest for dignity. When I good naturedly asked him how he was able to 'play' conservatives and liberals, Democrats and Republicans, Mexican and American politicians: "Don Dionicio, how do you mange to influence so many diverse interests and mold them into your agenda?" He replied, "My dear friend, I have only one political party - The Brotherhood of Man - and one agenda - Equality and Justice for all." In essence he has been able to fuse two cultures best immortalized by two of their greatest statesmen: America's Abraham Lincoln "With malice toward none - with liberty and justice for all" and Mexico's Benito Juarez "Respeto al derecho ajeno es la paz - "Peace lies in the respect for your neighbor's rights."

The 16th Annual Latina History Day Conference
Friday, March 9, 2007

Millennium Biltmore Hotel
506 Grand Avenue Los Angeles, CA 90071

Registration fee $100 

Join us for one of the most dynamic conferences in the nation, HOPE's Latina History Day!  This annual conference draws over 600 women to celebrate the historic accomplishments of Latinas and partake in forums on corporate advancement, the state of public education, and financial empowerment. 
Cornerstones of Latina History Day are the inspiring keynote speakers and the Comadre network and exhibit area where conference participants are invited to an afternoon of networking with California's most successful Latinas.

Sent by Larry Luera


The Founding of El Pueblo de Los Angeles -4 September 1781

Lorraine Frain
January 27, 2007 
Below are stories about the pueblos where my ancestors lived.

The Los Angeles Coastal area was occupied by the Gabrielena, and Chumash people for thousands of years. In August of 1769, Captain Gaspar de Portola led the Sacred Expedition across Southern California with Franciscan Padres Junipero Serra and Juan Crespi. Padre Crespi named a beautiful river they discovered: "El Rio de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciuncula."

Captain Rivera Recruiting Campaign - 1779-1781

It took Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada over a year to recruit soldiers and settlers who agreed to go with him from Nueva Espana (Mexico) to Alta California, in 1781. There were twelve families from the provinces of Sonora and Sinaloa who were destined to go to found El Pueblo de Los Angeles in Alta California. Forty-four humble people became the founders of the Pueblo (one family dropped out along the way due to illness). The purpose of establishing the Pueblo was to provide food and livestock to the Presidios. The settlers became successful farmers and their livestock increased in numbers and soon these farmers diversified and produced even more marketable goods. What is truly amazing and remarkable is that none of the early settlers possessed any kind of credentials, and yet, they were able to exercise excellent common sense and resourcefulness in accomplishing whatever task may have presented itself to them in their new-found land.

Los Pobladores - Founders of El Pueblo de Los Angeles - 1781

The Los Pobladores (settlers) were: Manuel Camero, wife Maria Tomasa Garcia; Jose Fernando de Velasco y Lara, wife Maria Antonia Campos and 3 children; Antonio Mesa, wife Maria Ana Gertrudis Lopez and 2 children; Jose Cesario Moreno, wife Maria Guadalupe Gertrudis Perez; Jose Antonio Navarro, wife Maria Regina Dorotea Gloria de Soto y Rodriguez and 3 children; Luis Manuel Quintero, wife Maria Petra Rubio and 5 children; Pablo Rodriguez, wife Maria Rosalia Noriega and one child; Jose Alejandro Rosas, wife Juana Maria Rodriguez; Jose Antonio Basilio Rosas, wife Maria Manuela Calistra Hernandez and 6 children; Jose Maria Vanegas, wife Maria Bonifacia Maxima Aguilar and one child; Antonio Clemente Feliz Villavicencio, wife Maria de los Santos Flores and one child. The soldiers of the Escolta were Jose Vicente Feliz; Roque Jacinto Cota; Antonio Cota; and Francisco Salvador Lugo.

The Founding of El Pueblo de Los Angeles

On a beautiful sunny day, Sept 4, 1781, the 44 pobladores (settlers) from 11 families, and two Padres set out from Mission San Gabriel and accompanied by an escort of soldiers, walked nine miles down the river to found El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles del Rio Porciuncula. Some of the pobladores walked, others rode on horses or mules through
cactus and sage brush
Photo source: County of Los Angles Public Library

over the dusty trail of El Camino Real. Later in the afternoon they came to a clearing in the brush and decided that this would be where the first plaza was to be laid out. A religious ritual was held there that afternoon. The Padres and the settlers walked around the plaza with the flag of Spain and the flag of our Lady. After celebrating the Mass, the Padres blessed the Pueblo and the pobladores, and it was declared: "Here in the name of God and our Sovereign King, Don Carlos III, we will found the Pueblo of our Lady the Queen of Angeles". Thus, began the great City of Los Angeles, California.

El Pueblo de Los Angeles

As part of their five-year contract, the settlers were granted land for their houses and for their farms, seeds for planting, plus livestock such as horses, cattle, cows, sheep, goats, oxen, mules, as well as implements with which to work the land. Within a years’ time, the Pueblo was crudely completed. This was the second pueblo to be established in Alta California--the first pueblo established was El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe. Today, we honor and salute the eleven families from Sonora and Sinaloa, Nueva Espana (now Mexico), who first started up the great metropolis of the City of Los Angeles, California.

La Iglesia de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles
Photo Creator: County of Los Angeles Public Library, Our Lady Queen of Los Angeles Catholic Church (aka 'Old Plaza Church'), 2000. The Church was built in 1818. 

La Iglesia de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles --Plaza Church - California State Historic Landmark No. 144. – The Church of Our Lady the Queen of the Angeles was dedicated on December 8, 1822, during California’s Mexican era, a year after Mexico’s independence from Spain was won. The treaty announcing Mexico’s independence from Spain is called the Treaty of Cordova, which was signed in the town of Cordova on August 24, 1821, by Don Juan O’Donnoju for Spain, and Don Augustine de Iturbide for Mexico. The Los Angeles Plaza is Landmark No. 156. Today, the outline of the pueblo is preserved in an historic monument familiarly called Olvera Street.

El Pueblo Becomes the City of Los Angeles

The pueblo of Los Angeles soon became a popular place to live and work. Many retired officers and soldiers and their families came to Los Angeles and made it their home. The Easter List for the Year 1804 gives the names of the military personnel and their wives who had met their annual obligation as Roman Catholics to attend Easter Sunday services during Lent. Among those listed is Sargento Felipe Santiago Tapia, and his son, Ursino Tapia. Felipe Santiago Tapia is now a resident of El Pueblo de Los Angeles. At the age of 75 years, Felipe Santiago Tapia died on January 24, 1811, and was buried at Mission San Gabriel. Felipe Santiago Tapia had come from El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe, and before that from the Presidio at San Francisco, having arrived there in June, 1776, with the Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition. Felipe Santiago Tapia’s son, Bartolome Tapia and his wife, Francisca Mauricia Villalobo were long-time residents of El Pueblo de Los Angeles and the first historical owners of Rancho Malibu. Bartolome Tapia was 58 years of age when he passed away on April 19, 1824.

By the 1820s, many more of Felipe Santiago Tapia’s extended family members became residents of El Pueblo de Los Angeles. Felipe’s grandson, Jose Antonio Briones y Tapia, and his wife, Demetria Ramirez y Quijada, originally from Santa Barbara, are now residents and living in Los Angeles and they are listed in the Los Angeles Padron (Census) for the Year 1821. During the next 20-year-period or so, Jose Antonio and Demetria had several children who were born and reared in Los Angeles. These children where baptized and married at the Plaza Church, and sometimes at the San Gabriel Mission which was close by their home.

In the Year 1836, Jose Antonio Briones and his wife Demetria Ramirez give their blessing to their younger daughter, Maria Briones, to marry her sweetheart, Jose Ygnacio Olvera. The marriage register of the Mission San Gabriel Arcangel reads: "31 July 1836 - Infs. For: Jose Ygnacio Olvera, natural del Real de Pachuca, Sonora, vecino de los Angeles, del difunto Jose Teodoro y Ma. Gertrudis Gomez, con Maria Briones, 13, natural del Pueblo de Los Angeles, de Antonio Briones y Demetria Ramirez. Testigos de assistancia: Santiago Feliz, y Salvador Armijo."

Earlier in the Year of 1836, Soledad Vasquez y Briones was born. Her parents are Benedicta Briones and Pablo Vasquez, and grandparents are Jose Antonio Briones and Demetria Ramirez, all residents of El Pueblo de Los Angeles. Soledad was baptized in Los Angeles when she was only a few days old. The entry in the Los Angeles Plaza Book of Baptisms begins: "Las Partidas de la gente de razon que se asientan en el primer libro de Bautismos: En la Eglesia de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles, Maria Santissima de Porciuncula, comenzados el dia 4 del mes de marzo del Ano 1826." The baptismal entry for the Year 1836 reads: "April 23 - Maria Marcelina Soledad Vasquez, 4 days old, of Pablo Vasquez, natural de Jalisco, y Maria Benedicta Briones, de Los Angeles, Antonio Palacios, natural de estado de Valladolid casado con Maria Paula Lara, y Maria Antonia de las Nieves Moreno casada con Francisco Lisalde as pads. Cabot." On February 12, 1838, and still living in Los Angeles, Benedicta Briones and Pablo Vasquez become the parents of another daughter, Maria Dolores Vasquez, who was baptized at the Plaza Church, with Jose Sepulveda y Cesaria Urives as padrinos.

As time goes on, Benedicta Briones and Pablo Vasquez and their children return to live in Santa Barbara. Soledad Vasquez married Mariano Garcia at Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Santa Barbara in the Year 1852. Soledad Vasquez and Mariano Garcia were blessed with a large family. Their fourth child, a daughter named Tomasa Garcia, is my great grandmother. 

Over the years, members of the Briones and Vasquez families leave Los Angeles and returned to live in the City of Santa Barbara. Jose Antonio Briones was in the City of San Francisco when he died on July 20, 1847 and was buried at Mission Dolores.


 Photo: Of Lorraine Frain Grandmother,
Tomasa on the left with Felicia Stepka 

Alta California - End of An Era

There were many changes taking place in Alta California the latter part of the 1840s. The Treaty of Cahuenga ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in California. The treaty was approved by Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Fremont and General Andres Pico on January 13, 1847, at Campo de Cahuenga, in the neighboring city of Los Angeles, in what is now North Hollywood, California. The treaty allowed the Californios who fought under the Mexican Flag to return home. A year later, The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, was the peace treaty that actually ended the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848. The treaty was signed at the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo, north of Mexico City, by Nicholas P. Trist for the United States and Luis G. Cuevas, Bernardo Couto and Miguel Atristain, for Mexico. Under the terms of this treaty, Mexico formally ceded Alta California to the United States.



Mosaic Los Angeles
March 2007

Presented by the Los Angeles Conservancy and
the J. Paul Getty Museum

What do ancient Tunisian mosaics have to do with Watts Towers?

Find out at a series of exciting events presented by the Los Angeles Conservancy and the J. Paul Getty Museum to celebrate L.A.'s mosaic legacy. Inspired by the current exhibition at the Getty Villa in Malibu, "Stories in Stone: Conserving Mosaics of Roman Africa; Masterpieces from the National Museums of Tunisia," these events will illustrate how this ancient art form, integrally linked with architecture, has evolved over time and adapted our our modern metropolis.

Order soon, tickets sell out fast!

If you have questions about Mosaic Los Angeles, please contact the Los Angeles Conservancy at 213.623.2489 or

Mosaic Conservation Lecture
Thursday, March 8, 
8 p.m. Getty Villa, Malibu
Expert panel discussion on mosaic conservation. Free; ticket required; limited availability.

Conservancy Day at the Getty Villa
Wednesday, March 21 
10:00 a.m.–1:00 p.m. - Gallery Course
From Tunisia to L.A.: Mosaics through History, Explore traditions of mosaic-making with art historians, curators, and artists as they discuss mosaic imagery and techniques. Course fee $20. Open to 40 participants. Call (310) 440-7300 to sign up.

12:30 - 2:30 pm - Open House
Spend lunchtime at the Getty Villa in Malibu and see the remarkable exhibition, "Stories in Stone: Conserving Mosaics of Roman Africa; Masterpieces from the National Museums of Tunisia." Free; advance timed ticket required; limited availability.
(Sign up online with other Mosaic Los Angeles events; see "Info and Tickets" above and below) 
For more information about the Getty, visit

Mosaic L.A. Tour
Sunday, March 25, 2007

10 a.m. - 4 p.m.
$30 ($25 for Los Angeles Conservancy members)

Join us on a self-driving tour showcasing Los Angeles' unique spin on the ancient art of mosaics, with docent-led tours at stops throughout the city. Tour sites include:
  • The Towers of Simon Rodia (Watts Towers), an L.A. icon and folk mosaic built by one man over thirty years using everyday objects
  • St. John's Episcopal Church, site of a Byzantine-inspired ecclesiastical mosaic designed by the artisans of historic Judson Studios
  • Murals in downtown L.A. by Joseph Young, including a 36-foot panel depicting L.A.'s architectural history
  • One of the extraordinary mosaic facades by Millard Sheets on a former Home Savings and Loan building (now Washington Mutual)
  • The Birth of Liberty mosaic at Forest Lawn Memorial Park, the largest historical mosaic in the United States (162' x 28')




Californians Hope to Save Famous Drive-In Restaurant
March 4th: House of Spain presents David Gomez, Spanish Pianist
A History of Mexican Americans in California
My Californio Family by Lorraine Frain, 3 parts 
El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe 
Presidio at Monterey, Alta California The Briones Family
The Villa de Branciforte - Santa Cruz
Former Juana Briones House
March 31st Dedication of Duarte statue
Los Californianos Heritage Calendar, many heritage events listed


Californians Hope to Save Famous Drive-In Restaurant
Preservation Online Story by Stephanie Smith / Nov. 22, 2006

Visalia, Calif.
Mearle's Drive-In, which closed in August, has been named a local landmark. (Rick Mangini) 

With its pink stucco exterior and neon sign, Mearle's Drive-In is such an icon of America's post-war car culture that you can find posters and toy cars with its image on eBay. But now many locals who grew up with this southern California landmark are waiting to find out if it will be there for future generations to enjoy. 

The 1940 art modern structure has been empty since August, when tenant Melissa Ward, a former bellhop who had run the restaurant for 11 years, was evicted after falling behind on rent payments. Because of its prime location in the heart of Visalia, Calif., word of its closure prompted fears that the owner, Ralph Kazarian, might tear down the building to use the lot for another purpose. 

On Nov. 6, the city of Visalia voted 4-0 to add the building to the city's historic register. Although the listing does not protect the building from demolition entirely, it does require the owner to ask the city's historic preservation commission and planning department for permission to alter the exterior or demolish the building, even in cases of economic hardship. 

"We're getting letters and e-mails from all over the world," says Rick Mangini, who worked to get the building listed on the local register. Unfortunately, he says, "Most of the historic buildings are on sites that are much more valuable for other purposes." 

Kazarian says that he has no plans for either demolishing the building or re-opening a restaurant on the site. "We tried to give it to the historical society, but no one wanted it," he says. "We don't know what we're going to do right now." 

As the only remaining drive-in in the county, Mearle's was already being considered for historic status when in closed, according to Andy Chamberlain, senior planner for Visalia, though public interest in the closure helped to move the nomination along. 

"The property owner is very worried about his economic return," Chamberlain says. "The goal in the short term is to bring the parties together and work something out." 

Chamberlain believes that because of its location, the restaurant could still be a viable business. According to Mangini, several parties have shown interest in re-opening the restaurant, but Kazarian has seemed indifferent to the offers. "We've just got to get the guy interested in joining the party," Mangini says. 

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House of Spain Presents
David Gomez
Internationally acclaimed Spanish  Pianist    
     March 4, 2007
6: 00 PM
Wine and tapas will  follow

Dear Friends: The House of Spain with the collaboration of the Consulate General of Spain in Los Angeles is offering a piano concert of Spanish composers by the Spanish concert pianist David Gómez, followed by a reception (wine and tapas).  

This concert will take place at the Serra Hall of the Immaculate Conception Parish in Old Town, San Diego. The address 2540 San Diego Ave., San Diego. 

Donation of $30 for members of the House of Spain and $35 for non-members. The donation will go for the construction of the site of the House of Spain in Balboa Park. 

For reservations please send your check made to
House of Spain to: 
Casa de España 
4574 Chateau Dr. 
San Diego, CA 92117 

Best regards,  María Ángeles O'Donnell de Olson 
Honorary Consul of Spain in San Diego 

A History of Mexican Americans in California:
Quinto Sol Publication, sent by Dorinda Moreno

World War II marked another sharp reversal in the course of Chicano history, renewing hope where the Depression had brought despair. The Depression had left in its wake a population decline, devastated communities, and shattered dreams; the war brought population growth, resurgent communities, and rising expectations.

World War II caused a tremendous labor shortage. When the military forces called for recruits, Mexican Americans responded in great number and went on to serve with distinction. Some 350,000 Chicanos served in the armed services and won 17 medals of honor. The war also brought industrial expansion, further aggravating the labor shortage caused by growth of the armed forces. Chicanos thus managed to gain entry to jobs and industries that had been virtually closed to them in the past. These new opportunities liberated many Chicanos from dependence on such traditional occupations as agriculture.

The turnaround from the labor surplus of the 1930s to the labor shortage of the 1940s had a special impact on agriculture and transportation. For help, the United States turned to Mexico, and in 1942 the two nations formulated the Bracero Program. From then until 1964, Mexican braceros were a regular part of the U.S. labor scene, reaching a peak of 450,000 workers in 1959. Most engaged in agriculture; they formed 26 percent of the nation's seasonal agricultural labor force in 1960.

Along with opportunities, World War II also brought increased tensions between Chicanos and law-enforcement agencies. Two events in Los Angeles brought this issue into focus. In the Sleepy Lagoon case of 1942-1943, 17 Chicano youths were convicted of charges ranging from assault to first-degree murder for the death of a Mexican American boy discovered on the outskirts of the city. Throughout the trial, the judge openly displayed bias against Chicanos, and allowed the prosecution to bring in racial factors. Further, the defendants were not permitted haircuts or changes of clothing. In 1944, the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee obtained a reversal of the convictions from the California District Court of Appeals, but the damage had been done. Los Angeles newspapers sensationalized the case and helped create an anti-Mexican atmosphere. Police harassed Chicano youth clubs, and repeatedly rounded up Chicano youth "under suspicion."

In the aftermath of the convictions and the press campaign, conflict broke out between U.S. servicemen in the area and young Mexican Americans who often dressed in the zoot suits popular during the wartime era. Soldiers and sailors declared open season on Chicanos, attacking them on the streets and even dragging them out of theaters and public vehicles. Instead of intervening to stop the attackers, military and local police moved in afterward and arrested the Chicano victims. Spurred on by sensational, anti-Mexican press coverage of the "zoot-suit riots," these assaults spread throughout Southern California and even into midwestern cities. A citizens' investigating committee appointed by the governor later reported that racial prejudice, discriminatory police practices, and inflammatory press coverage were among the principal causes of the riots. The Sleepy Lagoon case and the zoot-suit affair provided the basis for Luis Valdez's Zoot Suit, which in 1979 became the fir
st Chicano play to appear on Broadway.

Despite such events as these, the World War II era proved to be generally positive for Mexican Americans and is often viewed as a watershed in their history. Progress continued after the war. The G.I. Bill of Rights gave all veterans such benefits as educational subsidies and loans for business and housing. Moreover, returning Chicano servicemen refused to accept the discriminatory practices that had been the Chicanos' lot. The G.I. generation furnished much of the leadership for post-war Mexican American civil rights and political activism.

Veterans were instrumental in the founding and growth of a variety of Chicano organizations. Among the heavily political organizations, the Unity Leagues and the Community Service Organization registered voters in California and supported Chicano candidates. These groups also engaged in such diverse activities as language and citizenship education, court challenges against school segregation, and assistance in obtaining government services. Even more overtly political has been the Mexican American Political Association (MAPA).

Chicano progress since World War II is reflected in occupational patterns. Changes in Mexican American job concentrations reflect to some extent changes in the state economy. Since 1940, California has experienced a manufacturing boom and rapid growth in such areas as government, product distribution, consumer-oriented activities, and professional services. Percentages of Mexican Americans in agriculture and unskilled labor positions have declined, while percentages in professional, technical, managerial, clerical, skilled craft, and semi-skilled occupations have risen.

The post-Depression era brought socio-economic gains for Mexican Americans, but not equality. Although percentages of Mexican Americans in professional, technical, managerial, and clerical positions have increased, they still fall far short of parity according to their population numbers. Moreover, in nearly every major occupational group, Chicanos tend to hold inferior jobs, and Chicano earnings in the same job classifications tend to be lower than those of Anglos.

Inequitable economic conditions are paralleled by comparatively low Chicano educational attainment and severe under-representation among elected officials. The latter has resulted partially because thousands of Mexican immigrants have lived in California for decades without obtaining U.S. citizenship. With Mexico so close, many come with plans ultimately to "return home," although these dreams often go unfulfilled. Some Mexican immigrants, although harboring no desire to live in Mexico, have refused to surrender their Mexican citizenship. In comparison to immigrants from other parts of the world, Mexicans and other Latinos have been more reluctant to become naturalized citizens.

Other factors have also contributed to Chicano electoral under-representation. In 1977, for example, a California legislative committee on elections partially attributed Chicanos' limited representation on most city councils in cities with significant Chicano populations to the predominant use of citywide at-large elections instead of district elections. There were no Chicano council members at all in 42 such cities in California. The committee argued that local at-large elections prevent "minority voters from exercising their potential political weight," since "their votes disappear in a sea of majority group votes." On the other hand, some contend that at-large elections make it less likely that candidates will write off minority votes as irrelevant, as can happen in ward-based contests.

When it comes to military service, combat decorations, and wartime casualties, however, Chicanos have been over-represented in terms of population. Because of their lower educational attainment and restricted employment opportunities, Chicanos have traditionally viewed military service as a viable economic option. And since they were underrepresented in higher education, Mexican Americans did not benefit from student deferments as frequently as Anglos.

Finally, the 1970 U.S. Commission on Civil Rights report, Mexican- Americans and the Administration of justice in the Southwest, documented unequal treatment of Chicanos by law-enforcement agencies and the judicial system. Among widespread abuses cited in this and other studies are the lack of bilingual translators in court proceedings; under-representation of Chicanos on grand juries, as judges, and as law-enforcement officers; unequal assignment of punishment and probation to convicted Chicanos; excessive patrolling of Chicano barrios; anti-Mexican prejudice among police and judicial officials; and even wrongful use of law-enforcement agencies. In the search for undocumented Mexicans, the U.S. Border Patrol has exacerbated antipathy among Mexican Americans by periodic raids on houses, apartments, restaurants, and bars in Chicano communities and predominantly Chicano places of employment.

Quinto Sol Publication's first office location, Alameda County

NEXT> Chicano Movement

Lorraine Frain 

El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe -

Founded November 29, 1777 - Landmark No. 433


The first pueblo in Alta California, El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe, was founded on November 29, 1777, by 14 families. The Santa Clara Valley was heavily populated by the Ohlone Native Americans when the colonists first arrived there. The pueblo was developed as a farming community which would provide food and livestock for the Presidios of San Francisco and Monterey. The colonists were paid ten dollars a month to do their jobs, plus they received rations, livestock, tools, and seeds for planting. El Pueblo de San Jose prospered and flourished in the years to come and became a mega metropolis city due to the efforts of these ambitious and creative colonists. Never have so many of us benefitted so much from so little as we have from the hard work of a small number of people, namely, the incomparable Founders of El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe.

The new pueblo, El Pueblo de San Jose, was located within a few miles of Mission Santa Clara de Asis, which had been founded several months earlier on January 18, 1777. The padres at Mission Santa Clara de Asis agreed to serve the spiritual needs of the settlers of El Pueblo de San Jose, in addition to administering to their Ohlone Christian converts.

The Founding Families of El Pueblo de San Jose

The colonists who were selected to go to found El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe were originally from Nueva Espana (Mexico). The majority of these colonists came to Alta California with the Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition of 1775-1776 to found the Presidio and the Mission at San Francisco. However, about a year-and-a-half later, nine soldiers and their families were selected from the San Francisco and Monterey Presidios to accompany Lt. Jose Joaquin Moraga to escort the colonists to found El Pueblo de San Jose which was located along the Guadalupe River, approximately fifty miles to the south of San Francisco.

The soldiers and their wives were: Valerio de Mesa, wife Maria Leonar Borboa and seven children; Manuel Ramirez de Arrellano, wife Maria Agueda Lopez de Haro and son; Xavier Beltran, wife Maria Gertrudes Lugo, and two adopted orphan girls and a servant; Joaquin de Castro, wife Maria Martina Botiller and five children; Jose Manuel Higuera, wife Maria Ignacia Antonia Limon Redondo, four children and an Indian boy; Zeferino Lugo, wife Gertrudes Pacheco; Gabriel Antonio Peralta, wife Francisca Xaviera Valenzuela, three children; Felipe Santiago Tapia, wife Juana Cardenas and eight children; and Jose Manuel Villela, a bachelor.

The five Pobladores were Manuel Amezquita, widower (Maria Rosalina Zamora) with a one-year old son, (married (2) Maria Barbara Graciana Hernandez); Joseph Ignacio Archuleta, wife Maria Ignacia Gertrudis Pacheco; Joseph Manuel Gonzales, wife Maria Micaela Ruiz Bojorquez, five children; Jose Antonio Romero, wife Maria Petra Aceves, and a baby; Jose Tiburcio Vasquez, wife Maria Antonia Bojorquez. The Herdsman was Jose Sinova, wife Maria Gertrudis Bojorquez.

The Tapia Family of El Pueblo de San Jose

Felipe Santiago Tapia and his second wife, Juana Cardenas, and his eight children from his first wife, Filomena Hernandez, are listed in the First Census of El Pueblo de San Jose, for the year 1777. They are: Phelipe Tapia, 42; Juana Cardenas, 30; Joseph Bartolome, 12; Juan Joseph, 11; Juan Cristobal, 10; Joseph Francisco, 8; Joseph Bictor, 3; Maria Rosa, 16; Maria Manuela, 9; Maria Ygnacia (Ysidora), 7. Also listed in this first census are the livestock and animals which the family owned. They had several horses, a mule, two oxen, cows, and calves, a burro, two ewes, two goats, and six head of swine. The family had moved from San Francisco to San Jose, bag and baggage, following the trail which is now named El Camino Real. They passed through some wild territory, such as what was to become La Pastoria de Las Borregas, now the Cities of Mountain View and Sunnyvale. Today, the El Camino Real, Highway 82, is dotted with the tall, elegant El Camino Real Bells. El Camino Real Bells have also been placed along Highway 101.

Felipe Santiago Tapia, wife Juana Maria Cardenas, and his eight children were now happy and living in San Jose. Within the next nine years, Felipe and Juana Cardenas became the parents of five children, all born in San Jose. Their children were Maria Anacleta Tapia; Jose de Los Santos Tapia; Maria Francisca Xaviera Tapia; Maria Theresa Tapia; and Jose Casiano (Ursino) Tapia. Felipe Santiago Tapia was now the proud father of 14 children in all. The Tapia family members were active parishioners at Mission Santa Clara and the children were baptized, confirmed, and married at that mission. Felipe Santiago Tapia’s daughter, Maria Antonia Tapia, had already left the family when she married Jose Antonio Buelna, soldado de cuera, at Mission San Carlos in Monterey on May 26, 1776. Felipe Santiago’s daughter, Maria Ysidora Tapia, at age 7, made her Confirmation, and was anointed by Father Junipero Serra at Mission Santa Clara on November 11, 1779. By age 14, Ysidora Tapia was eligible for marriage and she would soon relocate to Monterey where she would prepare herself to become the bride of Marcos Briones, a soldado de cuera.

Felipe Santiago Tapia’s name appears in the Presidio at San Francisco in the Lista de la Compania, dated 31 Agosto de 1782, even though by this point in time he had been dispatched to El Pueblo de San Jose and he was living there with his family.

Several years later, Felipe Santiago Tapia left San Jose and relocated to El Pueblo de Los Angeles. Felipe died at the age of 75 at Mission San Gabriel on January 24, 1811.

El Parque de Los Pobladores

In 1997, the City of San Jose dedicated a park in downtown San Jose, California, named "El Parque de Los Pobladores" in commemoration of the founding of the Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe in 1777. In the center of the small park stand several 14-foot tall columns, exquisitely colorful works of art, depicting a narrative about the original group of 68 people, consisting of 15 men and their wives and 38 children, who founded the Pueblo, "the importance of family to the success of the settlement, the beauty of our valley as it existed prior to the founding of the Pueblo and the industriousness of the Pobladores".

California’s State Capitol

California’s first Legislature assembled in San Jose in December of 1849. San Jose was the site of California’s first State Capitol and was the seat of government from 1849 to 1851. This site is Landmark No. 461.

Birthday Celebration of El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe

Years ago, the City of San Jose sponsored a fiesta at the Peralta House in San Jose to commemorate the founding and birthday of El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe, Alta California’s oldest city. The Mayor of the City and many dignitaries, as well as TV personalties, attended the event. There were Mariachi musicians playing really great music and the children, dressed in authentic Spanish and Mexican costumes, sang and danced. A great time was had by everyone. My daughter, Maria, and I attended this particular event during our noontime hour away from the office. Years later, much to my surprise, I discovered that my family history is deeply rooted in this magnificent city.

Original Settlers of the Pueblo of San Jose, By Rudecinda Lo Buglio, Source: AGI, Audiencia de Guadalajara, 275 (103-4-17) Chapman Guide #3792.

Saturday, January 27, 2007


Presidio at Monterey, Alta California

The Briones Family

by Lorraine Frain


The families of the military establishment often socialize together, so it was no different in the early days of California. The families from the Monterey Presidio and the Pueblo de San Jose supported each other and maintained a close, friendly relationship.

By the Year 1782, Marcos Briones, soldado de cuera, is still an eligible bachelor. He is listed on a military list for the Year 1782 of the company of the Presidio at Monterey. He served as a mission guard garrisoned at various locations, such as the Presidio at Monterey, Mission San Luis Obispo, Mission San Carlos Borromeo, and Mission San Antonio de Padua.

Marcos Briones and Maria Ysidora Tapia had been introduced to each other by their parents in 1776 in Monterey. Eight years later, Marcos asked Ysidora’s father, Felipe Santiago Tapia, for her hand in marriage. Maria Ysidora Tapia was one of the youngest members of the Anza Expedition of 1776. She was from Culiacan, Sinaloa, Villa Calisan. After her mother, Filomena Hernandez passed on, Ysidora was cared for by her older brothers and sisters until the time that she was married to Marcos Briones. Ysidora, now age 14, was still living at home in San Jose with her parents. Now that she was betrothed to Marcos Briones, she moved to Monterey. Marcos Briones took Ysidora Tapia as his bride on September 27, 1784, at Mission San Carlos.

The entry in the Matrimonios for Mission San Carlos, Monterey, reads: "Septembre 27, 1784, con la venia y beneplacito delos RR.PP, Ministros, de esta Misn, Y despues de haber obtenido licencia in scriptu del Sr. Governador Don Pedro Fages, Case Marcos Briones, 27, soldado de cuera, h.l. de Vicente Briones y de Maria Antonia de Padron, ya difunta, originarios de San Luis Potosi, with Maria Isidora Tapia, h.l. de Phelipe Santiago Tapia y Ma. Philomena Hernandez, ya difta. Originarios de Culiacan, su padre vecino del Pueblo de San Jose. Tts. Juan Franco Reyes, s.c. y Jose Anto. Buelna, s.c. Fr. Antonio Paterna."

Marcos Briones and his wife, Ysidora, and their children are listed in the 1790 Padron (Census) of Monterey. Marcos is listed as age 29, from San Luis Potosi, married to Ysidora Tapia, age 19, with three sons, ages 5, 3, and 1. Marcos and Ysidora ultimately became the parents of thirteen children-–all baptized in the church. Their children are: Josef Antonio Ma. Briones (my family’s ancestor); Jose Briones; Ygnacio Vicente Briones; Felipe Santiago Briones; Maria Aguada (Agatha) Briones; Maria de la Luz Briones (twin); Juana Gertrudes Briones (twin); Diego Maria Briones; Maria Raymunda de la Soledad Briones; Gregorio Briones; Maria Guadalupe Briones; Juana Briones; and Maria Epiciaca Briones.

During the course of their marriage and as members of the military, Marcos and Ysidora and their children were sent on tours of duty to various missions and pueblos within the jurisdiction of their main Presidio at Monterey. While they were on assignment at Mission San Antonio de Padua, three of their sons, Jose Antonio Briones, Jose Vicente Briones, and Phelipe Santiago Briones were baptized there on July 19, 1790; Padrino was Gabriel Antonio Moraga.

Marcos Briones’ sister, Guadalupe Briones, had married Juan Maria Olivera, a Soldado de Cuera from the San Diego Presidio, on September 12, 1781 at Mission San Gabriel. This couple was blessed with many children and were godparents to numerous babies. For special occasions, Guadalupe and her family traveled north to Monterey to visit her father, Vicente Briones, and her brother, Marcos, and his family. Guadalupe Briones died May 19, 1848, and is buried at the Santa Barbara Mission.

Saturday, January 27, 2007



The Villa de Branciforte - Santa Cruz
by Lorraine Frain


The Mission at Santa Cruz in Alta California had been founded on August 28, 1791. A few years later, another pueblo, the Villa de Branciforte, was founded on July 24, 1797, by Governor Diego de Borica of California on orders of Viceroy the Marques de Branciforte. This was the third pueblo established by the Spanish, and was named to honor Miguel de la Grua Talamanca, the Marques de Branciforte, then Viceroy of Nueva Espana (Mexico). The Villa de Branciforte was located just across the San Lorenzo River from Mission Santa Cruz. The Villa was established to colonize and defend Alta California against England, France, and Russia, and was eventually populated by retired soldiers and nine families from Guadalajara, Nueva Espana. By the Year 1798, Marcos Briones was an invalido (retired soldier from the Presidio at Monterey), and his wife, Ysidora Tapia, and their children were vecinos (residents) of the Villa de Branciforte. Several of the Briones children were born there between 1800 and 1806, many years after the older children had been born at the Presidio at Monterey and possibly at Mission San Luis Obispo.

Marcos Briones was Branciforte comisionado in 1811-1812. Life at the Villa was exciting, but everyone had to work very hard to grow the crops and the food. The men were out in the fields and on the open range caring for the livestock and cattle. Quite often, the cattle were slaughtered, their hides tanned and meat cured. The women at the Villa were expected to do much of the work in the home and in the community. They cared for the children, maintained the house and yard, as well as the gardens, orchards, and sometimes the wheat and oat crops. Native American servants were kept to assist the Dona (the lady of the house). Ysidora Tapia de Briones empowered her children and encouraged them to be the best that they could be and to assume their responsibility in the family and in the community. Without a doubt, Ysidora Tapia de Briones was the Mother of the Briones Clan in Alta California. She was always there for her children and her husband, nurturing and caring for them. Several of her children became prominent citizens in Alta California. Ysidora Tapia de Briones died in Branciforte in the Year 1812. According to some recently discovered data, Marcos Briones most likely resided at El Polin Springs in San Francisco in 1813 with his daughters Luz, Juana, and Guadalupe Briones de Miramontes.

Marcos Briones, now a widower, frequently traveled up and down the Coast of Alta California, stopping at El Pueblo de San Jose, Mission San Juan Bautista, San Gabriel Mission, and El Pueblo de Los Angeles, where he was involved as a witness to baptisms and weddings. Marcos Briones died in 1841, and is buried at Mission San Carlos de Monterey, California.

In spite of the fact that the Villa de Branciforte was colonized to keep out foreigners from settling in the area, it was reported that in 1815, Jose Bolcoff, a Russian from Kamchatka, had left his whaling ship in Monterey Bay and had never returned to it. Don Jose Bolcoff settled in Branciforte and married Candida Castro and became a naturalized Mexican citizen. He was well liked by everyone who knew him and he was elected Alcade of Branciforte in 1833.

The Villa de Branciforte was annexed to the City of Santa Cruz in 1905, and is known today as East Santa Cruz. At the present time, concerned citizens are proceeding with plans to secure and preserve the Villa as an historic site. Evidence exists that prove that the Spanish and Native Americans did indeed inhabit and co-exist in this location.

The Children of Marcos Briones and Ysidora Tapia

Several of Marcos Briones’ and Ysidora Tapia’s thirteen children became successful land owners and pillars of the community who played an important role in the colonization and development of Alta California. There was Jose Antonio Briones who married Demetria Ramirez y Quijada in Santa Barbara in 1817 and there began my mother’s maternal lineage; Juana Briones; Gregorio Briones; Felipe Santiago Briones; and Maria Guadalupe Briones.

Juana Briones, one of the younger daughters of Ysidora Tapia and Marcos Briones, was born at the Villa de Branciforte, Santa Cruz County, in about 1802. After her mother, Ysidora, died in 1812, Juana went to live with her sisters in San Francisco. Juana married Apolinario Miranda on May 14, 1820, at Mission Dolores in San Francisco. Juana and Apolinario lived in Yerba Buena, now San Francisco, and were the parents of eleven children; however, three of their little daughters died in the Year 1828. On October 5, 1997, the Women’s Heritage Museum, and the Bay Area Network of Latinas dedicated a plaque in honor of Juana Briones for her many contributions as a humanitarian, a healer, and as a business woman. The plaque is located at Washington Square Park, North Beach, San Francisco, and is California Registered Historical Landmark No. 1024. In the 1840s, with proceeds from her own money, Juana Briones purchased the Rancho La Purisima Concepcion in an area encompassing Los Altos Hills and Palo Alto in the Santa Clara Valley. Juana’s adobe home was built on that land in about 1844 and she and her children lived there until Juana became too aged to continue ranching. In those days, prior to statehood, who would have ever envisioned that these pastoral lands would one day become the beehive of the Silicon Valley that it has become. Today, 162 years later, part of Juana’s adobe home is still standing there, high on a knoll, bordered by Arastadero Road and Foothill Express Way, overlooking San Francisco Bay. This precious treasure of a house is in jeopardy of being demolished within the next couple of years due to lack of funds to buy the house from its current owners. A group of concerned citizens in the Santa Clara Valley are working with the community and the Office of Historic Preservation in Sacramento to keep the house as an historic site. No doubt, this old house could be converted into a park-like setting to house a museum and an educational center which would be a very popular tourist attraction, as it represents an era of early California, so rich in history and of life prior to the 21st Century in the San Francisco Bay Area. Juana’s adobe house was designated State Registered Landmark #524 in 1954. That year, the Daughters of the American Colonists commemorated that honor by placing a plaque on the house. The City of Palo Alto placed the house on its historic inventory in 1986.

Gregorio Briones, vecino from Branciforte, the youngest son of Ysidora Tapia and Marcos Briones, married Ramona Garcia Romero on February 11, 1822, at Mission Dolores in San Francisco. Gregorio Briones became the grantee of 8,911.34 acres of land, named Rancho Las Baulenes in 1846. Gregorio’s son, Pablo Briones became a successful doctor and practiced in Bolinas in the East Bay. In 1977, Pablo’s daughter, Rose Briones was 94 years of age when she gave an interesting interview about her family who had lived in the Bolinas area in the early 1900s. Rose lived to the age of 100 years (1883-1983). Many of this family’s documents have been preserved and can be seen at the Bolinas Museum.

Felipe Santiago Briones was baptized in 1790 at Mission San Antonio de Padua, and in 1810 he married young Maria Manuela Valencia at the Mission in Santa Clara. The Briones Regional Park came about as the result of Felipe Briones’ land grant. Felipe had been a soldier at the Presidio in San Francisco and in 1829, he and his family settled on the Contra Costa County lands. There he built a home for his wife, Dona Maria Manuela Valencia and their many children. Felipe applied for a land grant from the Mexican government. In the Year 1839, Felipe joined a posse that chased and overtook some local inhabitants who were accused of stealing horses somewhere in the neighborhood of Clayton. There was a fierce battle and Felipe was hit by an arrow and was fatally wounded. Don Felipe’s widow, Dona Maria Manuela Valencia de Briones, pursued the matter of the land grant. In 1842, she won title to 13,353 acres of land, named Rancho Boca de la Canada del Pinole, popularly known as Rancho San Felipe.

Maria Guadalupe Briones married Juan Jose Candelario Miramontes in about 1808. Juan Jose Candelario Miramontes was born about 1789 in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Nueva Espana (Mexico)and was the son of Jose Antonio Miramontes and Victoria de Luna. Maria Guadalupe Briones was born about 1793 at Monterey, Alta California. Candelario Miramontes and Guadalupe made their home in San Francisco and were the parents of eighteen children. Candelario and Guadalupe and their children left San Francisco in the mid-1840s and relocated to Half Moon Bay where they became successful land owners. Maria Guadalupe Briones de Miramontes died about 1901 at the age of 108 years at Half Moon Bay, San Mateo County, California. As a result of my membership in the Los Californianos Organization, over the years I have had the distinct honor and pleasure of meeting some of the descendants of this fine Miramontes family–they are truly beautiful people.

The following message is from Jeanne Farr McDonnell, member of the Juana Briones Heritage Foundation, and member of Los Californianos Organization--with her permission:


"Some of you are new to this request, some of you have responded many times before, but time is running short, and in whatever way you can, please let the powers-that-be know that letting go of a house constructed in the 1840s by "the most prominent woman of Hispanic California" according to historian J. N. Bowman, is unacceptable.


This is a situation where a judge has ruled that the City neglected to tend its responsibilities in regard to the Mills Act and therefore the owners should have the right to demolish. Ironically, a judge told the town of Woodside officials that they had been incorrect in issuing a demolition permit for a house Steve Jobs wants to tear down, but in the Juana Briones House case, the judge is saying that demolition should be possible because the City of Palo Alto didn't attend carefully enough to what owners were doing with the property.


It is to me an emergency in which any help is needed. The best thing would be to write to the Mayor and City Council   Palo Alto City Hall  250 Hamilton Avenue  Palo Alto 94306."

Jeanne Farr McDonnell #1738 [Historian Member]
1509 Portola Avenue
Palo Alto CA 94306
650 321 5260

Submitted by:  Lorraine Frain


"Statue ceremony to kick off Duarte's 50th year" 
By Emanuel Parker Staff Writer
San Garbiel Valley Tribune.

"DUARTE - Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger will be invited to a March 31 ceremony in Duarte where a statue will be dedicated to the city's namesake. 

The Andres Avelino Duarte equestrian statue will be dedicated at 1 p.m. on a site across the street from Duarte City Hall, 1600 Huntington Drive, said Mary Barrow, a city spokeswoman. 

Duarte (1805-1863) was a Spanish soldier who guarded local Spanish missions. He later received a land grant, and between 1841 and 1862, owned a ranch that encompassed what is now Duarte, Bradbury, Monrovia, Arcadia, Azusa, Baldwin Park and Irwindale. 

In addition to the governor, Barrow said city officials and historical society members from those cities will be invited to attend the dedication. 

The bronze statue, cast in China, stands more than 12 feet tall and weighs 2 tons. It depicts Duarte as a rancher astride his horse, and was created by Glendora sculptor Richard Myer. 

Plans call for the site that will house the statue to one day be a plaza with a fountain, grass and benches, with the statue as its centerpiece, Barrow said. 

The Duarte in Bronze committee, an offshoot of the Duarte Historical Society headed by Claudia Heller and Jim Kirchner, began campaigning a few years ago to raise money for the statue. The committee raised about $21,000. Last March, that was supplemented with $109,000 from the Duarte Redevelopment Agency. 

Residents got their first look at the statue Sept. 16 during the annual Route 66 Parade down Huntington Drive. 

The March 31 dedication also will kick off Duarte's yearlong 50th anniversary celebration, whose theme is "Young at Heart." 
(626) 578-6300, Ext. 4475

Lorraine Frain

A CD, "Duarte, A Tale of a City" , featuring Victoria Duarte Cordova is available. Please contact Lorraine Frain who has offered to make it available anyone who would like to view it. 


Please send info on upcoming events to: Mike Ford, 2123 Brutus St, Salinas, CA 93906 or phone (831) 262-7393 or Email 

Through MARCH:
Exhibition of paintings, "Manuel Valencia: California's Native Son" 
Hearst Gallery, St Mary's College, 1928 St Mary's Rd, Moraga
He was a direct descendant of Anza Expedition members Jose Manuel Valencia & Maria de la Luz Munoz. More info? (925) 631-4379
(Next stop, San Jose. McKay Gallery, Pasetta House, History Park.

Through APRIL 22:
Exhibition of paintings & etchings, "Romance of the Bells", 
depicting the California Missions (courtesy The Irvine Museum), 
at Hudson Museum, Ukiah. 
To arrange group tour, (707) 467-2836 or 

4th Los Fundadores genealogy room and museum open
1:00 - 4:00 at Headen-Inman Historic House,
1509 Warburton Ave, Santa Clara 

10th Golden Gate National Park programs:
Presidio of San Francisco
10 am - at Crissy Field Center (Mason & Halleck)
(415) 561-7752 
"History Comes Alive With Juana Briones"
a walk with Ranger Fatima Colindres
Fee: $8/family of 3 ($4 each additional); includes 
tortilla making. (Similar program in Spanish 3/4.)
1 pm - at Presidio Officer's Club (Moraga at Arguello)
(415) 561-4323 
"El Presidio de San Francisco" by Ranger Marcus Combs
Designed for children learning about California history.

25th Society for California Archaeology's Public Day
2 pm at Doubletree Hotel, San Jose
Hands-on activity booths, costumed interpreters, videos etc. to
educate the public about California's past and its people.
For all ages.
Liz Clevenger 
or David Cohen 

28th Alliance of Monterey Area Preservationists
Annual Meeting, 7 pm, All Saints Church, Carmel
"Monterey Peninsula's Mysterious Past" by Gary Breschini

29th Hayward Area Historical Society, Downtown Museum
Panel discussion on Native/Spanish contact, 
featuring Margaret Styles, National Park Service.
Gina Diaz, Ed Dir, (510) 581-0223 or 

31st Mission San Buenaventura Founding Day
225th Anniversary - 10 am, Re-enactment of the founding, 
with Franciscans, Spanish soldiers and Chumash villagers.
Procession begins at the mission common and ends at the church.

31st Dedication of Duarte statue, 1 pm in Duarte,
600 Huntington Dr (across from City Hall). 12 ft tall bronze:
Andres Duarte (1805-1863) Spanish soldier & ranchero.
His land grant encompassed what is now Duarte, Bradbury,
Monrovia, Arcadia, Azusa, Baldwin Park and Irwindale.
Glendora sculptor Richard Myer depicted Duarte astride a horse; it was cast in China. Viva, Andres! (626) 578-6300 x4475 or


Mujeres Valientes
Albuquerque's El Vado Motel Saved
Stealing from the Dead
March 10th, Book signing: Aquí Se Comienza: 
A Genealogical History of the Founding Families of La Villa de San Felipe de Alburquerque.
Funds dispersed to homesteaders in New Mexico

Mujeres Valientes

A Musical Journey in History

Saturday, March 10th 8 pm
Sunday, March 11th 2 pm

National Hispanic 
Cultural Center

ABQ Journal theater



Leila Flores and Caroll Virgil are the "Las Flores del Valle," a dynamic dueto with the ability to connect traditional sons toa contemporary audience.  Come and enjoy Las Flores y compania as they take the audience on a journey of music, history, dance, and compelling images to celebrate amazing women who have made history in the southwest.  borderlands.
In this show the artists and a cast of 25 narrate, sing, dance, and act out heroic stories of solderas or soldier women whose efforts in the Mexican Revolution (1910-1921) was captured in famous songs such as "La Adelita" and "La Rielera". The story line also travels north and honors contemporary Latinas who embody the spirit of heroic presence on the US side of the border.

Leila Flores-Dueñas, Ph. D.
University of New Mexico
College of Education
Associate Professor
Hokona Hall 211
Albuquerque, NM 87131
(505) 254-8317

Albuquerque's El Vado Motel Saved
Story by Margaret Foster / Feb. 7, 2007  Sent by

Albuquerque, N.M.
Albuquerque named the National Register-listed El Vado a city landmark last year. (Frederick F.
Porter, AIA)

After years of debate, a Route 66 motel in Albuquerque can't be torn down for townhouses, the city ruled last month.

The city's landmarks and urban conservation commission voted 4-2 to deny a certificate of appropriateness for demolition to the owner of the El Vado Motel, built in 1937. Owner Richard Gonzales wants to build townhouses on the site and told the Albuquerque Journal he will appeal the commission's Jan. 10 decision.

The El Vado Motel was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993 and was named a city landmark last year, at the request of Mayor Marty Chavez.

"I want the building preserved," Chavez says. "It's a really prominent architectural feature for Albuquerque."

Gonzales listed the El Vado for sale last year for $3.4 million and later lowered the asking price to $2.4 million. According to a city-commissioned appraisal, the property is worth $574,000.

Under city law, a demolition rejection invokes a one-year demolition delay. In a year, the city council will rule on the El Vado Motel's future. According to the city's ordinance, the council can approve demolition only if the owner will suffer economically.

Some of the El Vado's neighbors have been torn down: The 1959 Western Skies Motel fell in 1988, and condos replaced the 1958 Zia Motor Lodge five years ago. City council also approved the demolition of several other Route 66 motels, including the Horn Oil Company gas station and motel, which a developer replaced with townhouses.

"We've been preserving some, tearing some down," Chavez says of the city's Route 66 motels.

Chavez says city officials have been brainstorming about a new use for the Pueblo-style motel. "One of the ideas we're throwing around is a neon museum," he says. The museum could display some of Route 66's salvaged neon signs, Chavez says. "It would be almost like a drive-through museum."

Last month the National Trust urged the landmarks commission to deny Gonzales' request, pointing out that he could use tax credits to rehabilitate the El Vado. "To allow demolition of this historic resource would not only destroy a local landmark and remove a contributing building in a National Register district," wrote Daniel Carey, director of the Trust's Southwest Office, in a letter dated Dec. 20, 2006, "it would lessen the integrity of the tout ensemble of the entire length of Route 66."


Stealing from the Dead
by Crystal Gutierrez, Feb 6, 200 MST

High–priced bronze attracting robbers to Dona Ana County.

The robbers are targeting local cemeteries. But it's not typical cemetery vandalism. There are no broken headstones or broken statues.
Instead robbers are stealing from the dead.

Three-hundred bronze vases have been stolen in one year from three local cemeteries.

Some may believe that it is a new type of organized crime. But some recycling plant owners say its just petty theft. They say to recycle bronze metal, the thief will only make about $1 per pound. With each vase typically weighing two to three pounds, one thief would have to steal and recycle thousands of vases to feel any value in his wallet.

The recent string in thefts has more and more cemeteries on alert. Some have even chosen to not replace the vases until the thefts stop.

In the past the cemetery owners have been forced to swallow the replacement cost. The hefty price weighs in at $300 per vase. A hefty price for a small-value crime.

Sent by Connie Rodriguez ConnieCPU who writes: 

"I wonder if this is also happening in our cemeteries in California ... my relatives buried at Calvary Cemetery in Los Angeles have also had this type of vandalism .. even a few of the Christmas decorations I left there were taken during the past holiday decorating season ... to me "stealing from the dead" is despicable.
We need to remember and honor our "antepasados"! "

March 10th, Book signing: Aquí Se Comienza: A Genealogical History of the Founding Families of La Villa de San Felipe de Alburquerque.

Happy Birthday, Alburquerque!
300 years 1706 - 2006

For anyone who has roots in Alburquerque, The New Mexico Genealogical Society is publishing “Aquí Se Comienza, A Genealogical History of the Founding Families of La Villa de San Felipe de Alburquerque.”  A book signing will be held for the release on Saturday, March 10th, 2007, 1:30 - 4:30 pm, Special Collections Library, Botts Hall, 423 Central NE, Albuquerque, NM. 
Further information about this book go to:
Hardback book (Limited edition) : Publication anticipated in late summer of 2006. An estimated 600 pages at $80 per book.  Pre-orders are being taken now, with a $40 deposit on the anticipated price of $80. Be sure to include your email address and/or street address so that we may contact you when your book is ready. Sent by Send to NMGS, P.O. Box 8283, Albuquerque, NM 87198-8283.

Thursday, March 1, 2007 
Headline News: . The online News Source for Los Alamos
Sent by Dorinda Moreno 

Funds dispersed to homesteaders in New Mexico
Bad feelings remain from 60-year grievance
ROGER SNODGRASS Monitor Assistant Editor 

More than 60 years after they lost their lands to the U.S. government for a secret project in the mountains of New Mexico, heirs of Hispanic homesteaders who claimed their property was taken improperly are beginning to receive compensation.

Sen. Pete Domenici's office announced Tuesday that a down payment of $4.7 million would be dispersed immediately to 394 claimants, to be followed by another 97 payments on Friday. 

The payments range upwards from a few hundred dollars to $100,000, the result of efforts by three generations of aggrieved property-owners, Hispanic activists and determined individuals who battled the U.S. government for recognition of what they considered in many cases, the theft of their land.

Domenici's announcement said the payments are being distributed through the NNSA Oak Ridge Payment Center from the Pajarito Plateau fund, a $10 million account the senator arranged to be added to the Department of Energy's Budget two years ago. 

A spokesman in Domenici's office said the disbursement was further delayed in "working out who got what."  "It was quite an intricate formula," said Matt Letourneau, the senator's deputy press secretary. "They had to factor in not just land, but livestock." 

The funds are intended to settle the claims of Hispanic homesteaders who were removed or whose property interest was purchased by the Corps of Engineers to make way for the facility, known first as Project Y, that became Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Charges of forced removal, underhanded and heavy-handed tactics and discriminatory treatment toward the Hispanic farmers have embittered some of the participants of the controversial land seizures that followed the attack on Pearl Harbor and the entrance of the U.S. into World War II.

Although the list of claimants and the amounts that were paid were not disclosed by the Department of Energy, it seems likely that few of the original claimants survived to see their settlement payments.

Jose Gonzalez, a World War II veteran, one of the last surviving named plaintiffs who lived in El Rancho, died last week, said Joe Gutierrez, a program leader in renewable energy at the laboratory.

He also mentioned the Gomez brothers, who were born and raised and resided on the Pajarito Plateau all of their lives until they were evicted.

"Unfortunately, they passed away before they saw justice," Gutierrez said.

Gutierrez was the guiding force of the Homesteader Association that began a concerted push for justice while current N.M. Gov. Bill Richardson was Secretary of Energy.

Richardson, and all the politicians rebuffed their efforts, Gutierrez said.

Chuck Montano, a former head of the Hispanic Round Table, said he became involved in the dispute as an outgrowth of laboratory lay-offs in 1995 that were seen as discriminatory toward Hispanics and ultimately settled in court.

Of the homesteader settlement, he said, "It's long overdue."

He agreed that little came from Richardson's promises to help at the time, and that "forced the homesteaders to take the congressional route."

Gutierrez said and news reports in 2000 confirmed that then-Sec. Richardson offered the homesteaders a parcel of laboratory land for a monument to the Hispanic settlers and other assistance.

"I looked at it," said Gutierrez. "It was unusable - wetlands, the skating rink - a place where the sun doesn't shine." It was the land through which the bypass road is now planned.

Guitierrez said he has the whole history documented and plans to write a book.

"We got shortchanged in 1942. We got shortchanged again with this settlement," he said. 


Moreno Wedding Photos
Libros Latinos catalog: African Americans in Latin America
DNA Research
Frank Snowden; Major Scholar of Blacks in Antiquity

In celebration of African-American Month, Dorinda Moreno shared these wedding family photos. Below Dorinda stands with daughter-in-law, Yanina  Ibarguen Gladden, and son Andre Moreno Gladden   

Dorinda with hat, back table right to left, new daughter-in-law, Yanina  Ibarguen Gladden, daughter Rose Rodriguez Gabaldon, son-in-law Ricardo Gabaldon, son Andre Moreno Gladden, son-in-law John Williams, and grandaughter, apples-of-our-eyes, Lela Gabaldon, kindergarten teacher and danzante maestra ballet folkorico... second daughter, Cyn-d Rodriguez Williams, taking picture.


In commemoration of Black History Month we are pleased to send this brief but interesting catalogue of our holdings of books on African Americans in Latin America and the Caribbean, 351 Items. In addition we are sending a second link to our recently acquired Dominican Republic Books. These books cover all fields including anthropology, history, literature, religion, art, etc. We invite you to peruse our holdings. 

The Dominican Republic Catalog: 

Finally we would like to call attention to our web site where you can download our past catalogues and a fast search engine where you can search our extensive inventory. 

Alfonso Vijil 
P.O.Box 1103
Redlands, CA 92373
Tel. 909-793-8423  Fax. 909-335-9945
Website:  Email:

Projects to help people locate their African homelands:
Compiled by Aaron L. Day
Information distributed at 5th Annual African American Family History Conference, 2/24/07

The African American DNA Project-The University of Mississippi Lowell

African Ancestry DNA Project

Relative Genetics, Y-Line-Surname Project

Family Tree DNA Project

DNA Consultants Project

Frank Snowden; Major Scholar of Blacks in Antiquity
By Adam Bernstein, Washington Post, February 22, 2007; B07
Sent by Rudoloph Lewis

Frank M. Snowden Jr., 95, a Howard University classicist for almost 50 years whose research into blacks in ancient Greece and Rome opened a new field of study, died Feb. 18 at the Grand Oaks assisted living home in Washington. He had congestive heart failure.


Cherokee Wisdom
Book: Scalped
The Nahuatl language
Protein Linked To Elevated BMI In People Of American Indian 
    and Mexican Ancestry 

One evening an old Cherokee told his grandson 
about a battle that goes on inside people.  He said, 
"My son, The battle is between two 'wolves' inside us all.

One is Evil.  
It is anger, envy, jealousy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, 
resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority and ego.

The other is Good.   
It is joy, peace, love, hope, serenity, humility, kindness, benevolence,
empathy, generosity, truth, compassion and faith."

The grandson thought about it for a minute
and then asked his grandfather,

"Which wolf wins?"  

The old Cherokee simply replied, "The one you feed."

Sent by Gerald Frost

Extract: 'Scalped' reviewed by 
By Robert Morast
Published: February 8, 2007

Sometimes the comfort of fiction is that the story's sensationalized plotlines are traced over a world far away from us. Written by a white, stay-at-home dad in Kansas, Jason Aaron, "Scalped" is a violent crime drama scripted on the Prairie Rose Indian Reservation. "Scalped" shows a sensationalized view of a reservation coping with bureaucratic corruption, exploitation of land and the struggle between traditional values and contemporary habits.

"If the book helps to raise awareness about issues faced by Native Americans today, that's fantastic," Aaron says via e-mail. "But I didn't go into writing this book with some sort of agenda in mind. 'Scalped' is still meant to be an entertaining crime series, but hopefully a series with plenty of meat on its bones in terms of social relevance."

The comic succeeds in both respects with stark - and mature - images such as a corrupt casino owner sitting next to a man he just scalped or alcoholics crossing the border into Nebraska to buy some beer.

The scenes seem too real to come from a wasichu who's never even been to the Pine Ridge reservation - which served as a model to Aaron's comic book setting. And I wonder if this cautionary thought is simply the byproduct of me working at a PC-conscious newspaper or the harbinger of skepticism to come. So I called Gabe Night Shield.

The Sioux Falls rapper grew up on the Rosebud reservation and is an avid comic book fan who lights up with excitement the rare times we talk about comics. When asked if Aaron's white skin and lack of first hand reservation experience bothers him, Night Shield says, "I don't care.

"I think it's cool. I went down and bought (the comic) as soon as I read about it," Night Shield says. "It's very rare that something like that has to do with Native Americans that's not stereotypical."

Robert Morast wants a guest appearance on "South Park." Morast can be reached at 331-2313 or

Monday, February 12, 2007
Spanish Word of the Day

náhuatl, noun
The Nahuatl language

Náhuatl is the indigenous Mexican language which was spoken by the Aztecs. It is an important minority language in Mexico and certain areas of Central America today. From the náhuatl words ‘tomatl’, ‘aguacatl’, ‘chilli’, ‘xocoatl’ and ‘coyotl’ Spanish inherited the words listed below:

el tomate: tomato
el aguacate: avocado
el chile: chilli pepper
el chocolate: chocolate
el coyote: coyote

The very first book to be printed on the American continent was a catechism in Náhuatl edited by a Franciscan monk and published in 1539. Today the language is spoken by about a million people in the central plateau of Mexico, and has equal legal status with Spanish. Spanish Word of the Day You are currently subscribed to

Protein Linked To Elevated BMI In People Of American Indian And Mexican Ancestry Discovered By U Of M

University of Minnesota researchers have discovered a variant of a common blood protein, apolipoprotein C1, in people of American Indian and Mexican ancestry that is linked to elevated body mass index (BMI), obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

The finding were published in the International Journal of Obesity.

Lead investigator Gary Nelsestuen, a professor in the College of Biological Sciences' department of biochemistry, said the abnormal protein may promote metabolic efficiency and storage of body fat when food is abundant. This could have provided a survival advantage to American Indians in the past when food was scarce. The discovery can be used to identify those who are at risk for diabetes and to guide diet and lifestyle choices to prevent diabetes.

Apolipoprotein C1 is a component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). HDL cholesterol is often referred to as good cholesterol, while LDL is called bad cholesterol. The common form of C1 tends to be found in the high-density protein complexes (HDL) that ferry cholesterol to storage depots in the body and are linked to lower cardiovascular disease risk. But the variant form of C1 tends to become part of low density protein complexes (LDL), which transport cholesterol to arterial walls and are associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, having the variant could tip the balance of cholesterol carriers and lead toward depletion of HDL-also a risk factor for heart disease. The variant differs from the normal protein by a single change in one of its 57 amino acids.

Among 1500 subjects from widely divergent genetic backgrounds, the variant was found in 35 of 228 persons with American Indian ancestry and in 10 of 84 persons with Mexican ancestry. The average body mass index (BMI) of persons with the variant protein was 9 percent higher and the diabetes rate 50 percent higher among study subjects and their parents. Parents were included because type 2 diabetes often doesn't appear until later in life.

Nelsestuen's next steps will be to expand the study to the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation in North Dakota and the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in South Dakota. "I hope that this discovery will ultimately lead to a Minnesota center for research on minority health issues that can deliver actual health benefits to these communities," Nelsestuen said.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno



The Sephardi Report
The American Founding Fathers and the Jews
Glimpses of Southern Jewish Roots

from the book above

The Jews were very early settlers in the Americas including in what was to become the US. They had mainly fled the Inquisition in Spain and Portugal. These were primarily Sephardic Jews that established strong communities mainly in the South. The first officially organized Jewish community was established through the founding of the Congregation Shearith Israel in 1654 by 23 Portuguese Jews that had arrived to New Amsterdam (New York). This congregation is vibrant till this day and now located on the Westside.

The early Christian settlers were also mainly religious refugees from an intolerant Europe. This may explain their surprisingly good acceptance of the Jews and the belief in separation of church and state, as well as complete freedom of religion.

Proof of the high regard of the Jews is best evidenced by the Founding Father's own words and actions.

John Adams, the Second President of the United States and perhaps one of the most instrumental early revolutionaries wrote:
"I will insist the Hebrews have [contributed] more to civilize men than any other nation. If I was an atheist and believed in blind eternal fate, I should still believe that fate had ordained the Jews to be the most essential instrument for civilizing the nations. They are the most glorious nation that ever inhabited this Earth. The Romans and their empire were but a bubble in comparison to the Jews. They have given religion to three-quarters of the globe and have influenced the affairs of mankind more and more happily than any other nation, ancient or modern." -From a letter to F. A. Van der Kemp [Feb. 16,1808] Penn. Historical Society

Alexander Hamilton - In Ron Chernow's biography he describes Hamilton's childhood being educated in a Sephardic Jewish School, and taught Hebrew, on the Island of St. Nevis, his birthplace (p. 17). As an adult Alexander Hamilton held a remarkably favorable (and little known) view of Jews.

He wrote: "the progress of the Jews.. .from the earliest history to the present time has been and is entirely out of the ordinary course of human affairs. Is it not then a fair conclusion that the cause also is an extra ordinary one in other words that it is the effect of some great providential plan?"

George Washington, while campaigning with Thomas Jefferson for passage of the Bill of Rights, wrote a letter to the leader of the Touro Synagogue (the oldest in the country) and Congregation in Newport, Rhode Island. In the letter he wrote "May the children of the stock of Abraham who dwell in the land continue to merit and enjoy the goodwill of the other inhabitants.

While everyone shall sit safely under his own vine and fig-tree and there shall be none to make him afraid."To bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance". He added that the idea that tolerance is not "the indulgence of one class of people"'but "inheherent natural rights."

Hayim Solomon has been honored and named a Founding father with a US stamp and has been placed alone next to George Washington in statues with the title "Founding Fathers". Hayim Solomon single handedly funded most of George Washington's private army during the revolution and when his funds ran out he secured more funds from the Jewish communities in the South. 

Thomas Jefferson is deservedly a hero to American Jewry. He fervently championed equal political rights for Jews. In 1820, Jefferson wrote to the Charleston Jewish physician, Dr. Jacob De La Motto, "Religious freedom is the most effectual anodyne against religious dissension." Jefferson told De La Mono that he was delighted to see American Jews assuming full social rights and hoped "they will be seen taking their seats on the benches of science as preparatory to their doing the same at the board of government".

Jefferson's most notable achievement in establishing religious and civic toleration for American Jewry was his 1779 Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom in Virginia. Adopted in 1785, the Bill proclaimed: "No man sW/oe compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced- restrained, molested or burthened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer, on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess ...their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in no wise... affect their civil capacities."

Two years later, in 1787, the citizens of the United States adopted the Constitution. Article VI contains the following, Jefferson-inspired, phrase: "No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States."

Thomas Jefferson was greatly admired by the Jews and his home, Monticello, which was in great disrepair at his death, was acquired by the Levy family. It was restored thanks to Jewish fundraising and ultimately donated to the American people. Together with Mr. and Mrs. Jefferson, Mr. and Mrs. Levy are also buried there.

The Franklin "Prophecy", a classic anti-Semitic canard that falsely claims that American statesman Benjamin Franklin made anti-Jewish statements during the Constitutional Convention of 1787, has found widening acceptance in the Muslim and Arab media, where it has been used to criticize Israel and Jews in news articles and statements. It has long been dismissed by American historians as the creation of on American Nazi sympathizer in the early 1930s. The fact that anti-Semitism was foreign to Franklin's behavior has been substantially documented by eminent historians and there is "positive evidence" that Franklin held Jews in high regard, citing the instance when the Hebrew Society of Philadelphia sought to raise money for a synagogue in Philadelphia. Franklin signed he petition of appeal for contributions to "citizens of every religious denomination"' and gave 5 pounds himself to the fund.


True stories of Jewish pioneers in early Florida ---- their life lessons ...
For 22 years Juliene collected and wrote down stories about the early Jewish immigrants in the South--her family was among the pioneer Jewish settlers of Florida--and the life of her grandparents in Europe as well.  

What life was like for the early Jews in Florida. Stories of real people who settled there as they struggled to adapt and make this new place their home. And a separate section comprised of 12 vignettes in the singular voice of Yankel, one of those early pioneers, who bears witness to the goings on that astound and enchant him in his new country.


Sent by Janete Vargas 


110th George Washington Parade photos
Historians tout Spanish in Revolution
First discovery of oil in the United States was in Benavides, Texas
Spanish Missions in Texas
History of the Month Book Club, March 14th and 16th
The José L. Castillo Photo Collection 
March 4th Texas Tejanos: The 1835-1836 Revolution, Original Play
Genealogy of Dionicio & Concepcion De La Garza
Tejano Battle of Medina Memorial Service, April 14, 2007
Podcast of Tejano Leadership in Mexican and Revolutionary Texas 
The National Tejano Genealogy Conference, Sept 13-15 2007, Austin 
News from Texas


110th Annual George Washington Parade, February 17, 2007, Laredo, Texas
Texas Connection to the American Revolution

Editor: What a fun adventure.  I thoroughly enjoyed participating in this happening!!  The streets were lined for miles and miles, in some place 6 feet deep, with many sitting on the tops of cars, or hanging out of windows.  It was a two-day commitment for members of TCARA, pulling the float down Friday to be at able to be at our specified parking space by eight o'clock Saturday morning, float ready to go.  The morning was cold, but warmed comfortably by the time the parade started.

What impressed me was the youthfulness of the majority of the participants, dance studios, drill teams, bands, Boy Scouts, Schools, ROTC, and a variety of organizations.
The photo on the right is an Indian princess who participated in a Pocohantas annual event.  She is surrounded by girls from a school in Mexico.  Numerous Mexican bands participate annually.

Another annual event during this month of festivities is the competitive Princesses whose dresses can run as high as 20-30 thousand dollars.  Some floats were huge, others small.

Thanks to Jack Cowan we had a comfortable float. It was really encouraging when people would read the side of the float, Texas Connection to the American Revolution and then cheer, when they got it!!  Puzzled expressions on the faces of some indicated that they did not.  Suzie Cowan attaches one of the side banners.

Rosemarie La Penta waits on the float.
We were number 142 of 150 groups.

These two floats express the variety of locomotion and agencies, businesses involved, Border Patrol and Wells Fargo. I was wondering about how the Border Patrol would be greeted. . they were cheered. 

TCARA float below, you can't see me, I was in the back enjoying waving to everyone.


Historians tout Spanish in Revolution

Web Posted: 02/18/2007 10:23 PM CST
Published in the San Antonio Express-News: 02/19/2007
Laura E. Jesse

Flip to the index of an American history book and chances are you'll find myriad references to the American Revolution. There's also a chance you won't find much about the contributions of Texans, the Spanish or Bernardo de Gálvez to the success of the colonial American troops.

Fresh from Laredo's celebration of George Washington's birthday, two groups of historians gathered Sunday to talk about advances they are making in raising the awareness of the Hispanic contribution to all aspects of this country's history.

"Latinos have no presence in history books — they don't know that we exist," said Mimi Lozano, author and editor of Somos Primos, an online newsletter dedicated to Hispanic heritage. "So 20 years ago, I started looking into promoting our history in a positive way."

Lozano, a Canary Island descendant who lives in California, is a board member of the Texas Connection to the American Revolution Association, a local group dedicated to honoring the heritage of people who contributed to the formation of America, particularly that of Gálvez, Galveston's namesake.

"Historians are starting to realize that without the Spanish we wouldn't have become the country we are," Lozano said.

Gálvez was the Spanish governor of the Louisiana province during the American Revolution. Before Spain's official declaration of war on the British in 1779, Gálvez helped the American troops by securing the port of New Orleans so French, American and Spanish boats could have exclusive use of the Mississippi River.

When it was time for Gálvez to amass troops to fight the British along the Gulf Coast, he enlisted free and enslaved African Americans, Creoles, American Indians and his own Spanish troops. Realizing he would need to feed the men, he sent a messenger to Texas Gov. Domingo Cabello y Robles requesting longhorn cattle.

This is Texas' biggest link to the Revolution, said Joel Escamilla, governor of Granaderos y Damas de Gálvez, an organization founded in 1975 with a mission parallel to that of TCARA.

Over three years, between 10,000 and 15,000 cattle were driven northeast to Nacogdoches and then into Louisiana. The cattle came from Spanish ranches along the San Antonio River, including from mission ranches in San Antonio, said Robert Thonhoff, author of several books about Texas and Spanish colonial history.

Soldiers from San Antonio de Bexar accompanied the cattle, which provided a walking commissary for Gálvez's troops, who eventually secured British forts in the Louisiana towns of Manchac and Baton Rouge; Natchez, Miss.; and Fort Charlotte at Mobile, Ala.

"So while the British were eating porridge or whatever they had, Gálvez's troops had Texas beef," Escamilla said.

Lila Guzmán co-authored a series of three young-adult books with her husband, Rick, to highlight the history of Gálvez and the Revolution, using a fictional character named Lorenzo Bannister.

Guzmán said that when she travels to schools to talk about the books and teach the history, she is often met with bewilderment.

"We are covering completely virgin territory," she said of the series. "My emphasis is to get this into the schools. I went to Baton Rouge schools, and they didn't even know about Gálvez."

Jack Cowan, president of TCARA, said the important thing is that history be inclusive of all groups.

"If we don't have inclusiveness in our history, we can't possibly learn to live together."


Article from the SAGA online newsletter where the first discovery of oil was made.
Small Town History, Benavides, Texas
Sarah Canales interview with Adolfo R. Barrera. 

President Sara Duenas Flores
1st VP Fred Martinez
2nd VP O.B. Garcia
Secretary Norma Greer
Treasurer Lillie Johnson

SAGA meets on the first Thursday of each month at 6:00 p.m. at the Corpus
Christi Central Library. Direct any inquiries to President Flores at or 
361-993-1922 or 361-876-8860.

"Spanish Missions in Texas," 

WHEN: March 3, 2007 at 9:30 am
WHERE: Central Library, 600 Soledad, San Antonio. First floor auditorium.
WHO: Hosted by Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society

WHAT: Lecture by Dr. Frank de la Teja.
Important role of the missions in the settlement of the Spanish borderlands. With a small group of government supported missionaries, mission complexes were an strong component in settling a land mass twenty-nine times larger than Spain.

Jesús F. de la Teja, Ph.D. Professor of author of San Antonio de Béxar: A Community on New Spain’s Northern Frontier (1995) and co-author of Texas: Crossroads of North America (2004), a college-level survey of the state’s history. He has published in Americas: A Quarterly of Inter-American Cultural History, Historia Mexicana, Journal of the Early Republic, and Southwestern Historical Quarterly among other journals. In addition to his research activities he has served as a consultant on development of the Texas State History Museum and serves as book review editor of the Southwestern Historical Quarterly and managing editor of Catholic Southwest: A Journal of History and Culture.

Sent by

History of the Month Club 
This club will have presentations and discussion of various historical. locations and time periods with an emphasis on Texas. Up coming meetings: 

Presidios & Missions of Texas. 
WHEN: Wednesday, March 14, 2007 at 6:30 pm.
WHERE: Forest Hills Branch Library, 5245 Ingram Rd., 431-2544
WHO: Hosted by the History of the Month Club

Events 1826-1835 leading up to the Battle of Bexar
WHEN: Friday, March 16, 2007 at 9:30am.
WHERE: Forest Hills Branch Library, 5245 Ingram Rd., 431-2544
WHO: Hosted by the History of the Month Club

The presentations and discussion will cover the Spanish Period Presidios and Missions located in the Geographic area of San Antonio. The presentation will be on the Presidios of Texas. origins, locations, and dates they were in service. 

We will hand out a free copy of a booklet containing lists of Presidios and locations. We will distribute copies of Revistas and plan further research . Refreshments will be served. Admission is free and Everyone is invited. For additional information, please call Larry Kirkpatrick at 431-2544

José L. Castillo Photo Collection 
Donated to the University of North Texas

On Friday, March 2, a ceremony was held to formally entrust
The José L. Castillo
Photo Collection
to the University of North Texas. The collection is massive, 2,800 photos taken between July 2004 and July 2006 of events in northern Texas. 

Amigos, quería aprovechar la oportunidad para invitarlos este viernes 2 de
marzo a una ceremonia en donde entregaré formalmente a la Universidad del
Norte de Texas (UNT) una colección de más de 2,800 fotografías de eventos
que se suscitaron entre julio del 2004 y julio del 2006.

Al parecer, la colección que será denominada The José L. Castillo
Collection, es la más grande jamás donada a una insttución pública o
académica en la historia del norte de Texas. Además, es la primera colección
donada en formato digital. Y, lo más gracioso de todo, es que seré la
primera persona en vida que done una colección de esa magnitud en esta parte
del estado.

Adjunto un comunicado de prensa de la Oficina de Comunicaciones de la UNT
(En formato WORD) y un link de un artículo que se publicó hoy en el Denton
Record Chronicle. OJO, en el artículo del Denton se afirma que yo soy el
único que va a esos eventos, y en realidad lo que dije fue que muchas veces
yo cubro eventos o escribo situaciones que nadie más hace. Por supuesto, me
pierdo muchos eventos que otros sí cubren. Una aclaración al respecto era

José L. Castillo
2805 Bainbridge Trail
Mansfield, TX 76063
PH: 817.453.3078

Learn more about EFE



Texas is proud to invite you all to the first public reading of our soon to premiere original play, TEXAS TEJANOS: THE 1835-1836 REVOLUTION, written and produced by Texas We encourage you all to mark your calendars for Sunday, March 4, 2007 as our players will transport you back in time to the early hours before the Texas Revolution to a gathering of some of the most important figures in Texas History as they debate their roles in the coming fight ... Navarro, Austin, Ruiz, Houston, De Zavala, Travis, Seguin, Bowie, Losoya and Esparza ... all the fabled names from Texas Lore will be brought to life at the Carver Community Cultural Center, in the Little Carver Theater (226 N. Hackberry) beginning at 6:30pm. We will be sending out an invitation to you in the coming weeks, but we encourage you to RSVP now (by replying to this E-mail) as seating is limited. We hope to see you all there for what promises to be a truly historic evening.

Viva Tejano Texas!  Eric Moreno  Publications, (210) 673-3584


You have been invited to view the FamilyTree web site:
 "Genealogy of Dionicio & Concepcion De La Garza". 

The link below will take you to the web site:

If you have any questions or concerns please send an email 
to Pat Trevino

The family lineage can be traced as far back as 1696; however, for practical reasons this website will begin with Dionicio and Concepcion De La Garza (aka Garza). Dionicio and Concepcion leave behind a legacy of historical significance not only to their descendants, but to the people of Texas. Because the pair left no journal or written memoirs about their lives we may never know the complete truth about how they truly lived their life. However, I will attempt to chronicle a small piece of their story in the limited space provided by utilizing the historical evidence which I have gathered throughout the past sixteen years. Dionicio De La Garza and Concepcion Perez were cousins and both came from families who during the existing Spanish government received Spanish land grants from the King of Spain. This was during the General Visit of the Royal Commission in 1767. The land grants were some of the first colonial settlements in the United States and were on lands north of the Rio Grande River in what is now present day Starr County, Texas.

Editor: If you are a South Texas/Northern Mexico researcher you must have Garza/Trevino in your lineage, if you don't, to quote Israel Cavazos Garza, "Eres un pato."

“The Tejano Battle of Medina, August 18, 1813"

Tejano Battle of Medina Memorial Service
April 14, 2007

The public is invited to attend the first ever “Tejano Battle of Medina Memorial Service,” the largest battle for freedom ever fought in the State of Texas . The ceremony will start 2pm Saturday, April 14, 2007. The Tejano Descendents of the “Battle of Medina,” will participate in the Poteet Strawberry Festival Parade, in Poteet Texas . The parade kicks off at 9AM, Saturday April 14 in Poteet, with the Memorial Service at 2pm.

Many Mexican-Americans have given their lives defending freedom and democracy. A thousand Tejanos were killed in one battle alone in defense of these causes. But this conflict was not on foreign soil. Not on the beaches at Normandy, not in Korea, Viet Nam or Desert Storm although Tejanos were there, but much closer to home in south Texas, less than twenty miles south of San Antonio. The “ Battle of Medina…the forgotten history of the Tejanos, these first sons and daughters of the State of Texas ….unknown and unrecognized for their ultimate sacrifice.

 This battle was between the evenly matched forces of The Republican Army of The North consisting of four hundred American volunteers, nine hundred to a thousand Tejanos and two to three hundred Lipan, Coushatta and Karankawa Indians and a Spanish army led by General Joaquin de Arredondo.

A little known fact is that the Tejano leader Colonel Miguel Menchaca, in the heat of the battle, had been ordered to withdraw his men, whereas it is said that Menchaca responded “Tejanos do not withdraw,” and plunged back into the foray. Out of the 1500 that set out to fight on that hot August day only 100 would escape, making it the bloodiest battle ever fought on Texas soil. Another three hundred twenty-seven Tejanos would be executed in San Antonio after the battle and  a hundred more would be executed as they fled towards Louisiana .

And now it is time to honor those who fought and died 194 years ago. Directions: Poteet is located on Hi 16 approximately 20 miles south of San Antonio.   

Dan Arellano Author/Historian


Online, audio recordings of: 
Tejano Leadership in Mexican & Revolutionary Texas

A Symposium - October 14, 2006

  1) "Erasmo Seguín"
  4) "Carlos de la Garza"
  7) "José Francisco Ruiz"
10) "Fr. Refugio de la Garza"
  2) "Juan Martín Veramendi"
  5) "Ramón Músquiz"
  8) "Rafael Manchola"
11) "Plácido Benavides"
  3) "José Antonio Saucedo"
  6) "José Antonio Navarro"
  9) "José Antonio Menchaca"
12) "Juan N. Seguín"

*Tejano Leadership in Mexican
and Revolutionary Texas*

*A Symposium - October 14, 2006*

*  1) "Erasmo Seguín
*  4) "Carlos de la Garza
*  7) "José Francisco Ruiz
*10) "Fr. Refugio de la Garza
    *  2) "Juan Martín Veramendi
*  5) "Ramón Músquiz
*  8) "Rafael Manchola
*11) "Plácido Benavides
    *  3) "José Antonio Saucedo
*  6) "José Antonio Navarro
*  9) "José Antonio Menchaca
*12) "Juan N. Seguín

 Nosotros Los Tejanos




Sept 13-15 2007 AUSTIN , TEXAS

 CONFERENCE HEADQUARTERS: Embassy Suites 5901 N. IH 35
AUSTIN , TEXAS 78723 : Reservations 1800 EMBASSY  
or local 512-519-0463 fax 512-450-0204 


1.  Institutional Exhibitors / Vendors   $150.00 (3 Tables)
2.  Commercial vendors $100 perimeter (per table, with electrical outlet) interior   
      $75.00(Per table) Larger spaces will be negotiated.    
3.  2 to 3 minutes with microphone for vendors to present products
4.  Breakfasts and receptions in exhibit area insuring a captive audience.
5.  Vendor contribution for door prizes
6.  Cards & stars insuring attendees visiting at least 8 vendors
7.  $500.00 to be awarded for best Tejano History Book published in the last 12 Months.
     For information: Loretta Williams’s

8.  Above fees are for early registration after deadline of July 31, 2007, add $25.00
9.  A vendor’s agreement will be sent if approved by committee.  


For more information contact conference exhibitor chair: Dan Arellano  
 512-826-7569 or mail checks to Tejano Genealogy Society
 PO Box 43012
Austin , Texas 78704


News from Texas

Welcome to the inaugural issue of our monthly newsletter. Over the course of the year, we will be expanding this to feature more information that we hope you will enjoy. As most of you know, 2006 was a banner year for Texas and 2007 is already going extremely well as we have been busy gearing up for an even bigger and better year. We would like to take this opportunity to Our efforts have not gone unnoticed, as the Texas Historical Commission and the Texas Historical Foundation both featured Texas in their publications at the end of 2006 (see the attached articles).

The Texas Historical Commission’s The Medallion magazine featured an in depth article on president and founder Rudi R. Rodriguez in their November/December 2006 edition.

The Texas Historical Foundation’s Heritage magazine featured a piece on our ambition Tejano Heroes Portrait Series that we unveiled last year during Tejano Heritage Month in their Fall 2006 edition. We are very honored to have received this recognition and we expect even more in 2007.

Last but not least, the San Antonio Public Library Foundation has honored Mr. Rodriguez by creating a bookplate with his name on it that will be placed permanently in one of the books at the Central Branch in Downtown San Antonio.

"I am very honored by this gesture from the Library Foundation," Rudi said. "We are very well aware of the work that the Foundation is doing in San Antonio. Both of our missions are centered on outreach … especially in the Hispanic community and we could not ask for a better partner in this endeavor than them."

Since its inception, Texas has conducted several joint projects with the San Antonio Public Library and we will continue to do so in 2007 and beyond.

Last but not least, on behalf of Texas, Publications and Marketing Director, Eric Moreno, will once again serve as a Judge at the Annual San Antonio Independent School District History Fair, to be held on Jan. 31, 2007 at Trinity University.

Next month, we will bring you word on the progress of our exciting Texas Tejanos play which we will be premiering later on this year as well as news from the Hill Country!

Viva Tejano Texas!
Eric Moreno
Ex Nihilo Nihil Fit




Falcon Brothers from the Canary Islands in Louisiana 
Correction to Louisiana State Capitol Plaque
S: Ivan Perez, famous Decima singers in Louisiana 

Welcome to the FalconIslenos: Descendants of the Falcon Brothers from the Canary Islands in Louisiana web page. 

The first place to visit when researching Falcon genealogy/ancestry. This forum allows you to view personal research of Falcon family trees and submit information about individuals or families. The Falcon family tree v2.3 has been updated as of 8-26-2004 and is currently accessible through the Family Tree link.

Family Reunion
I'd like to thank Anna Thibodeaux ( for putting on the Falcon Family reunion this year. Everyone will agree it was a success. I have had a lot of responses to the family tree so please take some time to examine it thoroughly online. Feel free to email/call with questions. I would love to spend some time with each family to make sure the tree is full and correct. 

Falcon Book
There will be information about a Falcon Family Genealogy book to be published. Contact me or Anna for more information. As of Nov 2004, there is no idea on when this will be finished. Please send information about your family and your tree so we can incorporate them in the book.

Family Tree/Web Page 
Please submit ideas you have for this web page. I will see what I can do to incorporate them here. Please submit corrections or additions to the family tree if you have them. If you have copies of vital records, pictures, stories, or have questions, you can mail them to 

Wade Falcon
1019 Kaliste Saloom Rd Apt 614, Lafayette, LA, 70508

For internet guests doing genealogy research on a particular Falcon family, the Falcons listed on this site are from south Louisiana. If you have a Falcon relative from southern Louisiana, then likely this is the place you need to be for info. These Falcons are not to be confused with the ones in Texas historical documents and genealogy.

There are currently two main books that discuss the Canary Islanders of Louisiana listed below: The Canary Islanders of Louisiana by Gilbert Din
The Canary Islands Migration to Louisiana, 1778-1783 by Sidney Villere
You may fill in your email address on the site to receive info from FalconIslenos.

At this site, The Falcon Family Tree can be found at
At this site, The Canary Island passenger list, with links to other family trees can be found at

Sent by  Donna Lynch
and Wade Falcon

Correction to Louisiana State Capitol Plaque

There is a plaque on the state capital grounds that says the Baton Rouge was the only battle outside the original thirteen colonies. This is simply not trueBaton Rouge was not the only battle of the American Revolution outside the original thirteen colonies. After Don Bernardo de Galvez attacked Baton Rouge in 1779, he went on to attack (and defeat) the British at Mobile (March 1780) and Pensacola (1781). 

Lila Guzman, Ph.D. writes

S: Irvin Perez in Canary Island Web Magazine
Sent by Bill Carmena who writes: He is one of our most famous Decima singers in Louisiana and has his works in the Library of Congress .    

Irvan J. Pérez.
  Rev. Nº 142

Martes, 30 de Enero de 2007
Autor: II Jornadas del IEHC para el Estudio y Difusión de la Música Tradicional

Hace doscientos veintiocho años, a finales del siglo XVIII, salieron del Archipiélago Canario varios miles de isleños formando parte del Regimiento de Luisiana, acompañados de muchos familiares. Francisco González Corvo, nacido el año 1731 en San Juan de la Rambla (Tenerife), formó parte de este contingente.

 Hace doscientos veintiocho años, a finales del siglo XVIII, salieron del Archipiélago Canario varios miles de isleños formando parte del Regimiento de Luisiana, acompañados de muchos familiares. Francisco González Corvo, nacido el año 1731 en San Juan de la Rambla (Tenerife), formó parte de este contingente.

Irvan J. Pérez es descendiente del citado D. Francisco González Corvo y, hoy por hoy, el más genuino y reconocido representante de la comunidad de isleños descendientes de aquellos valientes canarios que entre 1777 y 1803 se trasladaron al sur de Luisiana, con la finalidad de defender la entonces posesión española, que había sido cedida por Francia en el año 1763.

Irvan nació el 19 de diciembre de 1922 en la llamada Isla de Delacroix, situada a orillas del río Mississippi y perteneciente a la Parroquia de San Bernardo, próxima a la ciudad de Nueva Orleans. Es hijo del fallecido Serafín Pérez, del que aprendió el castellano que se hablaba en las Islas Canarias en el siglo XVIII. Desde muy joven vivió con su padre los arriesgados oficios de pescador y cazador (trampero), que le proporcionaron el poder mantener a su familia en años posteriores. También pudo conocer de su mano y de otros ancianos de la Isla, la artesanía de la madera y los múltiples aspectos de la cultura isleña que ellos aún mantenían viva, particularmente, el tradicional canto de las llamadas décimas, sucesión de cuartetas muy peculiares de los isleños de San Bernardo, que narran con gracia, ironía, dramatismo y en algunos casos exageración, hechos históricos y de la vida de este lugar, así como los referidos a sus personajes más significativos.

Irvan nació el 19 de diciembre de 1922 en la llamada Isla de Delacroix, situada a orillas del río Mississippi y perteneciente a la Parroquia de San Bernardo, próxima a la ciudad de Nueva Orleans. Es hijo del fallecido Serafín Pérez, del que aprendió el castellano que se hablaba en las Islas Canarias en el siglo XVIII. Desde muy joven vivió con su padre los arriesgados oficios de pescador y cazador (trampero), que le proporcionaron el poder mantener a su familia en años posteriores. También pudo conocer de su mano y de otros ancianos de la Isla, la artesanía de la madera y los múltiples aspectos de la cultura isleña que ellos aún mantenían viva, particularmente, el tradicional canto de las llamadas décimas, sucesión de cuartetas muy peculiares de los isleños de San Bernardo, que narran con gracia, ironía, dramatismo y en algunos casos exageración, hechos históricos y de la vida de este lugar, así como los referidos a sus personajes más significativos.

En 1976 se constituyó la primera asociación de descendientes de los isleños de San Bernardo, que se denominó Spanish Heritage and Cultural Society, en la que Irvan J. Pérez colaboró, como directivo fundador, en todas aquellas tareas de tipo sociocultural emprendidas para la comunidad isleña. Este mismo año, como miembro de la asociación e invitado por el Gobierno de Canarias, Irvan visitó por primera vez las Islas. Concretamente viaja en esta ocasión a Gran Canaria acompañado por Donald Díaz y Luisa Molero -cantadores de décimas-, Frank Fernández -maestro de escuela de la parroquia y nombrado en 1967 Historiador Emérito de San Bernardo por su labor investigadora-, Manuel Afonso y J. Rodríguez.

En 1978, junto a su esposa Louise y otros familiares, volvió a las Islas, acercándose en esta ocasión a Lanzarote, para continuar la búsqueda de sus antepasados, así como la de sus raíces culturales.

La creación del Museo Isleño constituyó una labor ejemplar en la que Irvan Pérez se implicó totalmente, no sólo en la búsqueda de un local apropiado, que luego fue cedido por la familia Molero, sino, además, en múltiples actividades que le dieron vida posteriormente. Entre ellas, merece mención especial su colaboración y participación en el documental sobre la vida de los isleños, El Mosco y el Agua Alta, filme dirigido por Louis Álvarez y Andrew Kolker, difundido ampliamente por la televisión de Luisiana.

Desde este momento se despertó el interés de Canarias por conocer a los isleños de Luisiana, de ahí que fueran visitados por el realizador de cine independiente, Pedro Siemens, a quien se debe el cortometraje titulado Los Isleños de Luisiana, hecho en 1981, que fue presentado en noviembre de 1982, en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, con ocasión del acto que sirvió poro nombrar como socio del Museo Canario a Irvan J. Pérez y, luego, emitido en TVEC en el programa Cine Canario.

En este mismo año, los isleños de San Bernardo fueron visitados por una delegación cultural canaria, de la que formaban parte la Agrupación Folclórica Roque Nublo y los señores Rumeu de Armas y Bethencourt Massieu. Aprovechando la estancia de la citada agrupación, aprendieron cantos y bailes, lo que hizo posible la formación de un pequeño grupo folclórico.

Estos contactos con Canarias son los que explican la cantidad de materiales, publicaciones y documentos que se conservaban en el Museo Isleño y que, después del reciente huracán Katrina, y según las inciertas noticias que nos han llegado, o han desaparecido o se encuentran en un estado muy precario.

En 1992 Irvan vuelve a las Islas para participar en el Festival de Decimistas, dentro del Simposio Internacional sobre la Décima (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria).

En 1994 la citada Sociedad de Isleños de San Bernardo publicó un pequeño libro titulado Los Isleños Heritage & Cultural Society, que recoge diversos aspectos de la vida y cultura de los isleños. En este trabajo aparece Irvan J. Pérez como colaborador en el apartado de artistas, junto a Rodney Asevedo, Clair Núñez Pescay, Michael Hunnicult y Lloid Sensat.

En septiembre de 1995 se constituye una nueva sociedad: la Canary Islands Descendants Association of San Bernardo, de la que Irvan fue Presidente. Esta asociación nació con la finalidad de mantener y perpetuar la lengua y las tradiciones legadas de los colonos canarios del siglo XVIII, además de documentar la herencia canaria, difundir el patrimonio cultural isleño por todo el Estado de Luisiana y dejar un legado de su cultura para la posteridad. Todo ello a través de un gran número de actividades de tipo cultural, social y de relación con el Gobierno Canario y las Universidades Americanas y Españolas, entre las que destaca la de La Laguna, garantizando la labor investigadora realizada por el filólogo Manuel Alvar y la musicóloga Carmen Nieves Luis García, que dieron continuidad a los trabajos realizados anteriormente por Samuel G. Armistead (profesor de la Universidad Davis de California).

Fruto de la colaboración con el Gobierno de Canarias, San Bernardo recibió la visita de profesores que ayudaron a reforzar las raíces isleñas, sobre todo su lengua y sus tradiciones, y a mostrarles aspectos complementarios sobre la cultura e historia de Canarias, indispensables y no tan conocidos por esta Comunidad. Entre estos docentes merece especial mención la licenciada en Filología Noelia Siverio González.

En este mismo año de 1995, Irvan J. Pérez y su hija Carol viajaron a Tenerife y La Palma con objeto de visitar los lugares donde vivieron sus antepasados. Estuvieron en San Juan de la Rambla y fueron homenajeados por la familia Ruiz Cedrés el 8 de julio de 1995, durante la conmemoración familiar de la fecha de la salida de D. Francisco González Corvo, su esposa Doña Andrea Francisca Ruiz y sus hijos con destino a Luisiana, en 1778.

En la Isla de La Palma asistieron a los actos de las Fiestas Lustrales y participaron en la tradicional Bajada de la Virgen.

Se debe resaltar la ponderada valoración que los Gobiernos de Luisiana y de los Estados Unidos de América han tenido para con Irvan J. Pérez, que recibió el honor de ser nombrado socio de la Nacional Heritage (el galardón americano más prestigioso para los artistas tradicionales) y también su nombramiento como maestro en Louisiana may of Master Folik. Artists.

Irvan es, además, miembro de CODASPAN (Consejo para el Desarrollo del Español en Luisiana) y ha actuado, cantando décimas, en el Carneguie Hall, participando como maestro artesano en The Smithsonian Festival of American Folklife, y en otros eventos, como los del Natchitoches-NSU Fol. Festival, Louisiana Folklife Festival o The New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival.

Extraído de las II Jornadas del IEHC (Instituto de Estudios Hispánicos de Canarias) para el Estudio y Difusión de la Música Tradicional, celebradas en el Castillo San Felipe (Puerto de la Cruz) los días 25-27 de octubre de 2006.


March 6th, THE WAR: 14-hour Documentary on WWII 
"Latinas: A Growing Power…An Untapped Resource" 


March 6th,  THE WAR: 14-hour Documentary on WWII 

- Gus Chavez,  the San Diego organizer of this effort, Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez,and Marta Garcia, the chairwoman of the National Hispanic Media Coalition, have a meeting scheduled with Paula Kerger, president and CEO of PBS, and John Boland, chief content officer, on March 6, at their Washington, DC, office. Topic: Discuss the 14-hour documentary produced by Ken Burns on World War II which does not include any Hispanics/Latinos.

March 8th, 2007
"Latinas: A Growing Power…An Untapped Resource" 
Legislative Issues Dialogue & Leadership Reception To Address 
MANA's Vision For Latina Health and Wealth 

MANA, A National Latina Organization (MANA) and SER-Jobs for Progress National, 
Inc. (SER) will co-host a national discussion on core Latina issues on Thursday, March 8, 
2007, at the U.S. Capitol, Room HC-5 from 1:00pm- 4:00pm. A Leadership Reception 
honoring congressional and Latina leaders will follow from 4:30 pm - 6:30 pm. 
This event will bring together MANA and SER members and associates, Latina leaders 
from corporate, non-profit, federal agencies and experts on issues concerning Latina 
health and wealth accumulation, specifically concentrating on home ownership, financial 
education, and meaningful employment. Invited keynote speakers and honorees to the 
Legislative Issues Dialogue "Latinas: A Growing Power… An Untapped Resource" 
include: The Honorable Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the House; The Honorable Anna 
Escobedo Cabral; Treasurer of the U.S.; The Honorable Kay Bailey Hutchison, Chairman 
of the Senate Republican Policy Committee; The Honorable Grace F. Napolitano, U.S. 
Representative, Immediate past Chair of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus; and the 
Honorable Hilda Solis, Vice Chair Democratic Steering Committee. 

"Our goal is to add participant feedback to the research, comments, and recommendations 
brought forth in the presentations made by the expert speakers," said MANA President 
and CEO, Alma Morales Riojas. "Our national agenda has always been driven by the 
needs and goals of our national grassroots Latina base," she added. "Latinas can and must be prepared to confront the growing gap in meeting employment workforce demands," stated Ignacio Salazar, President and CEO, SER, the nation's premier employment and training provider. 

Sponsors of the event include Altria Corporate Services Inc., DaimlerChrysler 
Corporation Fund, State Farm Insurance Companies, and Sodexho. 
Founded in 1974, MANA, A National Latina Organization® (MANA) is a national grassroots 
membership organization with chapters, individual members and affiliates across the country. 

MANA's mission is to empower Latinas through leadership development, community service, and advocacy. Its four national goals are to: strengthen Latinas as community leaders; create vital Hispanic communities; advance public policy for an equal and just society; and grow and sustain a healthy organization. MANA achieves its mission and goals through its two premiere programs, the AvanZamos® Program, an adult Latina leadership training program and the HERMANITAS® Program for young Latinas. 

For Immediate Release Contact: J. Chapa 
February 8, 2007 Telephone: (202) 833-0060 


1st patent Color TV world obtained Guillermo Gonzalez Camarena, 1940 
Jerezanos en Torreon por: José León Robles De La Torre 
Quinta Gameros por Guillermo Padilla Origel
Matrimonios selectos de Tlaltenango 1696-1697 Extraídos por Arturo Ramos Pinedo
List of proposed settlers for unnamed villa that became Revilla, 1750. 
Historia de la Semana
The Descendents of Don Pedro de Almandos Compiled by John D. Inclan

This is a 405 page filled with the lives and family information on writers, poets, artists, political figures, educator, Zacatecan leaders in all fields.  Written by Jose Leon Robles de la Torre. We will be sharing information throughout the year.  If you are doing research in Zacatecas, please let me know and I can pull out information from the book and publish in Somos Primos for everyone to enjoy.

First patent for Color television in the world

The first experimental television transmission in Mexico-- from Cuernavaca to Mexico City--was arranged by Francisco Javier Stavoli in 1931. Stavoli purchased a Nipkow system from Western Television in Chicago with funding from the ruling party, which was then called Partido Revolucionario Mexicano (Mexican Revolutionary Party) and became the current Partido Revolucionario Institucional (Institutional Revolutionary Party). 

In 1934 Guillermo Gonzalez Camarena built his own monochromatic camera; by 1939, Gonzalez Camarena had developed a Trichromatic system, and in 1940 he obtained the first patent for color television in the world. In 1942, after Lee deForest traveled to meet with him in order to buy the rights, he secured the U.S. patent under description of the Chromoscopic Adaptors for Television Equipment. In 1946 Gonzalez Camarena also created XE1GGC-Channel 5, Mexico's first experimental television station, and started weekly transmissions to a couple of receivers, built by Gonzalez Camarena himself, installed at the radio stations XEW and XEQ, and at the Liga Mexicana de Radioexperimentadores (Mexican League of Radioexperimentors). The first on-air presenter was Luis M. Farias and the group of actors and actresses performing in those transmissions were Rita Rey, Emma Telmo, Amparo Guerra Margain and Carlos Ortiz Sanchez. Gonzalez Camarena also built the studio Gon-Cam in 1948, which was considered the best television system in the world in a survey done by Columbia College of Chicago.

In 1949 another broadcasting pioneer Romulo O'Farrill obtained the concession for XHTV-Chanel 4, the first commercial station in Mexico, which was equipped with an RCA system. XHTV made the first remote control transmission in July of 1950 from the Auditorium of the National Lottery--a program televising a raffle for the subscribers of O'Farrill's newspaper, Novedades. The first televised sports event, a bullfight, was transmitted the following day. In September of 1950, with the firm Omega and the automobile tire manufacturer Goodrich Euzkadi as the first advertisers, XHTV made the first commercial broadcast, the State of the Union Address of President Miguel Aleman Valdes.   =  Eduardo Barrera 

For more information:

Sent by Ray Gonzales

Personajes de la historia / JEREZANOS EN TORREÓN

Por: José León Robles De La Torre

Parroquia de Tlaltenango (hoy Sánchez Román), Zacs., que originalmente desde la época Colonial empezó como una modesta capilla, hasta que en 1803, se terminó la cúpula y la torre por el párroco D. Francisco Álvarez de Quiñones, quien murió en 1808. (Datos)
Muchos jerezanos han contribuido al desarrollo y progreso de Torreón y la Comarca Lagunera desde que era rancho en 1848, después Villa en 1893 y después Ciudad en 1907.
Empezaré una serie de artículos con la genealogía de los “Llamas y los Escobedo”, que a través de los años se han mezclado con muchos apellidos más, como los Valdés, los Cabral, los De la Torre, los Alatorre y otros que aparecen en el árbol genealógico respectivo.
Veamos: sus orígenes allá por el año de 1670 en Tlaltenango, Zacs., (hoy Sánchez Román). Don Nicolás Llamas contrajo matrimonio con doña Micaela Ponce (a veces con C, con Z o con S), quienes procrearon en dicha ciudad, varios hijos: Ana María el 18 de febrero de 1720; María Rosa, el 20 de mayo de 1727; María Antonia el 22 de marzo de 1730, que casó con don Antonio Magallanes el 19 de mayo de 1749; Ma. Josefa, el cinco de agosto de 1731; Ma. Teresa, el 29 de junio de 1733; Manuel Castelo, casado con doña Juana García de Becerra, todos nacidos en Tlaltenango. Y Antonio Llamas Ponce, cuya línea voy a seguir en este artículo, casado con María Alexandra Ávila Maldonado, hija de Juan de Ávila y Juana Ximénez, el 20 de agosto de 1743, y cuyo matrimonio procreó los siguientes hijos: Ana Ma. Llamas Ávila, nacida en Tlaltenango el 22 de agosto de 1745 (generación 3-A); Francisco Victoriano de Llamas Ávila, Sept. 16 de 1747, casado con Mariana Lugarda T. Bergara el 20 de julio de 1772; Ma. Manuela Silvestre Llamas Ávila, el 15 de enero de 1750, 3-C; Marcela Francisca Llamas Ávila, nacida el dos de mayo de 1752, 3-D; Juan B. Llamas Ávila, en junio 17 de 1756, 3F; Petra Gertrudis Llamas Ávila, octubre 22 de 1758; Josefa Matilde Llamas Ávila, marzo 19 de 1765, casada con Tomás Magallanes en mayo 30 de 1781, 3G; y Francisca Xaviera Llamas Ávila, octubre diez de 1754, casada con José Domingo de la Rocha, que procrearon, entre otros hijos a Dionisio de la Rocha Llamas, que casó en Jerez, Zacs., en 1800 y que casó con Ma. Luisa Escobedo Sánchez, hija de Rafael Escobedo y de su esposa doña Luz Sánchez Balenzuela, bautizada en Pinos, Zacs., el 17 de julio de 1776.
Este último matrimonio procreó 12 hijos y solamente seguiré en esta ocasión una de sus líneas que corresponden a la 5ª. Generación, como sigue: Pantaleona Llamas Escobedo, nacida en Jerez en 1814, casada con don José Ma. Cabral Rodríguez, nacido en 1814 y fallecido el 27 de febrero de 1879, en Jerez, Zacs.
Ya vimos que doña Pantaleona Llamas Escobedo, era la quinta generación en el árbol genealógico que formulé y que estoy mencionando, pues bien, su esposo José Ma. Cabral Rodríguez, es la 7ª. Generación en la genealogía que formulé que comienza con don Domingo Cabral, nacido en Jerez, Zacs. Probablemente en 1610 y que falleció en 1672, que estuvo casado con doña Catalina Ana Pinedo Caldera, nacida en Jerez en 1613 y fallecida el cuatro de julio de 1696.
De este árbol Cabral hablaré más adelante, pues en el próximo artículo continuaré con una de las líneas Llamas-Escobedo.

Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera

Guillermo Padilla Origel


La Quinta Gameros es unos de los edificios mas bellos de la ciudad de Chihuahua, esta obra fue proyectada y construida por el arquitecto Don Julio Corredor Latorre, por encargo de Don Manuel Gameros, ingeniero militar y minero, quine participó como cadete en la batalla de Puebla del 5 de mayo de 1862.

El 18 de febrero de 1907 el Sr. Gustavo Zork, vende la propiedad al Ing. Manuel Gameros Ronquillo, por la cantidad de $4,000 pesos plata del cuño Mexicano.

La construcción se inició en octubre de 1907 y se terminó en noviembre de 1910, estilo art noveau, en ese tiempo la ciudad de Chihuahua contaba con 20,000 habitantes.

Pero luego vino la revolución Mexicana y Don Manuel fue nombrado senador de la república y en diciembre de 1913 el General Villa, ocupa la ciudad e interviene la quinta y en ella, tuvo su residencia oficial Don Venustiano Carranza en abril y mayo de 1914, por lo tanto la quinta Gameros, fue testigo de sucesos que tuvieron un profundo impacto entre los líderes revolucionarios.

Ya una vez concluida la revolución, la hermosa mansión fue habitada por el matrimonio Russek Gameros de 1921 hasta 1926.

El 9 de noviembre de 1926 fue vendida al gobierno del estado, la cual tuvo varios usos :

Sede el palacio de justicia y educación pública y la oficina central del registro civil, posteriormente fue destinada para : estación de radio, junta central de aguas y junta local de caminos. La señora Martha Russek Gameros, menciona en su obra "historia de la quinta Gameros" que funcionó como hospital de sangre.

En 1954 se instala la rectoría de la Universidad de Chihuahua y las escuelas de ingeniería civil, derecho y música.

El 9 de mayo de 1958, el gobernador Teófilo Borunda, celebró un contrato de comodato por 25 años como universidad de Chihuahua-Instituto nacional de antropología e historia e instalar el museo regional del estado de Chihuahua y exposición minera, inaugurado por el lic. Adolfo López Mateos.

El 19 de octubre de 1968, el lic. Oscar Flores Gobernador del Estado, otorgó la autonomía a la universidad de Chihuahua y la quinta pasó a formar parte del patrimonio de la universidad; en 1991 se cambia el nombre de museo regional Quinta Gameros por el actual de "Centro Cultural Universitario Quinta Gameros"


I.-Don Miguel Gameros, originario de España, se casa el 19 de marzo de 1728 en el sagrario de Chihuahua, con Doña María Teresa de Sepúlveda, y fue su hijo entre otros:

II.-Don Joseph Gameros Sepúlveda, se casa en primeras nupcias con Doña Rosalía Vascones, el 25 de septiembre de 1762 en el sagrario de Chih., sin sucesión, y en segundas nupcias con Doña Josefa de Villalba, el 21 de noviembre de 1775 en el sagrario de Chih., y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

III.-José Andrés Gameros Villalba, casado con María de la Luz Delgado, el 10 de marzo de 1791 en el sagrario de Chih. Y fue su hijo José de la Luz, bautizado el 28 de marzo de 1792 en el sagrario de Chih.

III.-José Antonio Gameros Villalba, bautizado en 1783

III.-José Francisco Gameros Villalba, bautizado el 2 de febrero de 1781 en el sagrario de Chih. Y casado por 1819 con Doña Josefa Carrasco, en Tapacines, Chih. , y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

a.-Jesús Maria Gameros Carrasco, bautizado el 13 de enero de 1820 con María del Rayo Parra, y a su vez fueron sus hijos: Carlota, baut. en 1840, José Francisco, baut. 1857, José Siberiano, baut. en 1858, José Francisco Mauricio, baut. en 1867, Maria de Jesús, baut. en 1852, María Fernanda, baut. en 1865 y Juana , baut. en 1847. y

b.-Francisco Gameros Carrasco, bautizado el 10 de noviembre de 1825 en Rosales, Chih., casado con Juliana Licón, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

Néstor, baut. el 29 de febrero de 1860 en Rosales, Chih. Y

III.-Don José Félix Gameros Villalba, bautizado el 26 de noviembre de 1778, en el sagrario de Chih., y sse casa con doña María Francisca Hernández y fue su hijo:

IV.-Don José Rafael Gameros Hernández, bautizado el 3 de diciembre de 1808, en Rosales Chih., y casado con Doña Paz Ronquillo, y fueron sus hijos:

V.-Maria Juana Francisca, baut. en 1855 en Aldama, Chih.; María de la Luz, bautizada en 1838 en Aldama, Chih.; Maria Guadalupe, baut. el 17 de agosto de 1853, María Avelina, baut. el 16 de febrero de 1842, María Paula, baut. el 5 de marzo de 1843, María Nemesia, baut. el 3 de octubre de 1847, María Concepción, baut. el 10 de diciembre de 1840, todos de apellido Gameros y Ronquillo y

V.-Ing. Don Manuel Gameros y Ronquillo, nace por 1847 en Aldama, Chih., (inicia la quinta Gameros) , muere en 1920 en el Paso , Texas y se casa por 1892 con Doña Maria Elisa Muller Acosta, baut. el 11 de octubre de 1869 en el sagrario de Chih., h.l. de Don Enrique Muller y Doña Francisca Acosta y muerta en 1904, y fue su hija entre otros:

VI.-Doña Maria Elisa Gameros Muller, casada con un señor de apellido Russek y asu vez fue su hija:

VII.-Doña Martha Russek Gameros, autora del libro"Historia de la Quinta Gameros"



I continue to make progress on my research of Tlaltenango and I would
like to share some  of it with you readers.  I have been finding a
great deal of detail about the oldest families from that town and have
been surprised with the number of slaves there were in the 17th
century and the detail with which records were kept for them.  Perhaps
that will be my next article.  For now I send you selected extracts
from two years of the oldest marriage film from Tlaltenango, Zacatecas
for Somos Primos.

Greetings from Washington, DC
Arturo Ramos

Matrimonios selectos de Tlaltenango 1696-1697

Rollo de Microfilmación Número 443799

Extraídos por Arturo Ramos Pinedo


28 Jan 1696
Juan de Arena morisco soltero con María Magdalena india soltera. Padrinos Manuel de Salazar y Maríana de Salazar mulata libre y hermana y sirviente del párroco beneficiado. Testigo Alberto Gaspar, Don Joseph de Salazar y Francisco de ???.

29 Jan 1696
Joseph de Rentaría soltero con Juana de Dios ??? españoles y vecinos de la Hacienda de San Andrés Astillero de esta jurisdicción. Padrinos Luis de Rentaría y María de Rentaría ambos hermanos del desposado. Testigos Francisco Xavier y Francisco del ¿?? vecinos del pueblo.

15 Jan 1696
Juan de la Torre morisco con Catalina de Cabrera hija de Juan de Escobedo y de Melchora Cabrera mestizos. Padrinos Pablo de Casas y su mujer españoles. Testigos Nicolás Sánchez y Matías López todos de la Hacienda de San Andrés Astillero.

30 Jan 1696
Juan de Arellano mulato libre con Luisa de la Cruz, india. Padrinos Nicolás de Chávez y Juan de Santiago vecinos de la Hacienda de San Andrés Astillero. Testigos Juan de la Cruz y Nicolás Sánchez.

22 Feb 1696
Anonio de Ayara hijo de Gerónimo de Ayara y Isabel de Arteaga mulatos libres con Catalina de Avila, hija de Diego García y de María Magdalena naturales del pueblo de ¿?? Testigos Francisco de Soto y Francisco Xavier españoles vecinos de la jurisdicción.

28 Feb 1696
Francisco Madrigal, viudo de Theresa Sánchez mulato esclavo del Capitán Cristóbal de Zesati vecino de esta jurisdicción y a María de ??? india natural de la Villa de Xeres. Padrinos Francisco Lozano y Luisa de Rueda su madre. Testigos Francisco de Soto y Son Joseph de Salazar.

28 Feb 1696
Lorenzo de Resqueda hijo de Joseph de Resqueda y de María de Aguirre con Juana de Mesa soltera españoles todos de esta jurisdicción. Padrinos Nicolás Rodríguez y Magdalena Flores de Raygoza españoles vecinos de esta jurisdicción. Testigos Francisco de Soto y Don Joseph de Salazar, vecinos de este pueblo.

4 Mar 1696
Domingo de Ramos hijo de Martín Vásquez y de Ana ??? con Catalina Luna hija de Alejandro Miguel y Francisca Vela todo naturales de este pueblo de Tlaltenango.

7 Mar 1696
Francisco Carrillo de Ávila con Micaela García de la Cadena españoles. Padrinos Antonio de Serna??? y Nicolasa de Luna su tía. Testigos Francisco de Soto y Francisco Xavier todos vecinos de esta jurisdicción.

11 Mar 1696
Joseph Marques de los Olivos hijo de Juan Marques de los Olivos y de Josepha Bautista con hija de Nicolás Sánchez Castellanos y Thomasina de Aro, hija de Nicolás Sánchez Castellanos y de María Bañuelos todos españoles y vecinos de esta jurisdicción. Padrinos el Capitán Salvador de López y Melchora de Campos españoles. Testigos Fernando de Escobedo y Jacinto de Llamas vecinos de esta jurisdicción.

16 May 1696
Juan Francisco hijo de Pedro Simón y de Ana Cecilia con María de Luna hija de Diego de Luna y de María Yáñez naturales del pueblo de Cicacalco . Padrinos Francisco Gerónimo y Juana Catalina. Testigos Francisco de Soto y Andrés Muñoz.

16 May 1696
Bernabe de Aro soltero y Juana de Saucedo viuda de Gaspar Melchor ya difunto. Padrinos Thomas Robledo y María Francisca todos del pueblo de Tocatique. Testigos Francisco de Soto y Andrés de Muñoz españoles vecinos de este pueblo de Tlaltenango.

30 May 1696
Cristóbal de Zesati soltero con Agustina Ysabel hija de Francisco Martín y de Juana Petrona. Padrinos Matheo Juárez y María Lucia todos naturales de este pueblo de Tlaltenango. Testigos Francisco de Soto y Francisco Talamantes españoles vecinos de este pueblo.

3 Jun 1696
Juan de Ávila viudo de Francisca de Lerma ya difunta con Magdalena de la Cruz mulata libre viuda de Francisco Simón ya difunto. Padrinos Antonio de León y Antonia de Saldaña. Testigos Thomas Sánchez y Francisco de Soto españoles y vecinos de este pueblo de Tlaltenango.

11 Jul 1696
Francisco hijo de Diego Ramírez y de María Gerónima ya difunta con Fabiana Sebastiana hija de Miguel Melchor y a difunto y Juana Ysabel todos naturales del pueblo de Teocaltiche. Padrinos Nicolás Méndez y Antonia Juana su cuñada del pueblo de Teocaltiche. Testigos Francisco de Soto y Don Simón Gálvez de Olivera españoles y vecinos de este pueblo.

11 Jun 1696
Cristóbal de Escobedo viudo con Petrona González soltera ambos mulatos libres vecinos de la jurisdicción. Padrinos María Rodríguez y Catalina de Escalante indios mis sirvientes. Testigos Francisco de Soto y Don Joseph de Salazar españoles y vecinos de este pueblo de Tlaltenango.

25 Jun 1696
Francisco Ramírez soltero con María López hija de Francisco López y Ana María. Padrinos Juan ¿?? y Juana de Dios, sirvientes del Capitán Salvador López. Testigos Don Francisco Xavier y Francisco de Soto españoles vecinos de este pueblo.

11 Aug 1696
Felipe de Salazar español viudo de María Ynes india difunta con Juana Ponce española quien fue criada en la casa de Catalina Ponce española vecina de esta jurisdicción. Padrinos Juan de Talamantes y María de Talamantes españoles y vecinos de esta jurisdicción. Testigos Francisco Xavier y Francisco de Soto vecinos de este pueblo de Tlaltenango.

16 Aug 1696
Pedro Vela mulato libre y a Antonia Saldaña coyota. Padrinos Antonio Pérez y Andrea de Maya??? Testigos Francisco de Soto y Miguel de Luna todos vecinos de este pueblo de Tlaltenango.

12 Feb 1697
Juan Vela coyote soltero con Juana Bernarda viuda de Nicolás Flores así mismo coyota. Padrinos Bartolomé Vela y Catalina de la Cruz, coyotes vecinos del pueblo de Tlaltenango. Testigos Francisco Xavier y Francisco de Soto vecinos de este pueblo.

8 Feb 1697
Vele a Manuel de Herrera y a Catalina de Miramontes a quien case el dia diez de marzo del ano pasado. Padrinos Francisco Carrillo y Micaela García. Testigos Francisco Xavier Zesati y Francisco de Soto vecinos de esta jurisdicción.

6 May 1697
Juan de la Cruz y Juana María de la Cruz negro y mulata esclavos ambos del Capitán Don Felipe Otaduy y Abendaño Alcalde Mayor de esta jurisdicción. Testigos Son Manuel Hurtado de Mendoza y Don Juan Antonio de Mendoza españoles del pueblo de Tlaltenango. Padrinos Don Francisco Lozano y Luisa de Rueda su mujer coyotes de este pueblo.

10 Jul 1697
Pascual de Albertis hijo de Thomas Hernández y de Ana Catalina con Ana Agustina de la Rosa hija de Melchor y Catalina Marta. Padrinos Miguel Melchor y Catarina Agustina. Testigos Don Alonzo Cosio de este lugar y Don Cristóbal Zesati del Castelú todos vecinos de este pueblo de Tlaltenango.

16 Aug 1697
Nicolás Villegas soltero y Petrona de Villegas soltera ambos mestizos vecinos de este partido de Tlaltenango. Habiendo procedido las diligencias dispuestas por el Santo Concilio de Trento y en virtud de despacho de su Santísima Madre Iglesia para impedimento de consanguinidad en que se hayaban de segundo grado. Fueron padrinos Francisco Placido de Salazar y Mariana de Salazar su hermana mulatos libres mis sirvientes y fueron testigos a verlos casar Manuel López de Oliva y Francisco de Soto españoles y vecinos de este pueblo de Tlaltenango.

22 Oct 1697
Gaspar Duarte hijo legitimo de Tomas Núñez y de Nicolasa de Aguilar ya difunta y sirviente el la Hacienda del partido en el Monte Escobedo con Francisca Xaviera hija legitima de Nicolás Rodríguez difunto y Juana de la Cruz, vecinos de las Minillas. Fueron sus Padrinos Juan de Villalobos y Juana de la Cruz vecinos de este dicho pueblo y fueron testigos Alonso de Ferrera, Felipe del Rincón vecinos de este pueblo.




List of proposed settlers for the yet unnamed villa that became Revilla
Miguel Martines' Memoria on 15 June 1750,

Source: Ernesto Uribe and Jose M. Pena 

Miguel Martines and his son-in-law presented José de Escandon this list of proposed settlers for the yet unnamed villa that became Revilla. They had traveled from Nuevo León to Reynosa where the Colonizer was visiting during one of his inspection tours. This list of fourteen families contains the names of the settlers as well as the number of livestock that they owned. As one can see, these people were a pastoral folk who, in turn, were descendents of earlier frontier people from what became known as the Interior Provinces. 

This list was extracted from Volume 180 of Provincias Internas from a copy obtained at the Bancroft Library.

Memoria de las familias que ban en mi compania ala poblacion de entre los dos Rios de el Norte, y el Salado = 


Don Miguel Martines, su esposa Doña Clara de Treviño. Familia - Nicolas Martines de veinte y dos años, Bartholo Martines de veinte y un años, Xavier Martines con sus armas, Josepha Martines de nuebe años. Vienes - tres mil y ochosientas cabezas de lana, dos mil y quatrocientas de pelo; yeguas, quatro manadas con dos oficiales; veinte y cinco caballos; rezes, ciento y veinte. 

2. Don Joseph Miguel Martines, y su esposa Maria Gertrudis Peña, españoles. Familia -Joseph Cayetano de un año y siete meses, Francisco Xavier de ocho meses; todas armas. Vienes - una manada de veinte yeguas; dies caballos; tres mulas manzas; trecientas cabezas de ganado menor. 

3. Don Xavier Benavides, español, con todas armas, su esposa Doña Maria Nicolasa de Villarreal, una hija de dies y siete años Antonia de Benavides. sus Vienes - quinientas cabezas de ganado menor, una manada de veinte y dos yeguas; doze bacas; y dos yuntas de bueyes; seis caballos. 

4. Don Xavier Peña, español y su esposa Doña Maria Antonia Nagas, con todas armas. Familia -Joseph de Jesus de doce años, Joseph Antonio siete años, Maria Theresa nueve años, Maria Dominga de cinco años. Vienes - tresientas cabezas de ganado menor; una manada de veinte y cinco yeguas; doce caballos. 

5. Don Santiago Joseph Martines, su esposa Doña Maria Agustina de Treviño, españoles, todas armas, una niña de quatro meses. Vienes - quatrocientas cabezas de ganado menor; dos manadas de yeguas; dies caballos. 

6. Don Joseph Ygnacio Martines, su esposa Doña Anna Maria de Montemayor, españoles, con todas armas. y su Familia - Pedro Joseph Martines. Vienes - cinquenta cabezas de ganado menor, una manada de veinte y sinco yeguas y su caballo y un ofizial. 

7. Don Nicolas de Campos, su compañera, Doña Maria Luiza Martines, españoles, todas armas. Familia - Anna Francisca de dies años, Joseph Ramon de dose, Joseph Christoval de ocho años, Joseph Nicolas de siete años, Joseph Ygnacio de cinco años, Joseph Antonio de tres. quatrocientas cabezas de ganado menor; una manada de yeguas de dies y seis, y su caballo; quatro caballos. 

8. El Alferes Don Joseph Felix Martines, su esposa Doña Gregoria Bermudes, españoles, y Don Domingo Guerra su yerno, su esposa Doña Thomasa Martines. Familia una hija de seis meses, los dos con todas armas. Vienes - una manada de veinte y una yeguas con su caballo y su ofisial; y ocho caballos; y ganado menor, quatrocientas. 

9. El Alferes Don Joseph de la Garza, su esposa Doña Josepha de Sosa, españoles, con todas armas. Familia - Luis Antonio de la Garza de dies y ocho años, Anna Josepha de la Garza de quinse años, Maria de Jesus de la Garza de onse años, Pedro de la Garza de nueve años. Vienes - setezientas cabezas de ganado menor; y veinte bacas; y ocho caballos. 

10. Don Lorenzo Gutierres, su esposa Doña Maria Rosa de Treviño, españoles, con todas armas. Familia Maria Josepha Gutierres de quinse años, Antonia Margarita Gutierres de trese años, Francisco Antonio de onze años, Joseph Francisco de nueve años, Joseph de siete años, Juan Joseph de cinco años, Juana Margarita de tres años. Vienes - setesientas cabezas de ganado menor; treinta yeguas con su caballo; dies caballos. 

11. Don Thomas de Cuellar, su esposa Doña Maria Ynes Martines, españoles. Familia - Anna Maria de catorze años, Clara Maria de doze años, Joseph Thomas de dies años, Joseph Salvador de ocho años, Rosalia de seis años, Joseph Gregorio de quatro años, Esmeregilda de dos años. Vienes - doscientas cabezas de ganado menor; veinte y sinco yeguas con su caballo; quatro caballos y un macho. 

12. Don Bartholo de Cuellar, su esposa Doña Gregoria Martines, españoles, con todas armas. Familia - Joseph Francisco de quinze años, Jasinto de treze años, Maria Rita de onze años, Jose Antonio de nueve años, Juachin de siete años, Joseph Miguel de quatro años, Santiago de dos años. Vienes - quinientas cabezas de ganado menor, dos yeguas con su caballo; y quatro caballos. 

13. Don Joseph Gonzales, su esposa Doña Theodora Villarreal, españoles, con todas armas. Familia - Joseph Gonzales de dos años. Vienes - quinientas cabras de ganado menor y cinco caballos. 

14. Don Joseph Leonardo Treviño, su esposa Doña Maria Moreno, españoles. Familia - quatro hijas y dos hijos. Vienes - seisientas cabezas de ganado menor de pelo y lana; una manada de yeguas de veinte de fierro arriva, seis caballos.

Estas catorce familias son las que tengo liztadas, y se hallan promptas â pasar a poblar con sus familias y vienes, entre los Rios de el Norte, y el Salado, serca de donde se juntan, me confirieron poder y facultad verval para que por mi y en su nombre, me presentase ante el Señor Don Joseph de Escandon, y para que conste ser asi lo firmê en esta Villa de Reynosa, en quinze dias de el mes de Junio de mil setesientos y cinquenta años -- Thomas de Cuellar, Miguel Martines



Historias de la semana (12 - 18 de febrero, 2007) MEXICO[] 
Sent by writes:

Notas de interés sobre historia y patrimonio histórico de México aparecidas en diversas publicaciones virtuales entre el 12 y el 18 de febrero, 2007.  Vea la nota completa utilizando los "vínculos" indicados. Distribución gratuita, sólo para usos académicos.
Compilación: Roberto David Reyes Avellaneda (FFyL-UNAM) 

En esta entrega:

* Confirman huellas de dinosaurio en Puebla
* Sin confirmar hallazgo de cámara mortuoria, aclara Román Berrelleza.
* Se buscan más construcciones del Recinto Sagrado del Templo Mayor
* Cuestiona Anne Chapman el "Vuelo" que ha tomado el concepto de Mesoamérica
* El Palacio de don Antonio Huitziméngari
* Inauguran en París muestra fotográfica del siglo XIX en México
* Revive momentos históricos el Museo Panteón de San Fernando
* Cumple mañana el Palacio Postal cien años de su construcción
* Ofrece libro avances en el estudio de la infancia: INAH.
* Agreden mural de Rivera en Palacio Nacional
* Identifican al verdadero autor de la fotografía de la Adelita
* Asesora INAH Catálogo de Lenguas Indígenas Mexicanas

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

* Confirman huellas de dinosaurio en Puebla
Cerca de 40 huellas de dinosaurios que tienen al menos 65 millones de años
de antigüedad, fueron encontradas en la región desértica de San Juan Raya,
municipio de Zapotitlán Salinas, Puebla. Oscar Polaco, subdirector de
Laboratorios y Apoyo Académico de la Coordinación Nacional de Arqueología
del INAH, informó que al parecer las huellas son de tres diferentes especies
de animales prehistóricos que transitaron por la zona para beber agua en un
cuerpo lacustre existente hace millones de años.
Notimex, El Universal, 12 de febrero

* Sin confirmar hallazgo de cámara mortuoria, aclara Román Berrelleza. Alrededor de dos meses más llevará la preparación del proyecto final de
"movimiento" e "investigación" del monolito azteca dedicado a Tlatltecutli,
localizado el 2 de octubre de 2006 en el predio Las Ajaracas, aseguró hoy
aquí Juan Alberto Román Berrelleza, director del Museo del Templo Mayor. En
entrevista, el funcionario afirmó a Notimex que hasta que se reanuden los
trabajos se podrá confirmar o desechar la existencia de una cámara mortuoria
a la que se bajaría a través de escalones y en la que podrían descansar los
restos del tlatoani Ahuitzol, antecesor de Moctezuma II.
Notimex, Mundo Hispano de KSL, 13 de febrero

* Se buscan más construcciones del Recinto Sagrado del Templo Mayor
Dentro del Programa de Arqueología Urbana (PAU) que lleva a cabo el
Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) de México para rescatar
los restos arqueológicos situados en el Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de
México, se están llevando a cabo excavaciones en una parte de la Calle
Donceles ya que se cree que allí hay restos que pertenecían al recinto
sagrado del Templo Mayor de México-Tenochtitlan según informa la agencia de
noticias Notimex de México.
Aztlán-noticias, 17 de febrero

* Cuestiona Anne Chapman el "Vuelo" que ha tomado el concepto de
La reconocida etnóloga Anne Chapman, quien develara los secretos de culturas
hoy día extintas como la selk'nam de Tierra del Fuego, consideró que el
modelo original propuesto por Paul Kirchhoff -quien fuera su profesor en la
Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia- sobre Mesoamérica como una gran
área cultural "ha tomado un vuelo que lo distorsiona. Sin más ni más". En
entrevista durante una breve visita de trabajo por el país, la antropóloga
franco-estadounidense -quien vive entre las ciudades de Buenos Aires y
París- dijo que "a menudo se representa a Mesoamérica como si terminara con
el área maya, cuando en realidad continúa por la Costa del Pacífico, desde
El Salvador hasta el Golfo de Nicoya, muy cerca de la frontera con Costa
El golfo, 16 de febrero

* El Palacio de don Antonio Huitziméngari
En la Plaza Mayor de Pátzcuaro (hoy Vasco de Quiroga), en el lado norte se encuentra una casa marcada con el número 46, que la tradición señala como el
Palacio de don Antonio Huitziméngari de Mendoza y Caltzontzin, gobernador de
Pátzcuaro e hijo de don Francisco... Se sabe que desde la expulsión de los
jesuitas de estas tierras se despojó a las comunidades de las pocas
posesiones que aún conservaban, entre ellas esta casa, que pasó a poder de
sucesivos criollos y mestizos hasta el año 1989, que por disposición de su
última moradora, Esperanza Correa de Guízar, fue entregada de manera
pacífica a representantes de más de trece comunidades de la Región Lacustre
y Ciénega de Zacapu, integradas al Consejo Supremo Purépecha (recién
escindido del partido oficial)....El dictamen de las autoridades competentes
ante este juicio que lleva también casi 18 años, aún no llega y ha habido
dos intentos de desalojo que no prosperaron.
Alma Gloria Chávez, Cambio de Michoacán, Domingo 18 de Febrero

* Inauguran en París muestra fotográfica del siglo XIX en México
El museo del Quai Branly inauguró hoy aquí una muestra de fotografías tomadas en el siglo XIX en México por el explorador francés Desire Charnay, entre las que figuran instantáneas de Yucatán, el Popocatepetl y la Ciudad
de México. Se trata de la primera serie de fotografías tomadas sobre destacados enclaves arqueológicos de la península de Yucatán y sobre otras zonas de México ubicadas en los estados de Oaxaca y Chiapas, dijo a Notimex la curadora de la muestra Christine Barthe. Notimex, Milenio, 12 de febrero
Véase también

* Revive momentos históricos el Museo Panteón de San Fernando 
En la entrada del museo se pueden apreciar los retratos de personajes como Mariano Otero, Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, Melchor Ocampo, Ignacio Ramírez y Don Benito Juárez García. Con motivo del 150 aniversario de la Constitución Mexicana de 1857 y los 90 años de la Carta Magna de 1917, el Museo Panteón de San Fernando exhibe una muestra sobre la historia y lucha de personajes reformistas que, inspirados en el Liberalismo Ilustrado de la Revolución Francesa, buscaron la correcta aplicación de la ley para el cumplimiento de sus ideales. Notimex, Milenio, 12 de febrero

* Cumple mañana el Palacio Postal cien años de su construcción Considerado como un edificio clásico del academicismo ecléctico de principios del siglo XX, por mezclar los estilos plateresco isabelino anterior a la conquista y el gótico veneciano, predominantemente, el Palacio Postal cumple este 17 de febrero su primer centenario de existencia. Conocido también como la "Quinta casa de correos", el inmueble declarado
Monumento Artístico el 4 de mayo de 1987 es uno de los más hermosos del Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México, al considerarse como la síntesis de la creatividad de profesionales de la arquitectura como Adamo Boari y un grupo de artesanos mexicanos que plasmaron su arte en cada piedra. Notimex, Milenio, 16 de Febrero

* Ofrece libro avances en el estudio de la infancia: INAH. De la imagen dulce y limpia que representa la figura del Niño Jesús en el ideario mexicano, hasta los personajes infantiles vistos como seres que bandean entre la ferocidad y la ternura en la cinta Los Olvidades, de Luis Buñuel, son motivo de análisis en el libro "Los niños: su imagen en la historia". Coordinados por las especialistas María Eugenia Sánchez y Delia Salazar, de la Dirección de Estudios Históricos del INAH, el conjunto de ensayos "pretende ofrecer un paso más al estudio de la infancia en la vida nacional, desde diversas ópticas y a través de muy distintas fuentes y herramientas teóricas". Notimex, Mundo Hispano de KSL, 13 de febrero

* Agreden mural de Rivera en Palacio Nacional
La obra que Diego Rivera (1886-1957) considerara su máxima creación muralística pintada en el Palacio Nacional de 1921 a 1951, sufrió este fin de semana una agresión: una persona traspasó la valla que la protege y con una teja de color blanca pintó en la parte inferior, a medio metro del piso, la palabra MENTIRA. Quienes acudieron al recinto histórico este lunes se percataron que personal de la Secretaría de Hacienda, instancia encargada de la preservación del inmueble, trató de borrar las letras; sin embargo, quedaron vestigios de la leyenda sobre la obra Desembarco de los españoles en Veracruz (1951).
Leticia Sánchez, Milenio, 12 de febrero

* Identifican al verdadero autor de la fotografía de la Adelita
Ni soldadera ni Adelita ni prostituta, sino posible cocinera de las tropas huertistas. Ni 1910, ni 1913, sino 1912. Ni Agustín Víctor o Miguel Casasola ni Abraham Lupercio ni Heliodoro Gutiérrez ni Fernando Sosa, sino Jerónimo Hernández. Así podría resumirse la azarosa historia de una de las fotografías más emblemáticas de la Revolución Mexicana y cuyo verdadero autor acaba de ser dado a conocer por el investigador Miguel Angel Morales en un artículo del más reciente número de la revista Alquimia, que dirige
José Antonio Rodríguez. Arturo Jiménez, La Jornada, 16 de febrero (contiene imagen)

* Asesora INAH Catálogo de Lenguas Indígenas Mexicanas
El Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) brinda asesoría para la conformación del Catálogo de Lenguas Indígenas Mexicanas, que contendrá el mayor avance al que ha sido posible llegar hoy en día en relación con los temas de las fronteras lingüísticas y con la nomenclatura -listado de nombres-. El documento que elabora el Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas (INALI) tiene un importante avance y a finales
de febrero se presentará en la Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP) para su revisión. Luego de este proceso se prevé su publicación en el Diario Oficial de la Federación.
El Golfo, 16 de febrero

January 2007
Hispanic Heritage Project
Book List Selections


Chantal Cramaussel, Poblar la frontera. La provincial de Santa Bárbara en Nueva Vizcaya durante los siglos XVI y XVII. Poblar la frontera, provides us with the most comprehensive study of this important region as of yet and it may never be surpassed. Chantal gives us a detailed history of the settling of this province, touching both the native population as well as the European settlers, the economic forces at work, the church, the families and the government. Her identification of the people in those groups and institutions and their role in the history of the area is invaluable for not only the academic scholars, but family history researchers. El Colegio de Michoacán, 2006, 280 pp. soft cover. $46.00

José Luis Mirafuentes Galván, Movimientos de resistencia y rebeliones indígenas en el norte de México 1680-1821. Guía documental II. This volume provides a chronology of the indigenous resistance movements in Northern Mexico between 1680 and 1821, with the objective of pointing out the social-political and cultural conflicts in each of the political entities in Northern New Spain. Mexico, UNAM, 1993, 158 pp., soft cover. $14.00

José Luis Mirafuentes Galván, Movimientos de resistencia y rebeliones indígenas en el norte de México 1680-1821. Guía documental III. This Guía documental continues the aim of the previous volumes, while attempting to diversify the registration of materials, in order to facilitate their location and knowledge. Mexico, UNAM, 2004, 326 pp., soft cover. $72.00

Woodrow Borah (coordinador), El gobierno provincial en la Nueva España 1570-1787. This work seeks to contribute to the study of the different forms assumed by the provincial government during the Colonial period. The works compiled in this volume are the result of a seminar conducted by Dr. Woodrow Borah from September 1981 to June 1982, when he held the Extraordinary Alfonso Caso Chair. 2nd edition, Mexico, UNAM-IIH, 2002, 272 pp., soft cover. $27.00

Roberto Baca, Tiempos de Revoluciones de la expulsion de los jesuitas a la consumación de la Independencia. Catálogo de protocolos del Archivo Histórico Municipal de Parral, Período 1766-1821. This catalog is an index of the protocolos found in the Parral Archive in the years 1766-1821. It provides the reader with a detailed description of the document and the people involved. It is a tremendous aid to academic and family history researchers. Mexico, VSB. 2006, 200 pp., spiral binding. $24.50

Please add to each purchase a shipping cost of $3.00 for the first book and $1.75 for each book thereafter. California residents please add .0775% to the cost of the books for sales taxes. Books shipped parcel post. Master Card/Visa accepted. Institutions with a purchase order can be billed.


Carlos Yturralde
Hispanic Heritage Project
1400 Oak Hill Drive #811
Escondido, CA 92027-1158
cyturralde@cox net

The Descendents of Don Pedro de Almandos
Compiled by John D. Inclan
Generation No. 1
1. PEDRO2 DE ALMANDOS (MARTIN1) was born 1670 in Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. He married ISABEL DE AMAYA-Y-TREVINO 03 Jan 1690 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN DE TREMINO-Y-NAVARRO and ANA DE AMAYA. She was born 26 Dec 1671 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died 08 May 1697 in Montemorelos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
2. i. CAPTAIN JOSE-FELIX3 DE ALMANDOS, b. 16 Jan 1690/91, Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. 03 Sep 1734, killed by Indians at Tamaulipas.
ii. ANA-MARIA DE ALMANDOS, b. 04 Apr 1694, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (1) COLONEL PRUDENCIO DE OROBIO-Y-BASTERRA; m. (2) ANTONIO DE PURUNDARENA; b. Azcoit, Guipuzcoa, Spain; m. (3) GENERAL MATIAS DE AGUIRRE, 30 Apr 1706, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1682.
3. iii. ISABEL DE ALMANDOZ, b. 19 Dec 1695, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Generation No. 2
2. CAPTAIN JOSE-FELIX3 DE ALMANDOS (PEDRO2, MARTIN1) was born 16 Jan 1691 in Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died 03 Sep 1734 in killed by Indians at Tamaulipas. He married MARIA DE-LA-GARZA-OCHOA 06 Jul 1707 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of FRANCISCO DE-LA-GARZA-GARCIA and GERTRUDIS OCHOA-DE-ELIZALDE. She was born 1692 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
5. iii. CAPTAIN PEDRO-TADEO DE ALMANDOZ, b. 07 Apr 1709, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
iv. JOSEPH-JOSEPH DE ALMANDOS, b. 25 Jun 1717, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
3. ISABEL3 DE ALMANDOZ (PEDRO2 DE ALMANDOS, MARTIN1) was born 19 Dec 1695 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married GENERAL BUENAVENTURA DE AGUIRRE 14 Dec 1710 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, son of PEDRO DE AGUIRRE-GUILLEN and MARIANA GONZALEZ-DE-PAREDES-OLEA-CAMACHO. He was born 1681.
i. ISABEL4 DE AGUIRRE-ALMANDOZ, m. JUAN-ANGEL YNDA-JAUREGUI, 13 Jan 1753, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico1; b. Valle de Baztan, Navarra, Spain.
Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajarz by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 294. [#66-4].
ii. MATHIAS DE AGUIRRE-ALMANDOZ, b. 08 Mar 1715/16, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; m. (1) FRANCISCA GOMEZ-DE-EL-CASTILLO; m. (2) JUANA-GERTRUDIS DAVILA-VALDEZ, 22 Oct 1764, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; b. Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
iii. PEDRO-JOSEPH AGUIRRE-ALMANDOZ, b. 26 Apr 1713, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
Generation No. 3
4. MARIA-ANA4 DE ALMANDOS (JOSE-FELIX3, PEDRO2, MARTIN1) She married FRANCISCO DE TORUNDARENA 09 Jun 1749 in Saltillo, Coahulia, Mexico. He was born in Azcoit, Guipuzcoa, Spain.
i. FRANCISCO-JAVIER5 DE TORUNDARENA, m. MARIA-DE-TOMAS VALDEZ-DAVILA, 27 May 1779, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
5. CAPTAIN PEDRO-TADEO4 DE ALMANDOZ (JOSE-FELIX3 DE ALMANDOS, PEDRO2, MARTIN1) was born 07 Apr 1709 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA LEAL-DE-LEON 07 Nov 1728 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico2, daughter of ANTONIO LEAL-DE-LEON-Y-GONZALEZ and MANUELA GUERRA-CANAMAR-FERNANDEZ. She was born 1708 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra., Nadine M. Vasquez., and Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 84.
6. i. MARIA-MANUELA5 DE ALMANDOZ, b. Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
ii. JOSEPH-FELIS-LAURIANO DE ALMANDOZ, b. 24 Jul 1744, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
Generation No. 4
6. MARIA-MANUELA5 DE ALMANDOZ (PEDRO-TADEO4, JOSE-FELIX3 DE ALMANDOS, PEDRO2, MARTIN1) was born in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married JOSEPH-JOAQUIN CANTU-DEL-RIO-Y-DE-LA-CERDA 12 Aug 1759 in Nuesta Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of FRANCISCO CANTU-DEL-RIO-Y-DE-LA-CERDA and MARIA-JOSEFA-MANUELA DE-LA-GARZA-GUTIERREZ. He was born 19 Aug 1736 in Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
i. JOSEPH-LORENZO6 CANTU-ALMANDOZ, b. 17 Aug 1760, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
ii. JOSEPH-ANTONIO-PASQUAL CANTU-ALMANDOZ, b. 30 May 1763, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
iii. JOSEPH-MARIA CANTU-ALMANDOZ, b. 18 Sep 1769, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
iv. ANA-MARIA CANTU-DEL-RIO-Y-DE-LA-CERDA, b. 25 Feb 1772, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
v. JOSE-NEPOMUCENO-DE-JESUS CANTU-ALMANDOZ, b. 26 May 1788, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

1. Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez,and Baldomero Vela, Jr., Page 294. [#66-4]..

2. Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, and Baldomero Vela, Jr., Page 84. [#21--5]..




Dominican Archives
Los Cubanos Escrito por el Periodista Mexicano Victor Mona

PLEASE CONTACT Ramona Hernández, Ph.D. 


I am pleased to share the attached article on the Institute's Dominican Archives. It appears in the January/February issue of Dominican Times Magazine, an up-and-coming publication with an ever-growing and influential readership. The article-"The Dominican Archives: A Place for the History of Dominican-Americans"-was written by Anthony Stevens-Acevedo, a historian by training and the assistant director of CUNY-DSI. It is one of the many feature articles in this current issue commemorating the Dominican Republic's Independence Day.

The photographs included in the article are from the following collections in the Archives: The Normandía Maldonado, The Juan A. Paulino, and The Mercedes Gonzalez. These community leaders, founders of some of the most prominent cultural organizations we have today, have donated their papers to the Dominican Archives.

The issue also profiles five accomplished individuals of Dominican heritage: Hon. Diana Reyna, Hon. Miguel Martínez, Hon. Adriano Espaillat, and Hon. José Peralta-the four Dominicans holding elected office in New York-and Dr. Hugo Morales, the first person of Dominican descent to be appointed to the City University of New York's Board of Trustees.

Let us unite in celebrating these high achievers who have chosen to serve in the public interest. I ask you to please share their profiles with family, friends, neighbors, co-workers, and with everyone everywhere. Each of us benefits from their achievements, and our young people should be reminded of the many doors these extraordinary individuals-and others in our community-have opened for them.

Thank you for your continuing support of our efforts through attendance at CUNY-DSI events, contributions of valuable historical materials to the Archives, and the many other ways you help us advance our common mission: the betterment of the Dominican people. We will continue our efforts to further strengthen CUNY-DSI's role as a premier research institution and an academic resource that all Dominicans can be proud of.

Ramona Hernández, Ph.D.
Director, CUNY Dominican Studies Institute &
Professor of Sociology
The City College of New York
Convent Avenue at 138th Street
New York, NY 10031
Tel. (212) 650-7496
Fax (212) 650-7489


Los cubanos Salen de una isla pequeña y se han diseminado por todo el mundo. Uno es
profesor en una universidad de Australia; otro, inauguró en Alaska un restaurante. Nada los detiene, ni el frio ni el calor. Los seduce el trópico de la Florida, pero soportan igualmente a pie firme los hielos
de Boston y Nueva York. No mendigan, trabajan. Los que en Cuba eran pobres, aquí son ricos. Los que allá eran medio pelo, aquí son pelo y medio.

Ningun obstáculo detiene su laboriosidad beligerante si la oferta es digna. Uno es rector de la Universidad; otro, maquilla muertos. Cambian, pero solo en la superficie. En Miami siguen jugando la bolita (lotería Prohibida), peleando gallos a escondidas y enviando los hijos a la escuela privada. En Madrid, estan contra Jose Luis Rodríguez Zapatero y en Caracas, contra Hugo Chavez, siempre en la oposición.

Se les critica y se les envidia pero en el fondo se les admira. Gallegos por el trabajo y judios por la voluntad de sobrevivir, constituyen una legión empecinada que no se deja ignorar. Traen su musica calurosa, el ruido de sus tambores, los frijoles negros y el bistec de palomilla con moros y maduros. Pero traen sobre todo la simpatia, la cordialidad y la laboriosidad.

Quienes son? Son los cubanos del destierro, la unica población mundial trasplantada, que (salvo los hebreos) en más de un tercio de siglo no han perdido su identidad. Los que admiraban a Cuba desde lejos como ejemplo supremo de pujanza latinoamericana, los que veian a Cuba como un milagro
etnico y cultural, donde todo parecia un relajo pero todo funcionaba bien,

ya no tienen que ir a Cuba para conocerla. Aquí la tienen dentro de los mismos Estados Unidos. Esta es Cuba. Estos son los cubanos. Exagerados, fanfarrones, ruidosos, sí, pero tambien intensos, profundamente creadores y buenos amigos. Y que no han hecho en estos 47 años de destierro los cubanos para poder sobrevivir con dignidad? Cuál actividad manual o intelectual no han ensayado en este o en aquel pais, por complicada que que pareciera, lo han realizado para no quedarse detrás, para no dejarse discriminar.

En alguna de esas actividades han llegado tan lejos que superan a emigraciones que los precedieron por cerca de medio siglo. No hay hospital en Estados Unidos donde no haya hoy un medico cubano. No hay periódico donde no haya un periodista cubano, ni banco donde no haya un banquero cubano, ni publicitaria donde no haya un publicitario cubano, ni escuela donde no haya un maestro cubano, ni universidad donde no haya un profesor cubano, ni comercio donde no haya un manager cubano.

En las Grandes Ligas del béisbol sus nombres tambien brillan. En Madrid, el primer poeta latinoamericano es un negro cubano.

En la Coca Cola, Kellog's, McCormick, Pepsi Cola y tantas otras su dirigente es o fué un cubano. En el Congreso de Washington hay cuatro cubanos, en el Senado federal se sientan dos cubanos, el Ministro de Comercio de E. U. es un cubano, la Viceministro de Salud es una doctora cubana. Caramba, son unos pocos en éste pais y llegaron hace muy poco tiempo.

En la tierras prestadas del extranjero parecen llevar siempre en la frente la marca del sitio de donde vienen. Los cubanos llevan a Cuba. La enaltecen y la honran, porque ademas de en la frente la llevan en el corazón.

Pero hay algo en el desterrado cubano, a mi juicio, superior a esa actividad profesional triunfante, y es su odio al despotismo del que huyen, su amor a la tierra que dejaron. Eso lo separa y lo define. Eso
da a sus triunfos en medio del desarraigo, una grandeza que de otro modo no tendría. Por qué, preguntan algunos, no se acaban de quedar tranquilos los exiliados cubanos?

Por que no aceptan de una vez que perdieron la batalla? Se han afincado definitivamente en estas tierras hospitalarias que los han acogido y donde viven en lo material muchas veces mejor que como vivian en Cuba. Los que se preguntan ésto, no conocen a los cubanos. El cubano sabe esto. Aun teniendolo todo, si les falta Cuba, no tienen nada. Quizas por ello han hecho su Cuba aquí. Saben mas todavía que esta prosperidad de que disfrutan, lejos de su isla hambreada y aterrada, es en cierto modo una forma de traición. Por eso, si se le mira bien, se verá que a veces parece que el cubano rie, pero en realidad esta llorando por dentro.

Le nace el hijo, le crece, se le gradua en la Universidad, pero el cubano suspira. Ay, si estuviera en mi Cuba! Compra una casa, un auto, o una lancha y sigue suspirando. Ay! Si todo esto lo tuviera en Cuba! De una manera misteriosa, que no puede definir, hay un vinculo con aquello que tira de aquí hacia allá. Ahora que perdió a su pais, sabe que no puede vivir sin Cuba, y la sueña de noche, y le agiganta los valores y la embellece y la idealiza, y se culpa de no haberla entendido mejor, y la recrea en su cantos y bailes, y la revive en sus historias en sus costumbres y en sus comidas.

Por que compran hoy los cubanos mas libros cubanos que nunca? Por que tienen sus casas, sus negocios y sus oficinas llenas de palmas, de banderas, de escudos y de retratos de Jose Marti? Por qué aunque sean USA citizens SIGUEN SIENDO CUBANOS? Por qué se reunen en sus municipios formados en el exilio, borrando antiguos antagonismos de partido o clase?

Porque el cubano sabe que lo unico auténticamente suyo fue SU CUBA y que a ella quisiera el poder regresar. No les preocupa que le devuelvan la residencia o el negocio, si lo tenian. Lo unico que desean es volver a su tierra. La casa donde nació esta destruída, al pueblo se lo han puesto desconocido, la madre ha muerto. Pero no importa. El exiliado cubano quiere de todos modos ir a esa casa, a ese pueblo y a esa tumba. La Patria empieza ahí. En el exilio tropieza, yerra y se equivoca, pero está salvado tambien porque en el fondo de su ser nunca traicionó a Cuba.

Cuando llegue ese momento muchos volveran, otros no podran hacerlo, pero las semillas que dejaron donde estuvieron exiliados no los olvidará, perdurarán por siempre y para siempre porque lo hicieron con mucho sacrificio, tenacidad y amor. Y aunque a lo mejor no tendremos la oportunniad de leerlo, muchos escribirán sobre su paso aquí para orgullo de sus descendientes.

Sent by Sal Del Valle


State Tourism Information Management
Casa de Libro
Tour to the Basque areas of Spain
Correcting Incorrect Information about Cristobal Colon

This message has been sent by "Sociedad Estatal de Gestión de la Información Turística, S. A." (State Tourism Information Management Company) (SEGITUR) (calle José Lázaro Galdiano nº 4, 3º, 28036, Madrid) from

Calendar of upcoming Events, as well as mini-articles featuring special sites.  
Sent by Bill Carmena


I found this great website for ordering books from Spain. There's even information there about ordering books offline. When I was in Spain some years ago I asked an employee at  that bookstore if I could order books through the mail. She didn't seem to know. Perhaps back then one couldn't, but you can now. Check out the website:

Jaime Cader

Basque Country Tour concentrates on Spanish Colonial History

October 1 – 14, 2007 is the scheduled dates for a tour to the Basque Country of Spain. The tour will be led by Don Garate, Chief of Interpretation and Historian at Tumacacori National Historical Park in Tumacacori, Arizona. Author of several books on both Juan Bautista de Anza, Sr. and Jr., Don will be bringing his expertise to this tour. In addition, we will be having local guides to explain the areas to which we will be traveling. Cities to be visited include Barcelona, Pamplona, San Sebastian, Bilbao with a visit to the Guggenheim Museum, Santander, Burgos and Logrono. Our tour will include many of the small villages in the Basque Country where many of the Spanish Military men originated. If you can trace your family heritage to the Basque Country and wish to learn more about your ancestors and the area, come join us on the tour.

Terra Travel of Phoenix, Arizona is handling the arrangements. It will take 25 people to make the trip a go. A $500 deposit will hold your seat and we should know by May 21 if the tour will take place. A full refund will be made at that time if you have made a deposit and we are unable to secure the number of people needed. The tour price of $3,599 per person/double occupancy includes airfare from Phoenix*, 12 nights hotel accommodations, 12 breakfasts, 2 dinners, gratuities for tour director and 2 local guides. Add $608 for single accommodations. Be sure to consider travel insurance. You may contact Jill McCarthy at Terra Travel at 800-835-8646 for details and to make your deposit arrangements.

*Special arrangements can be made if you wish to depart from another city.
E-mail to get a package or call at 602-993-1162.  Linda Rushton


Incorrect information that was found within the genealogy of Diego Colón, the son to Christopher Columbus aka Cristóbal Colón

By Brandon Josef Szinavel

NOTE: This is resurrected information with regards to  historians, genealogists and other authors. Everyone is entitled to their own opinion with all respect of research.

Don Diego Colón, native of Lisbon, the capital of the Kingdom of Portugal, during the time of King Joáo II of Portugal. He first had a relationship with Doña Isabel de Samba, native of Valladolid, Spain in 1507. Second relationship was to Constanca de Rozas. Other relationships where in Santo Domingo between 1509-1523.

The illegitimate son of Don Diego Colón, the 2nd Admiral and Viceroy of the Indies and his mistress, Doña Isabel de Samba.

  1. i. Don Cristóbal Colón de Samba, born in 1508, in Valldoild, Spain and living in 1523, according to the will, he was still alive.

  2. The illegitimate son of Don Diego Colón, the 2nd Admiral and Viceroy of the Indies and his mistress, Constanca de Rozas or de Rosa.

  3. i. Don Francisco Colón y de Rozas, died as a infant in Seville, Spain.

The legitimate children of Diego Colón, the 2nd Admiral and Viceroy of the Indies and Doña María de Toledo y de Rojas

3. i. Doña Felipa Colón de Toledo, born in 1510 and died in 1546, in Santo Domingo.

+2. ii. Doña María Colón de Toledo, born in 1511, Santo Domingo. She married to

Don Sancho Folch de Córdona y Ruíz de Lihori, Admiral of Aragón.

+3. iii. Doña Juana Colón de Toledo, born in 1512, Santo Domingo. She married to

Don Carlos Luís de la Cueva y de Toledo, Marqouis of Villamejor.

+4. iv. Doña Isabel Colón de Toledo, born in 1514, Santo Domingo. She married to

Dom Jorge de Braganza e de Mello, the primer Count of Gelves. She died in

September 26th of 1551, in Seville, Spain.

+5. v. Don Luís Colón de Toledo, born in Feb, 22, 1522, Santo Domingo. He fathered a daughter named after his sister, Juana. His first marriage was to María de Orozco, a maiden to Don Pedro de Alvarado. His second marriage was to Doña María de Mosquera, the daughter to Don Juan de Mosquera and Doña Efrasina Pasamonte. This begot two daughters, María and Felipa. He next married while being married, to Doña Ana de Castro y de Osorio, begot a stillborn daughter.

He then was jailed being a polygamist in Oran, Africa. He married by secret to a 14 years old girl named, Luísa de Caravjal, the daughter to Francisco de Caravjal and Luísa de Guevara. Two children where born, Cristóbal Colón de Carvajal, recognized as an illegitimate son and Petrolina Colón de Toledo. Don Luís’s titles was passed to his second letimate daughter and his nephew/son in-law.

+6. vi. Don Cristóbal Colón de Toledo, born in 1523, Santo Domingo. He first married Doña María Leonor de Zuazo. She died and he become a widow. His second marriage was to Ana de Prava, the 2 children where: Doña Francisca and Don Diego Colón de Prava, heir to his uncle as Duke of Veragua. The 3rd marriage was to Doña María Magdalena de Guzmán de Anna, this produced a daughter,

Doña María Colón de Toledo y de Guzmán. He died in 1579 off the coast of Peru, on route to see his daughter and son in-law.

+7. vii. Don Diego Colón de Toledo, born in 1524, Santo Domingo. Never seeing his father. He was raised in Spain. Brought up as the page to Prince Felipe of Spain later King Felipe II of Spain. Where in 1535 he was accepted by the push of his eldest brother as a Knight in the Order of Santiago. He married Doña Isabel Justinian. In his will of June, 3rd of 1544, he declared in Seville, that his wife was pregnant. The daughter to Juan Bautista Justiniano native of the Republic of Genoa and Brdíga Sánchez y Maldonado, native of Seville.

He was brought back from Spain to Santo Domingo by his irate mother, due that his wife was not of noble birth. Where she sent him to Veragua (Panama), where he died of wounds by the Indian raids in Nobmre de Dios, Veragua. A nurse by the name of Catalina Enríquez took care of Diego, according to his mother’s will of September, 23rd of 1548.

With in the same will, Doña María de Toledo y de Rojas, declared in the San Francisco Monetary they knew who was his heir.

According to the Archives of the Indies, the siblings of Isabel Justinian where Living in Santo Domingo and perhaps raised their nephew to adult hood.

The illegitimate son of Diego Colón, the 2nd Admiral and Viceroy of the Indies and Señorita Rodríguez

  1. Don Francisco Colón y Rodríguez, born out of wedlock in Santo Domingo, perished in Veragua with his half brother, Don Diego Colón de Toledo

The illegitimate son of Diego Colón, the 2nd Admiral and Viceroy of the Indies and Señorita Oliveras.

1. Don Francisco Colón y Oliveras, born out of wedlock in Santo Domingo, was given 100,000 marvadas by his father’s widow, Doña María de Toledo y Rojas, where she declared that Don Francisco Colón, my son to the Admiral shall have this 100, 000 marvadillas of gold and if God shall call him that his wife, Doña Violante shall receive it.


Diego Colón de Toledo, native of Santo Domingo de Guzmán, Hispinola. The last child to Diego Colón, second admiral and viceroy of the Indies and María de Toledo, a member of the noble house of Alba and niece to Duke of Alba. Never seeing his father but, being raised by his mother and brought up in Spain in the courts of King Ferdinand of Aragón his daughter Queen Juana de Loca. Diego was appointed as a page to Prince Felipe II Von Hapsburg y Aragón [King Felipe II]. At age 9 he was knighted in the military order of Santiago in 1535.

He had a promising career and could of followed suit as his elder sisters did with their splendid marriages to the aristocratic nobles of Spain and Portugal, but he followed the path of his elder brother, Luís Colón de Toledo, third admiral of the Inides and the primer Duke of Veragua and primer marques of Jamaica. His elder brother, fathered a daughter named Juana Colón de Toledo at age 19 and four marriages over he was jailed for polygamy. Young Diego Colón de Toledo had a testimony declared in the 3rd day of June of 1544, Seville, Spain. He declared that his legitimate wife, Doña Isabel Justiniano was pregnant. For which in the will he declared all of his positions would go to his unborn son or daughter. In 1538, Fernándo Colón, the illegitimate son of Christopher Columbus, and the uncle to Diego, testified that he know of Battista Justiniano, being the father of Isabel Justiniano. This was not welcomed by María de Toledo, where she took her son back to Santo Domingo. Where in 1546, Diego Colón de Toledo, Francisco Colón y Oliveras, a natural son to Diego Colón the and half brother Diego the younger, led by Capitan Cristóbal de Peña, a noble man landed in Veragua [Panama] in a landing point named Nombre de Dios [Name of God], where they were massacred by the local Indians. This was reported by Juan de Mosquera, the father in-law to Luís Colón de Toledo who was the Duke of the providence, learned his brothers’ fate.

Understanding the death of Diego Colón de Toledo, his mother María de Toledo, declared in her last will and testament in September 27, 1548, item number #121.

"In the San Francisco Monastery they knew who was his heir"

En el monsterio de San Francisco sobrán quién fue su heredro y dicho que por qual tiene dos mulas para mucho mas de los que valvin se casas ó se muierse, mando que las dichas mula se paguen lo que pudieren valer y no mas."

This heir/son to Diego Colón de Toledo and Isabel Justiniano was forgotten by his family and history. Quite ironic that historians in the past put the four natural sons of Diego Colón, to his son, Diego Colón de Toledo or at least his two natural sons of Diego the elder as sons too Diego the younger.

Isabel Justiniano, a native of Seville, Spain and the daughter to Battista or Bautista Justiniano and Bridga Sánchez Maldonado also a native of Seville. Other children of Bautista Justiniano and his wife lived in Santo Domingo are mentioned:

  1. Tomás Justiniano y Sánchez, born in 1520 and native of Seville, Spain. Married to Doña Isabel de Osorio Ledesma in 1606. The daughter of don Jácome de Osorio and doña Inés de Ledsma. Maternal granddaughter of Capitan Cristóbal de Lesdsma, a conquistador with Rodrigo I de Bastídas, first Lord of the house of Bastídas and conquistador and governor of Santa Marta [Columbia]. Tomás and
  2. Isabel had succession, Inés married to Baltazár Esteves de Figueroa, a military general , with suc., the other child is Jácome married to Isabel de la Gama in Cuba, and Luís Justiniano o de Osorio Ledsma without suscesscion.

  3. Luís Justiniano y Sánchez, native of Seville and passed through Santo Domingo in 1570. His where about are unknown after 1570.
  4. Francisca Justiniano y Sánchez, married to don Pedro de Bardecí, a adelantado and a family member of Aragonese noble house. Son of Lt. Governor don Lope de Bardecrí of the Admiral, Luís Colon de Toledo and his wife, doña Isabel de Nuñez de Agüero, a lady in the court of María de Toledo, the widow to Diego Colón, second admiral and viceroy of the Indies. Succession, don Pedro de Bardecí Justiniano, a regidor of Santo Domingo, married to Elivra Pacheco.

In Henry Harrisse’s book, Christope Colomb writes that Diego Colón y Toledo and his wife was known to go to the cathedral in Santo Domingo to hear the friars sing in course. Knowing this Diego Colón y Toledo’s wife Isabel Justiniano must of given birth to a son in Santo Domingo de Guzmán. This child was legitimate and was probably was at least 2 years of age when María de Toledo had this her grandson mentioned.

Diego Colón y Toledo is not the father to Cristóbal Colón y Samba or Francisco Colón y Rozas both natives of Spain and the natural sons to Diego Colón. This also includes both Francisco Colón y Rodríguez whom married Violante and the other Francisco Colón y Oliveras whom died in Veragua in 1546.

In Jérez de los Frontera, Spain the surname Colón was found in the early 16th century. Knowing that Isabel Justiniano y Sánchez was in Seville while pregnant, perhaps Felipe Sánchez Colón is a possible son or grandson to Diego Colón de Toledo and Isabel Justiniano.

Felipe Sánchez Colón married to Leonor Sánchez Navarro parents of:

Pedro Colón y Salmerón, born and baptized in Chipinoa of the 19th of February in 1576. He married María González de Medina: both are the parents of:

Alonso Colón y González de Medina Gatián, born and baptized in the year of 1627 in Chipinoa and where he died in 1691. Married to María Josefa Medina Corbalán, established in Jerez de la Frontera parents of: Pedro; Baltasár, Manuel, Luís Isadoro and Paula Colón González de Mendoza y Medina, where the eldest son is mentioned:

Pedro [Colón] González de Medina, a gentleman from Jérez, living in Cúneo Vidal, the author Bartolomé Gutierréz, wrote; Historia de las antiüedades y memorias de la Muy Noble y Muy Leal Cuidad de Xerez de la Frontera. Bartolomé Gutierréz mentioned that Don Pedro lived in Casa de Vargas and that he wrote being a descendant of the Discover and Don Pedro Colón González de Medina being married to Ana María de Pareja Spínola.

                                The natural sons of Diego Colón

  1. Francisco Colón y Rozas, the natural son to Diego Colón, second admiral and viceroy of the Indies and to Constanca de Rozas, died as an infant. Born in 1508 in Spain.
  2. Cristóbal Colón y Samba, the natural son to Diego Colón, second admiral and vicero of the Indies and to Doña Isabel de Samba, a basque noble woman.
  3. Francisco Colón y Rodríguez, natural son to Diego Colón, second admiral and viceroy of the Indies and to a Spanish woman of Santo Domingo. Killed in 1544 or 1546 in Veragua (Panama).
  4. Francisco Colón y Oliveras, the natural son to Diego Colón, second admiral and a girl named Doña Violante. In María de Toledo’s will, item number 57.

Don Francisco Colón, that thirty thousand marvadis the natural son of the admiral, my son, this should be favored by conformation and obligation, and if God shall call him that Doña Violante shall receive it".


1Don Luís Colón, probated of the church of San Lazaro. He is I title clearly of "manifest gift" that corrresponde to descendant of the discover2 and the poor expression of San Lazaro not parce reason but of declaring I know by her in place not to asenter that had made testament as he were unavoidable to point out by his brother in law [Don Rodrigo IV of Bastídas y Fernandéz de Fuenmayor3 , the deceased had estabado forced to make a will according to the Spanish laws and the dioceses canons of ainosoa and dioceses cars of views but very known were the surname and very illustrious not to oppose their quality of probe to the gift and the last name. Don Luís the leper was third son of Luís Colón and María de Castellanos;4 first was Francisco the second;5 Miguel the fourth;6 Francisca; the fifth7 and Elena.8

1 Santo Domingo, Dilucidaciones Historicas Volume I, page 315, de Utrera, Fray Cipriano, 1995, Santo Domingo, Domincan Republic.

2 The Legacy of Christopher Columbus, Volume, page, 248, Schoenrich, Otto, 1948, Glendale, California, United States of America.

3Capitan Don Rodrigo IV de Bastídas y Fernandéz de Fuenmayor, brother inlaw to Don Luís Colón and Doña María de Castellanos. Husband to doña Juana de Castellanos y Peñalosa and the son of Capitan Don Rodrigo V de Bastídas y de Oviedo, mayor of Santo Domingo, Lord the house of Bastídas and to Doña Felipa Margarita Fernandéz de Fuenmayor y Berrió. In which doña Juana de Castellanos y Peñalosa and her sisters, doña María de Castellanos and doña Francisca de Peñalosa, wife to Luís Jalblalra, Francisca, Juana and María are siblings or related that of to Capitan and Regidor of Río de Hecho, (Columbia), Don Francisco de Castellanos y Peñalosa and of don Miguel de Castellanos y Peñalosa who are both died in Río de Hecho, AGI.

4Don Luís Colón y Castellanos, baptizted of the 1st of day of June of , 1643, the godfather was, Capítan Don Rodrigo IV de Bastídas y Fernandéz de Fuenmayor his uncle, Book 2 of baptisms, number, 256, Santa María de Encarnación Cathedral, Santo Domingo, Hispinola (DR).

5Don Francisco Colón y Castellanos, baptized of the 19th day of July of 1641, the godfather was, Don Rodrigo IV de Bastídas y Fernandéz de Fuenmayor his uncle, Book 2 of baptisms, number, 4, Santa María de Encarnación Cathedral, Santo Domingo, Hispinola (DR). Don Francisco Colón y Castellanos married to Juana de la Concepción, with successión, Don Cristóbal Colón and of Luísa Colón.

6Don Miguel Colón y Castellanos, baptized of the 9th day of March, the godfathers where: Capítan Don Rodrigo IV de Bastídas y Fernandéz de Fuenmayor, his uncle and Rodrigo’s son in-law, Manuel González de Mello, the natural son of Don Manuel Grados, Archbishop of Oviedo and Doña Andreza Collantes. Manuel married to Doña Elena de Peñalosa, the daughter of Luís Jablalra and Doña Francisca de Peñalosa. The other sister to Elena was, doña Leonor de Penalosa married to Don Juan de Loaces Ortáñez the Regidor of Santo Domingo, in which their son Juan the younger married his first cousin, Doña Mariana de Bastídas y Peñalosa, the daughter of Capítan Don Rodrigo IV de Bastídas y Fernandéz de Fuenmayor and Dona Juana de Castellanos y Peñalosa, mayor of Santo Domingo, Admiral of the Flotilla and the Lord of house of Bastídas.

7 Doña Francisca Colón y Castellanos, baptized of the 26th day of July of 1646, the godfather was, Don Gonzalo……, Book 2 of baptisms, number, 497, Santa María de Encarnación Cathedral, Santo Domingo, Hispinola (DR).

8 Doña Elena Colón y Castellanos, baptized of the 6th day of April of 1646, the godfather (not legible), Book 2 of baptisms, number, 586, Santa María de Encarnación Cathedral, Santo Domingo, Hispinola (DR).


Don Bosco
Fundación Archivo Gráfico y Museo Histórico  

Mandados por Angel Custodio Rebollo

Durante el pasado mes de febrero hemos recibido las siguientes peticiones:

La familia Guajardo busca información y noticias de Chile, relativa a
su familiar Carlos Eduardo Guajardo Lopez, nacido en Santiago de
Chile. Contacto:

Doris Prieto esta interesada en localizar sus antepasados en España.
El apellido que le interesa es Prieto. Contacto:

Rafael Bernal, busca sus posible familiares en la zona de Nueva España
o Florida, de apellido Bernal y que emigraron en 1640. 
Contacto: refª

Sent by Angel Custodio Rebollo 


DON BOSCO: un film de Lodovico Gasparini
 La aventura vital y espiritual de Don Bosco
 En un siglo agitado por las luchas políticas, tensiones religiosas, nuevas tecnologías y revoluciones culturales, Don Bosco, un hombre de fe, con una dedicación total, logró transmitir un mensaje de "razón, religión y cariño" a miles de muchachos abandonados, atraídos por su afabilidad y su familiaridad con Dios. Así superaron la pobreza, la ignorancia y el desamparo social, y sintieron la emoción de sentirse queridos. (200 minutos, contenidos del DVD)

Sent by Antonio Garcia


Hola: les envío el boletín digital de febrero 2007 de la Fundación Archivo Gráfico y Museo Histórico de la Ciudad de San Francisco y la Región, de modo que puedan conocer nuestras actividades. ste boletín se suma al nuestra edición mensual en papel destinada a los asociados.
Muchas gracias, Arturo A. Bienedell, Presidente AGM

Iturraspe y S. del Estero
2400 San Francisco
(Córdoba)- Argentina
Correo electrónico:

Noticias del AGM 1
Agradecimiento a socios 1
Acontecimiento próximo 1
Historia del barrio Sarmiento 2
Entregarán buzones 2
Apoyo de Nestor Doliani 2
Donaciones durante enero 2
Nuevos aportes al patrimonio 3
Buenas expectativas 3
Um bosquecillo nativo 3
Ud. puede asociarse al AGM 4
Libros de historia lugareña 4


Why Mexico celebrates St Patrick’s Day!
Quick searches on


Why Mexico celebrates St Patrick’s Day!

The San Patricios: An Historical Perspective

At a recent screening of The San Patricios documentary at George Mason University in Fairfax, Va, historian BRIAN MCGINN gave the following analysis of the San Patricio Battalion. The program was sponsored by the Conradh na Gaelige (Gaelic League), based in Washington D.C. We reprint his remarks with his permission.

The first question that arises in connection with the San Patricio documentary is why it took 150 years for the story of the San Patricios to be told in such a compelling manner? First, from the viewpoint of the U.S. military, the less said about such subjects, the better. Desertions reflect poorly on political leadership and military command; defections even more so. And this is still true, since many Americans are still unaware of the U.S. defectors who fought with the NVA/VC during the Vietnam War.

In general, Irish-Americans have also been uncomfortable with the story of the San Patricios. They could argue, and convincingly, that the overwhelming majority of the 4,811 Irish-born soldiers who served in the U.S. army during the Mexican-American War did not desert. Even if all the San Patricios soldiers were Irish--and they were not--Irish-born deserters would represent less than four per cent of Irish soldiers. During the 19th century,when the Irish place in U.S. society was far from secure, when Irish immigrants faced the hostility of violent nativists and the Know-Nothing Movement, dwelling on the San Patricios was seen as giving ammunition to the enemy. And those instincts were correct--the Know Nothings in fact used the San Patricios in their propaganda as proof of the unreliability of Irish Catholic immigrants. Most of the leading generals of the Civil War--Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee among them--had served as junior officers in the Mexican-American War.

It is interesting to note that never again would U.S. military commanders make the mistake of sending Irish Catholic soldiers to face death under bigoted officers or without chaplains of their own faith. The well-known blood-sacrifices of the Irish during the Civil War--at Antietam, Fredericksburg and Gettysburg--to a large extent put to rest the question of Irish loyalty to the Union. But it ushered in an era of historical myth-making in which the Irish became superpatriots, steadfastly loyal to the Republic and always fighting on the "right" side. Carried to its extreme, we have the claim that Irish Catholics were loyal patriots to a man and that Irishmen in fact composed half the forces of George Washington during the American Revolution. This school of Irish-American history, of which the leading exponent was Michael J. O'Brien of the American Irish Historical Institute, tolerated no exceptions to its message.

Year shortly after the documentary was shown on RTE on September 18--the anniversary of the San Patricio executions at San Angel. And the sense of excitement and pride among those who had seen The San Patricios was very palpable. But perhaps Irish people have a more realistic view of their own military history.

They know that Irish soldiers could be found fighting on both sides of almost every major conflict from the 17th through the mid-20th century. In Europe, in the armies of France, Spain, Austria, Russia--and Britain. In the New World, on both sides of the American Revolution--we have eyewitness accounts of the Maguire brothers, who had been fighting on opposite sides, meetinSo most Irish-American scholarship on the San Patricios, until recently, was devoted to proving that a) the unit was not really Irish, b) if it was Irish, it was not Catholic, and c) in case a and b were proven correct, it was an ineffectual band of drunks who had repudiated their Irish heritage.

After watching the film, we know better. Although men of Irish birth may not have made up an absolute majority of the San Patricios at all times, Irish Catholics did form its largest ethnic component--ranging by various estimates from 40 per cent to 60 per cent. And the ethos of the unit was undeniably Irish.

Curiously, people in Ireland have no trouble in accepting and indeed embracing the San Patricios as national Irish heroes. I happened to be visiting Ireland last
g after the battle of Saratoga. And they know that Lord Edward Fitzgerald, one of the heroes of the 1798 Rising, served in the British uniform in South Carolina during the Revolution. They know that opposing the 144,000 Irishmen in the Union Army were some 30,000 in Confederate ranks, and that the Irish Brigade's charge up Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg was halted by the fire of Robert McMilllan's regiment of Irish rebels. They also know that desertion and defection are part and parcel of every war. And that bodies of Irish soldiers have changed sides since at least 1586, when a regiment of Irish Catholics rounded up after the Desmond Rebellion and shipped to the Netherlands to fight for the Protestant Dutch, promptly deserted to their Spanish Catholic opponents. They recall that during World War I, Roger Casement toured German POW camps and recruited some 50 Irish prisoners--captured as members of British units--to form the nucleus of an Irish Brigade fighting on the German side. So the fact that 200 or more Irishmen deserted and changed sides during the U.S., war with Mexico should not surprise us. Indeed, in the political and religious climate of the time, we could legitimately ask why the number was so small.

Which brings up a final point: the vast majority of Irish soldiers who have fought in foreign armies have served with noted courage and loyalty. Witness the 202 Medals of Honor awarded to Irish-born U.S. soldiers between 1861 and 1914. Against that background, we should take note when Irishmen as a body make a conscious decision to risk their lives by switching sides in the midst of a conflict. And we should treat with healthy skepticism simplistic explanations that they were simply a misguided bunch of naive and reckless adventurers, motivated by opportunism and too much alcohol.

Finally, we should welcome this film, and the school of "warts and all" history it exemplifies, as evidence of the maturity and self-assurance of Irish America, of its openness to an honest reexamination of its own past and the many varieties of Irish experience in the Americas.

Brian McGinn


Quick searches on

Editor: I stumbled on surname information from Ancestry menu which includes: 

1) Civil War: It appears that during the Civil War, 3 Lozanos served in the Confederate Army,  and 2 in the Union Army.
2) Immigration
3) Life Expectancy:
I found this extremely interesting. Based on the Social Security data, Ancestry compared the Average Life Expectancy of a specific surname to the General Public. In each case, which ever Spanish surname I entered, there was a negative dip in the 1940s. It seemed to suggest that many more people with these last names in the United States died during the war: I tried Lozano, Garcia, Lopez, Hernandez, Ramirez.
4) Name Distribution Map of the states for 1840, 1880, 1920
The maps are clear enough to distinguish the states and are colored coded to see the distribution clearly.
5) Name meanings Lozano
Spanish: nickname for an elegant or haughty person, from lozano ‘splendid’, later ‘good-looking’.  Source: Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, 6) 6) Newspaper Headlines: It did not appear that they were surname sensitive.
7) Occupations
This was interesting too.  Over-all, in the U.S. 35% were identified as farmers in 1880, but only 15% of the Lozano were in that category.
Place of Origin
8) Top Places of Origin for Lozano of Immigrants 
Spain 13, Italy 9, Cuba 6, Mexico 6, Venezuela 4, England 2 
Since the information compiled by was from the New York Passenger Lists, one would assume that these Lozanos are later arrivals.  This suggests that Lozanos outside of Texas might not be related to the original Don Pedro Lozano that was in Cuba in 1510, joined the Narvaez on the 2nd expedition to Mexico, then joined with Hernan Cortez in Mexico.   
9) Place of Departure


Search Census by Place of Birth
Library of Congress to Digitize Genealogy Books
Map Guide to the Federal Censuses, 1790-1920 

Genealogy Photos
LostCousins - a new approach to US genealogy 

When you hit a brick wall searching for immigrant ancestors, try searching census records by place of birth alone after entering the state and city where they lived. This is most effective where the population count among the immigrant community in the city is expected to be relatively low. All the misspelled surnames suddenly appear, and among these you may recognize your ancestor based on similar spellings, age, familiar given names, etc. I found a great-grandfather, Paul Arata, a native of Italy listed as Paulo Larate in the 1860 census for Philadelphia using this method. He was one of 302 listings, easily scanned in a few minutes. I would never have found him otherwise.

A word of caution--in the nineteenth century, despite the unification of Italy in 1861 and the unification of Germany in 1871, some immigrants reported their place of birth by former kingdoms, duchies, cities, etc. For example, in the 1880 census of Philadelphia, more than 26,000 people reported their place of birth as Germany, but 3,152 reported Bavaria; 4,459 reported Prussia; and 4,427 reported Baden. Since twenty-six independent German states unified to become the German Empire it is possible that any one of these could have been reported as a place of birth. Also, since enumerators were inconsistent in spelling or abbreviating the names of the reported countries, you will find Italians listed under "Italy," "Ita," and "It" as well as Genoa, Florence, Rome, etc. I recommend including all reasonable possibilities in your search argument. It is a powerful tool and brings surprising results.

Louis Arata 
2/5/2007 Ancestry Weekly Journal

The Library of Congress just announced that it has received 2 million from the Alfred P. Sloan foundation to digitize thousands of books. Among those to be digitized are "U.S. genealogy and regimental histories. The former includes many useful county, state, and regional histories, while the latter includes histories, memoirs, diaries and other collections from the Civil War period." Read the whole press release at

RootsWeb Review, 07 February 2007, Vol. 10, No. 6 

"Map Guide to the Federal Censuses, 1790-1920," by William Thorndale and William Dollarhide. Changes in the boundaries so you put in the right county. Rootsweb tip

Genealogy Photos
Hundreds of original photos indexed Over 1,000 old documents available Sent by Janete Vargas


LostCousins - a new approach to US genealogy 

The LostCousins website has a unique system that identifies living relatives who share the same ancestors automatically, confidentially, and with close to 100% accuracy. 

Recognizing that everyone has their own approach to research, and that the very flexibility of the GEDCOM format means that no two files are alike, LostCousins spotted the potential of census data as a way of simply and accurately linking together people who share the same ancestors. 

And to ensure that as many people as possible have access to the census data, LostCousins focuses on censuses that are available at the free FamilySearch website. 

It's a very simple system - but one that's amazingly powerful. LostCousins members enter brief details for their relatives taken from the census transcripts, then click the Search button. Matches with other members who share the same ancestors are identified within seconds, and - because the data is saved - to search again at any point in the future requires little more than a click of the Search button! 

Although LostCousins is new to the US, the system is tried and tested - thousands of researchers with British ancestry have found living relatives through the site since it first opened. The accuracy has been amazing - only a handful of incorrect matches have been reported. 

LostCousins was founded in 2004 by Peter Calver, a British researcher who has visited the US more than 40 times over the past quarter of a century. He stills runs the site, and is really excited about this latest expansion: "This is the moment I've been waiting for! With the addition of the US we now cover most of the English- speaking world - it's an amazing opportunity for our members to discover living relatives without having to work through hundreds of false leads". 

Using data from just one census is like taking a snapshot of a family tree. And because everyone takes the snapshot at the same time - 1880 in the case of the US census, or 1881 for Britain and Canada - the sophisticated software behind the LostCousins site can quickly identify people who share the same ancestors, even if those ancestors died long before 1880. 

Registration and basic membership of LostCousins are completely free. However there are advantages to becoming a paying subscriber, and to celebrate the addition of the US census members who enter the code 1776 when registering will receive a free upgrade to subscriber status that lasts until April 30, 2007. 

The LostCousins website can be found at: 

Family Roots Radio Airing
ProGenealogists, Inc. and Genealogy Today announced the launch of "Family Roots Radio," a weekly Internet radio show devoted to genealogy and family history. This hour-long radio show will begin airing each Thursday at 1 p.m. Pacific time (4 p.m. Eastern), 
beginning February 8, 2007 on Modavox's VoiceAmerica Channel, the nation's leading Internet radio provider.

Hosted by well-known genealogical author, speaker, and researcher, Kory L. Meyerink, the show will feature a wide range of "how-to" elements designed to assist all people interested in family history, from the novice to the professional. In addition to answering general questions from listeners, spotlighting important family history news, and providing research tips from professionals, the show will include guests from among the most prominent genealogists today. The show will also explore effective ways to use software and the Internet in the pursuit of family history, including spotlighting data-rich 
websites. In addition, an "interactive" feature will walk listeners through the use of important sites, while they are listening to the broadcast.

The addition of an interactive website and downloadable archives of past shows will provide many more listener options than available via traditional radio broadcasts. To listen to the show live, log-on to the VoiceAmerica Channel at Kory will take calls toll free at 1-866-472-5788. All past shows will be archived and available in MP3 format for podcast download.

RootsWeb Review, 07 February 2007, Vol. 10, No. 6
Sent by writes:


Dog Adopts a Fawn 

A lady found the fawn under her step (they think the doe might have been hit by a car) .. her Ridge-Back dog is helping look after it. The family named the fawn Bella. Once she has regained her strength (she was not in good shape when the family found her) they are going to send her to some friends who (in the past) raised two orphan deer and released them to the wild. Right now she is being bottle fed. Their dog (Hogan) has basically taken over. The fawn even shares his bed.

Sent by Win Holtzman