Somos Primos

 February 2005 
Editor: Mimi Lozano ©2000-5

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
 Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research



The illustration above was created by artist Eddie Martinez in support of the 2005 Hispanic American series being planned for the National Archives.  For current information on what is happening, please go to 


Content Areas
United States
. . 4
. . 28
Galvez Patriots
. . 37
Orange County, CA
. . 40
Los Angeles, CA
. . 45
. . 50
Northwestern United States
. . 51
Southwestern United States 
. . 60
. . 64
. . 69
. . 73
. . 92
East of the Mississippi  . . 93
East Coast
. . 94 
. . 95
. . 122
. . 125
. . 138
. . 146
Family History
. . 156
. . 166
. . 169
Community Calendars

"Freedom is not America's gift to give to the world, it's God's gift to humanity."
President George W. Bush


  Letters to the Editor : 

Recent communication between Jose Santiago and Editor, entitled Correction:

January 26: Jose Santiago
This site is very nice, however I would like to clarify the term latino, a latino or latin person is a person who has some latin root, that is related to the roman empire, Spanish, French, Italian, Romanian or Portuguese. The latin people of latin America are latins because of the European conquistadores, if you think it well you will find out that the people from quebec are latinos as well. 

January 26: Mimi: 
Yes . . . Latin American is called Latin American because of the southern Europeans who colonized.  That is why it seems a paradox to have young Chicanos prefer the term Latino, instead of Hispanic since they reject the term Hispanic because of its European root. A bit mixed up. . . .  they prefer Latino to stress their indigenous lines when Latin goes back to the Latin language from Europe. . . I would surely include the French, but I don't think that the French would.  Hum m m m  . . . .   we'll just keep trying to help  . .    Mimi  

January 27: Jose Santiago
Gracias for your answers, I ENCOURAGE you to keep up your excellent work, I am from Puerto Rico and I most surely prefer my indigenous and African roots, however without the European I am not what I am.

San Juan, Puerto Rico 1556 Ave Ponce de Leon, Apt 702, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 00909
Dear Mimi,
Thank you for the love and dedication you have shared through your work in all things Hispanic. You have opened the door to historical 
accuracy in various aspects of Hispanic life, history, culture, religion, etc. The fruit of the many hours you have put into this life's work has benefited thousands of people and many generations.   God bless you, Mimi, and have a wonderful and joy-filled New Year.

Sincerely, Cristina McCoy
San Antonio, Texas

Dear Mimi,
I hope you and your husband and family have a blessed New Year!  The new Somos Primos is a dream!!!!  I find something new and useful in every issue.  You are such a blessing, not only to me but to the rest of us trying to find our roots and listen to the voices of our ancestors.  
Love, and hugs, Marge Vallazza

Dear Mr. Inclan,
I searched in the family tree of Don Juan Perez de Onate and that of his wife's.  I had such a good time looking...I am descended from him and so many others in that tree...actually, through my dad's grandmother, Ma. Francisca Saldivar who was born in Jerez, Zacatecas.  This ancestress of mine was descended from sooooo many conquistadores, pobladeros, virreyes, etc. Thank you for sharing your data with us.    Sincerely, Marge Vallazza

Que tal,
Me gusto mucho su pagina, contiene mucha informacion y eleva el orgullo. Me tranporta y me estimula a investigar mas sobre mis raices, mis origenes y mis costumbres.

Gilberto Padilla


I applaud your latest issue and also offer congratulations on your forthcoming participation on presenting Hispanic historical items of interest in Washington D.C.  You are making waves in opening the hearts and minds to our many Hispanic contributions.  Keep up the good work.

Have a happy and sane 2005.  Dennis 
EA Keesee Bermudez

We welcome comments, suggestions, and   information from your areas.  


   Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna De Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez

Ruben Alvarez
David Acevedo y Pitre 
Sam Anthony
Ernesto Apomayta Chambi,
Mercy Bautista Olvera 
Danielle Brown 
Salvador Cabral Valdes
Jaime Cader
Roberto Calderon
Roberto Camp
Irma Cantu
Rosemarie Capodicci
Bill Carmena
Albert Casas Rodriguez
Louis Carvajal Bermudes
Angel Cervantes
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Hector Diaz
Johanna De Soto
Guy Dickson  
Armando Escobar Olmedo
Martin Espino
Karla Everett 
Gary Felix
George Gause
Gloria Golden
Eddie Grijalva
Michael Hardwick
Dennis Keesee Bermudez  
Larry Kirkpatrick
Marchetti Jr. Lewis
Cindy LoBuglio
Nancy Marmolejo
Juan Marinez
Eddie Martinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D.
Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza
Cristina McCoy  
Analía (Ana) Montalvo
Dorinda Lupe Moreno 
George G. Morgan 
Paul Newfield
Gloria Oliver 
Diana Ornalez
Gilberto Padilla 
Jose M. Pena  
Roberto José Pérez

Elvira Prieto
Laura Rettig  
Dr. Refugio Rochin, Ph.D.
Debbie Salazar
Rubén Sálaz Márquez
Jose Santiago
Diane Sears
Howard Shorr
Bob Smith
Mira Smithwick
Grant Spangler
Alva Moore Stevenson
Melania Suárez
Alicia De N. Thornton  
Dick Trzaskoma
Phil Valdez
Marge Vallazza
Janete Vargas 
Lourdes Vazquez
Carlos Villanueva
JD Villarreal
SHHAR Board:  Laura Arechabala Shane, Bea Armenta Dever, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Gloria Oliver, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal


Participate Cesar Chavez Day `05
Chicano Shouldn't Be a Dirty Word 

Your Family History on TV!
Fathers, Inc.
Prison population, 36% Latino
Dispersed more
Spanish in USA: Growing/Waning?
Hispanic heritage, National Parks 
PFC. Fernando C. Alatorre
Silent visitors to the Pentagon
2-minute photo display of soldiers 
Military History Channel 
Individual military records 
National Guard Youth Program
Raul Yzaguirre  joins ASU
Cuellar in early on first day
Latino Racial Outlook Varies 
Needy Students Drops at Top Univ
Banks want cut, Mexican Market 
Hispanic-Owned Firms 2 Million '04 


Participate in Honoring 
Cesar Chavez Day 2005! 

Sent by Howard Shorr

"The end of all education should surely be service to others." - Cesar E. Chavez

March 31st will honor the life's work of Cesar E. Chavez by a day of work and not a day off.  Help promote a historical understanding of the  struggles and sacrifices made by Chavez in the fight for the civil rights of farm workers.

The active involvement of people from all walks of life in Chavez Day of Service and Learning reflects the significance of Cesars legacy and his special place in American History.  The Cesar E. Chavez Foundation, family and friends invite you to participate in a unique opportunity to advance his values and principals by participating in our 2005 honorary events, the Fifth Annual Educating the Heart Dinner (Los Angeles, CA) or the Fourth Annual Chavez Day Luncheon (Phoenix, AZ).

You can be a part of the Honorary Host Committee if you would like to:
Host a House Party-This is easy, requires little preparation, and is fun! Invite your friends to hear about the important work of the Chavez Foundation and encourage them to bring their friends too. 
Become a Table Captain-Table Captain volunteers help sell table sponsorships to our Annual Dinner or Luncheon. Foundation staff provides all necessary training and marketing materials to support volunteers in their efforts.
Community Outreach-Assist the Foundation in our outreach efforts to share information about our youth development programs.  Involve Your Employer/Company-Bring your company into the growing Chavez Foundation family through our Corporate Partners Program.  

Los Angeles, CA information: 
please contact Stacey Lee, Development Director, (818) 265-0300, ext. 224 or
For Phoenix, Francisca Montoya, Regional Manager, at 602-272-0080 or

Chicano Shouldn't Be a Dirty Word
December 23, 2004
David Alire Garcia -- Albuquerque Journal
Sent by JV Martinez, Ph.D.

The people that would eventually come to be known as the Aztecs were once gripped by a major identity crisis.  Sometime after 1376, when they were just one kingdom among many in the valley of Mexico, the Aztecs decided that it was time to ditch an unflattering "Sons of Dogs" epithet and exchange it for a proud new self-image.

So they found a small tribe, direct descendants of the legendary Toltecs and their god-king Quetzalcoatl, and forged an alliance. The Aztecs cemented the alliance by asking for a prince -- and a sacred blood line.

The prince's name was Acamapichtli and he would become their first king. Identity crisis behind them, the Aztecs went on to build a rich and sophisticated empire, ripping out a few human hearts along the way, until Spanish conquerors changed the course of history in 1521.

That's when the mestizo race was born, part European, part Indian. And with it, Chicano history was born. At least, that's the name that was given to the history of present-day Mexican Americans, coined in the politically-charged late 1960s and early 1970s. It's the name that the activists chose to use. And it was these same activists who finally succeeded in putting Mexican American history, art and contemporary struggle on the map.

It's a name, incidentally, with roots in the word used by the Aztecs for their own underclass. But today the word evokes bitter controversy.

At the University of New Mexico, the administration has decided to discard or de-emphasize the term Chicano and rename the school's 33-year-old Chicano Studies Program. The move has launched an important debate, a debate over identity and names, and the future of how UNM should teach what is otherwise a well-recognized body of scholarly research.

"Chicano studies isn't just for Chicanos," says Arturo Sandoval, one of the student-activists who helped establish the program in 1971. "It's for anyone who wants to learn about the world and anyone who wants to learn about this part of the world."

But since the term Chicano has fallen out of favor among many young Hispanics or Latinos -- today's more common self-identifiers -- UNM administrators reasoned that the name should change.  The director of the department formerly known as Chicano Studies, Enrique Lamadrid, decided in late October that the new name would be "Southwest Hispanic Studies."

Seen as a unilateral move, it was immediately opposed. At the time, Lamadrid described the change as "a pragmatic move to open the door wider" -- to larger enrollments, and maybe even more funding. But he insisted the curriculum would stay the same.

Raul Candelaria, one of the UNM student-activists who in 1996 succeeded in developing the minor program in Chicano Studies, prefers the original name.  "The issue is self-determination, and I think the name Chicano embodies that," he explains. "It also embodies the indigenous side of us and makes us who we are as a race."

Exposure to this history, culture and especially the social movement launched roughly 40 years ago has had a profound impact on many.  "It transformed my life," says Sandoval. "And mine as well," says Candelaria.  That transformation takes shape as individuals get to know their history.

"Many of us don't know who we are," Candelaria says, articulating the problem. "Chicano studies gives us that body of knowledge."  Just one example: "I know who Joaquin Murieta was in California. I understand what happened in 1846 and 1848," says Candelaria.  

In the face of mounting criticism from the likes of Sandoval and Candelaria, Lamadrid most recently found a new name -- "Chicano, Hispano, Mexicano Studies." In fact, that's the name that will appear in UNM's catalog next fall.

Of the newest name change, Sandoval says all three parts are "areas of study, but shouldn't be the title of a program."  To my ears, Sandoval offers a better way for UNM to grow interest in the program beyond a symbolic, but misguided name change.  "They should be developing the curriculum for youth in elementary and secondary schools on Chicano history so that kids early on begin to get a sense of studying this when they get to the university," he says.

This would be one change that could engage the broader community. "But that requires money, vision, commitment, planning," Sandoval argues. "Changing the name doesn't require anything."  In fact, ENLACE, the much-admired program to boost Hispanic education in New Mexico and elsewhere, incorporates Chicano studies at the public school level to expose young Hispanics to Hispanic role models -- but without the gnashing of teeth over the word Chicano.

Sandoval's ideas are in tune with the larger goal shared by his generation of activists. "The founders of Chicano studies were trying to make that connection between the ivory tower and the community, because our experience had been that there was no connection," he says.  If nothing else, the dispute at UNM underscores that it's a connection that should be strengthened.

But on the subject of academics and identity, current UNM student Ernestina Carrillo probably put it best. "The title of the program shouldn't be about what we want to call ourselves," Carrillo told the Journal earlier this week. But for a struggle over identity that's been brewing for centuries -- this one over a single word -- the struggle will do doubt continue.

Source: (C) 2004 Albuquerque Journal. via ProQuest Information and Learning Company; All Rights Reserved

Dr. Frank Talamantes, Ph.D.
Assistant Dean for Research Development and Professor of Pathology
Texas Tech Health Science Center
4800 Alberta Ave
El Paso, Texas 79905

Your Family History on TV!

Did your family make its mark on history? Your genealogy research could land you on History Detectives, the hit PBS program, produced by OPB TV, which returns for its third season this summer.

Is your family history connected to a significant moment in America's history? If your genealogy research has turned up clues that your ancestors played a key role in a history-making event, History Detectives wants to help you piece the puzzle together. You and the ghosts of ancestors past could appear on PBS's hit series this summer!

History Detectives will also feature a school-kid History Detective this summer along with their cool case. The detectives are looking for stories about old houses, family heirlooms, or local legends that might contain a fascinating mystery from our nation's past. If your story is chosen, you'll appear on the programs and solve your mystery right alongside our detectives on TV. 

Submit your mystery online at or by mail:
History Detectives 
Oregon Public Broadcasting
7140 SW Macadam Ave.
Portland, OR 97219

FATHERS, INC. -- Organization Seeking Letters from Fathers! 
Fathers Organization to Publish Book Highlighting Responsible Fatherhood

Albany, New York—Fathers, Incorporated will publish and promote a book of letters entitled "When the Tear Won't Fall."  Fathers Inc. seeks intimate letters from fathers of all walks of life, about their struggles of fatherhood for new book

Throughout the country, organizations are focusing on the issue of absentee fathers and all its attendant disturbing effects and statistics. Fathers, Inc. recognizes the need to reaffirm an understanding of the benefit of fathers to the family.  Though to do so our main focus will be on the development of fathers, we recognize that there is also a need for maternal involvement and development specifically as those things intersect around parental responsibility.

Fathers, Inc. is a not-for-profit agency dedicated to strengthening the community and family infrastructure by encouraging and enabling the positive involvement of fathers in the lives of their children.  We will do this by increasing awareness of father's rights and responsibilities, the programmatic impact through community collaborations, providing support services, training, and assistance to fathers in need of sustenance and direction. 

"When the Tear Won’t Fall" will be unique in the sense that many books written on the subject of fatherhood tend to be in the categories of self-help, humor, poetry and how-to.  The book will highlight the stories of fathers who have overcome obstacles, and how their life's choices impacted them as fathers.  In some instances, the stories will detail how they failed and what it means/meant to them and their children.

The book project seeks to profile the changing image of fatherhood in our society.  It will reinforce and reestablish for many that fathers are a critical part of the productive and positive functioning of the family.  Because of the changing configuration of family and the increase in absentee fathers, at a most critical time in this society, these letters will explore what it means to be a father, and offer some insight on how to be a good father.

Guidelines, requirements and deadlines for letters can be obtained by visiting our website at  or emailing
Letters can also be submitted via our website. The book is due out by Christmas 2005.
Sent by Diane Sears


Prison population: Young Latinos are the fastest growing and largest population in California prisons 36 percent, according to a recent report by the Justice Policy Institute.

Dispersed more

Latin Business Association eNewsletter, 1/11/2005
Source: Mercury News By Jessie Mangaliman

Using 2000 Census data, the Pew Hispanic Center, a non-profit research group based in Washington, D.C., analyzed the makeup of Census-defined neighborhoods across the country and found that 57 percent, or 20 million, of Latinos live in neighborhoods where they constitute less than half the population.

Still, the report acknowledges that many Latinos live in neighborhoods where they make up the majority. And, in fact, that percentage actually has increased from 39 percent in 1990 to 43 percent in 2000.

"There's a common impression that Latinos, especially immigrants, have bunched up in neighborhoods where Spanish is spoken,'' said Roberto Suro, the co-author of the study and director of the Pew Hispanic Center.

"What this shows us is a much more subtle portrait, that Latinos are being exposed to non-Hispanic culture and ways,'' he said.

That portrait, Suro said, challenges conventional American ideas about assimilation. his scattering phenomenon would suggest that there is a great deal of assimilation taking place,'' Suro said.

Manuel Pastor, professor of Latin American and Latino studies at University of California-Santa Cruz, said the Pew study makes a good challenge to the public notion that ``the Latino experience is purely a barrio experience.''

"This is really the first step in another analysis of the Latino experience,'' Pastor said. The report's findings not only could help dispel misconceptions about Latinos, they also have implications for policy makers, Suro said.  "It's important to know how this population is developing and where it's calling home,'' he said. "Everybody assumes that the storefronts where the signs are in Spanish is the neighborhood where everybody lives.''

On the question of service delivery, for example, that common assumption could result in missing many who live in neighborhoods that are not predominantly Latino, Suro said.  "Clearly the challenge of targeting this population, whether you're trying to sell them cars or get them vaccinations, is fairly complex because of this process of dispersal,'' Suro said.

Spanish in the USA: Growing or Waning?
By Frank Gómez  Columnists, January 18, 2005

Just when we were getting used to saying proudly that Spanish is no longer a "foreign language" but the "second language" of the United States, a report appears that questions the assumption that Spanish use is growing.  State University of New York at Albany researchers say that English is the preferred language of children and grandchildren of Latin American immigrants.

This news surely gave comfort to Samuel Huntington and others who believe Spanish-speaking immigrants endanger "American" culture.  The study holds that forecasts of growth of Spanish use overlook forces that bring about assimilation.  Conducted by Richard Alba, director of the Lewis Mumford Center for Urban and Regional Research at SUNY-Albany, it notes that pursuit of the "American dream" through entry into the mainstream drives immigrants and their descendants toward English. 

Based on 2000 Census data, the study found that 71% of third- or fourth-generation Hispanics spoke English exclusively at home (vs. 64% in 1990).  It points out, however, that exceptions exist along the US-Mexico border and among Dominicans in New York City who maintain close ties with their homeland. 

The issue merits a second look.  The media reported widely on the story, but appeared not to ask some obvious questions.  Is the 2000 Census the right source for assimilation and language usage trends?  Do other studies confirm or contradict the SUNY findings?  Do other factors help boost Spanish use?

The Power of Media: Spanish language media growth has been phenomenal.  Hispanic print is so attractive that mainstream companies – even foreign investors – are buying or creating publications.  Having done their homework, they conclude that their shareholders will be served by investing in Spanish language properties.  

Hemispheric Demographics: We live in a Spanish-speaking hemisphere.  English is a minority language in the Americas.  Birthrates in Latin America far exceed those of the U.S. and Canada, and weak economies, turmoil and the quest for opportunity will continue to thrust Spanish-speakers on our shores for decades to come. 

Our Spanish-speaking population, therefore, will be renewed by flows of native speakers.  And these immigrants will have more children than other residents.  Admittedly, their children and grandchildren want to learn English.  They see it as a ticket to educational and economic opportunity.  But they do not necessarily discard Spanish and Hispanic cultural attributes.

Pride in Heritage: Something innate in Hispanic cultures makes Spanish hard to shed. Catholic theologian Michael Novak wrote a book 30-odd years ago entitled "The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnic."  He held that earlier waves of immigrants (primarily Western and Eastern European) lamented their rush to "Americanize" and losing their languages and cultures.

In Northern New Mexico, without immigrant renewal, descendants of Spanish settlers of three and four hundred years ago still speak Spanish.  Relatively isolated, they have retained, and take pride in, Spanish.  Mexican Americans in the southwest, strongly influenced by Mexico and Mexican immigration, have also retained Spanish.

The best example of the retentive powers of Spanish are Sephardic Jews who, ousted from Spain five centuries ago, migrated to Istanbul and Morocco.  Others ended up in Israel, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico.  Those Sephardic communities, even in linguistically isolated Istanbul, still speak Ladino, their ancient Spanish language.  After five centuries, Spanish thrives – without renewal, without immigration. 

The Bicultural and Bilingua: Writing in Hispanic Magazine last September, Argentina-born Marcela Miguel Berland described a neglected market segment she calls the "bi-bi’s," or the bilingual and bicultural.  A new generation of Hispanics, they navigate easily from mainstream to Latino culture.  Founder of Latin Insights, a research-based strategic communications company, Berland reports that recent studies show growing pride in heritage, culture, values and language among this group in particular and among Hispanics in general.

Like Novak’s "unmeltables," Latinos are discovering that they do not have to give up culture and language to assimilate, to become "real Americans."  Assimilation does not require the surrender of cultural and linguistic attributes.  One can acquire English and mainstream American values and still be a Spanish-speaking Hispanic American.  Too often assimilation is portrayed as an "either-or proposition."  Not true.  It is a "bilingual, bicultural is better" proposition, a "value added" proposition.

If the marketers, the manufacturers, Marcela Berland and others are correct, and if history is any measure, then pride, immigration, renewal, the media and other forces will make Spanish use continue to grow in the United States.  And this is good.  ________________________________________

Frank Gómez, a contributing columnist to
is a retired senior Foreign Service Officer and corporate executive, and an adjunct professor of translation at New York University.  He is a member of Intérpretes y Traductores de Español (InTradES-Apuntes, Inc.), a non-profit association based in New York City. He can be reached at

Hispanic and Latino heritage in the National Parks 
Sent by REFUGIO I. ROCHIN, Ph.D.   Executive Director, (SACNAS)
Society for Advancement of Chicanos/Latinos and Native Americans in Science


The Cultural Resources Diversity Program is currently conducting research for a new publication on National Park Service cultural resources in Hispanic and Latino heritage in America. This publication will provide a resource for the interpretation of historic sites, structures, and landscapes as they pertain to Hispanic and Latino peoples in America. This resource is intended to provide guidance and suggestions to identify themes, social history topics, and historic places that reflect the cultural heritage of Hispanic and Latino peoples in the United States. Research consists of examining the Diaspora of Hispanic people throughout the United States; identifying the major scholarship on the topic; and collecting information on Hispanic cultural heritage within the National Park Service cultural resources programs (National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Landmarks, Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record).

As a resource guide, this publication will selectively highlight important themes shaped by current scholarship. The Spanish Colonial resources of the National Park Service provide numerous ways to explore Spanish heritage and its legacies in the United States, particularly in architecture, which will be a part of the final product. However, current scholarship emphasizes the diversity of historical experiences and culture of Hispanic Americans; this project will address this by exploring themes in civil rights, labor, and immigrant history pertinent to Hispanic and Latino heritage. The major historical groups that will be covered in this study are Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans.

For additional information, contact Michele Gates Moresi, Historian
Working title: Hispanic American Heritage: Cultural Traditions and the Built Environment

The Cultural Resources Diversity Program is currently conducting research for a new publication on National Park Service cultural resources in Hispanic and Latino heritage in America. This publication will provide a resource for the interpretation of historic sites, structures, and landscapes as they pertain to Hispanic and Latino peoples in America. This resource is intended to provide guidance and suggestions to identify themes, social history topics, and historic places that reflect the cultural heritage of Hispanic and Latino peoples in the United States. Research consists of examining the Diaspora of Hispanic people throughout the United States; identifying the major scholarship on the topic; and collecting information on Hispanic cultural heritage within the National Park Service cultural resources programs (National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Landmarks, and Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record).

As a resource guide, this publication will selectively highlight important themes shaped by current scholarship. The Spanish Colonial resources of the National Park Service provide numerous ways to explore Spanish heritage and its legacies in the United States, particularly in architecture, which will be a part of the final product. However, current scholarship emphasizes the diversity of historical experiences and culture of Hispanic Americans; this project will address this by exploring themes in civil rights, labor, and immigrant history pertinent to Hispanic and Latino heritage. The major
historical groups that will be covered in this study are Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans.

Information on research projects visit: 
An example is the Trujillo Homestead is associated with earliest generations of Hispanic-American ranchers in Colorado. 
National Center for Cultural Resources
National Park Service
202.354.2266   202.371.2422 fax

Information on the historical Hispanic/Latino already identified in the (click>  park system .


PFC. Fernando C. Alatorre
U.S. Marines World War II   
Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

". . .no hardship is too great to endure to win this war..."    PFC. Fernando Alatorre 

This web page is in memory of a man I never met, yet I admire him as if I k new him all my life, my Uncle, PFC. Fernando C. Alatorre
Gene Alatorre:
Richard's E-Mail

I created this web site hoping that someone who may have known my uncle or who knows someone who may have served in the Marines with him would find it and be able to share information about him with us.  My Uncle served in the U.S. Marines from 1943, right after high school, to March 5, 1945.  He was assigned to the 3rd Marine Division, 21st regiment, 3rd Battalion, "L" Company.  He served in Bougainville, Northern Solomons, Guam, and was KIA on Iwo Jima. A quote from a letter my Uncle sent home...

This site is also a reminder that if it weren't for the sacrifice of men who gave their lives for this country or those who gave a part of themselves during war, we would not be enjoying the freedom and prosperity that fill our lives today. Thank You, to all Veterans, all wars, and to their families for supporting them!

To the left is an image my uncle sent home from Gaudalcanal 1943.  If anyone can identify any of the men on the photo please contact me or my Father. I have listed the names of the men in the photo but I do not know who is who except of course my Uncle;  Fernando Alatorre (top left); Lee Stacey (Bellmore, LI), Carl Blitz (Yanton, Pa), Pat Copplio (Brooklyn, NY), Tom Butler (Brooklyn, NY), and Jack Black or Bluck(Tennessee & Florida).


 Boot Camp. 
603rd Platoon San Diego 1943

3d Marine Division 
The 3d Marine Division was officially activated on 16 September 1942 in two echelons: the Advance Echelon (9th Marines and reinforcing units) at Camp Elliott, San Diego, California, and the Rear Echelon (21st Marines and reinforcing units) at New River, North Carolina. 
Units of the division included in assault troops of the V Amphibious Corps, reinforced, were awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for Iwo Jima, 19-28 February 1945. The 3d Marines, reinforced, serving as 3d Combat Team, was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for Guam, 21 July to 10 August 1944. The 3d Marines was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for Empress Augusta Bay Beachhead, Bougainville, British Solomon Islands, 1 November to 22 December 1943. The 12th Marines was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for Empress Augusta Bay Beachhead, Bougainville, British Solomon Islands, 1 November 1943 to 12 January 1944. The 21st Marines, reinforced, serving as the 21st Combat Team, was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for Guam, Marianas Islands, 21 July to 10 August 1944. 

The 3d Marine Division (Headquarters) participated in authorized operations and engagements in the Asiatic-Pacific Area as follows: 
Occupation and defense of Cape Torokina - 1 November to 15 December 1943. 
Consolidation of Northern Solomons - 15-21December 1943. 
Admiralty Island landings - 20 March to 19 April 1944. 
Capture and occupation of Guam - 21 July to 15 August 1944. 
Assault and occupation of Iwo Jima - 19 February to 16 March 1945. 

(Left) Uncle Fernando and his Mother (my Grandmother) Maria Ordonez Alatorre.  He's wearing his ROTC uniform from Roosevelt High school.  I believe his rank was Captain. 
(Middle) His ROTC Photograph. 
(Right) Stand alone image of my Uncle again in his ROTC uniform. 
Since you are looking at this web site it's a good chance you too are looking for information about someone you lost in WWII.  If you have information that may help us get to know my uncle better please contact me (Gene Alatorre) or my father (Richard Alatorre).  I've entered some links below that may help you in your search, if you would like a link to your web site or to a site that you believe may help others in their search please send them to me, thank you, good luck in your search. 
Gene's E-Mail  Richard's E-Mail
My Uncle's story, his plans for his life... (Under Construction)
Stories about my Uncle as told by friends and family
Images of Fernando's friends and family and a list of his accomplishments
Links to other sites and WWII TV Specials

SILENT VISITORS to the Pentagon
Sent by: Marchetti Jr. Lewis
Source: B Thacker

They came in single file, about 50 of them. Silent ambassadors, to tell us who they were. They moved at a slow pace, passing us for over 20 minutes. Some walked, while others pushed their wheelchairs as best they could. Some were helped along on crutches by their wives or sweethearts. They were escorted front and rear by U.S. Marines in dress blue uniform. I have never seen prouder Marines. The Amputee Ward from Walter Reed Army Medical Center visited the Pentagon today. I was there.

Some wore looks of resolution, pride, or dignity. Many had prosthetic devices where limbs used to be. All of them wore looks of surprise. We, the 26,000 employees of the Pentagon, lined both sides of the A ring (the inner ring of the Pentagon) to watch them pass and welcome them with thunderous applause. Half a mile they walked through a gauntlet of grateful fellow citizens two and three deep, who reached out to shake the hands of the remaining good arms, or grasp the remaining fingers of hands that have given ultimate service. They walked through us to the main concourse, where they were met by the Army Band and color guard playing marshal music for them, and where the mall was filled with additional people who swelled the applause. Many of us just called out loudly, Thank You, because we didn't know what else could be said; thank you for your service to us. The applause never stopped.  

None of them spoke. They just cried. So did we. 
It was the closest I have been to Christmas in a long time.

View a beautiful 2-minute photo display of soldiers in the fields.
Sent by Laura Rettig  


History spinoff set for launch
By Kimberly Speight
Sent by Debbie Salazar

The History Channel has drafted plans for a new network dedicated to programming that focuses on military history. The cable network is set to announce today that the new channel, dubbed Military History Channel, will kick off with a preview starting at 8 p.m. EST on Wednesday ahead of its official launch in the spring, when the channel will begin airing programming round-the-clock. History Channel said the move was spurred by the successful introduction of a military programming block on the network in March.

"Since the History Channel premiered in 1995, military history has always been extremely popular with our viewers," Dan Davids, president of the domestic cable network, said. "While we will continue to present military programming on the History Channel, this new network, Military History Channel, provides a targeted destination for new and core viewers to immerse themselves in this fascinating and instructional genre."

The announcement follows recent news about another new military-themed network. Next week, Discovery Wings Channel is being relaunched as the Military Channel, focusing on all aspects of the armed forces, military strategies and personnel throughout the ages (HR 12/1).

Military History Channel's programming will include documentary specials and series on such military-themed subjects as the history of warfare, featuring battles both famous and obscure, as well as the life of a soldier and the equipment used. Titles in the network's preview - which kicks off with "Salute to Armed Forces Week," featuring 20 hours of specially themed programming dedicated to the armed forces - include "Hispanics and the Medal of Honor," "America's Black Warriors" and "Women Combat Pilots" as well as "Battle History" themed programming that looks at the history of each of the U.S. armed forces and Coast Guard.

Individual military records request 
Sent by Bob Smith

A little information on requesting military records, other items of interest and basic information needed to request records. Don't worry about it being Total Army, they will forward it to other services. This information came from a WWII data base. 

If your request the veteran's Individual Deceased Personnel File (IDPF). The IDPF will almost always establish his unit and give information on his burial. In many cases, it will also give valuable information about where and when he died, possibly including reports of the action in which he died. For men whose remains were never recovered or identified, extremely valuable records of the testimonies of his buddies are usually included, giving extraordinary information about the action, what happened to him, and when they last saw him. NOTE: You must send a letter before any
information can be sent out to you. The letter should include your signed statement of willingness to pay the Freedom of Information Act fees for the work involved. If you are requesting your relative's IDPF, they may not charge you. 
Subject: Requested information or documents.
Freedom of Information ACT (FOIA) Office
Total Army Personnel Command
200 Stovall Street Alexandria, VA 22332-040
Phone: (703) 325-9256


Your Name:
Telephone number:
E-mail address:

Hispanic Lifestyle Online

National Guard 
Youth Challenge Program
(NGYCP) Is Proving Its Effectiveness One Success Story After Another


Derick Escobar, a 17 year old growing up on the streets of California, went from viewing his future as "a big black hole" to looking forward to college and a military career. How did his prospects for the future change so dramatically? After facing the potential of a life of gangs and drugs, he joined the National Guard Youth Challenge Program (NGYCP), completing the 17-month program at California’s Grizzly Youth Academy. The program helped him change his GPA from a 0.0 to a 3.4, taught him valuable leadership skills, fostered his interest in community service, encouraged him to go on to technical training and college, and helped him pursue a military career. Today, Escobar says the NGYCP was "the best experience of his life."

Escobar continues to maintain a close relationship with his mentor, who served as a role model throughout the Program and continues to provide him with the support and encouragement he needs to stay focused on reaching his goals.

The turn around in his life has been dramatic. Deserted by his mother, he grew up in Highland, Calif., with his father and sister. With only 45 high school credits to his name by the time he reached 11th grade, and repeated run-ins with the law, Escobar was running out of opportunities. While Escobar acknowledges that his high school attendance counselor could have kicked him out of school at that point, she saw a potential in him and instead suggested he turn to the NGYCP. After waiting one semester to meet the age requirement, Derick applied and was accepted. And what a difference it has made in his life.

According to Derick: "I got to meet new people. I learned about leadership by leading my platoon. Community service was something I really liked. My GPA went from a .00 to 3.4 I graduated the program in June of 2004. My mentor kept me motivated for the whole program and is a person who I can really count on. He is still there for me and always reminds to stay focused on my goals. Currently I am attending Grizzly Technical Academy and learning about computers. I want to go to college and join the Reserves so I can get money for college and then go on to be a pilot. Grizzly helped me see a future where before there was just a black hole!"

Derick is one of nearly 53,000 young people who have graduated from the Program, which has been independently rated as one of the most effective programs of its kind. For more information, please log on to

About the National Guard Youth Challenge Program:

The National Guard Youth Challenge Program is a 17-month program for high school drop-outs between the ages of 16 and 18 years. Program participants are offered the opportunity to enhance their life skills, earn their GED and go on to higher education, improve their employment potential and broaden their chance at success.

About the National Guard Youth Foundation:

The National Guard Youth Foundation is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization formed to support the work of the National Guard Youth Challenge Program through public awareness, scholarships, A 12 percent of the program's representation is Hispanic. The Foundation is also working to expand the number of states and sites per state to accommodate growing demand for the program. The Chairman is General John Conaway, former Chief of the National Guard Bureau. The Honorary Board of Directors is co-chaired by Former President George H. W. Bush and former Senator Max Cleland. 

Raul Yzaguirre  joins Arizona State University 

Recruiting Yzaguirre is major coup
Yvonne Wingett
The Arizona Republic, Jan. 7, 2005

One of the country's most prominent Latinos will assume a new post with Arizona State University this month to develop a Hispanic-based community development institute and bolster the school's efforts to raise money, recruit minority faculty and students and accelerate partnerships with minority groups.

 Landing Raul Yzaguirre, former head of the Washington-based National Council of La Raza is a major coup for ASU and the region: It will raise the profile of the school, which has aggressively sought to enhance its reputation nationally and with Hispanics.

Yzaguirre was a powerful lobbyist for the nation's largest Hispanic civil rights group and built a reputation fighting for minorities in Congress, in corporate boardrooms, schools and non-profits throughout the nation. He brings decades of experience with public policy and thousands of names and numbers in his Rolodex, which will position educators and non-profits to vie more competitively for money, university and Latino leaders said.

"We expect him to be an advocate, both inside and outside the university, for the issues that are of greatest importance for the Hispanic community and the state of Arizona," ASU President Michael Crow said. "His leadership will enhance ASU's efforts in providing academic and career opportunities for Hispanics."

Yzaguirre will earn $75,000 yearly as part-time presidential professor of practice in community development and civil rights in the College of Public Programs, officials said. He will be appointed Jan. 23.

Yzaguirre, 65, fought for civil rights, housing and education for Latinos during his three decades as leader of NCLR. With millions of Hispanics on his side, Yzaguirre transformed the organization from a broke, unknown group into one of the most influential in Washington. When he stepped down as president and CEO in December, offers from universities and institutions around the country poured in.

But Crow's vision to embed the school into the Latino community beat out other offers.

Yzaguirre will focus mostly on the creation of the Hispanic research center, which will be built within the new 15,000-student ASU downtown campus. Using his relationships with local non-profits, Yzaguirre will partner social service front-liners with residents and scholars to connect research with lives. The marriage could translate into more livable communities around the region by improving heath services, housing, transportation and education, he said.

"I can be a catalyst," Yzaguirre said. "Community development . . . is not just about Hispanics. It's about the entire community. I can bring forces together, bring talent together."

His name alone can capture millions of dollars from corporations around the nation for local non-profits, Valley social service leaders believe.

"He will be able to draw corporate support (for non-profits) because he has friends in high places all over the country," said Luz Sarmina Gutierrez, president and chief executive officer of Hispanic-based Valle del Sol, which provides family services. Yzaguirre knows the Valley well: Since the creation of NCLR here in 1968, he travels to the Valley frequently to meet with lawmakers and non-profits. His established relationships here helped bring 23,000 Hispanics to its national convention in downtown Phoenix last summer. He says he will become an even more familiar face in the community, leading seminars, lecturing and mentoring students like Ana Contreras.

Like hundreds of other young Hispanics, she has watched Yzaguirre lobby lawmakers on Capitol Hill in support the DREAM Act, fair wages for farm workers, bilingual education and fair voting rights. Who better, she said, to empower young students, mentor them and advise their organizations.

"Some students feel that the power and passion with the Chicano Movement has died down," the 20-year-old Avondale junior said. "We've all been looking for what we call the Chicano Renaissance."

Yzaguirre could drive that revival for Latinos, she believes. After all, he spent his life putting Hispanic issues center stage. He became an activist at the age of 15, organizing American G.I. Forum Juniors during his segregated childhood in a small town outside of McAllen, Texas. That passion for activism led him to become one of the Hispanic community's highest-powered executives, who has the ear of the country's top lawmakers and corporations.

"You can find his fingerprints throughout the nation," Democratic Congressman Ed Pastor said from Washington. "He took NCLR, a small group, and gave it national recognition."

Executive Director, (SACNAS)
Society for Advancement of Chicanos/Latinos and Native Americans in Science
P.O. Box 8526 or 333 Front Street, Suite 104
Santa Cruz, CA 95061-8526
Tel:    831-459-0170 x 444  Fax:    831-459-0194 

Join us at our annual conference in Denver September 29 - October 02, 2005


According to Census 2000 figures, there are over 38.8 million Latinos living in the United States, counting 22 countries of origin. IUPLR, a consortium of 18 Latino research centers based at major universities across the United states, is the only nationwide university-based research organization bringing together scholars from a wide variety of disciplines to conduct policy-relevant research on Latinos.   Sent by Refugio Rochin, Ph.D.

Lanic site:
Site has links to current articles on a variety of topics of possible interest to Hispanic/Latino researchers.   Sent by JV Martinez, Ph.D.

Henry Cuellar in early on first day

Hearst Newspapers, 1/6/2005
Sent by JV Martinez

WASHINGTON - Representative-elect Henry Cuellar arrived on Capitol Hill early Monday morning, eager to get down to work as the first congressman from Laredo, in two decades - only to find that it's possible for a person to show up too early for a new job.  He was locked out of his new office without a key.

Cuellar, the oldest of eight children born to farm workers, showed cool leadership and led four staffers to the basement cafeteria of the Longworth Office building "to strategize" until the building superintendent handed out keys at 9 a.m.

"That's what you get for being here too early," said Cuellar, shortly after entering his starkly bare office. He said he arrived early because "I want to hear the hum of the machinery working."

Cuellar, a Democrat, defeated Rep. Ciro Rodriguez, D-San Antonio, in the March Democratic primary, garnering 50.1 percent of the vote and then 59 percent in the general election against lawyer James Hopson, the Republican nominee.  Cuellar said he wants his office in full swing when he is sworn in at noon today.

His House post is "a wonderful opportunity for Laredo and the border area to finally have a voice in Washington, D.C., from a person who breathes the air and drinks the water," Cuellar said.

When he is sworn in, Cuellar said he will be thinking of his migrant worker parents, Martin and Odilia, who took their first airplane trip Monday to witness the ceremony. His parents will be joining 40 to 50 constituents from the 28th Congressional district of Texas.

Because his parents don't speak English, Cuellar said, "they won't understand what the speakers say but they'll understand the joy and the pride of having their son sworn in as a U.S. congressman."

Cuellar said he hopes to be a role model for other children who grow up with limited means.  "If they can dream it, if they can get the education and work hard and keep with that desire, they can become a U.S. congressman or more," he said.

Cuellar, who endorsed President Bush in 2000, describes himself as a centrist Democrat who opposes gay marriage and abortion, but favors business, gun rights and free trade. He said he is determined to work with Republicans in an environment that is known for being partisan and bitter.

But he adds: "Nobody is going to take my vote for granted. Nobody is going to say 'Henry is a Democrat so he is going to vote this way."' Cuellar has rented a condo on Capitol Hill by the Eastern Market, a bustling ethnic bazaar, and will commute on weekends to Laredo to see his wife Imelda and daughters Christina, 11 and Catherine, 7.

"I intend to be very visible in the district," Cuellar said.  Cuellar, 49, said he expects his two biggest adjustments will be the chilly Washington weather in winter and his four- to five-hour commute to and from Texas on weekends.

"Those are the downsides, but the beauty of this whole thing is I can represent 650,000 people in a diverse district" that spans 11 counties, he said.0 He hopes to land a spot on the House Transportation and infrastructure Committee so he can deal with issues such as the toll that 18-wheelers take on roads and bridges along Interstate 35 that runs through his district.

Cuellar said he is also aiming for a seat on the House Agriculture Committee so he can track farm policy affecting constituents who farm peanuts, cotton, strawberries, wheat and other fruits and vegetables.

He said he is also interested in international relations, however, but for now is "looking for committees that can have a practical impact on my district."  Other priorities are improving education, health care and economic development, Cuellar said.

He said he intends to become involved in homeland security issues on the U.S.-Mexico border and wants to make sure that new security measures, such as the U.S. Visit program, don't hinder local border economies.  "You want to provide security but at the same time you've got to balance it with the movement of goods and people," he said.

Cuellar said he has worked with Texas A&M International University in Laredo to put a book together for local civic groups, leaders and nonprofit groups on how to get federal funding.

"My area has had a historical deficiency of funding and we want to rectify that," he said. "I want to be an educator about what resources are available from the federal government."

Cuellar recalls first touring the Capitol as a new student at Georgetown University in Washington after transferring from Laredo Community College in 1976 and telling his best pal Carlos Barrera, now an Austin, Texas, attorney, "One day, I'll work at the Capitol."  Barrera quipped back: "I'm sure they'll need janitors."

Cuellar, whose father was born in Mexico and finished third grade and whose mother was born in Zapata, Texas, and finished sixth grade, graduated from Georgetown and got a law degree and Ph.D. in government from the University of Texas. He was elected a Texas state representative at age 30 and later served as Texas secretary of state in 2001.  

Cuellar said he has been very happy with his career path so far.  "Where else can you have that?" Cuellar said. "When they talk about the American dream, I think this is it."

Extract: Latino Racial Outlook Varies 
By Kelly Brewington, Baltimore Sun Staff
Originally published January 9, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

Census: To some Hispanics, identifying with a certain race is paramount. Others emphasize national origin.  

RIVERDALE - With dirty-blond hair and hazel eyes, Oscar Bonilla is called guero - Spanish for "blond" or "fair-skinned" - by customers at La Central music and video store. But his race is less easily defined.

"I look white, completely white," says Bonilla, 21, who was born in El Salvador but raised in nearby Montgomery County. "But the first thing I would call myself is Hispanic. My race? I don't really think about it."

Like nearly 15 million Latinos in 2000, Bonilla would identify himself as "some other race" on the U.S. Census. A new study from the Pew Hispanic Center, called Shades of Belonging, analyzed the 2000 data and found complex racial attitudes within the nation's largest minority group - attitudes that speak to how successful American immigrants perceive themselves to be in both fitting in and getting ahead.

The study, which combined data with nearly 3,000 interviews, revealed striking differences between the two most popular categories. Hispanics who think of themselves as "white" are better educated, earn more and are more likely to vote Republican than Hispanics who identified themselves as "some other race."

"One thing that has been clear since the 2000 Census came out is we knew that the race categories didn't fit that well for Latinos," says Sonya Tafoya, a research associate at the center. "So what we wanted to get at was the reasoning for people to chose 'some other race.' Was there a pattern?"

The findings solidify a suspicion Tafoya had long ago: Hispanics who chose white seemed to convey a feeling of belonging to mainstream America. Likewise, "some other race" Hispanics are feeling "left out," she says.

Hispanics can be any race or a mix of many. When asked to choose for the 2000 Census, nearly 48 percent of Hispanics picked "white," and 42 percent selected "some other race." About 2 percent chose "black," and another 6 percent chose two or more races.

For Bonilla, race isn't important. He is often mistaken for a "gringo" but is proud of his Latino roots. He grew up considering himself a typical American kid but does not prefer to be called "white." "I like saying I'm Hispanic," he says. "In El Salvador it doesn't matter if you're light-skinned or dark-skinned."

Jose Daniel Amaya is Bonilla's co-manager at the store on Riverdale Road in Prince George's County, where the merchandise ranges from CDs of salsa singer Celia Cruz to videotapes of the feature films Kill Bill and Oklahoma! "There is a lot of racial mixture," says Amaya, 19, a Maryland native whose family is Salvadoran. His olive-toned skin is a shade darker than Bonilla's. "And here, there are so many [people from] Hispanic countries. I think people are more proud of where they come from. They care more about their country than race."

Hispanics, particularly new immigrants, tend to prefer being acknowledged by country of origin rather than race, say researchers. "Many people will say they are Mexican or Dominican; that is an important word for them," says John Logan, a sociology professor at Brown University, who last year conducted a study on race and Hispanics at the Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative and Regional Research in Albany. "But many discover that people here will treat you as Hispanic, even if that's not the way you really see yourself."

In fact, more immigrant Hispanics selected categories outside the standard census categories than did native-born Latinos, according to Tafoya's analysis. Forty-six percent of foreign-born Hispanics identified themselves as "some other race," while 40 percent of Hispanics born here did, the Pew report found. Also, the children and grandchildren of immigrants are more likely to identify themselves as white than their parents.

While some immigrant Latinos say they are surprised by America's obsession with race, Latin America has a long history of racism. In colonial Latin America, enslaved Africans, European conquistadors and indigenous groups converged. In many countries, mixed races were common and a complicated hierarchy emerged, often with the darker-skinned or indigenous people at the bottom.

Jose Perdomo, a physician from Rockville, is often called trigueno in his native Venezuela, meaning "dark-skinned." His caramel-colored complexion is darker than the beige coloring of his brother Edgar.

In Spanish-speaking countries, mulato and mestizo define racial mixes. And there's canela - the Spanish word for cinnamon, to describe tawny brown skin. Race has also worked its way into Spanish sayings that suggest a significance beyond skin shade.

Edgar Perdomo remembers a saying that he heard as a child: "Trabaja como un negro para vivir como un blanco" - "He works like a black to live like a white." "But we don't mean anything by it," he says. "I think it just means that someone is hard-working."

Logan suggests Latinos recognize racial distinctions in their home countries, yet the differences are not as important as in the United States. "In most Latin American countries, there are certainly more than two categories," Logan says. "And while the distinctions are there, it's not always in terms of thinking some groups as better or worse, just different."

The Perdomos' diverse heritage defies any "check-a-box" expectation. Their father's mother, from Trinidad, was black, and their father's father was Italian-born. Their mother's father immigrated from Spain to marry their mother's fair-skinned Venezuelan mother.

"With my background, you tell me what should I pick?" says Jose Perdomo.

But his brother, Edgar, also a doctor, who lives in Gaithersburg, says, "I look white, so I would pick white. I am an American, first of all."

But Edgar Perdomo says he resents the pressure he feels in America to choose a race.

"In Latin America, we feel that from Alaska to Argentina you are an American," he says. "When you are in Central and South America, you don't have to pick. But when you come here, you suddenly belong to a different group of people. They put you in boxes; I hate it."

Census officials have always struggled to catalog Hispanics. In the early 20th century, the bureau provided choices such as "Spanish surname" and "mother tongue." In 1930, it listed "Mexican" as a race but later classified all Mexicans as white. "Hispanic origin" did not emerge until the 1970 Census.


Number of Needy Students Drops at Top Universities 
By Bill Schackner, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 21, 2004
Howard Shorr

Carnegie Mellon University once taught blacksmithing and drafting to laborers' sons. It fit the technical school's vision of giving Pittsburgh's mill workers a leg up on life. A century later, the place has blossomed into an elite campus where ever-more accomplished students push the envelope in fields from robotics to acting. But along the way it has lost something -- some of those needy students. The poor are getting harder to find there and on other highly selective campuses nationwide, judging by the number receiving federal Pell Grants, which are targeted to low-income families. Since the early 1990s, the share of Carnegie Mellon undergraduates with them has declined from about 20 percent to 12 percent, or 256 fewer students with median family incomes of under $30,000.

It's an exodus that worries policy experts, even though schools like Carnegie Mellon say they are doing all they can to attract low-income students. Theories abound to explain the trend -- from too little government aid to the disadvantaged to subpar preparation of students in poor school districts to decisions by prestige-driven colleges about who is admitted.

But most experts agree on what's at stake. They warn of a society increasingly stratified by wealth since top schools often are a pathway to the most lucrative jobs. And they point out that even as those schools publicly tout gains in diversifying their campuses by race, they may be quietly losing another front in the war for campus access.

"We Americans like to portray ourselves as a country where you can pull yourself up by the bootstraps, where anybody can go from the furthest depths of poverty to become the president of a university or the president of the United States," said Robert Shireman, senior fellow with the Aspen Institute in Washington, D.C. "One indicator of the truth of that American ideal is the ability of low-income students to attend and succeed at institutions that tend to create those leaders -- the CEOs, the senators."

Just how scarce are the neediest students? The Century Foundation found last year that individuals from the poorest quarter of the population comprised just 3 percent of the student bodies at the nation's most selective 146 schools. By contrast, 74 percent were from the richest quarter, as defined in terms of family income and parental education.

"Another way of putting that is you're 25 times as likely to run into a rich kid as a poor kid at the top 146 schools," said Richard Kahlenberg, a senior fellow with the New York City think tank. "The students who tend to be at these schools are upper- and middle-class whites, blacks and Latinos."

Who's to blame? 

In fact, researchers at UCLA's Higher Education Research Institute recently reported that even with student financial aid initiatives and affirmative action, the wealthy accounted for an increasing share of enrollment in the top schools between 1985 and 2000. At the same time, the share of students from middle-income families and first-generation college students declined at those schools, while poor students gained almost no ground.

"American higher education, in other words, is more socio economically stratified today than at any time during the past three decades," researchers Alexander Astin and Leticia Oseguera concluded.

Mortenson lays much of the blame on school admission policies.

He says campuses obsess over high-achieving students who can enhance the school's standing in rankings like the one in U.S. News & World Report. And they prefer students from families better able to pay the bill and more likely to one day drop a wad of money on the school.

He said it's no secret that better-prepared students -- the ones liable to score 1400 and up on the SAT's -- tend to come from wealthier families.

"Profits and prestige," Mortenson said. "Everybody wants to be like Harvard."

Many campus officials, though, balk at that as unfair and too simplistic. Sure, they say, schools vie for top students and enjoy record numbers of applications. But other factors discourage qualified-but- disadvantaged students from even applying.

Financial aid, for one, isn't growing as fast as college prices and increasingly comes in loans, which are a particular barrier to the poor, experts say. A shift from need-based scholarships to those based on academic merit tends to benefit better-prepared and usually wealthier students, as do tuition tax credits, which are less beneficial as family income declines.

New approaches

At Carnegie Mellon, Bill Elliott, vice president for enrollment, said his school works hard to identify prospects from poor backgrounds, but finding them is harder than it once was. He points to a summer science academy for promising but disadvantaged high school students as just one example of his school's outreach.  Carnegie Mellon, he said, allocates ever-more financial aid to students, including its 637 Pell grant recipients this year.

"Obviously, we wish we were more successful, but we've been successful to the extent that there are 637 of these students here," he said. "It's increasingly expensive because the feds have walked from the Pell commitment by not increasing the grant."

He said Carnegie Mellon does consider income in admissions and invests $30 million in financial aid, nearly all of it based on need. But, as is true at other schools, recipients often have family incomes far above the Pell Grant cutoff. The median family income for financial aid recipients there is $75,000, Elliott said.

"I've only got so much financial aid," said Elliott, noting that Carnegie Mellon's endowment is a fraction of its peers'. "I'm doing the best I can with what I've got."

At Penn State, Anna Griswold doesn't dispute that there are nearly 500 fewer Pell grant recipients on the main campus. But she said Mortenson ignores the branch campuses. If they are included, she said, many more are actually being served.

"The culprit is not Penn State and its selectivity. I would say it's the inequality of our nation's public school system, K-12," said Griswold, assistant vice provost for enrollment management. "If you're poor, you're probably going to be living in a poorer neighborhood with poorer schools. It may mean you come out less prepared to compete."

Promoting access is important, she and others say. But so is being realistic about an applicant's chances for success on a highly competitive campus.

"You do these students no favors if you bring them in, and then don't help them achieve their dreams," said Shirley Ort, director of scholarships and student aid at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, that state's public flagship, where 13 percent of undergraduates hold Pell grants.

That said, her school has overhauled financial aid policy to ensure that more low-income students can afford to enroll. Under its "Carolina Covenant," qualified needy students are guaranteed a debt-free education if they work 10 to 12 hours weekly on campus.

Princeton University made headlines a few years back by announcing that the Ivy League campus would replace loans with grants for low-income students and reduce debt for the middle class. Other schools have made similar moves.

And still others are taking a hard look at the issue as the income gap on their campuses grows.

In 1990, students in the top one-fifth of family incomes (above $83,000 a year) made up 30.6 percent of in-state freshmen at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, said Steve Van Ess, who directs financial aid services there. Now, it's 38.4 percent. "It's uneven, and it's getting more uneven," he said. "We see it, to some extent, as a problem, something we'd like to change."

Sandy Baum, senior policy analyst with The College Board, said what Mortenson and other researchers have hit on is indeed worrisome. It's reasonable to ask, she said, just what difference does being at a top school make, and who benefits most?

"If you come from an affluent, educated family you are going to have all kinds of opportunities, so where you go to college probably matters less," she said. "But if you come from an environment where you haven't been exposed to extensive opportunities, then the world that gets opened up to you can change your life in a really dramatic way."



Banks Look for Cut of Mexican Market by Oscar Avila
Hispanic Business, January 26, 2005 

Miguel Hernandez makes just $7 an hour, but the Waukegan factory worker and other Mexican immigrants have been wooed relentlessly in recent years by the nation's richest and largest banks, who see a growing, almost untapped market. 

On Thursday the competition will intensify when Bank of America rolls out a program that allows immigrants to send money to Mexico without paying any fees, believed to be a first among major banks. 

The program will begin in Chicago and spread to other cities later this year. Although the free service is limited--to qualify, senders must hold checking accounts at the bank and recipients can pick up the money only at certain Mexican banks or ATMs--financial regulators say the decision is a milestone. 

Michael Frias, who works with 37 Midwest banks and Mexican government officials to promote financial access for immigrants, said he knows of no other banks that offer money transfers without fees. "Ten years ago, they were paying 12 to 15 percent," said Frias, community affairs officer for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., a government regulator. "Others were literally taking thousands of dollars [in cash] and giving it to a relative going to Mexico during Christmas." 

Bank officials hope to entice immigrants with a cheap way to send money to relatives in Mexico and then steer them toward more lucrative services such as credit cards and home mortgages. 

Mexico has a stake, too, because it receives more than $13 billion annually from immigrants in the United States, the second-largest source of revenue for Mexico. 

Major banks still make up only 3 percent of a market dominated by wire-transfer companies and mom-and-pop stores. But the rush is on, according to banking experts. 

Thanks to competition, the average surcharge for a $200 money transfer to Mexico dropped from 13 percent in 2000 to 7.3 percent in 2004, according to the Pew Hispanic Center. 

Citibank, for example, recently launched Global Transfer, which charges $5 per transfer to Mexico under $500. Harris Bank normally charges $12 per transfer but has started offering coupons to account holders. 

Bank of America's announcement removes fees for many customers in its SafeSend program, which charged $10 per transfer without requiring an account. 

Account holders will be able to transfer money without fees for amounts up to $3,000 a month. The bank also is eliminating currency conversion fees of 3 percent per transaction. 

Carlos Manuel Sada, Mexico's consul general in Chicago, said Mexican officials will encourage more banks to lower their fees.  "To look at that remittance fee and see that 'zero,' that's a major symbolic victory," Sada said.  Source: (c) 2005, Chicago Tribune. 

Number of Hispanic-Owned Firms to Reach 2 Million in 2004
Hispanic Business, June 2004 

Spurred by growing affluence among the nation's largest minority population, the number of Hispanic-owned businesses in the United States is expected to reach 2 million and generate revenues totaling $273.81 billion in 2004. HispanTelligence® analysis of current and historical data indicates the increasingly vital role of Hispanic-owned firms in U.S. economic development as the strong and developing market continues to gain access to the economic and social mainstream.

The HispanTelligence® review of data from the U.S. Economic Census Survey of Minority-Owned Business Enterprises found that the number of Hispanic-owned firms soared 76 percent from 1987 to 1992. While growth slowed to 30 percent from 1992 to 1997, the number of Hispanic-owned businesses in the United States topped 1 million for the first time, increasing from 862,605 to 1,121,433. Projections of Hispanic-owned businesses and revenues to 2010 are also included in this report.




Grijalvo, Grijalva, Grijalba y Grijalbo...y Grehalba, Grihalba y Grihalva
y tal vez Brijaldo, Grijaldo, Grisalba, Rijalba y Rijalva

GRIJALBO: De las antiguas formas egrija, igreja, evolución del latín vulgar eclesia (latín ecclesia, del griego ekklesia, "asamblea de fieles", equivalente al actual iglesia (el cambio de e en i parece deberse a una disimilación por ir frecuentemente tras la a del artículo). Desde el siglo VI tomó el sentido de "casa de culto", o sea "templo". De ahí Grijalba, población en la provincia de Burgos: "iglesia blanca" (v. Alba). Variantes, Grijalva, Grijalvo.  En América existen también las variantes Grehalba, Grihalba y Grihalva.

The information below was gathered by Eddie Grijalva.  
For two photos of  the Villa de Grijalva, Spain, click.

Juan Manuel Grijalvo - 
(Si le interesan a usted los libros, mire aquí mis páginas sobre literatura, cine, música...)
Desde que puse en marcha este sitio, me están llegando una serie de visitas y de mensajes que no son del todo inesperados, pero no por eso dejan de sorprenderme y alegrarme. Al parecer, tengo una serie de parientes más o menos lejanos que entran en estas páginas más o menos por azar... Si yo no diera importancia al apellido, me habría buscado otro nombre para mi "punto com", ¿no le parece? Algo más anglosajón, claro...

Josep Maria Albaigès dice en "El gran libro de los apellidos" (Círculo de Lectores, ISBN 84-226-8028-9) lo que sigue:

De modo que el origen del apellido está - probablemente - en el nombre de la villa de Grijalba, en la provincia de Burgos, que se escribe indistintamente como Grijalva, según me aclara Angel Terceño (vide infra).  

Enlace con la página de Grijalba (o Grijalva...)
From: Angel Terceño  Aclaración 

"Saludos; Te aclaro lo que yo sé. Pueden darse otras interpretaciones. Parece ser que grijalba proviene del nombre latino Ecclesia Alba por lo que habría que escribirlo con b. Así lo he escrito yo durante casi medio siglo, bueno menos los que anduve a gatas. También es verdad que en la placa al entrar al pueblo, que no sé los años que puede tener, está escrito con "v". Siempre ha sido nuestro dilema. Hasta que alguien para evitar líos se le ocurrió que tanto con "v" como con "b" está bien escrito. Por ahora aceptamos que esto es así y nos quedamos conformes. Esperando que esto aclare tu pregunta, reitero mis saludos".

(Probablemente somos quintos o casi, yo nací en 1954).

Esta situación no debía darse cuando los hablantes de castellano diferenciaban los sonidos de be y uve. Pero hace ya muchos años que los estudiantes alemanes de latín se burlaban de sus compañeros españoles diciéndoles que para ellos vivir era beber, porque pronunciaban igual "vivere" y "bibere". Los españoles respondían que lo suyo era peor, porque decían que el Dios verdadero era el Dios fiero... Ya sabe usted que los alemanes pronuncian la uve como efe, y hacían del "Deus verus" el "Deus ferus".

Edward T. Grijalva me pasa este interesante enlace sobre la iglesia de Grijalba y la historia de Castilla. Está hecho por José María González-Marrón, que tiene una sabrosa página personal.

He encontrado referencias a otros dos pueblos. Se llaman Grijalba o Grijalva, en Galicia, y Grijalba de Vidriales, que está cerca de Benavente (Zamora) y tiene un portal en este enlace. 

Portal de Grijalba de Vidriales en

También hay una población llamada Grijalbo o Grijalvo en Camarines Sur, Filipinas. Si puede usted pasarme más datos, me servirán para mejorar esta página.

Personas ilustres de apellido Grijalba o Grijalva
(Tomado de la página de Angel Terceño, con algunas glosas mías)
Según Fray Serafín Gómez el apellido Grijalba es originario de este pueblo y hace siglos se extendieron por Palencia, Segovia y la Rioja.
En 1330, el Rey Alfonso XI hizo caballero de la Bada a Pedro García de Grijalba, en Burgos.
En el siglo XVI Fernando Grijalba acompañó a Hernán Cortés a Méjico y posteriormente descubrió California.

El más importante es, sin duda, Juan de Grijalva :
He encontrado estos tres artículos en la Enciclopedia Encarta 2000 :
Juan de Grijalva (c. 1488-1527)
Descubridor y conquistador español, capitán en la segunda expedición que exploró parte de los litorales del golfo de México. Nacido en Cuéllar (Segovia), llegó a Santo Domingo en 1508. Tres años después participó en la conquista de Cuba. En 1518, el gobernador de esa isla, Diego Velázquez, que era tío suyo, le encomendó emprender una nueva expedición por los litorales y tierras que había tocado un año antes Francisco Hernández de Córdoba. Entre quienes salieron entonces con Grijalva iban Francisco de Montejo, Pedro de Alvarado y Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Grijalva descubrió la isla de Cozumel y exploró las costas de Yucatán, Campeche, Tabasco y Veracruz. Acompañó a Francisco de Garay en 1523 a la conquista del Pánuco. Expulsado por Hernán Cortés, pasó a Honduras y allí, encontrándose en la villa de Olancho, perdió la vida en un enfrentamiento con los indios. De su expedición al golfo de México, se conserva "El itinerario del rey católico a la isla de Yucatán", escrito por el capellán mayor de la dicha armada el clérigo Juan Diaz.
Río Grijalva o Grande de Chiapa

Río de México que recorre los estados de Chiapas (donde recibe el nombre de Grande de Chiapa) y Tabasco. Se forma en la depresión central de Chiapas, y discurre en dirección sureste-noroeste, sobre un cauce angosto que, según desciende, va aumentando su profundidad. Cuando entra en el estado de Tabasco pasa a denominarse Grijalva. El río pasa cerca de Villahermosa, la capital tabasqueña. Los ríos de mayor importancia que se unen a él son: Tacotalpa, Mezcalapa, Pichucalco, así como otras corrientes fluviales de menor importancia (Blanco, Tecpate, Teapa y Tulijá). A unos 50 km al norte-noreste se le une el río Chilapa, y poco después se inicia su estuario, uno de cuyos brazos se dirige al río Usumacinta, en tanto que los restantes siguen hacia Frontera para, aguas abajo, desembocar en el golfo de México. El río se desplaza en un terreno casi plano, ya que éste no excede en ningún caso los 200 m de altitud. La corriente toca algunas pequeñas poblaciones del estado, como Luis Gil Pérez, Boquerón, Las Gaviotas, Medellín y Pigua, así como Acachapan y Colmena, entre otras.

Archipiélago de Revillagigedo

Está constituido por cinco islas de origen volcánico ubicadas en el océano Pacífico frente al estado de Colima, descubiertas en 1533 por Hernando de Grijalva. Sus islas y principales características son: Socorro de 17 km de diámetro, que cuenta con abundante vegetación de cactáceas; San Benedicto tiene casi 5 km de largo y 800 m de ancho, es rocosa con poca flora y fauna; Santa Rosa o Clarión con 8 km de largo y 3,2 de ancho, su relieve es montañoso y rocoso, de costas cortadas en pico, donde además existe una base militar desde 1957; Roca Partida, con 96 m de largo y 48 de ancho, carece de agua y vegetación y, finalmente, la isla La Pasión, en donde se realiza la explotación de guano.

No he podido averiguar, por el momento, el origen del nombre de otro accidente geográfico, la dorsal Grijalva, una cordillera submarina del Pacífico, frente a las costas de Ecuador.

A fines del siglo XVII vivió Francisco Javier Grijalba, que fue un célebre historiador y misionero español, perteneciente a la Compañía de Jesús.  
Otro Juan de Grijalba, agustino, fue un gran predicador en Méjico.
Manuel Grijalvo Mínguez, obispo de Nueva Cáceres (Filipinas). 

Juan Miguel Grijalva fue secretario de Fernando VII desde 1824 hasta su muerte (1833). Conservó las cartas del monarca, y éstas fueron heredadas por su sobrino Francisco de Cáceres, al sucederle en el cargo de secretario de la Real estampilla. Con ellas Juan Arzadun escribió "Fernando VII y su tiempo", Ed. Summa, Madrid, 1942 (Datos aportados por Josep Maria Albaigès).

Luis Grijalvo Celaya, General Jefe de la Primera Zona...

Edward T. Grijalva habla de los Grijalva en América
Mi traducción castellana (pendiente), Sergeant Juan Pablo Grijalva

Búsquedas en Internet
A juzgar por la frecuencia de aparición en Google a principios de 2004, los más numerosos son los Grijalva con unas 31.800 referencias, seguidos de cerca por los Grijalbo con unas 31.600. A gran distancia siguen los Grijalba con 4.780; y el farolillo rojo es para los Grijalvo, con sólo 1.830. Pero eran 438 en 2001, y seguimos subiendo.

No sé qué parte del peso de los Grijalbo procede de las citas bibliográficas de la editorial, pero debe ser importante, porque sólo los errores tipográficos (uve por be) ya dan cuenta de la mitad de las menciones de los Grijalvo, por lo menos... No sé cuándo aparecieron las cuatro variantes. Tal vez ésta sea la más moderna, y por eso sería la menos extendida.

Bien a su pesar y por una razón bien triste, el Grijalvo más famoso en Internet es Ramón Grijalvo, un ciudadano filipino muerto a los 56 años en el atentado del 11 de septiembre de 2001 contra las torres del WTC en Nueva York. Descanse en paz. En Estados Unidos suelen sustituir la jota castellana por la hache aspirada inglesa. Por eso aparece su nombre también como "Ramon Grihalvo".

Y por supuesto, el más conocido de todos nosotros era Juan Grijalbo Serres, el antiguo propietario de la Editorial Grijalbo, hoy parte del grupo italiano Mondadori. Nacido en Gandesa, Tarragona, España, marchó al exilio en México después de la guerra civil. Allí fundó dicha empresa, que es importante en toda América; especialmente en México, Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Venezuela y Cuba. A partir de su retorno a España, también es muy fuerte aquí.

He descubierto otro punto de contacto entre él y yo: los dos somos socios fundadores de Ateneos, él del Ateneo Español de México y yo del Ateneu Cultural d'Eivissa. Salvando las grandes diferencias entre las dos entidades, la intención era la misma...

Falleció el día 22 de noviembre de 2002 en Barcelona. Fue un hombre cuya verdadera importancia fue muy superior a su proyección social.

A causa de la similitud fonética, hay bastantes errores en las citas bibliográficas y en los buscadores. Será por eso que me llega un número tan elevado de visitas desde América, y alguna consulta preguntándome por algún libro de "mi" editorial. Soy el primero en lamentar estas confusiones, y si está usted aquí en su busca, espero que vuelva usted cuando quiera a mis modestas páginas sobre libros, cine y música, que le hayan gustado, y que clique en los siguientes enlaces:

Ediciones Serres (la editorial de la familia Grijalbo) o en Grijalbo-Mondadori

Volviendo a los Grijalvo...
La rama de la familia de la que desciendo yo viene de Palenzuela (Palencia).
David Lamoca Rebollo hace la excelente página web de Palenzuela.
Le recomiendo que la visite ahora mismo.

Mis bisabuelos paternos: 
Juan Grijalvo Moreno, de Palenzuela, y Pilar Rodríguez Cabezudo, de Baltanás

Mis abuelos paternos:
Elena Valdeón Carvajal, de Mayajigua (Cuba), y Ernesto Grijalvo Rodríguez, de Vitoria

Si usted se apellida Grijalvo, tal vez tengamos antepasados comunes... 
Enlaces de - o sobre - Grijalvos con "v"

Mi padre, Juan Grijalvo Valdeón
Mi hermana Amaya Grijalvo (+) : Luis Bassat - Por ti, Amaya Reclutamiento (mío)
Mi primo Ernesto Aguirre Grijalvo (Historia del equipo de rugby CAU Madrid)
Mi prima Elena Muñiz Grijalvo
Mi primo Ovidio Muñiz Grijalvo (pendiente)
Mi prima María Teresa Pandelet Grijalvo (clarisa)
Mi prima Victoria Pastora Grijalvo escribe : 
Qué rara es la vida Se llama Isabel. Es de Soria Viaje a Tinduf (pendiente)
César Grijalvo Estrada
Fernando Grijalvo
Fernando Grijalvo Lobera 

El actor Francisco Grijalvo interpreta "El gran teatro del mundo" de Calderón de la Barca...
... y también es actor de doblaje ... y da voz a varios personajes en el videojuego "The Longest Journey" Ramón Grijalvo - In memoriam

Enlaces de Grijalvas, Edward T. Grijalva  Hoja de servicios del alférez Pablo Grijalva
Juan Manuel Grijalva Torres
Enlaces de Grijalbas y Grisalbas 
Florentino Grijalba Araluce, de las J.I.R. de Bilbao
Raquel Grijalba, cantante y actriz de comedia musical
Silvia Grijalba, periodista y escritora
Nicolai Grisalba Delgado, de I.R. de Logroño
(en mi opinión, el apellido está mal escrito, y el nombre también.
Diría que era Nicolás Grijalba Delgado)

Enlaces de Grijalbos con "b"  Christian Grijalbo García, deportista con raíces en Palenzuela
Juan Grijalbo Serres  
Ediciones Serres (la editorial de la familia Grijalbo) Grijalbo-Mondadori

Marcela Brijaldo escribe sobre cine en Bogotá, Colombia
Si tiene usted una página web y quiere que le ponga un enlace en ésta, escríbame a   y presente su candidatura. La consideraré con más atención si usted me pone otro en la suya...

El escudo de armas del apellido es: En campo de oro, cinco calderas de sable puestas en sotuer.
Naturalmente, no pertenece a todos los que tenemos el apellido, sino sólo a un linaje concreto. 
Ignoro quién o quienes pueden ostentarlo en la actualidad.



Galvez Patriots

Bernardo de Gálvez
Soldados of Santa Barbara Presidio
Anza in Calabazas event, Feb 27th   
Book: Spain and the Independence of the United States: an Intrinsic Gift 

Bernardo de Gálvez 
Angel Custodio Rebollo

Leyendo los restos de un viejo y lamentablemente incompleto libro de heráldica que cayó en mis manos,  he encontrado el apellido Gálvez y como creo que puede interesar conocer el origen y la historia de este apellido, teniendo en cuenta que es de un libro editado entre 1850/60, me permito transcribirlo a continuación.

Los ascendientes de la casa de Gálvez, muy conocidos ya por su nobleza entre los godos, se distinguieron entre los animosos guerreros de Don Pelayo en las montañas de Asturias y después en las de Sobrarbe, entre los no menos valerosos del invicto García Jiménez. A medida que se fue reconquistando a los moros Galicia, León, Castilla, Aragón, Navarra y otras provincias, fueron extendiéndose los ilustres hijos del linaje de Gálvez, fundando muchas casas solariegas; algunos acompañaron al santo rey Don Fernando a la conquista de Sevilla, en cuya ciudad y en otros puntos de Andalucía, recibieron en premio de sus señalados servicios ricos heredamientos.

Háyanse todavía muchos descendientes de aquellos esclarecidos varones, que sostienen en nuestros días su antigua nobleza e idalguía.  Son las armas de este linaje: Escudo de plata partido en pal; en el 1º un árbol y dos lobos pasantes al pie del tronco; en el 2º, tres veneras de azur

Art from 
The Army of Spain in the New World and the American Revolution


Soldados of the Santa Barbara Presidio are very active in community events.
Michael Hardwick at the El Presidio de Santa Barbara State Historic Park 
Northwest Corner Reconstruction Project Dedication

Anza in  Calabazas  event   

On February 27, we will be doing our annual participation in the Anza in Calabazas event …Format will be "Pedro Alcantara Sepulveda" tells about the building of the Adobe, his family, and then he reminisces about events of 1776 … introducing representatives of Native American culture. Soldados willl be introduced, with the Viceroy of New Spain …. Introduction will include Fray Font and other members of Anza expedition.

I thought you might also like to know that Paragon Press there in Orange has agreed to publish a book that I am writing on Mission La Purisima:

La Purísima A Timeless Vista will be the second in a series on the Missions of California by Paragon Press. La Purísima in two centuries, went from a fledgling frontier mission, to a State Historic Park. Unlike other California Missions, La Purísima reinvented itself after a major setback. Originally founded in 1787, the first mission gre around a quadrangle and maintained influence over more than 1,500 Native American.

The 1812 earthquake, abruptly ended that settlement, and a new mission was built across the Santa Ynez River without a quadrangle. The mission then grew to become the headquarters of the Spanish California misssion system.

La Purísima – A Timeless Vista, is the heart warming story about a mission that refused to perish in the face of radical change.   For more information, contact Michael Hardwick

Summary of
COBBLESTONE's Spain and the American Revolution Issue, November 2000
Source: Hector Diaz

Many of us are familiar with France's supportive role in the American Revolutionary War. But how many know of the action that Spain took on behalf of the colonists? This issue will focus on just that. Included will be articles on some of the Spanish officials who supported a pro-American policy, the role of Bernardo de Galvez and the battles he fought against the British, and a map that shows the colonial presence of Britain, France, and Spain during the time of the war.
Code: COB0011       ORDER NOW!  See our Teacher's Guide for this issue!
Magazines and Books for Toddlers to Teens! 
Cobblestone Publishing, Division of Carus Publishing Company
30 Grove Street, Suite C, Peterborough, NH 03458
1-800-821-0115   FAX: 603-924-7380

Spain and the Independence of the United States: an Intrinsic Gift by Thomas E. Chavez. Albuquerque, N.M.: University of New Mexico Press, 2002. Includes extensive notes, bibliographical references, and index.

Book review by George E. Gray
Noticias Para Los Californianos, Vol. XXXVI, No. 3, July 2004

This interesting publication documents the important role that Spain played in the conflict of 1776-1783 which had ramifications from India to the Mediterranean and in the Caribbean, and Central and South America and led to the independence of the United States. The book covers the largely Spanish actions repulsing British forces at Natchez, Mobile, Pensacola, and in the Mississippi Basin as far north as Michigan. Besides military actions, it details Spain's strong support of the anti-British forces in the colonies and the Ohio River area with shipments of arms, gun powder, clothes, uniforms, blankets, and funds.

It is true that Spain benefited by the conflict by such results in the New World as the return of the Floridas to Spanish rule and the solidifying of her presence in Central and North and South America. Nevertheless, Spain's help to the rebel colonies of England was of major impact to the success of our revolution. Don Bemardo de Galvez, his father, and his uncle were among those who played key roles in the actions covered in this book.

Several of the individuals involved forecast that the newly created United States would become a threat to Spain's future in the New World. As reported by conde de Aranda in 1783:

The Federal Republic was born a pigmy. As such, it needed the aid and strength of two powerful states like Spain and France to accomplish its independence. The day will come when it will grow up, become a giant and be greatly feared in the Americas. Then it will forget the benefits that it had received from the two powers and only think in its own aggrandizement.

I found the book highly interesting and it answered many of my questions about the world events which led to the almost incidental, and even accidental, formation of our country. 


Louis "Lou" Correa
U.S. Small Business Fairness 
Swallows' Day Parade and Fireside 
Hispanic Influential Achievement


Former State Assemblyman, Louis "Lou" Correa (1998-2004) becomes the first Hispanic Democrat elected to the Board of Supervisors, District 1 representing, Santa Ana, Westminster, and the City of Garden Grove.

Born in Los Angeles, 46 years Correa resides in Santa Ana.  He graduated in Economy from Cal State Fullerton, and has a Master's degree in Public Administration from UCLA.

"Es importante para mis electores el entender que el "sueño americano" todavía sigue vivo," puntualizó Correa. 

Louis Correa is surrounded by his wife and four children as he is sworn in by Superior Court Judge, Fredrick P. Horn, on January 3, 2005

U.S. Small Business Regulatory Fairness Hearing 
Diana Ornalez

Registration 8: 30 a.m to 9 a.m. Hearing:  9 a.m to 11 a.m.
City of Anaheim,Gordon Hoyt Center                    
201 South Anaheim Blvd., 2nd Floor
Anaheim, CA  92805

If you are a small business owner or a member of a trade association in Orange, Riverside or San Bernardino counties and you have encountered unfair or excessive enforcement of federal regulations by a federal agency, you are invited to voice your concerns to the SBA National Ombudsman at a U.S. Small Business Administration Regulatory Fairness Board Hearing in Anaheim on Tuesday March 1, 2005 from 8:30 a.m. to 11 a.m.               

SBA National Ombudsman Michael Barrera, members of the Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board, representatives of several federal agencies and congressional staff members will be present to hear your concerns on issues such as repetitive audits, investigations, excessive fines or other activities by federal agencies.

Help SBA evaluate how federal regulations affect your small business.  This is your opportunity to be heard! Due to limited space, it is essential that you register prior to the hearing date.  Call Dace Pavlovskis at 714-550-7420, ext. 3601 in the Santa Ana District Office or email                                                                         

SBA programs and services are provided to the public on a nondiscriminatory basis.  Reasonable arrangements for persons with disabilities will be made, if requested at least two weeks in advance.  Contact: 714/550-7420 ext. 3601.  U.S. Small Business Administration Santa Ana District Office, 200 W. Santa Ana Blvd., Suite 700, Santa Ana, CA 92701

Swallows' Day Parade and Fireside - March 2005 

Thanks to all of you, we’ve been able to do great things at Swallows’ Day in San Juan Capistrano over the last two years. Our Historical Affairs program is going great guns from Sacramento to San Diego. But, you haven’t seen anything yet! There are brass bands being formed all over the state to play the music of Old Nauvoo - to warm hearts as we teach the history of this great people who came west to……that’s right, California!!!

The time is ripe. The harvest awaits us. Never before has there been so much support for this history that we love. We need to strike while the iron is hot.    Let’s get together and make Swallows’ Day 2005 an event to remember. Let’s make Swallows’ Day 2005 a wonderful day of respect and honor  for those courageous Saints who came here before us, opened roads, bridged cultures to bring peace to the West, and joined people together in the true spirit of community. Our goal is clear; we want to appropriately honor those who should never be forgotten, and thereby join the hearts and minds of the people of our time with those who have gone before us.

This year, we have a special surprise. Our Swallows’ Day Fireside is going "Big Time." On March 18, at 7:30 p.m., we will assemble at the Newport Beach Stake Center for a program  we won’t soon forget. Come hear the big pipe organ accompany the Anaheim Mormon Chorale. Our special guest speakers will be Susan Easton Black, Ph.D. (BYU professor, noted author, and celebrated Battalion historian.), and Elder Val. R. Christensen. This all takes place next door to the new Newport Beach Temple. You do not want to miss this. Let all your Ward members and friends know about this one. All are invited.

The 2005 Swallows’ Day Parade falls on Saturday, March 19, in the city of San Juan Capistrano. We march 158 years, minus one day, from the time the Battalion marched to the Mission San Juan Capistrano. We already have wagons and cannon committed, along with Mormon Battalion re-enactors from all over California, from Sacramento to San Diego. Please mark your calendars now and plan to be with us. Please begin contacting those in your area who should be with us and forward this e-mail to them. Tell everyone to forward their up-dated e-mail addresses to me, in order to be placed on our e-news list. Much more information will be coming.

We invite all who would like to help with this event to contact me for more information. There is no better way to enjoy this event than to be part of it! Don’t miss it!
 Guy Dickson

Hispanic Influential Lifetime Achievement

Sent by Ruben Alvarez

Hi there, as you may already know, Manuel Esqueda has been selected to receive the Hispanic Influential Lifetime Achievement Award for the United Way of Orange County.  I would like you to join us in this special tribute to a Man of unquestionable integrity, honor and vision.

If you have ever been a recipient of a Scholarship from his organizations or ever been helped by Manuel, this would be a perfect opportunity to honor him and all he has done for our community.

Hispanic Influentials will be held on Friday, February 11 from 6:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. at Hyatt Regency Irvine located at 17900 Jamboree Road, Irvine. The event is $100 per person and $1,000 for a table.  For more information call (949) 263-6176

Also that evening  receiving Community Service awards will be Frank Garcia, Founder, Owner of Casa Garcia Restaurant and Max Madrid, Director of Gang Prevention for Community Service Programs, Inc.  Frank feeds approximately 20,000 homeless each year and gives out free Thanksgiving meals. Max has started gang prevention/youth development programs for troubled communities.

In education, Dr. Kenneth D. Yglesias, Chancellor of Coast Community College District, will be recognized.  As Chancellor, Kenneth has served over 60,000 students each semester and is committed to advocacy for Hispanic students.  He has worked on KinderCaminata, Chicano Latino Conference and the Puente Program.

 Elena Rojas, President and CEO of Protrans, Inc., will be receiving the Business award.    Nominated by her daughter, Elena formed the Federacion Venezolana de Sofbol, a non-profit organization that brings disadvantaged athletes from across Latin America to study in the United States.




Tamale Festival
Yaqui Indian Stories 
UCLA Oral History Program
Latino Cultural Divide on Campus

The 1st Annual Los Angeles International Tamale Festival will feature over ONE HUNDRED Tamale Vendors, selling and representing various regions of Mexico and the Countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, and many others! TAMALE lovers and aficionados will gather from all over the Southern California including: Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura Counties. Participants from Seattle, Nevada, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Chicago, Miami, and New York will also be in the running for our distinguished and prestigious “BEST TAMALE “award. 

Collectively these participants will sell over 300,000 Tamales at the festival. Non-Stop family entertainment is scheduled over the three days and will feature various Artist and Celebrities. A Petting Zoo, TAMALE eating contest and a Carnival are also being included as well as other surprises. (Return to website to see additional information it will be updated weekly!) 

1st Annual Los Angeles International Tamale Festival CD Recorded Live on our Stages!! Take home the sounds of the 1st Annual Tamale Festival with this year’s official CD CD’s will be available to order at the festival! Sponsorships Available! 

There is plenty of parking and FREE admission. Event is centrally located and freeway close access from the 710 Long Beach, 5 Santa Ana, and the 10 San Bernardino Freeways.    Sent by Johanna De Soto

Yaqui Indian Stories – And Making a musical instrument workshop
Sat. Feb. 5th, 2005  Donation accepted
Los Angeles, CA Information (323) 466-2157 ext.21
Corner of Western and Franklin Avenues, Gallery opens:10am   Program 11am - 1pm 

Back by popular demand MARTIN ESPINO, musician, interactive-performer, drum circle facilitator and expert on the INSTRUMENTS OF THE ANCIENT AMERICAS will lead us in a MUSICAL INTERACTIVE STORYTELLING program called ETEHOI or “tellings”, from his very own “Yaqui” Indigenous Heritage of Sonora, Mexico!!! Get ready for some cool, strange, funny, mystical stories and learn about Yaqui culture; learn a little bit of the Yoeme language and we’ll end with some Interactive Music Making on "real" Yaqui musical instruments (yes, the Water Drums)!!! My set up includes "props" I created and painted of animals from the Sonoran desert!!!

Then learn to make, play and take home a BAMBOO MIRLITON (a kind of kazoo). Martin will also be showing how to take this easy and child pleasing instrument making experience back to your classroom or home with an instructional hand-out for all those interested! 

To contact Martin Espino:

UCLA Oral History Program

The UCLA Oral History Program documents the history of Los Angeles and the institutional history of UCLA and undertakes selected projects that are national and international in scope. 

A Latino Cultural Divide on a High School Campus
By Erika Hayasaki, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
Sent by Howard Shorr
At Montebello High, as elsewhere in the state, Latinos split between the more Americanized and those more drawn to their immigrant roots.  During lunch, there is a line at Montebello High School that students on either side rarely cross. Part gravel, part grass, it runs between a row of bungalows and buildings, lopping off the short end of the L-shaped quad. 

They call this the border. It separates rock music from ranchero. Cheerleaders from folklorico dancers. English from Spanish. 

To outsiders, students at Montebello High are mostly the same: 93% Latino, 70% low-income. But the 2,974 Latino students on campus know otherwise. As at many schools in California, students here are delicately split - in classes, sports and clubs, at social events and at lunch - between those who seem more Americanized and those who feel more connected to their Latino immigrant roots.

Students call one side of the campus "TJ," as in the Mexican city of Tijuana. During lunch and break periods, students who hang out in TJ gossip, chat and flirt mostly in Spanish. From homes where Spanish is the primary language, many are still learning English. Besides soccer, folklorico and the Spanish club, few students in TJ are involved in extracurricular activities on campus.

On the other side of the border, in an area with a brightly painted quad and a new cafeteria, is Senior Park. This is where students immersed in traditional American high school culture hang out. They include football and basketball players, student government leaders and members of the water polo and drill teams. Many students here come from Mexican American families that have been in California for several generations. English is the predominant language. Some don't know Spanish.

The groups don't hate each other. Some cross between the two sides and have friends on both. But some talk bitterly about a divide. Others acknowledge it as inevitable, even if they wish it weren't.

"It's like two countries," said senior Lucia Rios, 17, a Mexican American with blond-highlighted hair who wants everyone on campus to mix more. Rios is co-captain of the drill team and eats lunch in the Senior Park area. She is proud of her Mexican heritage, but relates to American culture. Rios' parents, who immigrated to the United States from Mexico as teenagers, stopped speaking to her in Spanish when she was 5 years old.

Rios has never spent lunch in TJ. Most students who hang out there "relate to the culture of Mexico," she said. "If I was to go to TJ, they would look at me weird like, 'Why is she here?' "

On the other side, in TJ, Alex Blanco, 17, ate lunch under two small trees near the school theater. This is where he and other members of the folklorico dance team spend time. Blanco said he never travels to Senior Park because, he said, "It is too far." Blanco came to the U.S. from El Salvador six years ago. He said people made fun of him because he spoke only Spanish. At first, he was sad. But now, he said, "I'm proud of who I am. I won't get [mad] at what they say."

But his friends get mad.  Students in Senior Park "think they are so much better than us because they were born right here," said Blanco's buddy, Cecilia Ochoa, 14, a sophomore who moved to the U.S. from Mexico four years ago. 

The bell rang. A student shouted "Vamonos!" Ochoa headed to her fifth-period class. She went through an alley between buildings, avoiding Senior Park. "I don't talk to people over there," she said. "I don't know them."

Montebello High illustrates a larger issue of how California and its schools have changed, said Chon Noriega, director of the Chicano Studies Research Center at UCLA. Last year, 14% of the state's schools had Latino enrollments of 80% or higher, according to a Times analysis. 

Nobody expects a mostly white campus to be monolithic. So it shouldn't come as a surprise that Montebello High isn't either, Noriega said. Yet some non-Latinos are oblivious to the differences, he said, because the public thinks "about Latinos in very broad terms," like economic and political power. 

The split, he said, is natural and something Californians should understand. "It's important for the schools to take these differences into account," he said. "Otherwise the schools will fail in taking a cookie cutter approach" to a diverse population. 

About 28% of Montebello High's students, or 781, are still learning English in a variety of programs. An additional 46% of students, or 1,285, grew up speaking Spanish but are now considered "proficient" in English, although some still prefer speaking Spanish. 

At first glance, some test scores seem to show that some English learners need extra help. Last year, only 12% of the sophomore and junior English learner students who took the California High School Exit Exam passed the math portion, while 22% passed the English portion. In contrast, 34% of English-only students passed the math part and 67% the English part.

But other numbers indicate that immigrant children are succeeding after they master English. At Montebello, 39% of sophomores and juniors who moved out of English learner programs to regular classes passed the math portion, while 86% passed the English portion. Teachers say many of those youngsters have a strong work ethic and that their parents push them to excel in school. 

Principal Jeff Schwartz says he treats students equally and tries to instill respect between groups. If students are speaking English with an accent, he reminds others not to laugh because it is better for them to practice than to never learn. "I tell students to treat people the way they want to be treated."

The outside world sometimes stereotypes his campus, he said, assuming that everyone at Montebello High speaks Spanish and just crossed the border. "Their perceptions and reality are not the same," he said.

Fitting into mainstream English classes is sometimes hard for English learners, said Laura Galindo, bilingual facilitator at the school. Once, Galindo moved two English learners into mainstream English courses. After a few days, they came to Galindo pleading to be moved back. "They were scared," she said. "They didn't know anybody." But she persuaded them to stay.

Galindo said it is not easy to bridge the two worlds. Her staff works hard to push immigrant and English learner students out of their comfort zones. 

"I tell kids, 'Join a club, join Key Club; they speak English there,' " Galindo said. She steers them away from soccer, or groups that focus on Latino culture, where most students speak only Spanish.

On a recent afternoon, Margo Bonsall, a freshman counselor, looked at her office walls, which are covered with posters of cheerleading teams she has advised since 1986. She spotted only a few immigrant and English learner girls, out of nearly 200.

"What is sad is immigrants come with really good skills, but they don't have the money; they can't afford it," she said. When they find out uniforms and other expenses can total $1,200 a year, "there's no way," she said.  Priorities, she said, are also different between generations of Latino students. 

Near East Los Angeles, Montebello ranks among the 10 most segregated cities in the state, according to the Public Policy Institute. It is three-quarters Latino, a major shift from 25 years ago, when the city had far more white residents.

Some Mexican American families have lived there several decades, and have watched their grandchildren lose touch with Spanish altogether. Bonsall said many of these families embrace school activities because they also attended Montebello High, or schools like it. They are often poor, but they "find a way to get their kids involved," she said, by holding fundraisers or asking aunts, uncles and grandparents to pay for uniforms.

Children of new immigrant families seem to focus on academics more, she said. "Their goals are survival," Bonsall said. "Cheerleading is not survival." Others are embarrassed to yell the cheers or talk to other girls because their English skills are poor, she said. "There are self-esteem issues."

Jesus Garcia, coach of the boys' soccer team, said his players speak Spanish to one another on and off the field. "When I start speaking to them in English, they say, 'Speak Spanish.' " 

That differs from the football team, said coach Nishil Shah. He said his coaches and players call plays only in English.

Cultural differences sometimes play out in the locker room, where "the soccer team puts on Spanish music on full blast," Garcia said. "Football players listen to heavy metal and rap."

There is a slang term that students in mostly Latino schools use to separate those who seem more connected to their Latino roots than to American culture: "paisas." It comes from the word "paisano," meaning peasants or countrymen. 

"It's a softer way of saying 'wetback,' " said Joe Lechuga, 17, also known as "Buddha." He and other Mexican American students who hang out in Senior Park say the term is affectionate, not malicious. 

"Then there's the Chicanos like us," said Buddha's friend, Carlos Tesillo. "We wear American fashion. Not too much Mexican heritage. But we don't forget our Mexican roots because we know we're Mexican. We never forget it. We take pride in it."

Buddha and Tesillo are football players. They are not hostile toward the students in TJ. In fact, they are friends with one of them, a football player named Domingo Beltran.

"Where's Domingo? The paisa?" Buddha asked his friends one day during lunch.  "Oh, he's over there kissing some paisa girl," another student replied.

Beltran, 17, grew up speaking Spanish. When he speaks English, he said, "I feel stupid." He is mainstreamed into English classes, but he regularly asks or answers questions in his first language, even when teachers demand English. 

In the past, Beltran hung out only in TJ, at a shaded table near the lunch lines. Last year, he made the football team and his circle of friends expanded. Now, he traverses TJ, the border and Senior Park, always careful to divide the 40-minute lunch period among cliques.

"I spend lunch on both sides," he said. "I don't want my old friends to think I'm not their friend anymore."  On a recent afternoon, he crossed the border and stopped to talk to a group of old friends in TJ lounging and speaking Spanish near a fence. 

They teased Beltran: "He got into football and he got really conceited," said Imelda Reyes, 15, giggling playfully.  "He's too cool for us," joked Sergio Gonzalez, 16.  Beltran shook his head and laughed it off. 

He walked to another part of TJ, near the rusty bell. A soccer player passed him and slapped his hand. Beltran spoke to him in Spanish. Beltran told a visitor, "I'm thinking about trying out for the soccer team after the football season. But the [football players] would call me a traitor…. They say soccer is for Mexicans." 

He walked to the shaded tables in TJ, stopping briefly to greet another group of boys before taking off for Senior Park. He waved to them and said: "Al rato," or later.

Within seconds of entering Senior Park, Beltran was intercepted by a group of JV football players. They patted him on the back, praising his gridiron skills. Then one boy joked: "Check his green card first."   The group cracked up. The boy looked at Beltran and added: "We're the ones who keep you from getting deported." Again, Beltran shook his head and laughed it off.


California Historical Societies Conf
Victoria Duarte Cordova 
Holy Sepulchre Cemetery
Point Loma Public Library
Educators Come Knocking
A Glance Back. . .
The Founders of Santa Barbara

Erolinda Cota Yorba

Conference of California Historical Societies 
Springtime in the Coachella Valley: "San Dunes to Golf Courses"
February 18-19-20, 2005
Hosted by:
Coachella Valley Historical Society
La Quinta Historical Society
Palm Desert Historical Society
Palm Springs Historical Society
Conference information: contact Paul Ford, 760-771-3869 or 

by Cindy Chang, Staff Writer
From the San Gabriel Valley Daily Tribune and
the Whittier Daily News - January 22, 2005

Source: to
DUARTE - Victoria Duarte Cordova, the great-great-granddaughter of the Mexican corporal who founded the city of Duarte, died January 20 of natural causes. She was 92.

Cordova was a scholar of local history and her own family history, which often amounted to one and the same thing. Until a few months ago, she still volunteered as a docent at the Duarte Historical Society.

"We've lost our last living link to the Duarte family. We always called her the grand lady of Duarte. She'll be gone and we don't have any great historical person like she was," said Claudia Heller, president of the Duarte Historical Society and a columnist for the Sunday Star.

In 1841, the governor of what was then known as Alta California, granted 7,000 acres of land in the upper San Gabriel Valley to Cordova's great-great-grandfather, Corporal Andres Duarte who named the spread Rancho Azusa de Duarte.

Duarte later had to sell most of the land to pay off debts, but his descendants stayed in the area. His great-great-granddaughter Victoria was born on the 11-acre family ranch in 1912, across from what is now
Maxwell Elementary School.

The ranch was sold in 1940, and Cordova settled in nearby Arcadia. But she maintained her link to Duarte by volunteering at the Historical Society where visitors remember her greeting them with a living piece of local history. She moved back to Duarte after her husband's death in 1990 and spent the next decade-and-a-half as perhaps the city's only fifth-generation resident.

The Historical Society has been raising money to erect a statute of Corporal Duarte on horseback at the corner of Huntington and Mount Olive drives.

Cordova and her husband, Alfanso Cordova, had no children, but she is survived by nieces and cousins. She compiled a detailed Duarte family tree and told the Star-News in 1988 that she hoped her relatives would maintain the genealogy after her death.




From the staff of Holy Sepulchre Cemetery.. .Please be advised that walk-in requests for genealogical research are limited to two (2) people only. If there is a need to research more than 2 of your loved ones resting at our cemetery, please submit your request in writing either by mail or fax. Please provide as much information as possible: first and last name(s), approximate dates, or years, of birth and death, along with a self-addressed stamped envelope to: Holy Sepulchre Cemetery Attn: Genealogy 26320 Mission Blvd. Hayward CA 94544 FAX#: 510-581-1246.

We will process your request in a timely manner (the more information provided, the faster we will process your request). Thanks, Margaret Campos
Source: Portuguese Ancestry, Vol. XIV, #2 Jul 2004
Rosemarie Capodicci, 1155 Santa Ana Seaside, CA 93955

Point Loma Public Library in Point Loma CA will be receiving a donation of 500 volumes for its Portuguese Special Collection from the Camoes Institute in Lisbon. The gift is a result of efforts made by the Portuguese Historical Center in Portugal. With this donation, the library will have in the Portuguese Collection, nearly six hundred books that will be available for consultation and checking out. (Portuguese Historical Center Bulletin Spring 2004, via Portuguese Ancestry, Jul 2004.)


The Rancho Los Cerritos Foundation has entered into an agreement with the Long Beach Unified School District to help develop supplemental educational materials for elementary schools. The district received a federal grant to expand history Teaching in grades three through five. Mejghan Maguire, the Rancho's education projects specialist, will work specifically on fourth grade curriculum. Selected teachers will collaborate with us to review and pilot educational outreach kits for classroom use, and to assess lessons and activities for teachers and students. With a grant from the Employees Community Fund of Boeing California, we will upload the new lessons and activities onto the Rancho's website.

A Glance Back. .

In December 1843, John (Don Juan) Temple purchased 27,000-acre Rancho Los Cerritos from the heirs of Manuela Nieto de Cota for $3,000; he threw in an additional $25 for the right to use their cattle brand. Shortly thereafter, in 1844, Indian laborers began construction of a two-story adobe to serve as headquarters for Temple's cattle ranching operations. 160 years later, the adobe is still standing, serving today as a historic site museum interpreting over 2,00 years of California history.

Temple's ranch house was built in the "Monterey Colonial" slyle and contained architectural elements that were both Mexican and American. The layout, three wings in a U-shape enclosed on the fourth side with a high wall to create an inner courtyard, was typical of more affluent Mexican ranch homes. So, too, was the use of adobe as the primary building material. The two and three-foot thick walls were mud plastered and white-washed. Paint fragments hint at a terra cotta wainscoting along the base of stone walls, and turquoise woodwork. Most rooms opened to the outside, and the roof was flat and sealed with hot brea -most likely from the La Brea tarpits in Los Angeles.

The building's two-story central wing, double high verandas and internal staircase were American influences and Temple's choices were apparently inspired by Thomas Larkin's house in Monterey. Thanks to his personal wealth, Temple was also able to install both a wooden floor and double-hung windows with glass panes in the main portion of the house. Doors and veranda columns also included simple Greek Revival details.

The 160-year-old adobe was little changed until 1930, when Uewellyn and Avis Bixby modernized the home for their use. The renovation was timely, for the adobe was in a major state of disrepair and might not have survived the 1933 Long Beach earthquake in its weakened state.

Source: Rancho Review, Fall/Winter 2004  For updates:

Abstract of article,
The Founders of Santa Barbara, Who They Were and Whence They Came written by Mary Triplett Ayers, first published in the Summer 2003 issue of La Campana, the quarterly journal of the Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation.  The complete article is now available online at the California State Military Museum website
Sent by Johanna De Soto
"I used to think that just as all the pobladores of the Pueblo of Los Angeles came with the Rivera Expedition, so did the entire Company for the founding garrison of the Santa Barbara Presidio. This is not true. Five of the officers and seven of the soldiers on the July 1, 1782 list for the garrison of the Santa Barbara Presidio came in 1769 with Portola. They were: Teniente Jose Francisco Ortega, Sargento Pablo Antonio Cota, Sargento Ignacio Olivera, Cabo Jose Maria Ortega, son of the Lieutenant, Cabo Alejandro Sotomayor, and soldiers Luis Lugo, Ignacio Olivera, Ignacio Maria Ortega son of the lieutenant, Luis Pena, Martin Reyes, Alejo Ruiz, and Francisco Maria Ruiz.

There was one officer recruited by Rivera in 1781. He was Alferez Jose Dario Arguello. Thirty-nine soldiers of the July 1, 1782 list came with Rivera in 1781. They were: Jose Carmen Arana, Francisco Calvo, Ildefonso Dominguez, Anastacio Maria Feliz, Victorino Feliz, Rosalino Ferndndez, Felipe Gonzales and his sons Jose Gonzales and Tomas Gonzales, Julian Guerrero, Justo Herndndez, Agustin Leyva, Jose Lobo, Ignacio Lugo, Juan Ignacio Martinez, Francisco Xavier Mejia, Juan Andres Montiel, Juan Olivas, Jose Ontiveros, Manuel Orchaga, Jose Parra, Victorino Patino, Jose Polanco, Vicente Quijada, Ignacio Rodriguez, Joaquin Rodriguez, Jose Esteban Romero, Efigenio Ruiz, Fructuoso Ruiz, Loreto Salazar, Jose Maria Samaniego, Guillermo Soto, Eugenio Vdldez, Melecio Valdez, Juan Ignacio Valencia, Jose Manuel Valenzuela, Jose Velarde, and Jose Villa.
I cannot find out when Sargento Hermengildo Sal came to Santa Barbara. He was born in Valdemora, Toledo, Spain. He appears in the Monterey records as early as 1775 and later at San Francisco. I haven't found his name in the early Santa Barbara records.
Most of these people came from Sonora and Sinaloa, about fourteen from Sonora and thirty-one from Sinaloa. The town that furnished the most soldiers for the new Presidio of Santa Barbara was the Villa de Sinaloa, Sinaloa. Eleven came from there: Ildefonso Dominguez, Felipe Gonzales, Jose Gonzales, Martin Reyes, Joaquin Higuera, Jose Lobo, Francisco Lugo, Ignacio Lugo, Francisco Xavier Mejia, Manuel Orchaga, and Jose Manuel Valenzuela.
Ten soldiers were recruited at Real de los Alamos, and many of them were born there: Anastacio Maria Feliz, Juan Ignacio Martinez, Juan Andres Montiel, Victorino Patino, Vicente Quijada, Joaquin Rodriguez, Loreto Salazar, Jose Maria Samaniego, Eugenio Valdez (born at Villa del Fuerte, Sinaloa), Ignacio Rodriguez, and the expelled poblador, Luis Quintero was recruited there.

Seven were from the Villa del Fuerte, Sinaloa: Rosalino Ferndndez, Efigenio Ruiz, Fructuoso Ruiz, Melecio Valdez, Alejo Ruiz, Eugenio Valdez and Cabo Alejandro Sotomayor. (Alejo, Alejandro, and Alex Sotomayor or Soto are one and the same person.)
Four were from Real de Cosald, Sinaloa: Guillermo Soto, Jose Carmen Arana, Francisco Calvo, and Victorino Feliz.
Four were from Loreto, Baja California: Sargento Pablo Antonio Cota, Cabo Jose Maria Ortega, Mariano Cota, and Francisco Maria Ruiz.
Two were from Real del Rosario, Sinaloa: Tomas Gonzales and Juan Olivas.

Two were from San Jose del Cabo, Baja California: Sargento Ignacio Olivera and Luis Pena.

Three came from Spain: Sargento Hermengildo Sal from Valdemoro, Toledo, and Francisco Paula Garcia from Puerto Real Obispado de Cadiz, Andalucia.
The expelled poblador, Josef Fernando de Velasco y Lara, was a native of the Port of Cadiz, Andalucia.

Teniente Jose Francisco Ortega was born in Celaya, Guanajuato. He enlisted in Loreto, and his sons were born there.

Alferez Jose Dario Arguello was born in Queretaro; Luis Lugo in Palo Blanco, Jurisdiction of Culiacdn, Sinaloa; Jose Miguel Flores in Juchipila, Zacatecas; Jose Velarde on the Piaxtla River, Sinaloa; Ignacio Olivera in San Antonio, Baja California; Jose Esteban Romero in Real de San Antonio de la Huerta, Sonora; Agustin Leyva in Tepic, Nayarit; Juan Ignacio Valencia in Real Presidio de Santa Rosa Corodeguachi, Sonora; Jose Ontiveros in Chametla, Sinaloa; Justo Hernandez in Culiacdn, Sinaloa; Jose Parra in Amatldn de las Canas, Nayarit; Jose Villa in Horcasitas, Sonora; Julidn Guerrero in Pueblo del Nombre de Dios; Jose Polanco in Cocula near Guadalajara, Jalisco; and Ignacio Maria Ortega in Real de Santa Ana, Baja California.
I would like to thank Trust Board Member Paul C. Mills for encouraging me to write this.


Los Angeles Times, May 20, 1933: 

Erolinda Cota Yorba

Extraction by Karla Everett

One of the last survivors of the old rancho life of Southern California, Mrs. Erolinda Cota Yorba, 80 years of age, the daughter of Francisco and Martina Cota, once owners of the great La Ballona rancho, which once covered the territory now occupied by Culver City, died yesterday at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Martina L. Pelanconi, of Hollywood.

Born in the adobe home of Augustine Machado, which once stood at Fifth and Main streets, Mrs. Yorba during her life saw the transition of Los Angeles from a small pueblo to a metropolitan city.  Her marriage to Vincente, son of Bernardo Yorba, whom she survived by twenty years, was an event in the early days of the city.  The ceremony was performed at the home on the La Ballona rancho and was followed by a fiesta, which drew celebrants from all the old California families.

With her husband Mrs. Yorba lived for many years on the Yorba ranch in Orange county and when the town of Yorba was built aided in the construction of the small adobe church for the new town.  Later, when the church proved too small, Mrs. Yorba was active in support of the new structure.

In addition to Mrs. Pelanconi, Mrs. Yorba leaves two sons, Bernardo of Anaheim and Vincente of Santa Ana Canyon, and three other daughters, Mrs.Hortense M. Palomares and Mrs. Mary L. Vejar, both of Pomona, and Mrs.George Wentz of Hollywood.

The funeral rites will be conducted in the Yorba church at 10 a.m. Monday, with burial in the Yorba family cemetery near the church.



3rd Annual Convention and Expo of Mexicans Abroad

AMME, April 3rd-6th
MGM Conference Center Las Vegas, Nevada
Sent by Carlos Villanueva

The Convention an Expo will have delegates, companies, and participants from 788 organizations nation wide, as well as US and Mexico dignitaries, Mexico Governors, states business delegations, American Corporations. In this event we have sponsorships opportunities that allow you company consolidate or grow your business into the largest Latino market in US.   If you have any questions don’t hesitate to call us.

Regards, Asociacion Mundial de Mexicanos en el Exterior (AMME)
Worldwide Association of Mexicans Abroad
468 N. Camden Dr. Suite 201
Beverly Hills CA 91016


My Chihuahua Cousins
UTEP  Preserve bracero  history
EPIC of the Greater Southwest 
Cecilia's Year
Loretto Academy of El Paso 


My Chihuahua Cousins by Michael Connolly Terrazas

As a child, I had heard some stories about my ancestors, in particular, about clashes between Pancho Villa and a distant relative, something about someone "being strung up by their thumbs". However, as a young boy, growing up in San Diego, California, the stories didn't mean anything to me, and they were stored deep within my mind for retrieval much later. In my youth, the 50's, being of Mexican heritage in San Diego, and living in an all white suburban neighborhood, was not a ethnic feature to be made public; Hispanics had not yet openly declared the importance of their heritage in the golden state of California.

The discovery of cousins from my mother's (Terrazas) family began innocently on an unplanned, unscheduled trip to Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico in 1990.

On to Chihuahua: With my wife, Helen, we enjoyed a short stay with her father and his family at their home in El Paso, Texas, before departing for our first trip to the city of Chihuahua; home of my mother's family for several generations. Our trip started at the Greyhound bus station in El Paso, from there we were transported to the central bus terminal in Ciudad Juarez. It was easy enough to purchase tickets at the terminal for continuation on to Chihuahua, and soon we were on board and on our way. As we have done a few times before, we had not made hotel or rental car reservations; we were to let events unfold, as fate would deliver, and in conversing with the locals, in Spanish, for assistance.

After arrival at the central bus terminal we hailed a cab and asked for a recommendation for a modestly priced hotel, and he took us to a small establishment a short distance outside of downtown. A decent recommendation.

Our adventure began the next morning when we set out, on foot, to discover the central downtown area. As we walked down the main street, across from the Cathedral, I noticed an outdoor sign for the office of the city recorder, and we entered. We approached the young woman sitting at the front desk, and I, in my modest grasp of the Spanish language, told her that we were looking for information on the Terrazas family. She promptly arose, and excused herself, in order to retrieve her supervisor, Sr. Ruben Beltran Acosta. Sr. Acosta turned out to be a treasure trove of information, and he was genuinely pleased that we had come into his office. Sr. Acosta is known as the cronista, that individual who holds the colorful stories and history of his/her town.

Sr. Acosta devoted a great deal of time, and much paper, informing us of sites we should visit, and of immediate relatives that we might call upon. Each time that he wanted to record new information, he reached over and grabbed a fresh sheet of white bond paper, and began either written information, or a rough drawing of a monument. We came away with a wonderful collection of hand written notes and rough drawings, which became the launching tools for this new adventure.

Here are the highlights of the sites that he pointed out to us, and what we discovered at each:

· The Cathedral: our next stop after visiting with Sr. Acosta. At the rear of the church is the entrance to a museum that is actually beneath the church, with many beautiful paintings and artifacts of the history of the Catholic Church in Mexico. The woman attendant, as we discovered, is my second cousin, Concepcion, and she received us very warmly. We spent about one hour with her, toured the museum, talked about the family, and she gave me a rough photocopy of Terrazas family genealogy, the first history I had ever seen of my mother's family. Apparently, Sr. Acosta alerted her of our presence, as she had the genealogy papers ready to hand to us. Concepcion also spoke of her cousin, Teresa Siquieros, who lives in the city, and gave us her address. 

· Monument to Colonel Joaquin Terrazas:
On the outskirts of the city is a tall and impressive, although aging, monument to Joaquin Terrazas, my great-great grandfather, a Colonel in the Mexican Army, and the heralded conqueror of the Apache Indians. The Apaches, forced out of the United States by the westward expansion of new immigrants, with the help of the US Calvary, moved their tribes to Northern Mexico: the state of Chihuahua. The Apaches terrorized the territory, stealing cattle, attacking ranches and their inhabitants; the state was under siege. Joaquin's cousin, Governor Luis Terrazas commissioned Col. Terrazas, to lead a company of Army and civilian riflemen into the vast mountain ranges north of the capital city, to find and eliminate this threat by the Apaches to the people and properties of the state. In this mission he was successful, and he returned to the city as a great hero. 
I had never before heard of this man, or his fame in Chihuahua, from my mother or any of her siblings. I recently read a book that had the opening line: "Mexicans are to forgetting, what the Jews are to remembering". And I find this to be the case in my family.

· Burial Site of Luis Terrazas: When one speaks of, or reads the history of Chihuahua, you cannot escape the person of Don Luis Terrazas. Sr. Terrazas, twice governor of the state, majority land owner in the entire state, and el jefe of the largest cattle ranching operations in all of Mexico, is buried on the grounds of the church of Our Lady of Guadalupe, along with his wife, Carolina, just one block up from the monument to Joaquin Terrazas. This was a remarkable discovery, courtesy of information from Sr. Beltran Acosta. The front of and both sides of the church edifice hold the burial sites of some of Chihuahua's most prominent citizens. Luis & Carolina are positioned at the front and to the left of the walkway leading to the front doors. I have never before seen church grounds with burial sites on three sides. Also, I had never before heard about Luis Sr., although I later learned that the story of a relative being strung up by their thumbs by Pancho Villa's forces was actually his son, Luis Jr. It would be much later, after returning home, that I would begin my own genealogy research. 

It was then that I learned of the power that Luis wielded, as governor and leading businessman. But also the dark side, how he kept his ranch workers in eternal indebtedness to him by paying them in script, and thus in a servitude passed on to their children, while he amassed larger land holdings and wealth. I came to detest his role in the family ancestry.

· Mausoleo de los Chihuahuenses Ilustres 

On the outskirts of the city, close to the university, in a sports park, is a modest size, older rotunda, with the names of Chihuahua's most famous men - "Chihuahuenses llustres" - inscribed into the stone work. Among these honored men is Joaquin Terrazas, my great-great grandfather. Underneath the monument is housed the remains of these 14 men. A small path of steps and an old wooden door mark the entrance to this humble mausoleum. As I write this story, I am in receipt of a new booklet and video, produced by the state of Chihuahua, and displaying the new monument/mausoleum, that was dedicated earlier in 2004, to house the remains of these men. The video captures the entire ceremony, removal of the boxed remains, each draped with the flag of Mexico, and the solemn military procession from the old monument to the new. There was a very impressive ceremony, including a large military and government participation, and a transfer of the boxes into the walls of the new mausoleum below… I sincerely wish I could have been there! 

The home of Teresa Siquieros: On this first visit to Teresa's home, after some difficulty in finding the street, Teresa was not at home - her housekeeper informed us she was in El Paso visiting her daughter. However, on our second visit to Chihuahua we did meet Teresa, her husband Ramon, and at their invitation we spent three days and two nights at their home. An interesting follow-up note to the first visit to her home: Teresa found out, probably from Concepcion, that Helen and I had been in town, and weeks after our visit, while at the home of her daughter, Teresa called our home and introduced herself! She extended much love and a warm invitation to stay at her home on our next visit; what a wonderful outreach to us, and the beginning of a new expansion of family.
In one of the bedrooms in her home, mounted on the wall rests a large portrait of Col. Joaquin Terrazas, with his Army issued rifle and saber below. 

El Palacio de Gobierno : Sr. Beltran Acosta also recommended a visit to this very old, three story square complex, built in Spanish style with a large courtyard in the center. We were not prepared for what we were to view: a compressed history, in full size mural format, of the state of Chihuahua, painted floor to ceiling on the walls of the main floor. We took one of the printed guide pages from the attendant and proceeded to follow the mural, left to right, admiring both the workmanship of the painter, as well as the remarkable story of this enormous state. At the third wall panel we gazed upon paintings of Luis Terrazas, as governor, meeting with other power brokers, and working out some new direction for the state. Next to that depiction were two paintings of Col. Joaquin Terrazas, Army rifle raised over his head, and shown as conquering the Apache Indians below. This Mexican tradition of painting murals is powerful and most impressive; I am so pleased that we discovered this display! 

· El Centro Cultural de Chihuahua : 

This civic building we discovered on our own, and out of the need to find a public restroom! This impressive looking three story building, wedged on a corner of the main street leading to downtown, features large wrought iron entry gates, as well as over each exterior window on all floors. Upon entering into the impressive Mexican foyer, we met Juan, the caretaker. He told of a public exhibit on the second floor, featuring the history of Indians who resided in the Nuevo Casas Grande region of the state, in living spaces entirely underground. We toured the exhibit and found it to be quite impressive. The cultural center has a large interior patio area, very Spanish in design, with the rooms on all three floors opening towards this patio. Juan kindly pointed the way to the restrooms as well. As we prepared to exit, Juan asked us to sign the guest register, and while I signed the book, my wife made a passing comment that we were looking around the city for information on the Terrazas family. If you could have seen the face of this quiet man come to life! He escorted us outside to the sidewalk, and pointed to the large wrought iron initials on the face of the building "LT"; he told us that we are visiting the former residence of Luis Terrazas, twice governor of this state! Juan then lead us back inside and into two separate offices, each with it's own built-in vault, and the name "Luis Terrazas" in gold leaf lettering on the door. Juan went into further detail on stories of a secret escape tunnel running below the residence, and of Pancho Villa's forces taking over the building at the start of the revolution. This was pretty exciting information! Helen and I took many photos, including a couple with Juan, and added them to the growing Terrazas/Chihuahua portfolio. On a return trip to Chihuahua in 2002, we took a copy of a photo that included Juan and delivered it to the Center; fortunately, he was working and was so pleased to see us, as well as to receive a copy of the photo!

A phenomenal and exciting new chapter in my life was beginning with this discovery of family in Chihuahua. Especially, cousin Teresa who was as enthusiastic at meeting us, as we were of her!
The thrill of researching my maternal genealogy was ignited, and I began in earnest to delve into Internet web sites like, to tap into other people's knowledge about this historical Mexican family. This new endeavor in my life also awakened me to the need to become closer to my uncles, those remaining siblings of my now deceased mother. I made copies of the family tree that Teresa had given me, and prepared packets that included photos which I had taken on both trips; these I cheerfully provided to three uncles, and to a cousin in Mexicali, who also had done family research. In short order, my family had expanded. My Mexican heritage, for so long a dormant part of my being, was now alive with importance and the need to know more!


And so we are cousins, somos primos! My horizons have expanded. My appreciation of immediate and extended family, heredity and the importance of each has been reborn. I seek to remain close to these newly discovered cousins, and to find and meet others!

Somos primos, has never meant more 
to me  than the present!

Saludos,  Michael Connolly Terrazas
Edmonds, Washington, USA


UTEP Projects Preserve 
 bracero  history
Tammy Fonce-Olivas, El Paso Times, 
January 14, 2005
Sent by Roberto Camp

Courtesy of the 
University of Texas at El Paso Oral History Institute 
Braceros lined up to receive their lunch at the Santa Fe Bridge in this photo taken decades ago.

Victor Calzada / El Paso Times 

When Central resident Eduardo De Santiago is no longer able to talk about his days as a young man picking cotton in a West Texas field in a Mexican guest-worker program, his story will be passed on through the Oral History Institute at the University of Texas at El Paso.

Eduardo De Santiago holds a picture of himself taken in 1958, when he worked as part of the bracero program. He is kneeling in front of cotton near Balmorhea, Texas.

The institute for two years has been documenting the experiences of braceros such as De Santiago -- Mexican immigrants who came to work in the United States as farmhands through a program started as a temporary solution to supply much-needed workers for agriculture during World War II.

"We were able to collect 57 stories (about braceros) in the El Paso-Las Cruces area. In total we have 192 stories," Oral History Institute director Kristine Navarro said.  The tales are being shared with the institute by former braceros, by the farmers and ranchers who hired the workers and even by former U.S. Border Patrol agents.  Navarro said the institute is transcribing and translating the stories, which are expected to become available to the public this fall.  

While the institute works to complete its bracero project, a UTEP professor is making a documentary on braceros. The documentary will be based on research conducted by the institute and by Professor Patrick Mullins, a senior lecturer in UTEP's Department of Communication.

Mullins, also the project director for the documentary, said he sought grant funding for a documentary on a braceros because of his love for documentaries and because he thinks it is relevant to recent discussions President Bush has sparked about guest-worker programs.

"By revisiting experiences of some of these men who have gone through a program like that, we might be able to get some good insight into what is good about these programs and what can be improved," Mullins said.

Violeta Dominguez Lopez, a UT Austin graduate, conducted the first video interviews for the documentary last month in Mexico City. Mullins said UTEP students will also assist in producing the documentary, which he expects will be completed by the end of the year. Mullins said his goal would be to have the documentary distributed as a home video and education video and broadcast on public television.

Navarro said she wants to preserve the experiences of the braceros because their contributions to the agricultural industry makes them a significant part of the nation's history. "It is important that we document their stories because most people don't realize the impact that this program had, not only locally, but nationally. It was a great economic program," Navarro said.

The bracero program was established in the early 1940s through bilateral agreements between the United States and Mexico as an emergency measure to cope with the labor shortage the United States was having because of World War II. The program continued uninterrupted until 1964. It is estimated that almost 5 million Mexican immigrants worked as braceros from 1942 to 1964.

De Santiago, now 88, said he worked as a bracero for five years. He did not recall the year he began working as a bracero but said it was in the late '50s.

A family member signed him up for the program. At first he didn't want to be a bracero, but he took the job anyway."I remember back then 10 to 15 men would sign up for the program, but they wouldn't last long and would be back in Mexico in about six months."I thought it was wrong, so I did it to prove to them that I could handle the work. And I did it. I worked as a farm worker for five years," De Santiago said.

His experience as a farm worker was pleasant, particularly because his bosses encouraged him to become a legal U.S. resident and helped him with the paperwork.  "They told me because my wife was born in Long Beach, California, it would be easy for me to establish residency," De Santiago said.  "They were good to me. I was happy working for them. But don't think that all the bosses were the same and treated their people well. For some men it was a sad and tough experience."

De Santiago said that despite the hardships many braceros faced, he remains supportive of worker programs. "When people are in the United States legally, it is easier for them to obtain employment. The other way, they risk so much, and nothing is secure, especially not where they are going to work," he said.

UTEP Professor Patrick Mullins wants to hear from people who are involved in or have information about the bracero program and are interested in the documentary he is producing.  Call: 747-7690 
Tammy Fonce-Olivas may be reached at   546-6362.

From the book EPIC of the Greater Southwest by Rubén Sálaz Márquez 

Note # 2,
pages 14-15

A steady tenet of American historiography is that anyone now speaking English, no matter what nationality/ethnicity, is referred to as an "Anglo" if being written about in English and pertaining to the USA. Use of the ethnic label "Anglo" or "Anglo American" must be understood when studying Southwest history.

People who speak languages that evolved out of Latin are described as "Latins." English, Norwegian, Icelandic, Swedish, Dutch, Afrikaans, Flemish, etc., developed out of German and are referred to as "Germanic languages" so why aren't the people referred to as "Germanic"? The preferred label is Anglo, which supposedly connects someone to the (Germanic) tribe of Angles who entered England around the 5th century. When studying Southwest history one is certain to run across the phrase "Anglo-American" applied to all kinds of people, whether German, Irish, Italian, French, Czech, Latvian, Lithuanian, etc. Is this merely a device to establish a "majority/ minority" system? The implication that whole groups of immigrants, most of whom have Ellis Island as a heritage, are descended from the Germanic tribe of Angles who settled in England in the 5th century A.D., is ludicrous. The Angles were just one of the many Germanic groups who settled northern Europe. Saxons from Germany also went into England. Celts, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Suevi, etc., are just a few of other examples of Germanic groups who are ignored by using "Anglo" as if it was the only acceptable Germanic tribe. Is it anti-German prejudice that doesn't permit American writers to use "Germanic" to describe themselves or other people from northern Europe? The "Anglo" connection to England is made even more tenuous when we observe that the people of England refer to themselves as "Brits," not Anglos.

Why don't we see "Hispano-Portuguese" or "Franco-Italian"? The Orwellian (from George Orwell who wrote the "classics" Animal Farm and 1984 in which the use of language is recognized • as powerful as any weapon of mass destruction; Orwell structures, referred to as "Doublespeak" and "Doublethink," are "employed to make lies sound truthful and can give wind the appearance of something solid") and psychology aren't applied to paladins from other countries. Further, English language writers generally point out that heroes like Ferdinand Magellan was really Fernao Magalhaes, a Portuguese who merely happened to be sailing for Spain. Likewise, Jehan de Varrasanne, a Florentine by birth who sailed under the French flag, is written about as Giovanni de Verrazano, while Giovanni Caboto, an Italian who sailed for England, is promoted John Cabot.

It must be pointed out, especially when dealing with the Hispanic Southwest, that the 'Anglo American" caricature is an Orwellian device intended to imply a connection with England, which is basically fantasy, as well as a sense of "We're the superior majority" racism.

The preceding points aren't intended as mere polemics. These perspectives should be discussed in an open, tolerant manner because they are as basic as they are crucial to understanding Southwest History.

Cecilia's Year

Meet fourteen-year-old Maria Cecilia Gonzales. It's the 1930s, shortly after the Great Depression, and Cecilia lives with her parents and her brothers and sisters on a farm in the Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico. Her days are filled with schoolwork, cleaning, mending and cooking, but in her spare time Cecilia loves to read. 
Her books carry her far away, beyond the purple and blue mountains that surround the farm, to high school and then on to a job in the big city. But, like with every dream, many things stand in her way. Cecilia's Year is the winner of the first Cinco Puntos Press Latino Young Adults Fiction Contest.

Authors: Susan and Denise Gonzales Abraham are the daughters of Cecilia Gonzales Abraham, the title character of Cecilia’s Year. This, their first novel, is a tribute to her and to the deep roots of their family in rural New Mexico. The sisters were born and raised in El Paso, Texas, but spent holidays and every summer on their grandparents’ farm in Derry, New Mexico. They both graduated from the University of Texas at El Paso with a B.S. in Education. Susan taught in the El Paso Independent School District for twenty-nine years as a high school English and business education teacher before retiring in 2002. Denise received a master’s degree in reading education from Arizona State University. She is currently an elementary school librarian with the Ysleta Independent School District in El Paso. 

Cinco Puntos Press

701 Texas, El Paso, Texas 79901
1-800-566-9072  ·

Loretto Academy of El Paso 

The Loretto Academy of El Paso web site includes a brief history of the school and the names of all their graduates.  In many cases this includes the married names.  Photos and years: 1923-2001
Sent by Alicia DeN. Thornton


Afro-Mexican Racial and Ethnic
AfroMexico video
South Carolina Slave Records 
African Diaspora in the Americas Tour 


Afro-Mexican Racial and Ethnic Self-Identity:
Three Generations of the Thornton Family in Nogales, Arizona

by Alva Moore Stevenson
Master of Arts in African American Studies
University of California, Los Angeles, 2004
Professor Juan Gomez-Quinones, Chair


Research on biracial identity in the U.S. (i.e., Rockquemore and Brunsma, Maria P.P. Root ) focuses upon persons of Black and White descent. Scant attention has been given to biracials of two historically-marginalized groups. Several scholars including Bobby  Vaughn (Colby College) and Sagrario Cruz Carretero (Universidad Veracruzano) have explored the issue of Afro-Mexican self-identity in Mexico. No research exists however on the multi-generational self-identity of American-born Afro-Mexicans.

Oral interviews were conducted with members of the Thornton family in the second and third generations. Readings in existing identity theories determined how similar or divergent the Thorntons were from those models. Thirdly, existing works on the history and identity of Afro-Mexicans and Afro-Latinos in the U.S. and Latin America were read.

Self-identity among the second generation of the Thornton family varied according to gender, parental and external push and pull factors. Cultural and racial identification of the parents proved to be salient to their children’s self-perception in varying degrees. Third generation self-identity either mimicked their parents or took other paths Speaking Spanish was salient in articulating towards or away from a Mexican-Indian or Latina self-identity. The self-identity of the second generation Thorntons is a potpourri of existing models of biracial identity. No one fits neatly into any one model. They exemplify Black identity as inclusive of all parts of their heritage. This can mean not articulating solely to a Black identity or not racially self-identifying at all. The Thorntons creatively redefine race as it makes sense to them and maximizes their quality of life.

Afro Latin America, 1800-2000 by George Reid Andrews (Oxford University Press, 2004)
Africans in Colonial Mexico, 1570-1640 by Herman L. Bennett (Indiana University Press, 2003)
The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero: Mexico's First Black Indian President by Ted Vincent (University Press of Florida, 2001)

The full-text to this thesis can be read in the Oral History Library at UCLA.  
Eventually, the full text will be available at:

A website of interest is AfroMexico  by Mexican filmmaker Rafael Rebollar. His works in include "De Florida a Coahuila" and "La Raiz Olvidada". The first focuses on the history of the Black Seminoles who fled to Mexico and whose descendants live on both sides of the border today. The second focuses on Blacks in Mexico.

South Carolina Slave Records 

Passing on very interesting information in case you know of African Americans researching their roots.  Wow!  Sent by Analía (Ana) Montalvo

Last Saturday while working at the Locale Genealogical Societies Ancestral Road Show. I was given something priceless that the locale public library was going to throw away. This priceless gem was a binder of "Servant Records" These records contain names and dates of servants that worked for a particular family in South Carolina on their plantation. It has markings for baptisms indicating two different churches. It also shows Names of both parents on most, some only have the name of the mother, but in general it list both parents.

It also has the ones who were sold underlined. in the back it list 92 deaths with the ages starting from 1837. There are individuals listed in this list that were born in the late 1700s.  I plan to make this information available for free to all in the next month or so on rootsweb. By the way I have been searching on various sites to see if someone else had already put the information out there. I have not found it yet!

Cindy Hofmeister

African Diaspora in the Americas Tour 
Now Booking Dates for February 2005
Sent by Dorinda Lupe Moreno
The Latin American Video Archives (LAVA) seeks university and community-based sponsors to host the African Diaspora in the Americas Tour in February, 2005. The tour will feature a screening of AFROARGENTINES, a documentary film about the history of black people in Argentina, which 
will be followed by a question and answer session with Afroargentine historian, Miriam Gomes. Ms. Gomes is one of the leading experts on Afroargentines who has published numerous works on the Cape Verdean community in Argentina, and was a panelist in the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance in Durban, South Africa. 

Each event lasts two hours and will include:
· A brief presentation by Professor Gomes.
· A seventy-five minute screening of AFROARGENTINES (see description below)
· Question and answer session with Professor Gomes. 

Sponsors will need to provide a video projector, a VCR with audio system, comfortable seating and a Spanish to English translator. 

The African Diaspora in the Americas Tour is part of LAVA's African Diaspora in the Americas Project, an initiative to promote a greater understanding of the political, social and cultural impact of Latin America's African legacy among North American audiences. The goals of the projects are as follows: 

1) To stimulate dialogue and communication among Latinos and African-Americans on the history of African culture in Latin America.
2) To promote inter-disciplinary collaborations between Latin American Studies and African Studies programs. 
3) To raise awareness of and find new audiences for independent film and video produced by Latin American artists.

For rate information, please contact the Latin American Video Archives 
at   or call 212 243 4804.

Directed by Jorge Fortes, Diego Ceballos
Documentary, 75 minutes, 2002, Spanish with English subtitles

"Most Argentines, if you ask, will tell you: 'In Argentina there are no black people.'" 

So opens AFROARGENTINES, a film which unearths the hidden history of black people in Argentina and their contributions to Argentine culture and society, from the slaves who fought in the revolutionary wars against Spain, to the contemporary struggles of black Argentines against racism and marginalization. The film uses historical footage from the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, but is mostly based on interviews with black Argentines from a variety of backgrounds: intellectuals and taxi drivers, immigrants from Africa and native Afroargentines. The story that unfolds provides a counternarrative to the national myth of Argentina's exclusively European heritage. 

Prizewinner at the 2003 CINESUL Festival, AFROARGENTINES is a refutation of the pervasive exclusion of blacks from official Argentine history. It shows that the first Argentine president, Bernardino Rivadavia, was of African descent. It details black Argentines' important participation in the revolutionary wars. It shows how tango, a touchstone for Argentine national identity, is rooted in milonga, candombe, cañiegue, and other musical and dance forms of 19th century black Argentines. AFROARGENTINES also exposes how the whitewashing of the Argentine self-image came about. Racist ideas about blacks as dangerous for national progress brought about such genocidal official 
practices as the drafting of blacks into the most dangerous positions in the army and their quarantining during the cholera epidemics, even as race mixture both diminished the black population and spread African blood throughout the Argentine population, including those who now consider themselves "white." But the descendants of the first black Argentines live on, their numbers bolstered by black immigration from Cape Verde (such as the parents of Afroargentine co-director Jorge Fortes) in the early 20th century, and in the last 10 years, from West Africa. These immigrants have made their own contributions and faced their own challenges in Argentine society. 

AFROARGENTINES responds to contemporary racism and marginalization by presenting the voices of individual Afroargentines, who recount their experiences of workplace discrimination, skinhead violence, the difficulty of interracial relationships, the double burden of black women, and the dangerous internalization of stereotypes by black Argentines themselves. They describe how Afroargentines have resisted racism by recourse to the media, through music, and through an 
incipient but growing political mobilization. AFROARGENTINES provides an important challenge to the marginalization of blacks in Argentine official history by rescuing the story of Argentina's black cultural legacy from oblivion. It is also a gripping tale of the ways in which individual black Argentines have resisted and coped with everyday racism and are claiming their rightful place within Argentine history and culture.

***2004 Latin American Studies Association Award of Merit in Film
"A poignant and moving portrayal of Afro-Argentines past and present. Historical material and present-day interviews are deftly interwoven to reveal the continuing black presence in a country that has long sought to deny it. From tango to 19th-century military history to late-20th-century racism and discrimination, the film gives a vivid sense of life in this little-known corner of the African diaspora." Prof. George Reid Andrews, Author, "The Afro-Argentines of Buenos 
Aires, 1800-1900" 

This documentary brilliantly analyzes the history of the black population  in Argentina.... [AFROARGENTINES] is *highly recommended* as an educational tool for discussion and study of the African Diaspora in the Americas.   
Lourdes Vazquez, Rutgers University/Educational Media Reviews Online 



"Sky Dogs"  
BLM Roundup of DANN's Horses
Indigenous in Mexican Census
Sarah Winnemucca Statue

Agricultural Exchange


        "SKY DOGS"        

Text Source: U.S. News &    World Report, The Indian      Homeland,  6-page pullout  .

The Indians took one look at the strange creatures and decided they were the biggest dogs they had ever seen. Only dogs walked on four legs and got along with people, the islanders reasoned as Columbus unloaded his two dozen mares and stallions.

Bancroft Library, 
University of California, Berkley

Actually, horses were not totally new to the Western Hemisphere. They had roamed America during the Pleistocene era but vanished along with mastodons and saber-toothed tigers. 

From the Spanish horses that Columbus 10,000 years later took to Hispaniola descended, those that Hernando Cortes brought to Mexico in 1519. Cortes's animals terrified the Aztecs, who thought each rider and his steed were one gigantic god.
The "sky dogs," as the Aztecs called them, propagated swiftly. Within a century, herds ran wild from northern Mexico to the pampas of Argentina. By 1690, Apaches and Comanches were breaking mustangs north of the Rio Grande. By 1750, herds reached Canada, and the Great Plains abounded with Indians on horseback.

Tribes that existed for centuries on small game and nuts in Missouri and Minnesota moved west to the plains to harvest buffaloes-a task the horse made easy. Diets and lifestyles improved, as did the Indians' ability to raid other Indians and, more important, to resist the steady westward advance of the white man.

The image of the warrior on horseback endures in popular culture and in the legends of the Indians themselves. Yet it represents merely a blink of Native American history. People inhabited the continent for millenniums, but the plains horsemen rode unimpeded for little more than a century. Their era ended at the Battle of Wounded Knee.

Extract:  BLM Begins Roundup of DANN's Horses

By DonCox
Sent by Cindy Lobuglio 

Photo: At home: Shoshone rancher Mary Dann visits some of her horses at the Dann ranch in Crescent Valley.

Federal range managers began a controversial roundup Thursday of about 500 horses claimed by two Western Shoshone sisters whose battle against the government over their ancestral lands in northern Nevada has attracted worldwide attention. The early stages of the operation proceeded without incident, the Bureau of Land Management said. Opponents of the roundup observed the horse gathering, which is expected to last two or three days.

BLM officials maintain that the horses must be removed to restore over-grazed habitat in the high desert Crescent Valley region, about 60 miles south-west of Elko. 

But Mary and Carrie Dann citing a 140-year-old treaty between the United States and Western Shoshone say BLM has no jurisdiction over the horses or the land.  BLM officials who impounded 227 head of cattle in September, said the sisters haven't paid federal grazing fees since the mid-1990s, and their livestock is trespassing on public land.

The BLM has tried to work with the Danns and local interests in every possible fashion over a number years to resolve their unauthorized use of the public lands," said Helen Hankins, head of the agency's Elko's 0ffice. Removing these horses is critical to restoring the damaged range land."

Supporters of the Dann sisters called the roundup a government "attack" on Western Shoshone home-lands. The Dann sisters live on an 800-acre ranch founded in Crescent Valley by their father in the early 1900s and have taken their case to the United Nations and other World bodies. They and some tribal leaders have said the Treaty of Ruby Valley in 1863 allowed white settlers to cross 26 million acres of Western Shoshone territory n Nevada, but the tribe didn't surrender land to the United States.

By John P. Schmal
Sent by Juan Marinez
The Mexican Republic of the Twenty-First Century, boasting more than a 100 million inhabitants, has evolved from many indigenous nations five centuries ago into a single national entity, with Spanish as its primary language.

Sent by Dorinda Lupe Moreno

The article on the Indigenous population of Mexico repeats known data and it is excellent.  It
might interest you to know note that the ancient Nuevo Reyno de Leon (Nuevo Leon, South Texas, Coahuila and Tamaulipas) assimilated its native population.  Class discrimination based on genealogy and economics remained and still exists, but the natives were absorbed into the Hispanic population.  Hence, MOST (BUT NOT ALL) REGIOMONTANOS AND NORTHEASTERN MEXICANS ARE MESTIZOS. The colonial Tejanos also assimilated the native south and central Texas Native population so that by 1837, the newly established Republic of Texas could not distinguish between "Mexicans" and "Indians".

Therefore, on March 2, 1837, the Senate of the Republic of Texas accepted a report from the Bureau of  Indian Affairs which read:

"THE PEOPLE CALL LIPAN (Apaches of south and central Texas), KARANKAWA (coastal Indians extending to Rio Grande City along the Rio Grande and Goliad in the    Coastal Bend), TONKAWA (Central Texas from Waco to  Pearsall) YOUR COMMITTEE CONSIDERS PART OF THE MEXICAN

In 1837 Western Texas began at the Colorado River    (present day Austin). In other words, by 1837, the newly arrived from the U.S. could not distinguish between the Mission Indians, non-mission Indians, assimilated Indians and native mestizos!  Today, there are no reservations for any Native Americans south and central Texas Indian tribes or nations!  They are Tejanos.
Sarah Winnemucca Statue

Nevada Women's History Project
Nataqua News, Serving the Northeastern Shope of the Sierra Nevada
Vol. 8, Issue 2, May 2004
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

Her original Paiute name was Thocmetony. An English adaptation of the Paiute name was Shellflower. The English name that most of us recognize is Sarah Winnemucca. A quote on the first Nevada historical marker dedicated to a woman says, "She was a believer in the brotherhood of mankind."

She was the daughter of the chief of the Paiutes, Winnemucca, and granddaughter of Chief Truckee. The Paiute creation story tells how dark and light-skinned people were all one family in the beginning, which is the basis for their belief in the brotherhood of mankind.

Nevada is one of three states which has only one statue in the National Statuary Hall in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. Each state is allowed two statues to honor persons notable in their state's history. Of the 97 statues there, only 6 are women. The Nevada Women's History project initiated the project, and Marcia de Braga, Nevada Assemblywoman, sponsored Assembly Bill 267, designating Sarah Winnemucca to be Nevada's second statue, which was passed by the Nevada Assembly and Senate with no objections and signed into law by the Governor May 29, 2001

The Nevada Department of Cultural Affairs was assigned the task of providing administrative support to a committee of Nevadans to choose a sculptor and oversee the construction and placement to the U.S Capital. The Nevada Women's History Project is responsible for raising the funds approximately $150,000. They envision the statue as an opportunity to use this Native American's life and accomplishments to provide an example of courage to all Americans. Educational projects for Nevada's children are part of the Sarah Winnemucca Statue Project.

The first book ever written by a Native American woman was Sarah's autobiography, "Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims." This is the story of her life and the customs of the Northern Paiutes, as well as her struggle for justice for her people. Sarah spent most other adult life seeking that justice through lectures and pleading with authority. She went to Washington D.C. to meet the president and testify in Congress about the conditions of her people.

Sarah also started a school for Native Americans and taught children both in their native language as well as English to enable them to function in both worlds. Serving as an interpreter and negotiator for the U. S. Army, she pleaded for her people to be returned to their ancestral lands. A small portion of their original land was eventually returned to them through her tireless efforts.

Sarah Winnemucca was the first woman to have a Nevada state historic marker erected in her honor, and she is in the Indian Hall of Fame. She is also the only Nevada woman to be represented m the National Women's Hall in of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York. She was inducted post-humously into the Nevada Writers Hall of Fame in 1993, honoring her autobiography, and is listed in "Notable American Women, 1607-1950," as well as having her biography included in The Encyclopedia Britannica, and in "Her Story: Women Who Changed the World." The internet has over 1400 websites which include her name.

Sarah deserves to be honored as a representative of Native Americans, not only in Nevada but throughout the entire country. The Nevada Women's History Project intends to add the highest honor yet to the many Sarah has received.... her statue in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.

Your help is requested in honoring this most unusual Nevada woman. Donations to the Sarah Winnemucca Statue Project are entirely tax deductible and will not be used for administrative expenses. Contact Nevada Women's History Project at 770 Smithridge Dr. Ste.300, Reno,NV 89502 or P.O.Box l2184, Las Vegas, NV 89112-0184.

Agricultural exchange: Avocados & Squash
Sent by Bob Smith

In spite of all the experiments undertaken by modern botanists, Native Americans remain the developers of the world's largest array of nutritious foods and the primary contributors to the world's
varied cuisines. In fact, Native Americans have given the world three-fifths of all the food crops now under cultivation.

Columbus left Spain with bread, wine, meat and fish. Along the way, he caught crab, tuna and dolphin. But from the minute he made contact with the Arawak peoples of the Caribbean, the culinary history of the world changed. Columbus' diary is full of information about new foods that he enthusiastically sampled and then took back to the court of Spain. Thus, the rest of the world was introduced to tomatoes, potatoes, chiles, chocolate, vanilla, sweet potatoes, avocados, peanuts, manioc, maize (corn) and dozens of other foods. In turn, the Spanish brought some new foods and animals to this hemisphere.

What is sometimes overlooked is the technology of food production that the Europeans learned from Native peoples. From the indigenous farmers, for example, the Europeans adopted the idea of planting seeds, rather than sowing them. Native Americans plant corn by placing the kernels firmly in the ground. They select each seed they plant, rather than merely grabbing a handful of seed from a bag and casting them on the ground. This process of individualized seed selection is one reason that Native Americans have been such successful farmers. In addition, they realize that planting corn, beans and squash in the same field not only reduces the destruction of the plants by insects and other pests, but also helps to retain the soil's fertility.

The "discovery" of the Americas resulted in a culinary revolution and greater, balanced nutrition for the world's population. The staple diet of corn, beans and squash, often revered as the "three sisters" by Native peoples, contributes significantly to a balanced diet. Only a fraction of the foods domesticated in the Americas has been adopted worldwide. Still available in traditional cuisines are "new" foods that can feed an increasingly hungry world. From the highland Andean mountains and lowland drainages of the Amazon, from the remote villages of Chiapas and the scattered ramadas of the Sonoran Desert, Native peoples are still using foods discovered by their ancestors.

Avocado: Until recently the avocado was virtually ignored by cooks outside Latin America. The semi-tropical plant has a thin skin and does not travel well. It was not a profitable crop until rapid transportation made it possible to move the fruit from Central America, Florida, Puerto Rico and California to urban markets very quickly and without damage to the fruit. It is possible that the English name for the fruit, "alligator pear," was also a stumbling block to its acceptance. When the name was changed to avocado (which is derived from the Aztec name "ahuacatl"), public acceptance rose dramatically.

The avocado has been eaten in the United States since at least 1776.  The Aztecs enjoyed guacamole, made with avocado, tomato, chiles and agave worms. Guacamole, minus the worms, is probably the most popular way to eat avocados today. Avocados are now grown in Israel, Kenya and the Americas for both domestic consumption and export. Europeans, however, still regard the avocado as a novelty food and have not assigned it the culinary role it has in the Americas.

Squash: Squash (from the Algonkin "askootasquash") is, along with corn or maize and beans, one of the primary foods of the Native peoples of Central and North America. The native name means "something you eat raw." The colonists, however, preferred squash cooked, and in 1664 a
shortened form of the word - squash - entered the English language. While widely accepted in the Americas, squash does not play an important culinary role in other cuisines. In fact, in Great Britain, "squash" is a term for a citrus drink. The Italians enjoy a long, thin green squash that they named zucchini. Zucchini is the diminutive form of "zucca," meaning gourd.


 Remnants of Crypto-Jews    New Mexico DNA Project

The display above is one of the many that were mounted by Gloria Golden, author of the book, Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans.  

Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans, 2005 
by Gloria Golden  
Floricanto Press, Mountain View, CA 94041 2005

Gloria has given Somos Primos permission to share stories from her book, in a series. The stories are a compilation of oral histories that she has carefully gathered. In addition, Gloria has sent a very dramatic selection of photos, which will accompany each of the articles.  Gloria's photography experience and history is included. We certainly appreciate Gloria's research and willingness to share.  

The figure on the left is Maria Emilia Martinez. She is subject of the center photo in the exhibit above.

" I realized that I had a Jewish connection after being a part of my cousin's Jewish wedding. I then began to question an actual heritage after reading a book written by an Orthodox Rabbi. I discovered traditions and customs that paralleled Jewish tradition.  At this point, I began to ask my grandmother and mother questions regarding the origins of these parallel traditions.

Maria Emilia Martinez

"Later, I attended a Yom Kippur service and left elated. I finally knew that I was home and whole. Most of this discovery occurred in my late twenties.

"My grandmother lit candles on Friday nights. She told me that it was a Catholic tradition. Yet, she also prepared kosher dishes, and my grandfather followed kashrut practices in butchering the cows and chickens on their farm. They covered mirrors when someone passed away and placed stones on the graves of family members. Many families in the Pecos, New Mexico, area also had mourning practices similar to Jewish tradition.

"Also, my grandmother made sure that she cooked on Friday so that she rested on Saturday. I feel a deep connection to Judaism. I now know that I am Jewish. I feel that God has revealed to me my true identity. My mother recently visited Spain, and a historian told her that our family from the Valencia province is indeed Jewish. I am becoming more whole as I study and practice Jewish traditions. Hopefully, I will make my bat mitzvah. This would probably be the first in my lineage. I also hope that my son will someday bar mitzvah. He is only two and a half. Yet he is fully aware that we celebrate Shabbat. I will bring him up teaching him that he is a Sephardic Jew. "   Pages 166-167

Plainview, New York 11803
23 Meryll Place
516 822 8458
1994 Photography, Queensborough Community College, Queens, New York
1995 International Center for Photography, New York, New York
1996 International Center for Photography, New York, New York
1997 Maine Photographic Workshops
1998 Santa Fe Photographic Workshops
Bachelor of Science-City College of New York 

Exhibitions (Group)etc
1998 Maryland Federation of Art, Annapolis, Maryland
1999 The 42nd Chautauqua Exhibition of American Arts, Chautauqua, New York
2000 45th Long Island Artists Exhibition, Heckscher Museum of Art, Huntington, New York
2001 Turning Point Gallery, Washington, D.C. 
2001 Women in Photography International, International Tea Time, Los Angeles, California, Traveling Exhibit-Inspired by late photographer Linda McCartney
2002 Professional Women Photographers, Borough of Manhattan President's Office
2003 Eleventh Annual Phillips' Mill Photographic Exhibition

Exhibitions (Solo) etc 
1999 New Mexico Jewish Historical Society, Annual Archives Reception, Santa Fe, New Mexico
2002 Great Neck Arts Council, Remnants of Judaism, Great Neck, New York
2002 Temple Beth David, Commack, New York
2003 JCC Portland, Oregon.
2003 Westchester Jewish Center
2004 Port Washington Library
2004 Temple Emeth, Teaneck, N.J.
2004 JCC Tarrytown, New York
2004 JCC Klein Branch, Philadelphia, PA
Slide Presentations (Solo)
2000 Los Alamos Jewish Center, Los Alamos, New Mexico
2001 Jewish Historical Society of Central New Jersey, Highland Park, New Jersey
2002 Parents of North American Israelis, Inc., Teaneck, New Jersey
2002 Shelter Rock Jewish Center, Roslyn, New York
2004 Port Washington Library
2004 Temple Emeth, Teaneck, New Jersey
2004 Temple Beth Jacob, Montpelier, Vermont
2004 JCC Klein Branch, Philadelphia, PA 
Awards+ etc
1998 First Place in Portraiture, Prince George Community College
1999 Best Picture in Show, Award of Excellence, Smithtown Township Arts Council
1999 Honorable Mention, Photography 99, Nexus Gallery, New York, New York
2000 First Place, Black and White, Long Island Arts Council at Freeport
2003 Juror's Award, Phillips' Mill Photographic Exhibition

Archive Collection
2000 New Mexico Jewish Historical Society, Santa Fe, New Mexico

Professional Women Photographers, New York, New York
Women in Photography International, Los Angeles, California 

2002 Nuestra Herencia-Volume 5.2 
2002 Publication of B'nai B'rith-Volume 117, No.2
2003 Mentalities/ Mentalities (journal)-Volume 17:2-Hamilton, New Zealand
2004 Somos Primos-February 2004

Book Published:  2005 Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans (Floricanto Press)

New Mexico DNA Project
Angel Cervantes

I am the Project Administrator of the New Mexico DNA Project. So far there are only 8 distinct Semitic
lines in New Mexico with a probability of having Sephardic ancestry.

Project Background: The New Mexico DNA Project will cover the colonial expeditions of New Mexico by the Spanish in 1598 and 1693, by the Mexicans in 1821, and the Americans in 1848. The New Mexico DNA Project will encompass not only Hispanics, but also Anglo-Americans who have come to New Mexico. 

In the years just after the Conquest of the New World, the Native-American population were decimated by disease and war leaving a relatively small gene pool of Native-American, Spanish, French, and English ancestors. 

DNA studies on Hispanics show a higher European admixture. *Anthropologist Andrew Merriwether and colleagues conducted a study on Hispanics living in Colorado. Using classic genetic markers they estimated an admixture of 67% European and 33% Native-American. 

He further tested their mitochondrial DNA (mtdna) which is a test to find the origins of your great,
great...grandmother, going back 10's of thousands of years. This one ancestor which is your families "Eve" so to speak, showed up as Native-American 85% of the time and European in origin 15% of the time. Thus showing that the majority of unions in this admixture were of European males and Native-American females. 

Project Goals: To find our ancient origins, whatever they may be. To discover previously unknown living relatives. To determine migration patterns of different families. To see if similar sounding surnames are related. To discover how closely related all of us really are. To share this information with others so that we can learn more about where we came from. 

In order to join the "New Mexico DNA Project" and just go to this link:
  or contact Angel R. Cervantes at

To see project results go to this website:
Disclaimer: Only Family Tree DNA benefits monetarily from those who sign up to the New Mexico DNA Project

For more information on the topic of Anusim and the Crypto Jew you might want to subscribe to the Yahoo forums: and SephardicForum@yahoogroupscom
Sent by Michah'el Ben-Yehudah  (aka Michael Luis Gallegos)

Maria Steiglitz "New Mexico’s Secret Jews: Anna Rael Delay and Family." 
Lilith 16 (Summer 1991) 8-10, 12. Zerubavel, Yael and Esses, Dianne. ...
http:// judaism/juda-bib/juda-bib-africanjwomen.html

Crypto-Judaism in America
Today more and more of the descendants of these Crypto-Jews are rediscovering their Jewish heritage. Some, like Anna Rael Delay, reconverted back to Judaism.   


Head of the Class
26th Annual Texas State Hispanic
   Genealogical/Historical Conference 
Lectures on South Texas, Feb 4-5
Meditations on Capital Punishment
Legislation inspired by border film
Land Office Land Grant Database
Mexican Americans & Repatriation
Texas History Workshop
El Camino Real symposium in Milam

Mex-American, piece of who I am
One Family, Two Homelands
Town Rallies to Restore Church
LaBahia Award-Dr. Carolina Crimm
Clayton Library Seminar
A New Tool at the Clayton Library 


Head of the Class
24-year old design prodigy Victor Cornejo brings Stetson hats back into the ring
by Claudia Kolker
Photographed by Alyson Aliano
Los Angeles Times Magazine, January 13, 2002

TWO YEARS AGO, WHEN HATCO -THE TEXAS FIRM THAT CREATES Stetsons- advertised for help, they did so only with the vaguest plan of mustering new blood. Designer Gary Rosenthal, now entering his 70s, was hardly ready to retire. Although he'd launched each Stetson made for almost 30 years, working with an icon tends to energize a man. And Stetson -- crown of ranchers. movie cowboys and weekend good old boys -- has gleamed with legendary luster since the Civil War. Rosenthal allowed, though, that he'd like someone to do the legwork at the factory.

Meanwhile. Thomas Harris, Hatco's president, was pondering Latino buyers, who had been loyal Stetson wearers from the company's first days. Now, unlike other Stetson clients, they also were a growing population. By the 1990s, the cowboy hat business was what analysts politely term "mature." In other words, the prospects for new buyers had dwindled. With the glory days of "Urban Cowboy" and Texophile Asian tourists long past, Stetson sales had flattened. But previews of the 2000 census showed that Latinos in the U.S. had increased by more than 50% in number.

It might be nice, mused Harris, to get a Spanish speaker on the team. So Harris hired a young Mexican named Victor Cornejo. The skinny 22-year-old seemed bright. Raised in the slums of' Ciudad Juarez, across the Rio Grande from El Paso, he' d worked his way through college in Texas. A nice kid, diligent enough to endure an entry-level job.

But Cornejo did far more than just endure. He deluged his bosses with new designs and strategies, all adding a Latino tilt to the hallowed Texas hat. Within a year, he had revolutionized the company, lobbing sales upward 40%. 

Harris had hired a prodigy. A western-wear savant. A spy in the house of hats. Inside the Stetson Offices in Garland, Texas, each wall offers an ode to cowboy culture. Pristine, curvy Stetsons line the entry like gold discs at a record studio. Stills old Stetsoned film stars-John Wayne, James Stewart, Tom Mix peer manfully along the halls. And greeting anyone who enters is Stetson's Mona Lisa: "The Last Drop," a sunset-colored portrait of a cowboy watering his horse out of his battered hat.

Downstairs, in a factory, hat blockers still shape Stetson bodies one by one. It's much as they were made in 1865, when a sickly Philadelphian hatter Philadelphia hatter named John B. Stetson first headed west to find his health.

Intrigued by the Mexican cowboys. Stetson fashioned his own version of their headwear out of matted rabbit hide. A Mexican vaquero bought the ur-Stetson for $5. Mexicans also nudged Stetson fortunes ahead a generation later, during the Revolution: Pancho Villa is said to have bought thousands to outfit his army.

But in the generations after, it was Texans who identified with the hats most closely. In the Lone Star State, a "Stetson is tantamount to the crown of kings," declares Will Howard, head of Texas history at the Houston Public Library. The brand's heft and profile, he explains, are simply un-mistakable. It wasn't parody, precisely, when Lyie Lovett hugged his Stet-son in a recent CD photograph. When he sings, "You can have my girl, but don't touch my hat," Texans may smile at the excess. But they appreciate the sentiment.

Few people understand that sentiment as well as Gary Rosenthal. Lean and wry, still piqued by nuances of brim and felt, he knows hats as well as any man alive. That may be why Rosenthal so quickly recognized Cornejo's talent. His new helper, Rosenthal explains, joined a designer's moxie with cultural insight that sometimes dumbfounds his bosses.

Scarcely a year after joining Stetson, for example, Cornejo suggested a hat called La Guadalupana. "In Mexican agricultural areas," he told his bosses, "they have a tradition of tucking a little image of the Virgin of' Guadalupe for protection inside the hatband." Why not silkscreen her image right into the silk dome inside a Stetson's crown?

True, the traditional Stetson is a stern affair, devoid of color even on the inside lining. But Mexicans find color perfectly compatible with the male aesthetic. So Cornejo and his mentor puzzled mainly about how to place the image most respectfully. "Talk about tasteful," Rosenthal says. "We didn't put our name anywhere near the picture." La Guadalupana quickly became one of Stetson's top sellers among Latino customers.

Next, Cornejo came up with El Axteca. Mexicans, he says, tend to be nationalistic, relishing emblems of their heritage. Lined in blood-red silk and emblazoned inside with an Aztec calendar. 
El Azteca sold spectacularly.

Emboldened, Cornejo proposed a hat for cockfighting enthusiasts. Though definitely a niche market, cockfighters constitute an ardent subculture. Cornejo argued to his bosses. He sketched out an image of two roosters tangling, beak to beak, that would be printed on a gold silk interior. Then, worried about PETA activists, he re-sketched: the image now showed roosters, separated, fiercely staring each other down. And what if that picture reappeared on a tiny hatband medallion? This was not your father's Stetson. But the company's board members, watching the climb in Latinos sales, gulped and gave Victor their blessing. El Palenque, or The Cockfight Rink, became another hit.
The youngest of five children, Victor Cornejo grew up fatherless. in Juarez's most violent slum. Every day, along the bridge that stretched into El Paso, fragments of America rolled in. Clothes styles, music, tourists, the smell of Big Macs mingling with truck fumes. "What's on the other side?" Cornejo once asked his mother.

"A big shopping mall," she told him. "For rich folks." Comejo thought about it, and resolved that one day he'd cross that bridge as well. After high school, he ap-plied to the University of Texas at El Paso, his grades earning him a scholarship that reduced his tuition to that paid by a Texas resident. The only problem was, he didn't have the money of a Texas resident. That, and he didn't speak a lick of English.

He muddled through, learning English as he studied. As for the money, he didn't figure that out until October of his freshman year. Then he recalled that Halloween is sacred in the Juarez discos. Elaborate costume parties culminate each year in frenzied contests with cash prizes. Comejo approached the contests like a job, devising an epic dinosaur costume and winning $3,500 tuition for a year. Each October he returned to Juarez with another killer costume. Contests paid his way through college.

Costumes were the closest thing to hat design that Comejo did before coming to Stetson. But when he saw Stetson's help-wanted ad, he knew he understood the product. In Juarez, aswirl with transients, garments plainly declare caste. Used clothes from the U.S. become the wardrobes of the border's poor. Costume parties mainly are for kids with money: pampered Juarez "juniors," or students from El Paso. And, especially for rural folk. Stetson hats have always symbolized arrival.
There's a tradition, Cornejo says, around heading north to work. The first time you come home again, you bring a Stetson to the family patriarch. These hats do not come cheap, starting at about $100. But for Mexicans, a Stetson mixes the allure of the U.S. with the swagger of their own vaquero past. Think Ronald Reagan. Think the Bushes. Think Vicente Fox.

"It's something that shows either you are powerful or you have money," Cornejo explains. "Even after the first year in the United States, people bring a Stetson home. It's like a postcard. You want to say, I was there.' "

Cornejo did more than just arrive. Within months of his first entry in the hat-lined hall, he'd lassoed Stetson's corporate identity. So dazzling is his track record that Cornejo is designing this season's Latino line mostly him-self. His salary's improved-he won't say by how much- although his job title is the same. His effect, says mentor Rosenthal, has been transformative. Today Latinos mostly from Mexico, buy 65% of Stetson hats.

Today Cornejo is still skinny, but in a slate jersey shirt, immaculately pressed slacks and good shoes, he looks distinctly prosperous. His hair is cropped, his nails meticulous: the grooming of a man raised poor and with near-religious self-respect. Cornejo shyly reveals he has even become a celebrity in certain circles. After the Spanish-language network Univision featured a story on him, girls at a Tejano concert lined up, squealing for his autograph.

Yet even now, he wrestles with his bosses. "I'll show them something, and they don't know what it is," he says. "Or because they' re not part of the culture, they don't know if it's going to work or not." Take the case of the Green Hat. "We've been introducing things like green felt," says Cornejo. "The first time, they were like, 'Who would wear a green hat?' But it's just a simple fact. If you look at Mexicans' jeans, green is one of the colors they wear. They'll wear green boots, green pants. I wear green myself."

They will also, whether laborers or janitors or farm workers, pay dearly for the hats.

"The hat is a status item," Cornejo says. "Probably most Hispanics who wear hats don't wear them because they work on a farm." Instead, they wear them to dances and parties, and they want their prosperity read easily. That's why Cornejo pioneered another detail: taking the printed "X" signs that denote a Stetson's quality (the higher the percentage of fur in the felt blend, the higher the "X" designation) and making them external ornaments.

A standard 4-X Western hat costs about $ 100 to $ 150. "The X designation is re-ally valuable-the more X's you wear, the more status you have," Cornejo says. He reaches for a box not unlike a tuba case and flips the latch. "This is a 1,000-X hat," he remarks, pulling out a chiseled, lushly rounded specimen in white. Tiny diamonds glitter from the buckle on its hatband.

To create this hat, Cornejo says, Stetson had to find a new way to process felt. In the past, if you tried to make a felt with this much chinchilla in it, the fabric would dissolve like heated butter.

"It retails for $5,000," Cornejo says, poising the white hat on his 10 fingertips. "Basically, the market demanded it. Latino clients asked us, 'Do you have any higher X's?' " And Stetson, now with Cornejo's guidance, said, "Of course." 


26th Annual Texas State Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference 

Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical Society Will be hosting the Texas State 
Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference
Labor Day weekend --- September 2-4, 2005
at Holiday Inn Civic Center

The theme for the conference : "Don Tomas Sanchez",
founder of Laredo, Texas "Laredo under Seven Flags"

Renewal Membership Now Due and New Members Welcome
Contact : Alfredo R. Gutierrez, Jr. treasurer:
210 W. Oak Circle, Laredo, Texas 78041
The Journal will be printed out by May, 2005
Visit our website for upcoming events
Membership $25.00; Family $30.00; Institution $20.00; Supporting.$50.00+

Sent by George Gause

John W. Stormont Lectures on South Texas, February 4-5, 2005
Presented by The Victoria College Division of Social & Behavioral Sciences with lectures by the South Texas Historical Association, all lectures in Johnson Symposium, Room 123
Sent by George Gause    

9:00 a.m. Welcome and Introduction
"The Production Possibilities of the Economy of the Lower Rio Grande Valley in the 1790's as reported by Felix Calleja"*  (*South Texas Historical Assn) Miguel Bedolla, Pontifical University Regina Apostolorum in Rome and UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 

10:00 a.m. "Who Was Felix Longoria and Should We Care? How NAFTA Has Changed Mexican and American History"  Douglas Monroy, Organization of American Historians Distinguished Lecturer; Ray Allen Billington, Visiting Professor at Occidental College and the Huntington Library

11:00 a.m. "The Changing Face of Ranching in South Texas"*
Wayne Hanselka, Texas A&M University

1:30 p.m. "John Wesley Hardin, the Taylors, the Suttons: A Feud?"*
James Smallwood, Emeritus Professor of History at Oklahoma State University

2:30 p.m. "When the Boys of Summer Still Wore Flannel: The History and Success of the San Antonio Missions Baseball Team"
Rebecca Ramsey, Graduate Paper Award Winner, Texas State University-San Marcos  

7:00 p.m. Kathryn Stoner O'Connor Lecture on South Texas  "The Life and Times of Carlos Truan"
Ward Albro, Professor Emeritus of History at Texas A&M-Kingsville

Saturday, February 5, 2005  
10:00 a.m. "Audubon in Texas"  Ron Tyler, University of Texas 
11:00 a.m.  "What, No Beer?: Pearl Brewery & Building of San Antonio" Char Miller, Trinity Univ 
12:00 p.m. Luncheon in the Student Center: "Interpreting the Buckeye Knoll Site, Victoria County: The Significance of Recently Completed Analyses" Bob Ricklis, Dir., Coastal Environments, Inc. 

The Victoria College, Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences
2200 East Red River, Victoria, Texas 77901  361-582-2530
For more information:

Premediated: Meditations on Capital Punishment
Exhibition On Display:  January 5 - 30, 2005  
Artist Reception and Talk by Malaquias Montoya:  January 14, 2005, 6:00 - 8:00 PM
Julia C. Butridge Gallery, Dougherty Arts Center, 1110 Barton Springs Road, Austin, Texas
Sent by Elvira Prieto

[[ Editor: Although I received this information too late for inclusion in January issue, I thought I would share it in terms of the activities of the Center for Mexican American Studies, University of Texas at Austin.]]

Capital Punishment Exhibit by Malaquias Montoya,
Doin' Time: Through the Visiting Glass by Ashley Lucas,
and Death Penalty Panel Discussion: Life, Rights, & the State 

(Austin, Texas) In the United States, more than 80% of all state-sanctioned murders since 1976 have been committed in one region, the South, with Texas leading both the region and nation with 329 executions including 16 just this year alone.  This cultural practice has boundless numbers of critics and none could be more meditative than Malaquias Montoya, a world-renowned artist and leading figure in the West Coast political graphic arts movement.  Montoya's latest exhibit titled PreMeditated: Meditations on Capital Punishment consists of 23 thought-provoking works and will be on display January 5 - 30, 2005 at the Dougherty Arts Center, 1110 Barton Springs Road, Austin, Texas.  This exhibit is sponsored by The Center for Mexican American Studies at The University of Texas at Austin and will include an artist reception and talk by Malaquias Montoya on Friday January 14, 2005 to kick off a week of events and speakers on capital punishment.

Artist Biography: Malaquias Montoya was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico and raised in the San Joaquin Valley, California. He was raised in a family of seven children by parents who could not read or write either Spanish or English. The three oldest children never went beyond 7th grade education, as the entire family had to work as farm workers for their survival. His father and mother were divorced when he was 10 and his mother continued to work in the fields to support the four children still remaining at home so they could pursue their education.

Since 1968, Montoya has lectured and taught at numerous universities and colleges in the San Francisco Bay area including Stanford and the University of California, Berkeley. He was a Professor at the California College of Arts and Crafts for 12 years, 5 of which he was Chair of the Ethnic Studies Department. As Director of the Taller de Artes Graficas in Oakland for 5 years, he produced various prints and conducted many community art workshops. Montoya, a visiting Professor in the Art Department at the University of Notre Dame in 2000, continues as a Visiting Fellow for the Institute for Latino Studies also in Notre Dame, Indiana.

Montoya has been a Professor at the University of California, Davis since 1989. His classes, through the departments of Chicana/o Studies and Art include silk screening, poster making, mural painting, and a focus on Chicano culture and history. Montoya's work includes acrylic paintings, murals, washes, and drawings but he is primarily known for his silkscreen prints which have been exhibited nationally as well as internationally. He is credited by historians as one of the founders of the "social serigraphy" movement in the San Francisco Bay Area in the mid-1960's. His visual expressions, art of protest, depict the struggle and strength of humanity and the necessity to unite behind that struggle. Montoya now resides in Elmira, California.

Elvira Prieto, Academic Advisor
Center for Mexican American Studies
University of Texas at Austin
1 University Station F9200
Austin, TX  78712  
Phone: (512) 471-2134  Fax: (512) 471-9639


Contact: Dolores García
Center for Mexican American Studies
College of Liberal Arts
The University of Texas at Austin
512.475.6973 or 512-471-4557

Legislation inspired by border film
by Elizabeth Pierson, Monitor Staff Writer
The McAllen Monitor, Monday, January 10, 2005, 1A
Sent by George Gause

AUSTIN — One Texas legislator filed a bill that could bring public recognition to the seedy side of the Texas Rangers, who historians say killed and terrorized thousands of Tejanos.

Rep. Aaron Peña, D-Edinburg, Thursday filed House Bill 317, which would designate Cinco de Mayo, or May 5, as Tejano Heritage Day. The day would commemorate the history of Tejanos and the contributions they have made to history in Texas and the world. He is working with historians and families of the victims to develop some type of memorial, he said last week.

The recent interest by legislators was spurred largely by the 2004 film, Border Bandits, which depicted the 1915 story of two well-respected Tejano landowners who were shot in their backs near the McAllen Ranch in Hidalgo County by Texas Rangers after Mexicans came to raid the ranch.

Their assailant, Bill Sterling, has a historical marker at his grave in Corpus Christi, but the victims, Jesus Bazan, 67, and his son-in-law, Antonio Longoria, have ordinary roadside graves on Farm-to-Market Road 1017 in northern Hidalgo County.

But Peña will stop short of introducing the bill to require that Texas children learn — in their state history classes — about the questionable activities of the Texas Rangers, which may have omitted events that happened in his district in 1915, he said. Another lawmaker, Rep. Roberto Alonzo, D-Dallas, was considering legislation, according to the filmmaker. Alonzo did not return calls seeking comment.

Changing curricula to reflect what many historians know to be true would be politically difficult considering the lore, he said.  The influence of the McAllen family in Hidalgo County history and politics did not affect his decision not to push for a curriculum change, he said.

He said he wants to take steps to recognize the history without risking losing support for the bill in a state where Texas Rangers are respected in the history books for their bravery.  "Where the middle ground is where we have to find, because this is not a bunch of South Texans getting together to decide what happened," Peña said. "These are people who have a vision of Texas as being glorified and pure."

Peña is also exploring the possibility of working to have a highway named in honor of Tejano heritage.  He would not say where that highway is, saying the discussions are preliminary.  The issue is near to Peña, who has studied it since seeing the film last fall in Harlingen. After the screening, grandchildren of each of the two men killed said they want recognition of the deaths.

A New York Times reporter was also in the audience, and Peña’s office later was flooded with e-mails from all over the country from people who said they knew of relatives killed by the Texas Rangers, Peña said.

The Texas Department of Public Safety, which includes the Texas Rangers, said the history has nothing to do with the Rangers of today. Tom Vinger, spokesman for DPS, said he had not seen the movie, but was familiar with the story it tells. "That was a historical event that took place before the Rangers were part of DPS, so it doesn’t have any relation to the modern Rangers," he said.  The Texas Rangers merged with the highway department in 1935, Vinger said.

Dallas filmmaker Kirby Warnock created Border Bandits based on a story told to him by his grandfather, who had been a 19-year-old cowboy working on the Guadalupe Ranch, near present-day Edinburg.  His grandfather, Roland Warnock, witnessed the Rangers from Company D shoot the two unarmed men in the back, according to the film.

The Rangers said they were seeking justice for an earlier raid by Mexicans on the McAllen Ranch, but the men killed were Valley landowners and American citizens.  One was a postmaster and another a respected 67-yearold, Warnock said.

Warnock first recorded his grandfather’s story in 1973 when he was a senior history major at Baylor University taking a course in oral history. He held on to the recordings and later spent five years researching the story to back up his grandfather’s account with facts.

The screening in September at the Cine Sol film festival in the Valley, along with other screenings around Texas, has received strong responses from audiences who were either shocked that their history books misled them or glad to have attention paid to their ancestors’ stories, he said.

"The Anglo people in the audience, they’re just dumbfounded, but the Hispanics, they are both angry and relieved," he said. "They’re angry it’s taken so long to tell the story, and relieved that someone is finally telling it."

Warnock said he’s not out to dispel the contributions of the Texas Rangers, but rather to tell his grandfather’s story.   "I’m not some crusading liberal," he said. "I own a Suburban, seven guns, I drink beer, and I go hunting, so please don’t call me the Michael Moore of Texas, because I’m not."

Since the release of the film, Warnock has had at least 70 calls from families, many in the Valley, saying the Texas Rangers killed their relatives, he said.  

Rudolfo Rocha, professor of history and the dean of the College of Arts and Humanities at the University of Texas-Pan American, appeared in the film, and has studied Texas Rangers and Tejanos for 20 years.   In his research, Rocha has documented 3,000 Tejanos killed by the Texas Rangers. Other historians estimate the number was twice as much, he said.   He was asked by Peña to be part of an advisory team to decide what type of memorial or grave marker should be erected for the two men who were killed.

Like Peña, Rocha wants recognition of the event to serve as an important reminder of an ugly chapter in history, not to nullify the positive accomplishments of the Texas Rangers or change history.

"We should have some sort of a memorial to them as a symbol, not just to those two individuals, but symbolic of what happened to way over 3,000 Mexican-Americans," he said.   With Hispanics set to eventually become a majority in Texas, the time is right to tell their story, Rocha said.

"In this country, when we think of racism, or segregation or integration, people probably think of black and white," he said.     "However, in Texas, it really hasn’t been black and white, it’s been brown and white, so it’s time that we recognize that." 

The film is scheduled to play again on at 4 p.m. Jan. 29 at the Border Theater in Mission, Warnock said. For more information, visit Warnocks’ Web site at
Elizabeth Pierson covers the state capital for Valley Freedom Newspapers. She is based in Austin and can be reached at (512) 323-0622.

Texas General Land Office Land Grant Database
Sent by George Gause

The General Land Office offers a searchable database of our land grant collection. The Land Grants of Texas tell the story of the settlement and early history of Texas.

Land Grant Database, How to Use this Catalog, Genealogy Research, Map Collection Searchable 

SOURCE: Galen D. Greaser / Texas General Land Office / Archives and Records Division|  

Texas General Land Office:  Archives and Records, Texas Land Office
Land Grant Search  The database currently has 449,097 records.

Abstract Number: 
Original Grantee: 
File Number: 

Title Date: 
Patent Date: 
Patent Number: 
Patent Volume 

Mexican Americans and Repatriation
The City (La Ciudad) - Teacher Guide 
Sent by Louis Carvajal Bermudes
Source: The Handbook of Texas Online

The Handbook of Texas Online is a joint project of The General Libraries at the University of Texas at Austin,, and the Texas State Historical Association

Mexican Americans and Repatriation

During the second half of the 19th century, harassment against Mexicans by Anglo-Americans was occasionally so severe that many were forced to abandon their homes in Texas and return to Mexico. In the 1850s a number of Mexicans were driven from their homes in Central Texas, and in 1856 the entire Mexican population of Colorado County was reportedly ordered to leave the county. Conflict between Anglo Americans and Mexicans in the 1870s reportedly resulted in the expulsion of Mexicans from various locations in South Texas.

Nevertheless, the number of repatriates was minuscule compared to those who returned to Mexico during the Great Depression. With the deterioration of the United States economy after 1929, between 400,000 and 500,000 Mexicans and their American-born children returned to Mexico. More than half of these departed from Texas. (The term Mexican is used in this article to refer to all Mexican-heritage repatriates, although a significant number of them were Mexican Americans since they had been born in Texas. For Mexican Americans, the term repatriate is actually inaccurate, for one cannot be repatriated to a foreign country.) Depression-era Mexican repatriation from Texas began in 1929, gained momentum in 1930, and peaked in 1931. In the last quarter of 1931 repatriation reached massive proportions; the roads leading to the Texas-Mexico border became congested with returning repatriates. Mexican border towns were also crowded as thousands of returning Mexicans awaited transportation to the interior of Mexico. The number of repatriates declined in 1932 and again in 1933. During the middle years of the depression - 1934 to 1938 - only occasional groups of repatriates left Texas. Then in 1939 and continuing into 1940, a significant number of Mexicans were repatriated from the state by the Mexican government.

Although most Mexicans were repatriated from rural areas of Texas, a substantial number returned to Mexico from urban centers. At least some departed from every large Texas city, but the largest number departed from San Antonio, El Paso, Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. Many urban repatriates had been employed as seasonal or permanent workers in labor-intensive industries before the depression curtailed employment. Mexicans were among the first discharged. Many urban Mexicans initially refused to abandon their homes in Texas; only after their savings were exhausted did they reluctantly return to Mexico. Urban repatriation was fueled by intense local anti-Mexican campaigns as well as by a statewide Immigration Service deportation campaign.

Perhaps the most important cause of the repatriation of Mexicans from Texas in the 1930s was the deterioration of the agricultural economy of Texas, since most Texas repatriates had been employed as tenant farmers and agricultural laborers. Mexican farm workers were devastated by declining wages after 1929. For example, the average wage paid cotton pickers decreased from $1.21 per 100 pounds of cotton picked in 1928 to forty-four cents in 1931. Mexican laborers simply could not live on such low wages. State and federal legislation designed to mitigate the impact of the depression on the poor also contributed to the repatriation of thousands of Mexicans.

Two of the most important laws were the Texas Cotton Acreage Control Law of 1931-32 and the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, which caused the displacement of large numbers of Mexicans in the early depression. In response to both laws, landlords evicted thousands of Mexican tenant farmers and agricultural laborers who subsequently returned to Mexico.

Edna E. Kelley, "The Mexicans Go Home," Southwest Review 17 (April 1932).

Robert R. McKay, "The Federal Deportation Campaign in Texas: Mexican Deportation from the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the Great Depression," Borderlands Journal 5 (Fall 1981).

Robert R. McKay, "The Impact of the Great Depression on Immigrant Mexican Labor: Repatriation of the Bridgeport, Texas, Coal Miners," Social Science Quarterly 65 (June 1984).

Robert R. McKay, "Mexican Repatriation from Texas during the Great Depression," Journal of South Texas 3 (Spring 1990).

Robert R. McKay, "The Texas Cotton Acreage Control Law of 1931 and Mexican Repatriation," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 59 (1983).

R. Reynolds McKay, "Texas Mexican Repatriation during the Great Depression" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1982).

This article by Robert R. McKay is reprinted with permission, abridged from the full article, which can be found at
© The Texas State Historical Association, 1997,1998,1999. Last Updated: February 15, 1999

Texas History Workshop
Sent by JD Villarreal
Spring 2005 History Awareness Workshop
The Texas State Historical Association and the University of Texas Center for Studies in Texas History are proud to announce a Spring 2005 History Awareness Workshop held in cooperation with the Region III Education Service Center. The workshop will be held on Monday February 7th at the Region III Service Center in Victoria. Timely content on the impact oil in Texas and the effects of the Great Depression and Civil Rights movement in Texas will be shared as well as engaging strategies and resources for bringing 20th Century content alive. The information shared is aligned with the TEKS and would be useful for grades 4, 5, 7, & 11.

Presenters include: Authors, Jo Ann Stiles and Bill Crawford; Assistant.Director of The University of Texas Center for American History, Dr. Patrick Cox; Director of Law-Related Education, Jan Miller; Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library Education Specialist, Marsha Sharp; Representatives
from the Johnson Space Center History Program; Director of Educational Services for the Texas State Historical Association, Stephen S. Cure. 
Seats are limited, register soon through the Region III E.S.C. 
workshop # 19543 or for more information, 
contact Melissa Huddleston with T.S.H.A. 
at (512) 232-1525.
Stephen S. Cure, (512) 232-6477
Educational Services Coordinator
Texas State Historical Association/
Center for Studies in Texas History
1 University Station D0901
Austin, TX 78712-0332

El Camino Real symposium in Milam

Cameron Herald News Section
Sent by Mira Smithwick

The Oldest Newspaper in Central Texas · Last Updated Wednesday, Nov 24, 2004 
Serving Milam County since 1860

Milam to host national meeting the first-ever El Camino Real symposium

Calling it an important "untold Texas story," local officials Monday unveiled plans to hold the first international conference on the newly designated El Camino Real de los Tejas National Trail in Cameron this spring.  "This is older than the Old San Antonio Road," said Robertson County historian Robert Hicks. He said the trail, which earned national status last month, has been in use since the very early 1600s. 

"El Camino Real de los Tejas Symposium/ Conference: A Texas, Louisiana, Mexico Legacy" is a two-day event that will begin Friday, April 22 in Rockdale with a tourism workshop sponsored by five state agencies.

Cameron's 850-seat arts center will host the symposium/conference Saturday, April 23. The focus of the conference will be the important and significant history of the Trails and the shared legacy between Texas, Louisiana, and Mexico. The contributions of Spain and France will also figure prominently in the discussions led by noted historians.

Sanchez: 'Mexican-American' is only a small piece of who I am

Sent by Dick Trzaskoma

Tuesday, January 04, 2005, A new year, and I brace for disgruntled, disagreeing readers. Informed debate is welcomed. The difficult reader replies are opinions based on assumptions. About who is legal, and who is not. About immigrant loyalties; their reasons for being in the United States. So here. A tweaked edition of a column I wrote several years ago, after my father's death. He was an immigrant from Mexico. I was prickly that day. Still grieving, no doubt. 

But a good beginning to 2005 would be dispelling common misinterpretations about immigrants: Sometimes the comments are in phone messages, left late at night when the caller is sure no one will answer. Some arrive in curse-laced e-mail. Others are written into letters with no return address. "You people are ruining this country." " I'm tired of pushing 'one' for English when I call the bank. This is my country, not yours." "Go back to Mexico." "Why must you people use the term Mexican-American?" 

The hyphen is a grammar mark, not a subtraction sign. The label "Mexican-American" does not leave any less room for simply being American. Besides, acceptance of the term Mexican-American is not political ideology. It is about family, a label of the soul. 

One e-mailer said: "I consider myself an American first and foremost. I don't find it necessary to hyphenate anything about myself or my great country. "Exactly. I suspect the writer is generations removed from his immigrant ancestors. Perhaps he has forgotten or never knew his great-greats sang songs in different languages, songs that didn't talk about of "purple mountain majesties."  

I am the daughter of an immigrant, although my father, born in Mexico, would never have used that term for himself. My father was an American first and foremost, as am I.   I think the Mexican flag is beautiful, with its soaring eagle. But I do not salute it.  When I hear comments about people speaking Spanish, I think of my grandmother, who never learned much English. Was she grateful for America? Yes. 

It was the country that gave her, a single woman with a child, refuge after the Mexican Revolution. And yet, she encouraged my father to move out of their Mexican-American neighborhood, not to isolate himself.  I suspect she knew that every slur uttered, every joke about "wetbacks" and "bean-eaters," must go somewhere. Sometimes it crystallizes on a person as a veneer of victim-hood.  Sometimes it is poured, drink by drink, into a glass. Sometimes it is slapped out, abuse taken out on a wife or on a child. Sometimes people become bitter of their own reflection, confusing what others say about them — dropout, drug seller, gang member — with the image that God intended.  

Some people work themselves to death, doing anything to disprove the image of the lazy Mexican. Others forget their Spanish, forbid their children from learning it and move away from neighborhoods and customs that might associate them with "those people." This is why it was easier for my father to be "American," to only speak English, and rarely mention that he was born elsewhere. And yet, at the end of his life, Mexico came roaring back.  

My father died in August 2002. He was 85. Daily, it seemed, he slipped further from this world. Doctors would say he had a series of small strokes. I think he was just ready to leave.  In his last few days on earth, my father's words came in Spanish, not English. A psychologist friend says this is common. The mind is many layered, like an onion. As the body leaves this life and readies for the next, the layers peel away.  Spanish was at my father's core. 

And so my last words to him were in Spanish. "Go home to your mother," I told him. "Go meet the father you never knew. Play with that little dog you had as a child, the one you called Pinto. Go visit Mexico in the next life. You will see its beauty." Mexican-American is a sliver of who I am. But it is the piece that connects me to my father. So whatever hateful or negative images the term conjures for some don't concern me.  For me, Mexico reaffirms love for my father.  Sanchez is an opinion-page columnist for The Kansas City Star.

One Family, Two Homelands
San Antonio Express-News
by Macarena Hernandez

More than a century ago, the Reyna family first came to the United States as migrant laborers, but still called their small ranch in northern Mexico home. The next generation crossed into South Texas and stayed. Now another generation, born in the USA, looks south and sees only death and memories connecting them to their rancho origins. This is the story of the great Mexican migration, told in the voices of one family, by one of their own — Express-News Rio Grande Valley Bureau reporter Macarena Hernández.

(Partial research for this articles  was done at The University of Texas-Pan American Library / Special Collections.  The link was sent by George Gause librarian for the Collection. The article was in 5 parts


Town Rallies to Restore Church
The Bells Toll No More / Landmark Church Tower Lies in Heap

Jesse Bogan
Express-News Border Bureau
Source: Larry Kirkpatrick / Roberto Calderon

GUERRERO, [Coahuila], Mexico - Thick stone walls have been crumbling here for 300 years, but this time, after a heavy rain, the town's church tower, one of its tallest structures, rumbled to the ground. The collapse one morning last July hurt no one but sent heaps of limestone blocks, mud mortar
and two heavy bells slamming onto historic ground.

The old Iglesia San Juan Bautista, now a national monument, has ties to the founding of the Alamo. Its tower once was a place to peer down on streets that have been strolled by Spanish soldiers, Indians, missionaries - even Robert E. Lee, a U.S. Army officer who passed through town during the
Mexican-American War.

The bells, one of which weighs as a much a small pickup, called the faithful to Mass and tolled every night at 11 p.m. as a reminder that it was time to turn down the volume on ranchero music and for kids to go home. Now the bells sit in a shed near hanging saddles and a pile of gourds.

"When they rang, you could hear them three or four miles away," said Jesus Saucedo Ornelas, the mayor, who was sporting a curled gray mustache and sipping Tecate beer on a recent afternoon.

The town can hear ringing today only figuratively, in fund-raisers to restore the tower and mount the bells once more.

Guerrero, originally called Presidio de San Juan Bautista del Rio Grande del Norte, was for generations the main jumping-off point for Spanish expeditions north of the Rio Grande five miles away. It straddled the Camino Real, the Royal Road that was the region's major north-south artery for
trade and religion.

With time, however, Guerrero weathered and hardened into a fossil - 2,000 people live here today - as the nearby Mexican towns of Nuevo Laredo and Piedras Negras became the area's main border crossings.

Missionaries left here in 1718 to found what would later be known as the Alamo. Mexican Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna and his troops later passed through on their way to San Antonio on their ultimately unsuccessful campaign to destroy the Texas rebellion in 1836.

Historian Robert Weddle considers San Antonio Guerrero's "most noteworthy offspring."  "While the child has prospered, however, the parent has faded into oblivion," Weddle wrote in his 1968 book, "San Juan Bautista, Gateway to Spanish Texas."

Aware of the destruction of the church tower, Weddle, 83, said by telephone from his home in Bonham that he remembers deeply worn steps leading up to the bells. He said he hopes the tower is rebuilt in its original style. "It's important to maintain that heritage as much as possible both from a historical and architectural standpoint," Weddle said.

The church was built for the presidio's Spanish soldiers and their families.  Construction started in 1701 and took about 60 years, said Enrique Cervera Rodriguez, the town historian. The tower was added later - exactly when is a mystery, he said. The year 1851, believed to be the town's 150th anniversary, is scratched into the bigger bell.

"Since it fell, the community has come closer to the church," said Zulema Guevara, 17, helping corral a bunch of well-behaved kids during a recent celebration of the Feast of the Three Kings in the church courtyard. "Everyone is coming together to help so that it's built back the way it was as fast as possible."

Townspeople donated goats and horses for a raffle. They've held rodeos. Over the holidays they held a dance for $30 per couple that was headlined by the band Los Montañeses del Alamo.

It was a night not to be missed. People came in heels, big hats and warm coats, just a block from the tower rubble behind a wire fence.

Antonio Castillon Saucedo, president of a fund-raising committee, said the dance brought in $5,000, but much more is needed. He said an insurance payment is stalled in bureaucracy.

Insurance should cover the restoration because it's a national monument, said Francisco Martinez, an architect in Saltillo with the National Institute of Anthropology and History who is in charge of the restoration. The restoration will cost about $70,000, he said.

"This type of work requires artistic skill," he said, adding that
construction could begin as soon as February.

Castillon said any extra money would be used for other projects, like fixing a leaky roof and decorating the church interior, which is lit by bare fluorescent bulbs and has little adornment.

Online at:

"De Leon, A Tejano Family History" receives LaBahia Award

Mexican Texans story inspired professor to pen book on De Leon family
by Robin M. Foster, 361-275-6319 or
The Victoria Advocate, December 26, 2004 -
Sent by George Gause

GOLIAD - What began as a dissertation 15 years ago has become an award-winning book for Ana Carolina Castillo Crimm, doctor of Latin American history and a professor at Sam Houston State University.

The Mexico native's "De Leon, A Tejano Family History" was selected by the Sons of the Republic of Texas for its LaBahia Award, which was presented Dec. 4 at the chapel of Our Lady of Loreto at Presidio La Bahia. The prestigious award is presented annually for a book written about Spanish or Mexican Texas.

Crimm, whose descendants were once ranchers in Refugio County, was inspired to research the book while pursuing her doctorate at the University of Texas in Austin about 15 years ago.

"It began as a dissertation under Nettie Lee Benson at the University of Texas. I was her last doctoral student, and she had begun taking an interest in Mexican Texas," Crimm said. "She was the one who inspired me to start looking at the Mexicans in Texas."

So many books at that time were written from the Anglo point of view, Crimm said. They portrayed Mexican Texans as having lost their land and going to work for Anglos, she said. She was told she would find little documentation about Tejanos because, it was believed, they did not write diaries or leave other documentation.

"I found that was not true, that there was a tremendous amount of documentation in court cases, in documents that dealt with land laws and in testimony in other cases, material on wills and tax rolls," Crimm said.  Crimm finished her dissertation in 1992 and began trying to turn it into a book. After several re-writes, other authors and friends told her to keep working.

"It was boring as all get out. It was a numerical nightmare," she said. Finally, she pitched her documentation into the footnotes and told the story of the De Leon family as a narrative history.

"The point of narrative history is to use the documentation you have to extrapolate, to figure out why these people are doing what they're doing," Crimm said of her book, which traces the ancestors and descendants of Victoria's founder, Martin De Leon, from 1780 to 1880.

The family is fascinating, Crimm said, because of the choices it faced, both during the Mexican Revolution and during the Texas Revolution. De Leon married above his station to Patricia DeLaGarza, a wealthy woman.

"She married down, out of her station and supported him in everything he did to become very effective in the founding of the colony of Victoria," Crimm said. De Leon stayed out of the Mexican Revolution by staying on his ranch. After his death, some of children sided with the Anglos during the Texas Revolution, but two others took no sides.

Crimm said her narrative shows how the family stuck together, even during the 10 years they left Texas for Louisiana where they remained until Texas joined the United States and became more stable again.

When they returned to Texas, most of their land had been stolen, and the family fought to get it back. The American courts did provide them with justice, Crimm said. Many Mexicans did not lose their land as Anglo histories have portrayed, she said. Instead, they divided it among their children over the years. Eventually, some of the smaller portions were sold off, she said.

While working to write the narrative, Crimm stumbled upon her own family history. After moving to Texas, she learned that the Castillo family had been here before. Her great-great grandfather had been a soldier in Monterrey, Mexico, and was sent to LaBahia in Goliad in 1792 as punishment. The family joined him and obtained a land grant in Refugio. The Castillos were ranchers there for 100 years until they got in trouble with their neighbors, the Welders. Crimm's grandfather shot Tom Welder, and the family was forced to flee to Mexico, she said.  "I learned all this while I was working on 'De Leon' about eight years ago," she said.

The book is 300 pages and was published in February by the University of Texas Press. It can be purchased through UT Press' Web site or You can view the entire article at

Clayton Library Research Problem Solving Seminar   

The Clayton Library friends and the Houston Genealogical Forum announces a Clayton Library Seminar six-part Series: Using Genealogical Records and Techniques for Problem-Solving. The course will provide you with research skills when you can’t go any further and have hit the "brick wall".  Classes started in January 20th and run through February 24, 2005. at the Bayland Community Center 6400 Bissonnet 6:30 pm – 8:30 pm. 

January 20, 2005 PASSENGER, IMMIGRATION AND MIGRATION RECORDS (Instructor: Marje Harris, Manager of the Clayton Library for Genealogical Research)

January 27, 2005 STATE AND FEDERAL LAND RECORDS (Instructor: David Hardin, Reference Librarian at the Clayton Library for Genealogical Research) 

February 3, 2005 NEW ENGLAND: INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL RESEARCH (Instructor: Loretta "Tommy" Burns)

February 10, 2005 CITE YOUR SOURCES AND EVIDENCE (Instructor: Robert de Berardinis, writer and speaker)

February 17, 2005 USING TEXAS MAPS (Instructor: Will Howard, Assistant Manager of the Texas Room, Houston Public Library)

February 24, 2005 GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS IN PRINT AND ONLINE (Instructor:Gay E. Carter, Reference/Documents Librarian, Neumann Library, UH-Clear Lake)
More information: Houston Genealogical Forum website at

A New Tool at the Clayton Library 
The CLF Newsletter, A Publication of Clayton Library Friends, Vol. XVIII, Nov 2004, No. 4

By Robert de Berardinis
Anew tool for Texas researchers at Clayton is the three microfilm roll Henry Raup Wagner Collection of Texas Manuscripts from Yale University Collection of Western Americana, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. This collection was purchased through a donation by the Texas Research Ramblers of College Station made in memory of Mary Collie Cooper through Clayton Library Friends. This small, but important, collection is useful to researchers of the Spanish, Mexican, and Republic eras. There is a small collection of Spanish Colonial Louisiana documents. The entire collection consists of four parts.

The four parts are:
1. Texas Manuscripts (deals with the history and development of northeast-ern Mexico and Texas, 1707-1847),
2. Texas and Coahuila Land Grants (petitions for land grants with supporting documents for mostly Austin's colony, 1829-31),
3. Philip Nolan Papers (documents concerning the exploits of Nolan and his followers into Texas from Natchitoches including his trial, 1791-1801), and
4. Louisiana Manuscripts (eleven land grants, deeds,
or decrees, mostly concerning early Anglo immigration into Natchez, 1792-1803; also, a letter of John Quitman to Richard Coxe of Natchez, 1827).

If researchers wish to publish from this collection, permission must be obtained from the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, P.O. Box 208240, New Haven, CT 06250-8240.

For the Spanish language challenged, a number of the Spanish documents come with typed translations done by eminent Yale scholars.

In the Texas Manuscripts collection are a number of documents relating to the boundary dispute of the United and Spain regarding the Texas-Louisiana boundary. Additionally, there are several descriptions of Texas by various Spanish and Mexican governors, including empresario colonies starting with the Irish colonies starting in 1809.

Without a doubt, the most important segment, genealogically speaking, are the Texas and Coahuila Land Grants. Beginning in October 1829 with the petition of George Nixon, the 53 petitions contain official endorsements as well as written testimony by Stephen F. Austin. The petitions are from (in chronological order names in parentheses means mentioned in petition):
George Anthony Nixon, 
(Gov. Viesca), 
(Francisco Madero),
(Gov. Letona), 
Juan Vicente Campos,
Henry Harrison, 
(Stephen F. Austin), 
Robert Peebles,
(Stephen F. Austin), 
Samuel May Williams,
  Jesse Burnham, 
(Stephen F. Austin),
  Jose Luis Carbajal, 
Juan Bernardo Benigno Davenport, 
(Vicente Cordova), 
(Luis Procela), 
Jose Antonio Farias,
Jose Gomez, (Jose Gomez), 
(Ygnacio de Leon), 
Jose Amero y Ruiz, 
Jose Mariano Acosta, 
(Stephen F. Austin), 
Jose Pineda, 
(Mariano Mora), 
John Gates, 
(Stephen F. Austin), 
Juan Mora, 
Thomas Bennett,
(Stephen F. Austin), 
Wyly Martin, 
(Stephen F. Austin), 
John Freeman Pettus, 
Vital Flores, 
Jose Pineda,
Ygnacio Ybanda, 
Miguel Zaragosa, 
Jose Maria Mora, 
Jose Maria Jesus Carbajal, 
Juan Jose Acosta, 
Simon Sanches, 
Robert Vince, 
William Barnett, 
Jose Ignacio Galindo,
Samuel Gates, 
Jose Maria Moreno, 
Carlos Ocampo, 
Sarah Deel,
William Plunkett Harris, 
John W Hall, 
Joel Leakey, 
James Kerr, 
(Thomas Barnett), 
(Samuel Williams), 
Robert Peebles, 
(Marcelino Martinez), 
Zeno Philips 
John H. Scott, 
Peter William Grayson,
Socrates S. Mosely,
Jesse H. Cartwright, 
Joseph D. Clements, 
(Thomas Barnett), 
(Samuel Williams), 
Juan Jose Gallard, 
Andre Ruiz de Esparza Valentin Cruz, 
George W Scott, 
(William H.Scott), 
Michael Muldoon, 
Joaquin de la Garza,
Carlos Gil,
Jose Valentin Elguezabal, 
Jose Maria Aguirre, 
and (Jose Maria del Castillo).
The Philip Nolan papers in many cases are unique to those found in the Bexar or Nacogdoches Archives or las Provincias Internets. The lists of prisoners and associates found within this collection provide illumination to the men who accompanied Nolan who would later be immortalized in the famous American novel, Man Without a Country. Those researchers interested in Nolan should read the definitive Maurine Wilson and Jack Jackson, Philip Nolan and Texas: Expeditions to the Unknown Land, 1791-1801 (Waco: Texian Press, 1987). The only copy at HPL is at the Texas Room and cannot be checked out.


Military Artifacts of Spanish Florida, 1539-1821

Clayton Library in Houston

Military Artifacts of Spanish Florida, 1539-1821


Sent by Bill Carmena


This site is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of Spanish colonial military artifacts from that vast region of southeastern North America which once comprised the Spanish Floridas and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Spanish Guale, Luisiana, and Tejas. While other materials are included in the illustrative displays, the interpretive emphasis of this site has been placed upon military clothing and, as they evolved, uniform-related artifacts: the buttons, strap and accoutrement buckles, and insignia worn by Spain's regular, provincial, and urban militia forces in the study region.  The period of interpretation is from ca. 1539—when Hernando de Soto began his epic journey of exploration in what is now the southeastern region of the United States—to the conclusion of Spain's colonial tenure in North America in 1821.

Clayton Library in Houston
Louisiana Manuscripts, eleven land grants, deeds, or decrees, mostly concerning early Anglo immigration into Natchez, 1792-1803; also, a letter of John Quitman to Richard Coxe of Natchez, 1827).  Those mentioned in this collection are:

William Dunbar, 
E. Gallaudet,
L. Pellerin, 
William Curtis, 
Alexander Moore, 
Jacinta Gallagher, 
Charles La Chaise, 
Francois de Longuay, 
John Anthony Quitman, 
and Richard S. Coxe.
This collection comes with calendars available online (respectively) from Yale University at:


Alternative Rock Pioneer Targets Latino Audience


Extract: WHFS Changes Its Tune to Spanish
Alternative Rock Pioneer Targets Latino Audience
By Teresa Wiltz and Paul Farhi
Washington Post Staff Writers, Thursday, January 13, 2005; Page A01
Sent by Sam Anthony

WHFS-FM, the Washington area radio station that was a pioneering purveyor of alternative rock to generations of young music fans, did a programming U-turn yesterday by ditching the genre for a Spanish-language, pop-music format that transforms it into the largest Spanish-language station on the local dial.

The switch reflects both changing demographics and a corporate war of attrition involving Washington's two major radio station owners, Infinity Broadcasting, which owns WHFS, and Clear Channel Communications, which owns WHFS's chief competitor, DC-101.

Despite its self-proclaimed "legendary" status, WHFS (at 99.1 on the dial) has long trailed DC-101 in the race to win the ears of rock listeners in the Washington-Baltimore area. At the same time, Spanish-language radio is the fastest-growing format in the country, while alternative rock radio is a withering niche.

January 12 at noon WHFS ended its 36-year history as the arbiter of cutting-edge rock. Lanham-based WHFS is now "El Zol," where they're "siempre de fiesta" -- always partying. (Zol plays off sol, the Spanish word for sun, and is a station brand of the Spanish Broadcasting System Inc.which owns other "Zol" stations.)

Although radio insiders have discussed the likelihood of WHFS changing formats for many months, the switch came as a shock to former employees and fans who grew up listening to the radio station that, since the late 1960s, had gained a reputation as the place to go for new music. Radio stations often switch formats and often without promoting the change in advance.

Doing what they've got to do includes wooing the Latino radio market, the fastest growing in the business. The audience of Spanish-language stations has grown 37 percent since 1998 and currently accounts for about 9 percent of all listeners. (Some radio experts believe that this understates the actual audience, as it does not take into account the large numbers of undocumented Latinos for whom the radio is a vital source of information.) In 2003, Latin album sales increased 16 percent, according to Nielsen SoundScan.

In the Washington area, the Hispanic population has grown more than 25 percent in the last four years, Infinity says. "El Zol's" playlist is aimed at the region's largely Central American population, featuring Caribbean and Central American dance music, mostly salsa, merengue and bachata.

The station will target radio's "money demographic": Adults ages 25 to 54. Washington has five other radio stations aimed at Spanish speakers: WBZS-FM, WPLC-FM and WKDL-AM, all owned by Mega Broadcasting; WILC-AM, owned by ZGS Broadcasting; and WACA-AM, owned by Entrevision.

Spanish-language radio programs have scored some notable successes in recent years. In New York, "La Mega" (WSKQ-FM) has a morning show that frequently trumps Howard Stern in the quarterly Arbitron ratings, according to Seth Rosen, media director for Reynardus and Moya, a New York-based advertising agency that caters to the Latino market.

The Viacom media conglomerate owns Infinity Broadcasting, which in turn also owns Washington area stations WPGC-FM and AM, WARW-FM and WJFK-FM. Recently, it has been flipping some of its weaker-performing stations across the country to a Spanish-language format, reflecting an industry trend. The switches have been prompted by Infinity's alliance with the Spanish Broadcasting System Inc., the nation's largest Latino-controlled radio broadcasting company. Infinity owns an equity interest in the Florida-based company, which served as a consultant on the WHFS reformatting.


The Plight of Immigrants from Mexico
Genealogy of Mexico DNA Surname Project
Genetic codes present in Hispanic DNA
Presidentes Municipales de la Frontera
Revilla / Guerrero Viejo / Antigua Guerrero. est. 1750 - flooded 1953
Conferencia Entre México y Los Estados Unidos
Guadalajara: Crónica Miscelánea de la Sancta Provincia de Xalísco, 1653
The First Pastorela: Tlajomulco, Jalisco, 1586
Llamas de Tlaltenango y Jerez, Zacatecas


Agustín de Iturbide 

"Vallisoletano, consumador con 
Guerrero de la Independencia 
y primer emperador del México Independiente."

Shared by Armando M. Escobar Olmedo, the newly appointed Director for the 
Archivo Histórico de Morelia, Michoacán.


The Plight of Immigrants from Mexico
By Edward P. Lazear, Hoover Institution, November 10, 2004

Immigrants from Mexico do far worse when they migrate to the United States than do immigrants from other countries. Those difficulties are more a reflection of U.S. immigration policy than they are of underlying cultural differences. The following facts from the 2000 U.S. Census reveal that Mexican immigrants do not move into mainstream American society as rapidly as do other immigrants. 

Eighty percent of non-Mexican immigrants are fluent in English. Among Mexicans, the number is 49 percent. Non-Mexican (working) immigrants have an average wage income of $21,000 a year. Mexican immigrants have an average wage income of $12,000 a year.

The typical non-Mexican immigrant has a high school diploma. The typical Mexican immigrant has less than an eighth-grade education.  Compared to other Hispanics, only 49 percent of Mexican immigrants are fluent in English, compared to 62 percent of non-Mexican Hispanics.

Mexican average incomes are about 75 percent that of other Hispanic immigrants, and Mexican immigrants have about two and a half fewer years of schooling. Two other facts are worth noting. First, Mexican immigrants live in communities where 15 percent of the residents were also born in Mexico. Non-Mexican immigrants live in communities where fewer than 3 percent of the residents are from their native land. Second, Mexican immigrants account for a much higher proportion of the immigrant population than does any other group—29 percent in the 2000 census.

The last two points are key. Individuals become assimilated when their incentives to do so are great. An immigrant from Mexico who moves to East Los Angeles can survive knowing only Spanish and interacting primarily with people from her or his own community. A Bulgarian immigrant to Billings, Montana, must learn English quickly or return to Bulgaria.

A number of studies suggest that the most important factor in explaining English fluency and other aspects of assimilation is the proportion of individuals in one's community who come from his or her native land. When there are many, assimilation is slow; when there are few, assimilation is rapid. Mexicans often do poorly because they have been part of a large wave of immigrants who have similar cultures, languages, and backgrounds.

One other factor is that U.S. immigration policy selects immigrants from Mexico primarily on the basis of family connection rather than skill. Immigrants from other countries are more likely to enter and take jobs in highly skilled occupations. In fact, our most able immigrants come from North Africa— Morocco, Algeria, and Libya. Is this because those countries have the world's best educational systems and cultures? No, it is because it is virtually impossible to enter the United States from those countries. The only North Africans to get in are highly educated and talented.

Nothing inherent in Mexicans causes difficulties for them when they come to the United States. Instead, it is our immigration policy that encourages the formation of large, insular Mexican communities. Additionally, our policies do not employ the same selection criteria for Mexicans as they do for applicants from other countries.

Moving in the direction of skills-based immigration and away from relative-based immigration is one step we can take to ensure that immigrants do well and become integrated when they come to the United States. Moreover, a conscious policy that encourages a more balanced distribution of countries from which we draw immigrants will improve the speed of assimilation and raise the incomes of both immigrants and U.S. natives.

Edward P. Lazear is the Morris Arnold Cox Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution and the Jack Steele Parker Professor of Human Resources, Management and Economics at Stanford University's Graduate School of Business. Original article at:

(In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed by    without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.

Patrick Osio, Jr.Mr. Osio was born in California. He lived and attended schools in Mexico City and Los Angeles, California. He has lived in San Diego, California since 1982 with his wife of 41 years.Mr. Osio is an award-winning columnist with over forty-years experience in the U.S. Hispanic and Mexican communities. For over 15 years, he was a consultant to the private and public sector on trans-border business and economic affairs. He is a frequent lecturer on U.S.-Mexico issues, and is a frequent guest in radio talk shows. He brought his business, political and cultural experience to bear in his writing. His monthly column, The Connection, written for the San Diego Metropolitan Magazine, has won 5 awards for excellence from the San Diego Chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists.Hispanic Media selected him as one of the 100 best Hispanic Journalists in the United States in 2002. In 2003, Hispanic Media selected Patrick as one of the 50 Most Influential Hispanic Journalists in the United States. Also in 2003, the CCNMA honored Mr. Osio with La Pluma Lifetime Achievement Award.Mr. Osio is the Editor of ,
and Internet weekly publication and writes a weekly column. His articles are distributed by Knight Ridder Tribune News Service to over 400 newspapers throughout the United States.His articles have appeared in such newspapers as the Los Angeles Times, the Miami Herald, The Houston Chronicle, Detroit Free Press, San Diego Union-Tribune, El Paso Times, The New Mexican and numerous others.

Genealogy of Mexico DNA Surname Project
DNA Discoveries of those with ancestors in Mexico
The DNA of our origins point to a rich history we were not aware of.

Brief Glossary:
YDNA - Y chromosome DNA (DNA passed from Father to Son)
R1b - a mutation of YDNA found in people of western European origin
J - a mutation of YDNA found in people of Semitic origin
J2 - an mutation of YDNA found in people of Semitic origin and an additional mutation from J. 
E3b - a mutation of YDNA found in people of Semitic origin and found most frequently in people from countries surrounding the Mediterranean 
Semitic - origin of Jews and Arabs.  
Moorish - An Arab people
Native Americans - ancient people that settled the Americas as far back as 30,000 years ago

Most of our ancient YDNA (R1b) can  be found in the Basque of Northern Spain and Southern France. This makes sense as the Ancestors of the Basque were a Non-Indo European speaking people that were the first settlers of Europe. Therefore they would have left the most descendants in Europe. They were the first Iberians.

Spain was a refuge in Europe after the last glacial maximum 18,000 years ago. People from northern Europe migrated and eventually mixed with Iberians already there. 

Next the Phoenicians (Semitic ancestors of modern day Lebanese), Greeks and Carthaginians (semitic or J,J2,E3b) invaded and settled Spain along with a later migration from the Jews (J,J2 and E3b).

Followed by the Romans (E3b and R1b) and Visigoths (I2 or I1c and I1b1).  The Moorish (E3b) invasion followed although DNA studies suggest little impact on our YDNA as yet.

In the mean time Native Americans (Q, Q3) were migrating south in the Americas and settling in the Valley of Mexico. The Mexica (Aztec) were an advanced civilization that the conquistadors compared to the Ancient Egyptians. This was a civilization that had laws, libraries, zoos, government, royalty and schools of higher learning.

A major purpose of this study is to bring family previously not known to each other, together. This has occurred thus far with some of the more larger families such as the Villarreal, Trevino and Garza. Probably the vast majority of us if we looked back far enough would link to some of the numerous members of these families.

Knowing our origins and family lines ultimately brings us together. DNA testing is a very rewarding experience. I would encourage you all to know the truth about our ancestors. The truth is out there sometimes buried in numerous legal documents of the colonial period or deduced through DNA statistics or determining what makes sense from numerous points of view. This realization is liberating.

We can be proud of the rich history of our ancestors. DNA testing has begun to help us know them! Find out about your family.

This surname project is open to all surnames with a male line to Mexico or the following states prior to 1848; California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Nevada, Utah and Colorado.

I invite you to expand your family research by including DNA data. Please contact me for information on how to proceed.

Gary Felix
Administrator of the Genealogy of Mexico DNA Surname Project

Genetic codes present in Hispanic DNA.
Sent by Angel Cervantes

Genetic Haplogroups:

E3b - E3b: Mediterranean origin. Mostly found in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, Middle East, North, West, and East Africa. The Phoenicians, the Berbers, and the Moors belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 10% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

G - Origins may have been the Indian subcontinent or middle east about 30,000 years ago, but are now found throughout Europe, the middle east and central Asia, all at low frequencies. A branch of G is found primarily in Europe and the middle east. About 8% of northern Spaniards share this origin.

H - Origins in the Indian subcontinent, which is the origin of the Gypsy. The Y-dna haplogroup (H1a), defined by a mutation at M82 according to the DNA HaploTree is the origin of the Gypsy also known as Gitano, Romany or Roma. The Gypsy originated Flamenco in Spain and have been in Spain for a thousand years.

I - Nordic (Northwestern European) origin. Given that the Visigoths (40,000 strong) conquered Spain after they conquered Rome and settled there since the year
507, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I1c in Spain. The Visigoths ancient homeland was Sweden (where this haplogroup is most common) which they had
left around Christ's time. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. While haplogroup I originated in Scandinavia, there were later mutations of I resulting in subhaplogroups I1a and I1c which are thought to have spread out early from France. I1c is when marker 392=12 and 393=14 or 15 and found in approx. 2.5% of Europeans.

I1b - Balkans of Europe. Given that the Visigoths (40,000 strong) conquered Spain after they conquered Rome and settled there since the year 507, it is likely this is the origin of haplogroup I and subhaplogroup I1b in Spain. The Visigoths ancient homeland was Sweden (where the I haplogroup is most common) which they had left around Christ's time. 13% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. I1b is found predominately in the Balkans where it probably mutated from "I". It is also found significantly in Sardinia and the Basque country of Spain (I1b2). 

J - Semitic origin. Haplogroup J is found at highest frequencies in Middle Eastern and north African populations where it most likely evolved. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

J2 - Semitic origin. Mostly found in the Middle East. This haplogroup contains the Cohen modal lineage which is found in about 5% of those with this origin. Mostly found in the middle east, Mediterranean and North Africa. About 28% of Sephardic Jews have this origin. 43% of Ashkenazi Jews have this origin. 3% of modern day Spaniards share this origin.

Q - Native American - this Haplogroup links Siberia to the Americas. Native Americans traveled the furthest from mankind's origin in Africa.

Q3- Haplogroup Q3 is the only lineage strictly associated with Native American populations. About 8 to 12 thousand years ago a mutation called M3 occurred within the Q haplogroup defining the Q3. This mutation likely occurred in the Americas.

R1b - Western European origin. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype. Basque and Celtic people belong to this Haplogroup and they were among the earliest settlers of Spain. 68% of modern day Spaniards share this origin. The following markers are common to the people bordering Europe's Atlantic within a couple of steps; DYS19 (DYS394)=14, DYS388=12, DYS390=24, DYS391=11,
DYS392=13 and DYS393=13.

Presidentes Municipales de la Frontera:


C. Eduardo Hinojosa Cepeda
Presidente Municipal de Ciudad Camargo
Calle Inturbide y Zaragoza, Plaza Principal
Ciudad Camargo, Tamps
Tel: (891-97) 4-00-03: 4-13-00: 4-00-44: fax :4-08-14: 4-00-16

C. Juan Carlos Olivares Guerrero
Presidente Municipal de Ciudad Gustavo Díaz Ordaz.
Calle Tercera s/n. Plaza Principal
Ciudad Gustavo Díaz Ordaz. Tamps.
Tel: (891-93) 8-24-17: 8-31-55 : fax: 8-29-60

M.V.Z. Luis Gerardo Ramos Gómez
Presidente Municipal de Nueva Ciudad Guerrero
Calle Vicente Guerrero y Ruiz Cortinez, s/n Plaza Principal
Nueva Ciudad Guerrero, Tamps. c. p. 88370
Tel.: (897-97) 6-01-14 y 6-03-70, fax: 6-08-29

Lic. Baltazar Hinojosa Ochoa
Presidente Municipal de Ciudad de Matamoros.
Calle Sexta entre Morelos y González, Zona Centro C. P. 87300
Heroica Matamoros, Tamaulipas.
Tel.: (868) 812-30-27: 812-34-81: e-mail:

C. P. C. Erbey Ramos Ramos
Presidente Municipal de Ciudad Mier, Tamps.
Calle Hidalgo y Obregón s/n, Plaza Juarez
Ciudad Mier, Tamaulipas, C. P. 88390
Tel.: (897-97)- 3-00-70 : 3-00-71: 3-09-51: fax: 3-08-93
Particular: (897-97) 3-02-72: cel: (897-97)-977-36

Ing. Alfonso Ramírez Rodríguez
Presidente Municipal de Ciudad Miguel Alemán
Calle. Francisco I. Madero No. 150
Ciudad Miguel Alemán, Tamps. C. P. 88300
Tel.: (897-97) 2-09-35: 2-00-30: 2-08-77: fax: 2-28- 87

L.A.E. Daniel Peña Treviño
Presidente Municipal de Nuevo Laredo, Tamps
Guerrero y Maclovio Herrera 3440 Col. Centro
Nuevo Laredo, Tamps. C. P. 88000
Tel.: (867)-715-14-17: 712 -51-29: 712-42-88 fax: 712-92-41

Francisco J. García Caveza de Vaca
Presidente Municipal de Reynosa
Plaza Principal s/n
Tel: (8999) 22-00-05 : 22-01-38: 22-67-69

C. Juan de Dios Cavazos Cárdenas
Presidente Municipal Ciudad Rio Bravo, Tamps.
Ave. Miguel Aleman con Ave. Las América
Ciudad Rio Bravo, Tamps, Mexico. C. P. 88900
Tel: (8999) 4-00-11: 4-00-43: 4-34-24: 4-21-46: y 4-15-65   Fax: 895-4-05-34

Dr. Alberto Alanís Villarreal
Presidente Municipal Valle Hermoso
Eduardo Chávez s/n. Hidalgo y Cosme Santos
Ciudad Valle Hermoso, Tamps. C. P. 87500
Tel.:(894-84)-2-07-13: 2-08-29: 2-00-65: fax: 2-36-19

Lic. Eugenio Hernández Flores
Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de Tamaulipas.
13 Baja California # 506 Fraccionamiento San José
Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas. 87000
Tel. (131-31) 2-21-07: 2-11-44: fax: 2-34-92

SOURCE: Carlos Rugerio 
Alphabetized and reformatted by George Gause


Revilla / Guerrero Viejo / Antigua Guerrero. est. 1750 - flooded 1953
Photographs of Guerrero Viejo (with captions) as shared by Valerie Bates.
Valerie Bates  956.867.7002
Rio Bravo Gallery
P O Box 13052
401 E. Maxan St., Ste. 102B
Port Isabel, Texas 78578
Sent Jose M. Pena

Conferencia Entre México y Los Estados Unidos
24 y 25 de marzo de 2005, en San Antonio, Texas

The Alamo: The Daughters of the Republic of Texas Library at the Alamo

¿Qué sucedió en el Río Grande durante la revolución de Texas? ¿Qué efecto esperaban tener en la política de la Ciudad de México los residentes de Texas? ¿Cómo diferenciaron las opiniones de los colonos anglosajones a las del gobierno? Reúnase con historiadores de Texas y de México para discutir la revolución de Texas en el Río Grande en una conferencia entre ambos países el viernes, 25 de marzo, en el Hotel Menger de San Antonio, Texas, con sus anfitriones las Hijas de la República de Texas (Daughters of the Republic of Texas) y organizado por los empleados del Álamo y de la biblioteca de las Hijas de la República de Texas. La conferencia será precedida por una recepción en el Álamo por la tarde, donde unos documentos de Samuel Maverick, que son parte de la colección de la biblioteca de las Hijas de la República de Texas serán mostrados en una exposición especial.

Los presentadores serán: Miguel González Quiroga, Nuevo León in the Texas Revolution; Dr. Stanley C. Green, The Texas Revolution and the Río Grande Border; Dr. Joseph E. Chance, José Maria Carvajal and the Struggle for Texas Independence; and Dr. Félix D. Almaráz, Jr., Santa Anna and His Generals. El Dr. Richard Bruce Winders, historiador y  conservador en el Álamo, servirá como asesor.

Miguel Ángel González Quiroga es profesor de historia en la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Entre los años1997 y 2000 él formo parte del congreso estatal de Nuevo León, y entre los años 1994 y 1997 él formo parte del consejo de la ciudad General Zuazua en Nuevo León. Él tiene su titulo en la Historia Latino-Americana de la Universidad de las Américas en Puebla, México, y un titulo en Historia de la Universidad de Houston en Texas. González ha hecho investigaciones extensas y tiene mas de catorce publicaciones con su enfoque en el comercio y la historia económica de la frontera de Texas/ México y también en la historia económica de su estado nativo, Nuevo León. Él es bilingüe y trabaja como traductor de libros y artículos para la prensa de su universidad del español a inglés y de inglés al español.

Empleado en Texas A&M International University, Laredo, desde 1970, el Dr.Stanley C. Green ha estado activo en la comunidad histórica local, sirviendo como uno de los miembros fundadores y el primer presidente de la fundación de la herencia del condado de Webb y un miembro fundador de la Comisión histórica del condado de Webb. Algunas de sus publicaciones son: The Republic of Mexico: The First Decade (1987); Laredo: An Overview, 1755-1920 (1982); History of the Washington Birthday Celebration (1999); prologue to La Guerra México-Estados Unidos. Su Impacto En Nuevo León (2003); además de varios libretos escritos sobre la historia de la frontera para la fundación de la herencia del condado de Webb. El Dr. Green recibió su titulo de maestría y su doctorado de Texas Christian University  y pasó dos años en Ciudad de México como Socio de Juarez-Lincoln.

El Dr. José E. Chance es un matemático con un interés afilado en la historia de Texas del siglo diecinueve, específicamente el período de la Guerra contra México. Él recibió su doctorado en matemáticas de la Universidad de Texas y sirvió como director del departamento de matemáticas y computadoras en la University of Texas, Pan American, de 1986-1995. Sus publicaciones incluyen:  My Life in the Old Army: the Reminiscences of Abner Doubleday (1998); The March to Monterrey: The Diary of Lieutenant Rankin Dilworth, U.S. Army (1996); Mexico Under Fire: The Diary of Samuel Ryan Curtis, 1846-1847; The Mexican War Diary of Captain Franklin Smith (1991); Jefferson Davis's Mexican War Regiment (1991); and The Second Texas Infantry: From Shiloh to Vicksburg (1984).  El Dr. Chance es el autor de una articulo semanal del periódico, "History by Chance."

Un pasado presidente de la Asociación Histórica del Estado de Texas y de la Sociedad Histórica Católica de Texas, el Dr. Félix D. Almaráz, Jr., es el autor de varios libros premiados incluyendo Knight without Armor, Carlos Eduardo Castañeda, 1896-1958 (1999); Tragic Cavalier: Governor Manuel Salcedo of Texas, 1808-1813 (1971, 1991); Faces of the Borderlands: Cisneros
2000 (1999); and The San Antonio Missions and their System of Land Tenure (1989). Él también fue el editor de Madero en Tejas (2001). En reconocimiento de sus contribuciones a la historia de las Fronteras en Norteamérica, el gobierno de España le otorgo a Almaráz la Medalla de la
Orden de Mérito Civil (2003). En México él ha recibido los honores de la Medalla de El Águila de Tlaltelolco (1979), la Medalla de Capitán Alonso de León y la diploma (1979), el Reconocimiento Francisco I. Madero (2003), calidad de miembro en el Colegio Coahuilense de Investigaciones Históricas (2004), y es miembro asociado de la Academia Mexicana De La Historia (2004).
Regionalmente, Almaráz ha ganado la distinción de ser profesor Piper (fundación de Minnie Stevens Piper, 2003), el es miembro del Instituto de Texas de Letras (2002), y recipiente del Premio de Rubén Munguía en escritura (Fundación de La Prensa, 2004). Él es profesor de la historia en
la Universidad de Texas en San Antonio.

El Dr. Richard Bruce Winders, es el historiador y conservador del Álamo desde 1996, recibio su doctorado deTexas Christian University en 1994. Él es un especialista en la historia militar americana antiqua y del sudoeste, Dr.Winders ha publicado varios libros: Mr. Polk's Army: The American Military Establishment in the Mexican War (1997); Crisis in the Southwest: The United
States, Mexico and the Struggle over Texas (2002); Davy Crockett, The Legend of the Wild Frontier (2003); and Sacrificed at the Alamo: Tragedy and Triumph in the Texas Revolution (2004). Él también trabaja como uno de los editores de una enciclopedia titulado The United States and Mexico at War: Nineteenth Century Expansionism and Conflict (1998).

El registro para la conferencia incluye la recepción del jueves, pausas de descanso, y el almuerzo del viernes. El honorario si se registra temprano es $45; el registro el día de la conferencia, el día 25 de marzo, será $55 Los asientos para el almuerzo no están garantizados con el registro en día del
evento. El registro para la recepción de la tarde del jueves será de $15. Los cheques deben ser hechos a: DRT Library y deben ser enviados: DRT Library,  P. O. Box 1401, San Antonio, TX 78295-1401.

Habitaciones están disponibles en el Hotel Menger, 204 Álamo Plaza, San Antonio, Texas 78205, (210) 223-4361, las habitaciones para la conferencia tendrán un costo de descuento de $99 por cuarto, singular o doble, más el impuesto 16.75%. La tarifa se aplica a partir del 22 de marzo  al 27 de marzo, basado en disponibilidad. Los asistentes son responsables de hacer sus propias reservaciones. El plazo para las reservaciones es el  24 de febrero del 2005.

Para más información sobre el registro, por favor llame a la biblioteca de DRT al 210-225-1071 o visite las paginas en la red o  para información
completa del acontecimiento.
Contact: Elaine B. Davis
DRT Library at the Alamo
P. O. Box 1401
San Antonio, TX 78295-1401
Phone      210 225-1071
Fax          210 212-8514
Dr. Richard Bruce Winders
The Alamo
300 Alamo Plaza
San Antonio, Texas  78295-1401
Phone:  210 225-1391

Guadalajara: Crónica Miscelánea de la Sancta Provincia de Xalísco
escrito por  Fray Antonio Tello, en 1653

[[Editor: This information was sent by Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza.  I received it December 29, 2004. I found the history of how he became in possession of the information and the historical perspective of Fray Antonio Tello quite interesting.]]

Estimada señora Mimí:  aquí  le envío un documento de la época de la colonia española sobre la historia del septentrión mexicano.

Permítame explicar cual fue el momento de encuentro con esto. Sucede que por asuntos de vacaciones en navidad, hube de ir a recorrer por seis escasos días esos hermosos lugares de Guanajuato y de Michoacán en la parte central de México.

En nuestro recorrido, mi esposa y yo, el primer puerto de abrigo fue Santa María del Río, un  municipio entre Querétaro y San Luis Potosí; ahí 45 minutos para comprar un rebozo en la tienda de la esquina de la plaza;  que para quien no sabe lo que un rebozo es un chal, un gazné un algo para vestir en el cuello y cabeza de la mujer en tiempo de frío; pero en ese pueblo todos los días del año a las doce mediodía repican las campanas de la iglesia y truenan volados cohetes.

Luego seguimos y continuamos la carretera central no sin rumbo antes admirarnos con la belleza de artesanía que se ofrece en Dolores Hidalgo cuna de la Independencia.

Después llegamos a San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, una joya colonial por excelencia;  para nuestra decepción ya no la que antes era, ahora llena de carros por las angostas calles del centro de la ciudad. 

Pero de cualquier manera se disfruta la estancia frente a la plaza; esa hermosa Iglesia de motivos góticos churriguerescos;  y tantos extranjeros entre vecinos nativos van por la calle ofreciendo una sonrisa al visitante.

Bueno, ...   precisamente ahí fue donde yo hambriento de los saberes de esas tierras pregunté donde adquirir, no sé, algunos libros de esos que se venden en tiendas de segunda; quería algo sobre la historia.

En eso luego de tanto esperar mientras comíamos, irrumpe la señora cocinera dueña del restorante y nos dice que ahí está el señor que viene de México y se dedica a vender libros y antigüedades; si muy bien, muchas gracias hágalo pasar ; total que llega y era un señor como de 65 años, gordo muy amable, y luego, bueno pues nosotros todavía terminando de comer el señor nos esperó para irnos a una casa del pueblo donde tenía los libros que vendía.

Caminamos como 700 metros entre calles adoquinadas y carros de turistas  para llegar al zaguán de un señor llamado Jesús, con acento de español al hablar y muy parecido al senador  Diego Fernández de Cevallos; fue tan pronta la sorpresa que ni siquiera queríamos entrar.

Después ya adentro fue como estar en un lugar donde lo demás era estar afuera.

y de pronto ese señor que va sacando un costal lleno de libros de los que ayer había traído desde el Distrito Federal, y luego platicó que cuando venía de viaje el chofer del autobús se detuvo porque unos policías de caminos subieron  directamente frente a unos pasajeros de esos que les llaman indocumentados, y que luego los bajaron y se los llevaron quien sabe pa' donde.

De entre los libros que rescaté con este señor de quien estoy hablando, es el que ahora envío mi correspondencia para que  tenga Usted a bien publicar en su prestigiada revista.

Muchas Gracias y Saludos; reciba usted mis mejores deseos y parabienes a su familia con todos los seres queridos en este nuevo año que comienza y para toda la vida que continua.

Sinceramente: Carlos Martín


 Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza   Guadalajara,  México

El documento que se incluye en esta publicación es tomado de los cinco indistintos capítulos que, del Libro Segundo de la Crónica Miscelánea de la Sancta Provincia de Xalísco escrito por  Fray Antonio Tello,  O. F. M.  en 1653, fue encontrado en  "Testimonios de Guadalajara";  prólogo y selección de José Cornejo Franco; ediciones de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; colección Biblioteca del Estudiante Universitario # 35; director de la Imprenta Universitaria Francisco Monterde; ilustraciones de Julio Prieto. México 1942. 

y dice... ( se ha respetado el estilo literario del autor con scanner y procesador de texto )
" Habiendo sabido Nuño de Guzmán, que estaba en Compostela, cómo la villa de Guadalajara no se había fundado en el puesto que se había determinado de Tlacotlán, sino que se habían ido los vecinos á fundar á Tonalán, sintiólo mucho, por ser pueblos y tierras de su encomienda, y porque pretendía que el emperador le hiciese marqués de ellas, y así envió á mandar se volviesen á donde habían comenzado á poblar, y que se conservase el título de Guadalajara, á contemplación de la ciudad de Guadalajara en su patria, en el reino de Toledo. Nombró alcaldes y regidores, y por justicia mayor al capitán Juan de Oñate, como lo había sido antes, y repartió á los vecinos en encomienda toda la Caxcana, Barranca y algo de la Tecuexa y Cocas; señaló jurisdicción á la villa desde la provincia de Avalos, la Tecuexa, Caxcana, los Ayos, Pénjamo, Cuinan,  Cuitzeo del Río,  que son confines de la Tarasca, (( Michoacán)),   Tzacatecos  (( Zacatecas )) y Tepec (( Nayarit ? )). Partió términos con la ciudad de Compostela en Guaxícar y Tequila, y hizo dar asiento á la villa y todo lo perteneciente á una república. Esta vez pasaron al puesto de Tlacotlán, entre unas barranquillas ó quebradas, este año de 1535, y no el de 36, ni como cuenta esta historia cierto papel que vino á mis manos, escrito por un soldado que dice haberlo sido de la Conquista, porque por autos del Cabildo de la dicha villa, consta cómo estando fundada en Tlacotlán, recibieron por vecinos de ella en doce días del mes de Marzo de 1535 á Juan de Saldívar, y á Juan de Sosa y á Juan de Gavilla, y dijeron que les darían los solares y huertas pertenecientes;  y luego después de esto, recibieron por vecino á Juan de Salas, y que este año se cometió á los españoles una gran conspiración de indios caxcanes, tecuexes y tzacatecos, en que murieron muchos indios y algunos españoles, y se les apareció el apóstol Santiago segunda vez, y les ayudó, con que salieron del peligro, y duró mucho tiempo, y cada día tenían grandes rebatos.

En el dicho pueblo estuvo poblada GUADALAJARA hasta el alzamiento tan nombrado del Mixton, entendiendo NUÑO DE GUZMÁN que por lo menos se le daría título de conde ó marqués de ella, y ni lo uno ni lo otro gozó, sino hasta miseria y pobreza, la cual padecía en esta ocasión en la ciudad de Compostela en compañía de los vecinos, porque no había género de moneda baja ni rica, y así andaban desconsoladísimos y intentaban dejar la tierra; pero Nuño de Guzmán, con valor y ánimo, que en esto fue excelente capitán, los animaba á la perseverancia."

"Habiendo puesto el gobernador todas las cosas en orden con grande apercibimiento, hizo alarde de su gente y armas, y allí les  hizo una plática á todos para que estuvieran advertidos en lo que convenía hacer en tal ocasión, y mandó que con los indios que iban por leña y yerba, fuese gente de á pié y á caballo haciéndoles escolta, y por caudillo de ellos señaló á Pedro de Plascencia; y víspera del Señor San Miguel, del año de 1541, habiendo salido Pedro de Plascencia con la gente á coger leña y yerba para hacer su guarda, se puso en lo alto con los españoles y vieron y divisaron que los valles, montes y campos venían cubiertos de indios enemigos á cogerles la entrada y salida de la ciudad y á meterse y ganarla, porque no tenía más que una entrada, que todo lo demás es peña tajada sobre el Río Grande; y visto por Pedro de Plascencia y su gente, se retiraron afuera llevando á los indios amigos que habían ido por la leña y yerba. Venían por detrás los enemigos, sin hacer ruido por no ser sentidos, y cuando bajó Plascencia por el otro lado hacia la ciudad, vio más multitud de gente y más sin número de la que había visto, que venían de hacía Xuchipíla llamándose para meterse en la  ciudad, que estaban de ella medía legua; y á cuarto de legua Pedro de Plascencia, que llegó con toda la gente á la ciudad, á todo correr á las nueve de la mañana, por decir al gobernador como venían tantos indios sobre la ciudad, que era grima. Cuando Plascencia llegó diciendo: "¡Arma! ¡arma, Sr. Capitán!" halló que toda la gente estaba en misa y entró á caballo á dar la nueva, y como le oyeron apellidar ¡arma!  ¡arma! las mujeres y niños comenzaron á llorar y á desmayarse algunas. Mandólas el gobernador callar, y no queriéndolo hacer, se levantó la mujer de Juan Sánchez de Olea, que fue de grande ánimo y esfuerzo, y se llamaba Beatriz Hernández, y dijo al gobernador: "Señor, haga V. S. su oficio de buen capitán; acábese la misa, que yo quiero capitanear á estas señoras mujeres". El gobernador acudió á que acabasen la misa, y luego sacaron el Santísimo Sacramento y le consumió el Br. Bartolomé de Estrada, y sacaron algunas imágenes y dejaron otras en los altares, y luego el gobernador mandó tocar á recoger y se juntó toda la gente, y la Beatriz Hernández sacó á todas las mujeres de la iglesia, que estaban desmayadas, diciendo: "¡Ahora es tiempo de desmayos!" y las llevó á la casa fuerte y las encerró.

Traía esta señora un gurguz ó lanza en la mano y andaba vestida con unas coracinas ayudando á recoger toda la gente, animándoles y diciéndoles que fuesen, hombres, que entonces verían quien era cada uno, y luego se encerró con todas las mujeres y las capitaneó, y tomó á su cargo la guarda de la puerta, puestas sus coracinas, con su gurguz y un terciado colgado de la cinta. El gobernador subió en su caballo para recoger toda la gente, que estaba fuera de la casa fuerte, así soldados como indios é indias de servicio, y niños, y los encerró, y él con ellos, con todas sus armas y caballos.

Hecho esto, habiendo quedado todas las más casas de la ciudad cerradas, el gobernador en dos puertas que había principales en el fuerte, puso en cada una diez hombres de guarda con su capitán y caudillo, y les mandó que so pena de la vida y traidor al rey, no dejasen entrar ni salir á nadie sin su licencia y mandato, y señaló la gente de á pié por las estancias del fuerte para su guarda; así mesmo señaló artillero para el reparo de las troneras y treinta hombres de á caballo, todos á punto y armados, y por capitán de ellos á Juan de Anuncívar. Hizose lista de la gente que había, y halláronse cien españoles de á pié y de á caballo, y algunos tan bisóños y afligidos, que de oír el murmullo de la gente, no sabían qué hacerse por no haberse hallado en otra; y tan apercibidos estuvieron todos, que dentro de una hora se pusieron en orden y á punto de guerra para ofender y defender, esperando el suceso con mucho con cierto, y como a las diez ó once del día, se mostraron los enemigos al derredor de la ciudad, muy galanes, con plumería y arcos, macanas, rodelas y lanzas arrojadizas, armados de todas armas, y era tanta la multitud de ellos, que media legua al derredor de la ciudad por cada parte, la tenían rodeada y cercada, que no se veían sino indios enemigos, embijados y desnudos, pareciéndose al diablo, de quien traían la guía y forma, tanto que ponían espanto, y llegados, entró un escuadrón de doscientos indios de guerra en la ciudad, todos mancebos, dispuestos á reconocer; que no osaron entrar de golpe, temiendo no les viniese algún daño de las casas. Reconocieron, pues, toda la casería de la ciudad, con tanta brevedad, por ser las casas de cuenta tan pocas, que se volvieron á juntar con la otra gente que estaba al rededor, y habiéndose juntado, comenzó un gran rumor y murmullo andando la palabra de unos en otros, que causaba temor oírlos, y luego por escuadrones entraron bailando y cantando mil canciones al demonio, pidiéndole favor, y hicieron su paseo por la ciudad, y lo primero que hicieron fue entrar en la iglesia y arrancar las imágenes, y sacaron algunas de ellas puestas en la trasera, arrastrándolas y profanándolas, y luego quemaron la iglesia y todas las casas de la ciudad, y ya concluso con todo lo que hallaron, parecióles sería cosa muy fácil de hacer lo mismo en  la casa  fuerte,  y así arremetieron á  ella con tanto ímpetu y tan recio, que se entendió la postrasen á empellones. Recibieron los nuestros muy bien este combate defendiendo cada uno su estacía, saeteras y barbacanas, y los hicieron retirar, y mandó el capitán y gobernador Oñate que no hiciesen mudanza, sino que se estuviesen quedos y los dejasen desflemar en su furia primera, y que hubiese silencio hasta que él otra cosa mandase; y estando en estos combates, en una de las puertas que se guardaban, un indio, que en el cuerpo parecía gigante, arremetió á la puerta valentísimamente y se entró en la casa fuerte poniéndose á fuerzas con todos, y las guardas cerraron las puertas, no le queriendo matar de lástima.

Al ruido que había, salió Beatriz Hernández á ver á su marido, que era capitán de la guardia de la puerta por donde el indio había entrado, y comenzó a reñirlos á todos estando el indio allí peleando con ellos, diciendo que la dejasen á ella con el indio. Riéronse de ella, y estando en esto, el indio arremetió á ella y ella á él echando la mano á su terciado, y le dio una cuchillada en la cabeza (que cual á otro Goliat dio con él en el suelo) y poniéndole el pié en el cuello, le dio dos estocadas, con que le mató, y luego dijo a su marido, que con él se había de haber hecho aquello, por haber dado entrada á los enemigos, y que mirase lo que hacía, porque no era tiempo de descuidarse un punto, y así acudía ella á todos los combates, como sí fuera varón, y siempre se hallaba al lado del gobernador en cualquier ocasión, porque de verdad fue muy valerosa mujer en todas ocasiones y muy estimada hasta que murió.

Andando, pues, las cosas muy sangrientas en el combate, fueron á disparar una escopeta y no dio fuego la pólvora, que estaba húmeda, y viendo el gobernador que la pólvora no estaba buena, llamó á un Pero Sánchez, herrero, que vino con el capitán Moncivar, gran fanfarrón y que presumía de gran polvorista y artillero, y mandó le refínase aquella pólvora, y luego el Pero Sánchez la comenzó á refinar en un comal al fuego, debajo de una cubierta de paja, y quemó la pólvora la cubierta que estaba en la casa fuerte, que fue mayor tribulación para los cercados con el fuego y con la prisa que había para apagarle; los enemigos se alentaron más, viéndolos atribulados, y comenzaron con más furia á batir y querer ganar la casa fuerte. Fue un caso temerario en tal tiempo, con que se dobló la pena en todos; pero al fin se remedió y apagó el fuego; y estando en esto, los enemigos acometieron por las espaldas de la casa, y empezaron á descimentar la pared con tantas veras por debajo de las barbacanas, que derribaron el un lienzo, sin que se lo pudiese impedir por no jugar la artillería, á causa de estar el artillero ocupado en refinar la pólvora;  y entonces el gobernador Oñate, acometiendo á los enemigos y viendo la falta, pareciéndole que otro barril de pólvora que estaba allí al sol estaría mejor, mandó al Pero Sánchez que luego entrase y armase los tiros de la artillería de las troneras y los disparase hacia aquel lienzo que iban ganando, y al cabo de rato, viendo que no acababa de disparar y que ya los enemigos publicaban victoria, fue el gobernador á la tronera y dijo al artillero Pero Sánchez, que cómo no disparaba, el cual respondió:   "Señor, heme cortado y no acierto"; entonces arremetió a él y dijo: "Vuestro rajar y cortar nos tiene puestos en este aprieto; mirad que los indios minan la casa y se muestran ya.  ¡Acabad, dad fuego!" A que respondió: "Señor, no acierto"; entonces Oñate arremetió y pegó fuego á la artillería, y del primer tiro no quedó indio en la casa que no lo llevó, hasta que la pelota se embazó en los muertos, con que desampararon los enemigos la calle y quedó la casa libre, sin que osasen llegar más á ella.

Fue la batería tan grande, que causaba temor y espanto, y viendo que los llevaban ganados, todos estaban temblando, hasta que el buen Oñate los desvió con el estrago que hizo con el tiro que disparó, siendo parte su buen ánimo para sacarlos de aquel aprieto; y luego armado con su espada y rodela, acudió á ver los alojamientos y estancias y á las partes do hallaba flaqueza, á proveer de todo, peleando en la defensa, que parecía un león animando á sus capitanes y soldados para que peleasen como buenos españoles, pues ya los enemigos se habían apartado de la casa fuerte.

Así que los enemigos se desviaron, se sosegó la batería, y el llanto de mujeres y niños era tan grande, que espantaba, y mandó el capitán y gobernador que callasen, porque era animar más á los enemigos, y que esperasen en Dios y en su Madre bendita que presto se daría fin á aquel negocio, pues era causa suya; y así que cesó el llanto de las mujeres, dieron una tan gran rociada de flechería, que no se podía andar por el patio y plaza, y llegándose algunas mujeres á las ventanas llorando á ver la gente, fue tanta la desvergüenza de los indios ladinos, que decían: "Callad, mujeres, ¿por qué lloráis? que siendo mujeres no os hemos de matar, sino solamente acabaremos á esos barbudos de vuestros maridos y nos casaremos con vosotras", y hubo mujer que de solo oír estas palabras se quiso echar por una ventana á pelear con ellos, y lo hiciera si no se lo estorbaran, y visto que no la dejaban, de pura rabia volvió la trasera y alzó las faldas diciendo:

"Perros, besad aquí, que no os veréis en ese espejo, sino en este"; y cuando lo estaba diciendo, le arrojaron una flecha que le clavó las faldas con el tocado en las vigas del techo por estar bajo. Sería casi medio día cuando sucedió esto, y cansados los enemigos de batir la casa, se fueron á la plaza y muchos de ellos se pusieron por las calles á la sombra, y un capitanejo subido en una pared, dijo en lengua mexicana: "Llorad bien, barbudos cristianos, hasta que comamos y descansemos, que luego os sacaremos de allí y nos pagareis los que nos matasteis en la pared", á que no le respondieron cosa los nuestros, sino que estuvieron muy callados. Sacaron mucha comida los indios de las despensas de las casas, que robaron los indios, y traída, dijo el capitanejo que se había subido en la pared: "Comamos y descansemos, pues estos españoles barbudos ya son  nuestros.   ¿No los veis llorar, que son unos gallinas?" y comenzaron á comer muy sosegados, y en medio de la comida, volvieron á hablar y á echar suertes en las mujeres que á cada cacique habían de caber repartiendo todas las mozas, y dijo un cacique de Xuchipila, llamado D. Juan:  "¿pues qué hemos de hacer de las viejas?" y respondió otro diciendo;  "hacerlas que tejan y hilen y nos hagan bragas; y si no quisieren, matarlas y echarlas en esas barrancas para que las coman auras, y matar á los niños para que no nos den guerra como sus padres, y después que estemos hartos de las mozas, las daremos á los mozuelos para que se aprovechen de ellas".

Muy de reposo estaban en estas cuentas antes que se acabase la comida y plática, y los nuestros con gran sentimiento de oírlos, y las mujeres, como flacas, lloraban entendiendo se habían de ver en lo que los enemigos decían, según las victorias que habían tenido; pero el gobernador Oñate, viendo el reposo con que los enemigos estaban, llamó á toda la gente de á caballo y les mandó que se armasen, porque era ya tiempo y llegada la hora de Dios para pelear y vencer ó ser vencidos, que de su parte tenían a Dios, pues peleaban por su fe.

Habiendo visto la determinación del gobernador, les pareció á algunos de los capitanes y soldados que no convenía se hiciese, porque no sucediese al revés de lo que pensaban. Oyéndolo el dicho gobernador, les dijo que qué cobardía era aquella y que cuando no quisiesen salir abriría el fuerte para que entrasen los enemigos y los acabasen como á cobardes y traidores á su Dios y rey, y con esta sofrenada, se pusieron todos en arma para salir á la batalla, y él se armó y subió en su caballo y mandó que se hiciesen tres cuadrillas, y que en cada una fuesen diez soldados llevando por capitán á Juan de Moncivai, que era buen hombre de á caballo y animoso, y que saliesen por una puerta y volviesen á entrar por otra, y que luego los otros saliesen más adelante ganando tierra y matando cuanto hallasen, y luego mandó que los soldados de á pié guardasen las estancias que tenían y la casa fuerte, y a los de las puertas y sus capitanes guardasen las puertas para que con el tropel de los caballos no entrasen los enemigos, y que no dejasen salir soldados de los de á pié, y mandó al capitán Diego Vásquez guardase las mujeres con diez soldados.

Después de esto, el Br. Bartolomé de Estrada les predicó un sermón y plática en que les trató de la victoria que los ángeles tuvieron en el cielo contra Lucifer, cuyos ministros eran aquellos indios; que se esforzasen porque San Miguel les ayudaría y el Sr. Santiago, patrón de España y de sus españoles, y que de parte de Dios les aseguraba la victoria y sabía habían de vencer, pues estaban confesados y dispuestos, y que hiciesen como caballeros esforzados, y tendrían ante Dios gran premio por pelear en su causa, por haber quemado su iglesia, profanado sus imágenes y haber cometido tantos sacrilegios y muertes de cristianos; que ya era llegada la hora, que estuviesen ciertos de la victoria, porque aquel día era de mercedes por ser día del arcángel San Miguel, que sería con ellos, y tan gran sermón les hizo como él los solía hacer, con que todos derramaron muy copiosas lágrimas; y habiendo acabado, les echó la bendición diciendo: "Dios todopoderoso y los ángeles, sean con todos: ea, caballeros, ánimo", y se entró do las mujeres y niños estaban, y el padre Alonso Martín se puso delante de un Cristo de rodillas, cantando las letanías y psalmos, pidiendo á Nuestro Señor la victoria,  haciendo esta plegaría con  muchas  lágrimas,  y luego entraron algunos á despedirse de sus mujeres y hijos, y habiendo salido, subieron en sus caballos, y puestos en orden como estaba mandado, dijo el gobernador: "Ea, señores, ya es tiempo, salgan los diez de á caballo", y se disparó un tiro que llevó toda la gente de la calle, y salieron los diez de á caballo y fueron rompiendo por en frente de la iglesia hasta la esquina de Miguel de Ibarra; y de allí volvieron y se entraron por la otra puerta de la esquina; y luego salió otra cuadrilla y fue abriendo hasta la casa de Juan Sánchez de Olea, y plaza grande, y al volver, cayó del caballo Francisco Orozco, por haber tropezado en unas vigas que estaban en un caño de agua, y viéndolo caído, le echaron mano los indios, le hicieron tajadas y el caballo disparó entre los enemigos. Dio harta pena su muerte, porque era un hombre honradísimo, de muchas gracias y de mucha estima; y vista la desgracia por el gobernador," dijo desde una ventana;   "Ea,  caballeros, vamos todos los de á caballo", y él cogió su caballo, y al salir dijo a todos: "¡Santiago sea con nosotros! y en un instante dieron en los enemigos, con tan gran tropel y tan recio, que matando y hiriendo, no quedó enemigo en la ciudad que no alanceasen, y aquí se dijo peleó Santiago, San Miguel y los ángeles; y luego salieron todos los soldados de á píe, y no dejaron indio á pié que encontrasen; y Romero, que era uno de los de á caballo, pareciéndole que quedaba la ciudad sola, como tenía hijos y mujer, volvió á la ciudad, y pasando por su casa, hallóla quemada; y fuese por la calle abajo y dio vuelta hacia la casa de Hernán Flores, y mirando la calle arriba, vio en una loma que estaba sobre la casa fuerte, más de dos mil indios caxcanes que se venían á meter en ella y querían coger el caballo de Orozco, que solo andaba entre ellos escaramuceando, y visto por Cristóbal Romero fue corriendo á la casa fuerte á avisar disparasen la artillería hacia donde estaba aquella gente, y el pasó adelante y se metió entre los enemigos, y comenzó á pelear y alancear indios, y dio una lanzada á un capitán de ellos; y al sacar la lanza se le tronchó en la espaldilla, quedando la mitad con una punta, como astilla, y con ella mató y alanceó más de ciento de ellos y les quitó el caballo de Orozco, y viendo los enemigos el destrozo que hacía, se fueron huyendo, y los venció.

Y al estruendo de la artillería, que lo oyó el gobernador, vino Diego Vásquez, mientras Romero peleaba, y le llamaba á grandes voces diciendo: "Vuelta, señor capitán, que los enemigos se nos entran en la ciudad por la parte de las barrancas", y fueron Vásquez y el gobernador al socorro, y no hallaron enemigo en la ciudad ni otra persona que á Remero que venía a ellos con el caballo de Orozco ensillado y enfrenado, que había vencido á los dos mil indios y echádolos fuera. Y era tanta la multitud de gente que murió de los enemigos, que las calles y plazas estaban llenas de cuerpos muertos, y corrían arroyuelos de sangre, con que mandó el gobernador tocar á recoger, y á las dos de la tarde se juntó todo el campo, y se halló que fueron más de cincuenta mil indios los que vinieron sobre la ciudad, que fue cosa de admiración. Duró la batalla tres horas, y murieron más de quince mil indios: de los nuestros no faltó más que uno, y fue Orozco; y así que llegó y se recogió el campo, todos se fueron por la ciudad á ver sus casas, y hallaron en ellas muy gran suma de indios escondidos en los hornos y aposentos, y preguntándoles que á qué se hablan quedado allí, dijeron que de miedo, porque cuando quemaron la iglesia, salió del medio de ella un hombre en un caballo blanco, con una capa colorada y cruz en la mano izquierda, y en los pechos otra cruz, y con una espada desenvainada en la mano derecha, echando fuego, y que llevaba consigo mucha gente de pelea, y que cuando salieron los españoles del fuerte á pelear á caballo, vieron que aquel hombre con su gente andaba entre ellos peleando, y los quemaba y cegaba, y que con este temor se escondieron en aquellas casas y no podían salir ni ir ni atrás ni adelante, por el temor que le tenían, y que muchos  quedaron como perláticos, y otros mudos.

Este milagro representan cada año los indios en los pueblos de la Galicia.

Siempre se entendió ser obra del cielo, según la gente que allí se venció y mató, porque fuera imposible vencer tantos enemigos si no fuera con el ayuda de Dios, de Santiago y de los ángeles, que en tales ocasiones se acuerda de los suyos, lo cual se confirmó con lo que dijeron los indios enemigos que se hallaron en las casas. Mandó el gobernador juntar á todos aquellos indios, que eran mucha cantidad, junto á un árbol grande que llamaban zapote, que estaba en medio de la plaza, y allí mandó hacer justicia de ellos. Cortaron á unos las narices, á otros las orejas y manos y un pié, y luego les curaban con aceite hirviendo las heridas; ahorcaron y hicieron esclavos á otros, y á los que salieron ciegos y mancos, por haber visto la santa visión de Santiago, muy bien hostigados los enviaron á sus tierras, y fue tal el castigo, que hasta el día de hoy jamás volvieron á la ciudad.

Así que se venció la batalla y fueron echados los enemigos de la ciudad, el gobernador Cristóbal de Oñate, los soldados y vecinos, cogiendo una cruz y el estandarte, fueron con los sacerdotes que allí había á la iglesia, cantando el Te Deum  laudamus y letanía en procesión á un altar que fuera de la iglesia se había aderezado para este efecto (por estar la iglesia quemada) cerca de la casa fuerte, dando mil alabanzas al Señor por la merced tan singular que Su Divina Majestad les había hecho en librarlos de tanta multitud de enemigos, siendo ellos tan pocos. Iban todos armados, pues no se descuidaban un punto, y llegados al altar, se dijeron las vísperas muy solemnes, las cuales acabadas, se volvieron á la casa fuerte y pusieron su pendón en una esquina y todos se fueron á comer, porque aquel día no habían comido, ni tenido una hora siquiera de reposo por acudir al reparo y defensa de tanta fuerza de enemigos, y después de haber descansado y comido toda la gente, como á las cinco de la tarde, víspera del Señor San Miguel, mandó el gobernador que todos se armasen y subiesen en sus caballos dentro de la plaza de la casa fuerte, y estando juntos, mandó hacer alarde y halló toda su gente, si no es Francisco de Orozco, que le mataron, como queda dicho, y trajeron allí su caballo ensillado y enfrenado; hubo muchos que deseaban tener el caballo por ser bueno, y quien más lo deseaba, era Cristóbal Romero, el cual le quitó y ganó de los enemigos; pero el gobernador mandó llamar á Diego de Orozco su hermano. Era un hombre muy femenino, aunque de buen rostro, y le dio el caballo y armas, y en encomienda los pueblos de su hermano, que eran los de Mezquítuta y Moyagua, díciéndole quería ver si estimaba á su hermano en el esfuerzo y valentía, y el Diego de Orozco se lo prometió diciendo que, aunque el cuerpo era pequeño, el corazón era muy grande para servir á Dios y al rey, y así lo mostró en todas las ocasiones que se ofrecieron, con mucho esfuerzo y valor.

Hecho esto, y hecha la lista y alarde, dijo el gobernador: "Señores capitanes, caballeros y hijosdalgo, ya V. Ms. han visto en el aprieto en que nos vimos; gracias sean dadas á Dios y á su bendita Madre, Reina de los ángeles, pues con su ayuda conseguimos la victoria; conviene que de aquí adelante, haya más recato y guarda en esta ciudad y casa fuerte, porque estos traidores no revuelvan esta noche, y entiendan que con la victoria hemos dejado las armas y acostádonos á descansar, y nos cojan descuidados; ahora es menester más recato y vigilancia; no hay que fiar de ellos, pues desde tan lejos nos vinieron á acometer y cercar; porque ahora estamos más cercados, y en mayor peligro de perdernos, y así conviene más guarda y recato".

Pareció bien á todos lo que el gobernador decía, y dijeron que S. S. proveyese lo que más conviniese en ello, y así mandó que cada capitán de los de á pié acudiese á sus estancias á hacer su guarda, y que los de á caballo saliesen fuera y velasen la ciudad  por  sus   cuartos,   y   á   los   capitanes   y  soldados que guardaban las puertas, asistiesen á ellas con más veras, porque era la llave de todo. Hecho todo esto, se fueron todos á sus alojamientos, como se ordenó, y el gobernador mandó llamar a Pero Sánchez, el artillero, y le dijo tuviese cuenta con la artillería y no se durmiese ni le sucediese lo que la vez pasada, que se turbó en el combate. Blasonó Pero Sánchez que haría maravillas, y el gobernador le dijo:  "¡plegué a Dios que sea así, y no sea necesario que yo acuda á ello!" Cuando salieron los de á caballo fuera de la casa fuerte, iban en orden, de dos en dos, dando vuelta por la plaza, y dispararon una escopeta, que no se supo quien fue, que dio á un Vendesur un pelotazo en la frente, y dio con él muerto en el suelo, que era de los que iban á caballo, lo cual dio mucha pena á todos, y sabido por el gobernador, porque la mujer del muerto le fue á pedir justicia por la muerte de su marido, y eran tantas sus exclamaciones, que el gobernador la metió con las otras mujeres, consolándola y diciendo que él sabría quien le había muerto; y lo que se averiguó fue, que como habían llegado á hacer vela en cada cuartel, sin ánimo de dañar dispararon las escopetas, y acertaron á dar las balas en los de á caballo, sin saber los del cuartel do estaban, y que no hubo malicia en ello, sino desgracia, sin pensarlo ni quererlo hacer, con que el gobernador trató no se tratase de ello.

Aquella noche velaron muy bien, y el gobernador Oñate casi no reposó, acudiendo á todas partes y guardas como valeroso capitán; y una hora antes que amaneciese, mandó al P. Alonso Martín que enterrasen á Vendesur, el difunto del pelotazo, porque se apaciguase la mujer; y después de esto, entraron los de á caballo en la casa fuerte, y dieron razón de cómo no había bullicio de gente de guerra ní otra cosa que los muertos del día antes. Esto era el día del Señor San Miguel por la mañana, y estando ya todos congregados en la casa fuerte y habiendo descansado, fueron todos con el pendón que tenían y su cruz, llevando la imagen del Señor San Miguel en procesión á su hora á oír la misa mayor, y llegados pusieron la imagen en el altar, que era de guadamacíl dorado, y dijo la misa muy solemne y predicó el Br. Bartolomé de Estrada, y acabada la misa, allí juntos todos, sobre el misal y ara consagrada, hicieron voto de tener por patrón de aquella ciudad, al Señor San Miguel y hacerle altar particular, y en memoria de esta tan gran victoria, sacar cada año su pendón. Para hacer esto, se habían juntado á cabildo el día antes, como consta del archivo de la ciudad de Guadalajara, y hicieron el auto siguiente:

"A veinte y ocho de septiembre, á las ocho de la mañana, juntos en cabildo pleno el gobernador Cristóbal de Oñate, los alcaldes y regimiento de la ciudad de Guadalajara, y demás vecinos, en presencia del Br. Bartolomé de Estrada y de su compañero el P. Alonso Martín, curas, hicieron voto perpetuo para tener por patrón al gloriosísimo arcángel San Miguel y erigirle particular capilla, y sacar cada año el pendón por las calles públicas, en memoria de tan gran victoria". Lo cual se ratificó al día siguiente, como queda dicho, acabada la misa mayor, y después de esto, se volvieron con el pendón á la casa fuerte, donde subieron todos á caballo, llevando el gobernador Oñate el pendón, y lo trajeron por la ciudad y le volvieron á su puesto, y luego todos se fueron á descansar, porque tenían mucha necesidad de ello, y habiendo descansado y comido, mandó el gobernador á los capitanes recogiesen toda la gente de los indios naboríos de servicio, que había cantidad, y que luego arrastrasen los cuerpos muertos que había en la ciudad y los quemasen, porque comenzaba ya muy mal olor, y porque no causasen alguna peste que fuese peor que el cerco de los enemigos, lo cual se puso por obra, y echaron de una barranca abajo más de mil, y á otros amontonaban y quemaban, y para otros hacían grandes cavas como pozos y allí los arrojaban, y con esto limpiaron la ciudad sin tocar á los que estaban muertos á media legua de ella, que allí los comieron aves y animales, y hartos años permanecieron sus huesos esparcidos en el campo, hasta que el tiempo los consumió, y no fue poco castigo éste ni de pequeño espanto para los enemigos, ver en qué habían parado las reliquias y soberbias de sus antepasados, con que hasta el día de hoy no se han atrevido á alzar.

Otro día mandó el gobernador que se juntase el regimiento en cabildo con los capitanes que había y la gente más principal de la ciudad y vecinos, para tratar de cosas que convenían al servicio de Dios y Su Majestad, y habiéndose juntado todos en cabildo, dijo el gobernador: "Señores alcaldes y cabildo, capitanes y vecinos de esta ciudad, aquí nos hemos juntado en nombre de Dios; conviene tratar en él cosas que sean en servicio suyo y que no haya parcialidades ni facciones, porque de haberlas habido hemos estado en este aprieto; que si desde el principio que Guzmán entró, se poblara en otra parte, como yo intenté, que fue en el valle de Tzapotepec, donde ahora se llama Tuluquilla, ó en los llanos de Atemaxac, no anduviéramos en estos trabajos"

Prosiguió su plática el gobernador diciendo: "Bien veo que ninguno de los que estamos aquí tiene la culpa, sino Nuño de Guzmán, pues estando en Tonalán poblados para quedarnos allí, nos echó diciendo que no quería que en sus pueblos ni en contorno de ellos hubiese villa ni poblazón de españoles, haciéndonos ir al valle de Nochistlán, donde poblamos la villa en una mesa redonda que parecía la de los Doce Pares de Francia, donde no se tuvo reposo, por estar allí muy estrechos padeciendo muy grandes trabajos por no poder sufrir las amenazas de los caxcanes; la despoblamos y nos vinimos á Tonalán otra vez, y estando allí, con propósito de poblar, sabido por Guzmán, que estaba en la ciudad de Compostela, envío á mi hermano Juan de Oñate para que, como capitán, los echase fuera, y no sabiendo que hacerse, vinieron á poblar en este puesto tan triste y desventurado, á trasmano, cercado de barrancas, con poca agua y sin refugio, y que no tiene sino una entrada, y en especial el inconveniente de tener el Río Grande á un lado, para no poder salir sino con mucho trabajo de cualquier peligro; ahora tenemos la experiencia en la mano, pues conociendo los enemigos el ruin estado de esta ciudad y que estamos cercados de barrancas, por una parte, y de rocas tajadas de la otra, han venido á cojernos á mano por la entrada llana, donde nos hemos visto en tanto aprieto, y más con la avilantez de las victorias pasadas, por vernos sin asiento fundado, ni defensa, que sí Dios no acudiera amparándonos, hoy estuviéramos acabados y las mujeres y niños, y pues Dios nos ha librado de ésta, conviene poner remedio, no sea peor la revuelta, y que esto sea con brevedad; salgamos de aquí, busquemos donde se funde esta ciudad y nos aseguremos, que estando segura, lo demás se hará con gusto. Véase dónde será bueno que se pase, que conviene hacerlo así para que se haga el servicio de Dios y Su Majestad, y á todos nos importa, pues va no menos que la vida en ello, y yo de mi parte aseguro á vuesas mercedes no desampararles hasta morir, y favorecerles y ayudarles hasta que tengan sosiego verdadero".

Acabadas estas razones y plática, no supieron qué responder; sólo se movieron algunas dudas acerca del mudarse al valle de Atemaxac, temiendo que Nuño de Guzmán había de volver á sus pueblos por señor de título y los había de echar de allí; otros eran de parecer que se fuesen á México, y dejasen la tierra y no concordaban en cosa, y el contador Juan de Ojeda dijo que se acabasen de determinar y decir dónde habían de hacer asiento, y que entender que Guzmán había de volver, era cosa muy dudosa, porque sus causas en España iban muy largas y despacio, y que cuando bien librara de ellas, le habían de quitar los indios y ponerlos en la corona real, lo cual era cierto, por haberlo visto y oído en el Consejo, que había pocos días había venido de España con su oficio. Con esto algunos dijeron que convenía que se pasasen entre Ocotlán y Tonalán, en el llano de Atemaxac, otros que en Tuluquilla, y siempre hubo diversidad de pareceres sobre donde se pasarían, y los aficionados á Guzmán lo contradecían, y estando en esto, entró á donde estaban en cabildo Beatriz Hernández, mujer de Juan Sánchez Olea, y dijo; "Acaben los señores de determinar á do se ha de hacer esta mudanza, porque sí no, yo quiero y vengo á determinarlo, y que sea con más brevedad de lo que lo han estado pensando; miren cuáles están con demandas y respuestas, sin concluir cosa ninguna". Pidió licencia y dijo quería dar su voto y que, aunque mujer, podría ser acertado. Entonces el gobernador la hizo lugar y dio asiento, y estando oyendo á todos y que no se conformaban ni determinaban, pidió licencia para hablar, y habiéndoselo dado, dijo; "Señores, el rey es mi gallo, y yo soy de parecer que nos pasemos al valle de Atemaxac, y si otra cosa se hace, será de servicio de Dios y del rey, y lo demás es mostrar cobardía, ¿qué nos ha de hacer Guzmán, pues ha sido causa de los trances en que ha andado esta villa? que si Dios no nos favoreciera y el amparo y industria de nuestro buen capitán, no hubiéramos tenido su vigilancia y cuidado, aquí hubiéramos perecido", y volviéndose al gobernador le dijo: "¿cómo no habla aquí V. S.? Agora calla que es menester no hacer caso de votos tan vandoleros; el rey es mí gallo", y viendo que callaban todos, les dio voces que hablasen. Entonces dijo el gobernador: "Hágase así, Sra. Beatriz Hernández, y puéblese do está señalado", y todos contentos de que una mujer los sacase de confusión, vinieron en su parecer, que casi todos lo querían así, y no osaban hablar por ser en tierras de Guzmán, que los tenía tan sujetos cuando los gobernaba, que con estar en España aun tenían miedo de él. El gobernador dijo que no tenían para qué rehusar poblar la ciudad á donde se trataba, pues todas eran tierras del rey, y que ya no había qué hacer caso de las cosas de Guzmán, que temiesen á los enemigos á quien cada día tenían encima y los querían acabar, y era lo más forzoso y dificultoso de reparar, y que cuando fuera contra la voluntad de Guzmán (dado caso que volviese) vería la razón y las causas que les movía á hacerlo, y lo tendría por bien. Además, que la necesidad carece de ley, y que pues estaban ya resueltos de mudarse, que luego se proveyesen de personas tales para que fuesen y viesen dónde se había de fundar la ciudad, y así nombraron á Juan del Camino y á Miguel de Ibarra, los cuales fueron al valle de Tonalán y pueblo de Atemaxac, y de allí pasaron al pueblo que es agora Tuluquilla, y hallaron aquella hermosa fuente, y habiéndoles parecido bien, luego discordaron ambos capitanes, porque Miguel de Ibarra decía que allí era mejor que donde se pobló después, que fue en el puesto que ahora está, y Juan del Camino dijo que no era bien se poblase en el ojo de agua de Tuluquilla, que era cenagoso, además que era hacer doblado agravio á Guzmán, que tenía allí sus estancias. Así se conformaron y fueron al puesto á do hoy está la ciudad de Guadalajara y echaron de ver ser aquel mejor sitio, por tener unos llanos y ser más acomodado para correr sí viniese los enemigos, y buen arroyo de agua y muchos manantiales con buenas entradas y salidas para todas partes, y les pareció podrían meter el arroyo en la ciudad, y se engañaron, porque después fue dificultoso el hacerlo; pero hiciéronse muy buenos pozos y los hay.

y habiéndolo visto todo, y ser el sitio y valle tan desembarazado para poder pelear y correr, se trazó la ciudad y se repartieron solares para todos los vecinos, con que se volvieron y dieron cuenta al gobernador de lo que habían hecho, y á cada vecino su solar y traza para que acudiese á hacer su casa, y luego se salieron muchos vecinos de la ciudad combatida, y se pasaron al valle de Tonalán y sus pueblos para desde allá acudir á hacer sus casas, que no vían la hora de irse de tan espantados como quedaron de la rota, y por salir de un sitio tan triste y desventurado, que no era otra cosa que un cautiverio y destierro terrible, y sólo esto bastaba para despoblarlo. "


The First Pastorela: 
Tlajomulco, Jalisco
Recorded by Franciscan Prelate 
Father Alonso  Ponce in 1586

Sent by George Gause

Throughout Mexico, today as in colonial times, the Christmas season comes to a climax on January 6th, the Day of the Three Kings or Los Santos Reyes. Presents are exchanged amid communal festivities and traditional religious observances. Among these observances are the popular pastorelas, or re-enactments of the Nativity, instituted in early colonial times and still performed today in towns and villages across Mexico.

One of the earliest recorded pastorelas was witnessed in 1586, by the visiting Franciscan prelate Fray Alonso Ponce in the churchyard of the village of Tlajomulco, south of Guadalajara in what is now Jalisco. This scripted Nativity drama, performed by a native cast under the direction of the resident Franciscan missionary, was described by Antonio de Ciudad Real, a fellow Franciscan who accompanied Father Ponce on his arduous journey around New Spain.

In the 16th century, Tlajomulco was the principal Franciscan mission town for the Lake Cajitítlan region. Following destruction of the main church there and the establishment of Los Reyes Cajititlan beside the lake in the 18th century, this new mission town became the locus of this important regional festival.

The former colonial hospital chapel of La Purísima at Tlajomulco still stands, however (above), and has been recently restored for use by the residents.

Here are some excerpts from Ciudad Real's account of the elaborate and affecting miracle play:

The Pastorela of The Three Kings (1586)
"... (The Indians) had erected a "portal of Bethlehem" in front of the church door, containing the figures of the Christ Child, Mary and Joseph. The portal reached almost to the belfry and was constructed of thin poles and sticks covered with a Spanish moss, known as paxtle. To one side, Herod was enthroned in a ramada. From a nearby hill... the Three Kings descended slowly on horseback... accompanied by an Indian on foot and followed by an ancient guide who carried the gifts for the Christ Child. As they approached, natives dressed as angels sang and danced before El Niño, followed by troupes of shepherds who chanted praises and laid gifts of bread, sheep and a goat before him...

When the shepherds were altogether in the middle of the courtyard, there appeared an angel in a little tower made of wood, singing the Gloria in excelsis Deo. At the sound of the voice, the shepherds fell as if senseless to the ground. The angel exhorted them, telling them the news about the birth of the Child. They came to themselves again, rose up, went together to the ramparts, and with great happiness and rejoicing offered what they were bearing to the Child: one giving a little lamb, another a kid, some bread, another a cap, and other things, but all with such reverence that it provoked devotion in the onlooker.

Then again they commenced dancing about and singing in the same Mexican language (Nahuatl) in praise of the Child, some asking questions of others and recounting what they had seen and heard. They reacted with great happiness, repeating what the angel had said and chanting, 'gloria, gloria, gloria.' They gave great leaps and bounds using their shepherd's crooks, as of the greatest joy and pleasure... They wove intricate patterns with steps and with acrobatic antics, some leaping over the shepherd's crooks of the others, and all together forming circles and squares in a most commendable fashion...

"And finally, when they saw that the Kings were approaching, they made a circle or corral by joining their hands as in a wheel, leaving two of their number inside with their crooks; these ran after those of the circle as if they were bulls. Either of them brought to the ground with their crooks anyone whom he could catch. Thus they went about circling around from one place to another terminating their celebration which was certainly something to see.

The Kings, having been guided by a star which the Indians had made of shiny tinsel (or brass), arrived at the gate of the patio. They moved the star along by two cords which reached from the mountain to the tower of the church. They had placed little wooden towers at intervals, and made the star move along on its cord from these. As the Kings arrived at the gate of the patio, they hid the star by putting it in one of these little towers; they then sent their messengers in to see Herod...

Herod appeared and in response to their questions summoned his advisers, who consulted their books of prophecy, confirming the birth of a king. Furiously, Herod cast the books to the ground and demanded that the seers repeat the news, which they did. Pounding the table in a rage, Herod ordered an immediate search for the child. The star emerged from its hiding place and was moved to the Portal of Bethlehem at the foot of the church tower. The Three Kings then prostrated themselves before the figure of the Christ Child and offered up their gifts, including silver, with speeches in the Mexican language... Then the angel in the tower addressed the Kings, urging them to return to their lands by another route...

More than five thousand Indians attended this fiesta, with ten or a dozen friars and many Spaniards... "  ".. de una fiesta que los indios de Tlaxomulco hicieron el día de los Reyes" from Antonio de Ciudad Real, Viajes de fray Alonso Ponce al occidente de Mexico. Guadalajara (1968)

Translations and abridgment ©1970 by Marilyn Ravicz, and ©2004 by Richard D. Perry. 
text ©2004 by Richard D. Perry Picture: The chapel front of La Purísima, Tlajomulco, at fiesta time. ©1996 by Richard D. Perry. For another account of Three Kings festivities in Jalisco, see our page on Cajititlan See also our Yucatan Nativity pages: Mérida and Tizimín. We have also expanded our earlier page on nearby Santa Anita Atlixtac.  For other pages on Jalisco and West Mexico, check out our archive. For a complete guide to the colonial art and architecture of Jalisco and West Mexico, consult our book Blue Lakes & Silver Cities.


POR:  Salvador Cabral Valdes

Primera generación

1. Nicolas de Llamas*

Nicolas se casó con Micaela Ponze* 1.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

+ 2 M i Antonio de Llamas Ponce* murió Aprox.
  3 F ii Ana Maria Llamas Ponse 1 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 18 Febrero 1720 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  4 F iii Maria Rosa Llamas Ponze 1 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 28 Marzo 1727 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  5 F iv Maria Antonia Llamas Ponze 1 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 22 Mayo 1730 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
        Maria se casó con Antonio Magallanes el 12 Mayo 1749 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  6 F v Maria Josepha Llamas Ponze 1 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 6 Agosto 1731 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  7 F vi Maria Theresa de Llamas 1 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 29 Junio 1733 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  8 M vii Manuel Castolo de Llamas 1 murió Aprox en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
        Manuel se casó con Juana Gracia de Bergara 1 el 3 Febrero 1741 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Segunda generación

2. Antonio de Llamas Ponce* 1, 2, 3 (Nicolas )

Antonio se casó con Maria Alexandra de Avila Maldonado* 1, hija de Juan de Avila* y Juana Ximenez*, el 20 Agosto 1743 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

  9 F i Anna Maria Llamas Avila 1, 2 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 22 Agosto 1745 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  10 M ii Franco. Victoriano de Llamas 1, 2, 3, 4 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 16 Septiembre 1747.
        Franco. se casó con Mariana Lugarda de Jesus Bergara 1 el 20 Julio 1772 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  11 F iii Ma. Manuela Silvestre Llamas Avila 1, 2 nació en Desconocido y tuvo su bautismo infantil el 15 Enero 1750 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  12 F iv Marcela Francisca Llamas Avila 1, 2 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 2 Mayo 1752 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  13 M v Juan Bernave Llamas Avila 1, 2 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 17 Junio 1756 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico. .
+ 14 F vi Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* tuvo su bautismo infantil el 10 Octubre 1754 .
  15 F vii Josefa Matilde de Llamas 1, 2, 3 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 19 Marzo 1765 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
        Josefa se casó con Thomas Magallanes 1 el 30 Mayo 1781 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  16 F viii Petra Gertrudis Llamas Avila tuvo su bautismo infantil el 22 Octubre 1758 en Tlaltenengo de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Tercera generación

14. Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* 1, 2, 3 (Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas ) nació en Desconocido y tuvo su bautismo infantil el 10 Octubre 1754 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Franca. se casó con Jose Domingo de La Rocha* 1, 2 el 23 Mayo 1777 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico. .

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

+ 17 M i Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* murió Aprox.

Cuarta generación

17. Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* (Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* , Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas )

Jose se casó con Maria Luisa Escovedo Sanchez*, hija de Rafael de Escovedo* y Ma. de La Luz Sanches Balensuela*, en 1800 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

+ 18 M i Jph. Hilario Del Refugio Rocha Escobedo tuvo su bautismo infantil el 19 Enero 1807 y murió Aprox.
  19 M ii Jose Nepomuceno Alexo Llamas Escobedo 1, 2 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 19 Julio 1810 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  20 M iii Jose Agustin Llamas Escobedo 1 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 29 Agosto 1814 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
+ 21 M iv Jose Gregorio Llamas Escobedo murió Aprox.
  22 M v Pedro Llamas Escobedo
+ 23 M vi Irineo Llamas Escobedo.
  24 F vii Jose Julian Romuardo Rocha Escobedo tuvo su bautismo infantil el 18 Febrero 1820 en Jerez de Garcia Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  25 F viii Maria Josefa Juliana Rocha Escobedo tuvo su bautismo infantil el 29 Enero 1822 en Jerez de Garcia Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  26 F ix Ma. Luisa de Snpablo Rocha Escobedo tuvo su bautismo infantil el 12 Enero 1824 en Tepetongo, Zacatecas, Mexico.
+ 27 F x Pantaleona Llamas Escobedo* nació en 1814.
  28 F xi Maria Martina Rocha Escobedo tuvo su bautismo infantil el 7 Febrero 1827 en Jerez de Garcia Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Quinta generación

18. Jph. Hilario Del Refugio Rocha Escobedo (Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* , Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* , Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas ) tuvo su bautismo infantil el 19 Enero 1807 en Tepetongo, Zacatecas, Mexico. Él murió Aprox.


Jph. se casó (1) Anita Valdes en 1837 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

+ 29 F i Maria Llamas Valdes murió Aprox.
  30 M ii Salvador Llamas Valdes murió Aprox.
        Salvador se casó con Carmen Arbide. Carmen murió Aprox.
+ 31 M iii Jose Llamas Valdes murió Aprox.
  32 F iv Ma. Romana Carlota Llamas Valdes 1, 2 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 10 Agosto 1837 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  33 F v Maria Librada Llamas Escobedo tuvo su bautismo infantil el 29 Noviembre 1840 en Jerez de Garcia Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  34 F vi Maria Nicolasa Llamas Valdez 1, 2 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 7 Diciembre 1843 en Tepetongo, Zacatecas, Mexico.
+ 35 M vii Gustavo Llamas Valdes.

Jph. también se casó (2) Guadalupe Escovedo 1, 2 el 6 Agosto 1827 en Tepetongo, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

  36 M viii Jose Franco. Celso Llamas Escovedo 1, 2 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 6 Abril 1828 en Tepetongo, Zacatecas, Mexico. Él murió Aprox.

21. Jose Gregorio Llamas Escobedo (Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* , Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* , Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas ) murió Aprox.


Jose se casó con Teresa de La Torre. Teresa murió Aprox.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

  37 M i Jose Inosencio Llamas de La Torre murió Aprox.
  38 M ii Francisco de Paula Llamas de La Torre murió Aprox.
  39 M iii Francisco Javier Llamas de La Torre murió Aprox.

23. Irineo Llamas Escobedo (Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* , Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* , Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas ).

Irineo se casó con Maria Guadalupe Roman el 13 Agosto 1796 en Tlaltenango de Sanchez Roman, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

  40 M i Juan Jose Alejo Isidro Llamas Roman nació el 16 Julio 1798 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  41 M ii Jose Hijinio Juan Antonio Llamas Roman 1, 2 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 17 Enero 1800 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  42 M iii Jose Yldefonso de Stapetronila. Llamas Roman 1, 2 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 2 Junio 1807 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

27. Pantaleona Llamas Escobedo* (Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* , Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* , Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas ) nació en 1814 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico y tuvo su bautismo infantil en Jerez de Garcia Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Pantaleona se casó con Jose Maria Cabral Rodriguez*, hijo de Mucio Cabral de Escobedo* y Maria Gpe Rufina Del Refugio Rodriguez*, el 26 Abril 1844 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico. Jose nació en 1814 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico y tuvo su bautismo infantil en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico. Él murió el 27 Febrero 1879 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

+ 43 M i Fernando Cabral Llamas.
+ 44 M ii Jose Nisandro Cabral Llamas* nació el 7 Noviembre 1851.
  45 F iii Francisca Cabral Llamas murió en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
        Francisca se casó con Manuel Gomez Oteo el 11 Agosto 1880 en Jerez de Garcia Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Sexta generación

29. Maria Llamas Valdes (Jph. Hilario Del Refugio Rocha Escobedo , Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* , Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* , Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas ) murió Aprox.

Maria se casó con Leon Cabrera Acuña. Leon tuvo su bautismo infantil Aprox. Él murió Aprox.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

+ 46 M i Leon Cabrera Llamas murió Aprox.

31. Jose Llamas Valdes (Jph. Hilario Del Refugio Rocha Escobedo , Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* , Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* , Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas ) murió Aprox.

Jose se casó con Luisa Del Hoyo Santoscoy. Luisa murió Aprox.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

+ 47 F i Rosa Maria Brigida Llamas Del Hoyo nació aproximadamente en 1882
  48 F ii Maria Del Carmen Llamas Del Hoyo nació aproximadamente en 1886.
  49 F iii Maria Soledad Llamas Del Hoyo
  50 M iv Jesus Llamas Del Hoyo murió Aprox.

35. Gustavo Llamas Valdes (Jph. Hilario Del Refugio Rocha Escobedo , Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* , Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* , Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas ).

Gustavo se casó con Soledad Escobedo.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

+ 51 M i Gustavo Llamas Escobedo nació el 28 Mayo 1889 y murió el 14 Mayo 1949.
  52 M ii Juan Pablo Llamas Escobedo.
  53 F iii Maria Del Rosario Llamas Escobedo.

43. Fernando Cabral Llamas 1 (Pantaleona Llamas Escobedo* , Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* , Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* , Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas ) nació en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Fernando se casó con Maria Amozurrutia 1 el 15 Septiembre 1880 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico. Maria nació en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

  54 F i Maria Clara Elena Cabral Amozurrutia 1 tuvo su bautismo infantil el 23 Agosto 1884 en Jerez de Garcia Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
  55 F ii Engracia Cabral Amozurutia nació en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

44. Jose Nisandro Cabral Llamas* (Pantaleona Llamas Escobedo* , Jose Domingo Dionicio Rocha Llamas* , Franca. Xaviera de Llamas Avila* , Antonio de Llamas Ponce* , Nicolas ) nació el 7 Noviembre 1851 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico y tuvo su bautismo infantil el 14 Noviembre 1851 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Jose se casó (1) Juana Escobedo Escobedo*, hija de Mariano Escobedo Valdes* y Guadalupe Escobedo Nava*, el 28 Abril 1880 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico. Juana nació el 26 Diciembre 1863 en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

  56 M i Fernando Cabral Escobedo tuvo su bautismo infantil aproximadamente en 1881 en Jerez de Garcia Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
+ 57 M ii Salvador Cabral Escobedo* nació aproximadamente en 1886.
  58 M iii Jose Cabral Escobedo nació en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.
+ 59 F iv Soledad Cabral Escobedo.

Jose también se casó (2) Petra Escobedo Escobedo*, hija de Mariano Escobedo Valdes* y Guadalupe Escobedo Nava*, en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico. Petra nació en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico.

Ellos tuvieron los hijos siguientes:

  60 F v Laura Cabral Escobedo nació en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico .
+ 61 F vi Emilia Cabral Escobedo.
  62 F vii Elena Cabral Escobedo nació en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas, Mexico .
        Elena se casó con Toribio Peralta.
+ 63 F viii Bertha Cabral Escobedo.
+ 64 F ix Maria Cabral Escobedo.
  65 M x Ramiro Cabral Escobedo nació en Jerez de García Salinas, Zacatecas.
+ 66 F xi Ma. Angela Cabral Escobedo.


Lares, Isabela, Camuy, Puerto Rico

Jamaican and Spanish genealogy  

The Lares 1846 and 1871-1873-74-75 Household Census was conducted by the Spanish Government throughout the island. I have attached an example of what can be found on these films. 
David Acevedo y Pitre
David is a Puerto Rican researcher at the Los Angeles Family History Center
Janete Vargas

Saludos a todos, Noted below is a listing of the contents of several LDS microfilms that I recently had the pleasure to review. I expected only to find genealogical data on Lares. To my surprise, I also found data on Isabela, Juncos and other towns in Puerto Rico. I hope this information helps you in the search for your roots. The LDS Microfilms can be ordered via your local LDS-Family History Center. Happy Hunting, David Acevedo y Pitre

LDS # 1511831 ? This film is labeled "Census de Jornaleros/Census of Workers
(1866-1870)". The film's contents is about 10% Lares and 90% Isabela, as delineated below:

Lares ? Contribucion Industrial y de Comercio ? 1898 through 1899.
Isabela ? Listing of Jornaleros/Workers ? 1866 through 1867
Isabela ? Listing of Jornaleros ? 1867 through 1873
Isabela ? Listing of Comercio/Merchants ? 1885 through 1899
Isabela ? Electoral 1879 ? Listing of Voters

Special note: all of the entries and pages are legible.

LDS # 1511663 ? This film is labeled "Censo de Habitantes/ Census of Households"
(1869-1875)". The film's contents is about 50% Lares and 50% Juncos, as
delineated below:

Juncos ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census- 1897 -1898
Juncos ? Barrio Juraba. Household Census ? The year is not noted but it appears taken mid 1840's.
Bill of Sales Statements ? 1868
Bill of Sales Statements ? 1871-1872
Lares ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census - 1884, for the following barrios:
· Barrio de Lares
· Barrio de Espino
· Barrio de Pesuela
· Barrio de Pueblo
Lares ? List of Varones/Males ? Age 14 through 60. Listed by Barrio and by
first name and last two surnames ? 1875
(special note: widows are also recorded on this list).
Lares ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census by Barrio - 1873
Lares ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census by Barrio ? 1846
Lares ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census by Barrio ? 1840

Special note: all of the entries and pages are legible.

LDS # 1511709 ? This film is labeled "Censo 1852?1878, 1863 ?1898, 1855-1898". The film's contents is about 20% Juncos/Fajardo and about 80% Lares, as noted below:

Juncos ? Listing of Esclavos/Slaves and their owners ? 1842 through 1868
The Puerto Rican Newspaper called the "Gaceta de Puerto Rico" Issue 110,
Thursday, September 12, 1867. It contains articles written about numerous towns across the island.
Juncos ? 1867 Listing of Merchants.
Juncos ? Listing of Esclavos/Slaves and their owners ? 1867 and 1870
Fajardo ? Listing of Esclavos and their owners ? 1851 thru 1868, 1868 thru 1869, 1875
Fajardo ? Letters in English and Spanish and telephone directory 1885 thru 1923.
Lares - Economico de 1876 ? Tarifas ? Contribucion Industrial y e Comercio
Lares - Censo de Habitantes/Household Census ? 1878 ? Barrio Rio Prieto
Lares - Listing of Jornaleros/Workers ? 1863 ? Writing in poor condition ? 50% legible.
Lares - Censo de Habitantes/Household Census ? 1897 ? Barrio de la Torre
Lares - Listing of Esclavos/Slaves and their Owners ? 1869 and 1870.
Listed by barrios. Slaves are listed by name and occupation.
Lares ? Listing of Merchants - 1879 (e.g. Banaderias, Picadores de Tobaco, etc.).
Lares - Censo de Habitantes/Household Census ? 1872 ? Not all barrios are listed.
· Barrio Poblacion
· Barrio Latorre (formerly known as Barrio de la Torre)
· Barrio Bartolo
· Barrio Espino
· Barrio Pesuela
Lares ? Listing of Jornaleros/Workers ? 1865. Listed by barrio.
Lares ? Listing of Esclavos/Slaves and their Owners - 1872
Lares - Listing of Esclavos/Slaves and their Owners ? 1873
Lares ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census - 1852. Listed by barrio.
This segment is very important because it also contains a listing of property (land, livestock, etc).
Lares ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census - 1840. Listed by barrio.
This segment is very important because it also contains a listing of property (land, livestock, etc).
Lares ? Listing of Jornaleros/Workers ? 1836.
Lares ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census - 1856. Listed by barrio
Buenos Aires and Barrio Bartolo only.. 
This segment is very important because it also contains a listing of property (land, livestock, etc).
Lares ? Listing of Esclavos ? first name only ? year unknown.
Lares - Censo de Habitantes/Household Census ? 1841
Lares ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census ? 1871. Listed by the following barrios:
· Barrio Bartola
· Barrio Pilatas
· Barrio Mirasol
· Barrio Espino
· Barrio Pesuela
· Barrio Pueblo
Lares ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census ? 1872. Listed by the
following barrios:
· Barrio Pesuela
· Barrio Latorre
· Barrio Poblacion

Special note: all of the entries and pages are legible, except otherwise noted.

LDS # 1511736 ? This film is labeled "Census de Jornaleros/Census of Workers
(1847-1875)". The film is about 90% Isabela and 10% Lares, as noted below:

Isabela ? Electoral 1890, 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897, and 1898. Listing of Voters. Listed by barrio.
Barrio Cota ? Listing of Padron (Employers) de Jornaleros/Workers ? 1852-50% legible.
Barrio Tovos y Bejucos ? Listing of Jornaleros?1852, 1857, 1860, 1862,
1865, and 1873. Camuy ? Listing of Jornaleros/Workers ? 1871, 1872
The Puerto Rican Newspaper called the "Gaceta de Puerto Rico" 1873.
Lares ? Listng of Jonarelos by barrio ? 1849 and 1852 ? It delineates the physical traits (i.e. height, color of eyes, hair, beard, etc.), name of parents, date of birth, etc.

LDS # 1511809 ? This film is labeled "Censo de Habitantes/ Census of Households (1864-1875) and Jornaleros/Workers (1866-1870)." About 50% of the film contains genealogical data on Lares. The remaining 50% is on various other towns, delineated below:

Listing of Esclavos for the towns of Toa Baja, Corozal, Trujillo Bajo, Dorado, La Carolina and Vega Baja (1873).
Lares ? Censo de Habitantes/Household Census ? 1874. Listed by all 12 barrios:
This makes it a complete census, for 1874, taken of the town and its barrios.
Lares ? Listing of Jornaleros/Workers ? 1862. Listed by barrios
Lares ? Listing of Jornaleros/Workers ? 1867
Lares ? Listing of Jornaleros/Workers ? 1866
Lares ? Listing of Agriculturalist ? Cultivo de Café ?1898-99

Special note: all of the entries and pages are very legible.

Jamaican and Spanish genealogy  
Sent by Janete Vargas
The National Library of Jamaica is now offering NATCAT, a data base with over 13,400 records on Jamaican materials. The materials date back to the 16th century. The catalog is available at

An all-fields search for "Genealogy" returned five records. History returned 929 records. Record information includes title, publication information, physical description, pricing information and notes.  (research buzz at

Spanish: Texas A&M University at Kingsville is recipient of a donation of more than 1000 Spanish colonial documents dating between 1700-1776. Included are land grants, letters, and 18th century surveys. The genealogy of the family of General Blas Maria de la Garza Falcon, who is the father of Nueces County's first European settler, is also part of this collection.


Grijalva Church, founded in 1320
Traveling in Spain
New Year's Eve in Santiago  
Library of Congress
Ponce de León 
Moguer, Spain
Francisco de Vides
Luis de Carvajal 
Spanish families website
Francisco Vela Siller 
Treviño surname
The Army of Spain in the New World
        and the American Revolution


Grijalva Church, founded in 1320
VILLA de GRIJALVA, La Provincia de Burgos, 
Castilla y León  -  Burgos, Northern Spain. XV.htm

Sent by Eddie Grijalva,

This is a view of the Villa de Grijalva.

Phil Valdez recommends that if you
are trying to locate a town in Spain, use this website:  
Below are some of the sites that Phil has visited in Spain.   De


Phil Valdez Jr., at the entrance to the Archivo General de Indias, where he was privileged to look over some records.

Phil Valdez Jr., standing below
 the statue of Columbus in Madrid.

Entrance, walled village of Niebla about 40 kilometers from Sevilla, and about the same distance from Palos de la Frontera, 
cuna del descuvirmiento de las Americas,
Niebla is the birthplace of Juan Bautista Valdez.

Statue commerating Rodrigo de Triana in the barrio de Triana in Sevilla.
Rodrigo is credited with being the first to sight land on that famous morning of October 12, 1492.


New Year's Eve in Santiago  

Sent by Paul Newfield
Source: Grant Spangler   Includes photos that can be viewed.

Thank you, as always, for your detailed descriptions of 'El Spectaculo en Compostela'. God, I love that place. Your tapestry of words and lucid imagery made me tingle with the joy of being there. Having been present for the Saint's bash in July 2001, I remember so very well the exuberance and 
joy of the celebration. Alcohol is present, but not the chief motivator. It is a celebration of life. There is such an amazing balance between the eternal and the temporal, between the sacred and the profane, in Compostela. 

It is unlike any other place I have ever been. Such a liberating place. The yellow stone of the city seems to emanate the centuries of trials and triumphs it has seen. Yet it is a world in harmony. An inner world of peace. An outer world of belonging. A world celebrating life. A world we would love 
to live in. Yet we are all but pilgrims, transitory residents of the Sacred City. I count myself fortunate to have experienced both the Road, and the Destination. God bless you in all your endeavors in Compostela.  Grant

The Library of Congress, 
Global Gateway
World Culture and Resources

Sent by Johanna De Soto
Keyword search for finding clues and unusual bits of data. males this is a treasure. Big thanks to Johanna!! 

The Parallel Histories pilot project examines the history of Spanish expansion into North America from Florida, Georgia, and the Carolinas across the continent through Louisiana and Texas to the Southwest, California, and as far as Alaska. During much of the four hundred year period following Columbus's landfall in the Bahamas in 1492, Spain explored and colonized extensive areas of what is today the United States. Explorers, conquistadores, missionaries, settlers, and both free and enslaved Africans were in the vanguard of Spanish colonization. These colonizers encountered a variety of complex Native American societies throughout North America. Early on, Spain had claimed the entirety of North America by reason of a Papal Bull (1493) and the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). In the sixteenth century, other European powers, principally Britain and France, ignored Spain's claim and commenced their explorations. Spain played a vital role in the political, economic, and cultural development of the region until at least 1821 when Mexico established its independence. Spain maintained its presence in the Caribbean until 1898. 

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 Por Alberto Casas Rodriguez  

BIMINI: Biyoca – Bahueca – Buyoca 1474 Tervas de S. Campos (Valladolid) - = 1521 La Habana. La mayoría de los cronistas, sin embargan lo consideran natural del Reino de León, y otros lo califican simplemente de leonés.

De familia noble, «hombre de bien e hidalgo», aunque hermano menor ilegítimo de Rodrigo Ponce de León; tuvo una destacada intervención en la guerra de Granada en la compañía de D. Pero Pérez de Guzmán. Gozó de la protección del presidente del Consejo de Indias, el obispo Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca, que le consiguió pasaje en la segunda expedición descubridora de Cristóbal Colón que zarpó de Cádiz, con 13 navíos, el 25 de Septiembre de 1493. Se instala en La Española (Santo Domingo) como colono, participando con Alonso de Ojeda y otros en la lucha contra los nativos mandados por Caonabo. Vivió intensamente las discordias que entre los castellanos se produjeron como consecuencia de la mala gobernación de Colón y sus hermanos Bartolomé y Diego, lo que determinó que fueran «residenciados» y apresados por Francisco de Bobadilla, caballero de Calatrava, que los envió aherrojados con grilletes a España.

En sustitución de la familia Colón, los Reyes enviaron al Comendador de Lares y Comendador Mayor de Alcántara, frey Nicolás de Ovando, que partió de Sanlúcar de Barrameda el 13 de febrero de 1502 con una flota de 30 bajeles y 24 carabelas y 2500 hombres (en esta expedición iba Bartolomé de las Casas). En 1500, Ovando le comisiona para que con el sevillano Juan de Esquivel (casado con Isabel de Melgarejo, hija de Antonio González de Almonte) «pacifiquen» la provincia de Hagüey o Higüey, en la parte oriental de la isla, nombrándole Adelantado de la misma. Es casi seguro que en esta campaña participó Bartolomé de las Casas. Ponce de León se construyó en esta provincia, en Salvaleón, una casa que aún se conserva, en la que vivió con su mujer Beatriz de Luna y sus hijos, Juan González Ponce de León, que años más tarde acompañó a Cortés en la conquista de México, e Isabel que se casó con Antonio de Gama que fue Justicia Mayor de la isla de Puerto Rico o San Juan. Ponce de León montó una industria de «pan de mandioca» que vendía en toda la isla y suministraba a los navíos que partían para España, negocio con el que obtuvo una gran fortuna, acrecentada con el tráfico de mercancías en un carabelón (navío más pequeño que la carabela), el «Santa María de Regla», que compró a medias con Alfonso Sarmiento Es en esta región donde los indios le hablan de las riquezas de la isla de Boriquen o Boriquén, que los españoles llamaban San Juan, situada a muy pocas leguas al este de La Española. La isla había sido descubierta por Cristóbal Colón en su segundo viaje. Comunicó estas noticias al Comendador, el cual le dio licencia para explorarla, firmándose las oportunas Capitulaciones el 15 de Junio de 1508. Ponce de León armó el «Santa María de Regla» embarcándose con él unos 40 hombres entre los que iban varios caballeros, como Miguel de Toro, Juan Casado, el soriano Francisco de Barrionuevo, Pero López de Angulo, Martín de Eguiluz (o Guiluz), Salcedo, Cristóbal de Sotomayor (muerto por los indios), Juan Gil, que sustituyó a Sotomayor a la muerte de este y años después fue procesado por el mal trato que daba a los indios muriendo en la cárcel de Santo Domingo en 1517; Juan López, Luis de Almansa, Sebastián Alonso de Niebla, Pero Suárez de la Cámara, Diego de Salazar, Luis de Añasco, Antonio de Carvajal y otros, llevando algunos indios como guías e interpretes. Zarparon de Santo Domingo el 12 de Julio de ese año.

Fueron muy bien recibidos y agasajados por los por los indígenas, y su principal cacique, Agüeibana (Fernández de Oviedo), Agucibana (López de Gómara) y sus familiares, aceptaron el cristianismo siendo bautizados. El conquistador fundó la ciudad de Cáparra, nombre que le puso Ovando. Ponce de León regresó a La Española con cierta cantidad de oro y la pretensión de que le concedieran la gobernación de la isla, pero se encontró con que Nicolás de Ovando había sido sustituido por el hijo mayor de Colón, don Diego, el cual entró en la ciudad de Santo Domingo en Junio de 1509. El caballero leonés trasladó la petición al Almirante que se la negó, dándosela a su criado Miguel Díaz y a un caballero de Ecija llamado Juan Cerón. A punto de partir el Comendador Mayor (Septiembre de 1509), Ponce de León le entregó un Memorial para el rey detallando sus servicios en la exploración y conquista de la isla, suplicando los buenos oficios de Ovando, encargo que éste cumplió sobradamente, consiguiendo que el rey dictase la oportuna Provisión Real concediendo la gobernación de la isla a Ponce de León, pero bajo la autoridad del Almirante. Ponce de León se encontró la isla revuelta como consecuencia de los excesos y abusos cometidos por Cerón y Díaz, por lo que los prendió y los envió a Castilla para que respondiesen de su gestión. El 23 de Febrero de 1512 obtuvo del rey la firma de la Capitulación que le autorizaba a descubrir la isla de Bimini, en la que los indios afirmaban que se encontraba la «fuente de la eterna juventud».

La expedición estaba formada por los navíos «Santa María de la Consolación», mandada por Juan Bono de Quexo, de San Sebastián, el «Santiago» por Antón de Alaminos, de Huelva, y el «San Juan» por Juan Pérez de Ortubia. Durante la navegación, pasando por la canal de las Bahamas, Ponce avistó tierra el 27 de marzo, día de la Pascua Florida, nombre con el que bautizó la tierra descubierta que creyó era una isla. Alaminos llegó a Bimini pero no encontró, naturalmente, las «aguas que tornaban mozos a los viejos».

Para dar cuenta de su descubrimiento, Ponce viaja a España en 1514, logrando del rey obtener el título de Adelantado de la Florida. En esa fecha estaba viudo como lo demuestra el hecho de que, en Sevilla, se casa con Mayor de Barrios.

El 14 de Julio de 1515 zarpa de Sevilla con una flota compuesta de los navíos «Bárbara», «Santa María» y «Santiago». La expedición fue un fracaso rotundo que repercutió negativamente en el prestigio de Ponce de León.

En 1518, al haber enviudado de nuevo, se casa con Juana de Pineda.

En 1521, parte con una nueva expedición a la Florida, «e como buen poblador, llevó yeguas e terneras e puercos e ovejas e cabras e todas las maneras de animales domésticos e útiles al servicio de los hombres», según nos cuenta Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo en su «Historia General y Natural de las Indias».

Sin embargo las tribus de aquella región (tinahuanos, timucúas, seminolas, etc.) ofrecieron una gran resistencia a su entrada, matando a casi todos los españoles e hiriendo gravemente a Ponce de León de un flechazo en un muslo, probablemente con una flecha envenenada. El fracasado conquistador logró volver a Cuba, donde murió a consecuencia de la herida en la pierna.

En su tumba se puso el siguiente epitafio:

Aqueste lugar estrecho,
es sepulcro del varón,
que en el nombre fue León
y mucho más en el hecho.

Hay que tener mucho cuidado en el estudio de las andanzas de Ponce de León, tanto en Las Indias, como en España, pues su apellido era muy corriente, sobre todo en Sevilla, unos emparentados con el conquistador y otros no, y muchos de estas familias marcharon a las Indias, por lo que, a veces, se confunden y relacionan las acciones del descubridor de la Florida con las de algunos de ellos.  
                               Alberto Casas Rodriguez



MOGUER, España
Odiel Información, de Huelva, Edición 20 de enero de 2005

Tuvo Moguer especial importancia en la aventura del encuentro con América, ya que de su astillero salió la Carabela Niña, que junto con la Pinta y la nao Santa Maria partieron el 3 de agosto de 1492. La carabela "Niña", la llamaron así porque era propiedad de los hermanos Niño, hijos de Moguer que participaron en el primer viaje de Cristóbal Colon.

Moguer está escasamente a siete kilómetros de Palos, por lo que es normal que en la aventura colombina formaran parte de las tripulaciones hombres de este pueblo, como Bartolomé Roldán, Alonso López, Juan de Moguer y Francisco García Vallejos, entre otros.

En los siguientes viajes, tanto de Colón como de otros, también fueron moguereños que, en muchos casos, se quedaron en el Nuevo Mundo.

En la Expedición de Fernando de Magallanes para descubrir el Océano Pacifico de 1519, también iban marineros de Moguer, como; Antón Rodríguez, casado con Teresa González Neblina, que era calderero e ingreso en la armada de Magallanes como marinero de la San Antonio, a la vez que su hijo Lorenzo de Grumete, mas tarde se trasbordó a la Concepción y fue a morir en la emboscada que sufrieron en Zebu el 1 de mayo de 1521. Un hijo suyo, llamado Francisco, se presentó al Consejo de Indias en 1547, solicitando que se le pagase el sueldo que había devengado su padre.

Otro vecino de Moguer en la expedición de Magallanes fue Francisco Ruiz, que estaba casado con Beatriz Martín, e iba como marinero en la Concepción y cuando esta nave se hundió pasó a la Trinidad, donde falleció el 5 de octubre de 1522 durante la travesía. Por mandato del Consejo de Indias de 3 de junio de 1526, se pagaron a la viuda de Ruiz 6.759 maravedíes. Hay una Real Cedula de 9 de mayo de 1532, librada a instancia de Beatriz Martín y sus hijos huérfanos. Que ordenó al Consejo de Indias que averiguase la parte de sueldo que se le debía a Francisco Ruiz y lo que hubiera importado la quintalada de clavo que se decía haber remitido a Sevilla, certificación que solo se obtuvo a principios del año 1536.

Al parecer el grumete Lorenzo Rodríguez, regresó a España a mitad de la singladura aprovechando un barco de vuelta.

                                     Ángel Custodio Rebollo




De Odiel Información.Huelva.España, 
Edición 18 de enero de 2005

Creo que los onubenses conocemos la aventura que emprendió Francisco de Vides, de Trigueros, que fue Gobernador de Cumaná, en la actual Venezuela y que entonces era llamada Nueva Andalucía. A nuestro paisano le tocó defender la ciudad contra el ataque del corsario inglés Walter Raleigh, que fue derrotado, el 24 de junio de 1595

Francisco de Vides había partido en 1592 con una expedición de pobladores de esa región y como es lógico llevó a mucha gente de su pueblo y de la zona de Huelva. Como a muchos lectores  les gustará hacer conjeturas o investigaciones sobre si alguno de estos pobladores perteneció a su familia, voy a facilitar los datos que poseo.

De Trigueros, de donde partía Francisco de Vides como Gobernador de Cumaná, le acompañaban Juan Ruiz de Vides, Gonzalo Muriel, Cristóbal Rodríguez, Juan de Huelva, Cristóbal Martín Ramos, Juan de Vargas,y Juan de Villalba, todos solteros. De Beas, la familia compuesta por Cristóbal Rodríguez Orihuela y su mujer Maria García, con sus hijos Benito e Isabel y Cristóbal Martín, soltero. De Moguer, nada mas iba Alonso Ramírez con su mujer Antonia Martín. De Aracena, Alonso de Vides Vergara, soltero, y dos matrimonios, García Gómez y Catalina Pérez, y el compuesto por Alonso Martín y Violante de Ávila. De Ayamonte, Álvaro de Sosa, Juan Núñez de Bohórquez. De Villarrasa, Cristóbal Jiménez y Francisco de Contreras y de Niebla, Luis Sánchez de los Olivos, estos cinco últimos también solteros.

En la expedición de pobladores abundaban los extremeños, y hay un pueblo que me ha llamado la atención porque emigraron muchos naturales de Fuente de Cantos. En realidad hay de casi todas las zonas de España y por ejemplo de la actual Andalucía, hay pobladores de todas las provincias, pero sin duda, aparte de la zona onubense, es Sevilla quien se lleva la palma, algo muy natural porque allí autorizaban en la Casa de Contratación a los pasajeros y, por lógica, habría recomendaciones y sobornos para incluir a alguno en una expedición de conveniencia, aún cuando, una vez en el destino, podrían utilizar alguna forma de marchar para otro lugar.

                                                  Ángel Custodio Rebollo



Publicado en Odiel Información, de Huelva (España)
Edición 29 de diciembre de 2004

Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva, nació en 1540 en Portugal, hijo de Gaspar de Carvajal y de Francisca de León, que eran judíos convertidos a la fe cristiana. Siendo muy joven, pasó tres años en Cabo Verde, como contable y tesorero del rey de Portugal en el negocio de venta de esclavos y en 1565 marchó a Sevilla donde tuvo negocios de grano y vinos, hasta que arruinado por la mala marcha de sus negocios, fue para Nueva España en su propio barco.

En 1568, luchó en Tamaulipas contra los ingleses a los que rodeo y venció, por lo que el Virrey Martín Enriquez de Almansa comisionó a Carvajal para abrir un camino entre Panuco y las minas de Mazapil.

Fue después cuando Carvajal viajó a España y negoció con Felipe II la conquista, pacificación y población de lo que sería Nuevo Reino de León, para lo que firmaron un documento en Toledo en mayo de 1579.

Luis de Carvajal reunió para este viaje a familias de diferentes zonas de España. De nuestra actual provincia de Huelva fueron tres familias de San Juan del Puerto las que en 1580 emprendieron la marcha.

Una de las familias estaba formada por Juan Beltrán, hijo de Melchor Martín y Catalina Martín, con su mujer Francisca Hernández y sus hijos Lope y Bartolomé.

La otra era la familia de Andrés Velasco, hijo de Agustín García y Elvira Jiménez, que marchaba con  su esposa, Elvira Beltrán, hermana de Juan Beltrán, cabeza de la familia anterior,  acompañados por su hijo Pedro.

Y la tercera era un hombre soltero, Juan Rodríguez, también natural y vecino de San Juan del Puerto, hijo de Juanes de Unceta y Catalina García.

Todos emprendieron viaje en el barco “ Santa Catarina”, propiedad de Carvajal, aunque cuando pisaron las tierras que iban a conquistar, se desilusionaron ya que no era lo que les habían prometido.

Dominaron en poco tiempo el territorio y fueron fundando poblaciones, que hoy son importantes, como la villa de San Luis Rey de Francia, que hoy se llama Monterrey.

Fue muy cuestionado y entregado a la Inquisición denunciado por Fray Juan de  la Magdalena, condenado, aunque era considerado un hombre cristiano e integro, y murió en prisión agobiado por la tristeza. 

                                    Angel Custodio Rebollo

Spanish families website

Hello everybody.  If you get the chance you may want to check out the following website by clicking on the link below.  It's free to join.  I have joined and have answered some postings in the Spain (country),Lebanon, and El Salvador forums.  You can go to each one and see my responses.     
Sincerely,   Jaime Cader


(Ciudad Real, 1946 – 1985) Pintor. Formado en Ciudad Real, donde asiste a los talleres de Antonio López Torres y Manuel L. Villaseñor. Expuso por primera vez en el Hotel Castillo de Ciudad Real en 1971, haciéndolo desde entonces sin interrupción, y hasta su muerte, en las principales ciudades españolas. Galardonado en innumerables ocasiones, desde 1972 en que logra el Premio de Pintura al Aire Libre del Ayuntamiento de Ciudad Real, obtuvo entre otros el Premio de la Exposición de Primavera de Sevilla (1975), el de las Cajas de Ahorros (1975), la Medalla de Oro de la Exposición Nacional de Pintura de Argamasilla de Alba (1977), el Molino de Oro de la Exposición Nacional de Valdepeñas (1979), el Premio de Ponferrada (1980),el de Campo de Criptana (1980) etc.

Fundó y dirigió la Galería Andrade en 1977. Realizó una pintura figurativa dentro de un realismo intimista y poético, que no restaba testimonio al modelo con el que se enfrentaba, sino que lo trascendía de espíritu y emoción.

Antonio Gamoneda escribe: "Sus cuadros, son cuadros con historia, representación de tiempo, de soledad, de la ruina o la vejez que se deposita sobre las cosas. Y su atmósfera, la de sus obras, tiene una misma connotación". Y Manuel Espadas apostilla: "se mueve la pintura de Vela Siller, en esa aneja y fecunda línea de la Escuela Española que, espléndida en Velásquez, llega con irresistible atracción a los artistas de nuestra hora". Excelente pintor, al que esperaba un brillante porvenir, murió en un trágico accidente automovilístico, en plena madurez creadora. Él mismo había escrito: "Desde que tengo conciencia estoy pintando".

En 1985, el Ayuntamiento de Valdepeñas le dedicó una muestra retrospectiva dentro de la XLVI Exposición Nacional de Artes Plásticas, y la galería Arjana de Ciudad Real organizó una antológica de recuerdo y homenaje en 1991. Su obra figura en la colección de la Diputación de Ciudad Real y en otras importantes pinacotecas públicas y privadas.

                              Angel Custodio Rebollo

Publicado en Odiel Información de Huelva
18 de octubre de 2004 

Los orígenes de los apellidos son a veces, de lo mas curioso. Hace unos días, indagando sobre otro tema, me encontré con la leyenda del origen del nombre del apellido Treviño y, como tengo una amiga que así se apellida y sé que me lee con alguna frecuencia, quiero dedicarle mi articulo de hoy.

La leyenda del apellido Treviño dice así: El principal ascendiente de esta casa, Rodrigo Fernández de Unda, estando un día en lucha con los invasores, un árabe de los que en aquel tiempo estaba muy considerado entre los suyos como hombre de mucho valor, desafió a cualquiera de los caballeros cristianos que quisieran combatir con él cuerpo a cuerpo, con la condición que el vencedor, fuese cristiano o musulmán, estuviese obligado a pelear con otros dos que a cada uno acompañarían en la lucha. Rodrigo Fernández de Unda pidió ser el que aceptara la pelea y, cumpliendo con las condiciones del desafío, volvió victorioso después de haberle cortado la cabeza a los tres musulmanes.

El Rey se mostró muy honrado con la victoria de Rodrigo, y éste se retiró a descansar después de la lucha. Como los árabes se mostraban muy inquietos, los cristianos se prepararon para defender en caso de que fuesen atacados, y los caballeros, cuando marchaban junto a la tienda de Rodrigo, le quisieron llamar, a lo que el Rey se opuso diciendo:"Dejadle descansar que esta tarde con tres viño". Y desde entonces, le llamaron Tresviño, vocablo que se fue corrompiendo hasta nuestros días y desde entonces todos los descendientes de Rodrigo Fernández de Unda, cambiaron el apellido Unda por el de Treviño.

Ángel Custodio Rebollo

More on Treviño sent by Irma Cantu  includes more on :

TREVINO This Surname (must be read Trevigno), was originated in Trevino, but there are families with this name in Trevino, Navarra and Spain (Burgos, and Ciudad Real). It is very difficult to know what it means. There are four coats of arms of this surname depending of the family.

Sent by Julian Trevino-Villarreal

Cuando pare en el pueblo de Trevino tuve la oportunidad de conversar con varias personas del pueblo, pero nadie sabia con exactitud el significado del apellido Trevino. De hecho me decian que no conocian en ese momento a nadie en ese pueblo que se apellidara Trevino. Me diriji al panteon y tampoco encontre a nadie sepultado alli con el apellido Trevino. No fue si hasta que conoci al padre de la iglesia del pueblo que me dio dos versiones de lo que significa la palabra "Trevino" La primera es que cuando este pueblo fue fundado por los Romanos estos le pusieron el nombre en latin "Trevinium" que significa Tre=Tres Vinium=confines en relacion a los tres confines que significaban las culturas Celta, Vasca, y Mora. La otra version del origen del nombre viene despues de que establecen los vinyedos en La Rioja donde Tre=Detras vino= de los vinyedos. Asi que ahi tienes las dos versiones del origen del nombre Trevino, pero no encontre nada de algun antecesor de mi apellido. Otra version que escuche en el pueblo es durante la reconquista muchos sefarditas (judios) se vieron en la necesidad de cambiar sus apellidos y escojian como su apellido el del pueblo en donde vivian!!!

2. Muy estimadas personas,con el apellido TREVIñO:
En efecto,el origen m[as seguro de nuestro apellido, es el de origen latino,trifinium,que aun se emplea como palabra de uso corriente en topografi'a, y significa el sitio donde tienen sus 'confines' tres demarcaciones, en español actual un trifinio, es el punto donde convergen tres comarcas,o terrenos,o provincias o estados.Y al examinar el mapa del condado de Treviño, enclavado en el sur de la provincia de Alava,la ma's meridional de las vascongadas,pero perteneciente administrativamente a la provincia de Burgos,de la Comunidad Auto'noma de Castilla-Leo'n,nos damos cuenta de que Treviño esta' en donde limitan o 'confinan' tres fronteras o li'mites o 'confines, que son los del Pais Vasco;Navarra; y Castilla.Lo dema's son especulaciones.Nuestro apellido es muy antiguo,viene desde los Romanos.Y a mucha honra. Les saluda su tocayo de apellido:Enrique Ricardo Treviño.


The Army of Spain in the New World and the American Revolution
Sent by Eddie Martinez  and Bill Carmena 

Until Mexico won its independence from Spain and the French under Napoleon conquered Spain and Napoleon engineered the Louisiana Purchase Spain maintained military garrisons and forces throughout the New World. Despite the relatively uncivilized continents of North and South America military fashion and regulation were still maintained and no other country sported any more colorful and interesting uniforms than the Kingdom of Spain. and her military forces played an important part in supporting the American Revolution. Spain gave both military and financial support to the colonies and was involved in armed conflicts with the British along the Gulf Coast. Galvez, the military governor or Lousiana played an active role in the expulsion of the British and their interests along the Mississippi. Use the "Add to Cart" button below to get the special Rev List Group Price.

The Spanish Army in the American Revolution 1. Urban Militia of Mexico 1740 Co of Fusiliers of Tintureros, Arcobuceros,
and Bordadores
2. Drummer, Infantry Regimen de Milicias Pardos de Merida y Yucatan 1767
3. Officer, Infantry Regimen de Milicias Pardos de Merida y Yucatan 1767
4. Officer of Grenadiers of Merida of Yucatan 1767
5. Drummer of Grenadiers of Merida de Yucatan 1767 Full Dress
6. Officer of Grenadiers of Merida de Yucatan 1767 Full Dress
7. Officer, Infantry Regimen de Milicias Pardos de Merida y Yucatan 1767
8. Lancer, Lancers of Veracruz 1767
9. Lancer, Lancers of Veracruz, Campaign Uniform 1767
10. Lancers of Veracruz, Officer 1769
11. Royal Artillery Standard Bearer, Louisiana 1781
12. Galvez' Army, 1780, Guadalajara 10 Regt.
13. German Coast Militia Infantry Regiment, Louisiana 1768-92
14. Distinguished Company of Carabiniers, Militia of New Orleans 1779
15. Mississippi River Volunteers 1782
16. Dragoons of America (Havana) 1780
17. Galvez' Army, 1780, Drummer, 2nd Regt. Cataluna Volunteers
18. Galvez' Army, Spanish Infantry Regiment 15, 1780
19.Galvez' Army, Officer Ynmemorial del Rey 1. Regt.
20. Galvez' Army 1780, Grenadier Soria 8, Navarra 25, and Aragon 28
Infantry Regiments
21. Galvez' Army 1780, Grenadier, Toledo 16 and Flandes 38 Infantry
22. Galvez' Army 1780, Mallorca Infantry Regiment, Officer
23. Marine Infantry 1780
24. Galvez Army Sapper, 2nd Infantry Regiment
25. Spanish Standards of the American Revolution
26. Spanish Uniform Rank Distinctions
27. Drummer Regt. Zamora. Soldier, Regt. Extremadura
28. Spanish Naval Captain
29. Governor Galvez and the Galvez Coat of Arms
30. Drum Major and Coat of Arms, Regt. Infantry of Louisiana
31. Louisiana Infantry Regiment and Standard
32. Don Estevan Mire, General of the Louisiana Regt of Infantry
33. Standard Bearer Louisiana Infantry Regiment with Standard
34.Company of Grenadiers of the Louisiana Infantry Regiment
35. New Orleans Battalion of Disciplined Militia, 1780
36.Spanish Frontier Dragoon, Leather Shield, and Royal Standard of New Spain
37.Standard Bearer and Standard of the Walloon Guards
38.Dragoon of the Regiment Sagunto
39.Infantryman Regiment Cantabria
40.Officer and Standard Royal Body of Artillery 1780
41. Officer of the Royal Body of Engineers 1780-1782
42. Drummer of the Infantry Regiment of American 1781
43. Marine Artillery 1780-1782
44. Naval Officer 1780-82
45. Naval Squadron Commander 1780-1782
46. Corporal of the Line Regiment de Burgos 1780-1782
47. Grenadier of Foot unit Grenadiers of Naples 1780-1782
48. Grenadier Sergeant, Regiment of Mercia 1780
49. Line Cavalry Regiment de Montesa 1780
50. Mounted Regiment of the Queen 1780-1782
51. Regiment of Light Cavalry Volunteers of Spain 1780-1782
52.Sergeant of the Prince's Regiment, Foot Grenadiers 1780-1782
53. Officer,1774 Company of the Morenos Libres (Free Blacks) of Veracruz
54. Regiment of Line Cavalry of the Queen 1780
55. Regiment of Line Cavalry Bourbon 1780
56. Trumpeter Reginent of Line Cavalry de Alcaintara 1780
57. Regiment of Dragoons of Villaviciosa, Officer with standard
58. Officer of the Regiment de Mallorca 1780
59. Alforez of the Regiment of Infantry of Louisiana
60. Drummer of the 2nd Regiment of Calonian Volunteers 1780
61. Fifer of the Infantry Regiment de Hibernia 1780
62. Fifer of the Infantry Regiment of the Line Murtia 1780-1782
63. Marine Infantry 1777-1798
64. Louisiana Dragoon Company 1780
65. 2nd Co. of Dragoons Militia de St. Luis 1779
66. 1st Lt. 2nd Company of St. Luis Dragoons 1779
67. Officer, Grenadiers Infantry de Navarra 1780
68. Infantry Regiment of the King, Fusilier and Battalion Flag 1780
69. Standard Bearer of the Aragon Infantry Regiment 1780
70. Standard Bearer Infantry Regiment de Guadalajara "El Tigre" 1780
71. Standard Bearer Infantry Regiment de Soria 1780, Grenadiers
72. Officer, Infantry Regiment of Naples 1780-1782
73. Infantry Regiment on the march, Regiment Swiss Regiment de Betschart 1780
74. Trumpeter Cavalry Regiment Lusitania 1780
75. Colonel, Infantry Regiment de la Raza de Puerto Rico 1780
76. Provincial Dragoons of Mexico 1779
77. Cuero Dragoons of the Internal Provences
79. Company of the Pardos Riflemen de Yucatan and Campeche 1783
79. Lt. Dragoons of New Spain 1780
80. Morenos Libres of the Milita of Veracruz 1774
81. Officer of the White Grenadiers of Veracruz 1774
82. Grenadier of the White Grenadiers of Veracruz 1774
83. Fusilier of the White Fusiliers of the Militia of Veracruz 1774
84. Officer of the White Fusiliers of the Militia of Veracruz 1774
85. Officer of the Free Blacks of the Militia of Veracruz 1774
86. Fusilier of the Free Blacks of the Militia of Veracruz 1774
87. Officer of the Company of Morenos Libres of Veracruz 1774
88. Trumpeter of the Line Cavalry of the King 1780-1782
89. Line Cavalry Bourbon 1782
90. Line Cavalry of the King Foot service 1780-1782
91. Officer, Line Cavalry of the Prince 1780-1782
92. Line Cavalry of the Queen 1780-1782
93. Grenadiers of the Infantry of Spain 1780
94. Sergeant Infantry de Toledo "El Profelizade" 1780
95. Grenadier Regiment of Infantry of Toledo 1780
96. Grenadier of Regiment Navarra 1780
97. Battalion of Negros of Havana 1763-1785
98. Drummer of Havana Fijo Regiment 1780
99. Regiment of Infantry of Havana 1780
100. Standard Bearer of the Regiment de la Corona 1779 Batalion Flag
101. Regiment of the Infantry of the Prince 1780
102. Fusilier of the Infantry Regiment Zamora 1778-1781
103. Drummer Infantry Regiment Saboya 1780
104. Officer Infantry Regiment Ultonia 1780



Chile changes 1884 marriage code
El Comercio 
Apellidos: Pérez, Guadarrama 
Venezuela , País de Inmigrantes, 
La Inmigración, por Etapas Oleadas 
La Inmigración en el Tiempo

Chile has changed its 1884 marriage code to allow divorce, the last country in the Americas. Malta and the Philippines now are the only nations to outlaw divorce. (OCR, 1/30/05, News 29)

El  Comercio
Ernesto Apomayta Chambi,

 Apellidos:  Pérez,  Guadarrama 
Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama
Estoy solicitando Colaboración, Ayuda, Sugerencia,... a Instituciones, Historiadores, Cronistas de Ciudades, Personalidades,... para Compartir información sobre los Canarios que Emigraron a Venezuela.

Mis Apellidos son Pérez ( Paterno ) y Guadarrama ( Materno ). En Ambos casos tenemos Testimonios que los Orígenes son Canarios.
El Primero de Ellos: Pérez, es muy frecuente en Venezuela ( es el tercer mas Popular 18,2%, detrás de: González y Rodríguez ). Así que en este Apellido hay que ir con mucho cuidado porque hay muchos Pérez de diferentes Raíces. Así que tengo a Mi Primer Pérez ( Leopoldo Pérez ) nacido en Ospino, Estado Portuguesa, Venezuela en 1850 aproximadamente. Lamentablemente no tengo la Partida de Nacimiento para confirma Lugar y Fecha de Nacimiento, Nombre de los Padres ( en caso de ser Hijo Legitimo ) o Nombre de la Madre ( en caso de ser Hijo Natural ), Orígenes de los Padres ( Lugar y Fecha de Nacimiento ),...Era alto Rubio, de Buen Porte, ... y esas características Étnicas, Filológicas son de Familias Emigrantes.

"Leopoldo Pérez Oriundo de Ospino, Estado Portuguesa, Don Leopoldo era rubio, buenmozo, de impotente presencia varonil y dotado de una connatural vocación para el trabajo supo incrementar una cuantiosa Fortuna; fue de los valiosos Personajes que las consecuencias de la Guerra Federal aventó del llano o Los Andes. Se caso en Palpan con Doña Amelia Rueda Godoy, natural de Pampanito, y fundo un hogar tan prolífico y multiplicado que junto con los que constituyo su paisano y pariente Don Ramón Manuel Pérez Escalona son fuente, sepa y linaje cuyas ramificaciones en nuestro terrazgo le han dado el cognomento de "Pueblo de los Pérez". La descendencia matrimonial de Don Leopoldo y Dona Amelia, fue: Coromoto, Rafael Epaminonda, Ramón Manuel, Leopoldo, Pedro Pablo, Ángel Maria, Baudilio, José de Jesús, Néstor, Soila Soledad, Margarita, Nicida, Juana Maria, Gilma y Maria de la Trinidad. Don Leopoldo que había nacido alrededor de 1850, murió en Pampán en 1905 y lo sobrevivió Doña Amelia hasta el 28 de Julio de 1931." Libro: Pampán y sus Gentes ( Estelas Perdurables ) de Gilberto Quevedo Segnini

Este Señor ( Leopoldo Pérez, Mi Bisabuelo ) se caso con Amelia Rueda Godoy ( Natural de Pampanito, Estado Trujillo, lamentablemente tampoco tengo su Partida de Nacimiento para confirmar Lugar y Fecha de Nacimiento, Nombre de Padres y Padrinos,... ) y tuvieron su Primer Hijo ( 1/18 ) en 1875 en Guanare, Estado Portuguesa, posteriormente tuvieron un segundo Hijo (2/18) en Bocono, Estado Trujillo y el resto lo tuvieron en Pampán donde finalmente se establecieron y donde sus Hijos tuvieron a sus Descendientes.

La Pregunta Oportuna es: ¿ Que razón Económica, Política, Familiar,... tenían estos Pérez ( Leopoldo Pérez y su Paisano Pariente Don Ramón Manuel Pérez Escalona ) tenían para estar en los Llanos Venezolanos? ¿ Fueron Ellos los Primeros Pérez que nacieron en Venezuela o sus Padres eran Venezolanos de Padres Canarios ? ¿ Que atractivo podía tener la Venezuela de mediados de 1800 y que dificulta podía tener las Islas Canarias para que Ellos permanecieran en Venezuela ?
¿ El Nombre Exacto de la Isla Canaria, del Pueblo o Ciudad de donde Proviene el Apellido:Pérez ?

Ahora de Mi Segundo Apellido: Guadarrama. Es un Apellido poco frecuente en Venezuela y en muchas partes del Mundo. De hecho por ser un Apellido poco común Me He tomado el trabajo de investigar sobre este Apellido en todo el Mundo. 

Los Primeros Guadarrama que He conseguido en Venezuela son 2 Hermanos de Madre ( Don Marcos Pérez Guadarrama y Don Juan Miquel Rodríguez Guadarrama ) que llegaron de Las Islas Canarias en 1752 a la Península de Paraguana, Provincia de Coro, posteriormente llamada Estado Falcón. Uno de estos Hermanos Guadarrama se caso con una Descendiente de una Familia que había llegado a Venezuela en 1650 aproximadamente, era los: García de Quevedo, Valdez Quevedo, Quevedo Villegas, Gutiérrez de Vega,... Que por casualidad es la región de donde proviene Mi Familia Materna ( Jadacaquiva, Los Taques, Guanadito ). Yo he investigado a los Guadarrama en los Libros de Bautismo, Matrimonios y Defunciones de algunos Pueblos de la Península de Paraguana desde 1836 hasta 1916 y He conseguido muchos Guadarrama Familiares directos. Yo asumo que somos Descendientes de estos Guadarrama que llegaron a Venezuela en 1752 pero no He realizado el Trabajo de unir todas y cada una de las piezas Genealógicas de esta Cadena. Espero algún día hacerla ...

Lo malo es que no sabemos el origen de los Guadarrama en las Islas Canarias, ni en España.
Mucho He intentado conseguir a Personas con Interés, Conocimiento,... sobre los Guadarrama pero ha sido vano Mi Esfuerzo.

A pesar que el Apellido proviene de España. La palabra Guadarrama es una palabra compuesta que se fue formando durante los 700 años que los Moros dominaron España. Y la palabra Guadarrama comenzó a ser utilizada con propiedad para Identificar un Valle, Rió, Sierra, Aldea,... que queda cerca de Madrid en los años 1.500 aproximadamente. En la Época de Oro de España sus dominios, Tierras, Territorios,...crecieron y fueron la oportunidad de distribuir a sus Nacionales por todas partes del Mundo. En México hay Guadarrama desde 1.600, pero también hay en Puerto Rico, Cuba, Costa Rica, Argentina, Usa, Canadá, Francia, España, Filipinas, Chile y Venezuela.
"El 20 de marzo de 1600, yo León Guadarrama, yendo por una barranca, en un momento en que menos esperaba y sin anticiparse algún motivo, comenzó mi caballo a reparar, y engrifado perdió el equilibrio y nos fuimos a una peña. Al ir en el viento me encomendé de todo corazón a la Virgencita de Tonatico y de otra cosa no di razón. Al volver en sí, me di cuenta que estaba al bordo de otra peña y que al menor movimiento caería en una segunda peña de la que no escaparía. Nuevamente invoqué a la Virgencita en el aire y no volvió a pasar nada. Le dedico un retablo a la madrecita y le mande decir una misa" México

" En julio de 1878, yo José Guadarrama, de Tenancingo, Méx., estando aceitando una pistola se me fue un tiro directamente al corazón. Mis familiares trajeron al médico el cual dijo: "No curo muertos". Al ver que no quedaba ninguna esperanza, llamaron a la Virgencita de Tonatico, en mi socorro y me pusieron una estampita de ella. Al tercer día sentí que me rajaban el corazón, acudieron a verme y vieron que no existía herida y después de esta dolencia estaba completamente sano. Por un prodigio verdaderamente maravilloso, le dedique un retablo y mande decirle una misa. " México 

Yo conseguí a un Pueblo de las Islas Canarias donde sus Pobladores ( entre Ellos varios Guadarrama ) donaban Imágenes, Santos,... a una Iglesia que estaba en Construcción, esto era en 1741.

"Sr. Obispo de estas Islas se digne aprobarlo, confirmándola dando por firme y legítimo siendo de su designación y desde entonces, no antes, quedará obligatorio a razón de todo lo cuál otorgan el instrumento que más necesario es y se requiere según derecho a cuyo cumplimiento se obligara en forma común de todo con poder y sumisión a las Justicias del fuero correspondiente que a ello los competen y apremien como por sentencia definitiva pasada en autoridad de cosa juzgada renunciaron las leyes de su favor y la general en forma y los otorgantes a quien yo el escribano doy fe conozco son los contenidos, así lo dijeron otorgaron y firmaron los que supieron y por los que dicen no saber firmó un testigo siéndolo presente el Alférez Don Tomás de Espinosa Ayala, Dn. Marcos Pérez Guadarrama y el Alférez Rodrigo de Castañeda, todos vecinos de esta Villa entre renglones -es o vale= Cayetano de la Barreda Padrón =José Valdés de Sosa = Juan Quintero Padrón Espinosa =Pedro Gutiérrez Quintero de Frías = Marcos de Castañeda Quintero = Miguel Antº. Guadarrama = Bartolomé García = Juan Bautista Betancur = Bartolomé Tomás Padrón y Espinosa = Fray Miguel de Castro = Pío de Espinosa Guadarrama = Mateo Fernández Salazar = Juan Ayala Barreda = Sebastián Peraza de Ayala = Diego de Acosta = Francisco Peraza = Ángel Magdaleno Barreda = José Magdaleno Quintero = Baltazar Méndez = Juan de Toledo Suarez = Pedro Quintero Alfonso = Juan Quintero Frías = Pedro Trujillo de Espinosa = Juan Santiago de Guadarrama Frías y Espinosa = Matías Fonte del Castillo = Agustín Padrón Arteaga y Espinosa = Manuel Pérez y Quintero = Bartolomé García Frías y Espinosa = Por testigo fue presente = Marcos Pérez de Guadarrama = fui testigo = Rodrigo de Castañeda = Ante mí = Gabriel Sánchez Frías de Magdaleno escribano público de Cabildo"

No esta de mas Preguntarnos: ¿ Que razones Políticas, Económicas, Familiares,... tuvieron estos Hermanos Guadarrama para Emigrar a Venezuela desde Las Islas Canarias? ¿ Eran Ellos originarios de las Islas Canarias ? ¿ Eran Ellos Familiares de estos Guadarrama que Vivian en la Isla de Hierro ? ¿ Que pasaría con el resto de la Familia Guadarrama que se quedo en Las Islas Canarias?,...

Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama

Como vera Mis Familiares no son los que llegaron a Venezuela en el Siglo XX. De hecho la Emigración de Europeos fue muy Numerosa en Venezuela a partir de 1940 a partir del Boom Petrolero...


Venezuela, País de Inmigrantes, 
Todo en Domingo, No. 261 Caracas 03 de Oct de 2004. Diario El Nacional  
Melania Suárez   melaniasuarez@hotmail. com
Los Españoles
"Los Españoles , las adversidades de la Guerra Civil iniciaron un proceso migratorio que continuo con la debacle económica europea. Venezuela alberga a la segunda mayor colonia de españoles, después de Argentina"
"Se calcula que en el País viven casi 300.000 Españoles"
"Los Canarios y Gallegos representan 50% de la Comunidad" 
"Entre 1948 y 1958 ingresaron 150.000 Inmigrantes provenientes de España"

El Mundo Árabe
"Entre Libaneses, Sirios, y Palestinos suman cerca del 90% de la inmigración del mundo Árabe en Venezuela. En varias oleadas, representantes de estos laboriosos pueblos llegaron al País donde desplegaron sus costumbres con el pueblo Venezolano.
"A los llegados de los Países Árabes se les solía decir "Turcos" porque durante la dominación del Imperio Turco Otomano sobre Líbano, Siria y Palestina, los oriundos viajaban con "pasaporte Turcos""
"El Historiador Ramón Díaz Sánchez fija el año 1866 como el de llagada del primer Libanés a Venezuela. Otros estudios indican que en 1882 los Hermanos Dibo iniciaron la inmigración entrado por la Isla de Margarita, axial como los Dao por Puerto Cabello"
"Hay casi medio millón de Musulmanes en Venezuela, la mayoría de ascendencia Árabe. En el País hay cuatro Mezquitas. La de Caracas-ubicada en Quebrada Honda-es una de las mas grandes de Latinoamérica. El credo Musulmán exige ciertas normas: las mujeres deben "tapar sus encantos" y los días de mucha concurrencia oran separadas de los Hombres; además rezan en dirección a La Meca, todos los Fieles deben descalzarse"
"Generalmente se asocia al mundo Árabe con la religión Musulmana. Sin embargo, en Caracas, la mezquita Musulmana y la Iglesia Católica Moronita - que recibe, en su mayoría, a Libaneses Cristianos - conviven a unos pocos metros."

Los Colombianos 
"Los Inmigrantes de la Hermana Republica comenzaron a llegar al País durante los años 60 y 70, aupados por el boom Petrolero y prestos a ocupar cargos de mano de Obra. Actualmente, el perfil también abarca Profesionales y Técnicos."
"La mayoría de los Colombianos proviene de la Zona Norte Costera del País."

Los Italianos 
"Muchos llegaron sin un centavo, sin conocer el Idioma y sin mayores conocimientos. Aquí levantaron Negocios, Empresas y Familias. En honor a su gentilicio gregario, suelen reunirse en largas conversas ante un café, un vino o una comida abundante"
" En 1957, llegaron mas de 45.000 Inmigrantes; 24.022 eran Italianos."
En el siglo XIX arribo la primera gran Oleada de Italianos"

Los Judíos 
"Los Primeros Judíos Sefardíes vinieron a Venezuela desde Curazao durante el Siglo XIX. Luego de la II Guerra Mundial, se llevo a cabo una importante Migración del Grupo Ashkenazi. Actualmente, la comunidad Hebrea es una de las mas influyentes de la Vida Publica Nacional"
" Los Tefilin. Esta pieza consiste en dos pequeñas cajas que contienen cuatro pasajes del Tora. Una de las piezas se coloca sobre el brazo izquierdo, frente al corazón, mientras que la correa que las une se ata alrededor del mismo brazo. La segunda caja se coloca en la cabeza. Así, la atención se dirige al corazón y la mano, de modo que el practicante consagre a Dios todo lo que piensa, siente y hace."
"En la Sinagoga Tiferet Israel se congregan los Judíos Sefardíes, quienes descienden de los que fueron expulsados de España ( 1492 ). Los Ashkenazi provienen de Europa Central."
" Baruj Benacerraf Judío-Venezolano gano el Nobel de Medicina "
"En 1939, llegaron al País 251 Judíos que escaparon de los nazis" 
"La Biblioteca Leo y Anita Blum, en la Unión Israelita de Caracas, guarda los mayores tesoros del Pueblo Hebreo Criollo: el Conocimiento y la Memoria de la Comunidad. Allí consultan, tanto estudiantes como estudiosos, desde antiguos textos Judaicos hasta libros de Historia. Para visitarla hay que pedir una cita a través de numero: 058-0212-5528222"

Los Portugueses
"Llegaron con su buena madera para el trabajo arduo pleno de amaneceres y horas extras. Con las Panaderías han hecho de esta Tierra un lugar mas amigable y en sus manos esta mas del 50% del comercio de Alimentos"
"La Comunidad Lusitana en Venezuela suma 550.000 Personas, incluidos sus Descendientes."
" 70% de los inmigrantes Portugueses llegaron de Madeira"
"Existen 35 Clubes Lusitanos en todo el País, según lo atestigua Aleixo Vieria, director del Correio de Caracas"
"Los Portugueses son Familiares por Excelencia."
"Las Fiestas Patronales de Portugal se celebran con puntualidad en esta Tierra. El día de la Virgen de la Salud - La Virgen de la Montaña para los Madeirenses - merece una Fiesta durante el mes de Agosto en el Centro Portugués, que incluye una misa, danzas y comida Típica."
"En cada Estado de Venezuela hay por lo menos dos Grupos Folclóricos Portugueses. Un baile indispensable es el bailinho de Madeira. ( Es como la Canción: Alma Llanera Nuestra ), comente Antonio Granja, director de Danzas y Cantares del Centro Portugués."
"Se calcula que 72% de las Panaderías del País están en manos de Lusitanos "

Los Chinos 
"Provienen de uno de los Países mas Poderosos y Poblados del Mundo. Dispersos por todo el Planeta, en Venezuela las ciudades del centro del País concentran la mayor cantidad de Inmigrantes de la Patria de Mao"
"Huyendo del Comunismo, los Chinos están ampliamente disgregados por todo el Mundo. Solo de la provincia de Guangdong - al Sur de China - han emigrado cerca de 20 millones de Personas a mas de 100 Países"
"Caracas, Valencia, Barquisimeto y Maracay son las Ciudades que concentran la mayoría de Colonias Chinas de Venezuela. En cada una, los Inmigrantes se reúnen en el Centro Social de la localidad"
"Se estima que 100.000 Chinos viven en Venezuela"
"Con jiaozi(raviolis) acompañados de lechón asado y sopa de aleta de tiburón celebran los Chinos su Fiesta de Año. De acuerdo con el calendario Lunar. el festín se realiza a finales de enero y principios de febrero"
" De Guangdong, cuya capital es Cantón, proviene la mayoría de Inmigrantes Chinos.". 

La Inmigración, por Etapas Oleadas de gente nueva.
Melania Suárez

Distintos procesos inmigratorios han signado de manera indeleble la Idiosincrasia nacional. De modo que la historia del País y la cotidianidad de cada Venezolano se han visto enriquecidas por personas de otras fronteras.

Decirlo con ejemplos tomados de la calle es mas fácil y suena a globalización: después de desayunar en la Panadería del Portugués, nos montamos en el autobús que conduce un Colombiano para ir a la Librería del Argentino. Almorzamos Español, Árabe o Chino, el carnaval nos suena a Calipso, el heladero nos habla Creole y le decimos Nonna a la Abuela.
Pero indagar sobre el impacto de los Inmigrantes en la economía y los hábitos sociales de los Venezolanos no es tarea fácil. La investigadora Susan Berglund, coautora del libro Los de afuera: un estudio analítico del proceso migratorio en Venezuela, explica"Nadie ha hecho un análisis cuantitativo del aporte extranjero a la sociedad Venezolana, por lo tanto no se puede precisar ningún aspecto en concreto". Sin embargo, algunas consideraciones se desprenden de la opinión de investigadores como el eminente geógrafo e historiador Pedro Cunill Grau: "Las corrientes migratorias del siglo XX dejaron una huella positiva en geografía cultural y económica Venezolana, contribuyendo a modernizar y ampliar importantes actividades financieras, comerciales y culturales".
Cunill se refiere a los dos grandes procesos inmigratorios de la historia nacional, hace menos de 60 años. Desde entonces, esos grupos de inmigrantes fueron asociados con algún tipo de actividad aunque, como dice la historiadora Maria González Deluca, no es posible asegurar si se trata de un fenómeno real o de un estereotipo.

"Los Italianos se relacionan con la construcción en los años 60; los Portugueses con el comercio de comestibles y el establecimiento de abastos y supermercados; los Canarios con el cultivo y el pequeño comercio; los del Cono Sur con la inmigración intelectual y profesional; y los de Países Andinos con mano de Obra barata para labores domesticas, del campo y la construcción".

Para Cunill Grau, Venezuela adquiere su primer rostro urbanos y rural del ambiente mediterráneo de los primeros conquistadores: "Pensar en lo que significa la irrupción del caballo, la hacienda, la ciudad... Eso transforma todo el paisaje Venezolano".
después de la guerra de Independencia, existía un País pero muy pocos ciudadanos. Por eso, la consigna para la reconstrucción era: "Gobernar es Poblar". Pero los intentos de establecer colonias agrícolas con inmigrantes europeos fracasaron, uno tras otro. Apenas fue entrando el siglo XIX - cuando prosperan los sistemas de plantaciones de café, cacao y azúcar - cuando cambia el panorama. "Entonces sino de la búsqueda de oportunidades y movilizaciones de Capital", dice González Deluca.

Los comerciantes, principalmente europeos - Ingleses, Alemanes, algunos Franceses, muchos Corsos-, ocuparon los centros portuarios del País: Maracaibo, Puerto Cabello, La Guaira y Ciudad Bolívar. Paralelamente, se producen otros aportes como las llamadas "migraciones silentes" de colombianos a zonas Andinas. También se inicia la explotación de Oro en Guayana, lo que se traduce en la llegada de inmigrantes del Caribe, Trinidad y Guyana, al Sur y Oriente del País.
"Esa migración de Las Antillas anglófonas genero formas culturales binacionales - en particular, musicales como el Calipso y el Parang - que constituyen parte del Patrimonio cultural Venezolano", dice la socióloga Lulu Gimenez Saldivia. A su vez, otras inmigraciones - Sirias, Chinas y Japonesas - comienzan a configurar los oficios del País económico.

Hasta mediados del siglo XX, Venezuela sequía sin atraer inmigrantes. Pero al finalizar la Segunda Guerra Mundial, se produjo un rápido ascenso en el numero de Extranjeros que ingreso al País.
En 1945, entran legalmente a Venezuela 7.218 Personas. En 1947, la cifra asciende aproximadamente a 20.000 . Y entre 1948 y 1961 se produce la primera inmigración masiva en la historia de Venezuela: unos 800.000 Extranjeros ingresaron en ese periodo, aunque muchos siguieron de paso y , para 1961 solo se naturalizaron 526.000.

La mayoría eran Españoles, Italianos, Norteamericanos, Colombianos y Portugueses. Un tercio de los Españoles eran oriundo de Las Islas Canarias y otra cantidad similar de Galicia. Un tercio de los Portugueses vino de Madeira y 60% de los Inmigrantes Italianos vino del Sur. "En la década de los años 50, Españoles, Italianos y Portugueses contribuyen a formar nuevas urbanizaciones que marcan la expresividad urbana Caraqueña y de otras ciudades del País. Un caso relevante : La Candelaria", dice Cunill Grau.

Al ingresar al País, los inmigrantes reportan sus ocupaciones: agricultura, construcción, comercio, mecánica, artesanía y manufactura. Uno de cada cinco extranjero trabajaba en el sector de servicios. "Los sobresalientes fue que una de cada dos personas en la categoría de gerentes, administradores, directores y propietarios era Extranjera", comenta Berglund.

El enorme crecimiento que experimenta la población Venezolana después de 1950 hace innecesario seguir fomentando la inmigración. Pero la convulsión política en el Caribe produce una nueva movilización. "Llegan los desplazados por el triunfo de la revolución cubana, por las dictaduras de Duvalier en Haití y de Trujillo en Republica Dominicana", dice Gimenez Saldivia. Este "exilio" voluntario no es muy numeroso, hasta los años 1973 y 1974, cunado enorme incrementos en los precios del petróleo y los ambiciosos planes gubernamentales provocan un nuevo auge, mayor incluso que en la década de 1950.

Durante los años 70, mas de 300.000 Personas regularizaron su condición de residencia. Aunque proceden de varias partes del mundo, la inmigración sudamericana, centroamericanos y de las antillas es muy superior en numero: Colombianos, Ecuatorianos, Dominicanos, Peruanos, Trinitarios, Haitianos, Guayaneses, Argentinos, Chilenos y Uruguayos. "Lo que mas atraía a la Inmigración a Venezuela era la movilidad social, lo que era estrictamente resultado de la bonanza económica petrolera, sumado a las coyunturas políticas y económicas de los otros Países", opina González Deluca.

Para 1980, se contabilizan 270.000 indocumentados, de los que 92% eran Colombianos, seguidos muy de lejos por Ecuatorianos, Dominicanos y Peruanos, entre otros. Esta nueva Inmigración se parece mucho a la población Venezolana, en grado de educación, tipo de ocupación... y problemas económicos.

Buscando mejores oportunidades, las corrientes migratorias siguen su camino. Para finales de los 90, Bergland afirmaba: "La crisis económica, que se agudizo en 1983 y estallo en 1989 freno la Inmigración. Esto no significa que haya disminuido, sino que se sabe que se han ido mas de 25.000 Portugueses, 20.000 Italianos, 40.000 Españoles, entre otros. Ellos han sido reemplazados en gran parte por Personas procedentes de varios Países Hispanoamericanos".

A juicio de Cunill Grau, se mantienen aquellas inmigraciones "provenientes de zonas donde se expresan problemas de inseguridad, deterioro ecológico y pobreza extrema, como en las regiones del Manabi, en Ecuador, o en los Andes y el litoral caribeño Colombiano". Esta Inmigración es fundamentalmente económica. "Ha creado un nuevo componente social, que se evidencia especialmente en las ciudades", dice Gimenez Saldivia. "No solamente Colombianos, también Dominicanos, Ecuatorianos y Haitianos han creado barriadas enteras en las grandes ciudades de Venezuela". Barrios con contenido culturales móviles, como dice la socióloga, entendidos como un nuevo producto cultural Venezolano que se integra a las corrientes migratorias del siglo XXI.
"Uno de los impactos fundamentales de las olas Inmigratorias es que Venezuela se abrió al resto del mundo, pues siempre había sido un contexto aldeano, aislado". Y de que manera se abrió. Aquí quedan los sabores, los sonidos, los colores y la historia de un territorio de paso devenido en País de todos. 

1825 Fracasa el proyecto de la Colonia Topo de Tacagua, con inmigrantes Escoceses.
1831 Se promulga la primera ley de inmigración, dirigida a los Canarios.
1837 Se reforma la ley de inmigración para incluir a todos los Europeos.
1843 Se funda La Colonia Tovar, único proyecto de colonización agrícola que se mantiene hasta nuestros días.
1874 Se funda La Colonia Guzmán Blanco "Ex-Presidente de Venezuela"( luego Independencia ) y la Colonia Bolívar. Ambos proyectos decaen rápidamente.
1891 Se desarrollan los centros portuarios y comienza la explotación del Oro en Guayana, atrayendo comerciantes Europeos y trabajadores Antillanos.
1903 Cipriano Castro "Ex-Presidente de Venezuela" firma la primera ley de Extranjeros, no tanto para incentivar la inmigración sino para controlar sus actividades.
1936 Se promulga una Ley de Inmigración y colonización, que se reforma en 1937. Las nuevas leyes solo contemplan a "blancos"
1945 Con el fin de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, se reinicia el proceso inmigratorio, casi detenido hasta entonces.
1948-1961 800.000 Extranjeros ingresan en ese periodo; en su mayoría Españoles, Italianos, Portugueses, y Centro-Europeos.
1958 Termina la política de "puertas abiertas".
1960 Llega la "antigua inmigración" antillana con "exiliados" de los gobiernos autoritarios en Cuba, Republica Dominicana y Haití.
1970 Se produce una nueva oleada de inmigrantes, sudamericanos en su mayoría.
1980 Los Colombianos seguidos por Ecuatorianos, Dominicanos y Peruanos, superan al resto de los inmigrantes. Los del cono sur comienzan su retirada.
1990 El numero de extranjeros se reduce. 70% son sudamericanos. 


History of National US Parks 
Early Colonial U. S. Lighthouses 
Animated Atlas
World History
Civil War Mapmaking
Laus Deo, Washington, DC
1890 Veteran's Schedules

Parques Nacionales Norteamericanos
National Parks of the United States

Pedro de Tovar and Lopez de Cardenas, were, in 1540, the first Europeans to be struck with awe before the wonders of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, in Arizona.

In 1960, a Spaniard Luis A Bolin, authored a book entitled Parques Nacionales Norteamericanos.  It was published in Madrid  by Editora Nacional. 

It was then translated by Herbert Weinstock and published by Alfred A Knopf, Inc.  as the National Parks of the United States in 1962.

The Appendix which follows is entitled: Traces of Spain  in the National Parks and Monuments of the United States.

DURING the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, Spanish activity in the regions later integrated into the United States was far more intense than may people now suppose. Vestiges of that activity lie in full view. Some have tried to hide them, but others have sung their glories. To bring them back to life it is sufficient to stir up old memories.

Few relate the Spaniards in America and the national parks of the United States. Nevertheless, the connection is there. Let us begin our quest in the most remote of the forty-eight contiguous states-Washington, on the Pacific Coast, adjoining Canada and we shall soon find traces of Spain.

Olympic National Park is a preserve as distant as any from the big cities of the Atlantic seaboard, from the geographic center of the forty-eight contiguous states, and from the nation's capital. Let us see what is said of a Spaniard on a commemorative stone in the state of Washington on the Pacific Coast, on the edge of a marvelous highway that runs close to this magnificent park:

The Spanish captain Juan Perez sailed north from San Bias in 1774, with orders from Spain to claim the coast, against the Russians. Perez discovered Nootka Sound on the west shore of Vancouver Island and traded with the natives of the Queen Charlottes. He sighted a snow peak, towering high and afar from a rock-bound coast, on August 11, 1774. He named it Sierra Nevada de Santa Rosalia. Four years later British captain John Meares was the second explorer to observe the mighty peak. He named it Mt. Olympus.

Two captains of Coronado's troops, Pedro de Tovar and Lopez de Cardenas, were, in 1540, the first white men to be struck with awe before the wonders of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, in Arizona.

The wooded heights of Great Smoky Mountains National Park were sighted by Hernando de Soto in the sixteenth century when he traveled with his men through what is now North Carolina and Tennessee.

The discovery of the Hawaiian archipelago generally is attrib-uted to Captain James Cook of the Royal British Navy, who arrived there in 1778. But the Haleakala Guide published by the Hawaii Natural History Association in 1959 asserts that a Spanish navi-gator, Juan Gaetano, visited the islands in 1555. Contemporary documents in the Spanish Archives, the Haleakala Guide states, show a group of islands in the latitude of Hawaii, but ten degrees of longitude too far west. What corresponds to the island of Maui is called La Desgraciada (The Unfortunate); the island of Hawaii is labeled La Mesa (The Table); and what appears to represent Kahoolawe, Lanai, and Molokai is called Los Monjes (The Monks). Despite the error in the recorded longitude, the fact that the islands appear on the chart, as well as their approximate locations-there are no other islands in the vicinity-allow us to assume with some assurance that Juan Gaetano was in effect the first white man to cast his eyes on the region that now includes Haleakala and Hawaii national parks.

In 1541, De Soto was in what is now Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas.

Kings Canyon, California, owes its name to the Spaniards who discovered the river of the Holy Kings one January 6, the feast of the Three Magi, in whose honor they named the area Canyon of the Three Kings.

Mesa Verde, Colorado, was discovered by Juan Maria de Rivera in 1765. Ten years later, Father Escalante camped near what is now the entrance to Mesa Verde National Park.

The Olympic Mountains, dominating the Strait of Juan de Fuca from the state of Washington and forming the central spine of Olympic National Park, were discovered in 1774 by a lieutenant of the Spanish navy, Juan Perez, who named the highest of them Cerro de Santa Rosalia. Four years later an English navigator, John Meares, saw the same peak from the Strait of Juan de Fuca and gave it the name of Mount Olympus, which has been used ever since on maps and maritime charts.

Platt National Park, Oklahoma, is a part of the territory that was traversed by Coronado's captains in or about 1542, when they were exploring the southern part of what is now the United States.

At least some of the seventy-five peaks that rise above 9,800 feet in Rocky Mountain National Park were sighted by Father Silvestre Velez de Escalante, Father Francisco Atanasio Dominguez, and Captain Miera y Pacheco, who accompanied the priests during their fabulous wanderings through what now is Colorado.

The men who discovered Kings Canyon and the River of the Holy Kings were the first to know or to hear anything about the gigantic trees that grow in Sequoia National Park, California.

The island of St. John, where Virgin Islands National Park is now established, was christened San Juan in 1493 by Christopher Columbus.

The discovery of the area known today as Yosemite National Park, in California, is generally attributed to two American ex-plorers. But this marvelous region is full of Spanish names-the Merced River, Mariposa Grove, El Mono and Fernandez passes, El Portal, El Capitan-an indication that the first men to become acquainted with its principal features spoke Spanish.

Zion, in Utah, forms part of the territories crossed by Father Escalante and his companions in 1776 during their march from Santa Fe into Colorado and Utah and back in search of the best route for reaching the missions that other Franciscan fathers had established on the coast of California.

Spaniards did not discover Mount McKinley or the region of Alaska that now constitute the magnificent park bearing its name, but they were relatively close to these areas in the course of the expeditions which, for political reasons, they carried out from Acapuico by order of Charles III during the last third of the seventeenth century. Abundant traces remain of their passage along the southern coasts of Alaska. I myself have counted, on the spot or on recently published maps, some two hundred Spanish place names-towns such as Valdes and Cordova, capes, promontories, mountains, bays, creeks, islands, lakes, and rivers-which have endured for nearly two centuries. Spaniards, therefore, were not only the first Europeans to visit vast areas of Central and South America and of the continental United States, but also the first to explore and occupy part of Alaska, passing its western confines and anchoring their ships among the Aleutian Islands.

In the museum at Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, the Park Service, whose leaflets are the source for some of the preceding data, commemorates the Spanish discoveries in America with these words:

Spain implanted her religion and culture in a New World nearly a century before other European nations gained a foothold inside it. A few courageous soldiers, priests and colonists spread Spanish Dominions from Arkansas to Peru and left a heritage of culture which still flourishes in the South West and in countries south of the United States. De Soto ranks with Pizarro and Cortes amongst the great conquistadores. Although his last expedition failed, it explored 4,000 miles of wilderness and traversed the territories occupied by ten States of the Union.

Eleven national monuments or historic sites in the custody of the National Park Service are linked to Spanish activities in the United States and one of its dependencies.

1. De Soto National Memorial, in Bradenton, Florida, cornmemorates the Conquistador's prodigious march through unexplored and inhospitable regions. It lasted four years, during which De Soto journeyed with his men through more than 4,000 miles of forest and wilderness.

The National Park Service's leaflet on this monument-an evocative, simple, and romantic area of some fifty acres situated at the entrance to Tampa Bay-is dedicated entirely to the personality of Hernando de Soto and to his prodigious, well-organized expedition through virgin territories. "Don Hernando de Soto," the leaflet says, "caballero de Santiago and a gentleman by all four descents, was a typical conquistador. Charles V appointed him Governor of Cuba and Adelantado (leader) to 'conquer, pacify, and populate' the northern continent.

"On April 17, 1538, trumpets sounded and cannon thundered as the flotilla left San Lucar, Spain, with about 700 volunteers aboard. The winds were favorable, and De Soto's bride was at his side.

"In Havana, on May 18, 1539, De Soto bade farewell to his Dona Isabel and set sail for Florida. On May 30, the army landed on the west coast, apparently at Tampa Bay. A few ruined pearls lay in the dust at the deserted Indian village where they camped, and the Spaniards believed themselves at the threshold of fortune. So Narvaez had thought, when he chanced upon a single golden ornament!

"Spanish scouts found the lost Juan Ortiz, who had come to Florida with Narvaez and had been saved by a native princess from death at the stake. For 10 years Ortiz had been a slave of the Indians, and, while he had seen no riches, he had heard wonderful reports of the interior land. De Soto assigned 100 men to guard the camp and sent the ships back to Cuba for supplies. The march through 4,000 miles of unknown land began on July 15, 1539.

"De Soto led 600 or more disciplined veterans who averaged - and sometimes doubled -a steady 10 miles a day on the march. Counting the Indians drafted as they went along, the expedition must often have numbered up to 1,000 people. About 200 horses mounted the lancers. There were about 300 crossbowmen and harquebusiers, a dozen priests, a physician, and workmen to build boats and bridges or repair weapons and rivet the slave chains.

"As they pushed northward, heat and hunger plagued them; hidden natives rained arrows upon them. De Soto followed the practice of seizing village chieftains and forcing them to supply food, carriers, and guides. Once beyond Ocale (in what is now Florida), Indians gathered to rescue their chief, but the Spaniards moved first, driving the warriors into nearby lakes.

"De Soto continued onward. Then from winter quarters in the hostile Apalachee farmlands (now northern Florida, near Apalachee Bay), he summoned the men left at the landing site, while to Havana he sent a present of 20 Indian women for Dona Isabel. Meanwhile, his scouts discovered Pensacola Bay; others saw the bleached bones of Narvaez' horses at Apalachee Bay.

"In the spring of 1540, they marched toward the Savannah River, where the comely chieftainess of the Cofitachequi, an Indian village, bestowed her pearl necklace upon Don Hernando. Another 200 pounds of pearls were dug from the burial mounds. But the Adelantado pushed onward. If no richer land were found, they could always return.

"Some were lame and sick by the time they reached a region called Xuala in what is now western South Carolina, but here they saw 'more indications of gold mines than in all the country they had traversed.' Up into what is now North Carolina, then across the Smokies into Tennessee they went. Mulberries, nuts, maize, and turkeys the natives gave willingly, as the army pressed south-ward toward 'Coosa' in central Alabama, still searching for treasure.

"Powerful Tuscalusa, lord of the Mobile Indians, hid his anger when the Spainiards seized him, and agreed to furnish 400 carriers as soon as they reached the town of 'Mabila.' But warriors-not carriers-surrounded De Soto in Mabila. The Spaniards fought free and in a fierce day-long battle burned the Indian town and slaughtered 3,000 Indians. De Soto suffered crippling losses in this battle; 20 men killed, including a brother-in-law and a nephew; a number of horses killed; most of the expedition's supplies and property destroyed; 'and the wounded comprised all the men of most worth and honor in the army.'

"De Soto had planned to meet supply ships on the coast and send the pearls of Cofitachequi to Havana. But the pearls were lost at Mabila. Some of his disillusioned men, naked under their rusty mail, planned to sail with the ships. To prevent this, De Soto again turned his face from the coast.

"The expedition almost ended in the spring of 1541, when the Chickasaw Indians made a surprise dawn attack on the northern Mississippi camp. Fortunately, the Indians mistook stampeding horses for cavalry and withdrew; yet a dozen Spaniards lost their lives, and 50 horses were killed. Clothing, saddles, and weapons were burned. Shaking with cold, the men covered themselves with grass mats, while they fashioned new saddles and lances.

"On May 8, 1541, De Soto saw 'the great River,' so wide that 'if a man stood still on the other side, it could not be discerned whether he were a man or no.' Beyond the Mississippi lay the rumored wealth of Pacaha Province, so the artisans built barges and the army crossed for the march into Arkansas to the mouth of the St. Francis. Finding no gold, they turned west, then south, to winter on the west bank of the Ouachita River, near what is now Camden, Ark. Here, the interpreter Juan Ortiz died, a great loss.

"Even De Soto was discouraged. He went back to the Mississippi, planning to settle at a seaport and refit for a westward advance, but the scouts found no news of the sea. To terrorize the populous country and keep the Indians from uniting against him, De Soto ordered the destruction of the Aniico village in what is now Louisiana. The fighting was left to his lieutenants, for De Soto, called by his men 'one of the best lances who have passed to the New World,' was burning with fever. A few days later, on May 21, 1542, Hernando De Soto died.

"Not all mourned his passing, for he was a stem man. Yet, his skill and courage demanded respect, and his concern for his men won devotion. Secretly, they buried their knight within the village walls, telling the Indians that the 'Child of the Sun' had ascended to his father. When the natives saw the loosened earth and whispered, the Spaniards dug up the body, weighted it in an oaken casket, and sank it in the dark bosom of the Father of Waters, as the Indians called the Mississippi."

2. Fort Caroline, Florida, is a commemorative monument principally related to the passage of the French through this region. It also signalizes Spanish military actions; for that reason I include it here.

3. Fort Frederica National Monument, in Georgia, commemorates the struggles among Spain, France, and England for pos-session of this region.

4. The Fort of Matanzas, a national monument, is a small fortress not far from St. Augustine, Florida. Protected by this fort, the Spaniards here destroyed the French who threatened them.

5. Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, Florida, is an impressive fortress in classic style, built by the Spaniards in St. Augustine to defend the city and protect the ships that sailed along the Gulf Stream on their way to and from Mexico, loaded with merchandise and traveling between Spanish and Caribbean ports while exposed to the attacks of English pirates. In this fortress, since November 9,1955, the flag of Spain again flies alongside the flag of the United States.

6. San Juan National Historic Site, in Puerto Rico, consists of fortifications, walls, and buildings constructed by the Spaniards.

7. Cabrillo National Monument, in California, commemorates the discovery of the Bay of San Diego by the Portuguese Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, a member of a Spanish expedition in 1542.

8. El Morro National Monument, in New Mexico, covers an area of some 250 acres. It was declared a national monument in 1906 to preserve the inscriptions by Spanish and other explorers on its rocky walls.

9. Gran Quivira National Monument, New Mexico, was a Spanish mission during the seventeenth century.

10. Tumacacori National Monument, Arizona, commemorates another Spanish mission.

11. Finally, San Jose Mission National Historic Site, Texas, jointly administered by the Catholic Church and the state of Texas, was designed to preserve one of the numerous missions established in the United States by Spaniards.

It is thus that the memory of Spain's ventures-exploratory, military, or spiritual, always heroic in the face of peril is honored in areas that now form part of the United States and its possessions. This tradition provides a treasury of resources which, through Spanish and American public opinion, can help to cement Spain's close relations with a country to which so many peoples are linked today by close friendship. [[ and family lineage - editor]]

Early Colonial U. S. Lighthouses

[[Editor:  Having visited St. Augustine in Florida, acknowledged as the oldest permanent European settlement on the North American continent, 1513, I was frankly bewildered by this historical account of the early colonial lighthouses which placed the first lighthouse in Boston in 1716.]]

Boston Harbor Light (1716) - The first colonial lighthouse was established in 1716, on Little Brewster Island, on Boston Harbor in Massachusetts.  Duties were collected from vessels based on the type of ship.  Due to the Revolutionary war, the British blew the tower up as they retreated from Boston in June 1776.  A new tower was built on its base in 1783. 

Description: St. Augustine, the oldest permanent European settlement on the North American continent, is affectionately called the Old City. Don Juan Ponce de Leon discovered La Florida, the "Land of Flowers", in 1513 for Spain. Roughly fifty years later, Spain made a serious attempt at colonizing Florida, when Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles was dispatched to the area. Menendez arrived off the Florida coast on August 28, 1565, the Feast Day of St. Augustine, and soon the fledgling colony of St. Augustine was established. Near St. Augustine the Matanzas River empties into the Atlantic, flowing past barrier islands named Anastasia and Conch. 

On the northern end of Anastasia Island, several towers have been built through the years overlooking the inlet that leads to St. Augustine. Early on, the Spanish constructed a wooden lookout tower. Later, a more permanent tower was built using blocks of coquina that was formed as large deposits of shells were cemented together over time by calcium carbonate. Spain ceded control of Florida to the English in 1763 to regain control of Cuba. However, under the 1783 Treaty of Paris, control of Florida was returned to the Spanish, who controlled Florida until they relinquished it to the United States in 1821. 

As St. Augustine was the leading port in the newly acquired Territory of Florida, the U.S. Government worked quickly to establish a light to mark the inlet. John Rodman, the customs collector at St. Augustine, initially proposed that the old Spanish tower be converted into a lighthouse. However, after a thorough inspection, the tower was deemed unsound, and a new tower was built nearby. 

The old tower might have served as a lighthouse temporarily, but in 1824, a new brick tower, rising to a height of seventy-three feet, was placed in service. John Andreu was paid $350 a year to care for the lighthouse and tend the oil lamps, set in silver, bowl-shaped reflectors. The lighthouse was outfitted with a fourth-order Fresnel lens in 1855, increasing the light’s range. 

This improved light was extinguished shortly after the outbreak of the Civil War, and the tower remained dark until the conflict ended in 1867. By that time, it was clearly evident that erosion was endangering the tower. A coquina breakwater was hastily built to retard the encroaching sea. Still, it was determined that a new lighthouse was needed and a five-acre tract, located a half-mile inland, was acquired. Plans for the new lighthouse were drawn up by Paul Pelz, Chief Draftsman of the US Lighthouse Board and who would later be one of two architects responsible for designing the Library of Congress. Construction on the lighthouse began in 1871, but the walls had grown to a height of just a few feet when funds were exhausted. Work resumed after additional funding was obtained, and the lighthouse commenced operation on October 15, 1874. The tower was built using brick from Alabama, granite from Georgia, iron work forged in Philadelphia, and a first-order Fresnel lens crafted in France. 

The small building attached to the base of the tower originally housed a keeper’s office on one side and an area for storing the large drums of lard oil, used in the lighthouse’s lamp, on the other. When the light was converted to kerosene in 1855, a new oil house was built a safe distance away from the tower to contain the more volatile fuel. The keepers continued to live at the old lighthouse until a duplex, built just east of the new lighthouse, was finished in 1876. The head keeper lived in the north side of the dwelling, with the first assistant in the south side and the second assistant making do with two small rooms located on the top floor between the two sides. The keeper’s bedrooms were located upstairs, while downstairs each side had a dining room on the west and a parlor on the east side. Constructing the new lighthouse proved to be a prudent move as the old tower toppled into the sea on August 22, 1880. With three keepers station at the lighthouse, the day was divided into three eight-hour watches. The primary responsibility of the keepers was to care for the light, which required lugging a 30-pound can of lard oil up the tower’s 214 stairs and periodically winding up the 275-pound weight that revolved the lens. In addition, the keepers maintained all the station’s buildings, provided tours to visitors, and when necessary even served as lifesavers.

Animated Atlas,  a stunning, 10- minute presentation with a voice over and supportive animation.
It is a very clear, visual picture of the transition and expansion of the United States from east to west, 1790 to 2000.  Unfortunately, it is post-American Revolution, so there is little of the early Hispanic presence acknowledged. 

In addition, the implication in the explanation by the narrator is that  the American-Mexican War (Reversed on purpose)  of 18446-1848 was fought because "Mexico could not accept what it considered a land grab."  The historical perspective is somewhat limited to the traditional US perspective.   

World History

This is an outstanding synthesis of world history by Frank E. Smitha
Over-view of different periods of time, easy reading, bibliography, opinions, maps, documents, timelines. . . definitely should be bookmarked.
Sent by Janete Vargas

Civil War Mapmaking

A new Library of Congress online collection could let you trace your Civil War ancestor's footsteps into battle or see whether soldiers dug trenches on his farm.

The Library of Congress  Virginia Historical Society
and Library of Virginia   have teamed up to post nearly 3,000 Civil War maps, charts, atlases and sketchbooks at

Union forces or northern commercial firms prepared most of the maps in the Library of Congress collection. They depict battles and engagements, troop positions and movements, and fortifications.

The Virginia Historical Society's online collection includes Army Engineer Corps maps of Virginia that not only detail roads, bridges, waterways and major buildings, but also identify farms and plantations by the owners' names. In addition, you'll find images from the diary and scrapbook of Robert K. Sneden, an Army of the Potomac private who served as a mapmaker, consist primarily of battle plans and fortification details.

The Library of Virginia contributed 200 maps to the new site. Some accompanied reports to the governor of Virginia; others include Confederate imprints, printed and manuscript maps of areas in
Virginia, and field maps of southwestern Virginia.

You can search the collection or browse by title, subject, place or creator. To view an image, zoom in and click to navigate, or, if you have the MrSid plug-in, download the whole thing.

Laus Deo, Washington Monument in Washington DC

I was not aware of this historical information.
Sent by Gloria Oliver

On the aluminum cap, atop the Washington Monument in Washington DC, are displayed two words: Laus Deo. No one can see these words. In fact, most visitors to the monument are totally unaware they are even there and for that matter, probably couldn't care less.

Once you know Laus Deo's history, you will want to share this with everyone you know. But these words have been there for many years; they are 555 feet, 5.125 inches high, perched atop the monument, facing skyward to the Father of our nation, overlooking the 69 square miles which comprise the District of Columbia, capital of the United States of America.

Laus Deo! Two seemingly insignificant, un-noticed words. Out of sight and, one might think, out of mind, but very meaningfully placed at the highest point over what is the most powerful city in the most successful nation in the world.

So, what do those two words, in Latin, composed of just four syllables and only seven letters, possibly mean? Very simply, they say "Praise be to God!"  Though construction of this giant obelisk began in 1848, when James
Polk was President of the United States, it was not until 1888 that the monument was inaugurated and opened to the public. It took twenty five years to finally cap the memorial with a tribute to the Father of our nation, Laus Deo .......... Praise be to God!"

From atop this magnificent granite and marble structure, visitors may take in the beautiful panoramic view of the city with it's division into four major segments. From that vantage point, one can also easily see the original plan of the designer, Pierre Charles l'Enfant...a perfect cross imposed upon the landscape, with the White House to the north. The Jefferson Memorial is to the south, the Capitol to the east and the Lincoln Memorial to the west.

A cross you ask ? Why a cross? What about separation of church and state? Yes, a cross; separation of church and state was not, is not, in the Constitution. So, read on . How interesting and, no doubt, intended to carry a profound meaning for those who bother to notice.

Praise be to God! Within the monument itself are 898 steps and 50 landings. As one climbs the steps and pauses at the landings the memorial stones share a message. On the 12th Landing is a prayer offered by the City of Baltimore; on the 20th is a memorial presented by some Chinese Christians; on the 24th a presentation made by Sunday School children from New York and Philadelphia quoting Proverbs 10:7, Luke 18:16 and Proverbs 22:6. Praise be to God!

When the cornerstone of the Washington Monument was laid on July 4th, 1848 deposited within it were many items including the Holy Bible presented by the Bible Society. Praise be to God! Such was the discipline, the moral direction, and the spiritual mood given by the founder and first President of our unique democracy "One Nation, Under God."

I am awed by Washington's prayer for America. Have you never read it? Well, now is your unique opportunity, so read on! "Almighty God; We make our earnest prayer that Thou wilt keep the United States in Thy holy protection; that Thou wilt incline the hearts of the citizens to cultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to government; and entertain a brotherly affection and love for one another and for their fellow citizens of the United states at large." And finally that Thou wilt most graciously be pleased to dispose us all to do justice, to love mercy, and to demean ourselves with that charity, humility, and pacific temper of mind which were the characteristics of the Divine Author of our blessed religion, and without a humble imitation of whose example in these things we can never hope to be a happy nation. Grant our supplication, we beseech Thee, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Amen." Laus Deo!

When one stops to observe the inscriptions found in public places all over our nation's capitol, he or she will easily find the signature of God, as it is unmistakably inscribed everywhere you look. You may forget the width and height of "Laus Deo", it's location, or the architects but no one who reads this will be able to forget it's meaning, or these words: "Unless the Lord builds the house its builders labor in vain. Unless the Lord watches over the city, the watchmen stand guard in vain." (Psalm 127: 1)

It is hoped you will send this to every child you know; to every sister, brother, father, mother or friend. They will not find offense, because you have given them a lesson in history that they probably never learned in school. With that, be not ashamed, or afraid, but have pity on those who will never see.

US Census Collection Update: 1890 VETERAN'S SCHEDULES (Images Included)  

This new database includes the records of 881,002 veterans. It is an index to individuals enumerated in the 1890 special census of Civil War Union veterans. Although this schedule was to be used to
enumerate Union veterans, in some areas, Confederate veterans were listed as well.

The 1890 veterans schedules provided spaces for the following information: names of surviving soldiers, sailors, and marines, and widows; rank; name of regiment or vessel; date of enlistment; date of discharge, length of service; post office address; disability incurred; and remarks.

Veterans' schedules are often used as a partial substitute for the 1890 federal census, which was destroyed by fire. While fragments of the 1890 census may exist in state and local repositories, they are often difficult to track down and are incomplete. Although they do not list everyone who was included in the 1890 census, the veterans' schedules are a partial head of household list for those who were old enough to have served in the Union military during the Civil War.

This database is also included in the 1890 Census Reconstruction Project and can be searched through its main page at:


Meanings Behind the Symbols 
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"The next thing most like living one's life over again seems to be a recollection of that life, and to make that recollection as durable as possible by putting it down in writing."--Benjamin Franklin

The Meanings Behind the Symbols or...What does it mean if your coat of arms bears a red boar's head?  [[Although most of these surnames or non-Hispanic. The European symbolism, colors, and shield layouts would be consistent. ]]
Sent by Bill Carmena

The Library of Congress Especially for Researchers
Research Centers Home Reading Room Genealogy Index

to the Enciclopedia Heráldica Hispano-Americana of Alberto and Arturo García Carraffa
Sent by Paul Newfield  

The 88 volumes of this work, [Library of Congress Call Number: CR2142.G3] supplemented by a continuing work, offer an immense tribute to the work of indefatigable genealogists. The work treats Spanish heraldry in the first two volumes, and with volume three begins the Diccionario Heráldico y Genealógico de Apellidos Españoles y Americanos, or a listing of over 15,000 names with their respective genealogical histories (with color illustrations of representative crests) of Spanish and Spanish-American families. Please note that on the spine one finds two numbers, the Enciclopedia number followed by the Diccionario number (in other words there is a two volume difference in numbering).

Originally begun in 1919, its publishing history continued until 1963 when the last volume encompassing the letter "u" was published as a tribute to her late husband by Margarita Prendes Carraffa. In 1952, a reprinting of the earlier volumes began. The alphabet covered by the work goes from "a" through "u".

The structure of the work provides an index in each volume. As the work progressed, supplemental names were added, breaking the alphabetical continuum. Without perusing all the volumes one could never be sure that an article may have been missed. This present automated index, compiles all the names mentioned in the respective indices and allows a comprehensive search of all volumes at one time. One need only enter -- without accents -- the respective surname (whether it be a compound surname or not) and press "Submit." Enter query: 

The resultant list is a finding aid consisting of the names, volume number of the Enciclopedia, and page number of more than 15,000 genealogical and coats of arms compiled by the García-Carraffa brothers. Continued by the work of Endika de Mogrobejo (whose contribution is indicated in this index by volume numbers which are preceded by the letter 'E'), the work of García Carraffa is a huge single published effort on Hispanic genealogy. Fortunately, it is available in a variety of libraries in the United States besides the Library of Congress. The following locations in the United States report holding this title:

Boston Public Library
California State Library
Getty Center Library
Harvard University
The Hispanic Society of America
New York Public Library
Princeton University
University of Illinois
University of Pennsylvania
University of Tennessee
University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley, Bancroft Library 
University of California at Santa Barbara
University of Michigan
University of Nevada (Reno)
State University of New York at Buffalo

The Library of Congress Call Number (CR2142.G3) will allow the work to be paged for use within the Library. It is not available for Interlibrary Loan. Note also that the condition of some volumes may prohibit their photo reproduction. Further information concerning the reproduction of articles from this title may be answered by writing directly to the Photo duplication Service of the Library of Congress, Washington DC 20540. Additional reference work should be continued in consultation with the specialists in the Local History & Genealogy Reading Room, or in the Hispanic Reading Room. We are unaware of any major translation of this Spanish-language compilation. Translation and genealogical research is not available through the offices of the Library of Congress.

Web democratizes information
Sent by Janete Vargas

The Web democratizes information formerly accessible only to specialists. It lets average people become genealogists, researchers, fact checkers, historians, even.

Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness  taps the spirit of volunteerism and camaraderie so widespread online. (It connects volunteers willing to do local research with people who cannot travel to remote gravesites or record rooms.)

The American Memory project, from the Library of Congress, and the Proceedings of the Old Bailey, about the centuries-old London criminal court, are two stellar examples of sites that provide extraordinary historical records buried deep within paper libraries.

Information has also been democratized in another way: average users and hobbyists are creating reference works on a vast scale. The user-written Wikipedia encyclopedia  already has more than 300,000 articles. The advice is this: Follow the links.

Genealogically Speaking: Things to do in 2005 – Michael John Neill 
Ancestry Daily News, 29 December 2004 Sent by Danielle Brown
The end of a year means another one is headed in. With that in mind, our last “Beyond the Index” column in 2004 contains a list of things to do in 2005. 

Contact Offline Relatives
Recent work on two of my families has reminded me that a significant number of my relatives do not have e-mail or cannot be initially be contacted electronically. As several of these individuals may
hold the key to additional generations of ancestry, they will have to be contacted. One of my goals in
2005 is to write letters to these individuals in an attempt to gain family history information. Are there
relatives you have not contacted in your search for family history information? Are any of these relatives “offline?” Hesitating to contact them may result in them being permanently unavailable when you “get around to it.” 

Identify People in Pictures
This is something I almost always mention when giving a lecture or a workshop, because I believe it is one thing that almost every genealogist probably needs to do. Even though I have gone through my pictures many times, I still have a few pictures that include people who cannot be identified. My first priority in 2005 is to talk to those individuals who are most likely to know the people in the pictures. And of course, I will write on the cardboard backing of these photographs with a media that is archive safe, not a ball-point pen. 

Tie up Loose Ends
I have several files, ancestors, and e-mails where a lead or a loose end has been left dangling. Life does get in the way. Before I forget completely or start work on additional projects, I will follow these
leads. Who knows, perhaps the answers to my questions will lead to even more information than I expected? 

Enter Data
There are stacks of copies and documents in my files that have yet to be entered into my computer database. I know there are few people in this situation (grin!). Before I spend hours or days accumulating new information it would be a good idea to incorporate this un-entered data into my computer files. In the case of some of the non-English speaking families I was working on, I have actually wasted time by not entering the data shortly after I obtained it. While working with the Swedish and Belgian records discussed in some of this year's earlier columns, I became reasonably adept at translating simple church records. I have lost that skill in the interim and will have to re-learn before entering the information into my database. Wasted time is lost time and we never get it back. 

Write a Biography
While I have long known that this is an excellent organizational tool and a great way to share and
preserve information, I have been lax in composing biographical information on my ancestors. To create less work and less confusion, the first biography will be for an ancestor I'm already working on. Starting an additional project will only mean one more thing that does not get finished! 

Learn about the Language
Incorrect spellings of names and locations present a significant hindrance to the researcher. This problem is exacerbated when the ancestral family does not speak the language in which the records are written. I think there may be a few cases where I would have better chance of success if I were more familiar with how words were pronounced in the native language of my ancestors, particularly their names and the village or town in which they were born. Foreign language dictionaries and texts are one place to learn this information. 

Read More Local and Regional History
Learning about the area where an ancestral family lives always offers the researcher insight into the
day-to-day lives of our family members. This knowledge also can help to solve difficult research problems. One goal in 2005 is to read and learn more about some of the eras and locations in which my various families lived. 

Review Old Problems
Regular readers of the Ancestry Daily News know that I have a few old problems that have plagued me for years. As 2005 begins, I will look some of these problems. In certain cases it may be a good idea for me to “restart” my work on these lines, beginning from scratch as much as possible. If I have not already done so, I should consider creating chronologies, maps, and timelines for the people and families involved in these problems. I should reread research guides to the locations where these people lived and see if any new materials have been published or developed that might be applicable to the problem. 

Stay Focused
Working on too many lines at one time will only confuse me. A better approach is to work on one
location or ethnic group at a time. If I decide to focus on my wife's Swedish lineage, I would be better
served by doing the Swedish data entry, the Swedish research, the reading about Swedish culture and history, and the learning about Swedish pronunciations at the same time. It can be terribly confusing working on several lines at the same time and the problem is only compounded when the families under study were living in different times in different places and speaking different languages. 

Do Something Non-Genealogical
There is a world outside of genealogy. Sometimes this world includes our living family members. Reading a non-genealogy book, keeping in touch with other family members, and pursuing non-genealogical activities will make your family history search seem like less of a job and reduce your “genealogy stress level.” And the less stressed we are while researching, the more effective and the happier we are. And isn't that what it is all about! 

Happy Hunting in 2005! 

Michael John Neill is the Course I Coordinator at the Genealogical Institute of Mid America (GIMA) held annually in Springfield, Illinois, and is also on the faculty of Carl Sandburg College in Galesburg,
Illinois. Michael is the Web columnist for the FGS FORUM and is on the editorial board of the Illinois
State Genealogical Society Quarterly. He conducts seminars and lectures on a wide variety of
genealogical and computer topics and contributes to several genealogical publications, including Ancestry Magazine and Genealogical Computing. You can e-mail him at
 or visit his website at, but he regrets that he is unable to assist with personal research.  Copyright 2004,


Google Your Family History, and More
News of the Utah Genealogical Association
November-December 2004, Vol. 33, No. 6

Google is such a handy search engine it's become an Internet favorite for many genealogists. Never mind that it often returns a million answers for one simple question—the first answer is very often the website you really wanted.

Not so with hunting your ancestors. Common-noun surnames. Lake, Hall, Lane, Fisher, Bell, Stone, and color names: Green, Brown, Black, White—we've all got names like these that are pretty confusing to search for unless we go directly to a genealogical site where we can tell the "Search" utility that what we want is somebody's name. However, this has limitations too. There are so many of these sites, and what about the sites we don't know about?

Try a utility designed especially for genealogists:
The site says, "This free site will create different Google™ searches using tips or 'tricks' that will likely improve your genealogy search results. Just provide what you know about an ancestor and the site will set up the best searches for you, based on what you enter." The site doesn't necessarily find something a regular Google search doesn't find, but the results won't be buried deep in the middle of 1,565,000 other possibilities.

If you like this one, try another website for genealogical searches. See Best Internet Genealogy - Web Search Help at

This one looks more intimidating. The screen is full of clutter, but ignore all but the top or the upper left and start out simply. This search also uses Google, Yahoo, and MSN advanced search engines as well.  If you're starting to get results you can also look at to see links to other search engines.


Google Releases Improved Photo Management Software to Organize and Share Pictures   From:

Picasa 2 Offers Editing Tools, Advanced Effects, Better Organization and CD Burning for Digital Photo Users - For Free

Mountain View, Calif. - January 18, 2005 - Google Inc. today released Picasa™ 2, free photo management software that makes it simpler than ever for people to organize, edit and share their digital pictures. Available at, Google's new version of Picasa offers photographers of all skill levels easy-to-use tools that automatically organize even the largest photo collections on a PC and turn average snapshots into great pictures.

New and improved features of Picasa include:
* Advanced editing tools - Fix pictures with more powerful tools, 12 photographic filter effects, color and lighting adjustments, red-eye removal, photo cropping and straightening.
* Improved organization - Add captions, quickly and easily search across all photos on a computer, attach labels and stars for better photo organization, reorder pictures and clean up cluttered folders.
* Backup capabilities - Archive photos from a computer to a CD or DVD, save photos on an external drive, and create gift CDs with personalized slideshows.
* Customized prints - Print at home with standard sizes, or order photo prints by uploading pictures to Ofoto, Shutterfly, Snapfish, and
* Enhanced sharing features - Email photos via Gmail (and other email clients), upload photos to a Blogger blog, and send and discuss photos in real-time via Hello™, Picasa's free peer-to-peer software, available at

"With Picasa 2, we've made it easier for people to find, organize, improve and enhance their photographs, as well as create photo CDs, personalized slideshows, desktop collages, and much more," said Lars Perkins, General Manager, Picasa, Google Inc. "Digital photos are an important and growing category of personal information, and Picasa is in line with Google's commitment to develop advanced technologies that further help users to find, organize and share information that's important to them."

More information about Picasa can be found at http://www.picasa.comAbout Google Inc.Google's innovative search technologies connect millions of people around the world with information every day. Founded in 1998 by Stanford Ph.D. students Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Google today is a top web property in all major global markets. Google's targeted advertising program, which is the largest and fastest growing in the industry, provides businesses of all sizes with measurable results, while enhancing the overall web experience for users. Google is headquartered in Silicon Valley with offices throughout North America, Europe, and Asia. For more information, visit .

Google is a registered trademark, and Picasa, Hello, Gmail and Blogger are trademarks of Google Inc.  All other company and product names may be trademarks of the respective companies with which they are associated. Contact: Eileen Rodriguez, 650-623-4235,

Gathering Genealogical Information at Your Family Reunion
Source: California African American Genealogical Society
Heritage Newsletter, July/August 2004

The following is an excerpt from George G. Morgan's book, Your Family Reunion: How to Plan It, Organize It, and Enjoy It. In this excerpt George hopes that these tips will help family historians expand on their genealogy research at a family reunion.

Family reunions can be extremely exciting events, especially for a genealogist or family historian. Where else can you get a large group of relatives together and gather so much information at one time? That's the good news. The not-so-good news is that you can be overwhelmed with information too.

As always, the key to success is organization. Advance preparation is important. Start by gathering all the genealogical information and materials you have collected that are pertinent to the family units involved in the reunion and that you haven't yet completed. That means taking all those photocopies and notes, photographs and vital records, and that mess of sticky notes and going through them. Sort it all out by surname, evaluate it, and enter the appropriate information into your computer database.

Once the data is entered, print new pedigree charts for every branch of the family and every collateral line you think will be represented at the reunion. Prepare these charts for display at the reunion. Take a package of tape flags along so that you can tape the charts to a wall. (The tape flags are less likely to damage a wall than ordinary adhesive tape.) The pedigree charts will be a tremendous hit at the family reunion.

In addition to the pedigree charts, print a complete set of family group sheets for all the lines you think will be represented at the reunion. Most genealogical software programs will allow you to print custom reports. I urge you to include on your family group sheets every piece of information you have. That includes dates, notes, and all your source citations. If there is information of which you are unsure or that has yet to be verified or corroborated, you might want to make a notation to that effect so that other family members are aware.

Make several copies of each family group sheet. You might put one complete set in a binder as a master set. You can then write on this set as the reunion takes place and, most importantly, make notes of who told you what. The other sets you can take with you and distribute to key contact people. They can make copies for others in their family and can also update them and return them to you or the family historian.

You will find that people will flock around the family tree display to see what family information has been compiled. Don't get defensive if someone's feathers are ruffled because you have the wrong information. Just explain that the information is what you were told or given, and ask them to give you the correct information and tell you how or where you can find verification. You might want to have a supply of forms and writing utensils handy for people to provide this information on the spot, or you can ask them to mail it to you. A sample form titled Family Genealogy Correction is included here (opposite) as well as in Appendix B. [Editor's Note: George's book contains a copy of these forms.]

If you want to collect new information or make corrections to the information you already have, try to enlist one person from each branch of the family or collateral line to act as the coordinator of his or her line. Be prepared to give this person a copy of all the family group sheets for his or her line, as well as some blank copies for new generations or collateral lines. Ask him or her to add to the sheets, make changes or corrections, and return them to you. Encourage him or her to also provide you with photocopies of any documents they might have that could verify the information they are providing.

Whatever you do, encourage the return of information to you. Prepare self-addressed 9"xl2" manila envelopes with plenty of stamps. Provide an envelope to each person who will be collecting information for you. Tell them that you will reimburse them for any postage and/or photocopies of the additional materials they send to you.

Be prepared to accept all types of information in a variety of formats from your family members. One thing you may want to collect is family recipes. At many family reunions, there are homemade pies, cakes, appetizers, main dishes, and other foods. Some of these recipes have been passed down through the generations. Take some index cards along and compliment the creator by asking him or her for that special recipe.

As for collecting information, I have known people to take laptop computers to their family reunions for the purpose of displaying information and updating their database onsite. While this seemed like a great idea, it actually glued them to the computer and prevented them from circulating, making contacts, asking questions, exchanging information, gathering new information, and otherwise having a great time.

There are four tools I suggest you use to gather information at a family reunion. These are in addition to the family members you enlist to help you update charts and family group sheets. Let's talk about each of the four tools:

Steno Pad - Purchase several steno pads at the office supply store and carry several pens or pencils. As you talk with people and hear interesting stories, ask if you can take notes. Some people may be unnerved by this and refuse so don't press the point. However, listen carefully to what they say, and then jot notes as soon afterward as you can. Whenever you take notes, make sure you indicate who told you what. Like a good journalist, you can always contact the person again later for clarification or more details.

Tape Recorder - A small handheld cassette tape recorder is an invaluable genealogical tool. I use one whenever I visit a cemetery to read and record the inscriptions on tombstones. If a photo doesn't develop clearly enough to allow me to read the inscription, I still have a record of it on audiotape. At a reunion, a tape recorder is terrific for quickly and accurately capturing information. Always ask permission to tape. Take a number of cassettes with you and label them as you use them. You can assign a number to each cassette and, as you record, make a note on your steno pad of the cassette number, the number of the conversation, and the name of the person you re-corded. Be careful not to record over something. Nothing is worse than recording over a wonderful interview! Last but not least, don't forget extra batteries for the recorder.

Camera - A reunion is an invaluable opportunity to take pictures. If you own a camera, make sure you are prepared for all contingencies with all-purpose, indoor/outdoor film. Disposable cameras are inex-pensive and versatile, and you may want to take several along. These come in the indoor variety with a built-in flash, the outdoor variety, and in a terrific panorama model that is great for large, wide-angle group shots. Even if you don't use all the film, it is definitely worth the price to obtain those priceless shots.

If you are terrible at remembering names you may use a technique used by professional photographic journalists. They date and number every roll of film. (You can date and number each disposable camera.) They carry a small pad (like your steno pad) with a date and number at the top of each page corresponding to each of the rolls of film. They number the lines of each page to correspond to each of the pictures on the roll of film. As they take pictures, they make a note of the subjects' names (and location if appropriate). Later, when the film is developed, it is easier to identify the people and places in each shot-and the photographer can then correctly label the pictures as needed.

Please note that black-and-white photographs will endure far longer than color shots. You may want to consider taking a roll of black-and-white pictures in addition to color shots for posterity. Digital cameras are also terrific for capturing pictures as data. How-ever, keep in mind that technology changes quickly, and you will need to continue converting your digital photographs to new technologies as they evolve so that the images are never lost to future generations.

Video Recorder - If you have a video camera, you may want to supplement your genealogical experience by making videotapes. Videos can capture motion pictures, voices, and sounds. They can become a wonderful part of your genealogical collection. Even if there is a professional videographer at your reunion, you may want to make your own videotapes. If you plan to video family members at the reunion, be sure they are not uncomfortable at the prospect. And be sure to ask permission before trying to interview someone on videotape. Take several blank video cassettes with you, and remember the batteries and/or a charger.

All of the above tools can be carried in a shoulder bag. It keeps all your information-gathering tools close at hand and keeps your arms and hands free for important things like hugs, handshakes, and eating all that wonderful food!

Copyright 2004,


Top 12 Tips for Genealogical Research Success
by George G. Morgan  

Source: California African American Genealogical Society
Heritage Newsletter, September 2004

Whenever I deliver genealogy seminars, I'm often asked, "What are the key ways I can be more 
successful in my research?" That question is nearly impossible to answer. It depends on so many factors: where you are researching, at what period in time, which records you're seeking, what you're trying to prove/disprove, and others.

There are some strategies and methodologies that we can all apply. Some of these may seem like common sense, but I often find I have to stop and remind myself to examine all the angles. I need to slow down and remember the essentials of research.

"Along Those Lines..." I'd like to share my personal list of twelve tips that I hope will help you achieve greater success with your genealogical research.

1. Research the entire family unit, not just your direct ancestor, to gain an understanding of family dynamics and each member's personality. The fact that a child is born in a certain sequence in the family influences his or her development and familial relationships.

2. Place your ancestors into context by learning about the history, geography, and social conditions of the places and times in which they lived. If you don't understand the place and times, the historical and social forces, and the influences of other people and events, you won't really "know" your ancestor or family member.

3. Understand what records might have been created for and about your ancestors (and which types were not) and trace the current location of those records. History, again, plays an important factor. Consider the government in power at the time, the types of records it caused to be created and why, and what may have happened to those records. Use historical maps so that you're looking in the right place at the right time.

4. Take advantage of libraries and archives by mastering the use of their online catalogs and understanding the classification systems and organization of their collections. If you don't know how to immediately locate materials in these facilities, you can waste research time.

5. Continually expand and hone your Internet skills in the use of search engines, databases, directories, meta-search engines, message boards, e mail, mailing lists, people finders, and other tools.

Seek out classes at colleges, universities, libraries, genealogical society computer groups, and at online venues such as the Genealogy Training Workshops at

6. Use all the resources available to you books, magazines and journals, newspapers, microfilm, electronic databases, and the Internet and integrate their use to obtain complementary information. Use the resources you have in tandem to prove and refute information.

7. Develop and employ your critical thinking skills to evaluate every piece of evidence you find.

Consider each fact for accuracy, credibility, authority of the source, primary vs. secondary source, original vs. derivative source, currency, and bias.

8. Learn to locate and use alternative or substitute records when the ones you want can't be located. When you hit a brick wall, don't just collapse and cry that you've reached a dead end. Look for other available records and evidence that include the same or similar information. Sidestep to a sibling or other family member and research that person; move up another generation from them, for instance, and then connect your way downward to the person with whom you are stalled.

9. Document every piece of information you find using complete and accurate written source citations. You will come back to these sources over and over again. They are every bit as important as the data that they document. Just like you see on Antiques Roadshow, source citations are the provenance of your data.

10. Use the facts you have compiled to develop a timeline of data and life events for your key ancestors or those for which elude you. Learn to read your ancestor's life chronologically like a biography to better understand him or her.

11. Prepare in advance for every genealogical research trip. Define who and what you want to research, where the materials you want are located, and set up appointments to meet with people who may be able to assist you.

12. Periodically re-read all of the materials you have compiled for an individual in chronological sequence. Each time you do so, you will view the person's life story more clearly.

If you focus on these essential tips for your research guidance, your success rate will improve. And the better you understand your ancestors, you'll be amazed at how many of your brick walls crumble away.  Copyright 2004,

Essential news and tips for family historians.

Family Tree Magazine is celebrating five years of helping family historians connect with their roots!
And best of all, we want to share our celebration with you! That's why we're inviting you to try a FREE ISSUE of Family Tree Magazine. To take advantage of this special offer today, visit:

It's the perfect time to give Family Tree Magazine a chance, because we're ringing in the New Year by adding an exciting new series! Beginning with the February issue, each magazine will feature
a special pullout section with two Collectible State Research Guides. These guides include how-to articles; handy reference sheets of essential facts, resources and destinations; full-color maps;
visitor details; and much more! It's all the information you need to hit the library or take your family history research on the road!

Plus, you're guaranteed to find every issue jam-packed with all the must-know tips you'd expect from America's #1 family history magazine! Just check out these exclusive features:
* Reliable Web resources -- the sites to click and the ones to skip
* Timesaving tricks to get facts fast from online and paper archives
* Inspiring ideas to organize and protect your keepsakes
* Software secrets and the latest gadget reviews
* And much more!


Christopher Columbus

This box might hold the remains of Christopher Columbus.  
Researches hope to do DNA testing on remains found in the Dominican Republic,  
Photo by Emilio Morenatti, AP   Orange County Register, January 18, 2005   

For an illustrated overview of Columbus' life, go to:


En la edición de noviembre del pasado año de SOMOS PRIMOS, se publicó un pequeño articulo mío sobre los estudios que se estaban haciendo en España sobre los huesos depositados en la Catedral de Sevilla en el sepulcro de Cristóbal Colon. Hay otro sepulcro en el Faro de Colon, en Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana, en el que también se dice que están los restos del Descubridor de América.

Con el fin de aclarar el enigma si ambos sepulcros contienen huesos del Almirante de forma definitiva, un equipo científico de la Universidad de Granada (España) ha estado estudiando los sepultados en Sevilla y comparándolos con el ADN de otros familiares de Colon, pero para resolver lo que hay en Santo Domingo, han sido necesarios una serie de tramites y gestiones a las que, finalmente, ha dado su conformidad el Gobierno de la Republica Dominicana y los días 14 y 15 de febrero próximo, el profesor Lorente, que es el Director Científico de la investigación, y su equipo viajaran al país caribeño, para recoger pruebas de ADN, con lo que se pretende resolver definitivamente el enigma de donde está enterrado Cristóbal Colon.

Los investigadores aprovecharan la estancia en Santo Domingo para reunirse con autoridades gubernamentales y representantes de las Academias Dominicanas de las Ciencias y la Historia, además del Cardenal de Santo Domingo, Mons. Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez.

Ángel Custodio Rebollo.

Esta noticia complementa y anula el articulo enviado con esta misma referencia.

El Gobierno de la Republica Dominicana ha cancelado el permiso a los cientificos españoles de la Universidad de Granada, que tenían previsto efectuar en febrero las pruebas de ADN para aclarar definitivamente si los restos del Almirante Cristobal Colon estan en Sevilla o en Santo Domingo.

24 de enero de 2005


Todo lo que ha rodeado a Cristóbal Colon, siempre es un enigma. Aún no sabemos, de forma fehaciente, donde nació, unos aseguran que era italiano de Génova, otros de Pavía, hay quien lo sitúa en España, pero en diferentes lugares, Cataluña, Galicia, Ibiza, Asturias y algún otro sitio mas que ahora no recuerdo. También dicen que era portugués y por eso estaba tan desenvuelto en Lisboa. Pero, han pasado mas de quinientos años y sigue sin conocerse el lugar de nacimiento del Almirante.

Ahora ha surgido otro problema y tiene los mismos tintes. ¿Dónde esta enterrado Colón ¿, tampoco lo sabemos porque también hay muchos lugares que se disputan que son depositarios de sus restos mortales. En primer lugar Sevilla, que en su Catedral tiene un mausoleo dedicado al Descubridor del Nuevo Mundo, pero también en Santo Domingo dicen que están allí, y hasta en la Universidad de Pavía, en Italia, manifiestan que poseen un hueso que pertenece a los restos del Almirante.

El problema debemos considerarlo normal dados los viajes que emprendió Don Cristóbal después de muerto. Falleció en Valladolid y fue enterrado en la cripta de una iglesia ya desaparecida. De allí lo trasladaron a Sevilla donde fue enterrado en el Monasterio de la Cartuja y como los familiares querían respetar los deseos del Almirante expresados antes de morir, el cadáver fue trasladado a La Hispaniola, hoy Republica Dominicana, adonde llegaron en 1585.

Cuando en 1795, parte de la Isla fue cedida a Francia por acuerdo con España, y se formó la Republica de Haití, los españoles no quisieron dejar allí los restos de Colón para que no estuviesen en suelo francés y lo trasladaron a La Habana donde estuvieron hasta 1898, cuando, por los motivos que todos conocemos, los españoles nos vimos obligados a abandonar Cuba y entonces vinieron de nuevo a España y depositados en Sevilla.

Como tanto Sevilla como Santo Domingo se disputan la posesión de los restos, científicos de la Universidad de Granada hicieron unas pruebas en Sevilla y necesitaban compararlas en la Republica Dominicana, lo que se había autorizado para este mes de febrero. Ahora los dominicanos han anulado el permiso y todo sigue igual El enigma continua.



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Juan Colorado 
Pelea de Gallos 

Musica de la huasteca Potosina e  hidalguense. 
El Campesino
El caballito 
El toro requezon
El mozquito 

Musica banda de viento 
Las Guilotas
Las Morelianas 
El coraje   
Musica de Chiapas, Marimba. 

Corrido revolucionario 
Maquina 501
Carabina 30-30 

Cancion Ranchera 
El huerfanito
Monedita de oro 

Copla Ranchera, Ranchera contestada 
La olla y el comal
Se voltearon los papeles 

Polka Norteña 
Polka a Monterrey
Margarita Margarita 

Canciones del imigrante Mexicano 
Juntando Botes
Los años perdidos 
Un mojado sin licencia
Amor eterno
To hear music from various areas in Mexico 
go to the site:
Links are in place for each song.

Musica de la huasteca Veracruzana. 
El canario cantador 
El Burrito     
La polla pinta     
El apareado 

Musica de Michoacan. 
Male Esperancita   
No hablo castellano 

Reconstruccion de la musica prehispanica. 
Fuego Nuevo    

Musica de Guerrero 
Rio Balsas    
Bien de mi vida 
El artista

Coplas y Son Jarocho 
Coplas a mi morena
El cascabel 
El Coco
La vieja 

 7 Easy Creative Rituals to Spark Your Imagination and Inspire Your Soul 
By Nancy Marmolejo   Phone: 714-777-1216

Creativity is a mysterious force that visits us with great ideas, new ways of seeing the world and the courage to do things differently. Revitalizing your creative talents will help you in the most unexpectedly wonderful ways: a new business idea, a renewed commitment to self-care, an appreciation for the beauty that lies all around us.

Finding a small bit of time each day to feed this force will not only reward you with increased creativity, but also an expanded sense of appreciation and gratitude for the creative process.

The following list highlights simple yet powerful actions you can take to spark your creative energy from the inside out.

1. Keep a Daily Journal
Use a journal to jot down the meandering thoughts of your mind. Write, draw, doodle, paste collages together. Stuck between your great ideas are random thoughts, mental notes, and menial observations. Use your journal as a place to deposit these thoughts, keeping your creative mental workspace clear. Think of it as feng shui for the mind, a way of keeping the creative juices flowing.

2. Create Sacred Space
Find a place in your home to keep inspiring, motivating and spiritually significant objects. Remind yourself that creativity flows like water and wind, that it is steadfast like earth and powerful like fire. Collect objects from nature to remind you of this. Place things that awe and inspire you, projects you’re most proud of, and photos of people who support and encourage your creative action.

3. Reflection.
Reflection can be a minute of appreciating someone or something, or it can be a day of meditation and writing. Find ways to incorporate reflection into your daily routine, noting how experiences and interactions help you grow as a creative person. This is great for surveying what inspires you and what blocks you, what attracts you and what doesn’t.

4. Get Away.
If you can, find some time to sneak away and enjoy a creative pleasure. It can be an hour wandering through a craft store, window shopping, a hike in nature or a visit to a special place. If you have kids and can’t get away alone, don’t worry. Enjoy the outing and reflect on it together. There are no rules to creative getaways. It is whatever touches you at that moment.

5.  Do Something Loca.
What’s something crazy you’ve always dreamed of doing but didn’t because of insecurity, fear or intimidation? Make a pact with yourself to get to know your Inner Loca (or loco for you guys reading this) and find ways to let her out to play each and every day.

6. See the World Through a Child’s Eyes.
Children have the amazing ability to be open to the possibilities of just about anything. Give yourself playtime to see the world through the eyes of a child. Sometimes it can be simply sitting on the floor and looking at a room from a new angle, or giving yourself permission to laugh and have fun.

7. Chart Your Course

It’s one thing to dream of creative things and it’s another thing to make them happen. Look at all the wonderful ideas you have and pick one to act upon. Make a commitment to do at least one daily action to support this idea.  Doing the footwork to make your dream a reality will show you how easy it really is to turn ideas into action.

Ritual is a series of repeated acts. By incorporating creative ritual in your life, you will increase your innovation and creativity in ways that will surprise and delight you. Try at least one of these actions and feel your creativity grow!

Nancy Marmolejo helps creative and entrepreneurial women hone in on their core strengths to turn ideas into action. She helps both the wildly creative and the mildly creative launch innovative ideas, enter new markets and build upon natural talents.

Visit Nancy Marmolejo on the web at  to receive a free copy of "Get Creative Now! Four Simple Tools to Boost Your Creativity from the Inside Out" and the award winning newsletter "The Pocket Comadre".




                12/30/2009 04:49 PM