Somos Primos

 July 2005 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


Content Areas

United States
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Galvez Patriots
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Orange Co. CA
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Los Angeles,CA
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Northwestern US
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Southwestern US
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109 East Coast. . 117
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Family History
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NCLR Dedicates Raul Yzaguirre Building: 'Aqui Estamos y No Nos Vamos'

By Sonia Melendez
Hispanic Link Weekly report 
Vol. 23 No.23
June 6, 2005

The National Council of La Raza cemented a new chapter of its existence June 1 with the inauguration of the Raul Yzaguirre Building named after its civil rights leader of 30 years. "This is more than just a building. It is a symbol of our permanence and presence in the nation's capital," Yzaguirre told Weekly Report. During the ceremony, he emphasized that housing La Raza's headquarters a mere four blocks from the White House was a matter of making a statement as a community, "Aqui estamos y no nos vamos."  

While the festivity symbolized a culmination of Yzaguirre's political acumen, it also celebrated the Latino advances he has helped energize, such as the May 17 Los Angeles mayoral race triumph of Antonio Villaraigosa. The mayor-elect flew to Washington to join in the ribbon cutting ceremony.
During his speech, Villaraigosa, who assumes office July 1, credited his success to pioneers like Yzaguirre who paved the way.  "Make no mistake. I stand here today on the threshold being mayor... on the shoulders of Raul Yzaguirre and people like him," he said. Yzaguirre returned the praise, crediting Villaraigosa's victorious campaign "for not just talking about obtaining power" but also talking about taking on the serious responsibility of serving every community in the polyglot city of angels.

NCLR president Janet Murguia commented on La Raza's move to a new stage:  "The National Council of La Raza has transformed from a Hispanic organization into an American institution."
NCLR board chair and La Opinion CEO Monica Lozano praised Yzaguirre and Villaraigosa for their dedication to the Latino community.

The seven-story edifice located at 1126 16th Street NW cost $13.9 million plus $21.9 million on renovations. In addition to housing the organization's more than 80-member staff, it leased out some of its space. Its building campaign involved dozens of corporate and community contributors.
The second phase of construction, to be completed next year, will include la plaza de los afiliados dedicated to the work of affiliates around the country. Additionally, the building's lobby will be designated la galeria del movimiento.  It will highlight the organization's milestones with pictures and cultural artifacts.

The 2005 National Theme for Hispanic Heritage Month is: 
       "Hispanic Americans: Strong and Colorful Threads in the American Fabric"


  Letters to the Editor : 

Absolutely great….enjoy your moments spreading the joy of discovering Hispanic history, culture and events.

Saludos,  Dennis Keesee Bermudez

Hi Mimi,  I just wanted to say how amazed and grateful I am for your dedication in constructing such a wonderful and extensive newsletter. Where do you find the time? You are truly an asset to our continuing heritage.

Thank you for your hard work.
David L. Duran  
Denver, Colorado


Dear Mimi, I have enjoyed your very informative news letter for many years...Keep'em coming. Please change my address to:

Thanks and good luck, José R. Oural

 Mimi;  Thank you for the fantastic information you are posting on "SOMOS PRIMOS". I am printing them out and putting them in binders. I know you get a lot of e-mails, but I would like to remind you I wrote to you several years ago and told you I have about 85 binders of church records translated to English, I have gotten from the Mormons Library in the past 15 years. I will be sending you some more information in the future.

Your Tejano primo, George de la Garza

Introducing with great pride and thankfulness, a new Somos Primos staff member, my grandson, Luke Holtzman.  Luke completed his AA in Criminal Justice at Golden West College and is preparing to attend California State University, Long Beach in the fall.  

Hopefully, in spite of college classes, Luke will still be able to spend some hours helping me with layout and data entry.  I've already learned a few tricky computer techniques from him. 
The painting to Luke's left is an oil I did of him when he was about 12 months old,  time surely flies.

   Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna de Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Luke Daniel Holtzman

Allen Adrian 
Mary Ayers
Ricardo Balli 
Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Ellen Calomiris
Bill Carmena 
Dennis V Carter
Angel Cervantes
Bonnie Chapa 
George Cisneros
Jack V. Cowan
Angel Custodio Rebollo
David L. Duran
George de la Garza

Johanna De Soto
George Gause
Gloria Golden
Carlos Ray Gonzalez
Benita Gray 
Robert Silas Griffin
Lorraine Hermandez Manuel Hernández
Serg Hernandez
Win Holtzman
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Dennis Keesee Bermudez
Larry Kirkpatrick 
Claire Kluskens
David Lewis
Julie Lugo Cerra
Ophelia Marquez
Armando Montes 
Lourdes Morales
Lupe Dorinda Moreno
José R. Oural

Willie Perez
Marsha Peterson-Maass
Elvira Prieto
Leon Reinhart
Ina and Linda Rubi 
George Ryskamp
Debbie Salazar 
John P. Schmal
Viola Sadler
Diane Sears
Howard Shorr 
Bob Smith
Mira Smithwick
Todd D. Stong PhD, P.E.
Paul Trejo
Janete Vargas
Barbara Voss
Achim Winkler 
JD Villarreal 
JV Villarreal 


SHHAR Board: 
Bea Armenta Dever, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal


We Need to Challenge and to Work with everyone, Janet Murguia
The Growth of LULAC Nationwide
Latino Education: The Weakest Link
Family wins appeal to get Padre Island royalties  

A Lesson in Elementary Philanthropy, Manuel Esqueda
Delhi Community Center
    Manuel Esqueda Elementary School to open this fall

Rafael Mejia Gonzalez WWII
Shoe shine boy invests in the war

Hispanic Women in Profile 2005 
    U.S. Army Colonel, Norma P. Tovar
    EIma Gonzalez
    Ana Ventura Phares
    Gina Martinez

Burial and Memorial Benefits Nation wise Gravesite Memorial Locator
Call For Contributors
Hispanic Business Tidbits
The Real Deal
Census data reveals that in the U.S., 1 in 7 Residents Is Latino
Obituaries: Chico Carrasquel,
Juarez calls seniors, not police, for help
International Conversation on Fatherhood Panel held June 4th

Father Matters
Down the Aisle and Into the Melting Pot  
Survey: Minorities Snubbed by Life Insurers
Immigrants Get Helping hand book
Fundraiser for Dolores Huerta Foundation



Janet Murguia 
President and CEO, NCLR

We Need to Challenge and to Work with everyone

To fulfill this mission of bringing the American Dream to everyone who is willing to work hard, play by the rules, and commit him or herself to this nation, the Hispanic community must be at the table when decisions are being made.

'We need to challenge everyone - the Administration, the Congress, and both political parties - to help us promote equal opportunity and invest wisely.

With so much at stake for our community, we don't intend to stay on the sidelines. We will reach out to the White House and President Bush, to both Republicans and Democrats on Capitol Hill, and to the friends and even the adversaries of the Latino community.

Some may not think this is necessary or the right thing to do, but I respectfully disagree. We have too much on the line. So we're here to participate. We will listen and we will weigh in. We will offer our ideas and we will keep an open mind. And we're ready to get to work.

A New Chapter Begins

When I became President and CEO of NCLR in January, a new chapter had begun in our organization's history. We will continue to hold those in positions of power and authority accountable for their policies and their actions, but we also pledge to hold ourselves equally accountable.

One way we will do that is by doing a better job of telling our story so that we can do a more effective job of telling our community's story. It is astonishing to me, for instance, that some people can say we are a "threat" to this nation, that we are resisting the integration of Latinos into American society.

The reality is that throughout our history NCLR has supported our affiliates in helping Hispanics enter the mainstream. Virtually every one of our multiservice affiliates provides English-language classes, civics courses, or naturalization assistance, and they can't keep up with the demand.

We want to tell our fellow Americans about how this country would not be the nation it is today without two centuries' worth of contributions from millions of Latinos to our economy, to our culture, to our society, in peace and in war.

We need to let everyone know that America's most cherished values - family, a strong work ethic, sacrifice, faith, and patriotism - are the same ones that my family and millions of other Hispanic families have passed down from generation to generation.

If this evening's event marks a new era for our organization, it is because we recognize that together we can accomplish what we could never do alone.

This is an amazing time. We are at the dawn of a new century and a new millennium. It is an historic time for our organization, for our community, and for this nation. I truly believe that we have a unique opportunity to write a special chapter in history. My hope is that history will record that we as a community stepped up, that we reached out, that we built the coalitions, the bridges, and the partnerships which allowed us to move not only our community, but an entire nation, forward.

    AGENDA, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 2005
    Publication of the National Council of  La Raza












New York






New Jersey









New Mexico






Hispanic Trends January/February 2005 Pg. 16

U.S. Now 14% Hispanic; Fastest-growing minority

One of every seven people in the United States is Hispanic, a record number that probably Will 
keep rising because of immigration and a birth 
rate outstripping non-Hispanic blacks and whites.

The country's largest minority group accounted for one-half of the overall population growth between July 2003 and July 2004, according to a Census Bureau report.

Statistics: AP via OC Register, 6-9-05

• There are 41.3 million Hispanics in the U.S., according to the Census Bureau's new estimate. The number includes both legal and illegal 

• At the beginning of July 2004, the U.S. 
population was an estimated 293.7 million with 
the following racial and ethnic breakdown: 240 million whites, 39.2 million blacks, 14 million Asians, 4.4 million American Indians and Alaskans, and 980,000 native Hawaiians and other islanders.


The Growth of LULAC Nationwide 
Sent by Howard Shorr 

Latinos, league in new locales, Hispanic rights group grows with immigrant base
By Renee C. Lee, Houston Chronicle, 5/21/2005  

The League of United Latin American Citizens is the nation's oldest and largest Hispanic civil rights organization. The group has:
•More than 750 adult and youth councils in 35 states and Puerto Rico.
•More than 115,000 members.
•75 councils in Texas.
•25 councils in the Houston region.

LULAC's most notable cases include:
• School segregation: The 1946 Mendez v. Westminster lawsuit in which LULAC successfully ended 100 years of segregation in California schools. The case was a precedent for the historic Brown v. Board of Education suit in Topeka, Kan.
• Right to burial: A joint effort with the American GI Forum in 1947 that led to Mexican-Americans receiving the right to be buried in the same cemeteries as whites. It was sparked when the wife of a Mexican-American World War II hero was refused the use of a funeral home to have a wake for her deceased husband in Three Rivers. The two organizations took their protest to the White House, and the soldier was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
• Jury service: The Hernandez v. the State of Texas case in 1954 in which LULAC won the right for Mexican-Americans to serve on juries. The Supreme Court ruled the exclusion of Mexican-Americans was unconstitutional.

Erick Estrada was just a toddler when his family emigrated from Mexico to Conroe in the late 1980s, but he still remembers the dearth of brown faces in the East Texas community.  Growing up on the outskirts of town near Cut and Shoot, he was one of a few Hispanic students at his neighborhood elementary school. By the time he graduated from Conroe High School in 2003, Hispanics were 35 percent of the school's enrollment.  

''Back then, even my parents would tell me you could count the number of Hispanic families," said 20-year-old Estrada. "Now you can't keep count."  In the past decade, Conroe's Hispanic population has nearly tripled, representing 33 percent of the city's 37,000 population, according to U.S. census figures in 2000. Some city officials estimate the number probably is closer to 40 percent.

The explosive growth has inspired a small group of Hispanics to galvanize their new strength in numbers by forming a League of United Latin American Citizens council — the first in Montgomery County. A similar effort is under way in Cleveland in Liberty County, where Hispanics are more than 20 percent of the town population.

The councils' mission is to give Hispanics a voice and to address their needs. Leaders of the national civil rights organization say new LULAC councils have emerged in less populated suburban and rural communities across the country in the past decade.

''We certainly are seeing more councils formed across the country. We've got quite a bit of growth nationwide," said national executive director Brent Wilkes.  "For example, in Little Rock, Ark., where we are planning our national convention, there's been more than a 300 percent growth in the Hispanic population from 1990 to 2000," Wilkes added.

Hispanic growth across the country has doubled the size of the organization to more than 750 adult and youth councils in 35 states and Puerto Rico. About 25 percent of the new councils are in suburban and rural communities, Wilkes said.

Councils have sprouted in Arkansas and Maine, as well as in Alaska and Hawaii. Minnesota is the organization's fastest-growing state, increasing from one council last year to 10 this year.

Texas has the largest number of councils with 75. One-third are in the Houston region including Houston, Galveston, Alvin and Texas City.  LULAC's Texas history dates to 1929 when the organization was formed in Corpus Christi.

Three fledgling Mexican-American groups united to create a single powerful organization to fight social injustice.  Hispanics were being denied jobs, and their children forced to attend segregated schools. LULAC stepped in and filed landmark lawsuits to ensure equal treatment.

In the 1960s, LULAC also spearheaded three national programs — Head Start, SER Jobs for Progress and the LULAC Housing Project — that were established in Houston and exist today. 

''We were just trying to sit at the lunch counter, swim in the pools and be buried in the same cemeteries," said Juan Garcia, chairman of the education committee for LULAC District 8, the umbrella for the Houston-area councils. ''Now we're making sure there is opportunity. We still adhere to our civil rights foundation, but now we want access."

The new councils are considered ''the new frontiers" because they are forming in places where there were once few or no Hispanics, said Garcia, who is helping the Conroe council organize and recruit members.

Mike Deison, a Conroe resident since 1948, remembers 20 years ago when Hispanics were almost invisible in the city. ''It's like a totally different city, and it's been more of a blessing than anything," said Deison, a former Conroe mayor and Montgomery County judge.

Hispanics, whether they are professionals or laborers, are contributing significantly to the city's economy and culture, he said.  Their influence is evident when driving along South Frazier, a main thoroughfare to downtown. The street is dotted with Hispanic businesses, including several restaurants, a grocery store and a bank that caters to the growing immigrant community. 

Several new organizations have blossomed as well. The Montgomery County Hispanic Chamber of Commerce formed two years ago, and the Hispanic Lions Club community-service group formed this year.  Marlen Tejeda, who moved to Conroe from California 13 years ago, is leading the effort to establish LULAC. The group is working to receive its official charter next year.

Since February, about a dozen people have joined, including Estrada, who will try to rally youth involvement in the council. ''We are starting to awake and realize, yes, there is leadership in the community," Tejeda said.

She said the council plans to concentrate on education, voting and social issues. The group will address the Hispanic dropout rate in the Conroe Independent School District. About 73 percent of Hispanic students who entered ninth grade completed high school in 2002-03, according to the latest district figures.  In addition, the group will attempt to help Hispanic students get into college by providing seminars on how to fill out applications and how to access scholarships.

Tejeda said many immigrant parents assume they can't afford to send their children to college because they are unaware of a new state law that allows undocumented immigrants to pay lower in-state tuition rates. 

The council also will hold voter-registration drives and work with other community groups to assist legal and undocumented immigrants in learning English and obtaining citizenship.

Other suburban councils are tackling similar issues. A common challenge many face is establishing a community voice, Wilkes said.  ''They have to go through the same struggles to establish themselves as the larger cities went through, like getting representatives on city councils," he said. ''They are sensitivity things that urban councils figured out years ago. Sometimes cities give them resistance, but we work with the councils to strengthen services and understanding."

Conroe city officials have embraced Hispanic growth by creating programs that target the community.
It's a stark contrast from 10 years ago when the city was not interested in serving Hispanics, according to some longtime residents. They said change began gradually about four years ago and has accelerated under Mayor Tommy Metcalf, who took office last May. 

''I wanted us to be more proactive to make sure the Hispanic community didn't feel disenfranchised by the city of Conroe," Metcalf said.

The city, for example, has a Hispanic liaison who keeps officials informed about the community's needs and helps new residents access city services. The city also now prints all brochures and pamphlets in English and Spanish and helps sponsor citizenship classes at the Conroe Recreation Center twice a week.

A Day Labor Center created before Metcalf was elected continues to receive support from the new administration. The center has become a central place where immigrant workers can find work with reputable contractors and attend English-as-a-second-language classes.

Although the mayor acknowledges he is not that familiar with LULAC, he said he welcomes the group because he thinks its efforts will benefit the whole community. Rick Dovalina, the incoming director for LULAC District 8, concurred. He said the new councils can help city leaders adjust to Hispanic growth. 

''Many smaller cities don't know how to cope, and they overreact," Dovalina said. "LULAC can educate cities on what to do and how to plan."  In the late 1990s, when the Hispanic population in Macon, Ga., grew, LULAC helped school leaders set up a program to send teachers to Mexico to learn the culture and the language, he said.

In Nashville, Tenn., city leaders realized they needed Spanish-speaking 911 operators. LULAC helped the city recruit bilingual workers from Texas. ''We don't go in there and raise holy hell. We go in there to see how we can help with the growth," Dovalina said. ''Hispanics are not going anywhere, so the sooner everyone works together, the smoother the transition."

Manuel Esqueda A Lesson in Elementary Philanthropy
Los Angeles Times, May 31, 2005,1,720943.story?coll=la-headlines-california
  Sent by Viola Sadler,

Santa Ana will honor Manuel Esqueda, who has donated time and money and bolstered literacy, by naming its new school for him.

By Seema Mehta, Times Staff Writer

When Santa Ana's newest elementary school opens this fall bearing Manuel Esqueda's name, it will be the latest mark that the barrio-raised philanthropist will have left on his community.

From the funding of hundreds of scholarships to donating tens of thousands of dollars worth of artwork to a local community center and spearheading literacy efforts, Esqueda's legacy echoes in the city.

Esqueda, 82, says his good deeds are a payback to the many mentors who helped him transform himself from a Spanish-speaking student learning English in a school without heat or lights to a Navy sailor during World War II to a bank executive. 

"I just want my people to get ahead," he said. "And the only way you can get ahead is through education."

Santa Ana schools Supt. Al Mijares said Esqueda was an obvious choice when the district was considering for whom to name its new school."He is a leader who is absolutely genuine and a man of integrity," Mijares said. "His sole motivation is for the welfare and education of the children in our school district. He really is the patriarch of this community."

The Manuel Esqueda Elementary School, on more than eight acres at Warner Avenue and South Main Street, will serve 1,200 students from kindergarten to third grade, including many English-language learners from impoverished homes.

The library will feature a mural of Esqueda's wife of six decades, Dolores (Romo) Esqueda, who died last year, while reading to one of the couple's 12 grandchildren.

Esqueda, who was born in Kansas, moved with his family to Santa Ana in 1924 when he was 2 so his father could work as a laborer for the railroads.

The family settled in the working-class neighborhood of Delhi, where Esqueda attended Delhi Elementary School. The school lacked heat or lights and was run by a British principal with a firm hand, Fanny Bragg. She installed showers for the children and washed their mouths out with soap if they spoke Spanish.

"At first we hated her, but I wouldn't be speaking the way I am" without Bragg's guidance, Esqueda said, noting that such measures would not be appropriate today. "It started a new life for many of us."

Though Esqueda excelled in school, his home life was difficult. His father, who drank heavily and argued violently with his mother, abandoned the family when Esqueda was 11, Esqueda said. He didn't see his father again for nearly two decades. 

Esqueda joined his brother Jose toiling in the lima bean fields where South Coast Plaza now is. His brother gave him two options: be a good student or a good worker. Esqueda chose the former, and with his mother's blessing, moved to Huntington Park to attend high school part time while working as a dishwasher, waiter and bolero singer on Olvera Street in Los Angeles.

When the United States entered World War II, Esqueda joined the Navy and was assigned to the Princeton, an aircraft carrier that was sent to help retake the Philippines. During the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944, a Japanese plane dropped a 500-pound bomb on the carrier's flight deck. Esqueda was thrown into the ocean and clung to ship debris as the Princeton sank.

"I started praying because I could see the arms and legs and heads of my buddies that had been killed," he said. "I told the man upstairs if he spared my life, I would dedicate my life to helping mankind. I've done that. I've kept my promise."

Esqueda stayed afloat in the frigid water for more than three hours, until he was rescued by the crew of a destroyer. After returning to San Diego and recovering from his injuries, Esqueda married Dolores, his high school sweetheart, and took an entry-level bookkeeping job with Bank of America. 

With typing skills he learned from his sixth-grade teacher, Esqueda steadily climbed the ranks and eventually became a bank manager. While working, he earned his bachelor's and master's degrees in economics.

Seeing increasing gang activity in his Santa Ana neighborhood, Esqueda wanted to make good on the promise he made during the war. He formed the Gemini Club with four friends in the early 1950s to fund scholarships for Latino youths. In the 1980s, the effort gained corporate sponsors and was renamed Serafines de Orange County — Angels of Orange County.

Through the years, money from corporations, donors and Esqueda himself have funded more than $900,000 in college scholarships for nearly 1,200 Orange County students. 

"It's a matter of saying, 'We believe in you. Now you have to believe in yourself,' " Esqueda said.

Among the scholarship recipients are Santa Ana Mayor Miguel A. Pulido, Superior Court Judge Frederick P. Aguirre and UC Irvine Vice Chancellor Manuel N. Gomez.
Gomez, who grew up in the Santa Anita neighborhood of Santa Ana, received a scholarship in 1965 and majored in history at Cal State Hayward (now Cal State East Bay). 

The first in his family to attend college, Gomez earned a doctorate in higher education. He recalled being moved by Esqueda's focus on picking students who would return to put their education to work in their communities.

"It was a very impressionable action for a community organization from my own community to provide me with a scholarship to go on to university," he said. "I think it did, in a pretty direct way, mark my continued interest in the Latino community's concerns…. At UCI, I have really dedicated part of my professional interest to building better partnerships with underrepresented communities."

Esqueda still promotes literacy in the immigrant neighborhoods of Santa Ana. Some Sundays, he speaks to church congregations urging parents to read to their children in English. 

"So as long as the man upstairs keeps me here, I'm going to work. It's something that my wife would want me to do," he said. "Someone has to do it. Nothing happens unless you make it happen." 


Delhi Center
542 East Central Ave
Santa Ana, CA 92707
Phone: (714) 481-9600

The Delphi Center is one of the many projects in which Manuel played a major role in guiding it to completion. 

Located in Santa Ana, the Delhi Center is a non-profit community-based organization.
The Delhi Center was founded in 1969 through the efforts of local residents, church members, the Junior League of Newport Beach, and the National Guard. The Delhi Center is a community effort, which addresses social, economic, and immigration issues in Santa Ana, California.  The Delhi Center offers its services from two facilities: Delhi Center and Delhi Casa. The Delhi Center promotes community solidarity, collaboration, and participation through culturally relevant interventions, to strengthen leadership and build capacity for self-help.

Programs & Services Offered, include the following:

  • Information & Referral
  • Counseling
  • Support Groups
  • Parent Education Classes
  • After School Programs
  • Human Services
  • Kinship Support Services
  • Case Management
  • PC.FRC Health Access Services for Children (0-5)

The Delhi Center works in partnership with Santa Ana College, the City of Santa Ana, the school district, the University of California, Irvine, the Private Industry Council, and local residents to implement a three-year Housing and Urban Development grant, which promotes social and economic opportunity. Delhi Partnership have three primary objectives: 1) to re-create the social fabric of the community around the common values held by local residents; 2) to use the network to create better access to economic opportunity; and 3) to foster a better understanding of intra-ethnic relations at the local level.



The community was brought together by the Catholic church, Our Lady of Guadalupe Delhi, whose unity is expressed in the plaque beneath the tile art of the Virgen de Guadalupe.  "En Memoria 
y Gratitud, Rev. Padre Jose Origel, El Pueblo, Octubre 1977"

The Delhi Center was founded in 1969 through the efforts of local residents, church members, the Junior League of Newport Beach, and the National Guard. The Delhi Center is a community effort, which addresses social, economic, and immigration issues in Santa Ana, California.  The Delhi Center offers its services from two facilities: Delhi Center and Delhi Casa. The Delhi Center promotes community solidarity, collaboration, and participation through culturally relevant interventions, to strengthen leadership and build capacity for self-help.

Delhi Center provides family support services, including case management on social services, referrals to other human service agencies, and monthly food distribution. Delhi also provides workshops on immigration, and naturalization, job search, civic participation and voting education. Among the primary services offered by Delhi are HIV prevention and care services. By providing case management and workshops to the Hispanic community on HIV prevention and how to live with HIV/AIDS, Delhi helps destroy the stigma associated with the disease and provides culturally sensitive services. The Delhi Center works in partnership with Santa Ana College, the City of Santa Ana, the school district, the University of California, Irvine, the Private Industry Council, and local residents to implement a three-year Housing and Urban Development grant, which promotes social and economic opportunity. Delhi Partnership have three primary objectives: 1) to re-create the social fabric of the community around the common values held by local residents; 2) to use the network to create better access to economic opportunity; and 3) to foster a better understanding of intra-ethnic relations at the local level.


Editor:  Among the programs is the Community Day School, maintained by the Santa Ana Unified School District.  Raquel Bruno, the first full-time principal assigned to the school explained that the school was started in 1998 to help middle students at risk, students who had been expelled.  

I was visiting the Delhi Center at the suggestion of Manuel Esqueda.  Happenstance, the Promotion Ceremony for 8th graders was just starting. It was a joy.  In addition to Dr. DeVera Heard, current principal, and Dr. Helen Stainer, Assistant Superintendent, students spoke.  Most touching was a grandmother that thanked the school for helping her grandson graduate into high school.  


Among the surnames of the graduating students were Abarca, Aguilar, Andalco, Avina, Bahena, Barajas, Bro, Chavez, Cortez, Cuevas, Delgado, Espino, Espinoza, Garcia, Gomez, Gonzalez, Guzman, Huizar, Lopez, Maldonado, Mendez, Orellana, Pastrana, Pauu, Perez, Ramirez, Rodriguez, Roman, Silva, Soriano, Velasquez.

A few blocks away from Delhi Center is a new elementary school named after Manuel Esqueda.





The Manuel Esqueda Elementary School will be opening this fall.  Bob Silva, the Principal said that the first year will serve K-3rd grade.  The following year, the school will serve their intended student range of  grades, K-5th.  The school has 48 classrooms, will start with 550 students, but can accommodate 1200.  

Located at the corner of Main and Warner, the school occupies 8.3 acres of land and is located in the middle of homes, businesses and industry, at 301 W. Warner, Santa Ana, California.

The highest percentage of Hispanic students in the nation, 90%, is served by the Santa Ana School District. 

Vision Statements

The vision of Manuel Esqueda Elementary is to provide our students with skills to master the English language. As educators, community members and parents, we have taken the responsibility to educate the young minds of 
our youth in Santa Ana Unified School District. The challenges and obstacles our students face today are no different than 80 years ago. Changes haven taken place but the migration, because of poverty in Mexico, continues to 
bring large number of low-income families
 and their children into our area. The majority student population comes from poorly educated parents with no knowledge. much less skills, of the English language. We must study our past
 to understand the direction of our future. Our forefathers were forced to master the English language, which resulted in success for the overwhelming majority. The reality continues ever so truthful, mastery of the English language is the key element of success for our youth. 

"Times have changed and we now have faster ways of communication. To solve the present problem we must ask the support of 
the clergy, the different Hispanic organizations, the professional persons of the Mexican American family who have become successful, and all businesses who have shown an interest in helping our youth.

Esqueda 11-23-04.


Mission Statement

Manuel Esqueda Elementary will be the school of English Language Development with emphasis on writing and critical thinking strategies using Thinking Maps. Curriculum will be driven by assessment, data, vertical and horizontal standards-based grade level planning. The instructional schedule will include banking minutes in order to facilitate teachers planning and collaboration, as well as provide planning time and evaluation of student work. As an English Language school, Esqueda will emphasize academics and the arts. Teachers will be encouraged to use music, plays speeches, conversation for information (community), and pronunciation as a critical part of the instructional program. Parents will be held accountable to ensure that their children continue to develop English Language skills at home.

Principal Bob Silva
25 years with the Santa Ana School District, pleased with the opportunity of opening up the Manuel Esqueda Elementary School.

Latino Education: The Weakest Link
by Manuel Hernández,
Educator in Luquillo, Puerto Rico 
        If specific and concrete programs are not implemented “as soon as yesterday (Burt Posner)”, education will continue to be the Latino’s population’s weakest link. Whenever charts, statistics and reports on crime, poverty, unemployment, drugs, teenage pregnancy and other social misadventures are depicted and graphically displayed in the media, Latinos are almost always first in each category. Without education, the on-growing Latino people risk losing their voice in American institutions across America.

There is no doubt that heroic efforts have been made by schools, universities, non-profit organizations and other institutions to support and help children receive a quality education. Notwithstanding those past and present efforts, a national program must be organized, coordinated and integrated immediately to detain the Latino high school dropout rate and improve the percentages of Latino teens in college and universities. 

        History has taught us to look back at the social struggles of many groups, individuals and non-profit organizations of the 1960’s and 1970’s that left us with groundbreaking community and academic organizations such as Aspira and Upward Bound, just to mention a few, that went beyond academic expectations, walked the extra mile and made a difference in the academic lives of millions of American children, including Latinos. As a consequence, Bilingual Programs were created and placed into effect to meet the academic demands and educational needs of the great Latino immigration wave that swooped across America in the decades immediately following World Ward II. The transition to the mainstream for the millions of Latino and other immigrant children was smooth and swift and the cultural bridge was crossed with love, care and devotion.

But The English Only movement and the antagonists of these programs killed them, and once again we find ourselves in an educational dilemma. At the dawn of a new era, we find ourselves once more at a crossroads, and without a doubt the weakest link for the largest minority in this century is education.

        Educational programs in America need initiatives. First, there must be a strategy to help students, especially Latino teens to enter high school reading at their grade level and create interest in literature and improve progress in reading and as a result, students will improve their scores on city, state and national testing requirements. Secondly, United States based Latino/a literature may be presented as an alternative (tool) in the English classroom. Last, integrate Latino/a literature and other minority literatures (depending on the dominant immigrant populations within a geograhical boundary)  in the curriculum as a bridge/jump off point to the American and British classics.

         United States based Latino/a literature written in English by Latino/a immigrant writers themselves helps to make a transition to the literature of Hemingway and Shakespeare. The literature constructs upon the Latino teens' prior experiences and skills. It is a mirror of the language, culture and history of the American Latino experience and allows them to transform their learning experience into a dynamic, pro-active and meaningful adventure with purpose and a greater understanding of themselves.
A well-designed reading and writing program should provide opportunities for daily reading and writing activities. Scholars and researchers agree that it is only when a personal, social and cultural understanding of the second language learner's background is obtained that the learning skills of that L2 student are developed. Latino/a literature provides students with authentic reading and symbols necessary to make a personal connection with the literature. 

          The vision of the initiative is to help teachers improve educational outcomes of teens, and provide the motivation and encouragement needed for them to help teens read at their grade level and to develop progress in reading. This may be just an initiative, but it has already been placed into effect with excellent results in cities such as New York, Saint Paul, Orlando and Fajardo, Puerto Rico just to mention a few. Ideas are first envisioned, then developed and ultimately placed in action. The purpose of the initiative is to transform the weakest link into the strongest asset of the Latino population in America.

Family wins appeal to get Padre Island royalties  
Source: Internet,, June 10, 2005, Associated Press 
Sent by JD Villarreal

Court rules for heirs of priest who received title to land in 1700s.

A Texas appeals court has upheld a decision to award mineral royalties from land on Padre Island to more than 300 heirs of a prominent South Texas family, possibly resulting in a windfall exceeding $50 million.

The issue in the case, first filed in 1993, was whether Gilbert Kerlin, a New York lawyer, swindled the Balli family out of mineral rights to land they sold in 1938. The family had held title to the land since the 1700s, when a priest, Padre Nicolas Balli, received a Spanish land grant. The family won in district court after a three-month jury trial in 2000. It is not expected that the verdict will be appealed further. The amount of the judgment is to be determined.

"It's the first time a Mexican-American family wins anything here in the United States," said Gracie De la Rosa of Dallas, a Balli descendant. "We would talk about this when we were kids. Nobody really believed us outside the family. (The decision) is just like saying all these years it's true. This man cheated us ... it's a big vindication."

Padre Balli's heirs are descendants of his nephew, Juan Jose Balli. Padre Island is named for the priest.

Kerlin died last year. He said the Ballis had no real claim to Padre Island in the 1930s.

Kerlin arrived in Brownsville in 1938, a young lawyer fresh out of Harvard.  He bought the titles for Padre Island and promised to share with the family any money from oil pumped from the island. But the Ballis never heard from Kerlin again.

Over the years, the prominent family slid into poverty.  The Balli family has been fighting with the Kenedy Foundation for about two years about ownership of the land, which is rich in oil and gas. Officials at the Kenedy Foundation said a title in their possession makes them the rightful owners.



Sent by Carlos Ray Gonzalez,

Rafael Mejia GONZALEZ
Given Name:
Rafael Mejia
Oct. 27, 1909 in Atil Sonora, Mexico

Aug. 10, 1971 in Tucson, Army Veterans Hospital, Pima Co. AZ.
Aug. 13, 1971 South Lawn Cemetery, Tucson, Pima Co. AZ.
Census: 1930 Census Tucson, AZ. Dist. 54 page 09
CONF: Tubac, Pima Co. AZ. Sep. 14, 1919
Social Security Number 527-10-9812

Sent to Ft. MacArthur, from there to Camp Abbot, Oregon, to an Enlisted Specialist Training School. Military Induction Jul. 22, 1943 Reported to the American Legion Hall Tucson, Pima Co. AZ.

Event: Pvt. 1st. Class Ser. # 39--862-524, was under Gen. Douglas MacArthur, in the Eastern Mandates, Western Pacific CO 33 WD 45 Ryukyus CO 40 WD 45, Asiatic - Pacific Theater. Military Honorable Discharge Oct. 9, 1945.

Note:At Camp Abbot, Oregon, he was trained in Demolition, to built or destroy roads and bridges. With Company C 1341 Engineer Battalion. Received the Purple Heart, having been wounded in Saipan, was sent to the Army Hospital in Oahu, Hawaii. and returned to action, received Good Conduct Medal, Asiatic - Pacific Campaign Medal and the Distinguished Service Medal, had a Marksman M-1 Rifle award on Nov. 1943. His duties at time of need, was to drop his tools and get his rifle. Incase of retread to lay land mines.

He helped built in Tinain Island, the runway, that was used to bomb Japan, from where the Super fortress the Enola Gay, and the Bock’s Car dropped it’s Atomic bombs in Japan.

Engineer Battalion (Combat Heavy) -- The combat heavy engineer battalion is normally assigned to an engineer brigade within a corps or theater army. The combat heavy engineer battalion has equipment and personnel skilled in earthmoving and construction. The battalion primarily works in rear areas on sustainment engineering tasks. However, its earthmoving capabilities may be effectively used to provide combat support in forward areas when not under direct fire (i.e. tank ditches, etc.). Missions include the construction of roads, airfields, structures and utilities for the Army and Air Force.



Here's a health to the Army. And here's a health to our Corps;
Here's to the Flag flying up on the hill, And the bird flying over our door:
Stand by with your glasses all brimming, Here's health, and here's how, and here's luck.
And here's to the Castles of Silver we wear. And "the Eagle that looks like a Duck."
Author: Sherwood A. Cheney, Brigadier General, U.S. Army, 1898

After the capture of Saipan the fighting continued elsewhere in the Pacific for another 13 months. Camps on Tinian were constructed to house 50,000 U.S. troops and 1.2 million pounds of crops were produced all of which was consumed on the island. 

On August 6, 1945 an American Superfortress flying from Tinian dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima which hastened Japan's surrender. The war ended with Japan's surrender on August 15, 1945 but it was not until December 1, 1945 that the final surrender on Saipan took place when Army Captain Sakeo Oba, leading 46 of his men all of whom had continued to hold out in the mountains as guerrillas, finally surrendered his Samuri sword to Major Herman Lewis and Colonel Scott, USMC. Rota was one of the islands which had been bypassed. It was not occupied until after V-J day, (Victory Over Japan). 

There was massive punishment for the Japanese, but there were no overtures for surrender; let this be clear. America had no option except to invade the mainland, and it prepared three Marine divisions and eleven Army divisions under General MacArthur for this dirty task. The orders were to invade Japan in November 1945! It turns out that there were over 2,350,000 tough, well-disciplined troops in 60 divisions left on the home islands, who were willing to die to save their country and the Emperor. Our generals predicted 1,000,000 American casualties, and my battalion was tasked as part of the invasion force! Imagine 1,000,000 black body bags coming back to America for a war we did not start. As luck would have it and with the ingenuity of the American scientists and their able workforce on our side. Two atomic bombs were delivered to Tinian on July 16th, 1945, after a high speed run over the Pacific Ocean by the Cruiser USS Indianapolis.

On August 6th a B-29, the Enola Gay, flew from the Tinian runway to drop the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima causing 78, 000 deaths in seconds. The world would long remember this event. In the "cold war" which followed WWII, the world would never drop another one as they now tasted its massive destruction first-hand. Following this raid on the 9th, another B-29, Bock's Car, took off from Tinian with the second still larger atomic bomb, called Fat Man. Its target was Nagasaki and another 70,000 people died as the mushroom-shaped cloud rose twelve miles into the sky.

There were only two big ones in his arsenal, but General LeMay was very smart. He knew if he dropped them in a close time frame the Japanese would think he had more to use...How many generals would dare drop his last two bombs together on vague targets?

Could Tokyo be next, the Japanese would wonder? As irony would have it, the Indianapolis was torpedoed on July 29th with a loss of 872 men after she left Tinian on an operation to Leyte Gulf and would never see the product of her noble efforts.

It is most fitting and proper that we honor those who died in this great battle of Saipan and in the other battles of this war. Thus, in closing, the following poem by PFC Carl Dearborn (address unknown) of the 4th Marine Division which went over the Saipan beachhead should be cited and left for the historians to ponder. It is titled: 

I Died For You Today.

I died for you today on a far off Pacific Island.
If you are concerned, to say the least, I'll tell you who I am...
I'm the soldier and the sailor - I'm the airman and Marine...
I'm the life blood of your nation - you sent me to this scene...
I'm the one who loads the Amtracks...I'm the pilot, just as well...
I'm the dedicated corpsman saving leathernecks who fell...
I'm the trooper of the airborne, I'm the Seabee with a trade...
I'm the wiry American medic dodging steel to give first aid...
I'm the tail gunner in the airplane, I'm the crew chief and the crew.

Note that in his poem, he placed first our three Heritage’s. I’m Catholic, I’m Indian and I’m Mexican.

I'm the cannoneer and mortar man in the field defending you...
I'm the man of different races clinging to a rumbling tank...
I'm Catholic, Jew and Protestant, and I serve in every rank...
Call me Dominic, Smith or Kelly or pronounce my foreign name...
And regardless of my color - When I'm hurt, I bleed the same...
I'm Indian and I'm Mexican. I'm Polish, Dutch, Italian and Greek...
I'm every inch American and your freedom's what I seek...
I'm the southern boy from Florida, I'm the northern lad from Maine...
I've toiled in Georgia's orchards, and I've cut Montana's grain...
I came from every walk of life - from mountains to the slums...
I've lived, by God, through dust and drought, and I've prayed aloud for rain.
I've known hardship and depression; still I've watched our country grow...
But when Uncle Sam came calling I was proud that I could go...
I've watched demonstrations and the people who protest...
And I said "Thank God for freedom!" - my country's still the best...
So take your banners and your slogans. Raise your placards to the sky...
I'll defend your right to do it... Though in doing it. I'll die...
I'm your fathers - sons - and brothers...I'm the arm of Uncle Sam...
And I died for you today, my friend...On an Island called Saipan...


 While Carlos Ray Gonzalez' father fought in World War II, Ray shined shoes at Pershing Square, 6th and Hill, Standard Oil, now Chevron.  In 1942, Ray had a stand close to where they sold war bonds and stamps. All Americans were encouraged to buy war bonds.  Ray responded.

"When I was shining shoes in Pershing Square at 6th & Hill St. down town L.A., actors came there to perform, so that people would go there and buy War Bonds and stamps to help in the war.  It happen on this day (photo above) , I went to buy some stamps at $ 0.10 each, you filled the book and trade in for an $18.00 War Bond.  Anna Lee would sign her autograph in your book. 

I was not smart enough to have kept what the glamorous Anna Lee signed.  At the time that I filled in the book and traded in for a Bond Anna Lee was unknown to me, I was behind the line to buy and a reporter, put in front and took the picture, as a news story, later I found out who she 
was. The caption read: Shoe shine boy invests in the war.

One Time Red Ryder ( Bill Elloitt ) and Little Beaver ( Robert Blake ) was there, I recall I asked him if I could shine his boots, he said you have red white and blue shine, he was wearing those color
boots.   I said, "No but I have something just as good."  "What's so good?" he asked.  "I have a natural color."  He laughed and said, "OK."  I said, "I will have to charge you 25¢  instead of 5¢" which was the price then, "because your shoes are bigger." "Ok it's a deal," he said and gave me a whole dollar, Boy was I happy, I had made $ 4.00 dollars that day, I used to sell
news papers at first and Rowan, on Saturdays and Sundays.  
Click for another memorable and major event in  Carlos Ray Gonzalez

Hispanic Women in Profile 2005 
Sent by:
Santa Barbara, CA--June 13, 2005--Hispanic women are a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, with especially large representation in younger age groups. By 2050, Hispanics are forecasted to comprise nearly one quarter of U.S. women, according to the HispanTelligence(R) research report "Hispanic Women in Profile 2005" recently released by Hispanic Business Inc.

The data-rich report also reveals that native-born Hispanic women have higher educational attainment and average earnings than do foreign-born Hispanics, thereby narrowing the differences between Hispanics and national averages.

While only 2.9 percent of Hispanic women have advanced degrees, the ones that do have higher average annual earnings ($58,623) than all women with advanced degrees ($50,756).

"From 1979 to 2002, Hispanic women gained a 10 percent increase in real earnings, increasing median annual earnings from $18,720 to $20,592. The wage gap, the difference in earnings between men and women, is smaller among Hispanics than whites. Hispanic women earn 88 percent of Hispanic men's earnings, while white women earn only 78 percent of white men's earnings," stated the author of the study, Andrea Lehman, HispanTelligence(R) Business Economist.

Another interesting finding described in the report is that the number of firms owned by Hispanic women has increased by 63.9 percent between 1997 and 2004. The number has passed the half million mark with 553,618 Hispanic women-owned businesses in 2004.

What do these key findings mean for the future of Hispanic women? Hispanic women will have an increasing impact on the face of the U.S. economy that cannot be ignored - especially in entrepreneurial and small-business ventures.

The HispanTelligence(R) "Hispanic Women in Profile 2005" report also provides:

-- Further demographic data on education, population, and other comparative trends
-- Comparison of native-born and foreign-born Hispanic women
-- Description of Hispanic women by area of origin
-- Labor force participation of Hispanic women with children
-- Breakdown of employment by industry
-- Minority women-owned firms
-- Concentrations by industry of Hispanic women-owned businesses

To purchase a full copy of this or any of our other informative HispanTelligence(R) reports, please visit or our research channel at
To order by phone, please call our Research Department at (805) 964-4554 ext. 605.

Hispanic Business magazine also announced that Brigida Benitez is the winner of their 2005 Woman of the Year (WOY) Award. Ms. Benitez was one of the principal attorneys for the University of Michigan in the affirmative action cases that went to the Supreme Court in 2003.

Ms. Benitez appears on the cover of Hispanic Business magazine's April issue. Inside, readers will find profiles of Ms. Benitez and the WOY finalists. They are:
-- Deborah Gallegos, CIO for New York City;
-- Sonia Maria Green, Director of Diversity Marketing & Sales, Hispanic, at General Motors;
-- Janet Murguia, CEO of the National Council of La Raza; and
-- Carmen Suro-Bredie, Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Policy Coordination.

Ms. Benitez will receive the WOY Award during a gala banquet and symposium at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas on June 23. For tickets or other information about the event, visit or call (800) 205-9459.

The 2005 Hispanic Business Magazine Woman of the Year (WOY) Awards Gala and Symposium is generously sponsored by Liberty Mutual, Microsoft, and Land Rover.

About HispanTelligence: HispanTelligence(R), the research services unit of Hispanic Business Inc., applies quantitative and qualitative techniques to provide specialized guidance to corporate and government clients targeting the U.S. Hispanic market.

About Hispanic Business Inc.: Now celebrating a quarter century as an award-winning publishing and information services company, Hispanic Business Inc. is the nation's leading source of information for and about Hispanic professionals and entrepreneurs. Hispanic Business magazine is the company's flagship publication, and other products and educational services include: SúperOnda magazine,, and Hispanic Business Events including EOY (Entrepreneur of the Year) Awards Gala, Hispanic Business BOE (Board of Economists) U.S. Hispanic Economic Summit, and WOY (Woman of the Year).

Hispanic Business(R) and HispanTelligence(R) are registered trademarks of Hispanic Business Inc.(C) 2005 Hispanic Business Inc. All rights reserved.

A Lifetime of Service and Achievement Duly Recognized
Hispanic Magazine honors U.S. Army Colonel Norma P. Tovar; eight other notable Latinas

Sala de Prensa de HISPANIC PR WIRE (866-477-9473)

New York, NY--(HISPANIC PR WIRE)--June 2, 2005--The 14th annual celebration of HISPANIC Magazine’s Latina Excellence Awards will honor U.S. Army Colonel, Norma P. Tovar with its 2005 Leadership Prize, in recognition of outstanding accomplishments over a lifetime of service in our armed forces. 

Created in 1991, the Latina Excellence Awards annually showcases Hispanic women whose achievements in the areas of business, youth, community service, communication, and leadership, among others, exemplify the best qualities and contributions Latina women have made to American culture and society.

A native of La Puente, CA, COL Tovar currently serves as Director of Training Operations Management Activity at the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command headquarters in Fort Monroe, Virginia, helping to oversee planning, scheduling and logistics for all Army personnel training programs. In all, the Army has developed over 1600 training courses that aid in the preparation and training of its forces. Last year, the Army filled over 450,000 places among its personnel for said purpose. Leading a staff of fifty, COL Tovar ensures that a timely and effective implementation of these programs takes place.

As a second generation Latina of Mexican descent, COL Tovar credits her parents with much of her success. “From an early age, my parents taught me key values like respect, integrity, teamwork and loyalty. I found in the Army an organization that echoed these values and this has helped me to advance my professional career and succeed in life,” she recently said.

COL Tovar earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Business Economics from the University of California at Santa Barbara and then enlisted in the Army in 1981 under the College Option Program. She was commissioned through the Officer Candidate School in March of 1982. Under the auspices of the Army, COL Tovar has also earned a Master of Business Administration degree from George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

Her military career has included a variety of command and staff assignments, both in the Continental United States and overseas, to include: Commander, Company B (Fitness Training Unit), Fort Bliss, Texas; Chief, Mission and Market Analysis Branch, 1st Recruiting Brigade, Fort Meade, Maryland; Commander, 19th Adjutant General Company (Postal), Yongsan, Korea; Army Research Fellow, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California; Program Analyst, Office of the Chief of Staff of the Army, The Pentagon; Deputy Director for Legislative Affairs and Vice-Director, Programs and Resources Directorate, U.S. Southern Command, Miami, Florida; and Professor of Military Science, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California.

"I accept this award on behalf of all Hispanic women who wear the uniform and who embody, on a daily basis, the core values of the U.S. military.  Hispanics have built a legacy of courage, patriotism and service in the U.S. Army,” COL Tovar said. “I am also grateful to HISPANIC magazine for recognizing the efforts and great sacrifice Hispanic women make in both serving our country and carrying out their responsibilities as wives, mothers or professionals,” she added.

Celebrating its 14th anniversary, the luncheon gala, to be held at the St. Regis Hotel from 11:30 AM to 2 PM on June 7th, is HISPANIC Magazine’s way of recognizing the achievements of Hispanic women. Along with COL Tovar eight other notable Latinas will be recognized.

About HISPANIC Magazine: HISPANIC Magazine is the largest English-language, general-interest monthly in the United States, with a circulation of more than 290,000 copies.  It is owned by Hispanic Publishing Associates, which also publishes HISPANIC Trends, a business magazine and, a Latino web pioneer featuring updated news, information and entertainment for Hispanic Americans.  Hispanic Publishing Associates is 100% Hispanic-owned.

NOTE to editors, a high-resolution image is available at:

CONTACT: For Hispanic Magazine, Inc, Aida Coro 305-871-6400, Ext. 564
For U.S. Army, Gustavo A. Bujanda  210-892-0733
Distributed on : 06-02-2005


Elma Gonzalez 

Extraction: Living the lifestyle of the successful businessperson
By Leslie A. Westbrook
Hispanic Business, March 2005 Pg. 62

Elma Gonzalez grew up in a small ranching town. in South Texas where youngsters typically tried to escape the local poverty by joining the military, finding some menial job or leaving altogether in the hope of a better life. Gonzalez, instead, sought refuge in college, largely because of an almost sacred childhood memory: Her father, a cowboy who supplemented his meager income by picking crops in the summer, read to her regularly from two cherished books.

These weren't the works of Cervantes or Shakespeare but tattered geography textbooks he had kept as the only mementos of his brief six months in school. In a charmless town without even a stoplight, let alone a bookstore or library, and where cows outnumbered people 20-to-l, the texts were Gonzalez's sole window to the outside world. "I wanted to see how the other half lived outside my small town," she says. Her father's "dreamy kind of marveling at people in distant lands" has been a theme throughout her life, she adds, inspiring her to travel to a dozen foreign countries she could only have fantasized or read about in her youth.

Gonzalez, a professor of biology, has taught at UCLA for 30 years, and for nearly 10 of them she has been director of UCLA's Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) program. A federal plan funded by the National Institutes of Health, it provides financial support to 12 UCLA undergraduates annually. The idea is to help them prepare for graduate and doctoral studies — a journey that Gonzalez herself undertook against enormous odds 40 years ago.

Her life's story, from a backwater town to the distinguished halls of academia, is almost epic — a tale of courage, determination and optimism overcoming grave adversity.

Every summer, for eight years, Gonzalez picked crops alongside her parents and three siblings, harvesting cucumbers, cherries, beans, tomatoes and cotton in states like Nebraska, Michigan and Wisconsin. The family slogged for three months, six days a week, up to 10 hours a day, spending the nights in cramped labor camps that every now and then filled with the cries of women being beaten by their husbands. By the end of the harvest, "we finally had enough money to buy books and clothes," says Gonzalez. Once, heavy rains in North Dakota destroyed the entire potato crop just as Gonzalez and her family got there. "It was cold," she recalls. "We used up all our savings and had to come home empty-handed"

Despite all the hardships, Gonzalez excelled at school, but even there the odds were stacked against her. In her English-speaking school, ethnic Mexican students like her were punished if they spoke Spanish. At her home in Hebbronville — the seat of Jim Hogg County, in the midst of the flat scrub and chaparral landscape of Texas' Rio Grande Plain, 65 miles west of the Gulf Coast and 28 miles north of Mexico — no one spoke English. Because there wasn't anyone to help her learn spelling, Gonzalez had to memorize entire lists of words after carefully studying them in a textbook. Then she would put the book aside and call up the words from memory. The exercise did have the benefit of eventually making her a very good speller, and a stickler for grammar.

Gonzalez's academic and professional success has not been without some personal cost. It has, at times, been a contentious issue within her family, particularly with her brother, who, unlike Gonzalez's sisters, chose not to pursue a college education. And her father, even though he has been supportive, had at times been mystified by her choices, particularly when she's spent time during vacations doing research or writing papers. Academic life, she told him, "is a little like owning your own business — if you're not there to move it forward, it won't move."

The issue of marriage has also dogged Gonzalez. "I never had a compelling offer," she says. "It's tough. You have a career, you spend a lot of time on it and you become very independent." There was certainly pressure for her to wed — her mother generally started conversations on the phone by remarking on how many children and grandchildren her neighbors had. "I was so fed up with my mother's exhortations that I always thought marriage was a disease," Gonzalez says. After a pause, she adds: "I guess I immunized myself too well."

Gonzalez now looks forward to retiring in two years — she'll be 63 in June — and spending time with her family, especially with her father, who is 90 years old and lives in a nursing home in Fort Worth, Texas. She also looks forward to traveling, visiting friends and working on an autobiography she has already begun, a project involving seven other women. "My big hobby is gardening," she says, and she plans to build a house and create a garden from scratch on a three-acre plot in Oklahoma, right next to where her brother lives.

It sounds like the perfect retirement plan. And if at some point in Gonzalez's private Eden, she were to be handed a magic wand with which she could change one thing in the world, she knows exactly what she'd do. "I would do away with poverty" she says unhesitatingly. "People who are born poor don't deserve to be poor. Its the most unfair thing in the world." D



Ana Ventura Phares,
Personal Style Ahead of Her Time
By Leslie A. Westbrook
Hispanic Business 
March 2005 Pg. 62

Technological advances have boosted many aspects of executive efficiency. But for Ana Ventura Phares, time management begins at a more basic level. "The critical part of managing time is being able to say no and delegating to responsible people," says Ms. Phares, the newly elected mayor of Watsonville, California, and one of only 36 Hispanic women mayors across the United States, 12 of which are in California. And for Ms. Phares - who gave up her Palm Pilot for a leather Day-Timer with two pages for each day ("So I can take notes on one side.") - managing time is crucial to meeting her obligations to the 50,000-member community 95 miles south of San Francisco. The 44-year-old created a flex schedule, cutting her job as an Equal Employment Opportunity officer for Santa Cruz County to 32 hours a week to accommodate new mayoral duties (where she earns $400 a month) that include tackling issues from land use and affordable housing to community development and pollution. So adept at time management has she become that the wife and mother of two still finds time for her family and two daily walks. Her efficiency extends to donning red power suits when required ("If you are tired, it wakes you up and brings more energy!") and adapting her wardrobe to her duties: "If I'm going to a controversial meeting, I wear pink - psychologists say it lowers people's anxieties." Time management also means looking ahead, and Ms. Phares already is thinking about her next steps after her mayoral term ends in 2006. Her goal is to run for supervisor or the state legislature, where she can effect broad societal change through policy. Says the efficient Ms. Phares, "I've got to start planning now."

Gina Martinez
On a mission to change the nutritional habits of American's kids
By Jennifer LeClaire
Hispanic Trends, November/ December 2004


Everyone thought I was out of my mind when I started Viva the Chef," says Gina Martinez—which of course was a great sign that her studio for teaching kids to cook healthy food was headed for success. A new idea has a way of looking weird until it succeeds—and then everybody wonders why they didn't think of it.

The truly amazing success that is Viva the Chef all began when Martinez took a hard look at one of today's big nutritional problems.

"Obesity is the No. 1 preventable cause of death," she says. "Twenty percent of our kids are obese. We have to do something about it or they are not going to live as long as we are. It's my mission to change kids' nutritional habits."

Like any true entrepreneur, Martinez soon saw her mission as a business opportunity—and not a minute too soon, because she needed an economic boost like never before in her life. The former special-education teacher and her two children were living with her parents in the wake of a devastating divorce.

It was a season of change in her life during which she stayed up late at night reading self-help books and contemplating her future.

"In the middle of the night I made a list of everything I loved to do, as the book suggested," recalls Martinez, 38, whose family left Cuba in 1960 and opened Cuban-style restaurants in South Florida. "The first two things on the list were teaching kids and cooking. I began trying to figure out how to fuse the two together—and Viva the Chef was born."

In June 2003, Martinez opened the doors to Morristown, New Jersey-based Viva the Chef, a kid-friendly franchise that teaches youngsters to create tasty dishes from scratch with a curriculum that combines education and fun.

There were no venture capitalists or angel investors to fund the entrepreneurial dream. Just a small divorce settlement and a solid business strategy that paid dividends almost overnight. She knew she had a hit on her hands when opening day saw a full house, with 12 birthday parties pre-booked and rnore in the pipeline.

Branching out

Indeed, in less than two years Viva the Chef has held more than 1,500 events and opened six franchises, with 27 additional franchises under development. Martinez is also launching a cartoon-based national television cooking show, DVD cookbooks, numerous kid-friendly culinary products, toys and a licensing agreement with a national apparel company

There's no looking back now. President and CEO Martinez intends to make Viva the Chef a household name.


Call for Contributors--
Latinos and Latinas in U.S. History and Culture: An Encyclopedia

Sent by Lupe Dorinda Moreno 

M.E. Sharpe, a New York-based academic and reference publisher, is seeking contributing scholars for a comprehensive reference work on the historical and theoretical examination of Latinos/as throughout the United States from the nineteenth century to the present. The project is aimed at the academic high school levels.

The General Editors for this project are Dr. Carmen Lugo-Lugo and David J. Leonard, both professors in the Department of Comparative Ethnic Studies at Washington State University.

Designed to be systematic and holistic, this collection provides a historical examination of the
complexity and evolution of Latina/os within the United States, offering concise, factually-laden,
accessibly-written entries of historical eras, various national communities, key issues, events, organizations, people, cultural practices, popular culture and cities. Each entry will range from 750-3000 words and the number of entries is estimated at between 300-350. Five kinds of entries constitute the volume: 
(1) entries on specific historical eras that capture the significant shifts and themes of particular eras,
(2) overviews of specific communities (Cuban; Puerto Rican, etc.) in terms of the historical development, contributions and struggles within the United States,
(3) entries on key issues, events, people and organizations,
(4) items devoted to broader social issues and cultural themes related to Latina/os history and culture including popular culture
(5) entries documenting the meaning and histories of particular Latina/o communities within various
American cities.

Contributors will receive full authorial credit, and either a modest cash honorarium or a copy of the full encyclopedia set, according to level of contribution.

For a prospectus with a full description of the project, including a table of contents, please contact
Carmen Lugo-Lugo & David J. Leonard, General Editors at:

"A small group of thoughtful people can change the world. Indeed it is the only thing that ever has."
~Margaret Mead

Burial and Memorial Benefits
Nationwise Gravesite Memorial Locator
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Search for burial locations of veterans and their dependents in VA National Cemeteries, state veterans cemeteries and various other Department of Interior and military cemeteries.The National Grave Locator includes burial records from many sources. These sources provide varied data; some searches may contain less information than others.If your search returns incorrect information about the deceased, please contact the cemetery directly to discuss your findings.
To search for a gravesite location, please provide the following: 

Search Options 
Last Name (Required) 
First Name 

If you cannot locate the person you are searching for, please provide the following information on each individual:
Full name, including any alternate spellings
Date and place of birth
Date and place of death
State from which the individual entered active duty
Military service branch. Most requests take approximately four weeks for a reply. Be sure to include your return mailing address, phone number or Internet e-mail address with your request and send it to:U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
National Cemetery Administration (41C1)
Burial Location Request
810 Vermont Ave., NW


Hispanic Business Tidbits 

Hispanic Start-ups are Surging!
Hispanic small business start-ups are on fire, particularly those started by women. Self-employment by Latinos grew 41% between 2000 and 2003, while overall self-employment grew at 6.2%. Latina business surged 62.4% for the seven years that ended 2004, while the number of all businesses grew just 9%. Source: "Hispanic Start-ups are Surging" Arizona Republic Online, April 18, 2005

2005 LBA Gala!
Only  19 days left until the LBA's Sol Business Awards Gala. This year's theme is "Celebrating Latino Business Success" and it will indeed be a wonderful celebration honoring the best of Latino entrepreneurship. This black-tie awards dinner has become one of the most prestigious events in the Latino community, attended by Latino business owners, representatives of major corporations and government leaders. Sponsorship opportunities are available. Date: Saturday, May 21. Location: Century Plaza Hotel, Avenue of the Stars, Century City. Get more information by calling Gala Co-Chair Carlos Alfaro at 213-628-8510 or send email to:

Mexican Business Leaders Invite you to Ensenada – for Under $400!  
Business and political leaders from all over Mexico will gather in Ensenada, Baja California, on May 18 through 20 for Expo Industria 2005. The Latin Business Association will be an exhibitor at the event and LBA Chairman Ray Durazo is among the featured speakers. Mexican President Vicente Fox will be among the political leaders in attendance. The event’s focus is on business and trade and if you have any interest in U.S –Mexico trade, this is an opportunity you shouldn’t miss. And, the low cost of attending makes this a tremendous bargain. For a total investment of just $390 you get two nights in a first-class hotel, one dinner, two lunches, two breakfasts and one cocktail reception, as well as admittance to all seminars and programs! Spouses get the same for an additional $185. LBA members are strongly encouraged to attend. For more information, call 714.564.5414 or e-mail or visit the event at:

Seminar for Small Business Success!
Seminars for Success presented by the partnership of Blue Cross of California and the U.S Small Business Administration. Learn how to maintain cash flow, how to obtain a business loan, as well as other very interesting topics. RSVP now to attend on Wednesday, May 11 at The Queen Mary Hotel, 1126 Queens Highway, Long Beach, CA 90802. From 8:00 a.m.–1:00 p.m. Please join us for a FREE tour of the Queen Mary after the Seminar. Complimentary parking and continental breakfast provided. For more information contact Carina Lozano: 818.552.3209, Fax: 818.552.3283 or visit:     For registration form, click here.

UCLA Hosts Three Former California Governors!
Three former governors of California will discuss the challenges facing California government in the 21st century. Participants: Jerry Brown, Gray Davis and George Deukmejian. Moderator: Kevin Starr, state librarian emeritus. Wednesday, May 4 at 8 p.m. at the DeNeve Auditorium, UCLA Campus (at the campus entrance at Gayley and Strathmore avenues).  Parking must be arranged in advance. Park in UCLA Structure 8, at the corner of Gayley and Strathmore avenues in Westwood. For more information, call Laura C. Romero at: 310.794.6819

Doing Business in China
LBA members, PMF Bancorp and CoFace provide Global Finance Solutions on May 12th at the City Club (Bunker Hill), 1st PMF Bancorp and CoFace North America will be holding a unique forum for business owners and executives to interact and learn about doing business in China and learn about solutions to domestic and global finance growth. This forum will be geared only for business owners/executives, and other key advisors in order to insure that each business owner has time to interact with the desired professionals. This is a private RSVP event. If you would like to be placed on event guest list, please email:   More...

The LBA Uses Microsoft Project to Plan the Expo!
As the Expo approaches, Microsoft Project allows the LBA to make sure everything is on track.  The project plan gets updated quickly, and the LBA leadership can track and analyze the Expo's planning status.  For free Internet training on how you can manage projects faster, smarter, and easier please check out the following link, clicking here.  For more information on Microsoft Project go to:
Scheduled for May 21, 2005, at the Century Plaza Hotel. LBA Expo
Scheduled for October 14 and October 15, 2005, at the Los Angeles Convention Center.

Matchmaking Program!
June 7 & 8 in Pasadena will take place at the Western Regional Business Matchmaking Conference.  For more information, please go to:

Encyclopedia Latina Debut!
Scholastic Library Publishing a division of Scholastic, the global Children’s publishing, education and media company, announced the release of Encyclopedia Latina: History, Culture and Society in the United States, the first interdisciplinary reference book to chronicle Latino contributions to art, culture and commerce in the United States. More...

Driving Force
HispanTelligence, reports Hispanics spent nearly $35 billion on automobiles in 2002, making up 8% of the market. Fueled by increased purchasing power, that share could grow to 13% by 2020, according to J.D. Power and Associates estimates. Source: "Driving Force",, April  2005.

National University Ranks 1st in California in Granting Master's Degrees to Hispanics!
For the sixth consecutive year, National University leads all California colleges and universities in granting master's degrees to Hispanics, according to the Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education's annual rankings of "Top Grad Schools & Programs for Hispanics." The private non-profit University also ranks second in the United States in that category. The rankings, which were published on Monday, April 11, also indicate that National University has the third-largest enrollment of Hispanic graduate students in the United States. Hispanic Outlook's rankings were based upon fall 2003 data from the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for

Educational Statistics, which accounted for a total of 2,229 Hispanic students at the San Diego-based university.

National University More...
U.S. Census Bureau statistics reveal that approximately one-third of all U.S. Hispanics reside in California, where their ranks have grown by 43 percent to more than 11 million people since 1990. With academic centers located in 11 major metropolitan areas throughout California, National University is uniquely qualified to serve some of the state's largest Hispanic communities, with campuses located in Los Angeles, Orange and San Bernardino counties, as well as Sacramento, San Jose, Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield. National University's innovative evening-based, once-course-per-month format is frequently attributed to placing higher education within reach of a large and diverse population of working adults.

The Real Deal
By Linda Pligas 
Extract:  Hispanic, January/February 2005 Pg. 31 

Discussing homeownership by Hispanics 

 . . . . .  But the culprit, experts say, is not discrimination against Hispanics; it's simply a lack of knowledge and experience. Specifically, a lack of information from trusted sources is a key barrier facing Hispanics from achieving the American Dream of homeownership, according to a new study from the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute at the University of Southern California. Entitled "El Sueno de su Casa:" 

The Homeownership Potential for Mexican-Heritage Families," the report found that a lack of familiarity with the mortgage process was the No. i source of confusion for Latinos. Other factors that contributed to the low homeownership rate includes the inability to save for a down payment and not being able to find a trustworthy advisor, says the report, which was funded by Freddie Mac, one of the nation's largest investors in residential mortgages.


Census data reveals that in the U.S., 1 in 7 Residents Is Latino

Latinos now account for one of every seven Americans and will continue to drive overall population growth, posing numerous economic challenges and benefits, according to demographers' analysis Wednesday of preliminary U.S. census estimates.

The article below by Pauline Jelinek was sent by Howard Shorr  
Associated Press Writer,   Jun 9  On the Net: Census Bureau:
In addition, Viola Sadler  sent an article published in the L.A. Times,0,701776.story
and John Inclan an article published in Galveston

WASHINGTON (AP) -- Hispanics accounted for half the 2.9 million U.S. population growth from 2003 to 2004 and now constitute one-seventh of all people in the United States.

A Census Bureau report issued Thursday said that trend probably will continue because of immigration and a Hispanic birth rate outstripping non-Hispanic blacks and whites.

The agency estimated there are 41.3 million Hispanics in the U.S. The bureau does not ask about legal status so its numbers are intended to include everyone.

The population growth for Asians ran a close second. Increases in both groups are due largely to immigration, but also higher birth rates, said Lewis W. Goodman, an American University expert on U.S.-Latin American relations.

"If we didn't have those elements, we would be moving into a situation like Japan and Europe ... where the populations are graying in a way that is very alarming and endangering their productivity and endangering even their social security systems," he said.

Most immigrants to the U.S. tend to arrive in their 20s, when many people have children. A far greater percentage of whites than Hispanics is 65 or older; the opposite is true of those under 18.

Immigration has become a volatile issue in Congress and border states, as well as in Georgia and other places where there has been a surge in new arrivals. Critics say lax enforcement of immigration laws has allowed millions of people to enter the U.S. illegally, take jobs from legal residents and drain social services.

The Hispanic growth rate for the 12 months starting July 2003 was 3.6 percent compared with the overall population growth of 1 percent. Kochhar says he's not surprised that a new Census Bureau report shows one-seventh of the U-S population is now Hispanic.

The growth rate was 3.4 percent for Asians, 1.7 percent for native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, 1.3 percent for blacks, 1 percent for American Indians and Alaska natives, and 0.8 percent for whites.

That meant that at the beginning of July last year, the population was an estimated 294 million with the following racial and ethnic breakdown: 240 million whites, 39.2 million blacks, 14 million Asians, 4.4 million native Indians and Alaskans, and 980,000 native Hawaiians and other islanders.

The numbers for all races and ethnic groups do not add up to the total because 4.4 million people listed themselves as having more than one race.

The Census Bureau counts "Hispanic" or "Latino" as an ethnicity rather than a race, so Hispanics can be of any race. The population of non-Hispanic whites indicating no other race increased just 0.3 percent in the past year, to 197.8 million.

"Looking toward the future, we see a different face of the U.S. population," said Audrey Singer, an immigration and census specialist at the Brookings Institution. "But I don't think that's necessarily new. It's a confirmation that this hasn't stopped or changed much."

The size of the Hispanic population and, to a lesser extent, the Asian population, rose in nearly every state over the 1990s. Also, the Census Bureau projected last year that whites and minority groups overall would be roughly equal in size by 2050.

"Sometimes this is portrayed as a problem for the United States - that the ethnic composition of the country is changing and that new people are coming to take jobs," said Goodman, dean of American University's School of International Service.

"My view is just the opposite: increased fertility of young people makes the (social) structure one that is more sustaining of economic production and enables older people to be in a culture where their retirements can be financed."

The Census Bureau estimates population change using annual data on births, deaths and international migration

OBITUARIES: Chico Carrasquel, 77

Was the 1st Latino to Start in a Major League All-Star Game
May 27, 2005 : Obituaries E-mail story   Print   Most E-Mailed 
Associated Press,1,1228281.
  Sent by Johanna De Soto

Former Chicago White Sox shortstop Chico Carrasquel, the first Latino player to start in a major league baseball All-Star game, died Thursday of cardiac arrest en route to a hospital in Caracas, Venezuela, according to a hospital spokesman. Carrasquel was 77. 

A native of Caracas, Carrasquel had been in failing health battling diabetes for several years.

"Venezuela lost one of its heroes today," White Sox manager Ozzie Guillen said in a statement. "As the first great Venezuelan shortstop, Chico helped put our country on the baseball map. I am honored and proud to have known him as a friend and will miss seeing him in my office each day at the ballpark. He was such a great friend, person and role model for young players." 

Carrasquel was signed by the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1949. But the Dodgers had Pee Wee Reese at shortstop, and general manager Branch Rickey sold Carrasquel's contract to the Chicago White Sox before the 1950 season for $35,000. 

Carrasquel played in the majors from 1950 to 1959 and was a four-time All-Star with the White Sox. 

A nifty fielder, he teamed with Nellie Fox in Chicago to form one of baseball's best double-play combinations. 

In 1951, he started at shortstop for the American League in the All-Star game at Detroit and singled in his first at-bat off Philadelphia Phillies pitcher Robin Roberts. 

Carrasquel hit .258 lifetime with 55 home runs and 474 RBIs. He was traded by the White Sox after the 1955 season to the Cleveland Indians in a deal for Larry Doby. 

He later played for the Kansas City Athletics and Baltimore Orioles. 

Alfonso "Chico" Carrasquel was the third Venezuelan player in the majors. 

He took over for Luke Appling as Chicago's shortstop in 1950. He had a 24-game hitting streak as a rookie. When he was traded to the Indians, it was to make room for another future Hall of Famer, Luis Aparicio. 

Last year, before Guillen's first home game as manager of the White Sox, three star Venezuelan shortstops threw out ceremonial first balls: Carrasquel, Aparicio and Guillen. 

Carrasquel spent several seasons doing Spanish-language telecasts of White Sox games. He also worked in the team's community relations department for several years.

In the early '90s, he lost much of his baseball memorabilia in a fire that destroyed his Chicago home. In 2003, he sustained minor injuries when he was beaten during a carjacking in Venezuela. 

Information on survivors was not immediately available. 

The Orange County Register Sunday June 5, 2005
Picture by Dario Lopez-Mills, The Associated Press


Juarez calls seniors, not police, for help
By Olga R Rodriguez

Grappling with a wave of kidnappings and killings, including the brutal slaying of two children, authorities in the border city of Juarez and recruiting people over to patrol outside elementary schools.

They hope this armed "policia adulto mayor," or elder police force, will gain the trust in a city whose police force is seen as corrupt.

The elders are armed only with a cell phone and a uniform of black paints and shirt with a police logo.

They work in parks outside their neighborhood elementary schools, watching for suspicious activities and alerting police to problems. On weekends, they patrol Ciudad Juarez's three biggest parks.

"What we want is to have police who are close to people and at the same time learn about the problems in each community." Said Gustavo Zabre, director of preventive police for Chihuahua state, where Juarez is located.

Some 300 people applied for the jobs, but only 35 retirees ended up patrolling in Juarez city of 1.3 million across form El Paso, Texas, where crime is as common as police corruption.

Father Matters
Since its inception in 1997, Father Matters, founded by Vance Simms has pursued its mission to heighten awareness of the significant role fathers and men play in the community, family and in their children’s lives. Father Matters is a progressive, solutions oriented organization that wants to turn the hearts of the community back to the children.  Father Matters Crossroads for Parents and the Circle of Noble Youth Programs are already highly regarded often sought out interventions that have become a valuable part of the existing repertoire of services offered in San Joaquin County.

The "International Conversation on Fatherhood" Panel held June 4th

PHILADELPHIA, PA --  4 May 2005 - What do Men – especially Men who are Fathers – really want and need?  Why are Men – especially Men who are Fathers – fired up?  How do we and why should we acknowledge a man’s humanity?  Did you know that the international community is engaged in an intense dialogue about Fatherhood?  What’s going on with Men? 

The Author’s PenTM presented by Turn The Page ProductionsTM will feature a one-hour panel discussion and author interview which will answer these questions and give the audience a chance to have their say on Saturday, 4 June 2005 from 1:00 P.M. to 3:00 P.M. at The Nile Book Store at 6008 Germantown Avenue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Sent by Diane Sears 

Diane A. Sears  is the author of In Search of Fatherhood® -- Transcending Boundaries, a member of the University Council of Akamai University’s Fatherhood and Men’s Studies Program in Hilo, Hawaii, and Managing Editor of a quarterly international male parenting journal – IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD® Forum For and About the Fathers of the World (
) which facilitates an International Conversation on Fatherhood by providing Men from all Walks of Life with an interactive forum to explore and exchange information, ideas, issues and solutions about issues directly and indirectly related to Fatherhood.


Down the Aisle and Into the Melting Pot  
By Isabel C. González, Washington Post,  June 23, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr 

  When Michelle and Richard Hughes got married at the Arts Club of Washington last year, they knew they wanted their wedding celebration to reflect exactly who they are.
 "We had been to a wedding where the bride was Asian and the groom was Jewish and they incorporated these touches from their backgrounds," says Michelle Hughes, "and we were just so touched by how special it all was."
 Michelle, who is Italian American, and Richard, who is African American, read books and consulted family members about traditions they could incorporate into their ceremony.
 For Michelle, that meant honoring Richard's family history by jumping the broom, a custom symbolizing commitment to a new life together that is steeped in African and African-American history. "Richard's mom has her [broom] hanging on a wall in her house, so I asked her to decorate one for us," said Michelle. They jumped over the broom after the vows and rings were exchanged but before The Kiss at the altar.
 To honor the bride's heritage, Italian cookies were served as part of the wedding feast. "We saw the wedding as an opportunity to reflect our families' backgrounds and a way for our families to learn about each other," said Michelle.
 In April, former Washington-area residents Miku and Judy Mehta married, in a celebration that included colors, foods and music from their respective backgrounds, India and Taiwan. Invitations to the 400-person event used Sanskrit and Chinese symbols and characters. Guests joined in a traditional Indian dance called garba, honoring Ambaji, goddess of might and power. A priest administered the ceremony by reading religious verses in Sanskrit.
 In 1970, fewer than one percent of marriages in America were between people of different races; by 2000, that number had increased to more than five percent, according to researchers Sharon M. Lee and Barry Edmonston of Portland State University. Their study, published this month by the Population Reference Bureau, strongly suggests that the percentage will rise even further as Americans' attitudes about race and culture continue to change -- and as more people identify themselves as multiracial on Census forms, something they were allowed to do for the first time in 2000.
 "In the 1950s if you married someone from a different ethnic, country or religious group you could be considered an outcast," said Michelle R. Nelson, an assistant professor of journalism and mass communication at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In a recent paper on Web site message boards dedicated to inter-cultural and inter-racial wedding planning, Nelson found that brides "are increasingly rejecting scripted and lavish white weddings that don't allow for personal and cultural identity." Instead they are incorporating their families' country, culture or race specific traditions, such as including Romanian folk dances or wearing a Spanish mantilla.
 Katie L. Martin, president of Elegance & Simplicity Wedding & Event Designers, with offices in Georgetown and Bethesda, coordinated the wedding for Michelle and Richard Hughes. She estimates that her team produces 150 to 175 weddings a year, and says that at least half of them showcase traditions or customs mixing cultural, ethnic and religious traditions. "The Hugheses did a lot in terms of blending cultures and backgrounds and in a beautiful way, including African drumming and an African-American pastor."
 Martin recalls a recent wedding for an Afghan Muslim bride and an Indian Muslim groom, incorporating rituals from both cultures. "The bride wore a sari during the ceremony to honor the groom's family, and the reception was alive with Middle Eastern music and dancing," she said.
 Wendy Raab is co-owner of Rave Reviews, an event-management company in Kensington. Her firm has produced several intercultural weddings this year, including Indian-American, Pakistani-American and Korean-American celebrations.
 "I've been in this industry for 30 years and I've done more of these weddings in the last five years than ever before," Raab said.
 "The baby boomers were more focused on classic wedding style," she said. "The brides and grooms didn't have the knowledge the brides and grooms have now, so often it was the parents who did everything for them."
 In January, her business partner, Sidni Greenblat, oversaw a wedding in Puerto Rico for a Washington couple. "The bride is Argentine and the groom is Jamaican American, so their first dance was a tango and we served Jamaican food at the rehearsal dinner."
 Maria Elena Jackson is owner of No Small Affair, an event-planning company in Arlington. She credits Martha Stewart with encouraging the trend toward personalized rather than perfunctory celebrations in her 1987 book "Weddings," and later in her specialty magazines devoted to the subject. "Her wedding magazine brought to the forefront that the event is really about making it your own, reflecting your and your groom's personalities so that it doesn't just become another wedding," said Jackson.
 The Knot, a wedding planning magazine and Web site, includes a cultural celebrations section on global customs. "We publish stories on brides and grooms, how they met and the customs they included. [It] is one of the most popular sections," says executive editor Rosie Amodio. "It's part of the anti-copycat wedding movement."
 In Korea, according to the site, American-style wedding cakes would be considered too sweet; a more popular choice would be a cake of ground steamed rice covered in red bean powder. In the West Indies, guests pay for a peek at the wedding cake hidden under a white tablecloth, which is believed to bring good luck. In Russian Georgian weddings, often held at home, the bride kicks over a pitcher of wine and scatters bread dough around the house to ensure fertility.
 Instead of the bride throwing her bouquet to single girlfriends, as is common in many American weddings, Amodio says in Turkish weddings, "all the single girls sign their name on the bottom of the bride's shoes and the name that is most worn out by the end of the night is the next to get married."
 As blended weddings become more popular, so does the availability of specialty supplies in the American marketplace.
 Renellie International ( ) is a California-based company doing a brisk business selling cake toppers that can be mixed and matched by race (and gender). The firm, launched earlier this year, sold out of its initial 450-item stock in less than two months.
 "I'm African American and my husband is Asian and when we got married I was so frustrated that I couldn't find a cake topper that looked like us," says co-owner Rena Puebla. "I was seeing so many couples from different countries and cultures getting married, so I knew there was a market for them." Their current best seller is the Asian bride. "We can hardly keep it in stock," says co-owner Ellie Genuardi. (The hand-painted 7-inch toppers, sold wholesale and on their Web sites,  and  start at $69.99 a pair.)

Survey: Minorities Snubbed by Life Insurers
Hispanic Business, June 15, 2005 

Blacks and Hispanics are being ignored by life insurers, a new survey says, even though both minority groups consider life insurance an "essential" financial product. 

Only 32 percent of blacks and 40 percent of Hispanics said they own a life insurance policy - notably below the national average of 47 percent, according to the polling company inc. - a Washington D.C. market research firm. Yet 92 percent of blacks and 82 percent of Hispanics believe life insurance is essential, the survey found, compared with 72 percent of whites. 

"You're talking about a population that says life insurance is essential and they can't get it," said Kellyanne Conway, president of the polling company. "If I were a life insurance broker I'd be dialing my cell phone with one hand and knocking on doors with the other to reach out to these minority populations." 

The survey also found that families with lower incomes placed a correspondingly higher priority on obtaining life insurance. 

The National Association of Insurance Commissioners is considering the creation of special sales licenses that would allow agents to exclusively sell term-life policies in certain underserved markets.

Source: (C) 2005 Boston Herald. via ProQuest Information and Learning Company; All Rights Reserved

Immigrants Get helping hand book, practical tips

The federal handbook for foreign nationals who are permanent U.S. residents offers advice on living in the United States. Here are some of the tips:
Selective Service: Men ages 18 to 26 must register with the Selective Service, indicating their availability to serve in the armed forces. Service is voluntary.
Buying a home: Seek a real-estate agent who knows the area where you wish to buy. Mortgages are loans for buying homes.
Bank accounts: Bank and credit unions re safe places for money. Don't  keep large amounts of cash at home or on your person.
Driver's licenses: It is against the law to drive without one. Drive on the right-hand side of the road.
Schools: Most teachers hold conferences with parents to update them on their child's progress. 
Home safety: Keep your doors locked at all times. Smoke alarms make a loud noise when there is smoke in your home. 

"Welcome To The United States: A Guide For New Immigrants (English Version)"
 Stock Number 027-002-00514-7   ISBN 0-16-072394-9   Price $ 9.50  Price (non-U.S.) $ 13.30
 For more information go to:

Fundraiser for Dolores Huerta Foundation
Foundation provides training and guidance to residents from low income communities empowering them to advocate for equal opportunity in education, economic resources, social services, political representation. Two projects are currently underway, one in Gilroy, one in Lamont. Additional funds will allow Foundation to expand to other underserved communities.
July 9th, 6-9 pm
Las Palmas Park, San Fernando

For more information: 661-259-3938 or Alex Reza
Sent by Serg Hernandez



Gonzalez De Sepulveda Gonzalez De Rubalcava Gonzalez De Hermosillo

Coats of Arms from BLASONES Y APELLIDOS, 828-page book by Fernando Muñoz Altea
In its second edition, the book can be ordered from
P.O. Box 11232, El Paso, Texas 79995  or by contacting Armando Montes

Extracts:  Hispanic Surnames and Family History by Lyman D. Platt, Ph.D.

Gonzalez is the second most popular Hispanic Surname in Latin American and the United States.

                                                  The History of Surnames, Pg. 27 

Spanish surnames have originated from three basic classifications:1) family names (patronymics), 2) place names, and 3) descriptive names. Nearly every surname has various spellings, and it can be a very difficult task to identify all of them. This is further complicated in the United States where Spanish surnames may become altered to give them an English sound. There is also the possibility that a Spanish surname may have derived from English, German, Dutch, Italian, French, or Portuguese surnames.

"Patronymic" refers to the phenomenon common in the post-Gothic (after 710 A.D.) history of the Iberian Peninsula as surnames were developing, when the az, as, ez, es, iz, is, oz, os, uz, and us endings were placed on given names to indicate that a certain person was the son of another.9 Smith says that in Spain "the majority of the names are patronymic"10 but this is not true. Even though, as was noted above, the Arabs' surname base was patronymic, the majority of surnames originated from place names and descriptive names and are not patronymic. As a general rule, the as, es, is, os, and us endings are more commonly Portuguese endings, whereas the az, ez, iz, oz, and uz endings tend to be attached to Spanish surnames. For example, Martin, son of Rodrigo, might have been known as Martin Rodriguez. Surnames in the beginning of their development were not static. For example, Diego, son of this same Martin Rodriguez, might have been called Diego Martinez, Diego Rodriguez, or even another surname totally unrelated to this patronymic system, but rather based on the illustriousness of the mother's or the grandmother's lineages.



Galvez Patriots

Laredo, Texas  Parade, 
Texas Connection to the American Revolution
National Independence Day Parade
Concord: The shot heard around the world
Saratoga: The battle that started a world war

Laredo Parade,  February 19, 2005

During the American Revolution, the Province of Texas under New Spain drove over 11,000 of longhorn cattle over a three year period to Louisiana to support American's fight for independence from the England. The first of many trail drives occurred in August 1779, and consisted of over 1,700 head of Texas longhorns and is the very first trail drive in American history.

TCARA, the Texas Connection to the American Revolution is a non-profit historical association devoted to memorializing that important event in American history and those involved in that heroic effort.

The purposes of this Association are to be patriotic, historical, and educational, and shall include those intended or designed to perpetuate the memory of those patriots who by their service or sacrifices during the war of the American Revolution, achieved the independence of the American people; to unite and promote fellowship among fellow Texans, to inspire them and the community-at-large with a more profound reverence for the principles of the government founded by our forefathers; to encourage historical research in relation to the Texas involvement in the American Revolution; to acquire and preserve the records of the individual services of the patriots of the war, as well as documents, relics, and landmarks; to mark the scenes of the Texas involvement in the American Revolution by appropriate memorials; to celebrate the prominent events of the Texas involvement and the Texas colonial period; to foster true Texas and American patriotism; to maintain and extend the institutions of American freedom and to carry out the purposes expressed in the Preamble of the Constitution of the United States of America.

[[ Editor:  Many Hispanics with historical roots in Northern Mexico and South Texas have lines which go back to those cattlemen and merchants that helped the colonists in their struggle to gain independence.  I am proud to say that many of my grandfathers were among those Spanish patriots, among whom was one of the major cattlemen, Simon de Arocha. 

Sylvia Carvajal Sutton, on our NARA committee has researched her Texas family lines.  She is a direct descendant of a Texas to Louisiana trail driver named Vicente Flores y Abrego y Valdez.  Her son, Frank Erwin Carvajal Sutton has been accepted into the Sons of the American Revolution.

During the July 4th parade in Washington, D.C. Frank will receive his SAR membership ribbon pinning in front of the grandstand.  This will be the first time that the TCARA organization marches in the July 4th  parade, and the first time that a  member of the SAR will be accepted for/under his Hispanic ancestor's non-military service in Texas in support of the American Revolution. 

I hope you will all get a chance to watch the D.C. parade and feel the pride of knowing that the whole nation will be awakened to the fact of our valuable involvement in the American Revolution, honored by the prestigious SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.

I will be marching in the parade honoring and representing my ancestral grandmother,  Maria Ygnacia Urrutia, wife of Simon de Arocha.

For more information on this subject, read Los Mesteños by Jack Jackson, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 1986. ]]

June 1, 2005
National Independence Day Parade
C/o Under the Sun productions Inc.
882 South Matlack Street, Suite 202
West Chester, PA 19182

Re: July 4th Parade

Dear Mr. Best:

Thank you for including The Texas Connection to the American Revolution (TCARA) in the National Independence Day Parade on July 4, 2005.

TCARA will provide approximately 15 members dressed in 1776 period uniforms and dress both adult and children.

I would appreciate a very brief pause of about 10 seconds at the reviewing stand to induct a descendant of the very first trail drive in American History into the Sons of The American Revolution of which I am a Past President.

Enclosed is the necessary information requested and release.
Thank you again for inviting TCARA to participate in the National Parade.

LTC Jack V. Cowan
USA (Ret)
President, TCARA


CONCORD: The shot heard around the world

SARATOGA: The battle that started a world war

Part One of an analysis of the American Revolution by Jack Cowan


Few Americans view the American Revolution as a part of a world war, but that is exactly on what General George Washington and our Founding Fathers banked all their hopes and prayers. There was little hope for an American victory without the aid of France and Spain, as only a third of the colonist and an inexperienced, undisciplined and ill-equipped band of brothers had virtually no chance of defeating the world’s most powerful army and navy. But before such support would be forthcoming, the colonist would have to prove their strength and resolve. This was done at Saratoga, which most historians believe, was the most important battle in American and perhaps world history. It was this battle that induced France and later, its secret partner, Spain, to openly declare war on England in support of the colonist.

The details of the Battle of Saratoga are best left to military annalist of that period. However, the humiliating defeat of Burgoyne and his British army proved to the world that there was, indeed, a viable revolution verses a manageable rebellion going on in America. It would soon become obvious that it would take more of an army than King George was willing to spare to put it down. To be sure, King George’s decision in this regard, was tempered by his being involved in a world war which included battles in the Mediterranean (Minorca and the Great Siege of Gibraltar, 1783), Indian Ocean, Central and South America, the Bahamas, the Gulf Coast, the Mississippi River and a threaten invasion of England. To say that England was stressed beyond that which its army and navy could handle is a gross understatement.

Background: Going into 1776, Britain dominated the world having defeated the French and Spanish in the Seven Years War or the French and Indian War as it is known in America. France lost Canada along with valuable fishing rights off Newfoundland and all but a few of its world colonies. Spain, who came into that war when it was all but over, lost Minorca, Gibraltar, Jamaica, timber rights in South and Central America, the Bahamas, all of Florida to the Mississippi River and other world colonies. Both France and Spain were financially depressed from the war and could ill-afford to get involved in another tangle.

The New World, however, was viewed not only as a valuable trading partner but also as a balancing world power and Britain had gobbled up everything east of the Mississippi and was threatening to move west and south. France had a powerful land army and was secure from Britain in Europe but did not have a navy capable of dueling with the British.

Spain, on the other hand, still had numerous colonies to defend as well as valuable shipping routes across the Atlantic to the Caribbean. In fact, this shipping route had become the envy of the world due to the gold and silvers mined in Mexico and the lumber harvested in Central and South America. Goods from the Far East were also shipped across the Pacific Ocean to Nicaragua and ferried overland to the Gulf of Mexico and then on to Spain. While France had temporarily allowed Spain to occupy New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory to keep it out of British hands, Britain had lost no time in establishing settlements all along the Mississippi River from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. There can be little doubt that this "back door" to the colonies was eyed as a key to controlling the trade to and from the New World and Spanish New Orleans was the only obstacle to that British enterprise.

To say that the Gulf of Mexico was the center of world attention is not a rash statement. Indeed, England had used its "lumber harvesting rights" as an excuse to establish settlements in Spanish Central and South America and was encouraging privateers to plunder Spanish shipping in the Caribbean and thus well on the way to world control.

With this in mind, our Founding Fathers had every hope that the "Bourbon Kings" (France and Spain) would support a new "world balancing" government. Separately, the French and Spanish navies were helpless against England’s numerically stronger ships-of-the line but combined, the naval forces of France and Spain could cause great havoc to the English Navy and open the British blockade of the colonist. Most importantly, however, the growing wealth of Spain was to be the catalyst that kept the revolution afloat, won the battle at York Town and guaranteed American Independence.

There was, of course, another reason Washington and Congress believed the Bourbon Alliance would come to their aid. Upon declaring their independence in 1776, Spain began covertly shipping money, gunpowder, and other supplies to the American warriors via the Mississippi River and Philadelphia. Later both France and Spain would set up a covert, independent company that would ship money and supplies to the Americans via the Atlantic. Further, Washington had developed secret trading arrangements via the Mississippi River through an American, Oliver Pollock, and the Spanish Governor of New Orleans, Bernardo de Galvez.

It is well to reason that France and Spain were not helping America without selfish design. Motivation for self-sacrifice comes in all forms of inducements and surely France and Spain saw America’s struggle against England as one of their own against a world controlled by Britain. The fact that America was attempting to overthrow a King was no easy spoon of revenge for supporting Kings to swallow. As time writes history, France would soon find its own Kingdome without a head.

World politics, like the weather, chance with time. America gains its Independence, France overthrows its King, Bonaparte’s France invades Spain and starts another world war (known in America as the War of 1812), a ruined Spain then loses Mexico, and America and England become the best of pals.

Next: The story of the "South Carolina", The American Revolution’s own privateer and a touch of naval politics.




2005 American GI Forum National Conference, July 27-31
"Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?"
School Murals Brighten School
O.C. foreign-born residents
California State Fullerton is 5th in Nation for Hispanic Bachelor's Degrees



We welcome all G. I. Forum members, family and friends to the 2005 National Convention on July 27 – 30, 2005. The Convention will be held at the beautiful Coast Anaheim Hotel in Anaheim, California. For our members and families we are planning the 2005 Convention to be memorable, enjoyable and productive. This includes corporate exhibitors, workshops, prominent speakers, receptions, music, entertainment and a gala awards banquet. If you plan a game of golf don’t forget to sign up for the July 26 tournament at a nearby country club. 

This official National Convention website has all the hotel and Convention information you need. Don’t forget to reserve you hotel room early. Your host G. I. Forum Chapters -Larry Amaya and Rudy Escalante – will make the 2005 Convention as comfortable and pleasurable as possible. 

We’ll see you at the in July at the 2005 National Convention in Anaheim, California.
For a schedule of the agenda, please go to:

Sincerely, Fred R. Rodriguez, Chairman, 2005 National Convention
Tony Gallegos, Honorary Chairman 
Sent by Debbie Salazar 

"Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?"

Rancho Los Cerritos, July 28, 5:30 PM
4600 Virginia Road, Long Beach, CA 90807  562-570-1755
Gates open at 5 for picnicking.  Free concert:
Songs and Stories of the Great Depression with Los Angeles folk singer, Ross Altman.

The Orange County Register, Saturday, June 4 2005
Photo By Lianne Milton, The Register

School Murals Brighten School

Work on  a mural catches the eye of Rudy Alvarez, 
7, on right, and a classmate waiting in line for lunch at Remington Elementary in Santa Ana. Three hundred Volunteers from Deloitte 
& Touche revitalized the school with paint, a new playground fence and equipment, and murals depicting book themes.

O.C. foreign-born residents  > 29.9 % of the population
Source:  Orange County Register,  6-8-05
Total:  849,8999 people 
39 %     arrived from 1990 to march 2000 
38 %     are U.S. citizens 
53 %     from Latin America 
36.6 %  from Asia 
6.6 %    form Europe

California State Fullerton is Fifth in Nation for Hispanic Bachelor's Degrees

Dateline Volume 4, Issue 17 May 19, 2005
Sent By Granville Hough, Ph.D.

Cal State Fullerton has moved up to fifth in the nation for the number of undergraduate degrees awarded to Hispanic students. CSUF is the top California institution of higher education in this category, according to the annual "Top 100" published in the May 5 issue of His
panic Outlook in Higher Education.

The publication rankings - based on 2003-04 data from the National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education - list colleges and universities by number of bachelor's and master's degrees awarded, as well as by subject areas.

Last year, CSUF was listed in sixth place and was the second highest California State University campus ranked. In 2003, the university was in eighth place.

In specific academic programs, Cal State Fullerton ranks third nationally for the number of undergraduate degrees awarded to Hispanics in communications, public administration, and the visual and performing arts. CSUF is fourth in education; sixth in business and marketing, and protective services; eighth in area studies and home economics; and ninth for mathematics and foreign language degrees awarded to Hispanic students.

In the same edition, Hispanic Outlook ranked Cal State Fullerton 35th in the top 100 for the number of master's degrees earned by Hispanics.

Hispanics account for 25 percent of Cal State Fullerton's 33,413-member student body.




A 'Mexican Window' Into the City's Past
Shroud of Silence,  Los Angeles Black Plague-Cover-up
Index to LA County Burial Permits 1870-1892 Online 
Los Angeles County Cemeteries
A Glance Back ...
Workshops Celebrating Life's Meaningful Moments

Center for Latino Community Health, Long Beach


A 'Mexican Window' Into the City's Past
By Veronica Torrejón, Times Staff Writer, June 23, 2005
Sent by Viola Sadler

Los Angeles' first Spanish-language newspaper, El Clamor Publico, was founded 150 years ago by an 18-year-old printer.

A procession of admirers filed past Antonio Ruiz's deathbed to bid him a tearful farewell. Deputy Marshal William Jenkins had shot Ruiz after the two scuffled over a guitar Jenkins tried to repossess.

After Ruiz died, Mexicans in Los Angeles rioted for more than three days, storming the jail where Jenkins was being housed in a failed attempt to have him lynched. A trial followed, and an all-white jury acquitted Jenkins in 15 minutes. The year was 1856.

The city's English-language newspaper gave the shooting and trial an obligatory nod, while its Spanish-language counterpart, led by an enterprising young printer, Francisco P. Ramirez, chronicled the uprising in meticulous detail.

That's one of the findings of Paul Bryan Gray, a Claremont attorney writing a biography of Ramirez. This week marks the 150th anniversary of the founding of Ramirez's scrappy publication, the city's first Spanish-language newspaper.

El Clamor Publico, or the Public Outcry, debuted June 19, 1855, when Ramirez was just 18. The four-page weekly tabloid went bankrupt after four years, but it continues to provide a "Mexican window" into 19th century Los Angeles, Gray said.

The paper noted, for example, that the guitar Jenkins tried to repossess belonged to Ruiz's common-law wife and was a cherished family heirloom.

In 1855, seven years after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the U.S.-Mexican War, California's former Mexican occupants, known as californios, struggled to define themselves as new citizens of the United States. They found a voice with the dawning of the Spanish-language press, said Jose Luis Benavides, a journalism professor at Cal State Northridge.

"The interesting thing about El Clamor Publico was that there was nothing in the English-language newspapers about the life of Latinos at the time," said Benavides, who features the tabloid in his class on Spanish-language news.

The paper initially campaigned for cooperation between whites and Mexicans, Benavides said. Ramirez, who was born in Los Angeles in 1837, was "a real Angeleno in the truest sense."

"He wanted [Mexicans] to participate in his democratic process. He was advocating for them to become enfranchised," said Benavides, while hovering a respectful distance above the newspaper's leather-bound first issue preserved at the Huntington Library in San Marino.

El Clamor Publico also chronicled everyday news, including land transactions, bullfights and noteworthy trials. Ramirez also translated articles from English-language newspapers into Spanish, Gray said.

Before founding El Clamor Publico, Ramirez was a printer and an editor of the Spanish section of the local newspaper, the Los Angeles Star. He struck out on his own after the Star decided to scrap its Spanish section, Gray said.

Ramirez would later complain that the Star insulted Mexicans by unfairly characterizing the "tendencies of our Mexican population toward armed riot, scuffling and robbery."

El Clamor Publico relied on $5 annual subscription rates and advertisements, which sold for $2 for 10 lines. In addition, the paper received state subsidies for publishing local ordinances in Spanish. Ramirez took advantage of the opportunity to educate californios on U.S. history and politics. One Fourth of July, he translated the entire Declaration of Independence, Gray said.

The Jenkins trial provided Ramirez an opportunity to explain the purpose of juries and the U.S. legal system to his readers. He wrote in one editorial, "It is necessary that there be union in this city in order to have security. Let us all work together in the same spirit to carry out the laws."

With virtually no formal education, Ramirez adopted a surprisingly literary flair to his writing, quoting Latin poets and philosophers along with abolitionists of the day, Gray said.

"All the issues relevant to African Americans at the time, he empathized with," said Benavides. Those issues included lynchings and exclusionary laws. "He empathized with their struggle."

In an 1859 editorial titled "The crime of being born black," Ramirez rallied against a local legislator who called for a law prohibiting freed slaves from immigrating to California.

"This is more than shameful, it's dishonorable. How could blacks avoid being born under the limits of the great Republic, a model of excellence?" Ramirez wrote. "Is it fair that they are punished for committing the crime of not being born white? Is this civilization? Is this Christianity?"

In 1856 he wrote about a series of lynchings of Mexicans by white mobs:

"Oh, fatalidad! Only Mexicans are the victims of the people's insane fury! Mexicans alone have been sacrificed on gallows, raised to launch their poor souls into eternity…. Is this the liberty and equality of the country we have adopted?"

In all, about 80 Mexicans, Chileans, Peruvians, native Americans and blacks were lynched in California during the years the paper was in print, said Rodolfo F. Acuña, founder of the Chicano studies department at Cal State Northridge.

"Racism was even more virulent than it is today. Mexicans couldn't be on juries, they couldn't testify in court," he said. "The paper recorded it all."

Ramirez also used the newspaper as a tool for his political ambitions, advocating his own candidacy to the state Assembly in 1859. Within months of losing the election, his second failed bid for office, he sold the printing press.

Ramirez died at age 71 in 1908 in Ensenada. All but about nine months of his newspaper survived.

The final issue of El Clamor Publico, on Dec. 31, 1859, contained a bitter editorial by Ramirez that attacked the Mexicans who had not supported him, Gray said.

Although he viewed his newspaper as a champion of the californios, Ramirez placed part of the blame for their plight squarely on their shoulders, Benavides said. In a city of shifting ethnicity, racial tension festered, and few, if any, Mexicans dared to vote. Still, Ramirez lambasted them for their timidity.

"And you, imbecile californios! You are to blame for the lamentations that we are witnessing," wrote Ramirez in 1858. "We are tired of saying: Open your eyes, and it is time that we demand our rights and interests."


Shroud of Silence 
The Los Angeles Black Plague-Cover-up

By Frank Feldingei 
April 2005, 6x9  290 Pages 

"'Frank Feldinger is a throwback to the old sty/e of investigative reporter who researches a story until he knows every detail from every angle. And he's got a great story here."- Michael Harris

Dramatic true story of the last outbreak of bubonic plague in North America; this is the first expose of the cover-tip of the Los Angeles Black Plague outbreak of 1934.

Local government discovered the outbreak in haws, and ordered a hard quarantine to suppress it. Fire hoses cordoned off several blocks of Hispanic citizens and World War I Army vets patrolled the perimeter, condemning the healthy people inside the quarantine area to exposure….and death Los Angeles city fathers, real estate developers and the backers of the newly-built San Pedro harbor successfully pressured the newspapers to downplay the disease and the deaths. Few people 'knew about the outbreak when it happened; and almost no one found out abou it, until now.

Frank Feldingar is a TV news producer and investigative journalist based in LA. He won several awards, including the AABP and Maggie for his investigative work. His byline has appeared in .Fortune, spy, California Business and The National Enquire.

For More information contact:
Allen Adrian
Sundance Books 
Phone: 209-956-1811

Index to LA County Burial Permits 1870-1892 Online 

Sent by Lorraine Hermandez
Posted by Dick Eastman on May 04, 2005 |

The following article is from Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter and is copyright 2004 by Richard W. Eastman. It is re-published here with the permission of the author. Information about the newsletter is available at

Index to LA County Burial Permits 1870-1892 Online

The Southern California Genealogical Society has recently added searchable databases to its redesigned website. The data is free and available to all.

One important database lists Los Angeles County Burial Permits from 1870 to 1892, which documents deaths that occurred long before the state required that death records be maintained.  Data was extracted by Southern California Genealogical Society and Family Research Library volunteers from burial permits on file at the Los Angeles County Vital Records Department, now located in Norwalk, California.

The permits cover the years 1870 through 1892 for persons who died in Los Angeles County. They were signed by Catholic priests, ministers, doctors, pastors, medical attendants, health officers or Justices of the Peace of Los Angeles County who took the information about the deceased or were in attendance when the person died.

Those listed here may not be all the permits prepared during this period of time. Some of the records were hard to read because of the handwriting and faded ink.

I took a look at this new database and found it simple to use. You do not search this site like most databases. Instead, the data is stored as one big web page and has 26 bookmarks, one for every letter of the alphabet. I clicked on "F" and all the entries for last names beginning with that letter soon appeared. Here is a typical entry that I will use as an example:


ID: 375
Name: Farrel, Michael
Date of Death: 15-Dec-1891
Age: 52y
Race/Color: White
Sex: M
Condition: S (an abbreviation for "single")
Nativity: OH
Place of Death or residence: Pacific Branc
Occupation: Laborer   
Certificate No.: 356

Most of the data is self-explanatory. One exception is the abbreviation of "NHDVS" but a quick visit to the site's list of abbreviation shows that it stands for "National Health Department of Veteran Services." From that we can surmise that Michael Farrel was a veteran and was born about 1839 (since he was 52 years old at his time of death in 1891.). That means that he probably was a veteran of the U.S. Civil War.

In short, this data is extracted from original source documents and is easy to use. The Southern California Genealogical Society is offering a great resource of interest to anyone tracing ancestors in Los Angeles County. You can access the to LA County Burial Permits 1870-1892 at


State of California: Los Angeles County Cemeteries
Sent by Johanna De Soto

This website appears to be a very complete collection of cemeteries in the Los Angeles County. I would assume that the same kind of project is underway for the whole state. The California Tombstone Project State Manager
Peggy Hooper, ask that those wishing to register a cemetery, send her a message giving the name of the cemetery, the county and state where the cemetery is located and the names of the people who will be doing the transcribing. If you already have transcribed cemetery data and would like for your work to become part of this project, just let me know.

A Cemetery Registration form is online, the cemetery name, town and county name can be entered on the subject line. Photo Submissions help page. Cemetery Transcriptions help page 

Some cemeteries may be repeated in the various lists, some names have since been changed, some cemeteries are know by more than one name. I offer these lists to aid in your research. 


by Ellen Calomiris

The Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers didn't always follow their current courses.

When Manuel Nieto's land grant was first mapped and recorded, the San Gabriel River designated the western boundary, and his property encompassed an extensive coastal plain dotted with marshes, lakes and shallow ponds. This coastal plain was an area rich in plant and animal life including willows, cottonwoods and marsh vegetation, and deer, foxes, coyotes and many varieties of waterfowl. Today, the Los Angeles River runs through the San Gabriel River channel and the San Gabriel River lies east, near the 605 Freeway. Before the rivers were "cemented in," heavy rains frequently caused them to flood and explore new routes.

Before the rains of 1824-25, the Los Angeles River ran below a high bluff between the present Main and Los Angeles Streets in downtown Los Angeles, turning westward on its meandering way to the "cienegas," the great marshlands that lay between the Bddwin and the Beverly Hills; the river entered the ocean just north of Playa del Rey. Flooding that winter caused the Los Angeles River to divert south and eastward to join the San Gabriel River north of present day Long Beach and flow into San Pedro Bay. The two rivers used the same channel into San Pedro Bay for many years. During the "great flood" of 1861-62, when the rain fell steadily for 30 days and registered at nearly 50 inches, the San Gabriel overflowed its banks and formed a secondary channel to the west of El Monte. The entire area from Los Angeles to the ocean, as far south as San Pedro, became a great lake. Adobe houses crumbled, vineyards were buried, and at least four people died. It was during this time that many ranchers, including John Temple, experienced the loss of thousands of cattle from drowning.

The next major flood, in 1867-68, caused the San Gabriel River to break out of its main channel, cut into this new channel south from Whittier Narrows and along an irrigation ditch, and discharge into Alamitos Bay. It became known as "New River." In the process, the last seven miles of the old

In this map drawn in 1834, the "Rio de San Gabriel" (San Gabriel River) ran along the western boundary of both Nieto's original land grant and the smaller, 27,000 acre Rancho Los Cerritos.

San Gabriel Channel gradually assumed the name of the Los Angeles River.

Subsequent floods in the 1 880s and 191 Os prompted Los Angeles County to think seriously about flood control. The public called for creation of a flood control district, bonds were passed, and the first stage of work was begun after World War I. During the 1930s, WPA projects addressed additional flood control measures. Then in 1938, after four steady days of heavy rain, the 5th largest flood in the history of the area occurred. 1 13 lives were lost and damages were estimated at $40 million, demonstrating the need for even greater controls. Finally, the Army Corps of Engineers began channelizing the Los Angeles River, applying 3,000,000 barrels of concrete by hand, and the Sepulveda Flood Basin and dam were built to catch excess water before it jumped into the channel down stream. The river was transformed, straightened and confined between levees and concrete walls. While the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers no longer change course or overflow in heavy storms, the lush vegetation and wildlife is long gone, and the rivers are faint reminders of what they used to be.

Rancho Review Spring/Summer 2005
Ranch Los Cerritos Foundation 
4600 Virgina Road
Long Beach, California 90807
July 28, 5:30 P.M. (gates open at 5 for picnicking) Free concert: "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?" Songs and Stories of the Great Depression with Los Angeles folk singe Ross Altman.

Workshops Celebrating Life's Meaningful Moments

Forest Lawn Museum Presents
6300 Forest Lawn Dive 
Los Angeles CA 90068

Preserving Memorabilia 
Saturday, July 16 2005, 1-4 p.m. 
Discover how to best preserve and display photographs, letters and other family herlooms. Bring one item to share. Dan Lewis, curator and archivist for the Hunting Library, shares his knowledge and resources.

Guided Autobiography
Saturday, August 20, 2005 1-4 p.m.
Explore the major themes of your life and learn how to organize these events in preparation for writing your autobiography. James Birre, former associated director of the UCLA Center on Aging, has devoted the past several years to promoting his autobiography writing method to people of all ages. 

NCLR and California State University, Long Beach to Unveil Center for Latino Community Health

Long Beach, CA – The Center for Latino Community Health, Evaluation & Leadership Training (CLC), a collaboration of the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the largest national Latino civil rights and advocacy organization in the U.S., and California State University, Long Beach (CSULB), the flagship campus of the CSU system, will have its grand opening on Monday, June 6. The ribbon-cutting ceremony and luncheon will take place at CSULB, 6300 State University Drive, Suite 125 beginning at 11:00 a.m. 

The CLC will focus on training health professionals and health-focused community-based organizations – with a special emphasis on increasing the number of Latino health professionals – to better serve the health care needs of Latinos in the U.S. Among its projects are promotores de salud (lay health educators) training and support, family HIV/AIDS prevention, and improving access to mental health services for Latinos. Representative Hilda Solis (D-CA); Representative Grace Napolitano (D-CA), Chair of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus; NCLR President and CEO Janet Murguia; NCLR Board Chair Monica Lozano; and CSULB Provost Dr. Gary W. Reichard are among the dignitaries who will attend the event. 

Ellie Klerlein, NCLR
Carlos Ugarte, NCLR
(202) 785-1670
Lorena Chandler, CSULB
(562) 985-5312
Jun 2, 2005



National History Day 2005, looking towards 2006
Lugo family honors ancestor
After the Dig, Research at the Presidio of San Francisco
Culver City History - Section 1: Overview
Marin County's Original Ranchos

California Ranchos
Decline and Fall of the Californios: The End of Chicano Representation
Los Californianos July Meeting 
El Rancho Moraga Newsletter Feb/Mar 2005
The Civil War in California
Bancroft closed  


[[ Editor: Below is the information concerning History Day for 2004-2005.  The national winners are honored in Washington, D.C.. This information is shared to start preparing for 2005-2006.  Lourdes Morales, Program Manager for the California Constitutional Rights Foundation, said the theme for 2005-2006 is TAKING A STAND IN HISTORY.  Full information will be coming out in the fall.  I hope that all of you that are associated with schools will promote student involvement. 

One strategy to support Hispanic involvement in History Day is to give a cash award for a project focused on a Hispanic topic.  That can be done on a county level or state level. On a local level or county level, the awards could be $25. or $50. dollars.  

The California Constitutional Rights Foundation distributes an award for $100, but sometimes it might be more.  Lourdes Morales, Director said that this year a person wanted to contribute additional money for their award and the award was $500. ]]

California Historian
Volume1 Number 1 Fall 2004, Pg. 2

"Making beautiful history together"

We stole that line from The History Channel. We trust they will forgive us but has there ever been a more inspiring banner for historians to rally under! Our historical societies are encouraged to reach out to our young people.

The year 2005 is the 25th anniversary of National History Day — 1980-2005. During this quarter century what has your group done for youth — for the students who are your future and will carry on when you are gone?

As a starter the National History Day office is leading a program of activities for winners during these 25 years. Did you have winners in your area? Find them and feature them.

To leam more about these activities, go to the website, and click on "Students & Alumni" then "Alumni Sign-In."

Now to current events. The theme for students in 2005 is Communication in History: the Key to Understanding.

Annual History Day is a year-long program that fosters academic achievements and teaches students to develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to help them use information now — and in the future.

You can help your young people. As finders and keepers of local history, go to your area schools and tell administrators and teachers about this program. Offer your resources, offer research training, pull in professionals to volunteer their expertise, give awards and make students an important part of your society's activities.

History Day starts in local schools at the beginning of each school year. Competitions are held in February at the school level, in March at the county level, in May at the state level and in June at the national level.

Your personal action is needed NOW to draw students into working on 2005's "beautiful history" competition.  

For information and materials, contact:  
California History Day

Lourdes Morales, Program Manager
Constitutional Rights Foundation
601 South Kingsley Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90005
Phone:(213)316-2125 E-mail: Website:


Descendants of Early California Lugo families
honor their ancestor at graveside gathering.

Stanford Archaeological Research at the Presidio of San Francisco
Tennessee Hollow Watershed Archaeology Project - Summer 2005

This June, Stanford archaeologists return to the Presidio of San Francisco to continue our research on the history and culture of the people who lived there in the past. But this summer, we won’t be excavating. Instead, we will be working at the Presidio Archaeology Laboratory, painstakingly analyzing the artifacts found in previous excavations to piece together clues to the Presidio’s history.

Stanford researchers have excavated at El Polín Springs in the Presidio of San Francisco for the past two summers (2003-2004). We have recovered at least 200,000 artifacts from the site. Now it’s time to study what we’ve found and learn as much as we can about the people who lived and work there.


Monday, June 20 – Thursday June 23, 1:00 – 4:00 pm:
“After the Dig” Archaeology Laboratory Open House.

The Presidio Archaeology Lab (230 Gorgas – see attached map) will be open to the visitors from 1-4pm each day. We invite you to come and look at the artifacts that have been found at El Polín Springs and talk with us about how we are analyzing these materials.


Monday, June 20, at 1pm: Gathering at El Polín Springs.

Marie Knetzger, who traces her ancestry to the Briones and Miramontes families that once lived at El Polín Springs, is organizing a gathering at El Polín Springs on the first day of the Stanford laboratory project. After meeting at El Polín Springs and talking about the history of the site and
its archaeology, those who are interested can next go to the Presidio Archaeology Lab to view artifacts from the site. Everyone is welcome to join this gathering.

Friday, June 24, 1:00-4:00pm and 7:00-9:00pm: Presidio Pasados, Commemorating the Presidio’s Past through Music, Dance, and Lore.

Held at the Officers Club (Building 50) in the Main Post area of the Presidio, this annual event features family activities in the afternoon and a musical fandango in the evening. Stanford archaeologists will be there toshare the findings of our research. For more information, visit the
Presidio Trust website:

Monday, June 27, 11 a.m. to Noon: Los Californianos Annual Celebration. Meet at the Pershing Square flag pole across from the Presidio Officers Club.

We would like to hear your questions, feedback, and suggestions! Contact Barbara Voss if you would like to talk with her about the Summer 2005 research program. She can be reached by email at  or by phone at 650-725-6884. You can also submit your comments and questions anonymously on our project website. Go to
 and click on the “Sign our Guestbook” link.

You are also invited to participate in an Oral History Study that Barbara Voss is conducting. Through this program, Professor Voss is researching how the Spanish colonial/Mexican history of the Presidio of San Francisco is important to different people’s heritage, and what they would like
archaeologists to research. Initial interviews for the study take about 20 minutes and we can do them in person or by phone or by email. If you would like to participate in this study, contact Barb at or byphone at 650-725-6884.

…about Stanford Archaeological Research at the Presidio of San Francisco
Tennessee Hollow Watershed Archaeology Project - Summer 2005

The Tennessee Hollow Watershed Archaeology Project is an ongoing study of how the Tennessee Hollow Watershed was used during the Spanish-colonial and the Mexican occupations of the Presidio of San Francisco (ca. 1776-1847). The project is conducted by Stanford University under the direction of Professor Barbara Voss in partnership with the Presidio Trust and the National Park Service.

In Summer 2003 and 2004, we conducted excavations at the site of El Polín Springs. El Polín Springs is noted in many historic documents as the location where a colonial family lived. The widower Marcos Briones, his adult daughters Juana, María de la Luz, and Guadalupe Briones, and their husbands and children resided at El Polín Springs from the 1810s – 1840s. Today, Juana Briones is a well-known historical figure who is celebrated as an astute businesswoman, landowner, and healer who challenged the gender conventions of her time.

Although historic records provide a lot of information about the Briones family, these documents are largely silent about Native Californians. Our investigations at El Polín Springs recovered many pieces of debitage (flakes of stone produced during stone tool manufacture). The stone flakes have all been found in deposits that date to the Spanish-colonial/Mexican period, suggesting that Native Californians may have lived or worked at El Polín Springs during the same time that the Briones family lived there.

Historians have been interested in El Polín Springs since the early 1900s, and in 1992 NPS archaeologist Leo Barker identified El Polín Springs as a location where archaeological remains might be found. In 1997, Barbara Voss, then a graduate student at UC Berkeley, discovered archaeological deposits at El Polín Springs during a survey of the Tennessee Hollow Watershed. In Summer 2003 and Summer 2004, Voss and her research team used hand auger-coring and hand excavation to better understand the deposits at the site. Our research resulted in several discoveries:

We learned that in the past, El Polín Springs was a very different place than it is today:

Before it was modified by the U.S. Army in the 1890s, the area was a patchwork of different ecological zones: streambeds, marshes, and seasonal wetlands; shifting sand dunes; and clayey hill slopes.

We discovered the stone foundation of an adobe house. This house may have been one of the Briones family homes. We excavated this house in Summer 2004 and found that it rests on top of an older adobe building that had been partially destroyed in some kind of fire.

We discovered buried trash deposits that contain fragments of broken dishes, bottles, animal bone, and stone debitage. These trash deposits date to the early and mid-1800s.


During our “After the Dig” laboratory research program on June 20-24, 2005, we will be analyzing artifacts from El Polín Springs to answer questions about the history of El Polín Springs. We will be using geoarchaeological techniques to analyze building materials (adobe brick fragments and clay
tile fragments) that were recovered from the adobe house that once stood at El Polín Springs. We will systematically analyze ceramic, glass, and metal artifacts to determine when and where the objects were made and to learn as much as we can about the daily lives of the people who lived at El Polín.  Because the Briones family was important to the early development of San Francisco’s economy, trade networks will be a particular focus. Artifacts found at the site were manufactured throughout the world – China, England, Mexico – as well as local goods produced in California.

Barbara Voss, Assistant Professor
Department of Cultural and Social Anthropology
Stanford CA 94305-2145

Culver City History Table of Contents
Contributed by Julie Lugo Cerra, Honorary Culver City Historian

Culver City History - Section 1: Overview

Spanish Explorers claimed California in the 1500s but it wasn't until 1769 that King Carlos III of Spain mandated colonization. Father Junipero Serra then began to establish missions, which functioned as the center of activities from San Diego upward, between 1769 and 1823. The Native Americans in this area traversed this valley in search of food. Because of their proximity to the San
 Gabriel Mission, (est.1771), they were called The Gabrielinos.

In 1781, a nearby settlement began as "El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles". Early families that settled in La Ballona Valley came on different expeditions. Francisco Salvador Lugo, for example, came on Rivera's 1774 trip from Sinaloa, Mexico, and was one of the soldiers present at the founding of the pueblo of Los Angeles in 1781. He and his descendents served in different places before they arrived in this valley. Another soldado, José Manuel Machado and his wife, Maria, traveled from Sinaloa, Mexico on the Rivera expedition of 1781. Machado continued to serve as a soldier in different locations until he retired to the pueblo of Los Angeles in 1797. Jose Machado's death in 1810 forced the sons to provide for the family's future. Agustín and his brother Ygnacio Machado, after unsuccessful attempts to acquire land near the pueblo, decided to settle in this valley and raise cattle on Rancho La Ballona which they established in 1819 with two partners, Felipe Talamantes and his son Tomás. Landgrants became confused under Spanish and Mexican rule, and eventually California won independence, becoming our 31st state in 1850. Culver City was formed from portions of the 14,000 acre Rancho La Ballona (Machado/Talamantes property) and Rincón de Los Bueyes (Higuera/Lopez property).

It was Harry H. Culver, from Milford, Nebraska, who dreamed of a balanced city. He started plans for the city that carries his name in 1913, and it became an incorporated entity in 1917. He established the city in a temperate zone, along a transportation route, alongside railroad tracks, halfway between the growing pueblo of Los Angeles and Abbot Kinney's resort of Venice. Culver City began to do the business of developing itself, as a 1.2 square mile area, centered about our little Main Street. In the early days of the city, the trustees concentrated on the actions necessary to form the city. City tracts and streets were named and paved, a numbering system was adopted, and employees hired to take care of the business of the city. The Fire and Police Departments were established. The economic balance had begun, with the studios forming the early economic base. Industry came in the form of Western Stove in 1922, then the Helms Bakeries in 1930, and then the Hayden Industrial Tract was established in the 1940s. Prohibition spawned a plethora of night spots and bootlegging in the 1920s and 1930s, with World War II stalling growth in the 1940s. Car Dealerships replaced the night spots on Washington Boulevard in the 1950s.

Over the years, more than forty annexations increased city size to about five square miles. Culver City transitioned from a general law city to a charter city in 1947. In addition to city government, schools became a part of the community, and by 1949, Culver City had its own Unified School District, meaning that education was available through secondary school. The five-member Board of Education governs Culver City's public schools just as the five member elected City Council governs the city. Other elected city officials include the City Clerk and City Treasurer. By 1971, the City Council became aware of the need for redevelopment, and formed the Culver City Redevelopment Agency. The first major project accomplished under the Agency was the Fox Hills Mall, which opened in 1975. Redevelopment is ongoing. By the year 2000, the city had quadrupled in size and became a community of nearly 40,000 residents.


Marin County's Original Ranchos
Granted by Mexico between 1834 - 1846  

Click here: This is wonderful, click the are and it shows who owns it. Just great. Michelle Nunez sent this and should be given credit! Love, Johanna De Soto


California Ranchos
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Here is a listing of California Ranchos by counties.  The counties are in alphabetical order.  Scroll down the list below (it's very long) to find the county and information you want.  The year reflects when the rancho was started.


By John P. Schmal

In California, the Mexican-American War ended with the Treaty of Cahuenga, signed on January 13, 1847. A year later, on February 2, 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo forced Mexico to hand over to the United States 525,000 square miles of landing, including all of present-day California.

Of the treaty’s twenty-three articles, four defined the rights of Mexican citizens and Indian people in the territories. Californians were given the freedom to live in ceded territories as either American or Mexican citizens. The new American citizens would be entitled to "the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States according to the principles of the constitutions."

A year later, forty-eight delegates met in Monterey to put together the first California Constitution. For six weeks from September to November 1849 the Constitutional Convention created a constitution that would guarantee rights to all citizens living within California’s borders.

Article XI, Section 21 of California’s 1849 Constitution reflected the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo’s guarantee, declaring, "All laws, decrees, regulations, and provisions… shall be published in English and Spanish." Article II, "Right of Suffrage," Section 1, stated that "Every white male citizen of the United States, and every white male citizen of Mexico, who shall have elected to become a citizen of the United States, under the treaty of peace… who shall have been a resident of the State six months next preceding the election… shall be entitled to vote at all elections..." Eight Californios – six of them Mexican Californians – represented Hispanic interests at the Convention. They were as follows:

1. Antonio M. Pico from San Jose
2. Jacinto Rodriguez from Monterey
3. Pablo de la Guerra from Santa Barbara
4. M.G. Vallejo from Sonora
5. José Antonio Carrillo from Los Angeles
6. Manuel Dominguez from Los Angeles
7. Miguel de Pedrorena – a native of Spain – representing San Diego.
8. José M. Covarrubias – a native of France and a naturalized citizen of Mexico – representing Santa Barbara.

The sad reality of this bilingual convention is that the gradual disenfranchisement of the Chicano population was already beginning. During the next three decades, several prominent land-owning Californio families of Spanish and Mexican origin shared the reigns of power with the foreigners who were arriving in their territory in ever-greater numbers. A steady stream of American, English and French immigrants started moving into various sections of the state where their increasing numbers would eventually give them political clout in their respective communities.

The First California Constitutional Legislature, which commenced on December 15, 1849 in San Jose, was a harbinger of what was to come. This landmark event was attended by nineteen delegates who came from the northern states of the U.S. Another ten representatives hailed from the southern states, but only two men with ties to Old California were involved in the Assembly. The first legislative session lasted four months and adjourned on April 22, 1850. Less than half a year later, on September 9, 1850, California would be admitted as the thirty-first American state.

One of two Californio delegates at the first Convention was Jose M. Covarrubias, who was recognized far and wide as a Californio landowner from the Santa Barbara area even though he was born in France. Well respected by his political peers, Señor Covarrubias would represent his Santa Barbara District in the California State Assembly off and on between 1849 and 1862 and hold other important offices in the County.

The first session of the California Legislature after statehood commenced on January 6, 1851 and lasted until May 1, 1851. One of the delegates representing Los Angeles for the Whig Party was a well-known Californian named Andres Pico. Andres – the brother of the last Mexican Governor, Pio Pico – was the Mexican military officer who had fought the American forces under his commander, General Jose Maria Flores. In the early days of 1847, General Flores, recognizing that he was losing control of the situation, turned over command of his forces to his deputy, Andres Pico, and fled south to unoccupied Mexican territory.

On January 13, 1847, Andres, seeing his own situation as untenable, met with Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Fremont, the commander of the American forces who was occupying the San Fernando Mission. On this date, Fremont and Andres Pico, Commander-in-Chief of the remaining Mexican forces in California, signed the Treaty of Cahuenga in the San Fernando Valley.

Andres Pico became the first Californio to be elected to the Assembly as the representative of District 2 (Los Angeles) in the 2nd (1851) and 3rd (1853) legislative sessions. He changed his party affiliation to Democrat and was elected to the Assembly from District 2 once again for the 9th (1858) and 10th (1859) legislative sessions.

For the first three decades after statehood, educated and well-bred Chicanos in various parts of the state were able to run for office and represent their districts in the State Assembly. Pedro C. Carrillo of Santa Barbara served as a delegate from the 2nd District in 1854-55. Manuel A. Castro served as a delegate from the 2nd District (San Luis Obispo) in 1856-57 and from the 6th District (Monterey) in 1863. Esteban Castro from Monterey served in the State Assembly as a delegate to the 3rd District (1857-58) and the 6th District (1863-65).

For almost two decades, Chicanos were able to wield power on a local level in both Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. Twenty-two persons with Spanish surnames served on the Los Angeles Common Council – now known as the City Council – between 1850 and 1886. Some of these councilman included well-known members of Californio society: Manuel Requena (served 1850-54, 1856, 1864-68), Julian Chavez (1850, 1865-66, 1871-72), Cristobal Aguilar (1850, 1855-56, 1858-59, 1861-62), Pio Pico (1853), and Eulogio de Celiz (1873-75).

One of the most recognized Chicano politicians of Los Angeles during these years was Antonio Franco Coronel who would serve as a member of the Los Angeles Common Council for several years between 1854 and 1867, as State Treasurer from 1867 to 1871, and as Mayor of Los Angeles from 1853 to 1854.

But the position of Mayor itself soon became the domain of the Americans. Between 1848 and 1872, 13 men served as Mayor of Los Angeles, but only three of these mayors were of Hispanic descent and heritage. After Cristobal Aguilar’s term in office ended in 1872, no Chicano would hold the title of Mayor of Los Angeles for 133 years (until the election of Antonio Villaraigosa in 2005).

For more than two decades, Santa Barbara also remained a stronghold of Chicano representation. Joaquin Carrillo served as Santa Barbara County Judge from 1851 to 1853, a position later held by José María Covarrubias (1861-1863).

Raymundo Carrillo was elected as the first known Public Administrator for Santa Barbara in 1852 and served in that capacity until 1855. Joaquin de la Guerra was elected as Santa Barbara County Sheriff in 1857 and served for two years. Thompson and West’s "History of Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties" gives very detailed information on Santa Barbara’s early elections and, as such, illustrates the gradual elimination of Chicano candidates from the general elections during the 1860s and 1870s. After the 1873 elections, Chicano representation in Santa Barbara was effectively ended.

Several native Californians also held important positions in the judicial sector of California’s local government. Ygnacio Sepulveda of Los Angeles who served in the California State Assembly in 1863-65 as the representative of the 2nd District went on to become a Judge of the Seventeenth Judicial District (one of the first two Superior Court Justices in Los Angeles County).

The Mexican-American Pacheco family of California produced two notable figures who held office in Sacramento. Mariano G. Pacheco served as a representative of California’s 3rd District (San Luis Obispo) from 1852 to 1854. But it is Mariano’s brother who stands out as the most spectacular Chicano legislator during California’s Nineteenth Century. Born in Santa Barbara in 1831, Romualdo Pacheco was a proud Californian who also had roots in the Mexican state of Guanajuato.

Señor Pacheco originally served as Superior Court Judge in San Luis Obispo from 1853-1857. Romualdo moved on to serve in the State Assembly in 1853-55 and 1868-70. In 1857, he first started serving in the California State Senate and he continued to serve intermittently, also in 1861-63 and 1869-70.

But Romualdo Pacheco’s best days were ahead of him. Governor Leland Stanford appointed him as a brigadier general in command of the First Brigade of California’s Native Cavalry during the American Civil War. During the Republican State Convention of 1863, Governor Stanford nominated Pacheco for the position of state treasurer. Fluent in both Spanish and English, Romualdo Pacheco was a popular politician who got along well with both Californians and Anglos-Americans.

In June 1871 Pacheco received the Republican Party nomination for Lieutenant Governor of California. In 1875, when Governor Newton Booth was elected to the U.S. Senate, Pacheco became the Governor of California. His stay in the Governor’s office was relatively short and, in November 1876, Romualdo ran for and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives to serve in the Forty-fifth Congress (1877-1878), winning by a margin of one vote. He later served in the Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh Congresses (March 4, 1879 to March 3, 1883).

During the 1860’s and 1870’s, the gradual erosion of Mexican-American’s rights became more pronounced. The Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States had promised "the rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

However, California delegates to the 1869 Democratic state convention rejected the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, stating that "if adopted," the Amendment would "degrade the right of suffrage" and bring "untold hordes of Pagan slaves… into direct competition with [the White man’s] efforts to earn a livelihood." Although the wrath of these politicians was primarily directed at Chinese and African Americans living in California, there was little doubt that Mexicans and Eastern Europeans could easily be included in their definition of undesirable people.

A further erosion of Chicano rights actually became embedded in the law with the adoption of the 1879 California Constitution. The revised Constitution officially rescinded the linguistic protective provisions of the 1849 Constitution, providing that "no person who shall not be able to read the Constitution in the English language and write his or her name, shall ever exercise the privileges of an elector in this State." With one fell swoop, the guarantee of bilingual publication of laws was revoked and no documents relating to elections were thereafter published in Spanish.

Then, in 1891, Assemblyman A. J. Bledsoe introduced an English literacy requirement as a proposed constitutional amendment in the State Assembly. Bledsoe had earlier belonged to the vigilante Committee of Fifteen that had expelled every person of Chinese ancestry from Humboldt. In his introduction, he lamented "the increased immigration of the illiterate and unassimilated elements of Europe" and stated "that every agency should be invoked to preserve our public lands from alien grasp… and to protect the purity of the ballot-box from the corrupting influences of the disturbing elements ... from abroad."

Although the Assembly voted down the proposal on January 21, 1891, a flood of petitions from the public favoring the literacy requirement flooded Sacramento. With such overwhelming support from their constituents, the Legislature hastily adopted Bledsoe’s proposal as a constitutional amendment subject to ratification at the next general election. In 1894, the people of California voted to approve the English literacy requirement, which henceforth before part of Article II, Section 1.

The anti-immigrant attitude – directed at Asians, Mexicans and Eastern Europeans – prevailed well into the Twentieth Century to the point that it was even written into the California election laws. Section 5567 of the California Elections Code, as adopted in 1941, required that elections be conducted in the English language and prohibited election officials from speaking any language other than English while on duty at the polling stations.

Such actions violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and, therefore, were unconstitutional. But the literacy law remained on the books in California until it was challenged in the California courts many decades later.

Between 1870 and 1963, only one Hispanic politician was sent to Sacramento to represent his district. Miguel Estudillo was born in San Bernardino in 1870 as the son of a prominent California family that had produced several political figures in the San Diego area both before and after 1848. A graduate of Santa Clara College, Mr. Estudillo became County Clerk in San Diego County in 1890, before moving to Riverside, where he was appointed as Clerk of the Board of Supervisors. After studying law, Mr. Estudillo became a prominent attorney in the Riverside area.

On November 8, 1904, Mr. Estudillo was elected to the California State Assembly from the 78th District and was reelected two years later.

On November 3, 1908, he was elected State Senator of the 39th District, serving his Riverside and Orange County constituency until January 1, 1913. Senator Estudillo would be the last Latino to serve in the State Legislature until the election of Philip Soto and John Moreno in 1962.

An important factor in the resurgence of Chicano power during the latter half of the Twentieth Century would be the coming of World War II. Hundreds of thousands of Mexican-American Californians served in the U.S. military, many receiving numerous decorations for their service. These proud veterans returned to their native land, but still experienced various forms of discrimination and prejudice. But, for the first time in a long time, one piece of legislation presented Chicano veterans with an opportunity for advancement in California.

The G.I. Bill Act of June 22, 1944 – or the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act put higher education within the reach of thousands of Mexican-American veterans. The Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952 provided similar privileges to Korean War veterans. Over the next decade, Mexican-American veterans attended local and nationwide colleges and universities to obtain college degrees. In many cases, these vets were the first members of their families to receive a higher education. Armed with the weapon of education, many of these Chicano veterans became the politicians of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. By the dawn of the Twenty-First Century, Latinos represented a quarter of the representatives serving in the California Legislature.

Suggested Readings:

"History of Santa Barbara & Ventura Counties, California, With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of its Prominent Men and Pioneers" (Berkeley, California: Howell-North, 1961).

Holmes, Elmer Wallace. "History of Riverside County, California, With Biographical Sketches" (Los Angeles: Historic Record Company, 1912).

Library of Congress: "Hispanic Americans in Congress, 1822-1995: List in Chronological Order."

Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund and William C. Velasquez Institute. "California Congressional Redistricting Plan" (Submitted July 17, 2001, Los Angeles). Online:

Spalding, William A. "History and Reminiscences of Los Angeles City and County, California" (Los Angeles: J. R. Finnell & Sons Publishing Company).


[[Editor:   If you have early California lines and have not connected with Los Californianos, you are missing an opportunity of meeting with your primos.  The group with members throughout the state meets regularly, holding their meetings in different locations in California to facilitate member participationThe deadline of July 1st  is for the hotel reservation, not for attending the event.]]

  Los Californianos July  22-24 Meeting  
Sent by Benita Gray
Mission Hills Inn
10621 Sepulveda Blvd., Mission Hills, CA 91345    
Telephone: 818-891-1771

Make reservations direct with the Inn deadline: July 1, 2005
Friday, July 22
    3 - 6 p.m.            Registration                                      Lobby
    3 - 9 p.m.            Hospitality                                        Room 163
    3 - 8 p.m.            Traveling Genealogy Library        Granada 4 - across parking lot
Saturday, July 23
    8 a.m. - 5 p.m.    Traveling Genealogy Library        Granada 4 - across parking lot
    9 a.m. - noon      Board Meeting                                  Room 163
    10 a.m. - noon    Registration                                       Lobby
    noon - 5 p.m.      Registration/Hospitality                     Room 163
    1 p.m.                 Tour of Museum of American West (Autry Museum)
                               Meet in hotel lobby for car pool
    6:30 p.m.             No Host Bar & Dinner                    Granada 1/2/3 
                               Speaker: Dr. Louise Pubols, Historian at Museum of American West
Sunday, July 24
    10 a.m.                Brunch                                                Granada 1/2/3
                                Report of the President
                                Speaker - Ken & Carol Pauley - slide presentation on their book
                                The Making of San Fernando, Rey de España: An Illustrated History
                                Opportunity Drawing -- please bring contributions
                                (white elephants, wine, food, books, crafts, plants, etc.)
Reservation Fees
deadline: July 1, 2005
Please include names, number for each activity, and for name tags -- status (member /guest) & relationships of guests.Make checks to Jane Cowgill and mail to
               4520 Van Dyke Ave.
               San Diego, CA 92116 
Registration $3 per person (age 18 or over) Must register if over 18 and participating in any activity or meal Western Heritage Museum Tour $4.25 per person Saturday dinner -- Mexican Buffet -- Casual $25 per person Sunday Brunch Buffet $22 per person  Hosts: Jane Cowgill and JoAn and Jack Guthrie Questions ?????
Guthries: or 619-582-3664
Jane Cowgill: or 619-281-9222

El Rancho Moraga Newsletter Feb/Mar 2005

Blue Book of California
reprint from California Blue Book 1909
State Printing Office, Sacramento. CA
W. W. Shannon, Superintendent of State Printing
researched by Les Krames

Great Seal of California

At the time when the question of designing the great seal for the new State was being agitated in the Constitutional Convention which met in Monterey in 1849, there happened to be sojourning temporarily in that little town an accomplished and cultivated officer of the United States Army, Major Robert Selden Garnett. He was a gentleman of modest demeanor, and excelled in the use of his pencil. One evening he sketched a design for a seal of the State, and it was exhibited to various members of the Convention. One of the delegates asked leave to present it to the body, but the quiet Major declined, upon the ground that he believed that knowledge of the source whence it had come would prevent its adoption. There existed at that time quite a hostility between the military authorities and the nascent civil powers, and there was an especial distrust of the secret mission of Thomas Butler King, with which Gamett was understood to be connected. Caleb Lyon, one of the clerks of the convention, learned of the design, and readily obtained the consent of Garnett to appropriate it and present it as his own production. As the design came from the hands of its author, it was chaste and beautiful, and somewhat different from the present seal. It represented the figure of Minerva, with the Golden Gate, and a ship in full sail in the foreground, and the Sierra Nevada range in the background, with the word "Eureka" above. The design was referred to a committee, and on September 29, 1849, the report of the committee was considered by the Convention. W. E. Shannon deemed the design a most happy one, but more appropriate for a coat of arms than for a seal. He said that it was unusual for a seal to contain a motto, and that it ordinarily comprehended the main emblems, and the words "Great Seal of the State." An explanation accompanying the design was entered in the Journal, as follows:

Around the
bend of the ring are represented thirty-one stars, being the number of States of which the Union will consist upon the admission of California. The foreground figure represents the Goddess Minerva, having sprung full grown from the brain of Jupiter. She is introduced as a type of the political birth of the State of California, without having gone through the probation of a territory. At her feet crouches a grizzly bear feeding upon the clusters from a grapevine, emblematic of the peculiar characteristics of the country. A miner is engaged with his rocker and bowl at his side, illustrating the golden wealth of the Sacramento, upon whose waters are seen shipping, typical of commercial greatness; and the snow-clad peaks of the Sierra Nevada make up the background, while above is the Greek motto "Eureka" (I have found it), applying either to the principle involved in the admission of the State, or the success of the miner at work.

After various amendments had been suggested, the matter was laid on the table. On October 2d the report of the committee was again considered. Rodman M. Price submitted a resolution that the design for the seal reported by the committee be accepted. 0. M. Wozencraft submitted the following, which was rejected: "That the seal be amended by striking out the figures of the gold-digger and the bear and introducing instead bags of gold and bales of merchandise." M. G. Vallejo submitted an amendment that the bear be taken out of the design; or, if it do remain, that it be represented as made fast by lasso in the hands of a vaquero.

After the debate, the amendment proposed by Vallejo was rejected by a vote of sixteen to twenty-one. Price's resolution was then adopted. W.S. Sherwood moved that the seal be the "coat of arms" of the State of California, and the motion was then carried by a vote of twenty-one to sixteen. Price then submitted a resolution that Lyon be authorized to superintend the engraving of the seal; that he furnish the same, in the shortest possible time, to the Secretary of the Convention, with a press and all necessary appendages, and that the sum of $1000 be advanced to him in full compensation for the design and seal. This resolution was not considered until the llth, when a substitute was adopted, authorizing Lyon to superintend the engraving and to furnish the seal as soon as possible to the Secretary of State under the Constitution; and the sum of $1000 was to be paid, in full compensation for the design, seal, press, and all appendages. It was also resolved that the words "The Great Seal of the State of California" be added to the design. Henry W. Halleck inquired if any gentlemen present knew what had become of the original design, and that the gentleman by whom it was designed (Major Garnett) requested that it should be found if possible and handed to the gentleman who occupied the chair. Mr. Sherwood said that he believed the seal was not the entire production of the gentleman who had been authorized to have it engraved, and that Lyon did not claim it as such. He said that the original design had been given to Lyon by a gentleman who did not wish his name made public, but expressed a desire, in a confidential letter to Lyon, that he (Lyon) might be known as the author.

The bear was added chiefly to gratify Major J. R. Snyder and the men of the Bear Flag revolution. Then was added the figure of a man with an uplifted pickax, as an emblem of the great mining interests of the country.

There is some dispute as to whether Lyon ever got the $1000 voted him by the convention. The following article was published in the Alto. California of February 19.1850, and presumably written by Edward Gilbert, the editor, a member of the Constitutional Convention, and one of the two Congressmen elected from California at the first election of 1849.


"The Civil War in California" is a brochure Recently published by a group of Civil War organizations. we don't often think of California and the Civil War in the same breath. This brochure details the involvement and actions that took place here in California. To obtain copies of the brochure contact: United Daughters of the Confederacy (http://www.ootsweb/~cadc/), Daughters of Union Veterans ( Sons of Confederate Veterans ( or Sons of Union Veterans (

Bancroft closed  
Sent by Mary Ayers
Source: ALA--American Library Association

Berkeley’s Bancroft Library Closed for Retrofitting
The University of California at Berkeley’s Bancroft Library closed its doors June 1 to move its entire collection to temporary quarters in preparation for a $64-million seismic upgrade and renovation. The June 1 San Francisco Chronicle noted that this is the library’s biggest move since UCB acquired the core collection from historian Hubert Howe Bancroft after San Francisco’s disastrous earthquake and fire in 1906.

Most of the library’s 500,000 books, 50 million manuscripts, and 2.8 million photographs will remain in storage for two years, with the exception of the Western Americana collection—about one-eighth of its holdings—which will be available at a temporary location in downtown Berkeley beginning in October.

“Our staff logo is ’no book left behind,’” said Bancroft Principal Cataloger Randal Brandt, who was appointed coordinator of the “surge teams” responsible for planning and executing the move. “Our goal is not to lose anything. Maybe we’ll find things we’ve lost. I got the job because I forgot to duck,” he told the Chronicle.

The Doe Annex, where the Bancroft collections are housed, was built in 1950 and does not meet current seismic standards. Half of the retrofitting costs will be paid by state funds andfederal grants, and half with private financing. The renovation will add more space for exhibits, classrooms, the reading room, and storage. It will also include wheelchair ramps, more accessible stairs and elevators, more computers, and state-of-the-art climate control.
Posted June 3, 2005



The Huarte de Jauregui Spanish Civil War Archive in Reno
Index to Historic Utah Death Certificates Online


Center for Basque Studies Newsletter 
Fall 2004 Number 70 Pg. 4-5

The Huarte de Jauregui Spanish Civil War Archive in Reno

By Jose Luis De La Granja

At the end of the nineties, the Basque Studies Library at the University of Nevada, Reno acquired from a book dealer in Bilbao a large and important archive on the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, which had belonged to Jose Maria Huarte de Jauregui (1898-1969) of Navarre. Head archivist of the General Archive of Navarre and member of the Academy of History and the Academy of Fine Arts in Spain, Huarte de Jauregui was a Carlist who participated in the Civil War, achieving the rank of artillery lieutenant in the army of General Franco, and head of the Military Command of Zarautz (Gipuzkoa).  
The origin of the archive relates to this military post, which  
      Jose M. Huarte De Jauregui photo from allowed him to collect abundant documentation on the new      Jauregui Archive                                        Francoist State that was created at that time in Gipuzkoa, and 
also numerous documents confiscated in Euskadi under the jurisdiction of the first Basque Government (Bizkaia) and in the rest of the northern zone of the Spanish Republic (Santander and Asturias). This archive focuses on the Civil War, but includes as well the historical periods just prior to and following it: the Second Republic (1931-1936) and the Franco Dictatorship (1939-1975).

In 2003, the Basque Studies Library completed a catalog of the Huarte de Jauregui Archive, consisting of sixty-three pages that can be consulted on the Internet. These thousands of documents, most of them original and unpublished, along with clippings and pamphlets of the period, are kept in some thirty archive boxes that are classified in three categories: the first refers to the Republican area of the Civil War, the second— the most numerous—refers to the Francoist area, and the third—the smallest—includes various Basque nationalist magazines from the 1930s and many newsletters from the Franco faction, published in Paris during the Civil War.

The most interesting documents concerning the Second Republic are political manifestos and electoral propaganda from the right, left, and nationalist parties, produced for the Spanish Parliament general elections of 1931, 1933, and 1936. There is also documentation from unions (mainly, the socialist General Workers' Union), as well as on the religious problem and the Basque Statute of Autonomy, two key questions in the political life of Euskadi during the Second Spanish Republic.

The documentation preserved in this Spanish Civil War archive is immense and varied, though most of it is of a military or political nature. The most valuable part concerns Franco's army offensive in the northern Iberian Peninsula in 1937: first in Bizkaia in the spring, later in Santander in the summer and Asturias in autumn. The military conquest of this industrial and mining territory was very important for the final victory of the Franco faction in the war. What is most interesting about this archive is the abundant documentation on the armies that fought in the north:

the Republican army, within which the Basque army was situated; and the Franco army, comprising the Brigades of Navarra along with the Carlist militiamen. Within the archive are diverse historical documents, such as reports of battalions; official reports on war actions, the Navy of the Basque Government, the Department of Military Information; communications between military commands—for example, many telegrams exchanged by the ministry of Defense, the socialist leader from Bilbao, Indalecio Prieto, and the head of the northern Republican Army, general Gamir Ulibarri, among others.

Among the political documents are briefings, letters, peace proposals to the Basque nationalists encouraging them to abandon the Republican cause, calls to resistance or to surrender (subject of a proclamation of Franco to the Bilbainos asking that they surrender, on the eve of the taking of Bilbao in June 1937), Nazi propaganda against Communism, printed in Spanish in Hamburg, Germany, etc. The archive also contains quite a few pamphlets: those published by the Basque Government of Jose Antonio Aguirre, various on the controversial case of the Basque Catholics and on the international controversy created by the bombardment and destruction of Gernika by the German Legion Condor. The Prancoist version of this event can be read in the Bulletin d'Information Espagnole, published in French by its supporters. There are also many dossiers from the Spanish, French, English and Italian press on the course of the Spanish conflict and its repercussions in the Basque Country. In addition, this archive preserves some notebooks, maps, flags, and many photographs.

The most documented zone of the Basque Country is the coast of Gipuzkoa from Zarautz to the border with Bizkaia, taken over by the army coup in September 1936 and controlled by the Military Command of Zarautz, headed by Huarte de Jauregui from March of 1937 until November of 1939. By studying the copious documents generated by this command, related to the ministers of Franco's government and high commands of his army, one can pinpoint the first introduction of Francoism into the region of Gipuzkoa. The firm political repression is apparent in numerous police reports and in long lists of exiled nationalists or leftists, prisoners, and those who were fined (the fines were camouflaged with the euphemism, "donations for the National Trea- sury"). In addition, the army, Carlists, and the Falange constmcted a new State with a Fascist character with the help of part of the Basque Church, at the same time that the nationalist clergy was retaliated against. The relations between the forces forming the Francoist group were not always cordial and there were conflicts between Carlists and Falangists or between the military and civil powers; for instance, the dispute that put Comandante Huarte himself in conflict with the mayor of Zumaya, who was removed from office and detained by him in 1937. This is a good example of the fact that in Franco's Spain the supreme power lay in the hands of the army. The archive informs us of the visit of Count Ciano, Minister of Exterior Affairs of Mussolini's fascist Italy, to Gipuzkoa in 1939, who was entertained in Zarautz by Huarte de Jauregui with a sumptuous lunch, as can be seen from the menu card written in Italian.

The later part of the archive refers to the Franco dictatorship, centered in the years of World War II (1939-1945), and the several rival branches of the Cariist movement gathered around the aspirants to succeed Franco with title of King—Carios VIII, Javier de Borbon Parma with his sons Carios Hugo and Sixto, and don Juan de Borbon. It also focuses on an exiled and clandestine Basque nationalism
 with its manifestos, pamphlets, and periodicals. These documents end in the 1970s, although their principal compiler, Jose Maria Huarte de Jauregui, died in 1969 in Madrid.

Sent by Lorraine Hernandez

A computer index to hundreds of thousands of historic Utah death certificates is now available online, greatly improving access to one of the most valuable resources to family historians.
The electronic index facilitates searching for death certificates
issued by the Bureau of Vital Records between 1905 and 1954. The computer search engine is available via the Utah History Research Center web site,

Because of their genealogical significance, death records are
among the most useful records to family historians. Since the historic death certificates became available at the Utah State Archives in 1998, they have become one of the most heavily used records in the Archives collection.

Prior to going online last month the computerized index to Utah death certificates was available only in the Utah History Research Center, located in the remodeled south wing of the historic Rio Grande Depot. Using information from the index, researchers may obtain reader printer copies from microfilm of Utah death certificates issued more than 50 years ago. Self-service copies are 25 cents each. Patrons may also order copies by mail, e-mail, or telephone. The cost is 50 cents per page, plus mailing. (Costs are outlined at

In 1905, the Utah Board of Health assumed responsibility for creating death certificates for all individuals who died in Utah. In 1998, HB84 permitted Utah death certificates to become available to the public "if 50 years or more have passed since the date of death."  

For additional information contact: Glen Fairclough at (801) 531-3841




Brother and sister reunited  after 30 years
The Rubi-Lopez Family Genealogy
New Mexico DNA Project  
Latino Underwater Robot
Captain Lugardo G. Lozano Memorial
The Huarte de Jauregui Spanish Civil War Archive in Reno
Leather Men
Colorado Coalfield Massacre

Spanish-Language Newspapers in New Mexico, 1834-1958
Border Conference, 2006

Sacred Hoops: The Story of Basketball in the Barrio 


Brother and sister reunited  after 30 years

Sent by Carlos Ray Gonzalez
(Ray is the 12 year old buying WWII War stamps, under U.S. file.)





Ray is a truck driver and has the opportunity of being on the road through- out the U.S.  

Having Moyza
in his line, he enjoyed finding these two signs
 in Arizona.


The RUBI-LOPEZ Family Genealogy

We have been able to trace our Lopez Ancestry back to Antonio Lopez and Virginia Peralta. According to Arizona State Department of Health, Division of Vital Statistics they were both born in Los Lunas, New Mexico Territory. We estimate their date of birth to be about 1845-1850.


Antonio Lopez and Virginia Peralta had two known daughters, Casamira and Eloisa.
Virginia PERALTA-LOPEZ died on January 18, 1927 and was estimated to be between 85-95 years of age.  Her birthplace is listed as being New Mexico. 
LINKS TO THE FOLLOWING: Home | What's NEW | "OUR" Family History | THE RUBI FAMILY TREE--The Beginning | THE SECOND GENERATION OF RUBI'S | Cruz and Reyes RUBI | JJ and Damiana Rubi | The Winslow RUBI's | Lorenzo and Jean RUBI | Our LOPEZ Ancestry | The Lopez Family Tragedy | The LOPEZ Children | The LOPEZ Family~Next Generations | Historical RUBI'S | The SEPHARDIC CONNECTION | Las Familias Primeras del Rio Colordo Chiquito | THE HUBBELL CONNECTION | HUBBELL NEWS | Our New "PRIMAS" | Clarissa's Genealogy Research Tips | FAMILY " Happenings" | RUBI'S In The Military

Since our Family Website was originally published in February, 2002...we have had over 12,500  inquiries from all over the world about our RUBI Ancestry.  We have learned that there are more RUBI descendants than we could have ever imagined!   We have recently expanded our search to include our Lopez ancestors and will be including information about that "line" as it becomes available.

We will be sharing with you some of the exciting information and pictures we have received.  Hopefully, this will inspire others to contribute to our ongoing search for the "truth"of our ancestry.  

Sent by Ina and Linda Rubi

New Mexico DNA Project  
Sent by Angel Cervantes

There are now 11 different Semitic lines in the New Mexico DNA Project with high a probability of being Jewish.  Could you put this information in the next issue of Somos Primos. New Mexico DNA Project Project Background: The New Mexico DNA Project will cover the colonial expeditions of New Mexico by the Spanish in 1598 and 1693, by the Mexicans in 1821, and the Americans in 1848. The New Mexico DNA Project will encompass not only Hispanics, but also Anglo-Americans who have come to New Mexico. In the years just after the Conquest of the New World, the Native-American population were decimated by disease and war leaving a relatively small gene pool of Native-American, Spanish, French, and English ancestors. DNA studies on Hispanics show a higher European admixture. 

*Anthropologist Andrew Merriwether and colleagues conducted a study on Hispanics living in Colorado. Using classic genetic markers they estimated an admixture of 67% European and 33% Native-American. He further tested their mitochondrial DNA (mtdna) which is a test to find the origins of your great, great...grandmother, going back 10's of thousands of years. This one ancestor which is your families "Eve" so to speak, showed up as Native-American 85% of the time and European in origin 15% of the time. Thus showing that the majority of unions in this admixture were of European males and Native-American females. Project Goals: To find our ancient origins, whatever they may be. To discover previously unknown living relatives. To determine migration patterns of different families. To see if similar sounding surnames are related. To discover how closely related all of us really are. To share this information with others so that we can learn more about where we came from.

 In order to join the "New Mexico DNA Project" go to this link: or contact Angel R. Cervantes at To see project results go to this website:   Disclaimer: Only Family Tree DNA benefits monetarily from those who sign up to the New Mexico DNA Project.



Latino Underwater Robot
Hispanic May2005

Using incredible innovation and cheap materials, 16year-old Cristian Arcega, Lorenzo Santillan, 16, Luis Aranda, 18, and 17 year-old Oscar Vazquez decided to enter the third annual Marine Advanced Technology Education Center's Remotely Operated Vehicle Competition. The four Hispanic high-school students from Phoenix, Arizona were able to build an underwater robot successfully and control it to perform seven different tasks underwater. The foursome was up against teams from all over the country including the revered MIT team of 12-six ocean-engineering students, four mechanical engineers, and two computer science majors. The Carl Hayden Community High School Falcon Robotics Club, as they called themselves, won third place in the the underwater tasks, then went on to pick up a judge's special prize, Design Elegance, Technical Report and the Overall Winner Prize.


Captain Lugardo G. Lozano Memorial
Sent by Robert Silas Griffin

April 28, 2005

The students of the CAS History Club along with the administration and staff of Center for Academic Success High School in Douglas, Arizona hereby extend a cordial invitation to you to attend a headstone dedication and memorial ceremony for Captain Lugardo G. Lozano (1847 – 1922) a veteran of the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862, and of the war against the French Intervention in Mexico. The commemoration of this event is internationally known as the Cinco de Mayo. Captain Lugardo G. Lozano retired from 35-years in the military service of Mexico and resided in Douglas five years until his passing on May 31, 1922.

 The memorial ceremony will begin at 12:00 noon on Thursday, May 5, 2005, in Section K of Calvary Cemetery at 1501 -5th Street in Douglas, Arizona. Catered refreshments on site will follow the dedication ceremony. Please contact Instructor- Silas Griffin at the Douglas Campus of the Center for Academic Success High School for any additional information concerning this cultural and historical event. 

Yours sincerely,

Robert Silas Griffin  
Instructor of History and the US Constitution
Douglas Campus – CAS High School 
510 G Avenue

Program for the Captain Lugardo G. Lozano Memorial Thursday, May 5, 2005, 12:00 Noon, Section K, Calvary Cemetery, Douglas, AZ Master of Ceremony to open the memorial ceremony with a formal greeting to the public and a review of attending Lozano family members, dignitaries, officials and music group. Master of ceremony to introduce the remaining elements of the ceremony. (decision pending for Howard Henderson as MC on 4/28 or 29/’05) All in attendance stand, uncover heads, and come to attention for the entrance march of Douglas Fire Dept. color guard with the Stars and Stripes to position followed by USA Pledge. Agua Prieta school color guard  march to position with the Mexican flag followed by MX Pledge/Himno, CAS Senior Student Color Guard enters with AZ state flag, and final posting of flags. 

Invocation by: Marine Corps veteran &former Chaplain of the American Legion SE AZ District- George Reyes. Comments by: Teacher/Historian/Writer- Silas Griffin. Possible comment by Historian / Writer- Cindy Hayostek. Music by La Union during the unveiling of headstone by: Agua Prieta Mayor- David Figueroa and Silas Griffin. Lighting of candles by veteran- Anthony Paez. Keynote speech by: Cronista de Agua Prieta- Sr. Juan V. Rivera. Music by La Union during the placing of two memorial wreaths at graveside. (US wreath by Paul Newman and CAS- History Club Pres. Jhaimy Gonzalez) & (MX wreath by A.P. Mayor- David Figueroa and Cinco de Mayo student) Agua Prieta Mayor- David Figueroa to have opportunity to make comments. Music by La Union as CAS-Middle School- Student Council places fresh flowers in two vases. Moment of silence followed by: Amazing Grace on Scottish bagpipes- (CD) 

Benediction &dismissal by: Mr. Floyd Segar- Vietnam Veteran Music by La Union / Refreshments at nearby tables at one side of the circle. Let no soldier go unloved, Let no soldier walk alone, Let no soldier be forgotten! (anon.) "A MAN IS NOT DEAD UNTIL HE IS FORGOTTEN," AND SOME OF US WILL NEVER FORGET! Program compiled by Silas Griffin and Sr. Juan V. Rivera March &April ‘05

Dear Robert: 

Congratulations on making history alive. I am sure that your students will never forget the experience. I just got onto a website which included your speech.

I will be including most of the information that you sent.  It will be included under the Southwest file.

I would like to do a follow-up article in June. Could you send some photos, and maybe some quotes from your students. We could augment with information that is available online. I was touched by your reason for selecting Lugardo Lozano. .

Maybe it will inspire other educators to celebrate in their areas, touching on the reality of history . . . we are walking in the footsteps of our grandparents.

Regards, Mimi
Mimi Lozano, Editor, Somos Primos E-magazine


Books by Edward Soza
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Within the web site you can link to the following:  
Historic Past, Exhibits, Boxes, Addendum, Bibliography, Endnotes 

Leather Men
Archaeology, September/October 2004, Pg.14

Rock art in Colorado and Kansas has offered up evidence for armored cavalry among the Plains Indians. Doctoral student Mark Mitchell of the University of Colorado identified the petroglyphs, which depict leather-armored warriors, most likely Comanche, astride similarly clad horses. Plains Indians like the Comanche first obtained horses from the Spanish in the mid-seventeenth century. Native Americans also probably got the idea for protecting themselves and their mounts with leather "armor" after seeing Spanish horse soldiers. Leather armor fell out of use as firearms became available to American Indians . in the mid-eighteenth century. Mitchell notes that while the existence of leather-armored horsemen has been long known (a Jesuit priest in present-day New Mexico showed leather-armored mounted warriors battling Apache foot soldiers in a 1720 painting), these petroglyphs are the first depictions thought to be crafted by Plains Indians. "There is some recorded history but virtually no archaeology of the Comanche, which makes these rock-art depictions very valuable," says Mitchell. "They should point us to additional places to look for Comanche sites containing artifacts associated with horses."


Introduction to article: 
Colorado Coalfield Massacre
by Randall McGuire, 
Professor anthropology at Binghamton University

Source: Archaeology, November/ December 2004 
A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America 

On April 20, 1914, Colorado National Guard troops attacked a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners at Ludlow, a small town on the Colorado plains. That morning, the guard commander ordered Louis Tikas, the leader of the colony, to meet him at Ludlow railroad station. 

Fearing this might be a pretext for an attack, armed strikers of the United Mine Workers of America (LJMWA) took up a position in a railroad cut overlooking the station. The situation was tense, and when shots rang out, guardsmen near the station trained their machine gun on the tents and began firing into the camp. As the day progressed, up to 200 guardsmen joined the fight and a second machine gun was added to the first. Armed strikers engaged the guard and tried to draw their fire away from the camp, where women and children huddled in fear.

Pandemonium reigned as people ran for safety, dogs barked, babies cried, and the rat-tat-tat-tat of the machine guns echoed across the camp. Some people hid in a large walk-in well, while families sought shelter in the cellars under their tents. The camp's leaders, including Tikas, exposed themselves to the barrage of bullets as they tried to shepherd people to the shelter of a dry creek bed north of the camp. In the early afternoon, a 12-year-old boy came up out of a cellar to get some food and was shot dead.

As dusk gathered, a train crew sympathetic to the miners stopped their train in front of the machine guns, blocking their line of fire. As the guns fell silent, most of the remaining people in the camp and the armed strikers fled, while the guardsmen swept through, looting and setting the tents on fire. Mary Petrucci and her three children, one an infant she held in her arms, fled her burning tent and took refuge in the already occupied cellar below a nearby tent. Four women and 11 children crouched in the cellar while the flames crackled above them. In the first light of dawn, the camp was a smoking ruin. In the dark hole below the tent, Mary awakened to find her baby dead in her arms. Two of the women and all 11 children seeking shelter in the cellar had suffocated. During the battle, the guardsmen had seized Tikas and two other camp leaders and shot them dead. In all, 24 perished, including four guardsmen.

Following the attack, the strikers rose up in armed rebellion and seized control of the mining district. They destroyed several company towns, killed company employees, and pinned down the National Guard in their camps. Finally, after 10 days of war, President Woodrow Wilson sent federal troops to restore order. The strike continued until December, when a financially broke LJMWA had to call it off.

[[ This is only a very small part of the text.   Historical information is being gathered by the Archaeology of the Colorado Coalfield War Project. For more go to the November/December 2004 issue of Archaeology, pp. 62-70.  ]]

Spanish-Language Newspapers in New Mexico, 1834-1958
By A. Gabriel Meléndez
The University of Arizona Press 1-800-426-3797

For more than a century, Mexican American journalists used their presses to voice socio-historical concerns and to represent themselves as a determinant group of communities in Nuevo Mexico, a particularly resilient corner of the Chicano homeland. This book draws on exhaustive archival research to review the history of newspapers in these communities from the arrival of the first press in the region to publication of the last edition of Santa Fe's El Nuevo Mexicano.

Gabriel Melendez details the education and formation of a generation of Spanish-language journalists who were instrumental in creating a culture of print in native communities. He then offers in-depth cultural and literary analyses of the texts produced by los periodiqueros, establishing them thematically as precursors of the Chicano literary and political movements of the 1960s and 70s.

Moving beyond a simple effort to reinscribe Nuevomexi-canos into history, Melendez views these newspapers as cultural productions and the work of the editors as an organized movement against cultural erasure amid the massive influx of easterners to the Southwest. Readers will find a wealth of information in this book. But more important, they will come away with the sense that the survival of Nuevomexicanos as a culturally and politically viable group is owed to the labor of this brilliant generation of newspapermen who also were statesmen, scholars, and creative writers. 

Borders conference march 27-30 2006  

Call for Papers 

 Lineae Terrarum  International Borders Conference

Papers are now being accepted for a special conference on Border  Theory and Border Issues. The event will be held in three proximate cities in the El Paso (TX),  Ciudad Juarez, Las Cruces (NM),
 March 27th-30th, 2006. Transportation will be provided between venues.

 Borders mean more than boundaries and are often the meeting points of  different peoples and
 cultures. Studying border issues requires attention to  interdisciplinary issues and approaches. In
 an age where globalization has increased economic interactions and  integration, increased the
 ability of terrorists to operate transnationally, increased mobility  of migrants, the greater ease
 with which disease may spread globally, and the greater contact of  different cultures, we require
 both theory to explain the special characteristics of border  environments as well as deeper
 discussion of policy.

 The goal of this conference is to bring together scholarship on  Border Theory and Border Issues.
 The nature of the conference will be interdisciplinary with the  following themes highlighted:
 Border Theory
 Border Security
 Commerce and Economic Integration
 Mobility and Migration
 Border Health Issues
 Ethnic, Cultural and Religious Boundaries
 Cross-Border Cooperation
 Environmental Issues and Water Sharing
 Future of Border Studies

 The conference is open to Faculty from various disciplines, students,  and policy analysts.
 It is also a goal to assemble a multi-volume, interdisciplinary  publication reflecting many of the
 papers presented.   Paper proposals are due on September 1, 2005, and should be about  100-150 words in length. For more information: 

 Tony Payan
 Department of Political Science
 University of Texas at El Paso
 500 West University Ave.
 El Paso, Texas 79968
 Source:  From:


Extract: Sacred Hoops: The Story of Basketball in the Barrio 
By Dave Zirin wrote: Edge of Sports, June 14, 2005
Sent by Lupe Dorinda Moreno
Top-ranked boxer Juan "Hispanic Causing Panic" Lazcano didn't know what hit him. The lightweight contender returned to his El Paso, Texas neighborhood to encourage a room of young children to "follow your dreams." Lazcano was sharp as a tack and surefooted as a saint on Sunday. But a simple question stunned him like a stiff right cross.

"Why do you box?"  It was asked by a nine year old boy named Mateo and it's a question that could perhaps only have been asked at a jewel of a camp called Basketball in the Barrio.

Now in its tenth year, Basketball in the Barrio is a annual living demonstration of how sports can develop the best angels in our nature. It's also the story of how a shoestring basketball camp can be a bulwark for change.

At the cost of one dollar per person, Basketball in the Barrio opens its doors to the youth of the Segundo Barrio in El Paso. But like the root of a Texas Cedar, basketball is only the foundation.  The camp also exposes kids to flamenco dancing, muralists, mariachi, and even ballet. These are all aspects of what is called "border culture" -- or culture of the "fronterizo." Border culture is the dynamic mix of the US and Mexico that merges in El Paso and it's neighbor city, Juarez, Mexico. In much of Texas, "border culture" is looked upon with racist derision; something to sneer at, to shun, and to treat as if unclean. Basketball in the Barrio teaches kids to revel in it, like the dry heat of the desert sun.

This is the guiding philosophy of the camp's director Rus Bradburd. Rus is not someone who, upon first glance, resembles a fronterizo. He's also a living example of why books shouldn't be judged by their covers.  Rus was an assistant men's basketball coach for the University of Texas El Paso (UTEP) from 1983-1991, under legendary head coach Don Haskins. It was there that he came to the conclusion that Basketball in the Barrio needed to happen.

"I couldn't stand that most of the kids in El Paso couldn't afford to go the basketball camps in El Paso," says Bradburd, over the surrounding shouts and steady thumping of 100 basketballs. "All over the country, big time college coaches, who are already overpaid, are making a fortune off of kids with these deluxe basketball camps. I wanted a camp that was not only accessible, but where we could play a role in talking about border culture and cultural traditions, where these kids could see that their culture is nothing to be embarrassed about but something they could wear as a
point of pride."

Amber Avila, age 10, has been attending the camp for three years. She is typical of the children here in that she loves basketball but also holds it in a perspective that would shame many adult sports writers and armchair strategists alike. When asked what position she plays, Amber says nonchalantly, "Oh, I can play the 1,2 or the 3." [Basketball lingo for point guard, shooting guard or small forward.] She says proudly that her dream is to play in the WNBA, but likes the fact that the camp offers more, because, in her words, "not everyone's dream is to play basketball and we kids need to reach for our dreams." She also enjoys camp because "the boys aren't rude."

One of those presumably polite boys, Chris Travieso, 10, also loves Basketball in the Barrio because, "I can learn about my history and play basketball at the same time. Also it's a great place to make friends and learn new things."

Amber, Chris and all the young people embrace the border culture with the same gusto they take to the court. Perhaps the most stunning sight of this year's camp was when a former dancer in the Mexican National Ballet made her presentation. Many of the children had never seen ballet in their lives and some of the coaches feared how a ballet lesson for 120 elementary age children would go over. But the kids took to it like the parched take to ice water. When this brave, flinty ballerina asked for volunteers, much of the camp, including many of the boys, stormed the court to take instructions on how to stand on their toes and plie.

This entire experience is shaped by a unique collection of instructors who descend upon El Paso from around the country. Doug Harris, a documentary filmmaker and former NBA draftee who travels to the camp from the Bay Area, calls his annual trip to El Paso "a pilgrimage." The word fits because the adults arrive with a sacredly shared commitment to the idea that sports can be a
force for social change.

Another coach, Debbie Weinreis, makes her journey from St. Paul, Minnesota. After playing college ball at near-by New Mexico, Weinreis was a pro for 15 years in Europe. She says that she returns because, "In many camps I've been a part of, there is just too much pressure on the bottom line. Most of these kids will not go pro, but they do have to go on in life. We want them to see that there are options." She also likes teaching in an environment where boys and girls aren't separated but work together. "This camp does a great job of making it a place where girls, who from ages 6-10 are more physically advanced anyway, can star."

Many of the coaches work with an organization called Athletes United for Peace. This movement spirit shapes the spirit of the camp as a bulwark for change.  El Paso is a military town that will see an influx of 15,000 troops in the next year. Basketball in the Barrio, in the face of the billion-dollar weaponry the kids witness every day, tries to offer another perspective.

The beauty of border culture is something unimaginable to the corporations that have stripped El Paso of jobs and made Juarez the home base for their maquiladoras. This makes those around Basketball in the Barrio all the more determined to help people remember and carry on the tradition of the fronterizo. Coach Steve Yellen, a former UTEP player and member of Athletes United for
Peace says, "We want these kids to have pride in their community, pride in their culture, and pride in

This consistent call for "pride" is not just a well-worn homily, but something all the instructors
recognize as a necessary component for survival in El Paso. This is a city, in the words of Javier Diaz, that is "excluded, disconnected, and disrespected" throughout Texas.  Diaz, a 75-year-old retired guidance counselor in El Paso Public Schools, speaks while watching the kids do a dribbling drill called "the impossible catch."

"We are an island in the state," he says. "El Paso is a proud blue collar town, but we are promoted as being little more than low wages, cheap labor, and not worth giving a damn about. We have a political elite in Texas that wants to just strangle common people like us that live in Segundo Barrio. That's why Basketball in the Barrio is so important. It teaches not just sports but self-respect. It can keep alive border culture, which to me means taking the best of Anglo and Mexican culture and combining them to educate our young about art, beauty, and tolerance. To be a 'fronterizo' is to
be a whole person."

It's because the camp is forging whole people that led young Mateo to ask Juan Lazcano that simple question: "Why do you box?" It's a question that defines the worldview of Basketball in the Barrio: why fight when you can learn, when you can play, and when you can dance?

Dave Zirin's new book "What's My Name Fool? Sports and Resistance in the United States" will be in stores in July 2005. Check out his revamped website You can receive his column Edge of Sports, every week by e-mailing Contact him at


140 Years Ago: Free Speech
North Carolina's first black lawyer
Loving Day: How will you celebrate?
Christine's Genealogy Website


140 Years Ago: Free Speech

Abolitionist minister Henry Highland Garnet preached to a packed chamber in the U.S. House of Representatives, the first African-American to speak there, in 1865. "Emancipated, enfranchise, educate," he cries in a Sunday morning sermon against slavery, and calls or the ratifications of the recently passed 13th Amendment banning it. By year's end it is ratified. Garnet dies in Liberia in 1882.

Smithsonian, February 2005 Pg. 44

George Lawrence Mabson, earned a law degree from Howard Law School in 1871 and eventually became North Carolina's first black lawyer.

Heritage Newsletter, February 2005, 
California African American Genealogical Society, Volume 17 Number 2

LOVING DAY: How Will You Celebrate?
Sent by Howard Shorr

June 10, 2005 -- The adult child of an interracial couple dedicates a website to educating people about the Supreme Court decision that allowed his parents to marry. 
By Camille Jackson | Staff Writer, 

Ken Tanabe, the child of an interracial couple, was a good student, got all A's and even attended graduate school — all without learning anything about the 1967 Supreme Court decision that allowed his parents to legally marry and conceive him. 

Tanabe, 27, accidentally stumbled upon information about Loving v. Virginia while doing a Google search. 

He learned that, before the court decision, states were able to separate and punish interracial couples. In some states, violations were punishable by up to 10 years in prison. Many of the so-called miscegenation laws included Asian people and Native Americans. 

"I was shocked because I didn't know about it even though I am a product of an interracial couple," Tanabe said. "It dawned on me that there's a generation gap; younger people who didn't live with that law don't know anything about it." 

With that in mind, and inspiration from his Belgian mother and Japanese father, Tanabe built a website dedicated to Loving v. Virginia. (Interesting site) encourages visitors to host Loving Day parties on June 12 to commemorate the groundbreaking decision. 

The site contains legal history, personal stories and links to other resources. Tanabe also encourages visitors to celebrate the June 12 anniversary by having backyard gatherings, dinner parties or "spending time with someone you love." This year, he knows of parties planned in several states. 

Tanabe compares the impact of Loving v. Virginia to Brown v. the Board of Education (1954). Learning about the Brown decision helps people understand civil rights, just as the Loving decision teaches about the unfairness of miscegenation laws. 

"At the time [the miscegenation laws] were common knowledge, but once the laws were changed it stopped making headlines and being a legal issue," Tanabe said. 

So how do people learn about these things? His two-year-old website aims to fill the gap. 

Tanabe said he was inspired by the grassroots push to celebrate Juneteenth, commemorating the day in 1865 when slaves in Galveston, Texas, first learned they were free. 

Tanabe says he wants to create a day that "people feel is close to their heart" and can grow into a time when everyone knows the history of Loving. 

Christine's Genealogy Website
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Information and links to the following Archives:
Records Board of Commissioners for Emancipation of Slaves in District of Columbia, 1862-1863
Roll of Emigrants that have been sent to the colony of Liberia, Western Africa,  September, 1843 
God's Little Acre 
Preserving a lost slave site 
Black culture museum moves forward 
UNC scraps award over racism concern 
Intimate Strangers: Slavery and Freedom in Fairfield County, 1700-1850 
A Tale of Family and Slavery in Scrap Art 
200 years on, the Queen is told to say sorry for Britain's role in slave trade 
Slave Museum Gains a Collection Built on Captivation 
Telling the Gullah story 
Seeking roots, black Americans discover hotspot Syndicate this site (XML) 

Categories: Black History, Current Events, Genealogy



Two men making a difference in the lives of the indigenous
       Leon Reinart 
“Onil” Efficient Stove Impact 
       Dr. Todd Stong   Strategies for Water purification

The Encyclopedia of Native Music
Language Shift among the Navajos
Native American Records 


Leon Reinhart is a retired businessman whose business took him all over the world.  Upon his retirement he developed a solution to a severe problem in Guatemala and parts of Mexico. 

The custom of cooking in dirt pits results in many health and economic problems.   His solution was the development of an inexpensive stove which he feels can greatly impact the lives of the indigenous Mayan people..
The “Onil” Efficient Stove Impact 
The people of the Chamá Valley Villages are Trapped with primitive cooking methods, resulting in:   
•High Infant Mortality rate due to Smoke filled home. 
•Children fall in the open fire causing terrible burns requiring plastic surgery (normally unavailable). 
•Respiratory problems amongst women who spend time indoors cooking. 
•Some must spend all day  collecting firewood. 
•Single mothers and widows use the little money they have to buy firewood if they cannot travel to cut firewood. 
•Forest destroyed at an alarming rate causing great Ecological problems.  All forests in Guatemala could be gone in 15-20 years. 

What is the Answer? 
Introduce an efficient above ground ONIL stove (wood burning) with chimney
The “Onil” Efficient Stove Impact 
Manufactured inexpensively in Guatemala 
Culturally acceptable (woodburning) 
Saves 70+% wood burning. 
Frees up TWO days to the family (due to less wood use) allowing time for micro business, etc. 
Significantly reduces Infant mortality rate due to almost no smoke inhalation. 
Significantly reduces respiratory problems in family. 
•  Significantly reduces terrible burns. 
•  Slows Deforestation. 

It costs about $80 to produce and eliminates smoke from the home, terrible burns by the babies/children, saves 70-80% firewood, frees up two days from cutting/hauling firewood for more production use of time and slows the destruction of the forest.  We have each family pay $30 towards the cost in the form of cash, kind or community service.  We will be producing 90,000 a year by the end of the year but need to install about 750,000 to see a dramatic change in the indigenous Maya people.  it’s the biggest bang for the buck I’ve ever seen.  

Please give credit for the ONIL Stove to Don O’Neal, a retired engineer, who volunteers for HELPS International.  He lives in Dallas, Texas but is in Guatemala every month.  He has made the best stove of this type ever made and keeps trying to make improvements and get costs down.  Several small factories are being set up in Guatemala at very low cost.  No buildings except a supply shed.  We should be producing at about 90,000 per year in a couple of years.  Getting NGO’s to install them is the biggest challenge.  To date about 10,000 have been installed.  A model village, Santa Avelina, will have nearly 100% by the end of this year (about 650 homes).   We’ve lived 10 years in the Middle East (Iran, Dubai and Bahrain) and 20+ in Latin America (Panama, Puerto Rico, Ecuador and Mexico).
   Best regards…..  Leon   

Strategies for Water purification

Mimi,  Long time no hear.  I have been in Mexico, 6 months a year these past 3 winters (water supply, waste treatment, vegetation control on Mexico's largest lake. This winter I will have a detour to Nigeria as I direct the construction of a 215 ft. timber bridge I have designed to cross a river - all to be done by hand, no machines. May be back in Mexico by Jan.

My only past work in Guatemala was my being there 30 days to design and start the building of  a resettlement village, and my advice on hand operated deep well pump options.  I have also advised some on long distant water pipelines and the needed pump details.  My focus remains on humanitarian service in the Developing World. Water supply is my major press, but I find much interest in many other engineering and technology transfer topics.  Let me attach some files on my 200 ft. long timber bridge project for Nigeria

[[ Dr. Stong is a retired engineer who has been volunteering his expertise in projects all over the world. He retired soon after I met him about 10 years ago, in Washington, D.C.. He was kind enough to assist me in a presentation for the U.S. Senate Task Force on Hispanic Affairs.

Todd has dedicated himself to improving the living conditions of the villagers through water  purification strategies.  He designed and implemented a small and simple-to-build, inexpensive unit which home owners could easily maintain to supply the water needs of their family.  

If you are looking for a meaningful project to support, either of these should be considered.  Please contact them directly.]]

Todd D. Stong PhD, P.E.
3167 Glengreen Drive
Lancaster, PA 17601
TEL/FAX: 717-285-1323

Todd D. Stong, PhD, P.E.
Dr. Stong's distinguished career included being the director of the Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory with a 420 person civilian staff, from Alaska to Panama, for 3 yrs, the Technical Director, for the US Army Strategic Defense Command "Star Wars Program" with a $1.2 billion/yr budget and as a colonel in the US Army Corps of Engineers. Dr. Stong retired in 1989 with 2 Legion of Merit Awards, 2 Bronze Stars, 2 Medals for Meritorious Service, 3 Joint Service Medals, a Vietnamese Public Works Medal, and six Vietnam Campaign Medals. He worked as a Technical Director for Coleman Research Corp in Virginia, working in Environmental Technologies from 1989-1996 and Humanitarian Services (water supply, Africa/Latin Am + small business creation for poor) from 1996-2002. He is currently writing a book on water in the developing world and advises Urgent Africa on water and engineering projects. Todd Stong is the advisor on developing appropriate technology in rural water systems in Nigeria.  He is the father of 6 engineer sons and 21 grandchildren!!


The Encyclopedia of Native Music
By Bian Wright- McLeod
The University of Arizona Press 1-800-426-3797

Want the word on Buffy Sainte-Marie? Looking for the best powwow recordings? Wondering what else Jim Pepper cut besides "Witchi Tai To"? This book will answer those questions and more as it opens up the world of Native American music.

In addition to the widely heard sounds of Carlos Nakai's flute, Native music embraces a wide range of forms: country and folk, jazz and swing, reggae and rap. Brian Wright-McLeod, producer/host of Canada's longest-running Native radio program, has gathered the musicians and their music into this comprehensive reference, an authoritative source for biographies and discographies of hundreds of Native artists.

The Encyclopedia a/Native Music recognizes the multifaceted contributions made by Native recording artists by tracing the history of their commercially released music. It provides an overview of the surprising abundance of recorded Native music while underlining its historical value.

With almost 1,800 entries spanning more than 100 years, this book leads readers from early performers of traditional songs like William Horncloud to artists of the new millennium such as Zotigh. Along the way it includes entries for jazz and blues artists never widely acknowledged for their Native roots-Oscar Pettiford, Mildred Bailey and Keely Smith-and traces the recording histories of contemporary performers like Rita Coolidge and Jimmy Carl Black, "the Indian of the group" in the original Mothers of Invention. It also includes film soundtracks and compilation albums that have been instrumental in bringing many artists to popular attention. In addition to music, it lists spoken-word recordings, including audio books, comedy interviews, poetry and more.

With this unprecedented breadth of coverage and extensively cross-referenced, The Encyclopedia of Native Music is an essential guide for enthusiasts and collectors. More than that, it is a gateway to the authentic music of North America-music of the people who have known this land from time immemorial and continue to celebrate it in sound.

Language Shift among the Navajos
By Deborah House
The University of Arizona Press 1-800-426-3797

To experience change on the Navajo Reservation, one need only close one's eyes and listen. Today an increasing number of Navajos speak only English, while very few speak only Navajo. The Navajo language continues to be taught, but it is less often practiced. Deborah House asks why, despite the many factors that would seem to contribute to the maintenance of the Navajo language, speakers of the language continue to shift to English at such an alarming rate—and what can be done about it.

"This thought-provoking study... provides an in-depth examination of the role the Navajo language plays in perpetuating Navajo cultural identity.... This insightful study, with potentially practical applications, is highly recommended for anthropology and Native American studies collections in academic libraries." —Library Journal

"House's book is important because it represents a more accurate picture of contemporary Navajo society, and it offers a new voice on Indian education.... She is acutely aware of the attitudes of young Navajo scholars who desire to tell the stories of their people themselves." —Anthropology (S- Education Quarterly

"This book addresses far more than the matter of language shift; it delves into issues that are not only complex but also controversial, especially among the Navajo people themselves. For this reason it is a brave book, and one that should be useful not only for Navajo readers but also for those interested in contemporary issues in American Indian studies, postcolonial discourse, and the social construction of identity." —Language in Society

The Clf Newsletter 
A Publication of Clayton Library Friends Volume XIX May 2005 Number 2


Glayton Library will have some new microfilm concerning Native American records by May. Clayton Library Friends has purchased the following rolls of microfilm at the direction of Clayton Manager Marje Harris.
From the Oklahoma Historical Society (each item is a single roll):
AMD 026 Emmet Starr, Manuscripts, Old        Cherokee Families and their            Genealogies, Index to Surnames, "B-Z." No index for "A."
AMD 028 Emmet Starr, Manuscripts, Old Cherokee
Families and their Genealogies, Family
 AMD 029 Emmet Starr, Manuscripts, Old Cherokee
Families and their Genealogies, Miscellaneous
(Note: Clayton Library already has AMD 027.)
KA 1 Kiowa Agency Census & Enrollment: Census of Kiowa, Comanche, Apache and Wichita & Affiliated Bands, Undated & 1869-1883 (oClayton Microfilm rolls cover 1895-1939).
KA 2 Kiowa Agency Census & Enrollment: Census of Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, Caddo & Wichita & Affiliated Bands. 1883-1890.
KA 3 Kiowa Agency Census & Enrollment: Census of Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, Caddo & Wichita & Affiliated Bands. 1890-1894.
KA 4 Kiowa Agency Census & Enrollment: Census of Kiowa, Comanche, Apache, Caddo & Wichita & Affiliated Bands. 1893-1901.
KA 52 Kiowa Agency Births, Marriages, Divorces, Deaths, Wills and Related Records (1869-1925): Wills (1890-1924); Cemetery (1896-1924): Vital Statistics (1893-1919):
Births (Undated and 1895-1924); Marriage Register (Volume) (1893-1901); Marriage Licenses (Volume) (1905-1907), Marriages (1871-1901); Report of Legal Marriage (Undated and 1902-1924); Divorce Docket (Volume) (1917-1919).
PA 1 Pawnee Agency Census & Enrollment, letters
and documents sent and received June 4, 1894 through March 28, 1927. Census volumes and lists for the Nez Perce, Kaw, Tonkawa, Pawnee and Oto and Missouri, 1880-1926.

QA 1 Census and Enrollment. Letters and documents received December 10, 1877 to June 11, 1897. Census volumes and lists for the Cayuga, Miami, Modoc, New York, Nez Perce, Ottawa, Confederated Peoria, Potawatomi, Quapaw, Seneca, Eastern Shawnee and Wyandot.
Sac and FoxShawnee Agency census and enrollment. Letters and documents, sent & received. December 6, 1865 through May 5,
1924. Census volumes and lists for the Iowa, Mexican Kickapoo and Oto 1881-1920. SFSA 2 Sac and FoxShawnee agency census and enrollment. Census volumes and lists for the Citizen Potawatomi, 1883-1921.
From the National Archives:
T 500 Records of Choctaw Trading House, 1803-1824,
6 rolls.
 T 1029 Letter Book of Natchitoches Sulphur Fork
Factory, 1809-1821, 1 roll. 
M 142 Letter Book of the Arkansas Trading House,
1805-1810, 1 roll. 
M 1059 Selected Letters Received by the Office of
Indian AffairsRelating to the Cherokees of
North Carolina, 1851-1905, 7 rolls. 
M 234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs,
1824-1881, Rolls # 113-18,143-44,185-87,
237-40, and 806-07.
These seventeen rolls represent the records and corre-spondence relating to the removal of the "Five Civilized Tribes" or nations into the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). The material represented is as follows:
Cherokee Agency, 1824-80
Cherokee Emigration 
Roll #113........1828-36
Roll #114........1837
Roll #115........1838
Roll #116........1839-54
Cherokee Reserves 
Roll #117........1828-40
Roll #118........1841-50
Chickasaw Agency, 1824-70
Chickasaw Agency Emigration 
Roll #143........1837-38
Roll #144........1839-50
Choctaw Agency, 1824-78
Choctaw Agency Emigration 
Roll# 185........1826-45
Roll #186........1846-49
Roll #187........1850-59
Creek Agency, 1824-76
Creek Agency Emigration 
Roll #237........1826-36
Roll #238........1837
Roll #239........1838-39
Roll #240........1840-49
Seminole Agency, 1824-76
Seminole Agency Emigration. 1827-59 
Roll #806........1827-46
Roll #807........1848-59




Native American Records Coming Soon
The Unknown Past 
Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans
The Belmonte Project


The Last 
Sephardic Jew

Film Directed by Miguel Angel Nieto
9th New York International 
Sephardic Jewish Film Festival 

The Last Sephardic Jew traces the post-Inquisition wanderings of Spanish Jewry after their brutal expulsion from their homeland. Their journey is examined and illuminated by Eliezer Papo — rabbi, Ladino teacher, and all-around scholar - as he searches for answers why the Jews of Spain had to flee, and where they ended up. Papo's investigation brings to light the hidden traces of Jewish life in such far-flung
destinations as Thessaloniki, Istanbul, and Curacao. From these remnants emerges a picture of Jewish communities that flourished despite their expulsion — a testament to the dedication of the Sephardic refugees, and the sturdiness of their beliefs. Winner of Best Historical Documentary at the 2004 Hamburg Media Festival, Best International Documentary at the yth Latin Film Festival of San Francisco, and the Public Prize at the 2004 II Cinema Festival of Argentina.

Miguel Angel Nieto
was born in Avila, Spain, in 1960. Executive Director of his own production company, Diogramma Producciones, he has been involved in the making of many acclaimed documentaries, including Cuba: 4oYears of Revolution (1999); Marea blanca (2000); El sigh blanco (2002); about the football team Real Madrid, and La verdadera historia de losfalsos Dali (2003). His films have been awarded numerous international prizes, including the Award Ejercito and the Award Reina Sofia.  Eliezer Papo is the coordinator of a new Ladino culture center at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beersheba.

American Sephardi Federation with Sephardic House 
15 West 16th street 
New York, NY 10011

The Unknown Past 
In New Mexico, L.I. Author Finds Catholics With Secret Jewish History 
Claudia Gryvatz Copquin, Long Island Press, 05/05/2005

Sent by Janete Vargas 

[[ Hubert Larribas is one of the Crypto-Jews interviewed by Gloria Golden.]]

Gloria Golden has always been interested in genealogy. As a photographer, this curiosity led her to travel the world. In the late 1990s, looking for more background on her Jewish heritage, she visited synagogues in Spain and Brazil, seeking out subjects for photographs and looking for remnants of Judaism. 

Eventually, she found those traces of religion in one of the least likely places: the American Southwest. Among Hispanics, no less. 

She had heard about Crypto-Jews, Catholics who practice Jewish rituals within the Hispanic community, before she went to Santa Fe, N.M., for a photography course. As she took pictures, she listened to the stories of ancient customs that were often diluted but survived nevertheless. 

Inspired, Golden researched this remarkable group and produced a book of photos and oral histories, Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans. The book was released by Floricanto Press earlier this year. 

The former teacher's project started with black-and-white portraits with an exhibition in mind. Golden, a Plainview resident, is an award-winning portrait and art photographer who has exhibited around the country. 

The stories Golden listened to while taking the pictures told of puzzling family traditions, unexplained secret rituals, cultural and ethnic identity questions, and a predominant sense of fear and persecution going back centuries, from Catholic Hispanics who practice a variety of ancient Jewish customs. 

A remarkable number of them, she learned, were practicing a variety of ancient Jewish customs. As she delved deeper into research, the photography project mushroomed, and she decided to convert it into a book of oral histories and portraits. These were not merely clusters of Hispanic Jews living randomly in New Mexico and Texas. 

"These are Crypto-Jews," she says of the 70 or so subjects she interviewed. "They're people [whose families] converted to Catholicism and practice Judaism in secret." 

Their Judaism has been so well hidden that many of these individuals aren't even aware of the roots of the rituals they practice. To comprehend how and why these Hispanics have any Jewish affiliation at all requires a history lesson, which Golden smartly includes in the introduction to her book. 

It was a holocaust, really––one that's more or less overlooked. Some 500 years ago in Spain, Sephardic Jews were persecuted in an anti-Semitic campaign that went on for some 150 years prior to the Spanish Inquisition, according to preeminent Crypto-Judaism scholar and author David Gitlitz, professor of languages at the University of Rhode Island. Thousands of Jews were forced to convert to Catholicism or be burned at the stake, adds Golden. Many of the conversos continued practicing Judaism in secret, becoming Crypto-Jews. 

In 1492, the same year Columbus "discovered" America, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand issued an Edict of Expulsion, which effectively ruled death or exile for any Jew who did not convert to Catholicism. To survive, many fled to Portugal, northern Africa, Italy and other parts of the world. A good number of conversos settled in New Spain (Mexico), where they felt a cultural kinship with the Spanish settlers. But the Inquisition shadowed the conversos even there, and they eventually migrated north to what is today New Mexico and Texas. 

Through the centuries that followed, a perpetual, deep-rooted fear of persecution kept Jewish practices alive but underground in Hispanic Catholic households. Various forms of worship took place in secret, with rituals passed orally from one family member to another. Orthodox Jewish practices became diluted, altered or reinterpreted. 

More often than not, Crypto-Judaic rituals and customs, practiced alongside Catholic ones, went unexplained from generation to generation. Sometimes, on a deathbed, an elderly relative would reveal the Jewish tie. For others, once a child hit a certain age, a Sephardic link was disclosed in whispers. Because many families kept their Jewish roots under cover, today's Hispanic Catholics who may be Sephardic Jews are unaware of their heritage. Some are in denial. 

Those willing to disclose their backgrounds relayed their personal accounts to Golden. However, a good number of the first-person narratives in the book, related orally by people who may or may not consider themselves to be of Jewish heritage, are somewhat cryptic themselves. 

"We believe in circumcision, as the doctor advised it," relates Ambrosia Gonzalez in Golden's book. "This was done about a week after the baby was born..." Further, she says, "We had a twenty-four-hour burial...Mom covered the mirrors when someone died." Most of these are strictly Jewish practices, Golden explains. Interestingly, Gonzalez, a born-again Christian, adds, "When candles were lit, we didn't know what they were for." But her grandmother also prayed with a rosary. Gonzalez believes she is a Crypto-Jew. 

In another section of the book, Carlos Casaus, whose family never ate pork, states, "I don't feel a connection to Judaism." "When I was a child, I found out from Carlos, my father, that we had Jewish blood." During thunderstorms, Casaus' great-grandmother would pull out a seven-candle menorah kept hidden in a box under her bed, and the family would pray to the menorah, says Golden. Casaus says that as a boy he'd question his great-grandmother regarding this strange practice. "Because my mother told me to," she'd respond. 

"The stories are very telling," Golden says. "I was not out to prove who was a Jew. I was trying to find remnants of Judaism. That was my goal." 

Scholars and historians have taken a keen interest in these kinds of anecdotes, conducting genetic research, documenting narratives and creating genealogical databases. In addition, a debate is raging in religious circles as to whether anyone claiming to be a Crypto-Jew should be welcomed into the Jewish community, or whether conversion—or re-conversion—is necessary. 

"I think some substantial number of folks need to come to grips with who they are," states Gitlitz, the Crypto-Judaism scholar. "We have an obligation as human beings to deal open-mindedly and humanely and appropriately with anyone who feels an affinity with Judaism." 

Ultimately, Golden's testimonials are important because they "show the resilience of family and religious rituals, a big part of how people pass on their identity," explains Ian Reifowitz, an assistant professor at SUNY Empire State College in Old Westbury and an expert in Central and Eastern European Jewry. "It demonstrates the reach of the Inquisition, a somewhat forgotten piece of history, but also the extent to which people will go to hold on to what they believe in." 


Gerald Gonzalez
Pg. 114-116

Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans 
By Gloria Golden

The emergence of my consciousness of having a Jewish heritage was a gradual occurrence. I was given a traditional parochial school upbringing as a child. I noticed, however, that my father did not seem to relate well, though he was also raised in a "traditional" Catholic family, to church-connected matters. He did not attend mass very often, and he ate meat on Fridays. I also learned as I grew up that his greatgrandfather, my great-great-grandfather, whose name was Tomas Gonzales, had studied for the priesthood in his youth. He never completed his studies and married instead.

While he served in the Army Air Corps during World War II, one of my father's best friends was someone from New York whose name, if I recall correctly, was Abe Goldberg. I also noticed, as I grew older, that the pattern of not being deeply involved, personally, in church-related matters was repeated by my grandfather's behavior, my father's father.

I spent many years researching my own family history. During the course of my research, I gradually became aware that the Inquisition had been active in Mexico as well as parts of the Southwest, like New Mexico where I grew up. Then I attended a lecture given by a Professor Liebman and a Hispanic professor at St. Mary's College in San Antonio, Texas, where I was stationed with the U.S. Air Force. Professor Liebman described the sixteenth and seventeenth century crypto-Jewish community in Mexico City, and the other professor spoke about crypto-Jewish indicators in the Spanish-speaking community around Monterrey, Mexico. The latter described customs such as marking a visit to a loved-one's grave by leaving a small stone as a marker on the headstone, or not mixing certain foods together at meals, or turning mirrors to the wall when someone in a household dies. And I realized that, while I was not familiar with many of the customs being described, these three were familiar to me.

At that point, it began to dawn on me that there was at least some possibility that I had some Jewish blood in my family. I continued my research (in 1972 or 1973) with a growing suspicion that this was true. I exchanged information with others doing similar work. I discovered, in the process, that my family surname came from Portugal at a time that Portuguese settlers in the New World were viewed with suspicion because of the possibility that they were not only converses, but also practicing crypto-Jews. I discovered that two of my ancestors had been imprisoned in the early 1660s by the Inquisition for possibly engaging in heretical practices. And I noticed that in the seventeenth century history of New Mexico, the members of my Gonzales family line consistently allied themselves with the secular, rather than the clerical side of New Mexico's Spanish colonial government.

Several years ago, as I was explaining my research and my suspicions to some first cousins, my youngest paternal aunt, who had been listening intently, broke in and said something like, "Yes, our family came here because they were being persecuted for being practicing Jews!" I later explored how she came to know this, and she reminded me that, as the youngest daughter, she had spent many hours listening to my grandfather talk about the family just before he died. During some of these conversations, he told her about our family's Jewish heritage. It probably explains the remark my grandfather once made to me when I had just begun to research our family history more intensely, "If I were not a Catholic, I would be a Jew."

The Belmonte Project

Belmonte is a small town in the Estrela Mountains of central Portugal. It is similar to many other towns in this region except for one thing: it is home to the only community in Portugal that has maintained its Jewish identity for more than 500 years. Since the forced conversion of Jews in 1496, this small, isolated group never forgot their ancestry and continued to practice Jewish traditions in secrecy. In 1989, this congregation of 120 finally dared to proclaim their heritage to the world, wanting nothing more than to openly practice their beliefs without fear of persecution. With the help of funds from Jews outside of Portugal, they built a beautiful synagogue, obtained prayer books and enlisted the help of a temporary rabbi. This community is now ready for the next step.

Jose Joao (Yosef) Mendes Rodrigo, a young man from Belmonte, is presently studying at the Sephardi Rabbinical School in Jerusalem, Israel. When he completes his studies and returns to his people in Portugal, he will become the first native Portuguese rabbi in over 500 years. Yosef  has successfully completed two years of study thanks to a partial scholarship, but he cannot finish without additional help. Your contribution to this event will ensure that Yosef can fulfill his dream of becoming a rabbi and the Jewish community of Belmonte, Portugal will become stronger and more vibrant than ever.

Emily Taitz, The Belmonte Project
June 8th, the American Sephardi Federation with the Sephardic House and Portuguese Culture and Education Foundation held a staged reading and U.S. Premiere of the play Disobedience by 
Luis Francisco Rebello.


Los Bexarenos research trip to Saltillo
"Border Bandits" film inspires legislation
Founding of Nuevo Santander & Laredo
Starr County, Texas: Boys kidnapped in 1850's leave lasting legacy  
Nos Unimos Project
Inclan Pagina Web
Woman collects rosaries
Texas Family History Research, Hidalgo Co
The story behind El Corrido de  Oliveira 
Valley of Tears
Tejano Music History, Laura Canales, And Other Tejano Music Legends
Poet, but not such an angry one now
     Ode To EmilIano Zapata
     Cesar and Me 

Saltillo Research Trip / July 23-28, 2005 / Additional Seats Available
Sent by George Gause
and  Larry Kirkpatrick

As of June 5th, there are eight vacancies for Saltillo trip.  They are available to Bexarenos and non-Bexarenos alike on a first-come-first-served basis.

The cost for bus fare and hotel is unchanged: $ 355 per person for double occupancy and $ 550 for single occupancy. The bus will depart from San Antonio at 7:00 a.m. on July 23, and will arrive back in town on the evening of July 28. As mentioned before, the trip will provide an opportunity for both genealogical research and tourism as the trip coincides with the city's 428th anniversary celebration of its founding.

Anyone who has not already made a down payment and desires to participate should mail a check for the desired occupancy rate as soon as possible.

Make the check payable to "Los Bexareños Genealogical Society" and mail it with a filled-out "Emergency Information of Participants Sheet (see next page) to my home address, shown below.

Proof of citizenship will be required at the Mexican border. Acceptable documentation includes: a passport, original birth certificate, or a voter registration card. A picture id., such as a driver's license, will also be required with the latter two documents.

Additional information will be sent to all participants at least one month prior to the trip.

Please call or send me an email if you have any questions.

Sincerely, Joel Escamilla
Saltillo Trip Coordinator
1715 Sage Run
San Antonio, TX 78253
Cell: 210-364-2391


"Border Bandits" film inspires legislation
By Elizabeth Piers Byon, The Brownsville Herald
Sent by Mira Smithwick,

AUSTIN, January 9, 2005 — One Texas legislator filed a bill that could bring public recognition to the seedy side of the Texas Rangers, who historians say killed and terrorized thousands of Tejanos.

Rep. Aaron Pena, D-Edinburg, Thursday filed House Bill 317, which would designate Cinco de Mayo, or May 5, as Tejano Heritage Day. The day would commemorate the history of Tejanos and the contributions they have made to history in Texas and the world. He is working with historians and families of the victims to develop some type of memorial, he said Monday.

The recent interest by legislators was spurred largely by the 2004 film "Border Bandits," which depicted the 1915 story of two well-respected Tejano landowners who were shot in the back near the McAllen Ranch in Hidalgo County by Texas Rangers after Mexicans came to raid the ranch.

Their killer, Bill Sterling, has a historical marker at his grave in Corpus Christi, but the victims, Jesus Bazan, 67, and his son-in-law, Antonio Longoria, have ordinary roadside graves on FM 1017 in northern Hidalgo County.

But Peña will stop short of introducing the bill to require that Texas children learn in their required state history classes about the questionable activities of the Texas Rangers.

Changing curriculum to reflect what many historians know to be true would be politically difficult considering the romantic lore of Texas Rangers, he said.

He said he wants to take steps to recognize the history without risking losing support for the bill in a state where Texas Rangers are respected in the history books for their bravery.

"… The middle ground is where we have to find, because this is not a bunch of South Texans getting together to decide what happened," Peña said. "These are people who have a vision of Texas as being glorified and pure."

Peña is also exploring the possibility of working to have a highway named in honor of Tejano heritage. He would not say where that highway is, saying the discussions are preliminary.

The issue is near to Peña, who has studied it since seeing the film last fall in Harlingen. After the screening, grandchildren of each of the two men killed said they want recognition of the deaths.

A New York Times reporter was also in the audience, and Peña’s office later was flooded with e-mails from across the country from people who said they knew of relatives killed by the Texas Rangers, Peña said.

The Texas Department of Public Safety, which includes the Texas Rangers, said the history has nothing to do with the Rangers of today. Tom Vinger, spokesman for DPS, said he had not seen the movie, but was familiar with the story it tells.

"That was a historical event that took place before the Rangers were part of DPS, so it doesn’t have any relation to the modern rangers," he said.

The Texas Rangers merged with the highway department in 1935, Vinger said.

Dallas filmmaker Kirby Warnock created Border Bandits based on the story told to him by his grandfather, a 19-year old cowboy working on the Guadalupe Ranch near present-day Edinburg. His grandfather Roland witnessed the Rangers from Company D shoot the two unarmed men in the back, according to the film.

The Rangers said they were seeking justice for an earlier raid by Mexicans on the McAllen Ranch, but the men were Valley landowners and American citizens. One was a postmaster and another a respected 67-year-old, Warnock said.

Warnock first recorded his grandfather’s story in 1973 when he was a senior history major at Baylor University taking a course in oral history. He held onto the recordings and later spent five years researching the story to back up his grandfather’s account with facts.

The screening in September at Cine Sol in the Valley, along with other screenings around Texas have received strong responses from audiences who were either shocked that their history books misled them or glad to have attention paid to their ancestors’ stories, he said.

"The Anglo people in the audience, they’re just dumbfounded, but the Hispanics, they are both angry and relieved," he said. "They’re angry it’s taken so long to tell the story, and relieved that someone is finally telling it."

Warnock said he’s not out to dispel the contributions of the Texas Rangers, but only to tell his grandfather’s story.

"I’m not some crusading liberal," he said. "I own a Suburban, seven guns, I drink beer, and I go hunting, so please don’t call me the Michael Moore of Texas, because I’m not."

Since the release of the film, Warnock has had at least 70 calls from families, many in the Valley, saying the Texas Rangers killed their relatives, he said.

Rudolfo Rocha, professor of history and the dean of the College of Arts and Humanities at the University of Texas-Pan American, appeared in the film and has studied Texas Rangers and Tejanos for 20 years.

In his research, Rocha has documented 3,000 Tejanos killed by the Texas Rangers. Other historians estimate the number was twice as much, he said.

He was asked by Peña to be part of an advisory team to decide what type of memorial or grave marker should be erected for the two men who were killed. Like Peña, Rocha wants recognition of the event to serve as an important reminder of an ugly chapter of history, not to nullify the positive accomplishments of the Texas Rangers or change history.

"We should have some sort of a memorial to them as a symbol, not just to those two individuals, but symbolic of what happened to way over 3,000 Mexican-Americans," he said.

With Hispanics set to eventually become a majority in Texas, the time is right to tell their story, Rocha said.

"In this country, when we think of racism, or segregation or integration, people probably think of black and white," he said. "However, in Texas, it really hasn’t been black and white, it’s been brown and white, so it’s time that we recognize that."

For more information, visit Warnock’s Web site at

  Founding of Nuevo Santander & Laredo 
Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera

Nuevo Santander, one of the last northern provinces of New Spain, was established by Jose de Escandon. Upon receiving a commission to conquer this northern frontier, Escandon organized an entrada (expedition) of 1,750 soldiers that resulted in the founding of 20 towns and 18 missions between 1749 and 1755. By occupying this territory, comprised of what would become Tamaulipas, a piece of Nuevo Leon, and a portion of South Texas, New Spain hoped to convert the indigenous people to Christianity and to discourage French and English expansion.

The Spaniard, Jose de Escandon, born in 1700, served in a mounted regiment at Merida, Yucatan. Later he conquered the native inhabitants of Sierra Gorda for New Spain. As Lt. General, he received a commission to inspect the land between the San Antonio River and Tampico, known as the Seno Mexicano. Appointed governor, Escandon was responsible for settlements along the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo): Camargo (1749), Reynosa (1749), Dolores (1750), Revilla (1750), Mier (1752), and Laredo (1755). Laredo is the only remaining Spanish colonial settlement on the northern bank of the Rio Grande.

Laredo was founded on May 15, 1755, when Captain Tomas Sanchez, with three families, was granted permission to settle 15 leagues of land near an Indian ford on the Rio Grande. Sanchez lived across the river from Dolores, a large ranching settlement, and journeyed to Revilla to petition for a new villa. Born in 1709 in Nuevo Leon, Sanchez was a military veteran and had managed a rancho in Coahuila. The Sanchez estate ran cattle, sheep, goats, horses, mules, and oxen.

Jose Maria Garcia, son of Bartolome Garcia, Circa 1880 Courtesy of Mrs. Alberto Guerra plaza mayor and Delia Guierez   

In 1767, during the Visita General (general visit) by Juan Fernando de Palacios, the governor of Sierra Gorda, New Spain officially designated the settlement as a villa and christened it San Agustin de Laredo, after a town in     Escandon's native Santander, Spain. A (central public square) was laid out, and pore ones and  (land grants) fronting the river were issued to the heads of households. Plots of land facing the plaza were surveyed for a church, a captain's house, and a jail.

Los Mexicanos-Tejanos

Thirty-four years after its founding, Laredo boasted 800 inhabitants, including espanoles, mestizos, mulatos, and indios. In this stratified society, prominent Spanish landowners were granted the title of don and dona. Mulatos and indios occupied the roles of servants, shepherds, and stock handlers.

Ranching and trading became the sustenance of the colony. Products were hauled from the Mexican interior through Laredo to San Antonio de Bexar and La Bahia. Cattle hides and wool were traded south in exhange for food and household necessities.

The Texas cowboy, or vaquero, had his roots in Spanish-Mexican ranching traditions. During the Spanish colonial period, the city government regulated round-ups to insure the proper distribution of wild cattle. Spanish brands, many resembling Moorish and Indian designs, were publicly registered. Located near springs and creeks, family-operated ranches such as Los Ojuelos, Dolores, and San Jose de Palafox developed into small communities.

Laredo was struggling to survive the raids of Comanche and Apache Indians in 1821, the year Mexico gained its independence from Spain. To gain prestige and reap the spoils of war, the nomadic Plains Indians waged hit and run warfare against the Mexicans. The Indians wiped out nearby ranches as the pleas for additional garrison troops were ignored.

Carrizo Indians, a group of Coahuiltecan peoples, lived in thatched huts and practiced a hunting-gathering existence using the bow and arrow. Reduced by disease and warfare, the Carrizos became Christians and slowly assimilated into Spanish culture.

 The Republic of the Rio Grande

The Republic of the Rio Grande was created by a constitutional convention at the Orevena Ranch near present day Zapata on January 7, 1840. Discontented with the Mexican Centralist government's policies, some prominent Laredoans joined this Federalist revolt. Attempting to unite with representatives from Tamaulipas, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon, the newly formed government consisted of a legislative council of eight members, with Jesus Cardenas, a Reynosa lawyer, as president, Antonio Canales, a Tamaulipas legislator, as army commander-in-chief, and Antonio Zapata, a successful mulato rancher, as chief army lieutenant. Laredo became the capital of the new republic.

 Starr County, Texas: Boys kidnapped in 1850's leave lasting legacy  
Travis M. Whitehead
The Monitor Sent by JV Villarreal

SALINEÑO — No one can know for sure what young Claudio and his friend Esteban were doing that day in the late 1850s when some American Indians kidnapped them. Perhaps they were hauling water from the river, or herding cattle through the thick South Texas brush near the river crossing the Indians had used for generations. But on this particular day, the Indians had something else in
mind: taking captives.

"They were treated like slaves," said Lydia Lopez, whose great-grandfather, Claudio Canales, spent three or four years with an Indian tribe performing the most arduous tasks. Throughout the long period, the boys’ families grieved their loss, believing they were dead. Far to the north, though, they
were gaining valuable and rich experiences that would earn them a great deal of respect the rest of their lives. Ironically, their paths would cross again many years after they died.

Years after the two young men returned, Claudio Canales was hired to help design the route of Expressway 83 between Zapata and Starr counties, and his descendents believe his skill at navigating through wilderness when he and the other boy escaped played a role in his getting the assignment. Lopez and her brother, Martin Canales, disagree on which tribe they believe took the boys: Lydia believes it was the Apaches, while her brother feels the Comanches might have taken them.

They both believe, however, that their great-grandfather Canales, who was about 14 at the time of his capture, was taken to an area just north of San Antonio. The other boy, Esteban Ramos, was about 11 years old. One of the reasons Lopez and her brother believe they were taken so far north is because of the amount of time the two boys took to get home once they escaped; they traveled through wild and dangerous country, changing horses frequently, hiding for fear their captors would find them.

"That’s what really impresses us," said Martin Canales, 64, a retired banker "Claudio and Esteban must have been very astute individuals that they could escape and come all the way to the Salineño area after four years. These people had no experience about travel. There were no roads at the time. That far away, at that time, traveling those distances was unheard of." Salineño, west of Roma, is a community with roads that snake around in gentle curves, past houses that reflect the character of their owners. The Handbook of Texas Online says the community is about 250 years old and that 
ranching in the Mier and Salineño area started in 1734."

The Handbook further states that Salineño was first part of the province of Nuevo Santander under Spanish rule; after Mexico gained its independence, the community was part of the Mexican state of Tamaulipas before becoming part of the United States in 1848 after the Mexican War. "The residents often rushed back to Mier or Camargo, the parent cities, when Indians raided or boundaries changed," the Handbook reads. Martin Canales said he doesn’t believe his great-grandfather was caught in one of these raids; rather, he suspects some Indians just snuck up and grabbed them. Someone apparently saw what happened, and everyone thought they were dead. It was, therefore, something of a shock when the two boys, as young men, showed up back in Salineño more than three years later. "I can imagine they had a big celebration," Canales said. "They thought they had been killed, and then after four years to have them back in very good health."

The family’s oral history has no record of the boys being emotionally scarred or suffering serious injury. "On the contrary, he learned a lot from the Indians, how to ride horses, treating cattle and deer skins," Canales said. "He made chaps out of deer skins."

"I wish that we would have asked more questions when my parents were alive," interjected Lopez.
The family has a long history of using home remedies made from local plants, and Lopez and Canales both believe that knowledge came from their grandfather’s Indian captor.

"These people believed in making teas," Canales said. "Mistletoe, these people used it for arthritis. Retama chino is used to cure diabetes." Lopez said another plant, drago, was used to treat toothaches. Ironically, medicinal plants aren’t the only legacy the kidnapping has left with the family. Esteban Ramos’s granddaughter, Paz Ramos, later went on to marry Claudio Canales’s grandson, Martin Canales Sr., and they were the parents of Lydia Lopez and her brother, Martin Canales Jr.

"To me, that’s a big coincidence that three generations down they were united by marriage of their grandchildren," Lopez said. "They were survivors Always in their minds, they wanted to come back, especially Claudio, he was the oldest. He made up his mind that somehow he would make it back."
Travis M. Whitehead covers Star County, Mission, law enforcement and general
assignments for The Monitor. You can reach him at (956) 683-4452. 


Mimi... It has been about a year since I last reported on our eMUSEUM project here in San Antonio.  It has been moving along steadily since Fall  2002.  The PHASE I work has reached a wonderful level of sustainability and PHASE II is moving toward a September 2005 benchmark.

Our project team has spent the last six months rebuilding the software (which we created) so as to accommodate an embedded database.  This will allow more images to be uploaded to the site, more text descriptions and even video and audio clips.  We have over 3,700 picutres n the collection but only are small percentage have dates and identities.  Now that the software is capable to handling more data we  are initiating a renewed effort to get names and dates on every image.

PHASE II is a gallery exhibit which is being prepared for travel.  The exhibit consists of 28 framed images, a large photo-montage room divider, three rear-projection video screens and an internet-connected server with scanner. The Premier exhibit of NOS UNIMOS will be in September 205 at the Centro Cultural Aztlan Gallery which is located in the old Las Palmas Shopping Center. This two-month exhibit will allow visitors to bring their images to the gallery and input their photos into the website.  In Spring 06, the exhibit goes to Austin and then onto Santa Fe.  This is all very exciting.   George. . 


      Inclan Pagina Web 

A website where those interested in the Inclan surname can post a message and contact other who have submitted information.
Webmaster: Achim Winkler  

Rio Grande City  woman collects rosaries
by Dulcinea Cuellar
The Monitor, June 02, 2005
Sent by JD Villarreal 

Most people collect photographs and let time fade the color, but not the memory of the snapshots. Teresa Perez of Rio Grande City collects rosaries, each one an album of places she’s been, people she’s met and friends who have gone on before her. "This one was given to me by a friend," she said of No. 22, a dainty pink rosary with oval beads and ivory string. "She died a few days after she gave (it to) me." 

Perez began collecting rosaries in 1969 or 1970 — she can’t remember. After all,  to Perez, a spry 86-year-old, dates are just numbers easy to lose track of. Instead, she relies on her rosaries to be her datebook, even keeping a Mead composition notebook to categorize all the items she’s received over the years: 258… Bought this one on our 50th anniversary. It’s a lazo for 50th anniversaries. 241… This one was given to me by David. He bought it in Acapulco, Mexico 214… I bought this one at San Judas Church in Pharr. This list goes on and on. 1… My first communion 1929. "I have here more than 400," she said. "They are a collection, I made a few. But many were given to me." 

Teresa said she doesn’t have a favorite rosary — they are all special. "I pray with whichever one I get," she said. "Sometimes when I don’t have a rosary, I pray with my fingers.  "To her, praying the rosary — whichever one — means being closer to God. "I used to go to Mass every Sunday, but now I go twice, maybe three times a month," she said. The church, Our Lady of Guadalupe in El Sauz, is too far, especially with the onset of arthritis. Instead, she said her penance is donating the proceeds of the rosary she sells to the church. 

She also donates hundreds of rosaries to prisoners on death row in Huntsville and gang members in California prisons. Teresa’s grandson, David Perez, said she began making rosaries when the family was in Portugal, around 1990. "The Gulf War broke out, and she started sending us the rosaries," he recalled. The rosaries meant a lot to David’s father, Domingo Perez Jr., who was stationed in Portugal and readying for the war. "She would write us letters every single week," David recalled, "and writing us about this dream, this vision, saying she needed to do something to promote praying." 

The handmade rosaries began coming shortly after. "I used to pray the rosary and go into the pasture by myself and pray the rosary every morning," Teresa said. "I would just cry for him because he was gone." One night, she said, the Virgin Mary appeared to her in a dream. "She told me to do something," she said. "So I started making rosaries out of fish strings." David and his family didn’t think much of the rosaries at first. "We were like, ‘Cool, Grandma’s sending us rosaries,’" he recalled. "It was something really neat, because it didn’t take her 10 minutes to make; it’s a pretty tedious process."

 Of course, over the years, Teresa has had lots of time to practice. In fact, she mastered the process and created an  art form.  She first cuts the stainless steel wire, then organizes the beads and links the wires together. All the while, she’s praying the rosary: Hail Mary full of grace… "I don’t want flowers at my funeral," she said in between knots and tiny beads, "I want rosaries, on top." 

Texas Family History Research, Hidalgo Co, World War I Draft Cards 1917-1918
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Go to the site for a listing and more particulars on how to order copies of the draft cards for ancestors.  

History of the draft cards for World War I  from

"In 1917 and 1918, approximately 24 million men, (98% of men present in America), born between 1873 and 1900 completed draft registration cards. During these two years, three registration days were held in each district where the registrant completed the registration card. Information found on these cards generally included, among other information, birth date, birth location, father's birthplace, and the address of next of kin. This civilian registration is often confused with induction into the military; however, only a small percentage of these men were actually called up for military service. 
It should be noted that aliens were required to register but were not subject to induction into the American military. Persons already in the military did not register. Recent Italian emigrants wrote their last names first, resulting in some cards being filed under first names. Cards of Hispanics may be filed under their mother's maiden name surname if the registrant gave both parents' surnames. Also, men who resided in British territories sometimes listed themselves simply as British citizens without noting their origin in Canada, Australia, Ireland, Jamaica, etc. Illiterate men were unable to spell their names and birth location, so researchers should be quite flexible in searching for the spelling of names of illiterate men."

If you order from NARA (National Archives) they will charge $10.00 per copy. 

You can order a photocopy from me (front and back of each draft card) for only $2.00 each. If you are registered with eBay, with over 10 positive feedback rating, and no negatives, then please e-mail me back as I can list this for sale under my eBay name of  Dependable Dennis at a "Buy It ow" price of $2.50 each (the extra $.50 covers eBay fees) and you can then have the comfort of knowing that you have the buyer's protection that eBay offers as you will have feedback control over the transaction. 

Dennis V Carter, Genealogist
Rt 2 Box 113-10 
Alamo TX 78516-9492 

The story behind El Corrido de  Oliveira 

By Jose (Joe) C. Martinez as published in the Alice Journal Magazine
Texas Cactus Council members visit Benavides Cemetery

Benavides -- Three time-weathered tombstones in the Benavides Cemetery are testament to a once violent period in the history of South Texas. From about 1915 and into the early 1920’s, the Texas Rangers were the scourge of South Texas, inflicting havoc among the Tejano population. Shoot first and ask questions later seemed to be order-of -the -day. It is estimated that between 1500 and 3,000 Tejanos were killed by the Rangers in the early 1900’s along the South Texas frontier. Thus, El Corrido de Oliveira.

April 1, 1920, the date inscribed on three tombstones in a cemetery in Benavides, Texas, denotes the fateful day when the Texas Rangers shot and killed three Tejanos who were on their way to Paras, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The three tombstones are located within feet from each other. Cresencio Oliviera, Jr., Dionisio Maldonado and Vicente Aguilar were killed in the community of Bruni by the Texas Rangers, who opened fire from behind the cover of a mesquite corral, ambush style. Maldonado, Aguilar and Cresencio, Jr. dismounted their horses, at which time the rangers opened fire. Two others who had not yet dismounted raced away unscathed. The two riders that escaped were the father and a brother of Cresencio Oliviera, Jr. It was a chilly, drizzling day so the riders were wearing oil cloth capes that opened up and spread out when the two hastily galloped away. To their amazement, upon dismounting, they discovered that the flapping parts of their capes were riddled with bullet holes.

The corral at Bruni was a stop-off point (a place to rest and water the horses) for those traveling by wagon or horseback on their trek to Mexico or other South Texas points. Here the group of five stopped to water and rest their horses. The three who were killed were also accompanied by Cresencio, Jr.’s, brother Doroteo and their father, Crecencio, Sr. Earlier, their departure point was Rancho Palo Blanco located 3 miles from Benavides, a ranch owned by Crecencio Sr.’s brother. Their destination was the town of Paras, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, where Cresencio, Jr. was to wed Chucha Gutierrez, his beloved sweetheart. All plans for the big wedding were complete, the calf was already butchered, the wedding cake all decorated, and the rest of the arrangements finalized. The only thing pending was the arrival of the bridegroom who was traveling from Texas, Crecencio Oliveira, Jr.

Upon hearing about the treacherous death perpetrated on Crecencio, Jr., everything went into disarray in the town of Paras. “Not to worry,” said Crecencio, Sr., “I have another son that will marry Chucha,” “the wedding will proceed as already scheduled.” The other son and prospective groom, Doroteo Oliveira, however, was committed to his own girlfriend and thus refused to follow his father’s wishes. Fortunately, there is another son, Corando, the younger brother of Doroteo, who is coerced into marrying Chucha, although she was five years older than him. The wedding proceeded on schedule and the bride and groom lived happily thereafter. They had three sons and one daughter.

Members of the Texas Cactus Council were honored to have TCC member Dr. Crecencio Oliviera present at the Benavides Cemetery during their historical tour of Benavides recently. Dr. Oliviera is the nephew of Crecencio Oliviera, Jr, referred to above as one of three killed by the Texas Rangers. The preceding true story was passed on to the TCC group by Dr. Oliviera.

Other interesting anecdotes offered by Dr. Oliviera and others about the 1920 incident at Bruni are as follows:

The Oliviera families from both Texas and Paras decided to honor Crecencio Olivera’s memory by naming the first boy born to the family with his name. So, Dr. Cresencio Oliviera was named Cresencio for that reason. However, in Paras, Nuevo Leon another boy was born about the same and he too was named Crecencio, not knowing that a boy had already received that same in Texas. Today, many of the Oliviera’s descendents are named Crecencio.

Maldonado, Aguilar and Oliveira were buried in the Benavides cemetery at night for fear of reprisal from the Texas Rangers.

The three bodies were left where they were shot for several days because in those day the Texas Rangers would shoot anyone going near the bodies of their victims.

Rumors follow that during the Laredo, Texas George Washington Celebration held on February 22, of each year, that in 1921 in a cantina, the captain of the Texas Rangers was shot and killed. He was the commander of the rangers who killed the three in Bruni. Crecencio Oliviera, Sr., who escaped the bullet barrage at Bruni was brought before the law and interrogated as the likely suspect in the killing of the ranger captain. Oliviera, Sr. testified that he had upwards of 300 witnesses that placed him in Monterrey the day of the killing. Judging the hatred for the rangers among Tejanos and Mexicans during that period, there is no doubt that he could recruit that many witnesses.

While at the cemetery, the TCC group also visited the burial plot of a once powerful dynasty, the Parr family. Prominent among the several headstones was the one of the famed “Duke of Duval,” George B. Parr. This brought memories of the often talked about incident concerning the notorious Box 13 in Alice, Texas, a maneuver that threw the election for the U. S. Senate to Lyndon Baines Johnson in 1948, when he ran against Cokes Stevenson. The rest is history.


           Valley of Tears

Hart Perry (Director of Photography - "Harlan County, USA"), has documented the lives of Mexican-American migrant farm workers in Raymondville, [Willacy County] TX since 1979 when the onion workers' strike broke out. What followed was a fight not only for higher pay but also for equal rights and representation. For 24 years, the county's Mexican-American residents were determined to fight for what is right. "Valley of Tears" is a complex story of the long journey of individuals who endure hardship in order to make a better future for their families. 77 minutes. 

Information sent by George Gause

To order a VHS or DVD copy of "Valley of Tears" for personal use only, send check for $47 payable to 'Seventh Art Releasing'.  Please write for "Valley of Tears" either in the 'memo' section of the check or on a separate, enclosed note. Please be sure to include the shipping address and indicate your preference for VHS or DVD.  Please contact us for purchase cost for public performance use.
Seventh Art Releasing, 7551 Sunset Blvd., Suite 104, Los Angeles, CA 90046 USA
phone: 323-845-1455  fax: 323-845-4717

Laura Canales, 
other Tejano Music Legends

by Willie Perez


Tejano music has slowly been losing its popularity and flavor in South Texas, as well as the South West. However, to really understand Tejano music, one has to understand the roots or origins of this musical phenomenon or tidal wave. Although one could quote and cite many sources as to when the first Tejano group or singer(s) appeared on the musical stage. it is redundant because opinions and facts would vary from state to state. That is, other states besides Texas can claim to have started Tejano Music. For example, the states of Arizona, Nevada, California, and even New Music can claim to be promoters of this new musical sound. 

What is a common denominator is that Tejano music started simply with a drum, a six string guitar called a bajo sexto, and an accordion. None of these instruments were imported from Mexico but were influenced by the Germanic sound in Texas. As first the music sounded very German, but soon it was called called conjunto music, which means playing with someone for some special occasion. At first this type of music was only heard by the illiterate and uneducated people who were usually migrant workers. Slowly, it was adopted and absorbed by the rising middle class of Mexican

In Texas, the early Tejano musical legends were Tony de La Rosa, who was often referred to as the King of the Conjunto sound. Also, there was Isidro "Indio" Lopez, who added the orchestra sound to conjunto music. That is, trumpets, saxophone, and trombones change the sound and direction of Tejano music. Other names which emerged during the early Tejano musical wave were Paulino Bernal who turned to gospel singing later on his life, Laura Canales, Carlos Guzman, Sunny Ozuna, Agustine Ramirez, Freddie Martinez, Eligio Escobar, Linda Escobar, Emilio Navairra, Jay Perez, etc. Of course, before long big bands started to emerge throughout the state such as the bands Mazz, Los Fabulosos Cuatro, etc. Most of them flourished during the 50's, 60's, and 70's. 

Some of them are still around today, such as Mazz, Agustine Ramirez, Freddie Martienz, Carlos Guzman. Of all of these pioneers and legends, one female voice emerged and thundered by itself----Laura Canales (La Reina/Queen of Tejano Music). Although Selena, who was tragically assassinated on March 31, 1995, is also often referred as the Queen of Tejano Music , it was Laura who earned and was the undisputed queen of Tejano Music. Incidentally, Laura , like Selena, also died in Corpus Christi, Texas.

(Part II---Laura Canales Competes with Male Tejano Singers in Texas)

Poet, but not such an angry one now

By Mary Sherwood
Corpus Christi, April 16 1985
Sent by Willie Perez, Historian American G. I. Forum, Felix Longoria Chapter

Guillermo Perez was an angry young poet. Out of the crucible of his impoverished childhood in Laredo, his , experience , in Vietnam and the emerging Chicano consciousness of the late '60s and early '70s came statements in nil poetry like, "Kill the gringo."

Prez, who is now a junior high school English teacher and the father of two young boys, is still a poet- But he is not such an angry one now. Compassion and understanding have become guiding values in his life and poetry.

And instead of writing exclusively about the barrio experience, Perez now also writes about emotions common to everyone, whether they are Chicano, black or while.

Several recent poems deal with the longing people have for meaningful connections with others. One use the imagery of a butterfly flitting at out and being ignored to convey this emotion. .Another uses the image of "unfinished picnics…

"My earlier poetry was nationalistic, even racist, but it was a beginning for me. it made me reach an internal peace," he said in an interview in his Tom Browne Junior High classroom.

He is also philosophical about the hopes Chicano poets had and the reality of what they accomplished, "One of the objectives of the Chicano literature movement that grew in the "60s and '70s was to force white America to know the barrio," said Perez. "I don't think we were very effective," he continued. "We restricted ourselves too much."

Nonetheless, Perez grew to know himself and what was important to him through his writing. "All my experiences added to what I am t»-. day - an educator, a poet and a better human being. Today my most powerful feelings in life are toward my family, my students and other human beings."

Perez recently had two of his poems published in Imagine, an international Chicano poetry journal that is edited by Tino Villanueva, a native of San Marcos who now teaches at Wellesley College in Massachusetts, and Luis Urrea, who teaches writing at Harvard University.

The goal is to reach a bilingual literary audience, not to instruct and inform an Anglo audience.
In the introduction to the first volume, Villanueva writes, "...Imagine expects to transcend the confines of American political and literary boundaries without abandoning the cultural and historical wealth of Chicanes, in the broader conviction that one should ever be enriched by one's particular heritage, but not limited by it."

One of Perez's poems included in the first volume of the journal, "El Mudo," is mostly in English with just a few words of Spanish. It is about an encounter with a mute on the bus to Alice and the "conversation" the two had.

"He spoke with his hands; he laughed with his heart. He cried with his face, and he cursed and prayed with his alma (soul)," Perez says of the mule.

"I must have rewritten it 50 times," he said. "It got so I never wanted to see it again."
The other poem, "Eramos Nines," which is entirely in Spanish, recalls the games of his childhood in Laredo. It opens with a play on the word Aztlan, the mythical ancestral home of the Aztecs before they migrated south in 1325.

He speaks of himself and his brother playing at being George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. He ends the poem with the boys grown up and asking if they are still able to dream of being presidents someday.

Pcrez writes under two pen names. One is Wile, which derives from the fact that his name, Guil-lenno, is William in English. He also likes the play on the word wily.

He took his other pen name, the Son of the Fox, in 1978 when his father, who had been a boxer known as the Fox, had a serious operation. "1 guess it was a gesture of thanks to my father for what tit instilled in us," said Perez, referring to his father's insistence that his children complete their educations.

Perez, who encourages his eighth and ninth grade students to try writing poetry, said it was his 11th grade English teacher who inspired his own interest in poetry.

His students, he said, often don't take poetry very seriously. "But," he said, "once they get into the process of creative writing, they trust me. They share things with me they wouldn't, share with their parents."



In Chinameca, land of Emiliano Zapata
Fell the great Southern, leader
Of the have-nots in- Mexico—
When- the traitorous General Guajardo
Butchered the nresaiah of the
Masses of Mexico—-Don- Emiliano Zapata ...
On. that Sunday, April 10, 1919.
Before going to the unsuspected butchery
Zapata told his vieja,, "Vieja, I'm tired
And feel all alone..."
Little white rabbit of the woods,
Tell the world that Don- Emiliano is dead!
0'wizened frog of the running creek,
Why did you not tell Mexico and the world
Of the planned butchery by Guajardo?
0'chirping grasshoppers of the dried-up
Greek---Tell me, Zapata is not dead ...
Tell the world that Zapata lives!
0'General Zapata, los indies have not
Been given, the promised lands.
Once again the peones took arms in
Guadalajara where Lucio Cabanas
Lies dead ...

Tomorrow somebody else will take
Up arms against the gachupiaes and
The traitorous Cantiflases.
The land must be ours...
The land. is ours!
0' Mexico, why have you. betrayed Zapata
For the second time?
Why has Echevarria sent 20,000 troops
To butcher Don Lucio' Cabanas?
Don- Cabanas can. no longer hear me,
Don. Zapata weeps in. his grave ...
Villa H gets drunk in his grave ...
I weep in. my helpless
I lay a wreath of tunas
On- the grave of Don
- Emiliano Zapata ...

——Wile—Written in Corpus Christi, Texas, June 21, 1975


"Cesar and Me"
by wilecoyote

Like Cesar, I am a poor Chicano 
Who never understood justice.........
Until I first saw injustice's ugly smile??????
Injustice snickered, laughed insanely,
And inflicted untold pain on my brothers and sisters......

I do not eat meat!
Although fajitas and carne asada
Still smell "de aquellas..."
I am a vegetarian............

I oppose the War in Iraq, 
Not because I love America less
Or am afraid to die for a second time 
In a Bastard War (Vietnam Being the first)

Cesar is dead.....
Gandhi is gone.....
Martin Luther King continues to haunt America.....
But Cesar Chavez and me live for justice, love, and compassion....

The boycott on grapes and lettuce 
Has come and gone, 
The segregated buses in Alabama are now 
In History books, 
India's hunger continues.....
Farm workers are still second class citizens, 
Blacks still "have a dream"
And La Causa will continues for 
Cesar and Me....................................................................................
Cesar and me.............................................................................................

at 4:00 A. M., Wednesday, May 18, 2005. Corpus Christi, Tx.--Wilecoyote



“60 Minutes to Better Genealogy” Saturdays, July 23 and 30, 2005
Descendants of the Falcon Brothers from the Canary Islands in Louisiana 
After 300 years, Mission San Luis, in Florida thrives again
First Company
Cajun Genealogy in the 18th Century
The 7 Ships Passenger Lists


“60 Minutes to Better Genealogy” Saturdays, July 23 and 30, 2005
A Newberry Library Seminar
Sent by Marsha Peterson-Maass

Sometimes 60 minutes of instruction on a focused topic can help you push through a particular question or task in your research project. This seminar is designed with genealogy researchers in mind. You can take all eight sessions, or simply choose those that most appeal to you. Research in the second floor Reading Room between seminar sessions (Saturday hours: 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m.). 

Instructors Marsha Peterson-Maass is a member of the Association of Professional Genealogists, and Jack Simpson is Curator of Local and Family History at the Newberry Library.

Saturday, July 23
9:30-10:30 a.m. “Tutorial of Family Tree Maker 2005 Software”
11:00 a.m.–12:00 noon “How and Why to Build a Medical Family Tree”
1:00–2:00 p.m. “Yes, You CAN Develop a Research Plan!”
2:30–3:30 p.m. “City Directories: More Than Just Names”
Saturday, July 30
9:30-10:30 a.m.  “Tutorial of Bygones Research Log Software”
11:00 a.m.–12:00 noon “The Most Helpful Genealogy Reference Tools You’ve Never Used” 
1:00–2:00 p.m. “Using Technology for Newspaper Research”
2:30–3:30 p.m. “What to Do When They Seem to Have Disappeared”

There are 8 one-hour sessions.  Registration is $15 per session; $100 for both days; $50 for one day.  Friends of the Newberry, $12 per session; $90 for both days; $45 for one day.
Space is limited and prepayment is required.
NEW! – Register online at
or call 312-255-3700 or 312-255-3592. Payment accepted at the door while space is available. 

The Newberry Library is located three blocks west of Michigan Avenue and three blocks north of Chicago Avenue.  Discounted parking is available at three locations: 100 W. Chestnut, 100 E. Walton, and 1035 N. Clark ($8 for up to eight hours with validation).  Travel information and directions are available online at 

The Newberry Library ~ 60 West Walton Street ~ Chicago, Illinois 60610-7324 ~ 312-255-3700


Descendants of the Falcon Brothers from the Canary Islands in Louisiana web page. 
Sent by Bill Carmena

The first place to visit when researching Falcon genealogy/ancestry. This forum allows you to view personal research of Falcon family trees and submit information about individuals or families. The Falcon family tree v2.3 has been updated as of 8-26-2004 and is currently accessible through the Family Tree link.

Family Reunion
I'd like to thank Anna Thibodeaux ( for putting on the Falcon Family reunion this year. Everyone will agree it was a success. I have had a lot of responses to the family tree so please take some time to examine it thoroughly online. Feel free to email/call with questions. I would love to spend some time with each family to make sure the tree is full and correct. 

Falcon Book
There will be information about a Falcon Family Genealogy book to be published. Contact me or Anna for more information. As of Nov 2004, there is no idea on when this will be finished. Please send information about your family and your tree so we can incorporate them in the book.

Family Tree/Web Page 
Please submit ideas you have for this web page. I will see what I can do to incorporate them here.
Please submit corrections or additions to the family tree if you have them. 
If you have copies of vital records, pictures, stories, or have questions, you can mail them to 

Wade Falcon
810 S College Apt V, Lafayette, LA 70503


For internet guests doing genealogy research on a particular Falcon family, the Falcons listed on this site are from south Louisiana. If you have a Falcon relative from southern Louisiana, then likely this is the place you need to be for info. These Falcons are not to be confused with the ones in Texas historical documents and genealogy.

There are currently two main books that discuss the Canary Islanders of Louisiana listed below
The Canary Islanders of Louisiana by Gilbert Din

The Canary Islands Migration to Louisiana, 1778-1783 by Sidney Villere

After 300 years, Mission San Luis, in Florida thrives again
Jackie Hallifax, Associated Press Posted: Feb. 1, 2005
From the Feb. 2, 2005, editions of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Tourists arriving at the Mission San Luis de Apalachee historic site pass by the visitors center in Tallahassee, Fla. Inside the center are artifacts of the period and information on the original site, which was built in the 1600s. 

Three hundred years ago, the advance of British troops prompted several hundred Spaniards and Apalachee Indians living in San Luis to burn their church and homes and flee.

Research and reconstruction at the site began 20 years ago, and Mission San Luis de Apalachee now attracts thousands of visitors each year as the only reconstructed Spanish mission in Florida.

The hilltop site a few miles west of the Florida Capitol includes a reconstruction of the 17th-century church that existed three centuries ago and the nearby Apalachee council house.

Both were impressive - very impressive - in their day.

The church was as large as its counterpart in St. Augustine - and the council house even bigger. Capable of holding more than 2,000 people, the council house was the largest American Indian structure historians know of in the southeastern United States.

"There's nothing like it," said Bill Herrle, a longtime business lobbyist who serves as chairman of the Friends of Mission San Luis, a non-profit support group.

More than 100 Spanish missions stretched across north Florida into the Panhandle in the 17th century. Most were small and consisted primarily of one or two Franciscan friars living in a native village.

But San Luis was unique. It was the Spaniards' western capital and also home to the most powerful Apalachee chief. Some 1,500 Apalachee and Spaniards lived in or around the mission - with another 6,000 or so Apalachee living in the region.

The church and the council house both sit on a large central plaza, a common feature to Apalachee villages and Spanish towns.

"One of the things that's so interesting was the fact that you have very distinct cultures coming together and establishing this town together," said Bonnie McEwan, the archaeologist who is director of the site.

The mission was the center of a bustling community for nearly half a century, including a fort as well as the church and council house and other smaller, related buildings.

"It was a Spanish pueblo, a town; it was also an Indian village; it was a mission; it was a military fort," McEwan said.

Three centuries later, many of the roots of Florida's traditions can be found at San Luis, ranging from agriculture to overseas trade to Hispanic-American culture.

The Spanish ranches around San Luis raised cattle and grew wheat and citrus. They exported thousands of tons of materials by transporting them down the St. Marks River to the Gulf of Mexico and sailing to Havana, McEwan said. And archaeologists have found porcelain from the other side of the world at the site.

"It really represents the beginning of Florida's international trade and participation in the global economy," McEwan said.

Archaeologists began working at the site a year after the state purchased the land. Although historians knew where the mission site itself was, they didn't know much else.

"Nobody knew about these enormous buildings at the plaza area," McEwan said.

She believes that the buildings reflect the mutual respect between the Apalachee and the Spanish.

"These buildings, to my mind, were a metaphor for what was going on here in terms of social organization - and speak to a level of accommodation that was unprecedented at other Spanish missions," McEwan said.

But it came to an abrupt and violent end. In the early 18th century, the British raided the Spanish missions in Florida. With the troops just a couple of days away, the Spanish and Apalachee burned Mission San Luis on July 31, 1704, and fled.

Most of the Spanish returned to St. Augustine and later to Havana. But the Apalachee went in all directions. Some were killed, some went west and most went north, many as slaves.

Last year marked a "300th commemoration of the Spanish missions," McEwan said. "It's really a somber observance but an important one in our state's history."

Historian Michael Gannon, a professor emeritus at the University of Florida, called the British attacks on the Spanish missions and the tribes in the region "one of the great tragedies in the stories of the South."

"It's almost never mentioned, but more and more details are being discovered," he said.

After the British attacks, the missions lay fallow for a long time. It would be more than a century before U.S. surveyors even considered the area for Florida's territorial capital.

Historians long believed that no descendants of the Apalachee survived, but in 1996, a group of people in Louisiana identified themselves as Apalachee. The tribe, now including 200 to 300 people, is seeking federal recognition based on parish baptismal records, McEwan said.

Mission San Luis, which attracted 12,000 visitors this year, has ongoing archaeology - but also costumed interpreters to bring to life the history.

Rebuilding began in earnest in 1997. The reconstructed church was built in 2000. The council house is nearing completion and is expected to open early this year.

"We're ready to become something to be compared to St. Augustine, to Jamestown, to Williamsburg," Herrle said.

Mission San Luis: 2020 West Mission Road;
(850) 487-3711. Hours: Tuesday through Sunday, 10 am- 4 pm. Closed Monday. Free admission.


San Luis de Ilinueses Militia

Spanish Colonial Militia of St. Louis, Missouri
Sent by Bill Carmena

The overwhelming majority of militia members are of French ancestry, but since  becoming Spanish subjects after King Louis XV ceded Louisiana territory to the King of Spain on Nov 13, 1762, their names have been "hispanicized" (translated into Spanish).  Other nationalities included are Spanish, Italian, and American. It is not completely possible to sort out those with true Spanish versus French ethnicity. While it is easy to differentiate those who were born in France versus Spain, those born in "Nueva Orleans" (New Orleans) may have been of either background. New Orleans was predominately French but significant Spanish did settle there as well. Those listed as being born in "Ilinueses" are from "Upper Lousiana", primarily Missouri and adjacent western Illinois. Louis Houck in 1909 identified many of the individuals from Upper Louisiana. He has included genealogy information where known. I have listed his notes following the name entry as  "LH Notes". These were taken from his book, 
"The Spanish Regime in Missouri".

 Information listed in the following order: Rank; Name; Age; Birthplace; Occupation

Officer in charge was:   Capt. Don Juan Baptista Martinez

The roster was recorded in Royal Spanish records  in the General Archives of the Indies, Cuba. San Luis de Ilinueses, December 22, 1780

Cajun Genealogy in the 18th Century
Sent by Johanna De Soto

    The Acadian people arrived in Louisiana from 1765 to 1788. Other people, ancestors of today's Cajuns, also arrived in Louisiana in the 18th century. Nationalities that added people and traits to the Acadians were: Germans, French-Canadians, French, Islenos, American Indians, and Spanish. So we need to look at the material associated with these people, also. 
     Primarily, we will be using the church records, censuses, and the seven ships (1785) passenger lists to construct the genealogy of Acadians in Louisiana from 1764 (when the first small group arrived) to 1800. This section discusses:  
Census Records | Church Records | Courthouse Records | Ship Lists | Compiled Works

CENSUS RECORDS      Several censuses were taken throughout the 1700's. Some were taken of certain areas, like the German Coast. 18th century census data from the German Coast is available in Settlement of the German Coast of Louisiana (Deiler) and The German Coast During the Colonial Era, 1722-1803(Blume). A new book, German Coast Families (Robichaux), contains the early census material and well as data on the European origin of the Germans. Others covered larger areas. Check a periodical index for census data published in genealogical periodicals. 
     The original census material from 18th century Louisiana consists of French and Spanish documents stored in archives. The Center for Louisiana Studies in Lafayette Louisiana has microfilm copies of much of the material.  The census data from the latter half of the century has been compiled into published books. These include two by Albert Robichaux [Louisiana Census and Militia Lists, 1770-1789 and Colonial Settlers Along Bayou Lafourche, 1770-1798] and Some Late 18th Century Louisianians: Census Records, 1758-1796 by Jacqueline Voorhies. You will find Acadian census material, as well as Acadians mixed in with other censuses.  
     DeVille has also compiled lists of soldiers from that era in two books:  Louisiana Troops, 1720-1770 and Louisiana Recruits, 1752-1758. He also has compiled several books with lists/census information that includes Acadians, such as The Acadian Coast in 1779, Attakapas Post: The Census of 1771, and Opelousas Post: The Census of 1771.  
     Please remember that census records are notarious for inaccuracies ... some on the part of the people and some on the part of the census takers.  


     You will find Acadian church records starting to appear in Louisiana Catholic churches in 1765.  The best resource for these records are the multi-volume sets done by Rev. Donald Hebert, the New Orleans Diocese, and the Baton Rouge diocese.  These four works cover the Catholic churches and many civil records (for Father Hebert's books) in the area of Louisiana known as the Acadiana region. All of the Acadiana Catholic church records of the 18th century can be found in these books.  
     Father Hebert has two series, South Louisiana Records and Southwest Louisiana Records.  There are 12 volumes of  South Louisiana Records, which cover Terrebonne and Lafourche parishes.  There are 42 volumes of Southwest Louisiana Records, which cover the western side of Acadiana.  Father Hebert is presently working on putting the Southwest Louisiana Records records on CD-ROM.  
     The New Orleans Diocese has 12 volumes in print and is working on number 13.  These records cover the churches of the New Orleans area from 1718  to 1817.  The Baton Rouge Catholic Diocese has 17 volumes in print and is working on number 18.  These records cover the churches of Donaldsonville, Plattenville, Pointe Coupee, St. Gabriel, St. James, and Baton Rouge from 1707 to 1888.  The earliest records back to 1707 are from the Grand Pre church in Acadia (found in V. 1).  The books contain basic abstracts of the records.  You can write or visit the Catholic Archives in each diocese to get a more complete transcript of the record.  
     Acadians in Louisiana Protestant records are non-existant. During the 1700's, Louisiana was owned by either France or Spain ... both Catholic nations. So the official religion of Louisiana was the Roman Catholic religion. 


    The first courthouse records start appearing at this time, but they are not numerous and are usually in French or Spanish. Some parishes have translated them into English, and some parishes have indices. Check out Cajun Genealogy in the 19th Century for a more thorough description of the various courthouse records. 


    The major set of ship lists is the listings of the seven ships that brought over 1600 Acadians from France in 1785. The lists are available in The Crew and Passenger Registration Lists of the Seven Acadian Expeditions of 1785 (Milton & Norma Reider).  Another book, Acadian Families in Exile (Rev. Hebert), has the lists of passengers as they boarded the ships and as they left the ship. The passenger lists of the seven ships are also online at this website.  
     The ship lists of the Canary Islanders (Islenos) who came to Louisiana from 1779 to 1783 can be found in a couple of sources, such as Din's The Canary Islanders of Louisiana..  Many of these people and their descendants married into the Acadian population. 


    The Acadian works, such as Bona Arsenault's works, mentioned in Acadian Genealogy contain material on some of the Acadians even after they arrived in Louisiana. Please remember to check them out.  
      The best book for learning about the Acadian resettlement in Louisiana is Carl Brasseaux's The Founding of New Acadia.  It also has some genealogical information on the first settlers in its appendix.  Sidney Marchand's Acadian Exiles in the Golden Coast of Louisiana is about Acadians along the Mississippi River.  Books on the Opelousas area include The Opelousas Post, 1776-1789 (Gladys de Villier) and Opelousas Post, 1764-1789 (Jacqueline Vidrine).  Stanly Arthur  
     General work on non-Acadians of 18th century Louisiana can be found in The First Families of Louisiana (Conrad) and First Settlers of the Louisiana Territory (Ericson and Ingmire). Phoebe Chauvin Morrison has 2 volumes of genealogy from the eastern Acadiana area known as Generations .... Past to Present.  
     There are a number of books that concentrate on certain areas or settlers of Louisiana.  The works mentioned above on the German Coast contain material on the German population along the Mississippi River.  Stanley Arthur's Old Families of Louisiana has chapters on a number of early Louisiana families. 
     Though not concentrated on Acadians, some books contain a good number of Acadian records.  Some of these are St. Charles: Abstracts of the Civil Records of St. Charles Parish, 1700-1803 (Glenn Conrad), St. James Parish Colonial Records, 1782-1787 (Eileen Behrman), and Marriage Contracts of the Opelousas Post, 1760-1803 (Jaqueline Vidrine). 
     Although notarial records of Louisiana at this time exist, they have not been put into print, for the most part.  There are 2 volumes, extracted by Elizabeth Gianelloni, on the Notarial Acts of Estevan de Quinones.  Volume 1 covers 1778 to 1784, and volume 2 covers 1785 to 1786. 
     A good general book is the Atlas of Louisiana Surnames (West). This book gives a brief background for dozens of Cajun and Acadian names. 
     For more books, consult the Book List.

     If your Acadian ancestors travelled to Louisiana, then you are in good shape.  As part of the Acadian Memorial, an online database has been compiled on the 3000 or so Acadians who immigrated to Louisiana.  It's called Ensemble Encore. 
     Also, I have a list of the Acadians who came to Louisiana (not including those who came on the  seven 1785 ships).  Check out ACADIAN IMMIGRATION TO LOUISIANA. 

 Cajuns in the 18th Century           Cajuns in the 19th Century           Cajuns in the 20th Century 

Acadian History | Acadian Genealogy | Cajun History | Cajun Genealogy 
MAIN PAGE | "How To" Book | Article Index | CMA |  Links |  Hébert Website
Copyright © 1997-2000 Tim Hebert

The 7 Ships Passenger Lists
Sent by Johanna De Soto

In 1785, Spain paid for 7 ships to transport Acadians to settle in Louisiana.  For Spain, it meant settlers to buffer the zone between Spanish land and the British land.   For the Acadians, it meant a chance to join their fellow Acadians and to regain some of what they lost during the Exile.

The following information is from the efforts of Tim Hebert.   In no way do we wish to take credit for his works; however, this information is of enough importance to researchers to make it accessible to those interested.  Rather than re-write the lists here, links have been created to each ship's list.  These lists are also available in print.  Milton & Norma Reider first published The Crew and Passenger Registration Lists of the Seven Acadian Expeditions of 1785.   Rev. Don Hebert recently published a book listing both the embarkation and debarkation lists.

The first ship left France on Tuesday, May 10, 1785.  It arrived in Louisiana on July 29, 1785, after 80 days at sea.
The second ship left France on Saturday, May 14, 1785.  It arrived in Louisiana on August 15, 1785, after 93 days at sea.
The third ship left France on June 11, 1785.  It arrived in Louisiana on August 19, 1785, after 69 days at sea.
The fourth ship left France on Thursday, June 27, 1785. It arrived in Louisiana on September 10, 1785, after 75 days at sea.
The fifth ship left France on August 20, 1785. It arrived in Louisiana on November 8, 1785, after 80 days at sea.
The sixth ship left France on August 12, 1785.  It arrived in Louisiana on December 3, 1785, after 113 days at sea.
The final ship left France on October 19, 1785.  It arrived in Louisiana on December 17, 1785 after 54 days at sea.




Natives in Brooklyn


Natives in Brooklyn
Archaeology November/December 2004
Photo: Wooded ladle from 19th-century British Columbia

Fans of indigenous art from North, South, and Central America may be surprised to learn that the Brooklyn Museum of Art houses one of the most extensive collections in the world. And with Living Legacies: the Arts of the Americas, the first phase of a permanent reinstallation of the collection (to be completed in 2006), it becomes available to the public. Located in the renovated Hall of the Americas, its three-story-tall walls painted bold purples and yellows, the exhibition showcases a rich array of objects from 900 B.C. to the present that range from the ceremonial to the everyday. Text panels in English and Spanish explore the themes common to native life across two continents and almost three millennia. Oriented to art and anthropology rather than archaeology, Living Legacies is nevertheless a thoughtful exploration of native life.

Drawn from the early-twentieth-century expeditions of Stewart Culin, then the museum’s ethnology curator, Living Legacies is divided into three sections. "Threads of Time: Woven Histories of the Andes" features textiles ranging from the pristine to the threadbare; "Enduring Heritage: Art of the Northwest Coast," presents, among other pieces, totem poles, hinged masks, and an oversize wooden ladle with a skull carved in it, largely from present-day British Columbia; and "Stories Revealed: Writing Without Words" has a host of examples of native pictorial storytelling from Alaska to Mexico created on hides, pottery, cloth, and paper.

While striking objects are found in all three—a hinged wooden whale mask nearly the size of its wearer, dramatic narratives of the hunt etched on walrus tusks—"Threads of Time," one of the most important collections of its kind outside of South America, will most appeal to the archaeologically minded. Textiles from the Paracas, Nazca, and Chimu cultures of the Peruvian coast are on display, including a tattered but intricate mantle from A.D. 200—600 known as the Paracas Textile ("Fabric of Time," March/April 2000) and a fragment of a 1,000-year-old Chimu loincloth featuring a pattern of canoeing men with the countenances of fierce elves.

by Timothy Cartin Gyves, 
former museum conference coordinator for the American Federation of Arts


Caterdra Inconclusa de Zamora, la mas grande de Amercia Latina
Mexican 'Volcano of Fire' Rumbles Back to Life
Archivo Historica Arzobispado in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon 
Villa never raided Valley
Department of History website at Virginia Tech
  "Historia de las Indias" en red  
Family Search: Mexico Research Outline
NARA Microfilm Publication, A3379, Laredo > 610,000 arrival records  
Mexican Border Crossing Records
Preserving La Musica


Morelia Catedral 17th-18th c.

Caterdral de Guadalajara

Catedral de Morelia

Caterdra Inconclusa de Zamora, la mas grande de Amercia Latina
Las diferncias con otras catedrales
Sent By Ophelia Marquez



Catedral de Guadalajara

Catedral de Morelia



65 metros

77.10 metros

95 metros


32 metros

30.50 metros

57 metros

Altura torres

65.50 metros

66.80 metros

90 metros

Superfice total

2,080 m2

2,351.55 m2

5,415 m2

Lugar que ocupa en el mundo



Superficie en M2

Basilica de San Pedro



Caterdral de Sevilla



Natividad de Maria



Caterdal de San Pedro



Nore Dam



Santa Sofia



Notre Dame



Notre Dame



Santuario Guadalupano



San Patricio

New York


Source- Newspaper form Mexico- Domingo 2 de julio de 2000 Article by Luis Armando Corza Hernandez

Zamora and Morelia are two different cities in Michoacan.  The article from which this information came is about the cathedral in Xamora, but the dimensions he gives appear to be on the cathedral in Morelia? I may have misunderstood the article, he does give the total dimensions of tile cathedral in Zamora.

Mexican 'Volcano of Fire' Rumbles Back to Life
Sent by Win Holtzman

SAN MARCOS, Mexico (June 8) - The Volcano of Fire has rumbled back to life with its strongest eruptions in 20 years, spewing lava and ash clouds that had some residents who remained in their homes Wednesday casting nervous glances at the peak.

The 12,533-foot volcano erupts Sunday, showering ash over the nearby city of Colima, Mexico.

The volcano, which straddles the line between Colima and Jalisco states 430 miles west of Mexico City, has had six spectacular eruptions in the past three weeks.

The largest, late Monday, shot glowing lava three miles above the crater of the 12,533-foot volcano and showered ash over the nearby city of Colima.

"The ground shook, and there was this roar, and people came running out of their houses,'' said Maria de Jesus Chavez, a 17-year-old high school student, as she sat outside her home in San Marcos.

Authorities handed out surgical masks to prevent people from breathing the fine grit, and so far the volcano has caused no major injuries or damage.

Seismologist Tonatiuh Dominguez said the increasing frequency of the eruptions and their intensity signaled the volcano was returning to an explosive stage like one that started in 1903 and climaxed with a massive explosion 10 years later that left a 1,650-foot-deep crater at the volcano's peak and scattered ash on cities 240 miles away.

The 1913 eruption killed dozens of farm animals, but records aren't clear on whether there were any human casualties.

"I think that we're seeing something similar to what occurred a century ago,'' said Dominguez, of the University of Colima. "We are comparing it to 1903, when there were more than 200 explosions in one year.''

"It's possible that we will see another one like 1913 in the coming decade,'' he added.

Federal Civil Protection Coordinator Carmen Segura headed to the volcano zone Wednesday and said officials planned to improve their monitoring.

Residents of Juan Barragan, El Borbollon and Yerbabuena, all within five miles of the peak, were asked Monday to leave the towns voluntarily. Most have complied, although about 50 stayed in Yerbabuena.

The Colima state government has been trying to relocate Yerbabuena's residents to safer ground, offering them free land. More than 100 have left in the past two years, but those who remain have declared themselves an independent municipality and refuse to leave.

"Our Mother Earth has no price,'' said Antonio Alonso Ocegueda, a beekeeper and faith healer. "If there are explosions, our Father Sun will set up magnetic fields and nothing will happen.''

Only a few residents of Juan Barragan and El Borbollon remain and about 60 others have been temporarily moved to an improvised shelter in San Marcos, 7 1/2 miles from the summit.

"People had become pretty skeptical in recent years, because they have been evacuated before and then nothing happened,'' said Luis Rodriguez, civil defense coordinator for the state of Jalisco.

But he said attitudes had changed with the latest eruptions. Many witnessed Monday's explosion while waiting for buses to take them away.

"People who hadn't got on the bus said suddenly, 'Hey, make room for me,''' he said.

Before dawn Wednesday in San Marcos, families sat outside their homes, looking anxiously at the volcano.

"There are a lot of people who would like to leave, because this time they think it could really reach us,'' Chavez said.

A few families have insisted on staying, concerned their few possessions might be stolen or that they might be forbidden to return. About 300,000 people live within 25 miles of the volcano.

Authorities have established an off-limits zone 4 1/2 miles around the crater, and an alert zone is in effect for seven miles.

The volcano has had more than 30 periods of eruptions since 1585, including several significant eruptions in the late 1990s. Scientific monitoring of the volcano began 20 years ago.

It came to life again on May 23, sending a stream of burning gas and rock fragments more than 2 1/2 miles down the slopes and shooting clouds of ash two miles high.

Similar eruptions occurred on May 30, June 2-3 and June 5.

Ash coated cars and streets in the state capital, Colima, 20 miles from the peak, and authorities recommended residents wear masks and sunglasses or goggles to avoid respiratory and eye irritations.

The Volcano of Fire is considered to be among the most active and potentially the most destructive of Mexico's volcanoes.

Archivo Historica Arzobispado in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon .
[NEW telephone number]
SOURCE: Jimmy Vallejo
Sent by George Gause


Villa never raided Valley
From the McAllen Monitor, 6/13/2005
Sent by Joe Guerra

To the McAllen Monitor editor:

Re: "Street Stories: Cleo Dawson’s mark on local history more than a stroll down memory lane" (May 30).

Patti Golden is quoted in a local history article on Cleo Dawson as stating that "She lived here when Pancho Villa set fire to the area."

Despite many local myths and legends, there is no historical documentation that Pancho Villa was ever in or near the Rio Grande Valley, much less that he "set fire to the area." The only documented raid by Villa into the United States was at Columbus, N.M., in March 1916.

There were, of course, Villa sympathizers on both sides of the border in this area, including some "Villistas" from Reynosa who attacked Matamoros in March 1915.

Victor M. Carrera,  McAllen

Welcome to the Department of History website at Virginia Tech

We hope that you (students, faculty, alumni, and visitors) will find the pertinent information regarding the department, program areas, and information that you are looking for. We invite you to browse our site and read our newsletter, Historically Speaking. To navigate to any sub-page, click on the appropriate button in the image to the left of this page. Please send comments/suggestions regarding this web page to us at the email address listed below. Thank yo u for visiting our site.

Examples specifically for Mexico

Return to index








































  "Historia de las Indias" en red  
Sent by: 

NOVEDAD: Durán, "Historia de las Indias" en red Date: Miércoles, 01 de Junio de 2005 
Reproducción digital de la edición de México, Imp. de J.M. Andrade y F. Escalante, 1867.
Novedades de la Biblioteca Virtual Cervantes:

Autor/a:  Durán, Diego
Título: Historia de las Indias de Nueva-España y (sic) islas de Tierra Firme.  TomoI
/ por Diego Durán ; la publica con un atlas de estampas, notas e ilustraciones José F. Ramirez

Nota previa Edición: Ed. facsímil  Publicación: Alicante : Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, 2005
Nota: Obra digitalizada por Unidixital en la Biblioteca América de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela

Materias: CDU
94/99. Historia medieval, moderna y contemporánea (en general). Encabezamiento de materia
Aztecas - Usos y costumbres
México - Antigüedades
México - Historia - 1519-1540 (Conquista)
México - Historia - Hasta 1519


The LDS Church has prepared Research Outlines for every country and every U.S. State. They are designed to assist in family research.   Below is an example of what kind of information is gathered for Mexico.  Note that a printable version can be downloaded.

Family Search: Mexico Research Outline
Sent by Ricardo Balli
Via George Gause

Table of Contents
Helps For Using This Research Outline
     References To The Family History Library Catalog
     References To Other Family History Library Publications
     Finding Resources On The Internet
     Map Of Mexico
Archives And Libraries
     Archives In Spain
     Mexican Archives
     National Government Archives And Libraries
     State Archives
     Local Civil Offices/municipio Records Offices
     Catholic Church Archives
     Inventories, Registers, Catalogs
     Mexican Biographies
     Searching Census Records
Church Directories
Church History
     Roman Catholic
     Chronological Table Of The History Of The Catholic Church In Mexico
Church Records
     General Historical Background
     Information Recorded In Church Registers
     Locating Church Records
     Protestantism In Mexico
     Church Record Inventories
     Church Records At The Family History Library
     Records Not At The Family History Library
     Search Strategies
Civil Registration
     General Historical Background
     Information Recorded In Civil Registers
     Locating Civil Registration Records
     Locating Records Not At The Family History Library
     Search Strategies
Emigration And Immigration
     Records Of The Colonial Period (1492–1810)
     Finding An Emigrant’s Town Of Origin
     Emigration From Mexico
     Immigration Into Mexico
     Finding Place-names In The Family History Library Catalog
     Historical Place-names
     Major Collections And Databases
     Family Histories
     Genealogical Collections
Historical Geography
     Local Histories
     Calendar Changes
Land And Property
Language And Languages
     Language Aids
     Using Maps
     Finding The Specific Town On The Map
     Finding Maps And Atlases
Military Records
     Military History
     Military Records Of Genealogical Value
     Spanish Military Records
     Locating Other Military Records
     The Latter-day Saints (mormons)
     Middle Easterners
Names, Personal
     Given Names
Native Races
Notarial Records
Probate Records
Public Records
Social Life And Customs
     Genealogical Societies
     Historical Societies
Other Records
For Further Reading
Appendix A
     State Archives Addresses

Appendix B
     State Civil Registration Offices Addresses
Appendix C
     Mexican Dioceses Archives As Of 1994
Appendix D
     Civil Records In The Federal District, 
     Mixe District (created In 1938)
     Sola De Vega District (created In 1918)
     Zaachila District (created In 1939)
     Present-day Districts And Their Municipios:
Appendix E
     1930 Census Of Mexico
Comments And Suggestions


C. Oficial del Registro Civil
Palacio de Gobierno
20009 Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, México

Baja California Norte
Registro Civil
Apartado Postal 475
22820 Ensenada, Baja California, México

Baja California Sur
C. Oficial del Registro Civil
Degollado 820
23007 La Paz, Baja California, México

Dirección del Registro Civil
Edif. D.I.F. Depto.9
24000 Campeche, Campeche, México

Dirección Estatal del Registro Civil
Aldama y General Cepeda
25009 Saltillo, Coahuila, México

Archivo General de Gobierno
Venustiano Carranza 180
28009 Colima, Colima, México

Dirección General del Registro Civil
2° Piso, Palacio de Gobierno
29009 Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México

Oficina Central del Registro Civil
1° Piso, Palacio de Gobierno
Aldama y Carranza
31009 Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México

Distrito Federal
Registro Central del D.F.
Depto. del Distrito Federal 
Arcos de Belén y Dr. Andrade
06870 México, Distrito Federal

Archivo General de Gobierno
Zaragoza y Bruno Martínez
34009 Durango, Durango, México

Estado de Mexico
Dirección General del Registro Civil
Lerdo Poniente 101, Piso Baja
Edificio Plaza Toluca
50000 Toluca, Estado de México, México

Dirección del Registro Civil
Palacio de Gobierno
36009 Guanajuato, Guanajuato, México

Dirección General del Registro Civil
Palacio de Gobierno
Av. Miguel Alemán y Nicolás Bravo
39009 Chilpancingo, Guerrero, México

Dirección General de Gobernación
Plaza Juárez S/N
Palacio de Gobierno 3° Piso
42009 Pachuca, Hidalgo, México

Secretaria General de Gobierno
Dirección del Registro Civil
Palacio de Gobierno, Planta Baja
Av. Corona y Morelos
44009 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México

Jefe del Archivo General del
Poder Ejecutivo
Palacio Clavijero
58000 Morelia, Michoacán, México


Dirección del Registro Civil
Palacio de Gobierno
Plaza de la Constitución Centro
Av. Galeana y Rayón
62009 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México

Archivo Estatal del Registro Civil
Palacio de Gobierno
Avs. México y Abasolo
Col. Centro
C.P.63000 Tepic, Nayarit, México

Nuevo León
Oficialia Mayor
Dirección del Registro Civil
Palacio de Gobierno
Av. Zaragoza y 5 de Mayo
64009 Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoOaxaca
Dirección del Registro Civil
Plaza de La Danza S/N Exnormal
68009 Oaxaca, Oaxaca, México

Dirección General del Registro Civil
4 Norte 203
Ex-Cancha de San Pedro
72009 Puebla, Puebla, México

Dirección Coordinadora del Registro Civil
Palacio de La Corregidora
Andador 5 de Mayo y Pasteur
76009 Querétaro, Querétaro, México

Quintana Roo
Depto. del Registro Civil
Palacio Municipal
22 de Enero y Héroes
77009 Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México

San Luis Potosí
Dirección General del Registro Civil
Palacio de Gobierno
Allende y Venustiano Carranza
78009 San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, 

Dirección General del Registro Civil
Palacio de Gobierno
Insurgentes y J. Aquiles Barraza
80129 Culiacán, Sinaloa, México

Archivo General del Registro Civil
Obregón 58
83009 Hermosillo, Sonora, México

Dirección del Registro Civil del Estado
Hidalgo 112
86009 Villahermosa, Tabasco, México

Dirección del Registro Civil
Palacio de Gobierno
Av. Juárez y 5 de Mayo
87009 Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México

Director de Coordinación del Registro Civil
Lardizabal 8
90009 Tláxcala, Tláxcala, México

Depto. Central del Registro Civil
Calle JJ Herrera 1, Altos
91009 Xalapa, Veracruz, México

Depto. del Registro Civil
Recinto del Poder Judicial
Calle 35 501 62 62A
97009 Mérida, Yucatán, México
Archivo General del Gobierno
Palacio del Poder Ejecutivo
Plaza de Armas
98009 Zacatecas, Zacatecas, México




NARA Microfilm Publication, A3379, Laredo > 610,000 arrival records  

Hi Mimi:  I wanted to let you know about new  NARA Microfilm Publication A3379, Nonstatistical Manifests and Statistical Index Cards of Aliens Arriving at Laredo, Texas, May 1903-November 1929  (112 rolls). RG 85. 16mm. Contains over 610,000 records of alien arrivals.

A3379 is available in the National Archives Building Research Center, and at NARA Regional Archives 
in Denver, Fort Worth, Laguna Niguel, and San Bruno.
For more information, see
National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC

Mexican Border Crossing Records

By George R. Ryskamp, J.D., AG1

Genealogical Journal 
An international Publication Utah Genealogical Association 
Volume 32, 2004, Number 4

Most genealogists are familiar with passenger arrival lists, but fewer have worked with border crossing records. Throughout most of the nineteenth century immigrants crossing into the United States by land from Mexico and Canada were not registered. The adoption of immigration regulations in 1882 led to the use of passenger lists of immigrants entering through seaports. The growing recognition of the significant uncontrolled entry into the United States via land ports led to the creation of systems to control and register those crossing into the United States by land.

Beginning in 1895/ immigration officials recorded all entries through Canadian land ports.1 Working with Canadian governments and railroads, control was achieved over the substantial flow of immigrants who arrived in Canadian ports destined for the United States. A decade later similar controls were put in place on the border between Mexico and the United States, beginning at El Paso, Texas, in 1903 and following at other major crossing points by 1905 or 1906. Then, immigration control efforts centered on recording immigrants names and assuring they met required health standards rather than preventing entry of illegal immigrants as is the case today on that border.

As border crossing controls began. Immigration and Naturalization Service kept records of both immigrants and non-immigrants crossing the Mexican border. Passenger lists used at port cities had proved inefficient in keeping records of crossings on the Canadian border which varied from one person in some cases, to groups of thirty or forty individuals crossing at the same time in others. A new system, using individual one page manifests or two-sided cards, was instituted in the 1950s. Those persons crossing the border were also classified as statistical or non-statistical, based in large part on whether they were required to pay the alien head tax, but also on factors such as how long they intended to stay, if they had been in the United States before, and their reason for coming. (Before 1930, residents of Mexico were not counted as immigrants if they planned to enter the United States for less than six months.) In short:

Statistical arrivals were immigrants or non-immigrants who were subject to the head tax and generally not from the Western Hemisphere. Non-statistical arrivals were immigrants and nonimmigrants who usually were natives of the Western Hemisphere and not subject to the head tax. Arrival of the latter was not included in immigration statistics, but an arrival record may still have been made. It cannot be said with certainty that statistical and non-statistical arrivals definitions were applied uniformly at any particular port on Canadian or Mexican Borders.2

Thus, researchers looking for ancestors crossing from Mexico into the United States 1903-1954 should check both statistical and non-statistical records, and both temporary and permanent admission.

Most immigrants were Mexican citizens, but there were also significant numbers of Europeans. Many other nationalities appear including Syrians, Japanese, Guatemalans, Koreans, Palestinians, Canadians and Filipinos. After the closure of United States ports to most Europeans in 1926, sufficient numbers of Europeans entered Mexico en route to the United States that at one point the American Consul was directed to make a record of all European immigrants entering Mexico destined for that purpose. In some cases even United States citizens were recorded on border crossing manifests.

Researchers need to ascertain point(s) where the ancestral family crossed the border. The chart at the end of this article provides a listing of all crossing points controlled by U.S. immigration officials.

The Records
All original border crossing manifest records were microfilmed in

the late 1950s and later destroyed. They varied slightly in content depending on time period, but will give place of entry into the United States, date, and some or all of the following information:

person's name, age, birthplace/ who they are traveling with, whether or not the immigrant has ever been to the United States, and, if so, for how long. Some type of physical description is given. The information was recorded on single card or one page manifest. Occasionally the card manifest has a photograph of the immigrant or immigrant family attached on the back. This may prevent reading personal information given under the photo in the microfilmed version. Those microfilmed copies were "lost" for over two decades until discovered about ten years ago in the National Archives by an INS historian. Since then work has progressed steadily to clean up, catalog, reprint and distribute them. As is evidenced on the chart, much still remains to be completed, as records for the period 1910-1924—the time of heaviest Mexican emigration resulting from the Mexican Revolution—are not yet available for most ports.

Manifests are arranged either alphabetically or chronologically by the crossing date. Those arranged chronologically have assigned manifest numbers which are used on the indexes and even appear on subsequent manifests as a way of cross referencing multiple crossings. Indexes likely exist for all collections of chronologically arranged manifests, but may not yet be available. Researchers should search indexes first, since, if they exist, they give specific date of crossing and applicable manifest number for that person. With that information the researcher should then find the crossing date in the chronologically arranged manifests and look for the specific manifest number. When using the index, remember the following:

1. Cards are arranged alphabetically by surname and then by given name.

2. Double surnames were filed as if the second surname did not exist, but if you do not find someone and know the maternal surname, check under that to be certain.

3. All given names beyond the first were ignored.

4. Women usually appear in crossing manifests under their maiden surname rather than their husband's, as that was the surname system they knew.

5. Surnames beginning with de, del and de la were filed under the main surname rather than the preposition.

Remember to search all categories of records for a single port of entry, as there is no way to be certain under which category a person may have been placed when he arrived. Once the manifest of an ancestor is found, be sure to look at records of all who crossed that day, as families and friends often traveled together. (A good idea is to note names of those who came in a group from the same town, as they could later turn out to have some connection to the family.) If the manifest being searched cannot be found, check before and after the indicated date, as manifests have occasionally been misfiled. The same is true for some index cards.

Finding the Records
As indicated on the chart, border crossing records are available

through the National Archives in Washington, D.C./ and can be consulted there or at several of the Regional NARA branches. For more information go to <>. Watch that same site for information about new collections as they are released. The films are also available for purchase at a cost of $38.00 per film, by an individual or library. Some, but not many, large university libraries have added these to their collection. Check on a library consortium such as WorldCat for specific libraries where this is the case.

Perhaps the easiest way to consult border crossing records would be to order the desired films to a local LDS Family History Center. Due to an incredible inconsistency in cataloging, the records can be hard to find through traditional Locality or Subject searches. The chart at the end of this article gives film numbers for those microfilms held by the Family History Library Catalog [FHLC] at the date of publication of this article. Search in the Family History Library Catalog at <> under the beginning film number of a collection for details about films in that particular collection. A copy of this chart was submitted to the Family History Library and personnel there indicated they would purchase the 410 rolls of film they did not have at the time the chart was prepared. Check periodically in the FHLC for these acquisitions under Mexico-Emigration Records or United States-Immigration Records.

One researcher, in the border crossing record of his grandfather, found that he came to the United States with a group of eleven other family members, among them his great-grandmother. Although he had previous information about her, he learned from her border crossing manifest that she had been born in a different town from other members in the family, which was located in a neighboring state. Border crossing records had not only given him a view of his family members on a pivotal day of their lives, but opened previously unknown research possibilities. The vast amount of information given in border crossing records makes it well worth the effort of searching them out.

1* Associate Professor of History, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602. ' For a detailed discussion of Canadian Border Crossing records see Marian L. Smith, "By Way of Canada: U.S. Records of Immigration Across the U.S.Canadian Border, 1895-1954,"

2 For this and other information, go to the article by Claire Pechtel-Kluskens, "Mexican Border Crosssing Records," updated 17 Oct. 2004, at http:// mexican_border_crossings.html




Preserving La Musica
Hispanic May 2005

Daniel Sheehy, an ethnomusicologist from the Smithsonian, believes that Mexican music is on integral part of American music's history. Recently, he compiled a CD entitled jllegaron los Camperos!, which features 10 Mexican classics by Nati Cano y los Camperos. The compilation is the latest in a series of a proposed 25-CD series that glorifies Latino music of all genres, filegaron ios Camperos! includes a bilingual 30-page booklet of historical liner notes. Other CDs in the series include El Ave de Mi Sonar: Mexican Sones Huastecos by los Camperos de Voiles, a Puerto Rican bomba y plena release by los Pleneros de la 21 and other collections of Afro-Colombian and Chicano music. The albums are available for purchase through the Smithsonian website,



Passenger Lists to and from Cuba
The Sugar Industry during the French Colonial Era
Portobelo por Ángel Custodio Rebollo



Passenger Lists to and from Cuba
CubaGenWeb Data Base:

Thanks to the efforts of several of our readers, passenger lists arriving in Cuba have been entered in our on-line searchable passengers data base. The information contained in the data base varies depending on the original source, but generally contains the individual's name, ship's name and date of voyage or arrival. Names are frequently being added to this data base, so be sure to check it periodically. 

The data base includes the following, plus more. Go to the site for more and to click to the following:
1,205 passengers who sailed form Gijon, Asturias to Habana and Matanzas in 1840-1871, contributed by Jorge Piñon Cervera and D. Eduardo Nunez Fernandez. 
35 passengers who sailed from the Canary Islands to Habana in 1686, contributed by Miriam Rivera and Dave Chudleigh. 
706 passengers who arrived or departed Habana from/to various ports of origin in Spain, Mexico and the US in 1842-1876, contributed by Lydia Reyes. 
228 passengers who were authorized by the Casa de Contratación to travel to Cuba in 1567-1599. 

The Historic New Orleans Collection Quarterly 
Volume XXIII, Number 2, Spring 2005
Uncovering History's Secrets

Saint Domingue's Sweet Tooth: The Sugar Industry during the French Colonial Era
By John H. Lawrence

Sugar—that crystalline, white substance sweetening everything from iced tea to cake frosting—has a complicated history that belies its ubiquitous nature. It is hard to imagine that sugar, now taken for granted and deemed replaceable by a host of natural and synthesized products, once served as a catalyst for change in global politics and geography. Believed to be native to Indonesia, sugarcane had been known and cultivated for centuries in Asia before being introduced to Europe in the llth century. Later, during the 17th and 18th centuries, the world's demand for sugar rendered it a precious commodity and a building block of empire in the New World. Nowhere was sugar's impact more strongly felt than in the French colony of Saint Domingue.

Hispanola (present-day Dominican Republic and Haiti), the second largest island in the Caribbean, was claimed for Spain by Columbus in 1492. On his second transatlantic voyage, in 1493, Columbus introduced sugarcane, transported from cuttings in the Canary Islands, to the eastern portion of the colony. Yet by the end of the 16th century, sugar production languished, and would not revive until a new colonial power established its hegemony. The Treaty of Ryswick, in 1697, brought the western portion of Hispanola under French control—though French encroachment and settlement along the northern coast and smarter offshore islands had been going on for some decades. By the 18th century, French ptanters had plunged, with gusto, into the cultivation of sugarcane in Saint Domingue. Among the major cash crops—coffee, indigo, tobacco, and sugar—sugar commanded the most attention, both in terms of its cultivation and its prominence in the world market.

As with virtually any colonial plantation model during the 18th century, slave labor made up a large part of the equation in Saint Domingue; the traffic in human cargo from western Africa flourished in order to satisfy the world's sweet tooth. The majority of slaves served as field hands, engaging in the arduous work of planting, tending, and harvesting the sugarcane. A smaller percentage of the slave population dealt with the technical aspects of producing a consumable product from the raw juice yielded by the crushed stalks of the cane. The desire for sugar, especially in the more refined state in which it was stripped

of molasses, provided the economic engine that drove colonial policy toward Saint Domingue.

Sugar production created a tremendous increase in the value of arable land in Saint Domingue, as well as the need for more slaves. By the mid-18th century, slaves accounted for 150,000 of the nearly 165,000 inhabitants of Saint Domingue. The proportion of slaves to the total population grew even greater by the last decade of the century. Owning a sugar plantation in the colony was tantamount to having a license to print money. But as principles of the Enlightenment gained a foothold on the continent of Europe, it became inevitable that social and economic change would soon visit Saint Domingue.

The revolutionary outcry against a privileged class that erupted in France in 1789 was heard in Saint Domingue as well. From 1791 until the declaration of Haitian independence on New Year's Day 1804, a series of revolts in the colony laid waste to the plantations, resulting in widespread destruction of property and dispersion of the planter class to parts of Cuba and the United States. Vast fires in cities and fields prompted British prime minister William Pitt to comment wryly: "It seems as if the French will be drinking their coffee with caramel."

If insurrection effectively destroyed the leading industry of what had often been described as the wealthiest colony in the world, its effect in Louisiana proved different. The successful sugar production on Etienne de Bore's New Orleans plantation in 1796, assisted byAntoine Morin of Saint Domingue, marked the beginning of Louisiana's modern sugar industry, which through more than two centuries of change, exists today.


Edición 29 de junio de 2005 de Odiel Información, de Huelva.


Todos hemos visto muchos filmes, que se desarrollaban en un puerto del Caribe donde había generalmente un gobernador español, con una hija bellísima, y que eran atacados por los piratas, hasta que aparecía el héroe de turno, también “bellísimo” y acababa con el pirata y toda la tripulación, y se casaba con la hija del gobernador. Pues bien, el modelo de puerto del siglo XVI y XVII por el que se inspiraban estas películas era Portobelo.

Portobelo estaba situado en lo que hoy es Panamá, en la parte del istmo y en aquella época pertenecía al virreino de Perú y era donde desembarcaban los galeones de oro y plata, que después eran recogidos por otros barcos similares para traerlos a España. Había dos núcleos de población, Nombre de Dios y Portobelo y ambos eran muy codiciados por los piratas que hacían frecuentes incursiones arrasando y rapiñando todo lo que encontraban, tanto metales preciosos como las muchas mercaderías que llegaban a los almacenes para enviarlas al resto de las colonias.

Fue atacada en varias ocasiones, principalmente por los ingleses. Francis Drake, la atacó antes de su inauguración oficial y sus restos reposan en un islote de la bahía de Portobelo. Pero también la asediaron William Parker, Henry Morgan, entre otros, hasta que el vicealmirante Edward Vernon, materialmente la destruyó en 1739, y actualmente es un poblado de pescadores, que vive entre la ruinas de sus fuertes.

La victoria de Vernon no fue tan grandiosa como dijeron los ingleses, porque cuando llegaron lo atacantes a Portobelo, los defensores estaban dormidos en hamacas en las chozas, porque la edad de oro de Portobelo ya había pasado, todas las fortificaciones estaban abandonadas y estaban habitadas por unos nativos que solo les preocupaba el ron y las mulatas. Al tercer cañonazo, todas las chozas quedaron destrozadas o se quemaron y Vernon la capturo sin lucha. Aunque en Londres se festejo como un gran triunfo, con descargas de artillería, desfiles, fuegos artificiales y grandes borracheras. Incluso se acuñaron medallas para celebrar la “gran victoria inglesa.”

Entre mis datos, tan solo encuentro un onubense en Portobelo, se llamaba Cristóbal Rubio, era de Aracena y murió allí en 1599.

                                                            Ángel Custodio Rebollo



Trejo, from Spain to the Americas by  Paul E. Trejo
Plateros a Indias por
Ángel Custodio Rebollo
Dávila por Ángel Custodio Rebollo


Trejo, from Spain to the Americas by  Paul E. Trejo

I am sending this letter to distant primos (cousins) as well as my own immediate bloodline and hence, the general salutation. I have been doing research into the origin of the TREJO family and family name and thought I might share some of my findings. It may assist those of you that are interested in the subject in your research. My feeling is that this type of material is useless buried in the files.


My source of information about the early Trejos in Spain comes from a remarkable work called "Blasones y Apellidos" (Coats of Arms and Surnames) that was authored by Joaquín Porrúa, a recognized genealogist and researcher of high reputation. Published in Mexico City in 1987, this Tomo includes the origin and some history of many of the original Spanish families that immigrated to New Spain.* In the case of the Trejos, the period covered is basically between 1500 and 1700. The section of "Blasones y Apellidos" that included the Trejo family is appended, along with my English translation. It is my understanding that "Blasones" has been out of print for some time, and should you find a copy expect to pay at least $150.00 for it. The Trejo pages were provided to me by Ophelia Marquez, secretary for the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research. I have also included information from other sources.

All of the early Trejos were natives of the town of Plasencia in the Province of Cáceras,** Spain, from which they traveled and settled in the surrounding villages and provinces. Plasencia is located approximately 240 miles north of the port city of Cadíz. The modern population of Plasencia is about 21,300. Together, the provinces of Cáceras and Badajoz comprise that part of Spain known as Extremadura.* Until 1821, when Mexico declared its independence from Spain, this part of the Spanish territories in the New World was known as New Spain.

** Do not confuse the Province of Cáceras with the city by the same name which is the capital of the Province.

The provinces of Extremadura are rugged in nature and have always required additional effort to subsist on. Even today Extremadura is relatively near the bottom of Spain's economic ladder. It was only natural that large numbers of farmers, herdsmen and disenfranchised noblemen, realizing that the future at home was bleak, volunteered in large numbers for service in the New World. Little did they know that the lands to which they traveled were similar in nature, arid, open and hard. It can be said that Extremadura's "golden age" occurred in the 16th and 17th centuries, when men of Extremadura returned home, using wealth acquired in the New World to build the mansions and palaces for themselves, particularly in the city of Cáceras.

Extremadura is referred to by some historians as "the Cradle of the Conquistadores" because so many of the most famous discoverers/ explorers/conquerors of the New World were born there. Among them were Hernán Cortez who marched through Mexico; Francisco Pizarro who conquered the Inca Empire of Peru; Pedro de Alvarado who subdued the Maya Indians of Guatemala; Pedro de Valdivia who founded Santiago (Saint James), but failed to master the Mapuche Indians of Chile; Vasco Núńez de Balboa who first viewed the Pacific Ocean from the Isthmus of Panama; Francisco de Orellana, the first explorer to navigate the Amazon, and Hernando de Soto, discoverer of the Mississippi River and conqueror of Florida. 

It is evident from "Blasones" that Trejos were involved in more than one military campaign in the Conquest of South America and New Spain, including the expedition of Cabeza de Vaca.The ancestors of these 16th and 17th century conquistadores were the veterans of the legions of Emperor Caesar Augustus who in 23 BC gave them lands around Merida to farm upon their retirement from active duty. Thus, there is a solid basis to the claims that many of the early Spanish families have strong Italian bloodlines. 

During the Middle Ages the sons of Extremadura filled the ranks of such Christian corps as the Knights Templar, the Knights of Santiago (Saint James), and the Knights of Alcantara who fought the battles of La Reconquista (the reconquest), which in the 15th century finally drove the infidel Moors from Spain after an occupation of 800 years. As noted in "Blasones" a substantial number of important Trejos were Knights of Santiago (Saint James), Knights of Alcantara, and Knights of Calatrava. Of some interest and possible speculation is the single reference in "Blasones" that the Trejos may originally have come from Rome or the ancient Italian village(s?) of Triciviam, Tricium, Tricio. As previously noted, many of the Roman legionnaires settled in this part of Spain making a strong "Italian Connection" not unlikely. Also, "Blasones" points out that don Gabriel Trejo Paniagua, Onroy y Trejo was made Archbishop of Salerno in Naples at the request of King Phillip IV; don Fernando of the Cerda, Trejo, Monroy and Bermudez Grimaldo was a member of the Council of Italy, and don Francisco of Trejo stated that he owned the Barony of Baluf in Italy.


It is evident on reading "Blasones" that many of the early Trejos were primarily warriors, clergymen, mayors, magistrates, judges and the like. Positions of title, power, and influence were often a matter of inheritance. The eldest son in most cases inherited the lands and titles, while the younger sons had to fend for themselves. Thus, there were a number of these disenfranchised members of prominent families among the hordes of volunteers that settled in New Spain and South America.

Between 1493-1519 over fifty-six thousand settlers migrated to the Indies, that is, the islands of Santa Domingo (Cuba), Hispanola (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic) and the like. Many of these including Trejos eventually traveled from there to South and Central America, and the provinces of New Spain (Mexico). From 1520-1539 another forty thousand migrated to the New World, especially to Peru and New Spain. Data on these settlers is published in Peter Boyd-Bowman's monumental works Volumes I and II from which the Trejos listed in a subsequent paragraph were extracted.  There were only a few outposts guarded by presidios on the rugged Northern Frontier of New Spain, and hence the population was concentrated in the larger villages/pueblos of Sonora, Sinaloa, Nueva Galicia and the like. Many of the Trejos that I have met in California are from Chihuahua and villages in Sinaloa and Sonora. There are numerous Trejos in Texas, Arizona and New Mexico that are recorded in the Latter Day Saints (LDS) Family History Centers. 

The first Trejo in California was a female of the bloodline. She was Maria Angela Trejo* and came to San Francisco in 1776 with the famous Juan Bautista de Anza expedition. Maria Angela Trejo was born at the San Miguel de Horcasitas Presidio in Sonora about 1745. She was married to Domingo Alviso, a corporal in the San Miguel company. Domingo was also born in Horcasitas, Sonora about 1740, and was recruited there by Captain Juan Bautista de Anza on 5 May 1775 to occupy and settle the port of San Francisco, Alto California.

Angela Trejo and Domingo Alviso had four children ranging in age from five months to fourteen years with their parents to San Francisco.On arriving in San Francisco in 1776, Domingo Alviso died, as did the wife of Pedro Antonio Borjorquez (Bohorquez) another member of the expedition. Maria Angela Trejo, widow of Alviso, promptly married Pedro Antonio Borjorquez at Mission Delores in San Francisco on 20 July 1777. Pedro and Angela had three sons who married into the families of Villavicencio, Linares and Pacheco. One of these latter Maria Angela Trejo is sometimes listed as Maria Angela Cumacero or Chumasero as her husband Domingo Alviso was also known as Domingo Chumaseromarriages, that of Bartolome Francisco Borjorquez to Nicolasa Linares produced ten children. 

Between Angela's children by Alviso and those by Borjorquez the genes of Maria Angela Trejo flow in the blood of many, many of the early California families. Maria Angela Trejo was buried 4 January 1803 at Mission San Carlos, Monterey at 58 years of age. Anyone interested in this line should see Spanish-Mexican Families of Early California: 1769-1850, Marie E. Northrup, Vol. I, 1976, Vol. II, 1984, (Both Reprinted), Southern California Genealogical Society, Burbank, California.

My own bloodline of Trejo originates in Sonora, Mexico. My great grandfather, Julian Trejo was born in 1838 in Arispe, Sonora, Mexico. His parents were Jacinto Trejo and Maria Josepa Lopez. Julian Trejo married Catalina Bielmas at Mission San Luis Obispo on 23 October 1867. They had ten children of which my grandfather Santos (Tibo) was one. Equally as exciting is my father's mother's side which I have been able to trace back to Molina, Valencia, Spain, 1727, El Fuerte, Sinaloa, 1755, and Villa de Sinaloa, Sinaloa, 1769. There are many famous/historic personages on this side, and if any of my Trejo cousins of my line are interested in more details, they should communicate with me.


The following list of Trejos. were translated from Peter Boyd-Bowman's works: Indice geobiografico de mas de 56 mil pobladores de la America Hispanica, Volume I, 1493-1519 (Geographic Index of more than 56 Thousand Settlers of Hispanica America 1493-1519) and Volume II, Forty Thousand Settlers, 1520-1539.It should be noted that on this list are found some of those same individuals that appear in "Blasones", and that some are listed in Volume II as later traveling from the Indies to South America and New Spain. The order of data for each entry is name, Peter Boyd Number, Province of Origin, Town, Occupation, Numerical Listing, and Parents or Other Data.Vol. I 1493-1519

1. Juan de Trejo, Boyd No. 868, Cáceres, Almaraz, son of resident, to Indies 1513, Catalog I, passenger No. 934, parents Martin de Trejo, Beatrice la Jusdada.

2. Fernando (Francisco ??) de Trejo, Boyd No. 955, Cáceres, Coria (de Galisteo),resident,son of resident of Perales in Cameras, to Indies 1513, Catalog I, passenger No. 1025, Father Fernando de Trejo (see entry 5 below).

3.Rafael de Trejo, Boyd No. 1057, Caceres, Plasencia, son of resident, to Indies 1514, Catalog I, passenger No. 1697, parents Juan de Toro (Trejo), Maria GonzalezVol. II 1520-1539

4. Cristobal de Trejo, Boyd No. 2886, Cáceras, Coria (de Galisteo), native of Coria, to Indies 1528, Catalog I, passenger No. 3714, parents Pedro Sanchez, Marie Suarez de Trejo.

5. Francisco de Trejo, (see entry 2 above), Boyd No. 2887, Cáceres, native of Coria (de Galisteo), conquistador in Santa Domingo (Cuba) 1520-1535, to Mexico 1535, resident Guadalajara (New Galicia), pacificatio of New Galicia 1541, (with the Viceroy), resident Guadalajara 1547, (Ic numero 1130), parents Fernando de Trejo, Isabel Gonzalez.

6. Pedro de Trejo, Boyd No. 3074, Cáceras, native of Plasencia, to Mexico about 1537, pacification New Galicia 1541 (with Viceroy), married to daughter of discharged soldier, de la Torre (widow of the Conquistador of New Galicia Francisco Barron), was alive in 1547, (Ic numero 543), parents el Capitan Diego de Trejo and Isabel de Contreras.

7. Pedro de Trejo, Boyd No. 3075, Cáceras, resident of Plasencia, to Mexico 1537 (II, 3645) in Mexico 1568 (Med, Primit Inquisition, 283;The Jews in New Spain, 149) parents Pedro de Trejo and Isabel Gutrerrez.


There are a couple of books published on the Trejos by Halbert's Publishing Company of Bath, Ohio. I have seen one called "The Amazing Story of The Trejos in America" by Sharon Taylor. Another is called "The World Book of Trejos" by a Lewis Trejo, also published by Halbert's. I have not seen this second book, but from the descriptive literature it sounds like a rehash of Sharon Taylor's book. These books purport to give you a family history for a tidy sum. Taylor's did not. Lewis Trejo's book sells for $49.50. If anyone has purchased Lewis Taylor's book and it provides more information than I have provided to you free in this letter, please let me know.  Taylor's book on Trejos appeared to be organized in such a general fashion that it would fit any surname. It told nothing about the Trejo surname in particular or Trejo history. It did provide a general dissertation on how surnames are formed. In this way any surname could be plugged in and the book sold. However, this book also provided some very good basic information on elementary heraldry, but nothing beyond that which can be found in any complete city library.

The Coats of Arms found in "family history" books should be consistent, especially if the family surname originated in a country such as Spain that maintained accurate heraldic records. There are two basic differences between the Trejo coat of arms found in Sharon Taylor's "Amazing Trejos" and that shown and described in "Blasones". One difference is the color of the crescent moons on the shield and the other is their position. Sharon Taylor's source is the Rietstap Armorial General which states the crescents are silver and turned to the right and left (diagram appended). Blasones states that the crescents are red and pointed downward. I favor the "Blasones" version which is quoted as being from a manuscript by don Bias (1610) and found in the Royal Academy of the History of Spain. This seems very close to the time frame and true source of the coat of arms grant which had to be from the King of Spain. Perhaps a later Trejo did not like the color of the moons or the direction they pointed and arbitrarily changed his crest. 

My own description of a family crest would be as follows: On a field of Gold (a gold shield) a Silver Castle (or tower) upon a sea of Blue with ripples of Silver, the Castle flanked by six Crescent Moons of Red arranged as follows: two vertical bands, three on each side with the Crescents pointed downward. Since the rest of the crest is arbitrary, I would choose a silver knight helmet with a plume of red (to match the crescents) and green leaf work surrounding the shield.

I am attempting to have such a crest produced in color by an artist friend of mine. Anyone interested in a copy let me know. Time to close. Your comments on this epistle are welcome, as are any additional contributions.



Source: Translation of Trejo Family origin and early family history from BLASONES Y APPELLIDOS (Coats of Arms and Surnames), First Edition, By Fernando Munoz Altea, Publisher JOAQUIN PORRUA, S.A. DE C. V. Mexico (1987).

[An] extremely nobel and old line, with important manor house in the town of Plasencia (Province of Cáceres), from where they traveled to other places in this region, Castilla, Andalucía and America. In the listed population, the Trejos are conspicuous with [the] highest offices (posts) from the 13th century, especially as possessors of Commissions of the Orders of Calatrava and Alcántara.

Some genealogists pretend (claim) that this family came from Rome, indicating next from Tricivium, Tricium, Tricio.

One of the most important personages of this house was don Gabriel Trejo Paniagua (Bread and Water), Onroy y Trejo, native of Plasencia, Knight of the Military Order of Alcantara (1602), Senior Professor/ Student in the (college) of the Archbishop of Salamanca where he was Professor of Vespers, Attorney General of the Royal Chancery of Prisons, Attorney General of the Council of the Orders (of Knights), Judge of the Royal Council and Inquisitor (examiner) and Deputy General of the Santa Cruzada. On the final (years) of his life (he) was elevated to the episcopal (bishop) seat of Malaga and made Cardinal at the request of Felipe III by the Pope Paul V, the 2nd of December of 1615 with the title of San Nereo and Achileo. The King Phillip IV gave to him the Archbishopric of Salerno, in Naples.

Don Francisco of Trejo Monroy and Paniagua, Knight of the Military Order of Calatrava in 1610, native of Pasencia, Mayor (magistrate) of Burgos and Malaga, was granted by Felipe IV with the titles of Marqués of the Moto (lands) of the Trejo in 1629 and with the (title) of Marqués of the Rose in 1628. The Royal Dispatch of this utmost honor was expedited (issued/sent) by Carlos II, to his (Trejo's) descendents (offspring) don Fernando of the Cerda, Trejo, Monroy and Bermúdez Grimaldo, of the Council of Italy, Knights of the Military Order of Saint James and Knight Commander, of the Houses of Córdoba in Córdoba by Royal Decree of the year 1683. This branch of the family preceded the Trejos to Peru.

Don Francisco de Trejo stated that he was baptized in (the place of) the Houses of San Millán (Province of Cáceras) the 12th of January of 1570, and was Mayor (master/lord) of the town of Chamartín of the Rose (Madrid) and possessor (owner) of the Barony of Baluf, in Italy. He gave (was able to make) this testament in Madrid, the 14th of January of 1648, before the actuary (notary public) Juan Núñez Guerra, being married with doña Isabel de Jaurequi y Martínez of Salazar, with whom he fathered a son don Gabriel de Trejo Monroy, Principal Professor/Student of San José in Salamanca, II Marqués of the Mota (lands) of the Trejo and of the Rose (Madrid), an illustrious religious man that redeemed the obligation (burden) of Arcediano of Béjar, in the bishopric of Plasencia.

In the Royal Academy of the History of Spain, exist a notable/noteworthy work/manuscript upon (about) the Trejos, written (carried out) by don Bias of Salazar in 1630, dedicated to don Luis Bermúdez of Trejo, the fourth gentleman (lord/master) of this name. Knight of the Monks (order of) Saint James, Lord/Master of Crimaldo, Castle and town of Almorfrague, Las Corchuelas, Aguas Vertientes (Flowing Waters), Atajo and other country estates that comprised this house, and furthermore he stated (expressed) he was Head and Senior Kinsman of this house.

The authorities that ratify (the) different Royal Coats of Arms of distinct periods organize themselves in this manner:


The nobleness of blood of this family was proved by entering in the order of Saint James of the following knights:

(1) don Luis Trejo y Gasca, native of the town of Alcántara, Mayor of Grimaldo, Grand Master of the Military Order of the Third Regiment of Spanish Infantry in Italy and Governor of the Knights in Andalucía, in 1623.

(2) don Pedro of Trejo and Gasca, Plasencia, 1613.

(3) don Antonio de Trejo and Monroy, Plasencia, 1629.

(4) don Andrés of Trejo and of Monte, Toledo, 1652.

(5) don Juan of Trejo and Verdugo, San Agustín, 1700.

(6) don Francisco Doroteo Daza and Bermúdez of Trejo, Madrid, 1682.

(7) don Juan Antonio Daza and Bermúdez of Trejo. Port of Santa María, Cadiz, 1682.

(8) don Gabriel of Paredes and of Vargas, Balbuena and Trejo, Plasencia, 1702.

(9) don Vicente of the Cerda and Denti, of Trejo and Casteli, Madrid, 1697.

(10) don Antonio of the Serna and Quiñones, Trejo and Frias, Madrid, 1625.

(11) don Antonio de Figueroa and Zafra of Trejo and Sánchez, Badajoz, 1628.

(12) don Fernando of the Cerda and Trejo, of Ibarra and of Jáuregui, Vitoria, 1666.

The Robes of the Military Order of Calatrava clothed in 1610 the before mentioned don Francisco de Trejo Monroy, native of Plasencia, and he of Alcántara, don Alvaro of Trejo, in 1520; don Felipe of Trejo and Carvajal and don Gabriel of Trejo and Paniagua, in 1602, both of Plasencia.

In the presence of (before) the Court of Justice of the Noblemen of the Royal Chancery of Vallodolid, fighting for the recognition of their nobility, before the justices (judges) of this court they expressed themselves (stated their case):

Don Alonso Trejo. Villafáfila (Province of Zamora), 1740;

don Andrés of Trejo. Villasbuenas (Caceres), 1537; don Antón and don Hernando of Trejo, Almaraz (Cáceres), 1542, and don Alonso of Trejo Monroy, Toro (Zamora), 1774.

Don José Florencio Fernández Barragán and Trejo, native of the place of the Purísima Concepcion of Maíz, in San Luis Potosí, Captain of the Body of Provincial Militiamen of the Frontier of New Santander, where he was born the year 1758, (he) entered previous proofs (evidence) pertaining to the nobility of their (the Trejos) linages in the Royal and Distinguished Spanish Military Order of Carlos III, in 1800. By maternal line (he) came from one old branch of the family(that) settled in Huichapan.

The Captain don Diego of Trejo, native of Plasencia, valiant military man he combated in the service of the Catholic kings in the surrendering of Granada, married with do'na Isabel of Contreras, and he had by this lady a son don Pedro of Trejo and Contreras, of the same temperament (disposition), newly married in his turn with doña N. of the Torre. This last knight (cavalier) passed (traveled) to New Spain in 1537, and had one prominent (outstanding) action in the pacification of Jalisco, marrying there.

Don Diego of Trejo and of the Torre, son of the above, was settler and perpetual councilman (alderman) of the City of Chiapas and his son of the same (equal) name the Captain don Diego of Trejo, took part in 1561, counting 24 years of age, in the conquest of Costa Rica, where he had great tasks and left extensive and illustrious offspring.

Don Francisco of Trejo, Gonzáles, native of Coria (Cáceres), also was in the role of the conquerors of New Spain, who came from the Island of Española (Hispaniola, i.e., Haite, Dominican Republic) (he) arrived in Mexico in 1536, participating in the pacification of New Galicia with the Viceroy, being in 1547 a resident of Guadalajara.

Conspicuous in the Conquest of the River of the Silver, the Captain don Hernando of Trejo and Carvajal of Figueroa, native of Plasencia where he possessed the right of the first born son, expeditionary in the armada of Sanabría, married with doña Ana de Mendoza and doña María of Sanabría. He made a will (willed) in 1557, of his primary connection (relationship), he had between other sons don Hernando of Trejo, Bishop of Tacumán. In addition, in the aforementioned conquest appear don Sancho of Trejo, killed in 1541, and don Sebastian of Trejo, expeditionary with Cabeza de Vaca (Head of Cow), that we encountered in the foundation of the Port of San Juan, the year 1542.

In addition don Pedro of Trejo belonged to this distinguished line, born about 1534 in Plasencia, he traveled (passed) to New Spain in 1556, notable poet and writer, author of the "Cancionero General," sentenced by the Holy Office in a sensational case for blasphemy. Married with doña Isabel Corona, with her he had (fathered) a son don Francisco and a son don Esteban of Trejo and Corona, residing in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalajara. In 1575, (Pedro de Trejo) left to perform the sentence of a forced soldier, ignorant of his destiny (luck).



Publicado en Odiel Información. Huelva, Edición 21 de junio de 2005



Después del descubrimiento de Colon, hubo que enviar a Indias profesionales de todo tipo, no solo soldados y religiosos, también fueron pobladores de tierras, empleados reales y de los mas variados oficios; panaderos, cerrajeros, pastores, carpinteros, boticarios, carreteros, confiteros, cuchilleros, notarios y otros muchos que no hace falta enumerar, pero en unos lugares donde abundaban el oro y la plata, quienes fueron pronto muy necesarios fueron los plateros, y vemos como incluso vinieron de otros lugares, como: Diego de Padrones, platero y vecino de Soria; que en marzo de 1513 embarcó para Indias o el sevillano Juan Batista, que marchó en octubre de 1534 y Juan Lainez, platero de Salamanca que se fue en 1527.

Asimismo marcharon alguno de Huelva, como Francisco de Montesinos que murió en el hospital de Veracruz en Octubre de 1625 y era hijo de Luis de Montesinos y Blanca Rodríguez. En su testamento se encuentran datos curiosos que nos dan luz como era el trueque y los negocios en la recién descubierta América. Por ejemplo dijo que debía 600 reales a otro platero llamado Antonio Ramos y 32 al de la misma profesión Juan Rodríguez, de Sevilla. Como es lógico también en su testamento menciona lo que debe a los mercaderes, algo necesario en los negocios; 700 reales a Francisco López de Fonseca y 800 pesos a Juan de Arana.

El Capitán Dorado Galindo había entregado a Montesinos 50 reales para que le hiciera una sortija que no había podido elaborar, por lo que pedía que le fueran devueltos al capitán los 50 reales, previa entrega de un ferreruelo forrado de damasco que el platero le había dado en prenda hasta que confeccionara la sortija. Cuando se liquidaran las cuentas, habría que enviar a Sevilla, al librero Antonio de Toro 200 reales que le había prestado, otros 200 a Huelva, a Martín Alonso Barriga y 10 al soldado Diego de Mesa.

Hubo mas plateros, como Diego de Espina, de Valladolid; Fernando de Carmona, que era hijo de un platero sevillano llamado Alonso de Carmona y Juan Escobar, extremeño, casado con la hija de Alonso Márquez, igualmente platero que vivía en Sevilla.

                                     Angel Custodio Rebollo

Edición 17 de junio de 2005 


Si usted se apellida Dávila, sepa que su apellido es originario de Ávila la amurallada población castellana. Pero ese apellido tiene algunos datos curiosos que voy comentar. 

Todo se inició en la época de la Reconquista, cuando unos caballeros procedentes de Asturias, acompañando al Conde Raimundo de Borgoña, acudieron al servicio de Alfonso VI. Entre ellos iban los hijos de Blasco Ximeno, que muy pronto se integraron en la ciudad de Ávila formando parte de su defensa y gobierno. Ximen, el mayor de los hermanos fue capitán de cien hombres a caballo y gobernador de la ciudad. 

Los dos hermanos adoptaron como apellido el lugar donde habían formado su casa solariega, “De Ávila” y eso se transformó en Dávila. El rey Alfonso X, hizo donación a Blasco Gomes Dávila el señorío de Velada y también por petición del rey, el concejo de Ávila donó el señorío de Navamorcuende-Cardiel a Blasco Ximeno Dávila, lo que originó muchos problemas ya que el concejo esta dividido en atender la petición real.

Los primeros señores de Navamorcuende se fueron sucediendo sin incrementar su patrimonio, pero fue el tercero el que recibió la herencia de Villatoro, por un legado que le hizo su tío, el Obispo Sancho Dávila. El señor de Villatoro fue notario mayor del reino y tuvo un papel fundamental en la minoridad de Alfonso XI. Le siguió una mujer, Juana Dávila, cuyo marido fue oidor de Enrique IV.

Con motivo de un impuesto que creo Felipe II, Juan de Vergara en nombre de la villa y tierras de Navamorcuende se quejó al rey por lo elevado del mismo. A esta queja se unieron unos disturbios que hubo en Toledo, Madrid y Sevilla, lo que inició una fuerte tensión entre el rey y los castellanos.

El 21 de octubre de 1591 fue consagrado como Obispo de Cartagena, Sancho Dávila, y aquella misma noche aparecieron en distintos puntos de Ávila unos pasquines con palabras injuriosas contra el monarca.

El corregidor lo comunicó al rey y este ordenó que se prendiera y juzgara a los sospechosos. Entre ellos estaba Enrique Dávila que fue condenado a muerte, si bien fue conmutada la pena por prisión incomunicada en la fortaleza de Turégano y abandonó su prisión en 1597 a lo que fue autorizado por encontrarse muy enfermo. Quiso defender su inocencia, pero falleció al año siguiente.                           

                                                       Angel Custodio  Rebollo



Brazil's Indians turning to politics
Ancestros Inmigrantes -- buenas novidades !  
Marinos hispanoamericanos por Ángel  Custodio Rebollo
Lists of Passengers to America
The Ships List


Brazil's Indians turning to politics
by Axel Bugge

Orange County Register, Nov 10, 2004, Photo Craldo Peres, AP

EMERGING CLOUT: While Brazil's Indians cling to traditions, like Xingu warriors performing this dance In tribute to the dead, many are becoming politically active 
in the nation. More than 100 are expected to win posts
in local voting.

BRASILIA, BRAZIL From isolated villages in the Amazon jungle to far-flung settlements in the vast savannas of the interior, Brazil's Indians are venturing as never before into mainstream politics.

Initial results from last month's local elections show that four Indians were chosen as mayors and five as deputy mayors, while final results are expected to give Indians more than 100 posts.

The numbers may seem small but they represent a jump from the one Indian mayor elected in 2000.

Indian organizations see the results as a critical step in pushing back the centuries of abuse and prejudice they have suffered since the Portuguese first landed in Brazil in 1500, bringing enslavement and ill-nesses that slowly killed off many Indians.

The 1988 constitution, which restored democracy after more than two decades of military rule in 1985, gave Indians the right to vote for the first time in their history.

Although Indian politicians do not yet have one group uniting them, the political aims of their various parties are similar - to get their lands marked off, to have health services and education, and to gain full access to the mineral riches on their lands.

Sebastiao de Souza Konohum, joint coordinator for the defense of indigenous rights at the government's Indian agency, Funai, said the improving results for Indian candidates is largely thanks to better organization.

"We started organizing in 1980 and boosted that; work after the 1988 constitution," said Konohum, himself an Indian from Matto Grosso state. "In the future, our aim is to create an Indian party to look after our interests."'

Knohum expects that more than 100 Indians will be elected in these polls to office as mayors and local council members, up from 89 in the last vote. The full results are not yet ready. Nationwide there are nearly 5,600 municipalities in the country of 180 million.

Indians' best-yet political results came in parallel with a historic rise in their numbers - the first after a steady decline from the estimated 6 million people when the Portuguese first arrived.

The latest census in 2000 put Brazil's Indian population at 734,000, up from 400,000 at the end of the 1980s.

Those numbers in them-selves reflect the political am-bitions of Indians as many more were willing to define themselves as Indians in the 2000 census, said a spokes-woman for the Catholic-run Indigenous Missionary Council. Brazil lets individuals define their race.

Ancestros Inmigrantes -- buenas novidades !  
Sent by Janete Vargas
Hola a todos: Aquí envío información sobre el programa Ancestros Inmigrantes, al final del mensaje leerán una importante novedad sobre el proyecto italiano del programa. Será cuestión de empezar a buscar datos en esa base dentro de unos meses. Paciencia, todo llega!!! 

El proyecto "Ancestros Inmigrantes" patrocinado por el Centro de Historia Familiar de la Universidad de Brigham Young, Provo, Utah, trabaja actualmente en el fin de identificar los archivos producidos en Europa que documentan la experiencia de la emigración y proporcionan el lugar de nacimiento del emigrante. Los documentos están situados en los archivos municipales, provinciales, de estado, nacionales, gubernamentales, tanto como en los archivos universitarios y privadas de Alemania, España, Francia, Portugal, el Reino Unido. 
Esta búsqueda puso en evidencia un mosaico de leyes, regulaciones y aplicaciones prácticas que se traducen en una gran variedad de documentos y archivos con información sobre las exigencias que les fueron impuestas a los emigrantes antes de que dejen su país natal. Muchos han sido identificadas sólo recientemente (...) Para encontrar otros registros que posiblemente existen, habrá que visitar los archivos municipales y provinciales de las ciudades portuarias de cada país Europeo. 

En última primavera, estudiantes trabajaron con mucho éxito para encontrar y copiar más de algunos Archivos de las islas británicas y provincias vascas españolas así como en Roma y Nápoles Italia, Lisboa y Oporto en Portugal. 
En todos los casos las copias de las colecciones de expedientes de emigración fueron o están siendo adquiridas. Las copias luego son digitalizadas y distribuidas en pequeños lotes. 
La extracción de los datos por parte de los voluntarios es la llave del éxito del proyecto. Se envian pequeños paquetes de archivos de la emigración a voluntarios de el mundo entero que utilizan Software creado especialmente para trabajar por Internet con el fin de extraer la información. 
Los datos extraídos luego son reenviados al centro de Historia de las Familias y de la genealogía, donde Directores de tesis arrastrados verifican que las extracciones sean exactas antes de que sean añadidas a la base de datos. 
Estos datos permitirán crear una base de datos en línea que incluirá, en resumidas cuentas, millones de inmigrantes con su lugar de origen. La base de datos inicial que contiene millares de nombres se encuentra en el link 

FUENTE: Conferencia ofrecida por el Dr. George Ryskamp, durante la  70 Conferencia de la IFLA, realizada en Buenos Aires en Agosto de 2004 -  IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions). 

Proyecto italiano 
Entre 1876 y 1976 cerca de 26 milliones de italianos salieron de su tierra natal en dirección a varios puntos por todo el mundo. El flujo migratorio aumentó rápidamente durante las últimas dos décadas del siglo XIX hasta llegar a su punto más alto durante la primera década del siglo siguiente. A fin de poder emigrar legalmente, Italia requería que sus ciudadanos obtuvieran pasaportes. A pesar de que los pasaportes originales permanecieron con los individuos o las familias que partieron de Italia, todavía es posible acceder, en cierto grado, a las listas de los pasaportes otorgados o los documentos relacionados con el pedido y la obtención de dichos pasaportes. Tales registros, en especial los pertenecientes al período de cambio de siglo, se encuentran hoy en los Archivos de Estado de las provincias italianas. Una vez que se los localiza, esa documentación adquiere un valor extraordinario en la identificación de los individuos que mostraron intenciones de dejar el país. 
El Proyecto Ancestros Inmigrantes está trabajando en la localización, identificación y adquisición de copias digitales de dichos documentos en los Archivos de Estado italianos. 


Los voluntarios del proyecto italiano comienzan el trabajo de extracción este mes 
Se ha logrado mucho progreso en el Proyecto Ancestros Inmigrantes Italianos. Luego de mucha investigación, recolección de registros y organización, el Proyecto Ancestros Inmigrantes se complace en anunciar que ya se está trabajando en la creación de batches de documentos y que los voluntarios habrán de comenzar el trabajo de extracción durante el corriente mes. 

Information on Migration
Migration to Latin America

Publicado en Odiel Información, de Huelva, el  28 de junio de 2005                           

Marinos hispanoamericanos

En la época de los descubrimientos había dos pueblos que tenían una gran superioridad sobre los demás en el dominio del mar, los españoles y los portugueses, aunque ambos y durante tiempo fueron una sola nación.

Los españoles se asentaron en América y fueron muchos los hijos que nacieron en aquellas tierras, por eso hace unos días encontré unos datos sobre varios marinos españoles  que habían nacido en tierras americanas y quiero detallarlos porque me parece de interesante recordarlo.

El Jefe de Escuadra Pedro Agar Bustillo (1764-1821) había nacido en Santa Fe de Bogotá; dos importantes exploradores de la América del Norte Juan Francisco Bodega y el teniente de navío Juan Quimper y del Pino, vinieron al mundo en Lima; Eran mexicanos los exploradores de las costas americanas Gonzalo López de Haro y José de Loyando. El brigadier de la Armada que combatió en Trafalgar a bordo del “Príncipe”  y desapareció en un naufragio, Rosendo Porlier y Sáenz  de Astequieta y el teniente general de la Armada José Maria Pareja, nacieron en Cartagena de Indias.

El célebre almirante de la “Gloriosa”, Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo, era natural de San Andrés de Tuxtla en México.

En la parte sur del continente también nacieron hijos de españoles que después formaron parte de la élite de la Marina. De Argentina fueron el teniente de Navío Cándido Sala Larrazabal y los hermanos Felipe y José Márquez de la Prada.

Punto y aparte merecen los nueve gloriosos guardiamarinas de combatieron en Trafalgar, Francisco y Santiago Aldao, Matías Irigoyen, Martín Warnes, Eusebio Medrano, Francisco Gurruchaga, Miguel Merlo,  Luis Flores y Benito Lynch, todos argentinos.

Y dejamos para el final los cubanos, que fueron muchos y entre los que encontramos a Lorenzo Prado y Carvajal, los hermanos Tiburcio y Francisco Díaz Pimienta, Antonio Duran y Urrutia, que llegó a ser Consejero Supremo de Indias, o el teniente coronel de Infantería de Marina, que había nacido en La Habana en 1785 y que participó en la guerra de África. y el teniente de navío José Álvarez de Toledo, que tuvo una destacada actuación en el ejercito carlista.

                                    Ángel  Custodio Rebollo

Lists of Passengers to America   Copyright 1999-2004, Luis del Pino
Sent by Johanna De Soto  


Internet Explorer 6 with the Visual Basic automation and the vector graphics components (if these components are not installed, the system will ask whether you want to install them the first time the database is accessed; Internet Explorer 6 MUST be installed in order to access to the system). 
Flash player (I could not access the system until I installed it). In addition, you need to register into the system. (You must be registered in the system)  TO REGISTER INTO AER

Go to the page 
Click the button Alta de usuario (New User). 
Fill the different fields, including Usuario (User) and Contraseña (Password). 
Click the Guardar (Save) button. 
Click the Salir (Exit) button. FIRST TIME ACCESS TO THE AER DATABASE

To access AER, go to the page 
Type your username and password in the fields Usuario and Contraseña, respectively. 
Click the button Aceptar (Accept). 
Select the menu option Búsqueda/Temas de búsqueda (Search/Search Topics). 
Click the link Nuevo tema (New Topic), located on the top right part of the screen. 
Type a text describing your interests (e.g. "History" or "Spanish Genealogy") in the field Título (Title). 
Click the button Guardar (Save). 
Click the button Volver (Go back). 
In the screen Temas de consulta (Search topics), press over the magnifying glass icon located to the left of the search topic you typed. 
When the form titled Criterios de búsqueda (Search criteria) appears, press the link "Búsqueda por signatura" (Reference search). 
Type the text "CONTRATACION,S.42" in the field Signatura incompleta (Incomplete reference). 
Click the button Buscar (Search) located to the right, in the very same line. 
The screen Resultado de la búsqueda (Search results) will appear, showing three references. The first reference is just the catalogue grouping of the other two. The third reference contains the actual passenger lists, with the original image of the document. Unfortunately, these lists are not indexed, so you can not perform direct searches in them. However, the second reference whose title is "Informaciones y licencias de pasajeros a Indias" (Info and licenses of the passengers to America) contains a subset of the passengers (about 5% of the total) for whom there exists a full dossier. These passengers are indexed, so if you are lucky maybe you can find an ancestor there. Click over this reference. 
The descriptive screen will appear. Click the tab titled "Contiene" (Contents). The list of volumes will appear, showing the first 10 volumes. 
Clicking over one of the volumes will bring up another descriptive screen, showing the years corresponding to that volume. Click the tab titled "Contiene" (Contents). This way you will access the list of passengers contained in that volume; the screen shows initially the first ten passengers. 
Click over one of the passengers. Another descriptive screen will be shown, with the basic information about the passenger. To the right of the title of the tab named "Detalle" (Details) there will be an icon representing a camera. Clicking over it, the graphics program used to view the digitized document will be started (it can take a while). The first time you click the camera icon, Internet Explorer may ask you whether you want to install two graphics complements (which are necessary to view the documents). After installing one of the complements it may be necessary to restart the system.TO ACCESS THE AER DATABASE THE NEXT TIME

Follow the same procedure, just skipping steps 6 to 8.


To access AER, go to the page
Type your username and password in the fields Usuario and Contraseña, respectively. 
Click the button Aceptar (Accept). 
Select the menu option Búsqueda/Temas de búsqueda (Search/Search Topics). 
In the screen Temas de consulta (Search topics), press over the magnifying glass icon located to the left of your search topic. 
When the form titled Criterios de búsqueda (Search criteria) appears, press the link "Otros criterios de búsqueda" (Other search criteria) located at the top right corner of the screen. 
Type the text "licencia" (license) in the field Contenido (Content), at the bottom of the screen. 
Type the desired surname (without accents) in the field Texto General (General text), located at the top of the screen. 
Type again the surname in the field "Término" (search term) of the section "Indices" (indexes). 
Press the button labeled Buscar. 
The existing dossiers for that surname will appear.VIEWING THE DIGITIZED DOCUMENTS

The graphics program has several options for zooming in and out, rotating the image and applying effects. The effects are applied selecting the appropriate effect in the drop-down list and then clicking one of the three buttons located to the right of the list; those buttons apply the corresponding effect with low, medium, and high intensity (respectively).

In the left part of the screen you will find a pane which allows you to directly navigate to a selected page within the document.  To exit the graphics program, just close the window.

The Ships List
Compania Transatlantica Espanola
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Diaries & Journals | Immigration Reports | Illustrated London News | Trivia | Frequently Asked Questions





By Richard G. Santos
Sent by George Gause

If you thought only Jesse and Frank James, the Younger Brothers, Dalton Gang and non-Hispanics held up trains at the end of the 19th Century, then listen up. This is a peek at a part of Texas and U.S. history missing from textbooks, movies and TV. Moreover, neither John Wayne nor Clint Eastwood appear anywhere in sight. This is history, not make believe.

The lower Río Grande south of Laredo was in turmoil in 1891. It began on January 19, when Mexican bandit José Mosqueda crossed the river and held up a train! The holdup occurred at La Loma Trozada between Brownsville and Port Isabel. Ranchers, farmers, Tejanos and Mexican laborers took arms and joined various posses trying to catch the train robbers to recoup their hard-earned wages and payrolls. According to the ballad, there was a shootout at Rancho La Lata and another at Rancho el Calabozo. The Texas Rangers and the Cameron County Sheriff’s Department also mounted their respective posses but Mosqueda and his men managed to cross the Río Grande into Mexico and elude capture.

The Corrido de José Mosqueda tells the story. "El diéz y nueve de enero el pueblo se alborotó (the people got excited on January 19th) cuando fué el primer golpe que José Mosquedo dio" (for on that day José Mosqueda struck for the first time). En el rancho de la Lata donde se vío lo bonito ( It was at Rancho La Lata where they had a great shootout), es donde hicieron correr al señor Santiágo Brito" (that is where they made Mr. Santiágo Brito flee). "Más allá en El Calabozo donde se vío lo más fino (It was a little further at Rancho El Calabozo where they had a greater shootout) es donde hiciéron correr al diputado Justino" (that is where they made Deputy Justino run).

In reference to people who lost their money, the ballad says the property of Juan Benítez "will now have to be sold at auction". Meanwhile, one of Mosqueda’s partners named Simón García reportedly told his fellow train robbers they were going to spend the stolen money in Mexico. Obviously feeling unsafe, the song adds that García moved from Tamaulipas on the Texas border to the State of Sinalóa on the Pacific coast.

I met the descendants of Catarino E. Garza in Duval County. They reside in San Diego, Benavides and Concepción (i.e. "La Chona"). With my sound-on-sound, four-track, reel-to-reel recorder I taped two corridos concerning their ancestor. In fact, it was in this manner that I collected the Corridos Tejanos from San Ygnacío to Brownsville and San Diego to McAllen. More will be said about that later. At this point I should note Catarino E. Garza was born in Matamoros, Tamaulipas on November 25, 1859. He was apparently educated in Monterrey, Nuevo León for he grew up to become a literate and prolific writer.

In 1877, six years after General Porfírio Díaz was first elected President of Mexico, Catarino and many border Mexican citizens migrated to Texas. In 1879, Catarino was a reporter for El Bién Público newspaper in Brownsville. In 1886, he was writing for El Comércio Mexicano newspaper in Eagle Pass. The following year he was writing for El Libre Pensador at Eagle Pass. By 1888, Catarino was in Corpus Christi writing for another paper also called El Comércio Mexicano. Three years later he was in Laredo, Texas writing for another paper called El Libre Pensador.

The restless, wandering journalist in August 1891 raised a force of 38 men and invaded Mexico via the village of Miér, Tamaulipas. Catarino E. Garza intended to start a rebellion to oust President Díaz. The invading rebel force harassed the rurales de Díaz (Federal rural police) for three months and returned to Texas in November. The following month he dispatched another invading rebel force that battled the rurales at Rancho de las Tortillas, Tamaulipas. El Corrido de los Pronunciádos (ballad of the rebels) tells of the battle which occurred on December 10th.

"El día diéz de diciémbre, que día tán señalado" (the 10th of December is a memorable day). "En el Rancho de las Tortillas siéte muertos han causado" (seven people were killed at Rancho de las Tortillas). The song tells how the rebels crossed the Río Grande and attacked a military post commanded by an officer named Salinas. The rebels yelled "Víva Catarino Garza" and the besieged rurales replied "Víva el Supremo Gobiérno" (long live the national government). Defender José Besarrúbia was the first to be killed. According to the ballad, rebel Captain Darío Hernández killed the second-in-command (Besarrúbia?) with five shots to the head. Don Cristóbal, a rural officer, was saddened by the pleas of the dying officer. The ballad’s last stanza tells how the rurales surrendered and the rebels took their horses, saddles and weapons telling the soldiers to charge President Díaz for what they were taking. It says, "Gritaban los pronunciádos con demaciádo valór ésto lo cargan a Díaz si al cabo es buén pagador" (the rebels yelled with much valor, charge Díaz for this as he pays well).

With a major victory in hand, additional rebels were sent across the Río Grande in early 1892 and a large battle against the federal forces took place at El Chapeño, Tamaulipas. This time the rebels lost and had to flee back to Texas. Waiting for the rebels on the Texas side of the border were several posses and a U. S. Cavalry unit. The Ranger posse was under the command of Captain Hall from San Ygnácio, Texas. El Corrido del Capitán Hall picks up the story.

"El diéz y seis de diciembre salió Hall de San Ygnácio a seguír los pronunciádos pero salió muy despacio ( Hall left San Ygnacio in pursuit of the rebels on December 16th but he moved slowly). According to the ballad, they had their first encounter at the "Rancho de Don Proceso" in Starr County. From there the rebels moved toward Granjeños where a Mr. Landín told them the Rangers had just left their camp. The song says Captain Hall hesitated when he saw the large rebel force. Rebel Melquiádes González removed his dry meat bag from his saddle to draw his weapon as he taunted the Rangers. Alejo (no last name given) quickly drew his carbine preparing to battle the Rangers. Margarito Benavídes, said to be riding a good horse, quickly dismounted after the first volley in order not to lose his mount. Idalécio Uribe was wounded and told his fellow rebels he was paralyzed. Meanwhile, Juan Duqué and Darío Hernández climbed a small hill and reportedly started serenading the Ranger posse. Seeing the posse backing away, Hernández yelled at them not be afraid and to continue the battle.

The one-sided Corrido del Capitán Hall favoring the rebels does not tell the rebels actually lost the battle. Those who did not escape were arrested and sent across the border where the rurales promptly executed them as "border bandits". Meanwhile, Catarino E. Garza managed to escape and in 1893 reappeared in Costa Rica. The following year (1894) he published his famous booklet against President Díaz titled La Erá de Túxtepec en México o séa, rúsia en américa (The Era of Túxtepec or, Russia in America). Soon after releasing the booklet, Catarino E. Garza moved to Colombia where he reportedly died in May 1895. To this day, his descendants reside in Duval, Jim Wells, Nueces, Jim Hogg, Hidalgo, Starr and Cameron counties. Descendants of the rebel Uribe reside in Webb, Strarr and Cameron counties and can count in their present extended family numerous teachers, business people and a former Texas State Senator. It was at San Ygnácio, Texas where the Uribes (including the former Senator) allowed me to record them singing El Corrido del Capitán Hall.

Next week in Part III, we will deal with the corridos Tejanos at the dawn of the 20th Century before the arrival of the Mexican refugees and political exiles. There is a certain overlap of time, but there are issues of Tejano history and society which stood separate and apart from the concerns of the Mexican citizens in exile. To again paraphrase the 755 year old El Romance de la Delgada, "ya con ésta me despido a la sombra de un mesquíte (under the shade of a mesquite tree, I now say farewell) aquí se acaba cantando la história de los corridos (this brings an end to the history of the corridos).


By Richard G. Santos
Sent by

On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated while driving through Sarajevo, Bosnia. Because of a series of treaties among the European countries meant to protect and support each other, the world was soon lunched into the First World War. Germany, Austria-Hungry and the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire joined forces to battle France, England and Russia. The United States declared itself neutral but after the sinking of passenger ship Lusitania by a German submarine on May 7, 1915, President Woodrow Wilson and the public began to reconsider their non-aggressive stance. The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Germany on February 1, 1917. On February 25, the British Secret Service handed the U. S. Government a copy of "the Zimmermann telegram" which set in motion a series of historic events affecting Texas and U.S. – Mexico relations. The telegram was supposedly sent by Arthur Zimmermann, German Minister of Foreign Relations to the German Ambassador in Mexico who had forwarded the wire to Venustiáno Carranza and was reportedly intercepted by British intelligence. The wire revealed Zimmermann was asking Mexico to ally itself with Germany in case of war between itself and the United States. If Mexico sided with Germany, Mexico would be allowed to regain "the lost territories of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona." According to the British government, the telegram had been intercepted at Monterrey, Nuevo León where German spies were known to be active. The fact German spies had been arrested at the Menger Hotel in San Antonio and the parish priest at Río Grande City, Texas was a known paymaster for the German spy ring operating out of Monterrey, Nuevo León did not help matters any.

Making the telegram more credible was the 1915 Plán de San Diego reportedly written by Luís de la Rosa of Monterrey, Nuevo León. The Plán supposedly tied to the Masonic Lodge of San Diego, Texas called for the Tejanos to declare independence from the United States! The Plán also encouraged the Tejanos to establish a republic and later annex itself to Mexico. El Corrido de los Sediciósos (ballad of the seditious men) and El Corrido de los Bandidos de Nórias (ballad of the bandits from Nórias) tell the story of the international incident which occurred in August 1915.

The second stanza of Los Sediciósos reveals the battle which occurred at Nórias, Texas near Kingsville followed skirmishes at Mercedes, Brownsville and San Benito. However, being written by a Tejano, the composer recorded his concern. "Ya la mecha está encendida por los puros mexicanos (the match has been stricken by real Mexicans) y los que van a pagarla son los mexicotejanos" (the ones who will pay for this will be the mexicotejanos). In the following stanza the song repeats the match has been stricken and "y los que van a pagarla son los de éste lado" (and the ones who will pay for it are the [Hispanics] of this side of the border). Further emphasis is given on the following stanza to the fact innocent Tejanos would pay for the actions of the Mexican invaders. "y la vamos a pagar los que no debemos nada" (and we who are not involved will pay for this).

The second half of the ballad reveals leader Luís de la Rosa had lost control of the invading group. Aniceto Pizana, Teodoro Fuentes, Vicente Giro and Miguel Salinas were individually given a stanza of their own in which they claim the Texas Rangers and riders of La Kineña (King Ranch) were cowards. They also refer sarcastically to de la Rosa as breaking down in fear and crying throughout the shootout. In one stanza Teodoro Fuentes tells de la Rosa not to go with them to Mercedes, Texas which they planned to raid. "Vale más que Usted no vaya porque nomás va a llorar" (it would be best for you [de la Rosa] not to join us for you will only cry). The corridor then reveals the bandits passed through Mercedes and San Benito, Texas planning to raid the train depot at Los Olmitos. Although the ballad does not say if the depot or any other community was assaulted, it does note that "ya se van los sediciósos, ya se van de retirada, de recuerdo nos dejaron una veta colorada" (the seditious men are leaving in retreat and have left us a red [bloody] trail to remember them).

El Corrido de los Bandidos de Nórias starts off by giving Sunday, August 8th as the date of the shootout at Rancho de las Nórias, Texas. The shootout had occurred at a small building on a loading ramp by the side of the railroad tracks. Anglo and Tejano cowmen from the King Ranch had battled the invading Mexican force under Luís de la Rosa. Someone had apparently sent a telegram to the Texas Rangers because as the song says, the Rangers came aboard a train. "El trén que viene de Bránsbil viene dando pitadas (the train from Brownsville arrived blowing its horn) y en ése llegaron los rinches a buscar los bandidos" (and on that train were the Rangers looking for the bandits). According to the composer, the Rangers were mounted and ready to pursue the invading Mexican bandits by three in the afternoon. The Ranger Captain is mentioned by stating "y les decía Tomás Mósli estamos bién preparados" (Thomas Mosley said to them "we are well prepared").

The Tejano ballad composer included personal jabs at the Mexican bandits. "Bandidos de Tamaulipas… ay que susto les han dado los rinches de la Kineña" (Oh bandits of Tamaulipas, how the Rangers of the King Ranch have frightened you). The ballad then tells how the whereabouts of the bandits were unknown. He theorized they might have gone via San Benito, Járlingen (Harlinger), Reimonbíl (Raymondville) to Las Tenerías before the Rangers caught up with them at Los Cerritos. "Dicen que allá por el río en un ratito fuéron rodeádos (they say they were quickly surrounded at the river) les agarraron a balazos y no fuéron muchos los escapados" (in the shootout which occurred not many [of the bandits] managed to escape). The composer made an interesting statement in the last stanza. "El que compuso estos versos no sabía lo que decía" (the person who composed these verses did not [personally] know what he was saying). "Estos versos son compuestos por los rinches y los bandidos" (these verses were composed by the Rangers and the bandits). Apparently the composer was not present at the battle but gathered the information from the Rangers and bandits. However, the composer was correct in fearing innocent Tejanos and Mexican laborers would suffer. Pancho Villa’s raid of Columbus, New Mexico in March 1916, set off another series of international incidents on the U.S. – Mexico border.

Ironically, it was not until the late1980’s that British intelligence revealed the Zimmermann telegram was a fake! England needed the United States to enter the war against Germany and Turkey. Therefore, the British intelligence service made up the telegram and managed to get President Wilson and the public to believe it. The battle at Las Nórias, El Plán de San Diégo and Villa’s raid of Columbus, New Mexico gave credence to the fake telegram. Hence, the U. S. declared war against Germany and the Ottoman Empire in April 1917.

Today, historians suspect the Plán de San Diégo was also a fake. Residents of Duval County and especially San Diégo, Texas do not know of any local family involved in the Plán or the famous shoot out at Las Nórias Ranch. Many are descendants of the families who settled the land grants along the eastside (i.e. Texas side) of the Río Grande from 1749 to 1775 (under Spain) and in the Duval County – Coastal Bend area from 1776 through 1821 (under Spain). As many Tejanos note with orgullo y terquedad (with pride and tenacity) their families have been on "this side" of the Río Grande since BEFORE there was a United States (1776), Republic of Mexico (1824) and Republic of Texas (1836). However, many of the Anglo and Tejano families of the lower Río Grande from Laredo to Brownsville on the Texas side of the border were involved in the attempts to create (1) the Republic of the Río Grande in 1841, (2) Republic of the Seven States of the Sierra Madre in 1849 and petitioned the U. S. Congress in 1850 to create "The State of Nueces". The proposed state was to be bordered on the east by the Nueces River and west by the Río Grande. The Gulf of Mexico was to be the southern border extending north to the headwaters of the Río Grande in Colorado. One of the signers of the petition was none other than Juan Nepomuceno Cortinas (mentioned in a previous column) who after the U. S. Civil War would be declared a "border bandit" by the U.S. government. The Tejanos considered him a folk hero (ala Billy the Kid and Jesse James) while the Anglo longtime residents of the lower Río Grande called him "the Robin Hood of the Río Grande". Unfortunately, he and many others are excluded in the Texas and U. S. history textbooks, movies and TV.




Spanish language PAF 4.04 ppt  
Global Gene Project to Trace Humanity's Migrations
Search simultaneous 
Historical Census Browser

PAF Companion prints color charts
Your Family History on TV
Military Maneuvers
How to Request Authorization for a Medal
Labeling Photos


Spanish language PAF  4.04  ppt  

Search simultaneous with Yahoo, Google, All the Web Alta Vista, Hot Bot, Lycos, etc. - anywhere in the world.

Sent by Janete Vargas

Global Gene Project to Trace Humanity's Migrations

Hillary Mayell for National Geographic News

April 13, 2005

New DNA studies suggest that all humans descended from a single African ancestor who lived some 60,000 years ago. To uncover the paths that lead from him to every living human, the National Geographic Society today launched the Genographic Project at its Washington, D.C., headquarters.

The project is a five-year endeavor undertaken as a partnership between IBM and National Geographic. It will combine population genetics and molecular biology to trace the migration of humans from the time we first left Africa, 50,000 to 60,000 years ago, to the places where we live today.

Ten research centers around the world will receive funding from the Waitt Family Foundation to collect and analyze blood samples from indigenous populations (such as aboriginal groups), many in remote areas. The Genographic Project hopes to collect more than a hundred thousand DNA samples to create the largest gene bank in the world. Members of the public are also being invited to participate.

"Our DNA tells a fascinating story of the human journey: how we are all related and how our ancestors got to where we are today," said American geneticist and anthropologist Spencer Wells, the project leader. "This project will show us some of the routes early humans followed to populate the globe and paint a picture of the genetic tapestry that connects us all."

Wells, a National Geographic explorer-in-residence, feels a certain sense of urgency. Wars, environmental disasters, and increasing globalization are causing more people to move, and the world is gradually becoming less culturally and genetically diverse.

"We need to take a genetic snapshot of who we are as a species before the geographic and cultural context are lost in the melting pot," Wells said. He cites language as a measure of the disappearance of cultures. "There are around 6,000 languages spoken in the world today, and by the end of the century, between half and 90 percent of those are going to be gone."

IBM, as the technology partner of the project, will participate in collecting the data, storing it, and analyzing it.

"We have some indications, from prior studies about the migration of people, how the diversity and similarity that we see in peoples of the world might have happened in the last 50,000 to 10,000 years," said Ajay Royyuru, a senior manager of IBM's Computational Biology Center. "But what is missing is the detail, the ability for everyone on the planet to be able to see, understand, exactly how they got to be where they are."

Tracking Genetic Markers

Each human parent contributes half of a child's DNA, which combines with the other parent's DNA to form a new genetic combination. This so-called recombination gives each of us a unique set of attributes: hair, eye, and skin color; athleticism or lack thereof; susceptibility to certain diseases; and so on.

However, the chunk of DNA known as the y chromosome, which only males possess, is passed from father to son without recombining. The y chromosome, therefore, remains basically unchanged through generations, except for random mutations. Similarly, women pass mitochondrial DNA, which also does not recombine, on to both their sons and daughters.

Random mutations to DNA, which happen naturally and are usually harmless, are called markers. Once a marker has been identified, geneticists can go back in time and trace it to the point at which it first occurred. This way, they are able to determine when and where a new lineage began.

If they can be traced to a particular region, these lineages can be used to track prehistoric migration patterns. However, indigenous identities are being lost as more and more people move from their ancestral villages.

"And when they do [leave], their kids [absorb] the dominant culture in that [new] city and lose touch with the old ways," Wells said. "So what we lose is the context in which their genetic diversity arose. The genes are still going to be there, but without the geographical context, we can't infer anything historical from the genetic data."

Battur Tumer, a descendant of Genghis Khan and one of the participants at the project launch today in Washington, D.C., exemplifies the importance of finding indigenous populations in their ancestral lands.

Wells's team collected y chromosome data in a region of Asia once ruled by the 13th-century Mongolian warrior. Their analysis identified a marker that originated about a thousand years ago and was carried by about 8 percent of the men living in the region. The marker was found in only one population outside of Asia_the Hazaras tribe in Pakistan. The Hazaras have a long oral tradition that says they're Khan's direct descendants.

Tying the marker to a geographic location and looking at the region's history_Genghis Khan's armies often raped the women of vanquished villages, and his descendants later expanded the empire_suggests that today roughly 16 million men carry a genetic mutation that probably originated with Khan's great-great-grandfather.

The spread of that particular mutation was the result of a cultural artifact_military success combined with a culture in which men could have many wives and concubines_but it exemplifies much of the impetus of the Genographic Project.

"The shared marker was identified because a focused effort was made to sample specific populations, going after populations like the Hazara, who have this oral history and want to test it to see if it's true," Wells said.

"In addition, the people in the region had lived there for centuries, and enough samples were collected to do an analysis. The indigenous groups participated because the wanted their stories told."

Public Participation

The Genographic Project is designed to tell everyone's story, though, not just the stories of indigenous cultures. What is unique about this project is the extent to which it relies on public participation.

"Most research happens through the hands of researchers, and the public at large gets to hear about it and learn about it on occasion, but there isn't a way for them to participate. This project is actually inviting individuals all over the world to be sort of associate researchers," Royyuru said. "Success is actually going to be determined by how many and how diverse the people are that participate, which is a fascinating thing."

The DNA data being collected places a person in a "haplogroup"_a lineage or branch on the human family tree that is defined by a set of genetic markers. Haplogroup R, for instance, is identified by a y chromosome mutation known as M173. Roughly 70 percent of English men have this lineage, 95 percent of Spanish men, and 95 percent of Irish men.

"The reason a lot of western Europeans have it is because it defines an expansion in the end of the last ice age as people moved north out of Iberia [ancient Spain]," Wells said. "The cool thing is that the penultimate marker_if you go back one step from M173_is M45, which arose in Central Asia, so it tells you about this journey your ancestors took through the steppes of Central Asia hunting mammoths and so on. Before that they were down in the Middle East."

The Middle Eastern marker, M89, represents a wave of migration out of Africa that occurred around 45,000 years ago. The Haplogroup R lineage ultimately traces all the way back to marker M168.

"Every non-African has M168, which appeared in eastern Africa around 60,000 years ago," Wells said.

"Some geographies have been better studied than others," Royyuru said. "In Europe we have a much better understanding of the genotypic diversity that exists and how that population happens to be so diverse_who came from where at what point in time. That is not the case with a large majority of Asia and Africa. There is certainly some understanding of the possible waves of migration and the routes that people might have traveled to populate North and South America, but even those are not definitive."

Should you want to get an idea of your own origins, National Geographic is selling kits that allow an individual to take a cheek swab, send it to a laboratory in Arizona, and then track the information on the Genographic Project Web site.

The kits will sell for U.S. $99.95 plus shipping and handling. The net proceeds from sales of the kits will fund additional research and the Legacy Project, which will aid indigenous cultures.

Legacy and Controversy

"The three main pillars of the project are field research, public participation and communication, and the Legacy Project," Wells said. "We see this as a collaborative effort with the indigenous populations."

The Legacy Project will provide indigenous groups participating in the Genographic Project with direct help through development projects, education, and public-awareness campaigns aimed at preserving traditional cultures.

The idea of creating the world's largest DNA database and collecting blood samples from indigenous groups could raise objections.

Genographic was specifically designed to dispel many of these concerns. The kits are designed so that there's no way to tie a kit's identification number to a specific individual.

Wells emphasizes the public nature of the project.

"We want this to be a very open project. We want to tell the public what it is we're doing, the goals, the methods, and we want to explain the results," Wells said. "We're not doing anything medically relevant, not patenting anything," he added.

"We see this as information that's part of the [common heritage] of our species. It's going to be released into the public domain, and people can go back and reanalyze it and query it and learn about it. We're hoping to create a virtual museum of human history."

SOURCE: John Inclan

Historical Census Browser
Sent by Johanna De Soto

The data and terminology presented in the Historical Census Browser are drawn directly from historical volumes of the U.S. Census of Population and Housing.

What can you do on this site? 
Examine state and county topics for individual census years. 
Examine multiple topics within a census year  
Produce tables of data by state or county 
Sort data by selected categories 
Create ratios between any two data categories 
Examine state and county topics over time. 
Examine a topic across multiple census years 
Produce tables of data by state or county 
Generate maps of selected data Choose a category to begin examining data: 
General Population Ethnicity/Race/Place of Birth 
Education & Literacy Agriculture 
Economy/Manufacturing/Employment Slave Population 
Generate maps of selected data Choose a census year to begin examining data: 
1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 
1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 

What you cannot do on this site:
Find Information about individuals 
Find information for areas below the county level (e.g. cities, census tracts) 
Download data. The site is not intended as a tool for downloading data for further research or more involved manipulation. Those who require this level of analysis should download the original data from ICPSR. Further resources:

Find out more about the data included in this site.
Find links to further historical census resources.
To cite this Collection (APA Style): 
(2004). Historical Census Browser. Retrieved [Date you accessed source], from the University of Virginia, Geospatial and Statistical Data Center:

Geospatial and Statistical Data Center
University of Virginia Library • PO Box 400129
Charlottesville VA 22904-4129 
phone: 434.982.2630 • fax: 434.924.1431 Geostat Home • UVa Library Home 
Search the Library Web • UVa Home
Maintained by: 
Last Modified: Thursday, June 02, 2005 
© The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia 

Family History for Kids ...
Sent by Janete Vargas

Here are a few web pages I found about teaching kids genealogy. There are hundreds and hundreds!!!

(At the very bottom are 2 pages that will probably be something great to use with the girls.)


PAF Companion prints color charts  
Sent by David Lewis
The popular genealogy charting product, PAF Companion, now prints family tree charts in color.
The ability to print charts in color is a helpful tool requested by many users of the prominent PAF (Personal Ancestral File) genealogy management software produced by the Church.

"Color provides two major benefits. First, it simply looks nicer. Second, it helps highlight specific family lines, which can become difficult to navigate as family trees grow in size. The new color feature allows users to eliminate confusion and better analyze their family trees by custom coloring family lineages in a variety of schemes and formats," said Paul Nauta, manager of public affairs.
Sample charts and reports for PAF Companion 5.2 can be viewed at

With more than 150,000 copies sold worldwide, PAF Companion is a popular family tree-charting product used by both novice and experienced genealogists. PAF Companion 5.2 now offers three color styles for ancestor, descendant, bow tie, hourglass, and fan charts. Users can choose to color by gender, generation or lineage.

PAF Companion provides default colors used by professional genealogists, or users can select their own color schemes. As an added bonus, a gradient option can be applied to any color chart to enhance visual appeal. The traditional black and white charts are also still available.
Other new options include applying colors to PAF Companion's chart views to help users easily navigate back and forth along their family trees. Line widths can be customized — a very useful feature when printing larger charts.
Charts can be printed on any size paper (including tile pages to create wall charts) and users can share charts electronically by e-mail or publish to the Web. PAF Companion reads PAF files directly so PAF users do not have to convert their files or re-enter data. Simply select a person in a PAF file, choose a chart type, and the chart is instantly created.  PAF Companion 5.2 comes bundled with Personal Ancestral File 5.2 and is sold for $8.25 (U.S.; price includes shipping and handling). It can be purchased through Distribution Services (77065).


Your Family History on TV
By California African American Genealogical Society, Volume 17, Number 2
Heritage Newsletter, February 2005

Did your family make its mark on history? Your genealogy research could land you on History Detectives, the hit PBS program, produced by OPB TV, which returns for its third season this summer.

Is your family history connected to a significant moment in America's history? If your genealogy research has turned up clues that your ancestors played a key role in a history-making event. History Detectives wants to help you piece the puzzle together. You and the ghosts of ancestors past could appear on PBS's hit series this summer!

History Detectives will also feature a school-kid History Detective this summer along with their cool case. The detectives are looking for stories about old houses, family heirlooms, or local legends that might contain a fascinating mystery from our nation's past. If your story is chosen, you'll appear on the programs and solve your mystery right alongside our detectives on TV.



The newly renovated, US Army Heritage and Education Center's Military History Institute (USAMHI, ) in Carlisle, Pa., reopened its new 66,000-square-foot facility. The site is open for individual to do research. Hours are weekdays from 9 a.m. to 4:45 p.m.

As the Army's central repository for historical materials, USAMHI holds 11 million items, including books, magazines and journals, military publications, diaries, letters, maps, memoirs, oral histories, photographs and classified documents. Its collection of Civil War materials is among the best in the country.
The new facility, with an electronic database system and preservation-friendly environmental controls, is a far cry from the archives' previous home in an Army War College former classroom building.

Source: Family Tree Magazine-ezine 8/04

How to Request Authorization for a Medal

Sent by Bob Smith

For information obtaining legal authorization for an award you feel you deserve please go here:

For info on obtaining military records, a DD-214, a WD AGO 53-55, or medals please see the following URLs. Use your web browser to view/print the attached reference card.

Access the database:



SPN/SPD Codes:
WD AGO 53-55, NAVPERS, NG22 or other Release Statement:

An original copy of your DD-214 should be located in your DD-201 (Master Personnel) file that is stored (if it was not destroyed) at the National Records and Personnel Center in St. Louis MO.

For lost or destroyed DD-214's, you might ALSO contact your REGIONAL Veterans Administration office. (Contact any VA Service Center or VA Facility to get that address/fonenumber). By law after January 1997 copies of (existing) DD-214's were transmitted to local (home of [discharge date or current VA records address] Record) VA facilities. However, not all DD-214's were available for transfer. You may need to order a copy to be sent to your regional VA office. Use the form supplied at the RECORDS link, above. And/or when convenient, visit any VA facility to order (another) copy. (It's always best to duplicate any government request).

RECORDS (Mailing addresses):
1. Claims files for pensions based on Federal military service, 1775-1916, and bounty land warrant
application files based on wartime service, 1775-1855
2. Regular Army enlisted personnel serving from 1789 through October 31,1912, and officer serving
from 1789 through June 30, 1917.
3. Records relating to persons who served in the Confederate States Army 1861-1865.
4. Volunteer service of persons serving during an emergency and whose service was considered to
be in the federal interest, during the period 1775-1902.
5. Morning Reports, pre-1917
6. Unit operational records, pre-1939
7. Unit rosters, pre-1917... Contact: Archives I Textual Reference Branch
National Archives and Records Administration
Washington, D.C. 20408 (202)-501-5430

1. Morning reports, 1917-1974 (In 1974 the Army discontinued the use of morning reports and
switched to PDC cards. PDC cards are also in the custody of the NPRC.)
2. Unit rosters, 1917-present, Regular Army
3. Officers separated after June 30, 1917, and enlisted personnel separated after October 31, 1912.

National Personnel Records Center
9700 Page Avenue
St. Louis, MO 63132-5100

Unit operational records, 1939-1954, and 1954 to present for units which served in Southeast Asia... Contact: Archives II Textual Reference Branch
National Archives and Records Administration
8601 Adelphi Road - College Park, MD 20740-6001 - (301)-713-7250


Unit operational records, 1954-present for units which did not serve in Southeast Asia; Organizational History Files, 1955- 1979

Freedom of Information and Privacy Acts Office
SAIS-IDP-F/P, Suite 201
1725 Jefferson Davis Highway
Arlington, VA 22202-4102
DSN 327-3377; (703)-607-3377

Organizational History Files, 1980-present
Organizational History Branch
U.S. Army Center of Military History
1099 14th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005-3402
DSN 763-5413; (202)-761-5413

Unit rosters, 1917-present, Army Reserve

Veterans: Army Reserve Personnel Center
9700 Page Avenue
St. Louis, MO 63132-5200

Public: U.S. Army Reserve Personnel Center
9700 Page Avenue
St. Louis, MO 63132-5200

Unit Lineages and Honors
Organizational History Branch
U.S. Army Center of Military History
1099 14th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005-3402
DSN 763-5413; (202) 761-5413

Awards for active duty personnel:
Military Awards Branch
Hoffman Building II, 200 Stovall Street, Alexandria, VA 22332-0400
DSN 221-8699; (703) 325-8699

Awards for veterans:
U.S. Army Reserve Personnel Center
Veterans Services Directorate
9700 Page Avenue
St. Louis, MO 63132-5200


Official photographs, 1861-1988
Still Picture Branch
Special Archives Division
National Archives and Records Administration
8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001
(301) 713-6660

Official photographs and videos
Defense Visual Information Center
1363 Z Street Center, March Air Force Base, CA 92518-2727
DSN 348-1505; (909) 413-1505

Motion pictures, 1898 to present:
Motion Picture, Sound & Video Branch
Special Archives Division
National Archives and Records Administration
8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001
(301) 713-7060

Official papers:
US Army Military History Institute
Carlisle Barracks PA 17013-5008
DSN 242-3611; (717) 245-3611

Official US Army publications
Official publications:
US Army Publications Center
2800 Eastern Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21220-2896
DSN 584-2272; (410) 671-2272

Information concerning flags, colors, streamers,
guidons, insignia, & uniforms (AR-840-10)
US Army Institute of Heraldry
9235 Gunston Road, Room S-112, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5579
DSN 656-4968/4969; (703) 806-4968/4969

US Army Air Forces records:
US Air Force Historical Research Agency
600 Chennault Circle, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6424
DSN 493-5834; (205) 953-5834


Operations Reports/Lessons Learned (ORLL) and other primary source material about Army units in Vietnam such as radio logs, unit journals, and after action reports, are stored at the Textual Reference Branch, National Archives, MD 20740-6001, 301/713-7250, fax 301/713-7482.

There are several resources available to assist your search for a VETERAN, MILITARY PERSON, OR UNIT/VESSELl. If you have any questions about using the 21 million name/20,000 unit association database, telephone the Library's Help Desk 310-532-0634, 10am to 3pm, Pacific Time. Use your web browser to view/print the attached reference card.

The worldwide accessible U.S. Military/Veteran Personnel Registry which contains over 19 million listings. New names/info are added everyday. Existing names/info are updated as new info arrives. Over 20,000 unit associations also listed. The Registry can be accessed by any computer modem, 24 hours/day. The modem number is: 1-310-715-2912.

Information about The Registry, please see URL:
You can register a veteran you are seeking at URL:
The Veteran Photograph Registry:
SPN/SPD Codes:


Labeling Photos
Sent by Bonnie Chapa

This was in our paper from St. Louis Mo. How true it is and very important for people to put names on there pictures and dates . I have been working on all my Mothers pictures of 100s for some time now and she is 83 and can help me name all the people before me I am thankful to God that Mother is still hear to help me. Its so important for family history and Genealogy . Bonnie Chapa

Dear Readers:

One thing I'll never regret is a visit to a frame shop just before closing time a couple of winters back. I had in hand four black-and-white 5x7 portraits taken of my mother, my sisters and me in our 20s, most from about the time we got married. The framer matted them side by side in a narrow rectangle -- one, two, three, four, oldest to youngest.

The black frame, almost fortyish in style, hangs in my foyer above the leather-topped table that held my grandmother's phone for so many decades. Not that my home is a shrine, but like many of you I do honor the few family pieces I've wound up with through the years.

The family female portraits, though -- that's something I'd have to grab on the way out the front door if my home were falling down around me. These aren't wedding gown pictures (thank goodness -- I'd hate to be immortalized in that long polyster beige print fiasco). They're just wistful moments of long-haired girls as captured in the '40s, '70s and '80s. How our lives have changed -- and not. The family resemblance in looks and deeds remains strong.

This Mother's Day, with our mother seriously ill, my sisters and I will be thinking a lot about who we are, and why we are. Where we got our sense of organization, our sociability (and our equal need for privacy). Where we got our love of hard work and good food and good times.

Of course, all of this sifted down to us from our mother, who got it from her mother, who, presumably, got it from her own. Is she the strikingly dark-eyed woman in the aged portrait I have in my guest room? It came from my grandmother's attic. No one living knows who she is, but I strongly suspect she's the mother of four who died 93 years ago after her husband brought home a puppy from his job on the railroad. It had rabies.

Thinking of this makes me realize I'd better get some names and dates on the back of my frame in the foyer. You really want someone to know who you were.

Nancy Miller, Lifestyle Editor
May 2005, Post Dispatch



Hopi Oral Tradition and the Archaeology of Identity
By Wesley Bernardini

As contemporary Native Americans assert the legacy of their ancestors, there is increasing debate among archaeologists over the methods and theories used to reconstruct prehistoric identity and the movement of social groups. This is especially problematic with respect to the emergence of southwestern tribes, which involved shifting populations and identities over the course of more than a thousand years.

Wesley Bernardini now draws on an unconventional source, 

Hopi traditional knowledge, to show how hypotheses that are developed from oral tradition can stimulate new and productive ways to think about the archaeological record. Focusing on insights that oral tradition has to offer about general processes of prehistoric migration and identity formation, he describes how each Hopi clan acquired its particular identity from the experiences it accumulated on its unique migration pathway. This pattern of "serial migration" by small social groups often saw the formation of villages by clans that briefly came together and then moved off again independently, producing considerable social diversity both within and among villages.

Using Anderson Mesa and Homol'ovi as case studies, Bernardini presents architectural and demographic data suggesting that the fourteenth century occupation of these regions was characterized by population flux and diversity consistent with the serial migration model. He offers an analysis of rock art motifs—focusing on those used as clan symbols—to evaluate the diversity of group identities, then presents a compositional analysis of JedditoYellow Ware pottery to evaluate the diversity of these groups' eventual migration destinations.

Evidence supporting serial migration greatly complicates existing notions of links between ancient and modern social groups, with important implications for the implementation of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. Bernardini's work clearly demonstrates that studies of cultural affiliation must take into account the fluid nature of population movements and identity in the prehistoric landscape. It takes a decisive step toward better understanding the major demographic change that occurred on the Colorado Plateau from 1275 to 1400 and presents a strategy for improving the reconstruction of cultural identity in the past.

The University of Arizona Press 1-800-426-3797
Wesley Bernardini is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Redlands
256 pp., 10 halftones, 32 line illus.  



Lions Protect Abducted Ethiopian Girl From Attackers
Wisdom of Will Rogers

I loved this incident. Remember the female gorilla that picked up a child that fell into their compound. Protecting it from the male gorilla, she gently placed him by the door so the caretakers could retrieve the dazed child. My Uncle Albert said that during WWII in many men injured in South Pacific waters were pushed to shore by dolphins and porpoises. ]]

Lions Protect Abducted Ethiopian Girl From Attackers
'They Stood Guard Until We Found Her,' Police Say
By Anthony Mitchell, AP
Sent by Win Holtzman


ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia (June 21) - A 12-year-old girl who was abducted and beaten by men trying to force her into a marriage was found being guarded by three lions who apparently had chased off her captors, a policeman said Tuesday.

The girl, missing for a week, had been taken by seven men who wanted to force her to marry one of them, said Sgt. Wondimu Wedajo, speaking by telephone from the provincial capital of Bita Genet, about 350 miles southwest of Addis Ababa.

She was beaten repeatedly before she was found June 9 by police and relatives on the outskirts of Bita Genet, Wondimu said. She had been guarded by the lions for about half a day, he said.

''The lions stood guard until we found her and then they just left her like a gift, and went back into the forest,'' Wondimu said.

''If the lions had not come to her rescue, then it could have been much worse. Often these young girls are raped and severely beaten to force them to accept the marriage,'' he said.

Tilahun Kassa, a local government official who corroborated Wondimu's version of the events, said one of the men had wanted to marry the girl against her wishes.

''Everyone thinks this is some kind of miracle, because normally the lions would attack people,'' Wondimu said.

He said police had caught four of the abductors and three were still at large. Kidnapping young girls has long been part of the marriage custom in Ethiopia. The United Nations estimates that more than 70 percent of marriages in Ethiopia are by abduction, practiced in rural areas where most of the country's 71 million people live.

Stuart Williams, a wildlife expert with the rural development ministry, said the girl may have survived because she was crying from the trauma of her attack. ''A young girl whimpering could be mistaken for the mewing sound from a lion cub, which in turn could explain why they didn't eat her,'' Williams said.
[[ Editor: Is this to imply that the lions could not tell the difference between a cub and a person? If the lions thought it was a cub why did they leave? The normal animal reaction would be to protect their cub.]]



Will Rogers, who died in a plane crash with Wylie Post in 1935, 
was probably the greatest political sage this country has ever

The Master Cowboy 

Sent by Bob Smith

1.  Never slap a man who's chewing tobacco.
2.  Never kick a cow chip on a hot day.
3.  There are 2 theories to arguing with a woman...neither works.
4.  Never miss a good chance to shut up.  
5.  Always drink upstream from the herd.  
6.  If you find yourself in a hole, stop digging.  
7.  The quickest way to double your money is to fold it and put it back in your pocket.  
8.  There are three kinds of men: The ones that learn by reading.  The few who learn by observation.  The rest of them have to pee on the electric fence and find out for themselves.  
9.  Good judgment comes from experience,  and a lot of that comes from bad judgment.  
10.  If you're riding' ahead of the herd,  take a look back every now and then to make  sure it's still there. 
11.  Lettin' the cat outta the bag is a whole lot easier'n puttin' it back.  
12.  After eating an entire bull, a mountain lion felt so good he started roaring.  He kept it up until a hunter came along and shot him.  The moral: When you're full of bull, keep your mouth shut.


First ~ Eventually you will reach a point when you stop lying about your age and start bragging about it. 
Second ~ The older we get, the fewer things seem worth waiting in line for.  
Third ~ Some people try to turn back their life odometers.  Not me, I want people to know "why" I  look this way.   I've traveled a long way and some of the roads weren't paved.  
Fourth ~ When you are dissatisfied and would like to go back to youth, think of Algebra.  
Fifth ~ You know you are getting old when everything either dries up or leaks.  
Sixth ~ I don't know how I got over the hill without getting to the top.  
Seventh ~ One of the many things no one tells you about aging is that it is such a nice change  from being young. 
Eighth ~ One must wait until evening to see how splendid the day has been.  
Ninth ~ Being young is beautiful, but being old is comfortable.  
Tenth ~ Long ago when men cursed and beat the ground with sticks, it was called witchcraft. Today it's called golf. And finally  If you don't learn to laugh at trouble,  you won't have anything to laugh  at when you are old.


END                  12/30/2009 04:49 PM