Somos Primos

January 2006 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues


Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research Celebrating 
20th Anniversary, 1986-2006

family research, the ties that bind"

Photographer: Patti Sapone, The Star-Ledger
Sent by Val Gibbons

In times past, rapport between young and old yielded more harmony and less tension. This was so because family lived close. Respect for the old came out of the young. We have lost the connection between old and young, so generations lack for hope. It's time to bridge the gap between the two; Humanity can grow with life and hope, and foster future generations trust.  (L.A. Conference)

Ms Lorna V. Neysmith (c)
Sent by Diane Sears


Content Areas
United States
. . 3
Anti-Spanish Legends 
. . 29
Military Heroes and Research . . 38
Spanish Sons of the American Revolution . . 39
Surname  . . 45
. . 46
Orange County, CA  . . 58
Los Angeles, CA
. . 58
. . 73
Northwestern United States
. . 74
Southwestern United States
. . 76
. . 81
. . 89 
. . 96
Texas  . . 99
East of the Mississippi 
. . 108
East Coast
. . 113
. . 127
. . 158
. . 161
. . 165
. . 169
Family History 
. . 170
. . 178


END  . . 190


  Letters to the Editor : 

I wanted to email you to congratulate you on a great website that is extremely resourceful to us Latinos in the US. The content of your webpage is extremely powerful in the sense that it allows Latinos to express themselves in terms of cultural tradition and the implications that come about with being latino in this country. 
Camilo Ferranti
Mimi, Happy Holidays! Hopefully you are having a great Christmas and that all continues to be well. This is just a note to thank you for the great and valuable work that you do and to tell you how much you are appreciated. 
All the best, Diane Sears
BSI International, Inc. Post Office Box 3885
Philadelphia, PA 19146-0185
One word Mimi, You do excellent work. Merry Christmas to you and your family. From deep down in dry South Texas.
J.D. Villarreal
By the way, great information in the Somos Primos website!!!!       Thank you,
Joe Levario Longoria
Hello from Texas, I loved your webpage and the wonderful history that you have posted.
Thank you for your 'Somo Primos newsletters' they are a much welcomed monthly.  
Happy New Year!!!!  Kern
Grace to you and peace from God our
Father and Jesus Christ  Eph 1:2


   Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Luke Holtzman, Assistant

Johanna De Soto
Galal Kernahan
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Alex Loya, Th.D., M.Div.
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr
Michael Stevens Perez
Armando Montes

Juan Pablo Alvarez
John H. Arvizu 
Mary Ayers
Manuel Berriozabal
Maria Antonietta Berriozabal
Jaime Cader 
Bill Carmena
Jack V Cowan
Graciela Cruz López 
Logan Davis
Johanna De Soto
Zeen Eate 
Edna Yolanda Elizondo Gonzalez 
Luis Elizondo

Armando M Escobar Olmedo
Bob Smith
Camilo Ferranti
R.J. Ferro
Val Gibbons
Gloria Golden
Carlos Ray Gonzales
Lorraine Hermandez
Esther Herold 
Elsa Herbeck
Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza
Lorraine Hernandez
Zeke Hernandez
Kathy Hughart
Aury Lor Holtzman, M.D.
Granville Hough, Ph.D. 
John Inclan
Brian Kalahan 
Nellie Kaniski
Galal Kernahan
Cindy LoBuglio
Irma Nelda Longoria Cavazos
Joe Levario Longoria 
Carlos Lopez Dzur
Alex Loya, Th.D., M.Div.
Juan Martinez
J. V. Martinez 
Armando Montes

Dorinda Moreno
Emma Moreno 
George G. Morgan
Lorna V. Neysmith
Paul Newfield III
Jose M. Pena
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Anita Rivas Medellin
Leticia Robles 
Francisco Rodriguez 
Ben Romero
Sonia M. Rosa M.A.
Jan Rus
Ruben Sálaz
Joseph Salazar
Gilbert M. Sandate 
Patti Sapone 
Diane Sears
Christine Senteno
Howard Shorr
Frank Sifuentes
Mira Smithwick
Sylvia Trujillo 
Ricardo Valderde
Janete Vargas 
Connie Vasquez
J.D. Villarreal
Gabriel Villuendas 
Ted Vincent
SHHAR Board:  Bea Armenta Dever, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal,   Warm Welcome to new Board member: Yolanda Magdaleno.


United States

Hispanics in Federal Service Panel held at the National Archives
Latino Experts Call for Congressional Hearings: Federal Employment Gap
Commission Calls: Reducing Number of Minority Youths Tried as Adults 

Enrique "Kiki" Camarena, DEA Agent
Maya Christina Gonzales, Artist
Américo Paredes, Folklorist, educator, author, novelist
Along Those Lines, Musical Genealogy
J. Richard Tapia, Harley-Davidson dealer

"Mexican Illegal Aliens: A Mexican American Perspective"
Study: Immigration grows, reaching record numbers 
Picking a Battle Over Shortage of Farmworkers
Mexican Immigrants Gave Up Jobs to Take Chances in U.S. 

Collegians Get By Despite Illegal Status
Lawyers fight gender gap
High School Student Suspended For Speaking Spanish 

Businesses see Gold in Latino ads
Red Cross Bolstering Minority Outreach
Home page for the Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families
Famous People with Black lineage

Spanish version of food pyramid released 
What's In A (Spanish) Name
How the Grinch got a Spanish accent, Click

Hispanics in Federal Service: 
A Historical Synopsis, 1965-2005

A panel presentation by J. V. Martinez, Emma Moreno, Gilbert M. Sandate and Sylvia Trujillo  

National Archives and Records Administration, held December 14, 2005

McGowan Theater, Washington , DC


JV Martinez at podium

Gil Sandate, Sylvia Trujillo, 
Emma Moreno, JV Martinez

Gil Sandate, Sylvia Trujillo, 
Emma Moreno

J. V. Martinez, Ph.D., Senior Science Advisor, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.;  moderator;

Emma Moreno, former Assistant to the Director of the U.S. Census Bureau and currently the LULAC Director for Federal Relations;

Sylvia J. Trujillo, Esq., Agency legal counsel for a federal government agency and former legal counsel to local public agencies;

Gilbert M.  Sandate, Director, Office of Workforce Diversity for the Library of Congress

Abstract:  A synopsis of Hispanic employment history in the U.S. Federal Government will be presented.  The substantive appearance of Hispanic representation in the non-military federal service ostensibly began at the conclusion of World War II, a watershed period when U.S. Hispanics realized they were more part of the nation's fabric than ever before.  Since then the representation of Hispanics in the federal service has remained at a chronic level of half their fraction of the U.S. population.  Panelists include: Emma Moreno, former Assistant to the Director of the Census Bureau of the Department of Commerce and currently Director of Federal Relations for the League of Latin American Citizens (LULAC); Sylvia J. Trujillo, Esq., legal counsel for a federal agency and former legal counsel to local public organizations; Gilbert M. Sandate, Director, Office of Workforce Diversity for the Library of Congress and J. V. Martinez, Senior Science Advisor, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.


A general overview of the history of Hispanic employment in the U.S. Federal Government continues to be a history of extremes.  The more substantive beginning of Hispanic employment in the federal service began at the conclusion of World War II, which was a watershed period when U.S. Hispanics discovered they were more part of the nation’s population than ever before.  This realization brought their attention to legal statutes that accorded rights about which they were previously aware and rights not actively pursued as a group. 


The distance between the central federal government offices and the Hispanic population concentrated in the Southwest U.S. hindered optimal communication, the consequence being that employment opportunities in the federal government were not widely known to the Hispanic community.  This observation is underpinned by noting that a number of the early Hispanic government employees had prior military service.  Becoming part of the military removed them temporarily from the Southwest and exposed them to federal government employment opportunities. 


From 1965 on, the federal service workforce continued to grow in step with the nation’s increasing presence-economically, politically, and militarily-both domestic and international.  Limited access to federal employment opportunities and the increasing size of government led to a deficit in the representation of Hispanics in the federal service.  This condition began to be increasingly recognized among Hispanic activists from among the limited number of Hispanics in the federal service at the time. 


It is no coincidence that this recognition came at a time when the Civil Rights Movement reached a high mark.  Hispanic government employees became aware that their community was not being justifiably represented in the federal workforce. 


This awareness was obvious in relation to the Hispanic presence in the Military, and in proportion to the federal services being provided the community justly due as citizens, taxpayers and by their dedication to national security.  Notably absent in the delivery of federal services were Spanish-speaking government employees. 


This prompted Hispanic activists to challenge the government’s effectiveness in providing needed services to the community.  While the methods used to compensate for these deficiencies varied through the ensuing decades, the deficit in Hispanic employment that appeared early on is yet to be eliminated. 


The increase in the U.S. Hispanic population continues to outstrip the rate at which Hispanics are being employed in the federal service further exacerbating the problem.  It has become clear that conducting business as usual in federal hiring practices will not suffice. 


Being that federal employees are part of the executive branch of government and that each administration occupying the White House has ultimate control of federal hiring practices, White House attempts to rectify the situation by issuing executive orders and making well-meaning pronouncements, “photo-ops” in the vernacular, have had little success. 


Considering the rapid non-stop growth of the Hispanic population in the U.S. and the historical deficit of Hispanics in the federal service, the situation continues to deteriorate with no change in sight.  Relevant to these concerns is how it became that the noun Hispanic was chosen as a label to group all the subgroups that make up this U.S. population. 


Attempts to account for this population using other labels turned in to a counterproductive census quagmire.  While meaningful sensitivities exist in the government’s non-use of sub-group labels, it appears that combining them all under the one label has allowed some progress to be made without judging here that the labeling will lead to the rightful increase of Hispanic representation in the federal service will occur in the near future. 


The National Archives and Restoration Agency (NARA) sponsored session will place this history in perspective and, while it may be too much to hope for, the airing out of this issue may lend to increased realization of the correction action now called for.


Photographs shared by Dr. Harry R. Salinas, Ph.D.
Certified Federal Employment and Career Management  who writes: 
Great Presentation! Congratulations for taking the lead and re-energizing 
"Nuestro Movimiento."    More information:

Hispanic Link Weekly Report Dec. 19, 2005
Vol. 23 No 50

Latino Experts Call for Congressional Hearings: Federal Employment Gap
By Christine Senteno

A panel of experts addressing the dearth of Latinos in federal government jobs offered several recommendations to close the under-representation gap at a Dec. 13 presentation at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

Panel members pointed out Latinos currently hold about 7% of the three million jobs in federal government. This contrasts to their 12% participation in the national civilian workforce. The 5% disparity continues to grow, according to Gilbert Sandate, chair of the Coalition for Fairness for His-panics in Government and director of the Office of Workforce Diversity at the Library of Congress.

Fellow panelist J. V. Martinez, senior science advisor for the U.S. Department of Energy, observed that by 2010 the gap is projected to grow to 5.7%.

However, by 2010, an estimated 42% of senior federal executives will retire from their jobs, giving federal agencies a huge opportunity to close the gap, he noted.

Sandate asserted that if Latinos were hired at parity with their participation in the civilian labor force, they would hold an additional 90,000 federal jobs. This, in turn, denies Latino communities of $8 billion in lost salaries, delivery of program services and contracting opportunities each year, he said.

According to Sandate, "Over the last 33 years, the rate of Hispanic hiring into the federal civil service has averaged 0.13% per year. At this rate of hiring, Hispanics will never reach parity with their numbers in the civilian labor force."

Sylvia Trujillo, legal counsel for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
and Sandate proposed the White House strengthen accountability by appointing a Presidential Commission on Hispanic Employment in the Federal Government.

They proposed rewarding agencies that meet Hispanic hiring goals and withholding bonuses to senior executives of agencies that do not meet their goals. Addition-ally, they called for congressional hearings during the next legislative session.

The Government Accountability Office will be releasing early next year an audit re-quested by Congress Member Charlie Gonzalez (D-Texas) and other members of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus.

The panel also urged national Latino organizations take a more active role in pressing for federal reform or legislative action.

The League of United Latin American Citizens, represented by Emma Moreno at the presentation, continues to develop strategies to bring more Latinos into the federal workplace.

Commission Calls for Reducing Number of Minority Youths Tried as Adults; Symposium Cites Negative Impact
National Desk, Legal Reporter, Contact: Alicia Ingram, 404-493-1724 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno  Abstract.

LOS ANGELES, Nov. 8 /U.S. Newswire/ -- The Dellums Commission, headed by former Oakland Congressman Ronald V. Dellums, is calling on national and state criminal justice officials to reform practices and polices responsible for increasing the number of minority youths tried as adults in courtrooms across the country. 

"This trend of sending young men off to prison instead of using the juvenile justice system is limiting the life options for male youth of color," Mr. Dellums said. "Too frequently the adult justice system is the destination point for young men of color due to policy failures in health and education, and a lack of family and community support." 

Rep. Dellums cited "alarming statistics'' from the US Bureau of Justice Statistics showing that last year 2,267,787 people were incarcerated in the United States, and nearly two-thirds of the prison population were persons of color, mostly males. In fact, the data showed that 8.4 percent of African Americans ages 25 to 29 are in state or federal prisons. Further, Amnesty International found that there are currently 2,225 prisoners across the country serving life without parole sentences for crimes that were committed when they were a juvenile. 

"There is growing evidence that a large number of youths with diagnosable serious emotional disturbances are being diverted to the criminal justice system," said Dr. Christopher, whose Health Policy Institute sponsored the symposium. "It's crucial that we address the root causes of the social problems, such as the lack of adequate mental and physical health treatment, that are contributing factors in a large number of youths who are taken into the criminal justice system." 

"The school system is becoming the pipeline for the prisons," said Dr.Grantham. "Take for example my district, one of the schools we had 700 students to enter into high school and only 299 graduated. What are the remaining students doing? After they drop out, they have no skills; therefore, they may end up in the prison system... We're suspending and expelling students' everyday for fighting. That's not the solution; we must keep them in school. If we kick them out, it just gives them idol time to get in trouble." 

Rep. McCoy also focused on the schools as a problem. "A quarter of the kids are graduating from high school today," the Native American said. "We're portrayed as evil in the history books. The politicians are saying leave no child behind, but let's test the system and not the child! We're testing the children. We took out vocational and technical education, as well as music in the school system in Washington State, however only 24 percent of the jobs require a college degree. We're setting our kids up to fail. Let's put vocational and technical education, as well as music, back in the school system to provide options for our students." 

"It is currently framed as a public safety issues and it should be framed as a public health issue. We have to come up with a solution," White said. "We spend six times the rate on the penal system versus what we spend on higher education. We need to shift the money that we're spending.
U.S. Newswire 202-347-2770

Enrique "Kiki" Camarena, DEA Agent
article suggested by:  Brian Kalahan

Enrique Camarena never asked to be a hero.

In 1985, when DEA agent Kiki Camarena was murdered by drug dealers in Mexico, they ended his life but not his dream. Here is Kiki's story.

Growing up in a dirt-floored house in Mexico, Enrique Camarena wanted to make a difference. When he was little, he begged his mother for a toy gun. "I need a gun," he said, "because I'm going to be a policeman when I grow up." At nine, Kiki moved with his family to the U.S. to pick fruit.

After excelling in high school, Kiki faced a critical turning point. His friends were headed for trouble, and he had to decide whether he wanted to follow them into a life of crime and drugs. The deeply engrained desire to make a difference won out, and Kiki opted to stay straight, working his way through college and earning a degree in criminal justice.

Following stints in the Marines and the police force, Kiki joined the DEA. It was the best way he knew to stop drugs and to help people he cared about. His mother, concerned about dangers inherent in his job, tried to talk him out of it. "I can't not do this," he told her. "I'm only one person, but I want to make a difference." In early 1985, the DEA sent Kiki to work undercover in Mexico. For weeks he lived among the drug cartel, gathering information and evidence. He was ready to wrap up his assignment when his identity was discovered. He was kidnapped and tortured to death.

To honor his memory, and to show that they would continue his fight against illegal drugs, friends and neighbors wore red badges of satin. Then parents who had come together in local coalitions to fight the drug problem took Kiki as their model, embracing his belief that one person can make a difference, and adopting his symbol--the red ribbon--as their own.

From this grassroots beginning grew National Family Partnership, a network of community groups united under one mission: to promote healthy, drug-free youth through prevention and education.

Maya Christina Gonzales: My Own Room/Mi Propio Cuartito

Among the children's authors being recognized for excellence in art and literature are Maya Christina Gonzales (My Own Room/Mi propio cuartito).  Maya's work has graced the covers and pages of some of the most significant cultural representations of the Chicano/a community. She is on the cover of Contemporary Chicana/o Art, hailed by Cheech Marin  as the "bible of contemporary Chicano art." And the cover of Living Chicana Theory, in which some of "the most vital and pioneering voices of Chicana feminism come together." Her children's books have also received the same kind of attention, winning the Belpre Pura Medal and the Tomas Rivera Award. The review committee said that her book " is not only a delight for children, but it epitomizes the significance of the award, which is to raise awareness of the Mexican American culture." Maya has illustrated 13 bilingual children's books and is included in numerous anthologies and references. Her fine art and her illustrations have helped to expand and deepen the Chicano/a and Latino/a community's presence of self. Maya once taught throughout the Bay Area schools, promoting that "everyone is an artist and art is always an act of courage."

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Américo Paredes, 
Folklorist, educator, author, novelist

"To the memory of my father, who rode a raid or two with Catarino Garza; and to all those old men who sat around on summer-nights, in the days when there was a chaparral, smoking their cornhusk cigarettes and talking in low, gentle voices about violent things; while I listened." — Paredes' dedication to With His Pistol in His Hand 

Acclaimed Mexican American Folklorist Americo Paredes was a folklore scholar known for his collections and translations of the folklore and ballads of Mexico and the Mexican American border region. His celebrated 1958 book, With His Pistol in His Hand: A Border Ballad and Its Hero, described the legend of Gregorio Cortez, a Mexican American ranch hand who shot a Texas sheriff and then became a hero as he eluded capture. Paredes heard the story, which ended tragically, sung as a ballad in small towns along the Rio Grande. "Borders and ballads seem to go together, and their heroes are all cast in the same mold," he wrote. Throughout his long career, he challenged some of the stereotypical views of life in the borderlands of Texas and Mexico. By learning the songs and the lore of the region, he "set in motion a revolutionary approach to writing about the way things and people had been in early Texas," according to a statement released by the Office of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin upon his death in 1999. "In doing so, he helped to shape a positive cultural identity among Mexican-Americans and influenced a whole new generation of Texas scholars." Praise for Literary Works

Paredes was "renowned as an ethnographer, literary critic and social historian," according to Ramon Saldivar in the foreword to Paredes's fiction collection The Hammon and the Beans and Other Stories (1994). Similarly, Richard M. Dorson described him as "the outstanding scholar of border folklore" in the introduction to Paredes's Folktales of Mexico (1970): "He is the thorough folklorist, equally at home in the field, the library, and the archives," Dorson wrote. "No one is more uniquely qualified to present the folktales of Mexico." Paredes developed Chicano and folklore studies at the University of Texas at Austin, where he was professor of English and anthropology for over 30 years. A prolific writer, he was editor of the Journal of American Folklore from 1969 to 1973. Between Two Worlds

Paredes was born to Justo and Clotilde Paredes in Brownsville, Texas, on 3 September 1915. He was raised between two worlds — a phrase which became the title of his 1990 book of poetry — on the Texas-Mexican border with its rich mixture of languages and cultures. In Folktales of Mexico, Paredes wrote that he spent childhood summers in northern Mexico, listening to storytellers. Aspiring to be a poet and fiction writer, he studied at Brownsville Junior College from 1934 to 1936, then worked as a journalist at the Brownsville Herald and Pan American Airways. He traveled to Japan with the U.S. Army in 1944 and 1945. As political editor for Stars and Stripes, he covered part of the post-World War II war crimes trials in Japan, according to notes in The Hammon and the Beans. Develops Folklore and Chicano Studies.

Paredes had a long and distinguished academic career. In 1951, he received his bachelor's degree in English and philosophy, summa cum laude, from the University of Texas at Austin. He earned a master's in 1953 and his doctorate in 1956, both in English (folklore) and Spanish. He then taught at the university, rising to professor of English in 1965 and professor of anthropology in 1966, and serving on the folklore program faculty. He was later named the Ashbel Smith Professor of English and Anthropology and the Anderson Centennial Professor. After retirement, Paredes became Professor Emeritus of English and Anthropology. Professional Accomplishments

In 1957, Paredes organized the Folklore Archives at the University of Texas and served as archivist. He founded the university's Mexican American Studies Program in 1972, and directed the Center for Intercultural Studies in Folklore and Oral History. Beyond the university, Paredes, who published frequently in professional journals, was president of the Texas Folklore Society in 1961-1962, and vice-president of the American Folklore Society in 1964-1965. He was also active in civil rights, bicultural education, and ethnic minority affairs for Texas and the university. Journeys to Lower Rio Grande

A dedicated field researcher, Paredes traveled the Lower Rio Grande border, collecting corridos (Mexican American ballads) and folktales from farmers, ranchers, folksingers, and others. Many of his tapes are housed in the Folklore Library at the University of Texas at Austin. His doctoral thesis, "With His Pistol in His Hand" — which was made into a public television film — is considered a classic study of the border ballad. "It illuminates the folk psychology of the Mexican border folk," according to The Centennial Index: One Hundred Years of the Journal of American Folklore. "It also indicates how folklore sources can contribute to historical knowledge." Nature of Mexican Folklore

In Folktales of Mexico, Paredes wrote that folklore in Mexico and the United States is a blend of "imported, indigenous and American-historical traditions," molded by a combination of "colonization, the westward movement, Negro slavery, immigration, regionalism, the rhetoric of democracy, and the technology of the mass media." Animal folktales, like "The Ram in the Chile Patch" and "Perez the Mouse," are among the stories he collected for the book. "Folktales of wonder and adventure still are told in Mexican villages and towns with all the old embellishments," he observed. Collecting Songs, Celebrating a People

Paredes's 1976 book, A Texas-Mexican Cancionero: Folksongs of the Lower Border, was "among the first folksong volumes to emphasize Mexican rather than Spanish heritage," John O. West noted in Mexican-American Folklore. Paredes collected the words and music of 66 folksongs from the Texas-Mexican border, and added his own historical information and interpretation of each one. "The total reveals a scholar with an impressive command of border folksong," West claimed. In addition, the book was deemed appropriate for both scholars and general readers. Cultural Advocate

Paredes was not only a scholar, but a cultural advocate who cared deeply about the history and people of his region. In the dedication to "With His Pistol in His Hand," Paredes wrote: "To the memory of my father, who rode a raid or two with Catarino Garza; and to all those old men who sat around on summer-nights, in the days when there was a chaparral, smoking their cornhusk cigarettes and talking in low, gentle voices about violent things; while I listened." Later Works

Paredes worked well into his 70s. Folklore and Culture of the Texas-American Border appeared in 1992. His efforts at fiction and poetry came to fruition with the publication of a novel, George Washington Gomez (1990), and a poetry collection, Between Two Worlds (1991). "These imaginary works address the predicaments of contemporary Chicano/a cultural politics, identity formation, and social transformation," Saldivar stated. Paredes's short-story collection, The Hammon and the Beans, published in 1994 but mostly written in the 1930s and 1940s, vividly describes the Brownsville of his youth, where Mexican Americans struggled against poverty, prejudice, and loss of cultural identity. Family Life

Paredes married Consuelo Silva in 1939. After the marriage ended, he wed Amelia Sidzu Naeamine in 1948. Paredes dedicated some of his many books to his four children, Julia, Americo, Jr.
 Alan, and Vicente. In 1989, Paredes was honored by the National Endowment for the Humanities with the Charles Frankel Prize for his lifelong contributions to the humanities. The government of Mexico in 1990 awarded him the Order of the Aztec Eagle, the highest award to non-citizens for preserving Mexican culture. Paredes died at the age of 83 in 1999. 


Along Those Lines . . .

"MUSICAL GENEALOGY," by George G. Morgan


Music, like photographs and art, reflect the times and culture in a given place. They add context and content to the understanding of our ancestors. George Gershwin once said, "True music must repeat the thought and inspirations of the people and the time. My people are Americans and my time is today." 

Music has always been an important part of my life. My musical tastes include classical music and opera, through early 20th century popular music, male and female vocalists of the 1920s to the 1960s, big band music, some country and blues music, a healthy dollop of jazz, as well as rock and easy listening music from the 1960s to the present. You know what they say: variety is the spice of life!

I began thinking this past week about what an integral part of life music and song have been for people across the many generations. It reflects the history and culture of an area and of each era. It also is an important component of so many of our life events. Since so many people are interested in heritage albums, scrap booking, and preparing multimedia family history presentations, it would be interesting to select appropriate music to include that fits the time, the event, and even the people and places you might include.

With that idea in mind, I thought that in "Along Those Lines . . ." this week I'd share a list of songs that might well have related to the lives and times of our ancestors, and even to specific genealogical record types. You may have other and better examples you can name, but enjoy the irony that genealogical events (and/or record types) and popular music can be combined in this way.


--- BIRTH 
Birth-related songs are numerous. Among the ones that immediately come to my mind are torch-singer Helen Morgan's fine 1930 recording of "Why Was I Born?" from the Broadway Show, "Sweet Adeline," in which she starred. "Born to Be Wild" (1968) by the group Steppenwolf and Bruce Springsteen's "Born in the U.S.A." (1985) both echo reasons to be born. The ubiquitous "Happy Birthday to You" is, of course, the song most frequently associated with birthdays. And yet I can hear the song, "I Found a Million-Dollar Baby in a Five-and-Ten-Cent Store" from Billy Rose's 1931 Broadway show, "Crazy Quilt." It's not really about births, but it's a fun song.

There are two pieces of music invariably linked to weddings. One is the "Bridal Chorus" ("Here Comes the Bride") from Richard Wagner's 1841 opera, "Lohengrin." The other is the "Wedding March" that we all know so well. It has become the traditional musical recessional piece used at the conclusion of the wedding. It was written by German composer Felix Mendelssohn for his 1858 work, "A Midsummer's Night Dream." Even the venerable vocal wedding solo, "Oh, Promise Me," comes from a little-known comic operetta, "Robin Hood," by Reginald DeKoven (1891). Prior to the introduction and use of these pieces, weddings used classical music, perhaps by Johann Sebastian Bach and other composers, and traditional hymns. 

Moving forward in time, Jo Stafford's 1947 hit, "The Serenade of the Bells," tells the story of a miraculous occurrence in which church bells that were thought inoperable began to ring and a young couple were allowed to marry. "Going to the Chapel" (1964) by the Dixie Cups says, "Going to the chapel and we're gonna get married." In 1971, Paul Stookey of the folk group, Peter, Paul, and Mary, recorded "The Wedding Song" and it has been used at countless weddings ever since. 

The dissolution of a once loving relationship can be very painful and songs reflecting the emotional pathos (or relief?) are legion. "After You've Gone" (1918) has been recorded many times over the years. Connie Francis' 1958 recording of "Who's Sorry Now" was a remake of a hit song from 1923. My favorite choice for a divorce song would have to be Tammy Wynette's classic "D-I-V-O-R-C-E." However, none of these pieces would necessarily be appropriate for photos or film of Uncle Ed and Aunt Jeanette's wedding, which ended in a nasty divorce.

If you've ever seen the movie, "The Wizard of Oz," you can never forget the scene in Munchkinland in which the coroner proclaims that the Witch of the East is dead and the Munchkins spontaneously burst into the song, "Ding Dong, the Witch is Dead." For genealogists, we get both an 'official' proclamation made from a document and a catchy song! There are scores of songs about death and dying. The Shangri-Las recorded a hit song in 1964 titled "The Leader of the Pack" and Mark Dinning, brother of the Dinning Sisters vocal trio, recorded "Teen Angel" in 1960. 

Here, too, I'd be very careful about what to use for a family history presentation, even if a particular aunt or in-law did act like the Wicked Witch of the West. Perhaps Frederic Chopin's "Funeral March" (1837) or the "Adagio in G Minor" by Tomaso Albinoni would be a more tasteful choice.

You probably didn't think I could find an example of music associated with a will, but you were wrong. Giacomo Puccini's comic opera, "Gianni Schicchi," is based on the premise that greedy relatives change the deceased Schicchi's will and go through many gyrations not to get caught.

Dinah Washington's recording of "The Richest Guy in the Graveyard" was released in February of 1950 to excellent reviews. Bob Dylan's recording of "Tombstone Blues" (1965) from his famous "Highway 61 Revisited" album has become a cult favorite, and contemporary singer Sheryl Crow recorded the song in 1999 and performs it in concerts. Few of us have missed out on hearing the 1962 comedy song, "Monster Mash," by Bobby "Boris" Pickett. For the opera lover, Gaetano Donizetti's "Lucia di Lammermoor" includes a tenor aria near the end of the final act, "Tombe degli avi miei," which translates from Italian to "Tomb of my ancestors."

The lyrics of Neil Diamond's 1981 song, "America," vividly evokes the immigration experience. "On the boats and on the planes, They're coming to America, Never looking back again, They're coming to America . . ." However, perhaps the most brilliant song about the immigration experience is "America, I Love You," a patriotic song introduced by singer Sam Ash in 1916.

You would be hard pressed not to be able to find songs about military service. Patriotic fervor and a love to express oneself in song has created thousands of evocative songs. "The Caissons Go Rolling Along," "Anchors Aweigh," "Off We Go into the Wild Blue Yonder," and the "Marine's Hymn," are well-known songs representing the American military branches of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines, respectively. 

Other songs are representative of patriotism and/or the battle experience. "Yankee Doodle" dates from the American Revolutionary War era. Songs such as "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," "Tenting on the Old Campground," and "When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again" are just two of the enduring standards associated with the American Civil War. 

George M. Cohan's World War I classic "Over There," (1917) was recorded multiple times in the space of less than a year by such stars as Enrico Caruso, Nora Bayes, and Billy Murray. And in 1966, SSgt. Barry Sadler of the U.S. Army Special Forces scored a huge hit recording on the Billboard charts for eleven weeks with "The Ballad of the Green Berets." 

Where would we be without "a little traveling music," as entertainer Jackie Gleason used to say? A British composer, Harry Dacre, composed a little song Called "Daisy Bell" in 1892. The song became the rage under its new title, "A Bicycle Built for Two," and certainly evokes a vivid image of a late Victorian couple on a happy ride through the park. 

The introduction of the automobile spurred other songs such as "In My Merry Oldsmobile" (1905), "See the USA in your Chevrolet" (1956), "Little Deuce Coupe" by the Beach Boys in 1963, and any number of other car- and truck-related songs. 

"I've Been Working on the Railroad" (1936) and a Johnny Mercer song, "On the Atchinson, Topeka, and the Santa Fe," introduced by Judy Garland in the MGM film, "The Harvey Girls," are just three of the great railroading songs.

Many of the songs and musical works I've mentioned are still being performed by professionals and sung, hummed, and whistled by the rest of us, just as they were at the time they were first introduced. Others have been forgotten or have fallen from popularity, ultimately destined for obscurity. 

Placing our ancestors' lives into context involves more than just determining a geographical location and time period. We must strive to understand the influences of other people and events on them, their participation in those events, and the minute details of their everyday lives. Music is a treasured form of personal and artistic expression that has existed since very ancient times. It was all around our ancestors just as it is around us. Regardless of the type of music and the venue, it certainly is an integral part of our ancestors' experience and ours. 

As you contemplate your ancestors' lives, consider the music of their times and their possible musical tastes. Incorporating period music into your family history, multi-media production will add a great deal to the vintage flavor of the presentation and will help bring their experiences back to life.

Happy Listening! George  Visit George's Web site at

George is president of the International Society of Family History Writers and Editors (ISFHWE) at , a director of the Genealogical Speakers Guild (GSG) at , a director of the Florida Genealogical Society, Inc. (Tampa) at , the Association of Professional Genealogists (APG) at , the National Genealogical Society (NGS) at,
the Society of Genealogists (U.K.) at , and more than 20 other societies. What about you?  Copyright 2005, All rights reserved.

J. Richard Tapia, Harley-Davidson dealer 
Article by Keith Rosenblum

J. Richard Tapia owns and operates four Harley-Davidson dealerships in California and Nevada, employing 60. He is one of the company's 650 U.S. dealership owners, who collectively sold 375,000 of the pricey bikes in 2004, at least 12,700 of them to Hispanic buyers.

These dealers operate in a market niche that has become largely synonymous with Anglo baby boomers. However, Mr. Tapia describes a younger, affluent, Hispanic buyer demographic that just might help sustain the Harley market as the baby boom market peaks.

Mr. Tapia, a Los Angeles native whose parents emigrated from Mexico, holds bachelor's and master's degrees from Golden Gate University in San Francisco, and at age 46 has accumulated a slew of businessman-of-the-year distinctions. Though he does not reveal specific financial data, Mr. Tapia says his Carson City, Nevada dealership and its Lake Tahoe satellite (called an "SRL," or secondary retail location) sell about 300 Harleys per year. His other dealership, Yosemite Harley-Davidson, in Merced, California, and its Golden Valley satellite store in Los Banos, sell about 250. He bought the Merced dealership first, in 1998, and opened the fourth location, Los Banos, in 2004.

He says he was bitten by the Harley bug after riding with friends who owned various brands. Already a General Motors-certified master technician with experience as an expert witness on "lemon laws" (consumer protection laws obligating manufacturers or sellers to repair, replace, or refund the price of motor vehicles 

Hispanic Business, Inc.
425 Pine Avenue
Santa Barbara, CA 93117 

Trend: Firms are turning to museums to hold special events. Hoping to wake up the traditional workplace party, many corporations are booking space of Orange County museums showcasing everything from art to authors to anchors. Orange County Register, 12-12-05

“Mexican Illegal Aliens: A Mexican American Perspective”
by Rafael D. Canul, Ph.D.
Sent by Nellie Kaniski writes:
Photo From:

Professor Canul, in this substantial, well-documented and impressive socio-political and economic analysis, focuses on the difficult and challenging motives and experiences for Mexicans illegals who have settled in the U.S. since 1920’s. He provides a unique Mexican American perspective on this controversial issue of illegal immigration. Furthermore, he concludes with a forceful argument that, despite rising nativism ignited by illegal immigrants, illegal immigrants are indispensable for many sectors of the U.S. economy. The lack of American political will to address in an orderly manner the issue of foreign workers has victimized the weakest link of dynamic and highly profitable economic process: the Mexican illegal aliens. Dr. Canul provides an ample historical background of how the federal government has attempted to deal with, and how it has failed to stem the tide of illegal migration. He also addresses within a historical context the reactions of Americans to the various waves of immigration from the rise of the anti-foreign Nativists, the restrictive immigration laws and quotas of the 1920’s; through the World War II era, the Bracero Program, the Amnesty declared by Reagan to the present concerns with War on Terror. 

This excellent work is an effective tool for increasing multicultural awareness and should be an effective teaching guide for social sciences and humanities

This book provides the first comprehensive, Mexican American historical perspective of the Mexican illegal immigration to the United States during the last 50 years and how this history impacts on current Mexican Americans political articulation.

Abstract: Study: Immigration grows, reaching record numbers 
by Haya El Nasser and Kathy Kiely, USA TODAY, Dec 12, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

A total of 7.9 million immigrants have come to the USA since 2000, making the first half of this decade the highest period of immigration in U.S. history despite tougher scrutiny after 9/11, figures released Monday show. 

Almost half, or 3.7 million, entered illegally, according to an analysis of Census data by the Center for Immigration Studies, a Washington, D.C., group that advocates controlling the flow of legal and illegal immigrants.

The nation's immigrant population hit a record 35.2 million in March 2005, 2 1/2 times the number at the peak of the last great immigration wave of 1910, says Steven Camarota, author of the report. Immigrants make up 12.1% of the U.S. population, compared with 14.7% in 1910. 

Extract: Picking a Battle Over Shortage of Farmworkers
As some winter crops may be left to rot, farm advocates lobby for immigration reform.
By Jerry Hirsch, Times Staff Writer, December 5, 2005
Sent by Ricardo Valderde 

The farmers who grow most of the nation's winter vegetable crop say they won't have enough workers - legal or otherwise - to harvest all the produce when the season hits high gear next month. 

Growers in the winter farm belt that stretches east from California's arid Imperial Valley to Yuma County in Arizona will fill barely half the 50,000 field hand positions needed to gather the region's tons of ripening produce, according to Western Growers, a trade group whose members account for 90% of the nation's winter lettuce, broccoli, cauliflower and other vegetables. "Come January, we could see lettuce rotting in the fields because there will be no one to pick it," said Jon Vessey, who farms 8,000 acres near El Centro.

The effect on consumers, who rarely pay attention to the source of their produce, is negligible so far. But Tom Nassif, chief executive of Irvine-based Western Growers, said the squeeze threatened the continued availability of American-grown winter produce and the U.S. jobs of packers, farm equipment providers and industry suppliers.

The field hand shortage, also seen during other harvests this year, underscores the need for comprehensive immigration reform that includes an "effective" guest worker program that gives foreign citizens permission to work in the U.S. agriculture industry, Nassif said.

"Our crops are going to be harvested by a foreign workforce either here or somewhere else," Nassif said. "So are we going to export all the other jobs affiliated with farming just because we aren't willing to have a guest worker program?"

"Our industry has always been honest about the fact that we have so many illegal workers," Nassif said. "What we want is a mechanism to have a legal workforce."

Disagreements over undocumented workers have divided Arizona's two GOP senators. Sen. Jon Kyl wants to require those here illegally to return to their home countries before applying for participation in a guest worker program while Sen. John McCain has sided with farming interests and would allow undocumented workers who participate in a guest worker program to stay in the United States and apply for permanent residency or citizenship after paying fines and satisfying other requirements.

Some farmers are raising what they pay to well above the minimum wage that most of these jobs once brought. Vessey said he had increased his base pay and his piece-work rate to $10 to $12 an hour, about the starting wage for construction workers. 

Elsewhere, farmers are offering bonuses of $50 a day for each full week worked, Nassif said. And in the California portion of the winter growing region, farmworker wages can approach $15 an hour depending on how quickly individuals harvest. Many get health and other benefits through corporate employers or a program operated by Western Growers.

But farmers say other market forces limit how high they can raise wages and still stay in business. Foreign competition and the supermarket industry consolidation are leaving growers with fewer buyers and less leverage over what they can charge.

"People will do a lot of things before they work on the farm," said Bart Fisher, who has 2,000 acres of winter vegetables near Blythe, Calif. "It is hard work and unattractive to most people." Vessey recently was looking for workers to weed and thin his fields. He posted openings for 300 temporary workers at the state Employment Development Office in Calexico. "One person showed up and lasted half a day," Vessey said. And this was in the heart of Imperial County, which has a jobless rate of 17.6%, or 11,400 people, according to the agency.

It's not just individual farmers who are having trouble finding workers. Dole Food Co., which with annual revenue of $5.3 billion is among the world's largest producers of fresh fruit and vegetables, is worried that it might not have enough people to gather the 4,000 acres of lettuce it grows in Arizona's Yuma County, Spot labor shortages last year kept the company from harvesting all of its crop, said Eric Schwartz, president of Dole Fresh Vegetables in Salinas, Calif.

Concerned that the situation has worsened in the last year, Dole has spent "several hundred thousand dollars" leasing and refurbishing a decades-old work camp in Yuma County where it hopes to house 285 guest workers, Schwartz said. The move allows Dole to meet the requirements of the government's current H2A immigration visa program, which requires that employers house and feed the people they bring in. 

"We've got to have labor to get our produce out of the fields," Schwartz said. Dole, which has 5,000 farm positions, still expects to run as many as 500 jobs short. Schwartz said a confluence of trends had contributed to the shortage, which also hindered the summer and fall harvests of grapes and other crops in the San Joaquin Valley this year, although less severely. Much of Dole's workforce in Yuma County and the field hands for nearby farms commute from Mexico each day.

"There are a lot of hassles at the border," Schwartz said. "It can take two hours to get across, and then they work hard for a full day and have another two-hour trip. It just discourages a lot of people."  In prior years, groups of farm workers would travel throughout California and the West, following the harvest from crop to crop. But now they stay in one region and pick up other forms of casual work at the end of the growing season. They aren't willing to travel as much, especially to border areas where more patrols have increased the chance that they could be caught and deported, growers say.

These trends are only going to get worse, farmers say, and that's why they are pushing for a guest worker program even though it is politically unpopular.  "I get a lot of hate mail," said Nassif, who was a deputy assistant secretary of State and ambassador to Morocco during the Reagan administration. "People call me a traitor."  But, he asks, what can be more patriotic than assuring "America with home-grown food?"

Extract: Most Mexican Immigrants in New Study Gave Up Jobs to Take Their Chances in U.S. By Nina Bernstein, New York Times Published: December 7, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr and Win Holtzman

A report about the work lives of recent Mexican immigrants in seven cities across the United States suggests that they typically traded jobs in Mexico for the prospect of work here, despite serious bouts of unemployment, job instability and poor wages.

The report, released Tuesday by the Pew Hispanic Center, was based on surveys of nearly 5,000 Mexicans, most of them here illegally. Those surveyed were seeking identity documents at Mexican consulates in New York, Atlanta and Raleigh, N.C., where recent arrivals have gravitated toward construction, hotel and restaurant jobs, and in Dallas, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Fresno, Calif., where they have been more likely to work in agriculture and manufacturing.

Unlike the stereotype of jobless Mexicans heading north, most of the immigrants had been employed in Mexico, the report found.  Once in the United States, they soon found that their illegal status was no barrier to being hired here. And though the jobs they landed, typically with help from relatives, were often unstable and their median earnings only $300 a week, that was enough to keep drawing newcomers because wages here far exceeded those in Mexico. 

The survey found that the most recent to arrive were more likely to have worked in construction or commerce, rather than agriculture, in Mexico. Only 5 percent had been unemployed there; they were "drawn not from the fringes, but from the heart of Mexico's labor force," the report said. 

"These are workers with no safety net," Mr. Kochhar said. "The long-run implication is a generation of workers without health or pension benefits, without any meaningful asset accumulation."

On the other hand, Mr. Kochhar and Roberto Suro, director of the Pew Hispanic Center, said the flexibility of this work force was a boon to certain industries like home construction, an important part of the nation's economic growth since the last recession. 

Among respondents to the survey, those who settled in Atlanta and Dallas were the best off, with 56 percent in each city receiving a weekly wage higher than the $300-a-week median. The worst off were in Fresno, where more than half of the survey respondents worked in agriculture and 60 percent reported earning less than $300 a week. The lowest wages were reported by women, people who spoke little or no English, and those without identification. 

To some scholars of immigration, the report underlines the lack of incentives for employers to turn to a guest worker program like the one proposed by President Bush because their needs are met cheaply by illegal workers - and all without paperwork or long-term commitment.

"You can't plausibly argue that immigrant-dominated sectors have a labor shortage," said Robert Courtney Smith, a sociologist and author of "Mexican New York: Transnational Lives of New Immigrants." Instead, he said, the report and evidence of falling wages among Mexican immigrants over time point to an oversupply of vulnerable workers competing with each other.

The migration is part of a historic restructuring of the Mexican economy comparable to America's industrial revolution, said Kathleen Newland, director of the Migration Policy Institute, a research organization based in Washington. 

The institute released its own report on Tuesday, arguing that border enforcement efforts have failed. Workplace enforcement, which has been neglected, would be a crucial part of making a guest worker program successful. For now, Mexicans keep arriving illegally.

Collegians Get By Despite Illegal Status
Graduates of the school of hard knocks share tips for stretching dollars with other students who, like them, can't get financial aid.
By Sam Quinones, Times Staff Writer, December 11, 2005
Sent by Ricardo Valverde

In the life of an undocumented immigrant college student, finding creative ways to save money can be a job in itself, Luis Perez said Saturday at a conference to assist students like himself.

While attending UCLA and unable to get financial aid because of his immigration status, Perez went to all the student club meetings he could find because they served free food. An immigrant from Guadalajara, Mexico, who grew up in Pacoima, he went to Asian American club meetings. He observed Ramadan with the Muslim Student Assn., fasting all day, then eating at night.

He often slept in the library and showered in the school's gym before finally renting a three-bedroom Westwood apartment with six other men. He checked out textbooks from the L.A. public library and kept them for the semester, preferring to pay the $20 late fee rather than the $500 it would have cost to buy the books.

The daily challenges to get through college "make you stronger," said Perez, 24, who graduated in June with a political science degree and wants to attend law school next fall. "We're forced to be creative. If you have a necessity, you'll find a way to work it out."

On Saturday, Perez was among those who helped organize a conference at Cal State Dominguez Hills to advise undocumented immigrant college students and their parents on how to pay for school.

In 2001, illegal immigrants like Perez were first allowed to attend state colleges and universities while paying in-state tuition, provided they had completed three years of high school in California. But federal law prohibits them from receiving government financial aid. So four years after the law's passage, paying for school is one of the biggest obstacles facing this new class of college students.

Those at the conference were told that money to pay for college can come in unorthodox ways.
Laura Barrerra, who was an aide to then-Assemblyman Marco Firebaugh, the legislator who sponsored the state law in 2001, said she knows of some high schools that have taken donations from businesses and funneled the money directly to graduating seniors who are undocumented so they could pay for college. She urged them to seek scholarships from businesses. "You create your own opportunities," Barrerra said.

Undocumented students described dividing their lives between normal college student activities and striving to survive in ways that break the law. Those who could afford cars told of being careful to avoid driving recklessly, lest a police officer stop them and ask to see a driver's license they can't obtain. 

Concentrating on studies can be hard under such conditions, they said. "One day you could have a good job and classes are going well. The next day, you're fired and you're like, 'OK, how do I pay for next semester?' " said Carolina Cuoto, an illegal immigrant college student in her senior year at Cal State Dominguez Hills studying psychology and philosophy.

Cuoto, 24, said she was paid in cash for jobs at cleaners and a jewelry store, then obtained a phony Social Security number and founds jobs at a supermarket and a Chuck E. Cheese's restaurant.

One day at the supermarket, her boss said he had good news and bad news: She was getting a promotion and a raise, he said. At the same time, her employers had discovered that she had a phony Social Security number, and if she couldn't fix the problem she'd be fired, which happened a few days later. 

Cesar Perez, 24, no relation to Luis Perez, is an illegal immigrant studying at Dominguez Hills to be a teacher. To find work, he said, he had to buy a phony work permit on Alvarado Street near downtown L.A.  "Most of our decisions are based on our status," said Luis Perez, who opted not to finish a minor in ethnic studies because it would have required two more classes and he wanted to get his degree quickly.  Now, it's unclear whether he will be deported to Mexico or admitted to law school.

On Sept. 16 - Mexican Independence Day - government officials notified him and his parents that they would be deported. The government had discovered their illegal status when they applied for residency, Perez said. 

He had been studying for his law school entrance exam by reading a prep book in the UCLA bookstore for hours every day to avoid paying for it.  He has taken the law school entrance exam anyway and is waiting for his test scores and for word from the federal government. He's applying to law schools in the meantime, especially those, such as UCLA and New York University, that offer full scholarships.

"Deportation is the one thing we can't control," he said, "so the best thing we can do is put it on the back burner" and not think about it.  Besides, he's not worried, now that he's got his degree.  
"They're not going to take away my brain if I get deported," he says. "I'm taking my degree with me." 

Abstract: Lawyers fight gender gap By Jane M. Von Bergen 
Inquirer Staff Writer, Oct. 25, 2005 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Candace Centeno and Carolyn DiGiovanni were two of about 70 lawyers who gathered for a session titled "Reversing the Gender Gap in Law Firms: Why It's in Both the Law Firms' and Lawyers' Economic Interest and How to Make It Happen." 

The impetus for the session came from statistics in a Pennsylvania Bar Association study that found that women hold less than 18 percent of partner positions, while filling 79 percent of the part-time lawyer positions. While most Philadelphia lawyers are men, more than half under the age of 35 are women. After that, women begin to leave the profession. 

Looking for less pressure, women are leaving law firms for jobs as corporate lawyers. Flexible policies help in recruiting, especially for younger lawyers. Technology makes work at home possible. Even though law firms still have a "face time" culture, that is changing for men and women as more senior partners become adept with technology. 

Centeno would like to be a part-time partner, with proportionate compensation. She has been with her firm for 12 years, eight of them part-time. She has tried cases, handled depositions, and been available at crunch time. "While I want to be a partner and I love my firm," said Centeno, whose husband is a partner in another law firm, "there is a sacrifice you have to make. You have to be willing to give that career ambition up." 

Contact staff writer Jane M. Von Bergen at 215-854-2769 or

High School Student Suspended For Speaking Spanish 
Seny by Howard Shorr

Spanish At School Translates to Suspension
By T.R. Reid, Washington Post, December 9, 2005

Update: Superintendent Bobby Allen reversed the suspension within hours of learning about it and apologized toZach Rubio.   OCRegister

KANSAS CITY, Kan--Most of the time, 16-year-old Zach Rubio converses in clear, unaccented American teen-speak, a form of English in which the three most common words are "like," "whatever" and "totally." But Zach is also fluent in his dad's native language, Spanish -- and that's what got him suspended from school.  "It was, like, totally not in the classroom," the high school junior said, recalling the infraction. "We were in the, like, hall or whatever, on restroom break. This kid I know, he's like, 'Me prestas un dolar?' ['Will you lend me a dollar?'] Well, he asked in Spanish; it just seemed natural to answer that way. So I'm like, 'No problema.' "

But that conversation turned out to be a big problem for the staff at the Endeavor Alternative School, a small public high school in an ethnically mixed blue-collar neighborhood. A teacher who overheard the two boys sent Zach to the office, where Principal Jennifer Watts ordered him to call his father and leave the school.

Watts, whom students describe as a disciplinarian, said she can't discuss the case. But in a written "discipline referral" explaining her decision to suspend Zach for 1 1/2 days, she noted: "This is not the first time we have [asked] Zach and others to not speak Spanish at school."

Since then, the suspension of Zach Rubio has become the talk of the town in both English and Spanish newspapers and radio shows. The school district has officially rescinded his punishment and said that speaking a foreign language is not grounds for suspension. Meanwhile, the Rubio family has retained a lawyer, who says a civil rights lawsuit may be in the offing.

The tension here surrounding that brief exchange in a high school hall reflects a broader national debate over the language Americans should speak amid a wave of Hispanic immigration.

The National Council of La Raza, a Hispanic advocacy group, says that 20 percent of the U.S. school-age population is Latino. For half of those Latino students, the native language is Spanish.

Conflicts are bursting out nationwide over bilingual education, "English-only" laws, Spanish-language publications and advertising, and other linguistic collisions. Language concerns have been a key aspect of the growing political movement to reduce immigration.

"There's a lot of backlash against the increasing Hispanic population," said D.C. school board member Victor A. Reinoso. "We've seen some of it in the D.C. schools. You see it in some cities, where people complain that their tax money shouldn't be used to print public notices in Spanish. And there have been cases where schools want to ban foreign languages."

Some advocates of an English-only policy in U.S. schools say that it is particularly important for students from immigrant families to use the nation's dominant language.

California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) made that point this summer when he vetoed a bill authorizing various academic subjects to be tested in Spanish in the state's public schools. "As an immigrant," the Austrian-born governor said, "I know the importance of mastering English as quickly and as comprehensively as possible."

Hispanic groups generally agree with that, but they emphasize the value of a multilingual citizenry. "A fully bilingual young man like Zach Rubio should be considered an asset to the community," said Janet Murguia, national president of La Raza.

Zach's father, Lorenzo Rubio, a native of Veracruz, Mexico,  has lived in Kansas City for a
quarter-century. Rubio, and is a  U.S. citizen. "You can't just walk in and become a citizen," he said. "They make you take this government test. I studied for that test, and I learned that in America,
they can't punish you unless you violate a written policy."

"So I went to the principal and said, 'My son, he's not suspended for fighting, right? He's not suspended for disrespecting anyone. He's suspended for speaking Spanish in the hall?' So I asked her to show me the written policy about that. But they didn't have" one.

Rubio then called the superintendent of the Turner Unified School District, which operates the school. The district immediately rescinded Zach's suspension, local media reported. 

For Zach's father, and for the Hispanic organizations that have expressed concern, the suspension is not a closed case. "Obviously they've violated his civil rights," said Chuck Chionuma, a lawyer in Kansas City, Mo., who is representing the Rubio family. "We're studying what form of legal redress will correct the situation."

Said Rubio: "I'm mainly doing this for other Mexican families, where the legal status is kind of shaky and they are afraid to speak up. Punished for speaking Spanish? Somebody has to stand up and say: This is wrong."

Extract: Businesses see gold in Latino ads
by Esmeralda Bermudez, 503-221-4388;
The Oregonian, December 11, 2005
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Getting the message out in an unfamiliar but expanding Spanish-language market can be tricky
Sunday.  Marketing to Latinos may seem simple: Take a message, translate it and play it on Spanish television. But in translation, even the most plain-spoken slogans can get turned around.

When "Got milk?" becomes "Tienes leche?" the mind-your-calcium message implies, "Are you lactating?"

Yet, more and more companies -- large and small -- across the Portland area are setting aside their naiveté to put their image on  the line for a community they know little about.

Some businesses say they can't afford to ignore Spanish speakers, even though the market is still in its infancy. Census figures show  Oregon's Latino population is about 360,000, while other estimates peg it as high as 600,000. Latinos' buying power in Oregon is $5 billion this year and growing at a rate advertisers find tempting.

And this fall, the Portland Advertising Federation discussed Latino marketing for the first time in its 99-year history. More than 200 industry members gathered to hear the niche's dos and don'ts.
Among them: 
Don't translate. 
Don't dub. 
Be cautious with accents. 
Show Latino faces. 
Avoid stereotypes.

Owners of Spanish production companies in Portland say Spanish advertising has evolved during the past decade. Although production companies have a tough time luring big national names, locally the client base has shifted from mostly small Latino businesses to large Anglo companies.

"People have done their best to ignore it or throw a bone at it, but now they're under pressure from clients," said Roy Larson, who runs  Larson Northwest Hispanic Marketing, based in Waldport. According to Larson, Latinos in the greater Portland area in 2006 are expected to spend $210 million on cars, $480 million on groceries, $180 million on dining out and $90 million on apparel.

Nationwide, the Latino advertising industry is growing four times faster than all other sectors, said the Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies, a national group. Oregon's Latinos have the 20th-  largest buying power in the country, and their buying power is growing at twice the rate of Oregon's general buying power.

The growth has driven the half-dozen Latino and Anglo-run Spanish production companies in the area to try to prove how well they know Latinos. Some argue that only Latino producers can reach the market.

"They're not bilingual or bicultural," said Ignacio Betancourt, referring to Anglo producers. The native of Mexico runs Spanish Media  Productions, a business that's produced commercials for Fred Meyer, among others. "You have to contact someone who knows the culture. . . . Latinos are very picky and loyal."

Anglo advertisers such as Mary Young of Latin Media Specialists disagree. Sitting in her Portland office, with Spanish music playing in the background, the Latino-focused advertiser says, "I've proven myself. I wouldn't be here otherwise." Young says she's learning Spanish, attends Latino events and relies on a hired crew of Latinos to judge ads' authenticity.

The strategy has paid off for small-business owners such as Dr. Dustin Kollar of Allied Chiropractic in Hillsboro. Several times, the Scotland native has paid Betancourt of Spanish Media Productions to create Spanish television commercials.

Kollar says the business they bring in comes in second after referrals. Eighty percent of clients are Latino, representing a wide range of backgrounds. "When we focus on hard laborers, we get more patients with sore backs," Kollar said. "When we focus on sports injuries, we get more soccer players. You really do reach that audience."

Extract: Red Cross Bolstering Minority Outreach
By Jacqueline L. Salmon, Washington Post, December 5, 2005

The American Red Cross has launched an aggressive effort to reach out to racial and ethnic minorities and add more of them to the charity's vast network of volunteers, in response to criticism that it treated them callously during the Hurricane Katrina relief effort. Red Cross leaders say most problems were issues of perception and not cultural insensitivity -- and certainly not racism. 

In recent weeks, the organization has begun various initiatives to increase the diversity of the staff at its headquarters and 800 chapters and draw more minority volunteers. Its faith-based initiative is designed to recruit and train volunteers in religious organizations -- particularly churches with high concentrations of blacks, Hispanics and Asians, officials said.

The charity, which has raised $1.68 billion from the American public to help victims of Katrina and Rita, is moving to sign up more churches to operate as shelters in future disasters. Last month, it signed an agreement with the Helping Hands Coalition, a Houston nonprofit organization representing 100 predominantly black churches and community groups.

In the aftermath of the storms, minority evacuees said they encountered many problems in Red Cross shelters. Evacuees who spoke little or no English -- Hispanic and Asian immigrants along the Gulf Coast, as well as French-speaking members of the Houma United Nation tribe in Louisiana -- struggled to make themselves understood because there were so few translators.

Nevertheless, the charity has launched a major outreach effort to organizations of various races and ethnic groups. To try to diffuse tensions, chief executive Marsha Evans and other Red Cross officials have held dozens of sometimes-tense meetings with members of Congress, religious and civil rights leaders and members of various minority groups.

In late October, the Red Cross co-hosted an emotional meeting with more than 60  representatives of minority and faith-based groups at its headquarters in Washington to talk about the issues that arose after the Gulf Coast hurricanes. One major focus that emerged: The Red Cross urgently needs to diversify its 1 million-strong volunteer network, which is mostly white, said Pogue. 

According to the organization's most recent survey, 5 percent of its volunteers are black, 2 percent are Hispanic and 2 percent are of Asian origin. Recent data show that black people make up about 13 percent of the U.S. population, Hispanics about 14 percent and Asians about 4 percent.

Disaster experts say that learning to more skillfully care for a multicultural population is crucial for the  125-year-old charity as it faces increasingly violent weather and the possibility that terrorist attacks could cause thousands to flee their homes.

Minority communities are more vulnerable in disasters, said Brenda Phillips, a professor of emergency management at the Center for the Study of Disasters and Extreme Events at Oklahoma  State University. They tend to live in areas more apt to be affected by natural disasters, she said, and low-income minority communities live in cheaper housing that is more likely to be damaged or destroyed.

Language barriers and cultural isolation make it more difficult for some communities to seek and obtain government and private assistance. They don't have the financial resources to weather extended unemployment or homelessness. Relief workers who reflect the community or who are sensitive to racial and cultural issues can speed recovery and ease victims' trauma, Phillips said.  "People use their cultural framework to make sense of what is going on around them," she added.

As part of the effort to improve things, the Helping Hands Coalition has agreed to supply volunteers for Red Cross disaster preparedness training, work in shelters and other activities. Next month, the Red Cross plans to travel to a conference of African Methodist Episcopal churches in Alabama to train disaster volunteers. As the Red Cross prepares for next year's hurricane season, said Evans, the charity's chief executive, bringing more minorities into the organization as managers, donors and volunteers "is one of the top priorities."

Home page for the Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families
Sent by John Inclan

One of the early roots of the film "Secret Daughter" was FRONTLINE's research into the growing debate over racial classification and the social phenomenon commonly known as "passing." Mario deValdes y Cocom, an historian of the African diaspora, researched some of history's more interesting examples of mixed racial heritage.  [[Check it out. You will be surprised.]]

Famous People with Black lineage

Anthony and Abraham van Salee were the ancestors of the Vanderbilts, the Whitneys, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and Humphrey Bogart. They were among the earliest arrivals to 17th century New Amsterdam. In a number of documents dating back to this period, they are both described as "mulatto". 

From what scholars have been able to piece together about their background, they appear to have been the sons of a Dutch seafarer by the name of Jan Jansen who had "turned Turk" and become an admiral in the Moroccan navy. With the Port of Salee as the base from which it harried European shipping, references to the fleet he commanded are salted away in the old English sea shanties that are still sung about the Salee Rovers. The mother of his two sons was probably a concubine he had while trading in this part of the world before his conversion to Islam. 

As a result of the anti-social behavior of his white wife, Anthony van Salee was induced to leave the city precincts of lower Manhattan and move across the river, thus becoming the first settler of Brooklyn. Since Coney Island abutted his property, it was, until sometime in the last century, also referred to as "Turk's Island"; the word, "Turk", being a designation of his which the records used interchangeably with, "mulatto". 

According to the documentation that people like Professor Leo Hershkowitz of Queens University have sifted through, it would seem that Anthony van Salee never converted to Christianity. His Koran, in fact, was in a descendant's possession until about fifty years ago when, ignorant of its relevance to his family's history, he offered it for sale at auction. The Van Salee history also includes a more contemporary black collateral branch in the U.S. Anthony's brother Abraham fathered an illegitimate son with an unknown black woman. The son became the progenitor of this side of the family. 

Although having to face constraints that their "white" cousins could at best only imagine, two of these van Salees nevertheless left their mark in the annals of African American history. Dr. John van Salee De Grasse, born in 1825, was the first of his race to be formally educated as a doctor. A member of the Medical Society of Massachusetts, he also served as surgeon to the celebrated 54th Regiment during the Civil War. His sister, Serena, married George Downing who was not only an enormously successful black restaurateur both in New York City and in Newport, RI, but a man who used his wealth and connections with the East Coast's most powerful white families to effect social change for his people. Because of his organization and his own contribution to the purchase of Truro Park in Newport, one of the streets bordering it still bears his name. 

Interestingly enough, this genealogy was done as part of an ongoing study of the Ramopo in Tappan, NY, one of those red, white and black groups sociologists and ethnographers are now working on and which in academes are referred to as "tri racial isolates". It is because of what advantages their Indian heritage (no matter how discernibly Negroid they were) legally and officially provided them that the opportunity for "passing" in these groups was not only a more ambiguous political or moral decision but, comparatively, a more easily documental one as well. 

Considering how important a role John Hammond of Columbia Records played in the establishment of the black music industry, it would certainly be worth exploring the possible influence his van Salee ancestry might have had on his career. Back then, there would have been no option possible for publicly declaring himself black according to the "one drop" racial code that was the law in most states until the Johnson administration. With a Vanderbilt for a mother, his iconographical value to the white majority was so important that had he dared to tamper with it, the KKK or some such group would most probably have made him pay the ultimate price for having desecrated his and the prestige of his relatives who had, after all, fairly well succeeded in making themselves the equivalent of this country's royal family. Hammond died a few years ago but since his son, following in his father's footsteps, has become a recognized exponent of R&B his could prove to be a very important interview for us. 

Jackie Kennedy Onassis
Either Professor Hershkowitz, or Tim Beard, former head of the Genealogical Department of the New York Public Library related this incident regarding van Salee genealogy. At the time the Kennedy administration began implementing its civil rights agenda, the New York Genealogical and Historical Society approached Mrs. Kennedy hoping to discuss the opportunity her African ancestry, through the Van Salees, could have in possibly assisting her husband to realize his social goals regarding race relations. 

Mrs. Kennedy insisted on referring to the van Salees as 'Jewish,' and the New York Genealogical Society did not push the subject further. Humphry Bogart and Ruth Gordon in a scene from the 1927 film "Saturday's Children." He is a Van Salee descendent and she is a Pendarvis descendent. A few years later, another descendant attempted to pass off the racial description of the van Salles in the official records as nothing more than malicious humor. 

Extract: Spanish version of food pyramid released  by J. Pat Carter / AP
Almost three of every four adult Hispanics in the U.S. are overweight 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

MIAMI - Alarmed by the high rate of obesity among Hispanics, the U.S. Department of Agriculture released its first Spanish translation Wednesday of the food pyramid, the government's handy guide to good nutrition. 

"MiPiramide: Pasos Hacia Una Mejor Salud" is the counterpart to the USDA's "MyPyramid: Steps to a Healthier You." Among other things, "grains" have become "granos," and "meat and beans" are "carnes y frijoles" on the diagram of the major food groups. 

The nation's Hispanic population is booming, and almost three out of every four adult Hispanics in the U.S. are overweight, according to a 2002 report in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Two out of three U.S. adults overall are overweight. 

"Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, especially in children and adolescents. Those statistics are even more alarming among Latin populations," Roberto Salazar, administrator for the USDA's food and nutrition service, said in Spanish at a news conference. 

The government unveiled "MyPyramid" in April, overhauling the food pyramid first introduced in 1992. 

The 1992 pyramid had food groups arranged in horizontal layers, with the foods that should be eaten more frequently along the bottom. The newer pyramid has categories of foods represented vertically in a rainbow of colors, and a running figure scaling the pyramid to represent the importance of exercise. 

What's In A (Spanish) Name  by Christina Hoag, Miami Herald, Nov 20, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr:

What's in a (Spanish) name? A shot at being famous. Hispanics with non-Spanish names can find it challenging when trying to make it in media and entertainment.

Ingrid Hoffmann's Teutonic name has always provoked queries about its origin ever since she was growing up in Colombia. But now that she's branding herself as a Miami-based Latin cooking and entertainment media maven, the attention has gotten more than a little irksome.

'I was doing a presentation for a major retailer and they said `is she really Latin?' People don't think I'm Latin enough because of my name!'' says an indignant Hoffmann.

It's a far cry from the days when the likes of Ramón Estévez and Richard Valenzuela had to become Martin Sheen and Ritchie Valens, respectively, to make it in show biz.

Now with the Hispanic population mushrooming and Spanish-language media drawing record audiences, it's hip to be Latino -- and even better if you have the Spanish name, either first or last, to prove it.

But due to accidents of ancestry, some Hispanics like Hoffmann, whose grandfather emigrated from Germany to Colombia, have neither. And increasingly common in this country are the progeny of Hispanic mothers and non-Hispanic fathers who sometimes end up with a Hispanic identity that doesn't readily reveal itself on paper.

''In Latin America, people don't blink and just pronounce the name in Spanish,'' says Chuck Walker, Latin American history professor at the University of California at Davis.

But in this country, being Hispanic often means conforming to a stereotypical name and look in both Spanish- and English-language entertainment spheres.

As Hoffmann and others have found, it can be a trifle sticky in select careers where being Hispanic matters.

Take Telemundo WSCV-TV 51 meteorologist John Morales. The son of an Irish-American father and Puerto Rican mother, he was born John Toohey and grew up in Puerto Rico. His name only became an issue when he moved to the U.S. mainland 14 years ago to work for Univisión. A condition of the job: ditch the ``Toohey.''

'It wasn't a big deal. In Puerto Rico, I was `Toohey Morales' because they use both the father's last name and the mother's,'' says Morales, whose legal name remains Toohey. 'Toohey would've been harder for [Spanish-speaking] people here to understand. In Puerto Rico, they never could figure out how it was spelled. They spelled it `Tui,' or think it was 'Dewey.' ''

Others who work in Spanish-language media admit non-Hispanic names can be challenging for their audiences, but say it's really about the person not the moniker.

''I don't feel anyone has to have a Spanish name, it goes much deeper than that,'' says personal finance guru Julie Stav, who was born Julieta Alfonso in Cuba.

Years ago when she worked for PBS, people never dreamed that she was Hispanic. ''I would be asked if I needed a translator for Spanish,'' she says.

Stav is her married name, which she chose to use for family reasons. And Julie? 'I hated it when [non-Hispanics] would call me `Joo-lieta' not ''Hoo-lieta','' recalls Stav, who does radio and TV shows and pens columns and books. 'So I became `Joo-lee' because in Cuba, that's what they would call me.''

Stav knows that her audience stumbles over that surname, which she pronounces in Spanish ''Estav.'' 'One lady asked me `is that like `estafa,' which means fraud in Spanish. I thought 'wow, here I am dealing with money and people think my name is `estafa!' '' she says.

Names can be a factor in developing a career, said Raúl Mateu, senior vice president of William Morris Agency in Miami, which represents many Latin performers.

''Ultimately, it doesn't make a difference if the talent is really good,'' he says. 'There's great confusion in the general market about what is Hispanic. We have a lot of Hispanic talent with white skin and blond hair. They get sent out to casting calls and told `you're not Hispanic enough.' But if you focus only on the look or the name, you're going to fail.''

Singer-actor Carlos Ponce, who lives in Pinecrest and has a role on WB's Seventh Heaven, has the name, but not quite the look, which he admits has cost him a few ''Latin'' roles. ''I'm a little lighter than the stereotype. They simply want tall, dark and handsome,'' he says.  His solution to underscore his Hispanicity: ''I thicken my accent even more,'' he laughs.

Names are less important in offstage careers, but identity still matters. Coral Gables publicist Tadd Schwartz is quick to let people know that despite his name, he's half-Hispanic -- the son of a Cuban mother and Jewish American father.

'I've never viewed my name as my identity. I'm just as much `Soriano' as 'Schwartz,' '' Schwartz says, referring to his mother's maiden name and father's surname respectively. ``But when people find out I'm Cuban, they are surprised because I don't wear my culture on my sleeve.''

For Colombian Ingrid Hoffmann, many people have suggested she be known simply as ''Ingrid,'' but she refuses. "I have to be true to myself. I want to show the other side of the stereotype. We Hispanics come in different colors, faces and flavors.''


The Mask of Zorro
Lots of swashbuckling left to do

What the legend of Zorro tells us about the history of America 
White Hat, Black Tales

I chanced to catch a segment of the The Mask of Zorro on TV.  The movie came out in  1998. I was shocked with the monumental historical inaccuracies. The big scene shows Zorro fighting against the bad guy on top of a flimsy wooden structure which in the script was used as part of the mining apparatus for underground mining.  

However, since  the storyline time period is prior to California statehood and I felt underground mining did not come into use until after California statehood, I asked Johanna De Soto and Cindy LoBuglio, California researchers,  if they had ever come across underground mining prior to statehood.  We three researched the topic and found no historical data showing underground mining prior to California statehood.  

I was pleased to be read two newspaper articles which strongly stated the Zorro movies were quite historically inaccurate.  

The Orange County Register
Friday, Oct. 28, 2005

Lots of swashbuckling left to do
Sequel a fun, if factually challenged, historical adventure that veers into farce.
By Craig Outhier

In Hollywood, history is written in dry-erase marker. Consider "The Legend of Zorro," a fun if lavishly misinformed swashbuckler that reflects both the movie industry's growing awareness of its Spanish-speaking audience and the attitude that silly trifles such as dates and facts don't amount to a hill of frijoles.

The tagline for the masked don's latest adventure might read: "This time, he's dueling for democracy." And so we find Don Alejandro de la Vega (Antonio Banderas, playfully self-deprecating) slipping into his stylishly embroidered Zorro threads, liberating a stolen ballot box from the enemies of representative government during California's drive toward statehood in 1850.

After a thrilling horse-drawn chase scene and some bruising bridge-top fisticuffs, de la Vega reveals that he's spent the past seven years "fighting for California's freedom," presumably from Mexico, or maybe from space aliens. It's hard to say. (Seven years is also the interval since Anthony Hopkins passed the Zorro mantle to Banderas in "The Mask of Zorro.")

Alas, matters are not so progressive in the de la Vega household. Alejandro's headstrong; wife, Elena (Catherine Zeta-Jones), wants him to go in it the peasant-protecting business and spend more time with their plucky, impudent son (Adrian Alonso). Alejandro, like an aging NFL quarterback determined to grind out one more season, refuses. They separate, sending Elena into the embrace of a nefarious French wine lord (Rufus Sewell) who may or may not be planning evil, democracy- crippling subterfuge. 

"Mask of Zorro" director -Martin Campbell is back for this installment, and with him, an old pro's steady sense of pacing and spectacle. And the movie desperately needs it, because the script, by Alex Kurtzman and Roberta Orci ("The Island"), is a grand, paranoid farce of James Bond-style supervillains, ancient European cabals and a plot to arm the Confederate Army with futuristic weapons - get this - 11 years before there was a Confederate Army. The writers also demonstrate an irritating knack for crude political allusions, as when a pair of Homeland Security types complain how the gates of the country have been "thrown wide" to foreigners. 

But that's just nit-picking, isn't it? If Hollywood finds it more romantic and politically correct to foster the notion that California's statehood was the result of multicultural peasant masses rising up in democratic unison, and not part of a complex federal bargaining process designed to avert the Civil War, so be it. Just so long as its progressive vision includes some French guys to take the fall.



What the legend of Zorro tells us about the history of America 
Ramsey Makhuli wrote: "What the legend of Zorro tells us about the history of America. The United States loves a hero, preferably masked and leading a double life. And if there's a little confusion over the accuracy of the events depicted, well, who cares. It's Hollywood, for heaven's sake. "
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Andrew Gumbel reports from Los Angeles on the latest incarnation, which opens in the UK this week Published: 25 October 2005 

Back in 1998 -- a year that seems, in retrospect, blessed with an almost preternatural innocence, when the stock market was booming and an American president lying about sex seemed like a big deal - Hollywood went through one of its periodic self-examinations and decided to revive that most quaintly innocent of film genres, the swashbucking adventure story. 

The result was The Mask of Zorro, a throwback to the swordsmanship and gallantry of Douglas Fairbanks Sr and Tyrone Power, which turned out to be a highly entertaining romp of a movie, made scads of money at the box-office and turned a certain young Welsh actress called Catherine Zeta-Jones into a major international star. 

And that, it seemed, was that. The film industry has a notoriously short attention span, and in short order Hollywood was busy reinventing all sorts of other neglected genres, from the swords-and-sandals epic (Gladiator) to the comic book action-adventure (X-Men, Spider-Man and so on) to the retro appeal - distinctly limited, as it turned out - of 1970s television shows (Bewitched, Scooby Doo). 

Suddenly, though, Zorro seems to be everywhere again. Isabel Allende, of all people, published a novel about the masked social crusader over the summer. The Gipsy Kings are writing a Zorro musical, set to debut in the West End sometime next year. Several Zorro comics and at least one graphic novel are in the works. A Zorro Television Companion was published last month, for aficionados of both the Disney serial from the 1950s, starring Guy Williams, and a more recent small-screen incarnation starring Duncan Regehr, which first aired in the late 1980s. 

And, topping them all, is the sequel to the 1998 movie, The Legend of Zorro, which opens worldwide this Friday and once again pairs Zeta-Jones with her co-star from seven years ago, the effortlessly charming Spanish heart-throb Antonio Banderas. 

A cynic might see all this as no more than evidence of the power of cross-marketing by the media conglomerates who run our entertainment industry. Hollywood, after all, has not exactly distinguished itself by the originality of its ideas in recent years, and Zorro seems as good a property as any to turn back to after the multiple flops of ancient Macedonia (Alexander), the Crusades (Kingdom of Heaven), Depression-era boxing (Cinderella Man) and the rest of what has turned out to be a miserably unprofitable year for the big studios. 

Certainly, advance reviews of the new Zorro movie suggest it is a money-making enterprise first and foremost - it is louder, more expensive, more action-spectacular than the original, and nowhere near as deft in its tongue-in-cheek explorations of the history of banditry and social upheaval in 19th-century California, which is where the story is set. 

It is also tempting to think, though, that Zorro might just be a hero whose time has come, or come back. In the United States - and, to a lesser extent, the rest of the western world - the political class is regarded as unusually corrupted and incompetent, and unequal to the daunting challenges imposed by our distinctly dangerous times. In an age of killer hurricanes and nuclear proliferation and suicide bombings and endless conflict in Iraq, what could be more reassuring than a quietly dignified, seemingly passive nobleman who in fact leads a double life, dons a hero's mask to defend the people whenever necessary and makes a habit of triumphing over his enemies by gouging his trademark Z into their quivering flesh? 

If the fantasy is imbued with a certain amount of Hollywood-style bad faith, that in itself may be no less telling a sign of the times. Since his creation 86 years ago, Zorro has always been a bit of a bad-faith hero - a Mexican Robin Hood originally offered up for the entertainment of white Californians who were busy repressing the very Mexicans Zorro defended. 

Such hasty rearrangement of the historical furniture remains a feature of the Zorro phenomenon even today. In the latest movie, Zorro and California's Mexican population are seen cheering the advent of Californian statehood in 1850, even though the arrangement worked entirely to the Anglo population's advantage and cut them out of the political power structure for 150 years. But, hey, when we have plenty of swordplay and the spectacle of Zeta-Jones in skimpy lace underwear to contemplate, who's complaining? 

Zorro was first dreamed up by a long-forgotten pulp writer by the name of Johnston McCulley, who had his story serialized in a magazine called All-Story Weekly in 1919. Like all pulp writers, McCulley was driven by the need to make money, more than anything, and borrowed heavily from a number of sources to put some rapid flesh on the bones of his basic idea. 

The Zorro character was inspired most obviously by a real-life 19th-century outlaw called Joaquin Murrieta, whose gang was responsible for endless cattle-rustling, robberies, kidnappings and murders during the California Gold Rush of the early 1850s. There is scant historical evidence Murrieta was anything other than an opportunist and a criminal, but as early as 1854 he had been turned into a romantic figure and a champion of the people in a best-selling book. 

Murrieta quickly became a symbol of Mexican resistance to the influx of Anglo-Americans into California, and equally his apprehension became a priority and a point of pride for the leadership of the young state. After he was captured and killed in an ambush laid by members of a new law enforcement agency called the California Rangers, his head, along with the hand of one of his companions, was pickled in brandy and displayed all over California. 

Elements of all this were cleverly woven into the 1998 Zorro movie. McCulley, though, had other sources to draw on, most notably The Scarlet Pimpernel, Baroness Orczy's fantasy of a foppish aristocrat with a double life, which had first appeared in 1905. McCulley moved the action back from the Gold Rush to the time of Mexican independence from Spain, in 1821. And he also shifted locales from northern California to the pueblo of Los Angeles. 

In his version, Zorro - the Spanish word for fox -- is the alter ego of the nobleman Don Diego Vega, whose demeanor is so cold and uninspiring that he cannot successfully woo the lovely Senorita Lolita or begin to satisfy the ambitions of his father. His father tells him at one point: "Get life into you! I would you had half the courage and spirit this Señor Zorro, this highwayman, has! He has principles and he fights for them. He aids the helpless and avenges the oppressed. I salute him!" 

Zorro, by contrast, is only too happy to draw his sword and call on the services of Tornado, his ultra-intelligent horse. He defends a family in danger from the corrupt Spanish governor, gets the girl against some stiff competition (of course) and, in the book's final pages, reveals his true identity to the astonishment of all. 

McCulley's book drew the attention of Douglas Fairbanks Sr, who was the driving force behind the movie version which came out in 1920. Fairbanks and the production team changed the title from McCulley's original, The Curse of Capistrano, to The Mark of Zorro, and introduced many of the elements that were to become part and parcel of the Zorro persona - the Z-shaped swordstrokes, Zorro's habit of slicing candles and leaving them burning, Zorro disguising himself in a priest's outfit, and so on. McCulley's Zorro wore a wide sombrero, in contrast to Fairbanks' small flat-brimmed hat. It was, of course, Fairbanks' choice of headgear that became integrated into the Zorro persona in subsequent versions. 

Down the years, new elements were added, or elaborated upon. The 1940 film version, with Tyrone Power, gave Zorro a back story - how he left California for Spain to be trained in swordsmanship and how, on his return, he had to act effete and passive for his own protection because of political threats to his father, the mayor of Los Angeles. 

Some of the variants on Zorro strayed away from Don Diego and focused on children or other successors donning the Zorro mask and continuing his work. A 1974 version starring Alain Delon moved the action to South America but used many of the same familiar tropes. Perhaps the wackiest variant was Zorro, The Gay Blade, a parody made in 1981 with George Hamilton playing the dual roles of Zorro and Zorro's flaming queen of a brother, Bunny Wigglesworth, who has a weakness for colourful outfits instead of plain black and announces, in camp musical style: "His clothes are bold, his mind uncanny, give him your gold or he'll whip your fanny!" 

Zorro, meanwhile, enjoyed a little acknowledged secondary career as a key inspiration behind the whole American super-hero phenomenon. Bob Kane, the creator of Batman, was clearly a fan because he has Bruce Wayne's parents go out to see the Fairbanks Mark of Zorro the night they are murdered. Batman wears a mask and cape, just like Zorro, and his Batmobile is kept in the basement just as Tornado is at Zorro's Californian hacienda. 

Zorro enjoyed any number of cultural spin-offs before the cultural revival: a play by Pablo Neruda, the Chilean poet, a Russian opera, and a ballet performed in San Francisco. 

The main reason the 1998 film worked so well was because the characters were suitably light and frothy, the action sequences were both thrilling and satisfyingly old-fashioned (the fight master used on the film was a veteran who had worked with Errol Flynn), and the three principal actors - Anthony Hopkins as well as Banderas and Zeta-Jones - looked like they had never had so much fun on film. 

But the screenwriters also went back to the Murrieta legend, among other sources, and used them to original effect. Banderas' character, in fact, is called Alejandro Murrieta, who takes over the Zorro role from the ageing Don Diego (Hopkins) to avenge his brother Joaquin, whose head has ended up in a pickle jar belonging to their mutual nemesis, the Spanish governor of California. 

The new film is nowhere near as subtle or as successful in blending history, legend and entertainment. It is set in the Gold Rush period, but manages to be both off-the-mark historically and rather absurdly anachronistic. There never was a referendum for California statehood in 1850, and the inclusion of one seems designed to score modern-day points about the sudden elevation of Arnold Schwarzenegger to the governor's office and the present-day preoccupation about vote-stealing in presidential elections. 

Likewise, the culminating plotline about a dastardly threat to the very future of the United States plays like a jokey (and not very successful) reference to al-Qa'ida and President Bush's war on terror. The fact that one of the principal villains is French (Rufus Sewell, with a distinctly wobbly Gallic accent) no doubt owes something to all those spats over weapons inspectors and chips being renamed Freedom Fries in certain loopily patriotic quarters. 

Zorro, one suspects, may finally have been loaded with just a little too much significance. Given his enduring appeal, however, one also suspects he will live to fight another day. 

White Hat, Black Tales
by Katherine S. Mangan, Chronicle, August 5, 2005
Sent by  Rodriguez, Francisco
              Juan Martinez
              Jose M. Pena

A Texas scholar digs into the dark truths about the role of the Texas Rangers in early-20th-century border wars

Dallas: Whether he gallops across TV screens on a steed named Silver or kickboxes drug dealers and other contemporary miscreants, the Texas Ranger is an iconic figure in American culture. But it has fallen to a Texas-based scholar named Benjamin H. Johnson, a 33-year-old assistant professor of history at Southern Methodist University, to help turn the popular images of the Lone Ranger and of Walker, Texas Ranger, upside down.

Mr. Johnson's 2003 book, Revolution in Texas: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans Into Americans (Yale University Press), portrays the Texas Rangers as bad guys who terrorized and murdered hundreds -- and perhaps thousands -- of Mexican-born Texans living along the border nearly a century ago.

The book -- and a 2004 documentary based on an incident in the same period -- has now led a Texas lawmaker to introduce legislation this year honoring the Tejano rebels who died at the hands of the Rangers and vigilante groups in the failed uprising in 1915.

"Ben's book was a confirmation of what we've been talking about around barbecue pits and campfires for years," says Texas Sen. Aaron Peña, a Democrat from the border city of Edinburgh, Tex., who ordered a stack of the books and has handed them out to his colleagues and constituents.

Specifically, the author examines a 1915 rebellion in South Texas called the Plan de San Diego, in which Tejanos, or Texans of Mexican descent, sought to forcibly reclaim the American Southwest for Mexico in a plot that included killing all Anglo males over age 16. The unsuccessful uprising, which included a series of raids on ranches and railroads, provoked a bloody counterinsurgency in which Texas Rangers, federal soldiers, and vigilante groups indiscriminately killed anywhere between 300 and 3,000 Tejanos, depending on whose estimates you believe.

Hispanic scholars have written about the bloody border wars for decades, but it has taken a work written by a young Anglo historian writing for Yale University Press to bring the matter to mainstream audiences. Mr. Johnson has given standing-room-only talks in South Texas, and received dozens of calls and e-mail messages from Mexican-Americans who say his book confirmed accounts they had heard from their parents and grandparents, but never read about in their textbooks.

Mr. Johnson says he did not set out to write a book about, much less trash, the image of the Texas Rangers, now an elite unit of 118 officers, along with nearly two-dozen crime analysts and other personnel, in the Texas Department of Public Safety. He was more interested in the effect that the violence that started in 1915 had on race relations along the border and on the development of a Mexican-American identity. But in a state whose unofficial motto is "Don't Mess With Texas," the book stirred up conflicting emotions.

On the Paper Trail

Mr. Johnson's fascination with this era of Texas history began when he was in the library at Yale University, trying to zero in on a topic for his doctoral dissertation that related to his interest in border studies.

"I came across a mention of the rebellion and bloodshed, and it seemed really big," he says. "The language people were using was terribly similar to what I was hearing when I turned on the news and listened to reports about ethnic cleansing -- at that point in the Balkans. They were using words like 'evaporated'" to describe the widespread killings of Tejanos.

"I thought 'why am I -- a 24-year-old lifelong Texan and historian -- just hearing about this?'"

As he proceeded with his research, Mr. Johnson found that while he and many Texans -- Anglos in particular -- were learning about the Rangers' unsavory past for the first time, Hispanic authors had written about such abuses for years. In 1958, for instance, Américo Paredes, the noted Mexican-American author who taught at the University of Texas at Austin and died in 1999, wrote about the border's violent history in his book With His Pistol in His Hand: A Border Ballad and Its Hero (University of Texas Press).

Mr. Johnson credits those authors, as well as contemporary historians who write about the border, and he is careful not to imply that he is the first historian to turn the image of the Texas Ranger on its head. Asked about the publicity his book has received, and the flurry of attention now being paid to racial tensions along the border, he says the huge growth in the nation's Hispanic population and the interest in immigration and globalization have made border studies a hot topic.

For his own book, Mr. Johnson tracked down documents in Texas and Mexico City. The Mexican National Archives are housed in a former federal prison, which created a haunting setting for many long hours of reading. "They actually have the documents in the old prison cells, and the guy gets a ring of thick keys and walks to the cells and opens them," he says. "There's still graffiti in this place from people who were there under considerably less happy circumstances."

He also listened to oral histories recorded over the past few decades by students at the University of Texas-Pan American and Texas A&M University at Kingsville.

Chance encounters led to visits with the grandson of the sheriff who arrested a Tejano carrying a document outlining the Plan de San Diego, as well as the great-grandson of one of the leaders of the 1915 uprising, Luis de la Rosa.

As the true history of the bloody border wars unfolded, the scholar also formed theories about why it had been largely forgotten. For one thing, Mr. Johnson contends, the State of Texas actively suppressed information about the violence. In 1919 the state legislature held hearings that revealed evidence of widespread killings by Texas Rangers, but lawmakers voted not to publish the transcript. (A copy was later unearthed by historians.)

Families that were traumatized by the violence didn't want to talk about it. And until recently, academic historians generally regarded what happened along the Texas-Mexico border a regional matter of little interest to the rest of the nation.

But Mr. Johnson believes the episode reverberated far beyond the disputed border. He argues that the rebellion and suppression that began in 1915, rather than turning Tejanos against Americans, prompted them to claim their rights as U.S. citizens and led to the creation, in 1929, of the League of United Latin American Citizens, or Lulac, the first nationwide Mexican-American civil-rights organization.

At first, that idea seemed counterintuitive. "Why would a prolonged episode of savage racial violence prompt people to claim the same nationality as their victimizers?" He concludes that the Tejanos sought refuge in U.S. citizenship, having realized the futility of trying to achieve their goals through force, and the dangers of being without a state.

"Mexican nationalism and the promise of the revolution had failed them," Mr. Johnson says. "The uprising had been a disastrous miscalculation, and the Mexican government wasn't interested in advancing the well-being of Mexican-descent people of Texas."

Praise and Disdain

Hector M. Flores, Lulac's current national president, agrees with that conclusion. "Dr. Johnson chronicles a period in history that a lot of Texans are still in denial about," he says. "A war was won, and the Mexicans were the conquered people. The hired guns were the Texas Rangers."

Raised by his grandparents in the tiny South Texas town of Dilly, Mr. Flores recalls challenging his seventh-grade history teacher for her portrayal of events that his grandparents described differently. "All the teachers talked about were the murdering, thieving Mexicans who overran the heroes of the Alamo." His grandparents, on the other hand, warned him that the real bad guys were the Anglo law-enforcement officers who harassed and even killed Tejanos like themselves.

"Books like Ben's shatter the myths and help us realize how much we've traveled in the last 100 years," Mr. Flores says. "It's better to know the truth, even if it makes you uncomfortable."

Revolution in Texas is unlikely to be a featured title at the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum, in Waco, Tex. The museum's Web site describes the Rangers as "one of the most cherished symbols of the Lone Star State, a positive and enduring icon of Texas and America."

Byron A. Johnson, director of the museum, acknowledges that some of the Texas Rangers participated in the killings nearly a century ago, but says Revolution in Texas overstates their involvement by failing to adequately distinguish between the official Texas Rangers and independent vigilante groups that sprang up around the same time. "For a while, anyone riding around with a horse and a gun was considered a Ranger," he says.

"There were outstanding periods of [the Rangers'] history and those that were regrettable," the museum director adds. "We want to be sure that the history is accurate so lessons can be learned from the mistakes."

Mr. Johnson is not alone in making Texans feel uncomfortable about their past these days. Last year, shortly after Mr. Johnson's book was published, the Dallas filmmaker Kirby F. Warnock released a documentary called Border Bandits, which told the story of two unarmed Tejano landowners who were shot in the back by Texas Rangers in 1915. The event, which was supposedly a retaliation for an earlier Mexican bandit raid, had been related to Mr. Warnock by his grandfather, a cowboy who witnessed the killings.

While some Texans complained that these depictions unfairly malign the Rangers, others are angry that such abuses have been covered up for so long. "People find it particularly relevant that an arm of the state was centrally implicated in the violence, and that they continue to be so celebrated," says Mr. Johnson.

Healing the Border

Texans also worry that calling attention to the historical racial strife along the border could deepen divisions between Hispanics and Anglos in the state today. Newspapers have carried angry letters to the editor from readers like Ramon Estrada, a retired electrical engineer who grew up in El Paso and now lives outside of Denver, Colo. He says he is bitter about the way his ancestors were treated and sometimes questions whether he was right to serve the United States in the Vietnam War.

In an interview, Mr. Estrada says that he read about Mr. Johnson's book in The Denver Post, and it brought back memories of stories his now-83-year-old mother told him when he was growing up. "She used to tell us how her father and his friend were killed by Texas Rangers in 1915 for no other reason than being of Mexican descent," said Mr. Estrada. "My cousins and I grew up hating the Rangers, and it used to really bother us when we'd see these TV shows where they were always the good guys."

Even those intent on commemorating the past are moving carefully in doing so.

Mr. Peña, the state senator, talked to both Mr. Johnson and Mr. Warnock at a screening of the documentary in South Texas last year. Afterward, he decided to introduce some sort of commemorative legislation. But he quickly concluded that his initial ideas -- naming a highway or erecting a monument for the victims, or requiring Texas educators to revise their history books -- would prove too divisive.

"The powerful establishment interests need to keep certain mythologies about Texas pure and clean," he says. "They don't want to hear about abuses by the Texas Rangers."

Instead, he settled on proposing that May 5 -- Cinco de Mayo -- also be designated as a day to reflect on the history and culture of the Tejanos. He plans to resurrect that bill, which died at the end of the session in May, next year and pursue private financing for a monument. "We need to do this slowly and carefully, and with sensitivity to everyone involved," the senator says.

Aside from setting the record straight about a little-understood period of history, Mr. Johnson hopes his book will show that America "is flexible enough to offer people like [Mr. Estrada] the benefits of first-class citizenship. That's what the founders of Lulac concluded, and I think that the remarkable advances of Mexican-Americans in the last 70 years are testimony to the power of their vision."
Section: Research &Publishing
Volume 51, Issue 48, Page A11 

Juan Marinez
Michigan State Extension, 
Assist to the Director 
Rm 11, Agriculture Hall
voice: 517-353-9772  mobile: 517-881-1817  fax: 517-432-1048 

Military Heroes and Research

Nationwide Gravesite Locator 
Also. . .
Click To: Bill Arvizu's Jacket 
Click To: Roy Banelos of Fontana and His Five Brothers
Click To: Don Jose Santiago Vidaurri Borrego y Valdez  


Nationwide Gravesite Locator
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Search for burial locations of veterans and their dependents in VA National Cemeteries, state veterans cemeteries and various other Department of Interior and military cemeteries.

The National Grave Locator includes burial records from many sources. These sources provide varied data; some searches may contain less information than others.

If your search returns incorrect information about the deceased buried in a national cemetery, please contact the cemetery directly to discuss your findings.

The database also contains records for VA headstones and markers that were furnished for deceased veterans buried or commemorated in private cemeteries since 1997. We are unable to provide additional information concerning individual records, and suggest you contact the cemetery or local officials for additional information.

Go the site and enter first and last name.




Spanish Sons of the American Revolution
For information: Granville Hough, Ph.D.

Spanish Patriot Martyrs in New York Harbor Prison Ships
: Dona Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez 
The Battle of Yorktown, "The Rest of the Story"
Money provided by Havana Residents for Yorktown Expedition  Aug 1781

Click To: Coloquio Revista Cultural


             Spanish Patriot Martyrs in New York Harbor Prison Ships                          
by Granville Hough, Ph.D.                                                        

    Reference: Dandridge, Danske, American Prisoners of the Revolution, 1911, Charlottesville, VA, republished, 1967, Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Company.  Appendix A, pages 449-491, gives an alphabetical listing of 8000 prisoners from the records of the old Jersey, the most famous of the hell holes the British called prisons.  These were demasted vessels last used for bringing cattle and other supplies for the British troops who occupied New York City.  They were originally
anchored in Gravesend Bay and later were taken up the East River and left in the mud flats of Wallabout Bay.  Other vessels were the Whitby, Good Hope, Hunter, and Prince of Wales.  

    The list for the Jersey is the only one which has ever been found, and this list was carelessly kept, with no indication of dates of entry or disposition.  It was determined after the war that 11,500 prisoners had died from disease and starvation.  On the Jersey, the average deaths were ten each night. British reports showed that each other prison ship also had from 8 to 10 losses each day.  So in the three to four years of operation in Wallabout Bay, 11,500 deaths is probably conservative.  They were buried in shallow graves on the shores nearby.  Tons of  human bones were eventually washed up, collected and placed in a large mausoleum and marked with a monument.  When the last prisoner left the old Jersey, it was so contaminated that no one dared go near it.  It just sank in the
mud until it rotted and disappeared.

    From the diaries and accounts of the few survivors, we know that the Jersey was most frequently used for mariners.  As the names are all we have, and they are often misspelled, we can only guess which prisoners were American, French, Spanish, or German.  It can be said for sure that the mariners of the Revolutionary War were of many nationalities.  The names of Spanish mariners, or names of Spanish origin, have been selected and are shown below. For each one wrongly selected, there is probably a replacement I could not recognize.  Their death rate was probably no different from the group as a whole.  In future studies, I may be able to identify some of the vessels on which these martyrs served and the circumstances of their captures.

Don Meegl/Miguel Abusure; Gansio Acito; Sebastian de Aedora; Joseph Antonio Aguirra; Thomas Aiz; Manuel Ajote; Joachin Alconan; Joseph de Alcorta; Juan Ignacid Alcorta; Pedro Aldaronda; Jacob Alehipike; Miguel Alveras; Don Ambrose Alverd; Austin Anaga; Joseph Anrandes; John
Antonio; Joseph Aquirse; Asencid Arismane; Manuel de Artol; Don Pedro Asevasuo; Hosea Asevalado; Francis Aspuro; Duke Attera; Anthony Aiguillia; Igarz Baboo Augusion; Peter Augusta; Don Pedro Azoala.

Antonio Backalong; Stephen Badante; Laurence Badeno; Joseph Balumatigua; Jean Rio Baptista; Charles Bargo; Thomas Bausto; Jean Baxula; Jean Juquacid Berra; Cittetto Biola; Gideon Bambo; Anthony Bonea; Jean Boutilla; Simon Bristo; John Budica; Prosper Burgo;

Jean Cado; Juan Fernin Cardends; Joseph Carea; Antonio Carles; William Carles; Gasnito Cavensa; Joseph de Costa; Antonio Costo; Perrie Coupra; Vizenteeausean Covazensa; Josea Commano; Pratus Dehango; Joseph Delcosta; Francis Delgada; Daniel Denica; Manuel Deralia; Daniel Deroro; Jacob Dessino; Etamin Dluice; Pierre Dominica;

David Eadoe; Avico Ecbeveste; Joseph Echangueid; Francis Echauegud; Amerois Echave; Lorendo Echerauid; Francis Echesevria; Ignatius Echesevria; Manuel de Echeverale; Fermin Echeuarria; Joseph Nicola Echoa; Doum Edmundo; Ignaus Ergua; Peni Evena; Pierre Evena; Juan Vicente Expassa;

John Faroe; Francis Fernanda; Thomas Fernandis; Ehemre Ferote; Joseph Ferria; Manuel Fevmandez; Frederick Fiarde; Manuel Francisco; Jean Franco;

Eudrid Gabria; Peter Gambo; Dominico Gardon; Manolet Garico; Barney Galena; Roman Garsea; Manot Gasse; Joseph Girca; Francis Gissia; James Gloacque; ??? Gloquie; Lewis Gouire; Augustus Goute; L. A. Granada; John Gruba; John Guae; Antonio Gundas; Francis Guvare;

Jacob Hassa; Odera Hemana; Isaac Higgano; John Highlenede; Joseph Ignacis; Ivede Sousis Illiumbe; Philip Ignissita; Joseph Irasetto; Francis D. Izoguirre;

Manuel Joaquire; Antonio Joseph; Emanuel Joseph; Antonio Jouest; Randon Jucba; Manuel Joseph Jucerria; Jean Kiblano; Manuel Kidtona;

Deman Labordas; Anton Laca; Michael La Casawyne; Cayelland Lambra; Thomas Lambuda; Michael Lameova; Joseph Langola; Francis Larada; Guillemot Lascope; Jachery Lasoca; Pierre Lastio; Antonio Lawrence; Joseph Legro; Samuel Legro; Joseph Peccanti Lescimia; Bineva Levzie;
Nicholas Linva; Joseph Lopez;

Jean Franco Mabugera; ??? Marbinnea; Etom Marcais; Francis Marmilla; Antonio Marti; Jose Martine (two records); Jean Maso; Charles Masaa; Emanuel Moguera; Acri Morana; Gilmot Morea; Grosseo Moreo; Antonio Murria (two records); Antonio Musqui;

Thomas Nandiva; Simon Navane; Francis Navas; Jacques Norva (two records); Devoe Olaya; Zebulon Olaya; Don R. Antonio Olive; Edward Ormunde; Antonio Permanouf; Peter Perora; Juan Picko; Andre Preno;

Joseph Rigo; William Roas; Francis Rodrigo; Franco Rogeas; Diego Romeria; Jean Baptist Rosua; Blost Rozea;

Anthony Santis; Peter Sarfe; Antonio Sebasta; Jean Baptist Sego; Leonard Sepolo; James Seramo; Sebastian Serrea; Matthew Shappo; Manuel Sugasta; Andre Surado; Francis Surronto; Franco Deo Suttegraz;

Domingo Taugin; Dominic Tour; Jean Vigo; Juan Albert Vixeaire; Francis Yduchare.

Submitted by Granville W. Hough.

S: Dona Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez 
Sent by John Inclan

Yo soy Josefa Ortiz Girón, criolla nacida el 19 de marzo de 1771 en Valladolid, en el virreinato de la Nueva España, bajo un cielo donde ondeaban los estandartes de la Madre Patria. Mi padre. Don Juan José Ortiz era capitán del regimiento de "los morados" y mi madre Manuela Girón fue una digna dama de pura estirpe española. 

Era ya una joven cuando quedé huérfana, y mi hermana María solicitó mi ingreso al Real Colegio de San Ignacio de Loyola, o Colegio de las Vizcaínas, donde conocí a Don Miguel Domínguez, hombre letrado, amable... y viudo. Nos casamos el 24 de enero de 1793. El tenía 37 años y yo 22. Miguel era una persona influyente que había disfrutado de consideraciones por parte de los Virreyes Branciforte, Azanza y del Virrey Félix Berenguer de Marquina, quien en 1802 le otorgó el nombramiento de Corregidor de la ciudad de Querétaro, bellísima ciudad con un acueducto que era su distinción y orgullo. 

En la Nueva España se desarrolló a través de los siglos una sociedad de castas basada en una intrincada ramificación, estando en el tope los españoles nacidos en España, y en la base los indios nativos de las antiguas culturas precortesianas. En estos primeros años del siglo XIX empiezan a extenderse por toda América las mareas independentistas formadas por la Revolución Francesa y la Independencia de los Estados de la Unión Americana. Es la época de la Ilustración, un nuevo renacer de la razón humana , de la investigación científica, de la duda de la mente en contraposición a los dogmas de la Iglesia. Los reyes han dejado de ser las eminencias emanadas como regalos de Dios a la humanidad, y han descendido a la categoría de simples mortales que cometen errores con los que llevan a sus pueblos al desastre. 

Esta ebullición liberal va cobrando fuerza en el virreinato, sobre todo entre los criollos. Por todas partes surgen círculos académicos; Miguel y yo hemos organizado en nuestra casa, la casa de los Corregidores, un círculo literario donde se lee y discute, a escondidas pero acaloradamente, las obras de Voltaire, Rousseau y Descartes traídas de contrabando desde Europa. Pronto ha prendido la llama idealista de la libertad, la fraternidad y la igualdad. Cada día nos irrita más la actitud prepotente y los privilegios que los gachupines nacidos en España tienen sobre el resto de la población. 

Miguel era un hombre honrado y justo que no vacilaba en manifestar su disgusto por los abusos cometidos contra los indios, pobres seres menesterosos y despojados, faltos de influencias y víctimas de su ignorancia, sojuzgados por las castas superiores. Las quejas y manifiestos de Miguel llegaron a oídos del virrey Iturrigarray que lo suspendió en el puesto y lo concentró en la capital en agosto y septiembre de 1808. Ahí escuchó Miguel la conveniencia de organizar el Virreinato de acuerdo a las doctrinas democráticas, representativas y democráticas que ya estaban instauradas en el propio reino español a partir del "depositsmo ilustrado". 

El año de 1808 fue un tiempo crítico para el reino de España, que en unos cuantos meses había pasado sucesivamente de las manos de Carlos IV a Fernando VII, y de nuevo a Carlos IV quien abdicó en favor de Napoleón y éste nombró rey de España a su hermano José Bonaparte. Este fue sin duda el hecho detonante de la lucha por la Independencia de la Nueva España. No queríamos ser parte de un reino gobernado por un intruso metido a la fuerza por la puerta trasera. Miguel y yo empezamos a propiciar reuniones más frecuentes en nuestra casa, con el pretexto del círculo literario. Uno de los más asiduos asistentes era don Ignacio Allende, capitán del Regimiento de Dragones de la Reina, que hacía la corte a una de nuestras hijas. Don Ignacio sostenía además enlaces y fraguaba planes libertarios con otras personas como Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, párroco dela congregación de Dolores, hombre inteligente y varias veces advertido por la Iglesia sobre sus actitudes poco eclesiásticas y demasiado mundanas. 

En nuestra casa fue formándose la que luego sería llamada "La conjuración de Querétaro", en la cual participaban ya abogados, militares, burócratas, comerciantes, etc. Mi entusiasmo y fervor por la causa separatista superaba con mucho la del propio Miguel, que por su posición tenía que ser comparsa muda de este movimiento, y permanecer leal a la causa realista. 

La conjuración fue denunciada; el 14 de septiembre Miguel me encerró con llave en mi recámara para evitar que yo pudiera avisar a los demás participantes. Pero no se fragua un plan tan ambicioso sin prevenir posibles tropiezos. La habitación del alcaide estaba justo debajo de mi recámara, y habíamos convenido en que yo golpearía furiosamente el piso con mi zapato en caso de urgencia. El hombre acudió a mi llamado, y pude enviarlo a que sin pérdida de tiempo se trasladara a San Miguel el Grande a enterar al capitán Allende lo que estaba pasando en Querétaro. Este llamado oportuno, este arrojo de mi parte, determinó la proclamación de la Independencia de la Nueva España por parte del Cura Hidalgo, la madrugada del 16 de septiembre de 1810. Es mismo día se libró orden de aprehensión en contra de Miguel y en mi contra. El fue recluido en el convento de la Cruz y yo en el Santa Clara. Miguel fue juzgado, enjuiciado y destituido. A principios de 1814, fui llevada al convento de Santa Teresa en la capital. En 1816, el oidor Bataller pide que se me imponga una pena de cuatro años de prisión, que principan a contarse a partir de noviembre de 1816, recluida en el convento de Santa Catalina de Sena. En junio de 1817 el Virrey Don Juan Ruiz de Apodaca me deja libre, atendiendo una instancia de Miguel, ex-corregidor, pobre, enfermo y con dificultades para hacerse cargo del cuidado de 14 hijos, 2 de su primer matrimonio y 12 nuestros. 

Con infinita tristeza vi en lo que se había convertido nuestra lucha por la libertad. Al consumarsela Independencia, el ex-realista Agustín de Iturbide se auto-proclama Primer Emperador de México. Nosotros, que habíamos luchado por sacudirnos un Imperio, ¿debíamos aceptar otro?. Ana Duarte de Iturbide tuvo el arrojo de invitarme a formar parte de la corte. Mi respuesta al mensajero no dejaba duda de mi sentir: "Dígale usted a Doña Ana que la que es soberana en su casa, no puede ser dama de una Emperatriz". 

Paulatinamente se fueron realizando en toda la América Hispana las luchas independentistas, y en aquel Imperio donde nunca se ponía el sol, el atardecer llegaba cada día más temprano. 
4 Nací siendo súbdita del Imperio Español...y el 2 de marzo de 1829 morí como ciudadana y heroína de este nuevo país llamado México. 

The Battle of Yorktown

"The Rest of the Story"

By Jack V Cowan

The most important military decision of the American Revolutionary War may well have been to attack Yorktown, instead of New York. Space does not allow for a detailed discussion of that decision. However, history tells us that while General George Washington was dead set on attacking General Henry Clinton at New York, General Jean Baptiste Rochambeau saw a more doable target at Yorktown. Both agreed that to attack New York would require a force of at least twice that of Clinton’s and a superior naval force, which they believed was obtainable. However, Washington’s call to the states for militiamen failed miserably, and the second half of Rochambeau’s contingent from France never left Europe.

Looking at the broader picture of the world war involving England, France, Spain, and Holland gives us a clue as to why France felt it necessary to divert its spare naval force under Admiral Francois de Grasse to the West Indies instead of to America. France was all but broke and its economic life-line lay in the sugar production of it's island colonies in the Caribbean which, along with Spain’s silver mines in Mexico, were highly coveted by the British. The fear of losing them prompted France to put de Grasse’s naval force under control of Spanish General Bernardo de Galvez for a joint invasion of British Jamaica.

It may have been envisioned that keeping a large British force nailed down in England to defend against an imminent invasion across the Channel, along with the ongoing naval battle at Gibraltar, and the diversion in America, would bring success to the Jamaica campaign, and expel the British from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Having a French force close by on the eastern coast of America would act as a small but ready reserve should the British call on a British reserve force (most probably the one at Yorktown) for reinforcement. The British, with good reason, believed the southern colonists were, for the most part, loyal to England and the real rebellion existed in the north. If necessary, the Yorktown force could be pulled while still maintaining a very strong resistance to the colonists. This also explains why the seasoned Rochambeau, who required an interpreter to converse with Washington, was chosen to lead the French "augmentation" force in America instead of the young and somewhat impetuous La Fayette who had been accepted, almost as a son, by Washington.

When it was learned that the British navy was in support of Clinton at New York, French Minister Marshal de Segur instructed de Grasse to be prepared to support a Yorktown campaign should Washington be persuaded to give up his long-cherished attack on New York. Rochambeau was also alerted to the possibility of de Grasse’s help and after a few, almost disastrous, probing engagements on the outskirts of New York, Washington was convinced that if there was to be a continuance of the war for independence, it would have to be at Yorktown. Even so, the times were desperate at best. Both Washington and Rochambeau were out of money, and France had served up its last helping hand. Thus, word was sent to de Grasse to come quickly and bring money (1.2 million francs) as America’s very survival depended on him.

De Grasse’s answer reached Rochambeau’s headquarters on August 15 and was relayed to Washington.

He planned to weigh anchor August 13 and head straight for Chesapeake Bay. He would bring with him from the West Indies detachments from the Gatinais, Agenois, and Touraine regiments, together with siege mortars and field artillery, some three thousand men in all, under the command of the Marquis de Saint-Simon. Also, in accordance with Rochambeau’s request, he would somehow have raised and would have on board with him the 1.2 million francs demanded. He would be in Chesapeake Bay by the end of August, and he would have to be on his way back to the West Indies by the middle of October. He and his troops had been promised to the Spanish for a Caribbean Campaign. (Sic)

Franciso Saaverda, acting for Galvez, and de Grasse were on the French ship Le Ville de Paris at Cap Francias (Haiti) when the request from Rochambeau interrupted their planning of the Jamaica Campaign. Both agreed that the chance to defeat the English at Yorktown was too great an opportunity to go unanswered. Saaverda’s plan was to send de Grasse on to the Chesapeake while he took a fast frigate to Cuba, to raise the 1.2 million, after which he would catch up with de Grasse at the "Latitude of Matanzas." However, there was an almost disastrous problem with that plan. The money was expected to come from the funds assigned to the Jamaica Campaign, but it had not yet arrived in Cuba. Without that money, there would be no Yorktown Campaign, and the future hopes of a free America would almost certainly be dashed forever on British bayonets.

There was no time to wait or waste and Saaverda decided to put Spanish generosity to the test. He publicly called on the citizens of Cuba to make available all they could for the American cause and the defeat of the British. Twenty-eight Spanish citizens came forth and provided 4,520,000 reales and the money was immediately transported to de Grasse as planned. The "Battle of Yorktown" was on.

Grasse himself later wrote that the victory at Yorktown on 19 October 1781 happened because of the money supplied by Havana. That money, he wrote, might in truth be regarded as "the bottom dollars" upon which the edifice of American independence was raised. (Sic)

Ultimately, the cost to the Spanish and French would be much more, as de Grasse’s fleet was later defeated and he was captured by the British on his return trip from Yorktown, and the Jamaica Campaign never took place.

And now you have, "The Rest of the Story."

Credits: Rochambeau – America’s Neglected Founding Father by Arnold Whitridge

Spain and the Independence of the United States by Thomas E. Chavez

When the French Were Here" by Stephen Bonsal

Technical consultant: Peggy C. Jared, Regent Elect – San Antonio de Bexar, DAR


Havana Residents and the money (reales) they provided
for the Expedition to Yorktown on August 16, 1781

Jose Olazaval
Jose Manuel Lopez
Tomas de Evia
Manuel Quintanilla
Rafael Medina
Juan Hogan
Carlos Testona
Bartolome de Castro
Cristobal de Nis
Jose Feu
Miguel Ibanza
Jaime Boloix
Pedro Peraza 
Cristoval Murillo


Francisco del Corral
Juan Dios de Munoz
Lorenzo Quintana
Pedro Valverde
Juan Patron
Manuel Esteban
Fernero Brothers
Nicolas Varela
Pablo Serra
Pedro Figuerola
Dona Barbara Santa Cruz
Francisco Asbert
Pedro Martin de Leiba Francisco del Corral



Information on these  surnames have been included in the previous issues.
 Pedigree and family information on other surnames can be found throughout each of  the 70  issues. 
To run a surname search on all the issues, go to:

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New column dedicated to personal memories, family stories, as Ben Romero says . .  Chismes.  We also hope you will share folk stories, legends believed to be based on a true experience, such as El Brujo.
Carmen and Soup for a Penny 
El Brujo: A Northern New Mexico Folk Story!


CHICKEN CHISME: THE FINE ART OF GOSSIP is Ben  Romero's fifth book of Chisme. 
For more information on his books, go to
or contact him at

The series are set in northern New Mexico during the late 1950's and early 60's. Told in first person, using dialogue sprinkled with Spanish, each event comes alive as told through the eyes of a child. Every chapter has an underlying lesson mixing humor, love and drama. Though Hispanic in flavor, the vignettes have universal appeal. Portions have appeared in Reminisce and Sun magazines.

About Ben Romero: Ben Romeo was born and raised in Northern New Mexico, the fifth of seven children in a Hispanic Catholic household. Ben is a part-time Adult Education teacher in an ESL program (English as a Second Language) and uses some of his writings as material for teaching. 

He has spent the past 30 years working for the US Post Service and serves as Customer Relations Coordinator for the Central San Joaquin Valley. He received a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Management with a minor in Spanish from Fresno Pacific University in 1995. 

Ben is married to his wife, Evelyn, for 34 years. They have five children and four grandchildren. 

The above author expert is provided by Francine Silverman, editor/publisher of Book Promotion Newsletter, and author of Book Marketing from A-Z, a compilation of the best marketing strategies of 325 authors. These experts are among 150 at the Expert Site, answering book marketing questions at no charge. and click “Ask the Experts.”

Francine Silverman
Author of "Book Marketing from A-Z"  (Infinity Publishing 2005)
Editor/Publisher of Book Promotion Newsletter, a bi-weekly ezine for authors of all genres

Frank Sifuentes

Frank Sifuentes and his wife Sarita Diaz 

By: Frank ‘Kiko’Sifuentes

Mama was like the Old Lady who lived in a Shoe 'who had so many children she didn’t know what to do.’ Her greatest challenge was to be able make us lunch during school days. 

Our standard lunch became 2 flour tortilla bean tacos. 

Their food value was time proven: Plenty of protein and minerals. So they never failed to prevent hunger. 

Even if we’d get sick and tired of them.

One of the things that made it difficult was that in 1939 and in the early forties,
those who were limited to bean tacos developed as sense of shame; because it was tantamount to telling the whole world you were so poor you could not afford bread and baloney sandwiches. Much less with an apple or banana!

The dead give away was that the brown lunch bag showed the contours of our ‘burritos hechos de refried refried beans.’

Once when my paper bag got so soaked with grease the bottom finally fell out.
And I was forced to carry around the tacos, revealing the newspaper they were wrapped in.

Luckily even the best known wisecrackers sympathized and didn’t make fun of me. However the silence was bad enough.

I shouldn’t have thrown the bag away because there was enough lard on it to fry a few eggs.

For the most part I was too happy in school to feel shame.

During winter I felt really motivated; and in a hurry to get there to get to the warmth from the steam heaters. 

My older brother Ben resented being ridiculed over a perfectly good meal in the middle of the day. 

Benny developed a good technique to prevent being seen eating bean tacos. He isolated himself as much as possible on steps way in the back of the building. And he would take the bean tacos out and cut them in half. Then he’d cover a half with his two hands and eat it as he would eat a sandwich. And who knows with Benny’s brainpower he made it taste like roast beef.

Regardless of any shame we may have felt, once we ate the tacos we felt perfectly full. It helped that mama’s tacos got hard because even though the tortillas were
Fresh, she used baking powder and lard sparingly in order not to run out.

Sometimes it got difficult for mama to make bean tacos for all of us.

Fortunately the Zavala School administrators knew some children could not bring lunch. And had a lunch program: For a penny we could get a big bowl of soup in the cafeteria.

Mostly it was vegetable soups with lots of tomato, served with two pieces of thin slices of white bread.

This option of course made things worse in terms of showing who the poorest students were. 

On any given day there were around 8-12 of us who would sit around a long table with a teacher present to monitor our behavior.

I cheerily ate the soup and particularly enjoyed the pieces of bread. The main problem with this program was we could see the cafeteria food near by and the line that included students with fifteen cents and the school staff who impressed me because they didn’t seem to need 15 cents for their meal.

Their meals were often great combinations like chicken fried steak, mash potatoes and sweet peas –with a fresh garden salad and desert of apple pie with a slice of fresh cheese.

My sister Carmen and I had to work behind the counter to get milk served. And that also was embarrassing.

More so for my sister Carmen. She was an existentialist who knew the world was shrinking from injustice. And since she was a princess having nightmares in broad daylight, the teachers &staff could not evade her disappointed expressions.

She couldn’t have succeeded more if they had placed her on top of a table and let her give an impassionate speech on the injustice of over-feeding the teachers, while under-feeding the children.

One day the cafeteria manager pulled a radical switch on us. Instead of vegetable soup they served sauerkraut soup.

Like a good trooper, I overcame my revulsion over the way it smelled and tasted; however with the two pieces of bread, I was able to eat without complaining. It was still better than going hungry.

But Carmen felt disgusted and boldly announced, “I can’t this stuff. It stinks and if I try to eat it, I’ll get sick of my stomach!

The teacher assigned to monitor us – who was wearing a short fur coat over her shoulders – couldn’t believe her ears. And took Carmen’s complaint as a direct insult to her and acted as if she couldn’t believe what came out of Carmen’s mouth.

“Young lady, you better eat that perfectly good soup! I just can’t understand why anyone would turn down such a delicious meal for free!” 

Carmen having no choice took a slurp of the sauerkraut soup. And sure enough she immediately started throwing up and vomited on the teacher’s fur coat.

And the teacher screamed “You stupid little girl! Now look what you’ve done!”

“I told you Miss what would happen if you made me eat this awful stuff! And she then got up and walked away. But before leaving the cafeteria she shouted, “And the soup is not free. It cost a whole penny!”

The teacher was shocked by Carmen’s capacity to defend herself; and in perfectly good English.

Carmen just kept walking and left school all together. While Miss Durham our home room teacher shouted, “Come back here! Little girl!! Do you hear me?!

But she just kept walking toward our home.

There was no way mama could convince her to return. And when the school sent a representative to make her go back, Carmen said that she would only if they could promised not to make her eat sauerkraut soup.

 EL BRUJO: A Northern New Mexico Folk Story!
by Frank ‘Kiko’Sifuentes

My uncles Samuel and Raul were on their way to a dance in Youngersville one Saturday night and saw an owl perched on a stop sign. But suddenly the owl flew forward towards there truck. Which 
really scared them; because it was said that owls were male witches.  And they became so frightened that Uncle Raul who was driving pushed  down hard on the gas peddle to get away.

Uncle Samuel told him he was glad they were going faster because they didn't want to be late to the dance.

But suddenly the owl got in fron of their truck, and forced them to stop. So Uncle Raul got out of the truck real fast to search for a rock to throw at the owl. But when he bent down to pick it up the 
owl jumped on this back and scratched it all up. And not matter how hard he tried to he could not get the owl of his back.

Finally he got away and quickly got back in the truck and headed for the dance as fast as possible.

And when they almost were there they saw a great big red ball of fired coming out of nowhere.

Naturally they were so frightened they stopped and locked the doors.

The ball of fire kept moving back and forth, keeping them from reaching their destination. And the ball of fire kept getting bigger and, until my uncles blacked out from the experience.

When they came to and were happy to be alive and finally got to the dance.

Once they were there they told all their friends what had happened to them on their way to this dance. And it was hard not to believe it because everyone could see how scared they were. So ever since then anyone of that area who sees an owl knows its best to leave it alone.

Collected by Sandra Salazar, Coronado HS ll th grader, l983. 
Pancho (Frank Sifuentes) suggests that it might have been a UFO.
Edited by Frank Sifuentes, Writer in Resident



January 21:  SHHAR Quarterly Meeting . . .
“5 generations of a Chiapas Maya Family:  History & Private Life, 1965-'05 

Baja California Christmas Orphanage  Interfaith Project
Student-designed project for orphans in Baja California 
January 21: Relampago del Cielo 30th Anniversary Reunion Concert 

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research 
First Quarterly Meeting of the year, 
Everyone welcomed

January 21, 2006, 2-4 pm
Orange Family History Center
674 S. Yorba
Orange, California

Jan Rus 

“Five generations of a Chiapas Maya Family: 
History and Private Life, 1965-2005”

Jan Rus has conducted anthropological and historical research in Chiapas since the early 1970s.  Since 1985, he and his wife Diane have been coordinators of a publishing house for Maya language writers.  

His most recent book is Mayan Lives, Mayan Utopias: The indigenous people of Chiapas and the Zapatista Rebellion (2003).

Social anthropologists, Jan and Diane met in 1968, while both were serving in the Peace Corps. They returned with the Peace Corps  in the 1970s serving for four years, and again in the 1980s, for another four years.  In between and up to the present, Jan and Diane have spent every summer  in Chiapas, establishing close friendships among the natives.  Their children's godparents/compadres are Mayan.

Jan will be sharing his latest research based on the lives of his Mayan friends of Chamula, Chiapas.. This information is a book in process.  It will be a fascinating lecture. Jan will share strategies for researching indigenous roots.  Come early and socialize.  

LDS Information is available on Chamula, Chiapas, Mexico 
Church Records: Registros parroquiales, 1635-1929  Iglesia Católica (Chamula, Chiapas) 
Census: Censo de población del municipio de Chamula, Chiapas, 1930  México. 
Civil: Registros civiles del municipio de Chamula, Chiapas, 1870-1990  Chamula (Chiapas).  

Baja California Christmas Orphanage Interfaith Project

Photos from one the many orphanages in 
Baja California, Spectrum

Editor:  One of  my memorable Christmas activities this summer was participating in gathering items for an orphanage in Baja California.  I was asked to gather children's items, old and new for a project sanctioned by the local Interfaith Council.  R.J. Ferro, a member of the Interfaith Council has been taking truck loads of items to Baja since the 1970s.  This was my second time of assisting in gathering items.  I wasn't sure with everyone's busy schedule in Christmas if we could gather enough items. Once again, I called friends, church and family members. 

I was very pleased.  The items below were stacked two to five bundles deep in my front patio. When RJ arrived,  I wasn't sure that the enclosed truck would hold everything. RJ said that the trucks sides bowed out and assured me that it would fit, I wondered.

RJ retired from his career as a Franchise Consultant, but finding himself a restless retire found in the position of  Memorial Specialist with Dilday Brothers Funeral Directors, an opportunity to give support and guidance to hurting families.   "Serving others is our dues for being  here on earth,"  R.J. said.  Dilday kindly allowed RJ to use their truck.


R.J. Ferro on the left assisted by my son, Aury .L. Holtzman, M.D.  Every space was filled, from top to bottom.

 As R.J. pulled away, I hoped he wouldn't make any fast stops and bring the whole load on top of him. 
About RJ Ferro:

For the last thirty plus years, R.J. has been making 3 to 4 trips a year to Baja, taking loads of household and clothing items. He alternates his deliveries to one of three orphanages, but there are many orphanages in Baja California.   If you are interested in volunteering or donating items, there are many opportunities to help. A quick internet search yielded much information about orphanages in Mexico. Most Mexican orphanages in Baja California are supported by American money. There are a few State and Federal-run orphanages.  All orphanages are overseen and controlled by the Mexican government agency DIF. 
RJ Ferro shared his family history easily. "Family history information should be recognized as part of who we are," he said. "Honor your mother and father, also means, honor your grandparents, your ancestors and their history."

The Ferro family of Venice, Italy entered the United States through New York in 1845. After a brief stay in New York, the Ferro family migrated to Memphis, Tennessee and acquired land. During the Civil War, the Ferro men served in the Confederate Army as officers. One Ferro is credited with saving a Confederate General. Unfortunately, being on the Confederate side, the Ferro families lost their land holdings.

Augustin "Gus" Ferro, RJ's grandfather was the last to leave Tennessee. He moved his family to El Paso, Texas. Working for the Southern Pacific, his responsibilities were to oversee the transport of freight from Tucson to San Francisco. Rising to positions of administration was facilitated by the fact that Grandfather Augustin spoke three languages. A broader perspective of the world was also engendered by the fact that Grandmother Ferro spoke five languages.

El Paso was a cross-cultural area, there a strong family of seven brothers and three sisters were raised. Still maintaining ties with the South, one son was named Sydney Reed Ferro, after a Tennessee banker friend of his grandfather. Sydney was RJ's father.

The Ferro family of El Paso were involved in many businesses and established themselves in various parts of the nation. "Our family believed in commerce. We were entrepreneurs." Father Sydney developed a trucking business in New York where RJ was born. Sydney El Paso pass, and the fact that he spoke Spanish, he quickly earned the nickname of "Tex".

World War II, made changes in everyone's life. All seven Ferro bothers fought and served proudly in the U.S. military. "We are a family of about 25 cousins. We are proud and grateful of being Americans.  We have all had successful careers. 

RJ said, "If I was to express the unwritten Ferro code, it would be: Always remember who you are. Take pride in the achievements of your ancestors. Know that you have potential, not with pride, but with respect. Always expect to do well."

After World War II, remembering the life the family had enjoyed in El Paso, "Tex" moved the family from Brooklyn, New York back to El Paso, Texas. Unfortunately, returning home can sometimes be a disappointment. To "Tex" El Paso had changed. Within two months, "Tex" brought the family to California, where son RJ makes his home.

RJ went on to say,  "Even if our current life is possibly humble and meager, it  is not a reflection of a meager character. We have within us, the strength of our progenitors. Look back and honor your ancestors.

The surname Ferro originated on the coasts of Italy, spelled Ferro in Genoa and Fero in Venice. Source: Diccionario Heráldico Español, Apellidos y Nombes Propios by Lander Muñoz. RJ has family information that takes the lines back to 1074.

RJ shared two Ferro family stories. One ancestor, a pharmacist, created Dr. Ferro's Celery Compound.  The other Ferro was among the researchers valuable in finding the vaccine for yellow fever.  

For information on the Early Italian presence in the Americas click.


More information on Orphanages in Baja California

Photo of Hogar Infantil, La Gloria   Project includes facilitating volunteers to help in Baja Spectrum Ministries, much information on Baja orphanages.
Spectrum ministers in the back hills of Tijuana to the very poor families and children in seven areas including the Tijuana dump. We work within the political perimeters of each community we serve and we work by their invitation. We actively network with three Tijuana orphanages Emmanuel Orphanages, El Pozo and Casa de Emmanuel

The term orphanage is misleading to many Americans. In Africa, Korea, and other poor nations an orphanage would contain children who have no parents, but this is not necessarily so in Mexico. Most orphanages in Mexico have just a few true orphans. The vast majority of children in an "orphanage" are simply disadvantaged kids from dysfunctional families, similar to the foster care system in the U.S. They are problem kids, some brought in by their mothers, other relatives or on occasionally the State, and mostly boys, as they tend to be seen as the "trouble-makers." These kids are kept until about the age of thirteen to fifteen. There are many girl and boy orphanages and all boy orphanages but very few all-girl orphanages.

Mexican children 
Construction on student-designed project for orphans in Baja California to begin in August 
by Barbara Palmer

When the eight students enrolled in Marga Jann's architectural studio began work on their class projects during Spring Quarter, they faced a special design challenge. 

They tried to put themselves in the place of abandoned orphans, said class member Rebeca Rangel. They asked themselves, "What kind of place would you like to live in, if you'd been found in a garbage dump?" 

Construction is scheduled to begin next month on an orphanage in Mexico designed by Stanford students. Above, lecturer Marga Jann met with students Anthony Fontes, Bernabe Garcia and Ryan Lohbauer to discuss the project. photo: L.A. Cicero

Jann's classes have spent the last two years coming up with answers to that question as they designed projects for Rancho Santa Marta, a school and orphanage for poor and abandoned children in Baja California, Mexico. And their work -- including a design for an airy two-story structure with mango and fuchsia-colored walls that wouldn't be out of place in Metropolitan Home magazine -- is more than an intellectual exercise. Construction on the project, which will house 12 young girls, is set to begin in August. 

One of Jann's first Stanford studio classes helped design a community center in Ensenada, Mexico, that is currently under construction. That project led to Rancho Santa Marta, a 30-year-old orphanage and school operated by a nonprofit foundation in Southern California. There are currently about 20 buildings on the 450-acre ranch, some built on land that once held pigpens. 

Where utilitarian buildings are now scattered across a dusty plain, Jann's students envision a campus where brilliantly colored buildings are integrated with shade trees and sculpture inspired by Mayan art. They are hoping that the home they designed might serve as a template for future houses at the school. Among its features are study areas and more private living space for residents -- luxuries the existing houses at Rancho Santa Marta lack. 

The vibrant colors and high-caliber design of the new house will help the children feel good about themselves, Rangel hopes. "We want them to feel loved and feel valuable. We want them to feel that they deserve something like this -- and of course, they do." 

Cooperation among students was a novel experience for García, who transferred to Stanford as an older-than-average student. "This class was the first class where I could ask another student for help," he said. "Stanford students are really competitive, despite the laid-back appearance we portray."   

The studio has changed Rangel's life in ways she couldn't imagine when she enrolled. "Honestly? It was a requirement for my major. And of the studios, it seemed the most interesting. Once I was there, I was completely hooked." 

Rangel, who said she was cautious and a little cynical when she first visited the orphanage, was disarmed by the kindness of the people she met there. "I almost found a new trust in mankind," she said.  "The project isn't about us. It's much bigger than us." 

Relámpago del Cielo, Inc. Celebrate 30th Anniversary
Mexican Cultural Arts Organization Reunites Original Cast of Dancers for Anniversary

Santa Ana, CA., November 29, 2005 -- Relámpago del Cielo, Inc. (RDC), a non-profit leading cultural arts organization offering Mexican Folkloric Dance programs, today announced that members of the original performing company from Orange County, Inland Empire and Los Angeles have reunited to present a special dance concert in celebration of the organization’s 30th Anniversary.

Relámpago del Cielo was founded in 1975 serving a handful of youth and adults and now boasts more than 150 members. Many of the organization’s original performers have gathered under the direction of Rosie Peña, who was brought out of retirement for the celebration of Relámpago del Cielo’s 30th Anniversary Celebration.

“Rosie is a huge part of why I have come back to re-join our group. She is an outstanding dancer and excellent teacher,” said Angie Díaz, a member of the original 1975 cast.

Now living in Corona, Calif., Díaz drives to Santa Ana three or four evenings a week to practice this cultural dance. “Not being as active as I use to be, I was afraid I wouldn’t be able to dance anymore,” Díaz said. “But beyond the occasional aches and pains, I am keeping up pretty well.”

“The only way I knew about the group getting back together was from my daughter, Araceli García and my 7-year-old granddaughter Liliana García who remain active Folkloric dancers,” Díaz said.

The Díaz-Garcia family explains why three generations of women in their family remain Folklórico dancers. “The music and dancing are in our blood,” said Díaz. “It is close to our hearts and bonds us together.”

“We have many families that have many generations of girls dancing Folklórico,” said Marlene Peña-Marin, Director of Relámpago del Cielo. “In fact, our family also represents this trend with my mother, myself and my daughters dancing in the group.”


2006 CALENDAR LISTING Relampago del Cielo 30th Anniversary Reunion Concert DATE: Saturday, January 21, 2006/ 8:00 PM La Mirada Theatre for the Performing Arts 14900 La Mirada Blvd. La Mirada, CA Box Office Ticket Sales: 714/994-6310 or 562/944-9801 Reserved Seating. Tickets go on sale November 1 Ticket Price: Adults - $35.00/$25.00, Children - $25.00/$15.00 TICKET INFORMATION: (714) 497-7219 or E-mail:   




Jan 7: Reception: Don't Talk About Religion or Politics
Jan 17, 21-22:
Latino looking Mexican Soldados Reenactors sought
Jan 21:
Jacalyn Lopez Garcia: Life Cycles: Reflections of Change & Hope
Jan 21:
Honoring Relationships: The Journey of the True Macho
Graves found outside Everygreen Cemetery in L.A.

Don't Talk About Religion or Politics, January 7 through February 6, 2006 

A meaningful exploration of contradictions and their political ramifications. To celebrate the importance of spirituality in our lives and collective consciousness, the participating artists of this exhibition have come together to offer genuine visions of piety and devotion, concerning the blurring between the sacred and profane. 

Saturday, January 7, 2006 / Reception: 7 pm - 10 pm 
Avenue 50 Studio, 131 No. Avenue 50, Los Angeles, CA. 90042

The Avenue 50 Studio invites the public to an art exhibit focusing on questions of religion and politics.  Kathy Mas-Gallegos, Director, 323-258-1435 . For more information of the featured artists, go to:
Sergio Hernandez -
Gwyneth Leech -
Poli Marichal -
John Paul Thorton -
Mark Vallen -

Zeke Hernandez

Latino-looking Mexican Soldado Reenacors sought

There is a need for Latino looking Mexican soldados reenactors who want to be in an upcoming film shoot for a new documentary on the 1846-47 US-Mexican War for the History Channel. The filming will be at historic Rancho Penasquitos park in San Diego County and will be on:
Jan. 17, for a Mexican Artillery crew of about 4 or more (experience preferred, or willing to be trained.), and on;
Jan. 21 & 22:  for a Mexican Army Infantry unit, a dozen of more will be needed.
Uniforms and weapons will be supplied.  Looking younger age range 20-30 Pays $100 a day per man.   The casting director will confirm the list in January.
Gracias,   -Steve Clugston
(951) 303-8446  or
Sent by Bob Smith  Regriffith6828


Oculorium Gallery Project Series
January 21-April 15, 2006
Opening Reception: January 21, 2006, 7-9pm

UCR/California Museum of Photography
3824 Main Street, Riverside, CA, 92501
This is in downtown Riverside where the Main Street Pedestrian Mall and University Avenue meet, about three miles west of the University of California, Riverside campus. 
Gallery &Museum Store Hours: Tuesday - Saturday 12 to 5 p.m.

Life Cycles: Reflections of Change and a New Hope for Future Generations examines the personal histories of immigrant and migrant farm worker families that settled in the colonias (migrant settlements) of Coachella Valley, California. Supported by a generous grant from the California Council for the Humanities, multimedia Artist, Jacalyn Lopez Garcia follows the progress of seven migrant families to create a photographic record of their involvement in the changing Californian social landscape. Life Cycles: Reflections of Change and a New Hope for Future Generations focuses on personal stories of struggles and accomplishments of the families, students, and members of the growing Colonia communities located in the Southeastern deserts of California. 

Jacalyn Lopez Garcia’s multi-media photographic project reveals the harsh realities of desert living, and critically examines the relationship between some of the “past” and “present” improvement strategies designed to improve the lifestyles of Colonia residents. The dream of economic independence and a better life draws immigrants and migrants to these Colonias, but they often struggle to survive in harsh living conditions. To bring further clarity and a new level of understanding to Colonia life, researchers for this documentary series (including Garcia herself) conducted interviews with the Colonia residents to record their life experiences. The findings and conclusions of the research, as well as the photographs, have been developed into an interactive website that will become accessible on January 21 via

Jacalyn Lopez Garcia received an M.F.A in Multimedia and Photography from Claremont Graduate University. She has exhibited in a number of group and solo exhibitions; Director of the Communities for Virtual Research at the University of California, Riverside and teaches photography, art and multimedia studies at various community colleges in Los Angeles and Riverside County.

Eszter Delgado
Public Relations Coordinator  760-468-2579
UC Riverside/Ernesto Galarza Applied Research Center

The 4th Annual National Latino Fatherhood Conference 

Saturday, January 21, 2006 / 8 am - 4 pm
The Keck School of Medicine of USC, Health Sciences Campus, Keith Administration Building Auditorium, 1975 Zonal St., Los Angeles, CA 90033   
Registration: 323-728-9577 x244 /

Organized by The National Latino Fatherhood and Family Institute, a project of Bienvenidos Children's Center, Inc. in collaboration with the National Compadres Network. 
The National Latino Fatherhood and Family Institute  
5252 E. Beverly Blvd., East LA, CA 90022 / 323-728-7770 

Walk with us on this journey of the true macho and discover how hombres are becoming re-rooted in traditional roles and learning to heal themselves, to stop the violence in their homes and communities, and reclaim the sacredness of their relationships.  

Featuring national and internationally recognized leaders in the areas of fatherhood, manhood, and domestic violence and workshops integrating practical and effective strategies to incorporate into your professional practice and personal life. 

Co-Sponsors: Keck School of Medicine of USC, Office of Diversity; The California Endowment; The Annie E. Casey Foundation; Strategies, A Project of the State
Office of Child Abuse Prevention.  Infor: Bienvenidos Children's Center, Inc., 205 E. Palm Street, Altadena, CA, 91001.

Sent by Zeke Hernandez

Graves found outside Everygreen Cemetery in L.A.,1,7966627.story?ctrack=1&cset=true
Forgotten Graves Unearthed Crews digging an MTA Gold Line extension in
Boyle Heights find more than 100 century-old skeletons at the site of an old crematorium.
By Hector Becerra, Times Staff Writer November 22, 2005
Sent by Carlos Ray Gonzales

Some were found under the driveway of a 123-year-old Boyle Heights landmark that for generations served as Los Angeles' potter's field. Others were uncovered beneath an old retaining wall, and under mature oak trees and bushes.

In all, workers digging an eastern extension of the Gold Line railway found the skeletal remains of 108 people - as well as 43 arms and legs.  Scattered among the remains, beneath otherwise nondescript grounds leading to the brick-bedecked crematorium, were old coins, empty coffins, metal objects and even garbage.

The discoveries stunned Metropolitan Transportation Authority officials and surprised residents, because they unearthed a layer of history that most had forgotten ever existed.

"I've lived in the same house for 70 years," said Diana Tarango, a longtime Eastside resident. "Even then, growing up as a kid, I never thought of it as a cemetery. It was always a crematorium."Now, MTA officials are working with archeologists and community members to figure out how best to re-inter the bodies.

"We want to give these people a proper burial, because it's obvious they were not given a proper burial in the first place," said Rick Thorpe, the MTA's head of construction. "If they had been treated with respect, we would have known where they were located."

The remains are believed to be vestiges of L.A.'s original cemetery for the poor. They were found on the south side of the property along 1st Street between Concord and Lorena streets.

In 1877, the owners of the adjacent Evergreen Cemetery gave the city five acres to operate a potter's field. The county purchased the property in 1917, and five years later built a crematorium to dispose of the bodies of the poor and unclaimed.

With that, in 1922, the burials stopped. Over the years, the existence of the graves became increasingly obscured by time - and apparently landscaping and paving.

Carbon dating by archeologists indicates that most of the remains date back to at least the 1890s, said Ray Sosa, the MTA's deputy project manager for Gold Line planning.

Crews doing digging for a retaining wall and for street widening first uncovered arms and legs in June. Work on the project was immediately stopped, officials said.

Further tests, including ground-penetrating radar, revealed other remains underneath what had seemed an unused portion of the crematorium property, Sosa said.

The MTA previously had had consultants check county records to ensure that they did not disturb locations that contained remains, he said. Subsequently, nine registry books were found in a locked room in the crematorium office.

They contained names of people buried in the crematorium land, their sex, cause of death, examining physician, date of death, mortuary and burial dates.

But the records did not elaborate on where those people were buried. MTA officials say that even if they had read the registry books before, it would have been unthinkable to believe bodies lay underneath driveways.

Officials say it's also unclear whether the names in the logs correspond to the people whose remains were uncovered, or whether they belong to people buried elsewhere on the property.

"We should do some kind of monument for them and bury them all in one section," said Ross Valencia, 79, a Boyle Heights resident for all but four years of his life and a member of the MTA's Review Advisory Committee. "We should have a special ceremony."

MTA officials say that that is in fact what will be done. The remains will at a future date in all likelihood be buried just behind a retaining wall for the Gold Line, Sosa said. He said the MTA is leery of trying to bury the remains elsewhere because they might uncover more surprises.

"We don't want to touch anything else on that property," Sosa said. "We want to make sure we stay within the same area."

Although a subway tunnel is being built in the area, it will be dug beneath 1st Street and away from either the county or Evergreen cemeteries, officials say.

MTA officials said that after the remains were found, the MTA considered several options, including moving the project several yards farther south along 1st Street. But that would have required acquiring and razing many homes, they said.

"In the end, we decided instead of relocating people out of their homes, let's excavate these in the proper manner and give them a proper burial," Thorpe said.

Stopping the $898-million expansion project was never an option, MTA officials say. The extension will connect Union Station with Atlantic Boulevard in East L.A. on a six-mile route that includes stops at Little Tokyo and Mariachi Plaza. The MTA expects the line to open in late 2009.

Since the remains started being uncovered in the summer, some people have criticized the MTA for the Gold Line work and suggested that their own ancestor's graves may have been desecrated.

The MTA is especially bothered by insinuations that graves in Evergreen Cemetery - where burials still take place - are among those that have been dug up. Tarango, chairwoman of the MTA Review Advisory Committee, said there has been much misinformation. She said she was confounded by what the critics want done.

"What do they want, to put these people back under the driveway and under trees?" she said. 
Valencia said such allegations have angered residents such as himself because the land being dug up is not Evergreen Cemetery land.

"They have no proof, no evidence any of their relatives are buried there," Valencia said. "And if they did have evidence, they should be ashamed of themselves that they let their predecessors be treated that way."

Sosa said county records are shoddy when it comes to shedding light on the transformation that took place on the crematorium's land that allowed for the graves in the indigent cemetery to be paved and landscaped over.

"That's a mystery," Sosa said. "From the logs that are there, you can't assume that these people are connected to the names mentioned." MTA officials said there were portions of the crematorium land they purposely did not purchase because they thought remains were buried there.

Only one of the dead has been identified, and only because he was buried with his headstone, Sosa said. The remains are so old, DNA testing would not identify them, officials said.

Around the 1950s, a large retaining wall was built along portions of the property where remains were found. It's unclear whether workers would have had reasons back then to suspect that graves lay underneath, Sosa said.

Tarango said she would not be surprised if decades ago, hints of what lay underneath the crematorium property had been discovered but ignored. "I think people just didn't say anything," she said. 

The MTA's Thorpe said the agency determined to do right by the unearthed remains. "These people obviously didn't get the respect they should have when they were initially buried," he said. "We want to be as respectful as we can."




The Jacket
Roy Banuelos of Fontana and his five brothers served during the WWII
Californios and the Birth of the State of California
Elijah N. Robles: El Dorado high school senior receives recognition
Silvas Family Oral History
Jan 28th: Santa Clarita Valley Family History Fair
Feb10th: Avanzando! A Celebration of Latino Leadership
Books on Salvadorans
Cesar Chavez Resources


Bill Arvizu's Treasured Jacket

By John H. Arvizu

Willian "Bill" Arvizu Guillermo to his parents

Brother Albert Arvizu

This is an amazing story and I have to share it. My Aunt Vicki is a kind, very thoughtful person. Her daughter Lisa Diaz emailed me a few months ago, just prior to Aunt Vicki's death from cancer. My cousin Lisa called to tell me that she had my Dad's old Army Jacket. 

It seems that when my Dad returned from Germany after the Second World War in 1945, my dad, Bill Arvizu, gave his Army jacket to Aunt Vicki and her husband, Uncle Albert, as a keepsake. Aunt Vicki promised she would keep it her whole life. She lived up to her promise even after her husband, Uncle Albert died 9 years ago.  

Until today (November, 10, 2005), I had never set eyes on this family heirloom and didn't even know until a few months ago that it even existed.  What a miracle and an even greater surprise for me to now have this in my possession 60 years later. I have to admit that when I opened the FedEx box and saw what wonderful condition the jacket was in, with all the old badges still in place right down to the shoulder patch for the "Ninth Armored Division", a lump stuck in my throat.  I could visualize my Dad in it and who has now been gone for 30 years. How proud he must have felt.

Now I have a place to pin all his old Army medals to, which I have carefully kept safe at home in a box.  Thank God for Aunt Vicki and Lisa for saving my Dad's jacket for me. They have hearts of gold and as big as the universe.  

The "Ninth Armored Division" is a fabled unit that fought the Germans under General Patton. Dad's unit was in the battle at Remagen Bridge. For those who aren't WWII buffs, this battle was very important in turning the tide of war against the Nazis. When the Nazis were on the run from Patton's Army, their escape route back across the Rhine and into Germany was over the Remagen Bridge.

The escape was cut off by the "Ninth" and  over 28,000 German Nazis were captured, with the result being to turn the war more to our favor. My Dad's brother, Uncle Abe,  went to war with Dad against the Germans.  

There is the story about the two of them meeting their Uncle Peter Romero in England in 1944 before the big push against the Germans. The amazing thing is that the three of them, all from Azusa, California, somehow among all those soldiers, met together, just before going into combat.  And all three survived World War II and returned home.  Uncle Abe was wounded and received a Purple Heart. (Below is the information on my Dad's medals.)
A movie was made out of this great historical event and you can still rent it if you ever want to see it.  It is called "The Bridge at Remagen" and was made in 1969 with Ben Gazzara. It is a great action movie and you can see what Dad and Uncle Abe must have gone through during WWII. 

My Dad, Uncle Abe and great uncle, Peter Romero all raised families in California. Uncle Peter Romero had a son Peter Romero Jr. who is now a teacher at John Bosco in Southern California. Abe Arvizu passed away several years ago but is survived by his children, Valerie Anderson, Linda Leone, Karen Arvizu, Gerry Arvizu and Betty Lou Horvath.

Dad was awarded the Purple Heart Medal on 26 Sept 1944, the Good Conduct Medal, the American Defense Service Medal, and the European African Middle Eastern Campaign Medal and the World War 11 Victory Medal.

I have my Dad's discharge papers and discovered that among Dad's medals are the European African Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, Army of Occupation Medal, American Campaign Medal, Good Conduct Medal, and the World War II Victory Medal. Also, he has numerous ribbons, which I am still researching their significance.  

New London, Conn., July 1, 1945:
Hal Boyle, Associated Press correspondent who covered the war from the North African invasion, told a newspapermen's meeting that the Italian campaign was the most miserable and the Battle of the Bulge was the worst from a standpoint of physical hardships, while the seizure of the Remagen bridgehead across the Rhine by the First Army shortened the war by weeks and was one of the "greatest military feats in history in enterprise, daring and results." Boyle won the 1944 Pulitzer Prize for war correspondence and was voted one of the ten outstanding young men of the year.

A book entitled "The Bridge",  states that the seizure of the bridge at Remegan is respectfully dedicated to those living and dead who courageously carried out this magnificent feat.  The feat has been called one of the greatest military achievements of all time. 

The Ninth Armored Division, under the command of Maj. Gen.  John W. Leonard, joined the IMMORTALS of military history March 7, 1945, by its spectacular capture of the Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen and its subsequent swift establishment of the first Allied foothold east of the Rhine.  This brilliant military coup electrified the entire world, and hastened the end of the European War.

No other military event in Europe, excepting perhaps the D-Day landings in Normandy, so stirred the popular imagination.  An Avalanche of news stories and broadcasts poured out of the bridgehead area.  The Ninth Armored soon became one of the most highly publicized American divisions in history.

John Arvizu



Roy Banuelos of Fontana and his five brothers served during the WWII.

Sent by Carlos Ray Gonzalez

(Mediha Fejzagic DiMartino/Staff Photographer) Fontana, Ca. News

Roy Banuelos made a promise to his five brothers almost 50 years ago. Today, he kept that promise. 

"I promised my brothers that someday our picture, the one with the five of us in our uniforms, would be in the newspaper," said Banuelos, an 86-year-old Fontana resident. 

All six of the Banuelos brothers -- Charles, Henry, Jesus, Ralph, Robert and Roy -- served in the United States Army during World War II. Amazingly, all came home alive. 

As each of her sons went off to war, Francisca Banuelos embroidered a white star on a long length of deep blue cloth to hang in the window. 

"I would cry each time one of my brothers went overseas," Roy Banuelos said. "I wanted to be with them. When each of us got drafted, we made a party, drank beer and said goodbye." 

In 1944, Banuelos got his wish -- and his party. He followed four of his brothers and was drafted into the service. 

At the time of his induction, he wasn't an American citizen, but Banuelos had a captain who would change all that. 

"He brought me over to Washington, D.C., before I went overseas," Banuelos said. "He said to me that he figured that if I was going over there to fight for America and maybe die for America that I might as well fight and die as an American citizen. It took about 10 minutes." 

Banuelos was assigned to the 490th Ordnance Department. Its job was to maintain vehicles in volatile situations. 
"If a tire would get shot out or blown off, we'd go out and fix it," he said. 

On their way to Okinawa, Japan, Banuelos and the rest of his company got the word of a cease fire. However, they continued on to the island to neutralize resisters. 

"When we first got there we settled in some tents in the mountains," he said. "The Japanese were very hard to get to. They were all living under the dirt; the whole island lived underground. Their hospitals, tents -- everything was underground." 

Patrols were sent to capture or kill the enemy. Banuelos was lucky; he was trained as a cook and eventually was in charge of a large mess hall where the officers went for meals. 

When Banuelos entered the Army, he was already married to his wife, Birtha, and the couple had two children. There was a governmental policy in place that granted discharge to any soldier with three or more children. While Banuelos was overseas, Birtha gave birth to their third child and her husband was sent home. 

Roy and Birtha now have been married 66 years and have five children, 14 grandchildren, 18 great-grandchildren and five great-great-grandchildren. 
Banuelos said he has led, and is still living, a happy life. He has kept a youthful outlook and appears much younger than his age. 

He learned his work ethic, family loyalty and love of life at an early age from his parents, Francisca and Agustin, who were born in Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Agustin was an educated man who attended the local university on a scholarship. When he and Francisca married, they settled in the small mining town of Santa Eulalia, outside Chihuahua. Because of his education, Agustin was put in charge of the general store. He eventually bought the store, the pool room next door and became the mayor of Santa Eulalia. 

While living in Santa Eulalia, Francisca gave birth to eight children. The first three died from diphtheria. 

The Banuelos family might have stayed in Mexico forever, but moved because of Pancho Villa and the Revolution. 

"Pancho Villa came to my father's store, he wanted supplies for free and when my father wouldn't give him what he wanted, they wanted to kill him," Banuelos recalled. 
It was time to leave Mexico. 

In 1919, Agustin Banuelos escaped to El Paso, Texas, alone. His plan was to emigrate to San Francisco, get settled and send for his family. He made it as far as Los Angeles.

Less than a year later, Francisca and the children joined him. The couple made Los Angeles their home and had five more children. 

The Banuelos' endured several hardships in their newly adopted country, including living through the Great Depression. 

"My dad taught us all how to work hard," Banuelos said. "I was shining shoes and selling watermelons on the roadside at 5. I was selling the paper when I was 9." 
By the time World War II broke out, Banuelos considered America his home and the home of his children and was prepared to defend it. 

"We all had wives and kids and we believed we had to protect them," Banuelos said. "We wanted to keep the enemy from coming here, keep them away from our home. 
"So we figured we'd go there and fight, go there and fight for our kids, fight for our future




CALIFORNIOS and the Birth of the State of California
By Galal Kernahan

The State of California was bom November 13, 1849, in an English-Spanish bilingual election in which the voters approved a bilingual Original Constitution. A Monterey Convention finished the State's "birth certificate" in both languages just a month earlier. In this and future issues, SOMOS PRIMOS will sample views expressed by various delegates as they worked on it.

(Then, delegate/comment specific information would follow.)
At 53 years of age, Jose Antonio Carrillo of Los Angeles was the oldest member of the Convention. Monday, September 24, 1849, he sat patiently through hours of discussion that stretched on into the night. One speaker after another explained what shape he thought the State of California might take.

Here is a little of the piece of his mind Carrillo shared when his turn came: In the year 1768, the Spanish government formed certain limits for this country. Afterwards, when the Spanish possessions here fell into the hands of the Mexicans, the Government of Mexico always recognized and respected that as the boundary of Upper California. . .1 see no reason why it should not continue to be recognized still. . .Your duty is to form a. constitution for what really is, and always has been, California. If you do not, your descendants hereafter will have good cause to complain that you have done them injustice. . .

(Browne's Debates-Proceedings of the Convention-Page 193 in the English Edition.)
Carrillo's position prevailed. It still does. Article III, Section 2, of California's much-amended current (1879) Constitution, begins: The boundaries of the State are those stated in the Constitution of 1849, as modified pursuant to statute. . .




El Dorado High School Cougars
Placerville, California

Every one this is my oldest boy Elijah Noel Robles he just turned 17 on the 2nd of this month. He is a senior and is graduating 1 year early, very proud of this young boy! H is currently in the process of selecting schools of his choice, USC, Berekley, NYU and two others I don't know them off hand. But want to go into Politics or Corporate Law, we currently working on getting him into the best college! he just got back from spending 1 week at the state capitol (Sacramento) learning the way the judical system works. In order to go you are entered by your school and out of the whole state of California only 10 were able to attend this event! it was a real honor! This boy is going to become someone really BIG! so keep your eye out for him! 
From the Robles familia
Noel, Leticia, Alex, Miranda


Silvas Family Oral History

[[This is the first part of a charming oral history.  Lots of photos.]]

May 20, 1996

Interviewer: Kathy Hughart
Interviewee: Abel Silvas 

Silvas family descendant Abel Silvas lives in Pacific Beach. He has been researching his family background for the past five years and recently completed a paper about Eugenia Silvas, whose former property lies adjacent to the McCoy house foundation in Old Town. Mr. Silvas's paper, "A Brief History of the Silvas Family and the Problem of Maria," is on file in the San Diego Historical Society Archives, Balboa Park.

Q. When did you first learn about your family background and the Silvas heritage? 

A. When I was a little boy. My father told me stories and I knew my heritage while growing up. Both my Mom and Dad told Mom would tell stories she remembered when they were married...places my Dad would take my Mom... 

Q. What kind of stories did your Dad tell you? 

A. He told us that we were mission Indians, and he was proud of it. Every time we'd take a drive, he'd point to all these points of interest and explain the stories and the history of it, according to the family...from Baja to Los Angeles. We'd take long trips. 

Q. How far did you go? 

A. Ensenada. As far north as I can remember would be Los Angeles. Most of my memories are basically San Diego County. I do remember Los Angeles, visiting my uncles or my aunts. The missions, Santa Barbara is the farthest north mission I remember going to. 

Q. What about San Luis Rey? 

A. Especially San Luis Rey. In fact, San Luis Rey Mission...I remember when I was a little kid and we were sitting in church and I saw a penny on the floor. And I picked the penny up. Put it in my pocket. And I felt guilty and told my brother Robert. I said, "Robert, I found this penny on the floor." My brother said, "You better report it to the priest." After mass I went and saw the priest. I said, "Here, I found this on the floor." And he said, "Well thank you." And he gave it to me. He said, "You can have it." 

Q. How long ago did you start collecting photographs and genealogical material? A. Recently. I've been studying for ten years, the family history, and it wasn't until recently, I'd say five years ago, until I found it was important to keep this, to collect these. But I guess you could say all the way back to ten years ago, I started collecting. But I didn't get real serious until recently, like five years ago. 

Q. What photos do you have? 

A. I just have photos of a few people, of my family, my great-grandpa, great-great grandpa, great-uncles, but I know that some of my aunts and uncles out there have other photographs. 

Q. Where did you get the ones you have? 

A. I got some of it from, most of it from my Dad. Some of it from my great-aunt Pauline who passed on a few years ago. And then a couple from my cousin. 

Q. Which cousin? 

A. Armando. My Dad's twin brother's son. 

Q. Did Pauline live in San Diego? 

A. Yes, but mostly she lived in San Bernardino. Her father was Jose Manuel Silvas. Named after his great-great-great-great-grandpa: Jose Manuel Silvas. Manuel Silvas married a Gilbert. And the Gilbert married a Crosswaite. The Silvas-Gilbert married a Crosswaite. Those are my first cousins down in Rosarito. The Crosswaites and Silvas married Machado. The Machado-Crosswaites are our family, cousins in Rosarito, past Rosarito in a place called "El Descanso." 

Saturday, January 28, 2006

24443 McBean Parkway • Valencia, California

Join us for an exciting day of classes and workshops conducted by experts in family history, digital photography and scrap booking. Our Keynote Speakers will be Richard McBride and Freddy Jimenez (Spanish) 

For questions or pre-registration information please call Linda Metcalf at (661) 298-7314 or  Registration: 8:00-9:00 a.m. • Keynotes: 9:00-10:10 a.m. Lunch $6.00
Checks payable to: Santa Clarita Stake • Mail to: Family History Fair, 19835 Terri Drive, Canyon Country 91351   Sent by Lorraine Hernandez



Inaugural Celebration, Friday, February 10, 2006. 6:00 PM

The Green Room at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center
401 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco

Honoring John C. Gamboa, 
Executive Director of the Greenlining Institute and LIF's Founding Director

For more information call Hilda Estrada: 415-284-7220
Latino Issue Forum,
60 Pine St., Suite 700,  San Francisco, CA 94111


Books on Salvadorans
Sent by Jaime Cader

This book states that there were Salvadorans that immigrated to San Francisco, California back in the 1890s -but there is no foot note as I recall.

Cesar Chavez
Seeking volinteers

Born in 1927 in Yuma, Arizona, Cesar Estrada Chavez spent most of his life leading a grassroots movement on behalf of Latino Americans. Of Mexican American descent, he is best known for having led a nationwide movement on behalf of the rights of farm workers. From the age of 10, Chavez began his life as a migrant farm worker when his family lost their farm and home during the Great Depression. When he was 25, he joined the Community Service Organization (CSO), coordinating voter registration drives, working to stop racial and economic discrimination against Chicano residents, and creating new CSO chapters. But his life goal was to start an organization that would help the farm workers whose suffering he knew all too well. In 1962, Chavez resigned from his job as CSO national director and started the National Farm Workers Association with the aim of organizing and unionizing farm workers for better treatment.

In 1965, the CSO became the United Farm Workers (UFW), a national support coalition
of unions, church groups, students, minorities, and consumers. The UFW worked hard, through non violent protests and campaigns, to better the conditions of farmers by conducting fasts, boycotts, marches, and other grassroots actions. One of the major vehicles Chavez utilized was a national grape boycott. He chose to boycott the grape industry because the labor conditions for grape growers and pickers were particularly bad and because it was a popular product used by many consumers. At the peak of the boycott, seventeen million American adults were refusing to buy grapes, and this put tremendous pressure on companies producing grapes, as well as on companies employing farm workers in general. Through UFW, mostly through boycotts and protests, Chavez was able to organize tens of thousands of farm workers and to negotiate contracts entitling them to higher pay, family health coverage, pension, and other benefits they had not previously had. Later, in 1986, Chavez led another successful grape boycott when Republican California Governor George Deukmejian was falling short of honoring the contracts won by the UFW on behalf of farm workers. In 1988, Chavez conducted a thirty-six day "Fast for Life" to protest the poisons and pesticides being used on plants that were having negative health impacts on workers and their families, particularly their children.

In all the years that Chavez worked for the UFW, he never received a salary of greater than $5,000 a year- the same amount received by all of the other UFW officers and workers. On April 23rd, 1993, Cesar Chavez passed away at the age of 63 and more than 40,000 people came to his funeral. On August 8th, 1994, President Clinton honored Chavez's memory by making him the second Mexican American to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States. Today, the UFW continues doing important work, striving to better the lives and conditions of farm workers throughout the United States.

Google search for more information

Cesar Chavez site recommended by Dorinda Moreno 
Books, Poster, and Exhibits, Cesar Chavez & UFW
Sun Mountain online store



2006 Computerized Genealogy Conference
N.A.P.A.H. Cultural Legacy



Brigham Young University's Annual
2006 Computerized Genealogy Conference

2006 Conference Dates: March 10–11, 2006

March 10–11, 2006, are the dates of this year’s Computerized Genealogy Conference. This conference is designed to be a how-to guide for everyone, including beginning, intermediate, and advanced researchers. Join us to learn how advancements in computer programs have revolutionized genealogical and family history work.

The featured presenters for this conference will be Curt B. Witcher and Alan Mann.  Witcher is the department manager for the Historical Genealogy Department of the Allen County Public Library in Fort Wayne, Indiana.  He is the past president and current director of the Federation of Genealogical Societies, and past president of the National Genealogical Society. He also serves as a member of the Genealogy Committee of the American Library Association. 

Alan Mann is the manager of the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah and is an accredited genealogist researcher in England, the Channel Islands, and Australia.

At the Computerized Genealogy Conference last year, more than 600 participants learned about new programs that can simplify and enhance genealogical research. Topics included running genealogy software, working with databases, e-mailing to do genealogy, and finding useful tools on the Internet. Some of our participants summed up their experience at the conference by saying, “I learned everything I hoped to learn,” and “I’m full of new ideas, enthusiasm, and new skills, ready to get to work when I get home!” Vendors were available throughout the conference to showcase their products. Mark your calendars now for our March 10–11, 2006, Computerized Genealogy Conference, which promises to introduce to you the newest ideas in genealogical research.

The 2006 Computerized Genealogy Conference site will be online early in 2006, so please check back. In the meantime, check out the 2005 Computerized Genealogy site in PDF format .

BYU Religious Education, BYU Center for Family History and Genealogy, BYU Computer Science Department, LDS Family History Library, and BYU Division of Continuing Education

We invite you to join us for this great experience, a unique opportunity to meet with fellow genealogists and computer enthusiasts and to learn from leaders in the genealogy computer world (both faculty and vendors).

For further program or registration information, contact:

BYU Conferences and Workshops
136 Harman Continuing Education Building
Provo, UT 84602-1516
(801) 422-4853


N.A.P.A.H. Cultural Legacy
The N.A.P.A.H. Cultural Legacy represents local Native American, Asian, Pacific Islander, African and Hispanic communities from 52 countries. The organization is dedicated to fostering "a more vibrant, diverse and unified community by emphasizing the cultural, artistic, and economic contributions of people from various ethnic backgrounds." The Ethnic Village will include five culturally-themed pavilions that will highlight each ethnic group through music, dance, food, displays, and the sale of authentic ethnic products.  he Village is located on the corner of 200 South and 500 West.


The presence of the Virgin of Guadalupe in the Americas
The Virgin of the Americas, Our Lady of Guadalupe
Some More Virgins of America

Experiences at the Border
Mexican shoppers bring Feliz Navidad to Tucson 


Virgen de Guadalupe de Pan Michoacan art shared by Armando M Escobar Olmedo

The first apparition took place on Dec 9, 1531.

The Virgin of the Americas, Our Lady of Guadalupe
Connie Vasquez

The 12th of December is probably one of the most important days for Americans with Mexican Roots. It is the feast of the Virgin of the Americas, Our Lady of Guadalupe. For those that are not Catholic, this is still an important date in the history of the Conquest of Mexico.

Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492, the Spaniards entered Mexico in about 1512 and this event took place roughly 10 years after. (from April 21, 1519 when Cortes first arrived till August 13, 1521 when Moctezuma finally surrendered).
The natives of the New World were not thrilled with the Spaniards trying to impose a strange religion and way of life and they had been resisting, many lives had been lost. And then to one of the converts, an Indian with much faith and nothing else appeared the Mother of Jesus, not as a European but as an Indian woman, the same as Juan Diego. 

We, Catholics, believe that Mary was taken to heaven by angels and was crowned as the Queen of Heaven for being the perfect vessel for God to become man. We know Mary was a Jewish woman, but once in heaven, she has graced us with apparitions all over the world taking the attributes of the people she addresses . 

However, she had never left an imprint of her being. Juan Diego’s tilma (piece of clothing) became a canvas for this heavenly picture. It has been studied for its quality, kind of paint, etc. Once someone even tried to destroy it, they placed a bomb which ended up destroying everything around it, except the painting. The Indians of the time could relate to this Mary, she looked like them, dressed like them and spoke to them in their language. 

She asked that a temple be built for her son and thus she granted the people of New Spain her protection. The Conquest became a reality, without guns, the Indians converted to Christianity and ever since, the people of the Americas have considered her their mother, their protector. The Spaniards were also humbled, they had to submit to an Indian Virgin. This however was not the story elsewhere in the Americas, only in the area which is now the Southwest of the USA, Mexico and some areas of Central America where the Aztecs reigned.

We, in the Southwest have a double blessing, Our Lady of Guadalupe as mother of the Americas and The Immaculate Conception to whom the nation of the USA was consecrated back in the 20th century. So how do we celebrate? On the eve of this date, we gather in the churches and take music and song. Sometimes these gatherings last until the morning. During the day, we go to Mass, we pray the rosary and we take her roses. Some people may not go to church the whole year, but this day, they show up. Some are not even Catholic, but yet they do show respect to this lady of the heavens. Many miracles are attributed to her such as healings and blessings. The Aztecs have special dances done by Matachines, it is a prayer in the form of a dance, special to this occasion.

In some religions it is unacceptable to have a relic of this type, yet this was given to us, made in heaven, brought to us, who are we to belittle this gift. Our bible contains the Hebrew Torah and then the testament of the life of Christ which is called the Gospels and then the history of the first Christians. The last book is called the Apocalypse and it is the account of John, the youngest and most beloved Apostle of Christ, about the end of times. He describes the Queen of the Heavens just as she appeared to Juan Diego, 1500 years before the apparitions. Of course into all of this enters faith to believe or not.

Nonetheless, I just wanted to share a little of the life in the Border of the USA/Mexico.

Connie Vasquez

Mimi:  a friend sent me this, I thought you might be interested in knowing about this:

As Connie knows, I just returned from a month long vacation in South America. I spent the larger part of the month in Uruguay, a few days in Buenos Aires and a few more in Asuncion, Paraguay.

I have visited Paraguay repeatedly and extensively, not for its beauty but for business at first, later for friends and now again for friends and business. Paraguay, next to Bolivia, is the most backward country in South America. Partly the legacy of a 35 year military dictatorship that ended in 1989 with the overthrowing of General Stroessner by his son in law nad since the then, under the democracy of one Party: El Partido Colorado.

Next to Belize, Paraguay claims the lowest per capita income in the continent and it is consistently on the top five most corrupt countries in the world, according to Transparency International.

In any event, I was very surprised, at first, when I found out that the mostly uneducated population of Paraguay has a tradition very similar to that of La Virgen de Guadalupe: La Virgen de Caacupe celebrated on December 8th. I happened to be there last week.

Although there are very few Guaranies (the original natives of the region) alive today, there is a significant, although not large population of mestizos from three other different races. 

Well, to make a long story short: La Virgen del Caacupe has been consdiered the protector of the Guaranies and now of Paraguay. She is consdiered "milagrosa" and many of the same rituals we see in Mexico are present in Caacupe: Mandas, promises, pilgrimages, and offerings.

By the way, Guadalupe is a word of Arab origin meaning River of Flagstone (Rio de Lajas) with the additional meaning of river of blackstones and also river of love. Guada - water ; Lube - blackstone

Fernando Arózqueta E.
Este mensaje fue enviado por B. Samuel Sanchez

Experiences at the Border
by Dorinda Moreno

My experience with the border, is el Paso/Juarez. mi familia has lived in hatch (Garfield/Derry), New Mexico for many generations. On my Zacatecas side, my grandfather came in l910. In fact I have his green card.  On my fathers side, Mescalero Apache. These were the people's who cleared the bosques for the chile industry that flourishes. My grandfather was shot in the foot. He was a jolly guy, a natural born story teller.  I have written a lot about him in the beginnings of a novel that just sits there, collecting dust. He told of riding with Pancho Villa in his early teens. After he was shot, he made his way across the border and settled in Derry.  He and wife Maria of Zacatecas had some 11 children, several not reaching adolescence, due to TB and influenza which was rampant in the 30-40-s. Maria died when my mom was l3, and mom married my dad at l5 and together they were parents to mom's siblings. The last picture I have of my grandfather was him holding my first born daughter at her bautismo. He died not long after this, of diabetes.

On my fathers side, a sister Maria had a candy store in Juarez. first called 'La Rosita' and then 'La Nueva Rosita'. Her three sons and two daughters eventually moving to California following mom and dad and making their lives. All three men serving in WWII .

We made many trips from California to Nuevo Mexico, making the trek most times at Christmas or Easter vacations, a 3-day drive if no car problems, and with more than one driver.  On these occasions we would frequently go to Juarez, taking the 60 mile drive from the hatch area and visiting Tia Maria for a brief reunion. Mom and dad would get their medicinas, yerbas, jaros, casuelas, mexican earrings, blouses, embroidered jackets.... it was always an adventure especially raiding the candy store of the dulce's de camote, cajeta, coconut, and piloncillo, rompope...

I recall the poverty and the many who would come to the car and beg and try selling their wares, blankets, serapes, trinkets... and the tequila for the men. one man in particular gave us a deep stare that pierced through me, as though we were worlds apart, despite the same color of our skin. I must have been five but I remember the stare. And, this memory has stayed in my heart. He made a connection, that there is poverty and injustice and it must be addressed. The border is not a separation but a bridge to be crossed and the injustices challenged.  Mom would take trunkfuls of clothes she collected to take to the families. with poor mothers offering their children to be adopted into a better life. we were poor, but on this side the struggle had a light at the end of the long dark tunnel.

I've had many experiences since that early time at the border, crossing at this same spot for peace and dignity journeys, at Mexicali with the Teatro Campesino and Mascarones. In Tiajuana, going over to see my comadre in Ensenada,  taking the tres estrella de oro, or the train.  One year, I drove from San Francisco to Mexico City  with my two daughters. We made it in record time, as I drove 6 hours and slept 1/2 time slots. Those were the early days of  the Chicano struggle.  I took a student for the 'becas de aztlan' program of  Jose Angel Gutierrez and La Raza Unida and she got there and called her parents to send her a ticket home........ good times, bad times. I have wrecked a station wagon in the highway of Queretaro, turning around two times in the car and barely got a scratch. All of us were dancing around the car in ceremony afterwards. Another time, I drove a 6-pack pick up and on arriving in DF all my stuff was stolen, except my manuscript.... what a gift to find it still in the briefcase left behind.... 

By the way, I leave on June 22nd for l0 days in el Distrito Federal. attending a ceremonia at Teotihuacan for the 30th Anniversario of the Quinto festival de Los Teatros Chicanos, 1974-2004. We are the survivors. many great gente, artistas, activistas who know the bond of xicano-mexica, and what that aztlan is not a myth but lives in our hearts.

I recall a song written by a 'cucaracha', 'me voy pa Teotihuacan, muy lejos de mi aztlan, me voy bailando, me voy cantando, contenta en mi corazon, me voy bailando me voy cantando, alegre como un gorreon. Voy a ver a los mascarones, ellos son los mas cabrones, hijos del sol, justicia senor, companeros de mis canciones, lucha y amor, unidos senor, companeros de mis pasiones'................ y hay mucho mas enl fuente que nos brinde mexico,  la raiz de nuestra cultura...

Mexican shoppers bring Feliz Navidad to Tucson 
By Carmen Duarte, Arizona Daily Star, Tucson, Arizona, 12-14-05

Visitors expected to spend $50M here for holidays 

Mexican shoppers are expected to pump $150 million into Arizona this Christmas season — $50 million alone in Tucson, predicts a representative with the Metropolitan Tucson Convention & Visitors Bureau. 

A stable dollar and about 150 Tucson businesses taking part in "Vamos a Tucson," a program that lures Mexican shoppers here, are helping to boost buying, said Felipe García, vice president for Mexico marketing with the bureau. 

Participating businesses attend up to eight trade shows a year in the states of Sonora, Chihuahua and Sinaloa, and in the cities of Guadalajara, Jalisco and Mexico City, promoting Tucson as a vacation and shopping hot spot, García said. 
Mexican shoppers are buying in, said García, who estimates that 2.7 million shoppers from Mexico are expected to hit Arizona stores this month. 

One of those shoppers is Beatriz Olimón Mendez, owner of Agencia de Viajes Alamo, a travel agency in Hermosillo, Sonora. She plans on spending about $3,000 this weekend in Tucson. 

"This time is devoted to Christmas shopping and visiting with friends," Olimón Mendez said. "I plan to buy clothes and electronic items. Many shoppers from Hermosillo, Ciudad Obregon and Sinaloa are traveling to Tucson and Phoenix to vacation and shop. 

"The dollar has remained stable. The exchange rate right now is 10.30 pesos to $1 to buy and 10.60 pesos to $1 to sell," Olimón Mendez added. 

"Although in Hermosillo there are stores like Sam's Club, Costco and Wal-Mart, it still ends up cheaper to go to Tucson," she said. "The Vamos a Tucson program has worked very well. The newspapers ads that stores like Target, Toys 'R' Us, Wal-Mart and Robinsons-May take out help a lot." 

Another Hermosillo shopper coming this weekend is Rosy Osuna, an office worker at the Alamo travel agency, who plans on spending about $1,000 on clothing, shoes and toys — all gifts for family members and friends.

"It is cheaper to buy in Tucson," Osuna said. "I can save about $500 on items. The same brand of tennis shoes that I can buy for $23 in Tucson will cost $80 in Hermosillo." 

García added: "Each shopper returning to Mexico in December can also take back $300 worth of items duty-free, while the rest of the year each shopper can return with only $50 worth of items duty-free." 

Tami Ivy, marketing manager for Park Place, said both Park Place and the Tucson Mall are taking part in the Vamos a Tucson program. 

"We invite consumers to visit Tucson, and we educate them about our attractions, hotels and places where they can shop and have fun," Ivy said. 
"We have been doing this for several years, and we have had a very positive outcome. We estimate that between 20 (percent) and 30 percent of our sales are to Mexican shoppers who visit the mall," she said. 

Ivy also attributed the positive outcome to businesses advertising in Mexican daily newspapers and on radio. The year-round ad campaigning primarily focuses on Sonora. Consumers are targeted during the Christmas holidays, Mother's Day and during the back-to-school shopping season. 

This holiday season, the increase in Mexican shoppers began in November, Ivy said. 
"The numbers are very good," she said. "We are seeing quite a bit of traffic from Mexico on weekends especially, and we expect it to continue on into January." 
Some stores at Park Place and the Tucson Mall are taking part in Club Estrellas. Ivy said the program offers Mexican shoppers discounts of 10 percent to 20 percent, or a gift with a purchase. 

Mexican visitors can pick up the Club Estrellas offer sheet at the malls' customer service desks. The sheet lists which stores are participating and what they are offering. 

"About $1 billion is spent in Arizona by Mexican shoppers a year," García said. He added that 23 million visitors come from Mexico to Arizona annually, and 72 percent of them come to shop, while the rest come for medical services, on business trips or to visit family members. 

? Contact reporter Carmen Duarte at 573-4104 or at ? A Spanish-language version of this story appears today in La Estrella de Tucsón. 


Libro de los Hijos de Moctezuma 
Indian Scholar Vine Deloria Jr.
My Two Beads Worth Site 
Native Americans and African-Americans 
Native Foods Nourish Again 
Have a safe journey to the Creator, Uncle Vine Deloria Jr 
Tricentennial website (Matrix segment) 
"Saca" is also an Indigenous Surname, click


Libro de los Hijos de Moctezuma 

This book includes mainly the descendants of Isabel de Moctezua and two of her husbands from the 1520s through early 1700. The book can be ordered from George Farias
or directly from the University of Texas.  
Sent by: Luis Elizondo 

MOCTEZUMA'S, CHILDREN, Aztec Royalty under Spanish Rule
Author: Donald E. Chipman
Price: $45.00, Shipping: $3.00


Hot off the Press, this new book is overdue but welcome to the growing number of persons interested in their Spanish Colonial ancestors in Mexico. The author, a noted borderlands historian, credits the assistance of our friend and colleague, Luis López Elizondo, of Melchor Múzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico. Though the Aztec Empire fell to Spain in 1521, three principal heirs of the last emperor, Moctezuma II, survived the conquest and were later acknowledged by the Spanish victors as reyes naturales, (natural kings or monarchs) who possessed certain inalienable rights as Indian royalty. For their part, the descendants of Moctezuma II used Spanish law and customs to maintain and enhance their status throughout the colonial period, achieving titles of knighthood and nobility in Mexico and Spain. So respected were they that a Moctezuma descendant by marriage became Viceroy of New Spain. This authoritative historical/genealogical work follows the fortunes of the principal heirs of Moctezuma II across nearly two centuries. Chipman also discusses how the Moctezuma famiily history illuminates several larger issues in colonial Latin American history, including women's status and relations between Spain and its New World colonies. Illustrated with photos and maps and includes several genealogy charts. Austin TX, 2005 University of Texas Press 1st Ed., 200 Pgs., 6&1/4 x 9&1/4, HB.

"We are forever known for the deeds we do 
and the words we say!" 

Vine Deloria Jr

Vine Deloria Jr

Indian scholar made officials rethink ways
 by Claire Martin Denver Post Staff Writer
Sent by Dorinada Moreno

Indian Scholar Vine Deloria Jr., a Standing Rock Sioux member who died at age 72 in Golden, galvanized social and institutional change with his 1969 manifesto, "Custer Died for Your Sins." 

His seminal work forced anthropologists and government officials to amend their relationships with tribal people, from returning human remains and artifacts to shifting federal control to tribal officials. 

A descendant of Sitting Bull and of legendary Yanktonal medicine man Saswe, and son of a Christian minister, Deloria was born in Martin, S.D., in 1933. He served in the U.S. Marines and graduated from Iowa State University and the Lutheran School of Theology. 

Deloria earned a law degree from the University of Colorado. He taught at the University of Arizona from 1978 to 1990 and then at CU's law school and in the history, ethnic-studies, religious-studies and political-science departments until his retirement in 2000. 

He served as director of the National Congress of American Indians from 1964 to 1967. Under his guidance, an organization hemorrhaging members and influence became a strong presence in Washington, D.C. His 1965 editorial "Now Is the Time" helped establish tribal autonomy and installed Deloria as "our Martin Luther King," in the words of Indian-rights attorney Charles Wilkinson. 

Deloria published "Custer Died for Your Sins" and its 1970 sequel, "We Talk, You Listen," at the apex of the Indian-rights movement. Wilma Mankiller, former principal chief of Cherokee Nation, called Deloria's books the clearest articulation of "the unspoken emotions, dreams and lifeways of our people." 

Reaction to "Custer Died for Your Sins" instigated the American Anthropological Association's first ethics panel on tribes and sacred artifacts, and inspired the wry Floyd Red Crow Westerman song "Here Come the Anthros," from the 1970 album named after Deloria's book. 

The gauntlets Deloria flung before anthropologists included challenging the postulate that American Indians had immigrated to the U.S. via what Deloria called "the imaginary Bering Strait bridge, which comes and goes at the convenience of the scholar." 

Deloria remained an activist while focusing on his writing, which earned the 2002 Wallace Stegner Award, the 1999 Woodcraft Circle Writer of the Year award and other honors he accepted with humility.  In his speech for the 2005 American Indian Visionary Award, Deloria suggested others, including Westerman, as more appropriate honorees. 

"I think you just jump back and forth between the poles of radical and moderate," he once said, explaining his philosophy of using humor and candor to advance his causes. "You can bring up very radical things by using a moderate style." 

Survivors include his wife, Barbara Deloria, of Golden; sons Phil Deloria of Ann Arbor, Mich., and Daniel Deloria of Moore, Okla.; daughter Jeanne Deloria of Tucson; brother Philip Samuel Deloria of Albuquerque; sister Barbara Sanchez of Tucson; and seven grandchildren. 

Staff writer Claire Martin can be reached at 303-820-1477 or

My Two Beads Worth Site 
Updates November 15, 2005
American Indian, First Nations and Indigenous News Online
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

Vine Deloria passes on to the Spirit World Inside the Iron House~A Personal Journey by Matt Sherman Reflections~A Vietnam Veteran's Thoughts on Veteran's Day 2005 Glenn Cove Start of 18-day Walk Honoring Indian Burial Sites World War II Navajo Code Talker Honored Writer Taiaiake Alfred Urges Freedom from Colonial Thinking Cherokee Warrior Memorial Documentary Explores Environmental Threats to Native American Lands How to Support Our Troops on Veterans Day Breaking the Borders Abenaki Denied Recognition~Vow to Continue Fight Warrior Walk Veterans Give History Voice Executive Order 13388 and Citizens for Personal Responsibility Pombo Bill ~ Federal Land Update from John Graham Defense Committee Mascot Rally Healing American Indian Nations Conference 13th Annual Peltier Rally Artist Talk Native American Awarenss Rally Arctic Refuge Victory Be sure to check out: Upcoming Events Vermont News Check for More Veterans Reports and new Features MORE REPORTS FORTHCOMING - PLEASE CHECK BACK. Contents.html Main Page  Got Radio - New Online Music

Announcing a new Message Board - discuss issues posted here or provide information you may want to share about an issue or anything related to American Indian/Indigenous people. This link will be available on our Main page and on the Contents page of this website.

In accordance with Title 17, U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit or payment to those who have expressed an interest in receiving this information for non-profit research and educational purposes only.U.S.C. S.107

My Two Beads Worth is non-profit, non-commercialized and receives no funding, grants, donations or any financial aid in its publication. Member of the Native American Journalist Association
Independent non-profit news

Native Americans and African-Americans 
From: Logan Davis 

In our community, we have a growing number of children and youth who are 
of black descent. These young people are some of the most beautiful members of our tribe. Recently, I met a twenty-something woman whose mother I went to high school with. Her name is Angela and her striking beauty and intelligence made me proud to call her a fellow tribal member. She is an attorney who wants to do good for our tribal members and she is taking on a courageous battle at the tribal courts. Angela is only one example I can mention of what is a great blending of different races. However, in school, she indicated that her young daughter has been shunned by other girls and treated unfairly by some students and staff. Like most mothers, she wants to shield her child from any kind of abuse. Her approach to the problem is to tell her daughter to hold her head high and be proud of her heritage on all sides. 

Until we, as Native Americans learn to be more accepting of the fact that we have 
many fellow tribal members who have African-American blood, we become hypocritical and lose our own credibility when we bemoan the discrimination and prejudice we have had to endure ourselves for centuries. 

Native Americans and African-Americans have so many similarities and histories. 
Our ancient cultures were based on harmony with Mother Earth and respect for elders teachings. The wisdom of the elders of our tribal people, both Native American and African-American are still being handed down and this generation must keep those teachings and do our part in keeping these teachings alive. We are all human and the same Creator placed us all on this earth and dimension of existence. It is time to come together in what are times of powerful change, war and important choices. The power of the people, together with love and unity can save our Mother Earth and the tribe of humanity. The Rainbow is still being formed and the colors are getting more numerous and brighter. Peace, Logan   

"It is better to understand than to be understood." (Bill Russell) 

Native Foods Nourish Again 
Published: November 23, 2005, New York Times
Sent by John Inclan

Last week, Noland Johnson pulled the season's final crop of tepary beans from the piece of desert he farms on the Tohono O'odham Reservation, about 120 miles southwest of Tucson. The beans look a little like a flattened black-eyed pea. The white ones cook up creamy. The brown ones, which Mr. Johnson prefers, are best simmered like pinto beans.

As late as the 1930's, Tohono O'odham farmers grew more than 1.5 million pounds a year and no one in the tribe had ever heard of diabetes. By the time Mr. Johnson got into the game four years ago, an elder would be lucky to find even a pound of the beans, and more than half of the adults in the tribe had the kind of diabetes attributed to poor diet.

While researchers investigate the link between traditional desert foods and diabetes prevention, Mr. Johnson grows his beans, pulling down 14,000 pounds this fall. Most will sell for about $2.50 a pound at small stores on the reservation.

Mr. Johnson, 31, began farming beans partly as a tribute to his grandfather, who died from complications related to diabetes. He always saves some beans for his grandmother, who likes to simmer the white ones with oxtail.

"I see my grandmother telling her friends, 'Yeah, I can get some beans for you,' " Mr. Johnson said. "The elders, they're so glad to see it."  But there are other fans, too. Home cooks pay as much as $9.50 a pound for teparies online. Big-city chefs are in love with the little beans, too, turning them into cassoulet, salads or beds for braised local pork. 

As American Indians try to reverse decades of physical and cultural erosion, they are turning to the food that once sustained them, and finding allies in the nation's culinary elite and marketing experts. 

One result is the start of a new sort of native culinary canon that rejects oily fry bread but embraces wild rice from Minnesota, salmon from Alaska and the Northwest, persimmons and papaws from the Southeast, corn from New York, bison from the Great Plains and dozens of squashes, beans, berries and melons.

Modern urban menus are beginning to feature three sisters soup, built from the classic Indian trilogy of beans, squash and corn. At the Mitsitam Cafe, opened last year in the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, cooks create dishes with roasted salmon, chilies and buffalo meat.

At the Cave B Inn, a resort a couple of hours' drive east of Seattle, Fernando Divina, the chef and a co-author of "Food of the Americas: Native Recipes and Traditions," uses fresh corn dumplings, local beans, squash and Dungeness crab to augment a sophisticated menu meant to match wines from the resort's vineyards. Smoked whitefish chubs from Lake Superior and sassafras gelée ended up on the table at Savoy restaurant in Manhattan earlier this fall, and later this month pine-roasted venison with black currants and truffled hominy will star at a $100 indigenous foods dinner at the Equinox restaurant in Washington.

Native foods encompass hundreds of different cultures. "There's only now becoming a more pan-Indian sense of what Native food can be," said the author Louise Erdrich, whose mother was Ojibwa. She writes about tribal food in many of her books and is working on a cookbook with her sister, a pediatrician on the Turtle Mountain Reservation.
"You're talking about evolving a cuisine from a people whose cuisine has been whatever we could get for a long time," Ms. Erdrich said.

American Indian food is the only ethnic cuisine in the nation that has yet to be addressed in the culinary world, said Loretta Barrett Oden, a chef who learned to cook growing up on the Citizen Potawatomi reservation in Oklahoma. 

"You can go to most any area of this country and eat Thai or Chinese or Mongolian barbecue, but you can't eat indigenous foods native to the Americas," said Ms. Oden, who has been traveling the nation filming segments for a 2006 PBS series titled "Seasoned With Spirit: A Native Cook's Journey."

One item that won't be featured on her show is fry bread, the puffy circles of deep-fried dough that serve as a base for tacos or are eaten simply with sugar or honey and are beloved on Indian reservations. That bread is fast becoming a symbol of all that is wrong with the American Indian diet, which evolved from food that was hunted, grown or gathered to one that relied on federal government commodities, including white flour and lard - the two ingredients in fry bread.

In a small town on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, the poorest and one of the largest reservations in the country, Larry Pourier, a film producer, is working on a healthier fast food. He is developing a snack bar based on a recipe for wasna, a patty Lakota elders used to fashion from the kidney fat and meat of bison mashed with chokecherries. Over the next couple of months he will add other dried fruits, grains and alternatives to the suet to make a modern snack bar that is high in protein and low in sugar. 

"I'm trying to keep it traditional, but in order for it to be successful it has to taste good," Mr. Pourier said. Eventually, Mr. Pourier and his colleagues at Lakota Express, the economic development company behind the bar, want to manufacture an entire line under the brand Native American Natural Foods. The idea is that products from their tribe and others might be sold in special American Indian food sections, the way kosher, Mexican or Chinese products are grouped in many mainstream grocery stores.

"There are a lot of people trying to figure how to create a Native-based food product and having a real struggle to find market access, whether it's salmon or wild rice or teas or baked goods or corn chips, whatever," said Mark Tilsen, who helped to found Lakota Express. "By trying to build a brand, we can provide some market access."

American Indians and Alaska Natives make up only about 1.5 percent of the nation's population, and those people are spread among almost 600 tribes. Even in the largest tribes, knowledge of how to forage and farm traditional food has faded.

Efforts like the White Earth Land Recovery Project, which harvests and sells rice from the lakes in northern Minnesota, are helping to keep that knowledge alive. The project, run by Winona LaDuke, is part of an effort by food activists and chefs to save traditional American Indian foods and cooking methods.

Mr. Johnson's tepary bean farm has its roots in Native Seeds/SEARCH, a Tucson-based organization that Gary Nabhan, a professor at Northern Arizona University, founded to preserve native plants in the Southwest and northwestern Mexico.

Last year, Mr. Nabhan started RAFT, which stands for Renewing America's Food Traditions. The coalition of seven nonprofit food, agricultural and conservation organizations has published a "red list" of 700 endangered American foods, including heritage turkeys and Louisiana Creole cream cheese. 

Several dozen items are tied directly to Indian tribes, including wild rice and the tepary, said Makalé Faber, who tends the list as part of her work with Slow Food USA. 

During the first week of December, members of the RAFT coalition, including the culinary organizations Slow Food and the Chefs Collaborative, will gather at the annual Tohono O'odham Community Action basket makers and food summit at the Heard Museum in Phoenix to discuss how to expand the list of endangered foods and figure out ways to nurture American Indian cuisine in the Southwest.

People involved say the evolution won't work without chefs. 
"Having people at a high-end restaurant buy some of this makes it available for the rest of the community that it originally came from," said Patty West, a forager who works at the Northern Arizona University's Center for Sustainable Environments and is an organizer of the December food workshop. 

John Sharpe, the chef at La Posada Hotel in Winslow, Ariz., devises as much of his menu as he can from local tribal foods. About four times a year, he is lucky enough to get a delivery of Navajo Churro lambs from a small, scrappy breed that was almost extinct. The animals are smaller than most commercial breeds and have very little fat. Mr. Sharpe, who has often paired chops from the lambs with tepary beans, will roast legs from four carcasses he received last week with wild local herbs, and serve them on his Thanksgiving buffet.

He also borrows from Hopi traditions, turning tepary beans, roasted corn, a little French mustard and some olive oil into a dip that echoes a traditional Hopi dish. He uses thin Hopi piki bread, made from ground blue corn and cooked like a crepe, for dipping.

"Do the Hopis like it?" asked Mr. Sharpe, who will be at the December workshop. "They kind of laugh at it, but they love it. They say, 'This is a crazy white man who likes our food.' "

Have a safe journey to the Creator, uncle: Vine Deloria Jr 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno From:
Source: Carol
Posted on Wed, Nov. 16, 2005
Have a safe journey to the Creator, Uncle


A warrior of the people has walked on to meet his Creator. Vine Deloria Jr., a visionary Lakota scholar who passed away in Colorado on Sunday at age 72, was equal parts prod and hero to my generation of American Indians. He pushed us to shake off the chains of colonialism, to challenge conventional thinking, never to settle for second-class citizenship in our native land.

In my grandmother's language, we'd call Deloria an ayawisgi - a soldier for the people. But my grandmother was from a different time, with different sensibilites. Like a lot of our elders in the 1960s and '70s, she'd call Deloria an "activist" or an "agitator." She believed he, like the American Indian Movement, was out to stir things up, that he couldn't just let things be.

Thank god she was right about that. From his first book, 1969's "Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto," Deloria spoke boldly for a new generation of disaffected American Indians who did not want to let things be, who weren't content with a status quo that devalued our contributions and did everything it could to exterminate us as a distinct people.

"Vine had a laser light ability to zero in on the contradictions, deceptions and lies which defined so-called western civilization," said my friend Doug George-Kanentiio, a Mohawk journalist and chronicler of American Indian history. "He knew contemporary Euro-America was built on the backs of millions of native people who endured great suffering and anonymous death so that the Europeans could steal the land, savage its resources and humiliate its original inhabitants."

Deloria knew our history, studied it, dissected it and wrote eloquently about its injustices and abominations. He took particular delight in debunking the Bering Strait land bridge theory of the peopling of the Americas (see 1997's "Red Earth, White Lies: Native Americans and the Myth of Scientific Fact.")

At the same time he was challenging the dominant culture, Deloria was challenging us as Indian people to lead better lives. The son and grandson of Episcopal priests, Deloria urged us back to our traditional spiritual practices (with such books as "God is Red"). He told us we must not to fall prey to the culture of victim hood. He led by example, earning a law degree and embarking on a long career in academia, putting flesh on the bones of our stories.

"Vine also taught we must act responsibly toward ourselves and the other species of life," said Kanentiio, who served on the board of the National Museum of the American Indian with Deloria, "that sovereignty did not mean we were free to exploit each other and the natural world, but such status gave us the tremendous obligation to serve as custodians of the planet and those yet unborn."

I was sipping coffee at a St. Paul reception for the American Indian Family Empowerment Program on Monday night when I first heard of Vine's passing. A pall settled over the room as Nakota singer Georgia Wettlin-Larsen read from an obituary and sang a song for our fallen warrior. But as the song concluded and Gaby Strong, program officer at the Grotto Foundation, spoke from the stage, a ray of hope emerged. Strong spoke of the good work that the Family Empowerment Program is doing in the community to raise up the next generation of native leaders and warriors, strong people to stride confidently on the path that Vine Deloria cleared for us.

Goodbye, uncle, we'll miss your strength and your wisdom. Safe journey. Coulson is editorial page editor of the Pioneer Press. Contact him at 651-228-5544; 345 Cedar St., St. Paul, MN 55101; or by e-mail at

Tricentennial website (Matrix segment) 
Sent by Ruben Sálaz  and Dorinda Moreno

1. The ALL INDIAN PUEBLO COUNCIL has on its logo "1598" yet the information on the NATIVE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT segment says it had  existed for centuries before Oñate's arrival in 1598.  

2. This is incorrect information at the very least or you are trying to endow history, in true Orwellian fashion, with "facts" which never existed.

3. The various groups of "Indians" in NM never lived under one government, didn't have a common language, and never had one ruling body before the arrival of Spanish government in the area. If this  isn't true, please document unless your documentation is "Indian oral history," which is being promoted in NM in an effort to atone for the  extermination policies of the English on the east coast and  extermination/deportation policies practiced by the USA before and after the Indian Removal Bill of 1830 enforced by Indian hating Andrew Jackson.

4. What needs to be said is that Indians in NM and the Hispanic  Southwest were not targeted for extermination or deportation by Spain  or Mexico as was the case east of the Mississippi with England and the USA. Proof is that native villages are still here. Contrast that with  Virginia or Massachusetts or anywhere east of the Mississippi: not a single native village exists that was there when the English landed in  1607.

5. It is time to acknowledge that Spain and Mexico preserved the  Indians of NM and the Hispanic SW. England did not and the USA deported those still living to Oklahoma, where remnant nations have survived.

Ruben Sálaz



Owen Brown Grave Site-Article in today's Pasadena Star News  
The African Mix in Colonial Mexico, Documental Evidence
A Convenient Amnesia About Slavery
African Muslim Slaves in America
The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families
Queen Charlotte


Owen Brown Grave Site-Article in today's Pasadena Star News  
By Kimm Groshong Staff Writer, Pasadena Star-News, California 
Source: Article forwarded by Mary Ayers. 

ALTADENA - A judge has confirmed the public's right to visit the historic grave site of Owen Brown, the abolitionist and son of John Brown "the liberator." 

Pasadena Judge C. Edward Simpson this week ruled in favor of a trails group known as Save the Altadena Trails in the case it brought against Michael Cichy, owner of the knoll where Brown was buried in 1889.  Since he purchased the land in January 2002, Cichy has been cited for county violations and allegedly yelled at hikers and posted "No Trespassing" signs to discourage visitors from using the path across his land.  Cichy, who represented himself in court, could not be reached for comment. 

Paul Ayers, the trail advocate and attorney who represented the trails group, brought 15 witnesses to the stand to help establish that the trail leading to the grave site had been in continuous public use since the 1880s. "What the court has done is it has said there has been a dedication there since the 19th century," Ayers said. Therefore, he said, Cichy cannot prevent people from using the trail or visiting the grave site once Ayers prepares the judgment and the judge signs it - a process Ayers says should be complete within a week. 

Judge Simpson has previously ruled in favor of Save the Altadena Trails. Last year in a case about access to another portion of the same trail, Simpson found that the public's use was "substantial, diverse and sufficient to convey to the owner notice that the public was using the passage as if it had a right so to do." Since then, the defendants have appealed the ruling. 

Shari Asplund, a member of Save the Altadena Trails, said the group was thrilled by the judge's latest decision. "The judge totally understood the big picture," she said. The Altadena Foothills Conservancy hopes to someday have the opportunity to conserve the property as a historic area. "Certainly one of the things we'd like to do now that we've won this case is to restore the grave site," said Asplund, also a member of the conservancy's board. 

The judge's ruling is welcome news to local hikers such as Chris Brennen, a Caltech professor of mechanical engineering. He remembers hiking to the grave site in 2001 for Martin Luther King Jr. Day before the grave marker mysteriously disappeared in 2002. Brennen said he found it the perfect place to visit to honor King's memory because Owen Brown "represents a struggle that we always face in human rights between striving for what is right and yet trying to do so in a nonviolent way." He said John Brown and most of his sons were known for their violent approaches to the abolitionist movement. But Brennen said Owen Brown was known to favor a more peaceful way and did not participate in the raid at Harper's Ferry, W.Va. 

Tim Gregory, the historical consultant who testified during the trial, said Owen Brown and his brother, Jason, built a cabin and wagon road just above the area known today as The Meadows in Altadena in the 1880s. When Owen died in January 1889, the city of Pasadena gave him a large funeral that was attended by hundreds. His body was carried by wagon to his final resting place atop the knoll known as Little Round Top. Gregory said the grave site is historically important not only because of the John Brown association, but especially because of Altadena's diverse population. "It's kind of a symbol of peace between different kinds of people," he said. "It's really of interest to a lot of people and has meaning to a lot of people." 

Ayers said he had so many people wanting to testify about their use of the trail and visits to the grave site that he could have easily put together several days of testimony. "The thing about the grave site," he said, is that "it really resonates with people." 

Picture From



By Ted Vincent, for Somos Primos



Gonzalo Aguirre Beltran has lamented the absence of Afro-Mexicans in many a history text of the country. His much read study "La Poblacion Negra de Mexico" listed census data showing that by the end of Spanish colonial rule, enough enslaved Africans had been brought to Mexico to make those with African heritage a tenth of the national population. Even after the publication of this book in 1946 there were large history texts written that failed to mention the African "third root" in Mexico.

Below is a section of the 1787-1793 census. This tabulation is considered by demographers to be the most accurate of the many conducted by Spain during the colonial era. The below table is of tribute payers. Indigenous and free Afro-Mexicans paid tribute. Thus the below list does not show whites or mestizos.

At the top of the list is the coastal district of Colima. The Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Mexico had heavy concentrations of Afro-Mexicans. Colima had 1,310 tribute paying "Mulatos" (the phrase which included pure blacks who were free). One can note there were fewer Indigenous, 1,046. The other jurisdictions listed were in the highlands, where those of African heritage were typically significantly less numerous than the Indigenous, as can be seen here.




A Convenient Amnesia About Slavery
by Brent Staples, New York Times, December 15, 2005
Sent by Dorinda Moreno 

Americans typically grow up believing that slavery was confined to the cotton fields of the South and that the North was always made up of free states. The fact that slavery was practiced all over the early United States often comes as a shock to people in places like New York, where the myth of the free North has been surprisingly durable. The truth is that New York was at one time a center of the slave trade, with more black people enslaved than any other city in the country, with the possible exception of Charleston, S.C.

The New-York Historical Society in Manhattan has set out to make all this clear in its pathbreaking "Slavery in New York," which ends in March. It is being described as the first exhibition by a major museum that focuses on the long-neglected issue of slavery in the North.

New York's central position in the slave trade was partially exposed back in 1991, when workers excavating for an office tower in Lower Manhattan uncovered a long-forgotten burial ground that may have originally spread for as much as a mile. It served as the final resting place for thousands of enslaved New Yorkers.

Among the bodies exhumed and examined, about 40 percent were of children under the age of 15; the most common cause of death was malnutrition. Some enslaved mothers appear to have committed infanticide, rather than bringing their children into what was clearly a hellish environment. Adults typically died of hard labor, dumped into their graves by owners who simply went out and bought more slaves.

Slavery was no less brutal in New York than in the South - and just as pervasive. At one point, about four in 10 New York households owned human beings. The free human labor that ran the city's most gracious homes also helped to build its early infrastructure and supplied the muscle needed by the beef, grain and shipping interests, which forestalled emancipation until 1827 - making New York among the last Northern states to abolish slavery.

Judging from the videotaped responses of visitors to the historical society, people who thought they knew New York's history well have been badly shaken to learn about the depth and breadth of human bondage in the city. As one distraught patron put it, "The ground we touch, every institution, is affected by slavery."

Historians who had expected to find early 18th century slave masters agonizing over the moral questions associated with slavery were surprised in a different way. One researcher said the record before the Revolutionary War contained not a single scrap of paper to support the notion of guilt among the slaveholding classes.

By conveniently "forgetting" slavery, Northerners have historically absolved themselves of complicity while heaping blame onto the shoulders of the plantation South. This cultural amnesia will no longer be plausible after the country absorbs the New-York Historical Society's eye-opening exhibition, which vigorously debunks the myth of the "free" North.

African Muslim Slaves in America
Posted comments seem to be very divided on the subject, but an assessment of the positions seem to primarily discredit any large numbers of Muslim slaves, although it appears that the Muslim were very involved in slave trade.

The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families

The Mexicans who inhabited Texas before it became a state were similar to the Picos and other tri-racial families in California . Like them, practically all the land and wealth that were once the estates of such families as the Yturrias and the la Portillas, the Espinozas, the Echazaretas and the Garzas have been inherited by descendants whose names are now Wood, Lambert, Power. etc. 

According to the Debrett's Texas Peerage, Lawrence & Leonor Wood who live in San Antonio, are the undisputed leaders of Texas society. Interestingly enough, this recognition is due them not only for their enormous holdings and the lavish style in which they entertain but for this very old Mexican lineage (which is, of course, glossed over as Spanish.) From the photographs included, however, I could not help but wonder if this allusion to their ethnic background might not be a necessity since Leonor Yturria Wood's features are somewhat Negroid physical characteristics which, of course, lose their definition if passed off as Spanish. 

Since Spanish colonial racial definitions in Texas were as rigorously followed as they were in California, ascertaining the African ancestry of these southern "Spanish" grandees should not prove too difficult or as time consuming as the other examples of passing being investigated. 

Other prominent San Antonio families of the late 18th century who have been identified by historians as "mulatto' were those of: 
Marcos Cepeda
Marcos Guerra
Alberto Morale
Matias Perez
Jose Miguel Serna
Felipe de Luna
Francisco Xavier Rodgriguez
Juan Bautista de Luna
Manuel Mascorro
Maria Micaela Carrasco

Queen Charlotte
Sent by John Inclan

With features as conspicuously Negroid as they were reputed to be by her contemporaries, it is no wonder that the black community, both in the U.S. and throughout the British Commonwealth, have rallied around pictures of Queen Charlotte for generations. They have pointed out the physiological traits that so obviously identify the ethnic strain of the young woman who, at first glance, looks almost anomalous, portrayed as she usually is, in the sumptuous splendor of her coronation robes.

Queen Charlotte, wife of the English King George III (1738-1820), was directly descended from Margarita de Castro y Sousa, a black branch of the Portuguese Royal House. The riddle of Queen Charlotte's African ancestry was solved as a result of an earlier investigation into the black magi featured in 15th century Flemish paintings. Two art historians had suggested that the black magi must have been portraits of actual contemporary people (since the artist, without seeing them, would not have been aware of the subtleties in coloring and facial bone structure of quadroons or octoroons which these figures invariably represented) 

Enough evidence was accumulated to propose that the models for the black magi were, in all probability, members of the Portuguese de Sousa family. (Several de Sousas had in fact traveled to the Netherlands when their cousin, the Princess Isabella went there to marry the Grand Duke, Philip the Good of Burgundy in the year 1429.) Six different lines can be traced from English Queen Charlotte back to Margarita de Castro y Sousa, in a gene pool which because of royal inbreeding was already minuscule, thus explaining the Queen's unmistakable African appearance. Queen Charlotte's Portrait: 

The Negroid characteristics of the Queen's portraits certainly had political significance since artists of that period were expected to play down, soften or even obliterate undesirable features in a subjects's face. Sir Allan Ramsay was the artist responsible for the majority of the paintings of the Queen and his representations of her were the most decidedly African of all her portraits. Ramsey was an anti-slavery intellectual of his day. He also married the niece of Lord Mansfield, the English judge whose 1772 decision was the first in a series of rulings that finally ended slavery in the British Empire. It should be noted too that by the time Sir Ramsay was commissioned to do his first portrait of the Queen, he was already , by marriage, uncle to Dido Elizabeth Lindsay, the black grand niece of Lord Mansfield. Thus, from just a cursory look at the social awareness and political activism at that level of English society, it would be surprising if the Queen's negroid physiogomy was of no significance to the Abolitionist movement. 

Lord Mansfield's black grand niece, for example, Ms. Lindsay, was the subject of at least two formal full sized portraits. Obviously prompted by or meant to appeal to abolitionist sympathies, they depicted the celebrated friendship between herself and her white cousin, Elizabeth Murray, another member of the Mansfield family. One of the artists was none other than Zoffany, the court painter to the royal family, for whom the Queen had sat on a number of occasions. It is perhaps because of this fairly obvious case of propagandistic portraiture that makes one suspect that Queen Charlotte's coronation picture, copies of which were sent out to the colonies, signified a specific stance on slavery held, at least, by that circle of the English intelligencia to which Allan Ramsay, the painter belonged. 

For the initial work into Queen Charlotte's genealogy, a debt of gratitude is owed the History Department of McGill University. It was the director of the Burney Project (Fanny Burney, the prolific 19th century British diarist, had been secretary to the Queen), Dr. Joyce Hemlow, who obtained from Olwen Hedly, the most recent biographer of the Queen Charlotte (1975), at least half a dozen quotes by her contemporaries regarding her negroid features. Because of its "scientific" source, the most valuable of Dr. Hedley's references would, probably, be the one published in the autobiography of the Queen's personal physician, Baron Stockmar, where he described her as having "...a true mulatto face." Perhaps the most literary of these allusions to her African appearance, however, can be found in the poem penned to her on the occasion of her wedding to George III 
and the Coronation celebration that immediately followed. 

Descended from the warlike Vandal race,
She still preserves that title in her face.
Tho' shone their triumphs o'er Numidia's plain,
And and Alusian fields their name retain;
They but subdued the southern world with arms,
She conquers still with her triumphant charms,
O! born for rule, - to whose victorious brow
The greatest monarch of the north must bow.

Finally, it should be noted that the Royal Household itself, at the time of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation, referred to both her Asian and African bloodlines in an apologia it published defending her position as head of the Commonwealth. More about Research into the Black Magi: 
In the Flemish masterpieces depicting the Adoration of the Magi, the imagery of the black de Sousas had been utilized as both religious and political propaganda to support Portugal's expansion into Africa. In addition, the Flemish artists had drawn from a vocabulary of blackness which, probably due to the Reformation and the Enlightenment, has long since been forgotten. There was a wealth of positive symbolism that had been attributed to the black African figure during the Middle Ages. Incredible as it would seem to us today, such images had been used to represent not only Our Lady - evidence of which can be found in the cult of the Black Madonna that once proliferated in Europe - but in heraldic traditions, the Saviour and God the Father, Himself. Researched and Written by Mario de Valdes y Cocom, an historian of the African diaspora. 



Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans
Judeo-Spanish language revived by Ashley Perry

Click To: New York 10th Sephardic Jewish International Film Festival


Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans
By: Gloria Golden ©2005

How did I know that I was a Sephardic Jew? When I was a child I was called "todo Sefado" which is a derivative of Sefardita (Sephardic Jew in Spanish). I always assumed that this was a derogatory saying that meant completely crazy. "You're the most Judio (Jewish)," my mother or dad would accuse each other whenever they argued. This vocabulary was part of my lifestyle as I was growing up. (These negative remarks could have been inherited by a group of people whose ancestors had been exposed to the Inquisition during their lifetime.)
We had a precious granddaughter who died of a rare disease called Battens. The information given to my daughter in California indicated that the people who are most afflicted by this disease are of Jewish or Scandinavian heritage. (It is interesting to note that Amsterdam, Holland, took a very active










Joseph Salazar

Gloria Golden part in rescuing and harboring Spanish Jews during the Inquisition. Many Spanish Jews resided there and were able to openly practice Judaism in Holland.)

When I was a little boy, I used to play with a toy called dron-dron (dreidel). It was made out of a spool of thread with a point at the bottom. At the top of the spool there was a wooden handle used to spin it. This toy has always been identified as having a Jewish origin.

When I behaved mischievously as a child, the adults would tell me that Elohenu was going to get angry with me. Eloheynu was a Spanish equivalent to Elohim which means God in Hebrew. This was not really part of a Roman Catholic worship vocabulary. This word had to be passed down by those who referred to God as Elohim.

Another phrase that is found in some Spanish vocabulary is "vete a la Porra" used particularly when a child or adult is annoying someone. Many Hispanics define this as "get lost," and porra is associated with the Diaspora (the scattering of the Jews). I related it to seeking theTorah's help since the accused person was annoying or mischievous.

We worshiped on the Passover called Pascua in Spanish. It is interesting to note that the Spanish Bibfes do not use the word Easter or its derivatives in Spanish as they do in the English Bibles, but use Passover instead. In our private prayer gatherings in homes, there was a mixture of Judaism and Catholicism. There usually was a rosary and a special prayer book called a siddur. There were always Hispanic people who had first names such as Moises/Moshe, Solomon, Ruben, Jacobo, Elias, etc. If you read the history of the Inquisition, naming the children Old Testament names (Jewish Tanakh) was not encouraged-only the names from the B'ritHadashah (New Covenant or New Testament) were to be used.

Another crypto-Jewish custom was to sweep the floor away from the door. We believe this was done to respect the mezuzah that was usually attached to the door or had been at one time part of the Sephardic lifestyle. Many older Hispanics still remember that after the birth of a child, we abstained from marital relations for forty days. Some of the women incorporated the custom also of not taking the child out in public until the forty days was completed for protection of its health.
We lit candles on Christmas. This might have been done because of the crypto-Jewish custom of lighting candles. Because of the persecution and the outlawing of circumcision, most of the crypto-Jewish men in the Southwest were not circumcised according to Torah. Although by Jewish tradition we would be considered out of the covenant, there are those of us who are still Jewish in spirit. Some of us believe that Yeshua is the mashiach and thus we worship with the Jewish traditions-celebrating all the feasts including Shabbat-in a Messianic Jewish Synagogue.

When somebody passed away, we had a wake called the velorio. It comes from the word vela meaning candle, but it also means vigil or watching, staying awake for a purpose. I remember my mother asking if the corpse had been wrapped. They put buttons on their eyelids. As Catholics, the velorio lasted three days to commemorate the death and resurrection of Yeshua. We also covered the mirrors during this time. Covering the mirrors was done, according to tradition, so that the mourners need not be reminded of their grief-altered appearance and are not tempted to vanity.
There was a prayer that was said equivalent to the Shema in Ladino Spanish:

Ken no hay como nuestro Dios. 
Ken no hay como nuestro Senor. 
Ken no hay como nuestro Rey. 
Ken no hay como nuestro Salvador.


Judeo-Spanish language revived by Ashley Perry

Updated: 19/Sep/2005
Sent by Jaime Cader 

Until recently Ladino or Judeo-Spanish was a dying language, with few people speaking it since the end of WWII. 

But the language of the Sephardim, Jews of Spanish descent, is now receiving a revival in a time that many saw as its last struggles. 

In 2002, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization gave Ladino an endangered language status and channeled large funds of money into the preserving, teaching and publication of the language. 

Today, this and many other organized attempts to rescue the language are now bearing fruits. 

Earlier this year Yasim Levy sang a concert in Ladino at the Bloomsbury Theatre in London, to rave reviews. 

It became such a widespread language that at certain important ports in Europe during the Middle Ages business could only be conducted in Ladino. In later times Ladino was handed down from a mother to her children in the form of religious songs or ’Romancios’, songs and poems about love. 
Levy was also nominated for a BBC3 “World Music Award,” and she is gradually gaining international acclaim, not least by the Spanish. 

At a recent concert in San Francisco co-sponsored by the Spanish and Israeli consul cultural attaches, the Spanish consul remarked: “The Sephardic phenomenon is quite unique. And, since the crown and democracy returned to Spain, there has been a significant effort to strengthen our ties with the Sephardim (and their culture).” 

’A Holy Mission’ 

Levy sees her singing as vital for her heritage “I know I will sing Ladino the rest of my life,” she said. The singer will headline the famous Carnegie Hall in New York in December. “It is a dying language, and this is a holy mission,” she added.

A prayer book translated in ladino from the 1890's

Something a little less conventional are the ’Hip-Hop Hoodios’, a group from America who rap in English and Ladino. The group say they would like Ladino to be more widely known. "Jews speak other languages besides English and Hebrew," Josue Noriega, publicist for the group said. 

However, it is not just in music that Ladino is experiencing a renaissance. A novel written by Rosa Nissan titled ’Like a Bride’ recounts the story of a Sephardic Jewish girl growing up in Mexico in the 1960’s. 

The book is written partly in Ladino and was recently made into a film which won many international Awards. 

Countless universities around the world are also picking up on the new interest in Ladino. The Hebrew University has no fewer than twenty courses on Ladino, from basic Ladino to Folksongs, Folktales and Contemporary Literature. 

In America and Europe, more and more universities are introducing Ladino to their curriculum. 

The language of Cervantes 

Ladino traces its roots to the expulsion of Jews from the Iberian peninsular. It was the Castilian language which the Jews took with them into exile, mixed with a smattering of Hebrew. 

To the modern Spanish speaker it sounds like the Spanish of Cervantes or similar to what a modern English speaker might hear if someone spoke Shakespearian English. 

Ladino was spoken wherever the exiles went, in Holland, Germany, Greece, Turkey and the Balkans. 

It became such a widespread language that at certain important ports in Europe during the Middle Ages business could only be conducted in Ladino. In later times Ladino was handed down from a mother to her children in the form of religious songs or ’Romancios’, songs and poems about love. 

It has been estimated that 90% of the Ladino speaking world was wiped out by the Holocaust. Today, the language survives from generation to generation mostly in Turkey and Israel, but also in some western European countries.



The Continuous Presence of Italians and Spaniards in Texas
Tejano Voices

Starr County Community Band Christmas Concert: Mr. Matias Garcia
TCARA & The Washington's Birthday Parade
Ancestors and Descendants of Jose Segundo de los Santos Coy
S: Dona Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez 
Rio Grande Guardian - News Service / Covering South Texas & Border 


"Introduction by Alex Loya

                As the title of this book suggests, the primary purpose of this book had originally been to establish the presence of Italians and Spaniards in Texas from as early as 1520.  As I did research and followed the story line in my own book, however, what is the subtitle “Including the Participation and Consequence of Texas and Louisiana in the American Revolution” actually became
my own primary purpose, which is to shed some light on the participation of Texas and Louisiana as colonies of the Kingdom of Spain in the American Revolution, and of the thus far unnoticed far reaching consequence of that participation.  Today, the vast majority of Americans have no earthly idea of the vital role the original Texans and Louisianans played in the Independence of the United States, and many descendants of original Texans do not have a clear sense of their own identity.  It is my hope that by the time a descendant of original Texans finishes reading this book, he or she will understand his or her true identity clearly, and every American who reads this book will know just how much a part of the United States the original settlers of Texas, and Louisiana, have been from the very start. With this understanding it is my hope that every descendant of original Texans will, in turn, embrace fully the American culture they have been a part of from the beginning.

           To serve this purpose this book gives a voice to the original Texans and Founding Fathers of Texas of Spaniard and hispanicized origin, who were deeply affected by the participation of Texas and Louisiana in the American Revolution, but whose voice, feelings and opinions have been completely ignored.  For this purpose the reader should understand that when I use the term “Spaniard” in this book, I am referring not only to those pioneers that were Spaniards per say, whether born in Spain or New Spain, but to those pioneers as well who were of various European origins including Italians, Frenchmen, Greeks, Corsicans etc., but who’s ancestors or themselves were Spanish subjects and came in the quality of Spaniards.  By giving them a voice, this book dispels the lie that the United States stole Texas and the Southwest by bullying a weaker nation, and reveals that the Spaniards who pioneered Texas always felt it was their destiny to be part of the United States.  For this purpose, if nothing else, every American should read chapters 3, 8 through 18, chapter 29 and chapter 31 of this book.

            From my own vantage point, a secondary purpose of this book is expressed by the main title.  When one thinks of the origin of Italian Americans, one generally thinks of boats loaded with immigrants from Italy and other parts of Europe arriving at Ellis Island in New York at the turn of the
20th century.  In this book I present the evidence supporting a little known fact of history, that people of Italian origin came to the United States much earlier, not through Ellis Island in New York, but through Brazos Santiago Island in Texas.  It really shouldn’t come as a surprise to anybody,
considering that Spain politically dominated Italy for a full 400 years, and that at the time that America was discovered Italians were considered to be full subjects of the King of Spain. Christopher Columbus, an Italian from Genoa, discovered America in the quality of a Spanish subject, Americo Vespucci, after whom America itself was named by Mercator, would also have been in that category.   As Meyer put it in the preface of his book “Plaquemines: the Empire Parish” when dealing with the history of South Louisiana, “It is most probable that the first white men to settle on the lower reaches of the (Mississippi) river were Spaniards who were the remnants of De Soto’s expedition in 1541”.  The same could be said of Texas in 1520.  Why should it be a surprise, then, that Italian subjects of the Spanish Crown would be among the very first pioneers to come to America? It shouldn’t be a surprise, it should be expected.  In this book I attempt to present the circumstantial and historical trace evidence that, if presented before a jury, would cause the jury to issue the verdict that, indeed, Italians, hispanicized French Italians, have been present in the United States, in Texas, from as early as 1535, and Spaniards as early as 1520."

Tejano Voices 
Sent by Maria Antonietta y Manuel Berriozabal

Tejano Voices ... presenting the personal recollections of 77 Tejanos and Tejanas and their struggle against racial discrimination in post-World War II Texas... listen to the stories of Tejano community leaders... read transcripts of their stories... see their photos and learn about their lives and about Texas history.  Example of a mini-biography.

        Leo  Montalvo  

Montalvo was born in Caderrayta Jiménez, Nuevo León (Mexico), on June 9, 1943, and immigrated to the U.S. at age nine. He graduated from Texas A&M University in 1966 and from The University of Texas School of Law in 1981, after which he established a law practice in McAllen, Texas. Montalvo was elected McAllen city commissioner in 1983 and McAllen mayor in 1997. He is the first Mexican American mayor of McAllen.



Starr County Community Band Christmas Concert: Mr. Matias Garcia
Thursday-December 22, 2005- 7:00 P.M.
Francisco G. “Paco” Zarate Performing Arts Center
Rio Grande City High School, Rio Grande City, Texas

Guest Artist:  Mr. Matias Garcia

Mr. Garcia has been a Music Educator for 30 years and has taught at all grade levels of Public School and at the Community College Level. He has taught in the Alice I.S.D., Laredo I.S.D., St. Joseph Academy –Brownsville, New York, Miami, and for the past ten years has served as Choir Coordinator for the Donna I.S.D.

He is a member of the Texas Music Educators Association, Texas Choral Directors Association, and American Choral Directors Association. He has been honored with the title of Singer Laureate for the State of Texas. He is married and has two children. It is a great honor for the Starr County Community Band to have Mr. Garcia as Guest Artist for our 2005 Christmas Concert. 

Starr County Community Band, Officers- 2005
President ……………..Mr. Gonzalo Bazan
Vice-President………..Mrs. Leticia Villarreal
Treasurer……………..Ms. Anabel Zapata
Assistant Treasurer…....Ms. Veronica M. Trejo
Secretary…………….  Mr. Armando Navarro
Publicity……………….. Mr. Bill Schumacher
Social Director………… Mrs. Mary Rodriguez
Librarian………………. Mr. Cesario Barrera
Associate Director…….. Mr. Rudy Barrera
Director………………...Mr. Alfredo Cortinas

Sent by JD Villarreal

TCARA & The Washington's Birthday Parade
Laredo, Texas, February 18, 2006 

TCARA invites all members and their guests to participate in this (largest in Texas) parade.  We hope all will wear "Period Dress" but your are welcome "as is".  The parade starts at 9:00 A.M. so you may wish to come the night before and join us for dinner.

Please RSVP to Jack Cowan no later than January 15, 2006 at 210-651-4709 and for any details.
It is highly recommended that you make your hotel reservations ASAP.  Two hotels are recommended:  Family Gardens Inn (appox: $65.) and Holiday Inn on I-37 (approx: $140.)

NEXT WORKING MEETING:  JAN 21, 2006 (Saturday) 12:00 (Lunch) Meeting at 1:00
La Madeleine Restaurant 4820 Broadway 
 For information call RoseMarie LaPenta, 210-828-2901

Coy Family Book: Ancestors and Descendants of Jose Segundo de los Santos Coy, a Presidial Soldier who married Maria Luisa Teresa de Rosas for sale for $25.00 each plus $3.00 postage.

The book is by Robert Garcia, Jr. and Yolanda Kirkpatrick, published 
privately in 2005. The book is 8½ by 11, soft cover, tape binding. The 
book contains copies of numerous documents and photographs relating to the family. There are short biographies of members of the earlier generations and many newspaper extracts. The book contains charts of ancestors and lists over 1,000 descendants. The book traces the de los Santos Coy surname back to Bernardo de los Santos Coy who was born in Lepe (Huelva), Spain in 1603 and was a soldier at Cerralvo, N.L. in 1637. Some other ancestral lines are traced back to Spain as well. The book contains over 260 pages.

Please make check to Robert Garcia, Treasurer and send orders to-
Larry Kirkpatrick 3502 Quiver San Antonio, TX 78238   order by e-mail
Sent by Elsa Herbeck


Dona Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez : "La Corregidora"

Sent by John Inclan

La Corregidora de Querétaro doña Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez es la más conocida, la más recordada de las heroínas de México.

Nació en la capital del Virreynato de la Nueva España el 19 de marzo de 1771, hija del capitán del regimiento de "los morados" don Juan José Ortiz y de su esposa la señora Manuela Girón. Al quedar huérfana fue a hacerles compañía a las señoritas González, que habitaban la casa número 25 de las calles de Santa Clara y quedó bajo la patria potestad de su hermana mayor María Sotero quien, el 16 de mayo de 1789 solicitó del Real Colegio de San Ignacio de Loyola, mejor conocido por el "Colegio de las Vizcaínas", un lugar para Josefa, el cual le fue concedido a partir del día 30 del mes y año citados.

En ese entonces era visitante asiduo de "Las Vizcaínas" el licenciado don Miguel Domínguez y, a primera vista se prendó de la juventud y modestia de la nueva educanda y decidió en su viudez, hacerla su esposa. Cuando el idilio se había formalizado, María Sotero intervino y sacó del colegio a su hermana el 31 de marzo de 1791. El letrado insistió en sus pretensiones y dos años más tarde se solemnizaba el enlace del abogado y la huérfana, el 24 de enero de 1793. Ella, de 22 años escasos y él de 37 cumplidos.

El licenciado Domínguez era influyente, desempeñaba a la sazón la Secretaría de la Real Audiencia y corría la fama de las consideraciones que le habían dispensado los Virreyes Branciforte y Azanza y las que le dispensaba don Félix Berenguer de Marquina, mandatario al que le pidió el nombramiento de Corregidor de la ciudad de Querétaro, importantísimo puesto que le fue conferido en las postrimerías de 1801 o en los primeros días de enero de 1802.

En la ciudad de Querétaro se significaron don Miguel y doña Josefa como una pareja en la que se hermanaban la experiencia y el entusiasmo y pronto despertaron simpatías entre los dirigentes de la sociedad queretana. En pláticas y en tertulias "los Corregidores" manifestaban sus simpatías por la Justicia; su disgusto ante los abusos y sus francos razonamientos en pro de los indios despojados y de las clases menesterosas faltas de conocimientos y de influencia. La consolidación de los capitales de obras pías obligó al Corregidor a formular enérgicas representaciones ante el Tribunal de Minería y las quejas llegaron hasta el Virrey don José de Iturrigaray que le suspendió en el puesto, lo concentró en México y lo retuvo a su lado en los angustiosos meses de agosto y septiembre de 1808. Entonces oyó el licenciado Domínguez la conveniencia de organizar el Virreynato de acuerdo con las doctrinas democráticas, representativas e igualitarias.

Al volver a Querétaro y cambiar impresiones con su esposa, propiciaron las reuniones de la casa número 14 de la calle del Descanso; de la casa número 4 de la calle de la Cerbatana y aun las que se improvisaban en el propio comedor y en la sala de su casa habitación.

El capitán del Regimiento de Dragones de la Reina don Ignacio Allende cortejaba a una de las hijas de los Corregidores y de los cambios de impresiones que tuvieron con él se formó lo que en la Historia Nacional se llama "La Conjuración de Querétaro" en la cual participaban abogados, militares, burócratas, comerciantes, etc., y en la que se significaba por su fe, su entusiasmo y lo incontenible de sus ansias libertarias, doña Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez.

"La Conjuración de Querétaro", al llegar el mes de septiembre de 1810, fue objeto de cinco diversas denuncias y una de ellas, la de Francisco Bueras al Juez Eclesiástico Rafael Gil de León, hizo que el comandante militar García Rebollo ordenara al Corregidor Domínguez el cateo de domicilios y la aprehensión de don Epigmenio y don Emeterio González a quienes hallaron, en su comercio de abarrotes, lanzas, pólvora y balas.

Era el 14 de septiembre cuando doña Josefa, encerrada con llave por su esposo el Corregidor, llamó desde su recámara en forma convenida al alcaide Ignacio Pérez; éste advirtió la urgencia del llamado puesto que la Corregidora golpeó con el tacón de su calzado, repetidamente, en el piso que para el caso del alcaide era el techo de su cuarto dormitorio y al acudir al portón de la casa, por el agujero de la llave le ordenó doña Josefa que sin pérdida de momento ensillara un caballo y se encaminara a San Miguel El Grande a enterar al capitán Allende lo que pasaba en Querétaro. Pérez obedeció y el aviso de la Corregidora determinó la proclamación de la Independencia en la Congregación de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores, la madrugada del domingo 16 de septiembre de 1810.

Precisamente en esta fecha, en Querétaro, la nueva denuncia hecha por el capitán Joaquín Arias al Alcalde Ochoa, obligó a este funcionario a librar la orden de detención del Corregidor Domínguez y su esposa, recluyéndoseles respectivamente en los conventos de la Cruz y de Santa Clara, en donde estuvieron cuatro o cinco días, mientras duró la agitación de los primeros momentos.

Desde fines de septiembre de 1810 hasta el 14 de diciembre de 1813 don Miguel y doña Josefa continuaron sirviendo la corregiduría de Querétaro. En la fecha últimamente citada llegó a la ciudad de Querétaro el arcedeano y célebre bibliófilo don José Mariano de Beristáin y Souza y con violencia denunció a los esposos Domínguez como peligrosos conspiradores y a ella (La Corregidora), "una verdadera Ana Bolena, que ha tenido valor para seducirme a mí mismo, aunque ingeniosa y cautelosamente". Con fecha 23 de diciembre reiteraba Beristáin a Calleja: "Repito a V. E. que la Corregidora es una Ana Bolena y añado hoy que Gil (el Juez Eclesiástico Dr. Rafael Gil de León) es su Wolseo".

El Virrey Calleja envió a Querétaro al licenciado Lopetegui para que enjuiciara y destituyera al Corregidor Domínguez y ordenó al coronel Cristóbal Ordóñez que al pasar con el convoy de San Luis Potosí a México, aprehendiera en Querétaro a la Corregidora y la llevara al convento de Santa Teresa de la capital, lo cual fue ejecutado al inicio de 1814. Fue entonces cuando doña Josefa exclamó: "Tantos soldados para custodiar a una pobre mujer; pero yo con mi sangre les formaré un patrimonio a mis hijos".
El 20 de mayo de 1814, el auditor de guerra Melchor de Foncerrada expresa que doña Josefa "padecía enajenación mental" y proponía una reclusión si el Virrey no permitía que saliera del convento dado el estado grávido de la procesada.

Dos años después el oidor Bataller pide cuatro años de prisión para "La Corregidora", los que principian a contarse a partir de noviembre de 1816 en que es trasladada al convento de Santa Catalina de Sena. Al fin, el Virrey don Juan Ruiz de Apodaca considera una instancia del ex-Corregidor Domínguez en la que expresa cómo pobre, enfermo y con catorce hijos, pide la libertad de su mujer, también enferma y el Virrey la deja en libertad a partir del 17 de junio de 1817.

Cuando se consumó la Independencia, los esposos Domínguez vieron con indiferencia a Iturbide y al Primer Imperio Mexicano. Doña Ana Huarte de Iturbide invitó a doña Josefa a la Corte y la dolorida dama exclamó: "Dígale usted que la que es Soberana en su casa, no puede ser dama de una Emperatriz".

En la casa habitación de los ex-Corregidores, sita en la calle del Indio Triste número 2, se reunían los generales Victoria, Guerrero, Bravo, López Rayón, Michelena, etc., y de esta "nueva conjuración" salió, en marzo de 1823, el Supremo Poder Ejecutivo, el cimiento de la República Federal iniciada el 4 de octubre de 1824.

A los 61 años de vida, el 2 de marzo de 1829 dejó de existir, víctima de una pleuresía, la animosa mujer que en su entusiasmo advirtió una Patria Mexicana feliz, independiente y libre.

Doña Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez fue la madre de cuatro hombres y ocho mujeres en el orden siguiente: José, licenciado Mariano, Miguel, Ignacia, Micaela Juana (madre de los Iglesias Domínguez), Dolores, Manuela, Magdalena, Camila, Mariana y José "el chico".
Dos monumentos ha levantado la gratitud nacional a la memoria de doña Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez; el de Querétaro que se alza en el Jardín de la Corregidora y el de la plaza de Santo Domingo en México, frente a la mole de la Inquisición: estatua sedente en donde la Heroína – encarnación de la Libertad – mira serenamente al despótico Tribunal de la Fe.

The Descendents of Dona Maria Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez
Compiled by John D. Inclan
Generation No. 1
1.  MARIA-DE-LA-NATIVIDAD-JOSEFA2 ORTIZ-GIRON  (JUAN-JOSE1 ORTIZ)1 was born 16 Sep 1768 in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, and died 02 Mar 1829 in Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.  She married MIGUEL DOMINGUEZ-TRUXILLO 24 Jan 1793 in Mexico City, D. F., Mexico, son of MANUEL DOMINGUEZ and JOSEFA TRUXILLO.  He was born 1756.
A.K.A. Maria Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez.
i.     MARIA-IGNACIA-POLICARPIA3 DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 28 Jan 1792, Asuncion, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
ii. JOSE-MARIA-FLORENCIO DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 24 Feb 1793, Asuncion, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
iii.   MARIA-DOLORES-MICAELA-LUISA DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 25 Feb 1796, Asuncion, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
iv. MIGUEL-MARIA-JOSE DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 27 Sep 1797, Asuncion, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
v. MARIA-JUANA-BUENAVENTURA DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 13 Jul 1799, Asuncion, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
vi.   MARIA-MICAELA-FERMINA DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 09 Jul 1800, Asuncion, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
vii. MIGUEL-MARIA-REMIGIO DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 02 Oct 1801, Santiago, Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico.
viii.       MA-MANUELA-JOSEFA-JUSTA-REFINA DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 21 Jul 1804, Santiago, Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico.
ix. MARIA-ANA-PRUDENCIA DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 22 May 1806, Asuncion, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
x. JOSE-HILARIO-LUIS-GONZAGA DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 21 Oct 1807, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico.
xi.          MA-MAGDALENA-LONGINES DOMINGUEZ-ORTIZ, b. 16 Mar 1811, Santiago, Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico.
 1.  Las Tejanas 300 Years of History by Teresa Palomo Acosta and Ruthe Winegarten..

Rio Grande Guardian - News Service / Covering South Texas &the Border 

mimi, a note from calderon, also just tuning in to rio grande guardina and it publisher, melinda barrera.

Roberto Calderon 
Roberto Calderon wrote:
Note: I've just been introduced to THE RIO GRANDE GUARDIAN, a news service that describes itself as covering South Texas and the Border, from Brownsville to El Paso. It is a subscription news service. Individual subs go for $189 annually, and I have no idea what institutional ones go for. That is, since many librarians and archivists are subscribed to Historia Chicana [Historia], maybe some of you might be able to get this regional news service online for your constitutent students, faculty, staff, public in general. I've copied Melinda Barrera who is the person to contact per their website. The concept is interesting and long overdue. Best wishes to them and their information endeavor. I knew nothing of this commercial news service until today. It seems the border's politicos are hooked up to the system already, at least they appear in some of the stories in today's edition (see headlines). Their Web sitio is:  . Adelante.

Roberto R. Calderon
Historia Chicana [Historia]

Saturday, November 26, 2005
About the Rio Grande Guardian::  covers border news from El Paso to Brownsville. 

Publisher Melinda Barrera is a Rio Grande Valley native with sales and marketing experience in print and radio media. Editor Steve Taylor is a specialist writer on border issues, formerly editing the Border Buzz for the award-winning Quorum Report.

A word of explanation about navigating the site. The Guardian News section is reserved for our writers. This section will be updated throughout the day, as border news breaks. The News In Brief section primarily covers press releases, media advisories, and announcements from border officials as well as news briefs impacting the border. The Border News Clip section is a one-stop shop for the top border stories of the day. Clicking on to these stories will take you to the respective media outlet's Web site.

The Guardian welcomes your feedback. Please e-mail with suggestions, constructive criticism, etc.  The Rio Grande Guardian is a member of the McAllen Hispanic Chamber of Commerce and the Rio Grande Valley Partnership.© Copyright of Rio Grande Guardian,; Melinda Barrera, 2005. All rights reserved.



Brief History of Spanish Town
Historical Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans, fifteen volumes 
A Genealogical "Wish-List" for the Canary Islands


Brief History of Spanish Town
Sent by Bill Carmena


The Beginnings: This area’s first residents, native Americans, settled here on the High bluff above the Mississippi River. (A ceremonial mound near the present State Capitol still survives.) Folklore has it that a large red pole “le Baton Rouge” adorned with the heads of animals and fish (lending its bloody color) stood near here which probably served as a boundary marker between the hunting grounds of the Houma and Istrouma Indian tribes.

The Cathedral’s Diocesan Coat of Arms illustrates this history very well.
This banner has the old state capitol - capitol city of LA
Fleur de lis -- French background
Red stick -- which stands for Baton Rouge’s name
Indian Arrow Heads on either side of the Red Stick -- which stands for the Houma and Istrouma Indian tribes.
The First Mass and Church: The first Mass of which we have any historical record in Baton Rouge took place on New Years’ Day, 1722 on the d’Artquette plantation.
In 1787, the whole Province of Louisiana was put under the jurisdiction of the newly erected Diocese of Havana. It is not until 1789 that we first read of the chapel “Our Lady of Sorrows.” There isn’t any record of when it was built but we do know that when the first pastor, Father Carlos Burke, arrived in 1792 it was already standing. It stood near the site of the present State Capitol.
The beginning of Spanish Town: When Louisiana was purchased by the United States in 1803, the area of the Louisiana “Florida States” remained in Spanish control. In 1805 the governor of West Florida, Don Carlos de Grand pre directed the colony’s surveyor general to lay out an area east of Fort San Carlos at Baton Rouge to resettle the Spanish families from Galvaz town ( who found themselves first in French and after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, in American territory.) and in order to increase the population to help defend the fort site. The site of present day Spanish Town was chosen because he wanted the settlement to be out of cannon ball reach.

Thus the beginning of Spanish Town: Don Carlos de Grand pre served under the Spanish for 27 years and was the last Governor of Spanish West Florida, with his seat at Baton Rouge. His home is now the site of the Old State Capitol. 
Possession of Spanish West Florida:  September 23, 1810 the United States took possession of Spanish West Florida and used the old fort as a military base. Additional land was added to the property and in 1819, the construction of an arsenal and barracks began. Fifth Street running along the eastern boundary of military property was known as “Uncle Sam Street” (A boundary marker inscribed “U.S.” remains at the corner of Spanish town Road and 5th Street until this day.)
Present Day Spanish Town and Catholic Church of Baton Rouge: Spanish Town has been severed by the Interstate and cut into half of the original plan. Recent State Government buildings have taken two entire blocks of current day Spanish Town but in spite of this encroachment we still exist as the oldest neighborhood in Baton Rouge. Our motto is to “live and let live” and by doing so we are able to share our history with everyone and encourage all Baton Rougeans to celebrate in this Bicentennial which does not just belong to a subdivision but to everyone. 

An excellent example of this philosophy was best shown to us by Father Antoine Blanc in 1831. At that time there were no protestant pastors in Baton Rouge so Father Blanc would conduct mass in English on Sunday afternoons as a testimony of gratitude to the Protestant population for its contributions to the building fund. (Masses were said in Latin at the time.) So as you can see that accepting others, sharing our history in Baton Rouge dates back to our beginnings it is no wonder that this Spirit of tolerance and love still exists today.

Spanish Town and St. Joseph Cathedral have shared two hundred years together. You can see the influence the church has had on our community just by the name of some of the original Spanish Town streets like St. Hypolite St. (N. 6th street) and St. Mary Street (N. 7th street). Spanish Town’s history illustrates the various changes of Baton Rouge’s development but like the Mother Church, our history belongs to everyone. Although many people see downtown Baton Rouge as one unit, it really is a series of separate neighborhoods that have grown together over time. Although people may see the Cathedral as just a downtown church it really represents all the churches in Baton Rouge diocese. Together Spanish Town and the Catholic church of Baton Rouge can celebrate this Bicentennial with pride and hope for the future.


Historical Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans has published fifteen volumes 

The Historical Archives of the Archdiocese of New Orleans has published fifteen volumes of Sacramental Records of the Roman Catholic Church of the Archdiocese of New Orleans. All are available for purchase and may be ordered using the order form below.

All sacramental acts that indicate a surname are included. Parents, baptismal sponsors, and marriage witnesses are identified. The critical format includes all surname variations that appear in the original texts. Valuable cross-references are added for maiden/married sunames, pseudonyms, combination names, and significant surname variations.

Sacramental Records volumes published to date and available for purchase are:

Volume 18 (1828-1829), $32.00 per volume.
Volume 17 (1826-1827), $32.00 per volume.
Volume 16 (1824-1825), $32.00 per volume.
Volume 15 (1822-1823), $32.00 per volume.
Volume 14 (1820-1821), $32.00 per volume.
Volume 13 (1818-1819), $32.00 per volume.
Volume 12 (1816-1817), $32.00 per volume.
Volume 11 (1813-1815), $32.00 per volume.
Volume 10 (1810-1812), $30.00 per volume.
Volume 9 (1807-1809), $30.00 per volume.
Volume 8 (1804-1806), $30.00 per volume.
Volume 7 (1800-1803), $30.00 per volume.
Volume 6 (1796-1799), $30.00 per volume.
Volume 5 (1791-1795), $30.00 per volume.
Volume 4 (1784-1790), $30.00 per volume.
Volume 3 (1772-1783), $30.00 per volume.
Volume 2 (1751-1771), $30.00 per volume.
Volume 1 (1718-1750), $30.00 per volume.

A pre-publication brochure for Volume 19 (1830-1831) is available.

Also available from the Archives are several non-sacramental publications. These may be ordered by printing and submitting the convenient order form (follow the link below). Full payment should accompany all orders.

The publications are as follows:

A Southern Catholic Heritage, Vol. 1, Colonial Period, 1704-1813 by Charles E. Nolan (New Orleans: 1976). A description and background for earliest Catholic records, including parish records, in Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi; does not list individual family names found in these records. $18 each.

Archbishop Antoine Blanc Memorial by J. Edgar Bruns (New Orleans: 1981). A detailed, well-illustrated history of the Archbishop Antoine Blanc Memorial, including the former Ursuline Convent/Archbishopric. $5 each.

The Shiloh Diary of Edmond Enoul Livaudais. Stanley J. Guerin, translator; Msgr. Earl C. Woods and Charles Nolan, editors (New Orleans: 1992). Brief diary, written originally in French by Edmond Enoul Livaudais, a young creole soldier of the Orleans Guards Battalion. He chronicles the six-week period from March 18 to April 29, 1862, including the Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee. Livaudais was a keen observer and an eloquent diarist, providing a foot soldier's view of the Battle of Shiloh. His diary is an eloquent account of the patriotism, bravery, confusion and misery that accompanies war. Includes maps, illustrations and index. $7.50 each. OUT OF PRINT

Cross, Crozier and Crucible: A Volume Celebrating the Bicentennial of A Catholic Diocese in Louisiana. Glenn R. Conrad, general editor (New Orleans: 1993). A collection of historical essays to commemorate the bicentennial of the establishment of the Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas on April 25, 1793, in six parts: The Ethnic Tapestry of Catholic Louisiana; The Growing Pains of the Church in Louisiana; Evangelization and Education; Apostles, Teachers, Helpers and Administrators; The Fine Arts; Historiography. Includes an index and an appendix of bishops and archbishops. $35 each.

A History of the Archdiocese of New Orleans. by Charles E. Nolan (Strasbourg: 2000). Tells the story of the Catholic people of the Archdiocese of New Orleans in word and picture. Historian Charles E. Nolan succinctly narrates this story from LaSalle's planting of the cross on Louisiana soil in 1682 to the eve of the new millennium. The volume is richly illustrated with historic maps, paintings, drawings, and photographs as well as photographs depicting all current parishes of the archdiocese. $28 each.

(a listing of Louisiana's goals and objectives from Canarian archives)

By: Paul Newfield III
3016 45th Street
Metairie, Louisiana, USA 70001.

THE ENLISTMENT RECORDS ("los filiaciones"): The highest priority research objective for Louisiana genealogical researchers seeking to discover information about their Canary Islands ancestors who sailed to Louisiana in the late 1770s and early 1780s, is to obtain either microfilm copies or Xerox copies (or both) of ALL of the enlistment records (filiaciones) of the 700± recruits of the Second Battalion of Louisiana -- a military unit which was formed about 1778. In an article published in 1980, the noted historian Miguel Molino Martinez discussed the recruitment procedure for enlisting the men of the Second Louisiana Battalion. He discussed the enlistment papers, and gave a sample of the contract form. Three copies of the enlistment contract were to be executed -- one placed with the alcalde, one with the juez, and the third to be sent to the governor of Louisiana. These filiaciones contain an immense amount of personal information, such as names of parents, date of birth, island of birth, place of birth, religion, name of home diocese, age, marital status, name of spouse, physical characters such as height, hair color, eyebrow color, discernable imperfections, etc. Needless to say, these 700± filiaciones are the Holy Grail of our investigation.

REFS: Miguel Molina Martínez, "La Participacion Canaria en la Formacion y Reclutamiento del Batallon de Luisiana" in IV Coloquio de Historia Canario-Americana (1980), Tomo II (Gran Canaria: Ediciones del Excelentisimo Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, 1982), pp.135-224, especially at pp.137-148.

THE CENSUS RECORDS: In 1772, Joseph de Viera y Clavijo began publishing his monumental Noticias de Historia de las Islas Canarias, and it was completed in 1783 (Edicion de Dr. Alejandro Cioranescu, Madrid: Cupsa Editorial, 1978, in three volumes). It is a work which serves as a frozen-in-time, physical description of the land, the people, the culture and institutions of the Canaries as they existed at the very time those recruits sailed to Spanish Louisiana 225 years ago. In his discussion of the seven islands in the archipelago, Viera y Clavijo identified various censos, papeles, relaciones, padrones, matriculas and vistas from the 17th and 18th centuries affecting the various islands. We do not know if they still exist, or in which archives they might be found today, or what information they might contain. They do not seem to be readily available in published form. They are as follows, arranged in chronological order:

1678 Padron General del Obispado (taken by the bishop) This 1678 Padron General included the islands of Gran Canaria (20,458 persons), La Palma (13,892), Tenerife (49,112), La Gomera (4,773), and El Hierro (3,297). Apparently it did not cover the islands of Lanzarote or Fuertaventura.

1688 Un papel...This document apparently covers the island of La Gomera only (4,661 persons). It does not address the other islands.

1742 - 1745 Visitas (taken by Bishop Juan Francisco Guillén)
1742: Gran Canaria (43,864 persons), La Palma (17,580);
1744: Lanzarote (7,382), Fuertaventura (7,210);
1745: Tenerife (60,618), La Gomera (6,251), El Hierro (3,687).

1757 Padrón de la Isla de La Gomera: This padron of the island of La Gomera was elaborated by the alcalde mayor, don Andres Fernandez Acevedo, according to an order given by Comandante General de Canarias a traves del conde, in addition to those censuses of señores Aranda and Floridablanca.  The padron of 1757 is grouped by households, and includes the names of each of the habitants, their ages, cargos importantes, servants and slaves, but it is silent as to any professional activity; it indicates the relationship of each person on the list to the head of the household. We are told that this padrón will be found in the Museo Municipal de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Fondo Adeje, legajo de poblacion.

1768 Matriculas:  These matriculas covered each of the seven islands as follows:
Gran Canaria (41,082 persons),
Lanzarote ( 9,705)
Fuertaventura ( 8,863)
Tenerife (66,354 persons)
La Palma (19,195)
La Gomera ( 6,645)
El Hierro ( 4,022).

1774 Relación: This relación was prepared by the church pastors of La Gomera, indicating a population for La Gomera of 7,536 persons. I am unaware of any other such relaciones for the other islands.

Additionally, there were occasional censuses of individual towns and cities, as La Laguna for the years 1755, 1769, and 1787. It would be most useful to find a catalogue of these censuses of towns and villages, and an indication of their location and availability, especially in published form.

REFS: (1) Jose Sanchez Herrero, "La poblacion de las Islas Canarias en la segunda mitad del s.XVII (1676 a 1688)", in Anuario de Estudios Atlanticos, v.21 (1975), pp.237-415. I have not viewed this article, which was cited in Germán Hernandez Rodriguez, "La Aportacion de la Isla de la Gomera al Poblamiento de la Luisiana, 1777-1778", in IV Coloquio de Historia Canario-Americana (1980), Tomo II, pp.225-248, at p.238, in footnote no.25.

(2) Jiminez de Gregorio, "La poblacion de las Islas Canarias en la segunda mitad del s.XVIII", in Anuario de Estudios Atlanticos, v.14 (1968), pp.127-301. I have not had the opportunity of viewing this article which was also cited in Germán Hernandez Rodriguez, op. cit., at p.239, footnote no.28.

PERSON-TO-PERSON: As interest in the family history and genealogy intensifies all around the world, we would hope to find a similar expression of interest in the Canary Islands, and we look forward to establishing links with our distant cousins there, so that we in America can better understand and appreciate our own heritage. Three dynamic societies here (in Louisiana) are dedicated to the heritage and culture and genealogy of the Canary Islands, and we want to establish relationships with similar groups and societies in the Canary Islands. Already Louisiana's governmental Parish of St. Bernard has established a "twin-cities" relationship with the towns of Agüimes and Ingenio (Gran Canaria), and there are already established numerous personal friendships between individuals in Louisiana and the Canary Islands.


2. Miguel Molina Martínez, "La Participacion Canaria en la Formacion y Reclutamiento del Batallon de Luisiana" in IV Coloquio de Historia Canario-Americana (1980), Tomo II (Gran Canaria: Ediciones del Excelentisimo Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, 1982), pp.135-224, especially at pp.137-148.

3. In his Noticias de Historia, Joseph de Viera y Clavijo discusses the various islands, and he mentions the specific censuses as set out below. In the following list, the terms "Libro" and "Chapter" are internal citations for Noticias de Historia, applicable with virtually every edition; the terms "tomo" and "page" are particular to the source that I used, the "Edicion de Dr. Alejandro Cioranescu", published in Madrid in 1978.

Lanzarote: 1744, 1768,
(Viera y Clavijo, Libro 10, Ch.49: in Tomo 1:357)
Fuertaventura: 1744, 1768,
(Viera y Clavijo, Libro 11, Ch.29: in Tomo 1:380)
La Gomera: 1678, 1688, 1745, 1768, 1774,
(Viera y Clavijo, Libro 12, Ch.46: in Tomo 2:43)
El Hierro: 1678, 1745, 1768.
(Viera y Clavijo, Libro 12, Ch.47: in Tomo 2:47)
Gran Canaria: 1678, 1742, 1768,
(Viera y Clavijo, Libro 15, Ch.87: in Tomo 2:184-188)
La Palma: 1678, 1742, 1768,
(Viera y Clavijo, Libro 15, Ch.88: in Tomo 2:191)
Tenerife: 1678, 1745, 1768,
(Viera y Clavijo, Libro 15, Ch.89: in Tomo 2:198)

4. See Germán Hernandez Rodriguez, "La Aportacion de la Isla de la Gomera al Poblamiento de la Luisiana, 1777-1778", in IV Coloquio de Historia Canario-Americana (1980), Tomo II, pp.225-248, at p.238, in footnote no.25, citing Jose Sanchez Herrero, "La poblacion de las Islas Canarias en la segunda mitad del s.XVII (1676 a 1688)", in Anuario de Estudios Atlanticos, no.21 (1975), pp.237-415. I have not viewed the latter work.

5. Germán Hernandez Rodriguez, op. cit., at p.239, with further citations at footnote no.27, directing the researcher to the Museo Municipal de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Fondo Adeje, legajo de poblacion; and at footnote no.28, calling our attention to Jiminez de Gregorio, "La poblacion de las Islas Canarias en la segunda mitad del s.XVIII", in Anuario de Estudios Atlanticos, no.14 (1968), pp.127-301. I have not had the opportunity of viewing these works.

Tornero Tinajero, Pablo. "Emigracion canaria a America: La expedicion civico-militar a Luisiana de 1777-1779", in I Coloquio de Historia Canario-Americana (1976) (Sevilla, 1977), pp.345-354. This article was translated by Paul E. Hoffman and published as "Canarian Immigration to America: The Civil-Military Expedition of 1777-1779" in Louisiana History, v.21, No. 4 (Fall, 1980), pp.377-286. Tornero Tinajero, in "Canarian Immigration to America", p.384, erroneously states that the recruits only came from Tenerife, Gran Canaria, and Lanzarote (Din, p.284 at Note 6). Din notes that this article is incomplete and that it pursues the argument that the recruitment hurt the development of the islands (Din, p.284 at Note 3).

Swanson, Betsy. "Historic Land Use Study of a Portion of the Barataria Unit of the Jean Lafitte National Historical Park, Prepared for the Jefferson Historical Society and the Jean Lafitte National Historical Park" (np, np: January 15, 1988), 363 pages. See especially Chapter 3, "La Población de Barataria", pp.94-137.



National Cathedral Gets Offspring of  4,770-year-old Ancient Tree  
Feb 2-8:
New York 10th Sephardic Jewish International Film Festival
How the Grinch got a Spanish accent 
Coloquio Revista Cultural
West Virginia Database Online 
Federation of Genealogical Societies


Cathedral Gets Offspring of Ancient Tree 
By Jacob Adelman, Associated Press Writer Mon Dec 12, 7:24 PM ET

Sent by Armando Montes

WASHINGTON - The National Cathedral will celebrate the holidays this year with an unusual Christmas tree: a pine seedling whose parent is said to be the oldest known tree on earth. 

The seedling is a gift from the Champion Tree Project International. It breeds and clones the world's oldest and largest trees in hopes of compiling a living archive of the genes that give them their longevity.
"It's older than the great pyramids, older than Stonehenge," project President David Milarch said of the 4,770-year-old "Methuselah" bristle-cone pine whose cone bore the seedling the cathedral will receive. "When Christ walked the earth it was already 2,700 years old."

The Methuselah pine grows at an altitude of 10,000 feet in the White Mountains near the California-Nevada border. It gets its name from a Hebrew patriarch mentioned in Genesis who was supposed to have lived for 969 years, making him the embodiment of longevity.

Milarch said project participants got special permission from the U.S. Forest Service to collect cones from Methuselah, one of which yielded the National Cathedral's seedling. "That's pretty good for a 5,000-year-old tree to be able to reproduce itself," Milarch said.

Cathedral staff hope to plant the seedling in a special grove of trees used by students at its elementary school. Those trees have biblical connections and other interesting horticultural features.
"It has a biblical reference and is therefore of educational and instructional value to the children," said Dede Petri, president of the All Hallow's Guild, the support group responsible for beautifying the cathedral's grounds.

The tree will be formally presented Wednesday at the Land Development Breakthrough Conference at the Washington Convention Center. Milarch's group will also announce that its scientists had successfully cloned the "Hippocrates tree" which since 1961 has been on the grounds of the National Institutes of Health National Institutes of Health in suburban Bethesda, Md.

That tree is said to be the offspring of the sycamore in Greece under which Hippocrates, the medical philosopher, lectured. It was a gift to the United States from the Greek ambassador, but has been sick lately. Its clone will join it on the NIH property, and hopefully fare better.

"Both trees are several thousand years old and their progeny will ensure that these trees live on in our nation's capital," Milarch said. "They're Christmas gifts."

Champion Tree Project International:
Washington National Cathedral:
Hippocrates tree:

Feb 2-8, 2006: New York 10th Sephardic Jewish International Film Festival

This year marks the 10th anniversary of the New York International Sephardic Jewish Film Festival, featuring thought-provoking and entertaining films and documentaries with distinctively Sephardic themes.  Since its debut at Lincoln Center over a decade ago, this Festival has attracted on audience of over 20,000 viewers and has become the largest forum of its kind.  The goal of the Festival is to raise public consciousness about Sephardic culture and history through cinematic exploration while providing a unique platform for filmmakers and scholars.

This weeklong Festival, co-sponsored by the Yeshiva University Museum, the Manhattan JCC and the International Sephardic Educational Foundation (SEF) will take place from February 2 to 8, 2006 with screenings at the Center for Jewish History and at the Manhattan JCC. Compelling panel discussions moderated by filmmakers, actors, and scholrs will accompany the screenings. 
For more information: American Sephardi Federation,15 West 16th St., New York, NY 10011  
or fax to 212-294-8348

How the Grinch got a Spanish accent 
Andover writer brings Dr. Seuss to life for a new audience               
By Russell Contreras, Boston Globe Staff | December 15, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

To the typical New Englander, Yanitzia Canetti's accomplishments may seem obscure. The Cuban-born writer is a key figure in the world of Spanish-language literature, not in the world of Robert Frost or Jack Kerouac.

But for years now, the Andover resident has been quietly carving a niche that, in many ways, brings the two worlds together: She is a prolific translator of some of the most famous English-language children's books.

There's her translation ''Jorge el curioso monta en bicicleta" (''Curious George Rides a Bike"). There's ''Los osos Berenstain al rescate de la Navidad" (''The Berenstain Bears Save Christmas"). Then there are the Dr. Seuss classics: ''El gato con sombrero regresa de nuevo" (''The Cat in the Hat Comes Back") and ''¡Cómo el Grinch robó la Navidad!" (''How the Grinch Stole Christmas").

Those Dr. Seuss translations are some of her most popular works, she said. The images and the stories are the same as the original English version. And they are especially popular with Spanish-speaking children in the United States who are anxious to get to know more about American popular culture, she said. They are also helpful to children who will want to eventually read the English versions.

But of all her translations and writings, Canetti said Dr. Seuss was the hardest for her. Like the original English version, the Spanish translation has to rhyme and maintain the rhythmic pentameter that make the books so popular with children.

''Dr. Seuss is very crazy for me," Canetti said in Spanish while scanning through her Grinch book. ''But I'm crazy, too."  Crazy or not, her translation talents have earned her a reputation among some of the top publishers, who seek her out for novels, textbooks, workbooks, and poetry.

''It's just incredible what this woman can do," said Teresa Mlawer, president of Lectorum Publications, the publisher of Dr. Seuss books in Spanish. ''She has translated all the Dr. Seuss books for us, and if you know Dr. Seuss, you know how difficult that can be." Lectorum Publications is a division of Scholastic publications.

''Yanitzia is one of those persons who will always grow," said Mlawer. ''She's an incredibly creative person."  So sought after is Canetti that she now leads a Lawrence-based publishing company, Cambridge BrickHouse, which translates hundreds of books into Spanish each year. The company employs 32 people and operates out of a revamped mill. ''We do everything," said Canetti, 49. ''Development books, education books."

Born in Havana, Canetti grew up surrounded by literature and books. A granddaughter of diplomats, Canetti learned early on that words were a means to escape. Throughout her life, Canetti said, she has used them to escape from her homeland, from love, and, sometimes, even from herself.

''I was always writing," she said. ''I write to imagine." That writing bug touched her as a 6-year-old in Havana. That's when she had her first poem -- one about a love for a teacher -- published. She hasn't been the same since.

At the University of Havana, Canetti focused on journalism. In graduate school, she turned her attention to linguistics and literature, eventually attaining a doctorate. Her years in Cuba earned her the reputation as a ''writer's writer" after the publication of her first collection of short stories, ''Secretos de Palacio." The more she published, the more literary awards she won.

In 1991, Canetti left Cuba for California to marry an American journalist. They later divorced, but it was in California that Canetti was introduced to the world of translations. At first, she worked for a publishing house in Beverly Hills. Afterward, she started doing contract work for Boston-based Houghton Mifflin Co. 

Then James D. Chapman, a vice president and editorial director for Houghton Mifflin, invited Canetti to visit Boston. Canetti fell in love with New England. ''I was so fascinated," she remembered. ''I came in autumn and I was sold. I said, 'I'm moving here.' "

Since then, Canetti has made Andover her home. She has produced more than 30 novels, children's books, collections of short stories, poetry, and translations. Canetti is known internationally for her works, ''Al Otro Lado" and ''Novelita Rosa."

All of those accomplishments are great, Canetti said, but not as important as her two children, Eros, 4, and Ares, 7. ''I picked out their names," she said, smiling. Her boys, she noted proudly, are bilingual and can read both ''¡Cómo el Grinch robó la Navidad!" and ''How the Grinch Stole Christmas."

Cambridge BrickHouse is now opening satellite offices in Argentina, Mexico, and Spain, she said. Her clients include publishers in New York, Boston, and overseas.

When she's not attending to maternal or editorial duties, she is working on her next novel ''wherever I can." It's a story about a middle-aged woman in Spain navigating through a fake world of plastic surgery and implants. ''The world is my place," she said. ''I write about everything."

She acknowledged a longing for Cuba. But Canetti said her writing soul can no longer survive there because of censorship on the Communist island.  ''I can be more creative here."

Coloquio Revista Cultural

La Revista electrónica de la comunidad hispana del area metropolitana de Baltimore-Washington DC. The Electronic Newsletter of the Hispanic community of Baltimore-Washington DC metropolitan area


Webmaster, Juan M. Perez, 
Hispanic Division, Library of Congress


The Hispanic Role in America
Below is the Beginning of a very detailed CHRONOLOGY
 which can be found at: 

1372 Basques arrived in Newfoundland.  

1492 Cristóbal Colón discovered America for Spain.  

1493 Colón introduced sugar cane in the New World.  

1494 January 6. Fray Bernardo Boil celebrated mass in Hispaniola, perhaps the first mass celebrated in America.  
June 7. Treaty of Tordesillas was signed between Spain and Portugal, which divided the newly discovered lands between the two countries. Under this treaty, Portugal claimed Brazil.  

1499 Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, Alonso de Ojeda, Americo Vespucci, Juan de la Cosa, Alonso Niño and Cristóbal Guerra were sent by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to explore new territories. They went along the coast of Brazil to the Gulf of Mexico and the Florida coast. They also reached the Chesapeake Bay.  

1500 Juan de la Cosa drew the first map of America's coastline.  

1501 Gaspar Corterreal explored the North American Atlantic coast.  

1502 Alberto Cantino drew a map showing Florida's coastline.  

1503 European-style architecture was introduced with the construction of the church of San Nicolás de Bari in Hispaniola, present-day Dominican Republic.  

1505 The first elementary school was founded in Hispaniola.  

1507 German writer Martin Waldseemüller, thinking that it was Americo Vespucci who discovered the new lands in 1492, said that the new regions should be called America.  

1508 Juan Ponce de León arrived in the southern part of Puerto Rico and explored it.  
Spaniards built the first sugar mill in the New World in the island of Hispaniola.  

1509 August 14. Ponce de León was appointed governor of Puerto Rico.  
Pope Julius II authorized the Catholic Kings of Spain (Ferdinand and Isabella) to administer the church in the New World in exchange for the expenses Spain would incur in the evangelization process.  

1510 Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo wrote Las sergas de Esplandián, a continuation of the adventure novel Amadís de Gaula. The novel talked about an island called California, where amazons lived. The Spanish gave this name to what is now the state of California.  
Franciscan missionaries arrived in Puerto Rico.  

1511 King Ferdinand granted the Puerto Rican settlement the status of a city and gave it a coat of arms.  
Pope Julius II issued a Papal Bull establishing various dioceses in America.  
The first catholic diocese in the United States was established in Puerto Rico by Pope Julius II. He appointed Alonso Manso as the first bishop.  

1512 Ponce de León was granted permission by the king to explore an island called "Bimini", supposedly north of the Bahamas and search for a fabled fountain of youth.  
Dominicans founded the first hospital in the New World in Hispaniola.  

1513 April 2. Juan Ponce de León, landed on the Florida coast, just north of Cape Canaveral, on Eastern Sunday (Pascua Florida). He then went south around the Florida peninsula around the Florida Keys and up the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean.  
Bishop Alonso, of San Juan, Puerto Rico, founded the first school in the United States.  
The king of Spain issued a royal order by which the natives were to be taught latin to improve their education.  
Antonio de Alaminos, Ponce de León's pilot, discovered the Gulf Stream.  

1518 Juan de Grijalva reached the area around Galveston Island, Texas.  
Diego Velázquez explored a region of South Carolina.  

1519 Alonso Alvarez de Pineda explored the Golf Coast, as far as Texas. A map of his expedition shows Cuba, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico coast. He was the first one to realize that Florida was not an island. He discovered the mouth of the Mississippi River. He entered Mobile Bay (Alabama), which he named "Bahía del Espíritu Santo." He also probably sighted the bay of Corpus Christi, Texas.  

1520 Spaniards from Cuba reached the South Carolina coast.  
Francisco de Garay, the governor of Jamaica, sent Diego de Camargo to attempt to establish a settlement near de mouth of the Rio Grande.  
Francisco Gordillo explored the North Atlantic Coast.  

1521 Francisco Gordillo and Pedro Quexós reached the North Carolina coast. During their explorations, they took Indians as slaves. Once Spanish authorities found about this, they were reprimanded and ordered the Indians to be set free and returned to their homelands.  
Ponce de León arrived in Charlotte Harbor, in yet another effort to colonize Florida. He had brought with him colonists, missionaries and livestock and many different kinds of seeds. The effort failed.  
Fernando de Magallanes, on a voyage to circumnavigate the world, reached Hawaii and Guam. He died after arriving in the Philippines.  

1522 Juan Sebastián de Elcano finished Magallanes' expedition, arriving in Spain on September 6, being the first one to circumnavigate the globe.  

1523 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón was named adelantado, in a region north of Florida.  
The first sugar mill in the United States was established in Puerto Rico.
Gonzalo de Ocampo explored the area near present-day Brownsville, Texas.  

1524 Diego Miruelo explored Florida's western coast.  
Gonzalo de Sandoval told in Mexico City a tale of an island called California that was full of riches and inhabited by women only.  

1525 Esteban Gómez left the port city of La Coruña, Galicia (Spain) to explore the Atlantic Coast from Florida to Labrador, passing by the mouths of the rivers Connecticut, Hudson and Delaware. On his trek, he reached Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Cape Cod, Long Island, New York Bay and entered the Chesapeake Bay at White Haven, Maryland.  
García Jofre de Loaysa led a seven-ship expedition from La Coruña (Galicia, Spain) to the Hawaiian Islands. They reached the Pacific the following year. Disease and weather took a heavy toll on the expedition. By the time it reached the Moluccas, only one ship was afloat.  
Nuño de Guzmán became the governor of the Panuco-Rio Grande area.  

1526 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, accompanied by Pedro de Quexós as pilot and Dominican Fathers Pedro Estrada, Antonio Montesinos an Antonio de Cervantes sailed with an expedition to colonize the Carolinas. The expedition reached the Chesapeake Bay and Fray Montesinos, celebrated the first mass in Virginia, near Jamestown. One of the ships ran aground near Cape Fear and another had to be built, perhaps the first one built in the United States. The expedition founded a settlement at San Miguel Gualdape, opposite present-day Georgetown, South Carolina. The Spanish called the area Chícora.  
Pánfilo Narváez was granted royal privileges to explore, conquer and settle the territory from Florida to the Rio Grande.  
José de Basconales is believed to have explored Arizona on his trip from Mexico to the Zuni territory.  

1527 Alvaro de Saavedra led an expedition to Hawaii and the Philippines, from Zacatula, Mexico.  

1528 Pánfilo de Nárvaez led an expedition to Florida. The expedition was destroyed by the weather and hostile natives. He reached Mobile, Alabama.   Sancho de Caniedo was sent by governor Nuño de Guzmán to take possession of the Rio Grande region. The attempt failed.  
1528-1536 The survivors of the Nárvaez expedition to Florida, Hernán Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Andrés Dorantes, Alonso Castillo and their black slave Estebanico, wandered for 8 years throughout southern U.S. (Texas and New Mexico). They reached Mexico City on July 24, 1536. During their ordeal they had to endure all kinds of things to survive. In one instance, in 1528, Cabeza de Vaca performed a succesful surgical operation on an Indian. This was, perhaps, the first surgery performed in the United States.  

1529 Map maker Diego Ribeiro published a map showing very clearly the U.S. Atlantic coast.  

1530 Pedro Martyr de Angleria wrote his book, The Decades, on the Spanish explorations of America.  

1533 Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada discovered Baja California.  

1535 Hernán Cortés founded a settlement in Santa Cruz, Baja California.  

1536 Cortés crossed the Gulf of California and explored the lower regions of Baja California.  
Cabeza de Vaca and his companions wrote in Mexico City a report of their experiences.  

1538 The printing press arrived in Mexico.  
Dominicans in Santo Domingo founded the first university in the New World.  

1539 Francisco de Ulloa, a lieutenant of Cortés, explored the Gulf of California and proving that California was not an island.  
The diary of the Franciscan Francisco Preciado, a companion of Ulloa, provides the first printed record of California as applied to that region.  
Fray Marcos de Niza led an expedition to find the fabled seven cities of Cíbola, reaching a region of New Mexico inhabited by the Zuñi Indians. The adobe buildings of the Pueblo Indians glittered in the sun like gold and Fray Niza, seeing this from far away thought that he had found such place.  
Hernando de Soto reached Bahía Honda (Tampa Bay) on June 1, at the head of the largest attempt yet, to conquer and settle Florida. He was a man of great experience having been Francisco Pizarro's military advisor in Peru.  
Juan de Añasco, one of De Soto's lieutenants, founded the settlement of Espíritu Santo, Florida. This was the beginning of Tampa.  
Hernando de Soto and his companions celebrated Christmas in the area of Tallahassee, Florida. This was the first Christmas celebration in the continental U.S.  
1539-1541 Hernando de Soto explored the regions of Florida, Georgia, the Carolinas and then crossed the Appalachian mountains into Tennessee. Other regions explored by him were Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas. The source of the Mississippi river was discovered.  

1540 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado led an expedition of 336 Spaniards, 100 Indians, 552 horses, 600 mules, 5,000 sheep and 500 head of cattle, through Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, and Kansas, some of the territories described by Fray Niza. Coronado sent García López de Cárdenas to explore the northwest, reaching the Grand Canyon, all the while another expedition explored the northeast and another one led by Hernando de Alarcón reached the Colorado river and Yuma, Arizona. Hernando de Alarcón is also possibly to be the first European to have set foot on California soil entering the Gulf of California and ascending the Colorado River. Coronado also reached Río Grande.  
Pedro de Tovar, a lieutenant of Coronado, discovered Hopi country, Arizona.  
García López de Cárdenas, another of Coronado's lieutenant's, was the first European to have sighted the Grand Canyon.
Hernando de Soto and his men entered Mississipi territory and spent the winter in the area. While there, some Indians were caught stealing from them. Two were killed in the attempt, while the other, De Soto ordered his hands cut off. Some time later, four Spaniards were caught stealing from the Indian village nearby and, De Soto, in a masterful display of equal justice, sentenced two of them to death and confiscated the properties of the others.  

1541 Hernando de Soto crossed the Mississippi River. He reached Arkansas. There, a number of pigs left behind by the expedition, became wild. They are the ancestors of the famous razor-back pigs of Nebraska.  
Vázquez de Coronado reached Palo Duro Canyon, Texas. There, on May 29, Fray Juan Padilla celebrated a thanksgiving mass. This was the first Thanksgiving celebration in the United States.  
Domingo de Alarcón, one of the pilots in the Alarcón expedition, re-explored the Gulf of California and chartered its shores on a map. He described California as a peninsula.  

1542 Ruy López Villalobos, Juan Gaetano and Gaspar Rico reached the Hawaiian Islands.  
Luis de Moscoso de Alvarado, after the Soto's death in the Mississippi, organised an expedition west hoping to catch up with Coronado. The expedition reached as far as the Brazos River (Texas).  
Fray Juan de Padilla was killed in Kansas by the natives. He is considered to be the first martyr in the United States.   A group of Spaniards reached present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico.  
Cabeza de Vaca published in Spain, Naufragios, an account of his adventures. This is the first history of the United States. Cabeza de Vaca can also be considered the first anthropologist and ethnologist.  
1542-1543 Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese in the service of Spain, and Bartolomé Ferrelo explored the West coast, from San Diego to Oregon.  

1543 Luis Moscoso was the first European to discover oil in Texas when he used oil seepage near Nacogdoches.  

1549 Dominican friars Friars Luis Cáncer, Gregorio de Beteta, Diego de Tolosa, Juan García and Brother Fuentes, arrived in Tampa Bay. Fray Cáncer, Fray Tolosa and Brother Fuentes suffered martyrdom at the hands of the natives, soon after their arrival.  

1550-1600 Spanish explorers introduced crops and livestocks from Europe in the United States.

1551 The first university in North America was founded in Mexico City.  

1553 A hurricane destroyed a convoy from Mexico to Cuba, near Corpus Christi, Texas, with one thousand people. Few survived.  

1554 Captain Angel de Villafana explored the Texas coast in an effort to find the shipwreck of 1553.  

1555 Spanish officials in Cuba and Mexico urged the king of Spain to start the colonization of Florida.  

1557 Dr. Pedro de Santander, a crown official, urged king Philip II to establish settlements, missions and forts from Pensacola, Florida, to Port Royal, South Carolina.  

1558 Guido de los Bazares was sent from Mexico to find a good place in Florida to establish a settlement. He arrived at the Bay of Mobile (Alabama), which he named Filipina Bay in honor of his king, Philip II. On the opposite shore, the expedition reached the Tensaw River and Montrose, in Baldwin County, Alabama

1559 Tristán de Luna arrived at Santa Rosa Island, Pensacola Bay, Florida, and founded a settlement, which ended up in failure soon thereafter. He also reached Nanipacana de la Santa Cruz, near Clairborne, and Mobile Bay, Alabama.  

1560 Mateo del Saúz, Fray Domingo de la Anunciación and Fray Domingo Salazar, members of Luna's expedition, navigated the Choosa River up the area of Talladega.
Fray Pedro Feria, with another group of Luna's expedition, went up the Escambia River. Luna later established a mission in Santa Cruz de Nanicapan (Clairborne).  

1561 Angel Villafañe, Antonio Velázquez, Alonso González de Arroche and Juan Torres, reached the Virginia coast. They continued south to North Carolina and to Santa Elena (Parris Island), South Carolina.  

1562 Diego Gutiérrez published a map where California appeared for the first time.

1563 Tomás Terrenot, Spanish ambassador in France, informed Philip II that both the English and the French had lent their support to an expedition of French Huguenots to Florida. He warned of the possible threat this could pose to Spanish shipping in the area.  

1564 Miguel López de Legazpi and Fray Andrés de Urdaneta led an expedition to find a commercial route from Mexico to the Philippines. Legazpi founded the city of Manila.  
Diego de Mazariegos, governor of Cuba, sent captain Hernán Manrique to find the place where the French had established a settlement and fort. Manrique searched the bays and inlets north of Cape Canaveral. He found Charlesfort at Port Royal, which had already been abandoned by the French.  
Spaniards introduced grapes in California.  
Between 1559 and 1564, Spain spent over two hundred thousand gold pesos on her various attempts to colonize Florida.  

1565 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded St. Augustine, the first permanent European settlement in the United States.
Fray Martín Francisco López de Mendoza Grajales, founded the first Catholic parish in the United States. With the founding of the city, the Spanish system of local government (Cabildo) was introduced in the continental U.S. The cabildo was an elected town council, with an elected mayor (Alcalde). Thus, when St, Augustine conducted the first elections for the cabildo, they were the first democratic elections held in the continental U.S. The principle of local rights goes back to the Middle Ages in Spain.  
Menéndez de Avilés started construction of a road linking St. Augustine with the San Mateo Fort, near Jacksonville. This was the first road built in the United States.  
Menéndez de Avilés established forts at Santa Elena, South Carolina, Cape Canaveral, Tequesta (Miami), Calus (Charlotte Harbor) and Tocobaga (Tampa).  

1566 Jesuits founded a mission in Florida. Their first in the country.  
Menéndez de Avilés established San Felipe Fort on Parris Island, South Carolina.
Juan Pardo and Hernando Boyano, companions of Menéndez de Avilés, led another group through what is now Polk County, North Carolina. A fort was built near the mouth of the Wateree River. Pardo continued eastward to Guatari, where Fray Sebastián Moreno founded a mission. Meanwhile, Boyano headed westward to the Little Tennessee River, in present-day Jackson County.  
Pardo and Boyano led another group to Guimae in present-day Orangeburg County, South Carolina. During their explorations during 1566 and 1567, they travelled through what are now North Carolina, Georgia and Alabama.  
Martín de Argüelles was born in St. Augustine. He was the first "American" of whom documented proof exists.  
Fray Pedro Martínez arrived at Cumberland Island (Georgia). He was killed by the natives as soon as he got ashore. Later the Spanish built a fort.  
Spaniards from St. Augustine established a settlement on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia.  

1567 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés became governor of Cuba and Florida  
Jesuits founded a mission to minister to the Tequesta Indians, near present-day Miami.  
Jesuits founded the San Carlos Mission on Estero Island, on the Florida Keys. The missionaries assigned to it were Fray Juan Rangel and Fray Francisco de Villareal. A fort had been built the previous year and was under the command of Francisco de Reinosa.  

1568 Alvaro de Mendaña and Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa discovered the Solomon Islands.  

1569 Jesuit Brother Agustín Báez wrote a grammar of the Güale language spoken by the natives in the area of Georgia and South Carolina. This may very well be the first book published in the United States.

1570 Jesuits founded a mission in the Chesapeake Bay. Jesuits settled at Axacan, near Jamestown. Five Jesuits were killed by the natives in Virginia.

1573 Pedro Menéndez Márquez explored the Chesapeake Bay. By royal orders, nine Franciscans arrived in Florida. Their missionary work would be extended to Georgia and the Carolinas.

1576 Natives destroyed the Fort of Santa Elena, South Carolina. Menéndez Márquez rebuilt it the following year and renamed it San Marcos. It was abandoned in 1587. Natives revolted at Fort San Felipe, South Carolina.

1577 The natives of St. Augustine revolted.

1578 Another Indian rebellion in the vicinity of Santa Elena, South Carolina. The Spanish caught the French instigators and executed them.

1579 The infamous pirate Francis Drake raided Spanish shipping in the Pacific. French pirate Nicholas Estrozi was captured in Georgia by the Spanish. Luis the Carbajal founded the kingdom of Nuevo León, which comprised much of what is present-day Texas. Spaniards introduced oranges in Florida.

1580 Spanish defeated French forces in Florida.

1581 Captain Francisco Chamuscado led an expedition from Mexico to Cíbola, New Mexico, composed of 10 soldiers, 19 Christian Indians and 3 Franciscans, along with 90 horses, 600 cows, pigs and sheep.
The Franciscan missionary Fray Agustín Rodríguez accompanied an expedition to Texas, hoping to preach the gospel there. The expedition reached the area of the Big Bend and Fray Agustín is believed to have given the actual name of the region, calling it "New Mexico of Santa Fe of San Francisco."
Friars Agustín Rodríguez, Francisco López and Juan de Santamaria, accompanied by Chamuscado, founded the Mission of San Bartolomé, near Bernalillo, New Mexico. They led a missionary effort as far as Taos, Acoma and Zuñí. Soon afterwards the three friars were martyred.

1582 Antonio de Espejo led an expedition to New Mexico. He crossed the Río Grande near Presidio, Texas, and called the river El Río del Norte. He continued to Arizona, to Zuñi territory and up the Río Grande Valley. In one year he is believed to have covered four thousand miles.

1583 On his way back to Mexico, Espejo followed the Pecos River, Texas, and through present-day Fort Davis and Marfa.

1585 Francisco de Galí arrived in San Francisco Bay, from his voyage to the Philippines. He explored the California coast down to Acapulco.

1586 England attempted to establish a settlement in the Chesapeake Bay. Sir Walter Raleigh established a colony on Roanoke Island, North Carolina, which soon dissappeared. The English pirate Francis Drake attacked St. Augustine burning it to the ground.

1587 The map of Richard Hakluyt showed the regions of Kansas and New Mexico. Pedro de Unamunu was sent by the viceroy of New Spain, Pedro Moya de Contreras, on an expedition to find a good harbor for the Philippine galleons. He discovered a bay which he called Puerto de San Lucas, with all probability present-day Bay of Monterey, California.

1588 Fray Alonso Escobedo, in Florida, wrote the poem "La Florida", perhaps the first poem written in the United States. Florida governor Pedro Menéndez Marqués accompanied by Juan Menéndez Marqués, Juan Lara and Vicente González led an expedition to the Chesapeake Bay looking for suspected English settlements there (Roanoke Island). Juan Menéndez wrote a detailed description of the area.

1590 The lieutenant governor of Nuevo León, Gaspar Castaño de Sosa, led an expedition north, reaching the Río Grande and Texas. Sosa is believed to be the first one to discover a wagon trail between the Pecos River and New Mexico.

1592 Juan de Fuca led an expedition to the Pacific North coast and explored the strait that now bears his name.

1593 Fray Miguel de Auñón and lay-brother Antonio de Badajoz were martyred in St. Catherine's Island (Santa Catalina), Georgia. A punitive expedition, led by Alonso Díaz de Badajoz, was sent to the region. As punishment, Florida governor Gonzalo Méndez Canzo, issued and order to enslave the natives, however, a royal decree in 1600 nullified that order and set the Indians free. Fray Pedro Corpa arrived at Tolomato Mission, in McIntosh Co., Georgia, from where he directed missionary work to nearby native settlements. Franciscans Pedro Fernández de Chozas, Baltasar López and Francisco Pareja arrived on Cumberland Island (Georgia). Friars Pedro Ruiz and and Pedro de Vermejo were sent to what is now Camden Co., Georgia.

1594 Francisco Leyba de Bonilla and Antonio Gutiérrez de Humaña reached Kansas territory. They were later killed by Indians. María Viscente married Vicente Solana in St. Augustine. They founded the first "American family" of whom documented proof exists.

1595 Captains Francisco Leyva Bonilla and Antonio Gutiérrez Omaña, led an expedition north to subdue rebellious tribes. They went up to New Mexico and Kansas. The expedition was a complete failure, with only few survivors. Sebastián Rodríguez Cermellón left the Philippines to find a good port in America's northern coast. He arrived at San Francisco, in Drake's Bay.

1596-1597 Sebastián Vizcaíno explored the California coast and the Sea of Cortes. Gaspar Salas and two Franciscans, Pedro Chozas and Francisco Berascola, led an expedition to explore the area of Tama, Georgia. Indian revolt in the area of the Tolomato Mission (McIntosh, Co., Georgia) led by the Indian chief Juanillo. Fray Corpa was killed along with many others. The only survivor was Fray Francisco Dávila, who had been enslaved at Tufina, near Altamaha River.

1598 Juan de Oñate explored the area north of the Rio Grande, reaching Missouri and Nebraska. He founded San Gabriel de los Españoles, today Chamita, New Mexico. He became New Mexico's first governor, ruling until 1608. Oñate was at the head of a great expedition composed of 200 soldiers and colonists and 7,000 head of livestock (cows, horses, sheep, pigs, etc) and 83 three wagons with provisions, ammunition and many different kinds of seeds. On April 30, near El Paso, a mass of Thanksgiving was celebrated followed by a great banquet. This was perhaps the first Thanksgiving dinner in the United States. In the banks of the Río Grande (near El Paso) Oñate's expedition rested in the area while watching a play written by captain Marcos Farfán de los Godos. This was the first play performed in the United States. Oñate founded the town of San Juan de los Caballeros, New Mexico. Captain Juan de Zaldívar was killed at Acoma, New Mexico.
Fray Alonso de Lugo founded the mission of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, near Sia Pueblo, New Mexico.
Fray Cristóbal de Salazar founded the Nambé Mission, New Mexico.
Fray Francisco de Zamora founded the mission of San Lorenzo de los Picuries in the Taos region of New Mexico.

1599 Vicente de Zaldívar, brother of Juan de Zaldívar, led a punitive expedition against the natives of Acoma, New Mexico. Oñate dealt severly with them, cutting the right foot of 24 Indian captives. Franciscan missionaries established several missions in New Mexico. Oñate led an expedition east to west through Arizona searching for the "South Sea."

This chronology continues until 1798



West Virginia Database Online 
Sent by Janete Vargas writes:
Source: Church News: Records from the Church's Extraction Program.  Birth, Marriage, & Death 

Federation of Genealogical Societies
"FGS Delegate Digest"
Linking the Genealogical Community
Volume 12, No. 14         Nov 2005
Deadlines for submission of materials for inclusion in upcoming issues of the FGS Delegate Digest are:
Dec 2005: 10 Dec
Jan 2006: 10 Jan
Feb 2006: 10 Feb
National Archives Announces New External Affairs Appointment

Washington, D.C. . . . Archivist of the United States Allen Weinstein announced today the appointment of David McMillen to the newly  created position of External Affairs Liaison.  Dr. McMillen assumed the position on 30 October 2005. 

In making the announcement, Professor Weinstein said, "When I became  Archivist I made it clear that I was going to make it a personal  priority to open the doors to dialogue and collaboration with all of  the organizations that share interests and relationships with the  National Archives.  Today I am taking an important step in ensuring  that we accomplish this priority by appointing Dr. McMillen.  He is a  widely respected professional whose expertise spans the worlds of   information policy and systems, intergovernmental relations,  Presidential libraries, electronic government and regulatory  review.  I am confident that he will help us strengthen existing relationships and build new ones with genealogists, veterans, historians, archivists, technologists, information policy experts and others."

As External Affairs Liaison, Dr. McMillen will manage the planning and execution of a continuous program of liaison and partnering with  allied professional, scientific, and technical organizations.  He  will be responsible for assuring that NARA mission, goals, services,  and policies are clearly communicated with professional audiences and  that partnering opportunities are appropriately explored and  executed.  He will be the full time liaison to all of our stakeholder and customer communities.

David McMillen comes to the National Archives from the professional staff of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform  where he served from 1995 to the present. He previously held a  similar position with the corresponding Senate Committee from 1991 to  1995. He advised Members of Congress on a broad range of information  policy issues including the Freedom of Information Act, the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Presidential Records Act, the Privacy Act, electronic government, confidentiality of information collected by the government on individuals and businesses, and the laws governing the operation of the National Archives and Records Administration. He managed the reauthorization of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission in both the Senate and the House.

For nine years prior to joining the Legislative Branch, Dr. McMillen was a demographer and statistician at the U.S. Census Bureau. His responsibilities included serving as a liaison with members of the academic community who analyze complex household survey data.

Dr. McMillen holds BA degree in History and Literature from West  Liberty State College in West Virginia, a MA in Literature and Linguistics from Carnegie Mellon University, and a Ph.D. in Applied Social Statistics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has published widely in professional journals on  issues relating to the census, electronic information, privacy, and data sharing.  He has been an invited speaker at the Brookings Institute, the National Academy of Sciences, the American Political Science Association, the National Conference of State Legislators, and the American Society of Access Professionals, among others. 

For press information, contact the National Archives Public Affairs
Staff at 202-501-5526.



Don Jose Santiago Vidaurri Borrego Y Valdez
S: Invitación para suscribirte a genmex
Sergio Pitol receives the 2005 Premio Cervantes de Literatura
S: Passing of Angela Alessio Robles 
S: Historias de la semana 
S: Justo Rufino de la Garza Treviño
S: Arzobispado de Guadalajara, Mexico
The Descendents of Governor Lope de Sosa
S: Villa de San Miguel el Grande


Don Jose Santiago Vidaurri Borrego y Valdez


Gobernador de Coahuila y Nuevo Leon

Written by Anita Rivas Medellin


Don Santiago Vidaurri was executed July 8th 1867 at 4:00 Clock in the afternoon, en la Plaza de Santo Domingo, DF Mexico. The last hours of his life were spent with his heart, he only thought of his family, friends and country. He had been calm and serene; he gave that same habitual smile, the one he always gave.
Se levanto al vernos para saludarnos, con su habitual sonrisa agradable y sin estar desconcertado en lo mas minimo, nos abrazo ~J.E.S

The guards came for him quarter to 4:00, he was escorted by a priest and two attendants onto a carriage that took him directly to the square. There he was met by fifteen soldiers, who could not look him in the eye. This was an order that everyone would follow with a wretched heart.

Le pregunte si deseaba ver a Indalecio, que habia hablado con Diaz sobre esta, quien me dijo que si Indalecio no tenia empleo efectivo que no habia riesgo para el; despues de reflexionar, me dijo que preferia no ver a Indalecio y encargo que no supiera nada , hasta despues de su muerte ~J.E.S

He had peace in his heart that made the long march bearable. One being that his son Indalecio had not been made aware of his capture, at least not until after his death. He carried with him a secret fear that he would find out and come to his aid, putting his own life at risk. Another consolation was that his daughter Pudenciana was married to his friend and business partner, Don Patricio Milmo O’Dowd. He knew that Patricio loved her and would provide for the prosperity of his family.

Que pronto estare antes el juez supremo, que confiaba en su decision, pero que protestaba contra la orden de ser fusilado sin ser oido "Que
era una barbaridad que mancharia a su patria"~S.V

Don Santiago Vidaurri asked his friends General Pedro Hinojosa and General James E. Slaughter to stay with him until the very end. Having them witness what was about to take place somehow gave him an overall sense of tranquility. Don Santiago Vidaurri was a great man that marched to his execution with dignity and humility. He stood bravely in front of the fire squadron; he was wearing a white handkerchief tied loosely around his eyes.

Cumpliendo con su deseo de seguir hasta el fin, segui el coche, le vi
Bajar, oi la descarga, su alma volo al cielo

Don Santiago was old, frail and sickly but as long as he breathed he was considered Benito Juarez’s most feared and respected rival. Don Santiago Vidaurri could never be accused of being arrogant or of being a greedy man who had self-serving motives. He and his family lived modestly; the thought of making himself rich with the blood and sweat of the people had never occurred to him. His last words were, "Let my blood be the last and let Mexico be happy."

"Deseo que mi sangre sea la ultima derramada y que Mexico sea feliz" ~ J.E.S.

I was fortunate to have received copies of General Slaughter’s account of the execution from my cousin Patricio Milmo Hernandez. This account has brought me back in time and has only brought my tio Santiago closer to my heart. This is my tribute to a great man that I admire and love, but most of all am proud to claim kinship.

My uncle, Don Santiago Vidaurri was born in 1808, in Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon. His father Pedro Jose Vidaurre Borrego y de la Cruz was the brother of my fourth great grandfather, Don Jose Antonio Vidaurre Borrego y Villasenor. They were two of many children born to my fifth great grandfather Don Francisco Vidaurre y Vasquez Borrego, who was the 10th child of Don Juan Antonio de Vidaurre y Dona Manuela Vasquez Borrego.

Don Santiago Vidaurri went through life never using his full name; this caused many genealogists for generations to believe that his father Pedro Jose was the brother and not the grandson of Don Juan Antonio de Vidaurre. This information can be verified through Pedro Jose’s marriage investigation that mentions the names of his parents and through a CD rom that was compiled by information gathered in the early 1900’s by Father Robert D.Wood. This CD can be purchased at the St. Augustine church in Laredo, TX.

Don Santiago Vidaurri came from a politically dynastic family that had spawned four Acaldes and three Governors: Don Jose Fernando Vidaurre y Vasquez Borrego (1777-1778), Don Jose Maria Margil Vidaurre y Vasquez Borrego (1814), Atanacio L. Vidaurre (1895), and Atanacio C. Vidaurre (1899). Acalde’s of Laredo, TX.

Perhaps it was the youth that watched two of his uncles swear into office: Don Juan Jose Vidaurre y Villasenor and Don Francisco Vidaurre y Villasenor (1834), Governors of Coahuila y Texas. Whatever it was, Santiago had heard the calling of his forbearers before him and answered. "It is my belief that the dreams and ambitions of a family become the fingerprints on the souls of its descendents."

Young Santiago did not start with a very favorable future. Yet his actions in his adolescence were a clear indication as to the man he would become. At the age of twenty-four, Santiago was involved in a heated bar room brawl, and in self- defense severed the hand of his attacker.

This led him to spending time in jail, where his talents for reading and writing were discovered. Santiago being a very educated man realized his full potential and began in earnest to fulfill his family legacy, for he was the second great grandson of Don Jose Vasquez Borrego.

This explained a few things: first Santiago had placed a high value on human life and would not take one unless it was unavoidable. Second, Santiago would do what was necessary to survive. His character was not one that could be labeled being a Fence-Sitter, he was true to his convictions and on more then one occasion was forced to choose the unpopular route. He always remained true to his beliefs and ethics until the very end.

There is much written about my tio Santiago, what is written about him is mainly in Spanish. There is not much written about him in English, except what can be found in the Texas handbook online or in his biography by Ronnie C. Tyler. My wish is to portray him as a man, whose occupation had been one of Fearless General and one of Powerful Governor.

Don Santiago Vidaurri had many names that were given to him by the people: El Senor Del Norte, El Caudillo del Norte, El Caudillo Appassionato de la Frontera, y Gobernador Poderoso. The decade that spawned him is referred to as El Vidaurrismo.

Santiago’s army, Los Vidaurristas, had the same devotion and loyalty that Napoleons had for their Emperor, he had been a man among men. Santiago was an honest and loyal person, who expected the same in return from the people around him. He preferred and wanted nothing but the truth, no matter how unpleasant it was. To withhold anything from him was considered a betrayal. He fought fiercely to keep his border states free of foreign invasion and attacks from the neighboring Indians. He also gave asylum to the African slaves that entered Northern Mexico.

Quiero que la fuerza que este a tus ordenes sea un modelo bajo todos aspectos, por eso es que debes llevar el diario que te he encargdado, debiendo tomar empeno en que nada se me oculte por desagradable que parezca. ~ S.V

He worried about his soldiers and generals equally. He made sure that they were paid their wages on time and that their widows were looked after. Don Santiago was a man of his word, he believed in the chain of command and in discipline. Santiago also did not show favoritism and on more then one occasion was forced to punish one of his soldiers for disobeying orders.

Ya emprendieron su marcha para Mexico (DF), y mi corazon va con los hijos del estado. Lo unico que calma un tanto mis cuidados es el que van con el senor Comonfort y contigo. ~ S.V

He was a man that was fair and just. It is said he resembled a judge more then he did a general. Santiago was a man with a fixed mind, he did not like being questioned and once he formed an opinion about someone or something, it usually never changed. He was strong willed, tenacious and not afraid of confrontation. Santiago was direct with what pleased and displeased him in equal measure.

It is my wish that my third great grandfather and tio Santiago had been close, they were only a few years apart in age and both grew up in the little town of Musquiz, Coahuila. As a tribute to his illustrious cousin, my third great grandfather named my second great grandfather after El Caudillo del Norte: Don Santiago Vidaurri Borrego y Vela. I have noticed through out my search that the Vidaurri men with the first name of Santiago had died without issue, all except for my second great grandfather and El Caudillo del Norte, could the name Santiago be accursed?

Behind every great man is a woman, Don Santiago married his cousin in 1831, Dona Juana Maria Vidaurre Borrego y Borrego Sanchez. Juana Maria was the daughter of Santiago’s great uncle, Don Jose Maria Margil Vidaurre y Vasquez Borrego (y Maria Josefa Borrego y Sanchez). This couple had three children that were found through the paper trail of baptismal and marriage records: Indalecio, Pudenciana and Amelia. However, a complete search has not been completed and it is said that they had an adoptive son.

Amelia’s existence to date remains a family mystery. The baptismal record located for Amelia Vidaurri mentions the names of her parents: Santiago Vidaurri y Juana Maria Vidaurri (# M605451, # 0605182). She was married the same year of her mother’s death,

(April 29th 1865) and during the time her father was serving the French Empire.

In General Slaughter’s account of the execution, Santiago only mentions Indalecio and Pudenciana. Could Amelia’s marriage have been made against her parents wish’s, could it of been a young girls desperate attempt to escape difficult circumstances. Or did Amelia die in childbirth? This is all merely speculation on my part.

Entonces me dijo en donde encontraria el poco de dinero que tenia, y me ordeno darle a Indalecio, dijo algo sobre que habia dado a su esposa alguna cosa de igual valor ~J.E.S

It is said that Indalecio Vidaurri y Vidaurri was married three times; we know that through one of the marriages to Maria Francisca Gamboa he had a son named Indalecio Vidaurri y Gamboa (June 14th 1855, # C605461, # 0605160). Through another marriage, he had a daughter named Juana Maria Vidaurri, who had died without children. Not all of the documents for Indalecio’s descendents have been located, they are still in question.

I’ve seen many drawings and photos of my tio Santiago, and not one of them really do him justice. The only drawing of him that resembles my mother’s family can be found in his biography by Ronnie. C Tyler; one can clearly see the big forehead, the round face with the chiseled jaw, the tiny lips and ears.

It is these same eyes that could command from a room with out words. These eyes were also capable of inciting fear and respect and yet at the same time show compassion and mercy. Santiago was tall and slender, with dark hair and light olive skin. His hands were small, thin and regal. He had surprisingly small feet for having been so tall.

I look at this drawing and I am reminded of my mother’s family. I look in the mirror and see his eyes looking back at me; I see the eyes of my grandmother and those of my mother looking right through me; these are the eyes that remind me of who I am.

My tio Santiago did have his peccadillo’s, he did father a natural daughter in 1860 with Clemencia Canales: Carlota Vidaurri Canales. There was also a rumor that he fathered a natural son named Julian Quiroga. This rumor is found in the biography by Ronnie C. Tyler. There is a volume of correspondence between Don Santiago Vidaurri and Julian Quiroga, spanning from 1858-1865. This volume is number two in el archivo Santiago Vidaurri, compiled by Cesar Morado Macias.

Don Santiago was the type of man that when asked an inappropriate question he would not answer, but allow the public to derive their own version of what they thought the truth to be.

Reading these letters, between these two men, it is easy to understand how such a rumor started. They treated each other like father and son. One can feel their mutual respect and admiration. I got the sense that young Julian reminded tio Santiago of himself when he was Julian’s age: willful, tenacious and not afraid of confrontation.

Ha llegado Epifanio y me informa que te dejo en San Luis bastante enfermo; pero Arredondo me escribio por el correo pasado y me dice que estabas ya aliviado. Estas noticias me tienen con bastante cuidado, y no estare tranquilo hasta no ver letra tuya. Espero por lo mismo que cuanto antes me escribas. ~ S.V

Some of these letters made me cry because they were both very protective over the other. What affected one affected the other equally. It was also known that Indalecio Vidaurri and Julian Quiroga were great friends; both could always be found by the Caudillos side. My opinion is that Julian was the brother that Indalecio had always wanted. I am dispelling the rumor; Julian Quiroga was not a natural or legitimate child of Don Santiago Vidaurri.

My uncle, Don Santiago Vidaurri was a powerful governor- who was able to negotiate with Juarez and other foreign relations. He was not only influential in the political and military aspect of things, but also in the national sense of things. During 1855-1864, he exercised complete control over Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, which he ran virtually independent.

The rift between my uncle and President Juarez began when Juarez had placed the order for Ignacio Comonfort’s execution. Santiago openly refused to surrender him to Juarez. This was the first step towards the decline of what was an amicable friendship at best. Although both Juarez and Santiago had been liberals, they both failed to see eye to eye on several issues of the day. Santiago did not give into Juarez’s childish demands for revenge. Santiago had given Comonfort exile and his word that he would not betray him. Santiago was capable of seeing the bigger picture and knew that Comonfort was still instrumental in the needs of Mexico’s political arena.

Santiago de dio asilo a Don Ignacio Comonfort , que habia sido presidente de Mexico y que para retractarse en la aplicacacion de las" Leyes de Reforma" urdio un autogolpe de estado que, sin embargo fallo y se fue a refugiar a Nuevo Leon – por mucho tiempo, Juarez estuvo insistiendo que lo enviara a Mexico para juzgarlo – pero Vidaurri le contesto que no iba tracionar su palabra dada, que el no era un picaluga~ P.G.O

If only General Diaz had not given into Juarez’s childish need for revenge. Diaz followed orders that fateful day of July 8th at 4:00 Clock in the afternoon. General Diaz had his own political agenda and did not deviate from the cruel dictate that had been given. Perhaps this is why Diaz was the only president that Mexico ever had who actually did anything positive for his country? Could it have been his atonement?

Diaz: Dice positivamente que no fue denuciado por Wright, ni por ningun Americano ~

The further conflict between these two chieftains was caused when Juarez demanded that Santiago hand over the revenue that his border states collected during the Civil War. Juarez also insisted that Santiago hand over his army.

Santiago agreed to aid Juarez, but refused to surrender his army and to empty the coffers that belonged to the people of Coahuila and Nuevo Leon. His reasoning was that he was not going to leave his border states defenseless to enemy attacks or to attacks from the neighboring Indians; the revenue was needed for his army and the flow of the economy of the border states.

Juarez insisted and Santiago kept refusing. The bad blood between these two- that most historians wish to make us believe had never been spilled has since been further embedded into Mexico’s obscure history. Santiago felt strongly about this and with this conflict changed his entire view. Santiago did not help over throw Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna only place another President with self serving motives. Santiago did not buy into Juarez’s vision of HIS Mexico.

It is common knowledge that Benito Juarez sold Baja California to the United States and had given the money to his relatives residing in New York. Benito Juarez also committed many more crimes against his country. There is a book titled: "The many crimes of Benito Juarez," by Don Celerino Salmeron, explains the above in further detail.

During the conflict between Santiago and Juarez there were many causalities. For Santiago it would be his family. Ronnie C Tyler’s biography of my uncle makes it seem that he had fled Mexico allowing Don Patricio to take the brunt for his actions.

Habiendo sufrido ochenta y dos dias en prision, la mitad de este tiempo sin ver algun ser humano y sin poder hablar con mis hijos y convencido de que solo podria conseguir mi libertad comprandola resolvi hacerlo de mala gana, ya que mi salud estaba cada vez mas delicada, por esto estuve de acuerdo en pagar $ 50,000 - $ 46,000 al gobierno: un tercio al contado, 1/3 en 30 dias y 1/1 en 60 dias; el resto de $ 3,700 seria para el corridor del ministro Jose Maria Iglesias ~ P.M.O.

The truth is that Santiago was residing in Texas when he learned of Don Patricio’s trouble with Juarez’s regime. Santiago quickly went back to Mexico via Veracruz. He did not feel it was right that Juarez involve his family into their personal feud, he had with him a letter intended for the English Minister (Queen Victoria) on behalf of Don Patricio Milmo: He was a citizen of England and was entitled of the protection of the English Crown.

Mi suegro, Don Santiago Vidaurri, ahora en la capital, es de opinion que evitar lugar debo de hacer una apelacion al Emperador para una compensacion siempre reservando mi derecho de ciudadano britanico. El senor Vidaurri quiere que actue condescendientemente, con el deseo de evitar en todo lo posible la necesidad de poner el problema como el propone y le he pedido al senor Vidaurri que le visite con relacion a este asunto. Debo de disculparme por escribir tanto, pero no podia darle una idea de mis problemas en pocas palabras ~ P.M.O

Maximiliano during this time had already been established in the capital, upon hearing that such a distinguished political figure was in the city, had Santiago summoned to El Castillo Chaputepec. We do not know what was said during their extensive meeting. What we do know is that there is a four page letter written to Santiago from Maxle. This letter is in possession of a family member and has yet to surface for further study. However, the relationship between Santiago and the young Hapsburg Prince was always on the best of terms.

I wish to say in defense of the young and hopeful Emperor that if it were not for him, Mexico would not have its precious treasures preserved. It is a known fact that Maximiliano had fallen in love with Mexico, and its people- he had wanted to do what was best for Mexico. He was always at odds with the French and the Mexicans he was sent to rule. His execution was unjust and unmerciful. Kings do not execute Kings, they exile them.

When Juarez learned that Santiago was offered a job with the French, he immediately tried to convince him that all was well between them. Santiago at this time didn’t need to learn a hard lesson twice. He knew that trusting Juarez would only lead to his down fall. Santiago had sent many of his troops and notable Generals to aid Juarez. Instead of being grateful that Santiago did not hold a grudge, Juarez convinced Santiago’s men to betray and abandon him. Juarez was slowly planning the demise of Don Santiago Vidaurri.

By joining the French- Santiago had bought himself time. In my opinion, because of the feud between Santiago and President Juarez my uncle had no choice but to join the French. It was a colossal mistake, but at the time it was the only choice he could of made.

It is common knowledge that Santiago Vidaurri was a great general- that during El Vidaurrismo many great generals under his leadership were spawned: Garza Ayala, Zuazua, Aramberri, Zaragoza, Escobedo, Mier, Quiroga, and Naranjo. My theory is that if he had aided the French, how did Juarez’s regime triumph over the French Imperial army? In a letter to Don Patricio in July of 1865 he says "Porque vivir aqui es morir." He hated being away from his family and his people. He desired to leave the capital and return to the North. He knew that would never become a reality, because no matter what Juarez said, he would never allow him to live in peace. My theory is that if my uncle had aided the French, the French would not have been defeated.

Don Santiago Vidaurri had a love affair with his beloved Nuevo Leon. He established many public parks, increased the revenue, established factories and opened up commerce such as the import and ex-port trade. He also had El Theatro del Progresso, El Mercado Colon, and La Alameda de Monterrey built. He turned Monterrey into the capital of Nuevo Leon.

Tio Santiago was a man like any other, with his virtues and his peccadillo’s. I am not writing this paper from the view point of a genealogist, biographer or historian, but from the view point of a family member. I leave his rise in the political arena to them, the experts. These are my opinions based on information supplied to me by various family members and by his current biographer Mrs. Leticia Martinez Cardenas de Hunt, whom I consider an honorary Vidaurri.

El archivo: Santiago Vidaurri consists of over 17,000 letters. These important documents were obtained in an illegal manner by the state of Nuevo Leon. These letters were not abandoned or forgotten – they were confiscated from the property of Dona Leonor Milmo Vidaurri: Don Santiago Vidaurri’s grand-daughter. Don Santiago had specifically expressed desire that his archive not be made public until 100 years after his death.

El archivo de Santiago Vidaurri fue extraido de los sotanos de mi abuela: Leonor Milmo Vidaurri en la forma ilegal. La Casa Bancaria Patricio Milmo y Hijos y sucesores quebro en la decada de los 20’s y 30’s y esta negociacion rentaba una parte del inmueble propiedad de mi abuela. Aunqe probaron que los sotanos no pertenecian a la fallida Casa Bancaria, el gobierno del estado de NL finalmente se quedo con el mencionado archivo. Santiago Vidaurri habia solicitado que su archivo se abriera 100 anos despues de su muerte: cosa que no ocurrio. El archivo no estaba abandonado y olvidado ~ P.G.O

These letters were turned into volumes for research by many dedicated historians and biographers, such as Mrs. Leticia Martinez Cardenas, Armando Leal Rios, and Cesar Morado Macias.

This past July 9th marked another year of my tio Santiago’s execution. A misa was held at the ancestral home, La Mesa de Cartujanos. La Mesa was bought originally as a hiding place for cattle and horses. Back then, a man was not considered rich by how much money he had, but by how much he owned in livestock. Don Santiago did not only keep his personal livestock there, but also that of his son in laws Don Patricio Milmo O’Dowd and that of his army. He ended up falling in love with the place and had a home built.

La Mesa de Cartujanos is in the jurisdiction of Coahuila, but can be reached through Lampazos. It is described as an elevation from the earth. It can only be reached by plane or half day by mule, making most of his descendant’s expert pilots. This became his final resting place; his body had been exhumed three times before his last request had been fulfilled.

Su deseo era que se lleven sus restos a Monterrey, y que el y su amada esposa sean removidos a la Mesa, y depositado alli, en una capilla modesta y sencilla, que se fabricara, en caso que vuelva a poder de la familia dicha Mesa, y sino que sea en Monterrey con su esposa, comprando su terreno con este fin ~   

His last request was to be buried there, with his beloved wife under the capia. The stipulation being that La Mesa is in the possession of a descendent, it was his desire and final wish.

Today it is owned by a group of his second and third great grandsons: Lorenzo y Tomas Milmo Zambrano and Alberto Milmo Garza Madero y hermanos. A portion of El Rancho Encinas is also owned by a second great grandson: Patricio Milmo Hernandez. (We believe that this portion of Rancho Encinas is part of the original, that was owned by my seventh great grandfather: Don Jose Vasquez Borrego).

Santiago Vidaurri had been a visionary; he knew that by allowing the marriage between his daughter and his friend/ business partner: Don Patricio Milmo O’Dowd that the prosperity of his family would continue. His grand-daughter Pudenciana Milmo Vidaurri married Prince Albrycht Wocjciech Radziwill circa 1896 in NY, New York.

Some of Don Santiago Vidaurri’s second and third great grandchildren are: The late Emilio Azcarrraga Milmo (El Tigre) of Televisa; Jose Milmo Garza Madero of Casa Madero (Mexico’s oldest and largest winery); and Tomas Milmo Santos of Axtel (A Mexican telecommunications company that provides local, national and international telephone services); Patricio Guerra O’Hart, who owns and operates his own company; Patricio Milmo Hernandez, a retired lawyer; Patricia Gonzales Vidaurri, artist and architect.

Those of us who are aware of our family history have always believed that it was the Milmo Vidaurris that ended up with what was left of the Vidaurre y Vasquez Borrego legacy. This was not the case. Not only did they have to endure having their homes, businesses confiscated during the revolution, but they also suffered through the hands of Juarez’s regime.

I have to keep reminding myself that my uncle was not a hero, but a man that had lived during Mexico’s darkest hours. I can’t say that he was a victim of a corrupted government, because he would have never of described himself in those terms. I can’t say that he was a martyr, because his execution lacked political meaning, but was one of childish revenge. My uncle was a man that held considerable power, yet he never took advantage of that power. He instead used that power to protect those who could not protect themselves.

My uncle did not die a wealthy man. He was a man that had lived during difficult times, and at the time did what he thought was best. Don Santiago Vidaurri is a man, who can be proud of his descendents, who moved forward in time, even with the threats of Juarez and the outcome of the Revolution.

Santiago’s gift to those who came before and to the many of us who came after was not only the fulfillment of our family’s ambition, but also in maintaining the honor of our family name. We are Los Vidaurre de Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, y Texas, and we in our turn honor him by preserving his memory.


LDS records and research done by Terry Guerra – Tamez. * Also for the discovery of Pedro Jose Vidaurre Borrego y de la Cruz’s pedigree.

Copies of CD rom compiled by Father Robert D. Wood provided by Raul Longoria.

"Los Vidaurre de Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas y Texas" by Jose Felipe de la Pena Vidaurre.

Milmo Vidaurri (Borrego) Family Tree provided by Patricio Guerra O’ Hart.

General James E. Slaughters account of the execution provided by Patricio Milmo Hernandez.

Verbal conversations with Patricio Milmo Hernandez.

(All editorials provided by Patricio Milmo Hernandez).

"Variaciones Santiago Vidaurri" by Carlos Marin Foucher.

"Visita a Cartujanes, sepulcro de Vidaurri" by Israel Cavazos Garza.

"Un Godernador y un gran patriota" by Abelardo Leal.

Texas Handbook online: Santiago Vidaurri

"Santiago Vidaurri" compiled by Patricio Guerra O’ Hart.

"Santiago Vidaurri and the Southern Confederacy" by Ronnie C. Tyler.

Verbal conversations with Mrs. Leticia Martinez Cardenas de Hunt.

A special Thanks to Mrs. Leticia Martinez Cardenas de Hunt for her support and guidance. Also for providing me with much source material, and making the communication with my parientes possible.

A very special "Thank You" to my dear cousins, Patricio #1 y Patricio #2 for being so supportive and their willingness in sharing with me our family legacy.


Invitación para suscribirte a genmex

¡Te damos la bienvenida a Yahoo! Grupos! Te invitaron a unirte al grupo genmex.

Importante: Esta es una invitación preaprobada; por eso si intentas suscribirte mediante la página de inicio del grupo, deberás esperar a la aprobación del moderador. 

Más sobre genmex (Ir a la página de inicio de este grupo) Miembros:   53 
Fecha de creación:   9 de Nov, 2005 
Tipo de listado de correo:   Foro abierto sólo para miembros 
Genealogía de México

Este Grupo está dedicado al estudio e investigación de la Genealogía de México desde la época de la colonia, apoyando a aquellos que buscan sus raíces familiares de manera seria y altruista. Se espera poder contribuir con diversos temas de interés genealógico, así como compartir experiencias y facilitar búsquedas, dando orientaciones. También se reciben colaboraciones, aportando ideas, conocimientos, bases de datos, archivos, reseñas de libros y publicaciones, etc. Tenemos el propósito de facilitar el intercambio de información, recursos y datos, promoviendo la genealogía, historia y cultura de México.

Se busca que sea un medio de comunicación y ayuda tanto para el genealogista profesional, como para el aficionado, y todo aquel que se interese por la búsqueda y conocimiento de sus antepasados y sus orígenes. 

Miembros nuevos deberán mandar un mensaje al moderador del grupo con detalles de su interés en temas genealógicos.

Messages in English are welcome.

Sent Juan Pablo Alvarez   


Sergio Pitol Received the 2005 Premio Cervantes de Literatura

289 3rd. Avenue, Chula Vista, CA 91910
tel. (619) 426-1226, fax (619) 426-0212

There are descriptions of 10 more books authored by Pitol at this website:
We are very happy to announce that Mexican writer, Sergio Pitol, just received (Dec. 1) the Premio Cervantes de Literatura, the most prestigious literary award in Spanish. The other two Mexican writers that have received the Cervantes Prize are Octavio Paz and Carlos Fuentes.

Sergio Pitol (Puebla, Mexico, 1933) is known not only for his novels and short-stories (Juegos florales, La vida conyugal, El tañido de una flauta, etc.), but also for his translations of writers such as  Antón Chejov, Wittold Gombrowicz, Henry James, Joseph Conrad y Jane Austen.

Obras reunidas, vol. 1. El tañido de una flauta, Juegos florales
Author: Pitol, Sergio
Publisher: Fondo de Cultura Económica, ISBN: 9681668553, Year: 2003, Price: $34.99 
Para celebrar los setenta años de Sergio Pitol, el Fondo de Cultura Económica ha comenzado la edición de su obra completa con la que enriquece aún más su catálogo de autores mexicanos. Este primer tomo incluye las dos primeras novelas del autor: El tañido de una flauta y Juegos florales. incluye también unas palabras del propio Pitol sobre su experiencia literaria. 


S: Passing of Angela Alessio Robles 
Sent by


Ángela Alessio Robles. Nació en 1919 en la Ciudad de México, fue la quinta mujer en recibir el título de Ingeniera Civil por la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, obtuvo una maestría en planificación por la Universidad de Columbia, en Estados Unidos. Tuvo a su cargo la jefatura del Plan Director para el Desarrollo Urbano y la Presidencia de la Comisión Mixta de Planificación del DDF (Departamento del Distrito Federal); Jefa de la Sección de Estudios del Plano Regulador, asesora del gobierno del Estado de Nuevo León y Directora del proyecto de la Gran Plaza de Monterrey. En 1956 fue subdirectora del Departamento de Obras Públicas del Distrito Federal, cargo que por primera vez fué confiado a una mujer en México. Fue reconocida como la Mujer del año de 1965; y obtuvo presea de la Legión de Honor Mexicana4. 

SALTILLO, COAH. ABRIL 30, 2004 (REDACCION VANGUARDIA).- En homenaje a la dama que inspiró respeto y admiración por su fuerza e incursión en cualquier campo laboral, se presenta enseguida una entrevista de Mireya Pérez Estañol a doña Angelita Alessio.

Ambiente Familiar: "En lo que se refiere al ámbito familiar, mi padre siempre procuró un ambiente liberal, aunque muy estricto, pero a la vez afectuoso y suave. A cada quien se nos dio la libertad de seguir el camino que quisiéramos siempre y cuando lo hiciéramos bien".

Vocación: estudiar ingeniería: "Siempre me gustó la construcción, y me gusta hacer planes y proyectos. También me gustan mucho las matemáticas.

Debo confesar que también la música, pero con seguridad ese no era mi camino. sin embargo, aunque parezca paradójico, tuve la ocasión de dar un curso de matemáticas en la Escuela Nacional de Música".

Mujeres Ingenieras: "Yo ingresé en 1937 a la carrera, en aquel entonces se estudiaba en el Palacio de Minería y sólo existía el antecedente de cuatro mujeres".

Primer Trabajo: "En la Comisión Nacional de Irrigación (antecedente de Recursos Hidráulicos). Esto porque mi familia pasaba un momento difícil, ya que mi padre era considerado un político de oposición y yo tenía que apoyar económicamente".

El Regente de Hierro: "Lo que tenía era una manera muy clara de pedir las cosas y siempre marcaba fechas, me refiero a Ernesto P. Uruchurtu el conocido Regente de Hierro. Era un hombre muy ordenado y estricto, pero esto no necesariamente complicaba el trabajo que planeaba la obra pública del Valle de México".

Monterrey: "Me decidí por ir a trabajar a Monterrey en 1979 cuando el licenciado Alfonso Martínez Domínguez fue elegido gobernador, me propuso integrarme en el equipo como asesora. Después estuve al frente de la Secretaría de Desarrollo Urbano, y más tarde en un organismo descentralizado llamado Promotora de Desarrollo Urbano de la Ciudad (Prourbe)".

Satisfacciones Regias: "El Instituto Nacional de Promoción Política Estatal me hizo entrega de un diploma al mérito por el beneficio que como funcionaria pública pude concretar para los habitantes de Nuevo León. ¡Imagine, recibir un reconocimiento por hacer mi trabajo!".

Es así como ella dirigió con mano firme por muchos años la planificación de la Ciudad de México. En Monterrey también dejó su aportación, puesto que sigue su trabajo dando fe de su acertada labor, porque, ¿quién se podría imaginar la capital regia sin la macroplaza? Con todo su empeño se demuestra que tuvo la capacidad de pisar el terreno donde los hombres eran los líderes a principios del siglo 20: la ingeniería civil. 

Pero lamentablemente murió doña Angelita Alessio, hija del historiador Vito Alessio Robles y para recordarla se plasma en este espacio la opinión que emite Javier Villarreal Lozano y Concepción Recio Dávila con quienes colaboró en la formación del Centro Cultural Vito Alessio Robles.

Javier Villarreal Lozano: "Sin duda alguna una mujer sumamente brillante, ingeniera que fue directora de Obras Públicas del Distrito Federal, recibió el galardón "Mujer del Año" en 1965 por su labor en la capital del país, además de ser autora del proyecto de la Macroplaza de Monterrey.

Vito Alessio Robles: "Mujer que hizo posible la creación del Centro Cultural."

La biblioteca de su padre fue cuidada con mucho amor, tanto que le construyó un tercer piso exclusivo para guardar el acervo que su padre conservaba. A ella se debe en buena medida que la biblioteca se mantenga completa, sin ningún problema de tipo físico, con un respeto y devoción gigantes. Ella logró que este centro de lectura y conocimiento estuviera en Saltillo cumpliendo así uno de los sueños de don Vito Alessio Robles Cuevas.

Creo que es una pérdida lamentable porque fue una mexicana admirable, falleció el martes en la Ciudad de México y en el centro del país es una noticia muy triste. Ya le sobrevive solamente su hermano Vito; su hermana Margarita y su hermano Domingo murieron hace poco. Eran más hermanos, pero estos son los únicos que recuerdo.

Ella principió un trabajo bellísimo de fotografía de todos los monumentos coloniales del centro histórico de México con fines de conservación, y dedicó su vida a la ingeniería. Cuando ella estudió la carrera profesional eran pocas mujeres y por eso fue pionera del feminismo académico. Estudió en la UNAM y luego un posgrado en Estados Unidos. Era una mujer muy agradable, cariñosa, respetada y querida".

Concepción Recio Dávila: "Conviví con Angelita Alessio y era una mujer de gran fortaleza, espléndida, con una memoria muy lúcida, alguien muy generoso y con gran espíritu. En la Ciudad de México organizó la vialidad, la conocía perfectamente".

¿Quién fue su padre? El ingeniero, historiador y periodista Vito Alessio Robles, nació en Saltillo, Coahuila, el 14 de agosto de 1879. Estudió en el Ateneo Fuente y posteriormente se traslado a la Ciudad de México en donde ingresó al Colegio Militar, donde se graduó como ingeniero.

La lucha política que envolvía al país lo hizo participar en continuas batallas, llegando a obtener el grado de teniente coronel del Ejército Federal.

Desempeñó una intensa actividad política y se opuso a los regímenes de Calles y Obregón, por lo cual fue condenado al destierro en Estado Unidos. Durante este período se dedicó a la búsqueda de documentos históricos en la Universidad de Austin, Texas. Al volver del exilio inició una fructífera labor como maestro, escritor y miembro de la Academia de Historia.

En múltiples ocasiones fue honrado con medallas y reconocimientos, murió en la Ciudad de México en el año de 1957. 

Esther A Herold



La familia de don Justo Rufino de la Garza Treviño

Burgos, Tamaulipas (1859 -   )


por su bisnieto 
Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza


Jesús de la Garza Flores y Rebeca Benavides (1923)

Eduviges de la Garza Flores Y Justo de la Garza de la Garza

Loreto de la Garza Guillén (1926)

Rafael de la Garza González

Candelaro de la Garza de la Garza y María de Jesus de la Garza de la Garza (1941)


 1.- Constanza de la Garza nació en 1529 en Huelva, Lepe, Castilla, España.  Se casó en

      1550 con Marcos Alonso que nació en 1525 en Huelva , España.

1.1.- Marcos Alonso de la Garza Falcón nació en 1566 en Huelva, España y se casó en

        1580 en Durango con Juana de Treviño Quintanilla que nació en la ciudad de

        México en 1566 hija de José Diego de Tremino y de Beatriz de Quintanilla de

        Farias. Los Abuelos Paternos de Juana de Treviño fueron Diego Tremino de

        Velasco y doña Francisca Alcoideo-Ascoide, ambos nativos de  Sevilla, España

        El 30 de mayo de 1610 Marcos Alonso de la Garza Falcón vivía en el pueblo de

        Santiago de Saltillo y solicitó al capitán Diego de Rodriguez, suplente del

        gobernador del Nuevo Reino de León, varias concesiones de tierra y agua en el

        vecino pueblo de Cerralvo, petición que le fue aceptada.

        Tres hijos de este matrimonio adoptaron en primer término el apellido materno:

        Joseph de Treviño, Alonso de Treviño y Diego de Treviño; esto tal vez con

        propósitos hereditarios o para llevar un apellido ilustre que les mereciera


        Marcos Alonso y Juana de Treviño además tuvieron a Marcos Alonso, 2.-Blas 

        María, Pedro, y Francisco de la Garza Falcón Treviño Quintanilla,

1.1.2.- Blas Maria de la Garza Falcón nació en Real de Mapimi, Durango el año de

           1591 y murió el 21 de febrero de  1668 en Monterrey, Nuevo León.  Se casó con

           Beatriz González Hidalgo Navarro quien nació en 1591 en Saltillo Coahuila y

           murió en Monterrey, Nuevo León el 10 de mayo de 1670, hija de Marcos

           González Hidalgo de Valle y Mariana Navarro Rodríguez.

           Blas Maria y Beatriz tuvieron a:  Melchora,  Beatriz, Leonor, María, Juan, Blas,

           María Inés, 8.- Lázaro, Francisca, Juana, Luisa, Antonia, María Isabel,

           Margarita, Miguel, Francisco y Polonia de la Garza Falcón y González Hidalgo. Lázaro de la Garza Falcón y González Hidalgo nació en 1625  en Monterrey,

              Nuevo León y murió el 22 de febrero de 1694 en Monterrey, Nuevo León.

              Lázaro tuvo tres matrimonios, el primero fue en con (A) Clara de Montemayor y

              de las Casas Navarro hija de Diego Fernández de Montemayor  y de Juliana de

              las Casas Navarro; el segundo matrimonio de Lázaro fue en 1650 con (B) Petronila

              Rodríguez de Montemayor que nació en Monterrey, N.L. en 1627 y murió el 28 de

              agosto de 1672 en Monterrey, N.L. hija de Miguel del Canto Montemayor y de

              Mónica Rodríguez Treviño; el tercer matrimonio fue en Monterrey, N.L. el 1 de

              octubre de 1673 con ( C ) María Inés de Saldivar Sosa y Ayala que nació en 1655

              hija de Diego de Ayala Treviño y Margarita Saldivar Sosa

              En su primer matrimonio Lázaro tuvo a  Miguel de la Garza Falcón y

              Fernández Montemayor de las Casas; en su segundo matrimonio nacieron

              Francisco, Pedro, Santiago, Mónica, María, Gertrudis, Miguel, Ángela, Isabel,

              Isidro, y Joseph de la Garza Falcón y Rodríguez de Montemayor; en su tercer

              matrimonio nacieron Lázaro, Manuel, Marcos, Margarita, Antonio Feliciano,

              María Rosa, Lucas, Juan, y María Josefa de la Garza Falcón y Saldivar Sosa de

              Ayala y Treviño. Joseph de la Garza Falcón y Rodríguez de Montemayor nació en 1680 y se

                  casó el 19 de enero de 1701 en Monterrey, N.L. con Josefa de Sosa de la

                 Garza y de la Rocha que nació en 1682 hija de Juan de Sosa y de Antonia de

                 la Garza de la Rocha.  Joseph Antonio de la Garza Falcón y Sosa de la Garza se casó con

                     Antonia Francisca Guerra Cañamar del Bosque hija de Ignacio Guerra

                     Cañamar de la Garza y de María del Bosque Flores.

                     Los abuelos paternos de Antonia Guerra Cañamar fueron Ignacio Guerra

                    Cañamar Fernández y María de la Garza Rodríguez y Cavazos del Campo.

                     Joseph Antonio y Antonia Francisca tuvieron a 1.-José Antonio Tadeo,

                     Joseph (7-oct-1717 Mty. N.L.), Joseph Lorenzo (26-ago-1729 Mty. N.L.),

                     María Ignacia ( 1732 Montemorelos N.L. se casó en 1749 en Guajuco,

                     N.L. con Joseph de León Rodríguez ), Joseph Santiago Cayetano (7-ago

                     -1732 Mty. N.L.), María Antonia (19-dic-1734 Mty, N.L.), María Antonia

                     Jacinta (30-sep-1739 Mty N.L.), María Josefa ( 15-nov1741 Mty N.L.)y

                     Ana María de la Garza Falcón y Guerra Cañamar ( 1745 Montemorelos

                     N.L. se casó en Montemorelos N.L. primero con Pedro de Iglesias y Santa

                     Cruz y después el 8 de mayo de 1763 con Bernardo de la Garza García)

                     En la lista de los primeros pobladores de Burgos de 1749 están José

                     Antonio Tadeo, Lorenzo ( soltero, algunas armas, seis caballos y salario

                    de 225 pesos), doña María (casada con José de León tienen 3 hijos, armas,

                    cinco caballos y dos burros), Santiago (casado con María Guadalupe, armas

                    y dos caballos) y también está Ana de la Garza (casada con Pedro de

                    Iglesia, armas, seis caballos y salario de 225 pesos)

    José Antonio Tadeo de la Garza Guerra nació el 20 de enero de 1726

                         en  Monterrey, Nuevo León.

                        Esta incluido en la lista del escuadrón de oficiales y soldados con salario

                        que colonizaron Burgos Tamaulipas el 20 de febrero de 1749; y dice

                        estar casado con Clara Treviño, tiene dos hijas, algunas armas, seis

                        caballos y salario de 225 pesos.  Justo de la Garza Treviño se casó con María de Jesús García Cortés

                            hija de Toribio García y de Felipa Cortés Secundino de la Garza García nació el 30 de junio de 1820

                             en Burgos Tamaulipas y fue bautizado en la parroquia de Nuestra

                             Señora de Loreto en Burgos Tamaulipas por fray Buenaventura

                             Carreño el día 3 de julio de 1820 siendo sus padrinos de bautizo

                             Tiburcio de la Garza y Tomasa de la Garza.

                             Francisco Secundino se casó el lunes 5 de noviembre 1838 con Juana

                             María Ignacia Treviño Treviño que nació el 16 de noviembre de

                             1817; y fue bautizada el 25 de noviembre de 1817 por el fray

                             Nepomuceno Olivo.

                             Juana María Ignacia era hija de Guadalupe Treviño y de Narcisa


                             Fueron los padrinos de bodas José María Cano y Rafaela Treviño.

                             Los casó fray Miguel de la Garza García ( posible hermano del novio) Justo Rufino de la Garza Treviño nació el 19 de julio de 1859 y se

                                casó el 26 de julio de 1884 con (A) Eloisa Flores Treviño que nació

                                el 2 de mayo de 1870 y murió el 12 de mayo de 1895 a las ocho y

                                media de la mañana, hija de Carlos Flores y Flores y de Eduviges


                                Eloisa tenía una hermana llamada Blanca Flores Treviño.

                                Eduviges Treviño era hija de José María Treviño.

                                lo del Flores era desde una tal abuela Pilar Flores.

                                Justo Rufino de la Garza Treviño se casó en segundas nupcias con

                                Gaudencia Guillén  Francisco Secundino de la Garza Flores nació en abril de 1887 a

                                    las 12 de la noche; fueron sus padrinos Herculano González y

                                    Pilar Flores ( su abuela);  Francisco Secundino de la Garza Flores

                                    murió el 26 de abril de 1888, en Méndez, Tamaulipas, donde sus

                                    padres residían. de la Garza Flores nació en agosto de 1888 a las 2 de la

                                    mañana; fueron sus padrinos Rafael Dimas Treviño y su hermana

                                    Adela (parece dice vda. de la Garza)

                                    Eduviges se casó con Rafael de la Garza González hijo de

                                    Candelario de la Garza y de Margarita González Justo de la Garza de la Garza se casó con (A) Carmen Herrera

                                        Castillo y tambien con (B) Ignacia Salas Meza: Eloisa de la Garza de la Garza se casó con Octavio Rodríguez

                                        Turrubiates. María de Jesús de la Garza de la Garza se casó con (A)

                                        Guillermo Salazar Pacheco y tuvo segundas nupcias con (B)

                                         Agapito Herrera Acuña hijo de Martín Herrera y de María

                                        Acuña. Guadalupe Candelario de la Garza de la Garza se casó con

                                        Francisca Requena Salazar. de la Garza Flores nació el 18 de agosto 1889 a la una de

                                    la mañana;  Fueron sus padrinos Amado Guillén y su hermana


                                    Enriquito murió  el 23 de abril de 1895 Manuelita de la Garza Flores nació el 1 de abril de 1891 a las

                                   seis de la mañana;  fueron sus padrinos Miguel de la Garza y

                                   Blanca Flores ( hermana de Eloisa) Jesús Maria de la Garza Flores nació el jueves 26 de enero de

                                   1893; fueron sus padrinos Ireneo de la Garza  y su esposa Eusebia

                                    de la Garza.

                                    Jesús Maria se casó con Rebeca Benavides nativa de San

                                    Fernando Tamaulipas. César Octavio de la Garza Benavides.ón de la Garza Flores nació el 24 de agosto de 1894 a la

                                    una de la mañana;  fueron padrinos Julián de la Garza y su esposa

                                    Sara Kelly.

                                    Concepción se casó con Federico Storms. Guillermo Justo Storms de la Garza se casó con Gloria

                                       Rodríguez de la Garza hija de Octavio Rodríguez y de Eloisa de

                                       la Garza de la Garza. Federico Livingston Storms de la Garza Perla Irma Storms de la Garza se casó con Kenneth Collins Acacia Storms de la Garza se casó con Raymond Peters. Acacia de la Garza Guillén se casó con Carlos Velasco Loreto de la Garza Guillén se casó con Petra Rendón Gaudencia de la Garza Rendón María Andrea de la Garza Rendón Justo de la Garza Rendón Loreto de la Garza Rendón Heberto de la Garza Rendón Elvira de la Garza Rendón Marco Antonio de la Garza Rendón Justo Hipólito de la Garza Guillén se casó con María de los

                                     Ángeles González de la Garza Guillén se casó con Roberto Donato Garza. María de Jesús Garza de la Garza Guadalupe de la Garza Guillén se casó con  Alicia Sánchez: Juan José de la Garza Sánchez se casó con Gloria Hernández Francisco Secundino de la Garza Guillén se casó con Rosario

                                        Campos. Rosario de la Garza Campos Francisco de la Garza Campos Elizabeth de la Garza Campos Joaquín de la Garza Campos Rafael de la Garza Campos Mercedes de la Garza Campos Judith de la Garza Campos Carlota de la Garza Guillén se casó con Alfredo Martínez Manaotou María Guadalupe Martínez de la Garza Leticia Martínez de la Garza Elizabeth Martínez de la Garza Alfredo Martínez de la Garza Patricia Martínez de la Garza Juan de la Garza Treviño Irineo de la Garza Treviño Julián de la Garza Treviño Angelita de la Garza Treviño Ignacia de la Garza Treviño Eugenio de la Garza Treviño


Rebeca Benavides Y Cesar Octavio de la Garza Benavides (1924)

Carlota Eugenia de la Garza Guillén (1929)

Acacia de la Garza Guillén

Francisco de la Garza Guillén 
y Rosaro Campos (1944)

Familia Herrera Parra




Arzobispado de Guadalajara, 
Sent by 


Liceo 17. Centro. Apdo. P. 1-331
C.P. 44100
Guadalajara, Jal.
Tels. 3614  55  04; 3942  43 00
Fax: 3658  23  00


Emmo. Sr. Card. D. Juan Sandoval Iñiguez

Excmo. Sr. D. José Trinidad González Rodríguez
Excmo. Sr. Rector D. Miguel Romano Gómez
Excmo. Sr. D. Rafael Martínez Sáinz
Excmo. Sr. D. José María de la Torre Martín

Mons. J. Guadalupe Ramiro Valdés Sánchez

Sr. Pbro. Lic. Juan Pablo Preciado Ramírez

Sr. Pbro. Lic. Juan González González
Tels. 3942  43  02; 3915  19  00 ext 2002

Sr. Pbro. Lic. J. Guadalupe Romero Quezada
Tel. 3915  19  00  ext. 2001

Sr. Pbro. Juan Manuel Estrada Ochoa

Sr. Cura Francisco de la Mora Verdín

Sr. Pbro.  Salvador García Radillo

R.P. Abundio Marentes Ontiveros, OFM

Sr. Cura Daniel Hernández Rosales
Tel. 3613 30 85; 3915  19  32

Sr. Pbro. Ing. Rafael Uribe Pérez
Tel. 3942 43 03; 3915  19  06

Sr. Pbro. J. de Jesús Morán Romero
Tel. 3942 43 04; 3915  19  02

Sr. Pbro. Adalberto González González
Tel. 3942  43  05; 3915  19  03

Sr. Pbro. José Alberto Estévez Chávez
Reforma 362 Zona Centro, 44100 Guadalara, Jal.
Tel. 3654  28  39

Sr. Homero Flores Velasco
Tel. 3915  19  04


José Guadalupe Montenegro 1654,
Colonia Americana
44160 Guadalajara, Jal.
Tel. 3827  37  16;   3915  19  40

Sr. Pbro. Lic. Alfredo Dávalos Rodríguez

Sr. Pbro. Lic. Jorge Jiménez Vázquez

Sr. Pbro. Lic. Luis Heliodoro Salcedo Morales
Sr. Pbro. Lic. Jorge Jiménez Vázquez
Sr. Pbro. Lic. Gerardo Saavedra Martínez
Sr. Pbro. Lic. Fco. Javier Sánchez Camacho
Sr. Pbro. Lic. Guillermo Gutiérrez E.
Sr. Pbro. Lic. Rubén Campos Paredes
Sr. Pbro. Lic. Ignacio Gracián Ordaz.
Sr. Pbro. Lic. J. Jesús Barragán
Sr. Pbro. Lic. D. Fidel Martínez Ramírez

Sr. Pbro. Lic. D. Luis Heliodoro Salcedo Morales
Sr. Pbro. Lic. Jorge Jiménez Vázquez
Sr. Pbro. Lic. Gerardo Saavedra Martínez
Sr. Pbro. Salvador Ramírez Morones
Sr. Pbro. Felipe de Jesús de Alba Pérez
Srta. Lic. Sara Irma Sánchez Retolaza.

Sr. Diácono D. Bernardo Villarruel González
R. M. Felícitas Aguilar Gómez
R. M. Laura Guadalupe Martínez Durán
Srta. Lic. Sara Irma Sánchez Retolaza
Sr. Lic. D. Gustavo González González

Sr. Pbro. David Campos Paredes
Sr. Pbro. Rafael Godínez Roa
Sr. Pbro. J. Jesús Ceja Alvarez
Hna. Felícitas Aguilar Gómez

Mons. Carlos Romero Ornelas
Mons. Ramiro Valdés Sánchez
Sr. Cango. D. Luis Martínez Jiménez
Sr. Pbro. Gamaliel Cortés Ibáñez
Sr. Pbro. Rubén Candelario Arellano

M.I.Sr. D. Hermión Aranda De Alba

Srta. Fátima Razón Delgadillo
Sra. Cecilia González de Cedillo
Sra. Beatriz Muñán de Martínez
Srta. María Isabel González Cuadra.

Párrocos de la Arquidiócesis de Guadalajara

Srta. Lic. Lucía González García
Srta. Lic. Sara Irma Sánchez Retolaza
Sr. Lic. D. Gustavo González González
Sr. Lic. D. Enrique M. Camarena Font-Reulae
Sr. Lic. D. Elías Hernández Orozco
Sr. Lic. D. Felipe Torres Pacheco
Sr. Lic. D. Jesús Aguirre Anguiano

Para las demás Diócesis
Sr. Pbro. Dr. Antonio García Rangel
Oficina: Argentina 490
Col. Americana
44160 Guadalajara, Jal.
Tel. 3827  37  15

Tel. 3942 43 09; 3915 19 61.

Tel. 3942 43 08

Tel. 3942 43 08

The Descendents of Governor Lope de Sosa
Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 1
1. GOVERNOR LOPE1 DE SOSA was born in Cordoba, Spain, and died Jun 1520 in Darien, Costa Rica, New Spain. He married Dona INES DE CABRERA. She was born in Cordoba, Spain.
Governor and Captain General of the Canary Islands. Source:From the books, With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine and Mil Familias III, by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 26.
Who's Who of the Conquistadors by Hugh Thomas. Page 385.
Children of LOPE DE SOSA and INES DE CABRERA are:
2. i. JUAN-ALONSO2 DE SOSA-CABRERA, b. Cordova, Spain; d. 1564, Nueva Galicia, New Spain (Mexico).

Generation No. 2
2. JUAN-ALONSO2 DE SOSA-CABRERA (LOPE1 DE SOSA) was born in Cordova, Spain, and died 1564 in Nueva Galicia, New Spain (Mexico). He married ANA ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA 1511 in Mexico City, F.D., Mexico?, daughter of the Royal Treasurer Don ALONSO DE ESTRADA and Dona MARIANA GUTIERREZ-FLORES-DE-LA-CABALLERIA. She was born Abt. 1492, and died in Nueva Galicia, New Spain (Mexico).
In 1551 he arrived in New Spain (Mexico). By 1553, he was the Royal Treasurer of New Spain.
From the book, With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 70.
Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 26.
Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 26.
4. ii. LOPE DE SOSA.
5. iii. JUAN-ALONSO DE ESTRADA, b. 03 Feb 1542, Villa Qrquedo, Toledo, Spain.

Of the House of the Marqueses of Astorga.
A priest.

Generation No. 3
Notes for LOPE DE SOSA:
He married his first cousin. Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 84.
iii. JUANA DE SOSA, m. NICOLAS MERCADO, 21 May 1657, Asuncion, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico.
iv. LOPE SOSA-Y-CASTILLA, m. NICOLASA ALTAMIRANO-Y-CASTILLA, 11 Feb 1665, Asuncion, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico.

He went by the name Alonso de Estrada. Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza.
Page 84.
8. i. ESTEBAN4 DE SOSA-GUEVARA, b. Santa Olalla, Toledo, Spain.

Notes for LOPE DE SOSA:
He married his first cousin. Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 84.
Children are listed above under (4) Lope de Sosa.
[Broderbund Family Archive #354, Ed. 1, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, Date of Import: Sep 20, 2002, Internal Ref. #1.354.1.1428.23]
Individual: Fernando Altamirano. Place: Cartagena. Year: 1592
Primary Individual: Altamirano, Fernando
Source Code: 1623.2
Source Name:DIEZ, MA. DEL CARMEN GALBIS. Catalogo de Pasajeros a Indias Durante los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII. Archivo General de Indias Sevilla. Murcia, Spain: Ministerio de Cultura. 1986. Vol. 7 (1586-1599). 998p.
Source Annotation:
"Catalog of Passengers to the Indies during the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries." Date of application for emigration and intended destination. Extracted from documents in the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, copies of which are among the holdings of the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. Continuation of series by Luis Romera Iruela and Ma. Del Carmen Galbis Diez, see nos. 3456.8-3456.10 below. Source Page #: 212


Generation No. 4

8. ESTEBAN4 DE SOSA-GUEVARA (JUAN-ALONSO3 DE ESTRADA, JUAN-ALONSO2 DE SOSA-CABRERA, LOPE1 DE SOSA) was born in Santa Olalla, Toledo, Spain. He married ANA DE ALBORNOZ Abt. 1529, daughter of BERNARDO DE ALBORNOZ and ISABEL VASQUEZ-DE-TAPIA. She was born in Santa Olalla, Toledo, Spain.
11. ii. FRANCISCO DE SOSA-GUEVARA-Y-ALBORNOZ, b. 1530, Santa Olalla, Spain.

12. ii. LEONOR DE AYALA-VALVERDE, b. 1580.

He served as Mayor of the city of Zacatecas.
A.K.A. Juan de Saldivar Cortes Moctezuma.


Generation No. 5

11. FRANCISCO5 DE SOSA-GUEVARA-Y-ALBORNOZ (ESTEBAN4 DE SOSA-GUEVARA, JUAN-ALONSO3 DE ESTRADA, JUAN-ALONSO2 DE SOSA-CABRERA, LOPE1 DE SOSA) was born 1530 in Santa Olalla, Spain. He married INES DE TAPIA-Y-SOSA 1548 in Xochitla, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico, daughter of ANDRES DE TAPIA and ISABEL DE SOSA. She was born in Spain, and died in Mexico City, F.D., Mexico.
In the book, Mil Familias III, by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, he is listed as a descendent of the Don Alonso of Estrada. Page 85.
Conquistador of Nueva Galicia, Mexico.
Marriage Notes for FRANCISCO DE SOSA-GUEVARA-Y-ALBORNOZ and INES DE TAPIA-Y-SOSA: Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 85.
i. CAPTAIN ALONSO6 DE SOSA-ALBORNOZ, b. Abt. 1549, Xochitle, Mexico F.D., Mexico; d. Abt. 1601, Murdered at San Gabriel, New Mexico; m. (1) JUANA RAMIREZ-ORTIZ-DE-LA-VEGA; m. (2) MARIA-BEATRIZ NAVARRO-RODRIGUEZ-CASTANO-SOSA, 1593, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; b. Abt. 1575; d. Dec 1674, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Murder of a Member of the 1598 New Mexico Expedition 
A native of New Spain, Captain Alonso Sosa Albornoz, one of the founders of the mines at San Martin, was born in 1550 at Xochitla, New Spain (Mexico). He was the son of Don Francisco de Sosa Albornoz and Dona Inés de Tapia and a descendent of the Royal Treasurer of New Spain, Don Alonso de Estrada, the Duke of Aragon. 
He was married twice. His first marriage occurred in 1565 to Dona Juana Ramirez, a native of New Spain, and born about 1550. After the death of his first wife, Captain Alonso married the Dona Beatris Navarro Rodriguez. This marriage took place on or about 1589 in Mexico City. Dona Beatris was much younger than her husband, having been born in 1564. She was the daughter of Don Juan Navarro and Dona Maria Rodriguez
Captain Alonso is listed on the January 8, 1598 muster of the officials and soldiers who enlisted in the Valley of La Puana for Governor Don Juan de Onate's expedition into New Mexico. On the muster, his belongings included a servant, harquebus (a early type of portable gun supported on a hooked staff), and complete armor plate for himself and his horse. Also in this expedition was his wife Dona Beatriz and their five children. It is possible that his children from his previous marriage may have also accompanied him. By the time of this expedition these children would have been older than eighteen years and could have gone their separate ways.
As one of New Mexico's first settlers, he would be executed for requesting to be transfer back to New Spain. This settlement was located in the far frontier of Spain's vast Empire. Finding itself removed from all civilization, this harsh land was rendering the settlers to extreme hardships. Not wanting to endure any further hardship, Captain Alonso asked for permission to return his family to New Spain. At first his request had granted, but apparently to prevent a mutiny, the governor had second thoughts. It is recorded that Governor Juan de Oñate ordered Don Alonso's killing and in 1601, under the command of Don Vicente de Zaldivar, Captain Alonso was ambushed and killed. 
After Don Alonso's death, and finding herself completely vulnerable in a hostile and remote environment, Dona Beatris would married a native of Tenerife, Canary Island, Spain, Captain Bernabe de las Casas. This marriage took place in New Mexico. This marriage provided her the security and protection for her and her five children. Her marriage to Bernabe would add five additional children. 
Captain Alonso Sosa Albornoz and Dona Beatris Navarro Rodriguez had the following child: Ana Sosa Albornoz was born in Mexico around 1590. She married Alonso Farias Treviño in Nuevo León. He was the son of Don Juan Farias and Dona Maria de Treviño Quintanilla. There are many descendants of Captain Alonso who are the progeny of his daughter, Ana Sosa Albornoz.
A.K.A. Alonso Albornoz de Sosa and Alonso de Sosa Panalosa
Source: Agapito Rey and George Hammond, Don Juan de Oñate Colonizer of New México 1595 - 1628 (Coronado Historical Series: The University of New México Press, 1953); New México Historical Review The Founding of New México. 
A History of New Mexico by Gaspar Perez de Villagra, Alcala - 1610, translated by Gilberto Espinosa.
In the book, Mil Familias III, by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, he is listed as a descendent of the Don Alonso of Estrada, Duke of Aragon. Page 85.
New Mexico's First Colonists, compiled and arranged by David H. Snow.
Land of the Conquistador by Cleve Hallenbeck.

A.K.A. Beatriz de Navarro.
She was widowed with five children.
Source:From the book, New Mexico's First Colonists, compiled and arranged by David H. Snow.
Marriage source from the book, Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 25.
ii. ANA DE SOSA-ALBORNOZ, d. Bef. 02 Sep 1591, Mexico City, F.D. Mexico?.

12. LEONOR5 DE AYALA-VALVERDE (MARIANA4 DE GUEVARA-ESTRADA, JUAN-ALONSO3 DE ESTRADA, JUAN-ALONSO2 DE SOSA-CABRERA, LOPE1 DE SOSA) was born 1580. She married JOSEPH-DIEGO DE TREMINO-Y-QUINTANILLA Abt. 1603, son of JOSE-DIEGO DE TREMINO and BEATRIZ DE QUINTANILLA-DE-FARIAS. He was born 22 Mar 1565 in Ciudad de Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico, and died 1651 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Descendent of the infante Don Vela, son of Don Sancho Ramirez, the King of Aragon.
Source:From the book Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza.
Note:The Surname - Tremino - is how he signed his name.
In 1603, both he and his wife entered the state of Nuevo Leon. Source:From the book Origin of the Surnames Garza and Trevino in Nuevo Leon by Tomas Mendirichaga Cueva.
Marriage source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 316.
Fundadores de Nueva Galicia - Guadalajara - Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 145.

i. CAPTAIN JUAN-JOSE6 DE AYALA, b. Abt. 1603, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. 10 Apr 1694, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (2) ANA-MARIA BAEZ-DE-BENAVIDES-MARTINEZ, Abt. 1644, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. Abt. 1627; d. 07 Jun 1677, Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
A.K.A. Jose de Ayala.
ii. ALONSO TREVINO-Y-AYALA, b. Abt. 1606; m. MARIA DE-LAS-CASAS-NAVARRO; b. 1604, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. Abt. 1694, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.
She signed her last will and testament on March 1, 1694.
Source:From the book Testamentos Coloniales de Monterrey by Lilia E. Villanueva de Cavazos.
iii. GENERAL DIEGO DE AYALA-TREVINO, b. Abt. 1610, Mexico City, D. F., Mexico; d. 25 Dec 1682, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (1) ANA DE OVALLE-FLORES-DE-VALDEZ, Abt. 1630, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (2) MARGARITA SALDIVAR-DE-SOSA, 21 Jan 1652/53, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1635, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (3) MARIA DE-LA-GARZA-RODRIGUEZ-DE-MONTEMAYOR, 10 Oct 1673, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. Abt. 1633, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. 16 Apr 1698, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
He signed his last will and testament on December 23, 1682. Archives of the City of Monterrey.

Source:From the book Origin of the Surnames Garza and Trevino in Nuevo Leon by Tomas Mendirichaga Cueva.
Descendent of the Onate Family of Zacatecas. In the book, Mil Familias III, by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, she is listed as a descendent of the Don Alonso de Estrada, the Duke of Aragon. Page 99
A.K.A. Margarita de Sosa

Marriage source:From the book, Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara, by Raul J. Guerra., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 269.
Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 326.
Source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara, by Raul J. Guerra., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 23
v. ANA DE TREVINO, b. Abt. 1612; d. 04 Nov 1669, Saltillo, Coahulia, Mexico; m. (1) JUAN SERRANO-CABRERA; b. Sevilla, Spain; d. Abt. 1658, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (2) SERGEANT MAJOR MIGUEL SANCHEZ-SAENZ, 1624; b. 1580, Spain.
Marriage source:From the books, Fundadores de Nueva Galicia - Guadalajara - Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal (Page 149), and Origin of the Surnames Garza and Trevino in Nuevo Leon by Tomas Mendirichaga Cueva.

vi. JUAN DE TREVINO, b. Abt. 1613, Mexico City, F.D., Mexico.
vii. CAPTAIN FRANCISCO-ALEJO DE TREVINO-AYALA, b. Abt. 1617, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. Bef. 1684, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. MARIA DE ARRIOLA-MELENDEZ; b. 1620; d. 06 Jun 1684, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
viii. LEONOR DE VALVERDE, b. 1620; d. Bef. Oct 1684; m. SERGEANT ALONSO GARCIA; b. 1618, Atlixco, Puebla, Mexico; d. Bef. Oct 1684.

Source: From the book "Estudios Genealogea by Don Ricardo Ortega y Perez Gallardo".
Mesa Family History Center Collection, Mesa Arizona.

i. JUANA6 DE SALDIVAR-MIRANDA, m. JOSE DE MAGANA-Y-CASTILLA, 06 Aug 1684, Asuncion, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico.
Descendent of the Royal families of Castilla (Spain) and Portugal.

1. Estudios Genealogia by Don Ricardo Ortega y Perez Gallardo.

Villa de San Miguel el Grande
Informes: Graciela Cruz López

Estimados colegas:

En la ciudad de San Miguel de Allende, Gto., tenemos año y medio trabajando en un proyecto de investigación histórica, que abordará la historia del siglo XVIII de la entonces villa de San Miguel el Grande, rescatando fuentes  de diversos archivos y colecciones locales (Archivo parroquial, colecciones familiares), regionales (Guanajuato, Querétaro, Jalisco, Morelia), nacionales (AGN, colecciones de museos), extranjeros (AGI, AHPV, ADFV, AHPA, ADFA, ADV, ADFG, AHN, BN, RAHM, en Sevilla, Vizcaya, Álava, Guipúzcoa, Madrid). Es una nueva propuesta historiográfica, que además será el regalo del gobierno municipal a la ciudad por el festejo de los 450 años de la fundación de la villa de San Miguel el Grande.

En este marco de celebraciones, hemos preparado una exposición fotográfica, que mostrará en una primera entrega, 18 tesoros documentales y fotográficos, parte del trabajo de investigación y recopilación documental del proyecto "Como un libro sobre un atril: La villa de San Miguel el Grande hacia el siglo XVIII".

La muestra fotográfica estará instalada en la balaustrada del atrio parroquial, 5 panorámicas del conjunto parroquial y 5 panorámicas de la ciudad. La mayor parte de ellas de la primera mitad del siglo XX, sus autores son las verdaderas columnas de la tradición fotográfica en la ciudad, Don Arturo Suárez y Agustín Valadez Estrada; acompañan a estas imágenes dos detalles de un lienzo del siglo XVIII, un formidable paisaje de la traza de la villa de San Miguel, el Santuario de Atotonilco y sus alrededores.

En el interior del Museo del Ayuntamiento (Presidencia Municipal), se mostrarán 8 reproducciones de algunos de los tesoros documentales, que el proyecto de investigación antes citado, ha obtenido de la colección parroquial, el Santuario de Atotonilco, Archivo General de la Nación, Real
Academia de la Historia, Madrid y Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla. La exposición de inaugurará el 18 de diciembre, a las 19: 00 horas, en las rejas del atrio parroquial, para dar paso unos minutos más tarde a la segunda parte instalada en el Museo del Ayuntamiento; fuera de este día, podrá visitarse por lo que reste de diciembre y todo el mes de enero. Hacemos una invitación para este evento a la comunidad académica del Grupo H - México, que ha sido muy importante en nuestra formación. Sin otro asunto, me despido, agradeciendo su tiempo y atención.

Graciela Cruz López
Coordinadora General
Proyecto de investigación histórica: "Como un libro sobre un atril: La villa de San Miguel el Grande hacia el siglo XVIII", Municipio de San Miguel de Allende, Gto.
Oficinas: Teatro Angela Peralta, Mesones No. 82, Zona Centro, San Miguel de
Allende, Gto. Tels. 01 415 15 2 63 85



The Pirates and Buccaneers of Panama
Henry Morgan: The King of All Pirates
Comevacas y Tiznaos


The Pirates and Buccaneers of Panama

Sent by John Inclan
Spanish records indicate that in 1679, Juan Guartem, Eduardo Blomar and Bartolomé Charpes, buccaneers, navigated up the Manginga River, and across the Isthmus of Panamá. They arrived at the town of Chepo, on the Pacific coast, and plundered and burnt the town.  Spanish forces sent out by the Viceroy of Panamá to Chepo, were not able to capture them and they escaped into the jungle. 
In frustration, the Viceroy tried them in absentia and sentenced them to death.  Not having in their possession any of the three pirates for their scheduled execution, they hung them in effigy at Santa Fé de Bogotá in 1680. Meanwhile, the three continued to ravage and plunder the North and South coast of Panamá.

Henry Morgan: The King of All Pirates
Author: Krzysztof Wilczynski  Number of articles: 45 

In the year 1655 England seized a weakly guarded Spanish Island: Jamaica, and converted it into an English colony. The guards defending the Island were generally taken from the streets, and represented the worst criminal elements. The guards were thieves, murderers, and cheats. From this band of criminals formed many groups of buccaneers who terrorized the region. At this time Henry Morgan began his overwhelming pirate career. 

This gives the reader a background of what was to come of Henry Morgan: from an ordinary soldier, to a never crowned king of Jamaica. Morgan earned fame and respect among his friends and enemies alike thanks to his successful (and profitable) attacks on Vilahermosa (Capital of the Mexican province Tobasco), and Gran Granada (the silver mining center of Nicaragua). 

Gran Granada, for those times considered a large and prosperous city, was located 200 kilometers inland on the shore of Nicaragua Lake. Access to the town was restricted by dense wild Jungle. Henry Morgan embarked on a difficult and daring escapade involving a long and dangerous journey through the unexplored jungle. This expedition was followed by a triumphant lightning assault on Gran Granada. The attack yielded enormous spoils, and was considered a great success for Henry Morgan. 

Henry Morgan was pleasantly surprised upon his return to Jamaica: the island had a newly appointed commander of all English troops in the west Indies, this commander was Henry Morgan’s uncle. 

So the continuing pirate career of Henry Morgan was so secured. After the death of Henry Morgan’s uncle (Edward Morgan), the governor of Jamaica chose Henry Morgan to become the commander of the militia in Port Royal. By 1668 Henry Morgan was already an English vice admiral of a fleet of 15 ships. At the same time pirates elected Henry Morgan to become the successor to Edward Mansfield (leader of all pirate activities in Jamaica). As an English officer and pirate general: Henry Morgan became the terror of all Spaniards in the West Indies. 

In 1668 Morgan made two pirating ventures. Morgan’s attack on the inland city of Peurto Principe (pwert-o PREEN-the-pay), Cuba, was considered his first Major attack. Unfortunately for Morgan, his crew of pirates were ambushed along the way, and only took the city with bitter struggle and great loss. Things got worse for Morgan when word came that the city’s treasure had been hidden. Morgan and his crew were forced to settle for 50,000 pieces of eight in return for sparing their captives. Half of Morgan’s crew quit after the attack on Puerto Principle. Morgan was not discouraged, and announced plans for attacking the great treasure city of Porto Bello, Panama. Experienced sea pirates scoffed at the plan: Porto Bello was larger, better fortified, and had an army troop when compared to Puerto Principle. Morgan, however, had a plan. When he attacked Porto Bello, he arrived on canoes, silently, and under the cover of darkness, Morgan’s men slipped into the harbor before anyone knew they were there. The first two forts of Porto Bello both fell quickly, but the third withstood each attack the pirates implemented. Morgan finally devised a sinister plan: he used captured catholic priests and nuns to shield his crew as they climbed the walls of the fort. It was only a matter of time before the city fell into the hands of Henry Morgan, along with 250,000 pieces of eight, and 300 slaves. When word of this attack spread, Morgan’s force swelled to 15 ships and 900 men. Henry Morgan was quickly known by the nickname: Morgan "the terrible".

A year later Morgan led an expedition of 8 ships and 650 buccaneers to attack the Venezuelan cities of Marcaibo (a coastal city located at the mouth of an inland lake) and Gilbraltar (located on the other side of the lake). Compared with his last venture, the plunder was not comparable, and Morgan found the cities virtually deserted. The result: 50,000 English pounds, and slaves and goods of the same value. When the pirates tried to sail from the lake, they found that their exit had been blocked. Maracaibo’s powerful fort had their gun trained on Morgan, and three huge Spanish men-o-war stood just outside the channel. Morgan offered the Spanish the option of surrender, instead of accepting, the Spanish laughed. Morgan decided to teach them a lesson they would, indeed, never forget. Morgan had his lead ship (a small sloop, covered with pitch, tar, and brimstone.) loaded with kegs of gunpowder, and had dummies (made of pumpkins and wood, dressed as buccaneers) placed at battle stations throughout his ship. While the Spanish still laughed the small vessel slowly approached them and suddenly burst into flames, it then exploded: sinking the first man-o-war, and burning the second to the hull. The remaining man-o-war was easily captured by the pirates. Once again Morgan offered the Spanish the option of surrender: once again the Spanish refused. Shrugging his shoulders Morgan had his crew embark for shore with longboats: upon seeing this the Spanish assumed the pirates were massing for a land attack. As a result the Spanish moved their cannon to the other side of the fort. Before the Spanish had a chance to move the cannon back into place, Morgan took advantage of the opportunity by safely sailing past the fort that night. Only then did the Spaniards finally realize that they had been tricked: instead of landing on the other side of the jetty, Morgan’s men had simply crouched below the gunwale and returned to their ships. After this battle, Henry Morgan was the undisputed king of the buccaneers. 

In January 1670, Morgan set out after the largest venture of his career, to plunder the gold of Panama. Answering his call, 2000 buccaneers on 36 ships assembled to prepare for an attack on Panama. Once Morgan took over Fort San Lorenzo, he led his crew on a rough 16-day journey through dense almost impassable Jungle. The Spaniards were prepared for Morgan, and six hundred cavalry swooped down on the pirates. Thousands of muskets fired; both sides took their loses, but the pirates held their ground. A stampede of 2,000 Spanish bulls did not deter the pirates, and the Spanish finally fled in retreat. The city belonged to the buccaneers, and yielded 100,000 English Pounds. Unfortunately, at that time, England was no longer at war with Spain. Morgan was recalled to England and thrown into the dungeons to stand trial as a pirate. However, King Charles II, learning about Morgan’s great deeds, knighted him instead in 1673, making him lieutenant governor of Jamaica. Morgan was ordered to rid the seas from all buccaneers. 

Morgan had done well in executing the Kings orders. When he died in 1688 there were almost no buccaneers left. 

Henry Morgan was one of the most ruthless of pirates, his daring, brutality, and intelligence made him the most feared, and respected buccaneer of all time. Henry Morgan really was the king of all pirates. 


«Comevacas y tizna(d)os» (5.5 x 8.5 paperback, 284 páginas) reconstruye, por la vía de la historia documental y oral, el escenario social de una rebelión campesina ocurrida en el pueblo de San Sebastián del Pepino en 1898, misma que fue secuela directa de la Invasión Norteamericana y las consecuencias económicas originadas y agravadas por la Guerra Hispano Americana. López Dzur nos da una pintura de la influencia que dejara el movimiento anarcosindical y libertario peninsular y las injusticias y desigualdades inherentes a un régimen colonial, cuyo liderazgo local aún representó los intereses del caciquismo conservador.
Contiene fotos, extensa bibliografía y apéndices, que bosquejan la historia de este pueblo puertorriqueños, los eventos de mayor trascendencia e impacto y lo ocurrido, desde antes de la Guerra Hispanoamericana hasta el final del periodo de quemas de haciendas, viviendas, robos, ultrajes y asesinatos, que se extendieran de 1898 a 1906.

Carlos López Dzur es un historiador, poeta y narrador, graduado en las universidades de Puerto Rico (UPR), San Diego State University y Montana State. Es candidato al PhD en Filosofía Contemporánea en UC, Irvine, y autor de más de una docena de libros poéticos y de ficción. Este es uno de los trabajos de la serie en preparación «Trece monografías sobre historia pepiniana».

Su libro acaba de ser publicado por Outkirts Press, Inc. de Parker, Colorado, y puede adquirirse en: href="">Comevacas
y Tiznaos




S: Mas Sobre Los Restos de Colon 
S: Mini-bios
Recommended Websites:
     Zaragoza, Spain 
     Tenerife, Canary Islands

Real Academia Espanola
     History of the Spanish Arts


La prensa española publica en 28 de noviembre una información sobre los restos del Almirante Cristóbal Colon que creemos puede ser interesante conocer como complemento a mis artículos sobre este tema y publicados en “Somos Primos”.

Según declaraciones de Juan Antonio Lorente, director del Laboratorio de Identificación Genética de la Universidad de Granada, los resultados de la investigación que se desarrolla para esclarecer si los restos que se encuentran en la Catedral de Sevilla pertenecen al insigne marino, se presentarán en el 2006 coincidiendo con el quinto centenario de la muerte de Cristóbal Colon.

Aunque todavía la Republica Dominicana no ha dado autorización para estudiar los restos que se guardan en Santo Domingo, el Dr. Lorente dijo que se conocerán los resultados de Sevilla independientemente de la información que en su día puedan aportar los otros restos.

Ángel Custodio Rebollo


Sent by John Inclan

Juan Bravo Se cree que nació en Atienza (Guadalajara) hacia el año 1483. Era miembro de una familia aristocrática y corregidor de Segovia. Estaba casado con María Coronel. Después de las Cortes de La Coruña, 29 de mayo de 1520, levantó a su ciudad en armas y después de que el procurador segoviano Rodrigo de Tordesillas fuera apaleado por el pueblo, le mandó ahorcar al día siguiente, por haber votado favorablemente al rey en las Cortes de la Coruña. El regente de Carlos I, Adriano de Utrech mandó al alcaide Ronquillo, al objeto de prender a Juan Bravo y sofocar la revuelta segoviana. 

Sin embargo, las fuerzas comuneras recibieron refuerzos de Madrid y Toledo y derrotaron al enviado del futuro Papa Adriano VI. El resto de las fuerzas imperiales se hicieron fuertes en el Alcázar de Segovia y allí estuvieron hasta el final de la revuelta comunera.

Junto a Juan de Zapata (capitán de Madrid), Juan de Padilla (Toledo) y Francisco de Maldonado (Salamanca) representó a los castellanos sublevados ante la reina Juana en Tordesillas. Finalmente, fue derrotado en Villalar, donde cayó prisionero. Fue condenado sumariamente a muerte y ejecutado en la plaza de dicho pueblo. 

En el momento de subir al cadalso pidió ser ajusticiado el primero por no ver la ejecución de sus compañeros. Al ser trasladado su cadáver a Segovia se formó un tumulto que tuvo que ser reprimido con grandes dificultades por las autoridadades reales.

Juan de Padilla

Noble castellano, nacido en Toledo en 1480. Era jefe de las milicias de Toledo. Estaba casado con María Pacheco. En 1519 se unió al movimiento de las comunidades castellanas. Acudió a Segovia en ayuda de Juan Bravo, siendo designado poco después jefe del ejército comunero el 29 de julio de 1520. Vuelve a Toledo, después de ceder el mando a Pedro Girón. Pero la deserción de éste en diciembre al bando de Carlos I, hace que Padilla vuelva nuevamente a Valladolid el 31 de diciembre con un nuevo ejército toledano. Erigido nuevamente en lider de los comuneros, conquistó Ampudia y Torrelobatón. Sucedió estó el 28 de febrero de 1521.

Desgraciadamente, los mandos comuneros no supieron aprovechar estos avatares y decidieron permanecer en Torrelobatón, durante casi dos meses, dando tiempo a la reorganización de los ejércitos realistas. Finalmente ante la llegada de los ejércitos realistas, decide trasladar sus efectivos hasta la fortaleza de Toro. Cogidos en medio de una intensa lluvia sus hombres son literalmente masacrados por la caballería del Conde de Haro, perdiendo entre 200 y 1000 hombres según las fuentes. El resto se dispersa o son hechos prisioneros.

Al día siguiente después de un juicio sumarísimo, los tres cabecillas son declarados culpables y condenados a morir por decapitación.

Antes de subir al cadalso, Juan de Padilla le dijo a su camarada Juan Bravo unas célebres palabras que han quedado para la posteridad:

"Señor Bravo: ayer era día de pelear como caballero...hoy es día de morir como cristiano"

Esto originó que Juan Bravo pidiera ser ejecutado antes que Padilla, "para no ver la muerte de tan buen caballero".

Francisco de Maldonado

Nació en 1480 en Salamanca. Era capitán de las tropas de Salamanca. Se unió al movimiento comunero y acudió a Torrelobatón en ayuda de las fuerzas de Padilla y Juan Bravo. Atacó Tordesillas, pero esta ciudad recibió refuerzos de las tropas realistas. Entonces sus fuerzas se acantaronaron en la fortaleza de Toro, desde donde acudió a Torrelobatón, para ser vencido poco después en Villalar. Su decapitación, junto con sus compañeros, fue el principio del fin de la guerra de las comunidades de Castilla.

Maria Pacheco

Dama castellana, era hija del conde de Tendilla, Iñigo López de Mendoza y de Francisca Pacheco, hija de Juan de Pacheco, Marqués de Villena, de quien tomó su apellido. En el año 1510, su padre la casó con un noble toledano, Juan de Padilla, lo que no la sentó nada bien, porque pensaba que el hidalgo era de inferior rango.

Al comienzo de instó a su marido a unir Toledo a la causa comunera. Cuando Padilla abandonó Toledo por avatares de la guerra, ésta quedó gobernando sola la ciudad hasta que llegó el obispo Acuña, el cual había tomado parte activa en la batalla de Torrelobatón. 

Cuando después del desastre de Villalar, su esposo y los demás jefes comuneros son ejecutados, las ciudades castellanas capitulan una tras otra, excepto Toledo. María se hace cargo del gobierno de la ciudad. Guarnece las puertas, coloca artillería en puntos estratégicos y nombra directamente los capitanes para la defensa. La mayoría de sus antiguos colaboradores eran partidarios de capitular pero ella se mantiene firme. Incluso el obispo Acuña huye en el mes de mayo. 

Las tropas de Carlos V cercan Toledo y María llega a apuntar con sus cañones a los propios toledanos para evitar la deserción y el decaimiento del ánimo de la tropa. Coincidiendo con el nombramiento de Papa del Cardenal Adriano de Utrech, se forma una conspiración para derribar y entregar a María, pero el pueblo toledano se levanta en armas y hace frente a la amenaza.

Finalmente, viéndolo todo perdido, huye de Toledo disfrazada de aldeana y se acoge a la protección del arzobispo de Braga, quien desatiende continuamente los llamamientos de Carlos V a la expulsión de su huésped. 

Por su enconada resistencia, fue excluída de cualquier tipo de perdón otorgado por Carlos V a los comuneros. En marzo de 1531 muere siendo enterrada en la catedral de Oporto, por no conceder el rey permiso para que sus restos reposaran en Villalar junto a los de su marido, como era su deseo.

Sus hazañas la hicieron grandemente famosa entre el pueblo castellano, que la llamó cariñosamente, "la leona de Castilla".


Publicado en Odiel Información el 13 de diciembre de 2005
Por: Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso 

Leyendo un libro sobre Pedro Menéndez de Avilés y la colonización de la Florida y entre las muchas misiones, iglesias y conventos que los españoles fundaron me encuentro con un nombre que me crea la necesidad de conseguir una mayor información porque es un nombre que por razones familiares me atrae. y trataba de la Misión denominada de San Juan del Puerto.

Como en el libro no ponía nada mas que el nombre, empiezo a indagar en Internet y tampoco consigo nada, busco unos mapas de La Florida y también negativo, por lo que tuve que enviar un correo a la Diócesis de Orlando y me enteré de lo siguiente: en el año 1587, fue fundada por los franciscanos una misión que servia para convertir a los indígenas locales (Timucuan y otros) en la isla de Alimacani, en la Florida y que llevaba el nombre de San Juan del Puerto. En esta vivió en 1595 un franciscano muy conocido, el padre Francisco Pareja, que escribió en ella un confesionario, que ha sido muy importante para obtener información sobre los indios Timucuan y su idioma, Esta misión fue destruida en 1597 por los indios Guale y en 1600 fue reedificada, dándole consistencia para aguantar cien años mas. Y fue en el año 1702, cuando por un ataque de indios procedentes de Carolina del Norte, quedó totalmente destruida y no se volvió a reedificar..Esta misión estaba localizada en la isla de Fuente George, en el noreste de Florida.

Lo que no he podido localizar es el nombre de su fundador, pero estoy en ello.
          Custodio Rebollo.
Publicado en Odiel Información el 14 de diciembre de 2005
Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso  

Cuando leemos algún libro o articulo sobre el mestizaje en el descubrimiento de América, es imposible no encontrar el nombre de un onubense, digo onubense, porque unos historiadores dicen que nació en Palos de la Frontera y otros en Niebla, ambos de la actual provincia de Huelva. Se trata de Gonzalo Guerrero, que en 1511, cuando iba de Panamá a Cuba, al pasar por la zona de Yucatán, su barco naufragó y solo se salvaron 13 que en un pequeño bote estuvieron a la deriva hasta que encontraron tierra firme. Pero nada mas llegar a tierra fueron apresados por los indígenas. Inmediatamente el Cacique de la tribu ordenó que fueran sacrificados cinco españoles, lo que aprovecharon otros para huir y tres de ellos murieron de enfermedad, quedando solo el padre Jerónimo de Aguilar y Gonzalo Guerrero. Cuando vieron los indígenas que estos dos tenían tatuajes los consideraron  importantes y no los sacrificaron. Gonzalo Guerrero se enamoró de Aixchel la hija del Señor de Zamma, a quien  salvó del ataque de una fiera. Se integró en la tribu y ayudó a los mayas en el arte militar para defenderse de las tribus cercanas y fue alcanzando rango hasta convertirse en  Jefe.

Cuando se enteró Cortés envió una partida para rescatar a los dos españoles; el padre Aguilar marchó inmediatamente pero Guerrero dijo: “aquí me tienen por el Jefe, me he casado y tengo tres hijos, tengo labrada la cara y horadadas las orejas. ¿ Como me recibirían en Castilla ¿”

Y los hijos de Gonzalo fueron los primeros mestizos de Hispanoamérica   

Publicado en Odiel Información el 7 de diciembre de 2005

Por: Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso 

Todos conocemos, porque se ha publicado hasta la saciedad, la descripción de los cuatro viajes que realizo el Almirante Cristóbal Colon a lo que el llamó Las Indias, pero sabemos muchos de todos estos viajes a excepción del segundo, del que no existe ni el diario de a bordo ni ninguna trascripción como las que hizo de otros Fray Bartolomé de la Casas, aunque se conocen datos por lo que escribieron dos miembros de la expedición; Michele de Cuneo, de Savona, y que se decía era amigo del Almirante desde su infancia y otra de Diego Álvarez., además de un memorial que escribió Colón a los  Reyes Católicos desde La Isabela el 30 de enero de 1494.

Si se sabe que Colón recibió el 29 de mayo de 1493, instrucciones reales , por las que se exponían que el primer objetivo de esta nueva expedición era la conversión de los nativos y en segundo lugar la explotación económica de los descubrimientos, por lo que se embarcaron cinco religiosos, entre ellos el benedictino Fray Buil, y veinte caballeros con sus monturas, además de otros hombres de armas.

Para establecer la flota que debían llevar, trabajaron conjuntamente el Almirante y el Archidiácono de Sevilla, Juan de Fonseca y la nave capitana la llamaron Santa Maria, en recuerdo de la que se perdió el 24 de diciembre de 1492.

En la expedición que partió del puerto de Cádiz el 25 de septiembre de 1493, además de los religiosos y hombres de armas, también iban muchos albañiles, labradores y artesanos, para ir poblando lo recién descubierto.

                                               Custodio Rebollo

Zaragoza, Spain  http://    http://
Sent by Gabriel Villuendas

Tenerife, Canary Islands
Sent by Paul Newfield III

Emphasis on Spanish, the social changes, regional changes, etc.  

History of the Spanish Arts
Sent by Bill Carmena    Outstanding.



S: Historias de la semana
"Saca" is also an Indigenous Surname

Museo de Arte Y Diseno Contemporaneo, San Jose, Costa Rica

S: Historias de la semana (28 noviembre - 4 diciembre, 2005)
Sent by
Magazine format of general heritage information, with links to the articles.

* Homo erectus en México?
Determinan que rocas que contienen posibles huellas humanas tienen una edadde 1.3 millones de años, lo que implicaría que América fue habitada por homínidos mucho antes de lo pensado
Andrés Eloy Martínez Rojas, El Universal, Jueves 1 de diciembre

* Exhiben monumento olmeca en Guatemala
Una réplica de un monumento de barro crudo, probablemente un símbolo para representar la entrada al inframundo en la cultura olmeca, fue presentada el miércoles en Guatemala. l arqueólogo Miguel Orrego dijo el miércoles a la AP que el símbolo original , que data de entre el 900 y 400 años antes de Cristo, fue descubierto a finales del 2004 en la región suroeste del país, cerca de la frontera con México.  El Nuevo Herald, 30 de noviembre

"Saca" is also an Indigenous Surname

            by Jaime Cader

Tony Saca, a Salvadoran of Palestinian heritage, is currently the president of El Salvador.  This author, like that president, also has an Arabic surname and throughout my life I have met and heard about several Palestinian-Salvadoran families.  My "tia politica" Olga Hasbun (in English this surname can be written as Hazboun), whose mother was Salvadoran and whose father was a Palestinian, said that her father was the first Hasbun to emigrate to El Salvador.  There are many
Hasbuns throughout Latin America, including a Roman Catholic priest in Chile, who visited his cousins in El Salvador and a former president of Bolivia (in that country spelled Asbun).

The great majority of Palestinians, who were almost exclusively Christians from Bethlehem, began
emigrating to El Salvador and other Latin American countries around the early 1900s.  A National
Geographic issue of some years ago had an article about Palestinians in Central America.  Being familiar with all of this, I had only known the Saca surname to be of Arabic origins.

Some weeks ago however, I discovered some new information.  I was at my local Family History Center looking at baptismal records on microfilm from the town (presently a city) of Izalco, El Salvador.  In doing so I came across the Saca surname, which seemed strange for various reasons.  First of all, I had not heard of any Palestinians in Izalco previously. Izalco's demographics are such that it is a major Native American center (see three of my previous articles in Somos Primos where I present information on Izalco).  Secondly, these baptismal records were from the early 1800s, and to my knowledge Palestinians had not emigrated to that region during those years, although I have read about a man during the colonial period that was brought to a tribunal for stating publicly that he practiced Islam (published in El Salvador in "El Diario de Hoy" on December 11, 1988).

As I came across other baptismal entries, it could be seen that the individuals mentioned were Native Americans. In the fourth entry on the page before page 129 (it has no page number), in Item One of microfilm number 1521007, there is the following information:

  "Josef de Sta. Salome Saca   Yndio

  Año del ...(there seems to be an abbreviation here, perhaps it stands for Señor) de mil ocho cientos trece dia veinte y quatro de Octubre: Yo el Dn. Man.l Josef Rivera Parraco de esta Yg.a  de Ysalco Bautize un niño nacido dia corriente ... mismo de Josef Gregorio Saca y Manuela de Jesus Puchagua  Yndios casados de este Pueblo a q.n se pus nombre Josef de Sta. Salome: fue su Madrina Ma. del Transito Zepata muger de Nicolas Paste de esta vecindad y p.a  q.e conste la firmo

            Man.l Josef Rivera"

Another entry on page 180 of the same film and item number says:

  "Tomasa Saca   Yndia

  Año del ...(same as above, as in the previous entry -says Sor with a squiggly line above the "o") de mil ocho cientos catorce dia veinte y cinco de Diz.e (looks like it is a "z" in diciembre) Yo el Dn. Man.l Josef Rivera Parraco de esta Yg.a  de Ysalco Bautize una niña nacida dia veinte y uno Manuel de la Cruz Saca y Ma. Florencia...Yndios casados de este Pueblo a qn. se puso por nombre Tomasa fue su Madrina Ma. Pasquala Michua muger de Josef Ma. Quele  Yndia de
esta vecindad y pa. qe. conste lo firmo

            Man.l Josef Rivera"

Thus as can be seen, Saca is also an Indigenous surname in El Salvador.  Perhaps that surname has some relation to the meaning in the name of the Salvadoran city of Zacatecoluca or the Mexican state of Zacatecas.  This author has also checked three books of Spanish surnames and the name Saca or Zaca does not appear in any of them.  This does not prove that it is not also a Spanish surname as some unusual Spanish surnames do not get listed in such books.  In any case, from looking at baptismal records from Izalco, I have found that the surname Saca was one that Native
Americans had in that part of El Salvador.

At the present time it is a rare occurence to encounter individuals having Indigenous surnames in El
Salvador.  This is surely partly the result of intermarriage with the Ladino population.  (In addition, even some Spanish surnames have dwindled in number.  For example, one of my mother's surnames is Cea and I have come across many individuals with that last name in old Salvadoran documents.  It is less frequent now.)

Coleccion Cisneos at Museo de Arte Y Diseno Contemporaneo, San Jose, Costa Rica


WHAT: “Echos and Contrasts: Contemporary Latin American Art from the Colección Cisneros” is an exhibition that brings sixty-one works drawn from the internationally celebrated Colección Cisneros to the Museo de Arte y Diseño Contemporáneo, in San Jose, Costa Rica. 

“Echos and Contrasts” includes abstract paintings, drawings, sculpture, installations, photographs, and video, many of them publicly exhibited for the first time. It provides a broad view of the breadth of contemporary Latin American art, and stimulates comparisons among diverse works, revealing sometimes surprising relationships. 

During the run of the exhibition, a complementary show of thirteen works, also drawn from the Colección Cisneros, is on view at TEOR/ética gallery, in San Jose. This comprises work by three modern Latin American women artists—Mira Schendel, Lygia Pape, and Gego.

WHERE: Museo de Arte y Diseño Contemporáneo and TEOR/ética gallery. Both in San Jose, Costa Rica.

WHEN: Museum: Dec 7, 2005 – Feb 25, 2006  TEOR/ética: Dec 7, 2005 – Feb19, 2006

ORGANIZATION: The exhibitions are organized by the Fundación Cisneros in collaboration with the Museo de Arte y Diseño Contemporáneo and TEOR/ética, and are curated by Ariel Jiménez, curator at the Colección Cisneros.

COLECCIÓN CISNEROS: The Colección Cisneros, a distinguished collection of some 1,500 works, is at the core of the visual arts program of the Fundación Cisneros. The program’s mission is to collect, preserve, research, and exhibit the artworks and related archives of the Colección, and to use the Colección as the basis for educational initiatives. A dynamic lending program and ongoing educational projects for schoolchildren, university students, and adults are aimed at promoting global awareness of modern and contemporary art from Latin America, and at using the visual arts to help develop critical-thinking and expressive-language abilities among Venezuelan schoolchildren. The director of the Colección Cisneros is Rafael Romero.

WEBSITE: The Colección Cisneros’s Website— —is devoted to modern Latin American art, and is accessible in Spanish, Portuguese, and English. Winner of the prestigious Silver IDEA, or Industrial Design Excellence Award, in the category of digital media and interfaces, the site provides a set of experiences that encourage dynamic exploration, and presents the visual arts in an integrated way that blends education, imagination, and creativity. 

FUNDACIÓN CISNEROS: The Fundación Cisneros was founded by Patricia Phelps de Cisneros, Gustavo Cisneros, and Ricardo Cisneros, in association with the Cisneros Group of Companies. The Caracas-based Fundación initiates and supports a wide range of innovative programs that derive from the belief that education and freedom of expression are the bases of a democratic society. Fundación Cisneros activities focus on the areas of education, culture, the environment, and community and humanitarian services, and on increasing global awareness of contemporary Latin America. Mrs. Cisneros serves as chairman of the Fundación; executive president is Pedro R. Tinoco. 

For additional information on the Fundación Cisneros, including the Colección Cisneros, press should contact Jeanne Collins &Associates, LLC, New York City, 646-486-7050,


Carta del General Washington al Conde De Floridablanca
Can you trust Wikipedia?
Click To:
Spanish Patriot Martyrs in New York Harbor Prison Ships
Click To:
The Continuous Presence of Italians and Spaniards in Texas


Can you trust Wikipedia?,16541,1599325,00.html
Sent by Janete Vargas 

Reading the entry on "encyclopedia" leaves one with the impression that it was written by someone who had no previous knowledge of the subject and who, once he got into it, found it did not interest him very much. He browsed here and there in one or more reference works and noted what seemed important, but had no understanding of the cultural and historical contexts involved. In other words, it is a school essay, sketchy and poorly balanced.

The article is of modest length at 2,000 words (compare Britannica's corresponding article at about 26,000 words). The longest discussion of a particular work is of Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica, hardly an encyclopedia at all. The 120-odd words on Browne contrast oddly with the treatment given what was arguably the most influential encyclopedia in European history: "The French translation of [Chambers] was the inspiration of the Encyclopédie, perhaps the most famous early encyclopedia, edited by Jean le Rond d'Alembert and Denis Diderot and published from 175 [sic] to 1772 in 28 volumes, 71,818 articles, 2,885 illustrations." Was it famous for the number of its illustrations, one is left to wonder? (And by the way, the full first edition had 35 volumes.)

A cynic might conclude that the whole article exists chiefly as a context for this paragraph: "Traditional encyclopedias are written by a number of employed text writers, usually people with an academic degree. This is not the case with Wikipedia, a project started in 2001 with the goal to create a free encyclopedia. Anyone can add or improve text, images, and sounds ... By 2004 the project has managed to produce over a million articles in over 80 languages."

Overall mark: 5/10
Robert McHenry was editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedia Britannica from 1992 to 1997


S: Aliados: la genealogía y la ciencia
Ideas for Creating Family History
Genetic map reveals human diversity
Nationwide Gravesite Locator
Today's Tip --- give your mouse a break ...
Finding the Place: Introduction
Family History Website Highlight
FH Job Opportunity
Fake Family Trees Online May Trip Up Genealogists

Aliados: la genealogía y la ciencia
Por Sonia M. Rosa M.A.

Los expertos lo llaman la pared. La pared es el momento en la vida de un genealogista en que la información llega a un callejón sin fondo, ya no hay más datos. Toda la información posible acerca de nuestros ancestros se ha obtenido por todos los medios legales.

En el pasado, en los años previos a la llegada de la Internet, la labor de un genealogista era la tediosa búsqueda de documentos en bibliotecas, museos, iglesias, cementerios, visitas a parientes, registros demográficos, etc. La labor incluía una serie de gastos por viajes, fotocopia de documentos, compra de libros, etc. Con la llegada de la Internet y la era de la información, solo hay que poseer una computadora, tener conección a la Internet, unos rústicos conocimientos de como usar un buscador como y "voila" todo tipo de infomación comienza a llegar a nuestras manos casi como por un acto de magia.

El "imperialismo virtual" y la genealogía

Es lo que algunos han llamado el "imperialismo virtual". Maximiliam Forte lo define como el poder que se genera de tener acceso inmediato a la información. Esto divide al planeta en dos grupos: los que tienen y los que no tienen acceso a la Internet. El acceso casi instantáneo a la información es tan valioso como el dinero mismo.

En el caso de los genealogistas el acceso a la Internet puede darle nueva vida a una investigación que ha llegado a la pared. Pero también puede ser un problema porque no toda la información publicada en la Internet es cierta. Hay locos sueltos por la Internet, publicando todo tipo de historias, paranoia y mentiras, que pueden destruir una buena investigación genealógica con mitos, leyendas y, con medias verdades. Es por eso que un buen genealogista debe visitar lugares y páginas serias y de buena reputación. (véase Tabla 1)

La genética: misterios ocultos en las células

Otra rama de la ciencia que ha abierto un mundo de información para los genealogistas es la genética. Durante el siglo XX mencionar pruebas de A.D.N. era hablar automáticamente de paternidad o de un crímen. Las pruebas eran extremadamente costosas y no había acceso al público en general.

Al llegar a esa pared, ese callejón sin fondo, muchos han optado por usar la genética como fuente de información. Buscar y sacar a la luz los secretos y misterios ocultos en sus células. Ahora las pruebas están disponibles para el público en general y no son costosas. Muchas personas se han hecho la prueba para determinar su origen étnico. Esto es de especial ayuda para personas que han sido adoptadas. No se limita a este grupo sino que está abriendo las puertas a todo tipo de nuevas probabilidades y nuevos datos genealógicos.

En mi caso quería explorar lo que a mi me parecía una remota probabilidad. Después de buscar en el Censo, en las páginas de los Mormones, de llamar y entrevistar a todos mis parientes vivos, todavía quedaba un misterio por aclarar. Mi abuela siempre había afirmado que su madre era indígena. Ella que era algo parca, siempre nos hablaba con todo un aire de misterio que su madre era india, de la Indieras de Maricao, Puerto Rico.

Decidí hacerme la prueba de A.D.N., y buscar la verdad oculta en mis células. Para saber si era cierta la historia de la abuela hacía falta conocer acerca del Mtdna1, de mi línea materna. El A.D.N. femenino que es el mimado de los geneticistas, guarda la información de la importante línea materna. Todos tenemos Mtdna pero las mujeres lo poseemos en cantidades más altas que los hombres.

Cual fue mi sopresa cuando al mes de enviar la prueba, que por supuesto adquirí por la Internet, llegaron mis resultados clasificando mi Mtdna como parte del Hablogrupo C2, que se define como amerindio. Cuando le informé a mi madre solo se escuchaba el eco en el teléfono de ella exclamando: -"Yo lo sabía, yo lo sabía, yo lo sabía". Y esa fue exactamente la reacción que he recibido de todos los parientes de mi línea materna con los que he compartido las nuevas.

Luego me uní a una base datos buscando personas que tuvieran similares resultados. Aparecieron cerca de 20 personas, todas con una cercanía a mi A.D.N. sorprendente. Esos se convirtieron en lo que los genealogistas han denominado como "primos genéticos". Algunos de ellos de Puerto Rico, otros de México y algunos de Estados Unidos. Un interesante intercambio de correos electrónicos y de genealogías se desarrolló entre nosotros. Hasta hoy solo sabemos que tenemos un ancestro en común, una mujer de ascendecia amerindia, pero quizás esa mujer vivió hace 500-600 años.


Creía que mi investigación genealógica estaba muerta y enterrada, mientras miraba con angustia a la pared. Sin embargo la tecnología vino a mi rescate. El uso de la Internet me ha dado el acceso y la oportunidad de comunicarme con gente de todo el planeta. La prueba de A.D.N.3 confirmó lo que creíamos era solo una leyenda del foclor de mi familia. Nuevas preguntas surgieron y otras sendas se han abierto par el estudio de mi genealogía. La tecnología resucitó mi investigación y le añadió un nuevo sabor, un nuevo color, un nuevo sazón.

Tabla 1: Algunas páginas de Internet de gran ayuda para el genealogista

Dirección de Internet

Tema de la página

En esta página puede ver o enlazarle a documentos gratuitos de los censos de Cánada y Estados Unidos.


Ancestry es una base de datos gigantesca. Aunque hay que pagar por acceso ssu servicios,

para el genealogista serio vale la pena. Ancestry ofrece acceso limitado gratis por catorce o quince días para los nuevo usuarios.

Si sus ancestros viajaron a Estados Unidos entre 1892-1924 probablemente existe un record de ellos entre los documentos de entrada de barcos y pasajeros en Ellis Island.

La página de la Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los últimos días, mejor conocidos como los Mormones. Probablemente los Mormones posean la más grande base de datos genealógicos del mundo.

La Biblioteca del Congreso de los Estados Unidos es uno de los mejores lugares para encontrar documentos históricos, artículos fotos antiguas y hasta películas en línea.

El archivo nacional de los Estados Unidos es probablemente uno de los mejores lugares don de buscar información sobre ancestros que fueron veteranos.

El uso de esta base de datos no es muy fácil pero el que persevera alcanza.

Este servicio es excelente especialmente si la tumba del ancestro está en los Estados Unidos o en un cementerio militar.

Hispagén es un asociación fundada en España.. La página tiene varias bases de datos y una de mis favoritas es el Indice Onomástico de Hidalguías.

Este es el mejor estudio que se ha hecho hasta la fecha del A.D.N. mitocondrial de los taínos.

El anillo de genealogía hispana es una base de datos que proevee enlaces a todo tipo de in formación sobre el tema en español. Es un excelente lugar donde comenzar su búsqueda


Ideas for Creating Family History

Holiday Letters 

Since I'm not good at keeping a diary and often forget what year this or that happened, I save my Christmas letters. I know some people say they are bored with the Christmas cards that include a long letter with every detail of the wonderful trip of the year. They sometimes include all the cousins by named that were visited during the past summer; those that no one knows but the writer. I'm bored with those letters too. 

For the past twelve years I've saved my Christmas letters. I try not to bore the recipients with to many details, but if a grandchild arrived during the year I include the child's full name with its date of birth and which of my children had the child. I've also included our parents deaths. Yes, I have these items in my own genealogy database, but these letters give me a reminder of various events that happened during the year. A few highlights of our year are included in the letter. My wife is a bottom line (non-detail) person, so I have her proofread the letter to cut down the minutiae. Looking back over these letters gives me a mini-history of the key events of those years. David E. Templeton, Texas 

Binders: I have binders for each child, one for birth to five years, one for kindergarten through fifth grade, and one for extracurricular activities. 

I arrange them by using colored tabs for each year, sport etc. Anytime they bring an award home from school, class photos, certificates etc goes in a plastic sleeve in that section or grade. Any pictures taken of them on field trips or class events, baseball teams etc goes with that year and section as well. Setting this up took some time but it is easy to maintain.  My children love to look through these occasionally. Pam S. 

Journals, Photo Albums, & Scrapbooks: I document the important things like when someone graduates, gets a diploma, and I take photos of it as well. But I also keep a journal of what goes on in the family like my cousin Mary Engels did. By her example of the journal she kept back in 1977, it has only encouraged me to do the same so that others may know what happened in my lifetime and our stories can be passed on to generations to come. So try to keep an everyday family journals documenting the weather, what's going on in the family, what you do and more. That way other generations can read your life story and see what it was like for you as you were growing up and more. Also try to keep a photo album as well. For that helps others to see what is was like back then like when I go and look at the photos of my Great-Grandma and other relatives. So scrap booking is a great idea to do when it comes to preserving those moments in time. Patti Heath 

Screensavers: My family history is kept on my computer in folders under My Pictures. I take digital photos and put them in folders with labels such as: Christmas 05, Grandma's 80th birthday, and Birth of Baby Rachel. I then use the different folders as Screen Savers and change them often. It is like having a visit with them. Juanita K. Adams 

Genetic map reveals human diversity
GeoGene Newsletter December 2005
Tracing your genetic roots 
Zeen Eate

An international team of scientists has published a genetic "map" of human diversity that will be a powerful new tool for discovering the underlying causes of many common diseases. The information will also add to our understanding of human evolutionary history.

The International HapMap Consortium is a public-private partnership involving more than 200 researchers from Canada, China, Japan, Nigeria, the UK and the USA. Since October 2002 they have been working to understand the genetic basis of diseases such as asthma, cancer, diabetes and heart disease.

"Haplotypes" are closely associated groupings of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms, or markers of genetic variation) that are usually inherited in intact blocks. The "HapMap" is a map of these human haplotypes.

The project's initial results, published in the October 27 issue of Nature, reveal strong evidence of patterns in the genetic variation within populations around the world.The Phase I HapMap details more than 1 million of the most common SNPs grouped into haplotypes. Work is already well underway on the Phase II HapMap which will contain around three times as many markers.

"This represents a milestone for medical research," said David Altshuler, one of the Consortium's Principal Investigators. As well as providing a resource for studying human health and disease, the HapMap is helping to shed new light on how the human race evolved over time as populations spread around the world.

[Refs: "A haplotype map of the human genome", The International HapMap Consortium, Nature 437, 1299-1320, October 27 2005; HapMap website]


Today's Tip --- give your mouse a break ... 
From: Janete Vargas
Try our time-saving keyboard shortcuts. 
Click Ctrl+Shift+C (check mail), 
                        +P (compose),
                        +F (view folders), 
                        +S (advanced search),
                 and +H (help).

I entered Lozano for fun and surprise  found that there is a town named Lozano in Texas, right at the tip.  You can also search for other bits of information, besides places.  Mimi . .


Family History Website Highlight is devoted to providing genealogical research information for Hispanic countries. Some features of the site are:

  • Research articles and tips—each month the site publishes new articles and research tips
  • Helpful Links—websites exceptionally useful for doing Hispanic genealogy
  • Online Forum—collaborate with others about family history research, the forum is new, come and help make it successful
  • Archive—all old articles and research tips are stored on the site in case you missed one or want to come back to one. In the near future the site plans on adding family group record forms and pedigree charts in Spanish.

We look forward to your visit. If you would like to contact or give feedback on the website, please email Lynn Turner at Research Article for November 2005
Finding the Place:

Last month the Family History Library hosted the Eighth Annual Hispanic Family History Conference. One of the classes I was asked to teach was ‘Como Encontrar el Lugar.’ To my surprise the class was very well attended, and the subject appeared very pertinent to many of the attendees. I told the class participants that I would post the lecture on However, without an explanation to my class slides, those that did not attend the conference probably wouldn’t understand the lecture very well.

To make the lecture easier to follow I have divided it into a series of articles. Each article will discuss a tool that may need to be used to help you find your ancestor’s place of residence or birth. The tools discussed will be in the order that they should be used. A new article will be published about every two weeks giving you a chance to put each tool to the test. The last article in the series will be a case study showing each step I took to find the place of birth of someone’s ancestors.

Tool #1—Home and Family Sources

The first tools we need to use for ‘finding the place’ are home and family sources. Home and family sources could be information we or other family members may have on our ancestors. This includes interviewing older relatives that may have living memory of older generations. The following list is a good place to start, use your creativity and add any other ideas you may have:

  • Photographs and letters—sometimes photos and letters will mention older relatives. Many times they will also include dates, and place information. More often than not relatives will be willing to share these photos and letters. Ask for permission to scan or copy them.
  • Personal Identification cards—I recently received an email from a woman who wanted to begin her family history. She didn’t know where to start, but mentioned in her email that she had her mother’s green card that contained her birth date as well as her place of birth…the green card sure sounded like a great place to start.
  • Living memory of older relatives—Parents, grandparents, uncles, and aunts usually know more about older generations than we do. Do an informal interview with them in person or over the phone, ask them specific questions: When and where was grandpa born? Ask them to be specific (countries, and states/provinces won’t do). Most genealogical records for Latin American countries will be found at the local level, try to get city, or town information.
  • Certificates—birth, marriage, and death certificates can provide some very detailed information. Some birth certificates will provide the age and birthplace of the parents. Birth certificates in Spain provide the names and birthplaces of both paternal and maternal grandparents. Often, family members will have certificates in their homes for earlier generations.

Conclusion: Don’t be afraid to use these ideas together. My wife recently received several old photographs. A few of them had some information written on them, but the majority did not have any information about the people in the photos. In a brief and informal interview with her father and grandmother we identified nearly all the people in the photographs.



FH Job Opportunity
Katie Derby, a BYU graduate in Family History, is looking for students, graduates, and others who are interested in completing genealogical research work in their spare time. This is perfect for students, stay-at-home mothers, or those employed full-time in other fields. You can work as much or as little as you want and pay rates are negotiable depending on the research to be completed. Researchers located anywhere in the world are encouraged to inquire. Email for more information

Sent by Lorraine Hermandez

Fake Family Trees Online May Trip Up Genalogists

Genealogists beware. A software company is marketing a new program to Internet advertisers that could quickly generate Web sites full of extensive, but fake, family trees.
Mira Smithwick 


S: Terrorificas Profecias De La Gran Piramide, by Walt G. Dovan
Sent by Edna Yolanda Elizondo Gonzalez


Sent by Edna Yolanda Elizondo Gonzalez





                12/30/2009 04:49 PM