Somos Primos

 February 2007 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

California State University Fullerton, Titan Annual Report, Fall 2006
Henry and Rosa Mendoza, San Clemente, California
Living the Mission, click for article.


Content Areas
United States
. . 4
   Action Item . . 4
National Issues . . 13 
   Education . . 22
  Bilingual Education. . 38
. . 47
. . 51
Anti-Spanish Legends . . 56
Military & Law Enforcement Heroes
. . 61
. . 73
. . 82
. . 87
Patriots of American Revolution
. . 90
Orange County,CA . . 99
Los Angeles,CA
. . 103
. . 105
Southwestern US 
. . 122
African-American . . 130
. . 137
. . 150
Texas  . . 152
East of Mississippi . . 162 


East Coast . . 166
Mexico  . . 168
. . 191
. . 194
. . 202
. . 209
Family History
. . 211
. . 216
. . 217
2003 Index 
. . 180 
Community Calendars

2007 SHHAR Meetings Information
Jan 27:  Researching on the Internet
               and Spanish surnames 

Mar 17:  Writing Family Histories
Apr  29:  Family History Conference, 
                5 classes on Hispanic Research
May 26:  Naturalization Records and  
                Using Batch files 
Aug 25:  Hispanic Political Pioneers


"Education is the basis for lifelong success. 
Without education we cannot become the leaders of our own fate." 

Hector M. Flores
National LULAC President, 2002-2006

  Letters to the Editor : 

It looks as if you have another 
extraordinary issue. I really appreciate 
the piece on the Freedmen's bank. Rudy

I still love Somos Primos after all these years.  You have a lot of good information for everyone but, for me, it's because of my husband's background that I enjoy it so much.  Thank you.
Lanne Mitchell
Dear Mr. Inclan; While enjoying a visit with my mother, Lydia Dovalina Hallmark this Chistmas, she encouraged me to search the internet for information on Los Corralitos Ranch, Zapata County, the home of her grandparents, Marcos Dovalina and Josefa Vasquez-Guajardo. While searching I came across the somoprimos website. Finding the:Descendents of Don Francisco Sanchez de la Barrera and Dona Maria Duran de Vzcanga, compiled by John D. Inclan

It was such a joy to me and my mother to read this wonderful research. All the stories she and her parents told were brought into perspective with your work. 
Charles Hallmark,

  Somos Primos  
Mimi Lozano, Editor

Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bill Carmena
Lila Guzman
Granville Hough
John Inclan
Galal Kernahan
J.V. Martinez
Armando Montes
Michael Perez
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Ted Vincent

Fredrick/Linda Aguirre
Juan Armas, Ph.D.
Dan Arellano
Rick Avolio
Armando Ayala, Ph.D.
Dan Ayala
Mercy Bautista Olvera
José Luis Benavides Caicedo
Paul Bergeron
Henry Bisharat-Villarreal
Eliud Bonilla
Roberto Camp y Lewis
Bill Carmena
Henry Casso, Ph.D.
Grace Charles
Robin Collins
Jack Cowan
Johanna De Soto
John Dickinson
Myra Estepa
Lorri Frain
Mickey Garcia
Wanda Garcia
Josue Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Enrique Guevara
Lila Guzman, Ph.D.
Charles Hallm
Kathryn Haviland
Santiago R. Hernandez,
Jørgen Holm
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Jose Huizar
John Inclan
Rick Leal
Rudolph Lewis
Lanne Mitchell
Eddie Morin
Miguel Angel Munoz Borrego
Carlos Munoz, Jr., Ph.D.
Rebecca Nevarez
Paul Newfield III
Guillermo Padilla Origel
Ricardo D. Palacios
Willis Papillion
Jose M. Pena
Gloria Martha Perez Tijerina
Richard Perry
Juan Ramos, Ph.D.
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Cris Rendon
Roberto Reyes Avellaneda
Frances Rios
Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez
José León Robles De La 
Armando Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Consuelo Rodriguez
Ben Romero
Linda Rushton
Benicio Sanchez Garcia
Virginia Sanchez
Tony Santiago
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr
Greg P. Smestad, Ph.D.
Barry Starr
Robert H. Thonhoff
Ricardo Valverde
Janete Vargas
Ted Vincent

SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Yolanda Magdaleno, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal


Action Items 
THE WAR . 14-hour WWII Documentary, excludes Latinos, why???
Letter to Ken Burns by Rick Aguirre, Latino Advocates for Education, Inc.
Hispanic Employment in Federal Agencies
Letter from Los Angeles City Council in support of Guy Gabaldon
Legacy of Valor Display traveling this summer
Dr. Hector P. Garcia Legacy of Valor Projects
Dr. Hector P. Garcia's daughter, Wanda Garcia to share life stories
Idea for 2007: a new $5 coin to honor Dr. Hector P. Garcia 
Effort to have a U.S. postal stamp honoring Postmaster Hector Godinez.

National Issues
Lawmakers want museum to salute Latinos' U.S. role
Velazquez Joins Pelosi in Parade of House 'Firsts'
Voces Primeras, a film by Mujeres de La Caucus Chicana
Chicana Issues Conference publication, La Razon Mestiza
Book: Chicanas in Charge, Texas Women in the Electoral Arena
Wired for Success
English Language Learners at Hub of National Crisis
Federal Resources for Education Excellence
Cal State Fullerton Serves Latino Students as a Hispanic-Serving Institution
Hispanic Achievement Lagging Behind in U.S. Public Schools 
Latina All-Girls School, Esperanza Academy, Lawrence, Massachusetts
Is retired Santa Ana teacher helping students into science careers?
San Antonio Demonstrates Power of School Vouchers 
The Segregation of American Teachers
Texas On-time Graduation rate
Obituary: John Serrano Jr
Dissertation study - call for females who identify as Mexican American
Hispanic women needed for study; UT doctoral student needs help

Bilingual Education
A Brief History of Bilingual Education & Role that Villa Alegre Played
Serna Vs Portales Landmark Case In New Mexico
We Serve Whites Only
Little School of 400
Dr. Armando Rodriguez the first Mexican born teacher in California. 
Bilingualism may delay onset of dementia: study
Spanish Word of the Day 

Hispanic Contributions 
Series of Children's books (8-9 years) of Famous Latinos
Latino Arts Network of California
Corridos in Migrant Memory

Living the American Dream: Hispanic Homeownership Increasing
The US Hispanic market continues with strong growth potential
Hispanic Marketers New Search Engine-Optimized ‘Interactivo Release’
Communities Without Borders



THE WAR . . . 14-hour WWII Documentary, excludes Latinos, why???

Extract from Press Release: 
PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) announced it is airing the new Ken Burns documentary series, THE WAR, in September 2007. The seven-part documentary series, directed and produced by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick, explores the history and horror of the Second World War from an American perspective by following the fortunes of so-called ordinary men and women who get caught up in the greatest cataclysm in human history.  It is a 14 hour documentary.

The documentary was previewed November 16 – 19, 2006 at the International Conference on World War II at the National World War II Museum in New Orleans. 

Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D. Associate Professor, School of Journalism, University of Texas at Austin contacted me January 26th.   Dr. Rivas-Rodriguez is the Director of the U.S. Latino & Latina WWII Oral History Project.  She became aware of the project, last year through a staff member, Raquel Garza, who attended the New Orleans preview.  Raquel Garza spoke to a Burns producer in New Orleans and was told that no Latinos were included.

Dr. Rivas-Rodriguez received information from Ken Burns staff. She shared the following information, which by omission seem to imply that Latinos are not included in the 14-hour  documentary of World War II. 

1) The film was not intended to be structured around any ethnic group; however, both the Japanese Americans, and African Americans, will be identified for their experiences. 

2) The film focuses on four towns and people in those towns -- Absolutely no criteria was suggested for the selection of these four areas: Waterbury, Connecticut; Mobile, Alabama; Sacramento, California, and Luverne, Minnesota.  

3) Although about 40 plus individuals were interviewed, a much smaller group dominate the film. 

4) The criteria for selection of people to interview was quite unclear. The explanation was that people were selected based on their stories, how they were on camera, their materials, and many other reasons.  

I appreciate that the racism of WW II directed at the African-American and Japanese will be exposed. However, Mexican-Americans and other Latinos were also targets of racism. 
This documentary will honor the heroism of all,  but not the Hispanic contributions. 

I am appalled, flabbergasted, almost speechless . . at a time when the understanding of the contributions of Latinos to the United States would strengthen our nation, at a time when 50% of Latinos federally employed are in defense positions, at a time when in some areas 50% of those under 25 are Latinos . . . .  it shocks me to realize that our leaders still do not get it.  

If only the negative Latino visibility (drugs, gangs, drop-out rates)  is given, that is the public perception. The multi-million dollar funding for this project was approved, with no apparent accountability to the nation for shaping a future of inclusion.  

Latinos should have been included as part of the whole effort, because we were. I lived in East L.A. during the war.  My two uncles served in WW II, one in the Army-Air Force and the other in the Marines. I remember the internment of the Japanese, but I also remember the increasing appearance of gold stars in the windows of the homes of Latino families.

Exclusion of Latinos makes this documentary a lie. I can not express it in any other way; however, Abraham Lincoln did.  He said
"History is not history—unless it’s true."

Anne Harrington is the national outreach coordinator at WETA, the PBS station that is handling this documentary,

If you have any means, any connection by which to correct this omission . . .  this is the time to do it.  The U.S. Latino & Latina World War II Oral History Project in Texas is one of the many resources available immediately for Latino inclusion.  

Dr. Rivas-Rodriguez is planning a trip to Washington, D.C. to discuss how the neglect of this project can be rectified, remedied, corrected. Please contact her directly if you are in a position to assist by attending a meeting with PBS headquarters in D.C..  

Please, make your voice heard. .  so your grandchildren and great grandchildren will understand that our parents and grandparents took part in THE WAR. 

Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
School of Journalism
1 University Station A1000
University of Texas at Austin
Austin, Texas 78712-0113
office: (512) 471-0405  
fax: (512) 471-7979

Director: U.S. Latino and Latina WWII Oral History Project

Click for the full press release of the Ken Burns 14-hour documentary on World War II.  
Remember this documentary will be shown over, and over, and over. It will establish a history which is incorrect by exclusion.  Print material has also been prepared to be used in classrooms.  Phone number to voice your concerns. (603) 756-3038.

Thank you to Fredrick P. Aguirre for sharing this letter.

P.O. BOX 5846
ORANGE, CA 92863
(714) 225-2499

January 31, 2007

Ken Burns
Florentine Films
P.O. Box 613
Walpole, New Hampshire 03608


Dear Mr. Burns,

Yesterday, I discovered that you are producing a 14 hour documentary film on World War II for Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) entitled THE WAR.

I applaud your patriotic and historical fervor in preserving our American experience through your films such as The Civil War, JAZZ and Baseball.

According to the PBS news release your film "focuses on the stories of citizens from four geographically distributed and quintessentially American towns – Waterbury, Connecticut; Mobile, Alabama; Sacramento, California and the tiny farming town of Luverne, Minnesota." You are quoted as stating: "Every person in the country was deeply affected by this war, whether in battle, at home, at work, or in the case of Japanese Americans, in internment camps. By focusing on the personal stories of ordinary Americans who had extraordinary experiences, the film tries to bring one of the biggest events in the history of the world down to a very intimate scale. And in the end, we all begin to see, I think, that there are no ‘ordinary’ lives."

I am deeply dismayed to learn that you did not include the Mexican American experience.

Over 400,000 Hispanic Americans proudly served our country during World War II fighting and dying in every major battle in the Pacific and European Theatres. Their patriotism has been chronicled in several books including Legacy Greater Than Words, a summary of 425 interviews of Latinos from across the country by the University of Texas’ U.S. Latino & Latina WWII Oral History Project and Undaunted Courage: Mexican American Patriots of World War II, which profiles over 500 Mexican Americans who served in World War II authored by myself, my wife Linda and our organization, Latino Advocates for Education, Inc.

Significantly, Mexican Americans fought and gave their lives at a time when they, like African Americans, were subjected to segregated public schools, were not allowed full use of public swimming pools and public accommodations, were denied equal access to voting and serving as jurors and faced open discrimination in public and private employment.

If you need verification, I suggest that you read the following U.S. Supreme Court and Federal Court cases: Hernandez v. Texas (1954) 347 U.S. 475 which ordered Texas to allow American citizens of Mexican descent to sit as jurors in criminal trials; Lopez v. Seccombe (1944) 71 F. Supp. 769 which required San Bernardino, California to open its public swimming pools to Mexican American children; Mendez v Westminster School District (1946) 64 F. Supp. 544 which mandated that California’s public schools provide integrated education for Mexican American children; Delgado v. Batrop Independent School District (1948) Civ. No. 388 W.D. Texas which ended state-mandated segregation of Mexican American children in Texas and Gonzalez v. Sheely (1951) 96 F. Supp.1004 which enjoined Arizona from maintaining separate public schools for Mexican American children.

Moreover, there is the famous incident of Felix Longoria. He was killed in action in World War II. In 1948, his family requested that his remains be returned to Three Rivers, Texas to be buried in his hometown. However, the owners of the mortuary and cemetery refused to bury this American in their cemetery simply because he was of Mexican descent. A young Congressman, Lyndon B. Johnson stepped in and assisted the American G.I. Forum, a Mexican American servicemen’s national organization, in having the body of Felix Longoria buried with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.

As you can see, the Mexican American experience rightfully must be presented to the American public through your film.

I know that time is of the essence as THE WAR debuts in September, 2007 on PBS’s 354 public television stations reaching nearly 90 million people.

You can interview and include in your film at least one Mexican American from the Sacramento, California area – Lt. Col. Henry Cervantes, retired. His parents were migrant farm workers. He volunteered for the U.S. Army Air Corps and as a B-17 pilot flew 25 bombing missions over Germany. After the war he became a jet pilot as he made the Air Force his career. His exploits, including the racial discrimination that he faced, are chronicled in his book: Piloto – Migrant Worker to Jet Pilot, published by Hellgate Press. Lt. Col. Cervantes can be reached at

John F. Wilson, Senior Vice President, PBS Programming stated in the news release: "It’s critical that we capture the stories of the generation that fought and lived through World War II before they are lost to us forever. Serving our mission to educate and inform, PBS’s goal for THE WAR is to reach into every home and classroom—so together we can better understand what we as a nation experienced in those difficult years and what we as a nation accomplished."

Given the fact that Hispanic Americans are now the largest ethnic minority group in our nation, that over 50% of the K-12 students in California and many other states are Latinos, that historically Latinos have been subjected to second class citizenship in our country but have patriotically served in every war that we have fought, and to promote PBS’s mission, it is proper and fitting that the Mexican American experience be documented and included in THE WAR.

I trust that you agree.


Frederick P. Aguirre


Hispanic Employment in Federal Agencies
In December 2005, Dr. JV Martinez, Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. facilitated a meeting at the National Archives to address the history and current status of Latinos in Federal employment.  This was the last of a series of Latino events held at the National Archives, mounted through the effort of Sam Anthony, serving as Director of Special Programs and a multi-state national volunteer committee, of which I was chair.

According to Maria Carosa Stanwich, Head of Operations for Museum Programs, the subject attracted an attendance that broke records. The consensus was that the Latino needs are not being addressed because of - -  a lack of Latinos in policy making positions in the federal government. 

A study was called for a study, was completed and entitled GAO Report on Hispanic Employment in Federal Agencies. 

Dr. Juan Ramos was kind enough to forward  a review of the study, the TRPI Brief on the GAO Report on Hispanic Employment in Federal Agencies. I felt the results were totally inadequate because they did not include the kinds of information needed to make a change.  

Below is my response:  

Dear Dr. Ramos, Juan:

Thank you very much for sharing the TRPI Brief on GAO Report on Hispanic Employment in Federal Agencies. 

I would like to add that a big part of the disparity is still not being addressed. . . . the difference in position and salary level.

I recall seeing a study concerning employment at the Smithsonian, published about 15 years ago by the Latino Initiative. There were Latinos on the workforce at the Smithsonian, but most were holding janitorial positions. 

Was the information concerning grade level (GS) not gathered? It seems if they were able to count the workforce by agency and department, they would also have the grade level (GS) at which these people are employed.

The report included non-citizen Latinos. 
Tables 1.1 read U.S. Citizens and Non-Citizens in the Civilian Labor Force, 2000
The comparison data was for Hispanics and Non-Hispanics, which indicates that the report bundles Hispanic citizens and non-citizens together made up the 11.4% identified as serving in the federal government. 

Also, I would also like to have some regional information included. All of the federal employees in Puerto Rico are probably Hispanic. Those numbers should be subtracted for a better understanding of the Hispanic presence of employment in the continental United States. 

Another category to subtract for a better understanding, are the numbers servicing in the military or other defense positions. It appears that 50% of Latinos (men) are serving in defense. How many are officers? 

I would have to suggest that the report remains incomplete, until the information on GS level and regional data is included.

Is there any possibility of requesting that information to added? If not, I fear that the
report will be a detriment for increasing the numbers of Latinos in federal employment. 

Sincerely, Mimi 

Mimi Lozano
Editor, Somos Primos
President, Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
P.O. Box 490
Midway City, CA  92655-0490
714-894-8161   fax: 714-898-7063   emagazine     Organization 

New TRPI Brief on GAO Report on Hispanic Employment in Federal 
Juan Ramos, Ph.D
Cell Phone - (240) 888-1631

Click to read the report.

The City's position on recognizing Guy Gabaldon's accomplishments during World War II and honoring him with the Congressional Medal of Honor is underway, 8 Certified copies of the City Council's position were sent to Sacramento Representatives and 8 Certified copies sent to Washington Representatives.  Please support this effort, by expressing your support to Jose Huizar's office, and to your local representative.



Rick Leal and his LEGACY OF VALOR display (lead article in the January issue) 
will be traveling this summer. 2007 Schedule of events for this year, 
thus far three national conferences, as follows: 
Photos courtesy of International Pictures, FX

1.  July 9-14...    LULAC  National Conference  ...Chicago, Illinois

 2.  July 21-24     NCLR  National  Conference..... Miami Beach, Florida

 3.  Aug 2-4         AMERICAN  GI FORUM.......... Tulsa, Oklahoma
For more information, contact:
Rick Leal,  President 
Hispanic Medal of Honor Society 
2128 Market Street
San Francisco, CA. 94ll4
Tel. No. (4l5) 487-7888 office

Legacy of Valor: Dr. Hector P. Garcia
projects are underway.  Daughter, Wanda, (named after her mother, Mrs. Wanda Garcia) will be sharing the life of Dr. Garcia from the perspective of his daughter.  Please go to CUENTOS by clicking

Idea for 2007: a new $5 coin to honor Dr. Hector P. Garcia 

By Claude D'Unger

December 31, 2006 It has been a decade since that day in July that Dr. Hector P. Garcia left us. If there ever was a noble man walking the land, it was he. Dr. Hector, as he is still respectfully known, was one of those rare people who pass through time and history. South Texas was fortunate that he came through here. He was unique and his legacy should be kept fresh. There is a post office which bears his name. There is a beautiful statue of him in a plaza dedicated in his honor at Texas A&M University- Corpus Christi. His papers are nearby, in the special collection section of the Mary and Jeff Bell Library. These memorials tend to lose their uniqueness locally because more and more public places and buildings are being named after local citizens. No one will deny that Dr. Hector was special and influenced a larger sphere than most. Distinct homage to his contributions would be most appropriate. His papers are available for scholars and students alike, but that is hardly the stuff for the average person that Dr. Hector so warmly regarded. But there is a simple tribute that would remind the entire nation for generations just how much this man gave to us all. 

Dr. Hector is most often remembered as a civil rights icon. He was just that and fearless in his pursuit justice and equity. He was a veteran and a veterans' advocate as well. After World War II, returning Latino veterans were routinely denied veterans' benefits and denied access to veteran advocacy groups. That's what prompted him to found the American G.I. Forum, to address those wrongs,. 

Dr. Hector was a 1940 graduate of the University of Texas Medical School. The school maintains a Web site in his honor. He was an Army physician during World War II, serving mainly in the Italian campaign. Afterwards, he opened a private practice in Corpus Christi and was known for providing significant medical care without charge. Besides being a true humanitarian, he was a diplomat and an advisor to presidents. Dr. Hector was a Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient. 

There may, however, be a more enduring memorial that both young and old alike could enjoy. Can you imagine a new $5 coin with Dr. Hector's portrait in bas-relief on the obverse? On the reverse side, can you envision the Presidential Medal of Freedom in the center? A dollar doesn't buy much anymore; that's why a new $5 coin should be minted. 

There is precedent. The United States Dollar Coin Act of 1997 authorized the minting of the Susan B. Anthony dollar. She was a civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to secure women's suffrage in the United States. 

There is another $1 coin that honors Sacajawea, the Shoshone woman who assisted the historic Lewis and Clark Expedition. The Congressional Hispanic Caucus could easily introduce the appropriate legislation in the next session of Congress, beginning in January. This could be a model for honoring other great Americans. Dr. Hector was not only a great American, but he was an American patriot. He was as much of a patriot as the signers of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Granted, he wasn't present when this union was formed, but he certainly clarified the freedom and liberties intended by the founders. It was Dr. Hector who helped us realize that an injustice against any American is an injustice against all Americans. 

Sent by Wanda Garcia
Please contact Wanda if you would like to help in this effort.

Effort to have a U.S. postal stamp honoring postmaster Hector Godinez. 

Hector Godinez' nomination was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on July 16, 1962. The appointment allowed Mr. Godinez to become the first Mexican American Postmaster in the United States, in Santa Ana, California. 

Two people are working on the project. 
Any information regarding the appointment is greatly appreciated.

Robert Gamboa
P.O. Box 127, Lorena, Texas 76655  (254) 709-2218  (254) 881-6968
League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
Waco Council 273 Inc.  915 LaSalle, Waco, Texas 76706   (254) 235-8664
Gilbert Garcia
Cell # (714) 742-2099
Santa Ana, California

National Issues

Lawmakers want museum to salute Latinos' U.S. role

Gary Martin, San Antonio Express, 01/19/2007
Sent by Howard Shorr and
Dorinda Moreno

WASHINGTON — Congress is exploring the possibility of building a national museum in the capital that highlights the historical contributions of Latinos in American society.

Legislation has been filed in the House and Senate that would create a commission to study the viability of a Latino museum, and create a public-private partnership to raise funds to build a museum.

"Although American Latinos have made and continue to make significant contributions to the culture and history of the United States, many of those contributions go unrecognized in the official narrative," said Rep. Xavier Becerra, D-Calif.

The 23-member commission would be made up of policymakers, experts and others. The museum would showcase artistic, cultural and historical contributions of Latinos in the United States.

Becerra and Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, R-Fla., co-sponsored the bill in the House. Similar legislation was filed in the Senate by Sen. Ken Salazar, D-Colo., and Sen. Mel Martinez, R-Fla.  The House passed a similar bill in the last Congress, but the Senate took no action.  Becerra said the bipartisan nature of the legislation would create enthusiasm and broad support for the bill.

Extract: Velazquez Joins Pelosi in Parade of House 'Firsts'
By Patricia Guadalupe  January 4, 2007

Nydia Velazquez of New York becoming chair of the House Small Business Committee, the first-ever Latina and first-ever Puerto Rican to do so.

"Obviously this is a marvelous day. I am honored. There is no way to describe the emotions," Ms. Velazquez told Hispanic Business. "Today starts a new era in the U.S. Congress, adding that she wants to see the Small Business Committee become a real advocate for small businesses and one that acts as oversight to the Small Business Administration. . . .  We want to make sure that the entrepreneurs in this country continue to do what they do best, which is create new jobs."  Source: (c) 2007. All rights reserved.

Photo by Kathryn Haviland

Voces Primeras, a film production by Mujeres de La Caucus Chicana,
Year: 2007, Length: 90 min. Scheduled release: Summer 2007 
For more on the Director/Producer Linda Garcia Merchant, click 

Synopsis: Emerging from the Feminist and Chicano movements of the 60s and 70s is the story of six Latinas who, through a series of "Aha!," moments answered the call to action. Their ideological differences, personal experiences and upbringings brought them to a monumental turning point in their lives- the 1977 the National Women's Political Caucus (NWPC) and International Women's Year Convention. As chosen delegates from the states of Illinois, California and Texas, these women formed the NWPC Chicana Caucus -representing Latina sisters across the nation and working towards liberation. 
Biographies of Mujeres de la Caucus 

Lupe Anguiano 
Lupe Anguiano, an educator, who all her life has worked for the equality of all people. As a Missionary Sister for fifteen years, she worked to improve the social, education and economic conditions of poor people throughout the United States. Lupe was a United Farm Workers Volunteer, working under the direction of Cesar Chavez in Delano, CA and then in Michigan where she lead the grape boycott of 1965.
During the 60s and 70s Lupe's involvement in the Women's Movement helped bring Catholic support to the Equal Rights Amendment. She is a founding member of the National Women's Political Caucus, working with Gloria Steinem, Bella Abzug, and other feminists leaders. An elected delegate of the Texas and 1977 National Women's Conference in Houston, Texas; Lupe, along with Jean Stapleton and Corretta Scott King, read the "Declaration of American Women" one of the highlights of this landmark event for women of the United States. 

Nationally, she is best known for her many years of award winning work demonstrating changes needed in AFDC Welfare Policy. Through the creation of the National Women's Employment and Education Model Program (NWEE), Lupe created, field-tested and implemented this groundbreaking model as a "change agent" to AFDC Welfare. The Model is a "How-to-Policy" for AFDC Welfare Goverment Agencies. It illustrates how a government agency can assist women (as single parents and heads of households) to move into the employment training, education and social sevices needed to become economically self-supporting wage earners like over 80% of American Women. 

Andrea Cano 
Andrea Cano, an experienced communications professional, grew up in Orange County and currently resides in Portland where she is the commissioner for the Mt. Hood Cable Regulatory Commission. With 25 years of serving community, national and international non-governmental and religious organizations, she has been engaged in some of the most fascinating political arenas. She was a consultant for a council of churches in Ecuador, the communications director for the World Council of Churches a journalist during an emergency, spearheaded a national project to establish community-based radio stations and was the director for the Centro Alberto Rembao for Theological and Religious Studies and Christian Action in Guadalajara, Mexico. 
Martha P. Cotera 
A noted historian and author of numerous feminist writings, including "Diosa y Hembra" and "Chicana Feminist," Martha P. Cotera has been a key player in establishing some of the most influential Latino organizations in the country. She is a founding member of the Raza Unida Party in Texas, Mujeres Pro-Raza Unida Caucus, the Texas Women's Political Caucus, the National Women's Political Caucus and several others. As an independent scholar working with a concentration in Latina feminism and political development, she has worked for the University of Texas-Austin for more than 30 years and was instrumental in creating the Mexican American Library Program of the Benson Latin American Collection at UT/Austin. 

Margaret Cruz 
Often referred to as a powerhouse in Northern California politics and the "matriarch" of San Francisco's Latino community, the Mission District, Margaret Cruz has worked, in some capacity, under every president from Truman to Clinton. In 1973 Margaret was the first woman elected president of the Mexican American Political Association. She served as a vice chair for the National Women's Political Caucus' Chicana Caucus and has 30 years of achievements in youth education, women's equality, farm workers rights, immigration law and more. At 62, she became the oldest woman to graduate from law school. Today, as a result of her personal battle with breast cancer, she founded and is the director of the Margaret Cruz Latina Breast Cancer Education Foundation. 

Pauline Martinez 
A San Antonio native, Pauline Martinez's longstanding commitment to equal opportunity is reflected in her work. She began working for the federal government in the late '50s, first for the Department of Defense and later as an equal opportunity specialist for the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in San Antonio--ensuring compliance of the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Pauline also worked as secretary to the director of the 1968 Hemisfair Worlds Fair in San Antonio. From 1968 to 1972, she worked for the U.S. Civil Rights Commission, during which, she formed Working Women-a group of women working in the federal, state and local governments seeking equal opportunity in employment and lobbying for appointments to San Antonio's boards and commissions. 
In 1979, Pauline moved to California and opened the first Equal Employment Opportunity Commission office in San Jose. Once there, she became involved in real estate. She operated her own realty company from 1993-2000 and is currently affiliated with Windermere Silicon Valley Properties. 

Pauline was involved with several organizations. She served as Legislative Chair for the Texas Women's Political Caucus' and was responsible for the election of the first Latina to the Texas Legislature, Irma Rangel. She was a vice chairperson of the Chicana Caucus of the National Women's Political Caucus, and one of the founders of the first Hispanic Business and Professional Women's Club in San Antonio. She is a member of the National Association of Hispanic Real Estate Professionals, Santa Clara Association of Realtors, Women's Council of Realtors and California Association of Realtors. 

She graduated from Fox Tech High School, attended San Antonio Junior College and San Jose State University, has been married for 47 years to Gilbert Martinez and has five children and 12 grandchildren. 

Ruth "Rhea" Mojica-Hammer 
As the Executive Director of Spanish Language Programming at a local TV station Ruth Mojica-Hammer was also the first Mexican American woman to run for legislative office in the state of Illinois. Although she didn't win, Rhea, who lived in Chicago at the time, went on to manage a successful campaign for the first Latina elected to public office in Illinois, County Commissioner Irene Hernandez. From 1973-75 she served as the first vice-chair of the National Women's Political Caucus. In 1976 President Carter appointed Rhea to the President's Commission for the IWY National Women's Conference held in Houston, 1977. The resolutions created at this historic gathering came to be known as "A Plan of Action for the Women of the United States" and were presented to President Carter in March of 1978. 

About the Director 
Linda Garcia Merchant 
Born and raised on Chicago's West Side, Linda Garcia Merchant's experience growing up during the 1960s and 70s with a mother active in both the Feminist and Chicano movements was pivotal in shaping her views today. Influential activists that included many of her mother's friends surrounded her and, absorbing all the discussions on politics, history and world events and standing by her mother's side at protests or political conventions, she began to cultivate her own voice at quite a young age. She developed a strong conviction for activism and civic responsibility. And, having experienced some of the most exciting social and political events, Linda was inspired to capture on camera the Latino influence of those times. 

In June 2006, Linda created Voces Primeras, LLC, a production company dedicated to 
creating and distributing documentary-style features of pioneering Latinas to the 
educational, political and retail markets. Her goal is to provide resources that expand the understanding of the 60s and 70s in our collective American history-research not available through traditional channels and in danger of becoming extinct because of the lack of documentation. 

She is currently directing her first production, Las Mujeres de la Caucus Chicana, which recounts the turning points of six women who answered the call to action and came together at the 1977 National Women's Conference in Houston. These women helped shape national policy for women and worked for recognized organizations such as the Raza Unida Party, the Women's Action Program, the National Women's Political Caucus and International Women's Year. The film is scheduled to be released in March 2007. 

While working on her directorial debut, Linda also works as a full-time IT/Marketing 
Specialist for a midsize insurance brokerage. She has been in the graphic and Web site design field 23 years during which she provided her design services for Chicago community organizations such as the Partnership to End Homelessness, Latino Council on the Media and Spanish Coalition for Jobs. 

Linda received a Bachelor of Science, with honors, in advertising/design/photography 
at Western Illinois University. She was voted Volunteer of the Year by the Partnership to End Homelessness in 2005. She is a current member of the National Association of Latino Independent Producers and was formerly a member of the Association of Latino Information Technology Professionals and the Association of Consultants to Non Profits. 

Production Notes 
Director's Notes: 

A wise woman once wrote to me that, 'history is ours to tell'. It is with this statement 
that I begin this correspondence regarding the purpose of Voces Primeras, LLC, and 
importance of the documentary work 'Las Mujeres De La Caucus Chicana'. 
Las Mujeres De La Caucus Chicana 

From a period beginning in 1971 and ending in the early 80s the six Chicana women featured in this film, with a variety of strengths, talents and experiences and coming from very different backgrounds came together as advocates for women. 

It would be easy to romanticize this 'golden age' as a time of hope and determination, altruistic and benign in the production of its goal of equality for women. The Hollywood version of their story would include that kind of perspective, with these women as collective champions of this famous cause, marching off into the sunset of some future probable equality. 

However, that wouldn't be their story. The story of a time that included Lupe Anguiano, Andrea Cano, Martha Cotera, Margaret Cruz, Pauline Martinez and Ruth 'Rhea' Mojica Hammer is certainly a story of persistence, challenge, success and disappointment. It is a story supported by facts and dates, names and places, events and programs developed by pioneering women as advocates for women. 

Mostly it is a story that is best told by its owners, the women that lived through those times; that fought for those events and programs, were the originators of those facts and dates, the challengers of those names and places. 'Las Mujeres De La Caucus Chicana' chooses to tell their story as they tell it. 

The purpose of Voces Primeras, LLC 
It is fortunate that each of these women has a wealth of materials, archived by forward thinking universities from which we can recreate the stories of their lives. Ephemera, writings, articles, photographs all help to reassemble those moments when history is made, when life does change for each of us in small and large ways. These resources serve a secondary function as well. They help to keep the producers of these kinds of documentaries objective and focused on the importance of the story. 

The importance of documenting these stories can be seen in the availability of this kind of material, in this medium. As Latinos we are growing in number and in many ways in culture-consciousness. As we raise our young Latino children to be members of the larger society it is equally important to school our children in a cultural awareness. That proud awareness is a necessary part of the brickwork that is the foundation of culturalism and then of nationalism. While there are a few commercially successful stories about famous Latinos, the large number of stories about us, remain untold. 

The goal of Voces Primeras, LLC is to create and distribute documentary style features of pioneering Latinas to the educational, political and retail markets. In order to create these films, the resource of women and their archives have to be available. It is a secondary goal of this company to encourage the archiving of these women's writings, ephemera, articles and photographs at colleges and universities. 

Contact Information 
Voces Primeras, LLC 
1030 Florence Avenue 
Evanston, IL 60202 
Attn: Linda Garcia Merchant 
P: 312.399.7811 
F: 847.475.4386 

Chicana Issues Conference publication, La Razon Mestiza
June 20-22, 1980  < 27 years ago  Editor: Dorinda Moreno 

Dorinda's article focuses on the efforts of Chicanas and 3rd World Women to become part of the Woman's movement, reflecting on the difficulties, but need to do so.  Surely successes such as Congresswoman Nydia Velazquez opened slowly by the efforts and encouragement of women such as Dorinda Moreno. This issue is dedicated to Irene Tovar who had just been appointed to a special state position on Chicana issues by then California Governor, Jerry Brown. 
 I[For more on Dorinda, click to Memories of border crossing.]


Published:  AltaMira Press, 2007, Walnut Hill, CA:
Co-authors are Dr. Jose Angel Gutierrez, University of Texas-Arlington; Sonia Noyola, doctoral student University of Texas-Austin; and, Michelle Melendez, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. Available in bookstores, publisher, or author. $30 pbk. $70 cloth.

List of the 25 women profiled in the book:

PART I ADELITAS: The Warrior Trailblazers

1. OLGA RAMOS PENA ---Unofficial campaign organizer for Alberto A. Pea, Jr., her spouse, in San Antonio during several decades. Leader of the Bexar County Democratic Women.

2. ANITA N. MARTINEZ---First Mexican American woman elected to the Dallas City Council. Served in appointed capacities for the White House and local entities.

3. VIRGINIA MUZQUIZ---First Chicana candidate for State Representative, Democrat in 1964. First Mexican American woman candidate for city council of Crystal City, Texas. First Mexican American woman elected County Clerk, Raza Unida Party, Zavala County, Texas in 1974.

4. ALICIA CHACON---First Chicana elected to various posts in El Paso County: school board, city council, County Judge, Democrat; appointed to regional Small Business Administration post; and later headed United Way of El Paso.

5. ROSA TIJERINA and MARIA ESCOBAR---Daughter and wife, respectively of Land Recovery Movement (Southwest) Reies Lopez Tijerina, that performed support roles for him, the Alianza de Pueblos Libres. Rosa led the Tierra Amarilla Courthouse Raid and was arrested for that event. Both live in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

PART II The Chicano Movement Activists

6. ALMA CANALES---First Chicana to run for Lt. Governor, Raza Unida Party.

7. LINDA REYNA YANEZ---First Chicana elected to the Rio Grande Valley.s Court of Appeals. First Chicana to run for Justice, Texas Supreme Court, Democrat.

8. IRMA MIRELES---First Chicana elected to the San Antonio River Authority, multi-county district. Raza Unida Party official and leader from Bexar County.

9. ROSIE CASTRO---Student leader, Raza Unida Party leader, candidate for local office in San Antonio. Mother of current State Representative Joaquin Castro and former city council member Julian Castro.

10. SEVERITA LARA---Student leader of Crystal City Walkout of 1969. Mayor of Crystal City, Texas and candidate for County Judge, Democrat.

11. MARIA JIMENEZ---Student leader, University of Houston, first Chicana to run for State Representative, Raza Unida Party, Harris County. Immigrant rights activist currently.

Part III Puentes y Lazos: The Hispanic Connectors

12. HILDA TAGLE---Officeholder by election and appointment to various judicial posts in Nueces County (Corpus Christi), Democrat. First Chicana appointed federal judge in the state to the Southern District (Brownsville division).

13. ELVIRA REYNA---First Hispanic woman elected to House of Representatives as Republican (Mesquite).

14. LETICIA SAN MIGUEL VAN DE PUTTE---Pharmacist turned politician and elected State Representative from Bexar County (San Antonio), later elected as State Senator, Democrat.

15. SOCORRO .COCO. MEDINA---First Chicana to run for County Commissioner in Amarillo, Democrat. Former owner operator of Spanish language radio.

16. MARIA ANTONIETTA BERRIOZABAL---Elected city council member in San Antonio, later ran for Mayor and Congress.

17. TRINI GAMEZ---First Chicana to run for County Judge in Deaf Smith County (Hereford), Democrat. Former Texas Rural Legal Aid staffer and plaintiff in single-member litigation.

Part IV Twenty-first -century Entorchas/Torchbearers

18. NORMA CHAVEZ---Elected State Representative from El Paso, first Chicana Democrat. Leader of Mexican American Democrats in El Paso.

19. DIANA FLORES---First Chicana elected to the Dallas County Community College District as Trustee. Leader of re-districting initiatives, Primera Voz, and MEGAVOTO.

20. GLORIA DE LEON---Co-Founder, National Hispanic Institute. Recruiter and trainer of countless young Hispanic leaders across the nation.

21. LENA LEVARIO---First Chicana appointed to state district court bench in Dallas County. Elected to state district criminal court bench in 2006, Democrat.

22. ELFIDA MARQUEZ GUTIERREZ---Elected to El Paso County Community College District as Trustee. School administrator.

23. ROSE HERRERA---First Hispanic woman elected to Fort Worth Independent School District as Trustee. Leader of state Mexican American Democrats.

24. NORMA VILLARREAL RAMIREZ---First Chicana elected County Judge in
Zapata County, Democrat. Former staff person with Texas Rural Legal Aid.

25. GUADALUPE .LUPE. VALDEZ---First Hispanic woman elected Sheriff in Texas, Dallas County in 2004.

For more information contact: Dr. Jose Angel Gutierrez
469 867 8188 mobile
817 272 3991 UTA 817 272 2525 fax
214 941 1900 LC 214 948 1999 fax

Contact Dr. Gutierrez for a jpeg file of the book cover which
features Dallas County Sheriff Lupe Valdez.

Sent by Elisa Lujan Perez

Source: "LaRed Latina" WWW site:
"LARED-L Discussion Group: http//



Wired for Success by Matt Alderton
NCLR Agenda, Fall 2005

The award-winning Cal Hayden Community High School team meets with NCLR President Janet Murguia.  The four Phoenix students defeated top-tier college teams for the prestigious Marine Advanced Technology Education Center's Remotely Operated Vehicle Competition.

Wired for Success 
by Matt Alderton, NCLR Agenda, Fall 2005

In the wake of victory, foud undocumented students have the eyes on education.

Nineteen-year-old Oscar Vazquez likes school. He spends his free time working on his 1995 Mitsubishi 3000GT and racing it at the local racetrack. He works in construction and enjoys spending time with his friends.

In many ways, Vazquez is a typical teenager, but in other ways he is quite extraordinary. In 2004, he and three fellow students- Luis Aranda, Cristian Arcega, and Lorenzo Santillan-entered the Marine Advanced Technology Education Center's Remotely Operated Vehicle Competition, a national underwater robotics con-test sponsored by the Office of Naval Research and NASA, among others. The four students from Carl Hayden Community High School, located in one of Phoenix's most economically disadvantaged neighborhoods, pitted their robot "Stinky" against state-of-the-art creations. They competed against college teams from top-tier schools throughout the country, including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)--and they won.

"We were totally shocked,"
says Fredi Lajvardi, a teacher at Carl Hayden and one of the robotics team's coaches. "It was our first year entering the compe-tition and we beat MIT."
Their victory, however, was bit-tersweet. Vazquez and his team-mates are bright, hardworking, ambitious students, who happen to be undocumented Mexican immi-grants. While most students could proudly display their achievement on a college application, for these four, college isn't even an option.

Target: College
Vazquez came to the United States with his parents in 1998, at the age of 12. He wants to be a mechani-cal engineer and dreams of earn-ing a college degree. Because of his immigration status, however, the road to college has not been easy. He comes from an inner-city school where 93% of the students are Hispanic and where most participate in a federally-assisted lunch program, accord-ing to Lajvardi. Students don't necessarily have the money to pay for tuition, and without U.S. 
citizenship they do not qualify for federal student aid- nor are they eligible for most merit-based or private schol-arships, despite their academic achievements.

Still, Lajvardi says, a little determination goes a long way. Vazquez is proof. He graduated from high school in 2004 and took a year of classes at a local community college. He took another step toward his goals this fall when he started full time at Arizona State University. Paying his way is a scholarship from the La Vida Robot Scholarship Fund, made possible by a flood of private donations made after a Wired magazine article introduced the stu-dents to the country early this year.

"I didn't know there was so much support. It was completely unexpected," says Vazquez, who spent his high school career enrolled in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, with the false understanding that he would gain residency if he joined the military.

"When everyone treats you like you're documented, you kind of forget that you aren't," Lajvardi says. "It was like a slap in the face when Oscar realized he was undocumented. He really felt cheated, lied to. He felt like society misled him."

The robotics club at Carl Hayden, and the competition in particular, helped restore the students' faith in their fu-tures. Vazquez hopes to finish his degree at ASU within five years. Aranda, who also grad-uated in 2004, works as an office clerk and hopes one day to open his own restau-rant-soon he will be taking courses at Scottsdale Culinary Arts College. Santillan also is considering becoming a chef, and Arcega plans to pursue an engineering degree.

"It showed all four students that they can do whatever they want to do if they put their minds to it," Lajvardi says. "That's the number one thing they learned." 

Hispanic Link Weekly Report
News Source for 25 Years, Vol. 25, No. 3

English Language Learners at Hub of National Crisis
by Guest Columnist, Bob Wise

Today, more than five million English language learners, or ELLs, are enrolled in this nation's public schools. That's up from just two million a decade ago.

The first language of the vast majority of these students is Spanish. In fact, the 2000 U.S. Census reported that 76% of all ELLs in pre-kindergarten to fifth grade and 72% in sixth to 12th grade are native Spanish speakers.

In coming decades, these students and those who follow them will have an enormous impact on the fortunes of the country as a whole.

Right now they are struggling. While only about a third of all eighth-grade students comprehend the vocabulary and content of their grade-level materials, according to the U.S. Department of Education, the figure drops to 4% for ELLs.


In other words, just one in 25 enter high school reading well enough to handle a rigorous course of study designed to prepare them for college or a good job.

To provide help for these students, the Alliance for Excellent Education joined the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Center for Applied Linguistics to convene some of the country's leading experts in English language and literacy instruction for secondary school students. Their recommendations, published in the Alliance report Double the Work, were unanimous and urgent.

For starters, states need to define more clearly who is or is not an ELL. Currently, the same student could be put in regular classes in one school, enrolled in an English language program in another, and be determined to have reached English proficiency in a third.

Such inconsistency makes it impossible to track student progress. It excludes many students from special services they should receive and leaves others stuck indefinitely in dead-end programs.

Second, because ELLs have diverse educational backgrounds,

schools must take special care to assess all students' academic skills when they enter the system.

For instance, some arrive here with a solid record of academic achievement in their native language but limited English. Others come with little to no formal schooling and weak literacy skills in their native language. Still others enroll in a new school having been in the U.S. system for years without learning much of anything.


It doesn't make sense to lump them in the same program. Their teachers should be given ways to find out what they already know and can do — both in English and in their native languages.

Finally, states must do much more to prepare middle and high school teachers to work with ELLs.

Presently, just three states — Arizona, California and Florida — require every teacher to complete some pre-service training in English language instruction.

That's a good start, but, particularly in schools and districts that enroll large numbers of ELLs, teachers also need ongoing, high-quality professional development to gain true expertise in instructing all students.

The country's ELL population is growing more rapidly in secondary schools (64% in the 1990s) than in elementary schools (46%). Yet most of education policymakers' attention and available financial resources have flowed to the elementary school level.


We must provide better, targeted support to address their needs in the older grades, redesigning and refocusing our schools to deliver the quality, individualized instruction these students deserve as they do "double the work" of their native English-speaking peers, simultaneously developing English-language and subject-area competence.

For the sake of the students, their communities and the nation as a whole, the U.S. educational system has no option but to improve the academic outcomes of our five million ELL students if we are to remain globally competitive.

Bob Wise, governor of West Virginia from 2001 to 2005,is president of the  Alliance for Excellent Education. AEE's report, Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language Learners, is available at

Charlie Erickson, founder of Hispanic Links for twenty-five has maintained the vision of documenting the progress, positive advances, as well as the set-backs for Hispanics in political, social, civil rights, and educational issues.  

Hispanic Link weekly report, annual 50 issues is available as: Electronic subscription: 
Personal: $118.
Institution: $140.  
Print Subscriptions: First Class Mail: $195
Trial Subscription: 13 issues,$40.

Hispanic Link News Service
1420 N. Street NW
Washington, D.C. 20005-2895
Phone: 202-234-0208   Fax: 202-234-4090


The U.S. Department of Education is pleased to announce the newly remodeled and updated Federal Resources for Education Excellence (FREE) website. It now provides richer, more expansive resources to teachers and students alike. There are over 1500 resources to take advantage of at FREE, ranging from primary historical documents, lesson plans, science visualizations, math simulations and online challenges, paintings, photos, mapping tools, and more. This easily accessible information is provided by federal organizations and agencies such as the Library of Congress, National Archives, NEH, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian, NSF, and NASA. 

Check it out today at!
Sent by Connie Rodriguez

Living the Mission 

Cal State Fullerton Serves Latino Students as a Hispanic-Serving Institution. But What Does That Really Mean?
story by Mimi Ko Cruz

Henry Mendoza’s parents couldn’t understand why he wanted to go to college when he could be working, earning money for his family.

“We were very poor,” Mendoza said. “It was a struggle, but I made it and I owe everything to Cal State Fullerton.”

Through scholarships and grants, Mendoza completed his bachelor’s degree in business administration-accounting in 1981 and today is the managing partner of Mendoza Berger & Company, an Irvine-based public accounting firm that has clients throughout the United States and in Singapore, Egypt, Africa, Mexico, Canada and Australia. He also is chairman of the California Hispanic Chambers of Commerce.

“Not going to college is not an option for my children,” Mendoza said, adding that he often tells his 8-year-old daughter Sofia and 5-year-old daughter Isabella about the opportunities a college career can afford them. “A college education can never hurt you. It’s what made me successful and it gives you a chance to achieve the American dream.” 
Stories like Mendoza’s are what Cal State Fullerton aims for as a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI).

“As an HSI, we serve all students and are accessible to all students,” said Donald S. Castro, special assistant to CSUF President Milton A. Gordon. “That is the campus mission.”

Cal State Fullerton was named an HSI in 2004. The designation is given by the U.S. Department of Education to nonprofit institutions with at least a 25 percent Latino student population, and half of those students must be at or below the poverty level. Because it is an HSI, the university is eligible to apply for federal Title V Program grants.

In 2005, Cal State Fullerton was awarded a $2.3 million Title V grant by the U.S. Department of Education to augment programs for Latino students. The grant is being received in five annual installments. The first, for $433,910, was received last year.

Though the funds are earmarked for enhancing programs for Latinos, who make up 26 percent of the student population, all CSUF pupils will benefit regardless of their ethnicity, Castro said.

As part of the Title V grant, a survey conducted by the Social Science Research Center was completed. The survey polled parents or guardians from 502 randomly selected Latino households to reveal their expectations of Cal State Fullerton. It found, that although Latino parents have high educational aspirations for their children, few understand the means required to achieve that end. Castro now is working on a plan to address the issues raised in the survey.

Meanwhile, Castro is overseeing a related project involving the Fullerton Collaborative, a coalition of partners — Cal State Fullerton, Fullerton College, the city of Fullerton, Fullerton School District, St. Jude Medical Center and Valencia Task Force. The project, funded through a $599,525 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development grant includes the expansion of a community center and the ability to offer free services such as civics classes, English lessons and medical care in a low-income area of central Fullerton. 

The project fits in well with CSUF’s mission, Castro said. Such efforts could help combat the high school dropout rate among Latinos, he said.

A 28-year study conducted by the U.S. Department of Education found high school dropout rates are higher for Latinos than other groups. From 1972 to 1999, the dropout rate of white and black students nationwide declined nearly 40 percent, while increasing nearly 40 percent for Latinos. Over the 28-year period, about three of every 10 Latinos were lacking high school diplomas. The report noted: “Regardless of the reasons for the large proportion of Hispanic young adults without a high school credential, the impact is the same… These young adults probably do not have the basic level of education thought to be essential in today’s economy.”

“The high school drop-out rate of Latinos is too high,” said Silas H. Abrego, associate vice president for Student Affairs. “That’s why it’s so important to do something to ensure that they have the tools such as college preparation classes, tutoring and information to succeed in order to become eligible for college. The Latino community represents a segment of the population that is untapped as far as the resources that it can provide the state of California. The contributions Latinos can make are not only economic but, through civic involvement, valuable on the social level as well.”

Abrego’s claim can be backed up by a 2005 study conducted by UC Berkeley researchers that found that for every dollar spent increasing the number of students attending college and completing degrees, the state gets $3 on that investment. 

In 2000, Caucasians made up 47 percent of the population in the state, while Latinos made up 32 percent. The study projects that California’s population will grow to 43 million, more than half Latinos, by 2020. Because of the changing demographics, the UC Berkeley researchers concluded that it is imperative to find ways to enhance higher education outcomes for its biggest and fastest-growing ethnic group.

The Berkeley study, coupled with U.S. Department of Education statistics showing the high Latino high school dropout rate, make urgent the need for such efforts, Abrego said.
Cal State Fullerton began addressing the need in the 1980s. Abrego said CSUF has formed partnerships with other Orange County colleges and universities, high school and elementary school districts, nonprofit agencies, community groups and businesses in an effort to promote and enhance programs that help minorities and low-income students succeed.

Some of the programs offered include the ENLACE Mentor Project, which helps Santa Ana high school students become familiar with the campus; Guardian Scholars, which financially supports students exiting the foster care system; and Kids to College, an early outreach program that creates awareness about higher education to sixth-graders.

Another example is the Milestones Along the Path program that was created through collaboration between CSUF, Santa Ana College and Fullerton College. As part of the program, Latino students at Fullerton and Santa Ana colleges who are preparing to transfer to Cal State Fullerton and become teachers are supported with mentoring, counseling, test preparation and other services.

“Our students are 51 percent Hispanic and most of them are struggling financially,” said Steven Bautista, a Santa Ana College counselor and coordinator of the Center for Teacher Education. “We make them aware of all the financial aid options they have and encourage them to apply to Cal State Fullerton, where diversity is welcomed.”

Bautista, a Filipino American who received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from CSUF, said his own university experience was positive and that the partnership with Cal State Fullerton “is not about creating a separate lane for minority students. It’s about creating a culture that is supportive of first-generation, low-income students who want access to higher education. And Cal State Fullerton is doing its job in creating that culture.”

In that vein, CSUF’s Office of Public Affairs and Government Relations is creating a campaign to increase awareness of the university’s HSI designation and its commitment to serving the Latino community.

“In California, fewer than one-third of Latinos go to college,” said Frances Teves, director of state relations and advocacy. “Because the Latino population is the fastest-growing in the state, this will undoubtedly impact the California workforce and economy. That’s why it’s important for us to serve this underrepresented Latino community.”

By doing so, everyone benefits, said Alexandro Gradilla, assistant professor of Chicana and Chicano studies. 

“We really have to look long-term,” he said. 

“We need professionals of all backgrounds because they are needed at all levels of society.” 

Hispanic Achievement Lagging Behind in U.S. Public Schools 
NCLR Issues Report and New Information Resource on Latino Students

Washington, DC - Marking the fifth anniversary of passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the National Council of La Raza (NCLR) - the largest national Hispanic civil rights and advocacy organization in the U.S. - today released a statistical brief that portrays the U.S. educational system as an obstacle course from preschool through college for the growing population of Latino students. Hispanic Education in the United States identifies the key barriers facing Hispanic students, who continue to have the lowest levels of educational achievement of any ethnic group. The report notes, for example, that less than half of Hispanic males complete high school.

"The No Child Left Behind Act offers great promise for ensuring the success of all students, and there has been progress. But until Hispanic students have greater access to strong educational programs and equal access to resources, we will likely continue to see such disheartening data about Latino students," said Janet Murguía, NCLR President and CEO.

In addition to the release of the statistical brief, NCLR also launched a new webpage today which serves as a comprehensive information resource on NCLB and Latinos. The webpage - - contains links to publications, data sources, analyses, partner organizations, and other resources. In particular, it provides an important source of information on English language learner (ELL) students in the U.S. public school system.

Report highlights include:

* Latinos are a significant proportion of the United States student population. Latino students enrolled in prekindergarten through 12th grade in U.S. public schools and institutions of higher education represented 17% of total student enrollment in 2005.

* The number of ELL students enrolled in U.S. schools has increased substantially in the past decade. This student population increased by 56% between the 1994-1995 and 2004-2005 school years. Nearly 80% of ELL students are Hispanic native Spanish-speakers.

* Hispanics are significantly less likely to complete high school than their White peers. In particular, only 43% of Black and 48% of Hispanic male students graduate from high school compared to 71% of White males. Further, foreign-born Hispanics account for more than 25% of all students who drop out of school in the U.S.

* Schools serving Hispanic and other minority students offer fewer rigorous academic courses. According to a study by Achieve, Inc., 74% of minority girls want to enroll in advanced courses, but only 45% of their schools offer these courses. Similarly, although two-thirds of minority boys are interested in taking advanced mathematics courses, fewer than half attend schools that offer these courses.

* Hispanics age 25 and older are less likely than Blacks and Whites to receive a bachelor's degree. In 2005, just 12% of Hispanics age 25 years and older had received a bachelor's degree or higher, compared to nearly 18% of Blacks and more than 30% of comparable Whites.

"The barriers that keep young Latinos from succeeding in school today diminish everyone's hopes for a society that is educated, productive, and financially secure. No one wins when we neglect nearly 20% of our nation's students. As we mark the fifth anniversary of the No Child Left Behind Act and work on renewing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act this year, we urge Congress to fulfill the considerable promise of NCLB and help close the large gaps that remain in our children's education," concluded Murguía.

For more information or a copy of the NCLR report, Hispanic Education in the United States, please call Melissa Lazarín at Melissa Lazarín, Call: (202) 785-1670 or visit

Sent by Dr. Carlos Munoz, Jr.


Source: Latina All-Girl School 
Sent by Howard Shorr

Esperanza Academy.
Lawrence, Massachusetts

The school is a joint venture between Christ Episcopal Church in Andover and Grace Episcopal Church in Lawrence.

It was created after a study found that middle school girls were at greatest risk of failure in this city. None of the families pay tuition since school organizers have aggressively sought out sponsors for each of the girls.

The first group of 42 students, who are primarily of Dominican and Puerto Rican heritage, put in extra long study hours from 7:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m.

The girls must commit themselves, as well as their parents, who have to volunteer at least two hours a week at the school to cook and clean.

After-school activities involve extra tutoring and other activities to keep the girls busy and focused on succeeding.

As with most private schools with such high goals Esperanza Academy must struggle on a daily basis for the money to expand their enrollment and keep this oasis of hope alive for their students and the girls who would like to attend.

Schools like Esperanza Academy and Oprah's Leadership Academy recognize the fact that there exists a window of opportunity in a young girl's life, especially disadvantaged girls, where the value of education is weighed against the realities of their environment.



Is retired Santa Ana teacher helping students into science careers? Do the math
Paul J. Riordan has formed a program to excite students about college and a technical future. It's working.  By Yvonne Villarreal, Times Staff Writer, January 2, 2007
Sent by Ricardo Valverde

Before her sophomore year in high school, Gloria Alday never dreamed of going away to college. Her traditional Mexican father didn't want her to leave the family home.

But a two-year mentorship program in Santa Ana inspired her to academic greatness, and despite her father's disapproval, she was accepted by Yale, UC Berkeley, New York University and the University of Michigan.

Four years later, Alday, 21, is scheduled to graduate from Yale in May, an achievement she credits largely to the Achievement Institute of Scientific Studies. The two-year program is geared to excite students about careers that require math and science skills.

"This program has been a very deep inspiration for me," Alday said.

Paul J. Riordan, 75, who taught for 35 years in the Santa Ana Unified School District, said he grew tired of people writing off Latinos as "dumb." So he founded his nonprofit organization to prove their academic potential, and it has since expanded to include any low-income student. 

"These kids are so uniquely different. They each have a story," Riordan said. "But they are all alike in that they have so much against them. They have true grit because they fight through the system despite their shortcomings."

Riordan held firmly to his walker as he shuffled along the carpet at a local restaurant during the group's latest meeting, two days after Christmas. After adjusting his large glasses, he opened his arms wide.

"There's my kiddies!" Riordan said as they approached for a hug or a handshake. "You kids are so damn bright, you scare me!"

Riordan's idea for creating the program came in 1990 as he prepared for retirement. "I didn't want to hang around the house or play golf all day," Riordan said. "This is my way of giving back."

But it wasn't until 2001 that he launched his nonprofit organization with seed money coming from his savings. Since then, businesses have contributed to the program.

When Riordan recruited his first batch of "little chickies," as he calls them, he first had to come up with some requirements.

Riordan, known as "El Jefe" (the boss) by his students, had envisioned the program for those who were "poor and bright," but that was only a starting point. 

Other requirements include enrollment in a Santa Ana Unified school, a minimum 3.5 grade-point average; a letter of recommendation from a science or math teacher; the commitment to attend 50 seminars put on by Riordan's institute during the summer, Christmas and Easter school breaks; approval from parents; and eligibility for a federal free-lunch program.

"That's it. No exceptions," Riordan said. "I'm a bottom-liner. I don't stray from the rules."

This year four students each from five Santa Ana high schools will be selected.

"We hope to expand to Anaheim soon," Riordan said.

"I'm getting old; there is only so much I can do. I have set the foundation and I can only hope my dream is carried on by others."

The students are given $800 a year to help pay for test fees, college application fees and other school-related expenditures; a laptop computer; SAT/ACT preparation materials; a graphics calculator; science magazine; and a blue windbreaker jacket with the institute's Academic Scholar insignia, which must be worn at the nonprofit's functions.

"We have to put on our jackets before Paul comes," said Claudia Leal, 17, during the group's meeting last week. "We have to wear them everywhere."

Despite the less-than-fashionable jacket, the students are grateful to be in the program - with many giving up other activities to keep up.

"It's hard sometimes," said Nada Soeun, 17, from Century High in Santa Ana. "Some kids think we're nerds. Some are just jealous. But it's worth it. It gives us hope to see what careers we can get into if we just try." 

During the summer, the students meet at Delhi Community Center in Santa Ana, where they listen to industry speakers and attend how-to workshops.

They are also expected to write college-level science papers and prepare and make PowerPoint presentations.

"It's pretty intimidating being in this program because you're surrounded by all these smart people, when before you were considered the smartest in your class," said Sokha Pin, 17, also from Century High. "But the competitiveness just makes me work harder."

The students also take field trips to industry sites - places like Medtronics, UC Irvine's lab facilities, Trimedyne Inc. - to see how they can translate their interests into lasting careers.

"There was never a program like this at my age," said Sheri Werick, a volunteer at the institute. "These kids are high achievers. It's been my pleasure to offer my experience."

Since its inception, Riordan's students have been accepted to UCLA, USC, UC Berkeley, Yale, Columbia University and New York University, among others. 

"When you get a college degree, you earn your rights," Riordan said. "It's the greatest pleasure in my life to help these kids get those rights, although it's the reason I am bald and limp. But I'm a milkman. I can only deliver the student to the front door…. It is up to them to open it and see their possibilities."

As his students said their goodbyes to enjoy the last of their winter break, Riordan's face lighted up as each gave him a hug or handshake.

He sat chuckling and shaking his head. 

"When they win their Nobel prizes, I'll be up in heaven looking down on them," he said. "And I'll smile because they'll be the leaders I knew they could be."

San Antonio Demonstrates Power of School Vouchers 
Jay P. Greene and Greg Forster
© The Amarillo Globe-News Online
Sent by

As the Texas Legislature gears up for another debate over school vouchers this session, naturally Texans are looking for evidence on whether they work. 

They should look at their very own long-running voucher program in San Antonio. As with programs across the country, the evidence shows that vouchers work. 

While Texas doesn't have a government-sponsored school choice program, San Antonio has had a voucher program funded with private contributions since 1998. It allows students in public schools in the Edgewood school district to attend private schools they otherwise couldn't afford. 

Many people think that voucher programs will hurt public schools, draining them of the talent and resources they need to succeed. Others suggest that vouchers will improve public schools by exposing them to greater competition. Because most students will remain in public schools even with a voucher program, the most important empirical issue about vouchers is determining how they will affect achievement in public schools. 

We conducted an analysis to determine whether Edgewood's public schools have been improving or declining since the creation of the voucher program. We compared the year-to-year changes in Edgewood's performance with those of other Texas school districts, controlling for factors such as race and income. 

We found that Edgewood started producing outstanding academic improvements after the voucher program was created. What had long been an extremely troubled school district began to outperform 85 percent of Texas school districts, given their demographic characteristics. 

That may come as a surprise, but it shouldn't. Nationwide - including four independent studies in Florida, two in Milwaukee, and one each in Maine and Vermont - there is a large body of research finding that public schools exposed to vouchers make superior test score gains. On top of all this, we are not aware of any empirical studies in the U.S. that have found that public schools get worse because of school vouchers. That's an impressive track record. 

The evidence that vouchers work for the students who use them is even stronger. There have been eight studies of vouchers that used "random assignment," the scientific gold standard, to compare very similar treatment and control groups. Seven of the eight studies found that voucher students outperformed students who applied for vouchers but did not receive them. The eighth also found higher test scores for voucher students, but the result failed to achieve statistical significance. 

Other questions have been raised about vouchers, such as whether they will provide adequate services to disabled students, whether they exacerbate racial segregation, and whether they will undermine the teaching of civic values. In all three cases, the evidence shows that vouchers produce better results than public schools. 

We conducted an empirical analysis of a voucher program for disabled students in Florida. We found that disabled students using vouchers to attend private schools received better services than they had received in their public schools. They also were less frequently bullied and assaulted by their peers - a major problem for disabled students. 

There have been seven studies of racial segregation in voucher programs in Milwaukee, Cleveland and Washington, D.C. that used valid empirical methods. All seven found that the private schools participating in these programs were less racially segregated than the public schools in those cities. Public schools assign students to schools by neighborhood, ensuring that residential segregation will be reproduced in schools; vouchers break down neighborhood barriers. 

And what about the teaching of civic values? 

Pat Wolf of the University of Arkansas collected the results of all empirical studies that measured the civic values of public and private school students - whether they tolerated the rights of those they disliked, whether they voted, whether they volunteered, and so on. Across the board, the available studies overwhelmingly found that private school students had stronger civic values than public school students. 

San Antonio students get a better education because of vouchers. This include not only the students who can choose the school that works best for them thanks to vouchers, but also the students who remain in public schools and benefit from vouchers' competitive effects. 

Now the only question is whether the rest of Texas wants to reap the same benefits as San Antonio. 

Jay P. Greene is head of the Department of Education Reform at the University of Arkansas in Fayatteville. Greg Forster is a senior fellow at the Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation in Indianapolis. 
They are coauthors of "Education Myths" (Rowman &Littlefield, 2005).

The Segregation of American Teachers 
by Carrie Kilman,  January 5, 2007
Sent by Howard Shorr

Teachers are segregated along the lines of race and class, fueling disparate experiences in U.S. schools. 

Public school teachers in the United States are segregated by race and class, and white teachers are the least likely to have experience with diversity, according to a report (PDF) released last week by the Harvard Civil Rights Project, in conjunction with the Southern Poverty Law Center. Researchers examined survey responses from more than 1,000 teachers in K-12 public schools across the country. They found that teachers of color are more likely to be assigned to low-income schools that fail to meet federal standards. White teachers, on the other hand, are disproportionately placed in higher-achieving, more affluent schools. 

These patterns present three key problems, says Jennifer Holladay, interim director of the SPLC's Teaching Tolerance program. 

First, the limited cross-race exposure of white teachers means they're less equipped to work with increasingly diverse student bodies. White teachers comprise the vast majority of the teaching force, yet 42% of public school students are students of color. 

"The survey showed quite clearly that white teachers, as a group, not only grew up in homogenous environments, but also work with few colleagues of color today," said Holladay. "They have comparatively little personal experience working and living across racial lines." 

Second, white students –- the most racially segregated population in U.S. schools –- are unlikely to be exposed to educators of color, and that, Holladay says, undermines their preparation for the future. 

"Decades of research have proven that when people from diverse backgrounds interact, prejudices and stereotypes can melt away," she said. "With few teachers of color, and few students of color, around them, white students miss out on key opportunities to learn how to thrive in diverse workplaces and in a diverse democracy." 

Third, educators of color –- those most likely to be working in high-needs schools -- are more likely to leave the teaching force. Teachers in schools with fewer resources, higher poverty rates and lower test scores report a greater likelihood of changing professions. Because teachers of color are disproportionately placed in these schools, they're more likely to leave. 

"This creates a revolving door, where teachers of color are so dissatisfied by their experiences in high-poverty schools that they leave," said Holladay. "Such attrition makes it difficult for these schools to build faculties with in-depth experience and elevated levels of preparation and credentialing, thus shortchanging the largely of-color students who attend them. 

This is the first of four planned reports based on the national teachers' survey. Future issues will examine working conditions, teacher attitudes about diversity, and the factors that help teachers succeed in diverse school settings. 


John Serrano Jr., 69; his lawsuit changed the way state's schools are funded
By Valerie J. Nelson, Times Staff Writer, December 6, 2006 
Sent by Consuelo Rodriguez

The advice from the East Los Angeles elementary school principal shocked John Serrano Jr. To meet the needs of his promising son, Serrano was told, he should move from within the Los Angeles Unified School District to a wealthier community. Because schools received most of their funding from property taxes in the late 1960s, higher taxes meant stronger schools, the principal said.

So Serrano moved his family, first to Whittier and then Hacienda Heights, but not without looking back. A social worker, he promised to strive to make things better for those he left behind.

When lawyers for the Western Center on Law and Poverty overheard Serrano at a dinner party talk about underfunded education in East Los Angeles, they saw potential legal action.

In 1968, Serrano lent his name to the class-action lawsuit that challenged California's century-old method of school financing. By 1976, the state Supreme Court had reaffirmed an earlier ruling that declared the existing system unconstitutional. The decision resulted in a shift away from reliance on local property taxes and toward state aid for education. The father of three had won.

"We do have a much more egalitarian system now than before John Serrano first brought his lawsuit. It led to a nationwide movement…. Many states have followed California's lead," Stephen Sugarman, a lawyer who argued the case before the state Supreme Court in 1976, told The Times. 

"We call them public schools, but it's really private advantage they exploit, and that's what Serrano meant to curtail," said Sugarman, a professor at UC Berkeley's Boalt Hall School of Law. 

In challenging the disparity in funding, Serrano's lawyers said $1,232 was then spent to educate each student in Beverly Hills compared with $577 in Baldwin Park, according to a 1983 Times story. Those who lived in Baldwin Park were also taxed at a rate twice as high as Beverly Hills residents, but the amount raised was substantially less.

It was wrong, Serrano's attorney's argued, for such disparities to exist in a state whose Constitution guarantees equal opportunity in education. The state's high court agreed, saying funding differences between districts should be "considerably less" than $100 per pupil. 

One major outcome was state legislation that gave money to districts that didn't receive as much funding through property taxes. By 1977, then-Gov. Jerry Brown had signed a $4.26-billion finance bill that attempted to equalize school funding. 

The case continues to shape decisions about school financing today, experts said. 

"Whenever there are school funding bills, it means the money has to be spent equally in school districts," Howard Miller, a lawyer who was Los Angeles Unified's chief operating officer from 1999 to 2000, told The Times on Tuesday.

For example, a suit brought about six years ago contended that Los Angeles Unified was at a huge disadvantage in receiving construction money from the state. Because funds were allocated on a first-come, first-served basis, the huge district, which could be slow to react, was at a disadvantage, Miller said.

"A lawsuit was brought that rested on the same constitutional principles as the Serrano case," he added. "It argued schoolchildren in Los Angeles were not able to get their proper share of construction funds…. The court decisions in that case meant Los Angeles Unified received billions of dollars more than it otherwise would have."

Serrano always played down his role in the historic case. 

"It's difficult to accept credit," he told the National Journal in 1979. "If I hadn't been the plaintiff, somebody else would have brought suit."

The case "kind of became a part of my father," said John A. Serrano, the second-grader with promise who is now a vice president at Deutsche Bank Corporate Trust. "When he was maturing in the 1960s, my father was a change agent. He was part of a time when people were challenging the status quo. He always embodied that."

A native of East Los Angeles, Serrano was born April 14, 1937, one of two children of John, a shoemaker, and his wife, Grace, a seamstress.

Serrano married Aurora, his high school sweetheart, and earned a bachelor's degree in sociology from Cal State L.A. in 1968. Three years later, he received a master's in social work from USC. 

For 40 years, Serrano was a licensed clinical social worker. He was a community organizer with Los Angeles County's mental health department and served as chief of social services for the East Los Angeles Regional Center in Alhambra, a state-funded corporation that serves the mentally retarded.

He also worked with Los Angeles County Child Protective Services. As the Serrano case wound its way through the legal system, he worked on building his career and raising his family. 

"I didn't have the slightest idea the thing would be so big," he told The Times in 1977. 
When the court ruled in Serrano's favor, he said he woke up to its implications, at his wife's urging.

"She told me that … 'there are a lot of people who see you as a figurehead. You better take it seriously,' " he said in the 1977 article. He did, Serrano said, by giving speeches on the subject every time he was asked. 

In addition to his wife and son John, Serrano is survived by another son, David; a daughter, Amber Pomeroy; and five grandchildren.

"I  wanted to send this article on John Serrano ... He made an impact on the funding of the schools in California ... funding that all of our children have been able to take advantage of ... but most of all he made an impact on a very poor family in East Los Angeles ... we will miss John ,,, he was "good" man who had a wonderful laugh and always had kind words to say to family, friends and clients ... he and his wife Rori raised their young children in a very small home in East Los Angeles, at the end of Downey Road, by the railroad tracks ... and his family took under their wings my husband's family ... they shared their laughter as they packed their young children and 4 Rodriguez children into their car in the late 1950's and placed a "tina" with a watermelon and bologna sandwiches for adventures to the beach ... there was a quote attributed to john at his funeral ... "Primero la casa y luego la causa"  ...... that definitely was John."

 - - - - Consuelo Rodriguez

Dissertation study - call for females who identify as Mexican American

My name is Bertha Rodarte-Luna and I am a doctoral student working on my
dissertation in the Counseling Psychology Program at the University of Texas. I am currently collecting data for a study that involves examining intersection identities among women of Mexican descent. Please consider participating in this dissertation study - UNDERSTANDING THE COMPLEXITY OF INTERSECTING IDENTITIES AMONG WOMEN OF MEXICAN DESCENT. I am interested in exploring how one manages an ethnic and feminist identity simultaneously. It is my hope that this research will assist in understanding the experiences of women of color.

Eligibility requirements are:
1) Female
2) At least 18 years old of age.
3) Identify yourself as Mexican American, of Mexican descent, or Chicana living
in the U.S.

The survey takes about 45 minutes to complete. Participation is completely
confidential. There are no foreseeable risks associated with this study and you
may withdraw from the survey at any point.

For more information or to participate in this research opportunity, please
click on the following link:

Thank you, Bertha Rodarte-Luna, M.A.
Doctoral Candidate, Counseling Psychology Program
Department of Educational Psychology
1 University Station, University of Texas at Austin
Austin, TX 78712

Supervisors: Lucia Gilbert, Ph.D. and Alissa Sherry, Ph.D.

Please contact Bertha E. Rodarte-Luna at if you wish to participate in her study. Also, please share her message with other individuals who may want to participate.

Sent by Elvira Prieto

Hispanic women needed for study; UT student needs help

My name is Enrique Guevara, a doctoral student at the University of Texas at Austin. 
We are seeking participants for a study on menopausal symptom experiences among middle-age women (40-60 years) of diverse ethnic groups: White, Hispanic, African-American, or Asian, literate in English. 

The information will be gathered through the use of the Internet, from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2008. Methods for the data collection include an Internet survey among 500 middle aged women in the U.S. on the Internet and online forum discussions among four ethnically different online forum groups (30 members per group at the beginning).

Your involvement will be: (a) about 30 minutes are usually needed to complete the Internet survey questionnaire; and (b) online forums will be conducted for 6 months (6 months for 7 discussion topics and additional topics that the participants may add) if you agree to participate in the additional online forum discussions. Your participation is asynchronous (participants can visit the online forum site and read and post messages at their convenience). 

Reimbursement for participation will be made by providing a Target gift certificate of 10 dollars per Internet survey participant and a Target gift certificate of 50 dollars per online forum participant. To get reimbursed for the online forums, at least two messages per topic should be posted. For more information, please visit at our Web-site ( and/or contact us.

Enrique Guevara, RN, MSN
Graduate Assistant, Doctoral Student
School of Nursing, University of Texas at Austin

Contact Information: Dr. Eun-Ok Im, Professor
School of Nursing, The University of Texas at Austin
1700 Red River, Austin, TX, 78701
Phone: (512) 475-6352
Project Website:


Bilingual Education

Somos Primos is starting a series of articles on Spanish Bilingualism.  You are invited to add your memories,social comments, teaching experiences, anything touching on the value of bilingualism. 

Approaching the topic of Spanish Bilingualism, I soon realized how very complex the subject is. We are dealing with civil rights, culture, heritage, customs, the development of bilingual teaching strategies, a general lack of knowledge of language acquisition, and the constitutionality of English-only teaching in the U.S. - -  among many other issues.   

A Brief History of Bilingual Education and the Role that Villa Alegre Played 
by Mimi Lozano


Dear Primos . . . Dr. Armando Ayala contacted me with a sense of urgency that the history of Bilingual Education needs to be made more public.  A few days after Dr. Ayala call, a receive a call from Dr. Henry Casso.  He too was contacting me to expressing his concern that the leadership of early Latino educators  be promoted. The timing of both gentlemen contacting me, with basically the same goal, convinced me that we should proceed. 

With the involvement of  Dr. Ayala and Dr. Casso, and the assistance of their colleagues,  we will be providing readers with insight into the historical development and philosophical foundation of bilingual education. We are hopeful that insight will bring about greater understanding of the challenges faced by the limited English student.

We will be presenting milestones, events which triggered the bilingual movement and the men that carried it forth.  Dr. Ayala has identified the television pilot of Villa Alegre as the vehicle that opened political awareness and lead to the first Bilingual Act of 1968.  Villa Alegre was a  bilingual (Spanish/English) television show for children, produced in the United States by a consortium of educators and entertainers. 

Historical Status
The Constitution does not contain a provision declaring English, nor any other language, to be the official language.
Several early government documents were written in German, French, English, and later, Spanish as well. Restrictive language policies gathered little public support until the mid-nineteenth century, when a surge of Chinese immigration led white laborers to organize for legislation making certain rights contingent on English proficiency.(1)

During the last two decades of the nineteenth century, the increasing numbers of immigrants from non-Western European countries fueled growing fears about the inability or unwillingness of these new immigrants to assimilate into Anglo-American culture. The first English only movements were born out of such concerns, which coincided with restrictive immigration policies of the 1920's.(1)

Meyer v. Nebraska (1923):

In their zeal to promote English, assimilationists attempted to ban other languages in elementary schools. In 1923, the Supreme Court nullified such restrictive state laws in Meyer v. Nebraska by striking down a Nebraska law prohibiting the teaching in school of any language other than English (German in this case) before eighth grade. Concurrently, the Court upheld the right of the state to require instruction in English. Justice McReynold's opinion clearly expresses the extent to which language restriction was tied to Americanization sentiment at the time:(1)

The effects of Television on Children

Children's Television as entertainment was introduced in December 1947, with the Howdy Doody (1947-1960). 

Two children's programs aired: Captain Kangaroo  (1955-1985) and Mouseketeers (first 1955-1959). In 1955, I was doing field work in recreational drama, assigned to work with Rena Riddick, a puppeteer, the director of the Shatto Drama Center. I had the fun experience of putting on a children's television program.  It peaked my interest considerably in the media/drama as a teaching tool.

1950-1960s:  In the late  much research was being done by psychologists, child development experts, pediatricians and educators concerned about the effects of television viewing among children. (2)

1965: The potential benefits of media for language development resulted in two media related grants being awarded under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.  Berkeley Unified School District received a grant.  The  second award was made to Bilingual Children's Television, Inc. (BC/TV), a nonprofit Oakland corporation, under the authority of the Emergency School Aid Act. (3)

Bilingual Children's Television, Inc.
Heading Bilingual Children's Television, Inc. was Dr. Rene Cardenas, supported by attorney David Ochoa, Dr. Armando Ayala, and Dr. Luis O. Reyes Peraza. The involvement of Hollywood Latinos Ricardo Montalvan, Jose Feliciano,Vicki Carr, and Carmen Zapata assisted in the effort to produce a pilot for a children's bilingual television series, Villa Alegre. (4)

1967: Ronald Regan was in the right place at the right time for Latinos. Ronald Regan was President of the Screen Actors Guild between 1947 and 1952. In 1966, Ronald Regan was elected Governor in California. Using the television pilot, the educators fortified by the Hollywood group lobbied Ronald Regan, to move forward with Bilingual Education.  (4)

1968: the Original Bilingual Education Act was passed. Dr. Ayala maintains that the California effort, challenged by the increasing number of limited-English speaking students was key to the passing of the original Bilingual Education Act. 
That same year, Sesame Street and Mr. Rogers Neighborhood both started.

In the early 1970s, I attended a conference at Golden West College in Huntington Beach, California hosted by the Children's Television Workshop. Soon thereafter I started teaching puppetry at Golden West College and watched children's programming regularly with great interest. Sesame Street and Mr. Rogers Neighborhood were multicultural in their approach. Mr. Rogers appealing to younger age, even a one year old's attention would be held by Mr. Rogers' direct eye-to-camera approach. The experts were watching.

1973: The efforts of getting the 1968 Bilingual Education Act passed, supplied the funding to produce a bilingual children's television finally. Villa Alegre airing for the first time in 1973.  Villa Alegre was a Spanish/English television show for children, produced in the United States. (Mexico produced children's television programs which could be viewed in some parts of the U.S. (5) 

Villa Alegre ran on PBS. Occasionally I was able to catch segments. The show centered on life in a Mexican village. I could not find documentation for the life of the series; however a brief bio on Ms. Carmen Zaptata informs us that at the minimum Villa Alegre ran was nine seasons. "For nine seasons Mrs. Carmen Zapata starred in PBS' bilingual children's television show "Villa Alegre."  (6)

Next month we will cover continue the chronology and other events affecting the development and status of Bilingual Education.

(1) The Legal History of Bilingual Education online at

(2) Series III: Children's Television Programming: Articles, Reports and Studies, 1968-1995 (0.50 linear feet) This series documents funding and research of children's television programming. Topics include science education, the effects of television on the developing brains of young children and the federal role in funding children's television programming. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

(3) ERIC  ED097754 
(4) Interviews with Dr. Armando Ayala, January 2007 
(5) Wikipedia 


Dr. Armando Ayala was born and raised in Laredo, Texas. Although he lost he mother to TB when he was only 4 years old, he loved learning. Mexican children were not allowed to start school until they were 7 years old and had to pass certain stages (about 6 steps) to be allowed to enter 1st grade. The result of this system, many Mexican children were entering first grade at the age of 10, assigned to classes with children 3-4 years younger.

In spite of that system, Armando was enthusiastic and had a full schedule. He had his own orchestra in high school, held an after-school job at a news stand, and participated in ROTC for four years. He graduated in 1948, the draft was in place and returning GIs gave tips to the high school boys.  Since Armando was 19, his father felt he should join the service or get a job; however, he stayed in school. Armando got his high school diploma, and tested high enough to be accepted into the Air Force.  He achieved the rank of Staff Sgt. He left the service, after 3 1/2 years, to enter East Texas State University, accumulating numerous scholarships along the way.  He wanted to be a teacher.  Participation in the first LULAC chapter for young people put him in touch with men that had inspired him with the desire to get a university degree. 

Serna Vs Portales Landmark Case In New Mexico Becomes The Authority Used
By Lau Vs Nichols For Bilingual Education.
José Armas, Ph.D.
Albuquerque, NM

In the late 1960’s I was the training director in New Mexico for VISTA, a federal war on poverty program also known as the domestic Peace Corps. One of the unique dimensions of VISTA at that time was that it began to recruit and train local people and let them work at home to organize for change.

As training director I moved throughout the state and find local leaders, provide training and develop projects to work on. I traveled to Portales located in Eastern New Mexico, which also known as “Little Texas” -- not only for it’s affinity to western Texas-- but also for it’s blatant racism against Latinos*, Blacks and Indians. Among the extreme poverty and oppressive forces, I also found some gold nuggets.

In Portales, a university community of about 8,000, I had the privilege to find Frank Sanchez who was from Roswell, NM, but who was attending Eastern New Mexico University at the time. Frank became one of those Community VISTA volunteers. Frank was a born leader. I believe Frank is responsible for creating more meaningful social and electoral change in NM in the past 40 years than anyone else alive today. He is another notable, national Latino, unsung hero whose story I hope is someday told. Among some of the organizations we worked on together included the development of a welfare rights organization, and the Chicano Youth Association.

The Chicano Youth Association and many of the members in the welfare rights organization were responsible for making an impact in the area of education that has affected millions. Because they fought far from the metro centers of Albuquerque and the historical land grants fights of Northern New Mexico, they lived and worked in obscurity.

Young and old, folks who were considered powerless but they were also determined to work for changes in the Portales Municipal Schools. To confront the schools was a big deal. In small communities the school system is like the “800 pound canary” who can do what it wants; they control and impact everything, the economy, social conditions, even local politics. The schools, in their more than 75 year history had never hired a Latino superintendent, assistant superintendent, principal, vice principal, teacher, or counselor, nurse, truant officer or school board member. This despite a Latino student body makeup of more than 85% in some schools. The only Latinos ever employed had been janitors.

Latino dropout rates were 100% higher than for whites. We call them dropouts, but it’s more accurate to say they were pushed out and destined to fill the menial jobs in the ranching community. And though the state board of education found deficiencies in the schools; officials were indifferent or blamed the victims. It was common practice for Latino children to be physically punished and/or put in dark closets for speaking Spanish.

Once the organizing began to pressure the schools, Latino students were expelled,
punished, confronted by white students, as well as adults. Cops continually stopped, cited and harassed the leaders deemed to be “instigators” riling up the community. But there was plenty to work on, and leaders like Frank kept them motivated, energized and on target.

In 1969 after meticulously documenting examples of discrimination and after fruitless meetings with school officials, and the school board, community leaders stepped up the pressure. They demonstrated and had press conferences and organized walkouts of the schools. These were followed by confrontations with white extremists. It was a dangerous a place to be a Latino. Tensions in “Little Texas” were always high during that time. Folks, both Latinos and Whites were often afraid to go out at night –with good reason.

In the early 1970’s the schools finally responded to the relentless pressures of the community by hiring a couple Latino teachers, but little other improvements were taking place, so it was decided to file a class action suit against the schools in US District Court. The plaintiffs in the case were students and their parents and guardians. Those included: Judy Serna and Ramona Serna; Yolanda Aragon and Bessie Perez; Virginia Lucero and Perto Lucero, Jose Antonio Meza and his parent Antonia Meza. And the Chicano Youth Association also signed on as a plaintiff in the suit.

We had found the San Antonio based, Mexican American Legal Defense Fund, as it was known then, and approached them for help (Later MALDF became the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund)). We met with Mario Obledo, the MALDF director who agreed to help us file the class action discrimination suit. In New Mexico, Dan Sosa who was on the MALDF board helped find Dick Bosson who became the key lawyer in the case (Bosson is currently Chief Justice of the NM State Supreme Court).

The discrimination suit was filed and won in the early 1972 and it became a landmark court case. (An interesting excuse --which might still sound familiar today-- as to why the schools had never hired a Latino teacher prior to community protests, L.C. Cozzens, school Superintendent replied they never found any “qualified” Latinos) The court found there was numerous examples of discrimination and for the first time mandated a remedy for the discrimination. The court ordered the school to implement bilingual and bicultural programs and called for teaching Latino history and hiring more Latinos in those schools. This was the first court ruling specifying bilingual education as a remedy for 

Of course, the Portales schools and civic leaders were outraged with the decision.They had been beaten by powerless folks they had been used to control and “keep in their place.” They appealed to the US Court of Appeals for the 10th Circuit in Denver. In 1974 the decision was upheld and the education institution of Portales was dealt a second major embarrassing defeat. This ruling meant it became the law of the land in about 8 states (New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah, and parts of Montana and Idaho). To their shame, the New Mexico State Board of Education testified against the local community. So they got beat also.

There was disbelief in the powers that be in “Little Texas.” They could not possibly have been beaten, twice, by poor, uneducated people. Portales officials talked openly about appealing to the Supreme Court. But the word is that school officials were pressured by other school districts around the country to drop the case because the violations of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 were so overwhelming. Those other school districts were afraid that if the case was upheld by the Supreme Court that the whole country would have to comply with the mandates. Portales dropped their plans to appeal again.

This case became a big deal for the relatively new and struggling MALDF organization. As a result of this major victory, MALDF got national recognition, and major funding followed. In the Lau Vs Nichols case that was heard in the Supreme Court, also in the same year as the second Serna Vs Portales case ruling, those lawyers cited as this case as their legal authority. So while many would credit that widespread bilingual education programs to the Lau Vs Nichols case, it had used the preceding case of Serna Vs Portales to win it’s victory.

It’s also important to note: there was, in fact, a bilingual education act that was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson following the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed. That made monies available to those who wanted to apply (Portales schools chose not to apply for these monies). This act however, did not in fact, mandate bilingual education and bicultural programs like the Serna Vs Portales ruling did. That is what made this case a landmark.

The reality is that many of those local heroes; organizers, parents, single moms, and students made an impact that is seen today in the form of elected officials both on school board as well as on the city and county government posts, but also school employees at all levels, besides janitors. None of these ever existed until a group of heroes emerged who stood up to Goliath and said “ya basta.”

Make no mistake, these are real heroes: Judy Serna and Ramona Serna; Yolanda Aragon and Bessie Perez: Virginia Lucero and Perto Lucero; Jose Antonio Meza and Antonia Meza, along with the Chicano Youth Association and their leaders such as Frank Sanchez. These were great, courageous, ordinary, working yet poor people who stood up against not only a school system, but a town and it’s long legacy of bigotry and indifference to educating one third of it’s citizens.

Millions and millions of Latinos –and non-Latinos— throughout the country have reaped the rewards of the courage of people in tiny Portales, New Mexico that fought for educational opportunity. They faced great odds –not unlike the David and Goliath story-- and stood up to confront institutions and racists and brought victory to people everywhere. Theirs is a storybook type triumph.

Sadly, I don’t believe this history nor these local heroes have ever been properly acknowledged by our historians --nor by MALDEF. I offer this relatively unknown piece of history to add to your important archives.

* Note on terminology: I prefer Latino as the contemporary identity term but at
that time, in that part of New Mexico the common terms were Chicano, Mexican
American, Mexicanos. Of course, whites in “Little Texas” used less polite terms.


August 9, 2006 
Portales ranked 15th in Quality-of-life Top places to live in America. PortalesMayor Orlando Ortega, Jr. says “It is exciting and very deserving to have Portales ranked 15th in quality of life among the micropolitan category. The community as a whole is very focused and has been working diligently for some years now to provide the best quality of life possible, offer opportunity and the American dream to all who choose to live in Portales."

Discrimination against Mexican Americans has not received the historical visibility that would explain many problems in education. One of the best kept secret in American history is that in those years there were more Mexican Americans hung then the total number of blacks that had been hung during the civil war.

Signs of this nature were common throughout Texas, and other parts of the Southwest.  

Dr. Josue Gonzalez at the University of recommended the inclusion of information on the Little School of the 400 as an important model for successful education of Spanish-dominant preschool children.  This is in the Texas Handbook

Little School of the 400

LITTLE SCHOOL OF THE 400. The Little School (Schools) of the 400 was an educational project developed in Texas by Felix Tijerina and the League of United Latin American Citizens during the 1950s. It sought to teach Spanish-dominant preschool children a speaking vocabulary of 400 basic English words so that they could overcome the language barrier and successfully complete the first grade. They would, it was urged, not have to repeat first grade, fall behind their classmates, become discouraged, and drop out at the alarming rate then prevalent among Mexican Americansqv in Texas public schools. The Little School came into being after Tijerina, a Houston entrepreneur and civic leader, was elected LULAC national president in June 1956. He knew the difficulties that Spanish-dominant children encountered because he had learned English with great difficulty as a youngster and thought that many of his own early problems in life had resulted from language deficiency. Adopting the pedagogy of language training prevalent during the time, Tijerina set out to provide English instruction for thousands of Mexican-American children.

The pilot project began in Ganado, Texas, during the summer of 1957, through the efforts of Isabel Verver, a local resident who had learned from a magazine article of Tijerina and his intentions. From his own funds Tijerina paid Verver a salary to recruit and teach a class of Ganado preschoolers. By the time the class began, he had obtained a list of approximately 400 basic English words from Elizabeth Burrus, a teacher in Baytown who had years of experience with Spanish-speaking youngsters. Because Verver's work in Ganado impressed Tijerina and his LULAC cohorts, they determined to establish Verver-style classes elsewhere in Texas beginning in the summer of 1958. To raise money for and direct these plans, Tijerina and LULAC established a nonprofit corporation called the LULAC Educational Fund, Incorporated. Under the auspices of the fund, classes began in seven Texas cities during the first week of June 1958, including Sugar Land, Aldine, Ganado, Edna, Brookshire, Rosenberg, Vanderbilt, Wharton, and Fort Stockton. These classes, officially called the Little School of the 400, were taught by local Mexican-American women. Initially, Tijerina paid their salaries with his own money. The Little Schools were dedicated in a formal ceremony in Sugar Land on June 23, 1958, attended by Governor Price Daniel,qv a friend and associate of Tijerina.

Although the Little School of the 400 succeeded in teaching the basic English vocabulary and received much positive publicity, Tijerina and LULAC were unable to raise the necessary funds to support the program to the extent they envisioned. Tijerina worked assiduously as a member of the Hale-Aiken Committee, a group of twenty-four Texans appointed by the state to study and make recommendations for reforming the Texas public school system, to ensure that preschool English-language training be one of the committee's recommendations. He labored to bring this recommendation to the attention of the public and government officials. Sponsors of the program offered it as House Bill 51 during the Fifty-sixth Legislature. Tijerina and fellow members of LULAC lobbied for its passage, and it was enacted in the spring of 1959. The resulting state-sponsored program, called Preschool Instructional Classes for Non-English Speaking Children, embodied the concept of the original Little School.

With the passage of HB 51, Tijerina's privately funded Little School classes dwindled, since they had served their purpose. About 1,000 children had been served, and the program inspired similar efforts in other states. In Texas the mission of the Little School carried over into the operation of the Preschool Instructional Classes for Non-English Speaking Children, which sought to teach children an expanded vocabulary of 500 basic English words. Tijerina and LULAC took it upon themselves to publicize the new state-supported classes among Mexican-American parents, as attendance was voluntary. In the summer of 1960 the program hired 614 teachers and served more than 15,000 students in 135 Texas school districts in eighty-one counties, most of which were in South Texas or along the border; some, however, were farther north, in Austin, Waco, Abilene, Temple, Dallas, and other localities with Mexican populations. In 1961, 158 school districts participated and hired 772 teachers to teach 18,000 students the basic English vocabulary. Students who went through these classes showed a remarkably higher success rate when they entered first grade than those who did not. By the mid-1960s the Preschool Instructional Program diminished because of the implementation of Head Start and other federal programs. Many observers believe that the Little Schools served as a model for Project Head Start, which was implemented during the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson.qv The Little School of the 400 aimed at fitting Mexican Americans into mainstream American society, reflected LULAC's longstanding commitment to fostering education as a key to Mexican-American advancement, and was counted by LULAC as one of its most important projects.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Alfred J. Hernandez Papers, Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library. LULAC News, September 1957. Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr., "Let All of Them Take Heed": Mexican Americans and the Campaign for Educational Equality in Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987). Saturday Evening Post, August 5, 1961.

Thomas H. Kreneck

A correction to the piece you included in your February 2007 publication:  My father, Dr. Armando M. Rodriguez, never served as a Superintendent but as a College President

Dr. Armando Rodriguez the first Mexican born
teacher and principal in California. 

Short email . .   I came to San Diego at the age of 5-1/2 and started school to learn English right away. Since this was the language spoken here and my parents wanted me to excel, I tried hard.  My parents wanted me to be literate in Spanish too.  They had me study Spanish at home with the help of my older siblings and the Spanish language programs on radio. This was fine through elementary school, but became much more complicated in Jr. High with its many separate classes and homework in each class.  

Teachers didn't understand the need for learning or doing Spanish homework at home. Spanish learning sessions at home increasingly infrequent. By the time I got to high school, the pressure of so much homework for each subject and class, my Spanish learning was a now and then activity. However, because of the nearness to the boarder, our regular visits to Mexico, as well as the language  being spoken at home, I was able to maintain both languages. 

In High school, as a senior I had an option to be a helper to the Spanish teacher. As her assistant, I helped in whatever way I could, frequently as a model speaker for students to practice conversation. I would also help in setting up the classroom, tutoring individual pupils and even doing research.  I am sure it was those experiences that helped me to make the decision to become a teacher, it was an easy choice.  I became the first Mexican born teacher and principal in California, and eventually I was selected to serve as the president of a college in California.

Study: Bilingualism may delay onset of dementia:
Jan. 12 2007 News Staff, Sent by:
Dr. Armando Ayala, & Dr. Henry J. Casso

Lifelong bilingualism can help delay the onset of dementia symptoms by four years, Canadian researchers have found.

Patients who were fluent in two or more languages and spoke them regularly reported dementia symptoms on average about four years after people who spoke only one language, says principal investigator Ellen Bialystok.

Bialystok, a psychology professor at York University, says researchers are "pretty dazzled" by the results.

Bilingualism may help to stave off cognitive decline because of the mental agility necessary to juggle them in day-to-day life, researchers said.

"In the process of using language and using two languages, you are engaging parts of your brain ... that are active and need that kind of constant exercise and activity and with that experience stays more robust," Bialystok said, appearing on CTV's Canada AM.

The study, conducted by researchers with the Rotman Research Institute at the Baycrest Research Centre for Aging and the Brain in Toronto, is published in the February 2007 issue of Neuropsychologia.

"Our study found that speaking two languages throughout one's life appears to be associated with a delay in the onset of symptoms of dementia by four years compared to those who speak one language," said Bialystok, also an associate scientist at the Rotman Research Institute. 

The study followed on the heels of previous reports from Bialystok and colleagues showing bilingualism enhances attention and cognitive control in both children and older adults.

"I've been investigating the cognitive effects of bilingualism in children for a long time and so about five or six years ago, we wondered if we could find these benefits throughout adulthood, and we did," Bialystok said. 

"And (we) found that with aging, bilingual adults suffered or experienced a slower decline in the normal slowing down and decline of cognition with aging than comparable monolinguals," she said.

Those results compelled Bialystok and her research team to wonder what this would mean for the onset of dementia.

Researchers examined the diagnostic records of 184 Toronto-area patients who came to Baycrest's Sam and Ida Ross Memory Clinic between 2002 and 2005 with cognitive complaints. Of those patients, 91 were monolingual and 93 were bilingual.

The bilingual speakers spoke a combination of 25 different languages, the most prevalent being Polish, Yiddish, German, Romanian and Hungarian.

Researchers found 132 patients met criteria for probable Alzheimer's while the remaining 52 were diagnosed with other dementias.

The researchers determined that the mean age of onset of dementia symptoms in the monolingual group was 71.4 years, while the bilingual group was 75.5 years. This gap remained even after considering the possible effect of other lifestyle factors such as cultural differences, immigration, formal education, employment and gender.

"There are no pharmacological interventions that are this dramatic" in delaying symptoms, said neurologist Dr. Morris Freedman, who is head of the Division of Neurology, and director of the Memory Clinic at Baycrest.

"The data show a huge protective effect," adds co-investigator and psychologist Fergus Craik, an expert on age-related changes in memory processes.

Craik cautioned that this is a preliminary study but aligned with other recent findings about lifestyle effects on dementia. The team is working on a follow-up study that will further examine bilingualism and dementia onset. The study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

My cousin Alba Valdez (our Mom's were sisters) sent me the information on receiving a 
Spanish Word of the Day.  Alba and I have been writing to each other in Spanish to help one another recover our Spanish. Below is the first Word of the day that I got on
Monday, January 8, 2007. Interesting historical information is included.  In our case, of personal interest because our grandmother was born in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. 

potosí, noun >   a fortune

To say that something is really expensive, the phrases valer un potosí, to be worth a fortune, and costar un potosí, to cost a fortune or to cost an arm and a leg are often used.

Hoy estos muebles valen un potosí.
Nowadays these pieces of furniture are worth a fortune. 

Además de no servir para absolutamente nada, costó un potosí.

Apart from being of absolutely no use whasoever, it cost a fortune.

The exotic-sounding word potosí in this idiom is from Potosí, a city in Bolivia which is one of the highest in the world, at an altitude of 4066 metres (13,340 feet). Silver was discovered there in 1545 by the Spanish colonizers of Latin America, and exported back to Spain in such vast quantities that the name of the city became a byword for something fabulously expensive.

Spanish Word of the Day
Thursday, January 25, 2007
tomate, noun

You may already know that the tomato is not a vegetable but a fruit. But did you know that they were probably first grown in Mexico? In Náhuatl, which is the indigenous Mexican language that was once spoken by the Aztecs and is still a minority language in Mexico, the word for this fruit is tomatl. In Mexico today the word for a normal tomato is jitomate and tomate is used for a green tomato. Náhuatl passed on many words to Spanish, some of which have come through to English: avocado - el aguacate in Spanish, chocolate el chocolate and chilli el chile. Today a million bilingual and monolingual speakers speak Náhuatl in the central plateau of Mexico.

To subscribe to Spanish Word of the Day by email,
please send a blank message to:
HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2006. All rights reserved.

Spanish Word of the Day started November 1st, 2006 
The entire year is archived at this site.


Hispanic Contributions

It gives us tremendous pleasure to share with you interesting information about how much Hispanics have contributed to the well-being of the United States, which will help us put them in a better historical perspective in this great country. When we say "Hispanic," whom are we talking about? For sure, they are not one nationality, nor one culture. Instead, Hispanics are greatly diverse people. Their cultural and linguistic origins are Spanish and Latin American, regardless of race and color. They can be of European, Indian or African descent, or any combination of these three. They can have cultural ties to Mexico, the Caribbean countries, Central America, South America or Spain itself. Once considered a regional phenomenon in the United States, Hispanics are now found throughout the country. For example, there are more Hispanics in the Great Lakes region than in the states of Colorado and Arizona combined

Book Number 5 in a Series of Children's books (8-9 years) of Famous Latinos 
by authors: Lila and Rick Guzman 

1.  César Chávez: Fighting for Fairness

2.  Diego Rivera: Artist of Mexico

3.  Ellen Ochoa: First Latina Astronaut

4.  Frida Kahlo: Painting Her Life

5.  George Lopez: Comedian and TV Star

6.  Roberto Clemente: Baseball Hero

Barnes and Noble site:

Amazon: sr=8-11/qid=1167705134/ref=sr_1_11/102-5000388-5711300?ie=UTF8&s=books

Latino Arts Network of California

Founding Organizations:
Arte Americas, Fresno, CA
Centro Cultural de la Raza, San Diego, CA
East Bay Center for the Performing Arts, Richmond, CA 
El Andar Publications, Santa Cruz, CA
Galeria de la Raza, San Francisco
La Pena Cultural Center Berkeley, CA
La Raza Galeria Posada, Sacramento, CA 
Mexican Heritage Corp., San Jose, CA 
Plaza de la Raza, Los Angeles, CA
Self-Help Graphics and Art, Los Angeles, CA
Contact Information: Latino Arts Network of California
Executive Director: Rebecca Nevarez
Address: 573 S. Lake Avenue Suite 7
Pasadena, CA 91101
Phone: (626)228-5016

The Latino Arts Network (LAN) website provides access to a creative and professional network of individuals and organizations dedicated to strengthening and promoting California’s Latino Arts.  
The mission of The Latino Arts Network is to support and strengthen the Latino arts community and to promote the cultural well being of the communities and artists we serve.  Throughout our unique 10-year history, LAN continually strives to provide technical assistance and educational services to arts organizations; develop and sponsor traveling exhibitions and public performances; and provide educational services to government, foundation other philanthropic institutions about issues relating to the Latino art community.
The Latino Arts Network is a 501 (c) 3 nonprofit arts service organization with three major program areas: 1) Touring and Presenting,  2) Capacity Building, 3) Advocacy
The Latino Arts Network was founded in 1997 by a consortium of several California community-based Latino arts and cultural organizations. These organizations shared many common characteristics: more than half had been producing and presenting for over 20 years, they operated venues that serve adult and youth audiences; and they presented a diverse spectrum of artists and art forms.
In 1999-2001, the Latino Arts Network developed its touring program by organizing Hecho en Califas: The Last Decade, a visual arts exhibition and accompanying catalog, featuring the work of contemporary California Latino artists.  Hecho en Califas was the combined effort of 10 institutions, 18 cultural workers, 31 artists and countless volunteers and supporters from throughout the state.  Hecho en Califas revealed the wealth of talent that exists within the neighborhoods that our centers and made this important work accessible to audiences throughout California.
In 2002, the Latino Arts Network presented Encuentro del Son, a 28-person touring performance of three Son music groups from Mexico and Son de la Tierra from the East Bay Center for the Performing Arts.  In that same year when the California Arts Council lost nearly 50% of its budget, LAN played a significant role in organizing the arts field and advocated for reinstatement of public support for the arts. Through its advocacy program, LAN maintains that role and is considered a lead advocate for public funding for the arts in California.
In 2003, the Latino Arts Network launched its capacity building program with support from the National Endowment for the Arts and in the following year received a second NEA grant to expand the program. To date, the program has provided eight California Latino art organizations with IT support services, equipment and programs to bridge the “digital divide” that many of our organizations experience. 
In 2004, the Latino Arts Network organized an intensive seven-day grant writing seminar in Akumal, Mexico attend by eight participants.  As a result, the individual participants have experienced a 30 to 50% increase in support from the previous year for proposals submitted to the original funding source.  In that same year, the Latino Arts Network was granted its 501 (c) 3 status and began to operate as an independent non-profit organization. 
In 2005, the Latino Arts Network in association with El Teatro Campesino presented Mexico’s legendary bolero group the Trio Los Panchos in four Northern and Central California cities with large Latino populations; Sacramento, San Jose, Watsonville and Fresno. 
In 2006, the Latino Arts Network re-launched its website and continues to provide vital information and resources for its members.  LAN also distributes a monthly e-mail newsletter to a growing number of constituents and serves as the state’s voice for California’s Latino arts organizations and artists.


Corridos in Migrant Memory, 
Martha Chew Sanchez (University of New
Mexico Press, 2006)

One item in Reading in Red &Brown by Roberto Rodriguez &Patrisia Gonzales, December 31, 2006 Sent by Carlos Munoz 

Corridos is a special topic for peoples of Mexican ancestry. In one sense, it is the hip-hop of early Mexican history. In Corridos in Migrant Memory, Chew Sanchez reminds us that the history of peoples can often be found in art, poetry and song. Here, though the peoples are supposed to live in fear and anonymity, their lives are freely celebrated and depicted in corridos. While there is of course some blues elements in the music... and also romanticization, one can not under-estimate the power these corridos have for the migrants themselves.

In the realm of migrant history and migrant memory, many are writing and many are singing, but no doubt, per Chew Sanchez, the best known practicioners are Los Tigres del Norte. Truly, before the Tigres began singing about the trials and tribulations of migrants - and their encounters with racist gringos - migrants were viewed simply as
downtrodden and peoples who lived primarily in the shadows. Nowadays, corridos speak of epic journeys and even ballads about the civil and human rights struggles of migrants - especially the huge pro-migrant marches of 2006.

An excerpt from The Tomb of the Wetback:

... The tortilla wall
is an offense to the people
in Mexico people go and travel
Frenchmen, Chinese and Greeks
and some Americans
are even landlords of the Mexican towns

The rose of Mexicali
and the blood of the Rio Grande
are two different things
but they are brothers by color
and the political line
is the tomb of the wetback

While the study of corridos is not new, including migrant corridos -- the writing of this book takes on a special significance both because a giant in the field of corridos - UCLA's Guillermoo Hernandez -- died suddenly while traveling in Mexico. And also, the explosion of the immigrant rights movement in 2006 gives new importance to these stories as they generally are sung at rallies. As noted, they no longer are confined to stories of victimhood, but often revel in humor and defiance, particularly when up against the Migra and other would-be border gurdians.

Chew Sanchez's work is a great contribution to the study of this cultural phenomenon.

Living the American Dream: Hispanic Homeownership Increasing
Rodney Tanaka -- San Gabriel Valley Tribune, Calif. December 27, 2006

More Latinos, both nationally and locally, are fulfilling the "American Dream" by buying a home, real estate professionals said. 

Between 1995 and 2005, the number of Latino owner-occupied homes increased by 3.1 million, reaching 6.9 million. That's an 81 percent increase compared to a 19 percent increase for all other non-Latino owner-occupied homes, according to the National Association for Hispanic Real Estate Professionals' Web site. 

In the next 20 years, Latinos are expected to make up 40 percent of all first-time homebuyers, according to the Web site. 

Of the top 10 home buyer surnames for 2005, eight were Hispanic surnames, according to the California Association of Realtors. 

"The Latino buyers for us has been a market that has been increasing," said Henry Nunez, owner of Arcadia-based Henry Nunez Real Estate Co. "Immigrants -- especially Hispanics -- have a very strong desire to own their own properties." 

Latinos have made great economic strides, and coming to the United States and buying a home represents success, he said. 

"It's part of the American dream," he said. "That's what it really is, part of the American dream." 

As home sales slow, more real estate companies are catering to immigrants, Nunez said. 

Lenders have created specific loan programs to make it easier for immigrants to qualify for a loan, he said. 

Nunez's company has 65 employees, and nearly three-quarters of them are minorities and can speak in at least two languages, including Mandarin, Farsi, Spanish, Tagalog and English. 

"This helps our firm to service minorities in their native language," Nunez said. 

The market slowdown has resulted in more inventory, he said. 

"Buyers can take more time to make a decision in buying, so prices dropped a little bit," he said. "It made the market more available to people. That's why we have a focus on minority home ownership to promote that." 

When the market was hot, real estate agents would instantly receive offers for a new listing, said Jack Kyser, chief economist for the Los Angeles County Economic Development Corp. 

"Now you have to work harder at it, and given that the Latino community is the largest ethnic community in Los Angeles County, it represents a rich market," he said. 

Home ownership improves communities, he said. 

"When somebody buys a home, they're taking a stake in the community," he said. "They're going to be concerned with public safety and school quality. It's important to connect to the local community." 

Owning a home is important because no one is dictating what your rent will be, said Marty Rodriguez, owner of Century 21 Marty Rodriguez in Glendora. 

Half her staff is bilingual and they deal with a lot of Latino buyers, she said. 

One belief her father instilled in her was "we're Americans first before we're anything," she said. 

"We live in a great country that has so much to offer," Rodriguez said. 

Source: Copyright (c) 2006, San Gabriel Valley Tribune, Calif. Distributed by McClatchy-Tribune Business News. 

The US Hispanic market continues with strong growth potential. As of December 2006, the purchasing power of the Hispanic market reached an estimated $798 billion. The forecast for 2007 is $863 billion, which would surpass African-American purchasing power, which is calculated at $847 billion.

According to research from the Mexican daily El Finandero, purchasing power of US Hispanics will increase 48% from 2005 to 2010, compared to 28% for the US population in general.

Hispanic-owned companies are concentrated in the states of:
California (28%), followed by Texas (20%), Florida (16%) and New York (9%).

According to Mexico's foreign trade bank Bancomext, Hispanic purchasing power is $105 billion in Los Angeles (with a Hispanic population of 7.8 million); $59 billion in New York (Hispanic population of 4.3 million); and $33 billion in Florida (with a Hispanic population of 1.8 million). Other important metropolitan areas for Hispanic businesses are Miami, Chicago, Houston, Dallas, San Francisco, San Antonio and Phoenix.

Source: El Financiero with data from Fundacion Solidaridad Mexicano Americana and Selig Center from Univeristy of Georgia.


Hispanic Marketers Gain Powerful Web Consumer Marketing Tool with New Search Engine-Optimized ‘Interactivo Release’ from Hispanic PR Wire

Feature-rich ‘Interactivo Release’ allows Hispanic marketers to digitally showcase their press kit materials online in a way that will dazzle consumers and media alike

All HPRW press release distributions include more than 80 industry-leading national guaranteed placements on Hispanic news Web sites across the U.S. and Puerto Rico

NOTE TO EDITORS: Multimedia assets are available at:

Miami, FL--(HISPANIC PR WIRE)--January 8, 2007--Hispanic marketers today gained a powerful new Web consumer marketing tool with the launch of the search engine-optimized, “Interactivo Release” from Hispanic PR Wire (HPRW). The feature-rich Interactivo Release allows HPRW clients to digitally showcase their press releases, photos and media kits online in a way that is unrivaled in the Hispanic marketing and press release wire industries.

“We’re all about creating maximum value for our marketing and media clients alike and that’s just what we’ve done with the Interactivo Release. A dazzling marketing tool hotwired for the Web 2.0 era is how to describe it and we’re not even done optimizing it,” said Manny Ruiz, CEO of Hispanic PR Wire. “We’re talking about a press release that creates a compelling multimedia experience for both consumers and media.”

The Interactivo Release replaces HPRW’s former flagship press release the Inteligente Release and is available as a $125 Basic and $250 Premium add-on to any geographic distribution. It includes an array of important new and upgraded features that can be viewed live by visiting the link, Key Interactivo features include:

-- Story and Photo Posting on Scores of Hispanic News Sites: Interactivo Releases get story and photo posting on more than 80 of HPRW’s Hispanic online news partner sites. The photo placement component is unique to Interactivo Releases. Release with photo postings currently include such top Hispanic Web sites as Latina Style magazine, Catalina magazine, Diario Las Americas, Vida Nueva and El Latino de San Diego, among others. HPRW’s online placements represent more than eight times the number of guaranteed placements offered by HPRW’s nearest rival competitor.

-- Photo Gallery: One of the highlights of the Interactivo Release is a Photo Gallery feature that showcases press release photos in both the front page of HPRW’s Web site in a photo spotlight box and also inside a dedicated, photos-only section of the site that includes the 50 most recent Interactivo Release images. In the Photo Gallery section,, viewers who put their cursor over a thumbnail image see that photograph in a larger view that includes the image’s related headline and the first paragraph. Clicking on an image in the Photo Gallery takes visitors to a view of the full story.

-- Thumbnail Image View: All Interactivo Releases photographs appear as thumbnail images alongside their respective press release headlines.

-- Press Kit Posting in PDF: The premium version of the Interactivo Release allows clients to post PDF versions of their press kit materials including fact sheets, biographies, newsletters, brochures, calendar of events, registration forms and more. This search engine-friendly feature is wildly popular with both consumers and media.

-- Live Web Site Preview: Premium versions of the Interactivo Release feature a full screen, live preview of the Web site related to the press release. As part of the way stories are attractively showcased, the Web site preview appears at the end of the posted press release. This powerful feature helps HPRW clients generate direct visits to their Web sites, which can be fully navigated by visitors from within the HPRW press release page.

-- Text Hyperlinks: All Interactivo Release feature hyperlinks to relevant, search engine-friendly keywords such as company, product and service brand names.

-- Quote Box: This feature adds visual appeal to your story by spotlighting, in an enlarged box, a significant quote or sentence from your story that best highlights what your story is about. All HPRW stories now get posted with this feature. 

-- Full Width Story View: For 2007, HPRW added Web real estate width to client stories by completely removing the former lefthand menu that appeared alongside stories.

The Interactivo Release is available as an add-on to any press release distribution in two versions:

-- Interactivo Release Basic (a $125 add-on): includes photo alert, hyperlinked text, high resolution photo and logo posting on as well as online posting on HPRW’s network of guaranteed placements that run HPRW stories with both text and photos. 

-- Interactivo Release Premium (a $250 add-on): includes all of the elements of the Interactivo Release Basic plus live Web site previews, PDF posting of fact sheets, biographies, newsletters and/or logos on

About Hispanic PR Wire

Miami-based and Latino-owned Hispanic PR Wire (HPRW) is the nation’s leading and most comprehensive Hispanic press release wire service reaching U.S. Hispanic media and opinion leaders. Through scores of news partnerships with many of the nation’s leading Hispanic newspapers, magazines and Internet portals, HPRW gives clients more than 87 online placements with any geographic distribution.

Hispanic PR Wire distributes corporate, government and non-profit press releases and media advisories daily to thousands of journalists subscribed to receive its free newsfeed. Media subscribers can register for HPRW’s news by accessing HPRW’s media registration form online at The online form enables journalists to select which news they want to subscribe to from among HPRW’s 15 news categories varying from Entertainment and Business/Finance to Government and Immigration.

Hispanic PR Wire is a sister company of editorial features service ConTexto Latino, Hispanic monitoring service LatinClips, Web design and marketing firm/online advertising network Hispanic Digital Network, Hispanic professional development service Hispanic Market Pro and African American wire service Black PR Wire. HPRW is also the exclusive Hispanic wire partner of leading corporate wire Business Wire and Asian American news distribution leader US Asian Wire.

NOTE TO EDITORS: Multimedia assets are available at:

CONTACT: Hispanic PR Wire
Natalia Flores, Corporate Communications Manager
Tel: 305.804.6941

Sent by Dorinda Moreno
For more information, call 510-643-7077

Anti-Spanish Legends

Shame on You and the Legacy of Valor Display
Mexican-American is encroaching on dominant society's past
Why one Hispanic immigrant is being trashed for his blueprint for success
Put Down the Pitchforks and Hear Badillo Out
Former Congressman's Book does Disservice to Latinos


Editor: The January issue of Somos Primos lead article is a series of three articles published December 21,22,23 in the Corpus Christi Caller-Times concerning the "Legacy of Valor." The 50 foot display was mounted by Rick Leal, president of the Hispanic Medal of Honor Society.  The following letter by Roy McWorter is a comment on the display, followed by a letter responding to this letter by Santiago R. Hernandez.

January 1, 2007
Honor all

When are you going to spotlight the Irish, the black, the Native American, the Oriental, the Scottish and all the other Medal of Honor recipients?

I do not believe that only Hispanics were the only recipients. All of the recipients should be honored, as they all performed heroic and brave feats.

Shame on you and the promoters of the Hispanic Medal of Honor program recently in Corpus Christi.

Roy McWhorter
Alice, Texas

In response to Mr. Roy McWhorter’s letter to the editor dated Jan 1, 2007 entitled, “Honor all”, I just assume he did not attend this exhibit and was drinking a big, tall glass of “haterade” when he wrote this letter.  

Mr. McWhorter’s opinion reminds me of a book written by Rodolfo Acuna entitled, “Anything But Mexican” in which the dominant society is offended and claims that the Mexican-American is encroaching on its past whenever this group attempts to reconstruct history and regain lost space, in this case, the Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients. 

On January, 13, 1997 , President Clinton awarded seven Black World War II veterans, living and non-living, their Medal of Honor medals making them the only Black recipients for World War II.  

President Clinton also awarded 22 Asian-American World War II veterans, living and non-living, the Medal of Honor on June 21, 2000 .  

I haven’t seen these displays yet, but I am almost certain that the Caller-Times will spotlight exhibits of cultural or historical worth if such existed and toured through our community.  

Mr. Rick Leal did an excellent job on the Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients, which also included history on Dr. Hector P. Garcia, a Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient.  If the opportunity arises again for this exhibit to return to Corpus Christi , I encourage this community, to include our youth and Mr. McWhorter, to attend, and maybe, just maybe, Mr. McWhorter’s opinion will not be so hateful towards our Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients. 


Santiago R. Hernandez, Civil Rights Chairman

American GI Forum-Pvt. Felix Z. Longoria Chapter

2613 Persimmon, Corpus Christi , Texas 78415




Stalled in America, 
Why one Hispanic immigrant is being trashed for his blueprint for success
Wall Street Journal (December 29, 2006) 

Like many millions of other immigrants, New Yorker Herman Badillo is living the American Dream. His new book, "One Nation, One Standard," is a call to arms for Hispanics who are being shut out of that dream. So why are some of Mr. Badillo's fellow Hispanic Americans now calling him a race traitor and bashing his book even before it was published yesterday? 

We'll get to that, but first consider the credentials Mr. Badillo brings to his subject. He arrived in the U.S. as an 11-year-old orphan in 1941 and by 1970 was elected the first Puerto Rican-born U.S. congressman. Mr. Badillo has since been deputy mayor of New York under Ed Koch, run for mayor himself and was former Mayor Rudy Giuliani's counsel on education, eventually leading efforts to reform and restore to excellence the City University of New York system.

Out of this experience comes Mr. Badillo's blueprint for immigrant success in America. The main focus of "One Nation, One Standard" is the Hispanic community, and his central theme is education, without which, he emphasizes, no amount of work or other opportunity will help a person rise. What's got his critics in a tizzy is Mr. Badillo's assertion that Hispanic parents cannot depend on the government to educate their children. Instead, he says, they must push their kids and rise up against a system that steers Hispanic and other minority children into segregated classrooms of designated underachievers.

The critics have focused on a few phrases in the book noting that the Hispanic immigrant community has not always placed as high a value on education as, for instance, Asians have. This is not an insult and does not sound like one when you actually read his book. As Mr. Badillo explains, the Hispanic cultural experience was formed in part by centuries of Spanish colonialism and the feudalism it spawned in Latin America, followed by decades of dictatorships and strongmen. This cruel legacy has imbued many people with a subconscious notion that stations in life don't change, and a sense that help can only come through the luck of having a benevolent leader.

"One Nation, One Standard" calls on Hispanic Americans to throw off those mental shackles and claim the rights and opportunities that other citizens enjoy. His goal, he told us in an interview this week, is to sound an alarm that what is now the country's major immigrant group is at risk of becoming the first such group not to follow the path of each generation doing better than the last.

Although his book covers many topics--including immigration--its most important audience is the parents of Hispanic kids, 50% of whom don't graduate from high school. His advice: Don't leave education up to the schools, which pursue such failed policies as "social promotion" (said to create self-esteem despite failing grades) or "tracking" with other minority children into deceptively named "academic courses," while kids marked for success study a more rigorous curriculum. Get involved and demand that your children be prepared to participate fully in the American dream, through college and beyond.

If Mr. Badillo is generating controversy by suggesting that America's Hispanics are being sidetracked in the name of multiculturalism, or hobbled by bilingual education, he welcomes the attention. "That was the reason" to write the book, he says. "To provoke a recognition that this issue cannot be hidden any longer and has to come to the forefront of a national discussion. Because we can no longer allow this to fester from generation to generation." 

Put down the pitchforks and hear Badillo out
by Andrea Batista Schlesinger, New York Daily News, January 7, 2007 

There is no good excuse for parents not being involved in the education of their children. On this, Herman Badillo and I agree. 

A former congressman and Bronx borough president, Badillo - who, in recent years has become a right- wing poster child - has a new book out arguing, among other things, that parental involvement is integral to Hispanic educational achievement. 

The book is causing quite a stir because Badillo also contends that Hispanic parents, as a group, do not value education. "Education is not a high priority in the Hispanic community," he writes, which is why "Hispanic parents rarely get involved with their children's schools. They seldom attend parent- teacher conferences, ensure that children do their homework or inspire their children to dream of attending college." 

Let the hyperventilation begin. "Latinos Give Badillo an 'F,'" read one headline. "Herman Badillo Disses His Own Kind," says another. 

Dios mio. With all due respect, who cares about Herman Badillo? The real headlines should be about whether there is any truth in what he has claimed - and what that means for our children. 

On his first contention about the values of Hispanic parents, there is no truth, only politically driven lies. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, Hispanics are more likely than non- Hispanic whites to expect their children to earn a graduate or professional degree, more likely than non- Hispanic whites to have an adult in the household who checks that homework is done, and as likely to read to their children in grades K-3. 

But there is truth in Badillo's contention that Hispanic parents need to become much more involved in their children's schools. According to that same national study, Hispanics are a little less likely to attend general school meetings and much less likely to attend class events or volunteer at their kids' schools. 

If we're ever going to have systemic change, we need all parents, no matter their race or background, to be involved in the school system - and not just ankle deep. It's not enough to check homework each night. 

So how do we do it? First of all, the school system makes it far harder than it needs to be for Hispanic parents. It took years to get the Department of Education to agree to provide translation services to parents. A recent study done by Advocates for Children and the New York Immigration Coalition showed that adequate translation and interpretation services still weren't available half the time. How can you expect parents to be engaged if the school system won't even speak their language? 

Badillo would be a lot more credible critic if he took a little time off from his cultural crusade to talk about improving translation services at schools. Or if he called upon New York employers to allow working parents to attend parental conferences during the day without penalty - a move that would be especially important for Hispanics, who are more likely to live in poverty and work long and hard hours with few workplace protections. 

But in the end, no obstacle is an excuse. My mom, an immigrant from the Dominican Republic, spoke little English when I entered public kindergarten in Coney Island. And she came to every meeting and my teachers knew that a phone call would straighten out any misbehaving on my part - or theirs. 

Badillo turned a serious problem into an easy political talking point. But the critics who focus exclusively on him aren't doing any better by Latino children. 

We need more parents involved, and we need fewer obstacles to that involvement. If Badillo wants to focus on that challenge, I'll be the first in line to buy the book. 

Former congressman's book does disservice to Latinos By Ed Morales
Salt Lake Tribune (January 6, 2007)

Former U.S. Rep. Herman Badillo, D-N.Y., was born in Puerto Rico and was one of the five Latino members of Congress who established the Congressional Hispanic Caucus. As such, his voice carries weight. Unfortunately, he is throwing it around in an irresponsible way. 

Badillo's book, One Nation, One Standard: An Ex- Liberal on How Hispanics Can Succeed Just Like Other Immigrant Groups, serves the neo- conservative agenda more than it does the Hispanic community. 

"Hispanics, as a culture, do place less stress on the importance of education than do other, more economically and socially successful immigrant groups," he writes. He is grossly generalizing about a culture made up of more than 20 distinct nationalities with varying levels of social class and educational backgrounds. Badillo's blanket statement falsely implies that Miami Cubans, New York Puerto Ricans and Los Angeles Mexicans all have a careless disregard for education. 

Strangely enough, Badillo makes the argument that Hispanic parents' failure to get involved in their children's education is a cause for their lack of academic success. But his own story contradicts this. "My relatives and friends did not encourage me to remain in school," he writes. "They considered my interest in books an eccentricity." If so, then Badillo would seem a prime candidate for academic failure. 

Badillo, who is 77 years old, went to New York City public schools at a time when "big government" run by "liberal Democrats" guaranteed that the schools offered an education that was close in quality to private education. He was able to attend the City University of New York and Brooklyn Law School at a time when tuition was free. This might also explain how he was able to educate himself despite his relatives' lack of support. 

The statistics that Badillo quotes to support his argument come from un-cited sources and appear to be exaggerated. In particular, the statistic that claims that Hispanics have more than a 50 percent dropout rate from high school is contradicted by the National Center for Education Statistics, which reports that the rate for 2001, for ages 15-24, was 9 percent for Hispanics. When he writes that "most Hispanics remain in poverty," he ignores latest Census figures that find Latinos have a poverty rate of 22 percent. 

Badillo's ideas are not exactly in lockstep with hard- line conservatives. He favors a relatively liberal posture toward controlling immigration, and is concerned with promoting the success of Hispanics in the United States. 

But his position that strong racial and ethnic identities are a big part of Latinos' lack of success is misguided. When he chooses to criticize organizations like the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, the National Council of La Raza and Aspira as organizations that "demand special rights," he ignores how much work these groups do to promote educational opportunities for Hispanics. 

Badillo has lost much of the admiration from the Hispanic community over the years. In 1999, he remarked at a lunch in New York sponsored by the Center for Educational Innovation that Mexican immigrants in New York are "pure Indians - Incans and Mayans who are about 5 feet tall with straight hair ... who have never been to any schools." Like any other minority "leader" who is willing to slander his own people, Badillo may be taken seriously by media pundits. But his words ring hollow to the people who need his leadership most. --- 

Ed Morales is the author of Living in Spanglish.

Sent by Myra Estepa  Phone: 212-334-5722 
about NiLP:  and Dr. Carlos Munoz, Jr. h

Military and Law Enforcement Heroes
Book/Photo: Strength and Honor: Mexican Americans in the Vietnam War
     by Fredrick and Linda Aguirre
Aviation History - Charlie Brown's Story - a True Story
Valor and Discord by Eddie Morin
Elizabeth Mendez aka Sgt. Elizabeth A. Quinones
History Hispanic Medal of Honor Recipients by Tony Santiago, Part I    

This 114 page photo book, Strength and Honor: Mexican Americans in the Vietnam War is a collection of 139 Mexican American Veterans of the Vietnam War. The purpose is to honor their service, to recognize their sacrifice. Included are the photos of nine brothers, the Fuentes, who served between 1957-1982. Powerful statistics are included concerning the contributions of Latinos, not only in the Vietnam war, but previous wars as well.

By Frederick P. Aguirre November 7, 2000

Latinos have died and heroically served in our nation's military, but have not been accorded the appropriate acknowledgment in our history books or by the media. As this year is the 25th year of the end of the war in Vietnam, my wife, Linda Martinez Aguirre and I decided to conduct our own research.

On July 3, 2000, we contacted the Department of the Army and spoke to Dr. William Donnelly, Chief of the U.S. Army Center for Military History, Department of the Army, Washington D.C. He stated that the Department of Army did not have an accurate number of Latinos who served and/or died in the Vietnam War because the Department did not keep records of "Hispanics" during that period. It only kept statistics on "Whites" (which included Hispanics), "Blacks" or "Asians."

In Vietnam Reconsidered, a book published by Harper & Row in 1984 and edited by Pulitzer Prize winning reporter Harrison Salisbury, Ruben Treviso wrote: "One out of every two Hispanics who went to Vietnam served in a combat unit." "One out of every five Hispanics who went to Vietnam was killed in action."

The Latino Experience in U.S. History, a book published for elementary schools by Globe Fearon in 1994 and written by several University professors stated: "Latinos fighting in Vietnam had a 19 percent casualty rate compared to a 12 percent rate for U.S. soldiers as a whole."

Hispanics in America's Defense, a book published in 1989 by the U.S. Department of Defense, states: "In 1969, a study was released which examined Hispanics participation in the war by analyzing casualty figures from two periods: one from January 1961 to February 1967, and the other from December 1967 to March 1969. The study revealed that for the two periods, 8,016 men from the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas had been killed. Of the number, over 19 percent had Hispanic surnames."

My wife read each of the 58,202 names that are inscribed on the "Wall." The names are published in the 763 page book entitled: Vietnam Veterans Memorial: Directory of Names published in 1991 by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, Inc., Washington, D.C. She found that 3,741 names were Spanish surnames. Therefore, 6.4% of our country's total casualties were Latinos.

The figure is higher, we are certain, because we missed Latinos who have non-Spanish surnames, but who are clearly Latino.

For example Anthony Quinn, Jim Plunkett, Joe Kapp. Therefore, the accurate number of Latino casualties during the Vietnam War was approximately 7% of the total deaths. At that time Latinos represented approximately 5% of the total population in the U.S. Furthermore, we found that Latino casualties were from every one of our 50 states.

We also consulted the National Archives and Records Administration. Their website is According to those statistics, 5,572 soldiers from California died during the Vietnam War. Listed are their full names, home city, date of birth, date of death and if by hostile action. Of those 5,572 names, 823 are Spanish surnamed. Therefore 15% of the California casualties were Latino. At that time, Latinos represented approximately 7% of California's population.

From Texas, 23% of the casualties were Latino. Jose Maria Herrera, a doctoral candidate at Purdue University, wrote in his 1998 Master's Thesis in the History Department of the University of Texas at El Paso, that "of the 3,405 Texans killed in the Vietnam War, 784 were Latinos." Furthermore, in New Mexico, Herrera found that "while Hispanics made up 27 percent of that state's population, they accounted for 44 percent of the deaths."

On April 22, 2000, Elaine Woo wrote in a Los Angeles Times article: "Latinos answered the call to combat in Vietnam in unprecedented numbers and paid a heavy price: One in two Latinos who went to Vietnam served in a combat unit, 1 in 3 were wounded in action, 1 in 5 were killed in action."

The book is one several produced by Latino Advocates for Education, Inc. a California organization. Copies may be purchased from Latino Advocates for Education, Inc.
P.O. Box 5846, Orange, CA 92863


   Aviation History - Charlie Brown's Story - a True Story 
Sent by Jose M. Pena
and by Sal Del Valle

Charlie Brown was a B-17 Flying Fortress pilot with the 379th Bomber Group at Kimbolton, England. His B-17 was called 'Ye Old Pub' and was in a terrible state, having been hit by flak and fighters. The compass was damaged and they were flying deeper over enemy territory instead of heading home to Kimbolton.

After flying over an enemy airfield, a pilot named Franz Steigler was ordered to take off and shoot down the B-17. When he got near the B-17, he could not believe his eyes. In his words, he 'had never seen a plane in such a bad state'. The tail and rear section was severely damaged, and the tail gunner wounded. The top gunner was all over the top of the fuselage. The nose was smashed and there were holes everywhere.

Despite having ammunition, Franz flew to the side of the B-17 and looked at Charlie Brown, the pilot. Brown was scared and struggling to control his damaged and blood-stained plane.

Aware that they had no idea where they were going, Franz waved at Charlie to turn 180 degrees. Franz escorted and guided the stricken plane to and slightly over the North Sea towards England. He then saluted Charlie Brown and turned away, back to Europe.

When Franz landed he told the c/o that the plane had been shot down over the sea, and never told the truth to anybody. Charlie Brown and the remains of his crew told all at their briefing, but were ordered never to talk about it.

More than 40 years later, Charlie Brown wanted to find the Luftwaffe pilot who saved the crew. After years of research, Franz was found. He had never talked about the incident, not even at post-war reunions.

They met in the USA at a 379th Bomber Group reunion, together with 25 people who are alive now - all because Franz never fired his guns that day.

Research shows that Charlie Brown lived in Seattle and Franz Steigler had moved to Vancouver, BC after the war. When they finally met, they discovered they had lived less than 200 miles apart for the past 50 years!!



Valor and Discord by Eddie Morin

Forty years after Among the Valiant was published, second-generation Purple Heart recipient and Vietnam veteran, Eddie Morin, chronicles the heroism demonstrated in combat by Mexican Americans. The social upheaval that clouded the purpose of supreme sacrifice is in the backgrounds of interviews with hundreds of these brave and valiant heroes.

All the passion that the reader experienced with Raul Morin’s Among the Valiant is re-lived with son Eddie Morin’s vivid accounts of the first-person experiences that these Vietnam War veterans shared. Valor & Discord serves as a catharsis for the veterans who returned with feelings of confusion and disenfranchisement. A must read for social historians. - Eugene Baca


Valiant Press 

Congratulations to Eddie Morin for authoring his book and also for putting up a website which is  Dedicated to the Mexican-American Heroes of Vietnam, Korea and World War II

Valiant Press honors those heroic Mexican Americans who stand and have stood, so proudly in the defense of our country.
Elizabeth Mendez aka Sgt. Elizabeth A. Quinones
Single titled "United" Mp3 available now!!!
Sent by Rick Leal 

Continuing to spread the word, this past November Elizabeth sang her single "United" at the Veterans Day Breakfast Reception on Veterans Day held at Gracie Mansion & the parade held in New York City. As soon as she belted out "United we stand, if we're divided we’ll fall" the audience was speechless. "What a gift and what a song!" was heard from the audience. You can buy this single by going to her website:

Elizabeth's resume reflects a roster of who’s who! To date she has performed with and sang background with a plethora of some of Vibe’s and Billboard’s hottest acts today-Christina Aguilera, Mariah Carey and Marc Anthony just to name a few. In addition to singing, Elizabeth has also made acting appearances on the television show Third Watch, Law and Order and Sex In The City, as well as performed on Broadway.

In 2006, Elizabeth performed for the September Concert Foundation ( which was created in April 2002 for the sole purpose of organizing an annual citywide music festival in New York, in remembrance of September 11th and in celebration of our universal humanity. This year Elizabeth sang from the front steps of the New York Library (were no concert had ever been held); to the United Nations were she launched and sang her original piece "United". Please keep your eyes and ears open for Elizabeth as she will be promoting her first single "United" in 2007.

1st Verse Here in this world Life is a struggle, not easy at all Sometimes we get hurt But yet we fight to stay alive We seem to hold on No matter what goes on around us We continue to make it And nothing can stand in our way, day after day If we're United, we will conquer all, Through the violence and war Help the starved and the poor And the child that’s unborn
Chorus United we stand, if we're divided we fall Give me your hand And we’ll be together as one We can be free, together you and me

2nd Verse Time after time We constantly struggle to mend our own pain And never stop to think about How we can help each other in different ways And if you want to be truly free We have to think US, There’s no I in Team People just understand, we all need a hand
Chorus United we stand, if we're divided we fall Give me your hand And we’ll be together as one We can be free, together you and me

Bridge If we stay as one, then you will see How far we can go to exceed our own dreams If we stay together Let’s work hard and give it a try It’s been said we can reach the sky We can go on, and remain strong


Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients

Part 1

By Tony (The Marine) Santiago

This is the first part of the Hispanic Medal of Honor series which consists of the short biographies of the Philip Bazaar, Joseph H. De Castro, John Ortega who were awarded their MoH's for their actions during the American Civil War and ends with France Silva, the only Hispanic who was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Boxer Rebellion. De Castro was the first Hiapnic-American to receive the award and Ortega the first Hispanic sailor. Silva was the first Hispanic member of the United States Marine Corps Medal of Honor recipient.

Civil War

Philip Bazaar

By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago

Seaman Philip Bazaar born in Chile, South America, was awarded the United States' highest military decoration for valor in combat - the Medal of Honor - for having distinguished himself during the battle for Fort Fisher of the American Civil War.


Bazaar, a resident of Massachusetts, was a Chilean immigrant who joined the Union Navy at New Bedford, Massachusetts.

Bazaar was assigned to the USS Santiago de Cuba during the American Civil War. The USS Santiago de Cuba was a wooden, brigantine-rigged, side-wheel steamship under the command of Rear Admiral David D. Porter.

On the latter part of 1864, Union General Ulysses S. Grant ordered an assault on Fort Fisher. Fort Fisher was a stronghold of the Confederate States of America. It protected the vital trading routes of Wilmington's port, at North Carolina.


U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba

Rear Admiral David D. Porter was in charge of the Naval assault and General Benjamin F. Butler was in charge of the land assault. After the failure of the first assault, Butler was replaced by Major General Alfred Terry.

A second assault was ordered for January 1865. Bazaar was aboard the USS Santiago de Cuba and served in both assaults on the fort. On January 12, 1865, both ground and naval Union forces attempted the second assault. Bazaar and 5 other crew members, under the direct orders from Rear Admiral Porter, carried dispatches during the battle while under heavy fire from the Confederates to Major General Alfred Terry.

Philip Bazaar was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions.


Medal of Honor citation: BAZAAR, PHILIP

Rank and organization:Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy
Accredited to:Massachusetts
Born:Chile, South America
G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865

Citation: "On board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher on 15 January 1865. As one of a boat crew detailed to one of the generals on shore, O.S. Bazaar bravely entered the fort in the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle. He was 1 of 6 men who entered the fort in the assault from the fleet."

Postscript: Unfortunately, nothing else is known about whatever became of Philip Bazaar

Awards and decorations: Philip Bazaar's awards and decorations include the following:

Medal of Honor (1862-1912) 
Civil War Campaign Medal

(Navy version) (Navy version)



* USS Santiago de Cuba (1861-1865). Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy.
* Medal of Honor citation for Philip Bazaar.
* Fort Fisher: Last Major Stronghold of the Confederacy. N. Carolina Department of Cultural Resources.*Navy Medal of Honor: Civil War 1861-65. Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy.
       Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
*Gilberto Villahermosa (Sep 2002). "On the frontlines: America's Hispanics in America's wars". Army.*SFC Douglas Ide (Sept 1994). "Saluting Hispanic Soldiers". Soldiers (Volume 49, No. 9): pg 52.


Joseph H. De Castro

By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago

Corporal Joseph H. De Castro (November 14, 1844-May 8, 1892) born in Boston, Massachusetts, was the first Hispanic-American to be awarded the United States' highest military decoration for valor in combat - the Medal of Honor - for having distinguished himself during Pickett's Charge in the Battle of Gettysburg of the American Civil War.


Map of Pickett's Charge, July 3, 1863. Confederate troops are marked in red, Union in blue. The black rectangles are farms and rural properties.

De Castro was the Massachusetts State flag bearer of Company I, 19th Massachusetts Infantry, an all volunteer unit. The unit participated in the Battle of Gettysburg at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania as part of the III Corps 3rd Brigade, U.S. Army under the command of Colonel Norman J. Hall.

On July 3, 1863, the third and last day of the battle, his unit participated in what became known as Pickett's Charge. Pickett's Charge was a disastrous infantry assault ordered by Confederate General Robert E. Lee against Major General George G. Meade's Union positions on Cemetery Ridge.

                                                                                                           Map of Pickett's Charge

During the battle, De Castro attacked a confederate flag bearer from the 19th Virginia regiment, with the staff of his own colors and seized the opposing regiment's flag, handing the prize over to General Alexander S. Webb. General Webb is quoted as saying, "At the instant a man broke through my lines and thrust a rebel battle flag into my hands. He never said a word and darted back. It was Corporal Joseph H. De Castro, one of my color bearers. He had knocked down a color bearer in the enemy's line with the staff of the Massachusetts State colors, seized the falling flag and dashed it to me".

On December 1, 1864, De Castro became one the seven men from the 19th Massachusetts Infantry to be awarded the Medal of Honor.

Medal of Honor citation: Sergeant Joseph H. De Castro
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 19th Massachusetts Infantry
Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863
Entered service at: ---- 
Born:Boston, Mass.
Date of issue: December 1, 1864

"Capture of flag of 19th Virginia regiment (C.S.A.)"

Little else is known about De Castro except that he was married to Rosalia Rodriguez. Joseph H. De Castro died on May 8, 1892 and is buried at Fairmount Cemetery, Newark, New Jersey.

Awards and decorations:
Joseph H. De Castro's awards and decorations include the following:

Medal of Honor (1862-1895) 
Civil War Campaign Medal

(Army version) (Army version)


Further reading:
* Right Before Our Eyes: Latinos Past, Present & Future, Robert Montemayor, Henry (COL) Mendoza.
* Gettysburg: A Testing of Courage, Noah Andre Trudeau.
* Pickett's Charge - The Last Attack at Gettysburg, Earl J Hess.


* The Magazine of American History with Notes and Queries, Martha J. Lamb (editor), volume XVIII,
    July-December 1887.
* Civil War Medals of Honor.
* Hispanic-Americans in the Army..
* Gettysburg's Medal of Honor Recipients. Retrieved on July 20, 2006.
* Units of the ARMY at the Battle of Gettysburg. Retrieved on July 20, 2006.



John Ortega

By: Tony (The Marine) Santiago


Seaman John Ortega (1840-????), born in Spain was the first Hispanic sailor to be awarded the United States' highest military decoration for valor in combat - the Medal of Honor - for having distinguished himself during the South Atlantic Blockade by the Union Naval forces during the American Civil War.

Ortega, a resident of Pennsylvania, was a Spanish immigrant who joined the Union Navy in his adopted hometown in Pennsylvania.

Ortega was assigned to the USS Saratoga during the American Civil War. The USS Saratoga, commissioned in 1843, was the third ship of the United States Navy baptized with that same name. It was a sloop-of-war under the command of Commander George Musalas Colvocoresses.

USS Saratoga (1842

On January 13, 1864, Secretary of the United States Navy Gideon Welles, ordered Commander Colvocoresses and the USS Saratoga to proceed to Charleston, South Carolina, and report to Rear Admiral Dahlgren for duty in the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in what is known as the Union blockade.

The Union blockade was a massive effort on behave of the Union Navy designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms to and from the Confederate States.

Ortega was a member of the landing parties from the ship who made several raids in August and September which resulted in the capture of many prisoners and the taking or destruction of substantial quantities of ordnance, ammunition, and supplies. A number of buildings, bridges, and salt works were destroyed during the expedition.

For his actions Seaman John Ortega was awarded the Navy Medal of Honor and promoted to acting master's mate.

Medal of Honor citation: ORTEGA, JOHN
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy
Accredited To: Pennsylvania
Born: 1840, Spain
G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864

"Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Saratoga during actions of that vessel on 2 occasions. Carrying out his duties courageously during these actions, Ortega conducted himself gallantly through both periods. Promoted to acting master's mate."

As in the case of Philip Bazaar, history tells us nothing of whatever became of John Ortega.

Awards and decorations:
John Ortega's awards and decorations include the following:


Medal of Honor (1862-1912) 
Civil War Campaign Medal

(Navy version) (Navy version)


*Medal of Honor citation
*USS Saratoga
*South Atlantic Blockading Squadron
*Vermont Civil War


Boxer Rebellion

France Silva

By: ERcheck


Private France Silva (May 9, 1876-April 10, 1951) born in Hayward, California, was the first Marine of Hispanic heritage who was awarded the Medal of Honor. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his meritorious conduct in China during the Boxer Rebellion.

Medal of Honor action

In 1900, Private France Silva was a member of the 1st Regiment (Marines) under the command of Major Littleton Waller, aboard the USS Newark. The USS Newark was a United States Navy protected cruiser, the first modern cruiser in the U.S. fleet. On May 20, 1900, the Newark sailed for China to help land reinforcements to relieve the legations under siege by the Boxers at Peking. Arriving Tientsin on May 22.

The USS Newark

On June 19, 1900, the 1st Regiment (Marines) attempted to take the city of Tientsin and failed. Then on June 23, the Regiment, under the command of Major Waller, was able to enter Tientsin in their second attempt and force the Chinese forces to retreat to Peking. Private France Silva and two sailors, Navy Seamen Axel Westermark and Chief Machinist Emil Peterson earned the Medal of Honor in their defense of the civilian compound (legation) at Peking. They defended the walled city from June 28 until the fall of the city which occurred on August 17.

In accordance to a newspaper article:

"The USS Newark placed ashore a contingent of Marine and three bluejackets (sailors) as a legitation guard. These men with another detachment of Marines, soldiers and sailors joined the troops of other western soldiers in the defense of other Peking legations against the Boxers until the arrival of the Allied Army in August."[3]

Medal of Honor citation:

Private, U.S. Marine Corps
July 19, 1901
G.O. Navy Department, No.55

"In the presence of the enemy during the action at Peking, China, 28 June to 17 August 1900. Throughout this period, Silva distinguished himself by meritorious conduct."

France Silva died on April 10, 1951 and is buried in Sunset Hill Cemetery in Corning, California. [5]

Awards and Recognitions:
Among France Silva's decorations and medals were the following:

Medal of Honor (1862-1912) 
China Campaign Medal

(Navy version)


^ USS Newark (C-1). Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy.
^ France Silva. Home of
^ Medal of Honor citation
^ Gravesite of MOH Recipient France Silva. Retrieved on July 12, 2006.


* France Silva, Medal of Honor Recipient. Contributions of American Hispanics/Latinos Heritage and Ancestry to the United States of America. Hispanic America USA. Retrieved on July 12, 2006.

* Pvt France Silva, Medal of Honor, 1900, Peking China. Marines Awarded the Medal of Honor. United States Marine Corps. Retrieved on July 12, 2006.



A Tribute to a Father, Dr. Hector P. Garcia by Wanda Garcia  
A Tribute to a Mother, Ruth Mojica Hammer by Linda Garcia Merchant
A Tribute to a Brother, Enrique Bautista by Mercy Bautista Olvera
Cats and Mice by Ben Romero
New anthology welcomes submissions

A Tribute to a Father, Dr. Hector P. Garcia
by Wanda Garcia  

Wanda has agreed to write stories about her heroic father to share with Somos Primos readers.  These writing have never been published before. Somos Primos is greatly honored.
Photo by permission of the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Papers, 
Special Collections & Archives Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Bell Library


The public focuses on Dr. Hector P. Garcia's accomplishments as a civil rights leader.  But my father, Dr. Hector, to his patients was a great healer, as well as a physician. 
I was privileged to be the oldest child. When I was a little girl, my father would take me on his house calls.  His clientele was the poorest of the poor and many whole families in one-room shacks.  I would witness 5 or 6 people in a bed.  My father would tell me to wait outside while he treated his patients.  Usually pride would keep the patients from visiting a doctor, so by the time they received treatment, their condition had deteriorated.  I remember my father administering many penicillin shots.  Penicillin was the miracle drug during the 1950’s and was used case involving infections.
In one case, (I was not a witness) a child came to my father and asked him to come to treat his mother.  When my father arrived, the mother was in a bed with 4 or 5 of her children.  Her long had burst-she had tuberculosis and her blood was covering her children.  Her husband explained that they were too proud to ask for help.                             5 year old Wanda with father, Dr. Garcia and
                                                                                                               mother Wanda,  Xochimilco, Mexico, c 1950.
I would go on hospital rounds with Papa at Memorial Hospital.  During the 1950’s, the wards were segregated, no Hispanic nurses and few Hispanic doctors.  The Hispanic patients were in beds in the hospital corridors.  On one occasion the Anglo ward had only one bed, but there were 3 Hispanic patients in the hall.  Dr. Hector got on the phone to the hospital administrator and argued with him about moving the patients in the ward.  He never gave up even when he was turned down.
I am fortunate that at this point in my life I have met many of his patients.  One man is Lee Cantu, now residing in Austin, Texas.  Lee state that he had polio and Dr. Hector cured him.  Lee was one of many patients who were too poor to afford medical help.  In those days, polio was a death sentence and condemned you to an early death or to life in an iron lung.  Another is Rick Leal who says that Dr. Hector saved his life by his treatments.  I would observe my father make a diagnosis without the benefit of all the expensive diagnostic tests and he was dead right.  I know my father had divine guidance and was able to heal many of his patients through this guidance.
I observed Dr. Hector reach into his pocket to pay for prescriptions those patients could not afford.  He had a running account a various pharmacies and would bill poor peoples prescriptions to his account.  When the patient would protest and tell my father that they could not pay him back, he would respond that they could pay him when they could afford to.  During his illness, many patients went to the Dr’s office and paid the money they owed.  This money enabled my father to keep his office doors open.  They were returning the kindness that my Dad had shown them. Further proof that what energy you send out comes back to you.
When I go to Corpus Christi, I hear many stories from strangers about my father and how he saved a family member’s life.  During the end of his life, those individuals repaid my father by standing vigil at his side in the hospital.  There is never a time when I go to the cemetery, when his gravesite does not have flowers.  They are still remembering Dr. Hector. 


A Tribute to a Mother

Linda Garcia Merchant,
Voces Primeras Producer 

Growing up on the west side of Chicago during the 60s gave me a vivid sense of the changing world. The struggle for Civil Rights went on in my classroom and on my neighborhood streets. 

My memories of the 1968 riots include the sight of armed national guardsmen blocking the doors of the grocery stores to prevent looting and the smell of whole city blocks that were on fire for days. 

Always there with answers to my questions about these times was my mother. The answers she gave me were never simple and always encouraged further discussion. 
As a child I remember never eating grapes or lettuce in support of the UFW. I remember wearing a ‘support ERA’ button to school, marching in anti-war and equal rights demonstrations in Springfield our state capitol. 

Mom took me everywhere locally and when she could to the national meetings of the 
organizations she belonged to. But the time that put it all into perspective for me was when we were in the visitor’s galley of the legislature. I was not yet a teenager when we walked into gallery of Illinois’ State senate. ‘Look around mija, do you see anyone that looks like us down there?’ I said ‘no’. She then said, ‘that is why I travel and go to meetings and am gone so much, so that one day you’ll look down there and see people that look like you and me.” Then we went to march in an anti-war demonstration of mothers against the Vietnam war. 

I come from a long line of storytellers. My grandmother frequently would remind me that ‘todos tienien historia’ and it was up to me to find out what each person’s story was. I would later come to understand that she not only meant that we each have an journey but that it defines us as individuals and that I should respect that. In our house, there was no need for lessons of tolerance and understanding. It was a given that we were all human beings first, each as interesting as the last. 

There is activism in my background as well. My grandfather and grand uncles were union 
organizers in the stockyards of Chicago and my mother’s Chicano and Feminist involvements is one of the stories I’ve chosen to tell in this film. 

The idea for this film [Voces Primas] came from a conversation with my mom, Ruth Mojica Hammer, on her feminist experience. I was doing some research on an idea for a company that would become Voces Primeras. 

We were talking about the 70s and her involvement with the Raza Unida Party and the National Womens Political Caucus. At some point in the conversation, I thought outloud that wouldn’t it be nice if she and some of the other women could get together and talk about their experiences during those movements. 

Mom thought it would be fun, but wondered if she would be able to find them after almost 30 years. She had kept up with them in the traditional sense, holidays and birthdays, the occasional meeting at conferences and some phone calls. Like most professionals, these womens lives continued on after their collaborations in the 70s. their activism continues in different arenas, but no less active.
She managed to contact five of them let them know about my idea and they all agreed that it was time to do this. Since that moment, this journey for me has been equal parts surreal and amazing, affirming and cherished, humbling and emotional. In the past eight months I have gotten to know six incredible human beings. 

The gathering, in San Francisco July 8 and 9th of this year was in a way a historic event. Thirty years had passed but when they came to see one another in my cousin’s living room in Benicia California, time disappeared and old friends returned. Laughter, tears and smiles were the sounds, sensations and sites of the day. A weekend wasn’t enough to reacquaint after so long, but it would have to be as come Monday morning, we would all return to the here and now of our lives. 

During these eight months I have traveled different parts of the US to interview and get to know these women. Each of them formidable elements of the communities the live in. Martha Cotera is Austin Texas, Lupe Anguiano is Oxnard California, Pauline Martinez is San Jose California, Margaret Cruz is San Francisco, Andrea Cano is Portland Oregon and Ruth Mojica Hammer is El Paso Texas. You cannot spend too long in any of these cities and not run into someone (usually the mayor) that knows them or knows of them. 

They have each taken the education gathered from the Chicano and Feminists movements and applied that to their present involvements. Lupe is very much a part of the environmentalist movement lobbying with the Sierra Club and many southern Californian celebrities and residents to prevent an international gas company’s plans. Martha, an archivist and historian just finished a successful bond initiative for several cultural centers of Austin including the Mexican American Fine Arts and Cultural Centers and the Austin Film Foundation. Andrea is presently a student in divinity school continues to work with peace and social justice issues. Pauline mentors and educates young Latino realtors and homebuyers and just returned from Louisiana as part of a group rebuilding homes destroyed in Hurricane Katrina. Margaret at 85 and Ruth at 81 have retired. However Margaret still speaks at local colleges and has been instrumental in the 
development and construction of an extension of the local community college and Hispanic Cultural Center in the Mission district. Ruth occasionally speaks at colleges and is involved in the local politics of El Paso as a consultant on city and statewide campaigns. 

To say this project has been a labor of love would not describe the outpouring of generosity of spirit and talent it and I have experienced. Each woman came to San Francisco at their own expense. Each talent, Katie Haviland, still photographer, Dorsey Hughes, still photographer, Steve Jordan Lemieux, film photographer, Maria Oropeza, educational consultant brought their unique skill and abundant abilities at their own expense. 

My aunt and uncle, Barbara and Robert Mojica, their daughter and granddaughters, Karen, Camille and Nicole Mojica drove, fed and housed us during the gathering. Maria Oropeza, doctoral candidate at the University of Washington, Virginia Martinez, JD and Dr. Maria De Los Angeles Torres of the University of Illinois at Chicago Circle campus, department of Latino/a Studies that have been my technical advisors and educational consultants. Noted filmmakers Jesus Trevino and Sylvia Morales, both of whom have given me great insights into the technical aspects of producing, filmmaking and the time period involved. 

Finally there is also an important group that has been critical to the success of this production. That group is the universities where these women have their archives. Yolanda Retter Vargas and Mike Stone at the UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center, Diana Rivera and Dr. Teresa Melendez from Michigan State University, Chicano/Latino studies, and the Cesar Chavez collection, Tracy Grimm from the Institute for Latino Studies at Notre Dame, and Martha Cotera and the University of Texas Benson Latin American Collection.  

For more on Voces Primeras, click

A Tribute to a Brother

by Mercy Bautista Olvera


July 15, 1934 - October 23, 2005


Henry, as most of his siblings called him, was born on July 15, 1934 in the city of Zacatecas. Henry was the child of Marcelino Bautista and Anastacia Nuñez. He was the paternal grandson of Tiburcio Bautista and Petra Ramirez, and the maternal grandson of Juan Nuñez and Guadalupe Robles. Our paternal grandfather Tiburcio Bautista played an important role on how his grandchildren were molded into the way we are today.Marcelino Bautista our father was often away working in the United States, so Grandpa Tiburcio and Henry were constant father figure figures in our lives. Henry had many sisters, his older sister Victoria, younger sisters, Andrea Petra, Modesta, Guadalupe, Esther, and I, the youngest sister Maria Mercedes "Mercy," and our younger brothers, Carlos and Jesus. We were all fortunate to have an older "big" brother.

Henry as a young boy was mischievous and enjoyed picking on his sisters. He enjoyed being with his male friends, always outdoors. Henry was smart and witty in school, however, in Mexico not many children continue their education, as we do in United States. Henry did not like school, teachers asked mother not to take him out of school, but sadly she did. For a short time he worked in a mine. While, my father was working in the United States, mother asked her cousin Fernando Robles to help her with Henry. At this time Fernando was living in Mexico City, being a great cousin that he was, Fernando came to Zacatecas to take Henry to Mexico City and give him a job. While in his teens Henry became a truck driver. It was a drastic change for Henry, it was his first time away from home and he missed his family, he was not happy. These circumstances resulted in him driving a truck, by himself, from Mexico City to Zacatecas on his own. Upon learning that both Henry & the company truck had left Mexico City, Cousin Fernando followed my brother, scared that Henry would have an accident or more than likely that Henry would not return his truck.

When Henry returned to Zacatecas he went back to being with his friends. Henry was fun and always had a sense of humor. He loved dancing and was popular with the girls. It didn’t help having so many sisters and no brothers. Henry was so happy to finally have a little brother Carlos, then another little brother Jesus he was overwhelmed with joy, that was what he needed, to have brothers. However, he was still Henry and being older than his little brothers, he spent most of his time with his friends.

At an early age Henry introduced me to dancing. I placed my little feet on his shoes and danced to the rhythm of the music. It was a memorable event, my big brother took time for little me.

Eventually our family moved to Juarez, Mexico leaving our beloved grandfather Tiburcio "Bucho" Bautista behind. We moved in order to prepare ourselves for a new beginning, to eventually immigrate to United States and reunite with our father. Henry grew up to be a handsome young man, of course, always after the young girls around town.


I looked up to him, at this time he was as handsome as a movie star, yet always busy with his life. Henry eventually became a waiter in Juarez, he made good money and financially began helping Mom with all of us. Mom worked cleaning houses, washing clothes, and some ironing. Our Dad, while working with the Sully Miller Construction Company, sent money from the United States. At this time, Victoria and Andrea Petra were not living with us any longer, both had stayed behind in Zacatecas, were married and had children, while Modesta, Guadalupe, Esther, myself, Maria Mercedes, Carlos and Jesus, lived and attended school in Juarez.

With the aide of our father’s sister, Maria Bautista, we immigrated to the States. However, our sister Guadalupe remained in Juarez, she married and had a daughter, Luz Maria. After a few years Mom heard that our sister Guadalupe had become very ill and Mom returned to Juarez to visit her daughter. Mom in turn became very ill. Ultimately it was Henry who went to Juarez and found both his mother and sister so ill that they were unable to care for themselves. In time Mom’s health improved and she returned to the States and Guadalupe was sent back to Zacatecas. However, Guadalupe’s child had been placed in the care of the child’s paternal grandparents. Reportedly, the father and his parents were not responsive in taking care of the infant’s needs. The story is that Henry broke the front door down and rescued this baby from further neglect and brought the baby back to the States, and in fact it can be said that he very well saved the life of this baby, "Luz Maria" or as we grew to call her Lucy.

During this time both Henry and Dad worked at Sully Miller Construction Co., together as a team. Both made good money, however, on rainy days there was no work, and those conditions made it hard for the family. The relationship between my mother and Henry was so unique; he carried her, kissed her, teased her, danced with her. He adored my mother and my mother adored him as well.


It was a different kind of love that Mom had for Henry. I know Mom loved all of us, but Henry was her favorite, maybe due to the fact that both had more memories of the old country than any of us put together. While Henry, Modesta, Esther were more into the Mexican culture, my brothers Carlos and Jesus and I were more into American culture.

In the coming years, Henry dated Elba Graciela Hurtado, they would marry on June 28, 1958, in Los Angeles, California. They eventually would have two daughters; Mary Lou and Martha.

For myself, growing up as a teenager was often difficult. In order to go out I had to get not only my parents permission but Henry’s. During high school, and on some occasions, even after I was married, he served as my chaperone.

At the time nearing the birth of my third child, Elizabeth Maricella, it was Henry who took me to the hospital with labor pains. Henry, was trying to be strong, but actually he was crying in the car seeing his little sister in such much pain. A nurse told me, "how nervous and worried your husband looks," I said "he’s not my husband, he’s my brother." It was also Henry who took me to USC Medical Center for cancer treatments, both he and my father never left me in time of need. As a single mom, I remember being so ill with the flu, unable to get up and tend to my three little daughters, Lisamarie, Janet and Elizabeth, that Henry came and checked on me, gave me medication, warmed up some soup, all the while he was crying just to see me like this, that’s the kind of brother he was, a caring brother.

After I remarried, I had a son, Michael and a daughter, Monique. Out of my obvious love and respect for Henry, I asked him to be Monique’s Godfather, to which he accepted..

As a father, he was always caring, adoring and proud of his two daughters. He was crazy about his first daughter, Mary Lou, he loved changing her, feeding her, playing with her. Henry was the happiest when he was with his little girl. In later years when his eldest daughter Mary Lou began taking "Ballroom Dancing" classes at East L.A. College, Henry went to visit her. In time he could be seen ballroom and folklorico dancing with his daughter. Mary eventually stopped folklorico dancing. There was a look of indescribable joy on Henry’s face when Mary Lou graduated with a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration. He was so proud of his two daughters. He was especially proud of Martha, and her desire to become a doctor, whatever she needed while attending school in Chicago, he was there for her.

At the marriage of his daughter Mary Lou and Carlos Valdes he became a proud father-in-law. At the birth of Henry’s grandson, Christopher Michael, Henry was on a cloud. To make sure that his grandson, young Christopher learn early in life about our heritage, Henry purchased two "Charro" suits, and hats, one for him and another for his grandson. They, grandpa and grandson then went to a photo studio to be photographed.

Henry participated in many senior citizens’ activities, but as we all know his favorite pastime was dancing. Henry also loved singing, he had a great voice, whenever there was a gathering at his home, he would come out with his guitar and sing for all of us. However, my brother left us doing what he loved doing most of all; dancing. What a way to go Henry!

Henry was noble, charismatic, and very emotional, perhaps more than any of us. It would hurt him so much if any of his siblings was in pain in any way, he would actually cry for us. He was kind, considerate, protective, and sensitive; a great man to his parents, brothers, sisters, wife, daughters, and friends. He was the best brother anyone could have, I’m so fortunate to be his little sister. "Vaya Con Dios" Henry, you will always be in my heart, leaving a great emptiness, but your memories no one can ever take away from me.

Your little sister,

Mercy Bautista-Olvera



by Ben Romero

When I started school, my classmates and I spoke limited English. We were not allowed to speak Spanish at Nambé Elementary - to encourage us to learn English.

One day the teacher was absent and we had a substitute. She was a serious looking lady with gray hair around the temples. During the course of the day she started teaching us singular and plural words. 

She drew a cat on the chalkboard and wrote a word beneath it. Then she asked for someone to read it. “Cat. C-A-T.” She drew another, next to the first one and asked what they were. Someone raised their hand and said cats and then all of us repeated it. Cats. C.A.T.S.

Next, the teacher drew a mouse and asked what it was. A kid from the back of the room said it was a rat, but the teacher said, “No. It is a mouse.” All of us repeated the word mouse.

She then drew another mouse next to the first one and we were asked what they were called. Several of us said mouses. Very matter-of-factly, the teacher said, “No. When we have more than one mouse, we call them mice.” She wrote MICE on the blackboard and told us all to repeat the word.

I raised my hand and squeaked, "Teesher, you're wrong."

She seemed surprised. Looking over her eyeglasses, with a deep frown on her forehead, she commanded me to the front of the room. Shy as I was, I walked up and stood there.

She pointed at herself. "Benny, I'm the teacher," she said, "but tell us why you think I’m wrong."

I was afraid to answer. She looked meaner up close and the frown on her forehead was intimidating.

"Do you really think I’m wrong?" She persisted.

I nodded.

"Why, then? Can you tell the class why you think more than one mouse is not mice?"

I looked around the classroom. Every kid was quietly waiting for me to answer. Feeling somewhat confident all of a sudden, I pointed at the word, MICE and said as loud as I could, "teesher, mice means corn."

The frown slowly vanished and the lines moved down to her eyes as she crinkled them. A huge smile formed on her lips and she started almost coughing in convulsive spasms of laughter. I was dumbfounded. Most of the kids in class were just as confused. What had set her off? Why was corn funny?

When I got home I told Mom our substitute teacher was not smart enough to know how to say corn in English, but I knew it was mice. Mom laughed, too.

I later learned that corn in Spanish is maize, but we sometimes pronounce it mice. And much to my dismay, more than one mouse really is mice.

Mimi, I am currently working on a new anthology. The theme is holiday humor. If you or anyone you know is interested in submitting a short story for consideration in the new book, please send it to this email address, embedded in the email itself. Thanks por todo,

Ben Romero, author of Chicken Chistes: An Anthology of southwestern Humor and Chicken Chisme: The Fine Art of Gossiping


By Vicente Riva Palacio

[Many actions by Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish conquest of Mexico came in events that are common knowledge in the country; a little introduction is needed here to fill in what author Riva Palacio felt unnecessary. For instance, Alvarado’s responsibilities during the "massacre" of "Texcatl" are shown without mention that this slaughter of Aztecs at a religious festival helped break the tenuous peace between the Aztecs and Spaniards; and led to the "Noche Triste," in which the bold positioning of Alvarado is presented without note, that this was the costly escape by the Spaniards from the Aztec capital of Tenochitlan. Similarly, Riva Palacio describes the welcome that the conquistadors, and Alvarado in particular, received upon entering the capital of Tlaxcala, which came after Tlaxcalans fought hard against the Spaniards and earned a peace pact in which they agreed to join the Spaniards in war against the Aztecs - traditional enemies of the Tlaxcalans.
The Mixton rebellion was one of the largest of numerous Indigenous uprisings during the middle 16th Century. The earthquake that closes the Alvarado story caused the capital of Guatemala to be abandoned and a replacement capital built miles away. Subsequently, that city was crumbled in two earthquakes of 1773, requiring a third capital, the present day Guatemala City. ]
Among the happy throng of young adventurers who came from Spain to the rich islands of the world of Columbus, there was one in the year 1510 who his companions saluted with the name "the Commander."
The carrier of this label, then no more than twenty-five years of age, had been born in Badajoz, Spain. He appeared destined for the drama of war, with his slender but muscular build, his white skin and the flaming blond hair that poets attributed to Apollo.
This young man was Pedro de Alvarado.
Upon arrival in America, Alvarado wore proudly an old cape that he suggested was a gift from his uncle and that signified a horseman in the Order of Santiago. But the cape appeared to have spent many years with the said uncle. Its distinctive insignia of the Order had worn away. According to Pedro, he had ripped off the dangling remains of the cross of Santiago. Left behind was a cross shaped wound in the cloth, and lost to history was the true category of the first possessor. Alvarado could not escape the penetrating looks from his fellow bold adventurers who had passed over to the Indies, and who made Pedro and his cape the brunt of insults from those who called him in jest, the Commander.
A grand commotion circulated among the colonizers of the island of Cuba. Governor Diego Velazquez had received word from the expedition that he sent out under Juan de Grijalva in search of new lands. 
The carrier of the news, the most favored Capitaine in the fleet of four ships of Grijalva, returned with a rich cargo that he gave to Diego Valazquez, having given his own name to a river in the newly discovered lands. It was no other than Pedro de Alvarado. But Alvarado was not the poor servant who had worn the cape of an uncle, nor was he the devalued youth who was satirically called the Commander, no: the Alvarado who left Cuba with Grijalva in 1518, returned with the title "Capitaine Pedro de Alvarado."
From his mouth came news that governor Diego Valazquez could not have found more satisfying. Juan de Grijalva had sailed the coast of the great Yucatan peninsula, - earlier discovered by Francisco Hernandez de Cordova -  and found signs of a very advanced civilization in what was given the name New Spain. Further along the coast, a far off mountain was named San Martin for the soldier who saw it, and the river Papaloapan which Pedro de Alvarado had entered in his ship was named "de Alvarado." "Grijalva" was given a river in Tabasco, and the expedition continued until it arrived at the island (off present day Veracruz city), Ulua, on the day of San Juan.
For the return mission to Cuba, Juan de Grijalva selected the Capitaine with the most distinguished service among his officers, and that was Pedro de Alvarado. His news awakened the island’s colonists, and on February 1, 1519 eleven boats sailed from Havana.
It was the expedition carrying the conquest of New Spain, under the orders of Hernando Cortes. Pedro de Alvarado and four of his brothers were part of the expedition.
The army of Hernando Cortes marched triumphant from the coast to the highlands. It entered the capital of the republic of Tlaxcala September 22, 1519. The Spaniards were received more as amigos and brothers than conquerors.
A thousand cries of affection were given by the people to the conquistadores, including those that came from the daughters of the principal chiefs, who were to be gifts shared in love, after their baptism, by the officers of Cortes.
The elder Xicotencatl, father of the young general in charge of the armies of Tlaxcala, had a daughter who received the waters of baptism and was then known as Dona Luisa.
Dona Luisa was the most beautiful of the Tlaxcalan virgins: her figure was soft and her graceful moves were accented by her bright cotton gown adorned with feathers that fell from her shoulders and gave her collar and arms an iridescent glow. Strings of beads of gold and corral entwined the raven black hair of the virgin. And on her feet she wore light leather sandals richly adorned with strips bordered with gold that wrapped around her leg to the knee. Her ardent eyes seemed those of an enchanter, and her half open smile revealed the beautiful white teeth that were characteristic of Indigenous women of Mexico.
Such a fantastic beauty was destined for the most famous of the Capitaine of Cortes, because she was the pearl and the flower of the belles of Tlaxcala. 
Upon the return of Dona Luisa from her baptismal ceremonies, and when the moment came for her to be delivered to the man who would be her master and lover, all eyes of the Spaniards keyed upon her, for she had caused fire in all their hearts, and all anxiously hoped to be the happy mortal who would possess the Venus of New Spain.
Dona Luisa walked majestically, but with eyes lowered in resignation. She she was led by the hand by one of the chieftains of Tlaxcala. In this manner she was brought before the one who was favored.
"Tonatiuh!" (the sun)- shouted the Tlaxcalans
"Pedro de Alvarado!" exclaimed the Spaniards.
In effect, Alvarado, or Tonatiuh, which is to say, the sun according to the Indigenous, was, thanks to the blond color of his hair, given as consort Dona Luisa, the daughter of the elder Xicotencatl. - She would bear him many children and accompany him on many a campaign
Perhaps no one more deserved to have the love of this woman. In the battle of Tabasco, and in the great battles that the small Spanish army had sustained against the armies of the Tlaxcalans led by the indomitable Xicotencatl the Younger, young Pedro de Alvarado had distinguished himself more than others for his boldness and determination to press forward irregardless of their numbers, being convinced always of a victory in hand.

At times a Capitaine, other times a soldier, in the front line of the battle there one always found Pedro de Alvarado, being the most audacious in the vanguard when he had to spur his troops to follow him against a danger with the end to be determined by the vicissitudes of combat.
Alvarado was more a projectile than a human, opening a path between compact enemy, leaving behind him a thick stream of blood from the exterminated.
With this ardor, however, there came an impetuousness and unrestrained passions that at times made him tyrannical, as happened on the island of Cozumel, where Cortes - the lion hearted leader and the sun in the middle of the planets - reigned in the violent impulses of his daring Capitaine.
The Natives of the country continued to call Pedro de Alvarado, Tonatiuh -sun- and the name of Tonatiuh was celebrated, but in the long run it was for the terror which he inflicted through the regions.
Tonatiuh followed Hernando Cortes to the Imperial capital of Moctezuma, and assisted in imprisoning the unhappy Emperor, and it was Alvarado who, in the absence of Cortes, ordered and led the horrible massacre in the halls of the Templo Major in the month the Mexicanos call "Texcatl" - May of 1520.
In the celebrated Noche Triste, Alvarado manned the rear guard of the fleeing Spanish army, and for his efforts in this dangerous and exposed position his name was later given to one of the principal streets of this city.
Cortes returned to lay siege to Mexico, and as always, Tonatiuh was the most forceful of his capitaines, distinguishing himself above all in the assault upon the great "Teocatli" to Tlalteloco.
Viceroy of Mexico, Don Antonio de Mendoza, was ambitious to discover and conquer new lands along the Pacific Coast.
The fantastic tales of Friar Marcos de Niza had described these regions as a paradise, including a land marvelously fertile that hid within it rivers of silver and canyons covered with sand of gold. God sprinkled there all the riches that could stoke the ambitions of men, metals and the pearls in an abundance to enrapture the hearts and feelings of all who would seek these fabulous lands.
Viceroy Mendoza wanted confirmation, for which he enlisted the aid of the governor and Capitaine General of Guatemala. And the governor came, by land, to confer with the viceroy and was sent to the coasts of beyond Nueva Galicia with a squadron of twelve ships.
The Capitaine General and Governor of Guatemala, standing tall, easily evoking power and posture of a King of an army, of a squadron, was the once poor adventurer on the island of Cuba, was the capitaine of a ship of Juan de Grijalva, was Tonotiuh, was Don Pedro de Alvarado, horseman of the Order of Santiago and Governor and Capitaine General of Guatemala.
Then again one must note that Alvarado was hobbled from an arrow he had received in Socomusco. Don Antonio de Mendoza and Alvarado conferred, and according to some sources, in the town of Maravito, and from there Alvarado left for the coast, with object to embark with his expedition.
It was the moment for the troops to leave when a courier rushed forward to present himself to Pedro de Alvarado. The news that he brought could not have been worse.
The natives of Nueva Galicia had risen in arms and had defeated the Spaniards in the region of Mixton, and the city of Guadalajara was in great danger, and Governor Cristobal de Onate implored the aid of Alvarado.

Pedro de Alvarado did not wait an instant, suspending the embarkation, he put the troops in march and a few days later the governor of Nueva Galicia and that of Guatemala met in Tonalan.
But the two governors had distinctive plans for a successful campaign.
Alvarado, filled with pride over his past, his accomplishments, with the riches he had obtained and the power, with his name and with his glory, he considered the rebels as enemies of the sort he was accustomed to defeat.
Cristobal de Onate, more cautions after the defeat of Mixton, and considering the impenetrable positions of the insurrectionists, counseled prudence and security over victory.
As always happens in such cases, the one with the most mistaken views prevailed, and the Capitaine General of Guatemala, not only determined to leave immediately against the enemy, but to ask for no more troops than those with which he came.
"Let us come with you," said Onate, as the soldiers departed. "You might find yourself in a place where you need us and we can’t come."
These words were as a prophesy that was not long to be fulfilled.
The Indigenous had fortified themselves, according to some historians in the canyons of Mochitiltic, and according to others in Nochistlan, and they awaited resolutely the Spaniards.
Alvarado was not to be intimidated, and gave the signal for attack, and put himself in front of his fighters, deciding to make a living example through his position. The two sides engaged and the attackers began the steep climb with rare courage, but the other side resisted with vigor, and commenced to roll down large boulders that hit upon the trees, that made them burst as if they were crystal, and dragging with their fall what obstacles they encountered. Instilled with fear, the Spaniards were stopped by the strategy and by the noise accompanying the uninterrupted river of rocks.
Pedro de Alvarado understood that he was against the work of superior forces and gave the order to retreat. 
The roles reversed, and the Indigenous being pursued became the pursuers, and leaping from the hillside redoubts they observed the movement of the Spaniards and sought to cut off the retreat.
The situation was critical. Alvarado, on foot with his bad leg, positioned himself to cover the rearguard of his troop, contending with difficulty against the enemy, that each moment attacked with enhanced energy. The ground was broken and slippery and covered with numerous narrow streams. 
They finally managed to find dry ground and the enemies backed off on their pursuit. Nevertheless, a panic during battle is not easily halted, and the soldiers spread out trying to grope their way up slopes made unmanageable from rains.
On a weak and tired horse, spurred without compassion by the rider demanding a sprightly trot, sat a soldier named Baltazar Montoya, the clerk and scribe of the expedition, who tensed from the slips of his mount on the rough terrain, and from fear that the enemy would overcome him at any moment.
Alvarado came from behind on foot and marching past him, said, "Relax Montoya. It appears that the Indios have left."
The scribe, however, was not convinced so easily and he continued to furiously whip his poor animal. Suddenly the horse tripped. Montoya screamed at him and the animal collapsed, rolling to the side. Pedro de Alvarado saw what was happening practically upon his head, and he tried to avoid being hit, but it was impossible. The animal fell upon him with all his weight, dragging him along and leaving him unconscious.
The soldiers flew to assist their Capitaine. Alvarado regained consciousness and ever the soldier, he thought of his men, and he took off his armament and gave it to one standing at his side and told him he had confidence that the men would return to combat and avoid a complete defeat. One of them asked him, "What hurts?".
"My soul. Take me where I can heal it with the ordeal of penance," Alvarado answered that day of June 24, 1541.
Cristobal de Onate arrived and saw him, and Alvarado, full of sentiment confessed that no one but him was to blame, for he had rejected the prudent council of Onate.
They carried Pedro de Alvarado toward Guadalajara, and along the road they encountered Friar Bartolome de Estrada, who took his confession, which was written by the scribes Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, and Baltazar Montoya, he the same one who had cause the disaster. July 4, 1541 the famous Pedro de Alvarado ceased to exist. His cadaver was later transported to Guatemala.
It was the night of September 11, 1541. News of the death of Pedro de Alvarado had already arrived in Guatemala, and in the city of Santiago his widow Dona Beatriz de la Cueva wept inconsolably over the tragic misfortune. Various women of the principal families of the town came to accompany the afflicted widow of the Capitaine General.
They were there at two in the morning when a terrible trembling of the earth came once, twice, three times and there was a terrifying subterranean noise that from under the mountains. The summit of one of the mountains, that contained a lake, fell apart and tumbled toward the city; and simultaneously there came violent flood that dragged immense boulders that covered the homes and buried six hundred people.

Dona Beatriz de la Cueva and a dozen that accompanied her were lost that night in the ruins of the chapel where they sought refuge.
Translation by Ted Vincent

[ A conflict over Don Pedro’s estate erupted at his death. Dona Luisa Tecuelhatzin (Xicotenga) still lived and she claimed that she was the legitimate woman of Pedro.  She was the mother of six of his children. Dona Beatriz de la Cueva, though giving him no children, declared that her family deserved the title, she being of a respectably wealthy family in Spain and having married Pedro there in 1528.  Moreover, Pedro and Luisa’s union had never received the blessing of the church, and one historical source states that he did not believe in sanctifying a union of an Indigena and a Spaniard.  Luisa argued that the marriage in Spain had been for status and money not love - indeed, Pedro had initially married one De la Cueva woman, who promptly died, so he married Beatriz.   Ambiguous colonial records show what may have been the solution to the contest.  Luisa moved to Guatemala after Pedro’s death where her daughter Leonor de Alvarado married Don Francisco de la Cueva.

Ambiguous colonial records show what may have been the solution to the contest. Luisa moved to Guatemala after Pedro’s death where her daughter Leonor de Alvarado married Don Francisco de la Cueva. After returning to Guatemala Luisa lived in the city of Antigua "in a beautiful house in which she eventually died," according to the web site for that town's "Dona Luisa Restaurant."
A son of Pedro and Luisa married an Indigena and moved to Peru where he died fighting the natives in 1554. Another son raised a family in the Azores. Beatriz de la Cueva was Governor of Guatemala in the month’s between Pedro’s passing and the earthquake - the only known woman Governor in the three centuries of Spanish rule in the New World. In later years a number of descendants of Pedro and Luisa are said to have lived comfortable lives in Spain.]


S: El Apellido Cartaya en Canarias 
Locating Hispanic Ancestors Getting Past Frequently Misspelled Names

El Apellido Cartaya en Canarias
Sent by Paul Newfield III
En la isla canaria de Tenerife y perteneciente a la villa de Los Realejos, se halla la pequeña pedanía de La Cartaya, ahora integrada como un barrio más en la localidad, pero independiente de ella en sus orígenes. La villa de Los Realejos, situada en el norte de la isla, fue fundada a finales del siglo XV, poco después de que en terreno del actual municipio los caudillos guanches encabezados por Bencomo se rindieran a Fernández de Lugo, Adelantado de los Reyes Católicos. Tras la conquista, los visitadores señalaron límites para los distintos beneficios y así, en 1517, el visitador López de Tribaldos dice que “el del Realejo se extiende desde el barranco de Higa hasta el Malpaís de Yarde”. El núcleo de La Cartaya, que en el pasado formó parte como asentamiento independiente de la comarca de Higa, está hoy situado en las medianías del municipio

De origen canario serían Juan de Cartaya, Juan de Las Casas, Juan de La Torre, Andrés Francés, Juan Viscayno, Gonzalo Rodríguez, Alonso Rodríguez, Francisco Rodríguez, Juan Delgado, Alonso de Cordoba, Pedro de Madalena, Juan Fernández, Guillén García, Antonio González, María Fernández, Pedro de Lugo, Martín Cosme, Diego Delgado, Fernando de León, Catalina Díaz, Juan González, Alonso González, Francisco de Herrera, Diego Sánchez, Pedro Mayor, Diego Mayor, Alonso Díaz, Pablo Martín, Constancia Ferrandez, Pedro del Fyerro, Pedro González, Martín de Vera, Mencía, Gonzalo de la Fuente, Juan Sanches, Martín Sanches, Rodrigo Hernández, Pero García, Pedro Loys  y Juan Cabello.

De origen gomero están documentados entre otros Pedro Autejo, Diego López, Pero Mexacar, Francisco Hara e Ibone de Armas. 

Dentro del grupo de los guanches de Tenerife, figurarían Miguel de Agoymad, Gomes Hernández, Antón de los Frailes, Juan de Tejina, Juan Yacas, Catalina, Diego Álvarez, Pedro Hernández, Catalina Núñez, Juan Delgado, Vastían, Pedro Martín, Francisco Delgado, María de Lugo (mujer de D. Pedro de Adeje), Elvira Hernández, Pedro Bueno, Gaspar Hernández, Ana Gutiérrez, Jorge Castellano, Alonso Díaz. Gaspar Fernández, Catalina Francisca, Juan de Vera, Juan Alonso, Elvira Gaspar, Francisco Hernández, Juana Hernández, Simón Aguilar, Catalina Sanches, Francisca del Castillo, Juan Pérez, Catalina Fernández, Bartolomé Pérez, Alonso de Bonilla, Antón Azate, Pedro Negrín, Simón Morales, María Fernández, Flandes, Galván, Bonilla, Moreno, Hidalgo y Regla.


Locating Hispanic Ancestors Getting Past Frequently Misspelled Names
Spelling errors for Hispanic names occur for various reasons:

o Unfamiliarity with Hispanic names and their spelling on the part of a census enumerator, tax collector, or other recorder.
o Transcription errors on the part of an indexer/transcriber of handwritten records. " Use of abbreviations or phonetic substitutions on the part of the original recorder or the transcriber as a "shortcut."
o Inadvertently reversing two letters when writing or transcribing information.

Spelling errors occur not only when transcribing handwritten names into typed lists but also when creating typed indexes (e.g., Texas Birth Index, Texas Death Index). Use some the following tricks to locate Hispanic ancestors whose names may be misspelled in various types of records:
o Reverse the "ua" with "au" (e.g., Gaudalupe for Guadalupe or Jaun for Juan).
o Truncate online searches after the first syllable using the wildcard symbol * for multiple letters. (e.g., Ben* retrieves Ben, Benito, Bengamin, Benjamin, Benancio, Bennie, Benny). Replace ending vowels that indicate gender with single character truncation (e.g., Fideli? retrieves Fidelio and Fidelia).
o Try "anglicized" forms of the name (e.g., Richard or Richardo for Ricardo, Charlie or Charles for Carlos, Joe for Jose, Albert for Alberto, Mary or Marie for Maria, Rosie for Rosa, Louis for Luis, Pete or Peter for Pedro, William or Willie for Guillermo, Alfred or Fred for Alfredo, Nick or Nicholas for Nicolas, Alex or Alexander for Alejandro or Alexandra).
o Replace single vowels with the single character truncation (e.g., Guad?lupe retrieves Guadalupe and Guadelupe).
o Try abbreviated forms of the name (e.g., Franca for Francisca, Franco for Francisco).
o Try diminutive forms of the name (e.g., Lupita for Lupe or Guadalupe).
o Replace diminutive endings with the truncation symbol (e.g., Guadaiup* retrieves Guadalupe, Guadalupita, Guadalupito).
o Try nickname forms (e.g., Lupe for Guadalupe).
o Try replacing consonants with other consonants that are phonetically similar (e.g., Birginia for Virginia, Venancio for Benancio, Dionisio for Dionicio, Felan for Phelan, Ozuna for Osuna, Lopes for Lopez).
o Try replacing vowels with other vowels (e.g., Erma for Irma, Deonicio for Dionicio, Ygnacia for Ignacia, Elaria for Ilaria, Dalfina for Delfina).
o Replace "11" with "y" and vice versa (e.g., Aguallo for Aguayo).
o At the beginning of names, try substituting "G" or "L" for the letter "S" (e.g., Salinas may have been transcribed as Galinas or Lalinas because of unclear handwriting).
o Be creative. Use phonetic spellings (e.g., "Monwell" or "ManwelF for "Manuel," Morralles for Morales).
o Try "tion" at the end of names that normally end in "cion" or "sion" (e.g.. Conception for Concepcion).

This list is not comprehensive but may get you thinking about alternate spellings (or misspellings) that appear in various types of records. Create a list of all the misspellings that you've found for future reference and routinely search using these misspelled forms of the name.

Where possible, compare spellings provided by indexers/transcribers to original handwritten versions of records. You may immediately recognize a spelling error that was introduced by an indexer versus a spelling error on the part of the person who handwrote the record (e.g., the census enumerator or tax collector).

You can help yourself and others in the future by submitting corrections to databases. As you find misspelling, use the comments and corrections feature where it is available to submit corrections or alternate spellings.

Source:, as found in the California African American Genealogical Society, Vol. 18, Number 8, Ronald Higgins, President


Si posees un apellido que ha llegado a cualquier lugar del mundo procedente de España y deseas conocer como está extendido actualmente dicho apellido por todo el territorio español, existe una página interactiva en Internet, elaborada por el Instituto Nacional de
Estadística de España, cuya dirección es la siguiente;

Introduciendo tu apellido haces click en buscar y te encontrarás con un mapa de España dividido en provincias y en el que te aparece unbotón rojo en las que hay mas de cinco personas con ese apellido, bien por que reside actualmente allí o porque ha nacido en ella, pero haciendo click en ese botón rojo, verás cuantas personas hay con ese apellido,como primero o como segundo e incluso los que tengan los dos.

Es una pequeña experiencia que resulta divertida y al mismo tiempo te ofrece una información adicional, que en algún momento te puede ser deutilidad. Yo he probado mis dos apellidos, el paterno y el materno, y los he encontrado en todas las provincias españolas, incluidas las islas Canarias y Baleares.

Ängel Custodio Rebollo Barroso

Patriots of the American Revolution

October 12, 2003 Address Given by Dr. Granville Hough in Long Beach
Spanish Contributions to the American Revolution still invisible
Action Item: Honorary U.S. Citizenship for Bernardo de Galvez
Simple Commercial made for Hispanic Heritage Month
Book: The Santa Fe Presidio Soldiers
The Year Was 1776, 1789, 1794
Buenos Aires Patriots of the American Revolution, Part 3, R-Z

Sadly, this will be the last issue in which we will be sharing the ongoing research that Dr. Granville Hough has so generously provided.  Health concerns have restricted his researching activities.  In a recent conversation, Granville suggested I look at the South Coast Chapter's website of the Sons of the American Revolution. He was very cheerful. 

I went to the site and was delighted to find the information below recorded and available for everyone. It encapsulates Granville's dedication, his foundation, his intent. It is clear, he had a mission, and he followed through. I was glad to be able to help.

I believe that the good that Granville's efforts have produced will never be fully grasped. His pure intent has born fruit, not only throughout the nation, but internationally as well.   Quietly, patiently, he provided the tools to prove the contributions of the Spanish in the American Revolution.  It is our task to make use of his data. 

Below text is found on the SAR South Coast website:  

 [The following is the address given by Dr. Granville Hough at the Galvez Gala on 12 October 2003 in the city of Long Beach, California. He discusses the process of having the Hispanic contributions recognized by the SAR and what those contributions were.]

In 1996 I learned that the National Society, Sons of the American Revolution, had turned down a California applicant who had no receipt to prove his soldier ancestor had donated one or two pesos to defray the costs of the war with Britain from 1779 into 1783. This seemed a strange denial as the applicant's ancestor had risked his life as a soldier, so why worry about a donativo? I told my SAR chapter I could develop a rationale for accepting Spanish soldiers as patriots, and it said go ahead. 

I knew Louisiana soldiers serving under Governor Bernardo de Gálvez had been accepted as Patriots since 1925, and that French soldiers and sailors who served under General Rochambeau and Admiral de Grasse had been accepted since 1903. 

So I developed the rationale and looked for applicants to test it. We found two descendants of California soldiers, with clear lineages, and got our first California descendants admitted in 1998. 

I had no intent of publishing anything, but concluded it might be useful publish the rationale, then to list names of California soldiers, visiting sailors, and other men who were of the right age to make the donativo. 

My daughter joined me in the research, and we did the first book on California, mostly rationale, then the second book giving the names of nearly everyone in California under Spanish jurisdiction during the war period, and most of their descendants until American occupation in 1848, about 5000 persons. 

It was interesting research, and no one had ever done such a listing of Spanish soldiers and sailors. We then did Arizona and Northern Sonora, then New Mexico. We were able to get our first descendant of a New Mexico soldier accepted in 1999. We moved on to Texas where a couple of people had already been accepted, but there was no complete listing. We did one, including all the territory now under Texas jurisdiction. 

Up to this time we had worked on more than 20 Presidios, more than 10 flying companies of mounted infantry units, and militia units of the larger towns. When we worked on Louisiana, we encountered our first organized Spanish Regiment, the Regimento de Infanterie de Luisiana. (Here is a representation of the flag of that regiment when Colonel Bernardo de Gálvez personally led it at Manchak, Baton Rouge, Mobile, and Pensacola.) 

Then we went on through the West Indies in our seventh volume with numerous Spanish and colonial regiments, then finally back to Northern Mexico for our eighth volume on backup regiments and other units for the Presidios. We have four more volumes in progress. 

Along the way, we were questioned on the work we were doing, mainly based on the way people were taught American History. The question was: "How can we accept descendants of Spanish soldiers? Spain has always been our enemy." And that is exactly the way many influential American historians have depicted it. But that is not the way Spanish soldiers and sailors saw it at the time. They, just like Americans, fought the British where they were or wherever they were sent. They celebrated all victories over the British, no matter who won them. 

But there is one quote from a highly regarded American historian at the time of WW I which is still quoted: He made a statement that John Adams and John Jay in negotiating for peace with Britain had no reason to consider Spanish interests as Spain had been of no help to the American colonies and had wished them ill. 

He apparently ignored Spanish aid and the de Grasse/Saavedra Accord which governed French and Spanish operations in the Western Hemisphere from July 1781 until the end of the war. He was not aware that a Chesapeake Bay Campaign (Yorktown) was the first item of that accord and that its success was due to five elements, two of them Spanish: Washington's Army, Rochambeau's French Army, de Grasse's French Fleet, Spanish financing, and Spanish covering for the French fleet in the West Indies. 

Nor did this eminent American historian make any suggestions as to what SECURED Yorktown, or why the four British staging areas at New York, Charleston, Penobscot Bay, and Detroit were never used by the British to reinvade. Few Americans know that the British were straining mightily in 1782 and 1783 just to hold on in the West Indies. Bernardo de Gálvez was waiting to invade Jamaica during that time with 10,000 troops at Guarico in Haiti. He was joined in Venezuela in Feb 1783 by nearly all of Rochambeau's American Expeditionary Force which had fought at Yorktown, 10,000 French troops. French General d'Estaing was lining up 20,000 more French and Spanish troops at Cadiz in Spain awaiting orders to sail. And Bernardo de Gálvez was already designated as the overall commander of the invading forces. The British had to negotiate or lose everything in the West Indies. That IMMINENT THREAT IN THE WEST INDIES is what SECURED Yorktown and made it into the victory we celebrate. 

I will point out two other false beliefs which have harmed our relationships with our neighbors: 

One is that the War with Mexico began when Mexican troops attacked American troops on Texas soil near the Rio Grande. I defy any historian to show evidence that Texas ever extended south of the Medina River. The Mexican War started when pro-slavery President James K. Polk in May 1848 sent American troops into Mexican territory south of the Medina and Mexicans defended their land. It is clear we started the Mexican War under false pretenses. 

Another false belief is that the Spanish American War was started when saboteurs blew up the battleship Maine on 17 Feb 1898. I defy any historian to show that there were any saboteurs near the Maine that night, whether Spanish, Cuban, or some other. Most likely, the Maine blew up from instantaneous combustion of overheated coal in confined ship storage. The evidence is insufficient for that or any other conclusion. It seems quite clear to most historians that we entered the Spanish-American War under false pretenses. 

These three fallacies have biased American history and textbooks for generations. They constantly come up in one form or another, in editorials, from talking heads, and even from reviewers of SAR applications. 

But the study of service records of Spanish soldiers shows interesting and remote places where they served, each with some relation to the war with Britain. The National Society, Sons of the American Revolution, has recognized the global aspects of the Revolutionary War. In March of this year, the Society removed all geographic restrictions on patriotic service so that male descendants of Spanish soldiers or sailors, in service 1779-1783, can now join our organization, no matter where the ancestor served. 

We are also beginning to recognize that Spanish soldiers who fought for freedom for the United States did not forget what they helped create. Within a generation, nearly all the countries we know in the Western Hemisphere had become free nations. The little American Revolution of 13 English colonies had become the Great American Revolution of the Western Hemisphere.[top] The Galvez Project

The web site for the Galvez Project is:
The following has been excerpted from that web site. 
Few Americans are aware that Bernardo de Galvez was the Spanish governor of the Louisiana territory that encompassed thirteen of our present states. They are also unaware that long before any formal declaration of war, General Galvez sent gunpowder, rifles, bullets, blankets, medicine and other supplies to the armies of General George Washington and General George Rogers Clark. Once Spain entered the war against Great Britain in 1779, this dashing young officer raised an army in New Orleans and drove the British out of the Gulf of Mexico. General Galvez captured five British forts in the Lower Mississippi Valley. They repelled a British and Indian attack in St. Louis, Missouri, captured the British fort of St. Joseph in present-day Niles, Michigan. With reinforcements from Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, General Galvez captured Mobile and Pensacola, the capital of the British colony of West Florida. 

At Pensacola, Galvez commanded a multinational army of over seven thousand soldiers. Most of these men were already serving in the areas known as Nueva España. This included all the land east of the Mississippi, including present day Southwest and southern states, Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Hispanola, and other Spanish colonies such as Venezuela. The Spanish forces in the Americas were also joined by soldiers from Spain, other European nations, American colonists, indigenous, and blacks. It was this multi-ethnic force fighting together to achieve the goals of the American Revolution under the leadership of a remarkable general commander.

Pensacola was defended by a British and Indian army of twenty-five hundred soldiers and British warships. An American historian called the siege of Pensacola "a decisive factor in the outcome of the Revolution and one of the most brilliantly executed battles of the war." Another historian stated that General Galvez' campaign broke the British will to fight. This battle ended in May 1781, just five months before the final battle of the war at Yorktown.[top]

Rosters by PresidioOn the left please find the names of the presidios which were active during the Revolutionary era.  Under each presidio you will find the roster of known soldiers.  The same format is used for the sailors.  One you are at the individual unit use the "Find on this page" feature of your browser to search for specific names.[top] A helpful Web Site for further Research

Biographical information on these soldiers can be found on the Arizona State Museum web site: 
Select DRSW Master database and type in the name of the soldier in quotes. Be aware of alternative spellings: some times Antonio appears as Anttonio! 

A Chapter member submitted his lineage to the New Mexico Genealogical Society and they have posted it on their web site
[top] References for Spanish Soldiers and Sailors of 1779-1783

Descendants of Spanish soldiers who served in CA while Spain was at war with England during the American Revolution have available excellent references for documenting service of their ancestors. We know families of 220 of 500 plus soldiers or sailors who served during those years. 

Granville Hough, Ph.D., and N. C. Hough, Spain's California Patriots in its 1779-1783 War with England During the American Revolution, 1998 (eight volumes) 

Granville Hough, Ph.D., "California During the American Revolution, " California Compatriot, Winter 1998 

Granville Hough, Ph.D., "California in the Revolutionary War," SAR Magazine, Winter 1999 

Descendants who already know their soldier ancestor's name can start with Marie Northrop's two volumes, Spanish-Mexican Families of Early California, 1769-1850, Vol. 1 (revised 1987), and Vol. 2 (1984). Statements of military service in these volumes were taken from Bancroft's Pioneer Index. 

In addition to Marie Northrop's volumes, descendants may also start with Dorothy G. Mutnick's five volumes, Some Alta California Pioneers and Descendants, Divisions One and Two. In Division One she covered descendants of the Anza Expeditions, and in Division Two she covered the 1781 Expeditions to settle Los Angeles and establish Santa Barbara Presidio. Her work was based on mission records and is a thorough compilation of families. 

Presidio lists for 1782 for San Diego, Santa Barbara, Monterey, and San Francisco are in the Eldridge Papers of the Bancroft Library. Those for San Diego and Monterey were copied by Marie Northrop and are in LDS film #1421704, item 12. San Diego lists for both 1780 and 1782 were published by Bill Mason in The Journal of San Diego History, Fall, 1978. The Santa Barbara list is in at least three local histories of Santa Barbara: Hawley's The Early Days of Santa Barbara, Englehardt's Santa Barbara Mission, and O'Neill and Meier's History of Santa Barbara County. All the lists can be viewed and downloaded from this web site. 

The service records for CA soldiers are stored in the Archives of the Indies in Seville, Spain. Mr. Raymond F. Wood abstracted 900 service records for the Spanish soldiers he could identify in CA between 1769 until after Mexican Independence and placed these abstracts in the Research library of the Autry Museum of Western Heritage, 4700 Western Heritage Way (in Griffith Park adjacent to the Los Angeles Zoo. These records sometimes show dates of enlistment, promotion, discharge, death, and retirement. They can be studied by appointment: call (213) 667-2000. The Research Library will send copies of the cards at no charge for no more than three ancestors if the ancestor can be identified well enough by the descendant. 

Hubert Howe Bancroft's California Pioneer Register and Index Including Inhabitants of California, 1769-1800 extracted military service or other activity as recorded in Bancroft's earlier 7 volume History of California. 

Hubert Howe Bancroft's 7 volume History of California noted military service or other activity when it was found in Spanish records. These records seldom give more than the places or times where the soldier was listed or the activity in which he was engaged. Volumes I and II cover the Spanish period, Ill and IV the Mexican period, and the others later periods to the 1880 decade, when the volumes were published. These volumes are also in the "complete works" as volumes 18 through 24. Some of the sources Bancroft used burned in the San Francisco fire of 1906, but the majority are stored in the Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA. 

1790 Padron (census) lists the soldiers and their families. The ages of those listed as, soldiers and their children frequently indicate how long the soldiers had been in service. Some of these lists were published by Marie Northrop in the Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly as follows: Los Angeles (June 1959); San Francisco (Dec 1959); Santa Barbara (Mar 1960); Monterey (June 1960); San Jose (Sep 1960); and San Diego (Mar 1961). 

Thomas Workman Temple, II, work includes his abstracts of mission records, available through Family History Centers of the LDS. His "Soldiers and Settlers of the Expedition of 1781," Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, (1931 ) is very helpful, as are his other published works. 

Adam C. Derkum's 38 notebooks, "Spanish Families of Southern California," are available on 5 LDS microfilm rolls 1597975 through 1597979. There is no index, but the families are arranged alphabetically. N. C. Hough has prepared a list of surnames for which there are significant entries available. This is published in Granville and N. C. Hough, Spanish California Patriots in its 1779-1783 War with England during the American Revolution, 1998, Part 1, "Using Derkum," pages 122-153 and including all his sources on pp 151-153. 

Early mission records have been studied and abstracted by numerous scholars. Most of the original records have been microfilmed by the Church of Latter Day Saints (LDS). These can be ordered from the LDS in local Family History Centers. Two records partly in English are #0944242, and Item 12 of #1421704.

Part of the above was kindly published as an article by the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research in its Somos Primos Vol. 9 #2 (Summer 1998) 

Spanish Contributions to the American Revolution still invisible

Hello, everyone. Yesterday, I was at an elementary school in Austin, giving a workshop for 3rd and 4th graders on writing.

While waiting for the event to begin, I flipped through the books in the 900 section of the school library to see what I might find in non-fiction about the American Revolution. I went to the index and looked for "Galvez" or "De Galvez" because some indices will put his name in the D section.

Nothing. Nada. Zippo.  Then I looked for "Spain" or "Spanish." 

One book out of the 15 I looked through had 4 pages listed for "Spain." So I turned to those pages and found that the French, those Enlightened Folk, jumped into the fray to help the colonists while the Spanish and the Polish just kind of meandered into the war.

The words that went through my mind are unmentionable here, but I thought, "Do we have our work cut out for us!" 

Even in a book with a 2005 copyright--there is no mention of the secret aid given to the colonies by Spain starting in 1776--shortly after the signing of the Declaration of Independence. 

Not a peep about the Texas connection to the American Revolution--that fine Texas beef that went into the stomachs of soldiers fighting King George's forces.

Not a word about the Battles of Baton Rouge, Mobile or Pensacola.

So, as Unamuno put it, "Sigo luchando." I may have to live 70 more years to accomplish our goal of recognition for Galvez, but I'm hanging in there.

Lila Guzman, Ph.D.  http://

Here is a good article on Spain's and General Galvez's contributions to the American cause during the Colonist's Revolution. These facts are almost totally ignored in most "history" books taught in our schools .
Please read and pass it on .   Bill Carmena  

Congratulations to Eliud Bonilla, who writes:
We had success with a very simple "commercial" we made for our Hispanic Heritage Month event. It ran as a loop in the company's TV screens in the lobby for a week: Http://

Eliud Bonilla  Adjunct Professor, George Mason University

Virginia Sanchez  from the New Mexico Genealogical Society recommends "The Santa Fe Presidio Soldiers." You will find a description about the book at
Also recommends  Jose Esquibel New Mexico Colonial Patriots website at:  

The Year Was 1776
The Year Was 1789



Part 3, R-Z

by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

Juan Ramirez.
Sgt, Cab de Blandengues de Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:26.
Manuel Ramirez. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos /aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:89.
Cayetano Ramirez de Arellano. Comandante &Sgt Mayor, Cab Blandengues, 
Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:1
Cosme Ramirez de Arellano. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:158.
Matias de la Raya. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:152 (1)
Miguel Recio. Sgt 1st Cl of Grenaderos, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:145.
Juan de Reina. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1795, Leg 7257:VI:28.
Melchor de Reina. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:81.
Jerónimo Requejo. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:82.
Baltasar Revilla. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:109.
Alejandro de los Reyes. Cadet, Inf of Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:178.
Angel Antonio de los Reyes. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:179.
José de los Reyes. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:184.
Benito Rico. Lt, Mil Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:13.
Bartolomé Riesgo. Capt, Cab Blandengues Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:6.
Miguel de Riglos. Capt, Dragones de Buenos Aiers, 1787, Leg 7257:XVII:15.
Francisco Ventura Rio. Alf, Cab Blandengues de Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:25.
Pedro Rivero. Sgt, Cab Blandengues Montevideo9, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:30.
Sebastián Rivero. Capt, Mil Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:6.
José de Robles. Sgt, Asamblea Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:X:6.
Francisco Robunato. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1800, Leg 7158:IV:1 y 2.
Tomás de Rocamora. Sgt, Mayor with grade of Lt Col Y Comandante Asamblea Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:X:10.
Francisco Rodrigo. Sgt Major &bC9mandante with grade of Lt Col, Asamblea, Inf Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:XI:3.
Manuel Rodrigo. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:160.
Antonio Rodriquez. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires. 1799, Leg 7258:V:9 y 10.
Benito Rodriquez. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1795:Leg 7257:VI:36.
Estanislao Rodriquez. Portaguión, Mil Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:39.
Francisco Rodriquez. Sgt, Asamblea, Cab de Buenos Aiers, 1798, Let 7258:X:18.
José Rodriquez. Capt, Inf of Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:59.
Juan Rodriquez. Sgt, Cab Blandengues de Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:36.
Juan Francisco Rodriquez Sgt, Mil Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799: Leg 7258:I:34.
Manuel Rodriquez. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:44.
Tomás Rodriquez. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1800, Leg 7258:IV:3 y 4.
Juan de Dios Rodriquez Peña. Cadet, Cab de Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:VI:15 y 16.
Nicolás Rodriquez Peña. Cadet, Cab Blandengues Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:61 &63.
Fernando Romero. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:135.
Joaquin Romero. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVIII:15.
Matias Romero. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:74.
Antonio Romero de Tejada. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:IV:29 y 30.
Pedro Romero de Tejada. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:VI:31 y 32.
José Rondeau. Alf, Cab Blandenguez Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:22.
Juan Rondeau. Cadet, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:103.
Juan Bautista Rondeau. Alf, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:59.
Agustín de la Rosa. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:60.
Juan de la Rosa Arriola. Sgt, Comp de Blandenges de Santa Fe, 1797, Leg 7257:XVI:7.
Manual de Rosas. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:63.
Juan Rovira. Sgt, Asamblea Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:X:19.
Marcos Rovira. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:144.
Manuel de Rozas. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:27.
Tomás Rubio. Sgt, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1792, Leg 7257:VIII:11.
Bernabé Ruiz. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:71.
Francisco Ruiz. Alf, Mil Cap be Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:30.
Francisco Ruiz. Lt, Mil Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:16.
José Ruiz. Sgt, Cab Blandenguez de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:38.
José Ruiz. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:125.
Manuel Ruiz. Capt, Mil Inf de Buenos Aires, 179(, Leg 7258:I:10.
Remigio Ruiz. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:15 y 16.

Andrés Saavedra. Sgt, Cab Blandengues de Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII, 42.
Vicente Saavedra. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:58.
Juan Bautista Sabinson. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:148.
Simón Sacristan. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:143.
Francisco Saez. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:77.
Candido la Sala. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:149.
Martin Casimiro de la Sala. SugLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:IV:153.
Diego de Salas. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:88.
Fermin de Salas. SubLt, Mil Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:23.
Juan de Salas. Comandante del Tercer Bn with grade of Col, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:39.
Manuel de Salas. Lt of Granaderos, inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:72.
José Salazar. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:142.
Manuel Saldaña. Sgt, Asamblea Cab de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XIX:14.
Cristóbal Salvañach. SubLt, Bn Mil Cab de Montevvideo, 1799, Leg 7258:III:20.
Bernabé San Martin. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:163.
Leonardo San Pedro y Pasos. SubLt of Granaderos, Mil Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:21.
Agustín Sanchez. Ayudante con Grade of Capt, Asamblea Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791: Leg 7257:X:3.
Joaquin Sanchez. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:124.
Manuel Sanchez. Sgt, Asamblea Inf Buenos Aires:1798, Leg 7258:XI:9.
Manuel Sanchez. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:129.
Sebastián Sanchez. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVIII:13.
Francisco Sanchez Neila. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:134.
Matías Sanchez de la Rozuela. Capt, Bn Mil de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:III:3.
Francisco Sancho. Alf, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798:Let 7258:V:57.
Juan Antonio Sancho. Capt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798:, Leg 7258:V:38.
Matías Sancho. Alf with grade of Lt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798:, Leg 7258:V:54.
Pedro Sancho. Sgt, Asamblea Cab de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIII:16.
Juan Santa Cruz. Alf, Comp de Blandengues de Santa Fe, 1795, Leg 7257:II:3.
Enrique Luis Santiago, Conde de Liniers, Col, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798: Leg 7258:IV:42.
Miguel Santisteban. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:73.
Domingo Santos. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:85.
Mariano Santos. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:99.
Tomás Sastre. Sgt, Bn Mil de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:III:25.
Agustín Sauminque. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:133.
Juan Antonio Segovia. Sgt, Mil Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799:Leg 7258:I:35.
Domingo Sierra. Sgt, Mil Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:45.
Francisco Sierra. Capt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:11.
José Agustín Sierra. Lt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:20.
Pedro Matías Sierra. Sgt, Cab Blandengues Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:46.
Francisco Silva. Portaguión, Mil Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:40.
José de Silva. Lt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:19.
Vicenta Silva. Sgt, Mil Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:58. Bernardo Silva Rios. Portaestandarte, Mil Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:32.
Joaquin Silvestre. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798:Leg 7258:IV:146.
Dionisio Simon. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798: Leg 7258:V:87.
Manuel Soler. Ayudant Mayor, Lt Col, Asamblea Cab de Buenos Aires, 1795, Leg 7257:III:4.
Miguel Estanislao. Cadet, Inf of Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:170.
José María Somala. Cadet, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:109.
Francisco Somala. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:166.
Joaquin de Soria. Lt Col, grad Col, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798: Leg 7258:IV:41.
Luis de Soria. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:182.
José Guillermo Sostoa. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:186.
Manuel Soto y Llano. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1800, Leg 7258:IV:5 y 6.
Mariano Soto y Llano. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:169.
Francisco Vicente Suarez. Sgt, Cab Blandengues de Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:47.

José Taboada. Sgt, Inf de buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:137.
Miguel de Tejada. Brigadier &Col, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798:Leg 7258:IV:37.
Miguel Tejedor. Capt, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:21.
Juan Bautista Temprado. Sgt, Mil Cab de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:53.
Juan Vicente Tijera. Sgt, Comp Blandengues de Santa Fe, 1787, Leg 7257:XVI:6.
Fermin de Tocornal. Portaestandarte, Mil Cab de Buenos Aires, 1798: Leg 7258:IX:31.
Bartolomé Toledo. Lt, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XV:13.
Joaquin Tornell. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, , 1795, Leg 7257:IV:55.
Juan Tornell. Capt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1795, Leg 7257:IV:19.
Mauricio Tornell. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:115.
Bernardo Torre. Lt, Bn Mil de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:III:12.
José de la Torre. Capt, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:20.
Antonio de Torres. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1795, Leg 7257, VI:45.
José de Torres. Sgt, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XV:37.
Juan Camilo Trapani. Capt, Mil Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:5.
Agustín de Trenas. Capt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1198, Leg 7258:V:34.
Joaquin Trigo. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:71.

José Ignacio Javier Ubarnes. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1795, Leg 7257:VI:126.
Antonio Nazario de Uriarte. C, Mil Cap de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:IX:1.
Félix Uriarte. Capt with grade of Lt Col, inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:44.
Manuel Inocencio Uriarte. C, Mil Cab de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:4.
Francisco Urias. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:97.
José Domingo Urien. Lt, Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:18.
Juan Ramón Urien. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:191.
Juan Urquiza. SubLt de Granaderos, Inf of Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:95.

Antonio Valcarce. Lt, Cab Blandengues Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:26.
Diego Valcarce. Cadet, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:VI:11 y 12.
Francisco Valcarce. Primer Comandante &Sgt Mayor, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XI:1.
José Valcarce. Cadet, Cab Blandenges de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:59.
Juan Ramón Valcarce. Alf, Cab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:30.
Marcos Valcarce. Cadet, Aab Blandengues de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:VI:57.
Francisco Alonzo Valdez. Alf (2) Mil Cav Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:23.
Juan Vazquez. Lt Col, with grade of Colonel, Inf de Buenos Aires,1791, Leg 7257:XIV:146. Ramón Vicente. Sgt, Cab Blandengues, Motevideo, 1798, Leg 7258: VIII: 33.
Pedro Nicolás Vedia. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:111.
Ambrosio Velasco. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:42.
Francisco de Vera. Lt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:89.
José Francisco de Vera. LubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1795, Leg 7257:VI:85.
Juan Francisco de Vera SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:112.
Francisco de Vergara. Sgt, Bn Mil de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:III:27.
Antonio Vianquet. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:100.
José Antonio Vianqui. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:181.
Juan Domingo Vianqui. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVIII:51.
Juan José Vianqui. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:156.
José Manuel Victorica. Cadet, Cab Blandengues Montevideo, 1798:Leg 7258:VIII:53.
Eusebio Vidal.Ayudant Mayor Capt, Asamblea Cab de Buenos Aires,1791, Leg 7257:XIII:4. José Félix Vidal. Capt, Mil Inf de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:5.
Toribio Vidal. Sgt, Mil Cab deMontevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:56.
José Vila. SubLt de Bandera, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:116.
Agustín Vilella. Sgt, Asamblea Cab, Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:X:20.
Joaquin de Villafranca. Capt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVIII:25.
Cornelio Villagran. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:II:52.
Francisco Villanuevo. Sgt, Mil de Cab de Montevideo, 1799 – Leg 7258:II:47.
Juan Villar. Sgt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:122.
Luis Villasanti. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IV:161.
Ramón Villena. Sgt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:94.
Francisco Vivas. SubLt, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1795, Leg 7257:VI:68.
Lucas Vivas. Alf, (1) Mil Cab Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:IX:19.

Ignacio José Warnes. Alf, Cab Blandengues, Montevideo, 1798, Leg 7258:VIII:18.

Andrés Yañez. Capt, Bn Mil de Montevideo, 1799, Leg 7258:III:4.

Blas Zabala. Lt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:48.
Juan Zaldivar. Sgt, Cab Blandengues Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:VI:3 y 4.
Miguel Zamora. Capt, Bn Mil de Montevideo, 1799:Leg 7258:III:7.
José Zamudio. Lt, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798kbLeg 7258:V:46.
Juan Francisco Zamudio. Cadet, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1798, Leg 7258:V:110.
Manuel Zamudio. SubLt, Inf de Mil de Buenos Aires, 1799, Leg 7258:I:24.
Luis Zapata. Alf, Comp de Blandengies de Santa Fe, 1787, Leg 7257:XVI:5.
Blas Zavala. Alf, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1787, Leg 7257:XVII:36.
Francisco Bruno Zavala. Capt with grade of Col, Dragones de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:IX:102.
Serapio Bruno de Zavala. Cadet, Inf de Buenos Aires, 1791, Leg 7257:XIV:141.
José Antonio Zubillaga. SubLt, Bn Mil de Montevideo, 1799:Leg 7258:III:15.



Orange County Superior Court, Leadership Academy
Feb 15-16-17: "The Art of Remembering"
Free Family History classes scheduled for February
Heart surgery's invisible man

Received from Judge Frederick P. Aguirre the following information about the
Orange County Superior Court, Leadership Academy

Orange County Superior Court, Leadership Academy is still taking candidates for the Leadership Academy which will be held on six Wednesday beginning March 14, 2007. The Academy will be held in the afternoons from 4:30 - 6:30 pm at the Central Justice Center in Santa Ana. 

Orange County organizations were invited to nominate a person to serve on the Superior Court's inaugural Leadership Academy. The goal is to educate the public about the Judicial system here in Orange County, and receive concerns and suggestions to insure the equal and open administration of justice. 

The date has been extended to February 9, 2007 to submit candidates for the Academy. 

Judge Frederick P. Aguirre is coordinating and administering the Academy. For more information about the program, and an application, please contact Gwen Vieau at 714-834-2717 with any questions concerning the Court's Leadership Academy.

February 15, 16, 17, and 18
Directed by Brenna Kelly, Written by the People of Fullerton

The "Art of Remembering" is a highly unique play featuring emerging writer's lived snapshots of moments in time. Whimsical, bittersweet, loving, reflective...diversity provides the contrast for a vivid sampling of lives captured in lived moments, then brought to the stage in a melding of memories. Director Brenna Kelly has carefully cast a small, powerful ensemble of established Muck Rep actors to breathe life into the collaborative collage. Many writers submitted their written memory scapes*, a weaving of the chose submissions are now in production.

"We are a celebration of the human spirit through the arts" and the Muckenthaler Repertory Theatre's mission statement "Building community through theatre" states Director Brenna Kelly.

Performances in the galleries of the Muckenthaler Art Museum...1201 W. Malvern Avenue, Fullerton, CA 92833 (714) 738-6595

Sent by Frances Rios whose writing are included in the play.

Following free classes are scheduled for February
 at the Orange Family History Center. 
607 S. Yorba, Orange. 
For more information call, 714-997-7710


Feb. 7

7:00 – 8:30 p.m.

Overcoming Dead Ends and Brick Walls

Caroline Rober


Feb. 11

7:00 – 8:30 p.m.

Those "Other" Records: Land and Probate *

Caroline Rober


Feb. 13

10:00 – Noon

Researching in Overlooked local Resources

Joan Rambo


Feb. 15

7:00 – 8:30 p.m.

Essentials and Power of PAF

Wynn Christensen


Feb. 20

7:00 - 8:30 p.m.

Using USGenWeb and WorldGenWeb

Alan Jones


Feb. 22

7:00 – 8:00 p.m.

Beginning Your Genealogical Research

Wynn Christensen


Feb. 23

11:00 – Noon

Beginning Your Genealogical Research

Celia Christensen

Heart surgery's invisible man

Cardiac patients never meet Pablo Garza, but he's been helping to save their lives for 43 years.  By TOM BERG, The Orange County Register, January 

ORANGE – He's the experienced veteran you want by your side if you – or your infant – ever need open-heart surgery.

And yet he is nearly invisible. Not the surgeon. Not the assistant surgeon. Not the first assistant or anesthesiologist or perfusionist on hand every time doctors slice into another chest.

He is Pablo Garza. And even though he's participated in more cardiac surgeries than anyone at St. Joseph Hospital or Children's Hospital of Orange County, hardly anyone outside these walls has ever heard of him. Patients never meet him. Families never send him thank-you cards or photographs or stay in touch. Even his title commands little respect: scrub tech.

He is the man who hands surgeons – focused, at times, on infants' hearts as tiny as eggs – their scalpels and forceps and hemostats. Just the right one. At just the right moment. At just the right angle in the hand. He is so good, they say, that he sometimes means the difference between life and death.

Not bad for a man who never finished 10th grade. A man who got his start here as a janitor – mopping floors. 

It was Sister Claire Marie who first took a chance on the 21-year-old husband and father who drove from Texas to take a janitor's job.

"She cared for me," Garza, 64, says of the former St. Joseph surgery supervisor who encouraged and promoted him. "She took me by the hand and said, 'Let's do this.' "

Within 90 days, he was transporting patients to the operating room. The job left him time to stop by the instrument room to help clean surgical tools – using a brush and detergent to scrub off blood before sterilizing them in an autoclave.

"I wanted to learn everything I could," he said. And he did. He watched surgeries. Asked questions. And learned how to set up the instrument trays. Soon, Sister Claire Marie let him assist a scrub tech named Bill. During one appendectomy, Bill said, "OK, set up the case like I showed you how and I'll be back."

Only he never came back. Garza's heart kept beating faster, and he kept asking when Bill would come back. Until he saw Bill looking through the door, waving.

"After, I said, 'My God, I did this!' " Garza says. "I went home and told my wife, 'You'll never believe what I did today. This is the beginning of something different.' "  And so it was, years later, when his fourth child was born, Garza gave her a name dear to his heart: Claire Marie.

Back in the 1960s, scrub techs did not need certification. Garza moved up the ranks – from appendectomies to laparotomies (abdominal-incision surgeries) to bowel resections. Then vascular surgery on veins and arteries. Then thoracic or chest surgery. By 1969, he was assisting on heart surgeries – where he would stay. And flourish.

"I always thought if you put earmuffs on Paul and blindfolded him, he'd still hit you with the right stuff at the right time," says Dr. Richard Gates, chief of cardiac surgery at St. Joseph and CHOC. "When Paul's there, I'm always comfortable."

Why? First off, cardiac surgeons wear loupes, or magnifying glasses, to focus on vessels as small as 2 millimeters across. To look up is to lose your place. A good scrub tech anticipates each move and has the proper tool ready – without being asked. He must remember hundreds of steps in hundreds of operations, and know the preferences of each surgeon.

Then there is that indefinable quality – how one responds to life-or-death pressure. Garza still recalls the day a patient survived surgery only to start dying after being sewed up. They had to rush him back onto a heart pump.

"The doctor didn't have time to tell me, 'Give me this or that,' " says Garza. "We just worked together, just did this, boom-boom-boom. Later he told me, 'Paul, if you were not in the room with me, we would've lost the patient.' " Garza gets quiet.

"I never forget that," he says. "I still talk about it because it was very gratifying. It was a very big compliment to me."

Now, most cardiac patients survive surgery. But that wasn't always the case in the early 1970s, as surgeons pioneered the techniques used today.

"In one week, we lost three kids," Garza says. "It was devastating. I said, 'Gosh, this is too much for me.' "

Each was a reminder of his month-old daughter who died of crib death years earlier. Garza quit working children's cases for a couple of years, until cardiac surgeons asked him back.

"I told them, 'I'm ready,' " he says. "It's the challenge – the fact that I could do it."  And he's never looked back. He's since averaged two cases a day. And trained more than 100 others in the art of being a scrub tech.

"He's a living legend," says one of those, circulating nurse Elsa Bandong, 38. "He's learned from surgeons who've passed away, surgeons who've returned and surgeons who are established. He knows all the techniques and secrets – things you can't learn from books."

Along the way, Garza earned the profession's highest certification, Operating Room Technologist III, passing tests he thought he couldn't pass – in anatomy, physiology and microbiology – with scores in the high 90s.

He'll retire in 15 months, but already has agreed to continue part time – "until I can't walk anymore," he adds.  Because every night, as he drives home, a feeling comes over him that he can't describe. A small miracle.

"I just feel that I had a good day, every day," he says. "We haven't lost a patient in years, a long time. It's satisfying to know that." To know he saved another child's life.

Not bad for a man who never finished 10th grade. Who got his start here mopping floors.

Contact the writer: 714-796-6979 or




Going on the Record with the Chicano Studies Research Center
Los Angeles Conservancy


Los Angeles Conservancy
A private nonprofit historic preservation group serving all of Los Angeles County.

Angelino Heights 

Walking tours

The Los Angeles Conservancy's Web site is your one-stop center for information on historic preservation in the Los Angeles area.

Our comprehensive preservation resources section has information on how to save historic buildings, financial incentives for preservation, historic sites for your special events, Los Angeles' historic districts, a directory of Los Angeles-area preservation organizations and historic societies, and much more.
Conservation Easements
Owners of a historic property can ensure its future preservation (and collect a tidy tax benefit) by placing a restriction on the property that prevents demolition or inappropriate alterations. The Conservancy, in receiving the easement, accepts an obligation to review future proposed changes to the structure, and the owner, in return, can take a significant charitable deduction. Click here for a copy of our new easements brochure. 

E-mail Updates and Announcements
Please submit your name and e-mail address to receive periodic preservation updates, event announcements and other timely Conservancy news by clicking
From the Los Angeles Conservancy website at http://
When was the last time you took a walk through downtown Los Angeles? Even if it was yesterday, did you really see the architectural treasures all around you? If you're looking for a fun Saturday activity, consider one of the Conservancy's regular walking tours.

Now in its twenty-sixth year, our walking tour program explores the history and heart of Los Angeles through the interpretation 
of the city's unique architectural resources. The tours, led by skilled volunteer docents, focus on the architecture of different areas of downtown's Historic Core and various historic communities around the city. Conservancy walking tours are perfect outings for visiting friends, relatives, and business associates, as well as a great 
way to take a fresh look at your own city.

For details go to

Going on the Record with the Chicano Studies Research Center
Source: Getty Re:View Newsletter & Calendar for the J. Paul Getty Trust, Winter 2007

Since 2002, the Getty Foundation and the Getty Research Institute have worked collaboratively on a special initiative called "On the Record: Art in LA 1945-1980." The goal is to collect oral histories and preserve archival records from the postwar era-a time when Los Angeles came into its own as an international center of creative energy and innovation. As part of this initiative, the Foundation is supporting the Latino Arts Survey, a project at UCLA's Chicano Studies Research Center (CSRC) to document Latino art in Southern California since the 1960s, when the civil rights era fueled an art of social protest.

It was during this time that Chicano art collectives took hold in Los Angeles. The city quickly became the national epicenter of the movement. The artists involved made a lasting contribution not only from a political standpoint, but from an artistic one as well.

"Latino art collectives provided the visual vocabulary for social protest, cultural identity, and historical awareness in this tumultuous period. The art they produced challenged and engaged the art world, promoting change, influencing contemporary debates, and validating new prac-tices," explains CSRC Director Chon Noriega.

CSRC has developed a survey instrument to not only document the history of these artists and organizations, but to locate their archival records as well. In addition, CSRC is conducting oral his-tories with key individuals, from Frank Romero of Los Four, the first Chicano artists to be given an exhibition at LACMA in 1974, to members of the guerilla conceptual group "Asco."

In response to the survey, several organizations have designated CSRC's Special Collections Library as a repository for their records, ensuring that these materials will live on into the future. And several of those who participated in the survey are taking steps to protect and preserve their histories.

"As a result of the survey process, Mechicano Arts Center, one of the most prolific and influential centers for poster productions during the late 1960s, has even reestablished its non-profit status with the intent to address the future of its poster archives," said Noriega. "Whether or not the collection is housed at CSRC, the survey project will have met one of its primary goals-to assist in the preservation of important collections."



Preserving our Past for our Future: Discovery Heritage Center
Soldados de Cuera, The Many Ancestors of Lorraine Frain 
Introduction to the Colonization of Alta California
The Sacred Expedition of 1769 to Alta California
Juan Bautista de Anza Colonizing Expedition to San Francisco, 1775-1776
Rivera y Moncada Colonizing Expedition to Alta California - 1781
Juana Briones House, letters in support
Locals try to stall Briones demolition
Historic Jackling House Still Stands


Preserving our Past for our Future’

Saving the whole package 
for future generations

Robin Collins, President
Hispanic Heritage Center

In order to plan our future we must conserve and understand the world as it was before our generation. A word often used for this effort is ‘Preservation’ and today as our planet is demonstrating the problems that can occur with progress; perhaps preservation and stewardship are more important for humanity to implement and practice than it has been for previous generations.

First we must have knowledge of our past and share this knowledge in any way we can. This awareness shares, strengthens and enriches our lives and resources for national and international appreciation of our planet. This is a major goal and role of the Heritage Discovery Center. One of the current HDC projects to help preserve our history and resources is to expand our preservation breeding program. 

Rancho del Sueno is currently preserving our Colonial Spanish Horse.  In addition, we plan similar preservation/conservation programs for our Colonial Spanish Cattle, Goats, Sheep, Pigs, other Equids (Burros & Mules), and Foul (Chickens, Ducks, etc.) Rancho del Sueno's vision is to  host all Colonial Livestock brought to the Americas by the Spanish.

The Rancho del Sueno Area of the HDC will not only be focused on preservation/conservation genetic programs but will also serve as an extensive educational and learning center for young and old alike to realize and develop a comprehensive appreciation for the nature of and contribution of each species. Without the introduction of these marvelous animals our cultural development and lifestyles would have been enormously different.  Can you imagine our western history without Farms or Ranches?

Preservation breeding is a description of the practice of preserving genetic variability by breeding animals within specific bloodline groups.

Breeding goals are important, but it is important to save all the pieces if we are to have a complete picture. (Without knowing where you are headed it is impossible to know when you arrive) Within the context of the overall goal, a preservation breeder will consider the genetic contribution of the specific animal. Sire or dam lines that are endangered are noted and special effort is made to breed the replacement individuals to carry on the tradition. True Spanish genetic populations are very rare, sometimes finding just one Spanish individual is difficult and a true gift to the delicate balance of preservation of the breed.

By the time Spanish explorers were setting sail for the New World, Spanish horses had become world famous, and much sought after by the Royal Stud farms throughout the world. There were three main types of Spanish horses being bred, and all three were brought to the New World as part of Spanish Exploration. They were:


Proto-Oriental/Andalusian, substantial trotting and galloping horses used for war, mounted games, and racing. These horses were close-coupled and round-bodied, and came in all colors. Francisco Goya painted many pictures of the Royals and the Royal Soldiers on their colorful steeds. Many Statues throughout Europe demonstrate the partnership between famous leaders and their noble mounts.


Ambler-Gaited type, small but substantial. These horses were a short back, rounded croup, arched neck, and full mane and tail. Prized for their docility, courage, and easy gaits. Noted for being a smooth riding equitation mount.


Coaser type sometimes gaited and affordable by the peasantry. 
Later mixed with the Moor’s Barb and influenced by the Sorria. 
Swift, agile, hardy.

These horses were the foundation for exploration, development of the Mission Chain, Military, Maritime trade, Ranching, Agriculture/Farming, transportation, games, sport, hunting and became a pivotal part of Native American culture.

This amazing legacy rediscovered in the Colonial Spanish Wilbur-Cruce Mission Strain is how many of the characteristics of all the Spanish/Iberian horses remain and are still evident in this isolated genetic group. These Colonial Spanish horses are very important indeed to overall conservation, and are closer in type to the historic horse of the Golden Age of Spain than are the current horses of Spain/Iberia.

Mrs. Eva Antonia Wilbur-Cruce highly praises these horses in her book, "A Beautiful Cruel Country". "These horses were hardy, swift and agile…our partners from sun-up to sun-down…and none so beautiful". Mrs Cruce in her wisdom insisted that her horses be preserved and maintained in a conservation program designed by Phil Sponenberg and herself for future generations to know and appreciate. I am honored and proud to have been chosen to have this privilege and be able to share this heritage for the horses and humanity.

The Heritage Discovery Center, and our Ranch del Sueno division would like to thank Mimi Lozano and Somos Primos for including us. Please come enjoy and visit our heritage and the Colonial Spanish Horses at Rancho del Sueno or contact us for more information about HDC or Rancho del Sueno.  

Robin Collins, President
Hispanic Heritage Center  

Rancho del Sueno is in Madera, 4 1/2 miles outside of Fresno County Line, 5 Mi. north from Children's Hospital, North East end of Fresno at junction where HWY 41 goes to Mariposa, and then to Yosemite, or to Millerton and Shaver Lakes.  

Soldados de Cuera
 The Many Ancestors  of Lorraine Frain 


Four of my maternal great grandmother, Maria of St. Thomas Garcia’s ancestors were Soldados de Cuera and their families who came to Alta California in three of the major expeditions from Nueva Espana (Mexico). Vicente Briones, and later his son, Marcos Briones, soldados de cuera, were in Alta California under the command of Gaspar de Portola of the Sacred Expedition, 1769-1774; Felipe Santiago Tapia, soldado de cuera, and his family came with the Juan Bautista de Anza Colonizing Expedition of 1775-1776; and Vicente Quijada, soldado de cuera, and his family came with the Rivera y Moncada Expedition of 1781-1782 to found the Presidio at Santa Barbara.    Lorri Frain


Women's Club in Palo Alto, California
2006, Left to right: 
 Lorri Ruiz Frain, daughter of Evangeline Gutierrez Ruiz Alcaraz
Katie Halsted y Castillo (daughter of Magdaline)
Magdaline Castillo y Ruiz Reynolds (my daughter)
Margaret Reynolds y Castillo (daughter of Magdaline)


Introduction to the Colonization of Alta California


The Spanish Empire in Nueva Espana (New Spain, current day Mexico) considered the land along the Pacific Coast of Alta California her possession and was fearing the encroachment by the English, French, and the Russians into their Alta California  territory. In order to preclude invasion by these foreign nations, Spain immediately set a plan in motion in 1768 whereby Alta California would be colonized and populated by people already living in Nueva Espana. One must keep in mind that within the  Spanish Empire, religion and culture were inseparable. Spain’s plan was threefold: (1) Establish military presidios along the Coast of Alta California; (2) Establish Missions close to the presidios whereby the local inhabitants would be Christianized by the good Franciscan padres; and (3) Develop  civilian pueblos for the "gente de razon." Each presidio along the Spanish Frontier was garrisoned by a company of mounted soldiers, called Soldados de Cuera. The Soldados de Cuera had their own regulations which distinguished them from the regular Spanish soldiers. These frontier soldiers were expert horsemen, the best in the world, and  their main source of pride were their beautiful Stallion horses. They did everything on horseback and a saddled horse was kept by them at all times wherever they went. The vaqueros, the cowboys of yesteryear, were the early trailblazers of these early expeditions. The commanders of the early expeditions to Alta California, such as Gaspar de Portola, Juan Bautista de Anza, and Fernando de Rivera y Moncada, were fearless and courageous warriors as well as great explorers. They were exceptionally well trained and experienced frontier soldiers. These military leaders, along with the spiritual leaders of the expeditions, were all highly motivated to do a good job and always exhibited a positive attitude. These leaders had the monumental task of escorting hundreds of men, women, and children to the New Frontier in an orderly and timely fashion.

The men and women who were members of the many, early expeditions to Alta California from Nueva Espana were, by any standards, truly phenomenal people in overcoming the many, great challenges and adversity that the New Frontier presented. By volunteering to go to Alta California and seeking great rewards, these colonists risked everything--their homes and families. The mere fact that they survived the long, treacherous thousand-plus mile journey to Alta California, speaks volumes of their tenacity, and their sheer will to survive and succeed in achieving their goal, which was to arrive safe and sound at their destinations in Alta California to begin a new life.

There were many children who were members of the expeditions and they were well behaved and obedient–-they were great little troopers. They helped their parents and the other colonists with the everyday chores along the way. The children may have assisted the Muleteers with the supplies and provisions; hunted for water and firewood which they brought to the camp; helped with baby sitting; or, perhaps helped with herding and feeding the livestock and animals. The children learned at an early age to work together as a team during their long, arduous adventure. No doubt, the children played games and ran to their hearts content out in the open wilderness. These children, at that point in time, were leaving behind a lifestyle to which they were accustomed, and were now preparing for a new life in Alta California. The future of some of these children was to become interwoven with my family’s past.

When the colonists first arrived in Alta California, they saw beautiful golden flowers, the Poppy, growing wild throughout the countryside. The Poppy has been called "copa de oro" (cup of gold), and la amapola (there is a song "Amapola" my pretty little poppy"...). The California Poppy is the Golden State’s Flower. These early colonists contributed immensely to this beautiful State of California. They left their profound mark in California, such as the presidios, missions, and pueblos (towns), as well as much of the Spanish language and culture. Some of the food we eat and enjoy today, such as tacos–-now commonly known as "wraps," "burritos," and "quesadillas", are made with a tortilla; however, tortillas are still called tortillas, whether made of flour or corn.

Four of my maternal great grandmother, Maria of St. Thomas Garcia’s ancestors were Soldados de Cuera and their families who came to Alta California in three of the major expeditions from Nueva Espana (Mexico). Vicente Briones, and later his son, Marcos Briones, soldados de cuera, were in Alta California under the command of Gaspar de Portola of the Sacred Expedition, 1769-1774; Felipe Santiago Tapia, soldado de cuera, and his family came with the Juan Bautista de Anza Colonizing Expedition of 1775-1776; and Vicente Quijada, soldado de cuera, and his family came with the Rivera y Moncada Expedition of 1781-1782 to found the Presidio at Santa Barbara.

These newly arrived colonists in Alta California now referred to themselves as Californios. These Californios played an important role in colonizing and shaping the future of Alta California. They succeeded beyond their wildest dreams in achieving their goal for a better life in Alta California. We now know, therefore, that the present, rooted in the past, holds the seeds of the future. Here, then, is a window of events that occurred prior to Statehood and California’s Gold Rush and after.


The Sacred Expedition of 1769 to Alta California


In 1768, the Expedicion Sagrada (Holy Expedition) to Alta California, which was conceived to create bases up the California Coast from San Diego to Monterey, was planned by Jose de Galvez, the Spanish Inspector General of Nueva Espana (now Mexico). The Presidio at Loreto, Baja California, was already operational and functioning satisfactorily, and was known as the Father to all the other presidios in the Californias. Captain Gaspar de Portola, who was headquartered at the Presidio at Loreto, volunteered to lead the Expedicion Sagrada, one of the earliest expeditions to Alta California.

Gaspar de Portola was born in Catalonia, Spain, in 1723. He had served as a soldier in the Spanish Army in Italy and Portugal before being appointed Governor of Las Californias from 1768-1700. The soldiers for the expedition were recruited with offers of land in exchange for colonization of the New Frontier, plus a promotion in rank upon reaching their destination. Among the members of this Sacred Expedition was the spiritual leader, Padre Junipero Serra, a Spanish Franciscan Missionary priest. Padre Serra was named Miguel Jose Serra when he was born in Petra, on the Island of Majorca on November 24, 1713. At the age of 16, he entered the service of the Catholic Church, the Order of St. Francis of Assisi and took a new name, Junipero Serra.

The expedition, comprised of five parties, two going by land, and three by sea, began on January 9, 1769, from La Paz, Baja California, with the departure of the first ship, the San Carlos, commanded by Captain Vicente Vila, and with Lt. Pedro Fages on board, followed on February 15 by the ship, the San Antonio, commanded by Captain Juan Perez, and later, on June 16, by the ship, the San Jose, commanded by Captain Callegan. On March 24, 1769, the first land expedition under Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada left La Paz for San Diego, followed on May 15, by the second land expedition under Captain Gaspar de Portola. By the end of June, the two ships, the San Antonio (alias El Principe), and the San Carlos (alias Toison de Oro), and the two land expeditions had arrived safely in San Diego. The journeys had been difficult and at least half the men died, many were ill, and the ship, the San Jose, was lost at sea. Father Serra selected a site beside a river, and on July 16, 1769, celebrated the first Mass beside a wooden cross and christened it Mission San Diego de Alcala. The Presidio at San Diego was established there at the same time. Padre Serra was in charge of the newly found mission, the first of the 21 missions in Alta California. Padre Serra had been President of the Missions of Baja California and Alta California since 1767 and had come to spread the Roman Catholic faith and expand the Spanish Empire. Padre Serra remained in San Diego for several months carrying on his missionary work, tending to the building of the new church and the presidio, planting seeds for food, and setting up the new community, all with the support of the local Native Americans.

Captain Portola and his men were anxious to head on out for Monterey Bay and had already left San Diego on July 14, 1769, with Fathers Crespi and Gomez, who served as the expedition’s spiritual leaders, Captain Rivera, Lt. Pedro Fages, for a total party of 64 men. They reached Los Angeles on August 2, Santa Barbara on the 19th, but bypassing the port of Monterey due to erroneous mapping directions. By the end of October, the expedition had traveled farther north, arriving at a location near what is now Pacifica where they set up camp. On November 4, 1769, Portola and his party rode up Sweeney Ridge, where upon reaching the top of the mountain, they saw the awesome San Francisco Bay.

Alta California was the land of the giant grizzly bears, los osos, now our State’s emblem. In those days, the bears were considered extremely dangerous to humans and property and were hunted to almost extinction. At times during the exploration of the coastline, there was little food to be had, so members of the expedition gave the friendly Native Americans colorful beads and trinkets in exchange for food. After five months of searching unsuccessfully for Monterey Bay, the exhausted and hungry members of the expedition decided to return to San Diego, arriving there on January 24, 1770.

Supplies were running low in San Diego and the ship from San Blas was running behind schedule. Fortunately, the supply ship, the San Antonio, arrived in San Diego on March 23, 1770, with provisions just in time for the expedition members to obtain fresh rations before leaving again for Monterey. The Portola Expedition departed San Diego on April 16, 1770, to found a presidio and a mission in Monterey Bay. Here is an example of the adage: "If at first you don’t succeed, try again". Gaspar de Portola, Padre Crespi, and the men did just that--they persevered and marched northward again and this time, after 36 days on the trail, arrived in Monterey Bay on May 24, 1770. Padre Serra had decided to sail to Monterey aboard the ship, the San Antonio. The Presidio at Monterey was founded on June 3, 1770, the same day that Padre Serra founded Mission San Carlos Borromeo. Captain Gaspar de Portola’s job was now over–-he had fulfilled his commitment of leading the expedition to Alta California. He turned over command to the next governor, Don Pedro Fages, and in July, returned to Nueva Espana (Mexico) by sea. The location of the mission was soon changed from Monterey to its present site near the Carmel River, where the soil was better and living conditions were more suitable. On August 24, 1771, Padre Serra moved into the new Carmel Mission, where he presided over the mission system. The 21 missions extend along a 650-700-mile trail, linked together by a day’s travel by foot or horseback, and are still situated along the El Camino Real Highway, between San Diego to Sonoma. On August 28, 1784, at the age of 70, Father Junipero Serra died and is buried before the main altar at Mission San Carlos in Carmel. Father Crespi had died two years earlier and is buried beside Father Serra.

Amongst the "Men of the First Expedition" was soldado de cuera, Vicente Briones, (my family’s ancestor). This is a list based on a document from Prov. Records, vi, 569-708, dated at Loreto, Baja California on 12 June 1797. Ignacio Vicente Briones was born c. 1727 in Ciudad de San Luis Potosi, Nueva Espana (Mexico), and there he married Maria Antonia de Patron. Maria Antonia de Patron was born in Ciudad de San Luis Potosi in c. 1735. Her parents were Jesus Maria Nicholas Padron and Simona Gertrudes Morales. Vicente and Maria Antonia were the parents of Marcos Joseph Briones, a soldado de cuera, and Maria Guadalupe Briones. Marcos Joseph Briones was born in Ciudad de San Luis Potosi in c.1756, and his sister, Guadalupe Briones, was born c. 1764, also in San Luis Potosi. Maria Antonia de Patron died before Vicente came to Alta California. Vicente Briones was a Corporal and served as a mission guard at San Luis Obispo from about 1770 to 1775. Vicente Briones, then a widower, married Mariana, a woman from the local area, in c. 1772, at Mission San Luis Obispo. Their two sons were born and baptized there but died at an early age. Years later, Vicente Briones became an extraordinarily successful mayordomo at Mission San Carlos Borromeo for the crops did well and the livestock continued to increase during his 30-year career there. Vicente Briones and his son, Marcos Briones, were among the parishioners at Mission San Carlos and were well acquainted with Father Junipero Serra. Father Juniper Serra officiated at baptisms, weddings, and other religious ceremonies and services, often witnessed by Vicente Briones, his wife, Mariana, and his son, Marcos. Vicente and his wife, Mariana, were padrino and madrina to probably hundreds of children whom they baptized over the years at the Missions of San Luis Obispo, San Francisco, and San Carlos. This couple also participated in fiestas de boda, weddings, that took place at several missions. Mariana died at Mission San Carlos on November 15, 1806. Don Vicente Briones is among the many Early Californio heroes most respected and admired by everyone who knew him. Vicente Briones died on May 4, 1813, at Mission San Carlos, Monterey, CA. The entry in the San Carlos, Monterey Mission reads: "Vicente Briones died on May 4, 1813, at Mission San Carlos, Monterey, CA. Vicente Briones, Cabo retirado y mayordomo que havia sido como 30 anos de esta Msn. Uno de los primeros Conquistadores de esta tierra desde al Ano de 1770, viudo de Mariana. Murio en dia 3 como las 7 dela tarde. (Signed) Fr. Vicente Francisco de Sarria." (English translation: "Vicente Briones died on May 4, 1813, at Mission San Carlos, Monterey, CA. Vicente Briones, Retired Cabo and mayordomo of this mission for about 30 years. One of the first Conquistadores of this land since the Year of 1770, widower of Mariana. Died on day 3 about 7 in the afternoon. (Signed) Fr. Vicente Francisco de Sarria.")


 Juan Bautista de Anza Colonizing Expedition to San Francisco

Alta California - 1775-1776


By the early 1770s, Spanish King Carlos III, and Viceroy of Nueva Espana, Antonio Bucareli y Ursua, were planning to send a colonizing expedition on an overland route from Sonora, Nueva Espana (now Mexico), to the San Francisco Bay Area. The plan was to establish a presidio and a mission in San Francisco which would help Spain protect and maintain control over its Northernmost territory in Alta California. Lt. Col. Juan Bautista de Anza proved from a previous land exploratory expedition that it was possible to supply provisions to Alta California from Sonora by following a route into California by crossing the frigid waters where the Gila River and the Colorado River merge at Yuma, Arizona. Lt. Col. Juan Bautista de Anza, a soldier and third generation frontiersman, volunteered to lead such an expedition. Juan Bautista de Anza was born in July of 1736, in Fronteras, but more likely at Cuquiarachi, Sonora. He was the son of Juan Bautista de Anza, Sr., a Presidial Captain at Fronteras, and Maria Rosa Bezerra Nieto, of Fronteras, Sonora.

In the Spring of 1775, Juan Bautista de Anza was given permission to begin recruiting soldiers with families from Culiacan, Sinaloa, El Fuerte, and Alamos, Sonora (Mexico) to colonize the San Francisco Bay Area. The incentives offered to the volunteers were food and clothing, transportation, wages, and an opportunity to become land owners and to have a better life.

On April 5, 1775, Felipe Santiago Tapia, a 39-year old recruit soldier from Culiacan and his family, (my family’s ancestors) volunteered to join the Juan Bautista de Anza Colonizing Expedition of 1775-1776. Felipe Santiago Tapia was born in Real de Rosario, Sinaloa, Culiacan. In about 1759 he and Maria Filomena Hernandez were married. Maria Filomena Hernandez was born in Crilacava. Their children were: Maria Rosa Tapia, 13; Maria Ana Antonia Tapia, 12; Jose Bartolome Tapia, 11; Juan Jose Tapia, 9; Jose Cristoval Tapia, 8; Maria Manuela Tapia, 6; Jose Francisco Tapia, 7; Maria Ygnacia Ysidora Tapia, 5; and Jose Victor Tapia, 6 months. Filomena Hernandez died before Felipe Santiago Tapia had departed on the expedition to Alta California. Felipe, now a widower, then married 23-year old Juana Maria Cardenas, who accompanied him and his children on the Expedition to San Francisco.

On October 23, 1775, Juan Bautista de Anza, Franciscan Father Pedro Font, the spiritual leader, and 300 members of the expedition, plus their 1,000 head of livestock, left the frontier presidio at Tubac, Arizona, and began their one thousand-plus miles march to San Francisco in Alta California where they would establish a presidio and a mission. Lt. Col. Anza had chosen Lt. Jose Joaquin Moraga to be second in command for the colonizing expedition. Lt. Moraga’s duty was to help Anza escort the people safely to Alta California. Juan Jose Moraga was born in 1741, and was married to Maria del Pilar de Leon y Bracelo.

Less than three months later, and after camping out in the wilderness every evening at various locations, the weary members of the expedition arrived at Mission San Gabriel on January 4, 1776, where they stayed for a few weeks to rest, recuperate, do laundry, and to regroup. Lt. Moraga missed his family very much, as he had left them behind due to his wife’s illness. However, his family eventually joined him in San Francisco in 1781. Upon leaving Mission San Gabriel on February 21, the expedition members followed the path that would become known as El Camino Real, linking together California’s chain of 21 missions. The expedition members pitched camp every night and were allowed rest stops along the way. They visited Mission San Luis Obispo and Mission San Antonio de Padua, eventually arriving at the Presidio at Monterey on March 10, 1776. Several babies were born along the way.

Vicente Briones and his wife, Mariana, and his son, Marcos Briones, were living in Monterey when the Anza expedition members arrived. It was there, in Monterey, where the Briones family and Felipe Santiago Tapia’s family met and became acquainted. The Tapia family, as well as all of the families in the Anza Expedition, were treated very well during their three-month stay in Monterey. The marriage of Felipe Santiago Tapia’s daughter, Maria Antonia Tapia, was a happy and joyous occasion for everyone. Soldado de Cuera, Jose Antonio Buelna and Maria Antonia Tapia were married by Padre Junipero Serra at Mission San Carlos Borromeo on May 26, 1776. This was the beginning of a wonderful new life for the newly weds in Monterey.

Lt. Jose Joaquin Moraga was now in charge of taking the colonists from Monterey to their final destination in San Francisco to found the presidio and the mission. Lt. Col. Juan Bautista de Anza had departed from Monterey on April 13 and returned to Mexico. On June 17, Lt. Moraga, Padre Francisco Palou, and the colonists left Monterey and arrived in San Francisco on June 27, 1776. The tremendous effort of constructing the presidio and living quarters for the soldiers and their families began right away. The building of the new mission, Mission Dolores, also began at once. In spite of the fact that over half of the expedition members were children, the presidio and the mission were built by the colonists with the help of the native peoples. In 1777, Lt. Moraga became the Comandante of the Presidio at San Francisco, and shortly thereafter, he went on to found El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe. Commandant Moraga died on July 15, 1785 and is buried at Mission Dolores in San Francisco.

Soon a new pueblo outside the presidio developed and it was named Yerba Buena. Mission Dolores was able to thrive, even after Secularization of the Mission System in the early 1830s.

Lt. Col. Juan Bautista de Anza died at his home in Arizpe on December 19, 1788, and is buried in the side chapel of Nuestra Senora de Loreto in the Cathedral at Arizpe. He was survived by his wife, Ana Maria Perez Serrano.

On August 15, 1990, the U. S. Congress created the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail.

The Los Californianos Organization sponsors an event on June 27th every year at Pershing Square at the Presidio in San Francisco to commemorate the founding of the presidio and to pay tribute to the families who came in the Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition of 1775-1776. As the roll call of the members of the expedition is read, we, their descendants, place yellow and red carnations on a mesh screen forming a heart. Many dignitaries from San Francisco are represented at the event. Afterwards, a beautiful luncheon is served at the Officers’ Club, with music and dancing performed by the young people from the local schools.


Rivera y Moncada Colonizing Expedition to
Alta California - 1781

The Spanish Empire felt that in order to secure their territory in Alta California from outside intruders, they would establish a fifth Presidio at Santa Barbara, Alta California, in addition to the Presidios at Loreto in Baja California, San Diego, Monterey, and San Franscico in Alta California. Also, there was a need for another pueblo, in addition to the one in San Jose. A new pueblo to be named "Los Angeles" would be established along the Rio (river) de Porciuncula.

The crops and livestock raised by the settlers of the pueblos would provide food and livestock for the presidios. A new mission to be named Mission San Buenaventura would also help to populate Alta California. An expedition to Alta California was approved and would be under the command of Captain Fernando Xavier de Rivera y Moncada. In December of 1779, Captain Rivera left the presidio at Loreto to recruit settlers and soldiers for the founding of El Pueblo de Los Angeles, Mission San Buenaventura, and the Presidio at Santa Barbara. Captain Rivera was authorized to offer prospective colonists daily rations and a monthly salary for a few years. Between 1779 and 1780, many of the expedition members were recruited from the provinces of Ostimuri, La Villa de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Villa del Fuerte, Rosario, Real de los Alamos, Sonora and Sinaloa. Vicente Quijada was 27 years old when he and his wife, Juana Armenta, and their two-year-old daughter, Maria Rosa Quijada, (my ancestors) joined the Rivera Expedition in Real de Los Alamos. Bernardo Ramirez, a single, young recruit, also joined the expedition.

Captain Fernando Xavier de Rivera y Moncada was born c. 1724 near Compostella (Mexico). He was Military Governor of Alta California, from 1773 to 1777. His wife was Dona Maria Teresa Davalos y Patron. They were the parents of four children; Isabela, Juan Bautista, Jose Nicola Maria, and Luis Gonzaga Francisco Javier Maria. Their son, Juan Bautista, the eldest, became a parish priest of the church in the town of La Magdalena near Guadalajara.

Members of the Rivera Expedition, the pobladores, who were the settlers, and the soldados de cuera (leather jacket soldiers) and their respective families, arranged to meet at the Real de los Alamos, Sonora, on February 2, 1781, to begin their journey to Mission San Gabriel, Alta California.

Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, the fourth mission to be founded in Alta California, was founded on September 8, 1771, by two Franciscan priests, Padre Pedro Cambon and Angel Somera with assistance of the soldiers garrisoned at the San Diego Mission and the local inhabitants.

The members of the Rivera y Moncada party were divided into two groups. In the first group were the pobladores who were bound for San Gabriel and who were destined for the founding of El Pueblo de Los Angeles and they were under the command of Lt. Jose Zuniga, and Ramon Lasso de la Vega. The eleven families and their escorts consisting of seventeen soldados de cuera and their families, traveled along the Coast of Baja California, arriving at Mission San Gabriel on August 18, 1781. These pobladores remained at the Mission until September 4th, 1781, when they left to continue their journey to found El Pueblo de Los Angeles.

The second group of Expedition members who were bound for San Gabriel were led by Captain Rivera y Moncada. In this group were the officers and soldados de cuera and their families, plus a large herd of livestock, and they followed the inland trails which had been traveled by the Anza Expedition. This large contingent of military personnel and their families were destined to found the 9th mission, Mission San Buenaventura, and the 5th Presidio at Santa Barbara.

In May of 1781, Captain Rivera and his party advanced across the desert with a vast herd of livestock. Over one quarter of the livestock were too weak to ford the Colorado River. From there at the Colorado River, Captain Rivera sent back most of his Sonoran escort, and after a short delay for rest, dispatched the Santa Barbara recruits and their families together with part of the herd that could cross the river, to Mission San Gabriel under escort of Alferez Limon. Having seen the company started on its way, Captain Rivera recrossed the Colorado River and with a few soldiers and the animals left behind, set up camp near the eastern bank opposite Concepcion where he proposed to remain for some weeks to restore his horses and cattle to a proper condition for the trip to San Gabriel. In the meantime, the Rivera Expedition members destined for the Presidio at Santa Barbara continued their journey and arrived safely at Mission San Gabriel on July 14, 1781.

On Tuesday, July 17, 1781, the villages of San Pedro y San Pablo, as well as Captain Rivera’s camp, were attacked by the Yumans. Captain Rivera y Moncada was 57 years of age when he was slain on that day, July 17th, at Concepcion, near the Colorado River. He had been a California soldier for 40 years. His widow was left destitute, as she was never able to collect any part of her husband’s last five years of pay.

On March 26, 1782, Governor Felipe de Neve, Captain Jose Francisco Ortega, and soldiers and their families of the Rivera Expedition, left Mission San Gabriel and continued their journey north to found the Mission of San Buenaventura, and the Presidio at Santa Barbara. On Easter Sunday, March 31, 1782, Mission San Buenaventura was founded by Blessed Father Junipero Serra, assisted by Father Benito Cambon. Father Cambon remained at the mission for a while, before returning to his mission in San Diego. Some of the soldiers and their families also remained at the new mission.

The majority of the party left Mission San Buenaventura and traveled on to the Santa Barbara Channel.

The Presidio at Santa Barbara

On April 21,1782, the Presidio at Santa Barbara was founded. The Cross and the Spanish flag were raised at the newly found Presidio of Santa Barbara. Mass was celebrated under an arbor, and Father Serra sang the Alabado. The ceremonies of blessing dirt, water, and pulling grass were performed.

Three months after the founding of the Presidio at Santa Barbara, there were seven officers and 50 soldiers garrisoned at the Presidio, according to a list, dated July 1, 1782.

January 27, 2007

Lorri has been quite active in preservation of the Juana Briones House. Her articles on that subject have appeared in many issues of Somos Primos. ]]

Dear Mr. Guerrero, It was a pleasure to attend the symposium on Juan Bautista de Anza last Saturday in Santa Clara. You did a great job as a panelist at the symposium. Your knowledge of the history of California is remarkable and I thank you for sharing that information with us. Your book  "The Anza Trail and Settling of California"  has created a great deal of interest and I look forward to obtaining the book. Thank you for offering to assist with writing a letter to save the Juana Briones House in Palo Alto. I will be in contact with you on this issue, if that is okay. I sent you an e-mail with today's article regarding the house. By the way, my grandson, Benjamin, is a student at UC Davis, and he really likes it there. Benjamin is very busy attending classes and working. He is a member of the men's rugby team and loves to play. 

Thanks again, and take care, Lorri Ruiz de Frain 

Dear Ms Frain,

Below are the comments just sent in response to the Juan Briones website: 

Concerned about the potential demolition of the house of Juan Briones, I would like to add my thoughts to your efforts.

The building in question is a part of the strong Hispanic (Spanish, Mexican and Native American) heritage of our state, the cultural substratum from which California's tolerance for racial, national, religious, sexual and personal differences originated. Having become not only the most populous state, but the quintessence, and in many ways the trend setter of our nation, we have a responsibility to maintain those sites which give tangible evidence of this heritage. Our nation did not spring only from Plymouth Rock, Williamsburg and Philadelphia. California must not allow sites such as this to disappear! 

Vladimir Guerrero
author of The Anza Trail and the Settling of California 
Please feel free to use as you see fit. 
Sincerely, Vladimir

Dear Mr. Guerrero.

Thank you for your e-mail received this morning.

Your input and comments are truly valued relative to saving the Juana Briones House. In your comments, you state it all--I just love your viewpoint! Right On! I admire you for writing the truth about what the House represents, and it is indeed, tangible evidence of a house that existed during the period of Early California. 

Thank you so much, and take care, Lorri

Palo Alto Daily News 

Locals try to stall Briones demolition

By Kristina Peterson, Daily News Staff Writer

The long struggle between the city of Palo Alto and the owners of the Juana Briones residence over the historical home’s demolition continued this week when residents began clamoring for a full review of the site’s significance.

Members of the Juana Briones Heritage Foundation, aided by land preservationist attorney Susan Brandt-Hawley, asked the Palo Alto City Council this week to conduct an environmental impact review before permitting the demolition.

"It’s the oldest existing structure in Palo Alto and it’s associated with Juana Briones, a personage of historical significance," said Clark Akatiff, board member of the foundation. "You can’t just grant a demolition permit without doing an environmental impact review."

In a Jan. 22 letter to the Council, Brandt-Hawley said the review is required under the California Environmental Quality Act and cited the city’s municipal code requiring "a moratorium in the issuance of any demolition permit while the Historical Resources Board reviews the project and makes recommendations."

"There’s no indication that the city is not going to do (a review.)." Brandt-Hawley said Wednesday. "We just wanted to communicate early on that CEQA needs to be followed."

She noted that conducting the review is separate from the recent court decision allowing Jiam Nulman and Avelyn Welczer, the homeowners, to raze the house.

In November, the 6th Appellate District of the California Court of Appeals ruled that the city had missed its opportunity to enforce the Mills Act, which provides tax relief to owners of historic homes in exchange for maintaining the property.

The city will also have to pay the couple $275,00 in legal fees.

"We want to see all the alternatives listed and considered," said Gail Woolley, the foundation’s co-president and a former mayor of Palo Alto. "The most reasonable alternative is that they offer the property for sale before they demolish the house."

The city signed the Mills Act contract with the home’s previous owners while Woolley was malor, she said.

Brandt-Hawley said she recently prevented a similar demolition of the historic Griffin House on the campus of Footill college.

But Akatiff pointed out that the review "would not necessarily protect the house indefinitely."

"A demolition permit might still be issued because measures of mitigation (may come up in the review)," he said. "But until a study is done, there’s no way of knowing this."

The City Council met with city attorneys on Monday night in closed session on the matter, but did not report any action.

The attorney representing the homeowners could not be reached for comment Wednesday.

Located at 4155 Old Adobe Road, the home was built in the 1840s by Briones, a farmer and rancher who sold food, traded hides internationally and helped manage a smallpox outbreak in Marin County, according to the foundation’s Web site."She was a woman in a man’s world who nonetheless was able to hold her own," Akatiff said.

Web site:

Historic Jackling House Still Stands

January 2006 Superior Court Judge Marie Weiner decided unequivocally in favor of Uphold our Heritage. Judge Weiner found Mr. Jobs and the Town Council had sought to evade required provisions under the California Environmental Quality Act. Judge Weiner concluded that there was not evidence to support a finding that there were no feasible alternatives to demolishing this historic resource.

The Court of Appeal upheld the mandate of the California Environmental Quality Act that projects with significant adverse impacts must be denied if there are feasible alternatives.

The court cited estimates by the town's Planning Commission staff that the house would cost $4.9 million to rehabilitate and another $4.1 million to add living quarters, office space and a fitness area. Jobs' estimate was higher, but he failed to provide any information about the cost of building his proposed new home on the site, the court said. 
Without that information, "it is not possible to determine whether the cost of renovating the existing historic structure is reasonable or feasible,'' Justice Stuart Pollak said. 
Although Jobs can't be forced to restore the mansion, Pollak said, the town can't allow him to tear down the historic structure as long as preservation remains a realistic alternative. 

Lorraine Frain


Book: Hispanic Pioneers in Colorado and New Mexico
Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy
Anza Trail enthusiasts: 'Noticias de Anza' - January 2007
Obituary: George Cardinet, helped establish Juan Bautista de Anza
    National Historic Trail
Symposium on Anza at Santa Clara University Open to the Public
Anza Conference in Hermosillo, Sonora
Border Crossing by Dorinda Moreno
Obituary: Mary Helen Taylor
Online magazine: Ser Empresario - - Borderland Success


Hispanic Pioneers in Colorado and New Mexico
is a limited-edition book.  It contains over 300 pages of photographs and stories of the pioneers and events that took place in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado

It documents a history of families through the eyes of their descendants. The photos, assembled from family collections and brought before the public for the first time, are further enriched by well-researched discussions of the persons and events portrayed. 

The price is $40 and
includes handling, tax, and postage. Send check to: 

Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy
2300 South Patton Court
Denver, CO 80219-5212

Please include:
City, State, Zip:
Phone #:


November 2, 2006

Ms. Virginia Sanchez, President
Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy
Denver, Colorado

Dear Ms. Sanchez,

It was my distinct pleasure to read Hispanic Pioneers in Colorado and New Mexico which your organization produced. The countless previously unpublished photographs of Hispanos contained in the book are priceless historical resources. However the narrative essays that accompany the photos are even more significant. As a whole, the book provides a vivid record of how Hispanos celebrated their lives from birth to the grave. The book is well constructed with different chapters on buildings, family, education and children, occupations, agriculture, and military. Photos of many historically important Hispanos are included like the images of Casimiro Barela, Celestino Garcia, and Rafael Chacon. I was impressed with the photos on religious traditions and military service.

Most importantly, the chapter on occupations documented how Hispanos worked to support themselves and their families. The essays also described the activities of the mutual aid society known as the Sociedad Proteccion Mutua de Trabajadores Unidos. You have demonstrated that Hispanic workers labored in the fields, on ranches, in the coal mines, and on railroads across this region.

The book will soon become required reading for anybody interested in the experience of Hispanos in Colorado, New Mexico, and the United States. This work is a major contribution to the history of the Hispanic people in the American Southwest.

Sincerely, Vincent C. de Baca, PhD
Chair of the Chicano Studies Department
Associate Professor of History
Metropolitan State College of Denver
Department of Chicana and Chicano Studies
Campus Box 41 P.O. Box 173362 Denver, 
CO 80217-3362 303-556-3124 Fax: 303-556-3178


Introduction to Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealoy, CSHG

The Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy promotes education and historical and genealogical research to expand the awareness, knowledge, and appreciation of Hispanic culture, history, and traditions. We are an all-volunteer non-profit with a membership of 275 who are mainly throughout the southwestern part of the United States.

As CSHG members conducted research, we found that many libraries and museums had photos of early Hispanics, but unfortunately the people and places in their photos were unidentified. For example, a caption simply read, "Hispanics in Trinidad area." CSHG decided we would create a book that had personal photos and stories of historical accounts. We wanted the people in our photos to be remembered by name, not by a generalized caption. Foremost, we wanted to help our members preserve their photographs and family stories.

Our members were willing to have their treasured, rare family photos and oral histories published in a book that discussed the accomplishments of our ancestors as educators, politicians, lawyers, and contributing members of their communities.

Creating this book was a big undertaking for our small, non-profit society. We received wonderful letters of support from the Chief Historian of the Colorado Historical Society (Dr. Modupe Labode) and from Colorado’s favorite son and United States Senator, Ken Salazar.

Brief History

With regard to history, after arriving in Mexico from Spain, our members’ ancestors made their way up the Camino Real from the early Spanish colonial settlements in Mexico City and Zacatecas. Many of our members descend from the first Spanish colonists who settled Spain’s northernmost province, the Province of New Mexico in 1598.

Some members can trace their lineage to soldiers who in 1778 battled against Comanche Chief Cuerno Verde and his warriors in that area known today as Huerfano County in southern Colorado.

In 1851, our people settled San Luis de la Culebra in what was then "northern, northern New Mexico" and what is today the San Luis Valley in southern Colorado. Prior to Colorado becoming a Territory of the United States, its southern area was part of New Mexico Territory.

Our Hispanic ancestors who settled in New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, Nevada, California, and southern Colorado have proudly lived and served under three flags: Spain, Mexico, and the United States. We, their descendants, are of Indian, Spanish, and Mexican descent. And, members who have participated in the New Mexico DNA project have learned of their earlier ancestral heritage.

Presentation of the Photo History Book

Here is an early photo of San Luis, Colorado’s oldest town. The town settlement was part of a Mexican Land Grant known as the Sangre de Cristo Grant of nearly 1 million acres.

Here we have the office of El Heraldo del Valle, a newspaper that began publishing in San Luis about 1870. Notice the musicians on the far right.

Here is a courtroom in the Costilla County Courthouse, a building on the National Register of Historic Places. This courtroom and courthouse are now being restored and preserved by the Colorado Historical Society. This photo is being used as a basis for the courtroom’s restoration. Here is the District Court Judge Jesse Wiley, the jurors, and various hat racks. Notice the electric lighting and a fire bell.

State Senator Casimiro Barela served for 45 years between 1871 and 1916. His picture is on display in the Colorado State Capitol. He and other Hispano legislators argued against laws requiring the ability to speak and understand English to serve on a jury or vote. They continuously fought for the rights of southern Colorado’s Hispanos.

Our book also has stories about fashion and dress. Here Ramoncita Marquez wears a traditional long-fringed shawl.

Our ancestors worked in various occupations and wore different hats. Many began as sheep raisers. When the railroad arrived, wool was freighted by horse and wagon to the nearest railroad town as shown in this photo. Prior to the arrival of the railroad, many of our ancestors served as freighters on the Santa Fe Trail.

Huerfano and Las Animas Counties in southern Colorado were known for their coal mines. Our ancestors worked in these mines wearing their personal clothing and shoes. They often used picks in a crouched or kneeling position. Each was assigned a brass tag which he attached to his loaded car of coal. This tag was also used to identify him should an accident occur. Notice their lunch pails; the upper portion was for food and the bottom held about a gallon of water.

Our ancestors were merchants – farmers – sheepherders - railroad laborers - and field laborers.

During American occupation after the Mexican-American War, women worked as laundresses at military forts. A woman’s work is still never done. This 1922 photo shows laundry workers in a Denver laundry.

The importance placed on education is evident in the one-room schoolhouses built in plazas and on settlements.

Our book would not be complete without a discussion of Hispano culture. Here a musician in the back plays the wedding march as the newlyweds, their attendants, and guests are led through a family garden to a home where the reception was held.

This photo is of a cute baby, but it also shows that recycling was not a new concept. Lard pails and tomato cans were used for potted plants.

For this photo, Aunt Julianita had her nephews and nieces dress up for a group photograph. The adventure resulted in being an all-day affair described as follows:

We got up very early in the morning. It was still dark. Our mothers packed a lunch for us to eat along the way. We all rode 20 miles by horse and wagon to Trinidad, Colorado. We had to be careful not to get our dress clothes dirty. Once we were all set up in the photographer’s studio, Aunt Julianita told us not to smile and to keep our lips together.

This photo shows a chueco team. Many of our ancestors enjoyed chueco, a game similar to field hockey. Each player made his own hockey stick. The puck was a wad of rags covered in gunny or leather and secured with strong twine.

Our book also has stories about those who served in the military from the Civil War, the Mexican Revolution, World War I, and World War II.


Anza Trail enthusiasts: 'Noticias de Anza' - January 2007

January 2007 issue of 'Noticias de Anza' has been posted to the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail website. Link to:

If you are interested in receiving a paper copy, please let me know and I'll send a copy. Send your postal address to: 
Margaret Styles, Interpretive Specialist  (510) 817-1323
Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail
1111 Jackson Street, Suite 700
Oakland, CA 94607
Sent by Lorri Frain

 Death Notice: 
George Cardinet, helped establish Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail

George Cardinet passed away Friday, January 19 while in Mexico City, Mexico on a visit to see the pyramids. He was traveling with Nancy Dupont and Jennifer Jelich. The night before his passing, he enjoyed a wonderful meal and visit with his old friend, Dr. Juan Ygnacio Rodriguez (Nacho) who rode the Anza Trail with him both in 1975 and 1996. The 1975 send off from the Zacolo in Mexico City was one of the most glorious times of George's life. He represented Mayor Alioto in the beginning ceremonies and Nacho led 200 Charros out of town from the Zacolo up the Avenida de la Reforma to the blaring Mexican Anthem.  The two men had a chance to visit and reminisce that night before George passed. It was a quiet and speedy departure from this earth as any good cowboy would hope for.  [ He was 97!]

Information sent by Barry Starr

Symposium on Anza at Santa Clara University, January 20th

In 1776, as Americans fought for their independence in the East,Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led almost 300 people (men, women and children) over 1200 miles to settle Alta California. The goal of the event was to describe why the Anza’s expedition was so important for San José, San Francisco, Santa Clara, and all of California. The event was held in the California Mission Room of the Benson Center at Santa Clara University. 

What it’s all About? Anza’s trail was the first overland route established to connect what was then New Spain with San Francisco (and San José). The colonists whom Anza brought to what was then known as Alta California were instrumental in the establishment of the Presidio of San Francisco and
the Pueblo of San José, as well as the Mission Santa Clara.

Speakers on the panel included Vladimir Guerrero, author of the recent book, The Anza Trail and the Settling of California, published by the SCU California Legacy Project and Heyday Books. Other speakers included Stanley Bond, Superintendent of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail, Lee Davis, Director of the California Studies Program at San Francisco State University, and Greg Bernal-Mendoza Smestad, a descendant of the expedition, and author of A Guide to the Juan
Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail.

For More Information: The event is sponsored by the California Studies Initiative at Santa Clara University, the California Legacy project at Santa Clara University, and Heyday Books. For more information, please contact the California Studies Initiative: , or (408) 554-6850.

Posted by Los CA member Greg P. Smestad


Anza Conference in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

Hello Everyone - Here is information on the upcoming Anza Conference in Hermosillo, Sonora. We are working with the Historical Society of Sonora and will have the conference at their facility. What a great combination! Speakers from both sides of the border! Don't forget to check-out the new website - There is more detailed information there. See you in March. Cut off date is Feb. 18, 2007 Thanks, Linda Rushton, Pres. 

Border Crossing by Dorinda Moreno

My experience with the border is at El Paso/Juarez. Mi familia has lived in Hatch (Garfield/Derry), New Mexico for many generations. on my Zacatecas side, my grandfather came in l910. In fact I have his green card, on my father's side, Mescalero Apache. These were the people's who cleared the bosques for the chile industry that flourishes. My grandfather was shot in the foot. He was a jolly guy, a natural born story teller and I have written a lot about him in the beginnings of a novel that just sits 
collecting dust. 

My Grandfather told of riding with pancho villa in his early teens. After he was shot he made his way across the border and settled in Derry. He and wife Maria of Zacatecas had some ll children, several did not reaching adolescence, due to TB and influenza, which were rampant in the 30-40-s. Maria died when my mom was l3 and mom married my dad at who was l5 at the time. Together they were parents to mom's siblings. The last picture of have of my grandfather was him holding my first born daughter at her bautismo. He died not long after this of diabetes.

On my father's side, a sister Maria had a candy store in Juarez, first called 'la Rosita' and then 'La Nueva Rosita'. Maria's three sons and two daughters eventually moving to California, following mom and dad. All three men serving in World War II. 

Most times at Christmas and Easter we would take a vacation, traveling from California to Nuevo Mexico, a 3-day drive if no car problems, and when more than one driver was in the group, in less time. On those occasions we would go to Juarez, taking the 60 mile drive from the Hatch area and bringing Tia Maria for a brief reunion. Mom and dad would get their medicinas, yerbas, jaros, casuelas, mexican earrings, blouses, embroidered jackets.... it was always an adventure especially raiding the candy store of the dulce's de camote, cajeta, coconut, and piloncillo, rompope...

I recall the poverty and the many who would come to the car to beg and try selling their wares, blankets, serapes, trinkets... and the tequila for the men. One man in particular gave us a deep stare that pierced through me, as though we were worlds apart despite the same color of our skin. I must have been five, but I remember the stare. That memory has stayed in my heart. He made a connection. In his stare was the unspoken truth, that there is poverty and injustice, and it must be addressed. The border is not a separation but a bridge to be crossed, and the injustices challenged. 

Mom would take a trunk-full  of clothes, and distribute them to families in Mexico. Sometimes these poor mothers would offer their children to be adopted into a better life. We were poor, but on this side the struggle had a light at the end of the long dark tunnel.

I've had many experiences since those early border crossing, some at the very same spot, crossing with the peace and dignity at Mexicali with the Teatro Campesino and Mascarones in Tijuana, going over to see my comadre in Ensenada. and, taking the Tres Estrella de Oro, or the train. I drove from San Francisco to Mexico City one year with my two daughters. We made it in record time, as I drove 6 hours and slept 1/2 time slots. 

Those were the early days of Chicano struggle. I took a student for the 'Becas de Aztlan' program of Jose Angel Gutierrez and La Raza Unida. Shortly after arriving she called her parents to send her a ticket home........ good times, bad times. I have wrecked a station wagon in the highway of Queretaro, turning around two times in the car and barely getting a scratch. All of us danced around the car in ceremony afterwards. Another time, I drove a 6-pack pick up and on arriving in Distrito Federal, all my stuff was stolen except my manuscript.... what a gift to find it still in the briefcase left behind....

I will be leaving on June 22nd for l0 days in the distrito federal, attending a ceremonia at Teotihuacan for the 30th anniversario of the Quinto Festival de los Teatros Chicanos, 1974-2004. We are the survivors. many great gente, artistas, activistas who know the bond of xicano-mexica, and what that aztlan is not a myth but lives in our hearts.

I recall a song written by a 'cucaracha', 'me voy pa teotihuacan, muy lejos de mi aztlan, my voy bailando, me voy cantando, contenta en mi corazon, me voy bailando me voy cantando, alegre como un gorreon. voy a ver a los mascarones, ellos son los mas cabrones, hijos del sol, justicia senor, companeros de mis canciones, lucha y amor, unidos senor, companeros de mis pasiones'................ y hay mucho mas en el fuente que nos brinde Mexico la raiz de nuestra cultura...

Como siempre, Dorinda Moreno


Mary Helen Taylor 
(July 8, 1922 - January 10, 2007) 
Sent by Connie Rodriguez

Source: Las Cruces Sun News
12 Jan 2007

Mary Helen Daniels Taylor, 84, long-time Mesilla resident, passed away at her home Wednesday, January 10, 2007. She was born in 1922 in El Paso, Texas, the child of Albert and Mamie Daniels. Mary Taylor graduated from El Paso High School in 1940, and earned her bachelor's degree from Texas College of Mines, now the University of Texas-El Paso, in 1943. She married J. Paul Taylor in 1945 and moved to Mesilla in 1947. In 1951, they purchased property on the west side of the Mesilla plaza where the historic family home is still located. 

Her contributions to the region as an historian, paleographer and archivist for the Diocese of Las Cruces made her a leading authority on the history of southern New Mexico. Her perspective on the area history was unique in that she researched primary documents from Mexican archives over the past fifty years that provide previously unknown information on the Mesilla Valley and New Mexico. 

Mary Taylor was responsible for the microfilming of the Durango Archives in Mexico dealing with the history of southern New Mexico, now available to researchers at the Rio Grande Historical Collections at NMSU. She, along with her long-time friend and working partner, Nona Barrick who passed away last month, co-authored a book titled
 A Place as Wild as the West Ever Was, Mesilla, New Mexico, 1848-1872. 

Mary received many awards over the years recognizing her research, writings and contributions through primary source investigations of which includes the Hall of Fame Award from the Dona Ana County Historical Society, Catholic History Award from the Catholic Conference of Texas, and the Heritage Preservation Award "in recognition of lifetime achievement in historical research and historic preservation". She, with her husband, was awarded the Paso por Aquí Award by the Rio Grande historical Collections of NMSU in 1992. She and her husband received the Board of Directors Award from the Historical Society of New Mexico in 1994. She received the Edgar L. Hewett Award from the Association of Museums in 1997. 

She taught area history to elder hostel classes with her husband. She was a professional photographer, having a child portrait studio in the front of the Mesilla property in the 1950's out of which she photographed many of the area children. Her photographs of life in the valley have won many awards and are considered to be a valuable documentation of the area from the 1940's to the 1980's. Her archives have been donated to the Rio Grande Historical Collections at NMSU. She, and her husband Paul and children, have also donated their home with furnishings and two commercial properties, which are on the National Register of Historic Places, to the State of New Mexico to be used as a museum upon J. Paul Taylor's death. 

For information on family members, go to:

Online magazine: Ser Empresario - - Borderland Success
Cd Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, - - El Paso, Texas, USA
Sent by Roberto Camp y Lewis 

Interesting collection of articles, such "Tortillerías y panaderías impactadas por incremento de gas" and "Planean maquiladoras abastecerse con mano de obra local.


Black History Month has Special Meaning for SHHAR Board Member
Developer Donates Neglected Galveston Cemetery
Central America and Caribbean 1521-80

Black History Month Has Special Meaning For SHHAR Board Member

by Crispin Rendon


February is Black History Month, an annual celebration. Many Mexican Americans have African roots. I read that before and thought "Okay but certainly not me. I have some color but that surely comes from my Native American ancestors." 

Well you can imagine how surprised I was when I discovered my fifth great grandfather’s marriage record. Francisco Sanchez, mulato esclavo, married Maria Josepha de Escobar, mulata libre, in November 1723. He was a widow. His first wife Anna de Vega was a mulata libre. It is estimated that the slave trade brought as many as 200,000 Africans to Mexico before it was abolished there in 1829. Francisco and Maria Josepha are two of my 128 fifth great grandparents. 

I know I am less than 1% African American. That does not take away the fact that my ancestor lived in slavery. So every February I remember my ancestors and slavery. I remember the wrongs we are capable of and how sweet FREEDOM is.

I would like to share the following report followed by the marriage record image, transcript and translation.


Descendants of
Francisco Javier SANCHEZ and Anna VEGA and Maria Josefa ESCOBAR

1. Francisco Javier1 SANCHEZ He married (1) Anna VEGA,; (2) on 28 Nov 1723 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico Maria Josefa ESCOBAR, daughter of Ramon ESCOBAR and Hilaria Jesus HERNANDEZ. 

Children of Francisco Javier SANCHEZ and Anna VEGA were as follows:
2 i Marcos2 SANCHEZ, christened 3 May 1710 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. He married on 9 Jan 1730 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico Maria Hilaria GARCIA, daughter of Salvador GARCIA and Juana Maria. 
+ 3 ii Ignacia2 SANCHEZ. She married Diego Enriquez PEREZ. 
+ 4 iii Feliciano2 SANCHEZ, christened 25 Mar 1712 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. He married Pasquala GARZA. 
5 iv Maria De La O2 SANCHEZ, christened 29 Dec 1718 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 
6 v Cayetano2 SANCHEZ, christened 15 Aug 1723 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 
7 vi Juana Cayetana2 SANCHEZ, christened 16 Aug 1723 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 

Children of Francisco Javier SANCHEZ and Maria Josefa ESCOBAR were as follows:
8 i Maria Santos2 SANCHEZ, christened 9 Nov 1724 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. She married (1) on 20 Apr 1742 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico Pablo SOTO, son of Esteban SOTO and Michaela COSA; (2) on 6 Feb 1746 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico Juan Estanislao PEREZ. 
+ 9 ii Antonio Francisco Xavier2 SANCHEZ, christened 23 Jan 1729 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. He married Maria Dolores PENA. 
+ 10 iii Manuel Silvestre2 SANCHEZ, christened 9 Jan 1731 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. He married Maria Eugenia CUELLAR. 
11 iv Francisca Xavier2 SANCHEZ, christened 9 Mar 1733 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 

Generation 2

3. Ignacia2 SANCHEZ (Francisco Javier1). She married on 1 Jun 1735 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico Diego Enriquez PEREZ, son of Miguel PEREZ and Tomasia CARDENAS. 

Children of Ignacia SANCHEZ and Diego Enriquez PEREZ were as follows:
12 i Juana Maria Refugio3 PEREZ, christened 7 Feb 1747 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 

4. Feliciano2 SANCHEZ (Francisco Javier1), christened 25 Mar 1712 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. He married on 19 Nov 1731 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico Pasquala GARZA, christened 13 Jan 1717 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of Juan GARZA and Lorenza Micaela ZAMORA. 

Children of Feliciano SANCHEZ and Pasquala GARZA were as follows:
13 i Francisco Yldefonio3 SANCHEZ, christened 26 Jun 1736 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. He married in Feb 1767 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico Juana Gertrudis MORALES, daughter of Joseph MORALES and Petra Maria. 
14 ii Francisca Rosalia3 SANCHEZ, christened 14 Sep 1738 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 
15 iii Juana Francisca3 SANCHEZ, christened 10 Apr 1740 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 
16 iv Antonio Geronimo3 SANCHEZ, christened 3 Jun 1744 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 
17 v Felipa Josefa Santiago3 SANCHEZ, christened 9 May 1746 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 
18 vi Francisca Antonia Ramona3 SANCHEZ, christened 10 Mar 1747 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 
19 vii Juan Trinidad3 SANCHEZ, christened 13 Jun 1748 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. 

9. Antonio Francisco Xavier2 SANCHEZ (Francisco Javier1), christened 23 Jan 1729 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. He married Maria Dolores PENA, christened 13 Feb 1729 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, daughter of Matias PENA and Maria FERNANDEZ. 

Children of Antonio Francisco Xavier SANCHEZ and Maria Dolores PENA were as follows:
20 i Joseph Antonio Timoteo3 SANCHEZ, christened 31 Aug 1751 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. 
21 ii Maria Rosalia3 SANCHEZ, born 7 May 1755 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; christened 15 May 1755 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. 
22 iii Juana Maria3 SANCHEZ, christened 11 Apr 1757 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. 
23 iv Maria Guadalupe3 SANCHEZ, christened 19 Jun 1758 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. 
+ 24 v Joseph Matias3 SANCHEZ, born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married Maria Loreto Encarnacion RODRIGUEZ. 
25 vi Maria Luiza3 SANCHEZ, christened 29 Jun 1760 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. 
+ 26 vii Joseph Francisco3 SANCHEZ, christened 22 Feb 1763 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married Maria Casilda RODRIGUEZ. 
27 viii Juan Joseph Leandro3 SANCHEZ, christened 7 Mar 1765 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. 

10. Manuel Silvestre2 SANCHEZ (Francisco Javier1), christened 9 Jan 1731 in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila, Mexico. He married on 28 May 1756 in Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico Maria Eugenia CUELLAR, daughter of Mateo CUELLAR and Maria Josefa MONTOYA. 

Children of Manuel Silvestre SANCHEZ and Maria Eugenia CUELLAR were as follows:
28 i Joseph Eusebio3 SANCHEZ, christened 5 Mar 1757 in Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico. 
29 ii Angela Loreto3 SANCHEZ, christened 21 Apr 1760 in Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico. 

Generation 3

24. Joseph Matias3 SANCHEZ (Antonio Francisco Xavier2, Francisco Javier1), born in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married on 28 Jul 1780 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Maria Loreto Encarnacion RODRIGUEZ, born 4 Nov 1763 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 30 Nov 1763 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of Pedro RODRIGUEZ NAVARRO and Maria RODRIGUEZ. 

Children of Joseph Matias SANCHEZ and Maria Loreto Encarnacion RODRIGUEZ were as follows:
30 i Maria Rita Bonifacia4 SANCHEZ, christened 19 May 1789 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
31 ii Juan Esteban4 SANCHEZ, christened 12 Sep 1791 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
32 iii Jose Justo Rufino4 SANCHEZ, christened 24 Jul 1793 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
33 iv Jose Nepomuseno4 SANCHEZ, christened 26 Dec 1794 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
+ 34 v Dario4 SANCHEZ, born in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married Maria Josefa VALENSUELA. 

26. Joseph Francisco3 SANCHEZ (Antonio Francisco Xavier2, Francisco Javier1), christened 22 Feb 1763 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married on 9 Feb 1791 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Maria Casilda RODRIGUEZ, daughter of Pedro RODRIGUEZ and Maria RODRIGUEZ MONTES OCA. 

Children of Joseph Francisco SANCHEZ and Maria Casilda RODRIGUEZ were as follows:
35 i Pablo Joseph4 SANCHEZ, christened Nov 1792 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
36 ii Jose Gregorio Carmen4 SANCHEZ, christened 19 Mar 1794 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 

Generation 4

34. Dario4 SANCHEZ (Joseph Matias3, Antonio Francisco Xavier2, Francisco Javier1), born in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married on 11 Feb 1819 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico Maria Josefa VALENSUELA, daughter of Jose Maria VALENSUELA and Juana Maria TAMEZ. 

Children of Dario SANCHEZ and Maria Josefa VALENSUELA were as follows:
37 i Jose Clemente5 SANCHEZ, christened 24 Nov 1819 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
38 ii Jose Roberto5 SANCHEZ, christened 9 Jun 1821 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
39 iii Jose Mariano5 SANCHEZ, christened 5 Jul 1822 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
40 iv Jose Anastacio5 SANCHEZ, christened 20 Aug 1826 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
41 v Maria Policarpa5 SANCHEZ, christened 27 Jan 1829 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
42 vi Maria Vicenta5 SANCHEZ, christened 7 Apr 1830 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
43 vii Regina5 SANCHEZ, christened 8 Sep 1831 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
+ 44 viii Valentin Jesus5 SANCHEZ, born 11 Feb 1833 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 14 Feb 1833 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married Maria Martina FLORES. 
45 ix Luis5 SANCHEZ, christened 27 Aug 1834 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
46 x Jose Lino5 SANCHEZ, christened 24 Sep 1838 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
47 xi Maria Juana Nicanora5 SANCHEZ, christened 12 Jan 1840 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 

Generation 5

44. Valentin Jesus5 SANCHEZ (Dario4, Joseph Matias3, Antonio Francisco Xavier2, Francisco Javier1), born 11 Feb 1833 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 14 Feb 1833 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico;. He married Maria Martina FLORES, born 10 Nov 1833 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 11 Nov 1833 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; daughter of Jose Eusebio FLORES and Maria Ignacia CARDENAS. 

Children of Valentin Jesus SANCHEZ and Maria Martina FLORES were as follows:
48 i Jose Lino6 SANCHEZ, born 24 Sep 1852 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 29 Sep 1852 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
49 ii Jose Caralampio6 SANCHEZ, born 12 Dec 1854 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; christened 18 Dec 1854 in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
50 iii Jose Refugio6 SANCHEZ, christened 22 Mar 1857 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
51 iv Maria Sabas6 SANCHEZ, christened 8 Dec 1861 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
52 v Maria Viviana6 SANCHEZ, christened 7 Jan 1864 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
53 vi Eleuterio6 SANCHEZ, christened 11 Mar 1866 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, died 1930 in Bishop, Nueces County, Texas. 
54 vii Eulalio6 SANCHEZ, christened 16 Feb 1868 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
55 viii Maria Sabas6 SANCHEZ, christened 21 Dec 1869 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
56 ix Nicanor6 SANCHEZ, christened 24 Jan 1873 in Cadereyta Jimenez, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Sanchez and Maria Josefa Escobar

Noviembre de 1723

En el Pueblo de Santa María de las Parras en veinte y ocho de noviembre de mil setecientos y veinte y tres años en la casa de mi morada como cura propietario desposé por palabras de presente según orden de Nuestra Santa Madre Iglesia a Francisco Sanchez mulato esclavo de la hacienda de San Lorenzo de esta Jurisdicción viudo de Anna de Vega mulata libre difunta y a María Josefa de Escobar mulata libre natural y vecina de la hacienda de San Lorenzo hija legítima de Ramón de Escobar y de Hilaria de Jesús mulatos libres difuntos, precedieron las diligencias dispuestos por derecho y le leyeron las amonestaciones en esta Iglesia parroquia en tres días festivos inter missarum solemnia, que lo fueron los días siete, catorce y veinte y uno de éste presente mes y año de cuyo publicacion no resulto impedimento. Fueron testigos a el disposicion Bernarbe Hernández mulato libre y Leonardo Gomez mulato esclavo de la hacienda de San Lorenzo y para que conste lo firmé.

Manuel de Valdéz


November of 1723

In the Town of Santa María de las Parras on November 28, 1723 in the house of my dwelling place, as parish priest, I married by actual consent of the couple, according to the order of Our Holy Mother Church, Francisco Sanchez, mulatto slave of the hacienda de San Lorenzo, of this jurisdiction, widower of Anna de la Vega free mulatta, deceased, to María Josefa de Escobar free mulatta, native and resident of hacienda de San Lorenzo, legitimate daughter of Ramón de Escobar and of Hilaria de Jesús, both free mulattos, deceased. Before their marriage vows, the banns were read in this parish church on three holy days inter missarum solemnia (Latin for. "In solemn mass"), that were the days seven, fourteen and twenty-first of this month and year, from whose publication no impediment resulted. Witnesses to the disposition, Bernarbe Hernández free mulatto and Leonardo Gomez mulatto slave of the hacienda de San Lorenzo and in witness thereof I sign it.

Manuel de Valdéz


FIRST International Festival of San Jarocho, Washington, DC  June-July 2006

The Son Jarocho series of concerts were part of the 40th Annual Smithsonian Folklife Festival 2006 on the National Mall.  There were lectures, concerts, and documentaries. There were 20 separate events held at three different locations, at the Cultural Institute of Mexico, Millennium Stage-Kennedy Center, and at the Arlington Arts outdoor park. . .  and all free.

Dan Ayala, who attended some of the events, writes:
"In the question and answer session after the 6-8-06 [opening] lecture there was an African American Professor from Howard University who objected to the fact that white Mexicans are writing a history from their own point of view.  No response was made.  A Mr. Sheehy was the moderator and translator (a Texas Mexican) who had his own Mariachi group in D.C. for 36 years and is the Mexican musical Director for the Folklife Festival in July in D.C.  He is very well respected."  

The Opening concert was Celso Duarte & Quintet

Celso Duarte began his studies of the harp and Latin-American music at a very early age with his father, the world renowned Paraguayan harpist Celso Duarte Gonzalez. Charismatic, talented and deeply profound, Celso Duarte has been recognized as a virtuoso of the harp by many international critics. His expertise extends mainly to the Paraguayan harp, Celtic harp, and Mexican Jarocha harp.

Celso Duarte Quintet is a mixture of traditional and classical musicians with jazz players. The beauty of this ensemble consists of both, the execution of traditional music which comes from their baroque and African roots, and the experimentation of fusion between jarocho rhythms and jazz.
Celso Duarte Lopez — Harp, Violin & Jarana.
Mariel Henry Rojo — Jarana, Requinto, Zapateado.
Candida Hernandez Rojo - Percussion.
Aron Cruz Bravo - Bass.
Leonardo Soqui Michelena — Jarana, Zapateado, Leona & Accordion.

The information was sent by Dan Ayala, who was kind enough to gather and send the programs from the various events.  I will be sharing information in the months to come.  Those that live in the Washington, D.C. area might want to attend the activities for the Second International Festival of San Jarocho in 2007.  

For information, contact the Cultural Institute of Mexico
2829 16th St. NW. Washington, D.C. 20009

Extract of information from:
Developer Donates Neglected Galveston Cemetery

Story by Margaret Foster Jan. 11, 2007
Source of information:

Local developers John and Judy Saracco donated a one-acre parcel of the originally eight-acre cemetery to the Galveston Historical Society. The society plans to restore and allow visitors into Rosewood Cemetery, which African Americans founded in 1911. City records show that 411 people were buried there, the last in 1944, but only 20 markers remain in the neglected burial ground. The Dec. 27 donation is worth $319,000. "There's been a lack of attention to it for probably 50 years, " said Dwayne Jones, executive director of the Galveston Historical Society.

Only 20 headstones remain in Rosewood Cemetery, which a descendant sold to a developer. "Most of the graves are unmarked," says Dwayne Jones, executive director of the Galveston Historical Society.

The Texas Historical Commission designated Rosewood an official Historic Texas Cemetery. The state program provides "some protection" for its 890 cemeteries


Children's Book: Kichi in Jungle Jeopardy
Children's Book:
Crossing Bok Chitto, a Choctaw Tale of Friendship & Freedom
Oaxaca: A Land of Diversity
Indigenous Jalisco: Living in a New Era
21 generations from Moctezuma to Angie Jimenez Milligan


Kichi in Jungle Jeopardy by Lila Guzmán

Kichi, a rare blue Chihuahua, has lived his whole life pampered by Fortune Teller at the temple in the Mayan city of Chilaam. Still he is lonely. No matter how much he tries, he can't teach Fortune Teller to speak Dog. When Fortune Teller's brother captures a new slave form a rival city, Kichi can't believe his luck. The new boy, Exmal, can speak Dog! Just as Kichi makes a new friend, raiders attack Chilaam and kidnap Uxmal. Now Kichi must brave the dangerous jungle to save his friend.

Reading level:
Ages 9-12, Hardcover: 144 pages
Publisher: Blooming Tree Press (August 30, 2006)
Language: English      ISBN-10: 0976941716     ISBN-13: 978-0976941712

[[Editor: This is a delightful book. I read it in the draft stage a few years ago and mentioned to Lila that it would make a wonderful Disney movie.  Lila, Dr. Guzman, is a linguist, historian that besides university teaching used to translate Century Spanish novels into English. Her husband suggested she write her own novels.  She and her lawyer husband collaborated on the wonderful award winning historical series of the young mixed-heritage Lorenzo.  Set during the American Revolution, in spite of being a novel and in this case, talking animals, historical accuracy is maintained.]]


Crossing Bok Chitto, a Choctaw Tale of Friendship and Freedom

Each year the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) identifies the best of the best in children's books and creates the distinguished Notable Books for Children List. This year, we are so happy to announce, they voted for Tim Tingle's Crossing Bok Chitto to be included on the List as one of the very best books published last year. 

There is a river called Bok Chitto that cuts through Mississippi. In the days before the War Between the States, in the days before the Trail of Tears, Bok Chitto was a boundary. On one side of the river lived the Choctaws. On the other side lived the plantation owners and their slaves. If a slave escaped and made his way across Bok Chitto, the slave was free; the slave owner could not follow. That was the law.

**Teachers: Book Links has named Crossing Bok Chitto as a Lasting Connections of 2006 book, one of the year's best books to tie into the curriculum.**

Martha Tom, a young Choctaw girl, knows better than to cross the river, but one day—in search of blackberries—she disobeys her mother and finds herself on the other side. Thus begins the story about seven slaves who cross the big river to freedom, led by a Choctaw angel walking on water!

Crossing Bok Chitto will be an eye-opener for kids and adults alike. It documents a part of history that is little-known: the relationship between the Choctaws—members of a sovereign nation—and the slaves who lived in Mississippi during that time before the Civil War, before the Choctaws were forced out of Mississippi to Oklahoma on the Trail of Tears.

In an essay at the back of Crossing Bok Chitto, Tim says, “Crossing Bok Chitto is a tribute to the Indians of every nation who aided the runaway people of bondage.” He adds, “Crossing Bok Chitto is an Indian book and documented the Indian way, told and told again and then passed on by uncles and grandmothers. In this new format, this book way of telling, Crossing Bok Chitto is for both the Indian and the non-Indian. We Indians need to know and embrace our past. Non-Indians should know the sweet and secret fire, as secret as the stones, that drives the Indian heart and keeps us so determined that our way, a way of respect for others and the land we live on, will prevail.”

Language English, Page Count 40, Publication Date April 1, 2006 
Cinco Puntos Press:
Descendant of John Rolfe and Pocahantas to Speak at NGS Conference in the States & Family History Fair



By John P. Schmal


The Mexican state of Oaxaca has been receiving a great deal of attention lately. Although most Americans know that Oaxaca is a state with a heavy concentration of indigenous peoples, many are not aware that Oaxaca has a higher level of indigenous diversity than any other Mexican state. The Mexican state of Oaxaca, located along the Pacific Ocean in the southeastern section of the country, consists of 95,364 square kilometers and occupies 4.85% of the total surface area of the Mexican Republic. Located where the Eastern Sierra Madre and the Southern Sierra Madre come together, Oaxaca shares a common border with the states of Mexico, Veracruz and Puebla (on the north), Chiapas (on the east), and Guerrero (on the west).

The name Oaxaca was originally derived from the Náhuatl word, Huayacac, which roughly translated means The Place of the Seed in reference to a tree commonly found in Oaxaca. As the fifth largest state of Mexico, Oaxaca is characterized by extreme geographic fragmentation. With extensive mountain ranges throughout the state, Oaxaca has an average altitude of 1,500 meters (5,085 feet) above sea level, even though only about 9% of this is arable land. With such a large area and rough terrain, Oaxaca is divided into 571 municipios (almost one-quarter of the national total). 

Oaxaca's rugged topography has played a significant role in giving rise to its amazing cultural diversity. Because individual towns and tribal groups lived in isolation from each other for long periods of time, the subsequent seclusion allowed sixteen ethnolinguistic groups to maintain their individual languages, customs and ancestral traditions intact well into the colonial era and – to some extent – to the present day. For this reason, Oaxaca is – by and large – the most ethnically complex of Mexico’s thirty-one states. The Zapotec (347,000 people) and the Mixtec (241,000 people) are the two largest groups of Indians, but they make up only two parts of the big puzzle.

Even today, it is believed that at least half of the population of Oaxaca still speaks an indigenous dialect. Sixteen different indigenous groups have been formally registered as indigenous communities, all perfectly well defined through dialect, customs, food habits, rituals, cosmogony, etc. However, the historian María de Los Angeles Romero Frizzi suggests that "the linguistic categorization is somewhat misleading" partly because "the majority of indigenous peoples in Oaxaca identify more closely with their village or their community than with their ethnolinguistic group." In addition, Ms. Romero writes, some of the language families - including Zapotec, Mixtec, and Mazateco - "encompass a variety of regional languages, making for a more diverse picture than the number sixteen would suggest."

When the Spaniards arrived in the Valley of Oaxaca in 1521, the inhabitants had split into hundreds of independent village-states. In the unique 1921 census, 675,119 residents of Oaxaca claimed to be of "pure indigenous" descent, equal to 69.17% of the state population. Another 274,752 persons were listed as "indigenous mixed with white" (called mestizo or mezclada), representing another 28.15% of the total population.

By the time of the 2000 census, 1,120,312 indigenous speaking persons aged five and older living in Oaxaca represented 37.11% of the state population. Out of this total, 477,788 persons were classified as monolingual (i.e., not Spanish-speaking), representing 11.02% of the state population five years of age and older and 19.56% of the indigenous-speaking language.

Without a doubt, the Oto-Manguean language family is the largest linguistic group in the state of Oaxaca, represented by at least 173 languages. The author Nicholas A. Hopkins, in his article "Otomanguean Linguistic Prehistory," states that glottochronological studies of the Oaxaca Indian groups indicate that the first diversification of this group of languages had begun by 4400 B.C. It is believed that nine branches of the Oto-Manguean family were already distinct by 1500 B.C., and that some of this linguistic differentiation actually took place in the Valley of Tehuacán. Both the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs belong to this linguistic family.

Zapotecs. The Zapotec Indians, a sedentary, agricultural city-dwelling people, are believed to be among the earliest ethnic groups to gain prominence in the region. As a matter of fact, the Zapotecs have always called themselves Be'ena'a, which means The People. The implication of this terminology is that the Zapotecs believe that they are "The True People" or "The people of this place." Unlike many other Mesoamerican Indians groups, the Zapotecs have no legend of migration and their legends claim that their ancestors emerged from the earth or from caves, or that they turned from trees or jaguars into people. Upon death, they believe, they would return to their former status. 

It is this belief that gave rise to the term Be'ena Za'a (Cloud People), which was applied to the Central Valley Zapotecs. In the pre-Hispanic era, Aztec merchants and soldiers dealing with these people translated their name phonetically into Náhuatl: Tzapotecatl. When the Spaniards arrived, they took this word and transformed it into Zapoteca. The Mixtecs, a sister culture of the Zapotecs, also received their "Aztec" name due to their identity as "Cloud People" (Ñusabi), but in their case the Náhuatl translation was literal, as Mixtecatl translates directly as "Cloud Person."

The Zapotecs are, by far, the largest indigenous group of Oaxaca and presently occupy 67 municipios of Oaxaca. The Zapotec language is the most widely spoken language of Oaxaca. In the most recent census county of 2005, the Zapotecs, tallied at 357,134 individuals who speak that language, represented 32.7% of all Oaxaca residents speaking indigenous languages. Of the 173 living Oto-Manguean tongues, sixty-four are Zapotecan. 

Mixtecs. Today, the Mixtec Indians inhabit a geographic region of more than 40,000 square kilometers in northwestern Oaxaca and smaller portions of Puebla and Guerrero. The Mixtec territory is divided into three subregions: the Upper Mixteca, Lower Mixteca and the Coast Mixteca. The Upper Mixteca, covering 38 municipios, is the most populated region. The Lower Mixteca covers another 31 municipios in northwestern Oaxaca. The 2005 census count tallied 242,049 Mixtec speakers, representing 22.2% of the states’ indigenous-speaking population. Today, the Mixtecs call themselves Ñuu Savi, the People of the rain.

In addition to the Zapotec and Mixtec Indians, fourteen other indigenous groups have lived and flourished throughout the present-day state of Oaxaca. While they never achieved the numbers and influence attained by the Zapotecs and Mixtecs, they, nevertheless, represent an important factor in the historical and cultural panorama of Oaxaca.  These indigenous groups are described below:

. Occupying the northernmost region of the state, the Mazatecos occupy two environmentally and culturally well-defined regions: the upper Sierra Madre Oriental mountains and the Papaloapan Basin. The Mazatecos call themselves Ha shuta enima, which means People of Custom. In recent decades, the Mazateco Indians have represented one of the largest linguistic groups in Oaxaca. With 164,673 individuals aged five and older speaking Mazatec in the 2005 census count, this linguistic group made up 15.1% of the state’s total indigenous population. A significant number of Mazatecos also occupy Veracruz and Puebla.

Mixes. Although they represent the fourth largest of Oaxaca's ethnic groups, the Mixes are an isolated ethnic group that inhabits the northeastern part of Oaxaca, close to the border with Veracruz. This region consists of 19 municipios and 108 communities. The Mixes call themselves Ayuuk, which means The People. Some historians believe that the Mixes may have migrated from present-day Peru in search of Zempoaltepetl, a pagan god, and the Hill of Twenty Gods. Another theory claims that they came from the tropical zone of the Gulf of Mexico. 

In the 2000 census, 105,443 persons aged five or more were classified as speakers of one or more of the seven distinct dialects of the Mixe. The Mixe thus represented 9.4% of the total indigenous speaking population, with approximately 38,000 of these people classified as monolingual, making them the Mexican indigenous group with the highest rate of monolingualism. The number of Mixe speakers in Oaxaca dropped to 103,089 in the 2005 count.

. The Chinantecos, numbering more than 104,000 people, presently inhabit the Chinantla region of north central Oaxaca near the border of Veracruz. As a division of the Oto-Manguean linguistic group, the Chinantecos speak as many as 14 different dialects. The Chinantecos of San Juan Lealao in northeast Oaxaca, who speak a divergent variety of the language, call themselves Dsa jmii (Plains people) and refer to their language as Fah jmii (Plains language). 

The Chinantecos presently inhabit an area in which archaeologists have located temples that were apparently used as ceremonial centers, and where prisoners were supposedly sacrificed during the most important celebrations of the year. Historians believe that the Indians living in this region were struggling to maintain their independence against sudden and numerous attacks by the Zapotecs, Mixtecs, Mixes and Aztecs. In the 2000 census, the number of Chinanteco speakers was tallied at 104,010, equivalent to 9.28% of Oaxaca’s total indigenous population.

Chatinos. The Chatino nation, boasting an area of 3,071 square miles (7,677 square kilometers) is located in southwestern Oaxaca. The Chatinos belong to the Oto-Manguean language group and speak seven main dialects. Historical researchers believe that they were one of the first indigenous groups to inhabit the State of Oaxaca. In his book, Historia de Oaxaca, the historian José Antonio Gay speculates that they arrived in a scarcely-populated area (now in the municipio of Juquila) from a "distant land" long before the arrival of the Zapotecs and Mixtecs.

The Chatinos call themselves Kitse cha'tnio, which means Work of the Words. In 2000, the Chatinos represented sixth most common indigenous tribe of Oaxaca, represented by 40,004 persons aged five and over who spoke the language (3.57% of the population). In the 2005 census count, the Chatinos’ numbers increased slightly to 42,477, or 3.9% of the state’s indigenous population.

Trique. The Triques inhabit a 193-square-mile area in the southern Sierra Madre Mountains in the westernmost part of Oaxaca. Historians believe that the Triques, long ago, had fled from some distant land, seeking refuge from warring neighbors. Once in Oaxaca, they were defeated by both the Zapotecs and Mixtecs. Then, in the Fifteenth Century, the Aztec armies defeated them decisively and forced them to pay tribute. In the 2000 census, 15,203 inhabitants of Oaxaca aged five and over spoke the Trique language, making it the eighth month common tongue in the state. In the 2005 census count, the number of Trique speakers reached 18,292, representing 1.7% of the state indigenous population.

Amuzgos. As a part of the Oto-Manguean language family, the Amuzgo Indians inhabit the border region of southeastern Guerrero and southwestern Oaxaca. Speaking three primary dialects, an estimated 28,000 Amuzgos were registered in the 1990 Mexican census. However, only twenty percent of this number were living in Oaxaca, with the majority residing in Guerrero. The Amuzgos call themselves Tzjon non, which means People of the Textiles.  In the 2000 census, 4,819 individuals aged five or more claimed to speak the Amuzgo language, representing 0.43% of Oaxaca’s total indigenous figure. This makes the Amuzgo language the thirteenth most common linguistic group of all Oaxaca’s indigenous tongues.

Chocho. Living in the northern zone of "Mixteca Alta" (Upper Mixteca), near Oaxaca's border with Puebla, the Chocho people (also known as Chochones and Chocholtecas) call themselves Runixa ngiigua, which means Those Who Speak The Language. Inhabiting a region that is rich in archaeological sites, this tribe belongs to the Oto-Manguean family. In the 2000 census, only 524 citizens of Oaxaca spoke the Chocho language.

Chontales. Chontal is the name of two very distinct languages spoken in the states of Tabasco and Oaxaca. This group's physical separation, enhanced by its different geographical and climactic conditions, has propitiated its division into Coastal and Mountain groups. Chontal Tabasco is a member of the Mayan language family and Chontal Oaxaca a member of the Hokan language family, which is more widely represented in the Southwestern United States and the border states of Baja California and Sonora. The Chontales of Oaxaca refer to themselves Slijuala xanuc, which means Inhabitants of the Mountains.

The origins of the Oaxacan Chontal population have not been conclusively determined, but some archaeologists believe that they originally came from Nicaragua. Warfare may have motivated them to move north, through what is now Honduras, Yucatán and Tabasco. Eventually, they settled down in both Oaxaca and Tabasco. Founded in 1374, the Kingdom of the Chontals eventually came into conflict with the Zapotecs. After a series of ongoing confrontations, the Zapotecs finally defeated them. Under Spanish rule, the Chontales carried on a formidable resistance for some time. In the 2000 census, 4,610 Chontal de Oaxaca were tallied at 4,610, representing 0.41% of the state’s total indigenous speaking population. Today, the Chontal Oaxaca inhabit the southernmost region of Oaxaca and speak two major dialects.

Cuicateco. Cuicateco territory, located in northwestern Oaxaca, occupies an approximate area of 3,243 square miles. At the time of the 2000 census, only 12,128 persons five years of age or more claimed to speak the Cuicateco language, representing more than one percent of Oaxaca’s total indigenous population, living primarily in northwestern Oaxaca.

Huave. Although the origins of the Huave nation have not been indisputably determined, some historians believe that this group came from a distant land, possibly from Nicaragua or even as far away as Peru. It is believed that the Huave arrived by sea, traveling along the coast as they sought out a new home. Finally, they reached the Tehuantepec coast, inhabited by the Mixe nation, who did not oppose their settlement. In the 2005 census count, Oaxaca residents who speak the Huave language numbered 15,324, or 1.4% of the total indigenous population. Even today, the Huave call themselves Mero ikooc, which means The True Us. As small as their group is, they are actually the eighth-most common language spoken.

Ixcatecos. The Ixcateco Indians inhabit only the town of Santa Maria de Ixcatlán in the municipio of the same name, in the north part of the state. Living in one of the most arid, eroded and poorest regions of the country, the Ixcatecos are the only remnants of the pre-Hispanic Ixcateco nation, which once occupied another seven communities. At the time of the 2000 census, only 207 individuals in Oaxaca spoke the Ixcateco language.

Popoloco. The term Popoloca was applied by the Aztecs to all those nations that did not speak a tongue based on Náhuatl, more or less understandable among them. Therefore, the term had the connotation of stranger or foreigner and, at the same time, a derogatory denotation for "barbaric", "stuttering" and "unintelligent". The Spaniards continued using the term in the same manner. The Popoluca call themselves Homshuk, which means God of Corn. Today, the Popolca population is divided in three fractions speaking six primary dialects, with no geographical continuity evident. In the 2000 census, only 61 Popoloco speakers were tallied in Oaxaca.

Tacuates. The Tacuates, who speak a variant of the Mixtec language, occupy two of Oaxaca's municipios. It is believed that their name evolved from the Náhuatl word, Tlacoatl, which was derived from tlal (Land) and coal (serpent, snake). The implication is that the Tacuates lived in the land of the serpents. In the 2000 census, Tacuate speakers numbered only 1,726 individuals five years of age and older.

Zoque. The Zoque tribe, also called Aiyuuk, is closely related to the Mayan-Chique family. The Zoque call themselves O'deput, which means People of the Language. The main nucleus of the Zoques is in Chiapas, where approximately 15,000 speak the language. The Oaxaca branch of the tribe probably does not amount to more than 10,000 people. Many of their customs, social organizations, religion beliefs, and way of life were identical to those of the Mixe community, with whom they probably share a common origin in Central America.

Copyright © 2006, by John P. Schmal.

Adams, Richard E.W., Prehistoric Mesoamerica. Oklahoma City: Un of Oklahoma Press, 1991., Languages of Mexico. From Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 14th edition, Online:

Frizzi, María de Los Angeles Romero, "The Indigenous Population of Oaxaca From the Sixteenth Century to the Present," in Richard E.W. Adams and Murdo J. MacLeod (eds.), The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Volume II, Mesoamerica, Part 2. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Gay, José Antonio, Historia de Oaxaca. Distrito Federal, Mexico: Porrúa, 1982.

Hopkins, Nicholas A., "Otomanguean Linguistic Prehistory," in J. Kathryn Josserand, Marcus Winter, and Nicholas Hopkins (eds.), Esays in Otomanguean Culture History – Vanderbuilt University Publications in Anthropology No. 31 (Nashville: Vanderbilt University, 1984), pp. 25-64.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI). Tabulados Básicos. Estados Unidos Mexicanos. XII Censo General de Población y Vivienda, 2000. (Mexico, 2001).

Indigenous Jalisco: Living in a New Era

By John P. Schmal

The Mexican state of Jalisco is located in the west central part of the Mexican Republic. This large state, occupying a total of 78,839 square kilometers, borders the states of Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, Nayarit and Durango (on its north), Guanajuato (on its east) and Michoacán de Ocampo and Colima to the south. On its west, Jalisco borders the Pacific Ocean.

Jalisco is crossed by two large mountain ranges, the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Neo-Volcanic Axis. With a wide range of topographies, Jalisco became the home to wide variety of indigenous peoples. Domingo Lázaro de Arregui, in his "Descripción de la Nueva Galicia" – published in 1621 – noted that 72 native langauges were spoken in the Spanish colonial province of Nueva Galicia, which included a large part of Jalisco, as well as Aguascalientes and Zacatecas.

The Spaniards first visited the indigenous peoples of Jalisco in the early 1520s and their journey for the rest of the Sixteenth Century led to displacement, assimilation and mestizaje which I have discussed in a separate article at:

By the early part of the Nineteenth Century, very few people living in Jalisco still spoke Indian languages. In fact, a large number of the original languages spoken in Jalisco had disappeared from the face of the earth. However, the descendants of the original Indians still lived in Jalisco and many of them still felt a spiritual, cultural and physical bond to their Indian ancestors.

On June 23, 1823, the Department of Guadalajara was proclaimed as the "El Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco" (The Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco). This new era, however, did not bring stability to Jalisco, nor did it bring economic reform to the descendants of Jalisco’s indigenous peoples. The historian Dawn Fogle Deaton has written that in the sixty-year period from 1825 to 1885, Jalisco witnessed twenty-seven peasant rebellions, most of them carried out by indigenous citizens.

According to Ms. Deaton, the cause of these "waves of unrest, popular protest, and open rebellion" arose "out of the political and social struggles among classes and between classes." She further explained that the "commercialization of the economy," especially in agriculture, had led to fundamental changes in the lifestyles of the peasants and thus brought about "the seeds of discontent."

The bond that the people of Jalisco felt towards their indigenous ancestry continued well into the Twentieth Century and is clearly manifested in the 1921 Mexican census. At the time of this census, which was tallied after the end of the devastating Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), 199,728 Jalisco natives identified themselves as being of "indígena pura" (pure indigenous) descent, representing 16.8% of the entire state’s population. In contrast, a mere 195 individuals were classified as speakers of indigenous languages (primarily Náhuatl and Huichol).

In a true testament to the mestizaje of Jalisco’s inhabitants, 903,830 Jaliscans classified themselves as "indígena mezclada con blanca" (Indigenous mixed with White), representing 75.8% of the total state population. The mestizos of Jalisco, in fact, represented 10.6% of the mestizo population of the entire Mexican Republic in the 1921 census.

In contrast, only 87,103 of Jalisco’s 1,191,957 inhabitants referred to themselves as "blanca." When the next census was counted in 1930, only 1,681 inhabitants of Jalisco spoke indigenous languages. Nearly all of these persons were Huicholes (1,676). The racial classifications of Jalisco’s population in 1921 is illustrated in the following table:




Copyright © 2007, by John P. Schmal




(Number of


As a Percentage

of the Total

State Population

As a Percentage

of the Population

of the Mexican





of Persons)









con Blanca"
















Source: Departamento de la Estadística Nacional, Annuario de 1930:

Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Tacubaya, D.F., 1932).

According to the 2000 census, the population of persons five years and more who spoke indigenous languages in Jalisco totalled 39,259 individuals. The most common of these languages were: Huichol (10,976 persons), Náhuatl (6,714), Purépecha (3,074), Mixteco (1,471), Otomí (1,193), and Zapoteco (1,061). The majority of the indigenous languages spoken in the state were transplanted tongues from other parts of México and the Huichol language represented the only truly indigenous language of these tongues.

The State of Jalisco contains 124 municipios, but only 11 of these entities contained indigenous populations that numbered more than one percent in 2000. I have illustrated the indigenous populations of these municipios in the following table:


Copyright © 2007, by John P. Schmal
























Huejuquilla el Alto





Villa Guerrero





El Grullo





San Martín de Bolaños










Puerto Vallarta





Cuautitlán de García Barragán














The most important indigenous group still living in Jalisco are the Huichol people. In the entire Mexican Republic, there were 30,686 persons five years of age or more who spoke the Huichol language in the 2000 census. They were primarily distributed across portions of four adjacent states: Nayarit (16,932), Jalisco (10,976), Durango (1,435), and Zacatecas (330). The Huicholes have managed to preserve their identity, language, culture and religious customs, largely because of their isolation in the Sierra Madre Mountains in the northern reaches of Jalisco, where they occupy portions of all four states.

The three main Huichol communities belong to the northern Jalisco municipio of Mezquitic. The Huichol speakers numbered 7,652 in the 2000 census and represented 64.75% of the municipio’s population. Monolingual Huicholes numbered 2,621 individuals, representing 34.25% of the Huichol speakers and a clear indication of their resistance to assimilation into mainstream Mexican culture.

In 2000, Huichol speakers also represented 48.35% of the population of the Municipio of Bolaños. The Huicholes have been described and analyzed in a multitude of published works. The reader may be interested in checking this source for a brief, but detailed, description of this indigenous group:

The Náhuatl language is spoken by many inhabitants of Jalisco. Because this language has been spoken for so long in so many parts of México for so long, some Náhuatl speakers are probably migrants from other states, while others are natives to the state. Náhuatl speakers tend to inhabit municipios with larger populations, such as Guadalajara (where 1,494 Náhuatl speakers lived in 2000), Zapopan (7,348 speakers) and Puerto Vallarta (779 speakers). They are largely bilingual and can communicate in Spanish.

Purépecha is the third most commonly spoken language in present-day Jalisco. The Purépecha – who are sometimes called Tarascans (a label that was given to them by the Spaniards in the Sixteenth Century) – ruled over a significant portion of Michoacán during the pre-Hispanic era and have managed to preserve their language and many of their unique customs. Many of the Purépecha speakers live in the border regions adjacent to Michoacán.

The Otomí, Mixtec and Zapotec languages are also believed to be largely migrant languages in Jalisco. Otomí is widely spoken through many central Mexican states, while the Mixtec and Zapotec languages have their origins in the southern state of Oaxaca. The Mixtecs and Zapotecs have migrated to many states of Mexico and are in great demand as agricultural laborers throughout the northern states.

The Cora people, like the Huichol, have survived in isolation, occupying mountains and valleys within the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountain range. The vast majority of the Cora speakers (15,380) live in the State of Nayarit, Jalisco’s northwestern neighbor. However, in 2000, only 162 Cora speakers lived within Jalisco’s borders.

As Jalisco moves into the Twenty-First Century, the percentage of indigeous speakers in the state – as with many other Mexican states – will continue to drop as assimilation continues. The presence of migrant laborers from other parts of the country will ensure that Jalisco has a significant number of persons speaking Indian languages, but most of those languages are not truly indigenous to the state itself. Nevertheless, many sons and daughters of Jalisco recognize and feel great pride in the indigenous heritage that they have inherited from their distant ancestors.


Departamento de la Estadistica Nacional, Estados Unidos Mexicanos, "Censos General de Habitantes: 30 de Noviembre de 1921, Estado de Jalisco," (Mexico, Distrito Federal: Talleres Graficos de la Nación, 1926)

Dawn Fogle Deaton, "The Decade of Revolt: Peasant Rebellion in Jalisco, Mexico, 1855-1864," in Robert H. Jackson (ed.), "Liberals, the Church, and Indian Peasants: Corporate Lands and the Challenge of Reform in Nineteenth-Century Spanish America." (Albuquerque: New Mexico Press, 1997).

Population statistics from Instituto Nacional de Estadística Geografía e Informática (INEGI).

21 generations from Moctezuma to Angie Jimenez Milligan 
John P. Inclan  

Hi Mimi: I thought that you might enjoy seeing this hypothetical link from Moctezuma to Angie Jimenez Milligan (who died a few years ago). I'm constructing it for her husband, Don Milligan, who is all excited. I still have to try and get documentation on about five of these links, but it's fun to speculate. I suspect I'll never have 100% evidence, but I'm getting close. 

MOCTEZUMA II, AZTEC EMPEROR was born about 1480 and died 1521 in Mexico City, In 1502, he was crowned Emperor.

Also known as Isabel de Moctezuma. 

LEONOR DE CORTEZ-MOCTEZUMA, b. Mexico City, F.D., Mexico. Daughter of Techuipo de Moctezuma (or Isabel de Moctezuma), who was the daughter of Moctezuma II> Leonor married (1) CONQUISTADOR CRISTOBAL DE VALDERRAMA Abt. 1531. 

LEONOR VALDERRAMA-CORTEZ-DE-MOCTEZUMA, d. Abt. 1562, daughter of Leonor de Cortez Moctezuma, granddaughter of Techuichpo de Moctezuma, great-granddaughter of Moctezuma). Leonor died Abt. 1562. She married DIEGO ARIAS-DE-SOTELO. He was born in Zamora, Spain.

4. PETRONILA DE MOCTEZUMA, b. Aguascalientes, Nueva Galicia, New Spain (Mexico).
She was born in Aguascalientes, Nueva Galicia, New Spain (Mexico). She married MARTIN NAVARRO.

1. ANA-FRANCISCA DE GABAY, b. Guadalajara, Jalisco, New Spain (Mexico); d. 30 Mar 1652, Villa de Aguascalientes; married LOPE RUIZ-DE-ESPARZA, supposedly in 1695 in Mexico City. He died 14 Aug 1651 in Aguascalientes.

Parents: Father: LOPE RUIZ-DE-ESPARZA Family 
Married to: (around 1618)
Spouse: MARIA VIELMA Family 

Parents: Father: SALVADOR RUIZ DE ESPARZA Family 
Married to: CATALINA DE LA FUENTE Family 
Marriage: 07 APR 1643 Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico 
Husband Age at Marriage: 20 


Christening: 09 NOV 1647 Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico 
married to: Spouse: CLARA RUIZ DE ESCAMILLA Family 

Marriage: 04 JUL 1674 Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico 


Event(s): Birth: 02 AUG 1681 Christening: 02 SEP 1681 Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Parents: Father: MIGUEL DE ESPARZA Mother: CLARA DE ESCAMILLA 

Christening: 11 MAR 1706 Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico - OR -
Christening: 27 APR 1710 Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico 
MARRIED TO Rafael Muños de Hermosillo: 

Birth: 12 FEB 1743 Christening: 20 FEB 1743 El Sagrario, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico Parents: Father: RAFAEL MUNOS DE HERMOSILLO Mother: MARIA DE LOS DOLORES ESPARZA MARRIED TO Antonio Loera




Historic passenger lists of ships go online 

Film Series in New York, February 1-8, 2007 to be held at the 
Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, New York City. Click

Abstract: Historic passenger lists of ships go online 
By Matthew JonesTue Jan 9, 7:11 PM ET
Sent by John Inclan

People looking to track ancestors who emigrated from British ports will from Wednesday be able to search online passenger lists of the ships that carried them to new lands. Released by Britain's National Archives, the passenger manifests give an insight into all long- distance trips made by 30 million travelers from the country's ports between 1890 and 1960, including that of the Titanic which sank in 1912.

The records, available via commercial Web site which was licensed by The National Archives, also show the passages of trans-European migrants.

Many were Jews fleeing persecution, who began their journeys in continental Europe and traveled to British ports like Southampton and Liverpool to catch cheap sailings.

Trips to all continents are covered with sailings to South America, the Caribbean, West Africa and all parts of Asia.

Initially only the period from 1890-1900 will be available but subsequent decades will be put online over the next few months. The passenger lists, which are available online in their original form vary. Some are typed, others are handwritten. Some record tantalizingly little detail while others give occupations, address and ultimate destination overseas.  Copyright © 2007 Reuters 

Sent by John Inclan

Links on the website to each title below: 
Kulano - Anusim 
Converso Names 
Captain Barros Basto 
Who are Crypto-Jews 
The Nahmans of Gerona 
Meaning of the Word Marrano 
Crypto Jews 
The Gomez Mill House 
Conversos in Ecuador 
A Matter of Conjecture 
Articles About Crypto Jews 
That Word Morrano 
My Crypto-Jewish Self 
A Tribute to my Grandmother
The Hidden Jews of New Mexico 

SAUDADES - Portuguese Sephardic History 
Family converts to orthodox Judaism 

Arthur Benveniste's Home Page 
Elizabethan Marranos Unmasked 
Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies 
Rescue of the Portuguese Marranos 
The Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies 
Institute For Marrano-Anusim Studies 
17th Century Conversos in Amsterdam 
Passover with the Anussim 
Sephardic Genealogy Sources 
Mexican Inquisition Documents 
Searching For Brazilian Marranos 
What's in a Name - Crypto Memories
Activism Rather than Prayer and Payoff 
An Ancient Heritage Comes Alive Again 

Crypto-Jews in Portugal - A Clandestine Existence 
Conversos Surfacing Among Southwest's Hispanics 
The Jews, New Christians and Crypto-Jews of Portugal 
Mistaken Identity - The Case of New Mexico's Hidden Jews 
An Ancient Hebrew Inscription in New Mexico Fact or Fraud? 
Finding our lost brothers and sisters: The Crypto Jews of Brazil 
500 Anniversary of the forced conversion of the Jews of Portugal 
Looking for the Sephardic Roots of my Ancestors: The "Calle" Last Name 
Roots of my Ancestors: The "Calle" Last Name 
Dr. Hector Nunes, Merchant & Crypto-Jew in Elizabethan England 1547 -1591 
Nothing can Erase 6,000 Years: the Story of My Newly Discovered Jewish Heritage 



The 110th Annual Washington Parade
Laredo, Texas
Saturday, February 17th

Book: "Inherit the Dust From the Four Winds of Revilla" Jose M. Pena
Luis Jimenez Tribute
Book: Tio Cowboy, Ricardo D. Palacios
Book: Tejano Roots, Dan Arellano
Nomination for Texas Historical Foundation Annual Preservation Award
Austin-Travis County Veterans Exhibit  


The 110th Annual Washington Parade
Laredo, Texas
Saturday, February 17th

It may still be possible to ride with the Texas Connection to the American Revolution, the TCARA float.  If you would like to be in the parade, need hotel or other information, please call Jack Cowan at 210-651-4709. A dinner will be held on February 16, the night before the parade in Laredo.
Extract: We're patriotic Americans because we're Mexicans.

Laredo's George Washington celebration was founded in 1898 by the Society of Red Men, a fraternal order made up largely of Anglo immigrants from the north. Although Laredo became an American city in 1848, in political and economic terms, the town continued to be culturally Mexican. American political and legal practices prevailed, but they were being conducted in Spanish. But in 1881, not one but two railroad lines were completed to connect the border town to the American interior. Consequently, the 1880s and '90s saw Anglo-American influence in Laredo reach an all-time high. In 1900, Laredo was fully 25 percent Anglo, the highest it has ever been .

By setting up this patriotic festival, the Red Men sought to bring an American-style holiday to a largely Mexican community. But the Washington celebration, which started as a method of acculturation, quickly evolved into something that reflected the unique bicultural blend of the border region.

By the 1920s, Washington's birthday organizers had instituted a Noche Mexicana, a night of Mexican music and food that quickly became a centerpiece of the celebration. By that time, Laredoans had become particularly proud and protective of their unique bicultural lifestyle. In 1925, an article in the Laredo Times noted that "one thing we may pride ourselves upon ... is the Mexican music that springs simultaneously from all sides when we celebrate a fiesta of any sort."

In fact, there have never been enough Anglos in Laredo to create the dual, competing cultures of towns like McAllen or Brownsville in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. When Anglo and European immigrants arrived in Laredo, they tended to marry Mexicans and became Mexicanized. Their children grew up speaking Spanish. "In Laredo, there has always been the process of Mexicanization and Americanization going on simultaneously," says Stan Green, a Laredo historian and professor at Laredo's Texas A&M International University.

Over the years, the celebration has maintained its border biculturalism. Libby Casso, this year's president of the Martha Washington Society, is an Anglo from Kentucky who came to Laredo by way of her college sweetheart and husband, Alfonso Casso Jr. She considers her three children Julia, Liz and Alfonso to be Hispanic. Her neighbor, Gloria Canseco, a past president of the Martha Washington Society and former head of the Webb County Heritage Foundation (and the wife of this year's George Washington), is cheerfully chauvinistic about Laredo's Latino cultural dominance. "We've always been among the dominant class. We were secure enough not to feel insulted whenever we visited places like McAllen, where they had signs saying "No Mexicans Allowed." Back in the 1940s, my mother used to giggle at their stupidity."

And even as they celebrate their closeness with Mexico, most Latinos along the frontier show wide support for strong border enforcement. Indeed, near the front of the Washington's Birthday parade last weekend were officers in Border Patrol cruisers strolling down San Bernardo Avenue waving at the crowd. In California, the idea of Border Patrol agents riding in local parades would be unthinkable. But along the frontier here, most Mexican-Americans have made their peace with the contradictions of the border.

Yet, with all the changes Laredo will continue to go through, its Washington's Birthday celebration is likely to remain a comforting constant. Frank Gonzalez, Jr., 49, the head of the local League of United Latin American Citizens chapter (which sponsors three Washington's Birthday events), believes that it is precisely Laredoans' keen ethnic heritage that will keep events alive for future generations. A Vietnam veteran who volunteered for service out of a sense of obligation, Gonzalez sums up his theory in one sentence: "We're patriotic Americans because we're Mexican." | Feb. 24, 2000

[[Editor:  I will be participating in the parade.  I am excited. I've never been to Laredo. My mother entered the U.S. through Laredo in 1924.  She was 12-year old.]] 


Last Soldiers, First Pioneers: The Los Adaes Border Community on the Louisiana-Texas Frontier, 1721-1779. 
In the "History" section, New audio by Dr. Francis X. Galán.


"Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla"  Reading and Book signing
Date: Saturday, February 3, 2007
Time: 10:00 AM to 12:00 AM   (Coffee and other amenities will be served).

Friends:  The Laredo Center for the Arts (Tel 956-725-1715) and the Villa de San Agustin Laredo Genealogy Society ( and Tel. 956-568-0995), partnering for the occasion, have invited me to do a reading and signing of my book, entitled "Inherit the Dust, from the Four Winds of Revilla." My quick acceptance has been with great pleasure. These two combined forums permits me to talk to a big audience about my book within the broader historical context of Mexico's history and to cover all topics (Revilla's establishment, its people, its land-grants, and its destruction), Texas separation, U.S Mexican War, Treaties, their effects on land-grants and a $193 million debt that Mexico has never paid. So I am looking forward to this event with great anticipation. 

The Laredo Center for the Arts and the Villa de San Agustin Laredo Genealogy Society is cordially inviting all (especially my friends) to attend. It's informal and completely free. So, tell all your Laredo friends to attend.

Location: The Laredo Center for the Arts,
Address: 500 San Agustin Ave., Laredo, Texas 78040
Other information can be obtained by going to ( or calling Tel. 956-568-0995, or the Center at 956.725.1715).
Sent by Jose M. Pena

Author’s roots traced to Four Winds of Revilla 

A while back, Laredo native Jose Maria Peña, retired from federal government service now living in Dallas, took a walk on the remains of a Mexican border town that history first recorded with the name of Villa del Señor San Ignacio de Loyola de Revilla. 

He had been caught in a genealogy project wanting to trace his roots and the names of his of his ancestors. Fondly known to local family and friends as Chema Peña, he actually was walking on the grounds where once stood old Guerrero on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande from Zapata on the U. S. side. 

The old town’s name had been changed to Guerrero in honor of Vicente Guerrero, one of Father Hidalgo’s most trusted partisans in the war for independence against Spain (1810-1821). Chema Peña walked the deteriorating remains left behind under water when the U. S. built Falcon Dam in the mid-1950s. 

The search for his family roots, however, developed into more than genealogy for Chema Peña. His book, Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla (Xlibris Corporation, 2006), gives readers an anthology of Jose Escandon’s settlements that history recorded as the Seno Mexicano, focusing on Revilla (old Guerrero). Peña walks the reader through a 250-year labyrinth that rose on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande frontier downriver from where five years later Tomas Sanchez would settle the first eleven families at Villa de San Agustin de Laredo in 1755. 

Chema Peña devotes considerable space to family trees in the 388-page book on Revilla and Old Guerrero, meticulously charting family names in different groups in a series of appendices that cover 52 pages. The Peña book concludes with six pages of historical statistics that provide much of the detail about the people who settled Revilla. 

Peña quotes material from a 1753 census credited to Jose Escalon and published in a book, Ciudad Guerrero: Sus Fundadores, Sus Hombres, by Fernando Garza Gonzales (Appendix 27). The census listed 43 families (heads of household), 38 spouses (wives), 123 children, 17 servants and five children of servants, three others in the household for a total of 231 persons. 

Twenty-seven of the families were headed by a man with a title bestowed by the Spanish crown. 

Based on his genealogy work, Peña traced his ancestry to five of the original families of Revilla – Don Cristobal Javier Benavides, widower; Don Miguel Martinez and Dona Clara Treviño; Don Francisco Xavier de Peña and Dona Maria de Naiga (Maza); Don Bartolome Cuellar and Dona Gregoria Martinez; Don Vicente Garcia and Dona Josefa Gertrudis (E)Lizondo. 

Twenty-seven of the 43 families that to indicate that they were Spaniards as opposed to the others who were either mestizos or Indians. In a footnote, Peña identified the original families as having come to Revilla from Serralvo (11), Sabinas (8), Monterrey (10), Cadereita (Cadereyta) (4), Saltillo (2), Pesqueria Cica (1), San Luis Potosi (1), Salinas (3), and Zacatecas (1). There was no point of origin for the others. 

It starts with the Elizondo-Garza family tree (Group A). The reader gets a better insight into the genealogy lines of Jose Maria Peña in Chapter 4, Parade of Ancestors and Families. 

Peña was unable to find many dates and information on certain family tree members. The author says his research showed some information was left blank or marked by a question mark. 

Some sections of every single chart were listed in black borders to indicate some connection with the author’s roots. 

Thirty-eight of the 43 heads of households were listed with spouses. Five came with spouses but they had no children. Don Vicente Garcia and Dona Josefa Gertrudis Elizondo had the most children, ten. Don Bartolome Garcia and Dona Gregoria Martinez were listed with nine. Don Salvador Gonzalez Hidalgo and Dona Aurora Maria Lozano listed eight. 

The census reported that 38 of the families had firearms. The people count included 17 servants, who basically were found to be in bondage as slaves. Among the servants were five children. The census in the town sites of the New Spain, and particularly in the Seno Mexicano established by Don Jose de Escandon, included the numbers of horses, livestock and small animals. 

Ownership of riding horses, breeding horses, cows, mules, sheep and goats was important to the early settlers in Revilla as well as Laredo. 

The leading owners of these small animals included Don Miguel Martinez, a military officer with the rank of lieutenant, listed with 6000 sheep and goats; Don Jose Baez Benavides, 2000; Don Cristobal Javier Benavides, 1400; Don Juan Garcia Soberon, 1000; Juan Antonio Taberas, an Indian, 1,300; Don Jose Cayetano de la Garza, 1000; Don Joseph Leonardo Treviño, 600; Don Domingo Guerra, 400. 

Don Miguel Martinez had the most breeding horses, 450; Jose Baez Benavides, 250; Bernabe Gutierrez de Lara, 120; Don Juan Baez Benavides and Don Cristobal Javier Benavides, each was listed with 100 breeding horses. Riding horses, of course, were important to early settlers on the Rio Grande frontier. 

For the ranchers and vaqueros, the riding horse was one of the most precious possessions. The riding horse (quarter horse) was crucial to work cattle in the range and the roundups. 

The horse was just as important as the rancher’s sidearm or rifle for protection against marauding Indians, cattle rustlers and the ordinary thieves from both sides of the river. Riding horses were vital to the success of distance cattle trails. 

Similarly, mules were essential for mule trains to pull the wagon and the stagecoach. In time, the speedy quarter horse led to the development of a Pony Express for delivery of the mail. Cowboys and their mounts also served as escorts for wagon trains hauling goods to and from villages populating the Seno Mexicano. 

Four years after the original families settled in Villa de San Ignacio de Loyola de Revilla, the population had grown to 366, according to Peña’s research. 

The author points out that the original census put the figure at 357. The author, however, discovered the people count actually was 366 because in two instances the original census was undercounted for the household of Bernabe Gutierrez de Lara by ten people and the household of Joseph Benavides by one person. 

The author rides the reader 23 chapters, detailing the history and development of Nueva Espana from Spanish conquest to the settlements in the northern stretches of Santander and the regions which now are part of the U. S. The material focuses on the land grants of Revilla and traverses history of conquest of the Indians, the criollos-mestizos fight for independence from Spain (1821) and the country’s subsequent losses in the Texas Revolution (San Jacinto), the Mexican-American War and a restoration marked by mini-revolts against the Diaz dictatorship, the modern-day Mexican Revolution and post-revolution decades. 

Jose Maria Peña’s writings never lose track of the mutilation of Mexico in a war created by U. S. political interests to the insurmountable loss of the Mexican nation. The author portrays the punishment imposed of Spanish-Texans, Mexican-Texans and a nation “so far from God, so close to the U. S.” through the workings of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. 

—Next week, Jose Maria Peña views Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and Mexico’s debt to the heirs of the Texas land grants. 

(Odie Arambula may be reached at 728-2561 or by e-mail at

Luis Jimenez Tribute
Texas Folklife at 512-441-9255 or visit website
Sent by Elvira Prieto

Book: Tio Cowboy by Ricardo D. Palacios 
(Article in January issue, this a letter to author) 

Estimado Richard,
I finished reading your book, "Tio Cowboy," this past week.  Pride of being a Mexican-American, a South Texan, a Laredoan/Laredense/ Encinalian/Encinaliano; appreciation of a unique culture; love of family -- all came through clearly.  Reading it was a wonderful experience for me, bringing to mind many fond memories.  Reminded me of the wonderful life I had in Laredo and the values, affection, kindness, fun of an era long past.  I would recommend everyone read "Tio Cowboy" -- it is obviously written from the heart and provides a history of a cherished part of American history.  Who our age did not play cowboy recognizing those who were as heroes?  Cowboys like Juan Salinas were part of the foundation of this country, and you presented it in superior fashion.  You did a great job, Rich -- we are proud of you.  Thank you for writing it.  God bless.
Your friend, Johnny
John Dickinson, III, CPA, CFE 
Lt. Col., USAF - Retired


MEDIA ADVISORY: Hastings Books 1380 E. Court St. Seguin, Texas Book Signing Saturday Oct. 28th 12-5PM

Contact: Dianna 1-830-372-2217 Book manager



"The Battle of Medina," the untold story of the largest land battle ever fought in the struggle for Texas Independence. Over a thousand Tejanos sacrificed their lives for liberty and freedom, yet to this day these first sons and daughters of the State of Texas remain unknown and unrecognized for their ultimate sacrifice. "Tejano Roots," brings a historic and a renewed sense of pride to our Hispanic community with a story that belongs to them, their families, their history and their hearts.

For more information contact Dan Arellano e-mail
PO Box 43012, Austin, Texas 78704 or 512-826-7569 or


Made by: Robert H. Thonhoff
Address: 617 N. Esplanade St.
City, State, Zip: Karnes City, TX 78118-2522
Phone Number, Email: (830) 780-3582 

e Texas Historical Foundation presents the following preservation awards annually

Judge James Wheat Award,
achievement in historic preservation for business & industry
Mary Moody Northen Award for achievement in historic preservation for a non-profit group
The Deolece Parmelee Award for achievement in preservation through historic research
John Ben Shepperd Jr. Award, outstanding achievement in historic preservation for an
      individual craftsman
The Journalistic Achievement Award honoring excellence in print media
Awards of merit may also be given for other noteworthy projects.


PLEASE USE THE BACK OF THIS FORM, if necessary to adequately describe the nominee.
1. Name of the person or organization that you are nominating for an award.
Dan Arellano, P.O. Box 43012, Austin, TX 78704

2. Nominee contact name, address, and phone number.
Same as above.  Phone: (512) 826-7569

3. For which of the awards (see above) are you nominating this person or organization?
Award of Merit

4. Describe the preservation achievement of this person or organization.
Dan Arellano, whose book titled Tejano Roots: A Family Legend (USAustin Printing, Austin, Texas, 2005) combines meticulous historical research with oral family history passed down to him over the generations to establish his identity (and the identity of many others) as Tejano and American. He dispels many myths that have been accepted much too long as truth in history books, which have largely excluded Native Americans and Tejanos, leaving them as "foreigners in their native land." This groundbreaking book will enlighten many readers to the contributions of many founding families of Texas of Coahuilan and Tlaxcalan descent, who were in fact a typical American blending of ancestral backgrounds, but Tejanos and Americans one and all.

5. Why do you think this program or person is worthy of a preservation award? 
With this well-researched book, author Dan Arellano traces his ancestral roots six generations from his great-great-great-great great grandfather Francisco Arellano, of Tlaxcalan and Spanish descent, through the pages of Texas history to the present. Francisco Arellano was just one of many Tejanos of Tlaxcalan descent that came to the Province of Texas as settlers, soldiers, and citizens. Sergeant Francisco Arellano was one of the soldiers of the Alamo de Parras Company that gave the Alamo its name. During the turbulent civil war times of September 10, 1810 – August 18, 1813, Tejanos had to choose between being a Royalist or a Republican. Either choice turned out to be a very difficult choice, and they suffered one way or another.

Sgt. Arellano chose to be a Spanish Royalist, and he participated in many of the events of the time, including the fateful Battle of Medina on August 18, 1813, wherein upwards of one thousand Tejanos along with many Americans lost their lives in the bloodiest battle ever to take place in Texas in their attempt to establish a First Republic of Texas. Although more lives were lost in this battle than at the Alamo, Goliad, and San Jacinto some twenty-three years later, this battle and the First Republic of Texas have been literally "swept under the proverbial historical rug" and scarcely mentioned in our state’s history books. Author Dan Arellano makes a valiant attempt to right some of the wrongs in history and give heretofore disfranchised Tejanos credit for their invaluable contributions to our great State of Texas. For this, I believe that Dan Arellano is most worthy of receiving an Award of Merit for his intrepid efforts "to tell the rest of the story."

Please return this form, by February 28, 2006, to:
Texas Historical Foundation, P.O. Box 50314, Austin, TX 78763
512|453-2154 phone | 512-453-2164 FAX |

The new revised issue of Tejano Roots is now available at Hastings Books throughout Texas. Also it was nominated to the Texas Historical Foundation for the Deolce Parmelee Award for preservation through historic research and also for an  award of merit.It is also available from the author for 23.95 plus $2.00 for shipping and handling.

Dan Arellano
PO Box 43012
Austin, Texas 78704

The Austin History Center, the Austin-Travis County Veterans Exhibit Committee Ask for Military Service Items to be Part of   “Austin-Travis County Veterans” Exhibit  

EVENT:  Service organizations and individuals of any past or current military service are invited to participate in an exhibit honoring Austin and Travis County veterans. This exhibit will be on public display in the Grand Hallway and Lobby of the Austin History Center, Austin Public Library from July through December, 2007. The Austin History Center.  Austin Public Library is located at 810 Guadalupe and is the local history archives for the City of Austin and all of Travis County .  

In Travis County there are more than 100 organized Veterans groups and the Veterans Exhibit Committee would like to make a call out to these organizations to gather materials, which will become part of the permanent archives available to researchers at the Austin History Center . Items acceptable for the exhibit and archives include: photographic images accompanied with identification of people with, dates, equipment and location; biographies of veterans and letters, audio and video tapes.  The deadline for submission of materials is April 30, 2007. Those veterans not affiliated with an organization can consult with the Austin History Center , 810 Guadalupe. For more information about the exhibit contact Dan Arellano, Chairman (512) 826-7569 or Others should contact their organization.

Media Contacts: Patricia Fraga, Austin Public Library, (512) 974-7528   Fax: (512) 974-7442 or
Dan Arellano, Veteran and Commander of Tejanos in Action, (512) 826-7569



In Texas we really do pull off the road and stop for funerals......nobody moves until the last car has gone by.  What follows is a message from Vicki Pierce(including pictures) about her nephew James' funeral (he was serving our country in Iraq):  
Sent by Sal Del Valle

"I'm back, it was certainly a quick trip, but I have to also say it was one of the most amazing experiences of my life. There is a lot to be said for growing up in a small town in Texas. The service itself was impressive with wonderful flowers and sprays, a portrait of James, his uniform and boots, his awards and ribbons. There was lots of military brass and an eloquent (though inappropriately longwinded) Baptist preacher. There were easily 1000 people at the service, filling the church sanctuary as well as the fellowship hall and spilling out into the parking lot.

However, the most incredible thing was what happened following the service on the way to the cemetery. We went to our cars and drove to the cemetery escorted by at least 10 police cars with lights flashing and some other emergency vehicles, with Texas Rangers handling traffic. Everyone on the road who was not in the procession, pulled over, got out of their cars, and stood silently and respectfully, some put their hands over their hearts.

When we turned off the highway suddenly there were teenage boys along both sides of the street about every 20 feet or so, all holding large American flags on long flag poles, and again with their hands on their hearts. We thought at first it was the Boy Scouts or 4H club or something, but it continued ... for two and a half miles. Hundreds of young people, standing silently on the side of the road with flags. At one point we passed an elementary school, and all the children were outside, shoulder to shoulder holding flags. Kindergartners, handicapped, teachers, staff, everyone. Some held signs of love and support. Then teenage girls and younger boys, all holding flags. Then adults. Then families. All standing silently on the side of the road. No one spoke, not even the very young children. 

The military presence, at least two generals, a fist full of colonels, and representatives from every branch of the service, plus the color guard who attended James, and some who served with him ... was very impressive and respectful, but the love and pride from this community who had lost one of their own was the most amazing thing I've ever been privileged to witness.




Battle of New Orleans Commemoration, Jean Lafitte Park
Reconsidering the Battle of New Orleans
Pictures of Chalmette Battle Re-enactors 2006 
John Folse's Louisiana Food Heritage Programs on LPB  


7th Infantry
Cannon Firing 
Civilian Camp 

Living History 
Living History 

Musket Firing

Battle of New Orleans Commemoration, Jean Lafitte Park
National Park System, U.S. Department of the Interior
Sent by Bill Carmena

The 192nd Anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans filled Chalmette Battlefield with soldiers' tents and firing cannons. Step back into 1815 and find out why the world's balance of power changed forever on a field in Louisiana.

Anniversary events included

Wreath-laying ceremony Monday, January 8, 10:00 a.m. Free. A ceremony at Chalmette Monument will pay tribute to the men who fought at the battle in 1815. 

192nd anniversary  Friday and Saturday, January 12-13, Free activities included. National Park Service rangers and living history experts dressed as civilians and soldiers sharing their stories, fire cannons and muskets, and presentations on the importance of the battle in American history. Walking through the camps and visitors were able to meet American Major General Andrew Jackson or Britain's Major General Edward Pakenham, and listen to the men from New Orleans, ready to defend their homes, and the women who await word from the front lines. Compare the spit and polish of the regular troops with the "dirty shirt" volunteers or the Baratarian privateers. Visit the kids' tent and try on a uniform or learn a game that soldiers' children would have played. 
Lantern Tour Friday night evening tour visitons walked through British and American camps "the night before the battle." 
Re-enactment Saturday, January 13, St. Bernard Parish sponsored a re-creation of one of the skirmishes leading up to the Battle of New Orleans at historic Pakenham Oaks in Chalmette. 

For more information go to the website.

by Errol Laborde, New Orleans Magazine, January 2007

Sent by Bill Carmena

Whenever the Battle of New Orleans is the topic, the discussion usually ends with the ironic note that, unknown to the battle’s participants, a treaty that ended the war had been signed weeks before. Word had not yet been received from Belgium that in its port City of Ghent, the War of 1812 had been brought to a close once the United State and Great Britain signed a treaty there on Christmas Eve in 1814. Ending a war on that particular date should have allowed for an extra dose of joy to the world, except that the news was slow in reaching the lower Mississippi. There, a British force, under the command of General Edward Pakenham, was eyeing New Orleans as a prize.

That the battle was fought over a war that no longer existed has caused an occasional chuckle although a skirmish in which 2000 young British men were killed or wounded is no laughing matter.

“Pakenham's assault was doomed from the beginning,” A. Wilson Green, the former manager of Chalmette National Historical Park wrote. “His men made perfect targets as they marched precisely across a quarter mile of open ground. Hardened veterans of the Peninsular Campaign in Spain fell by the score, including nearly 80 percent of a splendid Scottish Highlander unit that tried to march obliquely across the American front. Both of Pakenham's senior generals were shot early in the battle, and the commander himself suffered two wounds before a shell severed an artery in his leg, killing him in minutes.

“His successor wisely disobeyed Pakenham's dying instructions to continue the attack and pulled the British survivors off the field.”

This week marks the 193rd anniversary of what is surely one of the most descriptively confused battles in military history: The War of 1812 ended in 1814 but its last battle was fought in 1815, and although it would be known as the Battle of New Orleans, the battlefield was in Chalmette.

As the anniversary is once again celebrated, it should be noted that for whatever peculiarities the Battle of New Orleans might have had, it nevertheless had its geopolitical importance. First of all, the encounter underscored American military mite and may have done much to discourage thoughts of future entanglements. The force that defeated the British under the command of Gen. Andrew Jackson reflected the spunky and heterogeneous character of the young nation:

“Never has a more polyglot army fought under the Stars and Stripes than did Jackson's force at the Battle of New Orleans,” Green wrote. “In addition to his regular U.S. Army units, Jackson counted on dandy New Orleans militia, a sizable contingent of black former Haitian slaves fighting as free men of color, Kentucky and Tennessee frontiersmen armed with deadly long rifles and a colorful band of outlaws led by Jean Lafitte, whose men Jackson had once disdained as ‘hellish banditti.’ This hodgepodge of 4,000 soldiers, crammed behind narrow fortifications, faced more than twice their number.”

Secondly, the Battle had a major impact on American politics, launching the career of Jackson, for whom a public square was named in New Orleans, toward the presidency. As chief executive, Ole Hickory would get mixed reviews, but his arrival in the White House signaled the expansion of American political power to include the frontiersman and not just the east coast elite.

America was strengthened militarily and broadened politically by the Battle of New Orleans. And just as time had run out for the war, so too had the clock mercifully struck on Anglo/American hostilities. In the future whenever the Stars and Stripes and the Union Jack would be on the same battlefield, they would be side by side. A century later, the two nations would be called upon to save Europe, not once but twice.

All battlefields, however, whether at Normandy or Chalmette take their toll. History remembers the glory and the triumphs of generals and politicians. Off the path, however, are tombstones with faint names. The soldiers buried there might have had even greater impact on the world had they not been driven into the fires of war.

Let us know what you think. Any comments about this article? Write to  For the subject line use BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. All responses are subject to being published, as edited, in this newsletter. Please include your name and location.

Pictures of Chalmette Battle Re-enactors 2006  

Mimi:  I took these last January when I was in New Orleans . My great, great grandfather, John McHugh fought there with the 11th/20th Composite Malitia Company. He survived the battle but died of disease shortly thereafter. I am the civilian in upper right photo.
                                                                               Bill Carmena

Folse's Louisiana Food Heritage Programs on LPB  
Sent by Paul Bergeron

[[Although January is past, I thought it was interesting to share this information.]] 

Schedule for the 3 Spanish shows, along with a description of each episode:

Saturday, January 13, 11:30 AM CST Spanish Rule (#1109)
Spain was one of the first countries to explore the New World and was responsible for Louisiana?s system of laws, the architecture of the ? French? quarter and the food markets of New Orleans. Dr. Paul E. Hoffman introduces us to early Spanish Louisiana. Chef Folse along with Tee Wayne Abshire and Ricky Breaux demonstrate how to make jambalaya, one of Louisiana?s most common dishes, which was inspired by Spanish 
paella. Neil and Donna Wilkinson perform traditional music from the Spanish colonial period.

Saturday, January 20, 11:30 AM CST: Fort Los Adaes (#1110)
In the 1700s, the Spanish border was just six miles from the French fort at Natchitoches. Fort Los Adaes became a Spanish stronghold, greatly influencing the culture and cuisine of northwest Louisiana. Ray Berthelot and Corneil Cox explore this intriguing Spanish story. Chef Folse visits Marie Roque, a Creole from Cane River, for a lesson in traditional meat pie making. Neil and Donna Wilkinson perform traditional music from the Spanish colonial period.

Saturday, January 27, 11:30 AM CST: Los Islenos (#1111)
Hurricane Katrina focused attention on Louisiana's St. Bernard Parish, home of the resilient, proud and hopeful Islenos descendants. Dorothy Benge introduces us to these wonderful people and the unique heritage of these Canary Islanders. Chef Folse visits Rhonda Gautier in Natchitoches, La. as she prepares the tamale, a great food contribution 
of the Spanish. Neil and Donna Wilkinson perform traditional music from the Spanish colonial period.


American Sephardi Federation & Yeshiva University Museum Film Festival
National Archives Events
N.J. Veterans Angry Over Education Bill 

The American Sephardi Federation and Yeshiva University Museum present

11th NY Sephardic Jewish Film Festival
February 1-8, 2007

The NY Sephardic Jewish Film Festival continues its journey across Sephardic Jewish history, cultures and traditions, with a week of screenings of critically acclaimed feature films and documentaries, NY premieres and conversations with filmmakers. This year’s program focuses on Sephardic Voices in Israeli Cinema. Join us for the opening night screening and reception

Three Mothers / Shalosh Imahot    
- Thursday, February 1, 2007 / 7:00PM 
- Sunday, February 4, 2007 / 7:00 PM 
Winner of the 2006 Jerusalem International Film Festival and nominated for Best Picture, Israeli Academy Awards, Three Mothers is the extraordinary saga of a Sephardic family, from King Farouk’s Egypt to modern Israel, spanning three generations. Born in Alexandria, the triplets Rose, Yasmin and Flora lead lives shrouded in secret and deadly deceit. The film stars one of Israel’s most acclaimed actors, Gila Almagor.

For full Festival Information go to:

National Archives Events

American ConversationLe
Thursday, February 8, at 7 P.M.
William G. McGowan Theater
An American Conversation with Tom Wheeler
Archivist of the United States Allen Weinstein will be joined by Richard Norton Smith in an American Conversation with author Tom Wheeler. The discussion will focus on Wheeler's book Mr. Lincoln's T-Mails: The Untold Story of How Abraham Lincoln Used the Telegraph to Win the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln became President of a divided United States during a period of technological and social revolution. Among the many modern marvels that gave the North an advantage was the telegraph, which Lincoln used to stay connected to the forces in the field. Tom Wheeler is president of the Foundation for the National Archives and a partner with Core Capitol Partners. Richard Norton Smith is a historian,
biographer, and nationally recognized authority on the American Presidency.

Friday, February 9, at noon
Jefferson Room
From the Vaults: Lincoln's Telegrams
Join archivist Trevor Plante as he highlights a variety of Lincoln Civil War*era telegrams in the National Archives. Included in the presentation will be some of the telegrams that are featured in Tom Wheeler's new book, Mr. Lincoln's T-Mails: The Untold Story of How
Abraham Lincoln Used the Telegraph to Win the Civil War. Telegrams issued immediately following Lincoln's assassination will also be featured. This program is presented in partnership with the Abraham Lincoln Institute.

Friday, February 16, at noon
William G. McGowan Theater
Meet Mr. Lincoln
Using thousands of archival photographs, woodcuts, drawings, engravings, and posters, this 1959 NBC television program tells Abraham Lincoln's story from his birth in a log cabin to his assassination at Ford's Theater in 1865. Presented by The Charles Guggenheim Center for the Documentary Film in partnership with the Abraham Lincoln Institute.
(60 minutes.) 

Saturday, February 17, at noon
William G. McGowan Theater 
Family Film*Young Mr. Lincoln Young Mr. Lincoln, presented in partnership with the Abraham Lincoln Institute and in conjunction with Cultural Tourism DC's "Warm Up to
a Museum" campaign, follows a 10-year period in Lincoln's life before he became known to his nation and the world. From his boyhood days to his early law practice, director John Ford tells the story of the man who would eventually become known as "The Great
Emancipator." Stars Henry Fonda. Nominated for an Academy Award in
1940. (100 min., 1939)

Wednesday, February 21, at noon
Jefferson Room
Becoming Free in the Cotton South 
Author Susan O'Donovan will discuss her new book, Becoming Free in the Cotton South, which challenges our most basic ideas about slavery and freedom in America. Instead of seeing emancipation as the beginning or the ending of the story, O'Donovan explores the perilous transition between these two conditions, offering a unique vision of both the
enormous changes and profound continuities in black life before and after the Civil War.


Extract: N.J. Veterans Angry Over Education Bill 
by Tom Hester Jr. Associated Press
Sent by Willis Papillion

TRENTON, N.J. (AP) - For World War II veteran Sam Stia, a legislative proposal that would cease requiring New Jersey schools to teach about Veterans Day and Memorial Day can be summed up in two words. 

"That's wrong," Stia, 83, said Thursday from his Hamilton home, where he flies an American flag at half-staff to honor fallen soldiers. "We're just giving our flag away and our patriotism away." 

Stia and other veterans are steamed about the proposal, which the state lawmakers unanimously passed last month and now awaits action by the governor. It was included as part of a larger measure designed to help control property taxes, mostly by abolishing some laws on school purchasing and public hearings. 

Other holidays about which schools no longer would be required to teach include Columbus Day, Thanksgiving, Arbor Day and Commodore Barry Day, which commemorates Revolutionary War hero John Barry.  

New Jersey schools must observe the holidays under a 1967 law designed to promote "the development of a higher spirit of patriotism." Florida, Nebraska and Washington are among states with similar laws. 

New Jersey American Legion and Veterans of Foreign Wars groups have asked Gov. Jon S. Corzine to veto the bill so schools still have to teach about Memorial Day and Veterans Day. 

"It's not right. They're not going to know the sacrifices that were made so they can enjoy the protections that they have," said Hank Adams, New Jersey VFW adjutant and an Army and Coast Guard veteran. "If it wasn't for veterans, we wouldn't have been able to maintain the freedoms the Constitution provided to us," said Zawacki, a Vietnam War Navy veteran. 

New Jersey school officials support the bill. "It's simply time and flexibility," said Mike Yaple, spokesman for the New Jersey School Boards Association.


Ojinaga and Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca 
Andres Dorantes de Carranza, (ca. 1500-1550s)
Exploring Colonial Mexico, The Stones of Huentitán  PHOTO NEEDED
Book:The North Frontier of New Spain
New theory for mass deaths under Spanish conquest stirs heated debate in Mexico
La Aduana, un Gajo de la Historia de Torreón en su "Centenario"
La Aduana, un Gajo de la Historia de Torreón
Condado Del Valle de Súchil
Las Esposas de Francisco (Pancho) Villa
Questions Concerning Juana Porcallo de la Cerda
More on Porcallo, Who’s Who of the Conquistadors
The Descendents of Don Gonzalo Porcallo de Moran
Ayuda Genealogistas de Coahuila 
Book: Marriages of Monclova Coahuila, Mexico, 1686 - 1822
Descendents of Don Pedro de Almandos
Estoria de la Semana


OJINAGA and Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
Below is the text from book, thirteen chapters of easy reading.
Map source:
Demand Publications
2608 Second Avenue, #2450, Seattle, WA 98121
Sent by John Inclan 

Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca was the first white man to come to Ojinaga, arriving in 1535 in the company of two other Spaniards, and a Moor - Estevanico - the only survivors of a shipwreck off the coast of Florida in 1528. Cabeza de Vaca was second in command in the ill fated expedition of Panfilo de Narvaez, charged with exploring Florida and claiming its territory for Spain.

When Narvaez lost his ships and his men, and then disappeared himself, Cabeza de Vaca took charge of the handful of survivors, whose ranks would be whittled down to almost nothing by Indian attacks, starvation, disease and accidents, until only the four men who eventually made their way to Ojinaga were left.

In Ojinaga, Cabeza de Vaca is remembered for having planted his cross, which is the symbol by which he is identified in paintings and drawings of him, at the summit of the nearby Sierrita de la Santa Cruz - which derives it name from that cross and that act.

Each year in Ojinaga, on the fiesta day of the Holy Cross (La Santa Cruz), in May, the matachines dancers perform in a ceremony that probably dates back to the time of the arrival of Cabeza de Vaca and before, when there was likely a celebration of the Old Indian Religion which was adopted into the trappings of Catholicism after the time of Cabeza de Vaca.

Fausto's Art Gallery
Great variety of information, such as Mexican Day of the Dead, Virgin of Guadalupe, Saints Medals, Mexican Religious Art, Paper flowers miliagros charms, calendar of upcoming events, information on Pancho Villa and his men, questions, comments, message board.  Wonderful site .  . .

Texas History online 

Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, early Spanish explorer, a native of the southwestern Castilian town of Gibraleón, was the son of Pablo Dorantes. Like many young Spaniards faced with bleak economic prospects in Spain, he sought his fortune in the New World. He enlisted in 1527 as a captain in the ill-starred expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez.qv After the expedition was compelled to travel along the Gulf Coast in crude barges, one boat was placed under the joint command of Dorantes and Alonso Castillo Maldonado.qv After a month at sea, disaster struck in early November on the Texas coast. The horsehide vessel bearing Dorantes ran aground and broke up on or near the western extremity of Galveston Island. Among the survivors were Dorantes, his slave Estevanico,qv Castillo, and Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca.qv In March 1536, after considerable peregrination, the survivors contacted Spanish countrymen north of Culiacán. The governor of Nueva Galicia, Nuño de Guzmán, provided horses and clothing and dispatched his guests to Mexico City for an audience with Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza. The viceroy asked Dorantes to assist in a follow-up expedition; Dorantes declined, but did sell his slave, Estevanico, to Mendoza. Dorantes apparently hoped that he and Cabeza de Vaca would be granted a royal license to colonize Texas and New Mexico. His attempt to return to Spain miscarried when the ship's poor condition forced its return to Veracruz harbor. Perhaps viewing the experience as an ill omen, Dorantes remained in New Spain. He married the widow of Francisco de Valdés, María de la Torre, who controlled the encomiendas of Asala and Jalazintgo. After María's death, Dorantes married Paula Dorantes, widow of Antonio Gómez de Corona. He fathered more than fourteen children in New Spain. He died in the 1550s. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Baltasar Dorantes de Carranza, Sumaria relación de las cosas de Nueva España (Mexico City: Imprenta del Museo Nacional, 1902). Harbert Davenport, ed., "`The Expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez,' by Gonzalo Fernández Oviedo y Valdez," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 27-28 (October 1923-October 1924). Robert S. Weddle, Spanish Sea: The Gulf of Mexico in North American Discovery, 1500-1685 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1985). Donald E. Chipman 

The Handbook of Texas Online is a joint project of The General Libraries at the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas State Historical Association. 

Exploring Colonial Mexico, The Stones of Huentitán

The small towns and city barrios around Guadalajara afford an enormous variety of intriguing art and architecture for the aficionado of colonial and religious art to explore. In other web pages (see links at foot of page) and in our guidebook Blue Lakes & Silver Cities we have described several of these.

All of these monuments are noted for the beauty of their building stone and the high quality of stone carving. One example of this craftsmanship that recently came to our notice is the little 18th century temple of Huentitán Bajo, in the northeastern suburbs of Guadalajara, close to the rugged Barranca de Huentitán.

Huentitán is traditionally renowned for its skilled stonemasons. It is also a prime historic source for attractive quarrystone - cantera dorada - a finegrained, honey-colored, oolitic limestone which, being soft and easily worked, was preferred for many of Guadalajara's finest buildings.

This same stonework is seen at its best in the local church of the Ascension. The 18th century church, dated 1734 by an inscription, was built over a 16th century Franciscan hospital chapel. Its sober baroque front stands above a broad span of stone steps and, in typical regional style, is emphatically outlined by its grand portal, prominent cornices and soaring gable. The atrium was a former cemetery and some old tombstones still stand in the porteria. 

A remarkable carved stone monument at Huentitán is the tall column or funerary stela, erected in front of the adjacent casa cural.  Incised with a large cross, it is densely carved with historic information on the church, including several dates. A carved atrial cross also stands in the garden.

Exploring Colonial Mexico

In addition to books, maps, and monthly historical articles, current articles pertaining to Mexico's colonial history are also included on this website.    
Sent by Richard Perry (805) 682-3664.

Book:The North Frontier of New Spain

Peter Gerhard described early Aguascalientes history in "The North Frontier of New Spain." On Oct. 22, 1575, La Villa de Aguascalientes was created by decree and affiliated with nearby Santa Maria de los Lagos (now Lagos de Moreno). The first notice of a parish at Asunci was circa 1605, but chaplains served various presidios before that. Bernal Schez spoke of a priest at the Villa in 1601, but as we all know, the marriages and baptisms we now have access to only begin in 1616. 

It is believed that the Chichimecs at contact numbered about 8,500 (this would have been Guachichiles, Zacatecas and probably some Caxcanes). Gerhard writes that "the period 1561-1589 was one of retrenchment when some haciendas were abandoned." Aguascalientes was founded in 1575 but was reduced to only two vecinos and 16 soldados in 1582-1585. After that, the war subsided and hostilities withdrew north, with the last Indian attack taking place in 1593.

Gerhard notes that "Peace brought a tide of Spanish settlers beginning in the 1590s, mostly cattlemen and farmers, together with Indian (mainly Nuatl-speaking) and Negro retainers." The Villa became "inhabited by powerful hacendados who monopolized land and water."

Gaspar de la Fuente claims that in 1610, he found 24 or 25 Spanish vecinos, about 50 families of mestizos, over 100 mulatos, 20 Negro slaves and only 10 Indians in La Villa. He explained that "most of these people worked on neighboring haciendas."

Gerhard writes, "By 1681 various haciendas [of Aguascalientes] had chapels and resident clergy." The 1760 Parish census showed 640 Indians and 5,386 non-Indian families for a total of 20,411 "personas de comuni y confesi" - not including Ciega de Mata. Including infants this may have represented 34,000 persons.

The 1770 census gave a total of 28,074. 

The 1790 census gives: 25,715 people, made up of:

1. 10,004 Spaniards
2. 8,617 Indians
3. 3,357 Mulattoes
4. 3,737 Others

Source: Peter Gerhard, "The North Frontier of New Spain" (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
Personajes de la historia 


Por: José León Robles De La Torre

Lic. don José S. Wilcok Peña, 16o. administrador de la Aduana de Torreón, Coah., entregando un reconocimiento al señor José León Robles de la Torre, por conferencia impartida al personal de dicha aduana el 29 de julio de 1992. 

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera


Ya describí en la serie de artículos anteriores los administradores de la Aduana Interior de Torreón, Coah., desde el número uno hasta el octavo, de fechas de 1948 hasta 1972 que fueron los que yo traté durante los 25 años en que trabajé en dicha oficina como jefe de juicios.

Para conocer la lista de los siguientes de esa fecha hasta el presente año, o más bien dicho hasta 21 2006, en marzo, que fue el aniversario de la fundación de la mencionada aduana. Para ello, me entrevisté con la señora Magdalena Goitia de Rojas que fuera jefa de archivos en aquellos primeros años y que posteriormente se desempeñó como subjefa de la aduana y temporalmente como encargada de la administración mientras llegaba el titular designado por la superioridad. Ella me dio la siguiente lista que puede no tener las fechas exactas o la omisión de algún administrador, pero que fueron los datos que se pudieron obtener en los momentos en que escribí mi reciente libro Fundación y Desarrollo de la Aduana de Torreón, Coah., 1948-2006 y es como sigue:

 No. 9 el Lic. don Mariano Flores Cuarón, 1972-1973. No. 10, Lic. Mendoza Manto, 1973. No. 11, Lic. Aurelio Briones Acosta. No. 12, Lic. Gustavo Esquinca Santibáñez, que funcionaba en 1980. No. 13, Vista don Eduardo Tello Díaz, que tomó posesión el tres de febrero de 1987 hasta julio de 1989. Carlos Guerra Neira. 15. Magdalena Goitia de Rojas, de julio a octubre de 1989. 16. Lic. José S. Wilcok Peña que tomó posesión en octubre de 1989. 17. Lic. Kurt Friederick, que desempeñaba ese cargo en 1994. 18. Lic. Carlos García Arellano, que entrevisté en 1998. 19. Florentino Camacho Rivera. 20. Héctor Díaz de León Vargas. 21. Juan Héctor Rizo Herrera. 22. Jorge Armando Estúa Sastré que estaba en 21 2004. 23. Joaquín Díaz Rivera, en el 2006, quien no aceptó que lo entrevistara para mi libro, en marzo de 2006.

A la fecha en que escribo este artículo, enero de 2007, sé que hay un nuevo administrador en la Aduana de Torreón, a quien no conozco.

 Ahora voy a referirme brevemente al administrador No. 16 Lic. don José S. Wilcok Peña, quien me invitó el 29 de julio de 1992 para dar una conferencia al personal de la aduana, relacionada con la fundación de dicha oficina, de cómo se realizó, de las circunstancias que antecedieron a su fundación, de las gestiones de las Cámaras de Comercio, de la Industria, etc., de los comerciantes importadores y exportadores y de las autoridades que realizaron gestiones ante la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público, para que autorizara la creación de una aduana interior. 

Al terminar la conferencia mencionada, el administrador de la aduana me extendió el reconocimiento que dice: 

“Al margen superior izquierdo, un logotipo con las letras S.H.C.P. Hacienda. Y al margen superior derecho un logotipo con un Torreón-Aduana. La Aduana de Torreón, Coah., otorga el presente ‘Reconocimiento’ al C. don José León Robles de la Torre por su valiosa participación como expositor en la conferencia Historia de la Aduana Interior de Torreón, realizada en esta aduana interior. Torreón, Coah., a 29 de julio de 1992. El administrador Lic. José S. Wilcok. Firmado. Un sello oficial que dice Aduana Interior de Torreón, Coah.”.

Source of information: 

El siglo de Torreon website is:


Personajes de la historia

Por: José León Robles De La Torre

Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera 

Tres miembros del Ateneo Lagunero, en la celebración del 10º. aniversario de la Aduana de Torreón en 1958. De izquierda a derecha: José León Robles de la Torre, Jefe de Juicios de la Aduana, Lic. Salvador Vizcaíno Hernández (f) maestro y fino poeta; Profr
EN SU “CENTENARIO” 1907-2007 

Al celebrarse el décimo aniversario de la Aduana de Torreón, Coah., 1948-1958, se organizó una ceremonia en la que se informaría a la ciudadanía de Torreón y la Región Lagunera sobre los avances y resultados de dicha oficina. 
En ese acto, José León Robles de la Torre fue designado por el señor Manuel Cepeda Medrano, administrador de la Aduana, para decir el discurso oficial, que en parte dijo lo que sigue: 
“Con motivo de la celebración del décimo aniversario que cumplió la Aduana desde su fundación en 1948, recordando algunos hechos sucedidos en ese lapso de tiempo. En un principio se tropezó con serios problemas, como toda obra nueva, pero con la visión de que a la larga, daría óptimos frutos para esta región que en todas las épocas se ha distinguido por su progreso y engrandecimiento”. 
“En julio de aquel año de 1953, para fortuna de esta próspera región, fue designado como cuarto administrador de esta oficina el señor don Manuel Cepeda Medrano, hombre de grandes méritos que firmara la Carta Magna de 1917 que actualmente nos rige y que fuera tesorero general de la Nación en el gobierno del insigne varón de Cuatrociénegas don Venustiano Carranza, además de otros muchos cargos tanto en el Gobierno Federal como Estatal, distinguiéndose en todos ellos por su rectitud y honradez. 
El señor Cepeda Medrano ha tenido el acierto de defender los intereses del Fisco Federal y también ha puesto todo su empeño para que los dineros correspondientes a la Junta Federal de Mejoras Materiales, sean invertidos en obras de verdadero beneficio social. 
Veamos las siguientes recaudaciones en los años que a continuación se citan: 
1956. Ingresos $42’435,817.29. Para la Junta Fed. M. Mat. $836,780.38. 
1957. Ingresos $8’746,367.85. Para la Junta Fed. M. Mat. $206,289.29. 
1958. Ingresos $11’702,958.82. Para la Junta Fed. M. Mat. 235,929.39. 
1959. Ingresos $19’240,665.94. Para la Junta Fed. M. Mat. $382,895.49. 
Cuando don Manuel falleció, el Lic. Mario Moya Palencia encabezó el homenaje y dijo: 
“El Diputado Constituyente Manuel Cepeda Medrano que murió el domingo pasado en Jojutla, Morelos, fue trasladado ayer a la Casa de los Constituyentes, en donde recibió el postrer homenaje de los diez restantes legisladores de 1917 y de las autoridades del país”. 
“En nombre del presidente Echeverría presentó las condolencias a familiares y amigos del desaparecido, el secretario de Gobernación, licenciado Mario Moya Palencia. El funcionario llegó a las 18:00 horas a las calles de Río Lerma número 35,en donde está siendo velado el cadáver del legislador desaparecido. Después de hacer guardia acompañado por cinco diputados Constituyentes, el secretario de Gobernación expresó que Manuel Cepeda Medrano ‘Uno de los hombres limpios de la Revolución, tanto en el periodo de lucha armada como después...’”. 



Sent by Guillermo Padilla Origel


La casa del Conde del Valle de Súchil en Durango, es sin lugar a dudas el edificio civil colonial , mas hermoso de la ciudad y de todo el norte de México. Producto del desarrollo urbano que caracterizó a la capital de la Nueva Vizcaya en el siglo XVIII, la casa también representa el papel social de su primer dueño: Don Joseph Ignacio del Campo Soberón y Larrea, conde del valle de Súchil. Se atribuye la fina al arquitecto Don Pedro de Huertas, los estípites de la portada, la presencia de pilastras y columnas son de una sobriedad de raigambre clásico. Se inicia a mediados de 1763 y se termina antes de 1777.

El edificio esta ubicado en la esquina sur oeste de las calles 5 de febrero y Madero. La puerta esta enmarcada con pilastras rectilíneas, hay relieves con motivos tipo rococó entre las pilastras y el friso.

La fortuna que caracterizó la vida del conde, fue desarrollándose en forma paralela con la suerte de la ciudad de Durango; en el siglo XIX, la casa pasó por manos de varios Alemanes y, después pasó a Maximiliano Damm, llegado en 1850, de origen también alemán y casado con una española de apellido Palacio, y esta familia conservó el edificio entre 1858 y 1928, utilizándose como residencia y tienda, se le denominó un tiempo la casa de la cadena , porque en la entrada se había puesto una gruesa cadena. Fué comprada posteriormente por don Calixto Bourillón, y luego en 1935 por don Anacleto García, convertida en almacén grande llamado el gran "Número Once", sufriendo algunas alteraciones, a finales de la década de 1950 la casa fue adquirida por Don Jesús H. Elizondo, oriundo de Monterrey, quien hizo fortuna en Durango, posteriormente en 1985, fue establecido un centro comercial llamado "plaza los Condes", y a partir de 1988 fue restaurada y adecuada a su uso actual , comprada por Banco Nacional de México.


I.-Don Santiago del Campo, originario de Galdomes en Vizcaya, España nace por 1589, y se casa con Doña Marisa Miguel Montellano, y fue su hijo entre otros:

II.-Don Lucas del Campo y Montellano, nace por 1619, en San Pedro de Galdames, Vizcaya y se casa ahí mismo el 16 de enero de 1647 con Doña María Águeda Garay Quintana, hija de Don Sebastián y Doña María, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

III.-Don Joseph, Don Estéban del Campo y Garay y su hermano:

III.-Don Antonio del Campo y Garay, nacido el 1 de octubre de 1656, en Galdames, muerto en 1716 y casado el 6 de julio de 1676 en Galdames, con Doña Catalina Castaños, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

IV.-Doña Francisca, Don Lucas, Doña Maria Aparicia del Campo y Castaños y su hermano:

IV.-Don Gregorio del Campo y Castaños, nacido en Galdames , el 12 de marzo de 1684 y casado el 28 de enero de 1703, con Doña María de Soberón y de la Rea, nacida en Galdames en 1683, hija de Pedro y María, y fueron sus hijos de Don Gregorio y Doña María, entre otros:

V.-Don Lucas, doña Catalina, Don Antonio, Don Pedro del Campo y Soberón, este último casado con doña Marcela Erbori Lezama, y fueron sus hijos Juan Antonio y Josefa del Campo Erbori y fue su hermano:

V.-Don Joseph Ignacio del Campo y Soberón, nacido en Galdames, el 30 de julio de 1726, Primer conde del valle de Súchil, en 1776, radicado en la nueva Vizcaya, y muerto en Durango el 21 de diciembre de 1782, se casó en 1749 en Villa Madero, Dgo. , con doña María Isabel Lugarda Erauso y Somocurso, hija de don Estéban de Erauso y Leogarda Ruíz de Somocurso, y fueron sus hijos de don Joseph y de doña María Isabel, entre otros:

VI.-Doña Ana Maria Josefa, nacida en cd.Madero y casada con Juan Manuel de Castaños, Doña Maria Isabel, nacida en cd. Madero y casada con Juan José Yandiola del Campo, y fue su hija Guadalupe Yandiola del Campo, María Magdalena , nacida en cd. Madero y casada en 1798 con don Juan José Beratoreliera, Doña María Teresa del Campo Erauso y Somocurso, casada con don José Agustín de Revilla y de la Rea en 1778 en nombre de Dios, Dgo., y fue su hermano:

VI.-Don Joseph María Ignacio del Campo Erauso, bautizado el 2 de agosto de 1770, Segundo Conde del valle de Súchil, según real carta en 1784 y murió en 1825, dueño del latifundio de "Guatimapé", se casa por 1799 con Doña María Guadalupe Ruperta Bravo de Castilla y Monserrate en nombre de Dios, Dgo., hija de don Baltasar Bravo de Castilla y Paez de Guzmán y de doña María Josefa Monserrate y Fernández de Castro, y fueron sus hijos de don Joseph María y de doña María Guadalupe entre otros:

VII.-Doña Isabel, nacida en nombre de Dios, en 1800, y se casa por 1825 en Canatlán, Dgo. Con don josé Antonio Navarro M. ; don José Laureano Othón , nace por 1809 en San Miguel Guatimapé; don José Zenón, nace en 1810, en la hacienda de Amado Nervo, Dgo.; don Manuel José Estéban, nace en 1799 en nombre de Dios; doña María Dominga de las Nieves, nace en 1816, en Pinos, Dgo.; Don Manuel María Dimas, nace en 1803, en nombre de Dios; doña María del Cármen Ventura, nace en 1801 en nombre de Dios, y se casa en 1826 en Camatlán, Dgo. , con don Gaspar de Ochoa; doña María del Refugio Josefa, nace en 1809 en la hacienda de Amado Nervo, Dgo.; doña Maria Guadalupe Hermenegildo, nace en 1812 en nombre de Dios; doña María Natividad Petronila del Campo y Bravo de Castilla , nace en 1805 en nombre de Dios, Dgo. y fue su hermano:

VII.-Don Joseph Manuel Antonio del Campo y Bravo de Castilla, nace el 12 de septiembre de 1807, en Nombre de Dios, Dgo., tercer conde del Valle de Súchil, y muere en 1856, se casa el 17 de febrero de 1829, en Santiago Papasquiro, Dgo., con doña María Norberta Carlota Gandovilla y Corral y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

VIII.-Doña Rosaura, nacida en 1830 en Pinos, Dgo. y Don Ignacio del Campo y Gandovilla, nacido en 1832 en Pinos, Dgo. cuarto conde del valle de Súchil, y muerto en 1909.





1.-Paula Alamillo, contrajo matrimonio con ella en Torreón y tuvieron una hija llamada
2.- María Barraza, se casaron en Parral, tuvieron un hijo llamado Miguel, que fue adoptado por otra de sus esposas, la señora Soledad Soañez, por lo que se llamó
Miguel Villa Soáñez.
3.-María Isabel Campa, se casaron en Durango y tuvieron una hija llamada Ramoncita.
4.-Esther Cardona, con ella contrajo matrimonio en Torreón y tuvieron dos hijos gemelos, los que fallecieron al mes de nacidos.
5.-Francisca Carrillo de Matamoros, Coahuila, donde se casaron y tuvieron un hijo cuyo paradero se desconoce.
6.-Manuela Casas tuvo un hijo con Villa, del que se desconoce el paredero y se casaron en Parral, Chihuahua.
7.-Luz Corral, es la única que se casó con Villa por la Iglesia y por el civil en San Andrés, Chihuahua, el 24 de octubre de 1911, tuvieron un hijo que murió al año ocho meses.
8.-Petra Espinoza, se casaron en Santa Bárbara, Chihuahua, tuvieron una hija que se llamó Micaela.
9.-Guadalupe Coss se casó con Villa en el rancho Santigo, tuvieron un hijo llamado
10.-María Hernández, se casaron en Parral en 1920 y tuvieron un hijo del que se desconoce el paradero.
11.-Librada Peña contrajo matrimonio en Santa Bárbara,Chihuahua y tuvieron una
hija a la cual llamaron Celia Villa.
12.- Austreberta Rentería, se casó con Villa en 1921 y tuvieron dos hijos Francisco e
Hipólito, uno es médico y el otro abogado.
13.-María Reyes, contrajo matrimonio con el general en Rosario, Durango y tuvieron un hijo llamado Samuel.
14.-Soledad Soáñez se casaron en Valle de Allende, Chihuahua el día primero de mayo de 1919 y tuvieron dos hijos.
15.-Juana Torres contrajo matrimonio con Villa en Torreón y tuvieron una hija llamada Juana María.
16.-Cristina Vázquez se casó con él en Santa Bárbara, Chihuahua, tuvieron un hijo.
17.-Asunción Villaescusa, hermosa dama de Durango, se casó y tuvieron un hijo.
18.-Guadalupe Peral.
19.-María Leocadia.
20.-Guadalupe Balderrama, tuvieron un hijo.
21.- María Arreola, tuvieron una hija.
22.-Margarita Núñez, tuvieron un hijo.
23.- María Izaac se casó con Villa en Rosario, Durango.

Questions Remain Concerning Juana Porcallo de la Cerda, wife of Nuevo Leon Founder Diego de Montemayor:

Henry Bisharat-Villarreal writes

"The ancestry of Juana Porcallo de la Cerda, despite her seemingly noble lineage, remains a mystery.  Her life ended tragically in the 1580s when she was murdered by her husband, future Nuevo Leon Governor Diego de Montermayor, for having an affair with her son-in-law, Saltillo founder Alberto del Canto.  Here are the details I have so far. 
In the article "La Sangre de los Conquistadores" in Spanish genealogy magazine "Hidalguia" numero 280-281 (published in 2000), pages 621-622, Cuban genealogist Enrique Hurtado de Mendoza, Marques de San Juan de Rivera, writes: BEGIN QUOTE "En el tomo I de su monumental obra historica "Cuba: Economia y Sociedad" el erudito historiador cubano Doctor Levi Marrero Artiles, al encontrar el autografo y multitud de referencias de un Vasco Porcallo en Mexico, asumio que este era el mismo que Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa, el Conquistador y Pobaldor de Cuba, sin darse cuenta de que el Vasco Porcallo de Mexico, honomino y contemporaneo del de Cuba era distinto de nuestro. Este autografo no menciona que fuera "de Figueroa", y este otro Vasco Porcallo fallece en Mexico el 8 de diciembre de 1539 y es sepultado con el habito de San Francisco en el convento del Santo en la ciudad de Mexico.  Habia sido Conquistador de Mexico y de Guatemala, y era casado con la dama espanola llamada Dona Leonor de Zuniga, hija de Luis de Serna, vecino de Valladolid, y fallecio unos meses antes que su marido dejando dos hijos legitimos de matrimonio que eran menores: Lorenzo de Ulloa Porcallo que queda en Mexico y que en 1604 deja sucesion legitima, y Maria de la Cerda, que regreso a casa de su abuelo en Valladolid, donde se caso con Gonzalo Fernandez de Villafane, y fallece sin sucesion en 1572. Lo anterior viene relatado en el Capitulo IV de la "Historia de Remedios" de Martinez Escobar, y tambien con gran riqueza de datos en el estudio publicado por Don Jose Miguel de Mayoralgo y Lodo, Conde de los Acevedos, brillante historiador y genealogista dedicado a esclarecer la indentidad de Vasco Porcallo de Mendoza, el de Mexico, hijo de Baltasar de Mendoza y Leonor de la Cerda, primo segundo del Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa, el de Cuba, ambos bisnietos de Gonzalo Porcallo y de Maria Gutierrez de Valverde. Este estudio fue publicado en "el Bolitin de la Real Academia de las Letras y de las Artes de Extremadura", en el numero de enero-junio de 1992, paginas 99 a 111, y agradezco aqui a su autor el envio de copia del texto oportunamente." END QUOTE.
Maria Gutierrez de Valverde (mentioned above as wife of Gonzalo Porcallo) is descended from the royal family of Castile through the de la Cerda line. The question we need answered is what is Juana Porcallo de la Cerda's relationship to Vasco Porcallo de Mendoza (who died in 1539). She married Diego de Montemayor around 1572 in Mazapil. She probably cannot be the daughter of Vasco's son Lorenzo, since he was still a minor in 1539 when his father died. And I believe Juana is described as being around 40 when she was killed by Diego de Montemayor.  Nuevo Leon historian Eugenio del Hoyo in "Historia de Nuevo Reino de Leon" (1979, second edition), writes on page 260 that "Juana Porcallo de la Cerda, en 1572 vivia en Mazapil y caso ahí con Diego de Montemayor. Seguramente fue hermana de Lorenzo Porcallo de la Cerda e hija de Conquistador Vasco Porcallo. (del Hoyo’s source is Baltazar Dorantes de Carranza’s "Sumaria Relacion de las Cosas de la Nueva Espana" 1902, Mexico). del Hoyo continues: "Este Lorenzo Porcallo de la Cerda, en 1564 era dueno de una estancia en las cercanias de Toluca, vecina a la que poesia alli don Lope de Sosa. Hermana de dona Juana debo ser Maria Porcallo casada con Pedro Fernandez de Castro, que en 1567 eran hermanos en la cofradia del Santísimo Sacramento de la ciudad de Zacatecas, esto explicara el parentesco entre los Montemayor y los Fernandez de Castro."  Presumably Lorenzo Ulloa de Porcallo, son of Vasco, and Lorenzo Porcallo de la Cerda, presumed brother of Juana, the same person. Then is Juana a half sister of Lorenzo?  It would seem that she is not the daughter of Vasco Porcallo de Mendoza's legitimate Spanish wife, who only left two children.  Did this Vasco have other children by native women as many conquistadores did?  Juana is reported to have been around 40 when she was murdered -- and there is also some dispute about when she was killed.  del Hoyo says she died around 1581.  Historian Marioano G. Somonte, who I quote below, says she was murdered by her husband in 1589.    
There is reference to opposition to Juana Porcallo de la Cerda's marriage in "Don Diego de Montemayor" by Mariano G. Somonte (1971), page 55, which states as follows, quoting an earlier work by Vito Alessio Robles:
"Dice Vito Alessio Robles:  "Ya en 1572, era vecino (i.e. Montemayor) de las minas de Mazapil, pues en un proceso del Santo Oficio seguido en dicho año, contra Alonso de Vega, alcalde de la referidas minas, figura la declaracion de Beatriz Correa, la que dijo que, encontrandose en su casa Diego Ponce, haciendo un fundacion en presencia de Francisco Hernandez, "que posa en la casa de Diego de Montemayor", se trato del casamiento de este con doña Juana, la Correa dijo a Ponce no estorbase el casamiento de los dichos, a lo que replico con viveza el mismo Ponce:  "Juro a Dios y voto a Dios que, aunque sepa que los diablos me lleven el alma, que tengo que ser parte para que no se case el dicho Diego de Montemayor con la dicha doña Juana."  (Archivo General de la Nacion, ramo Inquisicion, tomo 115.)  "Don Diego de Montemayor no atendio los consejos de sus amigos y se caso con Doña Juana de la Zerda, ese ano de 1572.  Tuvieron una hija llamada Estefania."
So why did Diego de Montemayor's friends oppose his marriage to Juana?  Was there something about her we don't know?  She is called "doña" -- so presumably had some rank.  I understand that if was Indian or part Indian (from a native noble or royal family) or the natural daughter of a Porcallo de la Cerda , she could still be called "doña".  This biography goes on to report that Diego de Montemayor did not murder Juana until after her daughter Estefania was married to Alberto del Canto.   Juana was murdered in 1589, according to Somonte.  Estefania and Alberto married in 1586 or 1587 -- when Estefania was just 14 or 15 so years old.  Somonte cannot believe that Alberto and Estefania married after Diego murdered Juana.   If she was around 40 in 1589, then Juana could not even be the daughter of Vasco Porcallo de Mendoza, who died in 1539.  Was there some other man connected to the Porcallo family from Cuba or Extremadura who settled in Zacatecas at this time?  Or is she from native tribe which assumed the Porcallo name?  Silvio Zavala in  "Asientos de la gobernación de Nueva España", México, Archivo General de la Nación (1982), p. 395 writes:  "En 1551 se dio una licencia a Lucas Porcayo, cacique y gobernador de Talcocautitlan, para andar en haca.  El hecho de que un indigena tuviera el apellido se debe a que quizas el conquistador o su hijo Lorenzo hayan apadrinado a algunos indigenas cuando recibieron el bautismo, y esa forma tambien hayan recibido, por adopcion, el apellido Porcayo."  
It is believed that the Maria Porcallo married to Pedro Fernandez de Castro of Mazapil was Juana's sister -- that is as close as we get to any known possible relatives in Zacatecas of tragic Juana.  Juana's husband was never punished for her murder despite an inquisition investigation -- and then was allowed to become Governor of Nuevo Leon after the fall of the Carvajals.  Would he have been allowed to murder a noble Spanish woman and not suffer any consequences?  Many questions remain.  Hopefully historic documents can still be uncovered which will help settle this mystery.   (END)

More on Porcallo 
Who’s Who of the Conquistadors
, by Hugh Thomas. Page 226.

Porcallo de Figueroa, Vasco, born Caceres, related to the Conde de Feria. See FIGUEROA. According to the Inf. De Ortiz de Zarate, he was with Pedrarias before going to Cuba. But he was soon in Cuba helping Velazquez (and Cortez) to found cities, for exemple Remedios and Puerto Principe. He was a possible choice by Velazquez to lead the expedition which Cortez eventually led. He became captain in a company of which Montano was alferez. Later was camarero to Cortez and resided with him in his ‘real’, and was in all the battles. He was treasurer of the army after the conquest in 1521. Returning to Cuba c.1521, Diego Velazquez allocated him 165 indians in 1522 (Paso, II, 130). He killed a man (Hernando Cabrera), despite taking refuge in the church at Coyoacan, and Cortez and his friends arrested him and sentenced him, but, after Cortez set off for Honduras, he was released (CDI, 27, 392). In Cuba he was accused of brutality to the indigenous people. He later became half encomendero of Tlacosautitlan. He had a son, Lorenzo Porcallo de Figueros.

W for Montano, whom he had known for 10 or 12 years. He says he was aged over 25! (surely more by 1532 – unless there was another of the same name). [abdeg].

Sent by John Inclan

Hola John:
Te deseo un feliz año 2007.
Te quiero agradecer el que hayas desarrollado el árbol del Captain Francisco Baez de Benavides.
Gracias tus datos pude encontrar mi linea ascendente directa. Yo soy descendiente del Capitan Baez de Benavides, y en tu información aparece mi bisabuelo, Marcos Benavides Hernandez hijo de Luis Benavides García y María Rafaela Hernadez Lombraña.
Con la información pude conocer en donde habitaron y muchos datos interesantes. Ello me ha motivado ha realizar un libro tipo novela, el cual será un proyecto personal para los próximos años. pero primeramente tengo que leer y ir adquiriendo información de las diferentes épocas y lugares.
Recientemente me puse en contacto con George Farias de Borderland Bookstore, quien resulto ser tambien un Benavides, mi idea es ir leyendo y poco ir armando una historia con desde la llegada del Capitan a México, pasando por Guerrero Viejo, San Pedro de las Colinias, Allende, hasta la migración de mi familia a México D.F., para ello utilizare los datos que que vaya juntando y otro tanto que pueda surgir de la imaginación.
Por lo pronto te agradezco tu información y me pongo a tus órdenes.
Saludos cordiales.
José Luis Benavides Caicedo

The Descendents of Don Gonzalo Porcallo de Moran
Compiled by John D. Inclan
Generation No. 1

In 1464, she signed her last will and testament.

2. i. VASCO3 PORCALLO-DE-LA-CERDA, b. Caceres, Extremadura, Spain.
Generation No. 2





Generation No. 3


8. i. CAPTAIN VASCO5 PORCALLO-DE-FIGUEROA, b. 1484, Caceres, Spain; d. 1550, Puerto Principe, Cuba.
ii. CAPTAIN ALONSO DE SOTOMAYOR, d. 1528, Florida.
A member of the Panfilo de Narvaez Florida expedition, where he died of starvation.
iv. GOMEZ SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA, m. LUISA-ISABEL DE-LA-PEREA-Y-GALINDO, Ecija, Seville, Spain; b. Ecija, Seville, Spain.

9. i. REGIDOR LORENZO5 DE ULLOA-PORCALLO, d. 29 Oct 1568, Caceres, Spain.
Generation No. 4


10. i. MARIA6 DE FIGUEROA, b. Puerto Principe, Cuba.
11. ii. TERESA DE-LA-CERDA-SOTOMAYOR, b. Puerto Principe, Cuba.
12. iii. LEONOR DE-LA-CERDA, b. Puerto Principe, Cuba.
vi. LORENZO SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA, b. Puerto Principe, Cuba.


Generation No. 5




i. CRISTOBAL7 PORCALLO, b. Puerto Principe, Cuba.
ii. INEZ DE MENDOZA, b. Puerto Principe, Cuba.
iii. MARIA MANUEL, b. Puerto Principe, Cuba.


In 1520's he was in Nicaraguna.
In 1533, he reached to the rank of Captain
In Lima, Peru, February 1542, he executed his will.

i. RODRIGO7 DE GODOY, b. Abt. 1544; m. OVANDO.

1. Emigrants and Society: Extremadura and America in the Sixteenth Centry, by Ida Altman, Chapter 7., The Library of Iberia Resources Online.
2. The Library of Iberian Resource Online, Chapter 7,

[[Editor: Archivist Miguel Angel Munoz Borrego kindly answers a questions that was sent to the Genealogia-Mexico group.]]

Ayuda a genealogistas de Coahuila

Pregunto: De las personas que saben de la genealog a de Coahuila, alguien tendr informaci n de una familia de apellido Blanquis o Blanquet (usaban ambas maneras) all por los a os de 1824 a 1837.  Gracias, Cristina 
Repuesta: Cristina: Esto es lo que encontre. Abra ambos archivos con Word, por favor. Si desea algo mas espero sus letras.
Año: 1894 
Municipio: Piedras Negras 
Lugar de Nacimiento: Rancho del Quemada, Eagle Pass Texas 
Fecha de nacimiento: 9 de enero de 1894 
Fecha de registro: 21 de enero de 1894 
No. de juzgado: 
Juez: Antonio Garza Ramos 
Padre: Eutimio Gómez 
Madre: Albina González 
Niño (a): Mariana Gómez 
Abuelos Paternos: Albino Gómez y Mariana Blanquis 
Abuelos Maternos: José González y Josefa Espiricueta 
Testigos: Severo Martínez y Anastasio Leija 
Clasificación: AGEC, FRCN, C55, F1, Acta No. 20 

Miguel Angel Munoz Borrego 
Archivo General del Estado de Coahuila.
Area de Historia Familiar.  Ramos Arizpe, Coah.

[[Another question sent to and answered online.]]

Pregunta: Si alguien sabe acerca de la localizacion de Rio Grande, mi abuelo Hilario Salinas Zertuche nacio en ese pueblo en 1888, pero nunca hemos sabido donde queda, tenemos tres prospectos, el primero es un pueblo en Nuevo Leon, el segundo es un pueblo en Texas que llevaba ese nombre y el tercero es el municipio de Guerrero, Coahuila, si alguien sabe al respecto, le agradeceria su ayuda. atte. Lic. Jorge Salinas Cuellar

Respuesto: Real Presidio de San Juan Bautista del Rio Grande del Norte, hoy Guerrero Coah. Gloria Martha Perez Tijerina


Another Example of a letter to >

Hola a todos!

Quisiera saber si alguno de ustedes tiene como ancestros a JUAN 
NEPOMUCENO RODRIGUEZ, casado aproximadamente en 1790 con Marcela de 
los Dolores Alvarez-Tostado y Maciel (hija de Joseph Cayetano Alvarez-
Tostado y de Juana Maria Maciel, originarios de Teocaltiche y 
Jalostotitlan respectivamente).

Si alguien tuviera informacion sobre esta familia RODRIGUEZ, le 
agradeceria bastante si pudiera ayudarme a seguir escalando mi arbol y 
a encontrar cualquier descendiente de apellido RODRIGUEZ de este 
matrimonio de aqui de la region de Los Altos.

Gracias colegas genealogistas.
Su servidor, Ricardo Rodriguez

The Descendents of  Governor Gregorio de Salinas Varona
Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 1

1. GOVERNOR GREGORIO1 DE SALINAS-VARONA1 was born Abt. 1650 in Spain, and died Abt. 1720 in Mexico City, D. F., Mexico. He married FRANCISCA-ANTONIA DE-LA-GARZA-Y-CASTRO 06 Jul 1693 in Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico2. 
Don Gregorio de Salinas Varona, a Spanish official, was born about 1650. He entered royal service as a private soldier, and rose through the ranks. Having served nineteen years in Flanders, he was promoted in the spring of 1687 to infantry captain and ordered to recruit a company for Presidio de la Florida. He completed the task by the following June and embarked for New Spain, in company with his son Alonso, to serve the viceroy Conde de Monclova. On arrival in October 1687 Salinas was sent to Tehutepec to oust a band of pirates who had seized control of the Pacific coast and was thrice wounded in the effort. Back in Mexico City, he was ordered by the new viceroy, Conde de Galve, to join Don Alonso De Le's 1690 Texas expedition. As he journeyed north toward Monclova, he escorted four of the Franciscans destined for the first East Texas mission, San Francisco de los Tejas. At the conclusion of that entrada, he carried De Le's report to Mexico City while conducting a French prisoner, Pierre Meunier, late of the La Salle expedition. Fluent in French, he served as interpreter in Meunier's interrogation in the capital. The following October, Salinas was ordered to Veracruz to join the voyage of Francisco de Llanos to reconnoiter La Salle's old settlement site at Matagorda Bay. He commanded an infantry company on that expedition. 

By royal order of May 30, 1691, Salinas was given command of the Presidio de San Francisco de Coahuila (Monclova), but other assignments kept him away from the post. The previous month the viceroy had ordered him to assist the expedition of Governor Domingo Ter de los Rs, aimed at expanding the East Texas missionary effort. Commanding seaborne reinforcements for Ter, Salinas embarked at Veracruz on the ship Santo Cristo de San Rom, captained by Juan Enruez Barroto. He rendezvoused with Ter at Matagorda Bay, proceeded to the existing Hasinai missions, and thence to the Kadohadacho villages on the Red River in what is now Miller County, Arkansas. At the conclusion of that nightmarish adventure, he reembarked, with Ter, on Enruez's ship to sail the Mississippi River and examine Mobile and Pensacola bays. A storm that arose at the mouth of the Mississippi frustrated this undertaking. Salinas returned to Mexico City in June 1692 and, as cavalry captain, took part in quelling the corn riots. Ter, meanwhile, had resigned, and Salinas succeeded him as governor of Coahuila. Barely settled in his new post, he was ordered to undertake a relief expedition to the afflicted East Texas missions. On May 3, 1693, he left Monclova with twenty soldiers and ninety-six mules loaded with provisions. On this expedition he defined a portion of the Old San Antonio Road. During his term as governor, Salinas aided the material improvement of the Coahuila missions and assisted the "reduction" of numerous natives. His term ended on December 26, 1697. He afterward served as sargento mayor of Puebla de los Angeles and in 1705-1706 became governor of Nuevo Le. When in 1709 he was named governor of Presidio de Santa Mar de Galve at Pensacola Bay, he was serving as governor of Honduras. At Pensacola, he kept a watchful eye on the French at Mobile, especially on the doings of Louis Juchereau de St. Denis. In August 1718, shortly after a French force had withdrawn from St. Joseph Bay, Salinas occupied the site and established a presidio there. In 1720 he was granted permission to retire to Mexico City "to heal his infirmities" and died there. 

Texas Online History
A.N.A. Francisca Antonia de Castro.

Generation No. 2

2. ALONSO2 DE SALINAS-VARONA (GREGORIO1) He married JOAQUINA RAMIREZ-GALLARDO 16 Sep 1723 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Puebla De Zaragoza, Puebla, Mexico. 

i. JOSEPH-ANTONIO3 SALINAS-DE-VARONA, b. 27 Feb 1730/31, San Francisco, Tepeaca, Puebla, Mexico.

i. ANDRES3 MENCHACA-SALINAS, m. MARIA NUNEZ-ESTRADA, 10 Jul 1749, Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico3.
ii. ANTONIO MENCHACA-SALINAS, m. MARIA-TERESA FALCON-GUTIERREZ, 10 Jan 1757, Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico4.
iii. DIONISIO MENCHACA-SALINAS, m. CATHARINA VALDEZ-CORDOVA, 15 Jan 1762, Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico5,6.
5. v. PEDRO-JOSEPH MENCHACA-SALINAS, b. 16 Oct 1725, Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico.
vi. JOSEPH-DOMINGO MENCHACA-SALINAS, b. 17 Nov 1730, Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico; m. MARIA-IGNACIA FLORES-FLORES, 25 Jun 1754, Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico.
vii. MANUELA MENCHACA-SALINAS, b. 25 Dec 1733, Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico; m. FRANCISCO-JAVIER DE CASTRO-FLORES, 12 Jan 1754, Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico7; b. San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.
Index to the Marriage Investigation of the Diocese of Guadalajara, by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, and Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 32 [67-39].
Generation No. 3

4. JUAN-JOSEPH3 MENCHACA-SALINAS (MANUELA2 SALINAS-DE-VARONA, GREGORIO1 DE SALINAS-VARONA) He married (1) MARIA-JOSEFA DE YRUEGAS, daughter of JOSEFA GARCIA-FLORES. She died Bef. 17 May 1756. He married (2) MARIA-ANTONIA DE HOYOS 07 May 1756 in Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico8, daughter of PEDRO-NOLASCO DE HOYOS and MARIA-ROSA DE TIJERINA. She was born 1737.

i. FRANCISCA4 MENCHACA-YRUEGAS, m. JOAQUIN GARCIA-DE-LA-FUENTE, 09 Apr 1769, Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico.
5. PEDRO-JOSEPH3 MENCHACA-SALINAS (MANUELA2 SALINAS-DE-VARONA, GREGORIO1 DE SALINAS-VARONA) was born 16 Oct 1725 in Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico. He married CATHARINA XIMENEZ-FARIAS 23 Jul 1761 in Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico9,10, daughter of LUIS XIMENEZ-CASTRO and ROSA FARIAS. She was born 1747 in San Juan Bautista del Rio Grande, Coahulia, Mexico.

i. JOSE-MANUEL4 MENCHACA-XIMENEZ, b. 06 Sep 1771, San Buenaventura, Coahuila, Mexico.
ii. MARIA-JOSEFA MENCHACA-XIMENEZ, b. 03 Jan 1779, Santiago Apostol, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico.

1. Texas Online History.
2. Marriages of Monclova Coahuila, Mexico During the Spanish Colonial Era 1686 - 1822, Transcribed and translated by Mickey Margot Garcia, Page 2..
3. Marriages of Monclova Coahuila, Mexico During the Spanish Colonial Era 1686 - 1822, Transcribed and translated by Mickey Margot Garcia, Page 31..
4. Marriages of Monclova Coahuila, Mexico During the Spanish Colonial Era 1686 - 1822, Transcribed and translated by Mickey Margot Garcia, Page 53..
5. Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, and Baldomero Vela, Jr., Page 197. [#103-3]..
6. Marriages of Monclova Coahuila, Mexico During the Spanish Colonial Era 1686 - 1822, Transcribed and translated by Mickey Margot Garcia, Page 72..
7. Marriages of Monclova Coahuila, Mexico During the Spanish Colonial Era 1686 - 1822, Transcribed and translated by Mickey Margot Garcia, Page 40..
8. Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, and Baldomero Vela, Jr., Page 65. [#71-5]..
9. Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, and Baldomero Vela, Jr., Page 132. [#87-17]..
10. Marriages of Monclova Coahuila, Mexico During the Spanish Colonial Era 1686 - 1822, Transcribed and translated by Mickey Margot Garcia, Page 70..

Called Mickey Garcia about the availability of her book, Marriages of Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico During the Spanish Colonial Era 1686-1822.  Mickey said that the book can be purchased from Borderlands Books. Go to


[[Editor: Just came to my attention. I don't know how long they have been circulating information, but it is a nice selection of articles, with an abstract and links to the original article.  Sent by Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia, Presidente La Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico. Contact information below.]]

Historias de la semana 

Notas de interés sobre historia, patrimonio histórico, usos (y abusos) sociales de la historia de México aparecidas en diversas publicaciones virtuales entre el 15 y el 21 de enero de 2007  Vea la nota completa utilizando los "vínculos" indicados.
Distribución gratuita, sólo para usos académicos

Compilación: Roberto David Reyes Avellaneda (FFyL-UNAM)

En esta entrega:

* Buscarán con un radar presunta cámara funeraria azteca
* Arqueólogos buscan otras áreas del Templo Mayor
* Ultiman rescate del santuario El Cerrito <Querétaro>
* Pérdida de funciones dentales disminuyó esperanza de vida de indígenas
* Mel Gibson recreó un libro franciscano en su película "Apocalypto" (y otras notas sobre
   el tema)
* Rescata INAH en un disco compacto legado de "minuetes mariacheros"
* Presentación del Libro "Ojinaga y los protagonistas de su historia"
* Busca INAH restos de Morelos
* Pierden Tratados de Córdoba
* Especialistas participarán en el Taller de Estudios sobre la Muerte
* Propondrán crear una NOM para la conservación de fonogramas.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

* Buscarán con un radar presunta cámara funeraria azteca Expertos mexicanos usarán un radar para establecer si hay una cámara funeraria debajo del monolito de Tlaltecuhtli, "señor o señora de la tierra", encontrado en octubre en la zona arqueológica del Templo Mayor de la capital mexicana. Según informó hoy el Instituto Nacional de Antropología e
Historia (INAH) en un comunicado, primero se creará una estructura especial para retirar y restaurar el monolito de 12 toneladas, hallado en la Casa de Las Ajaracas durante trabajos de remodelación. DPA, Milenio, 17 de enero

* Arqueólogos buscan otras áreas del Templo Mayor
Especialistas del Programa de Arqueología Urbana (PAU) realizan por primera vez excavaciones de reconocimiento en una parte de la calle de Donceles, en el Centro Histórico capitalino, donde se ubica el Centro Cultural de España en México (CCEMX), y se presume aún forma parte del Templo Mayor. Así lo informó Alvaro Barrera, arqueólogo responsable de los trabajos, quien precisó que las obras comenzaron en diciembre de 2006 en el citado predio, en la parte trasera del CCEMX y que correspondería al área que ocupó el máximo centro ceremonial azteca. Notimex, El Informador, 17 de enero

* Ultiman rescate del santuario El Cerrito
El más importante santuario y centro sagrado del norte de Mesoamérica entre los años 700 al 900 d.C., y punto de confluencia entre culturas nómadas y mesoamericanas, conocido como El Cerrito, ha sido recuperado en más de 70% desu edificación. A partir de los trabajos que durante tres años han realizado arqueólogos e investigadores del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) se rescataron la fachada oriente y gran parte de la fachada sur de la pirámide.
Juan José Arreola, El Universal, 18 de enero
Ver también artículo com imagen en

* Pérdida de funciones dentales disminuyó esperanza de vida de indígenas Los indios californios "tenían sus dientes blancos como marfil la esperanza de vida apenas tenía en promedio 35 años, la que disminuyó a 25 después del contacto español y principalmente por la pérdida de funcionalidad de piezas dentarias. Asimismo era gente de buena presencia y bien proporcionada, muy ligera y ágil y eran altos y fornidos, a decir de los antropólogos físicos Leticia Sánchez García y Alfonso Rosales López, adscritos al Instituto
Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) en Baja California Sur, a través de su investigación "La falsa edad de los antiguos californios".
Notimex, El Informador, 18 de enero

* Mel Gibson recreó un libro franciscano en su película "Apocalypto" El actor y director Mel Gibson, quien actualmente promueve su más reciente película, "Apocalypto", dejó ver que su principal fuente de documentación fue un texto escrito hace años por un religioso, quien narró la forma de vida de los nativos americanos."Es un muy buen libro escrito por el
franciscano Diego de Landa, quien da testimonio, de primera mano de los hábitos, de las costumbres, de la forma en que se desarrolló la vida de hombres y mujeres originales de Mesoamérica". Con esa referencia, dio forma al filme.
Notimex, La Crónica de Hoy, 16 de enero.
Otras notas sobre el tema:
Gibson responde a los detractores de "Apocalypto" ante su estrenomexicano
Noticine, 16 de enero
Prevén mayor discriminación
Estreno en México de "Apocalypto" divide a comunidades mayas
El Sol de México, 16 Enero

* Busca INAH restos de Morelos
La senadora Martha Leticia Rivera Cisneros reconoció las acciones que el Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) realiza para conocer el paradero de los restos de José María Morelos y Pavón. La también secretaria de la Comisión de Cultura de la Cámara Alta manifestó su beneplácito por la labor que realizan, junto con el INAH, el gobierno del estado de Morelos, el Distrito Federal, académicos, demás instituciones y especialistas en temas históricos para este fin.
El Porvenir, 16 de enero

* Pierden Tratados de Córdoba
Por considerarlo un derecho del pueblo de Córdoba -y de los mexicanos en general-, en Agosto del 2006, por instrucciones del alcalde de aquel lugar, Francisco Portilla Bonilla, el Secretario del Ayuntamiento, Rogelio Hernández emprendió una campaña de gestión para recuperar el original de los Tratados de Córdoba firmados el 24 de Agosto de 1821 por Juan de O'Donojú (último virrey español) y Agustín de Iturbide (comandante del Ejército Trigarante), documento que reconoce la Independencia de México...El documento es básico para el País, ya que representa la constancia histórica de nuestra independencia, situación en la que debería intervenir el propio Presidente Felipe Calderón Hinojosa
Carlos Jesús Rodríguez, Hoy Tamaulipas, _de_

* Rescata INAH en un disco compacto legado de "minuetes mariacheros" Una selección de temas que eran interpretados en la región de Occidente, entre los años de 1772 y 1829, durante las ceremonias de defunción, ha sido rescatada por el antropólogo Jesús Jauregui en el disco compacto La plegaria musical del mariachi. Velada de minuetes en la catedral de Guadalajara. El material, editado en la colección "Testimonio musical de México", es
producto de un amplio estudio que inició Jáuregui, convencido de que el mariachi es un tema de la sociedad mexicana, próximo en tiempo y espacio, además de compartido, pues "forma parte de la conciencia colectiva y de la identidad nacional".
Notimex, La Jornada, 19 de enero

* Presentación del Libro "Ojinaga y los protagonistas de su historia"
En el Museo y Casa de la Cultura "Manuel Ojinaga", se hizo la presentación del libro" Ojinaga y los protagonistas de su historia" escrito por el Prof.. Raúl Juventino Juárez Acosta. Previo a la presentación de este magnífico libro de de historia regional, se exhibió un documental del investigador Gregorio Rocha titulado "Los Rollos Perdidos de Pancho Villa" en donde se aborda el episodio de la Toma de Ojinaga y que supuestamente aquí se había filmado. Masnoticias, La Red del Norte, 17 de enero

* Especialistas participarán en el Taller de Estudios sobre la Muerte
Como desde hace 20 años, arqueólogos, antropólogos, historiadores, lingüistas y otros especialistas se darán cita en la Dirección de Estudios Históricos (DEH), del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH), para participar a lo largo del año en el Taller de Estudios sobre la Muerte. En entrevista con Notimex, la historiadora y organizadora del encuentro, Elsa Malvido, señaló que el acontecimiento busca analizar, discutir y aportar nuevas líneas de investigación en torno a la muerte, "en todas sus expresiones" y atraer el máximo número de especialistas en torno al tema.
Notimex, La Crónica, 16 de enero

* Propondrán crear una NOM para la conservación de fonogramas. A fin de contar con un recurso legal y técnico para el mantenimiento de los archivos sonoros; distintas instituciones especializadas buscarán este año crear la Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM) para la Conservación de Fonogramas. Benjamín Muratalla, director de la Fonoteca Nacional del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH), de donde surge la propuesta, explicó que en el proceso ante la Secretaría de Economía participarán representantes de
fonotecas, filmotecas, videotecas y artistas relacionados con los medios audiovisuales.
Notimex, Mundo Hispano de KSL, 15 de enero.

Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia
Presidente La Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico
Rancho San Javier 109
Col. Nueva Aurora
Guadalupe, Nuevo Leon
67190 Mexico
mobile: (81) 1492-6400 (81) 1276-7868 

* Recibes este mensaje porque estás suscrito al Grupo de Google: "Genealogía de México". 
* Nuestra pagina web oficial la encuentras en
* Si quieres publicar en este grupo escribe a:
* Modifica tus preferencias en
Los miembros de la Sociedad Genealógica del Norte de México se comunican gratuitamente entre si usando equipos de Voz sobre IP de


Racer's Storm
Central America and Caribbean 1521-80
La Presencía de Germáníca en Puerto Rico


Racer's Storm 

On 28 September 1837, the HMS Racer spotted a hurricane in the Caribbean near Jamaica. Dubbed "Racer's Storm," the storm would carve a 2,000 path of destruction that swept across the Yucatan Peninsula, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Racer's Storm devastated all of the boats in the Brazos Santiago harbor (Texas) and caused shipwrecks all along its path, wiped out almost all of the houses in Galveston, caused widespread damage to structures in Louisiana, and did significant harm to the cotton crop in its path.

Spanish and French West Indies 1580-1744

Central America and Caribbean 1521-80

In Puerto Rico the El Morro Castle was able to defeat the attacks by Drake and Hawkins in 1595. However, George Clifford, the Earl of Cumberland, led an attack with 1,400 troops in June 1598 that forced the garrison of 400 men to surrender, but the English lost 400 men to disease and left with slaves, sugar, ginger, and pearls in September.

Puerto Rico governor Juan Perez de Guzman began the policy of granting slaves asylum in 1664, and he urged Spain's Council of the Indies to adopt this policy. The British objected, and after 1683 they often occupied Vieques in order to catch fugitives and to trade with Puerto Rico. Contraband trading in Puerto Rico had become increasingly popular ever since they prohibited the cultivation of ginger in 1602. In 1691 a clergyman from San German was beaten up for reporting to San Juan illegal commerce in Ponce. As smuggling increased in the 1690s, private ships were encouraged to seize vessels; but this led to plundering any cargo ship.

Puerto Rico fought off minor invasions by the British in 1702 and the Dutch the next year. The mulatto Miguel Henriquez was so successful at privateering that King Felipe V commended him in 1713. In 1731 Governor Matias de Abadia was instructed to curb contraband trading, but he protected the French and Dutch corsairs while punishing British smugglers. Privateers from Puerto Rico seized a fleet of six English ships bound for North American colonies in 1734.

In 1597 the fortress at Castillo del Morro was completed to protect the Havana harbor. During the 17th century Cuba suffered epidemics and attacks by Europeans as the population increased from 20,000 to about 50,000. Tobacco cultivation was banned for ten years until 1614 when it was revived; but the entire crop had to be shipped to Seville. Pirate raids slowed down after the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697 as the English began executing buccaneers.

In 1708 a Spanish royal decree enabled slaves to purchase their freedom, and the vast majority of freed Africans in the West Indies were in the Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico and Cuba. In 1715 the Spanish established the Factoria in Cuba to monopolize the tobacco business, but the growers revolted against this two years later and again in 1720 and 1723. That year a Belgian set up a printing press, and in 1728 Dominicans founded the University of San Jeronimo at Havana. Slaves in the copper mines of Santiago, Cuba revolted in 1729 and again two years later.

Following royal orders, in 1605 Española governor Antonio de Osorio ignored cabildo protests and had the settlements at Puerto Plata, Montecristi, La Yaguana, and Bayaja burned to stop smuggling. Some rebelled and were defeated while others fled to Cuba. Only 2,000 livestock out of 110,000 survived in the new pasture. One third of the people from La Yaguana and Bayaja who were settled at Bayaguana died of hunger and disease by 1609. During the Thirty Years War (1618-48) the Dutch blocked Spanish shipping, and the sugar mills stopped producing. Governor Chavez de Osorio (1628-36) monopolized defense industries and acquired a fortune, as did his successor, Juan Bietrian de Biamonte (1636-44), who also controlled export licenses. He brought in 250 Portuguese soldiers to protect his tyranny. In 1662 colonists requested a license to import slaves for their cacao plantations, and the Crown replied that a contract to import 3,500 Africans annually into the Indies had been signed. An effort to recapture fugitive slaves called cimarrones in 1665 gained only seventy. The French attacked Santiago in 1667, and this was followed by a devastating hurricane the next year and a smallpox epidemic that killed about 1,500 in 1669. That year 400 Africans were brought to Española, but the colony could only afford to buy 140. In 1677 twelve slaves escaped from French territory and were given refuge and their freedom in Santo Domingo. In 1681 the Spaniards began selling horses, salted meat, and cowhides to the French. De Cussy's attack on Santiago de los Caballeros in 1690 burned 160 homes, but the Spaniards retaliated with an attack in the north the next year.

The Spanish colony on Española supplied the populated sugar-producing St. Domingue colony with cattle in the 18th century. When the Spanish governor imposed a tax on the cattle sold to the French in 1721, the people of Santiago rebelled against it until troops subdued them. The French gradually pushed the border east until it was fixed in the agreement of 1731. When the new governor Pedro Zorilla de San Martin discovered in 1741 that the French were taxing the meat, he prohibited the export of livestock. St. Domingue was suffering a drought, and they persuaded the Spanish governor to permit an export quota of 200 cattle per month. The conflicts continued until they signed a treaty in 1764 for the free trade of cattle.

In the 18th century St. Domingue became France's greatest colony. In 1705 an ordinance required every free man to serve in the militia. In 1734 marriages between Europeans and Africans were banned, and officers were dismissed for marrying mulatresses.

The French began their conquest of the Windward Islands in 1635. Sixty or more slaves fled to a mountain in the French portion of St. Kitts in 1639 and were killed. Tortuga Island is just north of western Española; the English, Dutch, French, and Spanish fought over this island from 1630 until 1659, when the French gained control of what they called La Tortue along with the western portion of Española they renamed St. Domingue. Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert chartered the French West India Company in 1664. A royal order opened to the French the slave trade from Guinea to the islands, and by 1672 the French had imported 3,000 Africans into their Caribbean colonies. That year all the French colonies were taken over by the Crown. Bertrand d'Ogeron de la Bouere reached La Tortue and Port-de-Paix the next year. He collected women from French jails and married them to settlers, increasing the colony from 400 to 1,500 by 1669. When the Company raised prices by two-thirds the next year, the people revolted. Admiral Gabaret helped suppress the rebellion, and Ogeron persuaded Colbert to pardon them. Tobacco was the chief crop, and exports increased along with immigration. Ogeron was succeeded by Jacques Nepveu, Seigneur de Pouancey, in 1675.

Padrejean was a former Spanish slave, and he led a slave revolt in 1679 that massacred European settlers and burned plantations until the rebelling Africans were killed. When de Pouancey died in 1682, a census of St. Domingue counted 6,658 people with eight priests. In 1687 the Spaniards captured the fort at Petit-Goave, but the French fought back and hanged their leaders. Two years later Louis XIV was at war and ordered the French to invade the Spaniards, and Tarin de Cussy sacked Santiago. In 1691 the Spaniards attacked the north and killed about five hundred. In 1694 Jean-Baptiste du Casse led an attack on Jamaica that burned 200 homes and looted machinery and distilleries while capturing 3,000 slaves and £60,000 . A year later the British allied with the Spanish in an invasion that sacked and burned Cap François and Port-de-Paix. Du Casse moved his government to Léogane. In 1697 he led an expedition with 650 buccaneers and 180 African pioneers along with 170 soldiers and 110 volunteers that plundered rich treasures at Cartagena. The Peace of Ryswick recognized French sovereignty over western Española in September 1697.

That year a revolt by 300 slaves was suppressed. The number of slaves in St. Domingue increased from 2,000 in 1681 to more than ten thousand by the end of the century. Louis XIV issued a royal decree in 1685 that came to be known as the Code Noir. Slaves had the rights of marriage and family cohesion, due process of law, and religious instruction in Catholicism. They were forbidden to carry arms, own property, trade, hold meetings, testify against a master, or leave the plantation; theft, assault, and escape had severe penalties. The masters were responsible for the feeding, clothing, and well being of the slaves; corporal punishment was allowed, but torture, mutilation, and death were prohibited except by law. A slave could get the death penalty for striking a master or his wife, and runaways were mutilated the first two times and executed after a third attempt. A master having sexual intercourse with a slave could have her and the children confiscated. Slaves could be mortgaged as moveable property. Masters could liberate those who had been slaves for twenty years, and freedmen had all the rights and privileges of persons born free.

The essay above is taken from the website. . .
Spanish Colonies and the West Indies 1580-1744
by Sanderson Beck
Shared by John Inclan

Each of the titles below is available at:
Rio de la Plata 1580-1744
Peru and Chile 1580-1744
New Granada 1580-1744
Central America 1580-1744
Mexico 1580-1744
Northern Mexico 1580-1744
Spanish and French West Indies 1580-1744
British and Dutch West Indies 1580-1744

La Presencía de germáníca en Puerto Rico
by Haydée Reichard de Cancio
Sent by Roberto Camp y Lewis

Starting in 1788, with La Ley de Comercio Libre, peninsulares started migrating to Puerto Rico. In 1815 under la Real Cedula de Gracias, nations that were friends to Spain were allowed to immigrant, with the provision that they would take the Catholic faith. Among those that entered were Carl M. Reichard, great grandfather of the webmaster of this site. 

The website has many resources for Puerto Rican researchers, family pedigrees, census records, reviews of books, and much more. The website is in Spanish, but the books identified are both in Spanish or English. 

According to Professor Ursula Acosta, the first German immigrants arrived in Puerto Rico from Curaçao and Austria during the early 19th century. Many of these early German immigrants established warehouses and businesses in the coastal towns of Fajardo, Arroyo, Ponce, Mayagüez, Cabo Rojo and Aguadilla. One of the reasons that these businessman established themselves in the island was that Germany depended mostly on Great Britain for such products as coffee, sugar and tobacco. By establishing businesses dedicated to the exportation and importation of these and other goods, Germany no longer had to pay the high tariffs which the English charged them. Not all of the immigrants were businessmen, some were teachers, farmers and skilled laborers.[1]  Wikipedia 


Complutense University of Madrid
Live in Sevilla
The Hispanic Role in America
Spain seeks a makeover for gangs
The Library of Iberian Resources Online
Concatedral de Santa Maria - Cáceres 

Complutense University of Madrid
Posted by Jens Redmer, Head of Google Book Search, Europe
Sent by Janete Vargas

Out-of-copyright books previously only available to people with access to Madrid's Complutense University Library, or the money to travel, will now be accessible to everyone with an Internet connection, wherever they live. We are quite literally opening our library to the world. - Carlos Berzosa Alonso-Martínez, Chancellor of the Complutense University of Madrid 

Browsing the library stacks at the University Complutense of Madrid is like taking a trip through the great moments of Spanish and Latin American literature: Miguel de Cervantes, Quevedo, Calderón, Sor Juana de la Cruz, Garcilaso de la Vega.

Those authors' great works soon will be accessible to everyone around the world, as the University Complutense of Madrid -- the largest university library in Spain -- becomes the first Spanish-language library and the second European library to join the Google Books Library Project. This partnership will further enrich Book Search's multilingual collection of public domain works. In addition to Spanish texts, the university's collection also includes French, German, Latin, Italian, and English works. 

We're honored to be working with the University Complutense of Madrid -- we've been helping people find information for eight years; they have centuries of experience educating people from all over the world. We're looking forward to learning a lot from them. 

Live in Sevilla
For more information, contact Roberto Camp y Lewis

¡¡Hola!!  Live in Sevilla is a unique service for visitors who plan university studies, to take flamenco classes, learn Spanish or carry out alternative tourism in the heart of our city.  If you want short or long-term immersions, and to enjoy reasonable accommodations, please contact us.  ¡¡Hasta pronto!! 

With us you will become part of Sevilla’s true life style, festivals and folklore events, savor culinary delights, feel the warmth of our people and join our daily (and nightly!!!) activities. 

We want your visit to be one of the most exciting and enriching experiences of your life.  ¡¡Hasta pronto!! ... and ...   Vive Sevilla 

The Hispanic Role in America
A chronology compiled by Dr. Juan M. Perez, Hispanic Division, Library of Congress

Editor: Juan Manuel Pérez, español, gallego y bibliotecario, es investigador en la sección hispánica de la Biblioteca del Congreso en Washington. Autor de numerosas obras, "Manolo" como le conocen los amigos, es también coleccionista de armas de los Siglos XVIII y XIX. Por su excelente obra como autor y su labor en la comunidad hispana del área, como vicepresidente de la Casa de España de Baltimore, el Rey de España le concedió la Medalla de Isabel la Católica. 

Lots of Hispanic community news items and events in the Baltimore-Washington DC metropolitan area. 

Also a very detailed list of important historical dates. . . starting in 1372.
First four dates . . . 
1372 Basques arrived in Newfoundland.   
1492 Cristóbal Colón discovered America for Spain.   
1493 Colón introduced sugar cane in the New World.   
1494 January 6. Fray Bernardo Boil celebrated mass in Hispaniola, perhaps the first mass celebrated in America.   
June 7. Treaty of Tordesillas was signed between Spain and Portugal, which divided the newly discovered lands between the two countries. Under this treaty, Portugal claimed Brazil.  

Sent by Bill Carmena

Spain seeks a makeover for gangs: 
By Tracy Wilkinson, LA Times Staff Writer 
December 18, 2006

Barcelona's experiment calls for cultivating and integrating migrant Latin American youths into productive society.

BARCELONA, SPAIN, The look is all too familiar to residents of Los Angeles and most other major American cities. Baggy pants on young men who move in a half-slouch, half-swagger. Gothic tattoos snaking out of oversize T-shirts. Jerky hand signals, nicknames and secret rituals.

Gangs have come to Spain.

A decade of immigration from Latin America has given rise to groups with names such as the Latin Kings, Vatos Locos and Mara Salvatrucha; veteran gangs born in Chicago, Puerto Rico or Los Angeles that are undergoing a kind of transatlantic globalization.

Their appearance in this country in the last few years, and reports linking them to a sudden surge in crime, has terrified Spaniards and forced them to confront yet another twist in the twin issues of immigration and integration: accepting their Latino brethren.

"The Spanish here tell me to go back to my country, to get out of theirs, the usual stuff," said Antonio, a tattooed 23-year-old from Ecuador who has been a member of the Latin Kings since he was 13, first there, now here. "The Latin Kings is a way to protect and better myself."

In Barcelona, the capital of Spain's autonomous Catalonia region, authorities are conducting a controversial experiment: Rather than fight the gangs, they have granted legal status to a subset of the Latin Kings and its female auxiliary, the Latin Queens, recognizing them as a "youth cultural association" with access to city funds and venues.

Officials hope to cultivate and integrate these youths into productive society, turning them away from the path of delinquency. It is too early to make broad conclusions, but officials say no violence or criminal activity has been associated with the group since the project was launched a few months ago. A second gang, the Netas, is considering coming on board.

Erika Jaramillo, a.k.a. Queen Melody, is the leader of the Latin Kings and Queens in Barcelona. Rejecting the label of violent gang, she said, members are "going straight," focusing on obtaining proper residency and work permits, learning to function in Spanish society and fighting for their rights and against discrimination.

"It's going to be a lot of long, hard work," she said.

Many of the gangs that have reproduced themselves in Spain, at least in name, are less violent than their U.S. counterparts. Still, Spaniards greeted them with fear.

"We want to change the negative attitude people in Spain have toward us," Jaramillo said. "We don't want to have to be in parks and have the police come and chase us away, and to be asked all the time to show our documents. How long will it take for them to accept us?"

The experience of Central and South Americans in Spain exposes the prejudices of a nation that likes to think of itself as welcoming of immigrants and receptive to cultural diversity.

They share the same language, more or less, but Latin Americans speak Spanish with a very different accent. In Barcelona they have not learned the local language of Catalan, their skin is generally darker, and their features often reflect indigenous blood not typical of Spaniards.

"We have been racist; it must be said," said Josep Maria Lahosa, a Barcelona city official who sponsored the legalization initiative. The bias that once focused on Gypsies and Arabs, he said, has been directed at Latin Americans.

This is how the gang culture emerged in Spain: Latin Americans, mostly women, came to work in Madrid, Barcelona and other cities in the 1990s. The country's relatively liberal immigration policies allowed for family reunifications, which meant the adults began to bring over their children, who, in many cases, had joined gangs in their home countries.

Isolated, alienated, rejected and lonely, the newcomers re-created the structure they had known at home. In much the same way young Salvadoran immigrants who were deported from Los Angeles took the Mara Salvatrucha gang back to El Salvador, these youths brought their gangs to Spain.

There are important differences between the versions of the gangs on both sides of the Atlantic. The U.S. and Latin American chapters have a long history of crime and prison stays. Some of the Spanish branches are really just copycats, using the same nomenclature, symbols and rituals (often learned on the Internet) but with little association with the original group.

On the other hand, Jaramillo, Antonio and several other Latin Kings and Queens in Barcelona were already established members in their homelands, and the Barcelona group has been recognized by members in the U.S., where they call themselves a "nation." A "national spokesman" of the Latin Kings in New York, known as King Mission, came to Barcelona in October to endorse Jaramillo's group and its efforts to go straight.

The Latin Kings gang was born in Chicago in the 1940s and over decades spread to other U.S. cities and Latin America, especially Ecuador. The other gang debating legalization, the Netas, was born in the 1950s in Puerto Rican prisons and also eventually branched out.

In Spain, the phenomenon is more recent. In parts of the country, the number of Latin American minors arriving as immigrants quadrupled from 1999 through 2004, according to government statistics, and a small percentage of them had or developed gang ties.

Barcelona knew it had a problem in late 2002 when teachers began noticing new graffiti on school buildings. (The Latin Kings' signature drawing is a crown.) Then they started seeing more playground brawls. The schools contacted police, who launched an investigation and contacted the city department that oversees youth issues.

"We were seeing and hearing slogans and we didn't know what they were," Lahosa said.

Once the officials determined that gangs had formed, they were worried. Soon, however, they came to believe that they were dealing with a "different reality," as Lahosa put it, a phenomenon resulting from immigration and dysfunctional integration rather than hard-core criminal enterprises.

The city enlisted a social anthropologist, Carles Feixa of the University of Lleida, to study the gangs, figure out who they were and why they had appeared, and then devise a response.

From that came the idea to attempt to transform the street pandillas, as gangs are known in Spanish, to the more benign (in theory) cultural associations.

It may have helped that the Barcelona government, with its considerable regional independence, is controlled by leftist parties that favored a sociological approach. Madrid, which has rejected that tactic, is run by the right. Authorities there say they have had to deal with more crimes than Catalonia. At least three top gang members in Madrid are in prison on charges of murder, sexual assault or other crimes.

Lahosa and other Barcelona officials invited gang members to an initial meeting in spring 2005. In the meantime, a spate of killings and robberies, some of them wrongly attributed to gangs, created panic, fanned by headlines such as "Latin bands and cannibals."

The Barcelona officials made an offer: If the young Latinos would renounce violence and agree to abide by rules that included respecting women and choosing leaders democratically, the city would grant them the new status.

The officials had taken precautions, however: With the help of police, they had screened the initial group to be sure none had criminal records. "We wanted to know who we were sitting down with," Lahosa said.

Jaramillo, who at 32 is a little older than the other Latin Kings and Queens, said her associates had doubts. They had to be persuaded to abandon much of their gang lifestyle.

So far their work as a cultural group has consisted of information sessions, the production of a documentary film and the writing and recording of hip-hop songs about the immigrant experience.

Jaramillo, a petite, oval-faced woman with a mane of black curls, has had a typical experience. She came to Spain alone four years ago, leaving a 10-year-old daughter and infant son in the care of her mother.

"We are young, and as young people we have committed errors," Jaramillo said. "We are not little angels, but we are not bad people."

Not everyone is buying it. No other part of Spain has followed Barcelona's model. And here in the Catalonian capital there is deep skepticism.

David Madi, a senior official with the center-right party that won the recent regional elections, suggested the government had been too lenient with the Latin Kings and Queens.

"It is really hard for me to believe," he said, "that one day they are a gang and the next day they aren't."

Sent by: Dr. Carlos Munoz, Jr.
Professor Emeritus
Department of Ethnic Studies
FAX 510-642-6456


imagemap About Libro Author Catalog Title Catalog Copyright Search Contact Us
Sent by John Inclan

Aristocrats and Traders:
Sevillian Society in the Sixteenth Century by
Ruth Pike

Chapter One
Population Trends:

The Demographic Revolution of Seville

[1] The discovery of America and the establishment of the Casa de Contratación in Seville in 1503 converted this Andalusian port town into a thriving international metropolis. "Was not Seville and all Andalusia the furthest point and the end of all land, and now it is the middle to which come the best and most esteemed of the Old World... to be carried to the New." (1) The fabulous riches that arrived from America attracted to its banks individuals from all over Spain and the rest of Europe as well. Within a period of roughly fifty years its population doubled and it became the largest city in Spain. Seville's rapid demographic growth captivated the attention of contemporaries. As early as the 1550's the prominent Sevillian physician Dr. Franco described the town as a "mare magnum." (2) By the end of the century Lope de Vega and other Golden Age writers generally referred to the city as a "new Babylonia." In fact, [2] this term "Babylonia" eventually found its way into thieves' jargon (germanía) of the period as a synonym for Seville. (3)

While contemporary observers were duly impressed with the numerical superiority of Seville as a sign of its new prosperity, most of them were either reluctant or unable to give any actual figures. None of Seville's sixteenth-century historians ventured any estimates of the total population of their town, although Alonso de Morgado, a long-time resident of the Triana quarter, felt well enough informed about that district to state that it contained around 4,000 householders in 1587. Seventeenth-century accounts present exaggerated numbers that fluctuate from source to source. An example is the figure of 230,000 inhabitants for Seville as claimed by Rodrigo Caro in 1634. (4)

Unlike the chroniclers, modern historians have long been intrigued by the rise of Sevillian population in the sixteenth century and have tried to measure and chart its course. (5) This has been a difficult and unrewarding task for the available sources are few and their reliability is dubious. Moreover, none of the existing documents contain figures for the total number of inhabitants, but rather for the vecinos pecheros (taxpaying householders) . This problem is almost insurmountable since there is really no way to determine [3] the exact numerical relationship between vecinos and inhabitants. Several multipliers have been used, but none of them can ever be completely satisfactory. Spanish historians have generally adopted the coefficient five, but many French scholars like Fernand Braudel feel that 4.5 is more realistic. (6)

Birth and mortality rates are among the most important factors in determining the multiplier. Although it is generally assumed that many children were born to the individual family in the sixteenth century, infant mortality took a heavy toll. Therefore the average family was really not larger than it is today, that is, it consisted of four members, but the total number of children at any given time must have been more than now. (7) Since Seville contained so many wealthy merchant families in addition to a sizable resident nobility, the number of individuals in each household was probably greater than in most Spanish cities. Servants and slaves were especially numerous in Seville, and slaves were widely distributed among all classes of the population, including artisans. All of this leads us to adopt five as the most convenient multiplier for Seville. This does not include, however, the large transient population -- foreigners, seamen, beggars, and Moriscos -- all of whom abounded in Seville, or the nobility and the clergy who were exempt from paying taxes. Collective units such as hospitals and [4] jails are also omitted from this count. (8) Unfortunately, the exact numbers of these groups can never be determined, and all figures for them are largely guesswork.

While all of our sources estimate population in terms of vecinos, the ecclesiastical censuses also use the classification personas de confesión y comunión. The meaning of this term is debatable. Ruiz Almansa interprets it as including parishioners fifteen years or older, but Domínguez Ortiz claims that it was general practice in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to begin confession at from twelve to fourteen years of age and to take communion as early as age seven. In any event young children (who as stated before must have been more numerous than today) would have been excluded from this count. Domínguez Ortiz feels that the figures for personas de confesión y comunión should be increased from 20 to 25 per cent to include them. (9) Again much of the floating population would not be counted in any ecclesiastical census since they were not attached to any parish and many probably did not attend church regularly.

There are three ecclesiastical censuses for Seville in the sixteenth century, dated 1561, 1565, and 1588, respectively. Two of these vecindarios, those of 1561 and 1588, contain figures for the number of vecinos and casas (houses) in [5] each Sevillian parish, while the census of 1588 also includes statistics for personas de confesión. (10) It is not clear whether or not the secular clergy were included in the census of 1588; an attempt was apparently made to list them in 1561, but it is not complete. (11) As for the census of 1565, although the parish lists are no longer in existence, the totals for the various categories still remain. (12) Other material relating to Sevillian demography in the sixteenth century includes figures drawn from the fiscal tallies of 1530 and 1591-1594 (totals only) that were published by Tomás González in his Censo de población de las provincias y partidas de la Corona de Castilla published in 1829. In addition to these sources there has now emerged from the Sevillian Archives another fiscal census compiled in 1534. (13) The importance [6] of this padrón cannot be measured. With its parish lists intact, it provides the additional statistical information that enables us to study Sevillian population before the great rise in the second half of the sixteenth century.

Table 1. Sevillian population in 1534
Parish Vecinos Widows
Santa Ana (Triana) 636 181
Santa María 1,193 238
  Barrio de la Mar 609 129
  Barrio de Génova 85 14
  Barrio de Francos 219 38
  Barrio Nuevo 27 12
  Barrio de Castellanos 253 45
Santa María Magdalena 345 255
San Vicente 341 196
San Lorenzo 316 131
San Miguel 78 18
San Andrés 121 37
San Martín 178 57
San Juan 179 105
Santa Catalina 257 107
Omnium Sanctorum 387 108
San Pedro 128 48
Santa Cruz 123 50
Santa María la Blanca 90 50
San Bartolomé el nuevo 26 6
San Bartolomé el viejo 87 17
San Nicolás 106 49
San Isidro 173 47
[7] San Salvador 688 190
San Esteban 109 48
San Ildefonso 136 48
Santiago 104 52
San Román 130 40
Santa Lucía 110 46
San Julián 92 40
San Marcos 127 66
Santa Marina 129 63
San Gil 179 72
Total 6,568 2,365
Source: AMS, Varios Antiguos, carpeta 125.


Concatedral de Santa Maria - Cáceres
El retablo costó 635.650 maravedís en el siglo XVI.

Iniciamos en la concatedral de Santa María nuestro recorrido por los retablos, para el que la autora ha contado con la inestimable ayuda documental de investigadores de la talla de Ordax, C. Aznar y, sobre todo, del profesor de la Uex F. García Mogollón. Templo de finales del XV y principios del XVI, se advierten en él detalles de las últimas décadas del XIII. Su retablo mayor es un conjunto renacentista realizado por Roque Balduque y Guillén Ferrant entre 1549 y 1555. Sobre estos maestros imagineros existen pruebas documentales. Figuran los nombres de Roque Balduc --que como indica Gestoso en su Diccionario de los artífices es uno de los que florecieron en Sevilla (t.III,p.91)-- y Guillen Ferrant --que acaso sea el imaginero Diego Guillén, que también trabajó en la capital hispalense--. 

Ambos escultores fueron llamados a Cáceres para la obra del retablo de Santa María y el 20 de agosto de 1547 les fueron otorgadas las escrituras al efecto ante el escribano Cristóbal de Cabrera, con Diego de Figueroa y otros como testigos. Era mayordomo don Diego de Carvajal y los diputados Francisco Solís, Lorenzo de Ulloa Porcallo y Francisco Godoy, que son los promotores del retablo, cuyo coste una vez colocado fue de 635.650 maravedís, unos 1.600 ducados. 

Es una obra de talla de estilo plateresco y ocupa los tres planos del fondo del ábside de la nave central. Quedó sin pintar ni dorar y por eso se aprecia mejor la finura de su talla. Se alza sobre un basamento de piedra con una faja de mármol de Estremoz. Los temas de los doce relieves de los costados son diez de ellos los misterios de la Virgen y del Señor, y dos a los extremos de la parte baja son San Jorge (en el lado de la Epístola) y Santiago Matamoros (en el lado del Evangelio), ambas figuras ecuestres, entre varias, venciendo uno al diablo y otro a los moros, nota caballeresca muy expresiva en una ciudad reconquistada. 

El hueco inferior del centro lo ocupa hoy un tabernáculo barroco con columnas salomónicas, que se alza sobre el Sagrario. La crestería es de adorno con figuras accesorias. Sin duda, una obra maestra con sello Roque Balduque, considerado durante la primera mitad del XVI la figura más importante del retablo plateresco sevillano. En cuanto a la iconografía es cristífero, mariano y hagiográfico, siendo su ritmo compositivo: c-C-B, a-A-a, B-C-c. 

Su estado de conservación es bueno ya que fue minuciosamente tratado con motivo de las medallas al mérito al trabajo en Bellas Artes, que entregó en la concatedral el Ministerio de Cultura, con la asistencia de los Reyes de España. 

El retablo costo 635.650 maravedis en el siglo XVI Foto: F. Villegas


Networking Internationally PESQUISAS- QUERIES
Example of a book digitized by Google
Peruvian Hairless Dog
S: El Apellido Cartaya en Canarias
S: Títulos de Castilla en Indias


Networking Internationally PESQUISAS- QUERIES
To participate, please contact Angel Custodio Rebollo

Esta sección que iniciamos en el número del pasado mes de enero, estará sometida durante seis meses a variaciones, que hemos considerado el tiempo oportuno de periodo de pruebas, para ir adecuando  las sugerencias que recibamos de los lectores, con el fin
de  darle la mayor efectividad y aprovechamiento. Hay quien nos ha escrito sugiriendo que en lugar de publicar la dirección electrónica del solicitante, publiquemos solo una referencia y las respuestas las recibamos directamente nosotros, que las publicaremos en Somos Primos para aprovechamiento de todos los lectores. Esto lo haremos cuando el comunicante así nos lo indique. Muchas gracias por vuestra colaboración.
                                                          Ángel Custodio Rebollo

Durante el pasado mes hemos recibido las siguientes peticiones:

•    Sebastián Faya, de Buenos Aires (Argentina), está interesado en información sobre el apellido FAYA. También desea contactar con personas que estén interesadas en el apellido.Contacto:

•    Dennis Keesee Bermúdez, de California, está interesado en la búsqueda de datos sobre la familia Bermúdez de Granada, Nicaragua,entre 1500 y 1750. Contactar:

•    Marcelino Urruzola, de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil), procura información sobre el apellido URRUZOLA, ya que su bisabuelo, que sellamaba Francisco Urruzola y procedía del País Vasco en España, llegó a Concordia (Argentina) y no sabe casi nada de él. Contacto:

•    Cruz Galaz, de España, desea contactar con personas que lleven el apellido GALAZ, en cualquier parte del mundo. Contacto con referencia 02.07.AA a

•    Luís Ramírez de México, desea contactar con personas que tengan el apellido DORANTES en el Continente Americano. Contacto con referencia  02.07.AB, a

Example of a book digitized by Google
Catalogue of a Collection of Original Manuscripts Formerly Belonging to the Holy Office 
of the  Inquisition in the Canary Islands ...
 By Walter de Gray Birch, 1107 pages.  
Sent by Paul Newfield III

Peruvian Hairless Dog

A few years ago the  was under threat of extinction in Peru," said Pedro Vargas, coordinator of the Huaca Pucllana archaeological project excavating an ancient temple site of the Lima civilization dating back to 500.

The breed normally has hair resembling a mohawk on the head and a tail brush, but otherwise has naked dark, very warm skin. Its history is long and rather sad, especially after the Spanish conquest starting in 1532.

Native pre-Incan civilizations used the dogs for hunting and as pets for company. They are represented on the ceramic pottery of the Chimu, Moche and Chancay cultures found on the coast.

They were sometimes mummified and buried along with people to help the departed find their way to the world of the dead or to continue serving their owners in the afterlife.

The breed got to the 21st century on the brink of extinction, and that's when the government decided to safeguard it by ordering all archaeological sites along the coast to have at least a pair -- after Huaca Pucllana's 1989 initiative. They are now also Peru's only own world-registered breed."We know there are quite a few now, and there are people breeding them and people buying them here and for export - it is a luxury dog now," Vargas said, adding though there was still a lot of prejudice against the dog's naked skin."

Sent by John Inclan

Títulos de Castilla en Indias

Archivo General de Indias
Código de Referencia ES.41091.AGI/16406.12//TITULOS_DE_CASTILLA,11,R.5
Sent by Títulos de Castilla en Indias
Publicado por  23 Agosto 2005 

Primera relación

Alcance y Contenido Títulos de Castilla en Indias. Primera relación.
Contenido:  Testimonio certificado de los títulos de Castilla existentes en Nueva España. 

1.- Adelantado de las Islas Filipinas:
Se concedió este título a Miguel López de Legazpi, en la fecha indicada. Lo poseyeron los Condes de Santiago de Calimaya y luego D. Juan de Velasco y Altamirano. 1569, Agosto, 14. Folios 12v-13r 2.- Marqués de Altamira:
Se concedió este título a D. Luis Sánchez de Tagle. Lo poseyeron D. Manuel Vicente Rodríguez Albuerne y D. Pedro Sánchez de Tagle. 1704, noviembre, 23.- Nueva España. Folios 4v-5r 3.- Marqués Altamira de la uebla:
Se concedió este título a D. Bartolomé Ortiz Zuasqueta. Lo poseyó D. José Juan Zuasqueta. 1690, Octubre, 12.- Nueva España. Folio 9r 4.- Duque de Atrisco: Nueva España. Folio 11r 5.- Marqués de Buenavista:
Se concedió este título a D. Mateo Fernández de Santa Cruz. Lo poseyó D. Miguel Pérez de Santa Cruz. 1696, Febrero, 10.- Nueva España. Folio 6r 6.- Conde de Casa Bayona Quiebra Hacha:
Se concedió este título a D. José Bayona Chacón. 1721, Agosto, 19.- Nueva España. Folio 12r 7.- Marqués de Casa Torres:
Se concedió este título a D. Laureano de Torres y Ayala. 1708, Diciembre, 12.- Nueva España. Folio 9v 8.- Conde de Castelo:
Se concedió este título a D. Nicolás de Pardiñas y Bañuelos. Lo poseyó D. Alonso Pardiñas Villar de Francos. 1699, Octubre, 29.- Nueva España. Folio 10v 9.- Marqués de Castillo de Ayza:
Se concedió este título a D. Francisco de Ayza, vecino de la ciudad de Guadalajara. Folio 11r 10.- Conde del Fresno de la Fuente:
Se concedió este título a D. Matías de Munares. Lo poseyó D. Francisco de Ursúa y Dª María Teresa Iñiguez. 1690, Marzo, 26.- Nueva España. Folios 4r-4v 11.- Conde de Ledesma de la Fuente: Nueva España. Folio 9v 12.- Conde de Lizarraga:
Se concedió este título a D. Martín de Ursúa Arizmendi. Lo poseyeron D. Joaquín Francisco Javier de Ursúa y Arizmendi y D. Lorenzo de Novia, marido de Dª María Josefa Irisarri Ursúa. 1705, Abril, 14.- Nueva España. Folios 11r-11v 13.- Conde de Loja:
Se concedió este título a D. Pedro de Escalante y Mendoza. 1690, Junio, 27.- Nueva España. Folio 9r-9v 14.- Mariscal de Castilla:
Se concedió este título a D. Tristán de Luna Arellano. Poseyó este título D. José Pedro de Luna y Gorráez. 1771, Febrero, 16.- Nueva España. Folio 13r 15.- Conde de la Mejorada: 
Se concedió este título a D. Simón de Venegas y Espinosa. 1710, Mayo, 26.- Nueva España. Folio 7v 16.- Conde de Miraflores: 
Se concedió este título a D. Pedro Gurastegui y Oleaga. Lo poseyó D. Pedro Calderón y Garastegui. 1689, Abril, 26.- Nueva España. Folios 9v-10r 17.- Conde de Miravalle:
Se concedió este título a D. Alonso Dávalos Bracamonte. Lo poseyeron D. Pedro Dávalos y Dª Catalina Dávalos.- Nueva España. Folio 4v 18.- Conde de Moctezuma de Fultengo:
Se concedió este título a D. Pedro Tesifón Moctezuma de la Cueva. 1727, Diciembre, 13.- Nueva España. Folio 10v-11r 19.- Marqués de Monserrate:
Se concedió este título a D. Francisco Javier de Vasconcelos. Lo poseyó D. Antonio Tomás de Vasconcelos. 1692, Enero, 17.- Nueva España. Folio 8v 20.- Marqués de Montecastro: Manila. Folio 12v 21.- Conde de la Moraleda: S.M. hizo merced de este título a D. Luis de Berdugo Guardiola. Recayó en D. Luis José Antonio Berdugo Santa Cruz y Cisneros Rodríguez de Medina, que no lo usa por insolvencia. Testimonio de títulos en Nueva España. 1690, Julio, 31.-. Nueva España. Folio 8v-9r 22.- Conde de Palamos:
Se concedió este título a D. Francisco Javier Fernández de Córdoba. Lo poseyó el Duque de Sesa.- Nueva España. Folio 11v 23.- Conde de Peñalva:
Se concedió este título a D. Bernardino Monroy. Lo poseyeron este título a D. Antonio Javier de Meneses y Dª Francisca Meneses Monroy y Mendoza.- Nueva España. Folio 7v 24.- Marqués de Salinas: En este fecha se libró despacho a los oficiales reales para que
reconozcan este título. 1652, Enero, 15.- Manila. Folio 12v 25.- Marqués de Salinas del Río Pisuerga: Obtuvo este título D. Fernando Altamirano, y lo goza, D. Juan de Velasco Altamirano. 1609, Julio, 6.- Nueva España. Folio 5v 26.- Marqués de Salvatierra: Poseyó este título Dª María Josefa Catarina de Guaraz Fernández de Hijar Jerónima López de Peralta.- Nueva España. Folios 11v-12r 27.- Conde de San Bartolomé de Jala:
Se concedió este título a D. Manuel Rodríguez Sáenz de Pedroso. 1749, Julio, 8.- México. Folio 12v 28.- Marqués de San Clemente: Goza este título D. Francisco Cristóbal de Bustos Jerez y Monroy.- Nueva España. Folio 11v 29.- Marqués de San Felipe y Santiago:
Se concedió este título a D. Juan Núñez de Castilla. 1713, Mayo,30.- Nueva España. Folio 10r-10v 30.- Conde de San Javier:Se concedió este título a D. Antonio Pacheco Tovar. 1732, Febrero, 11.- Nueva España. Folio 11r 31.- Conde de San Javier y Casa Laredo: Real Cédula Auxiliatoria de dicho título a favor de Buenaventura Ramírez y Laredo. 1763, Julio, 21. Folio 4v 32.- Conde de San Javier y Casa Laredo: Carta de sucesión de dicho título a favor de D. Gaspar Ramírez de Laredo, vecino de Lima. 1787, Julio, 15.- Perú. Folios 7v-8r 33.- Marqués de San Jorge:
Se concedió este título a D. Domingo de Retts. 1691, Mayo, 28.- Nueva España. Folio 9r 34.- Marqués de San Juan: Poseyó este título D. Onofre Enríquez de Baños Sotomayor y Guzmán. 1745.- Nueva España. Folio 12r 35.- Marqués de Villamediana:
Se concedió este título a D. Sebastián Rodríguez de Madrid. Lo poseyó D. Felipe Rodríguez Madrid. 1713, Mayo, 27.- Nueva España. Folios 5r-5v 36.- Marqués de Villapuente de la Peña:
Se concedió este título a D. José de la Puente y Peña. 1703, Febrero, 24.- Nueva España. Folio 5r 37.- Marqués de Villa del Villar  del Aguila:
Se concedió este título a D. Juan de Urrutia. Lo poseyó D. Francisco Manuel de Aldama. 1687, Julio, 11.- Nueva España. Folio 6r-6v 38.- Conde de San Mateo de Valparaiso:
Se concedió este título a D. Fernando de la Campa. Lo poseyó su hija Dª Ana María de Campa y Ceballos. 1707, Julio, 14.- Nueva España. Folio 9v 39.- Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo:
Se concedió este título a D. Martín de Echeverz y Zubiza. Lo poseyó D. Francisco de Echeverz y Valdivieso. 1682, Noviembre, 29.- Nueva España. Folio 9r 40.- Conde de San Pedro del Alamo:
Se concedió este título a D. Francisco Valdivieso. Lo poseyó D. Pedro Ignacio de Valdivieso y Azlor. 1733, Septiembre, 21.- México. Folio 11r 41.- Marqués de Santa Fe de Guardiola:
Se concedió este título a D. Juan de Padilla Guardiola y Guzmán. Lo poseyó D. José de Padilla y Cervantes. 1690, Junio, 27.- México. Folio 6v 42.- Conde de Santa Rosa:
Se concedió este título a D. Juan Bravo Medrano. 1691, Febrero, 8.- Nueva España. Folio 10r 43.- Marqués de Santa Rosa:
Se concedió este título a D. Diego Jiménez de Morales. Lo poseyó D. Bernardino Jiménez de Morales. 1719, Enero, 30.- Nueva España. Folio 8v 44.- Marqués de Santa Sabina:
Se concedió este título a D. Miguel de Ubilla. Lo poseyó Dª María de los Angeles López de Zárate y Ubilla. 1708, Enero, 17.- Nueva España. Folio 7r-7v 45.- Conde de Santiago de Calimaya:
Se concedió este título a D. Fernando de Altamirano. Lo poseyó D.Juan de Velasco Altamirano y D. Nicolás de Velasco. 1716, Diciembre,6.- Nueva España. Folio 5v 46.- Conde de Santiago de la Laguna:
Se concedió este título a D. José de Urquiola. Lo poseyó D. José de Riviera Bernández. 1727, Octubre, 27.- Nueva España. Folio 8r 47.- Conde de Sierra Gorda:
Se concedió este título a D. José de Escandon. 1749, Octubre, 23.- México. Folio 12v 48.- Marqués de Sierra Nevada:
Se concedió este título a D. Domingo Ruiz de Tagle. Lo poseyó Dª Mariana Bretón Fernández de Roldán. 1708, Febrero, 9.- Nueva España. Folio 7v 49.- Marqués de Torres de Rada:
Se concedió este título a D. Francisco Lorenz de Rada. Lo poseyó D. José Lorenz de Rada. 1704, Febrero, 27.- Nueva España. Folios 6v-7r 50.- Marqués de Uluapa:
Se concedió este título a D. Diego de Estrada y Galindo. 1710, Mayo,26.- México. Folios 8r-8v 51.- Marqués de Valle de Oaxaca:Nueva España. Folios 10r 52.- Conde del Valle de Opotla:
Se concedió este título a D. Diego de Arce y Chacón. Lo poseyó D. José de Arce Chacón. 1722, Mayo, 28.- Nueva España. Folio 7v 53.- Conde del Valle de Orizaba:
Lo poseyó D. José Hurtado de Mendoza.- México. Folios 5v-6r

Nivel de Descripción Unidad Documental Simple Fecha(s) [c] 1569-08-14
Signatura(s) TITULOS_DE_CASTILLA,11,R.5 Volumen 1 Documento(s)
Productor(es) Información de Contexto

Índice(s) Atrisco, Duque de
Montecastro, Marqués de
Sierra Gorda, Conde de
Valle de Oaxaca, Marqués del
Salinas del Río Pisuerga, Marqués de
Santiago de Calimaya, Conde de
Valle de Opotla, Conde del
Casa Bayona Quiebra Hacha, Conde de
Moraleda, Conde de la
Santa Rosa, Conde de
Sierra Nevada, Marquesa de
San Clemente, Marqués de
Miravalle, Conde de
Miravalle, Condesa de
San Juan, Marqués de
Loja, Conde de
Conde de Sierragorda
Uluapa, Marqués de
Palamos, Conde de
Miraflores, Conde de
Salvatierra, Marquesa de
Valle de Orizaba, Conde del
Fresno de la Fuente, Condesa del
Santa Rosa, Marqués de
Adelantado de las Islas Filipinas
Santa Sabina, Marquesa de
Torres de Rada, Marqués de las
Mariscal de Castilla
Marqués de Santa Fe de Guardiola
Padilla y Cervantes, José de
Peñalva, Condesa de
Fresno de la Fuente, Conde del
San Felipe y Santiago, Marqués de
Altamira de la Puebla, Marqués
Lizarraga, Conde de
Castelo, Conde de
Villapuente de la Peña, Marqués de
San Javier y Casa Laredo, Conde de
San Jorge, Marqués de
Santiago de la Laguna, Conde de
Altamira, Marqués de
Villamediana, Marqués de
San Bartolomé de Jala, Conde de
Sierra Nevada, Marqués de
Moctezuma del Fultengo, Conde de
Santa Sabina, Marqués de
Monserrate, Marqués de
Mejorada, Conde de la
Altamira de la Puebla, Marqués
Calderón y Garastegui, Pedro
Campa y Ceballos, Ana María
Meneses Monroy, Bernardino de
Padilla Guardiola y Guzmán, Juan de
Aldama, Francisco Manuel
Altamirano, Fernando
Arce Chacón, José de
Arce y Chacón, Diego de
Ayza, Francisco de
Castillo de Aysa, Marqués del
Bayona Chacón, José
Berdugo Guardio,a Luis
Berdugo Santa Cruz y Cisneros Rodríguez de Medina, Luis José antonio
Bravo Medrano, Juan
Bretón Fernández de Roldán, Mariana
Bustos Jerez y Monroy, Francisco Cristóbal de Campa, Fernando de la
San Mateo de Valparaíso, Conde de
Dávalos Bracamonte, Alonso
Dávalo,s Pedro
Dávalos, Catalina
Echeverz y Valdivieso, Francisco
Echeverz y Zubiza, Martín
Enríquez de Baños Sotomayor y Guzmán, Onofre
Escalante y Mendoza, Pedro

Escandón, José
Estrada y Galindo, Diego
Fernández de Córdoba, Francisco Javier
Fernández de Santa Cruz, Mateo
Buenavista, Marqués de
Escalante y Mendoza, Pedro
Escandón, José
Estrada y Galindo, Diego
Fernández de Córdoba, Francisco Javier
Fernández de Santa Cruz, Mateo
Buenavista, Marqués de
Garrastequi Oleaga y Andicano, Pedro de
Guaraz Fernández de Hijar Jerónima López de Peralta, María Josefa Catarina
Hurtado de Mendoza, José
Iñiguez, María Teresa
Jiménez de Morales, Bernardino
Jiménez de Morales, Diego
López de Legazpi, Miguel
López de Zárate y Ubilla,Ma. de los Angeles Lorenz de Rada, Francisco
Lorenz de Rada, José
Luna Arellano, Tristán
Luna y Gorráez, José Pedro
Meneses, Antonio Javier
Peñalba, Conde de
Meneses Bracamonte y Zapata, Bernardino de
Meneses Monroy y Mendoza, Francisca
Munares, Matías de
Núñez de Castilla, Juan
Ortiz Zuasqueta, Bartolomé
Novia, Lorenzo de
Pacheco Tovar, Antonio
Pardiñas Villar de Francosc, Alonso
Pardiñas y Bañuelos, Nicolás de
Pérez de Santa Cruz, Miguel
Puente y Peña, José de la
Ramírez de Laredo, Gaspar
Ramírez y Laredo, Buenaventura
Retts, Domingo de
Riviera Bernárdez, José de
Rodríguez Albuerne, Manuel Vicente
Rodríguez de Madrid, Sebastián
Rodríguez Madrid, Felipe
Rodríguez Sáenz de Pedroso, Manuel
Ruiz de Tagle, Domingo
Sánchez de Tagle, Luis
Sanchez de Tagle, Pedro
Santiago de Calimaya, Condes de
Sesa, Duque de
Tesifón Moctezuma de la Cueva, Pedro
Torres y Ayala, Laureano
Casa Torres, Marqués de
Ubilla, Miguel de
Urquiola, José
Urrutia, Juan de
Ursúa y Arizmendi, Martín de
Urzua, Francisco de
Urzúa y Arismendi, Joaquín Francisco Javier
Valdivieso, Francisco
San Pedro del Alamo, Conde de
Valdivieso y Azlor, Pedro Ignacio
Vasconcelos, Antonio Tomás de
Vasconcelos, Francisco Javier de
Velasco Altamirano, Juan de
Velasco, Nicolás de
Velasco y Altamirano, Juan de
Venegas y Espinosa, Simón
Zuasqueta, José Juan
Garastegui y Oleaga, Pedro
Ledesma de la Fuente, Conde de
Monroy, Bernardino
Villar del Aguila, Marqués de
San Miguel de Aguayo, Marqués de
San Javier, Conde de



What Thomas Jefferson learned from the Muslim book of jihad

By Ted Sampley
U.S. Veteran Dispatch
January 2007
Democrat Keith Ellison is now officially the first Muslim United States congressman. True to his pledge, he placed his hand on the Quran, the Muslim book of jihad and pledged his allegiance to the United States during his ceremonial swearing-in.

Capitol Hill staff said Ellison's swearing-in photo opportunity drew more media than they had ever seen in the history of the U.S. House. Ellison represents the 5th Congressional District of Minnesota.

The Quran Ellison used was no ordinary book. It once belonged to Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States and one of America's founding fathers. Ellison borrowed it from the Rare Book Section of the Library of Congress. It was one of the 6,500 Jefferson books archived in the library.

Ellison, who was born in Detroit and converted to Islam while in college, said he chose to use Jefferson's Quran because it showed that "a visionary like Jefferson" believed that wisdom could be gleaned from many sources.

There is no doubt Ellison was right about Jefferson believing wisdom could be "gleaned" from the Muslim Quran. At the time Jefferson owned the book, he needed to know everything possible about Muslims because he was about to advocate war against the Islamic "Barbary" states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli.

Ellison's use of Jefferson's Quran as a prop illuminates a subject once well-known in the history of the United States, but, which today, is mostly forgotten - the Muslim pirate slavers who over many centuries enslaved millions of Africans and tens of thousands of Christian Europeans and Americans in the Islamic "Barbary" states.

Over the course of 10 centuries, Muslim pirates cruised the African and Mediterranean coastline, pillaging villages and seizing slaves.

The taking of slaves in pre-dawn raids on unsuspecting coastal villages had a high casualty rate. It was typical of Muslim raiders to kill off as many of the "non-Muslim" older men and women as possible so the preferred "booty" of only young women and children could be collected.

Young non-Muslim women were targeted because of their value as concubines in Islamic markets. Islamic law provides for the sexual interests of Muslim men by allowing them to take as many as four wives at one time and to have as many concubines as their fortunes allow.

Boys, as young as 9 or 10 years old, were often mutilated to create eunuchs who would bring higher prices in the slave markets of the Middle East. Muslim slave traders created "eunuch stations" along major African slave routes so the necessary surgery could be performed. It was estimated that only a small number of the boys subjected to the
mutilation survived after the surgery.

When American colonists rebelled against British rule in 1776, American merchant ships lost Royal Navy protection. With no American Navy for protection, American ships were attacked and their Christian crews enslaved by Muslim pirates operating under the control of the "Dey of Algiers"--an Islamist warlord ruling Algeria.

Because American commerce in the Mediterranean was being destroyed by the pirates, the Continental Congress agreed in 1784 to negotiate treaties with the four Barbary States. Congress appointed a special commission consisting of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin, to oversee the negotiations.

Lacking the ability to protect its merchant ships in the Mediterranean, the new America government tried to appease the Muslim slavers by agreeing to pay tribute and ransoms in order to retrieve seized American ships and buy the freedom of enslaved sailors.

Adams argued in favor of paying tribute as the cheapest way to get American commerce in the Mediterranean moving again. Jefferson was opposed. He believed there would be no end to the demands for tribute and wanted matters settled "through the medium of war." He proposed a league of trading nations to force an end to Muslim piracy.

In 1786, Jefferson, then the American ambassador to France, and Adams, then the American ambassador to Britain, met in London with Sidi Haji Abdul Rahman Adja, the "Dey of Algiers" ambassador to Britain.

The Americans wanted to negotiate a peace treaty based on Congress' vote to appease.

During the meeting Jefferson and Adams asked the Dey's ambassador why Muslims held so much hostility towards America, a nation with which they had no previous contacts.

In a later meeting with the American Congress, the two future presidents reported that Ambassador Sidi Haji Abdul Rahman Adja had answered that Islam "was founded on the Laws of their Prophet, that it was written in their Quran, that all nations who should not have acknowledged their authority were sinners, that it was their right and duty to make war upon them wherever they could be found, and to make slaves of all they could take as Prisoners, and that every Musselman (Muslim) who should be slain in Battle was sure to go to Paradise."

For the following 15 years, the American government paid the Muslims millions of dollars for the safe passage of American ships or the return of American hostages. The payments in ransom and tribute amounted to 20 percent of United States government annual revenues in 1800.

Not long after Jefferson's inauguration as president in 1801, he dispatched a group of frigates to defend American interests in the Mediterranean, and informed Congress.

Declaring that America was going to spend "millions for defense but not one cent for tribute," Jefferson pressed the issue by deploying American Marines and many of America's best warships to the Muslim Barbary Coast.

The USS Constitution, USS Constellation, USS Philadelphia, USS Chesapeake, USS Argus, USS Syren and USS Intrepid all saw action.

In 1805, American Marines marched across the dessert from Egypt into Tripolitania, forcing the surrender of Tripoli and the freeing of all American slaves.

During the Jefferson administration, the Muslim Barbary States, crumbling as a result of intense American naval bombardment and on shore raids by Marines, finally officially agreed to abandon slavery and piracy.

Jefferson's victory over the Muslims lives on today in the Marine Hymn, with the line, "From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli, we will fight our country's battles on the land as on the sea."

It wasn't until 1815 that the problem was fully settled by the total defeat of all the Muslim slave trading pirates.

Jefferson had been right. The "medium of war" was the only way to put and end to the Muslim problem. Mr. Ellison was right about Jefferson. He was a "visionary" wise enough to read and learn about the enemy from their own Muslim book of jihad.
America and the Barbary Pirates: An International Battle Against an Unconventional Foe
Terrorism In Early America
The U.S. Wages War Against Barbary States To End International Blackmail and Terrorism


Millions of New Ancestry Records online
Civilian Conservation Corps
Suggestions for getting children involved in Family History
E-mails worth saving
Learning More about Family History
Harvard University Opens Immigration Collection
Open Collections Program: Women Working, 1800 - 1930


Millions of New Ancestry Records online 
Expanded Family Trees
New Year Reductions on Membership Costs
Over the last year, we’ve invested $30 million in You won’t believe all the improvements and additions we’ve made. For example:
  • We tripled what was already the world’s largest online collection of immigration records.
  • We completed the U.S. Federal Census collection (1790-1930). This 6.6 million hour project allows you to trace your family back decade by decade.
  • We added completely new personal trees that offer you hints and let you more easily organize and share your research — even upload photos.
  • We also launched a new online store that features more than 10,000 family history products.

Get ready for our best year ever.

In 2007 we’ll be adding millions of new records to, including U.S. state census records, U.S. military records and others from outside the United States. We'll also be helping you collaborate with loved ones to build your own family history website featuring family photos and stories all at no extra charge. In addition, you’ll be able to use your research to create beautiful scrapbooks and other gifts. Join now and you’ll get it all for the low price mentioned above

Civilian Conservation Corps 

In the 1930s, the Great Depression gripped America; unemployment and poverty affected millions of households. Shortly after taking office in 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt spearheaded a bill through Congress creating the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). 

Focusing on natural conservation projects, the CCC promised to put young men to work across the country. Enrollees, aged 18-25, (later expanded to 17-28) had to be poor, unemployed, single, and healthy. They also had to send most of their $30-a-month pay home to their families.

With a stunning display of bureaucratic speed, CCC camps began to open across the country just a few months after the bill passed. Iowa, for example, responded quickly with thirty-four camps in operation by the end of 1933. Over the program's nine years, nearly 
46,000 young men labored in Iowa as CCC enrollees; more than eighty Iowa state parks owe their development to the efforts of the CCC. 

In fact, 2.9 million young men served in the CCC between 1933 and 1942. State parks throughout the country sport plaques and markers identifying the handiwork of the CCC.

They built roads, picnic shelters, bathhouses, dams, bridges, and fences. They dug irrigation canals and fought forest fires. They learned trades and took education classes. And, they received food, clothing, and shelter--a welcome change for many of the impoverished men.

When the United States entered World War II, however, the funding for the CCC stopped and the camps quietly disbanded. Many of the enrollees, including my dad, went directly into the military.

If any of your relatives served in the CCC, there are a number of resources available for researchers. At the national level, the National Archives ( in Washington D.C. has extensive records on the CCC in its Record Group 35 including 
photographs, official correspondence, camp directories, inspection reports, and accident reports.

You can also request copies of the enrollees' records from the Civilian Personnel Records Center in St. Louis

Include as much information in your request as you can, including date and place of birth and death, location of CCC service and the CCC company number. If the individual is deceased, provide proof of death. When requesting my father's records, I sent in the funeral card and that worked fine. 

The individual record files include enrollment and re-enrollment paperwork. You'll also find a record of the enrollee's duty and camp assignments. Other data includes a list of previous employment, education, and a medical history. Genealogical clues include parents' names, birthplaces, occupations, and education. 

Payroll disbursement records provide another interesting snapshot of the CCC enrollee. My dad sent $22 of his monthly pay to his mother and put $7 a month into the bank, keeping just $1 a month for himself.

Check the state archives where your relative served for additional records. The New Mexico State Archives, for example, has 11,000 enrollment cards, rosters of enrollees, lists of discharges, and other miscellaneous documents. Keep in mind that enrollees didn't 
always serve in their home state. My dad was a rural Missourian, but he served in the CCC in Iowa.

Look also for camp newspapers. These provide an excellent glimpse into camp life. The Camp Ames News was a fine example. Its articles outlined the various projects camp members worked on; sports news recapped the camp baseball team and boxing squad efforts; lists of new arrivals and profiles of enrollees were in each paper; plus, little bits of gossip about camp members rounded out each issue.

Search an online database for camp newspapers at the website for the Center of Research Libraries . They have microfilmed many CCC camp newspapers and the microfilm is available via interlibrary loan. 

Other camp newspapers are at state archives and historical societies. The Kansas State Historical Society  has a large collection from various states.

To learn more about the CCC, go to the Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni website . You'll also find information about the CCC Museum in St. Louis.

I never knew that my dad served in the CCC until after his death. If he ever talked about it, I forgot it, or, even worse, didn't pay attention. He did talk often about his WWII experiences, so I have those stories to remember and pass on to my daughter. 

Now, as with most of our genealogy research, I just have the documents left behind to help me piece together that part of his life. I did find his CCC-issued trunk in the basement and an autograph book that he had while in the CCC. Filled with addresses, 
signatures, and little one-liners from his camp buddies, it's a poignant and touching symbol of my dad's youth.

Many of the men who served in the CCC have died, and more pass away each day. If any of your CCC relatives are still living, grab the video camera or tape recorder and preserve their important role in history.  


Suggestions for getting children involved in Family History
Sent by Janete Vargas

Some of you have grandchildren. Some of you work with kids and teens. Do you want help to get them interested in family history? Check out the following Web sites:

Remember all those letters grandma had stashed in her attic? Remember the pictures that are old and cracked and torn, but still precious to someone, so they were not thrown away? They seem to be a thing of the past. What will future generations salvage of us, when wants to know about us? The answer is e-mail!

Most of us know we can add folders in our e-mail by right-clicking on the Inbox. Click on "New Folder" and type in "E-mails Worth Saving". Then, when you have an e-mail you have sent or one that you have received, it is saved for posterity.

What triggered this idea for me, was an e-mail I received from my son's girlfriend. She wanted some information, which I shared with her. Her e-mail was one that I thought was worth saving. Then as I answered each question under her question in the reply, I realized this, too, was worth saving.

Then I got a nice thank you from a friend and did not want to delete it. So, save those letters, and don't edit them. Our computers today have enough room in them, and what may not interest you, may be the very thing your ancestors want to know.

I was so pleased with this idea of mine that I shared it with my wife, who promptly pricked my bubble. She is already saving e-mails. She is also saving her letters that she writes to others. But, I have a fear, which I have to share.

I fear that if we do not state clearly what this stuff is, it may be lost. Maybe we even need to say, e-mails worth saving for antiquity? But, I encouraged my wife to do one more thing. To make a note in these e-mails worth saving, that there are letters saved elsewhere on her computer for people to salvage. Name the files for others to find!

David J. Stratton

AWJ Editors Note: One more step toward preserving important correspondence would be to print it out. Technology changes and computers can crash. While even paper and ink properly preserved will not last forever, it outlasts most technology these days. I still 
have handwritten pages of notes my mother took in the 1970s when she first began researching our family, but diskettes with my family history data from the 1990s are useless now because my computer doesn't have a drive for them--which is also a reminder to keep your technology as current as possible.
25 December 2006

Learning More about Family History
Are you interested in learning more about family history? Do you want to take courses online? Here are a few sites to get you started.

** RootsWeb's Guide to Tracing Family Trees contains articles about a variety of subjects, from adoption to newspapers to software. In addition, there are articles specific to countries and ethnic groups. 

** Beginning genealogy  contains lessons about getting started, and learning about records such as U.S. census, vital records and U.K. civil registration. 

** BYU Independent Study  contains free courses directed toward introductory, regional and ethnic sources. Click Courses on the left side of the screen, and click Free Courses in the middle of the screen. 

** The International Internet Genealogical Society University  contains introductory classes for beginners and more complex classes for experienced students. 

** Genealogy Classes at  contains lessons on Internet resources and tracing immigrant origins.

To find more sites, do a Google search for the following terms or combination of terms: free, genealogy, family history, education, courses, articles. 

Sent by Janete Vargas

Harvard University Opens Immigration Collection
Harvard information sent by Janete Vargas

Harvard University's Open Collections Program has launched " Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930 <>," a web-based collection of approximately 1,800 books and pamphlets, 6,000 photographs, 200 maps, and 13,000 pages from manuscript and archival collections selected from Harvard's library, archives and museums. The collection is available to Internet users everywhere. By incorporating diaries, biographies and other writings capturing diverse experiences, the collected material provides a window into the lives of ordinary immigrants.

In addition to thousands of items now accessible, the collection includes contextual information on immigration and quantitative data. More information

Harvard digital collections overview
Receive regular updates on digital collections at Harvard

Open Collections Program: Women Working, 1800 - 1930

Women Working, 1800 - 1930 focuses on women's role in the United States economy and provides access to digitized historical, manuscript, and image resources selected from Harvard University's library and museum collections. The collection features approximately 500,000 digitized pages and images including: 
7,500 pages of manuscripts 
3,500 books and pamphlets 

1,200 photographs Image at left: Box containing two-volume set, "Choup-nit-ki, with the Nez Perce," by E. Jane Gay, 1909. From the collection of the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute. 


Peru pushes to make Inca city one of world wonders
Ancient footprints found in Mexico valley

Peru pushes to make Inca city one of world wonders
Jan 8, 2007 Reuters
Sent by John Inclan 

Peru's government, seeking to boost tourism in the Andean country, is urging residents and visitors to vote for the ancient Inca site of Machu Picchu as one of the world's new 7 wonders.

Maria Seminario, general manager of the tourism agency PromPeru, said on Monday Machu Picchu was in the top seven out of 21 finalists before the July 7 announcement of the winners in Lisbon by the New7 Wonders Foundation. "Now we need to consolidate that. Being No. 1 would be ideal," Seminario told Reuters.

Posters on city streets call on Peruvians to vote for the well-preserved site on a mountain ridge. Machu Picchu visitors get leaflets on how to cast a vote, either via the Internet or by phone. Starting next week, an ad will air on public television channels and some airlines operating in Peru, Seminario said.

"Machu Picchu is wonderful and incomparable, not only for its unique architecture. The natural beauty is astounding," Seminario said. "We hope the vote will strengthen this tourism icon of Peru and more people will be willing to visit it."


Ancient footprints found in Mexico valley

A trail of 13 fossilized footprints running through a valley in a desert in northern Mexico could be among the oldest in the Americas, Mexican archeologists said.

The footprints were made by hunter gatherers who are believed to have lived thousands of years ago in the Coahuila valley of Cuatro Cienegas, 190 miles (306 kms) south of Eagle Pass, Texas, said archaeologist Yuri de la Rosa Gutierrez of Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History ... Posted by Jørgen Holm 

Please visit the Archaeology section of the podcast project. Listen to new audio by Dr. George Stuart
on his work "Unearthing the Maya." Here is the direct link: Also in the
Archaeology section please visit the websites for the
"Audio News from Archaeologica" Podcast and the "Stone Pages Archaeo News" Podcast. In the "History" section
Sent by Joseph Puentes


Cubs or Pork Chops? 

In a zoo in California, a mother tiger gave birth to a rare set of triplet tiger cubs. Unfortunately, due to complications in the pregnancy, the cubs were born prematurely and due to their tiny size, they died shortly after birth. The mother tiger after recovering from the delivery, suddenly started to decline in health, although physically she was fine. The veterinarians felt that the loss of her litter had caused the tigress to fall into a depression. The doctors decided that if the tigress could surrogate another mother's cubs, perhaps she would improve. After checking with many other zoos across the country, the depressing news was that there were no tiger cubs of the right age to introduce to the mourning mother. 

The veterinarians decided to try something that had never been tried in a zoo environment. Sometimes a mother of one species will take on the care of a different species. The only "orphans" that could be found quickly, were a litter of wiener pigs. The zoo keepers and vets wrapped the piglets in tiger skin and placed the babies around the mother tiger. Would they become cubs or pork chops?


Sent by Bill Carmena