Somos Primos

December 2005 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research



Oscar Chapa 
Honored on November 16th

Stockton, California San Joaquin Lions Recognition Dinner  
Recognition certificates were received from state, county, city, and service organizations:  

Chapa cousins from all over California gathered to honor Oscar Chapa, being recognized by numerous groups for his near 60 years of community services in Stockton, California. Oscar, wearing his yellow Lions Club tie, sits between his son, Dr. Eric Chapa, M.D. and his wife Alice and daughter, Dena Chapa Rupert (retired teacher). Your editor is the lady in green. Click for more.   

Born in Monterrey, Mexico December 15, 1917.  The family migrated from Mexico to Texas in 1924, then later to Los Angeles.  However, his ancestral grandfather, Juan Bautista Chapa had been present in Texas in the 1600s, exploring, studying, and assisting in the colonization.  Click for more.   




Content Areas
United States
- 4
Anti-Spanish Legends
- 17
- 19
Spanish Sons of the American Revolution
- 21
Orange County, CA- 27
Los Angeles, CA
- 32
California - 35
Northwestern United States
- 40
Southwestern United States
- 46
Black  - 55
Indigenous  - 63
Sephardic - 69
Texas -74

East of the Mississippi - 87
East Coast
- 92
- 95
- 129
Spain - 136
- 141
- 155
Family History
T'was the Night Before Christmas - 174
END  - 177

Our research is not for us, but for the next generation. 
We owe it to them.
John David Inclan y Canales


  Letters to the Editor : 

Dear John (Inclan):
Cheers from Auckland New Zealand. Thanks for sharing your considerable work on the net.  Your website is of great help to me.   Neil.S.

The articles in Somos Primos are always interesting. My son and I just returned from a trip to TN and KY.  We went to visit my brother-in-law who will be 98 years old the 24th of this month.  He is in assisted living, and is doing very well for one so old.  He is living in Simpson Co. KY, which is close to the TN border.  Franklin is the name of the small town that he lives in and I was told that it has about 4,000 people. Well they had two Mexican restaurants there!  We had lunch in one of them and the food was good.  They have a lot of Spanish speaking people living and working there-which surprised me.  I just wanted to pass this on to you. 
Marciel Woods 
Mimi, I'm impressed of the information one can find at Somos Primos, it's an amazing tool to us. 
Thank you and congratulations,
Luis G. Dessommes Zambrano
Thanks again for sending me the newsletter. I continue to be amazed at the plethora of information you provide.   
Marion Sheppard


Thank you for this table of contents. My goodness, what a rich and informative issue. It really amazes me how you put all this information together. Your efforts have done more to educate on the Spanish/Mexican culture than a million text books and college course. Muchas gracias por su trabajo !!
Hugs Galore, Pablo Trejo

Hi my name is Javier Martinez and I am a history teacher at Paramount H.S. and at East Los Angeles College. I am very happy to have come across you site. I like it and it offers my students plenty of research material.  Good luck to your future efforts.
Javier Martinez
Hi Mimi,
Wow! You have come a long way. Such beautiful stories and essays sent your way, and so informative. Plus lots of information on our Hispanic heritage, that one never tires of. So much to learn and get educated on. Keep up the good work. Yours truly,  Barbara Lozano


Mimi: as always, a great monthly release. I don’t know where you find the time. Keep up the great work.
Dennis Keesee Bermudez

   Somos Primos Staff:   
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Luke Holtzman, Assistant
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna de Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Brenda Alvarez
Cecilia Anguera
Mercy Bautista Olvera
Bernardo Bello 
Jane Blum
Jaime Cader
Bill Carmena 
Eric Chapa, M.D
Lynette Chapa 
Claudia de la Cruz 
Johanna De Soto 
Luis G. Dessommes Zambra
Richard Duran 
Ron Filion
Annabelle M. Garza
Irma Garza Cantú
Gloria Golden, 
Jaime Gómez-González, M.D
Benita Gray
Gabe Gutierrez
Carol Hadley
Manuel Hernandez
Lic. Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza
Lorraine Hernandez 
Granville W. Hough
John Inclan 
Dennis K.Bermudez
Barbara Lozano
Carlos López Dzur
Luis López Elizondo
Rick Macias 
Javier Martinez 
JV Martinez, Ph.D.
Dorinda Moreno
Paul Newfield

Maria Angeles O'Donnell Olson
Rudy Pena 
Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama  
Win Holtzman
Becky Ramirez Alvarez 
León Robles de la Torre
Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso 
Peter Reginato 
Rudi R. Rodriguez 
Sonia M. Rosa M.A. 
George Sabroso
Sister Mary Sevilla
Marion Sheppard
Howard Shorr
Tawn Skousen
Bob Smith
Mira Smithwick
Neil Solomon
Robert H. Thonhoff
Pablo Trejo 
Leonardo de la Torre y Berumen
Marciel Woods
Janete Vargas 
SHHAR Board:  Laura Arechabala Shane, Bea Armenta Dever, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Pat Lozano, Henry Marquez, Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, Gloria Oliver, Michael Perez, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal


Oscar Chapa recognized for 60 yrs Community Service, Stockton, CA

Born in Monterrey, Mexico December 15, 1917.  The family migrated from Mexico to Texas in 1924. However, the family was actually returning to ancestral roots. By the mid 1600s, Oscar's ancestral grandfather, Juan Bautista Chapa was established in Texas, exploring, studying, and assisting in the colonization. Click for more.  On his mother's side, were the founders in 1731 of San Antonio. A grandfather, Joseph de Urrutia, was the commanding officer, 1735, of the royal presidio of San Antonio de Bexar Click to Texas.

In order of Awards received:
San Joaquin Lions Club
Lions Club International
United States Congressional Special Certificate
California Legislature
San Joaquin County Sheriff
Board of Supervisors
City of Stockton
St. Mary's Interfaith Dining Hall

About Lions 
The Final Inspection
The Dream Act 
Immigrants often unpaid for Katrina work, click
Inside the House: Hispanics Subgroups Differ by Age
Hispanics Still Trailing in Bachelor's Degrees
Researchers tally cost of educational failings
Latest Texas Attrition Data
 on Schools
Google Makes Public Domain Books Accessible To The World, click 


Oscar Chapa 
Recognized for a 60 years  of Community Service 
November 16, 2005,  Stockton, California
San Joaquin Lions Club


Oscar and Pat Quigley, Past International Director of Lion's Club International

An ad hoc committee of the San Joaquin Lions organized a special dinner to recognize Oscar Chapa who "during his 47 years with the Lions Club was named Lion of the year ten times", stated  Pat Quigley.  I want to publicly thank Rick Macias, Carol Hadley, Eric and Lynette Chapa for  organizing this very special night.  As Mayor Edward J. Chavez said "a very unusual man. What the world needs is more men like Oscar."   I am proud to say that Oscar Chapa is my uncle. Mimi

International President's
Certificate of Appreciation
Awarded to
Oscar Chapa

In recognition of the Passion to Excel in serving the Association
To affirm the appreciation and gratitude of  Lions Club International, 
I have hereunto affixed my signature during this Lions year 2005-2006
International President 


United States Congressional Special Certificate
California Legislature
San Joaquin County Sheriff
Board of Supervisors
City of Stockton
St. Mary's Interfaith Dining Hall


United States Congressional Recognition
delivered by Nicole Goehring, District Director
 U.S. Congressman Richard Pombo



California Legislature Assembly Resolution
By the Honorable Greg Aghazarian, 26th Assembly District; and
the Honorable Charles S Poochigian, 14th Senatorial District;
Relative to commending

Oscar Chapa

Whereas, On November 16, 2005 Oscar Chapa will be honored by the Stockton-San Joaquin Lions Club for his years of service to the organization and his exemplary record of community service, and it is appropriate at this time to highlight his many achievements and extend to him the special recognition of the public, and

Whereas, A community activist since arriving in Stockton almost 60 years ago, Oscar Chapa is a charter member of the Stockton San Joaquin Lions Club and has served the Club as President from 1968-1969, held various officer and board positions, is a Melvin Jones Fellow, and was selected as Lion of the Year ten times, and

Whereas, Born on December 15, 1917, in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, Oscar Chapa moved with his family to Texas in 1921 and , four years later, they relocated to Los Angeles, California and

Whereas, First serving in the United States Army National Guard, Oscar Chapa also enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps during World War II, where he obtained the rank of Master Sergeant and

Whereas, Moving with his wife, Alice Reynoso, and children, Dena and Eric, Oscar Chapa opened Mexico Café with his sisters, Elia and Estella, in 1947, and

Whereas, Operating taco stands in various county fairs over the years, as well as the California State Fair in Sacramento, Oscar Chapa owns Oscar’s Catering Service which opened for business in the mid 1940’s , and

Whereas, During his 47 years of service to the Stockton-San Joaquin Lions Club, Oscar Chapa has chaired fundraising projects which include tamale and enchilada dinners, the Cioppino Feed, and the St Patrick’s dinners; and

Whereas, Committed to improving the quality of life for others, Oscar Chapa has served the community by removing the old roof of the Blind Center, driving truckloads of donated food and clothing to orphanages in Mexico, contributing used ambulances to small towns and annually chairing a project started in 1977 which provides lunches for the volunteers of the Su Salud Health Fair; and

Whereas, For many years, Oscar Chapa served weekly at the St Mary’s Dining Hall and as a member of the San Joaquin County Sheriff’s Air Posse, he made himself and his airplance available in times of need; and

Whereas, Oscar Chapa is known to frequently increase the Stockton-San Joaquin Lions Club’s contributions to various charities and, as a lifetime member, he continues to advise and inspire all the members, now therefore be it

Resolved by Assembly Member Greg Aghazarian and Senator S Poochigan, that Oscar Chapa be commended for the significant contributions that he has made to the people of the local community and throughout the state, and extended sincere best wishes for continued success in the future.


Members Resolution No 3166

Dated this 16th day of November, 2005

(signed) Honorable Greg Aghazarian
26th Assembly District

(signed) Honorable Charles S Poochigan
14th Senatorial District

Lorena Gonzalez, District Representative for Assembyman Greg Aghazarian California Legislature Assembly Resolution.

Board of Supervisors
Certificate of Appreciation 


presented to Oscar Chapa Lions Club Honoree for your outstanding contributions and public service to the community and Stockton/San Joaquin Lions Club October 21, 2005

Steven Gutierrez, Chairman, First District
Dario L. Moreno, Vice-Chairman, 2nd District
Victor Mow, Third District
Jack I. Sifglock, Fourth District
Leroy Ornelas, Fifth District
Members of the Board of Supervisors of the County of San Joaquin, Stockton, California

Carlos Villapudua, Legislative Aide for Supervisor Steve Gutierrez delivers the Certificate of Appreciation

Lions International Past Director Pat Quigley, keynote speaker delivered the address.

Oscar Chapa was born Dec. 15,1917 in Monterey, Mexico. Family migrated to Texas in early 20's then later to the Los Angeles area and established permanent residence. Served in the U.S. Army Air Force during WW II and elevated to the rank of Master Sergeant by the time of discharge at the end of the war.

Oscar moved to Stockton in the mid 40's, started a partnership business with his 2 sisters by opening a Mexican Restaurant named the "Mexico Cafe".  The Concession Manager for the State Fair, a steady patron at the cafe invited him to open a Taco Stand at the fair.  This was the start of a successful business that expanded with Taco Stands at county fairs throughout the state as well as the state fair that continued for 53 + years.


After many meetings with various citizens of the community (mainly Hispanic) and the perseverance of Emil Fimble, Angel Cruz, and Joe Reyes of the now known Stockton Host Lions, the San Joaquin Lions Club was born.  Oscar Chapa: One of 19 inducted as Charter Member in 1958.  He is the only active Charter Member.

With his invaluable experience and equipment has taken the chairmanship to most of the dinner fundraising projects the club has undertaken. He Chaired the Tamale and the Cioppino Dinners of the past, and our continued annual Corned Beef and Cabbage, and Enchilada Dinners.

Another major club project he chaired annually was providing lunches for the volunteers of the "Su Salud" Program headed by Dr. Vicuna. This program started in 1977 with the serving of a few hundred lunches and expanded annually to the County Fair Grounds where we were serving approximately 2700 volunteers.

For many years he has volunteered to serve weekly at St. Mary’s Dining Hall.

As a past member of the San Joaquin County Sheriff’s Air Patrol, had made himself and his airplane available in times of need.

He is known to frequently increase the clubs contributions to various charities by either matching or just increasing the clubs donation.

As President in 1968-69 was very instrumental in doubling the membership to 58, and has held various officer and board positions throughout his entire membership. He is the senior of 3 generations of active members in San Joaquin Lions which includes son, Dr. Eric Chapa; Daughter-in-law, Lynette Chapa; and Grandson, Craig Chapa. A rarity in any service organization.


Happily married to Alice for 63 years.
2 Children: Dr. Eric Chapa, and Dena Rupert, Retired SUSD Teacher.
3 Grand Children and 2 Great Grand Children



Whereas. . .Oscar Chapa is a Charter Member of the Stockton-San Joaquin Lions, beginning his service in Lionism 47 years ago. Serving as President from 1968-1969. the Club reached its peak of 58 members, doubling the membership in one year. In 1969 he became a life member; and,
Whereas . . . Oscar Chapa has held various Officers and Board positions, selected as Lion of the Year ten times and is a Melvin Jones Fellow. He brought his son, Dr. Eric Chapa. daughter in law Lynette Chapa and grandson Craig Chapa to Lionism, three generations of active members; 
Whereas . . . Oscar Chapa has chaired many Lion projects, the tamale dinners, the enchilada dinners, the chioppino feed and St. Patrick's Dinner. Feeding volunteers for Su Sulad Health Fair, which started in 1977 and ended at the San Joaquin County Fair Grounds where they served 2,700 lunches; 

Whereas . . . Oscar Chapa champions the Stockton-San Joaquin Lions Club contributions 
to various charities by either matching or just increasing the Club's donation. He is a champion of serving the people and living the Lion's Motto "WE SERVE"; 
Whereas . . . Oscar Chapa also served our community as a member of the San Joaquin County Sheriffs Air Posse along with the use of 
his airplane, for years serving meals at St. Mary's Dining Hal), helping build a new roof for the Blind Center, driving truckloads of donated food and clothing to orphanages and contributing six used ambulances to small towns in Mexico.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, Edward Chavez, as Mayor of the City of Stockton and on behalf of the Stockton City County, do commend Oscar Chapa for his many years of service to the Stockton-San Joaquin Lions and to the Stockton community.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF. I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the City of Stockton to be affixed this 16th day of November, Two-Thousand-Five. 
Mayor Edward J. Chavez


County of San Joaquin
State of California

Presented to
Oscar Chapa


In recognition for the valuable service you have rendered to our community
and for the cooperation you have extended to our department.
Your action reflect a deep personal sense of community responsibility 
and in grateful acknowledgment I extend my sincerest commendations.

San Joaquin County Sheriff Robert Heidelbach


Oscar served in the San Joaquin Air Squad for 21 years. Tasks included finding marijuana fields, sighting cock fights, frequently held in the center of agricultural fields, and looking for lost airplane.
Oscar served in WW II.  He reached the rank of Master Sgt in the Army Air Force. He was responsible for overseeing the maintenance of  fighter planes, 39s, B-40s and B-51s  in Louisiana. After leaving the service he was offered the job of  personal mechanic to Governor Earl Warren; instead, he went into the restaurant business with two sisters.  Eventually he purchased part ownership of a small plane and got involved with the San Joaquin Air Squad. 

          St Mary's Interfaith Dining Hall 

Director David Brewer and Asst Director Mercedes Moreno sat at the same table as my husband and I did.  Mercedes mentioned that 
she has been at the Dining Hall for over ten years.  Oscar, she said, was there volunteering weekly in preparing meals when she started. When she asked David exactly when Oscar first started helping, David said "Since, I can remember, he's always been here helping. I can't remember when he has not been here helping."

It is easy to understand why my dear Uncle Oscar was voted Lion of the year ten times.  
Aunt Alicia always at his side. 

People prepare to enter 
St. Mary's  Interfaith Dining Hall

Special Free Medical services 

About Lions 
Since 1917, Lions clubs have offered people the opportunity to give something back to their communities. From involving members in projects as local as cleaning up an area park or as far-reaching as bringing sight to the world's blind, Lions clubs have always embraced those committed to building a brighter future for their community.

Today with more than 46,000 clubs in 194 countries and geographical areas, Lions have expanded their focus to help meet the ever-increasing needs of our global community. 

Our programs are continually changing to meet new needs and greater demands, but our mission has never wavered: "We Serve."

We Serve - Nearly 1.35 million Lions members in 194 countries and geographic areas answer the needs that challenge the communities of the world. Lions tackle tough problems like blindness, drug abuse prevention and diabetes awareness. Global neighbors - Lions members—men and women—provide immediate and sustained relief in time of disaster and offer long-term assistance to those in need. Lions collect and recycle eyeglasses for distribution in developing countries and treat millions of people to prevent river blindness. Community Leaders - Lions improve the quality of life in their local communities by building parks, supporting hospitals and establishing water treatment programs. For 85 years, whenever there is a need at home or around the world, Lions members are there to help—We Serve 

Sent by Annabelle M. Garza, Kleberg-Kenedy County CSCD
Deputy Director of Administration, (361) 595-8558 x126


The soldier stood and faced God, Which must always come to pass.
He hoped his shoes were shining, Just as brightly as his brass. 

"Step forward now, you soldier, How shall I deal with you ?
Have you always turned the other cheek ? To My Church have you been true?"

The soldier squared his shoulders and said,  "No, Lord, I guess I ain't.
Because those of us who carry guns, Can't always be a saint.

I've had to work most Sundays, And at times my talk was tough.
And sometimes I've been violent,  Because the world is awfully rough.

But, I never took a penny, That wasn't mine to keep...
Though I worked a lot of overtime, When the bills got just too steep.

And I never passed a cry for help,  Though at times I shook with fear.
And sometimes, God, forgive me, I've wept unmanly tears.

I know I don't deserve a place, Among the people here.
They never wanted me around,  Except to calm their fears.

If you've a place for me here, Lord, It needn't be so grand.
I never expected or had too much, But if you don't, I'll understand.

There was a silence all around the throne,  Where the saints had often trod.
As the soldier waited quietly, For the judgment of his God.

"Step forward now, you soldier, You've borne your burdens well.
Walk peacefully on Heaven's streets,  You've done your time in Hell." 

~Author Unknown~ 

The Dream Act 
Sent by JV Martinez 

On Friday, November 18th, a bipartisan coalition of senators re-introduced the DREAM Act as S. 2075.  The bill is a continuation of the S. 1545, originally sponsored by Senators Orrin Hatch (R-UT) and Richard Durbin (D-IL).  The current sponsors of S. 2075 are Senators Richard Durbin (D-IL), Chuck Hagel (R-NE), and Richard Luger (R-IN).  The other cosponsors include Norm Coleman (R-MN), Larry Craig (R-ID), Mike Crapo (R-ID), Mike DeWine (R-OH), Russ Feingold (D-WI), Edward Kennedy (D-MA), Patrick Leahy (D-VT), Joseph Lieberman (D-CT), John McCain (R-AZ), and Barack Obama (D-IL).    

If passed, this bill would allow U.S.-raised undocumented immigrant children the opportunity for in-state college tuition as well as provide them with an opportunity to regularize their immigration status.  This bill would become a law if passed by both houses of Congress and the President before the end of 2006.  

"The DREAM Act will provide an opportunity for thousands of very bright children in this country who have the potential of being tomorrow's professionals," said LULAC National President Hector M. Flores.  The Act would also permit long time resident immigrants, of good moral character who have stayed in school to receive conditional status, which will be lifted after completing college or two years of military service.  It is only after completing one of these requirements that the conditional relief would become permanent.

The passage of the DREAM Act will increase the educational attainment among Latinos in the United States, and in turn, our nation's economy will thrive.  "Brought here by their parents, having grown up in America, most of these students consider themselves American," added Flores.  This legislation is an investment in our future and will actually help the economy through higher tax revenues in the long run.  "If more students go to college then that means a stronger workforce which can only help our nation," concluded Flores.

The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) is the oldest and largest Latino civil rights organization in the United States.  LULAC advances the economic condition, educational attainment, political influence, health, and civil rights of Hispanic Americans through community-based programs operating at more than 700 LULAC councils nationwide.


Hispanics Subgroups Differ by Age
July 2005,

Distinct age differences emerge among Hispanic subgroups. More than 20 percent of Cubans are 65 or older, while a scant 4 percent of Mexicans are in that age bracket. On the other hand, 37 percent of Mexicans and 31 percent of Puerto Ricans are younger than 18, compared with just 20 percent of Cubans. Similarly, Mexicans have a lower median age of 24.7, while Cubans have a median age of 42.7, much higher than the median age of 35.9 of the total U.S. population.

Hispanics Still Trailing in Bachelor's Degrees
by Michelle M. Martinez, November 3, 2005

More Hispanic students are going to college, but they still lag behind Anglos in obtaining bachelor's degrees, a study by the Pew Hispanic Center has found. The study, released in November, found that because Hispanic students are more likely to attend two-year institutions than Anglo students, they are less likely to earn bachelor's degrees. 

"It's still the case in Texas that when you look at whites, they are more likely to go to four-year schools," said Richard Fry, senior research associate for the Pew Hispanic Center and the study's author. "More of them are going to get bachelor's degrees. More of them are starting at four-year schools." 

In Texas, the gap between Hispanics and Anglos earning bachelor's degrees did not grow during the period studied -- 1996 to 2001 -- as it did in other heavily Hispanic states. Fry studied seven heavily Hispanic states -- Texas, California, New York, Arizona, New Jersey, Florida and Illinois. Those states educate about 80 percent of the nation's Hispanic college students

The study shows that, nationally, 18 percent of Hispanic students who started at a two-year college earn their bachelor's degree, compared with 47 percent who start at a four-year college or university. "If you start at a two-year school, you're less likely to finish," Fry said. 

Source: Copyright (c) 2005, San Antonio Express-News 

The United States could recoup nearly $200 billion a year in economic losses and secure its place as the world's future economic and educational leader by raising the quality of schooling, investing more money and other  resources in education, and lowering dropout rates, reports Alan Richard. Researchers presented evidence at a symposium held at Columbia University that the nation'  health-care, crime, and welfare costs could be devastating in the decades to come if the inadequate schooling received by too many American students isn't vastly improved. Cecilia E. Rouse, a professor of economics and public affairs at Princeton University, shared data showing that lower earnings among dropouts could cost the United States about $158 billion in lost earnings and $36 billion in lost state and federal income taxes for each class of 18-year-olds. Higher achievement also could help reduce crime, said Enrico Moretti, an economist. A 1 percent increase in graduation rates nationally would correlate with about 100,000 fewer crimes annually in the United States, Mr. Moretti estimates. Such a step would save the nation $1.4 billion a year in law-enforcement and incarceration costs, he said. Mr. Moretti's research suggests that increasing graduation rates by 10 percentage points would correlate with a 20 percent reduction in murder and assault arrest rates. "It's hard to think of a better reason for investing in public schooling," he said.


Latest Texas Attrition Data Released 
Contact: Brenda Alvarez  202-833-6130
Christie L. Goodman  210-444-1710

San Antonio (November 4, 2005) – Texas schools are failing to graduate two of every five students – meaning schools lose a student every four minutes. The Intercultural Development Research Association released detailed findings today from its latest study showing that the high school attrition rate is 36 percent. In Texas for 2004-05, almost half of Hispanic students, two out of five Black students, and one of five White students were lost from public school enrollment. County-level figures are available online at  As it releases its 20th annual attrition study, IDRA is unveiling a “Quality Schools Action Framework” at a statewide invitational summit November 4-5 in San Antonio convened by IDRA and the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). At the summit, invited community members and educators from across Texas are coming together to catalyze immediate and long-term action to increase school holding power.

“The dropout rate among Latino students is of crisis proportions. Among the various Hispanic ethnicities, Mexican Americans have the lowest level of educational attainment with barely half graduating from high school,” said Hector Flores, LULAC national president. “We must challenge the country to secure the future of our young people and of the United States. The goal of this summit is to gather a strong basis of best practices to increase the much-needed improvement for our Texas schools and spread the anticipated success of the summit to the rest of the nation.”  The framework, developed by IDRA executive director, Dr. María “Cuca” Robledo Montecel, gives tools for communities and schools to work together to strengthen school holding power and ensure success for all students.

“It is high time that Texas take a new course. Our high schools lose more than one out of three of their students before graduation. This lack of school holding power affects every Texan,” said Dr. Montecel. “Most dropout prevention programs fail either because they are too narrow or because they blame students and parents for the problem. What we know, though, is that schools themselves must change to increase their ability to engage and educate students through to graduation. Parents and communities have played vital roles in every school reform effort – from fighting for fair funding to making sure that students are not ignored because of the language they speak. Communities and their neighborhood public schools can work together to guarantee that every child graduates from high school.”

IDRA research shows that between 1985-86 and 2004-05, 2.2 million secondary  students have  been lost from public school enrollment in the state, costing the state over $500 billion in foregone income, lost tax revenues, and increased job training, welfare, unemployment and criminal justice costs. 

Visit  to view the report, attrition by county and background information. 



 Knight Ridder Newspaper reporter, Banks Albach
Western Lifestyle, mini-article by Morgan P. Yates

Two recent examples of the persistence of  Anti-Spanish Legends in media. 

The first was an article was written by Knight Ridder Newspaper reporter Banks Albach. 

The first paragraph of a newspaper article in the Orange County Register about Pre-Columbian artifacts on display at the Smithsonian, Nov. 12th.reads:

"Washington  * A horde of pre-Columbian gold artifacts that the Spanish conquistadors would have killed for went on view in Washington this week, including some made more than 2,000 years ago that had never before left South America."

Leaving that phrase out would not have affected the information in anyway, but the writer felt quite safe in demeaning an entire nation with a superfluous personal addition.

That phrase could just as easily have been instead . . . colonial English privateers, Dutch plantation owners, German merchants or Portuguese slave traders, some of whom within each group were engaged in horrific, nefarious businesses to gain riches, but the writer felt historically sound in identifying the Spanish.  

The aspect that identifies it as an anti-Spanish legend is that it is totally unnecessary to include the phrase, and it perpetuates a negative, anti-Spanish attitude.  

Second example:  Western Lifestyle  September/October 2005

A very brief article (4 paragraphs)  by Morgan P. Yates, Mission Restoration

Third paragraph:  "Spanish colonizing efforts relied on three institutions: presidios (forts), pueblos towns), and missions.  The Franciscan friars gathered California Indians into the mission system, where they endured the depredations of disease and the strains of adjusting to lives of servitude greatly different from their previous existence.  The pressures led to a catastrophic decline in their population."

Yates places the entire blame for  the decline of the California Indian population on the life style under the Franciscan friars.

However in a chapter on mining in California . . .  Sent by Johanna De Soto
reduction of the Indian population came after the missions had been secularized and were not longer functioning.

Chapter Outline
I. Gold Mining in California
A. Ecological effects of gold mining: timber depletion by gold miners; landscape degradation and river debris in hydraulic mining disrupt fishing and farming; mercury used in gold and silver amalgamation pollutes rivers; air and water pollution is associated with gold miners' camps.
B. Exogenous factors disrupting California lands
1. Population: Cyclical patterns emerge--exploration; growth of frontier towns or boom towns, followed by decline and ghost town. Pattern is related to relative abundance and rate of exhaustion of nonrenewable resource base. Gold rush provides dramatic example: 

California population in: 
1848 14,000 non-Indians and 100,000 Indians; 
1849 100,000 settlers;
1852: 250,000 settler and 50,000 Indians;
1860: 380,000 settlers;
1900 Indians are reduced to 15,000

Mexico's Secularization Act of the California Missions was in 1835. The data above shows the Indian population was estimated as a healthy 100,000.  It was after California was overrun by Easterners and other immigrants entering California as gold seekers that the population of the Indians was reduced by 85%.        

California became a state on September 9th, 1850.  
Between 1849 and 1900, 730,000 immigrants entered California. 

This article falls into an anti-Spanish legend.  The brief 4-paragraph article, entitled Mission Restoration, did not have to include the Franciscan Friars. It added nothing to the subject of Mission Restoration.  The writer used one paragraph filled with unsupported historical data and makes a wide totally inaccurate personal generalization, perpetuating a negative anti-Spanish attitude.  



Les envío copia del escudo de mi familia, el primer archivo es un escaneo de la foto-copia del original y otro es uno que arreglamos para que tuviera algo de color..... 

Éste escudo viene de la familia DESSOMMES-RÉGNIER de Nueva Orleáns que se decían según ellos parientitos de Louis XV por el lado de los RÉGNIER....quién sabe si ésto era verdad, un descendiente de ellos, mi primo Bob DESSOMMES dice a manera de burla que él "nunca vió coronas en su familia".

Les dejo el escudo, a ver si los que conocen de heráldica me pueden dar su opinión al respecto ya que se ha buscado sin éxito en Francia el registro de dicho escudo. 

Existe un anillo que tiene un escudo de los DESSOMMES-RAMOS, mi rama, desgraciadamente las personas que tienen dicho anillo, no han querido (ó no les interesa) compartir éste escudo con un servidor, así que no lo he visto. 

Monterrey, Mexico

My great-great-grandfather Honoré Dessommes (1826-1878) fought in the American civil war. He was Sergeant and Captain in Guyol's Company Orleans Artillery of the Louisiana Artillery in the Confederate Army.

Around 1865, at the end of the civil war, Honoré Dessommes and other members of his family moved from New Orleans to Matamoros, Tamaulipas.  They opened a few family business. That is how the name DESSOMMES arrived to Mexico. 
My ancestors moved a lot between the late 1700's and the decade of 1840's, when they finally got settle in New Orleans. They lived in the following places:
1. Saint-Domingue, before the "night of fire".
2. La Havana, before 1810 (although some information I found says that the DESSOMMES moved to New Orleans after the "night of fire").
3. New York, between 1810-1820, they are listed in the city directories
4. La Havana again, between 1820 and the decade of 1840's.  
5. New Orleans, from 1840 to nowadays. 
Unfortunately, I haven't established yet the activities of the family in Saint-Domingue (Plantations maybe?), New York, La Havana and New Orleans. I have tons of information about the activities of the in-law families, or friend families of the DESSOMMES, but nothing specific about them. 
They moved to Mexico for economic reasons.  This was at the end of the civil war (1865), when the port of New Orleans was blockaded by the Union. A lot of New Orleans business men did the same. 
In Matamoros the family had a Jewellery and a Munitions store. But the big business was a wine import house, they imported from France wines from Bordeaux, Moët & Chandon champagne, liquors, etc. And they were also in the cotton business, their operations include Matamoros, Monterrey, Saltillo, Parras and La Laguna area.
What happened to these business?, I don't know. My great-great-grand-father Honoré Dessommes died in Matamoros in February 1878.  After that, his widow, Marie Louise RAMOS and her two children didn't returned to New Orleans, instead they moved to San Antonio, Texas. Why?, I don't know. What I can tell surmise is that they must have had a hard time there because Marie Louise, a widow with two children had to work. 
[[ Editor:  This information was shared by Luis through  This resulted in a comment by George Gause who wrote:  

"Interesting.  MY ancestors moved from today Haiti to Charleston, South Carolina at the same time and for the same reason.  FINALLY something I can identify with!!!!!"   George Gause ]]

Spanish Sons of the American Revolution

November 4th SAR place plaque at the San Diego Presidio
Communication between Robert J. Thonhoff and Granville Hough, Ph.D.
New website: Spanish Contributions to the American Revolution


New Column:  Spanish Sons of the American Revolution  
In addition to Granville sharing his continual flow of research, Granville has agreed to keep us informed monthly about what is happening in world-wide activities recognizing the Spanish contributions in the American Revolution. 


            On November 4, 2005

California Society of the Sons of the American Revolution (CASSAR) dedicated a plaque recognizing the San Diego Presidio as a American Revolutionary war site. The plaque is the second in California being placed by  member of the Sons of the American Revolution.

Maria Angeles O'Donnell Olson, 
Consul Honoraria de España en San Diego acknowledges the historical facts concerning 
the Spanish contributions to the American Revolution. 

CASSAR President Larry Magerkurth was Master of Ceremonies. CASSAR Chaplain, Bishop, Louis V. Carlson stands behind Consul Olson.


Members of Casa de España in San Diego

The Sons of the American Revolution recognizes the role of Spain in fighting the British in the American Revolution. Male descendants of Alta California soldiers serving at the time of the American Revolution are eligible for membership in the SAR. The King of Spain, Juan Carlos I, is a compatriot of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. For more information contact Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Left to Right: Asuncion Farris, Mary Goldbeck, Tesorera de Casa de España en San Diego, Maria Angeles O'Donnell Olson, Susi Lusti, and Maria Jesus Ferri, Presidente de Casa de España.
Photos by Cecilia Anguera

Sharing a Communication between two Sons of the American Revolution, Both men have been tireless leaders in recognizing the historical contributions of the Spanish soldiers to the American Revolution, as authors, lecturers, activists, and advocates  . .   we owe them much.

Estimada amiga Mimi:

I thought you might enjoy this exchange of emails between Granville Hough and me.

What a great man that Dr. Granville Hough! He is the most indefatigable researcher and prolific writer I know. How nice it would be to meet him--and shake his hand--personally!

Thanks, too, to Mimi Lozano, for publishing the Granville Hough collection in her excellent Somos Primos online magazine, thereby making them readily accessible to a world of people!

Con mucho aprecio y estima,

Robert H. Thonhoff

Mon, 07 Nov 2005
Robert Thonhoff wrote:

Dear Dr. Hough, my esteemed friend and colleague: I have just had opportunity to skim through the voluminous Granville Hough articles in this month's issue of /Somos Promos./ What a wealth of information! 
Thank you, sir, for all that you have done to enlighten Americans--indeed, people over the world--as to "the rest of the story" how our United States of America won its War of Independence, from which we we gained the freedom and opportunity that we still enjoy--and defend--today.
And thank you for your decision to permit your works to be published in the /Somos Primos Online Magazine,/ which makes them universally available.
You have left a monumental legacy, sir, for which I thank and commend you.
Sincerely yours,  Robert H. Thonhoff
Karnes, Texas

Dear Robert: 

Thank you for your comments and support. I have almost finished compiling all published lists of American mariners during the Rev. War. When I was working my way across country with the Spanish soldiers and sailors, and when I got to the West Indies, I found I knew little about 
the American maritime activities of the war. I have worked on the lists three years now and have 8000 vessels and 50,000 mariners (or mariner supporters, suppliers, owners, etc.) To this I will add the remaining Spanish soldiers I can identify in the Western Hemisphere, separately, and what French I can find. As we are getting immigrants from every South American country, we must be getting soldier descendants.

With my regards, Granville W. Hough.
Laguna Beach, California

Spanish Contributions to the American Revolution 
Sent by Bill Carmena  

Spanish Involvement in the American Revolution
History Lessons Learned During the Search for Spanish Soldiers and Sailors
The Galvez Project
Rosters by Presidio
A helpful Web Site for further Research
References for Spanish Soldiers and Sailors of 1779-1783
Spanish Louisiana Flag of 1781


By Granville Hough, Ph.D.

During the American Revolutionary War, the Viceroy of New Spain retained control of all military units in Nuevo Leon and Nuevo Santander (Tamaulipas), which means he controlled the Rio Grande River settlements all the way upriver to present-day Laredo, Texas. Control of other units on the northern Spanish border, from Laredo westward to the Pacific Ocean, and northward from that line were consolidated under the Commandante, Provincias Internas.

Under this arrangement, Punta de Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, near Laredo, TX, was the northmost post for the Viceroy’s units, actually those of the Governor of Nuevo Leon. During the war years of 1781-83, the Governor of Nuevo Leon had one cavalry company of six esquadra (squads) in Monterey, the capital, and one at Punta de Lampazos, under a mayor and Captain, who also had six esquadra. The members of the company at Punta de Lampazos have names similar to those who settled in Texas; indeed, some members of that unit probably joined in moving across the Rio Grande River.

(The names of the Monterey company have been published previously, so the following will be those who served at Punta de Lampazos. The squads varied in size from 10 to 20 soldiers each. All who served during the time period are shown below alphabetically on one list. The names are found in Documentary Relations of the Southwest, records 3044, 3045, 3046, 3047, and 3048, actually monthly rosters from 1781 through the end of the war, Sep 1783.)

Alejandro de Abrego, 2nd Esquadra.
Juan Joseph de Abrego, 4th Esquadra (when the name Joseph is used on the
rosters, it is also recorded as Josef and José.)
Manuel de Abrego, 2nd Esquadra.
Santiago de Abrego, 3rd Esquadra.
Joseph Gregorio Almaras/Almanas, 4th Esquadra.
Joseph Antonio de Arispe, 3rd Esquadra.
Joseph Valentin de Arispe, 5th Esquadra.
Ygnacio Arrendo, 2nd Esquadra.
Francisco Arroyos, 3rd Esquadra.
Joseph Leonardo de Ayala, 1st Esquadra.
Joseph Lorenzo de Ayala, 2nd Esquadra.
Pedro Mathias de Ayala, 2nd Esquadra.
Balentin Barrera, 3rd Esquadra (as B and V were used interchangeably,
this name could also appear as Valentin Varrera.)
Blas Benitez/Venitez, 4th Esquadra.
Joseph Manuel Bocanegra, 5th Esquadra.
Cayetano Cabazon/Cavazas, 5th Esquadra.
Joseph Antonio Cabazon/Cavazas, 5th Esquadra.
Joseph Manuel Cabazos/Cavazos, Sgt, 2nd Esquadra.
Philipe Cabrera, 2nd Esquadra.
Vizente Camaña, 6th Esquadra.
Juan Diego Campos, 3rd Esquadra.
Nicolas Antonio Cantu, 4th Esquadra.
Francisco Carabajal/Caravajal, 4th Esquadra.
Remigio Castañeda, Sgt, 4th Esquadra.
Simon Julian Chabarria/Chavarria/Echavarria, 2nd Esquadra.
Juan Joseph Dias, 5th Esquadra.
Joseph Maria de Echeagaray, Lt, 1st Esquadra.
Silas de la Escobedo, 5th Esquadra. (This may also be read as Blas
Agustin Flores, 1st Esquadra.
Blas Flores, Cpl, 2nd Esquadra. Later this name is in 4th Esquadra.
Juan Joseph de la Flores, 5th Esquadra.
Claudio Gallegos, 4th Esquadra.
Don Francisco Garcia y Guarando, Lt and Mayor of Punta de Lampazos, Dec
George/Jorge Garcia, 5th Esquadra.
Juan Angel Garcia, 6th Esquadra.
Joseph Antonio de la Garza, 2nd Esquadra (this name is also recorded as
Joseph Faustino de la Garza, 5th Esquadra (this name is also recorded as
Joseph Joachin de la Garza, 1st Esquadra.
Joseph Ramon de la Garza, 1st Esquadra.
Joseph Toribio de la Garza, 3rd Esquadra.
Joseph Urbana de la Garza, 1st Esquadra.
Joseph Yrineo de la Garza, 5th Esquadra.
Juan Joseph de la Garza, 1st Esquadra.
Juan Ygnacio de la Garza, 1st Esquadra.
Luis Antonio de la Garza, 6th Esquadra.
Miguel de la Garza, 2nd Esquadra.
Pedro Joseph de la Garza, 6th Esquadra.
Teodoro Gil, Sgt, 2nd Esquadra, formerly in 6th Esquadra.
Joseph Antonio Gonzales, 3rd Esquadra.
Joseph Segundo Gonzales, 4th Esquadra.
Julian Gonzales, 4th Esquadra.
Domingo Gracía, Sgt, 3rd Esquadra.
Bartolomé Gracía, 3rd Esquadra.
José Guadarrama, Cpl, 6th Esquadra.
Julian Guaxardo, 2nd Esquadra.
Don Luis de Guebara, Distinguished Sgt, 5th Esquadra.
Blas Marie Guerra, 4th Esquadra.
Clemente Guerra, 1st Esquadra, later in 6th Esquadra.
Joseph Guerra, 2nd Esquadra.
Joseph Miguel Guerra, 1st Esquadra.
Joseph Ygnacio Guerra, 1st Esquadra.
Manuel Guerra, 1st Esquadra.
Nicolas Hernandez/Ernandez, 2d Esquadra.
Joseph Eusebio de Herrera/Errera, 3rd Esquadron.
José Simon de Herrera/Errera, 2nd Esquadra.
Cristobal Jaimes, 2nd Esquadra.
Juan Laurel, 2nd Esquadra.
Juan Cayetañi Longoria, 4th Esquadra.
Juan Ambrosio de Lozano, 3rd Esquadra.
Victoriano Marquez, 3rd Esquadra.
Joseph Dimas Martinez, 3rd Esquadra.
Joseph Francisco Martinez, 3rd Esquadra.
Mathias de la Mata, 5th Esquadra.
Joseph Vizente Moya, 4th Esquadra.
Juan Felipe Moya, 4th Esquadra.
Blas Maria Muñoz, 4th Esquadra.
Juan Pedro Muñoz, 5th Esquadra.

Juan Ysidro Muñoz, Sgt, 5th Esquadra.
Joseph Antonio de Ochoa, 6th Esquadra.
Joseph Luis Ondarza, 5th Esquadra.
Joseph Julian de Orosco, 4th Esquadra.
Joseph Miguel de Oyos/Hoyos/Ollos, 3rd Esquadra
Juan Bautista de Peñam 1st Esquadra.
Francisco Perales, 5th Esquadra.
Joseph Valentin Perez, Cpl, 1st Esquadra.
Luis de Quebara, Sgt, 5th Esquadra.
Francisco Quintanilla, 1st Esquadra.
Felis Ramirez, Sgt, 1st Esquadra, later Alfarez in 3rd Esquadra.
Pedro Ramirez, 2nd Esquadra.
Gregorio Ramos, 4th Esquadra.
Francisco Xavier Resendez, 4th Esquadra.
Gabriel Resendez, 6th Esquadra.
Baltasar de los Reyes, 5th Esquadra.
Cayetaño Reyes, 5th Esquadra.
Juan Cornelio Rodriquez, 4th Esquadra.
Antonio Angel Saenz, 2nd Esquadra.
Cristobal Saenz, 1st Esquadra.
José Antonio Saenz, 4th Esquadra.
Joseph Francisco Saenz, 2nd Esquadra.
Joseph Santiago Saenz, 4th Esquadra.
José Xavier Saenz, Cpl, 2nd Esquadra, Sgt, 6th Esquadra.
Manuel Salazar, el Herrero (the blacksmith), 5th Esquadra.
Joseph Mariano Sanson, Sgt, 4th Esquadra.
Luis de los Santos, 1st Esquadra.
Pedro de los Santos, 1st Esquadra.
Diego Saravia, 6th Esquadra.
Francisco Luis Solis, 3rd Esquadra.
Juan Joseph Solis, 4th Esquadra.
Valentin Tarramila, 5th Esquadro.
Bruno de Taso/Haro, 5th Esquadra.
Francisco Javier Tixerina, 6th Esquadra.
José Antonio Tixerina, Cpl, 1st Esquadra.
Joseph Cayetaño Tixerina, Alfarez, 2nd Esquadra, may also be read as
Joseph Joachin Tixerina, 1st Esquadra.
Juan José Tixerina, 6th Esquadra.
Joseph Santiago Tixerina, 1st Esquadra.
Teodoro Tixerina, 6th Esquadra.
Joseph Antonio Torres, 3rd Esquadra.
Joseph Nepomucino Torres, 5th Esquadra.
Timoteo Torres, 3rd Esquadra.
Joseph Eugenio Treviño, 1st Esquadra.
Juan Antonio Treviño, 2nd Esquadra.
Juan Elias Treviño, 4th Esquadra.
Nicolas Joseph Treviño, 1st Esquadra.
Dionesio de Urresti, Alfarez, 3rd Esquadra, may be same as next entry.
Joseph Antonio de Urresti, Alfarez, 1st Esquadra, and 2nd Esquadra.
Jose del Valle, Cpl, 2nd Esquadra and 6th Esquadra.
Antonio Vasquez/Basquez, 6th Esquadra.
Francisco Antonio Yruegas, 3rd Esquadra.

Any adult male descendants of the above are eligible to join the Sons of the American Revolution. For information about joining the Sons of the American Revolution through your Spanish ancestors, contact Granville W. Hough,  He will put you in touch with the proper representative in your area.


Peter Limon, December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor Survivor
December 4th: Las Posadas
December 7 & 8:  Fiesta Navidad
December 8th: Flamenco Den, Ole! Navidad
George Sabroso promueve la mejor musica Latina 


Peter Limon, Pearl Harbor Survivor
The Truth of War by Eric Carpenter,
Orange County Register, 
November 11, 2005

The sun finally faded on a day that seemed to last for weeks. Still, the darkness was unwelcome on this night. There would be no sleep.  Peter Limon, a cocky 17-year-old from East Los Angeles who had recently arrived in Hawaii to serve in the Navy, made his way to the deck, past men on watch huddled under black panchos in the rain.

The stench of burning oil still clouded the air. He anxiously listened for the hum of more war planes on the dark horizon. Then, an unfamiliar sound. "Is that crying I'm hearing?" Limon wondered, pausing to listen closer.

Photos by Paul E. Rodriguez


From under the ponchos, he heard his shipmates sobbing. Deep cries that emanated form the soul. And with that realization, the emotional weight of the day hit hard.

The bombs. The fire. The bodies of fellow sailors fished from the harbor. Tears streamed down Limon's face. He'd come to Pearl Harbor for the promise of tropical weather and women in hula skirts. To escape his impoverished neighborhood.  His thoughts turned to family, his four older brothers and three sisters. He just wanted to be back home. 

That day was Dec. 7,1941. The day that changed the course of American history. The day that forever changed Pete Limon.

Now, at 81, Limon sits in the clubhouse of a San Juan Capistrano mobile-home park, recalling every detail of that day, from his eggs-over-easy breakfast to where he stood on the USS Swan as enemy warplanes approached. He's happy to tell his story. About surviving the attack. About how his four older brothers followed him into the military to help win the war.

Limon will mark Veterans Day on Saturday at a Cal State Fullerton ceremony honoring Latino veterans. The event will pay tribute to families like Limon's, who had multiple brothers serving in WWII.  (The event was the 9th Annual Celebration, hosted by Latino Advocates for Education.)

Limon will do so with pride. But also with sadness.  Fewer Pear Harbor survivors are living to tell their stories each year. Limon went back to Hawaii for the 60th anniversary. "I'm not sure I'll make it to a 70th. I'm not sure there'll be any of us left," he said.

Oily one of his brothers, Robert, 84, is still alive. But he's too ill to attend Saturday's event. So, Limon is eager to tell his story, while there is still time.

"I want people to understand the humanity of that day, to know that there was pride and heroism, but these were real people and there was also fear and humiliation... the truth of war."

Limon's family had lived in Los Angeles since before it was part of the United States. Elders often started conversations with "antes de los Americanos ..." (before the Americans came). Limon's parents died before he turned 15. He dropped out of high school in 11th grade and turned to the military.

He was light-skinned and people who heard his name (pronounced lee-MOAN) often assumed he was French. Once his barrack mates learned he was Latino, they taunted him with racial slurs and challenged him to fights. I got to be pretty tough for 17.1 wasn't big, but I was quick and learned to fight."

Limon arrived at Pearl Harbor in October 1941. Warm breezes. Comfortable barracks. And the guarantee of three meals a day after growing up in the Depression.  He'd found paradise.

That all changed early on a Sunday, less than two months after he arrived. Limon was headed to work his 8 a.m. shift sending radio signals aboard the Swan when he saw a low-flying plane.

"I looked up and saw the eyes of the pilot, wearing a furry-hooded coat, staring down at us," he said. "I saw his machine gun pointed right at me, so I hit the deck."

He jumped up and ran to the radios, where he found complete chaos as fleets from across the Pacific signaled back, trying to confirm it was a real attack.

When Limon climbed above deck, he saw a hellish scene. "There was just nothing like that fleet at Pearl Harbor; it had been so beautiful," Limon said. "And now everything was on fire, those huge battleships rearing up out of the water like wounded horses.

'You can't describe that kind of fear."  Limon wrote home to let his family know he was unharmed) staying in contact through his sister Rosalva.  She wrote back to say that their brother Robert had joined the Marines.

Tino soon joined. Then Jose was drafted by the Army, and Jess, who had three children, was called on by the Navy. Limon thought often about his four brothers, scattered across the globe. They relied on Rosalva's letters to stay connected. Each letter brought excitement. But as he broke the seal, Limon always feared that this could be the letter telling him one of his brothers was dead.

"I talked to so many Marines and heard about the brutal fighting they were seeing," Limon said. "I was concerned. Word eventually came that Robert was wounded by shrapnel at Iwo Jima - serious wounds but not life threatening.

"Believe it or not, when I got that letter I thought, 'Oh, good, he really dodged a bullet.'"

It wasn't until 1947 that all five brothers were able to gather together back in their, old East LA. neighborhood.  Frankly, it was a big drunken party," Limon said. "We'd all made it through."

Many families weren't so lucky. Latino families tended to have many children, so it was common to to see Latino brothers serving together Limon said.

"With education the way it was, there just weren't a  lot of opportunities for us. The military was an obvious choice."

Limon hopes history will remember Latinos who served. And recognize those who are still serving; "Look at Gen. (Ricardo) Sanchez. He's led the whole effort in Iraq. We have reason to be proud."

Saturday's ceremony will be one of the few military events Limon attends. He's stopped going to funerals of fellow veterans. There are too many these days.  And he politely declines most invitations to ceremonies just because organizers need a Pearl Harbor survivor to round out the roster.

It reminds Limon of Comanche - Gen. Ouster's horse that survived the Battle of Little Big Horn. The horse was put out to pasture after that battle and spent the rest of its life marching in military parades until it died of old age.

"The older you get, the more iconic you get," said Limon, who carries a Pearl Harbor Survivor card above his driver's license. "I'm proud of my service and happy to share my story. "But I don't want to be that horse."


Las Posadas, Sunday December 4th

Presented by the Hispanic Arts Council of the Bowers Museum of Cultural Art
Sunday, December 4th in the courtyard at the Bowers Museum, 2002 N. Main St. Santa Ana
5:00 - 7:30 pm

Procession starts at the corner of  20th St and Main St
FREE to the community, a Bilingual Educational Cultural Program
FREE entertainment, Sonidos de Mexico, Alegria Dance Group, Fiesta Ballet Folklorico, Pinata for the children and a special appearance by Santa Claus.
FOOD will be sold: Tamales, Pan dulce, hot and cold drinks.
For more information, please call 714-241-7527

Fiesta Navidad
Philharmonic Society present Linda Ronstadt and Nati Cano, Mariachi Los Camperos

Wednesday and Thursday, December 7 & 8, 2005 at 7:30 pm
Ticket information: 949-553-2422 or visit

December 8th: 
Flamenco Den, Ole! Navidad

Special Flamenco Christmas Celebration Featuring a Traditional Gypsy FIN DE FIESTA introducing jaleos (singing), elevating zambras (roots of flamenco) and bulerias with guest artists, rumba flamenca & great surprises!

WHO: CLAUDIA DE LA CRUZ and her mesmerizing flamenco gypsy style
Extraordinary Guitarist GABRIEL REYNA
with guest male dancer RUDY ORNELAS
also guest Percussionist FERNANDO DIEZ

WHEN: Thursday December 8th, 2005
TIME: 7:00 PM - Dj spinning all night an eclectic mix of international music
9:00 PM - CLAUDIA DE LA CRUZ and her Flamenco Dance Company
WHERE: Gitanerias Cafe | Flamenco Den
500 N. Brookhust Ave, Anaheim California 92802
(one block south of the 5 Fwy or one mile north of Euclid Ave)

RSVP (714) 543-1370 INFO (714) 543-0613
ATTIRE: Gypsy attire. Casual attire is always welcome

This month enjoy the beautiful work of Joseph Rivera

Joseph Rivera has been into art ever since he picked up a crayon at an early age.
He shared interest in many things growing up, but art was always his first love.
His abilities grew as he got older never loosing the desire to draw and paint.
His self taught technique and style resembles that of the masters from the 1500 and 1600’s. This involves applying very thin layers of paint, waiting for each layer to dry before applying the next layer. This process is tedious and is very time-consuming producing beautiful results.
Rivera is proud of his heritage and specializes in painting Latina women in romantic lantern or candle light scenes.


 The very painting of his pictures is a mere portion of the work it involves to put a piece together. "It all starts with a woman with the right look." Joseph says, "and almost instantly I see a painting". Each painting is well planned with a few improvisations along the way. Most of the woman he selects have never modeled before but most are very natural. He is able to place the various personalities of the women into his paintings that feed off of their energy.
He has found a home at the Santora Arts Building in Santa Ana, California, since 2002,
and has been the Director of the Showcase North Gallery since 2003. You may see Rivera oil painting at Cafe Tu Tu Tango at The Block in Orange on Friday or Saturday nights.
He has exhibited and won awards for his work in the Southern California Area.

Rivera is also a member of the Orange County Fine Arts, Inc. (OCFA), a local non-profit organization dedicated to cultivating public interest in the fine arts through arts education and scholarships for aspiring artists and to provide consistent opportunities for already-accomplished artists to display their work.


George Sabroso promueve la mejor musica Latina 
del mundo por KUCI, 88.9
Jueves, 10 de Noviembre 2005, Cultural Infantil, A-12

George Sabroso
, voluntario comunitario que sirve como locutor y ayudante del Editor de Musica Mundial en la KUCI 88.9 FM de la Universidad de California, Irvine,esta haciendo historia en el Condado de Orange al promover artistas nuevos del sonido latino: merengue, salsa, raggaeton, chachacha, samba, mambo y raggae. El es uno d los 7 locutores de esa radio universitaria y comunitaria, sin fines de lucro, que administra la Junta de Regentes de UCI.

Support those that support the local music scene, the Muy Sabroso! show and KUCI, like Velazquez Publishing. Velazquez is one of the best and most respected Latin publicatons in Southern California. This great company produces not only Farandula USA, they also produce Mini Ondas.
Farandula USA is an entertainment based newspaper and Mini Ondas is news based. 

Mini Ondas did a great story on KUCI, the Muy Sabroso! show and plugged all the shows on KUCI 88.9fm that have Latin hosts. Let's give Velazquez Publishing a big round of applause for supporting Latin music in Orange County. For more information on Velazquez Publising you
can visit  The story:

In order to go directly to the story about KUCI 88.9fm in Irvine, you can visit the link below.

Muy Sabroso! w/ George Sabroso
KUCI 88.9fm in Irvine/CA/USA


L.A. Salsa Kids
Both Sides of the Border: 
       Latin American and Chicano Art, exhibit thru
Dec.3rd:  Poetry Reading: Luis J. Rodriguez
       Dec. 16th:  The influence of identity on Chicano art
       Dec. 17th:  History, symbology, & styles of Taxco and Mexican jewelry


L.A. Salsa Kids at the Latin Passion Festival in Hong Kong.

My name is Jay Geldhof and I am the Director of an incredible Salsa Dance Company called the 'L.A. Salsa Kids'. The L.A. Salsa Kids specialize in grooving to the hot Latin/Caribbean sounds of Salsa, Mambo, Merengue, ChaChaCha, and Rumba. They perform these dances with a style all their own.

The performance group is composed of young energetic members, ranging in ages from 11 to 23. The L.A. Salsa Kids have been featured at many festivals, special events, parties, dinners, awards banquets, theater and dinner shows, as well as radio, TV shows and Music Videos taped in Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Las Vegas, Chicago, Puerto Rico, Miami, New York, Hawaii, Kansas, Missouri and Hong Kong.

The L.A. Salsa Kids have over 15 Salsa Dance routines and can put on a fabulous 25 to 50 minute show. The L.A. Salsa Kids have performed over 600 times since its inception in the summer of 1996. 
For more information:  or (562)943-4492

Both Sides of the Border: Latin American and Chicano Art
Carlotta's Passion Fine Art - Eagle Rock California
November 19th through December 30th, 2005. 

With the recent upsurge in popularity for Latino art, Carlotta's Passion Fine Arts intends to present a proper historical and aesthetic context for what is quickly becoming an internationally renown school of art. As an expression of a newly independent hemisphere, Latin American art has long delighted and inspired a world audience. Vibrant, compelling and rooted in the unique experience of the Americas, the genre provides a bridge for a new contemporary US art movement. Chicano Art is the visual language of the Mexican-American community in the US, and domestically it has already made an impact with its bold aesthetics - now it is poised to become popular with the worldwide community. To help broaden that recognition, Carlotta's Passion Fine Arts presents, Both Sides of the Border: Latin American and Chicano Art.

Both Sides of the Border focuses on original and limited edition works of art by Latin American and Chicano artists. The Latin American artwork includes pieces by Raul Anguiano, Juan Sebastián Barbera, Elsa Chabaud, Vladimir Cora, Jose Luis Cuevas, Jean Charlot, Ever Fonseca, Jose Fors, Ana Marini Genzon, Wifredo Lam, Vanesa Martinelli, David Martinez, Eleazar Martinez, Jose Esteban Martinez, Roberto Matta, Lucia Maya, Carlos Merida, Gustavo Montoya, Salvadore Salaza, Jag Sanchez, Francisco Toledo, Victor Uhthoff, 
and Francisco Zuniga. 

The Chicano artists whose works are in the show include Ramon Atilano, Joe Bravo, Carlos Bueno, Yareli Cobian, Diane Gamboa, Margaret Garcia, Gronk, Sergio Hernandez, Leo Limon, Gilbert "Magu" Lujan, Manuel Martinez, Abe Mendoza, Xavier Montes, James Osorio, Felix Perez, Ramon Ramirez, Sergio Rebia, Frank Romero, The Royal Chicano Air Force, Hector Silva, Patssi Valdez, Mark Vallen, Israel Valenzuela, Benjamin Venegas, 
and Antonio Ybanez.

Both Sides of the Border opens with an Artist's Reception on Saturday, November 19th., from 6:00 pm to 9:00 pm. During the opening Martin Espino and Christopher Garcia of MEXIKA will perform indigenous music using traditional instruments. 
The exhibition runs until December 30th., 2005.

During Both Sides of the Border, Carlotta's Passion will offer educational presentations and activities. As of press time, the following presentations are planned: 

Friday, Dec. 16th., 8:00 to 9:00 pm: The influence of identity on Chicano art, by educator 
Diane Velarde-Hernandez and artist Mark Vallen. Vallen's lecture will include an exciting slide presentation on the aesthetics of socially conscious art.

Sunday, Dec. 17th. 2:00 to 4:00 pm: The history, symbology, and current styles of Taxco and other high quality Mexican jewelry, by Mexican jewelry experts RuthAnne Tarletz de Molina and Eduardo Rocha Soto. 

Meet the Artist Series
During Both Sides of the Border, Carlotta's Passion will offer a Meet the Artist series. Each friendly and informal gathering will give collectors an opportunity to get to know artists on a more intimate basis than allowable during a typical Artist's Reception. In the course of a Meet the Artist social event, an artist will walk collectors through works on display, going into detail about each piece, taking questions, and giving insight into the artist's background, motivations and influences. Refreshments and hor d'oeuvres will be available as additional works not on display will be offered by the artist for view and purchase. Meet the Artist dates currently confirmed:

Joe Bravo - Friday, December 2nd at 8 pm. 
Ana Marini Genzon - Friday, December 9th, 8:00 pm.
Mark Vallen - Saturday, December 17th at 8 pm. 

Poetry Reading: Luis J. Rodriguez, Saturday, December 3rd at 8 pm. 

Luis J. Rodriguez will read from his latest poetry collection, My Nature is Hunger: New & Selected Poems. Luis J. Rodriguez is an award-winning writer of poetry, children's books, fiction, and nonfiction, best-known for the memoir, Always Running, La Vida Loca, Gang Days in LA. He is a cofounder of Tia Chucha's Cafe & Centro Cultural - a bookstore/cafe/art gallery/performance space/workshop center in the San Fernando Valley. He is also editor of Tia Chucha Press. You can discover more about Luis J. Rodriguez at his official website. 

Mark Vallen's latest oil painting appears as the cover art for My Nature Is Hunger, and the artist will be on hand to talk about his work created especially for Luis J. Rodriguez. As part of the occasion, prints of Vallen's painting will also be made available to the public.

Carlotta's Passion Fine Art is located at: 2012 Colorado Blvd., Los Angeles, 
California (Eagle Rock,) 90041. Click here for a MapQuest map. Regular business hours for the gallery are Tuesday through Sunday, from 12:00 pm - 9:00 pm. Phone: 323-259-1563. 

For a full schedule of updated exhibit events, as well as previews of artworks, visit:


Mission San Juan Capistrano's celebration of he 229th anniversary
Bancroft's California Pioneer Register and Index 
Great California resources site 
Los Californianos Quarterly Meeting, January 20-22, 2006 
World Premiere of  California's Lost Tribes 
Guillermo Gómez-Peña to invoke Intercultural Demons, Dec. 2-3rd 

Ronald Bauer as Father Gregorio Amorio blesses the crowd Tuesday at the beginning 
of Mission San Juan Capistrano's celebration of he 229th anniversary of its founding. 
The mission was founded on Nov. 1 1776, By Father Junipero Serra. 
The Orange County Register,  Nov. 2, 2005

Casa de España en San Diego
Cordially invites you to attend


With Singer, Marisol Fuentes

Cerro Negro, Global Flamenco Fusion
Juan Moro, Flamenco Guitarist

With the attendance of
His Excellency Inocencio F. Arias
Consul General of Spain in Los Angeles

On Sunday, December 11, 2005
6:00 p.m. - 9:00 p.m.
San Diego Museum of Man
1350 El Prado, Balboa Park
San Diego, CA 92101

Full premium cash bar and complimentary tapas, Tickets $35
Proceeds will benefit the construction of the Casa de España Cottage
In Balboa Park
For reservations please send Checks to:
4574 Chateau Dr. San Diego, CA 92117

Mª Jesús Ferri:
Norma Leonard:
Asunción Lusti:
Sent by Maria Angeles O'Donnell Olson



Bancroft's California Pioneer Register and Index 

If you are not familiar with this index, you should be.  :-)   I have started transcribing it and have three sections finished (Preface, List of Pioneers, and Inhabitants of California 1769-1800):

It will be a work in progress for quite awhile. :-) The entries vary in the amount of information Bancroft provides. Some of the individuals have family information. I have included here the last entries to give you an idea of what it looks like. 

Regards, Ron Filion

Zimmerman (Bernard), 1847, Co. F, 3d U.S. artill. (v. 518). Z. (W.), 1847, ditto; in Cal. '64. 
Zindel (Louis), 1844, one of Frémont's party; prob. did not come to Cal. iv. 437. 
Zinky (D.), 1846, doubtful name of the Cal. Bat. (v. 358). 
Zinns (Geo.), 1846, nat. of Lorraine, and overl. immig.; Cal. Bat. (v. 358); married Mrs Wolfinger at Sutter's fort '47, and is said to have built the first brick house at Sac. He was later a brewer and fruit-grower, but being ruined by fire and again by slickens, he lived on a chicken ranch from '72, and died at Oakland in '85 at the age of '86. 
Zittle (Michael), 1847, Co. I, N.Y. Vol. (v. 499). 
Zorrilla (Francisco), 1842, named as in charge of the Los Ang. gold mines. iv. 630. 
Zúñiga (José), 1781, lieut of the S. Diego comp., acting as habilitado and com. to 1793. Later capt. at Tucson, Sonora; lieut-col 1810. He was one of the most efficient of the old presidio officers. Biog. i. 645-6; ment i. 335, 340, 343, 372, 396, 398, 400, 441, 454, 461-3, 467, 484, 502, 522, 653; ii. 78. 
Z. (Guillermo), land-owner at Los Ang. '39, age 48. 
Z. (Nicolás), soldier of the Mont. comp. '36, age '21. 
Z. (Pio Quinto), soldier of the S. Juan Cap. escolta 1776-9. i. 303. 
Z. (Ramon), soldier at Mont. '36, age 25. 
Z. (Valentin), at Los Ang. '39, age 42. 
Z. (Ventura), boy at Los Ang. 1802; soldier in '10. ii. 91. 
Zurrillaga 1824, mr of the Constancia. ii. 519. 
Zurita (José), murderer at S. Juan B. '44. iv. 662. 

Great California Resources site 
Sent by Bob Smith with links to California History. 

Editor:  I really can't say enough about this site.  It is outstanding. SO MUCH THERE!!
Any California researcher should definitely check it out and bookmark it. 

Los Californianos Quarterly Meeting, January 20-22, 2006 
Sent by Benita Gray

Los Californianos will hold their Quarterly Meeting January 20-22, 2006 at the Best Western Seven Seas in Mission Valley, San Diego. The group, who are descendants of the Hispanic settlers in Alta California before 1848, provides a Traveling Genealogy Library for research at its meetings. The Library collection is centered on those settlers and their descendants and is open to the public for genealogical/historical research for a weekend fee of $5 plus the meeting registration fee of $3. The Library will be open from 3 to 8 p.m. Friday and 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Saturday.

On Saturday the meeting program includes guided tours of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in the morning and afternoon and the San Diego Archaeological Center in the afternoon. 

Saturday evening dinner will feature Dr. Jack Williams, a native San Diegan and historian member of Los Californianos, who will speak on the architecture of Spanish San Diego and the controversy surrounding the Battle of San Pasqual. Dr. Williams is an active archeologist, having worked sites at the San Diego Presidio, Mission Santa Barbara, and Mission San Luis Rey in recent years. He is a noted author who has, among other literary endeavors, completed a four volume set on the Presidios under a grant from California Mission Studies Association. In cooperation with Father Thomas Davis he has also written a set of six books on early California aimed at the fourth grade audience.

Dr. Iris Engstrand will speak at a Sunday breakfast buffet on the early history of San Diego. Dr. Engstrand is a Professor of History at the University of San Diego, where she was awarded a distinguished University Professorship and the Davies Award for Faculty Achievement. Dr. Engstrand has received fellowships from the Fulbright Commission, American Philosophical Society, and Huntington Library. She is the author of 21 books, including over half a dozen on the history of San Diego and its institutions and leaders. She will be happy to autograph her latest book, San Diego: California's Cornerstone, which will be available for purchase at the meeting.

Information about the meeting is available from the hosts: Dee Humphrey at 858-271-6717 ( or Benita and George Gray 858-538-3027 ( Reservations for tours and/or meals can be made with the Grays. If you are interested in the history of California before it was part of the United States, especially if you believe you are descended from its early Hispanic settlers, we are sure you would find something of interest at this meeting and Los Californianos would welcome your attendance.

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

CALIFORNIA'S "LOST" TRIBES is the opening episode in a four-part series on  California, entitled CALIFORNIA AND THE AMERICAN DREAM, which will be broadcast on nationwide PBS next April and May. CALIFORNIA'S "LOST" TRIBES will air on April 13th, 2006.) 

The World Premiere was at The 30th Annual American  Indian Film Festival on November 10 at the Palace of Fine Arts.
California's "Lost" Tribes 
Director: Jed Riffe 
Co-Producer: Jack Kohler 
Editor: Maureen Gosling 
Cinematographer: Vicente Franco 
Narrator: Linda Hunt 
Running Time: 54:30 

In a few short years, American Indians in California went from being the poorest people in the state to among the richest, from being virtually invisible to being the most powerful political lobby in the 6th largest economy in the world. What has been the impact of this dramatic transformation? 

For the Cabazon and Morongo tribes of Southern California, the plaintiffs in the landmark Supreme Court case, the potential wealth from gambling was unimaginable. Years of excruciating poverty have not been lost on three-time chairwoman Mary Ann Andreas of the Morongo Tribe, whose reservation is near Palm Springs. She remembers the dirt floor shack of her childhood, and the impossibility of dreaming for the wealth the tribe now holds. For Viejas tribal Chairman Anthony Pico, the abundance of today harks back to the times  before contact with the Europeans. Today, the State is trying to charge a gaming tax greater than the standard corporate rate, a challenge to the  newly found abundance of California tribes. Concern over gaming is further stoked by the development of casinos on rural lands, such as the Rumsey Band's Cache Creek Casino and Resort in Capay Valley, creating friction between tribes and non-Indians. 

Told in their own words, CALIFORNIA'S "LOST" TRIBES is the first documentary to go behind the facade of glitz and glamour of American Indian casinos to reveal the current conflicts over Indian gaming, and to explore the historical underpinnings of tribal sovereignty and the evolution of tribal gaming over the last thirty years. CALIFORNIA'S "LOST" TRIBES captures the impact of gaming on Indian self-determination and the challenges Native people face in defining the identity of their people for the future. 

Guillermo Gómez-Peña returns to San Diego to invoke Intercultural Demons 
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

A frenetic experimental artist, writer, and satirist, Gómez-Peña, had his first public performances at Sushi Performance and Visual Art over twenty years ago. Gómez-Peña has since gone on to receive the Prix de la Parole at the International Theatre Festival of the Americas (1989), the Bessie Award in New York (1989), a MacArthur Fellowship (1991), an American Book Award (1997) and a Lifetime Achievement Award (Taos Talking Pictures Film Festival, 2000). He has been a regular commentator for NPR's All Things Considered and Latino USA and has authored eight successful books on performance, border culture and activism.

This visit marks Gómez-Peña's first San Diego performance in five years, returning to the 'open wound' he calls the San Diego/Tijuana border. While residing in this region Gomez-Pena was a catalyst for the reinterpretation of American culture and transnational identities. A founding member of the Border Art Workshop/Taller de Arte Fronterizo, a San Diego/Tijuana based artist collective. He returns, with Mexterminator, to a US/Mexican border that is lined with Minute Men, rising nativism, three ply fences, globalization, and transnational identities.

In Mexterminator vs. the Global Predator, Gómez-Peña poses as a “spoken word brujo-poeta” and explores fear of immigration, the digital divide, censorship, interracial sexuality, and the side effects of globalization and the War on Terror in the US Latino community. Continually developing multi-ethnic narratives from a border perspective, Gómez-Peña creates what critics have called "Chicano cyber-punk performances" and “Ethno-techno art.” In this performance, cultural borders are moved to the center while the alleged mainstream is pushed to the margins and treated as exotic and unfamiliar, placing the audience member in the position of "foreigner." Gómez-Peña uses multilingualism, humor and hybrid literary genres as subversive strategies. (For information on his current projects you can visit:

Adrian Arancibia opens the evening with a spoken word performance titled ¡avisale! The piece is a personal narrative of a Chilean immigrant searching for identity and the experience of finding chicanismo. Arancibia a former member of the Taco Shop Poets is a part of the next generation of performance and spoken word artists who are redefining transnational identities and spoken word as a genre. 

Gómez-Peña and Arancibia performances give two different views of the contested terrain known as the US/Mexican border each telling a story of realities, each a warrior in cross cultural identity and issues.

Performances at St. Cecilia's Playhouse, 1620 6th Ave, Friday and Saturday December 2nd and 3rd at 8pm. Information and Tickets are available through Sushi Performance and Visual Art: 619.235.8466 or


Don Quixote celebrates 400th birthday at BYU
A league of their own: Basketball brings a culture, community together

Illustrations of Don Quixote and his loyal squire Sancho Panza helped shape
interpretations of the novel by Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes.
                          Don Quixote celebrates 400th birthday at BYU                                
by Jason Swensen, Church News Staff writer, week ending November 5, 2005 
                            Several campus events focus on old knight of La Mancha

For a 400-year-old man of action and romance, Don Quixote is aging remarkably well.  The venerable creation of Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes has amused, inspired and emboldened readers for four centuries. Essential authors such as Mark Twain and William Faulkner approached "Don Quixote" as a template on complex theme and character development.

Indeed, the enduring old knight of La Mancha, his loyal squire Sancho Panza and the beautiful Dulcinea continue to find homes on millions of bookshelves, libraries and night stands. Regarded as the first modem novel, the two-volume "Don Quixote" has been translated into more languages than any book but the Bible.

Brigham Young University is hosting a birthday party of sorts for Don Quixote and his companions. Several events, including a Quixote-themed exhibit at the school's Museum of Art, celebrate the novel's ageless place in the study in the humanities.

Perhaps the secret of "Don Quixote's" long life is its remarkable ability to connect with readers over space and time, said exhibit curator Marian Wardle. Without changing a word from its hefty text, the book fluidly evolves. "Every reader superimposes his or her own experience" into the story.

Centuries before Don Quixote and Sancho chased windmills on Hollywood or Broadway stages, artists were interpreting "Don Quixote" in the sketches and paintings commissioned to illustrate the many editions of the novel. BYU's "Images of Don Quixote: Magic, Frames and Imagined Possibilities" displays images from more than 20 editions. The illustrations date from 1620 to 1885 and include the works of artists ranging from Gustave Dore to William Hogarth.

Such images reflect the evolving interpretations of the novel throughout the centuries, according to the museum. Some readers have imagined (he title character as a noble hero. Others see him as a lovable nut. Most recently, Don Quixote is often revered as a "quixotic" or affable romantic battling society's constraining definition of reality. 

The illustrators themselves "helped frame the image of Don Quixote," Sister Wardle said. An illustration from 1620, for example, depicts Don Quixote in the attitude and dress of an English gentleman. 

"Images of Don Quixote" is on display on the museum's lower level and is free to the public. Exhibit information is presented in English and Spanish. The show is sponsored by the museum, along with BYU's Spanish and Portuguese departments and the College of Humanities. "Don Quixote" likely holds great appeal for many Church members. Many from Spanish-speaking lands may have cut their literary studies teeth on the book. Returned missionaries from Spanish-speaking countries, such as Sister Wardle, will relish the Old World dialect found in the original edition. Meanwhile, members of all backgrounds can find much to admire in Don Quixote's and Sancho's virtuous tenacity to do good and make a difference. Sister Wardle added that BYU students have been integral in organizing the many Don Quixote events on campus.


A league of their own: Basketball brings a culture, community together
By Cecilia Kang, Seattle-Post Intelligencer Reporter, November 2, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

After vacuuming miles of office floors, washing thousands of plates and dicing truckloads of peppers and onions, after working a string of 14-hour shifts and tucking another small pay packet away, there is basketball.

On Sunday -- every Sunday -- these cooks, cleaners and dishwashers at Seattle's best-known restaurants and office buildings become the hoop kings of the Liga Hispana, stars of a cracked concrete court in a 24-team Latino basketball league.

"It feels like you are back in Mexico," said Francisco Quiroz, 26, who three years ago founded the league with his older brother, Eduardo. "We wanted to bring together people from my country so that we don't all feel so alone."

As such, the league is about much more than the game. Drawing at least 200 immigrants from Mexico each week to this industrial strip near downtown, it has become an unofficial cornerstone for Seattle's fast-growing Mexican community, a de facto Elks Club, social services agency and Chamber of Commerce, with members in Air Jordans.

"We are all in the same situation, so this is where we can help each other," Quiroz explained.

The population boom isn't limited to Seattle; Latinos have become the largest ethnic group in Washington, comprising 9 percent of the state's population and doubling in size in the last decade.

"Pay attention one day to the number of Hispanics you see," said D. Jesus Piña, a 52-year-old father of three from Mazatlan. "Hispanics are in any restaurant, on any yard, at any hospital and at any hotel. We have become a vital part of this city."

Between matches, players report on new arrivals from Mexico and exchange tips on job openings as gardeners, construction laborers and busboys. Wives and girlfriends gather on blankets wearing their best floral chiffon blouses and their hair pulled back neatly into flowing ponytails of ringlet curls. They advise on free back-to-school vaccinations and catch up on the weddings, births and funerals back at home.
Courtside, Jimmy Toy, a baby-faced 28-year-old who runs a home remodeling business, sits beside Piña, an architect and contractor, as they wait for their games to begin. They exchange business cards and run through their mental phone lists of development industry insiders they know in common.

"It's so good to see people doing so well," says Toy, a native of Oaxaca City. "People are not only in blue-collar jobs, but look around, and you'll see people now working at Microsoft and Boeing."

Many players in the league, though, are undocumented immigrants, living a veiled existence without legal status here. They do the kinds of jobs President Bush described last month as the ones "no American is willing to take."

Employers generally ask them few questions and grant them jobs based on verbal promises to work hard. Paychecks get delivered without background checks or much fuss. 

The scene at the basketball court is copied straight from villages and towns in Mexico where Sunday afternoon gatherings, called tardiadas, serve as the communities' informal social and business centers. Only here, the community anchor is basketball, a sport that rivals soccer in popularity for this group, made up mostly of émigrés from the southern state of Oaxaca.

On the court, players show hometown pride, wearing slick nylon jerseys that bear city names such as Chalcatongo, Putla and Reyes.

Children run sweaty around the park, eagerly gobbling up $1 elotes, ears of corn smothered with mayonnaise, and $2 bags of chicharrones, fried pork rinds drenched in limejuice and chili powder. They root for fathers, brothers and uncles, switching seamlessly between Spanish and English.

Those who gather here are new parents raising a first generation of children in America; single men separated thousands of miles from girlfriends and family; and grandparents in disbelief they've stayed as long as they have in this far-reaching corner of El Norte.

"It's a beautiful thing," said Roberto Maestas, the executive director of the Latino social services group El Centro de la Raza. "Some great things have happened as a result of the basketball league."

Leticia Morales knows this well. She's originally from Chalcatongo, a small town in the mountains of Oaxaca that is estimated to have exported half of its population, or 4,000 people, to Seattle in the last decade. And she played professional basketball in Mexico City for more than 10 years.

When she arrived with her husband and two elementary-school-aged children in July without jobs or an apartment, a relative immediately advised her and her husband to join the basketball league to help get their lives off the ground.

They did. Three weeks later, dressed in a hot pink tracksuit and matching visor with a whistle pursed between her lips, the 37-year-old became the league's newest referee and the sole female member.  As a player gets elbowed in the face, Morales blasts on her whistle and runs to grab the ball. "Falta!" or foul, she cries.

Taking a break from the games, she says the league is like a neighborhood community center. 
"I make one or two new friends each Sunday," Morales says, using her sister-in-law, Olga Velasco, as a translator. "Things are going really well."

Velasco, for her part, feels she owes it to the many newcomers who arrive at the court each Sunday to pass along knowledge she's acquired over the 10 years she's been here. She shares information on where to find the best grocery deals, how to avoid money traps, what bus routes to use, how to register children for classes.

She's opened her small Central District home to Morales' family. She's gathered donations of clothes for Morales' children. She's referred them to a dental clinic that charges low fees that can be paid easily in cash.

Velasco, who emigrated from Chalcatongo with her husband and son, said the help is payback for the support she received when she first arrived here. Velasco's first neighbor, a family friend from Chalcatongo, helped the young mother with everything from babysitting to finding a store that sold tortillas.

"We are making a chain," Velasco says. "People come because a cousin is here to help them when they arrive. After they get settled they send for other relatives in Chalcatongo to come and help them until they are secure."

Early in the summer, the Aztecas' team forward and league co-founder, 28-year-old Eduardo Quiroz, dislocated his ankle during a game. A doctor ordered the cook for a chain restaurant in Bellevue to stay out of work for several months and off the court for one year.

Bills from the accident are mounting. Without legal status, Quiroz doesn't have medical insurance and faces a hospital bill of $5,000. He made the critical error of calling an ambulance, which cost $500 for the short ride. He's unable to wire money to his dependant 68-year-old mother and other relatives back home.

"It's very stressful and lonely at home," he said.  For the pain the ankle's betrayal caused him, however, it is difficult for Quiroz to stay away from the court.

Medium height with a muscular, lean build achieved from years toiling in the peach and orange orchards of Southern California and dishwashing and cooking in numerous Seattle restaurants, Quiroz limps along the sidelines, trying to encourage his team as they turn the ball over to the opposing team, Putla.

"Vamos Aztecas! Si se puede!" or "Let's go Aztecas! You can do it!" he calls.

The Sunday games have become a lifeline from days of monotony, stuck in the two-bedroom condo he shares with his three brothers. At the court, he can forget about his problems and root for the Aztecas, which have advanced to the semifinals of the championship game.

As Quiroz calls for a player change, his world is, for the moment, all about the game. "My players need me because before I used to score points," he says. "But now they need my support."

Creating a basketball league was as natural as going to Mass for Eduardo Quiroz's little brother, Francisco Quiroz. As the last of four brothers to leave Chalcatongo to find work in Seattle, he grew up with a hoop at home and one across the street, used by the whole village.

He said every village in the municipality of Chalcatongo has three basic pillars: a church, a school and a basketball court. "And everyone is most crazy about basketball," Francisco said.

When he first arrived four years ago, he couldn't find a job using his bachelor's degree in business from a university in Oaxaca because his training didn't translate here. Eduardo referred him to a job as a dishwasher at an Italian restaurant in downtown Seattle.

In a steam room of dishwashers the size of delivery trucks, Francisco was one of four men -- all from Mexico -- who cleaned hundreds of huge platter-like entrée plates, which were quickly circulated back onto the restaurant's white tablecloths. For $6.50 an hour, his job was to take scalding hot plates that had been hosed down with a giant spray and crouch down to load and unload them onto huge, heavy racks that, in turn, went into the giant dishwashers.

"In the beginning it was really hard here because I didn't speak English very well, people look down on Mexicans, and the jobs I found were very, very difficult."

But slowly, things have become better. He has a girlfriend, a pretty 24-year-old from Jalisco. He's now working as a server for a catering company, making almost double the wages he earned in his first dishwashing job. He's made friends -- Asians, whites, blacks and other Latinos -- at dance clubs around the city. He's studying computer science at Bellevue Community College 

In his current job as a caterer for some of the Puget Sound area's wealthiest families and companies, Francisco regularly sees the vast gap between the area's richest residents and those like him: the city's working poor, who are often as anonymous as the Liga Hispana's players.

Sitting at a folding table on the sidelines, Francisco wants to change this in the small ways he can. He lays out a printout of a fresh Excel grid of scores and team rankings. Later, he'll post fliers for the league at Mexican grocery stores and restaurants.

He's looking for an affordable soft-surface indoor court so the league can run year-round. He invited Spanish-language press to last year's November championship match for publicity.

As the league goes, so go its players. Leticia Morales' husband got a job as a cook in a Seattle restaurant through friends the family made at the court. Eduardo has returned to work, but he still can't play. The league continues to support him in ways his ankle cannot.

"Life can be hard and lonely here," Eduardo said. "I always knew there were lots of people from Chalcatongo and other parts of Mexico, but there was nothing that brought us all together.

BY THE NUMBERS: Source: Pew Hispanic Center report, June 2005

6.3 million undocumented immigrants are employed in the United States, making up 4.3 percent of the civilian labor force.

33 percent of undocumented immigrants work in the service industry, with the greatest number in construction, production, installation and repair occupations.

The educational level of undocumented immigrants has increased in the last two decades. Still, half do not have high school educations. One-quarter have college degrees.

700,000 undocumented immigrants come to the United States annually, compared with 610,000 legal immigrants.

One-quarter of all the workers in these professions in the United States are undocumented immigrants: drywall and ceiling tile installers, meat and poultry workers, dishwashers. 

The average annual family incomes in 2003 for undocumented immigrants in the country fewer than 10 years was $25,000, compared with the national average family income of about $47,800.


Poet Lalo Delgado was Seminal Figure in Rise of Chicano Literature
Edmundo Martinez Tostado aka Don Tosti and Pacho Bogie
Along Those Lines . . .musical genealogy
Saints and Seasons, A Guide to New Mexico’s Most Popular Saints


Poet Lalo Delgado 
was Seminal Figure 
in the Rise of Chicano Literature

Obituary By Elaine Woo
Los Angeles Times staff writer
Sent by Sister Mary Sevilla, Assistant Provincial 
Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet, 
Los Angeles Province

Lalo Delgado, an activist and poet who was considered el dbuelito, or the grand-daddy, of the Chicano literature movement for pioneering writing that reflected a commitment to social justice and illuminated Latino heritage and struggles, died of cancer July 23, 2004 in Denver.  He was 73.

One of the first writers to emerge from the Chicano movement of the 1860s and ' '70s, Delgado was the author of 14 books, most of them self-published. Among the best known was "Chicano: 25 Pieces of a Chicano Mind," published In 1909. His poems also were frequently anthologized.

He considered himself a "people's poet," who once said his primary mission was to chronicle Chicano events, victories and defeats from "a poetic perspective absent from newspapers and prose journals."

"His poetry was being taught at the earliest beginnings of Chicano studies. We didn't even have a term for the field then," Luis Torres, chairman of the Chicano studies department at Metropolitan State College in Denver, where Delgado taught for 17 years, told The Times on Friday

Torres, who recalled using mimeographed copies of some of Delgado's first .poems to classes he taught 30 years ago, called his longtime colleague "the dean of Chicano poetry."

Born Abelardo Delgado to a poor family in Chihuahua, Mexico, the writer moved to El Paso with his mother in 1943 when he was 12 and grew up in a tenement packed with 23 families sharing three bathrooms

Even though he arrived in the United States knowing little English, he was soon making friends by writing religious poems and "love poems for freckle-faced girls."

Vice president of the honor society, he graduated from high school in 1950, when college, for a poor Mexican immigrant, was virtually an impossible dream. Delgado worked for the next several years in construction and in restaurants.

"Going to college, for a Chicano, as unheard of then, "he once told an interviewer. "the teacher had no expectation a Chicano could be a writer. No one ever said, 'Delgado, you're good with your words.' Instead, they said, 'Delgado you're good with your hands.' I believed them. I went to digging holes."

In 1955 he began working with impoverished youth at community center in El Paso, helping them find jobs and educational opportunities in a system that still kept Latinos in segregated classrooms. His experiences there turned him into an activist.

He found his way to college eight years after finishing high school and earned a bachelor's degree in Spanish from the University of Texas at El Paso in 1962. By the early 1960s he was working with Cesar Chavez in the farm worker movement, and later he was executive director of the Colorado Migrant Council.

He was also writing poems, and by the late 1960s had begun to publish them.

After attending a conference when he listened to white educators blame Chicanos for their failures in school he poured out his anger over the inequities facing Chicanos, illegal immigrants and others who were socially disenfranchised - in " stupid America," one of his earliest, and best known, poems, published in 1969:


Stupid america, see that
With a big knife
On his steady hand
He doesn't want to knife you
He wants to sit on a bench
And carve christfigures
But you won't let him.
Stupid america, hear that
shouting curses on the street
he is a poet
without paper and pencil
and since he cannot write
he will explode
stupid america, remember
that chicano
flunking math and english
he is the picasso
of your western states

but he will die
with one thousand
hanging only from his mind.

"It was perfect. It was an expression from the barrio that captured the emotions of the times," said Estevan Flores, a friend and executive director of the Latino/a Research and Policy Center at the University of Colorado at Denver.

Delgado was famous among family and friends for special-occasion poems. He presented poems to couples getting married. Every year he compose a new poem for Mother's Day and Father's Day, which he read to fellow worshipers at church. When he was "courting his future wife, he sent her a dollar bill every day by special delivery from California, where he was working to a hotel, so she could buy a wedding dress. On each bill, he scrawled a poem.

Described as a man with a wide girth and easy laugh, Delgado read his poems in a booming voice that needed no amplification. He shoved aside microphones even before 2,000 people in a crowded auditorium.

Some noted Chicano writers trace their beginnings as poets to the first time they heard Delgado perform, said Ramon Del Castillo of Denver, who includes himself in that group.

Delgado wrote in Spanish, English and a combination of the two. In so doing, Del Castillo said Friday, he showed that Spanglish, as the hybrid is known, was "a legitimate form of communication."

Delgado's declamatory style and concern with social issues also "connected the Chicano and Chicana poet to the community," Torres said. His influence echoes in the work of such writers as the late Jose Antonio Burciaga of California, Ana Castillo of Illinois and Lorna Dee Cervantes of Colorado.

. Delgado is survived by his wife of 51 years, Lola Estrada; eight children; 19 grandchildren; and four great-grandchildren.




 Don Tosti  

Edmundo Martinez Tostado


"Pachuco Boogie" became one of the first million-selling Latin songs.

When Los Angeles bandleader Don Tosti cut loose on the microphone in the historic 1948 session that would make him a star, popular music everywhere was going through radical changes. As the Second World War ended, so did the recording ban that had funneled vinyl into the war effort. Suddenly, all the pent-up creative growth of the early '40s exploded onto the postwar landscape. The hard-core jazz of the beboppers burned its legacy onto wax, along with newly electrified urban blues, the rustic rhythms of honky-tonk country, and the rowdy new R&B combos that took over where the big bands left off. But while hillbilly bands and African-American groups broke into the mainstream, the innovative efforts of Mexican Americans during the postwar era stayed well off the cultural radar. A new CD collection released on El Cerrito's Arhoolie label, Pachuco Boogie: The Original Historic Recordings, aims to correct all that, gathering together prime examples of the unique style that Latin hipsters like Tosti created -- the pachuco boogie.A Mexican-American swing player originally from Texas, Tosti added his own distinctive touch to pop music's postwar crazy quilt with a dynamic R&B tune that melded raw, rocking jazz with the Chicano youth culture that had surfaced earlier in the decade. "Pachuco Boogie" was a novelty jive tune -- a bluesy number like those of Slim Gaillard or Louis Jordan -- which featured plenty of slang and a driving melodic beat. But unlike his African-American counterparts, Tosti sang in a rapid-fire, nearly impenetrable Spanish dialect known as calo, a streetwise language he learned as a child in the barrios of El Paso, where he grew up. 

"That was the first rap song sung in Spanish," says the 79-year-old Tosti, speaking from his home in Palm Springs. As he recalls the session from five decades back, the jazzman can still sing out all the lyrics. "It's about a guy from the country coming to LA to hang out and be cool: 'Vengo del paciente vez/Un lugar que le dicen El Paso ... I'm coming from El Paso/where pachucos like me come from/I came to LA, man, to show off my new clothes/because it's very cool.' " 

Tosti, who counts himself as one of only a handful of Mexican Americans to succeed in the big band jazz scene, had tapped into the powerful new culture of the pachucos, or so-called "zoot-suiters." They were the first wave of young Latinos to assert themselves in American popular culture, adopting the hepcat style and flashy clothing of swing musicians such as Cab Calloway. They cruised into nightclubs and dance halls throughout the Southwest to take part in America's new youth culture. Many pachucos were also in tough, violent gangs, some of which moved into the Chicano neighborhoods of 1940s LA. The zoot-suiters gained notoriety in a series of wartime brawls fought against enlisted soldiers and sailors on leave in the big port city. Although the pachuco subculture met with harsh repression from the city's Anglo establishment, it persisted throughout WWII. By the time Tosti recorded his tune in '48, the scene was still going strong, waiting for something positive to rally around. 

With "Pachuco Boogie," Don Tosti delivered the goods. The song is a wild mix of styles, with Tosti thumping the bass while singing in the sly, lusty style of the blues shouters. A second vocalist, Raul Diaz, takes a scat solo, joined by the honking saxophone of Bob Hernandez. Finally, pianist Eddie Cano -- later a pivotal figure in LA's Latin jazz scene -- provides an inventive melodic line based on interlocking chord patterns of Cuban son. Although the small combo hailed from Southern California, they were attuned to the changes in jazz that were brewing back East, like Dizzy Gillespie's collaborations with Afro-Cuban percussionist Chano Pozo, and the explosive popularity of the mambo beat championed by Perez Prado and Tito Rodriguez. The ensemble playfully worked hints of Latin jazz into their choppy blues style, creating a new sound that was uniquely American and utterly hip. 

The song was a surprise hit, selling nearly a million copies and spawning numerous imitations as well as follow-up records by Tosti and a host of like-minded Latino hipsters. Now, over fifty years later, Tosti's handful of pachuco singles have been collected together into Pachuco Boogie as part of an ongoing series exploring 
the Mexican-American musical heritage.
 Although Arhoolie founder Chris Strachwitz was reportedly resistant to including a set of the rowdy, chaotic pachuco swing into a series dominated by acoustic mariachi and ranchera songs, he was eventually won over by the album's compiler Chuy Varela, an East Bay radio DJ and cultural historian, and occasional Express contributor. After years of nagging the label head, the insistent jazz aficionado persuaded Strachwitz that the pachuco style was a vital part of the Mexican-American music legacy. 

Varela has been a fan of Don Tosti's work since he first heard the song in the 1980s, when he worked on "La Onda Bajita," KPFA's long-lived low-rider show, which concentrates on the doo-wop, soul, and rock oldies favored by California's Latino cruisers. Speaking by telephone from his office at San Mateo jazz station KCSM, where he now works as the music director, Varela recalls the thrill he felt when he first laid eyes on the Tosti singles. A friend had taken him to prowl through the dusty bins of Jack's Record Cellar, a tiny San Francisco music shop famous for its huge collection of rare 78 rpm singles. 

"We were just digging, and all of a sudden I find this thing that says 'Pachuco Boogie,' and also one called 'El Tirili' and 'Guisa Gacha.' I thought, 'Wow!' because this was the language I had grown up hearing when I was a kid. We went over to my friend's house where he had a 78 set up, and we went crazy." 

Soon after that, Varela heard Strachwitz, another KPFA DJ, playing other pachuco hits by Lalo Guerrero, an East Coast hipster whose novelty drug song "Marijuana Boogie" is perhaps the most infamous of the pachuco swing tunes (due in no small part to a revival on hippie-era underground radio). For Varela, hearing this music was an epiphany, revealing a bridge between the jazz age and the rock and doo-wop classics that he and his friends were playing on the radio. "All of a sudden I found this connection, this missing link, between Richie Valens and the groups in the '30s that were putting the acoustic corridos into a modern context," he says. "I began tracing how Mexican Americans in particular got enamored with African-American popular music, and how the oldies fed into low-rider culture." 

Varela says that the pachuco music was the first instance of Mexican-American culture bursting into the mainstream, and being heard on its own terms. Throughout the 1930s and '40s, deep shifts took place within Mexican-American immigrant culture, as the traditional accordion-led bandas began absorbing the influences around them. In Texas and the Southwest, Mexican music cross-pollinated with country and blues, as well as the Cuban rhythms that sparked dance crazes throughout the 1920s, '30s, and '40s. Varela says this was all a natural outgrowth of America's cross-cultural blossoming, although the innovative pachuco bands were frequently dismissed because the musicians were Chicanos. "A lot of people used to put it down and say it was kind of a wannabe thing, but as it went along, they refined the music and made it into something unique." 

Still, Varela knew from the strong response to his radio shows that there was an audience eager to rediscover these recordings. So he approached Strachwitz about adding an album of pachuco swing to the already-eclectic Arhoolie catalogue. The collaboration brought together some of the rarest 78s from the 1948-52 heyday of the nearly-forgotten Chicano R&B scene, including several Lalo Guerrero singles and the irresistibly bizarre "Frijole Boogie," recorded by Bay Area jazz guitarist Jorge Cordoba. 

While Varela gathered the swing tunes, Strachwitz dug into his huge archive of Tex-Mex 78s to add several rare recordings of lesser-known Texas conjuntos that blended blues riffs into their border music. Equally striking are topical ranchero songs, such as Lydia Mendoza's "Los Pachucos," which deplored the zoot-suiters as a bunch of lazy potheads tarnishing the good name of hard-working Latinos everywhere. Like the Chicano student activists of the '60s, the unapologetic, euphoric outlandishness of the pachucos generated bitter tension inside the Mexican-American community. A split developed between assimilationists who struggled to keep a low profile, and younger Latinos who wanted to assert themselves in the face of the mainstream culture. 

This rift was familiar to Don Tosti, who attracted constant criticism as a famous musician who embodied the new youth culture. He ruefully recalls how actor Leo Carrillo, who played the thickly accented, stereotypical Mexican sidekick Pancho in the Cisco Kid adventures, once approached him at a gala event in Los Angeles. "I was at the Olympic Auditorium in 1948, and Leo Carrillo came up and cussed me out because I was 'downgrading' the Mexican people," he says. "I just looked at him and smiled -- I smiled because I wasn't going to tell him to go f ___   off  he was older than I was and I wanted to respect him. But I was just a kid playing original music that represented my perceptions of youth, and, hey, I was part of America, too." 

Tosti's career move into R&B came after years of being one of the most successful Mexican-American jazz artists. A child prodigy, Edmundo Martinez Tostado grew up in El Paso's tough El Segundo barrio, the birthplace of the American pachuco gangs, and his single-parent mother pushed him to pursue music as a way out of the ghetto life. Classically trained, he played the violin with the El Paso Symphony when he was only ten years old, but when the Tostado family moved to Southern California in the late '30s, the teenager discovered a new passion -- jazz music -- and organized his first dance band while attending LA's Roosevelt High School. Somewhere along the way he adopted the stage name of Don Tosti ("I wanted it to sound more Italian," he laughs, "because no one thought Mexicans could play jazz") and gained a reputation as a solid player on the local scene.

By chance, the legendary trad-jazz trombonist Jack Teagarden heard Tosti perform during the early days of World War II, and offered him a gig playing bass in his touring band. Although Tosti had planned to finish college, the $250 a week Teagarden offered him -- a princely sum back then -- was too good to pass up. He went on the road, stayed with Teagarden for a few years, and then worked with several of the leading big band orchestras. After the war, Tosti became part of Les Brown's Band of Renown and in 1948 found himself playing a gig at UC Berkeley's Pauley Ballroom, where he decided to try and find his estranged father, a traveling soldier who had abandoned Tosti's mother decades before. The young musician cracked open the local phone book and easily spotted his father, Don Ramon, who lived in Oakland along with Tosti's two previously unknown younger siblings, both from a later marriage. Although they had never met, Tosti thought for sure that his dad would be impressed to find his son playing in one of the hottest dance bands in the country. Instead, Don Ramon chided him for not leading a band of his own. "My father talked me into writing Latin music," recalls Tosti. "He said, 'Hey, it's great you're in this guy's band, but you should be making your own stuff instead.' " 

But Don Ramon turned out to be right. When "Pachuco Boogie" became a hit, Tosti became a top draw on the booming Latin circuit, headlining at the fabled Hollywood Palladium, as well as huge venues in the Bay Area such as San Francisco's Latin-American Union Hall, El Centro Social Obrero, and Sweet's Ballroom in Oakland. At the time, Cuban dance music was a nationwide craze, and Latin jazz was being pioneered by fiery bebop combos of Machito and Dizzy Gillespie. Don Tosti and his pachuco contemporaries offered something different from these island-based styles -- a vibrant homegrown style that reflected the culture of the Mexican-American immigrant community. When Tosti played the Palladium, fans would drive in from as far away as the Imperial Valley just to see their hero play and to cut loose at a pachuco hop. 

Tosti rode the wave for as long as he could, but as the pachuco boogie scene petered out and the mambo and rock crazes of the '50s gathered steam, he returned to his first love: jazz. Tosti recorded a few more records under his own name, and worked steadily as an arranger for various bands and TV shows throughout the decade. Perhaps the highpoint of his post-pachuco career came when he worked as a bassist on two of Perez Prado's best-selling albums, Voodoo Suite and Havana 3am. That's Tosti you see silhouetted with a stand-up bass on one of the album covers, and he helped arrange much of the music as well. Later, Tosti retired and moved from LA to Palm Springs, where he now lives, not far from his own plaque on the desert city's glitzy Walk of Stars. 

Now, decades after the youthful, freewheeling recording sessions of the Pachuco era, Tosti says he's delighted to see his old songs back in print, and to have them appreciated by a new generation of music fans. He looks to the success of old-timers like Ruben Gonzales in Cuba after the release of the various Buena Vista Social Club albums and wonders if a similar revival of LA's Latin blues scene might also be around the corner. "It's very flattering," he laughs, "especially after being dormant for so many years. You know, Lalo Guerrero is still appearing in the zoot suits and singing the songs, and he's 85 years old. I can't do that -- I did it when I was young, and I did it well. But that was how I heard music, how I wrote it, and how I recorded it. So I'm glad that people are becoming aware that the Mexicans had that kind of influence and had high-class swing. Just listen to it: it may be a 52 year-old song, but it swings its ass, baby! It's sure better than a lot of the s___ they're doing now!" 
Don's mother pushed him to pursue music as a way out of the ghetto life. Classically trained, he played the violin with the El Paso Symphony when he was only ten years old,
Photo in the University of California, Santa Barbara archives. Before his death Tosti made a gift of his papers, donated his music, and funded a generous endowment in his name, the Don Tosti endowment for the Preservation of Mexican American Musical Heritage. These recordings and papers are now being preserved and made accessible through the California Ethnic and Multicultural Archives (CEMA) at the UCSB libraries.

 Don Tosti, August 4, 2004

L.A. Times staff and wire reports
Sent by:
Sister Mary Sevilla, Assistant Provincial 
Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet, 
Los Angeles Province

Don Tosti, the band- leader who helped spark a ' Mexican American musical ' craze half a century ago with his tune "Pachuco Boogie," has died; He was 81. Tosti, who was diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer in May died Monday, August 2 at his home in Palm Springs, his sister, Marylin Martinez Wood, told Associated Press;

Recorded m 1948, "Pachuco Boogie" became one of the first million-selling Latin songs. It caught on immediately with pachucos — also Called zoot-suiters tor their clothing: who were the first-wave of Mexican Americans to embrace American pop culture "and make it into their own. They eschewed old-fashioned Mexican music and absorbed the sounds reverberating in barrios.

Pachuco music, recently defined as Latino "street, music" by Arhoolie Records 'President Chris Strachwitz had something of a revival in 1978 because of the popular play by Luis Valdez, "Zoot Suit."

Although Tosti's "Pachuco Boogie" was not used in the play, it was included in a 2002 compilation of pachuco tunes using Tosti's title.  Strachwitz produced the compilation for Arhoolie from songs by various artists recorded primarily in Los Angeles between 1948 and 1954.

"They are rappers in a way," Strachwitz said at the 's release.  "Half of it is talking, and all in this low life lingo."

In assessing the compilation album, Times writer Agustin Gurza wrote:  "This is fusion music before the term was invented.  It's a blend of the popular styles of the day - swing, boogle-woogie and jump blues - with mambo rhythms and a Mexican touch.  Because the lyrics are in Spanish, spiced with the livel, hep-cat brand of pachuco slang called calo, some conisder pachuco music a precurosr of today's rock en Español."

He moved to Los Angles as a teenager and began playing the upright bass.  At 19, he was hired by trombonist Jack Teagarden to play in his orchestra.  Tosti, who was one of the few Mexican Americans to play in the popular big bands of the 1940s and 1950s, worked with les Brown, Charlie Barnet and Jimmy Dorsey.

Tosti formed his own band, the Pachuco Boogie Boys.  In the 1960s, he moved to Palm Springs, where he became an orchestra leader at hotels and taught piano.  A widower with no children, Tosti is survived by his sister.


Latino music legend Don Tosti has ensured the preservation of an important part of Mexican American music history through several recent donations to the UCSB Libraries. Don Tosti was a musician, composer, band and orchestra leader whose illustrious career spanned seven decades. Before his death on August 2, 2004 at age 81, he made a gift of his papers, donated his music, and funded a generous endowment in his name, the Don Tosti endowment for the Preservation of Mexican American Musical Heritage. These recordings and papers are now being preserved and made accessible through the California Ethnic and Multicultural Archives (CEMA) at the UCSB libraries.

Saints and Seasons, A Guide to New Mexico’s Most Popular Saints
by Ana Pacheco

Santa Fe, NM. La Herencia publishing company has released a new book just in time for holiday gift giving. Saints and Seasons, A Guide to New Mexico’s Most Popular Saints by Ana Pacheco, features 128 works of art in color, arranged chronologically by Feast Day according to the Roman Catholic calendar. The book also lists which saint is the patron of New Mexico’s many mission and parish churches. Virtually all of the works, and the 25 accomplished santero artists who created them, have been featured at Santa Fe’s annual Spanish Market.

The book’s striking photographs include images of the 14 Stations of the Cross on display at Santa Fe’s St. Francis Basilica; Blessed Kateri Tekakwitha – beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1980 as the first Native American saint; San Cayetano, the patron saint for gamblers; San Peregrino, the patron saint for cancer; St. Zita, the patron saint for lost keys, and at least 80 other beloved saints.

Pacheco’s 124-page book, which contains a written blessing provided by Archbishop Michael J. Sheehan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe, is in keeping with the mission of La Herencia, the publishing company and quarterly magazine she founded in 1994 to preserve traditional Hispanic culture in New Mexico and the Southwest. She says that Saints and Seasons is a reminder of a time when “people lived their lives by the saints” - naming children after them, celebrating their feast days by going to church and not to work, and praying to their favorites for God’s intercession. 

According to Ms. Pacheco, the book is also a “call to remember and appreciate the artists,” who have had their works displayed around the world in galleries and museums such as the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, D.C., the Denver Museum of Art, the Gene Autry Museum of Western Heritage in Los Angeles, the Heard Museum in Phoenix, the Taylor Museum in Colorado Springs, the Mexican Museum in San Francisco, the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art in Indianapolis, the Museum of International Folk Art, Museum of Spanish Colonial Art and the Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe, the Millicent Rogers Museum in Taos, and the National Hispanic Cultural Center in Albuquerque. Two of the artists are recipients of awards from the National Endowment for the Arts.

Saints and Seasons is La Herencia’s fourth book, joining Albuquerque, ¡Feliz Cumpleanos! Three Centuries to Remember; ¡Concha! - the authorized biography of the 94-year-old pioneering New Mexico “Grande Dame” Concha Ortiz y Pino de Kleven, and the Las Comidas de Los Abuelos  Bookbook. Saints and Seasons retails for $19.95, and is available for purchase on La Herencia ’s website, and in fine bookstores throughout New Mexico. –30-

Sent by Jane Blume CMC®*
Contact: Ana Pacheco, La Herencia, 505-474-2800


Black and White 
Elizabeth Jennings, July 16, 1854   
Historia de Estevanico el Moro 


Black and White 
Sent by John Inclan
Editorial Observer, October 31, 2005

Why Race Isn't as 'Black' and 'White' as We Think 

People have occasionally asked me how a black person came by a "white" name like Brent Staples. One letter writer ridiculed it as "an anchorman's name" and accused me of making it up. For the record, it's a British name - and the one my parents gave me. "Staples" probably arrived in my family's ancestral home in Virginia four centuries ago with the British settlers.

The earliest person with that name we've found - Richard Staples - was hacked to death by Powhatan Indians not far from Jamestown in 1622. The name moved into the 18th century with Virginians like John Staples, a white surveyor who worked in Thomas Jefferson's home county, Albemarle, not far from the area where my family was enslaved.

The black John Staples who married my paternal great-great-grandmother just after Emancipation - and became the stepfather of her children - could easily have been a Staples family slave. The transplanted Britons who had owned both sides of my family had given us more than a preference for British names. They had also given us their DNA. In what was an almost everyday occurrence at the time, my great-great-grandmothers on both sides gave birth to children fathered by white slave masters.

I've known all this for a long time, and was not surprised by the results of a genetic screening performed by DNAPrint Genomics, a company that traces ancestral origins to far-flung parts of the globe. A little more than half of my genetic material came from sub-Saharan Africa - common for people who regard themselves as black - with slightly more than a quarter from Europe. 

The result that knocked me off my chair showed that one-fifth of my ancestry is Asian. Poring over the charts and statistics, I said out loud, "This has got to be a mistake."

That's a common response among people who are tested. Ostensibly white people who always thought of themselves as 100 percent European find they have substantial African ancestry. People who regard themselves as black sometimes discover that the African ancestry is a minority portion of their DNA.

These results are forcing people to re-examine the arbitrary calculations our culture uses to decide who is "white" and who is "black." 

As with many things racial, this story begins in the slave-era South, where sex among slaves, masters and mistresses got started as soon as the first slave ship sailed into Jamestown Harbor in 1619. By the time of the American Revolution, there was a visible class of light-skinned black people who no longer looked or sounded African. Free mulattos, emancipated by guilt-ridden fathers, may have accounted for up to three-quarters of the tiny free-black population before the Revolution.

By the eve of the Civil War, the swarming numbers of mixed-race slaves on Southern plantations had become a source of constant anguish to planters' wives, who knew quite well where those racially ambiguous children were coming from. 

Faced with widespread fear that racial distinctions were losing significance, the South decided to define the problem away. People with any ascertainable black ancestry at all were defined as black under the law and stripped of basic rights. The "one drop" laws defined as black even people who were blond and blue-eyed and appeared white.

Black people snickered among themselves and worked to subvert segregation at every turn. Thanks to white ancestry spread throughout the black community, nearly every family knew of someone born black who successfully passed as white to get access to jobs, housing and public accommodations that were reserved for white people only. Black people who were not quite light enough to slip undetected into white society billed themselves as Greek, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, South Asian, Native American - you name it. These defectors often married into ostensibly white families at a time when interracial marriage was either illegal or socially stigmatized. 

Those of us who grew up in the 1950's and 60's read black-owned magazines and newspapers that praised the racial defectors as pioneers while mocking white society for failing to detect them. A comic newspaper column by the poet Langston Hughes - titled "Why Not Fool Our White Folks?" - typified the black community's sense of smugness about knowing the real racial score. In keeping with this history, many black people I know find it funny when supposedly white Americans profess shock at the emergence of blackness in the family tree. But genetic testing holds plenty of surprises for black folks, too. 

Which brings me back to my Asian ancestry. It comes as a surprise, given that my family's oral histories contain not a single person who is described as Asian. More testing on other family members should clarify the issue, but for now, I can only guess. This ancestry could well have come through a 19th-century ancestor who was incorrectly described as Indian, often a catchall category at the time. 

The test results underscore what anthropologists have said for eons: racial distinctions as applied in this country are social categories and not scientific concepts. In addition, those categories draw hard, sharp distinctions among groups of people who are more alike than they are different. The ultimate point is that none of us really know who we are, ancestrally speaking. All we ever really know is what our parents and grandparents have told us. 

Sent by Dorinda Moreno

A black woman refused to give up her seat on a bus. She was brutally attacked and thrown off...and she took the case to court.

Rosa Parks? No. Her name was Elizabeth Jennings. It happened in New York City, downtown on the corner Pearl and Chatham Streets.

At least that's where it started. It was on a Sunday, July 16, 1854. Elizabeth Jennings lived 100 years before Rosa Parks. She was a 24-year-old schoolteacher on her way to the First Colored Congregational Church on Sixth Street and Second Avenue where she was to perform as the organist.

Most people don't realize how long buses have been around. The first route began on 4th Avenue in 1831. In the early years, there were two ways to travel--omnibuses and railroad cars. Both were pulled by horses. The omnibuses were cheaper. The railroad cars, larger and heavier, had more entrances and exits, moved on fixed tracks, and were more comfortable.

In the 1830s, New York City barely reached 14th Street, but it was growing. By the 1850s, Manhattan stretched to 59th Street and there were car tracks on most the major avenues, from First to Eighth.

This created a dilemma for African American New Yorkers. In the 1830s and early 1840s, African Americans didn't use public transportation. The driver decided if you could ride or not, and African Americans weren't welcome. With the motto "walk," community leaders suggested using other means.

Bucking the segregated system was also dangerous. Drivers carried whips and used them to keep African Americans off. Threats of legal retaliation were laughed at.

By the late 1840s, there were special public buses on which African Americans could ride. They had large "Colored Persons Allowed" signs on the back or in a side window. But these vehicles ran infrequently, irregularly, and often not at all.

Just as Rosa Parks was involved in the civil rights movement of her day, Elizabeth Jennings was part of a movement in her day too. Such notable black New Yorkers as her father Thomas Jennings, the Rev. J.W.C. Pennington, the Rev. Henry Highland Garnet, the Rev. Peter S. Ewell, Peter Porter, and a host of others were in the movement to end this discrimination. Like Rosa Parks, Elizabeth Jennings won a landmark local judicial decision.

Here's how the New York Tribune reported the Jennings incident in a February 1855 article: "She got upon one of the Company's cars last summer, on the Sabbath, to ride to church. The conductor undertook to get her off, first alleging the car was full; when that was shown to be false, he pretended the other passengers were displeased at her presence; but (when) she insisted on her rights, he took hold of her by force to expel her. She resisted. The conductor got her down on the platform, jammed her bonnet, soiled her dress and injured her person. Quite a crowd gathered, but she effectually resisted. Finally, after the car had gone on further, with the aid of a policeman they succeeded in removing her."

The African American community was outraged, and the following day there was a rally at Jennings' church. A letter she had written telling her account of the incident was read aloud: "Sarah E. Adams & myself walked down to the corner of Pearl & Chatham Sts. to take the 3rd Ave cars," she wrote. She described how the conductor, thought to be one Edwin Moss, and the driver had attacked her. "I told him [Moss] I was a respectable person, born and raised in this city, that I did not know where he was from and that he was a good for nothing impudent fellow for insulting decent persons while on their way to church."

"Then," Jennings continued, "the (police) officer without listening to anything I had to say thrust me out and tauntingly told me to get redress if I could. I would have come up [to the rally] myself but I'm quite sore & stiff from the treatment I received from those monsters."

Jennings sued the company, the driver, and the conductor. Messrs. Culver, Parker, and Arthur represented her. Arthur was Chester A. Arthur, then a novice 21-year-old lawyer and future President of the United States. This law firm was hired because it had demonstrated some talent in the area of civil rights the year before.

Jennings was well off and well connected. Her father, Thomas Jennings, was an important businessman and community leader who had associations with Abyssinian and St. Phillips, two major African American churches. As a tailor, he held a patent on a method for renovating garments and maintained a shop on Church Street.

He and others who had been involved in the fight to end transit discrimination helped raise money for Jennings’ lawsuit. News of the trial reached all the way to San Francisco, where an African American group called the Young Men's Association passed a resolution condemning Jennings' treatment.

In 1855, Judge Rockwell of the Brooklyn Circuit Court ruled in Jennings’ favor, stating that: "Colored persons if sober, well behaved and free from disease, had the same rights as others and could neither be excluded by any rules of the Company, nor by force or violence."

Elizabeth Jennings claimed $500 worth of damage. The majority of the jury wanted to give her the full amount, but, as the Tribune put it, "Some jury members had peculiar notions as to colored people's rights." They eventually agreed to give her $225, and the court added 10 percent plus her expenses.

Within a month of the Jennings decision, an African American named Peter Porter was barred from an Eighth Avenue rail car. He too sued and the company settled out of court. From then on, African Americans were allowed to ride on rail cars on an equal basis.

The Rev. J.W.C. Pennington was an important force in the New York movement for equality in public transportation, although he suffered one of the few anti-discrimination losses after Jennings' breakthrough when he brought suit against the Sixth Avenue Rail Company. However, by 1860 Pennington was able to advise the community that the First, Second, Third, possibly the Fourth, and certainly the Eighth and Ninth Avenue lines were open to all. At the outbreak of the civil war, this discriminationary practice had finally ended.

"I feel like this is an issue for young people. History is something they should carry with them," says Sue Ortega, who directs a small art school and presently has a "Harmony in the Community" mural at 91st & Columbus. "It's important for them to know that real, everyday people had a lot to do with the struggle to make life in this city better."

Elizabeth Jennings taught in the city's African American schools in the 1850s and 1860s, probably in African Free School #5 and then in the New York City public school system. As Mrs. Elizabeth Graham, she once again made a mark on our history, this time as the result of a tragedy.

In July 1863, a resolution was passed allowing wealthier New Yorkers to buy their way out of the Civil War draft. An angry white mob rioted over a four-day period. More than 70 blacks were lynched. Many were killed, including Jennings' young son.

As the riot continued to swirl around them, Elizabeth Graham and her husband, helped by a bold white undertaker, fearlessly managed to get their boy to Greenwood Cemetery in Brooklyn for a proper burial. The Rev. Morgan Dix of Wall Street's Trinity Church read the burial service.


No se conoce la fecha del nacimiento de este esclavo, que vino al mundo en la aldea de Azemmour,  en la costa atlántica de Marruecos, aunque se calcula que nació alrededor de 1501.

Su madre murió a los pocos meses de nacer él, haciéndose cargo de la familia el padre que hacía trabajos de carpintería y herrería  en el pueblo.

Pertenecían a la tribu de los Hausa y su familia tenía fama en la tribu por su altura, ya que eran mas altos que el resto de sus vecinos.

En 1513, los portugueses invaden el pueblo de Azemmour, saqueando lo poco que hay de valor y sometiendo a los nativos a la esclavitud, hambre y miseria.

Unos portugueses que tenían comercio de esclavos entre África y Europa, capturan a Estevanico, ya que consideraban que tendría un buen precio de venta por su altura y su constitución atlética.

Desde Azemmour el mercader de esclavos lo lleva para Lagos, en el Algarve portugués, donde había un importante comercio humano, en un edificio que aún se conserva.

Cuando el barco del mercader iba hacia Portugal, al pasar cerca de la costa de Huelva, era costumbre que estos barcos recalasen algunos días en Gibraleón, ya que al mismo tiempo que reponían fuerzas de la travesía, como el Duque de Bejar tenía negocio de esclavos,  era aprovechada la parada para la venta de algunos de ellos entre los que acudían al pueblo onubense. Esto ocurría alrededor de 1526.

Al llegar a Gibraleón nos encontramos con Pablo Dorantes, hombre de confianza del Duque de Bejar y que al parecer era  una de las personas que llevaban la administración de los bienes del Duque y por ello de las compra-ventas de esclavos.

Con Pablo Dorantes y su esposa Isabel de Carranza vivía en Gibraleón su hijo Andrés Dorantes, que había decidido alistarse como Capitán en la expedición de Pánfilo de Narváez , por lo que el Capitán Andrés Dorantes que pidió a su padre le proporcionase un criado para su aventura, tomo a Estevanico como esclavo personal y ambos formaron parte de la expedición que partió de Sanlucar de Barrameda, al mando de Pánfilo de Narváez

Pánfilo de Narváez  había obtenido permiso del Rey Carlos V para en su nombre conquistar la zona que actualmente comprenden Texas, Arizona, Florida y el norte de México  y como premio seria nombrado gobernador de la región.

Durante aquella época el aire estaba lleno de historias de aventuras y de leyendas sobre las cantidades de oro y plata que llegaban de América, por lo que el 17 de junio de 1527 navegaron desde España hasta Santo Domingo, cinco naves sobrecargadas que convirtió aquel viaje en una historia de pesadilla, porque además de los componentes de la expedición, llevaban en los barcos, caballos, cerdos, cabras y ovejas, todos hacinados de tal forma que nada mas llegar a la orilla en Santo Domingo, ciento cuarenta de los seiscientos que iban abandonaron.

El viaje continuó siendo un desastre porque cuando llegaron a Cuba, dos barcos que Pánfilo de Narváez había enviado a la Isla de Trinidad con sesenta hombres y veinte caballos, fueron sorprendidos por un huracán y desaparecieron, por lo que tuvieron que refugiarse en Cuba todo el invierno hasta febrero de 1528 en que partieron para Florida uniendo un nuevo barco que Pánfilo de Narváez había comprado en Cuba y llegando por fin a la costa de Florida el 12 de abril de 1528, después de haber perdido en la travesía a varios hombres y animales.

El 1 de mayo de 1528, 260 hombres a pié, cuarenta jinetes, cinco frailes y varios criados y esclavos marcharon desde la Bahía de Tampa hacia el norte. Pánfilo de Narváez no atendió los consejos de los militares que iban en la expedición, que le pedían que formasen allí mismo una población y después de planificar detenidamente marchar para cumplir su cometido.

Fueron dos semanas espantosas, cuando llegaron exhaustos al río Withlacoochee el 15 de mayo de 1528, todos, personas y caballos,  picados por insectos voladores, moscas, abejas y todo tipo de mosquitos y quemados por el sol, además de mal alimentados.

Cuando estaban en el río fueron rodeados por indios en actitud amenazante, pero después de una corta lucha, los indios se rindieron y llevaron a los españoles a su aldea, donde le explicaron a Narváez que había una ciudad con mucha riqueza el norte, ofreciéndose los indios como guías

Esta fue la primera expedición que exploró por tierra el sur de los Estados Unidos.

Cuando llegaron a otro río, el que los indios denominaban Suwannee, adelantó a un jinete a caballo para cruzarlo y ver su profundidad, pero tanto el jinete como el animal, fueron arrastrados por la corriente y se ahogaron. Esto sucedió el 17 de junio de 1528.

A finales de junio llegaron a la ciudad que habían dicho los indios, Apalachen, que era un caserío de cuarenta chozas cubiertas con paja, con mucho fango y muy sucia.

Los exploradores ocuparon la ciudad que solo estaba habitada por mujeres horrorizadas y niños, ya que los hombres había huido.

Narváez había perdido una fortuna en la expedición y no había recuperado nada de valor. Sus hombres estaban muertos de hambre y mucho enfermos.

Recuperaron fuerzas con los alimentos que les quitaron a los indios; maíz, calabazas, raíces, y pescados secos.

Al segundo día, los Apalaches que habían huido a las montañas atacaron a los españoles y los hicieron huir, aunque antes incendiaron las chozas. Llegaron al mar y decidieron construir algún barco ó cosa parecida para salir de aquel infierno, pero se encontraron que en la expedición solo había un hombre que había sido carpintero y no tenían herramientas ni material, pero con madera de pino y calafateando con las fibras de resina del  palmeto de pino, además de aprovechar sus ropas para construir las velas, se hicieron a la mar. Aparte de ello, el alimento escaseaba cada vez mas, se habían comido ya los pocos caballas que les quedaban y la mayoría de los hombres estaban lesionados o enfermos con fiebre y disentería.

Terminaron las barcazas y en septiembre marcharon río abajo los 242 hombres que quedaban, sin ningún caballo, porque el que último se lo habían comido el día antes de partir.

Los primeros días de navegación fueron muy bien, pero cada vez que se acercaban a las orillas del río para conseguir agua dulce o alimentos, eran atacados por los indios o por las tormentas, por lo que Pánfilo de Narváez decidió que los barcos se dispersaran para conseguir salvarse el que pudiera. 

Cuando llegaron el 6 de noviembre de 1528 a la isla de Galveston y Bahía de Lavaca, el barco de Pánfilo de Narváez se había perdido en el mar y al reencontrarse vieron, con horror, que solo quedaban cuarenta y ocho hombres.

De estos 48, el primer día del año 1529, habían muerto muchos por hambre y enfermedad y por los ataques de los indios y solo quedaban Estevanico, el esclavo negro, y 15 españoles. Cuando trece de ellos intentaron moverse por la costa para intentar escapar, mataron a otros tres y los que quedaron fueron visitando las aldeas durante cuatro años largos, siempre como esclavos de los indios y para obtener alguna comida, hasta que llegaron a una en la que el Jefe estaba muy enfermo y al llegar y ponerle uno de los españoles la mano encima con agua fría, el Jefe indio sanó y los tomaron por hechiceros, con lo que estuvieron viviendo de aldea en aldea, actuando de chamanes.

En esto tuvo especial acierto Estevanico, que iba adornado como en su tribu, con abalorios y colgantes que sonaban como cascabeles y bailaba en plan ritual ante los enfermos. A ello le unimos que por su atractivo físico y por ir muchas veces materialmente desnudo, era muy codiciado por las indias que gustaban de estar con él.

Así estuvieron durante siete años, vagando por unas tierras inhóspitas, siempre intentando escapar y quedando al final vivos tan solo cuatro; tres capitanes, Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes Carranza y Estevanico. 

Quedó un cuarteto de personas valerosas, inteligentes y resueltas, que atravesaron a pié, lo que es hoy el Estado de Texas y llegaron después de ocho años a zona civilizada.

De los cuatro que quedaron, Estevanico era hombre grande y de gran alcance, con una mente rápida. Aprendió fácilmente los dialectos usados por los indios, ya que tenían cierta similitud con los utilizados en África y aunque comenzó la expedición como esclavo, se convirtió en el hombre clave de la cruzada y que salvó a los otros tres del triste fin que tuvieron el resto de los expedicionarios, si bien el líder del cuarteto siempre fue Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, al que todos obedecían, ya que no olvidaban que había llegado a la expedición como Tesorero Real.

Los cantes y bailes de Estevanico y la confianza que daba a los indios con sus conjuros y rezos, hizo que en muchas ocasiones salvasen el pellejo.

Después de muchas penalidades, y con las fuerzas justas llegaron a un puesto avanzado en el pequeño pueblo de San Miguel de Culiacán en mayo de 1536, donde fueron recibidos como auténticos héroes ya que todos los habían dado por muertos, por el Gobernador de Nueva Galicia, Nuño de Guzmán, 

Después de unos días de comer y reponer fuerzas, fueron llamados por el Virrey de México que quería conocer la aventura en su totalidad.

Llegaron a México en julio de 1536 y el virrey Antonio de Mendoza pidió a Dorantes que él y su esclavo Estevanico, acompañasen a la expedición que organizada por el franciscano Fray Marcos de Niza partiría para las míticas siete ciudades de Cibolá, a lo que Dorantes no quiso aceptar, pero cedió o vendió a Estevanico al virrey.

Al parecer Dorantes y Cabeza de Vaca esperaban que le concedieran licencia real para colonizar Texas y Nuevo México, quedando muy desilusionados con ello.

En febrero de 1539, salió la expedición de Fray Marcos de Niza,. Iba por delante de la expedición Estevanico, que enviaba con corredores cruces que indicaban que hacia descubrimientos, pero de poca importancia, por lo que las cruces eran pequeñas.

De pronto descubrió Hawikuh, un pueblo de la tribu Zuni y envió un corredor con una cruz muy grande.

Cuando llegó a la aldea, Estevanico fue recibido por los Zunis con desconfianza, por lo que le ordenaron que esperase en las afueras mientras los ancianos discutían sobre dar la autorización o no.

A la siguiente mañana, los Zunis atacaron y mataron a Estevanico.

Andrés Dorantes embarcó en el puerto de Veracruz para volver a España, pero, pero el barco que lo traía era viejo y tuvo que volver a puerto, lo que él consideró un mal presagio y desistió de retornar a Gibraleón.

Se casó con Maria de la Torre, viuda de Francisco Valdés y a la muerte de ésta se volvió a casar con la viuda de Antonio Gómez de la Corona. Tuvo 14 hijos en Nueva España y murió en 1550.

Alonso del Castillo, después de su aventura decidió continuar en el Nuevo Mundo, aunque hizo una breve visita a España y volvió como funcionario de Hacienda a Guatemala. Se casó y murió al final de la década de 1540.

Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, volvió a España y en 1540 regresó a América como segundo Adelantado del Río de la Plata, aunque allí las cosas no le fueron muy bien, fue acusado de maltrato y estuvo encarcelado dos años y posteriormente enviado de nuevo a España, donde aun cuando lo encontraron culpable, fue perdonado por el rey.

Fue nombrado juez del Tribunal Supremo de Sevilla, siendo Prior de un Convento de la misma ciudad y murió en 1564..

                Ángel Custodio Rebollo Barros


Texas and Northeastern Mexico, 1630 - 1690 
Moctezuma's Children,  Aztec Royalty under Spanish Rule
Libro de Conquista
A Book About A Salvadoran Indigenous Language
National American Indian Heritage Month, 2005 
Writer Taiaiake Alfred urges freedom from colonial thinking 
Indigenous Peoples Particularly Vulnerable to Disaster 
Indian and African Ancestry: A Play 


Texas and Northeastern Mexico 1630 - 1690 
Juan Bautista Chapa 
Considered the first official history of Texas

Juan Bautista Chapa was born in Genoa, Italy in 1631 and died in Monterrey, Mexico in 1695.

Oscar Chapa featured in this issue is a direct descendant of Juan Bautista Chapa. Oscar is also a direct descendent of the commanding officer of the San Antonio Presidio, Captain Joseph de Urrutia, 1735. For more click.

In the 17th century, South Texas and Northeastern Mexico formed El Nuevo Reino de Leon, a frontier province of New Spain. In 1690, Juan Bautista Chapa penned a richly detailed history of Nuevo Leon for the years 1630 to 1690. 

Although his Historia de Nuevo Leon was not published until 1909, it has since been acclaimed as the key contemporary document for any historical study of Spanish colonial Texas. This book offers the only accurate and annotated English translation of Chapa's Historia. In addition to the translation, William C. Foster, editor, also summarizes the Discourses of Alonso de Leon (the elder), which cover the years 1580 to 1649. In the appendix, he includes a translation of Alonso (the younger) de Leon's previously unpublished revised diary of the 1690 expedition to East Texas and an alphabetical listing of over 80 Indian tribes identified in this book. Chapa was an authority on the local Indians, Historia lists the names and locations of over 300 Indian tribes, essential Texas history. 

Moctezuma's Children,  Aztec Royalty under Spanish Rule
Author: Donald E. Chipman

Hot off the Press, this new book is overdue but welcome to the growing number of persons interested  in their Spanish Colonial ancestors in Mexico. The  author, a noted borderlands historian, credits the assistance of our friend and colleague, Luis López  Elizondo,of Melchor Múzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico.

Though the Aztec Empire fell to Spain in 1521, three principal heirs of the last emperor, Moctezuma II, survived the conquest and were later acknowledged by the Spanish victors as reyes naturales, (natural kings or monarchs) who possessed certain inalienable rights as Indian royalty. 

For their part, the descendants of Moctezuma II used Spanish law and customs to maintain and enhance their status throughout the colonial period, achieving titles of knighthood and nobility in Mexico and Spain. So respected were they that a Moctezuma descendant by marriage became Viceroy of New Spain. This authoritative historical/genealogical work follows the fortunes of the principal heirs of Moctezuma II across nearly two centuries. Chipman also discusses how the Moctezuma famiily history illuminates several larger issues in colonial Latin American history, including women's status and relations between Spain and its New World colonies.
Illustrated with photos and maps and includes
several genealogy charts. Austin TX, 2005 University
of Texas Press 1st Ed., 200 Pgs., 6&1/4 x 9&1/4, HB.
Luis Elizondo wrote:  Mimi:  This book includes mainly the descendants of Isabel de  Moctezua and two of her husbands from the 1520s through early 1700. The book can be ordered form  George Farias ( or directly from the University of  Texas.


Libro de la Conquista 

Libro de la Conquista

    A Book About A Salvadoran Indigenous Language

                     by Jaime Cader

   It was with great excitement that I received information that a book has for some years been out with the title "The Pipil Language of El Salvador" by Lyle Campbell. 

   In the introduction to that book it states, "The native language of western El Salvador, the subject of this book, is known in the linguistic literature as Pipil, although its speakers call it na:wat in the  language itself and Nahuate in Spanish.  Here [in this book] it is called Pipil because the usage is so strongly entrenched in the scientific literature that it could not easily be changed.  Nevertheless, it is hoped that Na:wat(Nahuate) may gain more general acceptance in honor of and in deference to its speakers.  This book, then, presents a description of this language."

   On pages three and four there are outlines/charts  showing how Pipil is included in the Uto-Aztecan language group.  Other languages in this family are Nahua (Aztecan, Nahuatlan), Hopi (in Arizona), and several California Indian languages including some extinct ones, such as Gabrileño, Fernandeño, Nicoleño, Kitanemuk, etc.  It is, in this author's (Cader's) opinion, clearer to see the Pipil/Aztec connection in the outline on page four.

   The book has a total of 957 pages.  They contain historical information, a grammar section, a Pipil-Spanish-English dictionary, verb conjugations, some folkloric texts written in Pipil with an English translation, and two appendixes.  The folkloric texts include two that are familiar to the general Salvadoran populace.  They are "La Siguanaba" which reminds one of "La Llorona" of Mexico and "El Sipitillo," a story about a dwarf whose name is also written as "El Cipitillo" and as "Cipitin" in other Salvadoran literature.

   By looking at the texts one can see that some Spanish words are included in the vocabulary.  The reverse is also true however, since Salvadoran Spanish includes many words of Pipil origin such as camanances(dimples), papalota(moth), chele(a white person), colocho(a curl, curly, or a person with curly hair), and kushta(a word known mostly to people in the Sonsonate area which is the name of a type of cacao bean).  At least the first two Salvadoran words of Pipil origin can be found in the book.  Some of these are also in usage in the neighboring Central American countries since the Pipil language was not limited to just the territory that presently makes up El Salvador.

   One of the things that this author learned in reading sections of this book is that the population center of Cuisnahuat, at least at the time of the book's publication, has more Pipil speakers than Izalco which is also in western El Salvador.  For many Salvadorans, it is Izalco that has the image of being the country's Indian center.  So perhaps it is only so in Izalco's customs, but not so much in the language spoken there.

   The value of this book cannot be underestimated. Unfortunately as I have been told by an "izalqueño" (a person from Izalco), the Salvadoran government has not seriously taken steps to promote the Pipil language. In order to do so, teachers that can speak Pipil and that have a good understanding of the language need to be employed at the schools.     

   Below there is a link to the site that sells the book  "The Pipil Language of El Salvador."  If that link does not get you the correct results, then click at the second link and then click at page seven to see the listing.  If it is not on page seven, then a listing for it should be on the following page or on a
previous page.


National American Indian Heritage Month, 2005 
A Proclamation by the President of the United States of America
Digest Number 183 Sent by Dorinda Moreno

National American Indian Heritage Month honors the many contributions and accomplishments of American Indians and Alaska Natives. During November, we remember the legacy of the first Americans and celebrate  their vibrant and living traditions. 

The American Indian experience is central to the American story, and my Administration is committed to helping Native American cultures  across the United States continue to flourish. One of the most  important ways to ensure a successful future is through education.  Over the past 4 years, my Administration has provided more than $1  billion for the construction and renovation of Bureau of Indian  Affairs schools. We also offer direct assistance for educator and  counselor training to help make sure every classroom has a qualified  teacher and every child has the tools he or she needs to succeed. As  we work with tribal leaders to provide students with a superior  education that respects the unique culture and traditions of the community, we can help ensure every child has the opportunity to realize their dreams. 

To enhance energy opportunities and strengthen tribal economies, my  Administration is working to ease the regulatory barriers associated with tribal energy development. In August, I signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005, allocating $2 billion in the form of grants, loans, and loan guarantees for exploration, development, and production of energy. This legislation will help ensure that latest energy technologies are being used throughout our country. 

Since the earliest days of our Republic, Native Americans have played a vital role in our country's freedom and security. 

From the Revolutionary War scouts to the Code Talkers of World War II, Native Americans have served in all branches of America's Armed Forces. Today, that proud tradition continues, with Native  Americans bravely defending our country in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom and helping to spread liberty around the world. America is grateful to all our service men and women who serve and sacrifice in the defense of freedom. 

Our young country is home to an ancient, noble, and enduring native culture, and my Administration recognizes the defining principles of tribal sovereignty and the right to self-determination. By working together, government to government, on important education, economic, and energy initiatives, we can strengthen America and build a future of hope and promise for all Native Americans. This month, we pay tribute to the American Indians and Alaska Natives who continue to shape our Nation. I encourage all citizens to learn more about the rich heritage of Native Americans. 

NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby 
proclaim November 2005 as National American Indian Heritage Month. I call upon all Americans to commemorate this month with appropriate programs and activities. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this second day of October, in the year of our Lord two thousand five, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirtieth. 


Writer Taiaiake Alfred urges freedom from colonial thinking 
November 08, 2005 by: Melissa Gorelick
From: Dorinda Moreno

SYRACUSE, N.Y. - Problems in the Native community require uniquely Native solutions, said cutting-edge American Indian scholar Taiaiake Alfred at a recent Syracuse University lecture. 

Alfred, a Mohawk who teaches in the Indigenous Governance Program at the University of Victoria, British Columbia, discussed the contents of his new book, ''Wasase: Indigenous Pathways of Action and Freedom'' - namely, ways in which Natives can learn to live and think as Onkwehonkwe, original people. The book, he said, is based on the experiences of Natives who have accomplished this goal. 

''It is time for our people to live again,'' the book begins. It goes on to detail a journey away from the effects of the white invasion of the Americas, which Alfred sees as the source of most major problems in Indian communities today. 

''The journey is a living commitment to meaningful change in our lives by ... regenerating our cultures, and struggling against the forces that keep us bound to our colonial past,'' Alfred wrote. 

Colonial values have become ingrained in the Indian community, he said, addressing a packed room at the Syracuse University College of Law. These values, which run contrary to traditional Native beliefs, have caused long-standing problems of the community, the body and the spirit. 

''The most damaging aspect of colonization was the way it was premised on a relationship of white domination and Indian subordination,'' said Scott Lyons, a Native scholar and creative writing professor at Syracuse University who attended Alfred's lecture. 

This colonial notion of Indian inferiority was drilled into Native communities throughout history, Lyons added. The policy of allotment, for example - privatizing and parceling out tribal land to individuals - was designed to create capitalistic values in the Indian community. Capitalism, and the dependency on the non-Native world that necessarily accompanies it, still dominates Indian life today. 

For this reason, Alfred said, Natives have discovered that the legal and legislative battles won by their communities over the last few decades are what he called ''hollow victories.'' Tribal courts and indigenous governments, for instance, have arisen, and many Natives communities have won independence from the United States or Canada. Too often, however, these institutions resemble those of the colonizers. No real change can come from the halls, desks and courts of such institutions. 

''When it comes down to surviving or not surviving, none of these laws are going to matter,'' said Regina Jones, an Oneida and the program coordinator for Syracuse's Office of Multicultural Affairs, who also attended the lecture. ''What we really need is a society that doesn't depend on department stores.'' 

Recalling his first two books, Alfred traced the evolution of Indian resistance to colonial problems over the last few decades. Native scholars and activists soon realized that legal victories were ''very dangerous,'' leading to more dependency on white ways of thinking. 

Alfred added that the academic world of Native studies is not immune to the pitfalls of a colonial way of thinking. He sees that sometimes ''being an intellectual'' can overshadow truly traditional Native point of view. 

''There's a [Native] perspective ... a way of thinking that is oftentimes lost in academia,'' he said. 
Alfred's ideas are innovative in the academic world, said Lyons, but not in traditional Native thinking. In ''Wasase,'' Alfred advocated a personal commitment to escaping colonialism in daily life, from returning to traditional ways of eating to relearning Indian languages. 

''It's an effort on the part of every individual to carry the weight of living as an Onkwehonkwe,'' he said, adding that this is not an easy task. Of the 13 Onkwehonkwe interviewed in ''Wasase,'' all cited the difficulties of living a life rooted in traditional values. One of the hardest to overcome, Alfred said, is the bias of the outside world. 

The psychology of colonized peoples has been explored in academic circles by writers like Frantz Fanon, who famously analyzed the deforming effects of colonization, but the way in which Alfred presented it is relatively new. Alfred suggested that the re-rooting of Natives in their traditional values can and must be the source of inspiration for Native government. Creating effective institutions without this traditional knowledge is impossible. 

''It's putting the cart before the horse,'' he said. The way of the warrior, he said, is what inspires this individual struggle, and the word Wasase captures the spirit of this movement. Wasase is the name of an ancient Mohawk warrior's ritual, the Thunder Dance, which represents unity, strength and commitment to action. 

''I'm talking about reviving the true spirit of being a warrior,'' he said. This means facing bias and intolerance head-on. Only by facing bias and economic problems the way that warriors once faced battles, on a deeply personal level, will real progress be made, Alfred said. ''Change happens one warrior at a time.''

Maya Network for Disaster Prevention
By Diego Cevallos* - Tierramérica
Sent by Dorinda Moreno

MEXICO CITY, Oct 19 (IPS) - In the areas of Guatemala recently devastated by Hurricane Stan, which claimed the lives of more than 655 people, indigenous children last year played Kumatzin, a board game in the Maya language and with Mayan illustrations, used as an educational tool on how to prepare for and survive natural disasters.

If that game and other preparedness initiatives had been more widespread, perhaps today the situation in Stan's wake would be different, say its promoters.

In early October, Stan smashed into several impoverished areas of Guatemala and southern Mexico, part of the "Mesoamerican" region. And the area is now concerned about Hurricane Wilma, which strengthened into a category 5 storm Wednesday.

Indigenous people in the region are included in official plans for disaster prevention, evacuation and aid, but without taking into account their unique cultural references and knowledge.

The howl of the coyotes, the way certain birds fly, the "sound" of the Earth and the position and shine of the moon are some of the manifestations of nature that can predict natural disasters, according to the indigenous "wise ones" and elders.

But none of that has a place in the official plans, which often also ignore the languages and the organizational modes of native communities when it comes to confronting shared problems. "The tragedy wouldn't have been as serious if plans existed that took into consideration the particularities of the indigenous communities and their cultures," Ramiro Batzin, spokesman for the  Sotz'il, a Guatemalan indigenous organization, told Tierramérica.

Together with the Red Cross, Sotz'il is working to create a Maya Network for Disaster Prevention.
The governments recognizes that the recent torrential rains associated with Stan worsened the marginalization of the descendents of the ancient Maya Indians, who developed one of the most advanced civilizations in what is now Latin America. 

Indian and African Ancestry: A Play  Playwright explores Black and Indian identity 
Dorinda Moreno

William Yellow Robe, a playwright of Native and African-American ancestry, explores ethnic identity in his new play, "Grandchildren of the Buffalo Soldiers." The play follows the story of Craig Robe, a descendant of a Native woman and an African-American man who served as a buffalo soldier for the U.S. military. It is currently being staged at the Lied Center in Kansas as part of a nationwide tour. Yellow Robe is Assiniboine from the Fort Peck Reservation in Montana. But he also has African ancestors. 

Get the Story: Identity war (The Lawrence Journal-World 11/10) 
Relevant Links: Grandchildren of the Buffalo Soldiers -  
Related Stories: Review: 'Better-n-Indins' challenges stereotypes (01/28) 



Interviews by Gloria Golden with:
Juan Estevan Arellano
Kim Delgado
Book: Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic American
Floricanto Press, Mountain View, California, 94041 (c) 2005
Gloria Golden,

New Mexicans study their roots, begin to worship, eye to Sephardic past


Juan Estevan Arellano

My mother revealed most of the following information to me.

The names in the family are Arellano, Archuleta, Duran, and Sanchez. I remember people saying that Grandmother Duran, on Mother's side, was Jewish. Relatives told this to me. My ancestors, on this side of the family, came in 1598. The Arellanos came from Mexico (Aguascaliente, Mexico). Relatives said that the Arellanos, my father's family, came from Spain in 1695 with Don Diego De Vargas who reclaimed New Mexico for Spain, without bloodshed. They also came with Alonso Rael De Aguilar, their ancestor. I believe they were probably all related or part of an extended family. The Arellano branch of my family came from Arellano, near the Basque region and close to Pamplona.


When a bad storm was brewing, you were told to go outside and get salt to make a cross.

When someone died, Mother said her family would cover the mirrors or turn them to face the wall. They would have a twenty-four hour burial, and the mourning period would last for a year. During that time they were not allowed to go to dances or listen to the radio.

I avoid church and don't worship, as did my father. I don't believe in organized religion. At one time, theArellanos were Protestant. The Arellanos never went to church and never had santos (statues). My mother said she became an Apostolic Fundamentalist because, in the Catholic Church, you were not allowed to read the Old Testament. Afterwards, my mother, sisters, and brothers became Seventh DayAdventists. Father never became part of this.

When the sun went down on Friday night, the Arellanos wouldn't do anything until Saturday evening. My brothers and sisters still do this.

The slaughtered animal would be hung so that the blood would drain. Special knives were used for butchering. Eggs with blood spots were thrown out. Mom didn't eat blood and avoided blood in food.

If bread (tortilla) fell to the floor, the family would throw it away.

I don't feel any connection to Judaism. However, I'm proud of my heritage and tell my children that they have an Apache, Basque, and Jewish heritage.  Why would you come here if you weren't escaping something.

For some reason I have always been intrigued with crypto-Jewish research they are doing on Sephardic Jews. I have no idea why and still don't.  

is a nickname. My real name is Aurora Gloria Casimira Delgado. The names on my mother's side are Flores, Castellano, Apodaca, and Ufibarri. My mother was Castellano. Names on my dad's side are Sanchez, Delgado, Garcia, Ortiz, and C de Baca (originally Cabeza de Baca). 

 Kim Delgado

Things were kept secret and people didn't discuss things the way they do now. You would never talk about psychological things. You wouldn't talk about personal things.

My aunt said the family was from Spain. There were a couple of brothers who wanted to seek their fortune. They were also seeking a better life in the New World. She had no proof, but this is what she was told.

I was thinking about one of my grandmas. She never went anywhere, including church. I thought, "How come if you're Catholic, you don't go to church?" She would pray her rosary and not go to church. I asked my aunt why Grandma didn't go to church if she was Catholic. She said, "Well, Grandma doesn't like to go anywhere," She stayed at home. I thought that was strange. She was
C de Baca and Garcia.

The people in my village, a village that is no longer there, would marry within the community because they never went anywhere. The name of the village was Chaperita, 35 miles southeast of Las Vegas. We married within our own.

We had a twenty-four hour burial. From the day that the person died, people would start coming over with food. Afew days after the burial, people would still come and bring food. We had a one-year mourning period. Every year they would offer a Catholic mass for the deceased. If someone was killed at the side of the road, they would place a cross there and hold it up with a pile of rocks. They covered the mirrors after the death, and Grandma covered the mirrors during lightning. Coins were placed on the eyes of the deceased to close them.

After slaughtering animals, they would hang them and let them bleed. If my mom opened an egg with a blood spot, she would get rid of it.

After birth, women would not wash or go out in public. The women would cover their heads if they went to church.

During Holy Week, you couldn't shave. Holy Week starts on Monday and ends on the Friday before Easter Sunday. We would not do any chores. The Friday of Holy Week was the most important day. The Saturday before Easter you would be able to resume all activities. That Saturday is called Glorious Saturday. 

I am intrigued by Judaism.  If I discovered the truth, it would  not change me.  I would accept it and work with it because it identifies who you are.

New Mexicans study their roots, begin to worship, eye to Sephardic past
Jane Moorman News-Bulletin Staff Writer;
Sent by Richard Duran

Los Lunas When the Roman Legions overran the Jewish nation, much of the Jewish population was sent into exile throughout the Roman Empire.

Many were sent to the Iberian peninsula. The area became know by the Hebrew word Sephard, meaning far away.

The Jews in Spain and Portugal became known as Sephardim or Sephardi, and those things associated with the Sephardim, including names, customs, genealogy and religious rites, became know as Sephardic.

From the Web site of Dr. Seth Ward formerly of the Center of Judaic Studies at the University of Denver,

Perry Peña always wondered why his grandmother lit a candle on Friday evenings and not on other days.  He also wondered why his aunt kissed a statue of St. Jude on the doorframe as she entered her home.

It wasn't until he became interested in Judaism that he realized his family is descended from conversos, or New Christians, who hid their Jewish heritage during the Spanish Inquisition by becoming Catholics. Many conversos colonized in New Spain.

Research documentation is particularly strong about New Christian settlement in what later became northern New Mexico and southern Colorado.

"I always wondered about some of our family traditions," Peña said. "I have realized there are layers upon layers of Jewish customs in the northern New Mexico traditions, such as kissing of the door post, going to Mass on Saturday, covering mirrors when someone dies, throwing dirt into the grave, soaking a freshly butchered chicken in salt water before cooking it or bleeding a sheep and then burying the blood, and women sweeping the dirt into the center of the room before picking it up."

And now he also understands that his family's lighting of luminarias at Christmas was a Crypto-Judaism practice celebrating the Festival of Lights by Sephardic Jews.

Ralph Madina, from the age of 19, said he has kept the Jewish holy days even though his family was Christian. "I just always felt it was what I should do," he said.

Six years ago, after moving to New Mexico from New York City, Madina realized his family's roots in Barcelona, Spain, were also in Judaism. "I then understood my feelings," he said.

"Our family always says the blessing as we say good-bye. When I bought a car in New Mexico, the salesman gave me a blessing after our business was completed," Madina said. "I thought this is wonderful."

Whether said in Hebrew, Spanish or English, both Peña and Madina say the family practice of saying a blessing — "Lord bless you and keep you. May the Lord make his face to shine upon you. May the Lord bless you and keep upon your way and give you blessings" — is a Jewish tradition.

Joe Morse's awakening to his Sephardic Jewish heritage was a little different. He was raised as an Orthodox Jew in New York City since his grandparents came to the United States from the Ukraine.

"But I never looked like the other Ukrainian kids at synagogue," the 30-year resident of New Mexico said. "It wasn't until I learned that my ancestor went from Barcelona, Spain, to Kiev that I realized I was actually a Sephardic Jew and that I have Spanish features."

With the realization of their religious heritage, Morse, Madina and Peña have been drawn together to form a Sephardic Jewish synagogue in Valencia County.

"We are the Kahilah Ba-Midbar, congregation in the wilderness," said Morse, the congregation's leader. "When we first started gathering together, we'd meet in parks and in people's homes. Now we meet at the Village of Los Lunas Wellness Center, beside Heritage Park each Saturday at 10:30 a.m."

Madina is the congregation's elder, while Peña is the group's teacher.

"We are not Jews who worship Jesus, but rather we believe in the one God and his son, Yeshua, who was, is and will always be our messiah," Morse said.

Rather than calling Jesus by a Christian name, Morse says the group refers to him as Yeshua, which is Hebrew meaning salvation.

"Our goal is to reintroduce the lost House of Israel, the Sephardic Jews who have had to practice Crypto-Judaism, to their true heritage by teaching the Torah and Jewish lifestyle, including keeping of the Sabbath and holy days, through songs and prayers in our Hebrew language," Morse said.

"We are trying to go back to the pure practice in our belief of the Messiah. We will not forsake our true heritage. We are reclaiming our birthright."

"We are trying to evolve back to the original teachings of the first congregation of Yeshua by studying the meanings of the Hebrew words in the Torah to get the higher truth," said Madina. "Take the Hebrew for the phrase, God almighty, El Shadi, it actually is translated as God of the breast, or I feed you."

"We welcome all who want to study the Torah to seek Gods truth through the Messiah, Yeshua," Morse said.

He adds that, through this practice, he says group's members are changing to be more pleasing to God. "We are striving for salvation through the Messiah, to turn from sin and walk away."

The group also has future goals of establishing a Sephardic study center, Judaic store, deli and food coop.



1st Annual Birthday Celebration in Honor of Adina De Zavala - 1861-1955
Angel of Goliad Descendants Coin Information
27th annual Hispanic State Genealogical Conference
We are Tejanos, U.S.A. born and raised 

Power of Attorney by Soldiers at the Presidio de San Antonio de Bexar
Last Will and Testament of Dóna Maria Ignacia Urrutia
Title of Nobility 
Abstract: Texas Land Grant Search 

Tejano Monument stalled after funding glitch 
Dallas-Ft. Worth Region Attracts Immigrants From All Over


First Annual Birthday Celebration
  in Honor of Adina De Zavala - (1861-1955)
Sent by

On Monday, Nov. 28 at St. Mary's Cemetery (located at E. Commerce and New Braunfels St.)  special ceremony was held  in honor of Adina De Zavala.  De Zavala was the granddaughter of Lorenzo de Zavala, the first Vice President of Texas and was one of the state's premier preservationists. Her gravesite is in the cemetery on the corner of Palmetto and Wyoming St., in the Northwest quadrant.

A brief ceremony was held at the gravesite. A ceremonial wreath was place following the reading of a brief eulogy. 

Photo: blue2/blue2b.html

  Immediately following this special ceremony,l guests were invited  to Casa Navarro State Historic Site (228 S. Laredo St., 210-226-4801) for seasonal chocolate and pan dulce. The Friends of Adina De Zavala, Mr. Rudi R. Rodriguez, Chairman, Mr. Maclovio Perez and Mr. Robert Garcia have organized this event.

A brief excerpt from The Handbook of Texas History Online: In 1912, she organized the Texas Historical and Landmarks Association, which placed 38 markers at historic sites in Texas.

Adina de Zavala probably did more than any other single person in stirring interest in the preservation of the Spanish Governor's Palace in San Antonio, which was finally purchased in 1928 by the city and restored.

In the 1930s, she helped establish the location near Crockett, Texas of sites of the first two missions established in Texas by the Spanish. In 1923, Gov. Pat Neff appointed her to the Texas Historical Board, and she was one of the original members of the Committee of One Hundred appointed to plan for a state centennial.

She also served on the advisory board of the Texas Centennial Committee. She was a charter member of the Texas State Historical Association and a member of the executive council of that body beginning in 1919. In 1945 she was elected an honorary life fellow of the association. Adina was a dedicated Catholic and a member of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and the Texas Folklore Society.

Texas is proud to honor this legendary patriarch of Texas history. It is part of our mission to ensure that the legacies of Tejanos and Tejanas are not forgotten. For more information, contact Texas at (210) 673-3584.

Viva Tejano Texas!  Rudi R. Rodriguez  



Angel of Goliad Descendants Coin Information

"The obverse of the 2005 TNA medal features Col. James W. Fannin, Commander at Goliad, and Francisca Alvarez,  Angel of Goliad.  Fannin was born in Georgia, in 1804.  In 1834 he came to Texas and settled in Brazoria County, where he organized a military company known as the Brazoria Guards. In 1835 he won recognition in the Battle of Concepcion and was soon promoted to the rank of colonel.  After the fall of the Alamo, Col. Fannin, who was in command at Goliad,  was given orders to retreat to Victoria.  During his retreat, his army was surrounded by Mexican troops.  After two days of fighting, Fannin and his men surrendered.  General Santa Anna ordered that all prisoners be executed, and on Palm Sunday, March 27, 1836, Fannin and about 350 of his men were executed. 

Señora Francisca Alvarez was the wife of a captain in the Mexican army.  She is known as the Angel of Goliad because her intervention saved the lives of more than 25 of Fannin’s men.  Señora Alvarez holds the distinction of the only person on the Mexican side of the struggle for Texas Independence to be honored by the Texas House and Senate.  Dr. Joseph H. Barnard, a survivor of the Goliad Massacre, felt Señora Alvarez’ name should be perpetuated and "recorded  in the annals of this country and treasured in the heart of every Texan."  She is also referred to as the Angel of Mercy because of her many acts of compassion toward the prisoners.   Señora Alvarez is recognized as a heroine of the Texas Revolution."

Mark your calendars: 
27th annual Hispanic State Genealogical Conference 
 Corpus Christi Oct 31 to Nov 3rd, hosted by the Spanish American Genealogical Society. Information: Mira Smithwick, President of  SAGA,

We are Tejanos, U.S.A. born and raised 

Ever wanted to know the difference between a TEJANO (Texan) and a Mexican? Read this.

What are you, Tejano, Mexican, or Mexican-American?

What are you, Tejano, Mexican, or Mexican-American? That is the question. How many times have we been identified as being Mexican and then had to  explain we were not from México? After graciously and politely explaining  in perfect English, actually, we are Mexican-American, it’s very frustrating  to hear, “When did you become a United States citizen?” It’s a valid  question for Mexican citizens, who became United States citizens, but not  United States born Tejanos. 

Tejas (Texas) was settled and ruled by the  Spanish for more than three hundred years (1500-1800). Settlements of  Spanish speaking Tejano communities flourished during those early Tejas  days, along with the development of a very unique group of people called  “Los Tejanos”. Today in the United States Tejanos and Tejanas continue being  part of the original fabric of Texas. Presently the area known as Mexico  was also settled and ruled by the Spanish. The colonization of these two  areas in the North American continent led to the birth and evolution of two  similar but distinct people. The Spanish, who settled in Mexico City and  the surrounding areas mixed with the local indigenous inhabitants, and gave  birth to the first “mestizos”. Today in Mexico, there are varieties of  different levels of mestizos and others identified as Mexican. Currently  all over the United States but especially in Texas, and along the southern  border, great numbers of Mexican and Mexican-Americans are living here.  Who are Tejanos . . . 

In the 1500’s the Spanish came and established La Provincia De Tejas.  Presently in Texas large numbers of Tejanos are descendants of Spanish and  local indigenous people, who settled the territory named Tejas (Texas).  Most Spanish speaking Tejanos, born in Texas are not aware of their Tejano  ancestry. It’s clear, because the Tejano or Tejana term is seldom, if ever, used. The distinction applies to individuals of Spanish, Spanish/Indigene  and other ancestry born in Tejas. Why? Tejanos and Tejanas emerged,  evolved and developed, during the original Tejas Spanish Province era.  Since the early 1600’s Tejanos actively contributed to the development of  cities such as Goliad, Gonzales, Refugio, San Fernando now known as San  Antonio and many more. Many of the original inhabitants of the Republic of  Texas were Tejanos, not Mexican. They were Tejanos long before becoming  Mexican citizens in 1824.

Presently the United States government, educational and other institutions  consider most individuals of Spanish and other ancestry, living in Texas and  other southwestern states Mexican or Mexican American. This is false,  misleading and has caused grave identity consequences to United States born  Tejano citizens with similar linage. With the exception of sporadic minor  mention of the Mexican Tejano term, referencing the original early settlers  of Tejas, the Tejano term is hardly if ever used. Most people believe the  Tejano term stands for or represents music. When in fact Tejano musicians  introduced and established the Tejano Music genre. The term “Tejano” is  erroneously used and associated to mean Mexican and Tejano are one and the  same. In the United States, especially in Texas, most people believe  Tejanos and Tejanas are Mexican, came from Mexico or they are all of Mexican  decent. This view is terribly flawed and embarrassing.

Why should you care …?

I strongly support the view that Tejanos who were born in Texas, especially  descendants of the original Tejanos, should be properly identified as  Tejanos, not Mexican Texan, Hispanic, Mexican-American, Latino, Mexican or  Chicano. The original Tejano did not come to Texas, they evolved here.  Awareness and information of Tejano ethnicity, culture and history is of  vital importance to United States born Tejanos and people in general. Most  can identify or recognize a Mexican, Latino, Hispanic or Mexican-American.  It’s clear, or should be, foreign Spanish speaking people do not represent  the basic Spanish speaking United States born citizens. Most of them have  clearly manifested, their foreign agendas, which include the welfare,  special interests and assistance of their newly formed communities.  Mexican, Hispanic and Latino have introduced their own foreign culture and  established non-traditional United States communities. Not in all but in  most cases their children are raised with the country of origin cultural  ways. Today they control 99% of Spanish radio and 100% of Spanish  television. Mexican restaurants can be found in practically all parts of  the United States. Unfortunately, the misguided consensus is that Mexican,  Latino, and Hispanics are the over-all Spanish speaking United States born  citizenry. In the great state of Texas this is not the case. Our language,  customs, values and traditions are quite different. Please understand  Tejanos are a bicultural entity with Texas and United States values and  traditions. Tejanos and Tejanas must restore and promote, who we truly are  and represent. Most Tejanos strive for higher goals. My goal is the over  due acknowledgement, recognition, acceptance and inclusion of the Tejano  ethnicity, identity, culture and distinguished heritage.

God bless Texas . . . Vivan Los Tejanos


Captain Joseph de Urrutia, Power of Attorney, Presidio de San Antonio de Bexar, Dated 25 September 1735

This document authorized their commanding officer, Captain Joseph de Urrutia , or Dõn Juan de Angulo, a merchant in Mexico City, to collect their annual salaries and apply 12,000 pesos of this on Urrutia’s taxes. Urrutia was then to reimburse the soldiers with merchandise in San Antonio. Excellent census of the military in Bexar at time. By John Inclan

Power of Attorney

In the royal presidio of San Antonio de Bexar, jurisdiction of these provinces of Texas, kingdom of the New Philippines, on the 25th day of the month of September , 1735, before me, Dõn Manuel de Sandoval, captain of Spanish infantry, governor and captain general of these said provinces of Texas, their presidios, conversions, and frontiers, commandant of the governors of Coahuila and Pensacola and of the witnesses with whom I am acting as a Juez Receptor in the absence of a royal notary or notary public, since the notary of this jurisdiction is in prison and there is no other as prescribed by law, there appeared, in person, Lieutenant Dõn Matheo Perez; Ensign Dõn Juan Galvan; Sergeant Ascencio del Razo; and Privates Juan Cortinas; Joseph Miguel de Sosa; Marcelino Martinez; Andres Hernandez; Manuel de Carvajal; Nicolas de Caravajal; Xivier Perez; Joseph Antonio Flores; Marcos Rodriguez; Joseph Maldonado; Juan Antonio de Luna; Antonio Guerra; Bacilio del Toro; Joseph Quinones; Nicolas Quinones; Sebastian Rincon; Pedro del Toro; Joseph Montes; Jacobo Hernandez; Diego Hernandez; Dõn Pedro de Ocon y Trillo; Francisco Flores; Lorenzo de Castro; Miguel de Castro; Matin Flores; Bacilio Jimenez; Mathias de la Zerda; Joseph Martinez; Joaquin de Urrutia; Pedro de Urrutia; Andres Garcia; Joseph de Sosa; Geronimo de la Garza; Joaquin Flores; Miguel Guerra; Francisco de la Pena; and Jose Cisneros, all officers and enlisted men of this royal presidio, all of whom I certify I know, and they said that they unanimously, by common consent, together and individually, as a group, do hereby grant by these present such power as may be necessary and required by law, to their captain, Dõn Joseph de Urrutia, in the first place, and, in the second place, to Dõn Juan de Angulo, a resident and ware-house keeper in Mexico City, as paymaster for the said officers and men so that in their name and representing their persons, rights, and acts, they may, during the present year of 1735, appear, and they shall appear, each one for himself and for all the others, before the Most Illustrious and the Most Excellent Archbishop and Viceroy of this New Spain and for the necessary warrants for collecting their salaries of 380 pesos which His Majesty has assigned to each of the forty signers, plus 65 pesos for the Lieutenant, Ensign, and Sergeant, all of which amounts to 15,265 pesos, and 240 pounds of power, representing the six pounds which his Majesty likewise gives to each of the said signers every year, all of which is to be issued by Royal Treasury in Mexico City, where the official royal judges, in view of the said warrant from the Most Illustrious and Most Excellent Archbishop and Viceroy, will deliver, in cash to satisfy the aforementioned signers, and in their name, to the aforementioned paymasters and agents, Dõn Joseph de Urrutia and Dõn Juan de Angulo to whoever may represent them. The said sum and the quantity of powder, and they now and forevermore will consider themselves satisfied with such amounts as the said agents may receive. Furthermore, they state that they may issue such receipts and quittances as may be necessary to collect the same, plus affidavits that they have received same or the renunciation of laws connected therewith. They shall present before his Excellency the necessary memorials and other documents as may be necessary for that purpose. They hereby grant and give unto the said Dõn Joseph de Urrutia and Dõn Juan de Angulo the present power-of-attorney with full authority and power to appoint one, two, three, or more substitutes, and the latter may appoint as many more as may be necessary, without any restriction whatever, for they de hereby authorize and empower each and every one of them to institute legal proceeding and swear to oaths whenever necessary, on the condition that the said agents shall pay and deliver the amount or value of the salaries to which the undersigned are or shall be entitled from the Royal Treasure, to Dõn Joseph de los Rios, royal tax collector, the amount of 12,000 pesos, which, by order of the present governor of this province of Texas, is to be charged against the Royal Treasury and delivered to them in merchandise through their said captain and agents, Dõn Joseph de Urrutia in exchange for equal amount, as principal and cost, which the aforesaid captain owes as royal taxes to His Majesty, which said sum the undersigned acknowledge as having received. In view of the above, and since the aforesaid sum of 12,000 pesos is due the Royal Treasury before any sum or sums which the said undersigned or afore-mentioned agents may owe. In case the afore-said sum should not be paid by their agents Dõn Joseph de Urrutia and Dõn Juan de Agulo, the undersigned do hereby annul and cancel the power which they give and confer upon their said agents, and they transfer and change the same with full authority, as stated herein, to Dõn Joseph Luis de los Rios, or to such agent as may be appointed by him as his lawful representative so that he, as royal collector, may deliver and pay to the Royal Treasury the sum of the salaries due the said undersigned for the present year, in the amount of twelve thousand pesos, receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged. Whatever is left, up to the total amount due the said soldiers for their said salaries, shall be placed at the disposal of the undersigned. For the execution of the above they have bound their persons and present and future assets, and they hereby authorize the justices and judges of His Majesty to whom there presents shall come to make them observe and fulfill same to the full force and extent of the law as though it were a sentence pronounced, passed, and agreed to in a case which had been tried in court by a competent judge. They ask and begged me to interpose my royal and judicial authority, and I, the said governor, in the name of His Majesty, do hereby interpose same insofar as I can and should according to law. Done before me and the attendant witnesses with whom I am acting according to law as stated above, and those who knew how to write their names signed same with me, and for those who could not write their one of the following witnesses signed for them,: Dõn Fermin de Ibiricu, Dõn Ignacio Gonzalez de Inclán, and Alberto Lopez, who were present and all of whom reside in this said presidio. This has been placed on common paper because there is no stamped paper as provided by law. I certify.

(The signatures of the following appear: Dõn Manuel de Sandoval, the governor; his official witness, Joseph Antonio Bueno de Roxas and Domingo de Oyez; Mateo Perez; Juan Galvan; Juan Cortinas; Marcelino Martinez; Martin Flores y Valdez; Basilio Jimenez; Joaquin de Urrutia; Miguel Guerra; Pedro del Toro; and Pedro de Ocon y Trillo. Fermin de Ibiricu and Ignacio Gonzalez de Inclán signed for the others who did not know how to write).

From the Bexar Archive Translations, Vol. 7, pp 123-133. Bexar County Courthouse Archives. (Translations also in UT Baker Library at Austin, Texas).

The Last Will and Testament of Dona Maria Ignacia Urrutia
February 7, 1812
Sent by John Inclan

In the name of God and His Most Holy Mother, Our Lady, who conceived by grace without original sin.

Be it well known by this my last will and written testament, that I, Maria Ignacia, a widow, am a resident of the City of San Fernando de Bexar.

Though I am seriously ill, I am in possession of sound mind, memory, and understanding. Being so endowed with reason, I realize, especially since I am thus confined to my bed, that death is the natural debt of all creatures, and that it will claim us without our knowing the hour of it’s coming.

I firmly believe in the Most Holy Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three separate persons but only one true God, and I believe all the others creeds in which Our Holy Mother Apostolic Roman Catholic Church believes and confesses.

With our Most Holy Mother of Guadalupe as my advocate and guide as she has been all my life and I pray her to continue to be, to strengthen my faith, I make, publish and declare this my last will in the following manner.

FIRST: I commend my soul to God who created it and redeemed it with His most precious blood. It is my wish that my body be shrouded in the robe of the religious order of our Patron Saint Francis, and buried in the Campo Santo of this city. If it is God’s will, I desire to be buried in the morning, and to have nine low masses celebrated in the Parochial Church, beginning on the day of my funeral. The other burial arrangements I leave to the good judgment of my executors and I order my wishes to be respected in these matters.

SECOND: It is my will that 100 pesos be dedicated from my estate to pay for 100 masses to be celebrated in the following manner for the repose of my soul: 25 in the Mission of Espiritu Santos in the Presidio of La Bahia, 25 in the Mission known as Nuestra Seora del Refugio, 25 in San Francisco de la Espada, and 25 in the Mission San Jose. I command this to be done.

THIRD: Although I do not recall that I owe any debts, if any persons should present claims against my estate and fully prove my indebtedness to them, I desire my executors to pay these debts from the corpus of my estate. I order this to be done.

FOURTH: I declare that I was married in the first nuptials to Don Simon de Arocha, Commander of the Corps of Militia of Texas. During our marriage I bore my husband six children:
Francisco, Ana Maria, Tomás, Miguel, the priest Clemente Ignacio

I brought no dowry whatever to my said husband. This is the Truth.

FIFTH: I declare as my property the following real estate: a stone house, situated in the Plaza of this city; it is bounded on the West by the Acequia, on the North by a lot which is the property of Don Vicente Travieso, and on the South by the said Plaza. The lot consists of 40 varas frontage and 60 varas depth and the house consists of a hallway, a living room, and two bedrooms; the remainder of the 40 varas is enclosed by one solid wall. This I state to be true.

SIXTH: I declare that I possess and claim as mine the following: two iron pots, two metates, one trunk, four flannel nightgowns, two underskirts, two pairs of top skirts without padding, one cot covered with hide, two sheets, one pair of pillows, one picture of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, one bench, one table, and one blue muffler. This is the truth.

SEVENTH: I declare that I have brought action against Alferez Juan Antonio Urrutia concerning a lot for which he has not yet paid me in full, but which is reputed to belong to him, I order my executors to collect from the said Urrutia what he lawfully owes and to carry out my orders in this particular.

EIGHTH: I declare that it is my last wish that the property known to be mine, listed in the above clauses, be distributed equally among in the above children, whom I charge to conduct themselves with complete harmony and brotherly affection. I order this to be done.

NINTH: I name and appoint as my executors, first, my son the priest, Clemente Arocha, and second, my son Francisco, and it is my desire that they as my executors carry out the provisions of this my will. I give them jointly and severally all power and authority necessary to dispose of or sell what they consider the most liquid of my assets if necessary to pay the bequests, legacies, church fees, ceremonies, and funeral and burial expenses mentioned in this will , carrying out my wishes in every detail. I pray them to acquit my conscience as I lay that burden on theirs, and whatever they may do thus, shall be as valid, binding and legal as if I myself had acted. I direct this to be done.

TENTH: I order my executors to pay the fees known as the compulsory church bequests, whatever is customary in this (city).

It is my desire that this be recognized as my last will and testament and that it be qiven the full faith and credit which it merits under the law. Because some certain clause has been omitted, it should not have less validity and force that it would have if such a clause had been incorporated in it.

In this faith and belief thus expressing my intention, I executed this instrument as shown herein, but did not sign it because I did not know how to write. At my request Vicente Gortari, a resident of this city of San Fernando de Béxar, signed for me, January 7, 1822, in the presence of the Commissioner, Captain Luis Galan, and the witnesses to his proceedings, in the form and manner in which they will sign below.

Luis Galan Vicente Gortari
Fernando Veramendi Jose Antonio Bustillos
Jose Antonio de la Garza Victor Blanco
Manuel Delgado

Inasmuch as the proceedings on the last will and testament of Maria Ignacia de Urrutia have been completed, I hereby forward the record to Lieutenant Colonel Manuel de Salcedo, Governor of this province, so that after due consideration of it he may make such disposition of it as he believes the circumstances warrant.

San Fernando de Bexar, February 7, 1812
Luis Galan
Source: Wills and Estates #114, 
Spanish Archives, Bexar County Courthouse.

Title of Nobility

Given to the male Canary Islanders of San Antonio, Texas, and their descendants in perpetum (forever):  "In law 6, title 6, book IV, of the summary of the Laws of dies, "his majesty states:

"In order to honor any persons and their legitimate sons and descendants, who may undertake to found settlements , when they have concluded and established such settlements, we hereby make them land-holding nobles, (Hijos Dalgo de Solar conocido,) so that in that settlement and in any other part of the Indies they may be known as land-holding nobles and persons of noble lineage and estate, and, in order that they be known as such, we hereby grant them all the honors and prerogatives that all landed noblemen and knights of these kingdoms of Castile should have and enjoy, according to the laws and privileges of Spain. "therefore, by virtue of this law, his majesty shall declare, as I by these presents do declare, each and everyone of the persons included in these fifteen families, their sons and legitimate descendants, to be noblemen and as such they shall be considered, and accorded all the honors and prerogatives, enjoyed by all landed noblemen and knights of the kingdoms of Castile according to the customs and laws of Spain, with which his majesty has been pleased to honor them. The proper dispatches bearing this declaration shall be issued to them by my superior office for their sue whenever they shall request them. This dispatch shall be kept in the archives of the superior government council. The governor shall let them know the contents thereof, and he shall give them any official copies of it they may request.

Mexico City, November 28, l730
the Marquis of Casafuerte, Viceroy of Spain.
Witness: Antonio de Aviles.
Bexar Archives, Vol. l, page 250, translations.
Bexar County Courthouse, San Antonio, Texas
Sent by John Inclan
Abstract: TEXAS LAND GRANT SEARCH, by Neil Miserendino
Bay Area Genealogical Society
THE CLF NEWSLETTER Volume XIX November 2005 Number 4 pg 3

The Texas General Land Office (TGLO) maintains records of original land grants that have an abstract number issued by the TGLO. These records are maintained in the Land Grant Database which is accessible in their offices at 1700 N. Congress Ave., Suite 130, Austin, Texas 78701-1495. The land office has put some information about Texas land records on the Internet. You may access this website for more information:

For researchers who do not wish to travel to Austin and prefer to access records online, the Land Grant Database can be searched from your home computer. The Land Grant Database webpage is linked from the TGLO website or you may use this direct link:

After the land is passed to an owner, the records for that property are kept in the individual Texas counties. So what do you do if you locate a record? Order a copy of the record from the Texas General Land Office.

One of our Clayton Friends board members advised that searching for Texas Land Grants is much more productive when you use the TGLO website to obtain records and to prepare for your visit to the TGLO facility in Austin. She states that, having done on-site research at the TGLO, she found that the office is not equipped for researchers and has only one six-foot table for visitors, which is right in the middle of two employees' work space. The TGLO employees are required to retrieve all the records for you, and if you want copies, they have to run them at a cost of $1.00 per page! Yes, $1.00 per page. Additionally, you may not put anything on the table where you work, other than a laptop or a single sheet of paper and pencil, and they vigilantly enforce the rule.

For those members who have ancestors that may have obtained land from the State of Texas, searching the General Office Database is a great resource!



Tejano Monument stalled after funding glitch 
Elizabeth Pierson, The Monitor Nov 07, 2005

Sent by Mira Smithwick 

AUSTIN — In an air-conditioned studio in Laredo, a proud vaquero sits on his horse, awaiting $600,000 in federal highway funds that will let him ride. The sculpture was carved from a chunk of clay with the hopes it will someday be bronzed and take its place on the Texas Capitol grounds as the centerpoint of a 12-figure monument to Tejano history.

Organizers of the Tejano Monument project said fund- raising is at a standstill because the Legislature stalled $602,000 in federal highway funds it had previously designated for the monument. 

Tejano Monument Inc., the private group pushing for the monument, has raised about $400,000 in private money since 2001. Once it gets the money from the state, it will need $500,000 more in private funds, plus another $100,000 to cover potential cost overruns, said Dr. Cayetano E. Barrera, president of the executive committee for the monument, and a McAllen physician who first had the idea for a monument.

The project is expected to cost $1.5 million, Barrera said. One million will go the artist, Armando Hinojosa, with the rest going to erect the monument and to the state for the sculpture’s upkeep, he said.

It’s a classic catch-22 — donors are shy about giving money to a project until they see it has strong funding, said Andres Tijerina, vice president of Tejano Monument Inc., and chairman of the fund-raising committee. Once they get the state money, they can tell donors they’ve raised $1 million, an important milestone. But lawmakers have repeatedly dragged their feet, making it difficult or impossible to raise the money, Tijerina said. "It has stopped us dead in the water," he said.

The State Preservation Board, which oversees monuments at the Capitol, cannot approve the monument until all the funding is complete, according to its rules. Its staff members have worked with the Tejano Monument group to grant tentative approval to its ideas, but told the group not to bronze anything until the board approves the monument, Barrera said.

Tijerina said lobbyists working with him told him the Legislature would release the money during the regular session, but that never happened. The delay came because of a mistake in drafting appropriations Senate Bill 1, which made the money’s release contingent upon another bill’s passage, said Alexis DeLee, spokeswoman for House Speaker Tom Craddick, R-Midland.

House Appropriations Committee Chair Rep. Jim Pitts, R-Waxahachie, has already signed a letter to Comptroller Carole Keeton Strayhorn to remedy the problem, according to DeLee. And the letter was on its way to the desk of Senate Finance Chairman Sen. Steve Ogden, R-Bryan on Thursday. After Ogden signs the letter, the money will be released, she said.

The State Preservation Board rules say no public funds can be used to build monuments or memorials. An unsigned draft of a letter to the comptroller Tijerina provided said the federal money would cover the monument’s administrative costs.

A hole in history: A walk through the Capitol and around the grounds reveals some common themes among celebrated Texas heroes: Anglo men winning battles and posing for portraits. Barrera had noticed what he thought was an obvious omission of Tejanos, the Spanish and Mexican people and their descendants who shaped modern-day Texas.

"People get a kind of touristy picture, very superficial, and they don’t really get the history of the state," Barrera said. "The whole first chapter, a big chapter, of Texas is missing."  He returned home after one trip to Austin for a medical conference and asked his nephew, then chief-of-staff for Flores, about a monument.

His nephew, Richard Sanchez, brought the idea to Flores, who agreed to sponsor a bill. The bill passed the Legislature in 2001, the organizing group was formed and fund-raising began.

Later, they interviewed artists and eventually decided on Laredo artist Armando Hinojosa to craft the monument. He’ll be paid about $1 million for his work, but it will come in installments as funding is available and work is completed, Barrera said.

So far, he’s been paid about $250,000, Barrera said. Large donations came from IBC Bank in Zapata and other businesses. Schoolchildren in Houston and Edinburg chipped in spare change, Tijerina said.

The monument will be a series of statues with extraordinary detail. It will include a Spanish explorer, a settler family, longhorns and a vaquero, or cowboy. The longhorns, large tracts of land, independent spirit, music and barbecue were all gifts from Tejanos to Texas culture, but their giver hasn’t been recognized, said Tijerina, a history professor at Austin Community College.

Tijerina said he thinks the tide is turning. Despite his recent frustrations the Legislature’s funding, he has been pleased at the idea’s warm reception from the governor, lieutenant governor and state house speaker, he said.  He thinks the monument’s idea has brought general recognition from the state that Tejanos deserve a place in official history at the Capitol.

"In the last 10 years, there’s been a direct turnaround," Tijerina said. "I don’t know what it’s attributable to, but I can’t help but think the Tejano Monument helped raise awareness."  Elizabeth Pierson covers the state capital for Valley Freedom Newspapers. She is based in Austin and can be reached at (512) 323-0622. 

Dallas-Ft. Worth Region Attracts Immigrants From All Over 
By Paula Lavigne / The Dallas Morning News (October 23, 2005)
From: Dorinda Moreno

From a theater in Las Colinas that screens Indian films to a Sunday Mass in Spanish at a Rockwall church, the changes spurred by the 1 million immigrants who have settled in the Dallas-Fort Worth area in the last 15 years are obvious.

The region remains one of the fastest-growing major metropolitan areas in the nation, with at least a third of its growth fueled by people moving here from outside the U.S. But its emergence as one of the country's major gateways for immigrants holds a few surprises, according to a Dallas Morning News analysis.

The suburbs of North Texas offer a greater mix of backgrounds than do the two major cities. While immigrants in the inner cities tend to be predominantly of Mexican descent, roots in the suburbs are spread more evenly among Mexico, India, China and other places abroad. And though they came to the suburbs for similar reasons – work, schools, family ties – not all of them share in suburban prosperity.

The area has seen two very different streams of immigrants: the highly skilled who arrive with the help of local employers, and the unskilled who come seeking any available job because the alternatives back home are bleak. Their stories, struggles and successes diverge as soon as they enter the country because of the very different lives they led before they got here.

"People think all immigrants start out the same," said state demographer Steve Murdock. "They start out with different skill sets ... and those will transfer from one society to another."

Outside North Texas' big cities, the immigrant population is still relatively small, making up 10 percent or less of the total population of most Dallas-Fort Worth suburbs. For example, Mexicans make up just a third of the new immigrants in Collin County – in stark contrast to the city of Dallas, where three-fourths of the new arrivals since 1990 have been Mexican. Chinese and Indian immigrants each account for 10 percent of new immigrants in the suburbs.

There are no local data that detail how many Indian, Chinese and Mexican natives are legal or illegal residents. But nationally, more than half the Mexicans in the U.S. were here illegally in 2000. In contrast, between 6 percent and 8 percent of Indians and Chinese were, according to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services estimates and total population numbers from the U.S. Census Bureau.

While the same holds true for thousands of Mexicans, it's more likely for Asian and Indian immigrants to arrive in North Texas by invitation from high-tech companies, health care providers or colleges. Construction laborer is the most common occupation for all Mexican immigrants in the metro area, according to a Dallas Morning News analysis of 2000 census data. For Indian and Chinese immigrants, it's computer software engineer.

If they're corporate transfers, a company arranges their immigration clearance and will often assign someone to help them find a house, enroll their children in school and even intervene if they're having trouble getting their utilities turned on.  

Illegally crossing the Rio Grande – which is how about 52 percent of immigrants from Mexico arrive in the U.S. – often leads down another path. Statewide figures show at least 1.4 million illegal immigrants were in Texas in 2004, and about 30 percent of those were in Dallas and its suburbs, said Jeffrey S. Passel, a senior research associate with the Pew Hispanic Center, a nonpartisan research institution in Washington, D.C.

For illegal immigrants, there's not much to rely on, especially if they can't speak English. If an employer refuses to pay them, if their spouse gets sick, or if their children struggle in school, they often can't navigate the system, or they're afraid.

People who study perceptions of immigrants say that Americans view Asians as hard-working entrepreneurs who contribute financially and socially.  The same people often look down on Mexicans as a drain on resources – bilingual education and health care, for example – and believe they're qualified only for low-wage jobs such as framing houses and cleaning bathrooms.

Every year, migrants working under false Social Security numbers contribute billions of dollars that go unclaimed. The money goes into a a little-known Social Security account called the earnings suspense file, which grows at a rate of about $6 billion a year and now stands at about $376 billion.

Other economists argue that illegal immigrants sap the educational system and public health care, and that they keep wages and benefits for U.S.-born workers artificially depressed.  The stereotypes assume that people in China and India are better educated and work harder than Mexicans, but that's far from true, said Stephen Klineberg, a sociology professor at Rice University.

American employers skim the cream of the crop from places such as India, China, Nigeria and the Philippines, he said, and these highly educated people from middle-class backgrounds are not representative of their countries as a whole.

For instance, India is one of the poorest countries in the world; about 25 percent of its population is in poverty. But uneducated, unskilled Indians can't make it into the United States the way someone from Mexico can, by walking across the border and blending into any South Texas town, Mr. Klineberg said.

People with college degrees who are fluent in English and have the social habits of someone from a professional background will fit in quicker in America regardless of their country of origin, Mr. Klineberg said.  

"It has nothing to do with whether you're Asian or Latino," he said. "It has to do with your socioeconomic status on arrival."  Becky Bepko has noticed those differences. She's the elementary English as a second language coordinator with the McKinney Independent School District.

There are middle-to-upper-class Mexican families in the district who raised their children in a sophisticated, big-city setting and possibly enrolled them in private schools, she said.

"Most are able to transition into English much quicker because they have a strong Spanish background," she said. "Kids who come from rural areas in Mexico who have big gaps in their education – and their language is not good and they lived in poverty – they struggle the hardest."

Among new suburban immigrants, those from India and China have higher household incomes than immigrants from Mexico.  In Collin County, for example, new immigrants from China and India have median household incomes of more than $70,000; that's close to the median income of all residents in Collin County. The households of recent Mexican immigrants earn about $40,000. That's only slightly better than their counterparts in Dallas, who make about $35,000.

Coming to America was a bumpy ride for a 37-year-old Mexican woman who spoke to the News on the condition her name not be used because she is an illegal immigrant. The scar on her left thigh is evidence of her journey from Mexico City to Richardson.

She got it scaling fences – some 12 feet high – in her journey across the Rio Grande with a group of other migrants. She later moved to Plano, where she shares a modest apartment with her younger sister. She left her two sons, ages 13 and 10 – and a job cleaning houses in Mexico City – for the offer of a better-paying job near Dallas.

"I needed to find work so I could get ahead," she said. "If nothing else, to help for my children's education and to give them what we couldn't have."  But when she arrived in the area, the current housekeeper – who was being fired – threatened to notify immigration. So she instead took a job at a fast food restaurant.

"When I started working there, I asked God for help because I didn't know if I was going to learn everything I needed to know," she said. "Everybody would talk to me in English, and I didn't understand."  Language is a barrier for almost 60 percent of recent Mexican immigrants. But they manage to get by with help from bilingual bank tellers, store clerks, teachers, police officers and others.

Although many Mexican immigrants in the suburbs are living in or near poverty, there are more high-income Mexican households than wealthy Chinese or Indian households – those where the income is at least $70,000.

"They think most of us Mexicans ... came here illegally, of course, and that we came without any education and didn't speak any English, [and] that we are not used to big cities," said Francisco Alvarez, a pre-kindergarten bilingual teacher in the Dallas school district.  But the opposite is true for Mr. Alvarez.

He taught English for six years in Monterrey, Mexico, the country's third-largest city, with more than 3 million people. His parents owned their own businesses – a silver mine and a pharmacy. And he learned English in high school and studied linguistics in college.

DISD brought him to Texas about two years ago as a bilingual teacher. And he and his wife and three children settled in a house in North Richland Hills, which he chose because there would be less crime and more serenity than in Dallas.

His experience is similar to that of Grace Pan, who moved to Plano from her hometown, Taipei, Taiwan, courtesy of Texas Instruments. She had been working for TI in Taiwan and was already fluent in English and familiar with most American customs.  Her move went well, in part because a TI liaison helped her find a place to live.

The company helps employees from different backgrounds find a home, a place to buy groceries and a place of worship. New hires also get some help enrolling their children in school, said Kim Quirk, a TI spokeswoman.

At Electronic Data Systems in Plano, the company helps foreign hires even before they leave home, said Kerri Odle, director of expatriate administration. Along with the basic logistics, such as arranging immigration paperwork and health care coverage, EDS helps employees and families with personal issues.

Both companies hire employees from overseas in part because they have offices all over the globe and sometimes need to shift workers among jobs in different countries.  TI employee Dhananjay Kulkarni, a native of Maharashtra, India, said working for such a prominent company has given him more confidence in becoming a part of the community.

Only once did he start to second-guess himself because of his immigrant status, he said.  He got into a spat with a desk clerk at a Plano tennis club over repairing a broken racket. The woman had been polite to the two American customers in front of him, he said, but her demeanor soured when he approached the counter.

At one point, he considered backing down from the argument because he was an outsider. But then he realized – immigrant or citizen – he had every right to stand up for himself.  "I work hard. I pay taxes here. I contribute to the society. I'm loyal to my employer. That's why I don't deserve that treatment," he said. "I'm a customer. I'm paying money. I should get what I want."

North Texas' suburbs had a greater mix of new immigrants than urban areas. In the major cities and rural areas, the immigrant population is more than three-fourths Mexican. Here's a breakdown of how countries of origin stack up among all the immigrants new to these areas.

Source: Dallas Morning News analysis of 2000 data from the U.S. Census Bureau


Latino Immigrants Often Unpaid for Katrina Work 
Spanish Forces in Louisiana & West Florida in Spain's 1776-1783
           Conflicts with England 


Latino Immigrants Often Unpaid for Katrina Work 
By Justin Pritchard, AP 11/5/2005 
Sent by Howard Shorr  and Dorinda Moreno, John Inclan, Win Holtzman

GULFPORT, Miss. (AP) — A pattern is emerging as the cleanup of Mississippi's Gulf Coast morphs into its multibillion-dollar reconstruction: Come payday, untold numbers of Hispanic immigrant laborers are being stiffed.

Sometimes, the boss simply vanishes. Other workers wait on promises that soon, someone in a complex hierarchy of contractors will provide the funds to pay them.

Nonpayment of wages is a violation of federal labor law, but these workers — thousands of them, channeled into teams that corral debris, swaddle punctured roofs in blue tarps and gut rain-ravaged homes — are especially vulnerable because many are here illegally.

After Katrina hit, Armando Ojeda paid $1,200 to be smuggled across the desert border from Mexico, a walk that took several nights. Talk of $10 an hour — more in a day than he made each week at a computer factory back home — led him to pay another $1,200 to be crammed in van with a dozen other immigrants and driven 1,600 miles, from a safe house in Arizona to Mississippi.

The passengers were not fed — Ojeda recalls his mouth watering when he smelled tacos the driver ate — and were discharged near the Naval Construction Battalion Center in Gulfport, where Ojeda sleepwalked though his first day clearing hurricane-strewn junk.

The job was supposed to pay $7 an hour. But six weeks later, Ojeda still hasn't been paid the $600-plus he said he is owed for eight days of dawn-to-dusk labor.

Karen Tovar, the subcontractor on the job, acknowledged she hasn't been able to pay dozens of workers a total of about $130,000. She insisted she was not at fault, blaming the way payments can be stalled along a long chain of subcontractors often led by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

At one point, Tovar had 83 workers cleaning the Navy base under a broader, $12 million contract held by KBR, a firm owned by Vice President Dick Cheney's former company, Halliburton.

After several weeks without pay, many workers grew frustrated and left.

"I've told them, 'When I get paid, you will receive your funds.' And they say, 'When?'" she said. "I'm very sure it's going to be shortly."

An Army Corps spokesman said he wasn't aware of any problems with payments. A KBR spokeswoman wouldn't provide details about the base cleanup, referring inquiries to the Navy, which referred questions about subcontractors back to KBR.

Tovar said she knew of other subcontractors who disappeared with their payrolls, and wondered whether her former workers expect she will abscond to her home in North Carolina.

"I don't know if they're thinking that I've left and took the money or that I'm trying to hide the funds, because I wouldn't do that," said Tovar, 47. "In my type of work, you're working on trust."

Armando Ojeda is not trusting. He doesn't think he'll be paid, though he remains among the platoons of workers bivouacked along the coast. His goal: to wire his parents in the poor southern state of Chiapas enough money to offset the cost of his trip, which he has come to see as a folly he had to indulge before age or commitments bound him home.

"I am stupid for coming," he said, with a smile and shake of the head. "It was a foolish thing, nothing more."

Nonpayment of immigrant workers is not a new phenomenon — and it doesn't appear to be as much of an issue in New Orleans. With so much work to do and not enough laborers to do it, the market there appears to favor workers, said immigration lawyer David Ware.

What's remarkable in Mississippi is the apparent scope of the problem, though it is impossible to quantify.  In this beleaguered state, which doesn't have a labor department, the issue isn't even on the radar.

Nonpayment is not specified as a crime under Mississippi law and the state Department of Employment Security defers wage claims to the federal Department of Labor. Workers who claim back wages have two formal options: Filing a civil suit in state court or a federal complaint. Mississippi prosecutors haven't received any complaints, according to special assistant attorney general Peter Cleveland.

A spokeswoman for the federal Labor Department said she could not determine whether there have been any post-Katrina claims in the Gulf region. But there are some in the pipeline: On Friday, a representative of the Mississippi Immigrants Rights Alliance said the advocacy group had prepared complaints on behalf of more than 150 workers who are owed more than $100,000 by five contractors, including Tovar's KTS Services.

Out in the cleanup-zone, dozens of Hispanic immigrant workers interviewed by the AP shared a common refrain: "I worked without being paid."

In Gulfport, several dozen men living in makeshift bunks in a hangar-like building said they were owed tens of thousands of dollars.

Like other workers, Alfredo Roblero saw opportunity in the wreckage, and was recruited from Ft. Pierce, Fla., with promises of steady work for good wages, expenses paid.

"They bring you to nothing," said Roblero, 26, who figured he was due about $500 for five days spent demolishing what was left of the coastal Casino Magic Biloxi. "They owe you, and you wait for them."

Many of the workers wore the shirts of Dallas-based Restoration Group. In a subsequent telephone interview, company president James Rea said the workers were the responsibility of a subcontractor. He insisted all have been paid and blamed insurance companies for any delay.

"We're all standing in line and we take our piece of each dollar off as we hand it down," he said, "and eventually it gets down to the end of the line."

In a slovenly trailer park, men named Francisco and Oscar said they were owed thousands of dollars for weeks of work. Not long before, according to local immigrant advocates, more than a dozen workers were bunking in their trailer, each paying $10 per night for lodging to a subcontractor who they said then shorted them thousands of dollars.

Before that, the men had worked for — and had quit — Karen Tovar's crew.

Tovar said that the men didn't understand American pay schedules, specifically the practice of working two weeks before getting paid for the first.

"I've been to Mexico and, basically, these people live from week to week and when they come over here they have a misconception when the week is held back," said Tovar.

Tovar said that she has worked other hurricane cleanups, but never had trouble being paid by other subcontractors. While she is now receiving a steady flow of payments, she said it's not enough to pay off the $130,000 she owes 83 workers for helping clear the Navy base.

Elizabeth Martinez is another subcontractor who has been embroiled in wage disputes. She has been living among workers in a small tent city in Ocean Springs.

On Oct. 12, eight men who had been patching roofs asked a Texas-based immigrant worker advocate who was visiting the camp to help negotiate their pay.

As is often the case, the situation remains in dispute. Advocate Anita Grabowski said the men, who came to Mississippi from Arkansas and have since scattered, worked two weeks and were due their money.

Bosses at the Alabama-based subcontractor that hired Martinez, Hughes Construction Services LLC, said the workers didn't understand that they weren't yet scheduled to be paid. Martinez herself said she didn't hire the workers to lay roof tarps and that they were trying to extort money they hadn't earned — an increasingly common scam, she said.

Martinez said she didn't want to pay until she checked her records. But the owners of family-run Hughes decided to front Martinez more than $15,000 to pay the men — $10 an hour, $15 for overtime. 

"We just wanted it to be over with," said Jody Hughes, one of three Hughes sons working the cleanup. The men were paid and agreed to find work elsewhere. "Hughes was being intimidated," Martinez said. "To me, it's like paying off damn terrorists."

On a chill late-October evening, Martinez stood near her tent, engrossed in discussions with three more men who had driven two hours from New Orleans to complain that she hadn't paid them.

Martinez told their chief negotiator, Antonio Hernandez, that she had paid the fourth member of their roof-tarp crew, a man named Ruben who now was in Texas.

Soon summoned by cell phone, Ruben denied receiving any money. But one of Hernandez's companions acknowledged that he had seen Martinez pay Ruben something, and Martinez produced handwritten records that persuaded the men she had advanced Ruben $700 cash, which the men hadn't seen.

The men piled back into their beat-up brown van for the return ride to New Orleans with boxes of food and $150 in cash Martinez gave them "not because I owe you ... as a gift."  Just as they pulled out, Martinez flagged down four Guatemalan workers who walked into the encampment. She said a true scam artist had ripped off these unfortunates.

One by one, they explained that they had cleaned a school for 144 hours at a promised $8 an hour. Then one of their bosses dropped them on the side of the road, without food. Eventually, a church bus picked them up.  Any idea, they asked, of how to get paid?


Reference for Descendants of those who served or worked with Spanish Forces in Louisiana and West Florida in Spain's 1776-1783 Conflicts with England 

Sent by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

1. Churchill, C. Robert. Spanish Records, Lists of Men Under General Don Bernardo de Galvez in his Campaign Against the British, 1779  (typescript containing lists gathered by Compatriot Churchill of the  Louisiana Society, Sons of the American Revolution, in his studies at  Seville in Spain in 1921 and later.) The records actually used in this  work are those published in The New Orleans Genesis, volumes 60, 62, 63,  64, 65, 66, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, and 75, beginning in Sep 1976.

2. De Ville, Winston. Louisiana Soldiers in the American Revolution,  Provencial Press, Lafayette, LA, 70596, 1991. (The rosters included are  from Churchill's work, but De Villee does not include some of  Churchill's listings of Spanish soldiers.)

3. Din, Gilbert C. The Canary Islanders of Louisiana, LSU Press, 1988.  (This is the best study of the soldier volunteers from the Canary  Islanders.)

4. Holmes, Jack D. L. Honor and Fidelity - The Louisiana Infantry  Regiment and the Louisiana Militia Companies, 1766-1821, Birmingham,  1965 (contains officers and non-commisioned officers only, and it includes many who only served before or after the war). 

5. Schmidt, Elizabeth Whitman, National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution. Louisiana Patriots, 1776-1783, NSDAR, 1776 D St.,  N. W., Washington, D. C. 20006-5392, 1994. (This includes the Patriots  identified by DAR descendants through June, 1994.)

6. Woods, Earl C., and Charles E. Nolan. Sacramental Records of the  Roman Catholic Church of the Archdiocese of New Orleans, Vol 3,  1772-1783, New Orleans, Archdiocese of New Orleans, 1989.

7. Arthur, Stanley Clisby. Index to the Dispatches of the Spanish Governors of Louisiana: 1776-1792, New Orleans, Polyanthos, 1975. 

8. Padron, Francisco Morales. Journal of Don Francisco Saavedra de Sangronis during the Commission which he had in his charge from 25 June  1780 until the 20th of the same month of 1783, Gainesville, FL,  University of Florida Press, 1998.

9. Diocese of Baton Rouge: Catholic Church Records, Vol 2, (1770-1803),  Diocese of Baton Rouge, Department of Archives, P. O. Box 2028, Baton  Rouge, La, 70821, 1980. 

10. Medina Rojas, Francisco de Borja. Jose de Ezpeleta; Gobernador de  la Mobila, 1780-1781, Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos de Sevilla,  Sevilla, Spain, 1980.  

As I recall it, the reference #3 by Din is one you need to see. I  cannot identify the other author I used. Also I found much background  information on the marriage and birth and death records in reference  #9. The records were for those who attempted to settle Galveztown, and  perhaps other settlements upriver from New Orleans. I know some eventually gave up, after several river floodings, and moved into a  section of Baton Rouge. Incidentally, the cities where most Canary Islander descendants are, downriver and southeast from New Orleans, took a terrible beating from 
Katrina. I wonder if they will ever recover.



Hispanics in Federal Service: A Historical Synopsis, 1965-2005
Peter Reginato art
Florida Farmworkers Face Uncertain Season 

Hispanics in Federal Service: 
A Historical Synopsis, 1965-2005

National Archives and Records Administration
McGowan Theater
Washington, DC
Wednesday, December 14

A panel presentation by
J. V. Martinez
Emma Moreno
Gilbert M. Sandate
Sylvia Trujillo

Abstract: A synopsis of Hispanic employment history in the U.S. Federal Government will be presented. The substantive appearance of Hispanic representation in the non-military federal service ostensibly began at the conclusion of World War II, a watershed period when U.S. Hispanics realized they were more part of the nation's fabric than ever before. Since then the representation of Hispanics in the federal service has remained at a chronic level of half their fraction of the U.S. population. Panelists include: Emma Moreno, former Assistant to the Director of the Census Bureau of the Department of Commerce and currently Director of Federal Relations for the League of Latin American Citizens (LULAC); Sylvia J. Trujillo, Esq., legal counsel for a federal agency and former legal counsel to local public organizations; Gilbert M. Sandate, Director, Office of Workforce Diversity for the Library of Congress and J. V. Martinez, Senior Science Advisor, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.

A general overview of the history of Hispanic employment in the U.S. Federal Government continues to be a history of extremes. The more substantive beginning of Hispanic employment in the federal service began at the conclusion of World War II, which was a watershed period when U.S. Hispanics discovered they were more part of the nation’s population than ever before. This realization brought their attention to legal statutes that accorded rights about which they were previously aware and rights not actively pursued as a group. The distance between the central federal government offices and the Hispanic population concentrated in the Southwest U.S. hindered optimal communication, the consequence being that employment opportunities in the federal government were not widely known to the Hispanic community. This observation is underpinned by noting that a number of the early Hispanic government employees had prior military service. Becoming part of the military removed them temporarily from the Southwest and exposed them to federal government employment opportunities. From 1965 on, the federal service workforce continued to grow in step with the nation’s increasing presence-economically, politically, and militarily-both domestic and international. Limited access to federal employment opportunities and the increasing size of government led to a deficit in the representation of Hispanics in the federal service. This condition began to be increasingly recognized among Hispanic activists from among the limited number of Hispanics in the federal service at the time. It is no coincidence that this recognition came at a time when the Civil Rights Movement reached a high mark. Hispanic government employees became aware that their community was not being justifiably represented in the federal workforce. This awareness was obvious in relation to the Hispanic presence in the Military, and in proportion to the federal services being provided the community justly due as citizens, taxpayers and by their dedication to national security. Notably absent in the delivery of federal services were Spanish-speaking government employees. This prompted Hispanic activists to challenge the government’s effectiveness in providing needed services to the community. While the methods used to compensate for these deficiencies varied through the ensuing decades, the deficit in Hispanic employment that appeared early on is yet to be eliminated. The increase in the U.S. Hispanic population continues to outstrip the rate at which Hispanics are being employed in the federal service further exacerbating the problem. It has become clear that conducting business as usual in federal hiring practices will not suffice. Being that federal employees are part of the executive branch of government and that each administration occupying the White House has ultimate control of federal hiring practices, White House attempts to rectify the situation by issuing executive orders and making well-meaning pronouncements, "photo-ops" in the vernacular, have had little success. Considering the rapid non-stop growth of the Hispanic population in the U.S. and the historical deficit of Hispanics in the federal service, the situation continues to deteriorate with no change in sight. Relevant to these concerns is how it became that the noun Hispanic was chosen as a label to group all the subgroups that make up this U.S. population. Attempts to account for this population using other labels turned in to a counterproductive census quagmire. While meaningful sensitivities exist in the government’s non-use of sub-group labels, it appears that combining them all under the one label has allowed some progress to be made without judging here that the labeling will lead to the rightful increase of Hispanic representation in the federal service will occur in the near future.

The National Archives and Restoration Agency (NARA) sponsored session will place this history in perspective and, while it may be too much to hope for, the airing out of this issue may lend to increased realization of the correction action now called for.

Panelists: Order of presentation

  1. J. V. Martinez, Ph.D., Senior Science Advisor, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.;
  2. Emma Moreno, former Assistant to the Director of the U.S. Census Bureau and currently the LULAC Director for Federal Relations;
  3. Sylvia J. Trujillo, Esq., Agency legal counsel for a federal government agency and former legal counsel to local public agencies;
  4. . Gilbert M. Sandate, Director, Office of Workforce Diversity for the Library of Congress


“Glos So La Lia”, 16" x 10" x 10", welded steel, acrylic paint, 2005

The Gallery Center, Elaine Baker Gallery to include the art of  Peter Reginato until December 5th: 
608 Banyan Trail, Boca Raton, Florida 33431

Sent by Peter Reginato




Florida Farmworkers Face Uncertain Season 
By Mike Schneider, Associated Press Writer, Originally published November 1, 2005
Sent by Howard Shorr

IMMOKALEE, Fla. // The migrant farmworkers who pick more than half of the nation's winter vegetable supply and three-quarters of the U.S. citrus crop are facing a season of uncertainty because of Hurricane Wilma. 

Many mobile homes where farmworkers lived were crushed. Farm laborers lost a week of work during one of the busiest times of the year, and the need to replant tomatoes and vegetables destroyed during the storm may create a lull that could last into February. Growers are worried laborers will go looking for jobs elsewhere. 

"It's going to be more difficult this year," said laborer Escalante Salvas, 50, of Chiapas, Mexico, who is considering looking for work in tomato fields farther north near the Tampa area. "So much fell off. So much is gone." 

For now, there is plenty of work to be found in the southern half of the state, where Wilma ravaged orange and grapefruit groves and tomato, lettuce, celery, sugar cane and radish fields. Vegetable crops need to be replanted, greenhouses have to be repaired, fields must be drained and tree limbs need to be removed. 

But the work will probably drop off in four to six weeks. Then it will be another one to three months before the harvest begins. "That's the crisis I'm worried about," said Barbara Mainster, executive director of the Redlands Christian Migrant Association in Immokalee. 

During the winter growing season, Florida has 150,000 to 300,000 farmworkers, trailing only California and Texas. Finding jobs outside of some farming communities may be difficult for some in the middle of the winter season. 

"The people here don't have transportation, cars or bicycles, so it's difficult to look for work outside of Immokalee," said Romeo Ramirez, who works for the Coalition of Immokalee Workers, an advocacy group. State government officials and some of the growers said they will try to help Wilma's victims. 

In the coming weeks, the state Department of Children &Families will offer one-time disaster food stamps. Unlike the regular food stamp program, this one will be open to illegal immigrants. 

A. Duda &Sons Inc., which grows sweet corn, radishes, celery and citrus in Florida, obtained 46 mobile homes for farmworkers to replace those that were destroyed. Gargiulo Inc., one of the nation's largest tomato producers, has suspended the rent of $15 a week it charges to close to 1,000 farmworkers in southwestern Florida. 

"It's really catastrophic for the industry," said Tim Nance, a director of Gargiulo's operations in the eastern United States. "We're worried about our people and trying to do everything to help them." 



Revised and enlarged: Nuevo Díccíonario Bíográfico de Coahuíla
New Book: Elizondo, Pobladores del Septentrión Novohispano

New Book:
Baptisms in Tamaulipas: 
          Cruillas, 1800-1821 and  San Fernando de las Presas, 1810-1826

Compartirá sus recuerdos: Don José León Robles de la Torre
Don José Guadalupe Cervantes Corona, Gobernador, Zacatecas,
Memorial of Captain Cristobal de Zaldivar
Ortega en Mexico
Pentland-Salcido Family: A Sonoran Family History Gallery
Revolutionary Heroes Remembered in the Names of  Three States

Ringside Seat to the Mexican Revolution! 
Fray Juan Bautista de Mollinedo peregrino derrotero en la colonización 
Miembros de las Familias de La Garza y Descendientes

College planned for LDS in Tijuana
A Quizzical Marriage in Jerez 
The Descendents of Don Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa
Nombramiento de Capitán Diego de Villarreal de las Casas


Personajes de la historia / PRESENTACIÓN DE LIBRO
Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

Hello Mimi,

Uncle Jose Leon Robles de la Torre asked to let you know about this important person from Torreon, Coahuila. His name is Arturo Berrueto Gonzalez his book Nuevo Diccionario Biografico de Coahuila, 2005 has been a success so far. Mr. Robles de la Torre would like for you to publish it for Somos Primos as a favor to him. I'd appreciate if you do that for my uncle, Mr. Gonzalez and my uncle are very good friends.

Mr. Gonzalez sent me an autograph book dedicated to me for supporting our people from Mexico, and Hispanics in general, for their efforts to accomplish the American Dream. I guess my uncle has understood on how proud I am of being a Mexicana, raised in United States and  proud of my heritage, extremely proud.

The book is based on men and women who have helped Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico thru many years to be a successful state with many writers, actors, poets, journalists, etc..  My uncle Jose Leon Robles de la Torre is included in this outstanding book. I'm so proud of him!

Thank you Mimi, 
Love, Mercy Bautista-Olvera

Profr. Arturo Berrueto González, 
autor del 
Nuevo Diccionario Biográfico de Coahuila, 2005

El día seis de septiembre anterior, fue presentado en la ciudad de Saltillo, Coah, el Nuevo Diccionario Biográfico de Coahuila de la autoría del Profr. don Arturo Berrueto González con tres mil 531 personajes, 605 más que la primera edición de 1999, con 707 páginas, 967 fotografías, 18 viñetas y 17 firmas facsimilares. Esta edición es una de las 752 obras publicadas por el Consejo Editorial del Gobierno de Coahuila que preside el profesor Arturo, lo que revela el gran impulso que se ha dado a la cultura en este sexenio. 

La edición de un libro es tan compleja con tantos personajes, que hay que ordenar y formatear con sus respectivas fotografías, lo que requiere de un gran esfuerzo y la colaboración de muchas personas. 

Yo tuve el privilegio de contribuir con más de 200 fichas biográficas de personajes torreonenses. El diccionario, al principio, presenta algunos comentarios, de los que transcribiré pequeños párrafos. En la Introducción, el señor gobernador del Estado Lic. Enrique Martínez y Martínez, escribió: 

“...Tal es la orientación del Nuevo Diccionario Biográfico de Coahuila, de Arturo Berrueto González, que surge de la necesidad de exaltar, mediante breve biografía, la labor ejemplar de los coahuilenses, que con su trabajo, esfuerzo y disciplina, fraguaron una vida honrada y enaltecida por esos dones, mismos que vale la pena destacar en sus valores y cualidades para ofrecerla como modelo a las nuevas generaciones”. 

El periodista don Armando Fuentes Aguirre, Catón, en su “a modo de presentación”, dice: “hombre de libros es Arturo Berrueto González, los ha leído, los ha escrito, los ha editado... nació entre libros y creció mucho entre ellos. De su padre, don Federico, heredó ese virtuoso vicio, la lectura, que se convierte sin sentirlo en la viciosa virtud del escritor”. 

En sus “comentarios”, el Dr. Álvaro Canales Santos, escribió: “felicito muy calurosamente al maestro Arturo Berrueto González por este Nuevo Diccionario Biográfico de Coahuila, con el cual también se rinde un homenaje a todos aquéllos que aportaron su creatividad y esfuerzo para transformar esta tierra con su trabajo”. 

En el prólogo, el Profr. don Jesús Alfonso Arreola Pérez, empieza diciendo: “la complejidad con que se ha tejido la historia de la comunidad coahuilense, su proceso de integración interno y sus encuentros y desencuentros en momentos decisivos de la historia mexicana, han significado el quehacer de hombres y mujeres de muchas generaciones que en cada región de nuestra íntima geografía han hecho su vida. Sus nombres han quedado en la memoria colectiva o abren surco y calan en el horizonte del dinámico presente”. 

El autor del diccionario en su “gratitud”, expresa su más amplio agradecimiento a sus colaboradores, que con amor realizaron los trabajos de su especialidad, y dice: 

“Expreso el más amplio agradecimiento a mis compañeros de trabajo; juntos logramos materializar el presente recurso cultural; en el campo de la investigación destaca el trabajo de Jaime Torres Mendoza, convertido en todo un literato; de mi aliado Luis Fernando Hernández; de mi entrañable amigo José León Robles de la Torre y del incansable escrutador Conrado Charles Medina. 

“Las importantes y agotadoras tareas de revisión y control de fichas corrieron a cargo de la talentosa Lic. Patricia Colunga Romero y de la escritora Elvia de Valle de la Peña, a ambas agradezco sus atinadas observaciones en favor de la corrección y el estilo”. 

“El diseño y formato fue realizado por Luis Miguel Portilla García; reciban también mi agradecimiento Elvira Guadalupe Reynosa Moreno y Norma Gloria de la Cruz Espinoza capturistas diligentes y responsables; a la Lic. Yazmín Ramírez García mi reconocimiento por el esmerado control iconográfico. 

“A las Lic. Patricia Barrera Farías, Hilda Escobedo Moreno y Ana Luisa Jiménez Pérez; al Lic. Carlos Santamaría Uriega y María Teresa Álvarez Martínez. 

“La impresión se logró en los talleres gráficos del Estado a cargo del Ing. Sergio Mireles García, con el auxilio de don Salvador Zúñiga Anguiano y el Ing. Luis Humberto Ruiz Cabello”.

New Book: ELIZONDO, Pobladores del Septentrión Novohispano
by  Luis López Elizondo

A long-awaited work by our colleague, Mr.Lopez Elizondo who has been compiling this book on the Elizondo family for several years. Currently, the Spanish text is available. He in working on an English version for the near future. The book is done in generation sections up to the current generations. Contains an Index. San Antonio, TX 2005 Privately Published 1st Ed.,152 Pgs., & &1/2 x 11, PB.  Price: $45.00  Shipping: $3.00

Available through Item #922

New Book: Baptisms in Tamaulipas: 
Cruillas, 1800-1821 and  San Fernando de las Presas, 1810-1826
by Irma Garza Cantú

Most of the Cruillas settlers, seventeen families, came from Cadereyta, N.L. Five families came from San Fernando. Capt. Joaquín Galvan's family, formerly of Cadereyta, had been among the settlers of San Fernando in 1749. His parents and siblings accompanied him to Cruillas, 38 miles from San Fernando, when on 9 May 1766 he led the first thirty families to Cruillas.

Some members of Capt. Galván's extended family chose to remain in San Fernando. The baptismal records of the two towns indicate that the San Fernando Galván's often served as godparents at the baptisms of their cousins in Cruillas. Similarly, the Galvan's who moved to Cruillas often served as godparents of their Galván cousins in San Fernando. This pattern was repeated by other settlers of San Fernando who later were settlers of Cruillas. Dávila, Fuentes, García, Garza Falcón, Gonzalez, Gracia, Iglesias Merino, Leal, Quintanilla, Serna, Silva and Treviño are among the surnames that appear in both towns.

The 165 page book  includes an index. $32 includes shipping. 
Address: 1773 Sunset Blvd., San Diego, CA

Compartirá sus recuerdos: 

Don José León Robles de la Torre

Miriam Gonzalez Gutierrez
Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

(Fotografía de Érick Sotomayor)

Don José León Robles de la Torre tiene una pared dedicada a los múltiples homenajes y reconocimientos que ha recibido. 21 de noviembre de 2005

Don José León Robles de la Torre presentará su más reciente producción literaria.


TORREÓN, COAH.- Sesenta años, 38 libros escritos, 26 publicados y los que le faltan... porque don José León Robles de la Torre lleva toda una vida dedicada a la literatura y dice que aún hay mucho por hacer.

Tenía tanto por compartir que reunió sus memorias en un libro, el cual bajo el título Mis Recuerdos será presentado este jueves a las 7:30 de la noche, en el Instituto Municipal de Documentación y Archivo Histórico Eduardo Guerra.

Desde 1987, don José León es colaborador de El Siglo de Torreón con sus columnas Personajes en la Historia de México y Marco Cultural, de las cuales se han publicado mil 242. Así que también en sus recuerdos están incluidos algunos de estos relatos.

Originario de Juanchorrey, Tepetongo, en el Estado de Zacatecas, el escritor reside en Torreón desde que tenía 19 años. Recuerda que estudiaba en el Seminario de Totatiche, Jalisco y vino a pasar las vacaciones a estas tierras, que le gustaron tanto que nunca volvió a irse. Aunque, "yo soy zacatecano y también lagunero", dice orgulloso.

Y es que tanto en Zacatecas como en Coahuila ha dejado frutos su trabajo. Ha escrito diversos libros acerca de la historia de una y otra entidad y por eso, ha recibido múltiples homenajes. El año pasado los cronistas del estado de Zacatecas lo sorprendieron en una semana, durante la cual recibió diversos reconocimientos, como el Blasón Zacatecano y fue nombrado Huésped de Honor.

Entre sus publicaciones, destaca la serie Los Presidentes de México, que abarca desde la Independencia, con Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, hasta la toma de posesión de Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León. En total son seis mil 190 cuartillas, en 12 tomos de 500 páginas cada uno.

Sin embargo, don José León lamenta que esta obra esté inédita en su mayoría, ya que sólo se publicó el tomo correspondiente a los presidentes de México que ha dado Coahuila: Melchor Múzquiz, Francisco I. Madero, Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz, Roque González Garza y Venustiano Carranza.

Y como no quiere que esta colección se pierda y "ante la imposibilidad de poderse editar, la doné a la Universidad Autónoma de La Laguna (UAL)". Porque esta investigación le costó 42 años de trabajo y representa un legado histórico incalculable valor.

La prueba está en los datos que revela de cada hombre que se ha sentado en la silla presidencial, como el segundo apellido de Nicolás Bravo. Lo descubrió tras investigar en decenas de registros civiles y panteones alrededor del país, y lo encontró en una acta donde la madre de éste pedía el indulto de su esposo Leonardo Bravo. La firmaba como Gertrudis Rueda de Bravo.

O también el significado de la famosa "I" de Madero, que muchos aseguraban significaba Indalecio. Pero, en realidad se llamaba Francisco Ygnacio Madero. Don José León lo descubrió tras conseguir una copia del acta de nacimiento del célebre parrense.

Y como éstos, hay muchos más apuntes y memorias que reúne en Mis Recuerdos, un libro donde también habla de su pasión por la poesía, la numismática, la genealogía y, por supuesto, la historia.

Pero, don José León Robles de la Torre sigue escribiendo. Tiene pendientes de publicar, además de la colección de Los Presidentes de México, un libro sobre la historia de Peñoles y actualmente trabaja la investigación sobre el Museo Universitario de Historia Natural de la UAL. También forma parte del grupo de historiadores del Patronato del Centenario de Torreón.

"Mientras Dios me dé salud y vida, aprovecharé al máximo para dejar una huella de mi paso por esta Tierra", concluye el escritor.

Su paso por el periodismo

Además de escribir poesía, historia, numismática y genealogía, don José León Robles de la Torre ha dedicado gran parte de su vida al periodismo.

Sus inicios en este medio se dieron hacia 1944, siendo co autor de la revista Lux, en el Seminario de Totatiche, Jalisco.

Además, en 1965, 1958 y 1987 colaboró con la revista Nuevo Cauce. De 1982 a 1996 se desempeñó en el consejo consultivo del Instituto Municipal de Cultura, en el área de artículos periodísticos.

De 1989 a 1992 fue consejero editorial y articulista, al lado de Sonia Salum y Felipe Garrido, de una editorial.

Y desde 1987 es colaborador de El Siglo de Torreón, con sus columnas Personajes de la Historia de México y Marco Cultural, de los que se han publicado mil 242 artículos.

Su experiencia

Don José León Robles de la Torre nació el 11 de abril de 1925 en Juanchorrey, Tepetongo, Zacatecas, hijo de don Francisco Robles Correa y doña Francisca de la Torre Sánchez.

-Cursó sus estudios primarios en Juanchorrey, y de preparatoria en Jerez.

-Estuvo en el Seminario de Zacatecas y luego en el de Totatiche, Jalisco, en donde llevó latín, griego, español, literatura, entre otras materias.

-Su primer artículo se publicó el 12 de marzo de 1944 en la Revista Lux, editada por los seminaristas. Ese mismo año obtuvo su primer premio de poesía.

-Llegó a Torreón cuando tenía 19 años, luego de que vino a pasar unas vacaciones y decidió quedarse para nunca irse, aunque lleva a su tierra natal en el alma. Por eso dice que es zacatecano y lagunero también.

-En el año de 1946 empezó a trabajar en la oficina federal de Hacienda de Torreón y dos años más tarde, levantó el acta de la fundación de la Aduana de Torreón.

-De 1944 a 2005 lleva 32 libros escritos, de los cuales se han publicado 26, el resto está inédito.

FUENTE: Investigación de El Siglo de Torreón

Homenajes y reconocimientos

Don José León Robles de la Torre ha recibido 30 reconocimientos en 60 años que lleva dedicados a las letras. Entre los más importantes, destacan:

-El seis de junio de 1987 se develó su busto de bronce en la Calzada de los Escritores de la Alameda Zaragoza de Torreón.

-También en 1987 se develó una placa en la Casa de la Cultura de Torreón, con los 19 nombres de los fundadores del Ateneo Lagunero, en los cuales estaba incluido el suyo.

-En 1988 se le otorgó el Capullo de Oro y el pergamino de Ciudadano Distinguido de Torreón, por las autoridades municipales.

-En 1992 se puso el nombre de José León Robles de la Torre a la Biblioteca Pública de Buenavista, Tepetongo, Zacatecas. Y en Tepetongo se puso su nombre a una calle de la colonia Solidaridad.

-En 1994 la Presidencia Municipal de Torreón le rindió un homenaje en la Sala de Cabildo por sus 50 años como escritor.

-El 29 de junio de 2001 la Universidad Autónoma de La Laguna (UAL) le otorgó el reconocimiento al Mérito Académico.

-El dos de diciembre de 2003 la misma UAL le otorgó el reconocimiento al Arte y la Cultura Lagunera.

-En junio de 2004 se le otorgó el nombramiento de Huésped de Honor de la Muy Noble y Leal Ciudad de Zacatecas; además el gobernador del Estado, Ricardo Monreal, le otorgó un reconocimiento por sus 60 años como escritor; también en Fresnillo le entregaron el reconocimiento del Centro de Investigaciones Históricas de Fresnillo; y en Tepetongo, los cronistas del Estado le entregaron el Blasón Zacatecano, que es una placa de plata con los conquistadores que fundaron Zacatecas. Esta serie de homenajes se realizaron tan sólo en el transcurso de una semana.

FUENTE: Investigación de El Siglo de Torreón


"Haber contribuido a la cultura de mis dos estados queridos, Zacatecas y Coahuila, y haber contribuido a la cultura de mi patria, así como los reconocimientos que me han dado, son la principal satisfacción en 60 años como escritor".





Lic. Profr. don José Guadalupe Cervantes Corona, 
Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de Zacatecas, 

Written by 
Don José León Robles de la Torre


Lic. y Profr. don José Guadalupe Cervantes Corona, político zacatecano, honesto, trabajador y humanitario, a quien tuve la oportunidad de conocer cuando era Delegado del Comité Nacional del Partido Revolucionario Institucional, en el Estado de Coahuila, para la preparación y vigilancia de los comicios federales de 1970.

Terminada esa campaña, fue electo diputado federal en 1971 por uno de los distritos de su natal Zacatecas. Cuando terminó su gestión, participó en las elecciones de 1974, resultando electo Senador de la República para el periodo 1974 a 1980.

Continuando con su carrera política ascendente, participó en 1980 en las elecciones para elegir gobernador de Zacatecas, resultando triunfador para el sexenio de 1980 a 1986. Rindió la protesta respectiva en la toma de posesión, y según lo narra la revista Impacto No. 1569 de fecha 26 de marzo de 1980 (que obra en el tomo XIII de mi hemeroteca personal), dijo:

“...El Lic. José Guadalupe Cervantes Corona, dijo... No hay fórmulas mágicas, no hay palabras salvadoras solamente el sacrificio de todos en bien de la humanidad. Trabajo y más trabajo, ésa es la ley, peor trabajo para todos. Trabajo aplicado a nuestra realidad geográfica y climatológica”.

Tomó posesión del cargo el 16 de septiembre de 1980, y la revista Impacto del 24 del mismo mes y año, reprodujo lo siguiente:

“La miseria y el dolor de sus conciudadanos hicieron llorar al gobernador de Zacatecas. Lo que acaba de suceder en el Estado de Zacatecas, está exigiendo una cabal y exhaustiva interpretación, pues lo realizado por el recién designado gobernador, en su toma de posesión y ante el presidente López Portillo, ha venido a destruir en todos sus aspectos y ángulos, la figura prepotente al gobernador millonario, soberano y triunfador. El nuevo gobernador de Zacatecas, rompiendo con los tradicionales tabúes relacionados con las rimbombantes ceremonias de cambio de gobernador, se puso a llorar en público, presa de incontable emoción y precisamente después de decir: ‘traigo los zapatos llenos de miseria, penetrados por la horrible miseria que acabo de ver y la cual al enfrentarla como realidad, es insoportable, se me vino encima, inesperadamente toda la miseria del mundo’”.

“Y el nuevo gobernador, Cervantes Corona, lloró y lloró, pero en tal abundante forma... que le fue imposible concluir su discurso de toma de posesión, porque las lágrimas se lo impidieron”. Excélsior de Méx. de 9=13=80, Pág. 20.

“...Es verdad que Zacatecas es un Estado pobre al que le faltan muchas cosas, agua, caminos, escuelas, centros de trabajo, de salud, etc., etc.

Cervantes Corona cumplió fielmente con sus promesas. Impulsó la agricultura, -dice la revista Proceso de 26 de enero de 1981- el gobernador Cervantes Corona, se propone poner bajo riego cuatro mil hectáreas más, con la construcción de cuatro presas y 300 pozos en el campo zacatecano, predominantemente temporalero”.

“...Aquí en Zacatecas, tierra firme de México, hay una esperanza y un entusiasmo, nuevos, de los que dan testimonio las escuelas, las presas, los caminos, las tierras, las minas que se abren de nuevo al trabajo del hombre...” (Impacto de 23 de septiembre de 1981).

Mercy Bautista-Olvera

Anastacia Nunez Robles, (my mom) grandfather Antonio Robles
Jose Leon Robles de la Torre grandfather Alejandro Robles
* Antonio Robles and Alejandro Robles were brothers
Extremely proud of Uncle Jose Leon Robles de la Torre, he's 80 years old and still working for the Newspaper "El Siglo de Torreon," writing books, poems, etc.,

On this particular book, "Mis Recuerdos" uncle Jose Leon asked me to send him family photos, I did and these photos that I sent are published in his book, I would probably receive the book any day now. 

The sad part is that I purchased two books one for me and the other for my brother Henry, it took a while for this book to be published, it took two years, I ordered these books two years ago, was going to be Henry's Birthday Present! we were both anxious to receive them. Now my Henry is gone...


September 9, 1628.


Captain Cristobal de Zaldivar states that he was appointed lieutenant captain general for the pacification of the Chichimecas and Guachichiles Indians by the Marquis of Salinas when he was viceroy of New Spain; that he owns the San Marcos and Palmilla mines, from which have been taken many millions in silver for the service of his majesty and the benefit of these kingdoms, that he is married do Dona Leonor Cortez Motezuma, a daughter of Don Juanes de Tolosa and Dona Leonor Cortez Moctezuma, who was a daughter of the marquis, Hernando Cortez, and Dona Isabel Moctezuma, a legitimate daughter of Moctezuma, late ruler of New Spain; that he is the son of Captain Vicente de Zaldivar, who was lieutenant captain general for the said war against the Chichimecas by appointment of Viceroy Don Martin Enriquez; that he owned many haciendas and mines; that the said Don Juanes de Tolosa, his father-in-law, was one of the first conquistadors and settlers of the mines and city of Zacatecas and defeated the Indians in many clashes and battles; that for these services the king our lord, of glorious memory, grandfather of his majesty, granted the city of Zacatecas a coat of arms and ordered that the image and statue of his father-in-law, honoring him with fine words, be placed at its gate; that from the mines he settled there have been obtained for your majesty, from 1575 to 1614, a total of 6,338,000 pesos, not counting the royal fifths collected during this time, or from 1540, when these mines were first settled, to this period; that he is a nephew of Don Juan de Onate, knight of the Order of Santiago, conqueror of the provinces of New Mexico, and a nephew of Vicente de Zaldivar, also a knight of the same order and who held the post of maesa de campo in the said conquest, in which he  performed notable services.


He begs, in consideration of these facts, that his only son and heir, Don Juan de Zaldivar Cortez Moctezuma, be granted knighthood in the order of Santiago and an income of one thousand pesos from the treasury in Mexico, as has been done for other descendants of Moctezuma. He states  that his son has served as Alcalde ordinario of the city of Zacatecas, with the approval of the audiencia; that he is married to Dona Isabela de Castilla, daughter of Don Fernando Altamirano and Dona Leonor de Vera, granddaughter of Doctor Santiago de Vera, late judge of the audiencia of the Philippines and the president of that of Guadalajara, where he died.


All of the above is attested by patents and affidavits which he presents regarding his high rank and nobility.


[Endorsed on the cover sheet:] Advise his majesty that in view of these many services, he could be favored with the knighthood he seeks. [Rubric] September 9, 1628.


Text from the book, Don Juan de Oñate, Colonizer of New Mexico 1595-1629, by George P. Hammond. The University of New Mexico Press 1953. The original document is in the Archivo General de Indias.



Ortega en Mexico 

Ortega en la Ciudad de México
Ortega   Luz Montejano  E-Mail o Correo

La línea Ortega de la Ciudad de México, agrupa a médicos, abogados y hasta un genealogista, que por cierto éste ultimo, a muchos genealogistas en la actualidad nos ha causado dolores de cabeza, ya que introdujo a su genealogía Ortega un título nobiliario que todo indica que no le correspondía que fue el del "Condado del Valle de Oploca". 
         Una de las líneas a tratar aquí, y que hasta ahora no se ha podido encontrar en la Ciudad de México, sería la del matrimonio de don José Ortega con doña María Gertrudis Martínez Navarro, padres del abogado don Francisco Ortega Martínez, quien quedando huérfano muy pequeño lo recoge su padrino el Dr. don José Nicolás Maniau Ortega y Torquemada, seguramente tío de nuestro huérfano por ser este doctor nieto de doña Alfonsa Martínez Navarro.
         El mencionado Francisco Ortega Martínez casó en la Ciudad de México en 1819 con doña María Josefa del Villar y Arce, (por la madre de ella viene el error del título nobiliario, por intentar hacerla homónima de la verdadera Condesa), siendo los anteriores, padres de entre otros hijos, del Médico y Compositor don Aniceto Ortega del Villar y de su hermano también médico don Francisco Ortega del Villar, otro hermano de estos fue el padre del abogado don Rafael Ortega y Pérez Gallardo y del abogado y genealogista don Ricardo Ortega y Pérez Gallardo, autor de la Historia Genealógica de las Familias más Antiguas de México de 1908.
         El matrimonio de don José Ortega con doña María Gertrudis Martínez Navarro seguramente aparecerá algún día, llegado el momento, sabremos si tienen nuestros personajes orígenes veracruzanos o no. Lo dejo de tarea para quienes desciendan de algunos de estos personajes. 

Luz Montejano Hilton. 
Nota: La presente línea se dio en el forum de el 24 de junio del 2001.

Pentland-Salcido Family: A Sonoran Family History Gallery . . page 1

Sent by Johanna De Soto

page 1 of 12This section of the Website features images from photographs primarily from the Salcido side of the family.   Walter Pentland IV has created El Blog Salcido. "The purpose of this blog is to provide a place where members of the family can meet, ask questions, find answers, and become acquainted or even re-acquainted." Visit the blog and contact Walter by email for more information about it. [added 7 October 2005] 

Read Walter Pentland IV's synopsis of his great grandfather and grandfather in "A Long Line of Walters" [en español]  View the The Salcido Family Tree [El Arbol Genealogico de Los Salcido]Click any image in this web exhibit to retrieve a larger copy. The file size is displayed to the right of the image. [Haga clic cualquier imagen en este objeto expuesto del web para extraer una copia más grande. El tamaño del archivo se visualiza a la derecha de la imagen.]


Salcido Cesma Family, 12 May 1895

Standing, left to right: Cruz Salcido Cesma de Palafox, Isabel Salcido Cesma (died young), Manuel Salcido Cesma, José "El Sereno" Salcido Cesma, Carmen Salcido Cesma de Quiroz, Joaquín Gaona, Romula Salcido Cesma de Pino, Petra Salcido Cesma de Mijares, Romana Salcido Cesma de Gaona; Sitting, left to right: Inés Cesma Ramires, Jesús María Salcido Lizarraga, Cayetano Salcido Villa, Angel Salcido Cesma, Agustín Gaona Salcido 


The Salcido family house in Caborca, circa 1902



Revolutionary Heroes Remembered in the Names of  Three States
by Bernardo Bello

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla

Jose Maria Morelos 

Vicente Guerrero

In the early 1800s, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was the pastor of the small town of Dolores, Mexico, and was intent on helping Mexico achieve independence from Spain.

When his underground efforts were discovered, he and his associates proclaimed rebellion, and Hidalgo rang the local church bell to gather his congregation.

He passionately called for Mexican independence and ended by proclaiming, "Mexicanos, viva Mexico!," or "Mexicans, long live Mexico!"

El Grito de Dolores
is the name given to Hidalgo's cry for independence, which took place on Sept. 16, 1810, now celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.

Often referred to as El Grito, it has been translated both as "The Shout from Dolores" and "The Cry of Pain," signifying the pain that Spanish rule caused Mexico.

This heroic Parish Priest, who is widely regarded as the Father of Mexican Independance and a symbol of patriotism, Miguel Hidalgo De Costilla was responsible for leading the first large revolutionary forces against the Spaniards. Tragically, however, shortly thereafter, he was captured and executed by a firing squad.

Father Hidalgo's martyrdom, however, galvanized the Mexican people to struggle and fight for independance. After Father Hidalgo's demise, Jose Maria Morelos, a small village priest, and a farseeing political and military genius, rallied the revolutionary forces until his capture and execution on December 22, 1815.

Historians sum up his service to the cause of Mexican independance by stating that "with him ended the heroic days of the Mexican Revolution."

As he read of the guerilla leader's brilliant campaigns, the French Emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte said," with three such men as Jose Morelos, I could conquer the world."

Vicente Guerrero, a rebel leader and the inheritor of the Hidalgo/Morelos tradition, continued the revolutionary struggle against the Spaniards until 1824, when the Spanish were overthrown and Guadalupe Victoria became the first elected president of the Republic of Mexico.

To commemorate these revolutionary heroes, Mexico named three states after them. Hidalgo, is a state just North of Mexico City, whereas Guerrero and Morelos are two adjacent states in Mexico's West coast. In addition, many hospitals, schools and colleges, state and federal parks, universities and government buildings have been named to honor these three Mexican Revolutionary Heroes - Hidalgo, Morelos, and Guerrero.


Book: Ringside Seat to the Mexican Revolution!

"David Romo’s Ringside Seat to a Revolution is a fascinating glimpse into unknown scenes of the Mexican Revolution of 1911. He takes us into El Paso and Juárez—facing one another across the Rio Grande—in the years just before and just after the exciting events of the revolution itself. It is close up and personal history—through the eyes of an extraordinary cast of characters. It is “people’s history” at its best." Howard Zinn 

El Paso/Juárez served as the tinderbox of the Mexican Revolution and the tumultuous years to follow. In essays and archival photographs, David Romo tells the surreal stories at the roots of the greatest Latin American revolution: the sainted beauty queen Teresita inspires revolutionary fervor and is rumored to have blessed the first rifles of the revolutionaries; anarchists publish newspapers and hatch plots against the hated Porfirio Diaz regime; Mexican outlaw Pancho Villa eats ice cream cones and rides his Indian motorcycle happily through downtown; El Paso’s gringo mayor wears silk underwear because he is afraid of Mexican lice; young Mexican maids refuse to be deloused so they shut down the border and back down Pershing’s men in the process; vegetarian and spiritualist Francisco Madero institutes the Mexican Revolutionary Junta in El Paso before crossing into Juárez to his ill-fated presidency and assassination; and bands play Verdi while firing squads go about their deadly business. 

David Dorado Romo, like the people he writes about in Ringside Seat to a Revolution, is a fronterizo. He grew up knowing both sides of the Rio Grande as his home. The son of Mexican immigrants, he is an essayist, historian, translator, and musician. He has studied at the Centro d’Attivitá Musicale in Florence, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and received a degree in Judaic Studies from Stanford University. 

Cinco Puntos Press, 701 Texas Avenue 
El Paso, Texas 79901 Telephone: 800-566-9072   E-Mail: 

Fray Juan Bautista de Mollinedo peregrino derrotero en la colonización del Nuevo Santander, actual Tamaulipas, México. *

Por Lic. Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza

Nació fray Juan Bautista de Mollinedo en Portugalete, cerca de Bilbao, España; vino a Nueva España como tantos otros emigrantes y toma el hábito franciscano en el convento de Acámbaro, Michoacán donde estudia la lengua Otomí.

Era la ciudad de Querétaro año de 1600 cuando fray Juan Bautista de Mollinedo y el capitán Pedro García Lumbreras se propusieron explorar, descubrir, colonizar y evangelizar "toda la tierra" desde Cerro Gordo Puxinguia, por Concá, Río Verde y Jaumave, y de ahí al norte hasta La Florida, en el tiempo que Felipe III, Rey de España daba un receso a su dinámica colonizadora del septentrión meridional de la Nueva España.

En 1607 Mollinedo y fray Juan de Cárdenas, un oriundo de Querétaro y excelente hablante del idioma Otomí, entraron a pie a la Sierra Catarina; luego Pinihuán, en Lagunillas y también Valle del Maíz donde edificaron convento e iglesia de bajareque (voz indígena de la zona del Mar Caribe para una choza cónica de pared hecha con varales de zarzo embarrados e hincados en el suelo), y congregaron indios para darles misa. Mollinedo también estuvo por unos días en Tula, tomó rumbo a Jaumave, cruzó la Sierra Madre y siguió adelante hasta el Nuevo Reino de León.

Desde el año de 1500 los galeones españoles habían navegado los litorales y se tenían informes de la costa entre Yucatán y La Florida, particularmente del tramo desde el Río Tuxpan hasta el Río Soto la Marina, "unas tierras situadas a una y otra banda del Río Pánuco", donde Hernán Cortés, Francisco de Garay y Nuño de Guzmán se disputaban las posesiones para adjudicarse el establecimiento de "la Gobernación del Pánuco"; así

ya para el año de 1550 estaban fundadas Pánuco, Valles, y Tampico; pero en el septentrión se ubicaba la difícil tierra india de los Tamaolipas que no pudo ser conquistada sino hasta tiempo después que lo fueron las provincias y jurisdicciones de la Nueva Galicia, la Nueva Vizcaya, y el Nuevo Reino de León.

Los escuetos datos geográficos que el virreinato de la Nueva España tenía de la región entre los ríos Verde y Soto la Marina en las costas del Seno del Golfo de México, sirvieron para que Juan Bautista de Mollinedo imaginara el territorio para evangelizar entre el Río Pánuco y el Río Nueces. Argumentaba Mollinedo ante la Real Audiencia que, "Jaumave es a 40 leguas mas adelante del Río Berde la tierra adentro"; y que "de Jaumave a las salinas, adelante de Tamaolipa, hay un camino donde a 20 leguas se puede fundar una ciudad cercana a la región del Río de las Palmas en Soto la Marina".

A pesar de sus argumentos Mollinedo no fue requerido por la corona española para llevar al cabo esta empresa, descuido que aprovechó la Francia para sentar sus reales en la región del Misisipí. Después de todo y a pesar de la indiferencia y el escaso apoyo que la corona española tuvo para la propuesta de colonización que tenía Juan Bautista de Mollinedo, sin duda alguna el primer asentamiento de los pueblos de Tula, Palmillas y Jaumave se deben al peregrinar de este singular misionero por las tierras tamaulipecas a principios de 1600; aunque la verdad es que este proyecto ya desde finales de 1556 fray Andrés de Olmos lo tenía convocado, después de la sangrienta y atroz conquista de la región lograda por las huestes de Francisco de Garay, de Gonzalo de Sandoval y de Nuño de Guzmán.

No fue sino hasta marzo de 1612 en que la corona española autorizó que el Virrey Diego Fernández de Córdova, Marqués de Guadalcazar, proveyese lo conveniente al proyecto de Mollinedo, y el 6 de junio de 1617 el marqués de Guadalcazar dispuso que se fundara en Río Verde un convento y la iglesia, adjudicando al capitán Juan de Porras y Ulloa, alcalde mayor de las Minas de Xichú, la ejecución de tal misión; Así también el 1 de julio de 1617 se fundó la parroquia se Santa Catarina Virgen y Mártir; el 6 fundó Lagunillas; el 8 Pinihuan; el 10 en Gamotes; el 15 Valle del Maíz; el 23 en Jaumave, y el 29 del julio de 1617 Monte Alberne. El 7 de agosto de 1617 se estableció Santa Clara y el día 8 San Cristóbal de Río Blanco; el 4 de septiembre de 1617 fundó Santa María de Teotlan; el 12 en San Pedro Mártir de Alpujarras, y finalmente el día 22 se septiembre de 1617 San Juan Tetla de Cerro Gordo.

Juan Bautista de Mollinedo murió enfermo en el convento franciscano de Madrid, España en 1627; sus inmediatos sucesores en la Nueva España siguieron sus pasos y recorrieron los linderos de Guadalcazar, frontera suroeste del estado de Tamaulipas con el estado de San Luís Potosí; fundaron la Misión de Santa Anna de Naola e hicieron visitas a Tanguanchín, a Palmillas, a Puerto de Francia, al Valle de Lágrimas, La Tinaja, Tanguanchín, Puerto de las Tortugas y las lagunas de Tula en el actual estado de Tamaulipas.

Interpretación libre del texto: "La Evangelización en Tamaulipas. Las misiones novohispanas en la costa del Seno Mexicano (1530-1831)" páginas de 109 a 122, de Carlos González Salas; Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas; Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas; 1998.


Mi familia . . .
From: Por Lic. Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza

Nuestra base familiar, de la Garza, se ubica en la Villa de Burgos, Tamaulipas. La información que se tiene, apoyada en documentos, indica que existieron dos troncos: De la Garza-González y De la Garza-Treviño que datan de principios del siglo XIX. 

Esta lista se hizo con información recabada de los libros del registro civil, así como la que proporcionaron miembros de la familia. Es, obviamente, un primer intento, se tendrá que corregir y/o aumentar para mejorarla. 

Una Línea 
Miguel de la Garza + Margarita González: 
A Candelario (1852), B Gil (1853), C Cenobio (1858), D Simón (1861).
A Candelario de la Garza González + Apolonia González:
A1 Catalina ( 1876), A2 Rafael (1886).
A2 Rafael de la Garza González + Edwiges de la Garza Flores:
A2.1 Justo, A2.2 Eloisa, A2.3 Ma. De Jesús, A2.4 Guadalupe Candelario.
A2.1 Justo de la Garza de la Garza + Carmen Herrera Castillo:
A2.1.1 Eliseo, A2.1.2 Alicia, A2.1.3 Héctor, A2.1.4 Bertha, A2.1.5 Herlinda Guadalupe.
A2.1.1 Eliseo de la Garza Herrera + Ma. Cruz Quintanilla Inglés:
A2.1.1.1 Justo Guadalupe, A2.1.1.2 Juan Manuel, A2.1.1.3 Ada María Carmina
A2.1.1.1 Justo Guadalupe de la Garza Quintanilla + Ma. Luisa Herrera Alvarado:
A2. Gladys Wendolyn, A2. Perla Cristal, A2. Juan Manuel.
A2. Gladys Wendolyn de la Garza Herrera + Teodoro Alvarado Cavazos:
A2. Pablo Guadalupe, A2. Jordan Michel.
A2.1.1.3 Ada María Carmina de la Garza Quintanilla + Abraham de la Garza Martínez:
A2. Arizbeth
A2.1.2 Alicia de la Garza Herrera + Jesús Salas Rodríguez:
A2.1.2.1 Oscar Guadalupe 
A2.1.2.1 Oscar Salas de la Garza + Esperanza Jaimes:
A2. Oscar, A2. María del Carmen, A2. Justo Rafael.
A2.1.2 Alicia de la Garza Herrera + José de Jesús Villaseñor:
A2.1.2.2 Jaime David, A2.1.2.3 José de Jesús, A2.1.2.4 Juan Manuel
A2.1.2.2 Jaime David Villaseñor de la Garza + Juana Ma. Castañeda Inglés:
A2. Janet Sugey, A2. Jaime David, A2. Yadira,
A2. Guadalupe Anayatzín, A2. Francisco de Jesús.
A2.1.2.3 José de Jesús Villaseñor de la Garza + Clara Pulido Narváez:
A2. José Emmanuel, A2. José de Jesús, A2. Clara Angélica,
A2. José Luis.
A2.1.3 Héctor de la Garza Herrera + Graciela Goldaracena Castelán:
A2.1.3.1 Héctor, A2.1.3.2 Graciela, A2.1.3.3 Dalia.
A2.1.4 Bertha de la Garza Herrera + Héctor Hernández Sánchez:
A2.1.4.1 Bárbara del Rosario, A2.1.4.2 Ernestina del Carmen, A2.1.4.3 Bertha Alicia.
A2.1.4.1 Bárbara del Rosario Hernández de la Garza + José Gpe. Domínguez Yamane:
A2. Bárbara del Carmen, A2. Paulina.
A2.1.4.2 Ernestina del Carmen Hernández de la Garza + César Augusto Álvarez Quilantán:
A2. César Augusto
A2.1.5 Herlinda Guadalupe de la Garza Herrera + Felipe Barrón Vásquez:
A2.1.5.1 Amparo del Carmen, A2.1.5.2 Sol Patricia, A2.1.5.3 Felipe, A2.1.5.4 Lupemaría.
A2.1.5.1 Amparo del Carmen Barrón de la Garza + Armando Galván Zabala:
A2. Dalia Guadalupe, A2. Armando de Jesús, A2. Luis Eduardo.
A2.1.5.2 Sol Patricia Barrón de la Garza + Juan Fco. Rodríguez Rodríguez:
A2. Giovani Alexis, A2. Amaury Francisco.
A2.1.5.4 Lupemaría Barrón de la Garza + Marín Carrizales Barrón:
A2. Marian del Carmen, A2. Lupemaría. 
A2.1 Justo de la Garza de la Garza + Ignacia Salas Meza:
A2.1.6 Justo Rafael, A2.1.7 Rafael, A2.1.8 Luis Felipe, A2.1.9 Ma. Guadalupe, A2.1.10 Edwiges, A2.1.11 Oralia, A2.1.12 Juan José, A2.1.13 Jesús Martín,
A2.1.14 Francisco. 
A2.1.6 Justo Rafael de la Garza Salas + Germana García:
A2.1.6.1 Alejandra, A2.1.6.2 Patricia, A2.1.6.3 Justo Rafael, A2.1.6.4 Ignacia Candelaria, A2.1.6 José Guadalupe.
A2.1.7 Rafael de la Garza Salas + Herlinda Cavazos Durán:
A2.1.7.1 Ma. Guadalupe.
A2.1.8 Luis Felipe de la Garza Salas + Gloria Ruiz Tudón:
A2.1.8.1 Gloria Ivette. 
A2.1.9 Ma. Guadalupe de la Garza Salas + Joel Castillo Rodríguez:
A2.1.9.1 Joel Anastasio, A2.1.9.2 Ariana.
A2.1.10 Edwiges de la Garza Salas + Adelaido Sánchez Ramos:
A2.1.10.1 Omar Orlando.
A2.1.11 Oralia de la Garza Salas + Ricardo Ramos Saldívar:
A2.1.11.1 Andrés Rafael
A2.1.12 Juan José de la Garza Salas + Rosaura Ríos Castro:
A2.1.12.1 Juan Emilio, A2.1.12.2 Rosa Ericka. A2.1.13 Jesús Martín de la Garza Salas + Ma. De Jesús Rodríguez Domínguez:
A2.1.13.1 Esmeralda de Jesús, A2.1.13.2 Jesús Martín.
A2.1.14 Francisco de la Garza Salas + Lorena Banda Durán:
A2.1.14.1 Francisco, A2.1.14.2 Ayleen Melissa.
A2.1.14 Francisco de la Garza Salas + Georgina Morales Martínez:
A2.1.14.3 Oralia Yasmín.
A2.2 Eloisa de la Garza de la Garza + Octavio Rodríguez Turrubiates:
A2.2.1 Margarita, A2.2.2 Gloria, A2.2.3 Ma. Elena, A2.2.4 Luciano, A2.2.5 Octavio.
A2.2.1 Margarita Rodríguez de la Garza + Gonzalo García Reyes:
A2.2.1.1 José Roberto, A2.2.1.2 Héctor Gonzalo, A2.2.1.3 Ana Margarita,
A2.2.1.4 José Roberto, A2.2.1.5 Claudia.
A2.2.1.2 Héctor Gonzalo García Rodríguez + Irela Luna Maldonado:
A2. José Gonzalo, A2. José Rodrigo, A2. José Eduardo.
A2.2.1.4 José Roberto García Rodríguez + Mariela López Sosa:
A2. José Roberto, A2. Rodolfo, A2. Marla.
A2.2.1.5 Claudia García Rodríguez + Jesús Muñoz Márquez:
A2. Jesús Eduardo, A2. Diego.
A2.2.2 Gloria Rodríguez de la Garza + Guillermo Storms de la Garza:
A2.2.2.1 Gloria Acacia, A2.2.2.2 Guillermo Evaristo, A2.2.2.3 Perla Elena,
A2.2.2.4 Elsa Catalina, A2.2.2.5 Federico Leopoldo, A2.2.2.6 Carlos Rafael,
A2.2.2.7 Irma Lorena. 
A2.2.2.1 Gloria Acacia Storms Rodríguez + Juan Charur Nayem:
A2. Juan, A2. Naim, A2. Juan Carlos.
A2.2.2.2 Guillermo Evaristo Storms Rodríguez + Teresa Castillo Huerta:
A2. Gloria Ileana, A2. Karla Paola, A2. Cinthia Acacia,
A2. César Guillermo.
A2.2.2.3 Perla Elena Storms Rodríguez + Alberto Guridi:
A2. Guillermo Alberto, A2. Perla Marian.
A2.2.2.4 Elsa Catalina Storms Rodríguez + Ramón Ochoa Vázquez:
A2. Elsa Samira, A2. Samantha Catalina.
A2.2.2.5 Federico Leopoldo Storms Rodríguez + Nora Lorena Rodríguez Sontoya:
A2. Federico Leopoldo, A2. Guillermo Enrique.
A2.2.2.6 Carlos Rafael Storms Rodríguez + Marcela Castillo Marroquín:
A2. Karla Edith, A2. María José, A2. Carlos Guillermo.
A2.2.2.7 Irma Lorena Storms Rodríguez + Juan Manuel Reyes:
A2. Juan Alberto, A2. Manuel Alejando, A2. Luis Manuel.
A2.2.3 Ma. Elena Rodríguez de la Garza + Jorge Yunán Bichara:
A2.2.3.1 Jaime, A2.2.3.2 Ana Laura, A2.2.3.3 Eduardo, A2.2.3.4 María Eugenia,
A2.2.3.5 Martha, A2.2.3.6 Jorge. 
A2.2.3.1 Jaime Yunán Rodríguez + Laura Maíz Ochoa:
A2. Rhanda Elizabeth, A2. Pamela.
A2.2.3.2 Ana Laura Yunán Rodríguez:
A2. Nazdra Isabel.
A2.2.3.3 Eduardo Yunán Rodríguez + Xóchitl Castillo Vázquez:
A2. Zeltzin, A2. María Elena.
A2.2.3.4 María Eugenia Yunán Rodríguez + Benigno Patiño:
A2. Grace Eugenia, A2. Helue.
A2.2.4 Luciano Rodríguez de la Garza + Arlette Tamez Reyes:
A2.2.4.1 Jesús Luciano, A2.2.4.2 Gustavo Tadeo.
A2.3 Ma. De Jesús de la Garza de la Garza + Guillermo Salazar Pacheco:
A2.3.1 Guillermo Rafael.
A2.3 Ma. De Jesús de la Garza de la Garza + Agapito Herrera Acuña:
A2.3.2 Manuel, A2.3.3 Imelda, A2.3.4 Carlos Martín, A2.3.5 Rafael,
A2.3.6 Ma. de Lourdes, A2.3.7 Ma. del Sagrario, A2.3.8 Alberto Ariel.
A2.3.1 Guillermo Rafael Salazar de la Garza + Lourdes Avendaño:
A2.3.1.1 Lourdes, A2.3.1.2 Georgina, A2.3.1.3 Guadalupe 
A2.3.2 Manuel Herrera de la Garza + Juana María Maldonado Martínez:
A2.3.2.1 Manuel Alejando, A2.3.2.2 Ericka Belinda.
A2.3.3 Imelda Herrera de la Garza + Miguel Almaraz:
A2.3.3.1 Claudia Lidia, A2.3.3.2 Marco Antonio, A2.3.3.3 Perla Susana.
A2.3.3.1 Claudia Lidia Almaraz Herrera + Baldomero Rivera Monterrubio:
A2. Dan Jefte, A2. Caludia, A2. Danna Melissa
A2.3.3.3 Perla Susana Almaraz Herrera + José Humberto Junkera Pons:
A2. José Humberto, A2. Maximiliano.
A2.3.3 Imelda Herrera de la Garza + Alfredo Aragón:
A2.3.3.4 Teresa de Jesús, A2.3.3.5 Rafael, A2.3.3.6 April. 
A2.3.3.6 April Aragón Herrera:
A2. Marco Daniel
A2.3.3.5 Rafael Aragón Herrera + Karla Delgado:
A2. Karla Yahaira A2.3.4 Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza + María Luisa Parra García:
A2.3.4.1 Carlos Ricardo.
A2.3.6 Ma. de Lourdes Herrera de la Garza + Apolinar Obregón Villanueva:
A2.3.6.1 Emmanuel, A2.3.6.2 Mizraim, A2.3.6.3 Rocioeli. 
A2.3.7 Ma. del Sagrario Herrera de la Garza + Rafael Ruizz:
A2.3.7.1 Antonio Ásraf.
A2.4 Guadalupe Candelario de la Garza de la Garza + Francisca Requena Salazar:
A2.4.1 Irma Grizelda, A2.4.2 Alma, A2.4.3 Guadalupe Candelario,
A2.4.4 Francisco Rafael, A2.4.5 Juan José, A2.4.6 Carlos Martín.
A2.4.2 Alma de la Garza Requena + Javier C. Ponce Salas:
A2.4.2.1 Marialma, A2.4.2.2 Javier de Jesús. 
A2.4.3 Guadalupe Candelario de la Garza Requena + Rosa Elba Rangel Galán:
A2.4..3.1 Candelario Rafael, A2.4..3.2 Claudia Lorena.
A2.4.4 Francisco Rafael de la Garza Requena + Juana Esthela Cisneros Luévano:
A2.4.4.1 Gustavo Francisco, A2.4.4.2 Adrián, A2.4.4.3 Gianna Gesu.
A2.4.4.1 Gustavo Francisco de la Garza Cisneros + Itchel A. Amaro Diaz:
A2. Gustavo de la Garza Amaro.
A2.4.5 Juan José de la Garza Requena + Marisela Torres Garza:
A2.4.5.1 Juan José, A2.4.5.2 Ana Paula.
A2.4.6 Carlos Martín de la Garza Requena + Ángeles Fernández:
A2.4.6.1 Ana Sofía, A2.4.6.2 Carla Mayela.

Otra Línea 

Francisco Secundino de la Garza + Ignacia Treviño: 
I Justo Rufino, II Juan, III Irineo, IV Julián, V Angelita, VI Ignacia, VII Eugenio.
I Justo Rufino de la Garza Treviño + Eloisa Flores Treviño:
I1 Edwiges (1888), I2 Jesús María, I3 Manuela (1891), I4 Concepción.
I1 Edwiges de la Garza Flores + Rafael de la Garza González:
I1.1 Justo, I1.2 Eloisa, I1.3 Ma. de Jesús, I1.4 Guadalupe Candelario. 
I2 Jesús María de la Garza Flores + Rebeca Benavides:
I2.1 César Octavio. 
I4 Concepción de la Garza Flores + Federico Storms:
I4.1 Guillermo Justo, I4.2 Federico Livingston, I4.3 Perla Irma, I4.4 Acacia.
I4.1 Guillermo Justo Storms de la Garza + Gloria Rodríguez de la Garza:
I4.1.1 Gloria Acacia, I4.1.2 Guillermo Evaristo, I4.1.3 Perla Elena, I4.1.4 Elsa Catalina, I4.1.5 Federico Leopoldo, I4.1.6 Carlos Rafael, I4.1.7 Irma Lorena.
I4.3 Perla Irma Storms de la Garza + Kenneth Collins:
I4.3.1 Linda Diana, I4.3.2 Patricia Ann, I4.3.3 Keith Joseph, I4.3.4 Jaqueline Beverly Marie, I4.3.5 Denise Michele. 
I4.3.1 Linda Diana Collins Storms + Abelardo Drago: 
I4.3.1.1 Fred Alain, I4.3.1.2 Paul Chistian, I4.3.1.3 Linda Diana. 
I4.3.2 Patricia Ann Collins Storms + Antonio Peña: 
I4.3.2.1 Antonio, I4.3.2.2 Vanesa Valerie, I4.3.2.3 Jessica Paola, I4.3.2.4 Leslie. 
I4.3.3 Keith Joseph Collins Storms + Beth: 
I4.3.3.1 Avery Marie. 
I4.3.4 Jaqueline Beverly Marie Collins Storms + Mario Alberto Ramos: 
I4.3.4.1 Jaqueline Beberly, I4.3.4.2 Stephany Marie, I4.3.4.3 Grace Marie. 
I4.3.5 Denise Michele Collins Storms + Sosa: 
I4.3.5.1 Melenie Michelle, I4.3.5.2 Ricardo Andre. 
I4.4 Acacia Storms de la Garza + Raymond Peters: 
I4.4.1 Raymond, I4.4.2 Daniel, I4.4.3 Melissa. 
I Justo Rufino de la Garza Treviño + Gaudencia Guillén:
I5 Acacia, I6 Loreto, I7 Justo Hipólito, I8 Tomasa, I9 Guadalupe,
I10 Francisco Secundino, I11 Carlota.
I5 Acacia de la Garza Guillén + Carlos Velasco
I6 Loreto de la Garza Guillén + Petra Rendón:
I6.1 Gaudencia,, I6.2 Ma. Andrea, I6.3 Justo, I6.4 Loreto, I6.5 Heberto, I6.6 Elvira, 
I6.7 Marco Antonio.
I6.2 Ma. Andrea de la Garza Rendón:
I6.2.1 Juana Elsa.
I6.3 Justo de la Garza Rendón:
I6.3.1 Marcia, I6.3.2 Raquel, I6.3.4 Rolando. 
I6.5 Heberto de la Garza Rendón:
I6.5.1 Germán, I6.5.2 Ricardo 
I7 Justo Hipólito de la Garza Guillén + Ma. de los Ángeles González:
I7.1 Elvia Luz, I7.2 Justo R., I7.3 Guadalupe, I7.4 Jesús Ma., I7.5 Ma. de los Ángeles,
I7.6 Oscar, I7.7 Mario. 
I7.1 Elvia Luz de la Garza González + Sergio Melo:
I7.1.1 Sergio, I7.1.2 Rebeca, I7.1.3 Melissa, I7.1.4 Américo.
I7.2 Justo R. de la Garza González + Hermelinda Vallejo:
I7.2.1 Justo A., I7.2.2 Juan Carlos, I7.2.3 Verónica.
I7.4 Jesús Ma. de la Garza González + Elva Alicia Herrera:
I7.4.1 Jesús Ricardo, I7.4.2 Hugo, I7.4.3 Elva Adriana. 
I7.5 Ma. de los Ángeles de la Garza González:
I7.5.1 Jesús Pablo.
I7.7 Mario de la Garza González + Socorro López:
I7.7.1 Mario Alberto.
I8 Tomasa de la Garza Guillén + Roberto Donato Garza:
I8.1 María de Jesús.
I8.1 María de Jesús Garza de la Garza + Luis Camacho Ortega:
I8.1.1 Luis Ricardo, I8.1.2 Roberto Sergio, I8.1.3 Aldo Alejandro, I8.1.4 Eduardo Enrique.
I8.1.1 Luis Ricardo Camacho Garza + Beatriz Arredondo Espiricueta:
I8.1.1.1 Alejandra Lizzeth.
I8.1.2 Roberto Sergio Camacho Garza + Martha Alicia Martínez Ortiz:
I8.1.2.1 Roberto Sergio, I8.1.2.2 Manuel Alejandro.
I8.1.3 Aldo Alejandro Camacho Garza + Pilar Estrada:
I8 1.3 Aldo Alejandro.
I9 Guadalupe de la Garza Guillén + Alicia Sánchez:
I9.1 Juan José.
I9.1 Juan José de la Garza Sánchez + Gloria Hernández:
I9.1.1 Marcela, I9.1.2 Juan José, I9.1.3 Monica, I9.1.4 Manuel, I9.1.5 Gloria, I9.1.6 Alicia. 
I10 Francisco Secundino de la Garza Guillén + Rosario Campos:
I10.1 Rosario, I10.2 Francisco, I10.3 Elizabeth, I10.4 Joaquín, I10.5 Rafael, 
I10.6 Mercedes, I10.7 Judith. 
I10.2 Francisco de la Garza Campos:
I10.2.1 Francisco. 
I10.3 Elizabeth de la Garza Campos:
I10.3.1 Francisco, I10.3.2 Raymundo, I10.3.3 César, I10.3.4 Elizabeth. 
I10.7 Judith de la Garza Campos:
I10.7.1 José Pablo, I10.7.2 Alejandro, I10.7.3 Daniel.
I11 Carlota de la Garza Guillén + Alfredo Martínez Manaotou:
I11.1 María Guadalupe, I11.2 Leticia, I11.3 Elizabeth, I11.4 Alfredo, I11.5 Patricia. 

San Diego Seagull
Sept 2005 Pg 3
Sent by Tawn Skousen

College planned for LDS in Tijuana
The LDS college youth of Tijuana, Mexico, are going to receive a pleasant surprise very soon. A branch of Universidad Hispana of Provo, Utah, is being opened in Tijuana. This is being organized by Dr. Arturo De Hoyos, who was mission president in Tijuana 15 years ago and is now the president ol Universidad Hispana. a four -year college registered in the state of Utah that grants associate and bachelor's degrees in business.
Universidad Hispana also has a branch in Lima, Peru, South America, and other branches are being organized in other Latin countries.
in 1984 Dr. De Hoyos organized Cumorah University, also in Tijuana. but that school eventually was moved to Mexico City. Its name was changed, as required by the State, and is now in Tula, Hidalgo, as Centre Unlversltario Allende. with about 700 students.
The school in Tijuana will offer degrees in business. The field of business is very comprehensive and Includes training in accounting, computer science, economics, intern national business and other related academic subiects,
But Universidad Hisoana has much more to offer with Its language program: In order to graduate, the student has to be bilingual Therefore, the program to teach English at Universidad Hispana is intensive. One special approach to accomplish this Is that in most of the subjects taught, the professors, who are bilingual, use text-books in English.
All the professors at Universidad Hispana are selected not only for their academic credentials, but also for their advocacy for the student in his struggle to learn a subject matter. This is made easier because the student-teacher interaction is free from emotional tension. since he or she can ask questions in Spanish.
The campuses of Universidad Hispana, by design, will be small places, In Tijuana alone there may be four small campuses. This Is 10 avoid
. traveling by the students. But each campus, with about 90-100 students. will offer the same complete program. As a matter of fact. this is one of the innovations of this university students can study in the city where they live. They can live at home while at-tending school. And they can keep a job also, as classes are also offered at night and on Saturdays.
Students can register locally, attend classes locally, and be taught by local professors, but when they finish all requirements, as stipulated in the school catalog published and used in Utah. they can receive an American diploma if they, by then, are bilingual.
Universidad Hispana will grant academic credit to persons who started, but never finished, their higher education in other academic institutions, even from Latin America. A careful evaluation is made of all records — some examlnaaons may be necessary — and then the scudent is informed of what he/she needs to complete the graduation requirements.
An important aspect of this opportunity to obtain a degree is that some credit may be granted for actual field experience. Many students may not need all the four years of study in order to graduate.
And what about the Hispanic youth in the area of San Diego? Well, it is
. even simpler for Universidad Hispana to establish a branch here in the Sail Diego area. At the present time a city in Arizona and another one In Colorado are being considered as possible sites for a branch of Universidad Hispana. A branch in Ogden, Utah, is already in the process of organization, The plan is to organize many branches in all the Latin-American countries.
Universidad Hispana is constantly looking for Interested professors-entrepreneurs who might be interested in OWNING a branch of Universidad Hispana. It works as a franchise. Do you want more information? Call Dr.
- Arturo De Hoyos, 801/501-9349. You will receive a complete packet of information.

A Quizzical Marriage in Jerez 
by Gabe Gutierrez

Mimi, below is an article that I wanted to share with your audience. In my research I find many things that don't match up. Some you can explan away and others just make no sense. Than there are those cases where the data you have is all there is. 
I've been working my Indian side of the family who came from Aguascalientes and its surprising how clannish they were. To this day they still maintain those ties, even here in the States. You see the same last names poping up in the family trees. It's amazing how these people who couldn't even speak Spanish much less English migrated here and have produced doctors, engineers, etc. 
Thanks, Gabe
Bonifacio de la Torre and Maria Manuela de Medina were married in Jerez, Zacatecas on 27 April 1766 (1). This is a quizzical marriage in that the marriage entry shows Bonifacio’s parents as Juan de la Torre and Anna Maria Gutiérrez. Anna Maria Gutiérrez died between 1729 and 1735. Juan de la Torre second marriage entry to Cecilia de la Torre on 12 Feb 1737 shows his first wife having died on 1735 (2). It is believed that Bonifacio’s mother was Cecilia de la Torre. If true, why the discrepency? 

Juan de la Torre y Gamboa and Anna Maria Gutiérrez de Celis were married on 12 Jun 1702 (3) and had, had a son also named Bonifacio but who died on 2 Jun 1729 unmarried (4). There are no records that show this couple having a second child named Bonifacio or did they?  Two other known children were Rita and Paula de la Torre. Doña Rita fue casada con don Juan Davila hijo de don Francisco Davila Caldera y doña Sebastiana de Olague. Paula fue casada con Joseph Marcelino Sanchez hijo de don Joseph Sanchez y Maria Flores de Cd. de Zacatecas. 

Cecilia de la Torre from Cd. de Zacatecas had previously been married to Juan Diego Ramírez and who had died on 18 Feb 1729 (5) which allowed her to marry Juan de la Torre. From this marriage it is believe Bonifacio was conceived. 

Note: on the death entry of Juan Diego Ramírez his wife’s last name is erased (6). Why?  

A lady by the name of Cecilia de la Torre appears as madrina de matrimonio with Diego de Acevedo of Damasio Tadeo de Medrano y Juana Antonia Cuesta el 4 mayo 1730 (7). Damasio was the grandnephew of Juan de la Torre. This tells me that Cecilia was much younger than Juan de la Torre and capable of bearing his child.  

Diego de Acevedo era don Diego de Acevedo y Alarcón hermano de doña Manuela Margarita de Acevedo y Alarcón casada con don Prudencio Mateo Gutiérrez de Celis. Prudencio y Anna Maria eran hermanos. This shows again that Juan and Celicia must have known each other previously . 

Anna Maria Gutiérrez parents were Capt. Diego Gutiérrez de Celis y doña Manuela del Rió de Losa. Juan de la Torre parents were don Roque de la Torre and doña Juana Gamboa. 

 Maria Manuela de Medina descends from Capt. don Nicolas Medina Covarrubias y doña Isabel Felis de Arellano dueños y poseedor del mayorazgo de Medina Cobarrubias y de la hacienda de Campo de San Pedro del Rió de Medina en la jurisdicción de Fresnillo (8).  La primera esposa de don Nicolas fue doña Isabel de Anda y Gallardo hermana de don Antonio Xavier Prieto Gallardo casado con doña Josepha Gutierrez de Celis, a su ves hermana de doña Anna Maria.
What happen to Bonifacio de la Torre and doña Maria Manuela de Medina? Thats another interesting commentary.

Sources: LDS Library – church records, Jerez, Zacatecas México
note 1. Padrinos de Matrimonio (PM) fueron Pedro de la Torre y Rosalia Reveles, Film #0440060
note 2. PM del segundo matrimonio fueron don Gregorio del Rió y doña Cecilia García del la Cadena, viudo por muerte de Anna Maria de Celis dos anos film #440059  
note 3.  PM fueron Andrés García y Lázaro(a)? García Film #
note 4.  Sus padres españoles film #0440986 
note 5.  same as note 2   
note 6.   film #0440986
note 7.   film #0440059   
note 8.   Internet; Fresnillo y Medina Covarrubias

The Descendents of Don Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa
Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 1

1. VASCO2 PORCALLO-DE-FIGUEROA (LORENZO1 SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA) was born 1494 in Caceres, Spain, and died 1550 in Puerto Principe, Cuba. He married (1) MARIA DE FIGUEROA-SOTOMAYOR. She died in Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mexico. He married (2) ELVIRA DE MENDOZA. 
From the book, With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 101.

i. LORENZO3 PORCALLO-Y-DE-LA-CERDA, b. Portugal; d. Mazapil, Zaccatecas, Mexico.
A.K.A. Lorenzo Porcallo de Figueroa.

ii. MARIA PORCAYO-Y-DE-LA-CERDA, b. Portugal; d. Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mexico; m. PEDRO FERNANDEZ-DE-CASTRO-Y-FIGUEROA; b. 1551; d. Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mexico.
Marriage from the book, With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine.

iii. LEONOR PORCALLO-Y-DE-LA-CERDA, d. Aft. 09 Dec 1635, Mexico City, F.D., Mexico; m. SEBASTIAN DE TREVINO.
On December 9, 1635, she signed her last will and Testament - Mexico City.
Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza.

2. iv. JUANA PORCALLO-Y-DE-LA-CERDA, b. Abt. 1530, Portugal; d. 1581, Killed by her husband, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.

Generation No. 2

2. JUANA3 PORCALLO-Y-DE-LA-CERDA (VASCO2 PORCALLO-DE-FIGUEROA, LORENZO1 SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA) was born Abt. 1530 in Portugal, and died 1581 in Killed by her husband, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. She married GOVERNOR DIEGO DE HERNANDEZ-MONTEMAYOR 1569 in Mazapil, Zacatecas, Mexico, son of JUAN DE MONTEMAYOR and MARIA HERNANDEZ. He was born Abt. 1528 in Malaga, Spain, and died Apr 1611 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
In 1596, he founded the City Of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
From the book, With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine.
Source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara. Page 269.
Source:Historia del Nuevo Reino de Leon by Eugenio del Hoyo.

i. DIEGO4 DE MONTEMAYOR-Y-PORCALLO, d. 1611, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon,Mexico.
4. ii. ESTEFANA DE MONTEMAYOR-Y-PORCALLO, b. 1573, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; d. Abt. 1660.


Generation No. 3
4. ESTEFANA4 DE MONTEMAYOR-Y-PORCALLO (JUANA3 PORCALLO-Y-DE-LA-CERDA, VASCO2 PORCALLO-DE-FIGUEROA, LORENZO1 SUAREZ-DE-FIGUEROA) was born 1573 in Mexico City, D.F., Mexico, and died Abt. 1660. She married CAPTAIN ALBERTO DEL CANTO Abt. 1585 in Mexico City, D.F., Mexico, son of SEBASTIANO DEL CANTO and MARIA VIEIRA-DIAZ. He was born 1547 in Isla Terciaria de los Azores, Portugal, and died Dec 1611 in Saltillo,Coahuila, Mexico.
A resident of Durango, in 1577, the Alcalde mayor and Captain, Don Albert del Canto founded the settlement at Ojos de Santa Lucia (Monterrey), Villa del Saltillo, and Trinidad (Monclova).
From the book, With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 103.
Source: From the book, The North Frontier of New Spain by Peter Gerhard.
Fundadores de Nueva Galicia - Guadalajara - Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 37.
Nueva Vizcaya, Heartland of the Spanish Frontier, by Oakah L. Jones, Jr.

i. MIGUEL5 DEL CANTO-MONTEMAYOR, b. 1586, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; d. Aft. 11 Oct 1643, Hacienda de los Nogales, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (2) MONICA RODRIGUEZ-TREVINO, 1624, Mexico City, F.D. Mexico; b. Abt. 1592, Mecixo City, D.F., Mexico; d. 30 Jun 1681, Hacienda de los Nogales, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
A.K.A. Miguel de Montemayor.
Birth date from the book, Historia del Nuevo Reino de Leon, by Engenio del Hoyo. Page 102
His will is dated October 11, 1643, Source:With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 108.
Testamentos Coloniales de Monterrey, by Lilia E. Villanueva de Cavazos. Page18

ii. ELVIRA DEL CANTO-MONTEMAYOR, b. Abt. 1590, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; d. Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. (1) JUSEPE TENORIO; d. Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico; m. (2) PEDRO DE-LA-VEGA; d. Aft. 1635, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Killed by indians. Source:With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 108.
Marriage source:From the book, With All Arms, A Study of a Kindred Group, by Carl Laurence Duaine.

iii. DIEGO DEL CANTO-MONTEMAYOR, b. 1590, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico; d. Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
A.K.A. Diego de Montemayor.





Nombramiento de Capitán Diego de Villarreal de las Casas

"El día 30 de Junio de 1687 se presentan ante el Sr. Agustín Echevers y Subisar, Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo, Caballero de la Orden de Santiago, Vizconde de Santa Olaya, Gobernador y Capitán General del Nuevo Reyno de León y sus conquistas, estos 6 hijos legítimos del Capitán Diego de Villarreal y le presentaron sus contenidos como tales para efecto de ordenar sus heredades...Al compartirse la herencia de su padre el Capitán Diego de Villarreal...a los hermanos Juan y Cristobal de Villarreal les cupo por ésta razón la Hacienda de la labor que llaman de Enmedio".

Así quedo limitada en toda su extensión geográfica la Hacienda de Enmedio que desde entonces se denominó Hacienda de Juan y Cristobal de Villarreal. Conocida como Hacienda de Enmedio, hoy Hidalgo, la Heredan Juan y Cristobal de Villarreal, propiedad que se define "desde la Presa del Mortero, comprendiendo casas y molinos de Fundición hasta llegar al "Paso de las Moras".

Libro de Partidas y certificaciones de Matrimonio, número: 4.

Año de 1861. Jerez, Zacatecas

Por Leonardo de la Torre y Berumen


ACOSTA GOMEZ Porfirio, casado y velado el 3 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Anacleta Saldivar Enriquez. Foja: 12.

AGUIRRE DE LA ROSA Atilano, casado y velado el 8 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Clemencia Quiroz Cabral. Foja: 8v.

AGUIRRE DE LA ROSA Cruz, casado y velado el 27 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Pascuala Villanueva Flores. Foja: 22.

ALDERETE RUIZ José, casado y velado el 9 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Magdalena (Morales) Vargas. Foja: 23.

ALONZO VARGAS Pedro, casado y velado el 28 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Gregoria Collazo Hernández. Foja: 15v.

ALVARADO RODRÍGUEZ Nicolás, casado y velado el 10 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Tomasa Medina Martínez. Foja: 13v.

ALVAREZ CAMPOS Sabás, casado y velado el 26 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Catarina Arredondo Bermúdez. Foja: 26.

APARICIO GARAY Hilario DE, soltero, de 21 años de edad, originario y vecino del rancho de El Tambor, hijo legítimo de José de la Luz Aparicio y de Ma. Isabel Garay, que viven. Casado y velado el 20 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Jacinta López Banegas, doncella, de 18 años de edad, originaria y vecina del rancho de Lo de Salas, e hija legítima de Angel López, que vive y de Crecensia Banegas, ya difunta. Padrinos: Lino de Aparicio y Anacleta de Aparicio. Testigos: Lucas Garay y José Ma. Pérez. Foja: 25. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro No. 2. Foja: 176. No. 176.

AVILA BAÑUELOS Sostenes, casado y velado el 13 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Refugio Celaya. Foja: 14v.

AVILA MINCHACA Silvestre DE, casado y velado el 1 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Micaela Pichardo Campos. Foja: 5v.

AVILA REZA Gregorio DE, soltero, de 25 años de edad, originario y vecino de la hacienda de Santa Fe, hijo natural de Félix de Avila y de Lorenza Reza, que viven. Casado y velado el 30 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Manuela Escobedo Mejía, doncella, de 16 años de edad, originaria de Buenavista y vecina de Santa Fe hace 8 años, e hija legítima de Simón Escobedo, ya difunto y de Tomasa Mejía, que vive. Padrinos: Jesús Chávez y Aniceta Carlos. Testigos: Bartolo de Reza y Benigno Salazar. Foja: 28. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro No. 2. Foja: 186. No. 112.

BARRAGÁN RAMÍREZ Jesús, casado y velado el 10 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Mariana Espinoza Miranda. Foja: 20v.

BAUTISTA ESQUIVEL Gabino, casado y velado el 3 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Silvestra Pinedo Pérez. Foja: 19v.

BAUTISTA GONZALEZ Francisco, casado y velado el 28 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Marcelina Bocanegra Castañeda. Foja: 27.

BERUMEN GONZALEZ don Zenobio, soltero, de 24 años de edad, originario y vecino de El Marecito, feligresía de Tepetongo, e hijo legítimo de don Pioquinto Berumen y de doña Felipa González, que viven. Casado y velado el 12 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con doña Refugio Cabral Acuña, doncella, de 22 años de edad, originaria y vecina de la ciudad de Jerez, e hija legítima de don Juan José Cabral, difunto y de doña Sixta Acuña, que vive. Padrinos: don Juan Yánez y doña Josefa Berumen. Testigos: don Francisco Rodríguez y Alejandro Orozco. Foja: 9. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro 2. Foja: 82 y 83. No. 41.

BORREGO MELÉNDEZ Prisciliano, casado y velado el 8 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Antonia Gómez de Cazas. Foja: 14v.

CALDERA CALDERA Magdaleno, casado y velado el 31 de mayo de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Anastasia Reveles. Foja: 5.

CAMACHO RIOS Claro, casado el 28 de diciembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Leonides Hernández Delgado. Foja: 31.

CAMPOS CARRILLO Teodoro, casado y velado el 2 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ramona Díaz Cardona. Foja: 12.

CAMPOS SALDIVAR Santos, casado y velado el 27 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Eugenia de Luna Martínez. Foja: 26v.

CARDONA GONZALEZ Francisco, de 24 años de edad, originario y vecino de Cienega, viudo en primeras nupcias de Pantaleona Dimas, sepultada en el Camposanto de esta ciudad hace 5 años. Hijo legítimo de Dionisio Cardona y de Simona González, que viven. Casado y velado el 29 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ambrosia Correa, soltera, de 26 años de edad, originaria y vecina del rancho del Señor de Roma, e hija leg+ítima de Máximo Correa y de Petra Miranda, ya difuntos. Padrinos: Sixto González y Margarita Dena. Testigos: Irineo Sánchez y Vicente Hernández Foja: 11 vuelta. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro 2. Foja: 96 frente y vuelta. No. 47.

CARDONA SÁNCHEZ Lázaro, casado y velado el 21 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Lucia Pérez Gurrola. Foja: 21v.

CARLOS SALCEDO Francisco, casado y velado el 10 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Josefa Carrrillo Bautista. Foja: 13.

CARRILLO ALCALA Nicolás, casado y velado el 14 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Juana Ortiz Ureño. Foja: 15.

CARRILLO CARRILLO Jorge, casado y velado el 6 de diciembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Manuela Sotelo Ybañez. Foja: 29.

CARRILLO DÁVILA RAMÍREZ Casimiro, soltero, de 22 años, originario y vecino del rancho de Jomulco, hijo legítimo de Narciso Carrillo Dávila y de Dionisia Ramírez, que viven.Casado por el Presbítero Alfonso Ma. Olaez el 4 de diciembre de 1861 y velado por el Padre Compeán el 28 de febrero de 1862 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Josefa Rodarte Ortiz, doncella, de 18 años de edad, originaria y vecina de Jomulco, e hija legítima de Felipe Rodarte y de Isabel Ortiz, que viven. Padrinos: Juan N. Ramírez y Saturnina Chávez. Testigos: Francisco Acevedo y Simón Carrillo. Foja: 28v. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro No. 2. Foja: 191. No. 115.

CARRILLO DÍAZ Juan, casado y velado el 7 de septiembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Rosa Sarmiento Campos. Foja: 18.

CARRILLO ORTIZ Simón, casado y velado el 4 de diciembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Dolores Acuña Navarro. Foja: 29.

CARRILLO RODARTE Atanasio casado y velado el 28 de mayo de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Juana Rodarte de los Reyes. Foja: 4 vuelta.

CARRILLO RODARTE Francisco, casado y velado el 14 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Paula Castañón Félix. Foja: 10.

CAZAS MIRANDA Francisco DE, casado y velado el 14 de septiembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Atanasia Bañuelos Miranda. Foja: 18v.

CEVALLOS CASTAÑEDA Susano, casado el 19 de diciembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Teresa González García. Foja: 30v.

CORTES ADAME José, casado y velado el 3 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. de Jesús de Avila Vanegas. Foja: 12v.

CORTES ADAME Refugio, casado y velado el 6 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Damacia Carlos Flores. Foja: 13.

CUEVA LOPEZ Hipólito DE LA, casado y velado el 28 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Incolaza Ramírez Díaz. Foja: 27v.

DIMAS RAMÍREZ Eleno, casado y velado el 27 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con María Pérez Villegas. Foja: 21v.

DORADO OLAGUE Cecilio, casado y velado el 24 de mayo de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Asención Rosales Pérez. Foja: 4.

ENRIQUE FLORES Octaviano, casado y velado el 13 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Simona Rodríguez González. Foja: 23v.

ESPINOZA LANDEROS Pablo, casado el 7 de diciembre de 1861 y velado por el Padre Compeán el 23 de marzo de 1862 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Maximiana Escobedo Flores. Foja: 29v.

FERNÁNDEZ PEREZ Lucio, casado y velado el 29 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Diega Félix Díaz. Foja: 11.

FLORES ALATORRE don Luis, soltero, de 24 años de edad, originario de Huejucar y vecino de Fresnillo hace 16 años, e hijo legítimo de don Ramón Flores Alatorre, ya difunto y de doña Gertrudis Escobedo y Cornejo, que vive. Casado y velado el 29 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con doña Luisa Espinoza, doncella, de 15 años de edad, originaria y vecina de la ciudad de Jerez, e hija legítima de don Bernardo Espinoza y de doña Gertrudis Adame, que viven. Padrinos: Foja: 11 vuelta.

FLORES ESQUIVEL Francisco, casado y velado el 1 de agosto de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Salomé Carlos Vázquez. Foja: 16v.

FLORES RAMOS Santiago, casado y velado el 9 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Hermenegilda Jacobo Biviana. Foja: 20.

FRAUSTO GARCIA Cosme, casado y velado el 27 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. de Jesús Salazar Delgado. Foja: 22.

GAMBOA GARCIA Rafael, soltero, de 23 años, originario y vecino del rancho de San Antonio, e hijo legítimo de Juan Gamboa y de Lina García. Casado y velado el 5 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Apolonia Escobedo Barajas, doncella, de 20 años de edad, originaria de Jomulquillo y vecina de Jerez, e hija legítima de Cosme Escobedo, difunto y de Toribia Barajas, que vive. Padrinos: Cerbulo Tovar y Petra Gamboa. Testigos: Julian Trujillo y Epitacio Lira. Foja: 7 vuelta. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro 2. Foja: 43. No 12.

GARAY DE AVILA Miguel, casado y velado el 20 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. de los Angeles Banegas López. Foja: 25v.

GARCIA CABRERA Isabel, casado y velado el 14 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. de Jesús Ortiz. Foja: 24v.

GARCIA DE LA CADENA DE LA CUEVA Fermín, soltero, de 28 años de edad, originario y vecino de La Gavia, hijo legítimo de Miguel García de la Cadena, ya difunto y de Ma. Mercedes de la Cueva, que vive. Casado y velado el 9 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Trinidad Félix García de la Cadena, doncella, de 22 años de edad, originaria y vecina del rancho de Los Félix, e hija legítima de Antonio Félix y de Fernanda García de la Cadena. Dispensados con 3 grado igual y 3 grado con 4 grado. Foja: 20.

GONZALEZ CORREA Teodosio, de 30 años de edad, originario y vecino de Jerez, viudo en primeras nupcias de Jerónima Carrillo, sepultada en el camposanto de esta parroquia hace 7 años. Hijo legítimo de Pantaleón González y de Lina Correa, difuntos. Casado y velado el 7 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Josefa Cabral, doncella, de 25 años de edad, originaria de Jerez y vecina que fue de Casa Blanca hace 6 años, e hija legítima de José maría Cabral y de Juana Fernández, que viven. Padrinos: no se anotaron porque no vinieron como se les ordena, a todos que vengan a asentar sus partidas. Testigos: Alejandro Orozco y Antonio Durón. Foja: 8. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro 2. Foja 34 frente y vuelta. No. 10.

GONZALEZ HERNÁNDEZ Justo, casado y velado el 14 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Eligia Flores Pérez. Foja: 10.

GONZALEZ PEREZ Prudenciano, casado y velado el 5 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Crisanta Galvez. Foja: 7.

GONZALEZ ROSALES José, casado y velado el 21 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Luisa Carrillo Pinedo. Foja: 25v.

GRANADO VAZQUEZ Octaviano, casado y velado el 20 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Canuta Marcial Melquiades. Foja: 10v.

GUERRERO BAÑUELOS Margarito casado y velado el 29 de mayo de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Juana Ramírez Vargas. Foja: 5.

GURROLA ARELLANO Serapio, casado y velado el 14 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Sostenes Ureño Alvarez. Foja: 24.

GUTIERREZ GARCIA Ciriaco, casado y velado el 25 de septiembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Refugio Fernández Ortiz. Foja: 19.

HERNÁNDEZ SÁNCHEZ Francisco, casado y velado el 31 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Eufracia Robles Valerio. Foja: 16.

HORTA BAUTISTA José DE, casado y velado el 25 de agosto de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Anastacia Colmenero del Río. Foja: 17v.

HURTADO CABRAL José María, casado y velado el 31 de mayo de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Petra Bañuelos Bautista. Foja: 5.

HURTADO DE LA TORRE don Juan Antonio, soltero, de 20 años de edad, originario de La Lechuguilla, feligresía de Tepetongo y vecino de Jerez, e hijo legítimo de don José Ma. Hurtado y de doña Teodora de la Torre. Casado y velado el 28 de septiembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con doña Ricarda García de la Cadena, doncella, de 18 años de edad, originaria y vecina de Jerez, e hija legítima de don Cecilio García de la Cadena y de doña Ma. Antonia Espinoza de los Monteros. Padrinos: don Cayetano Román y doña Magdalena Hurtado. Testigos: don Francisco Félix y Patricio Pérez. Foja: 19. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro No. 1. Foja: 138. No. 78.

JUAREZ MARCIAL Lázaro, casado y velado el 20 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Luiza Jaimes Saucedo. Foja: 25.

JUÁREZ ROSALES Juan, casado y velado el 7 de diciembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Feliciana Marin Reveles. Foja: 29v.

LAMAS CALDERA Feliciano, casado el 21 de diciembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Petra Hurtado Morillo. Foja: 30v.

LANDEROS MIRAMONTES Pedro, casado y velado el 21 de agosto de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Vicenta Salas González. Foja: 17.

LOZANO FERNÁNDEZ Pedro, casado y velado el 1 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Josefa Castañón García. Foja: 6.

LUERA DE ARROYO Juan, casado y velado el 31 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Félix Cevallos Alvarez. Foja: 23.

LUEVANOS Ruíz Eligio, casado y velado el 2 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Juana de Santiago Castañeda. Foja: 6.

LUNA BARRIOS Felipe DE, casado y velado el 22 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Andrea Bermúdez Martínez. Foja: 26.

MARTINEZ GARCIA Teodoro, casado y velado el 13 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Adelaida Gallegos Serrato. Foja: 14.

MINCHACA MALDONADO Juan, soltero, de 17 años de edad, originario y vecino del rancho de La Hermita de los Correa, e hijo legítimo de Leandro Minchaca, difunto y de Cerbula Maldonado, que vive. Casado y velado el 30 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Isabel Sotelo Hernández, célibe, de 15 años de edad, originaria y vecina de La Hermita de los Correa, e hija legítima de Guillermo Sotelo y de Josefa Hernández, que viven. Padrinos: Dimas Minchaca y Andrea Minchaca. Testigos: Margarito García y Marto Realsola. Foja: 22v. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro No. 2. Foja: 157. No. 92.

MIRAMONTES CARRILLO Antonio, casado y velado el 3 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Romana Sánchez Villlegas. Foja: 6v.

MIRAMONTES GARCIA Lorenzo, casado y velado el 14 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Gabina Trujillo Ultreras. Foja: 24.

MIRANDA ARZOLA Rafael, casado y velado el 19 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Gumercinda Martinez Ramos. Foja: 10v.

MIRANDA CALDERA Leocadio, casado y velado el 18 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Refugio Estrada Sotelo. Foja: 24v.

MIRANDA SALAZAR Onofre, casado y velado el 12 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Asención Correa Tejada. Foja: 9v.

OROZCO DE CAZAS Lino, soltero, de 41 años de edad, originario y vecino de Jerez, hijo legítimo de José Ma. Orozco, ya difunto y de Guillerma de Cazas, que vive. Casado y velado el 30 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Casimira Berumen, soltera, de 22 años de edad, originaria y vecina de La Labor del Marqués, hija legítima de Antonio Berumen, que vive y de Guadalupe Pinedo, ya difunta. Padrinos: Crispin Orozco y Ma. Orozco. Foja: 28v. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro No. 2. Foja: 188. No. 114.

ORTIZ ROMAN Gregorio, casado y velado el 11 de septiembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Norverta Arellano Correa. Foja: 18.

ORTIZ UREÑO Máximo casado y velado el 29 de mayo de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Paula de Luna Campos. Foja: 4 vuelta.

PEREZ BAEZ Cruz, casado y velado el 12 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Andrea Morillo Ríos. Foja: 9.

PEREZ BAÑUELOS Filomeno, casado y velado el 30 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Juana Hernández Muñoz. Foja: 22v.

PEREZ DE CAZAS Urbano, casado y velado el 31 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Clemencia Banegas Espinoza. Foja: 15v.

PEREZ HUIZAR Luis, casado y velado el 29 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Pantaleona Carrillo Lira. Foja: 28.

PEREZ MURO Francisco, casado y velado el 16 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Margarita Torres Carrillo, hija de Timoteo y Alvina. Foja: 21.

QUINTERO RODRÍGUEZ Atanasio, casado y velado el 21 de agosto de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Pilar Martínez Aguilar. Foja: 17.

RAMÍREZ DEL RIO Nicolás, casado el 8 de diciembre de 1861 y velado el 19 de enero de 1862 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Tomasa Arroyo Salcedo. Foja: 30.

RAMÍREZ HERNÁNDEZ Fermin, casado y velado el 3 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Juana Pérez Dorado. Foja: 6v.

RAMÍREZ MORILLO Estanislao, casado y velado el 13 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Emeteria González Villaseñor. Foja: 23v.

RAMÍREZ VARGAS Cruz, soltero, de 18 años de edad, originario del Monte de Garcías y vecino de Lo de Mercado, e hijo legítimo de Salomé Ramírez y de Manuela Vargas, que viven. casado y velado el 5 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Camila Guerrero Bañuelos, doncella, de 17 años de edad, originaria y vecina del monte de Garcías, e hija legítima de Felipe Guerrero y Teofila Bañuelos, que viven. Padrinos: Mateo Flores y Ramona Flores. Testigos: Leonardo García y Alvino Sánchez Foja: 7 vuelta. Presento Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro 2. Foja: 76 frente y vuelta. No. 36.

REVELES DE LOS SANTOS Teofilo, casado y velado el 5 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Gerarda Marcial Vázquez. Foja: 7.

RIOS ORTEGA Agustín, casado y velado el 19 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. de los Reyes Castañeda Banegas. Foja: 21.

ROBLES DE LUNA Hermenegildo, soltero, de 35 años de edad, originario y vecino del rancho de Los Juárez, hijo legítimo de Julio Robles y de Isidora de Luna, difuntos. Casado y velado el 11 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma Ausencia de Cazas, soltera, de 24 años de edad, originaria y vecina del rancho de Los Juárez, e hija legítima de Asnastasio de Cazas y de Apolonia Beina, que viven. Padrinos: Ventura Mireles y Francisca Mireles. Testigos: Pilar Isaes y don Cecilio Rodarte. Foja: 13 vuelta. Presento Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro 2. Foja: 109. No. 58.

ROBLES GONZALEZ Guadalupe casado y velado el 29 de mayo de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Matiana Cabrera Aguirre Foja: 5 vuelta.

RODARTE AGUILAR Blás, casado y velado el 7 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Sixta Valadez Reveles. Foja: 8.

RODRÍGUEZ CAMACHO Manuel, casado y velado el 8 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Asensión Saucedo Félix. Foja: 8v.

RODRÍGUEZ HURTADO Juan, casado y velado el 4 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Magdalena Hernández Dominguez. Foja: 12v.

ROSALES ESQUIVEL Inés, casado y velado el 23 de mayo de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Guadalupe Tejada Acuña. Foja: 4.

ROSALES VARELA Lucio, soltero, de 26 años de edad, originario y vecino de Cazablanca, hijo legítimo de Manuel Rosales, difunto y de Ma. Antonia Varela, que vive. Casado y velado el 28 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. de Jesús Martínez Félix, doncella, de 20 años de edad, originaria y vecina del rancho de Los Juárez, hija legítima de Marcos Martínez y de Ma. Refugio Félix, que viven. Padrinos: Miguel Esquivel y Ma. Moreno. Testigos: Francisco Varela y Jesús de la Torre.. Foja: 27v. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro No. 2. Foja: 158. No. 111.

SÁNCHEZ MEZA Lucas, casado y velado el 12 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Juana Flores de los Santos. Foja: 9v.

SANTIAGO REZA Pilar DE, casado y velado el 29 de mayo de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Basilia de Luera de Avila. Foja: 5 vuelta.

SANTOS DE SANTIAGO Marcos DE LOS, casado y velado el 20 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Petronila Esparza Arellano. Foja: 11.

SIFUENTES SÁNCHEZ Potenciano, casado y velado el 27 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Cipriana Escobedo Valerio. Foja: 26v.

SOTO ALCALAN Silverio, soltero, de 23 años de edad, originario y vecino de la hacienda de Cienega, jurisdicción de Jerez, e hijo legítimo de Bernardino Soto, que vive y de Ma. de Jesús Alcalan, ya difunta. Casado y velado el 29 de mayo de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Narcisa Reveles Mejía, doncella, de 15 años de edad, originaria y vecina de Jerez, e hija legítima de Exiquio Reveles y de Prudenciana Mejía, que viven. Padrinos: Gorgonio Orozco y Jacinta Saucedo. Testigos: Sereno Alvarez y Alejandro Orozco. Foja: 5.

TALAVERA MARTINEZ Dionisio, casado y velado el 1 de junio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Serapia Hurtado Pérez. Foja: 5v.

TORRES CAMPOS Cristino, casado y velado el 11 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Pragedis Barrios Ureño. Foja: 14.

TORRES CARRILLO Victor, casado y velado el 28 de agosto de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Matiana Ortiz Carrillo. Foja: 17v.

TORRES GUARDADO Sebastián, hijo de Anacleto y Jacinta. Casado y velado el 13 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Prisciliana Flores González. Foja: 20v.

TREJO MORENO Bruno, casado el 9 de diciembre de 1861 y velado por el Padre don Ursino Sánchez el 9 de mayo de 1863 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Mercedes Banegas López. Foja: 30.

ULTRERAS ACOSTA Justo, de 43 años de edad, originario y vecino de Arroyoseco de Abajo, jurisdicción de Tepetongo, viudo en segundas nupcias de Albina Escobedo, sepultada en el camposanto de Tepetongo hace un año tres meses, e hijo legítimo de Cristóbal Ultreras y de Teresa Acosta, difuntos. Casado y velado el 31 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Francisca Banegas González, doncella, de 24 años de edad, originaria y vecina del rancho del Tambor, e hija leggítima de Cristino Banegas y de Ma. Antonia González, que viven. Padrinos: Rafael Flores y Ma. Isidora García. Testigos: Dionisio Garay y Francisco García. Foja: 16. Presentó Certificado del Registro Civil. Libro 2. Foja: 115. No. 64.

UREÑO BAÑUELOS Salomé, casado y velado el 3 de agosto de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Ma. Gertrudis Bermúdez Miramontes. Foja: 16v.

VANEGAS DIAZ Jesús, casado y velado el 28 de noviembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Dominga Llamas de Cazas. Foja: 27.

VAZQUEZ CORTES Cevero, casado y velado el 18 de julio de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Margarita Cortes Sánchez. Foja: 15.

VILLEGAS ORTEGA Florencio, casado y velado el 2 de octubre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Gabriela Torres Campos. Foja: 19v.

VALDIVAR ENRIQUEZ Salomé, casado y velado el 19 de septiembre de 1861 en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez con Mariana Hernández. Foja: 18v.





100 Years of Medical History in Cárdenas, 1860-1960 Cuba
The Passing Of The Sonero José Antonio Rodríguez (‘El Guanajo Relleno’)
Marc Anthony y Chayanne: Mas Que Una Simple Amistad
Taino: Identidad versus racismo,
Sonia M. Rosa M.A.  


100 Years of Medical
History in Cárdenas, Cuba 1860-1960

From left to right, Rear: Dr. Adolfo Larrauri, Dr. Francisco Larrauri, Dr. José Luis Barro, Dr. Tomas Pérez Prendes, Dr. Lázaro Martínez, Dr. Félix Burés, Dr. Raymond Amador; Middle: Dr. Gilberto Scudieri, Dr. Angel Solar, Dr. Frank Martínez, Dr. Francisco Madrid, Dr. Manuel Ramírez, Dr. Juan Pérez-Balboa, Dr. Ramón García; Front: Dr. Miguel Angel Iglesias, Dr. Alberto Gutierrez, Dr. Fernando Pino, Sra. Julia María Leal: Administrative Secretary, Dr. José María Alzola, Dr. Ricardo Figueredo, Dr. Antonio Alegría. 
In Cuba, Cárdenas was called "The City of Firsts" because it was a pioneer in many aspects of the island's evolution. Over the years, it had also developed a medical service that kept up with the times as well as the needs of a population of some 45,000 inhabitants. 

Cárdenas was the birthplace of a number of medical professionals that distinguished themselves as specilaists, university professors and medical authorities in the regulation and administration of the nation's healthcare system. 

The first hospital built in the city was the Santa Isabel Hospital of Cárdenas, ceremoniously opened in approximately 1860, by Doña Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, the noted poet and glory of Cuban arts. It was later replaced in the 1950's by a then modern hospital equipped with the up-to-date technology of the times. Despite present deficiencies, that facility is still being used by the city's population. 

The Cárdenas Board of Medicine had 50 members, duly certified in the practice of medicine by the University of Havana Medical School, many of which trained as specialists in Havana or abroad. This local medical association supervised the enforcement of ethical rules and the professional standards of each of its members, in affiliation with the National Medical Board of Cuba, which governed all of the doctors in the country. The Board had the benefit of a well stocked medical library and was subscribed to prestigious medical publications which were made available to its members so that they could stay abreast of the latest medical developments. Its building had ample facilities for conferences and scientific meetings. Periodically, postgraduate courses and seminars were offered, with the attendance of local and out-of-town guests and speakers. 

The city had a Local Health Affairs Office, attached to the country's Health Ministry, which was responsible for supervising and enforcing the public health code promulgated by the central government. Cárdenas also had an Antituberculosis Dispensary and a Pediatric Clinic, staffed by specialists in those particular fields. The Emergency Medical Center "Casa de Socorro" had not only medical emergency facilities, but also a well equipped Outpatient Services Department and a Pharmacy headed by a Doctor in Pharmacy trained at the University of Havana. All services rendered there, including medicines, were absolutely free of charge. 

Beyond the aforementioned public medical facilities, the City of Cárdenas had 3 private "Clinics" offering a wide range of medical services including inpatient hospital services. They offered their efficient and highly qualified medical service at a modest cost: "La Colonia Española de Cárdenas" ("The Spanish Colony of Cárdenas") - the oldest organization of its kind in the city, which was founded by Spanish immigrants, "La Clínica Cárdenas" and "La Clínica La Caridad," all of which functioned as Mutual Benefit Organizations. (These MBO's were the precursors of what are known today in the U.S. as Health Maintenance Organizations or HMO's, but with a heart). Membership in one of Cárdenas's MBO's required the payment of a monthly premium, usually on the order of two or three pesos (then equal in value to the US Dollar), and offered its members all of the then available medical treatment that a member patient's ailments could require. 

This was a very brief synthesis of 100 years of medical history in the City of Cárdenas, 1860-1960. 
Fernando Pino Mosquera, M.D. 

Doctor Fernando Pino Mosquera, M.D. was born in Aguacate, Havana Province. He graduated from the School of Medicine of the University of Havana in 1945, and began to practice his profession in Cárdenas as a staff physician in the city's emergency medical center "Casa de Socorro." In 1947 he joined the medical staff of the "Colonia Española de Cárdenas," of which he became Medical Director in 1950, and continued in that position until his departure from Cuba in 1961. He was Medical Examiner for the Cárdenas Judicial District, President of the Cárdenas Board of Medicine during 1957-58, and again during 1959-60, as well as delegate from Matanzas Province to the Executive Committee of Cuba's National Board of Medicine. In 1960 he resigned his positions on these boards, protesting the "medical-political" actions being taken by the then-new "revolutionary government," as did many other doctors across the island. 

Upon his arrival in the United States, Dr. Pino began working at a medical clinic in Tampa, Florida, before moving his family to St. Louis, Missouri. He lived in that American city for 7 years and trained there as a Psychiatrist, practicing Psychiatry at St. Louis State Hospital and also acting as a consultant in the city's Veteran's Hospital. He continued his professional development in Terrytown, New York, and later in Elizabeth, New Jersey, where he was in private practice as well as on the staff of Rockland State Hospital, NY, and later at Meadowview Hospital, in Elizabeth, NJ. He culminated his brilliant medical career as Director of Psychiatry at Meadowview Hospital. Doctor Fernando Pino retired in 1988 and today lives in Miami, Florida, with his lovely wife, Georgina Santiusti de Pino. They have four children, three of which are M.D.'s. 

The Passing Of The Sonero José Antonio Rodríguez (‘El Guanajo Relleno’)
Sent by Dorinda Moreno, 

José Antonio Rodríguez died on Sunday night 6 November 2005, in Copenhagen aged just 52 years old. Singer with Sierra Maestra since the beginning twenty-six years ago, he was considered as one of the best soneros (or singers of the son style) in Cuba. José Antonio (or ‘Maceo’ as he was known to his friends and admirers) was born in the Holguin province of Cuba and from early childhood dedicated himself to music. He was the co-founder and the soul of Sierra Maestra. He was baptised by the Cuban people as 'El Pequeno Gran Sonero', ‘The Little Big Sonero’ – a reference to his small stature. He was an excellent musician, singer, guitarist and above all an excellent person and a modest man whose talent never diverted him from being extremely straightforward.
Apart from performing on all fourteen or so Sierra Maestra albums, he also sang amongst others on the first Ruben González album, the first Afro-Cuban All Stars album and both of Ibrahim

 Ferrer's solo albums.
[[Editor: I found it particularly interesting that the source for this information is from London. ]]
World Music Network (UK) Ltd. 6 Abbeville Mews, 88 Clapham Park Rd, London SW4 7BX, UK.

Marc Anthony y Chayanne: Mas Que Una Simple Amistad

By Manuel Hernandez

Muchos piensas que es un truco publicitario. Otros creen que hay agendas escondidas pero lo cierto es que la relación profesional y la entablada amistad entre Marc Anthony y Chayanne ha generado admiración y hasta cierta envidia entre sus mas fieros aliados y críticos. La aparente espontanea relación entre estas figuras legendarias y de trascendencia mundial del mundo artístico puertorriqueño, nos motiva a pensar que todavía hay esperanza para que los lazos entre los puertoriqueños de aquí y los boricuas de allá se fortalezcan y los esfuerzos para unir y armonizar a ambas comunidades es posible.

Ambas comunidades puertorriqueñas tienen intereses en comun y sangre boricua que corre por sus venas pero por circunstancias históricas han estado alejados unos de otros a través del ultimo siglo. El Censo del 2000 refleja números paralelos entre las comunidades boricuas del Norte y del Caribe. Aun así, el distanciamiento entre unos y otros siempre ha existido, especialmente desde que cientos de miles de puertorriqueños de la clase trabajadora comenzaron a emigrar a los Estados Unidos a mediados del siglo pasado. 

Bajo el gobierno del Estado Libre Asociado de 1952, se promovieron reformas económicas atraves de la industrialización, inmigración y control de la población que establecieron las politicas apropiadas que probaron ser factores importantes en las migraciones masivas de los años inmediatamente despues de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Durante los primeros cuarenta años del siglo xx, la economia de la Isla era principalmente la produccion de azucar. Esta industria dejaba a sus trabajadores sin empleo y sueldo en el llamado “tiempo muerto”. Los trabajadores quedaban desempleados y cientos de miles puertorriqueños se vieron obligados a emigrar a los Estados Unidos. Los lideres políticos creyeron que la depresion economica se debía a la sobrepoblación de la isla. Estos dos factores fueron utilizados para explicar el aumento del desempleo en la isla.

Un poco mas de medio siglo déspues de tan impactante movimiento migratorio, vemos las caras sonrientes de Chayanne y Marc Anthony, uno nacido, criado y hecho aquí y el otro, nacido, criado y hecho allá pero juntos y en armonía.

Los dos son puertorriqueños y tiene intereses en común que están marcados por el hecho de que son puertorriqueños nacidos y/o criados en la Isla o boricuas de padres o abuelos nacidos y/o criados en los Estados Unidos. Las lecciones se aprendan por observación, practica y experiencia propia. Los puertorriqueños hemos aprendido por experiencias presentes y pasadas que la desunión nos ha llevado a la dejadez, indiferencia y estancamiento de nuestros mejores intereses y valores como pueblo.

Las demandas de nuevas generaciones con llevan un esfuerzo más alla de todas nuestras diferencias culturales, sociales, políticas y religiosas. Un pueblo como Puerto Rico que se enorgullece de sus raíces cristianas pero olvida el legado del Maestro. El llamó amigo aquel que lo entregó a la muerte y perdonó aquellos que lo torturaron. En tiempos menos agradables, los pueblos se unen. El pueblo judío ha podido defender su territorio y vencer al enemigo por la unidad de propósito y pensamiento que ha existido en sus líderes. La lucha del pueblo de Vieques y el frente unido formado por politicos, artistas, religiosos y académicos nos podría enseñar como formar equipos de trabajo entre los de aquí y los de allá para enfrentar las situaciónes que nos aquejan a diario. ¿Porqué insistir en la trivialidad histórico-cultural de quién es y quién no es puertorriqueño? ¿Porqué no decir como dice el poeta nuyorquino Tato Laviera que “somos mas de siete millones y no nos cabe mas que una sola lengua?”

En los Estados Unidos, los puertorriqueños forman parte de un grupo más amplio llamados latinos y/o hispanos. Los mas de 40 millones de latinos han dejado sentir su presencia y han aprendido que en la unidad esta la fuerza. Las elecciones presidenciales fueron decididas en distritos mayormente hispanos y el Presidente George W. Bush ha reestructurado su política de immigración reconociendo la presencia sobrenatural de la presencia latina. Ya hay un alcalde latino en Los Angeles y el boricua, Fernando Ferrer tiene una oportunidad histórica el 8 de noviembre en la ciudad de los rascacielos.

Para lograr estar juntos y en armonía, todos tenemos que cambiar nuestra mentalidad como pueblo. Pensemos en que el siglo comienza y nos queda largo camino por recorrer. Para nuestro Hermano Mayor, mil años son como un dia. Sembremos paz, gozo y justicia para el dia de mañana. Busquemos ejemplos de como servir al prójimo y encontremonos en el legado del Maestro. Hubo una vez un gran guerrero que venció a treinta mil hombres con solo trecientos valientes pero lograron la victoria como un solo hombre. Esa es la clase de unanimidad que necesitamos, los de aquí y los de allá todos como uno solo por el bien del presente y del futuro de nuestras generaciónes. Quizás esas sonrisas de Marc Anthony y Chayanne nos quieran decir y/o revelar algo mas una simple relación de trabajo y amistad.

Identidad versus racismo 

Mimi: Incluyo para tú consideración el siguiente artículo. Lo escribí luego de seguir de cerca una controversia que ocurrió en Puerto Rico hace un par de meses. Varios escritores muy afamados escribieron ataques, subidos de tono a todos aquellos que se identifican como taínos. La actitud me pareció retrógrada y racista y es por eso que escribí el artículo Identidad versus racismo. Espero que te interese. Creo que le interesará a tus lectore.

Recibe un abrazo cordial, 
Sonia M. Rosa M.A.


El Diccionario en línea1 de la Real Academia Española define el vocablo identidad como el “conjunto de rasgos propios de un individuo o de una colectividad que los caracterizan frente a los demás”. También el Diccionario de la R.A.E. define la palabra identidad como, “conciencia que una persona tiene de ser ella misma y distinta a las demás”. La identidad tripartita de los puertorriqueños ha sido predicada con el fervor con que se predica un evangelio. Somos un trío bien balanceado de el taíno, el español y el negro esclavo. No solo esa trilogía de identidades se ha martillado en nuestra mente colectiva sino que también se predica que esta mezcla perfecta ha producido una nación libre de prejuicios donde el racismo no existe. La identidad es una conciencia que el individuo crea de si mismo y en Puerto Rico es una de dos cosas. Si el individuo puertorriqueño desea adoptar su identidad como negro, se le recibe con brazos abiertos. Delen Bomba y Plena y los versos negristas de Palés Matos, que repiquen los tambores y se despacha a ese individuo con una identidad aprobada. Si por otro lado el individuo puertorriqueño desea abrazar su lado español todos a coro gritamos: -“Olé, que viva la madre patria”. Que venga el flamenco, la paella, y hasta el seseo. Todos tenemos algo de español en esta isla y lo esbozamos con mucha honra. Sin embargo, un individuo puertorriqueño decide abrazar su identidad taína, indígena, nativa y se le recibe con una retórica burlona y despectiva. 

El movimiento de renacimiento taíno Por muchos años se ha gestado un movimiento de
renacimiento o reavivamiento de los valores culturales de los taínos. No es un movimiento totalmente unido y congruente pero con solo escribir la palabra taíno en un metabuscador de la Internet como Google2 una diversidad de páginas con la más variada selección sobre el tema e identidad taína ha sido desarrollada de manera mayoritariamente responsable por estos neo-taínos.

Estos grupos se encuentran en una ventaja tecnológica ya que poseen acceso al canjeo más
valioso del siglo XXI que es la información. Los neo-taínos manejan y publican todo tipo de páginas que cubren temas tan diversos como: el arte, la poesía, los remedios naturales, el lenguaje taíno, la
mitología y la religión taína entre otras. Probablemente casi todo lo que se lee en inglés acerca de los taínos ha sido publicado por ellos con mucho amor, seriedad y respeto. Muchos de estos neo-taínos son parte del fenómeno de la diáspora puertorriqueña y de “la fuga de cerebros” de Puerto Rico.

Invisible y vivo: estrategia de supervivencia

La invisibilidad de los pueblos oprimidos, perseguidos y asesinados es una estrategia de supervivencia tan vieja como la humanidad misma. Los taínos, al igual que otros grupos minoritarios en el planeta optaron por la invisibilidad durante quinientos años. Invisibilidad no es sinónimo de olvido ni de extinción. Familias completas, generación tras generación guardaron como quien guarda un tesoro el secreto y las tradiciones de la que es su verdadera identidad. Por siglos la historia oficial ha suprimido estos “ rumores y leyendas” de taínos ocultos en la cordillera mientras se filtraban documentos, cartas, censos, fotos de estos taínos “extintos”, vivos y saludables por todo el entorno caribeño.               

Luego el bombazo y la deconstrucción de todo lo que oficialmente se predicaba sobre los taínos llegó con los estudios de A.D.N. mitocondrial del Dr. Martínez-Cruzado que aunque se especializa en teorías de migración demuestran la alta presencia de A.D.N. mitocondrial taíno en las mujeres puertorriqueñas.  Mientras estos taínos fueron percibidos como parte de un colectivo invisible que se mueve calladamente por sus bateyes ceremoniales privados en las montañas caribeñas o en las telarañas imaginarias de la Internet no tuvimos problema. Cuando estos individuos taínos, hombres y mujeres honorables, profesionales en todas las ramas del quehacer humano, gente que han puesto su nombre y reputación en la línea de fuego al decidir decir su verdad, asumir su identidad, se 
presentaron en carne y hueso a reclamar respeto, a reclamar libertad religiosa, a pedir que se dejen de exhibir los restos de los taínos como se exhiben los restos de un animal paleolítico vulgar entonces es que escuchamos las voces de la ignorancia y las voces a gritos del racismo y los racistas. Individuos en posiciones de poder llamaron a viva voz y con tono despectivo a la identidad de estos individuos el ser: “negros vestidos de indios”, ”buscones” y “caníbales” entre otras cosas. 

Identidad y libertad

La identidad no es una camisa de fuerza ni un campo de concentración dijo con sencilla elocuencia Mario Vargas Llosa. Volvemos al diccionario de la Real Academia y sobresalen las palabras ser “distinto a las demás” cuando leemos la definición de identidad. Desde el encuentro fatal con Colón y los europeos se ha definido al taíno peyorativamente como distinto, como el otro. A los grupos nativos, comenzando con los taínos, se les creó una definición justificatoria endeble y se les asignó una identidad por contraste.

Ser indígena equivalía a no ser europeo y si lo expresamos en términos de una fórmula matemática
podríamos ilustrarlo como: Ser indígena era y todavía es:  Indígena = a) no ser europeo + b) no ser cristiano + c) no ser civilizado + d) no poseer la verdad + f)no disponer de las capacidades para guiarse y realizarse por sí mismo.    

¡Racismo! Racismo, palabra que según el evangelio tripartita de una identidad compartida no existe en Puerto Rico. Palabra que el Diccionario de la R.A.E. define como una “doctrina antropológica o política basada en este sentimiento y que en ocasiones ha motivado la persecución de un grupo étnico considerado como inferior”.  Lamentablemente la identidad en Puerto Rico es una camisa de fuerza cuando acosamos verbal y psicológicamente a un grupo que consideramos inferior. El racismo es real cuando la burla es la orden del día. 

En Puerto Rico eres o no eres participante del binomio perfecto de identidades aprobadas, y si no
eres te trataremos como a un inferior, colectivamente nos burlaremos de tú ropa, comida, nombre y religión, es la consigna que hemos escuchado desde las más altas estratas de la élite. El mismo racismo que trajeron con ellos los europeos que desde los primeros encuentros y a partir de los primeros escritos de Cristóbal Colón asumieron un tono de superioridad y generalización ante los nativo americanos sigue vivo y saludable en el siglo XXI en Puerto Rico. Los taínos eran clasificados por los europeos como “infieles”, “gentiles”, “idólatras”, “salvajes” y “herejes”. La
conquista europea se racionalizó desde ese momento partiendo, exactamente como se vive hoy día en Caguana, y en todo Puerto Rico con la premisa errada de que el indígena es inferior.

Sonia M. Rosa M.A.  Short Bio

Sonia Migdalia Rosa nació en el pueblito costero de Aguada, en la hermosa isla de Puerto Rico. Posee un bachillerato en educación secundaria y una maestría en Estudios Hispánicos. Sonia reside en el norte de Virginia donde disfruta a cabalidad sus multiples roles de madre, esposa, educadora, líder comunitaria e investigadora en las areas de genealogía e historia por las que siente una verdadera pasión. Su tesis de maestría sera pronto publicada bajo el título: Los mitos taínos espejo de los mitos de América.

nuevo libro sobre el año de 1898 



«Comevacas y tizna(d)os» (5.5 x 8.5 paperback, 284 páginas) reconstruye, por la vía de la historia documental y oral, el escenario social de una rebelión campesina ocurrida en el pueblo de San Sebastián del Pepino en 1898, misma que fue secuela directa de la Invasión Norteamericana y las consecuencias económicas originadas y agravadas por la Guerra Hispano Americana. López Dzur nos da una pintura de la influencia que dejara el movimiento anarcosindical y libertario peninsular y las injusticias y desigualdades inherentes a un régimen colonial, cuyo liderazgo local aún representó los intereses del caciquismo conservador.

Contiene fotos, extensa bibliografía y apéndices, que bosquejan la historia de este pueblo puertorriqueños, los eventos de mayor trascendencia e impacto y lo ocurrido, desde antes de la Guerra Hispanoamericana hasta el final del periodo de quemas de haciendas, viviendas, robos, ultrajes y asesinatos, que se extendieran de 1898 a 1906.

Carlos López Dzur es un historiador, poeta y narrador, graduado en las universidades de Puerto Rico (UPR), San Diego State University y Montana State. Es candidato al PhD en Filosofía Contemporánea en UC, Irvine, y autor de más de una docena de libros poéticos y de ficción. Este es uno de los trabajos de la serie en preparación «Trece monografías sobre historia pepiniana».

Su libro acaba de ser publicado por Outkirts Press,
Inc. de Parker, Colorado, y puede adquirirse en:
Comevacas y Tiznaos
© Outskirts Press, Inc.
10940 S. Parker Rd. - 515
Parker, Colorado 80134
(888) OP-BOOKS 
Recomendamos el libro que pronto estará a la venta en librerías puertorriqueñas.




HISPAGÉN, Asociación de Genealogía Hispana 
Cirujanos del primer viaje de Colon 
Royal Birth in Spain
Los hermanos Cermeño
Simon Lopez
Spanish Martyrs in New York Harbor Prison Ships


HISPAGÉN, Asociación de Genealogía Hispana  Es una Asociación sin ánimo de lucro que nace por y para apoyar el desarrollo de la genealogía hispana.  
Reuniones de ApellidosIncorporamos la sección sobre las reuniones familiares que organizan nuestros socios.  

Nueva Base de Datos con la recopilación de "batch numbers" de España   Para utilizar en 

Nueva Base de Datos con la recopilación de "batch numbers" de Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Perú Primera publicación de la serie de batch numbers de la América Hispana  

Nueva publicación: Gentilicios y Padrones de Riotuerto, de Joaquín Polo Lagos 

Reproducción en formato de libro electrónico de Linages de nobles ynfanzones de Aragón y sus descendencias. 

Base de Datos Índice Onomástico de Hidalguías- Judiciales   consulta on-line de la obra de Joaquín Polo. Referencias a 30.000 apellidos que litigaron hidalguía en España. 

Sent by Paul Newfield


Muchas gracias de nuevo, necesitaria mas datos de este y de los otros dos cirujanos que viajaron con Colon. Esta es la informacion que tengo:

En las Ordenanzas del Reino de Aragón (1345) se establecía que en cada galera debía ir un barbero-cirujano "..., con las herramientas del oficio". Estos barberos cirujanos, que aprendían con tutores, generalmente familiares que ejercían su oficio, se llamaban cirujanos romancistas, eran también "Algebristas" es decir que tenían conocimientos suficientes para tratar las fracturas oseas. 

Desafortunadamente la información sobre los primeros cirujanos barberos que venían con Colon es muy parca, escasamente sus nombres y pocos detalles de su vida. En el primer viaje vinieron Maese Juan Sánchez en la nao Santa Maria con Colon, Maese Alonso de Mojica de Palos de Moguer vino en la Niña y Maese Diego Méndez en la Pinta. 

Maese Juan Sánchez nacido en Córdoba, era amigo personal de Cristóbal Colon. Permaneció en el Fuerte Navidad de La isla de Santo Domingo para atender la salud de los nuevos colonos cuando Colon regreso a España. Fue masacrado con todos sus compañeros por los aborígenes. 

Maese Alonso de Mojica, natural de Palos de Moguer, era amigo del Capitán Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, comandante de la Niña, era el físico [medico] y cirujano de a bordo. Picaza afirma que también permaneció en el Fuerte Navidad y falleció en ese sitio. Su familia recibió 11.188 maravedís de recompensa por su perdida. 

Maese Diego Méndez vino con la Pinta, ademas de sus conocimientos quirúrgicos era boticario y herborista. Regreso a España con Colon y no hay mas información. 

Delgado García Gregorio: Historia de la Medicina en Cuba siglos XVI a primera mitad del XVIII. Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Publica

Descubrimiento de América. Cristóbal Colón, sus viajes, sus ... - 

El descubrimiento del Nuevo Mundo se pudo efectuar por la protección que prestaron

los ... Sus compañeros de más baja esfera, los cirujanos y romancistas, ... 

En la nao Santamaria también a bordo al físico de Moguer maese Alonso, al cirujano maese Juan y a 40 marineros más".

Morrison SE: Admiral of the Ocean Sea, a life of Christopher Columbus, Little Brown, Boston 1942; 149 

Picaza Jorge A: European Medicine in America before Florida's discovery. J Florida MA, 1990; 77 (11):971-975

Riera, Juan: Cirujanos, urólogos y algebristas del Renacimiento y Barroco, Valladolid : Universidad de Valladolid, Secretariado de Publicaciones, 1990

Cordialmente, Jaime Gómez-González, M.D.,
148 Newcastle Drive
Jupiter, Florida 33458-3021  USA


Royal Birth 

The latest addition to Spain's royal family has made her first public appearance. Leonor is second in line to the Spanish throne after her father, Crown Prince Felipe of Borbon. But her birth last Monday has reignited a debate about changing the constitution to give women the same right as men to inherit the throne. As the law currently stands, Leonor will fall down the line of succession if Princess Letizia later has a boy.

Asked last week if Leonor would be queen, Prince Felipe said "yes, if the Socialist government succeeds in its plan to reform the constitution." "This is an important birth from a political and constitutional point of view but ultimately, parliament will decide on the matter," he added. But changing the constitution is no easy matter. Isabelle II was Spain's last reigning queen more than 200 years ago. But she only ascended to the throne after her father, Ferdinand VII, overruled the law banning women from running the country.

However in 1978, parliament reaffirmed the right of men to inherit the throne. To change this now would need the support of two-thirds of members of both houses of parliament. And then parliament would be dissolved and new elections called. The new parliament would again have to approve the reform by a two-thirds majority and then it would put to a referendum. The government says it wants to tackle the reform near the end of its term in 2007. Most MPs back the reform but some critics have expressed fear that the government may be forced to implement retroactive changes so that Felipe's moves down the royal line of succession in favour of his two elder sisters.

Publicado en Odiel Información el 24 de noviembre de 2005

Los hermanos Cermeño

Hay personas a quienes por circunstancias y los convencionalismos  hacen que las “olvidemos” y este es el caso de los hermanos Cermeño, Diego y Juan, hijos de Rodrigo Costa y ambos naturales de Palos de la Frontera. Los dos hermanos fueron a la aventura americana, pero cada uno tuvo un final muy diferente.

Diego, junto con Juan Escudero que era alguacil en Baracoa en  1515 detuvieron y apresaron a Hernán Cortés. Cortés lo consideró un motín y no lo olvidó, por lo que tan pronto fue liberado hizo que tanto Juan Escudero como Diego Cermeño fueran condenados por  conspiración contra él y en 1519 fueron ahorcados, algo que después confirmaron varios testigos (Navarrete, Guzmán y Vázquez de Tapia) en posteriores declaraciones, que afirmaron haberlos visto colgados.

Juan Cermeño era piloto y tuvo muy buen comportamiento navegando durante bastante tiempo. Estuvo presente como testigo en el juicio de Bernardino de Santiago. Le fueron concedidas las encomiendas de Acuitlapan y de Coatlan y se quedó a vivir en Nueva España.

Otro caso que también acabó mal fue el del sevillano Juan Escobar, un buen soldado que fue colgado por violar a una mujer casada.

Para mantener la disciplina y aunque todos los españoles eran muy necesarios, ya que las enfermedades , las deserciones y los enfrentamientos con los indios mermaban mucho el número de tropa,  Cortés se veía obligado a tomar estas decisiones

                                    Custodio Rebollo

Publicado en Odiel Información el 23 de noviembre de 2005

- El 5 de junio de 1596, se presentó ante Juan Quincoces, teniente general de Cartagena de Indias, el maestre de la fragata “San Francisco” para manifestar que cuando navegaban junto a la laguna de Maracaibo, falleció un miembro de la tripulación que se llamaba Simón López. Inmediatamente ordenaron que se hiciera inventario de sus pertenencias y se encontró entre sus papeles un testamento cerrado, que pedía fuera abierto con las debidas formalidades legales y así se hizo. Una vez abierto se supo que era natural de Ayamonte y vecino de Nueva Zamora, en Venezuela, y que estaba casado en Ayamonte con Ana Fernández, de quien tenía 5 hijos que quedaron a su cargo.

Contaba que había salido de Lisboa con el capitán portugués Diogo Lopes para comprar negros en Guinea y una vez completada la operación la nao transportando a los esclavos puso rumbo a Cartagena de Indias, pero él tuvo que quedarse en tierra.

Al parecer la travesía se hizo bien, pero al llegar a paso de los Gavilanes en el Río Grande, se escaparon todos y solo se recuperó uno, que fue vendido posteriormente a Pedro López Treviño. Este viaje fue para él de perdidas, aunque lo compensó con los beneficios de una operación similar que hizo con el vecino de Lisboa, Manuel de Paiva. 

Lamentablemente, uno de los mas lucrativos negocios de aquella época era la compra-venta de esclavos.

Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso 


From: Granville Hough

Reference: Dandridge, Danske, American Prisoners of the Revolution, 1911, Charlottesville, VA, republished, 1967, Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Company. Appendix A, pages 449-491, gives an alphabetical listing of 8000 prisoners from the records of the old Jersey, the most famous of the hell holes the British called prisons. These were demasted vessels last used for bringing cattle and other supplies for the British troops who occupied New York City. They were originally  anchored in Gravesend Bay and later were taken up the East River and left in the mud flats of Wallabout Bay. Other vessels were the Whitby, Good Hope, Hunter, and Prince of Wales. The list for the Jersey is the only one which has ever been found, and this list was carelessly kept, with no indication of dates of entry or disposition. It was determined after the war that 11,500 prisoners had died from disease and starvation. On the Jersey, the average deaths were ten each night. British reports showed that each other prison ship also had from 8 to 10 losses each day. So in the three to four years of operation in Wallabout Bay, 11,500 deaths is probably conservative. They were buried in shallow graves on the shores nearby. Tons of human bones were eventually washed up, collected and placed in a large mausoleum and marked with a monument. When the last prisoner left the old Jersey, it was so contaminated that no one dared go near it. It just sank in the mud until it rotted and disappeared. From the diaries and accounts of the few survivors, we know that the Jersey was most frequently used for mariners. As the names are all we have, and they are often misspelled, we can only guess which prisoners were American, French, Spanish, or German. It can be said for sure that the mariners of the Revolutionary War were of many nationalities. The names of Spanish mariners, or names of Spanish origin, have been selected and are shown below. For each one wrongly selected, there is probably a replacement I could not recognize. Their death rate was probably no different from the group as a whole. In future studies, I may be able to identify some of the vessels on which these martyrs served and the circumstances of their captures.

Don Meegl/Miguel Abusure; Gansio Acito; Sebastian de Aedora; Joseph Antonio Aguirra; Thomas Aiz; Manuel Ajote; Joachin Alconan; Joseph de  Alcorta; Juan Ignacid Alcorta; Pedro Aldaronda; Jacob Alehipike; Miguel Alveras; Don Ambrose Alverd; Austin Anaga; Joseph Anrandes; John Antonio; Joseph Aquirse; Asencid Arismane; Manuel de Artol; Don Pedro Asevasuo; Hosea Asevalado; Francis Aspuro; Duke Attera; Anthony Aiguillia; Igarz Baboo Augusion; Peter Augusta; Don Pedro Azoala.

Antonio Backalong; Stephen Badante; Laurence Badeno; Joseph Balumatigua; Jean Rio Baptista; Charles Bargo; Thomas Bausto; Jean Baxula; Jean Juquacid Berra; Cittetto Biola; Gideon Bambo; Anthony Bonea; Jean Boutilla; Simon Bristo; John Budica; Prosper Burgo;

Jean Cado; Juan Fernin Cardends; Joseph Carea; Antonio Carles; William Carles; Gasnito Cavensa; Joseph de Costa; Antonio Costo; Perrie Coupra; Vizenteeausean Covazensa; Josea Commano; Pratus Dehango; Joseph Delcosta; Francis Delgada; Daniel Denica; Manuel  Deralia; Daniel Deroro; Jacob Dessino; Etamin Dluice; Pierre Dominica;

David Eadoe; Avico Ecbeveste; Joseph Echangueid; Francis Echauegud; Amerois Echave; Lorendo Echerauid; Francis Echesevria; Ignatius Echesevria; Manuel de Echeverale; Fermin Echeuarria; Joseph Nicola Echoa; Doum Edmundo; Ignaus Ergua; Peni Evena; Pierre Evena; Juan  Vicente Expassa;

John Faroe; Francis Fernanda; Thomas Fernandis; Ehemre Ferote; Joseph Ferria; Manuel Fevmandez; Frederick Fiarde; Manuel Francisco; Jean Franco; 

Eudrid Gabria; Peter Gambo; Dominico Gardon; Manolet Garico; Barney  Galena; Roman Garsea; Manot Gasse; Joseph Girca; Francis Gissia; James Gloacque; ??? Gloquie; Lewis Gouire; Augustus Goute; L. A. Granada; John Gruba; John Guae; Antonio Gundas; Francis Guvare;

Jacob Hassa; Odera Hemana; Isaac Higgano; John Highlenede; Joseph Ignacis; Ivede Sousis Illiumbe; Philip Ignissita; Joseph Irasetto; Francis D. Izoguirre;

Manuel Joaquire; Antonio Joseph; Emanuel Joseph; Antonio Jouest; Randon Jucba; Manuel Joseph Jucerria; Jean Kiblano; Manuel Kidtona; 

Deman Labordas; Anton Laca; Michael La Casawyne; Cayelland Lambra; Thomas Lambuda; Michael Lameova; Joseph Langola; Francis Larada; Guillemot Lascope; Jachery Lasoca; Pierre Lastio; Antonio Lawrence; Joseph Legro; Samuel Legro; Joseph Peccanti Lescimia; Bineva Levzie; 
Nicholas Linva; Joseph Lopez;

Jean Franco Mabugera; ??? Marbinnea; Etom Marcais; Francis Marmilla; Antonio Marti; Jose Martine (two records); Jean Maso; Charles Masaa; Emanuel Moguera; Acri Morana; Gilmot Morea; Grosseo Moreo; Antonio Murria (two records); Antonio Musqui;

Thomas Nandiva; Simon Navane; Francis Navas; Jacques Norva (two records); Devoe Olaya; Zebulon Olaya; Don R. Antonio Olive; Edward Ormunde; Antonio Permanouf; Peter Perora; Juan Picko; Andre Preno;

Joseph Rigo; William Roas; Francis Rodrigo; Franco Rogeas; Diego Romeria; Jean Baptist Rosua; Blost Rozea;

Anthony Santis; Peter Sarfe; Antonio Sebasta; Jean Baptist Sego; Leonard Sepolo; James Seramo; Sebastian Serrea; Matthew Shappo; Manuel Sugasta; Andre Surado; Francis Surronto; Franco Deo Suttegraz;

Domingo Taugin; Dominic Tour; Jean Vigo; Juan Albert Vixeaire; Francis Yduchare.

Submitted by Granville W. Hough.



Hispanic World
Portal Fuenterrebollo
Latino Studies Resources
"Innocent Voices"a movie
Google Internation Expansion
Arbol Genealogico de Rosa María Guadarrama, El Hierro, Islas Canarias


Hispanic World 
Portuguese Possessions 

Madeira Islands (1419-present) 
Azores (1431-present) 
Portuguese Guinea (1446/1879-1974) 
Cape Verde Islands (1462-1975) 
São Tomé and Príncipe (1485-1975) 
Brazil (1500-1822) 
Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro 
Captaincy of Minas Gerais 
Captaincy of São Paolo 
Captaincy of Santa Catarina 
Captaincy of Rio Grande
do Sul 
Captaincy of Espirito Santo 
Captaincy of Goiaz 
Captaincy of Baía 
Captaincy of Sergipe 
Captaincy of Pernambuco 
Captaincy of Piaui 
Captaincy of Maranhão 
Captaincy of Rio Negro 
Captaincy of Para 
Captaincy of Mato Grosso 
Mozambique (1505-1975) 
Socotra (1506-1511) 
Portuguese India 
Goa (1510-1961) 
Calicut (1510-1616) 
Bombay (1530-1664) 
Diu (1535-1961) 
Hooghly (1537-1640) 
Surat (1540-1615) 
Damão/Daman (1558-1961) 
Bhatkal (1560-1637) 
Masulipatam (1570-1605) 
Malacca (1512-1641) 
Moluccas (1512-1621) 
Ceylon (1518-1644) 
Portuguese Timor (1520-1975) 
Java (1522-1596) 
Portuguese China 
Ning-po (1533-1545) 
Fu-chou (1547-1549) 
Macao (1557-1974/1999) 
Ormuz (1515-1622) 
Bahrain (1515-1622) 
Muscat (1550-1650) 
Angola (1574-1975) 
Spanish Possessions 

Canary Islands (1404-1420, 1479-present) 
Melilla (1497-present) 
Viceroyalty of New Spain (1521-1821) 
Captaincy General of Cuba (1511-1898) 
Captaincy General of Santo Domingo
(Hispanola) (1492-1795, 1809-1821,
Captaincy General of Louisiana
Florida (1513-1763, 1783-1821) 
Jamaica (1509-1655) 
Puerto Rico (1512-1898) 
Presidency of Guadalajara 
Intendancy of Yucatan 
Intendancy of Oaxaca 
Intendancy of Guadalajara 
Intendancy of Nuevo Mexico 
Intendancy of Vieja California 
Intendancy of Nueva California 
Intendancy of Sonora 
Intendancy of Durango 
Intendancy of Guadalajara 
Intendancy of Vera Cruz 
Intendancy of San Luis Potosi 
Intendancy of Valladolid 
Intendancy of Zacatecas 
Audiencia of Mexico 
Mariana Islands (1521/1668-1898) 
Caroline Islands (1527-1899) 
Marshall Islands (1529-1898) 
Viceroyalty of Peru (1533-1824) 
Presidency (Audiencia) of Cuzco 
Audiencia of Lima 
Captaincy General (Audiencia) of Chile 
Galapagos Islands (1535) 
Juan Fernández Islands (1563) 
Philippines (1570-1898) 
Ceuta (1580-present) 
Viceroyalty of New Granada (1739-1819) 
Captaincy General of Caracas 
Audiencia of Santa Fé 
Captaincy General (Audiencia) of
Presidency (Audiencia) of Quito 
Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata (1776-1816) 
Audiencia of Bueno Aires 
Presidency (Audiencia) of Charcas 
Spanish Guinea (1778-1827, 1884-1968) 
Río Muni 
Fernando Póo 
Spanish Sahara (1509-1524, 1860-1976) 
Ifni (1476-1524, 1860-1970) 
Easter Island (1770) 
Spanish Morroco (1912-1956) 
Portal Fuenterrebollo
Sent by John Inclan 

This site has so much, you must go to it to realize the amount of information. 
John selected the Noble Portuguese Mendoza family from the 1500s.

From this site you can also link to Juana I, Carlos V, Felipe II, La Inquisición, Pontífíces, Los Borgias, Nobeles Economia, and Masoneria.

Latino Studies Resources
Another recommended site by John Inclan:

Latino Studies Resources is an outstanding website with SO many topics.  The website was created by Dr. Antonio Rafael de la Cova, December 15, 1997.  Information is quite broad from  archeological historical information for many of the Spanish speaking countries in our hemisphere to current events.  


Dorinda Moreno highly recommends seeing this moving. Based on the true story of screenwriter Oscar Torres's embattled childhood, Luis Mandoki's Innocent Voices is the poignant tale of Chava (Carlos Padilla), an eleven-year-old boy who suddenly becomes the "man of the house" after his father abandons the family in the middle of a civil war. 

More than 300,000 children presently serve in armies in over 40 countries.

In El Salvador in the 1980s, the government's armed forces are already  recruiting twelve year olds, rousting them out of their classes at the local middle school. If he is lucky, Chava has just one year of innocence left, one year before he, too, will be conscripted to fight the government's battle against the peasant rebels of the FMLN. Chava's life becomes a game of survival, not only from the bullets of the escalating war, but also from the dispiriting effects of daily violence. As he hustles to find work to help his single mother pay the bills, and experiences the pangs of first love for a beautiful classmate, Chava's tiny home village becomes both playground and battlefield. 

Armed only with the love of his mother (Leonor Varela) and a small radio that broadcasts a forbidden anthem of love and peace, and faced with the impossible choice of joining either the army or the rebels, Chava finds the courage to keep his heart open, and his spirit alive, in his race against time.

Google Continues International Expansion, Opens Offices in Latin America 

Google Continues International Expansion, Opens Offices in Latin America  Company Launches Operations in São Paulo, Mexico City

MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif. - November 17, 2005 - Google Inc. (NASDAQ: GOOG) today announced its continuing international expansion with the launch of two Latin American operations centres in São Paulo, Brazil and Mexico City, Mexico. These new offices will enable Google to provide the best advertising services and search experience to its users, advertisers and partners in Brazil, Mexico and throughout Latin America.

"The online environment in Latin America is changing rapidly with the infrastructure for high-speed Internet access expanding, and with it e-commerce," said Sukhinder Singh Cassidy, vice president, Asia Pacific and Latin America operations, Google Inc. "Google's Latin America teams will partner closely with businesses, advertisers and agencies throughout the region to enable them to capitalize on the significant opportunities this brings."

Google's Mexico operation is led by Gonzalo Alonso, formerly Director of Sales at T1MSN. In Brazil, Google's operation is led by Alexandre Hohagen, who was previously general manager for HBO in Brazil. Alonso and Hohagen bring to Google many years of extensive and diverse experience in Mexico and Brazil, as well as markets throughout Latin America. 

As general managers for Google in their markets, Alonso and Hohagen will work with Google's current Latin America clients and continue to develop Google's client base in the region. Google's Latin American advertisers already represent a wide variety of companies including Mercado Libre and Dell in Mexico, and Wal-Mart in Brazil.

The launch of operations in Latin America further demonstrates Google's ongoing commitment to expanding its international business, and developing the search advertising market in new regions around the world. The office in Sao Paulo, Brazil follows the acquisition of Brazil's Akwan Information Technologies Inc. in July of this year. Akwan has become Google's R&D centre in Brazil.

About Google Inc. 
Google's innovative search technologies connect millions of people around the world with information every day. Founded in 1998 by Stanford Ph.D. students Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Google today is a top web property in all major global markets. Google's targeted advertising program provides businesses of all sizes with measurable results, while enhancing the overall web experience for users. Google is headquartered in Silicon Valley with offices throughout the Americas, Europe, and Asia. For more information, visit and

Arbol Genealogico de Rosa María Guadarrama, El Hierro, Islas Can rias 







MARCIA DE CEJAS (CASADOS 1627)(CASO 3 VECES) (1 HIJA ) (G) 1ª mujer 
DIONISIA DE FEBLES (3P) ( 10 HIJOS) (H) 2ª mujer 

















H1 MATEO DE GUADARRAMA - 3 años en la guerra de Flandes,vino a España y de alli pasó a Las 

L VIOLANTE Y ANA - monjas profesas en el concento de Garachico 




































20Z JOSE Mª GUADARRAMA PEREZ (22.07.1798/ ) 









(7 HIJOS ) (10) 











13 bis JOSE MªGUADARRAMA MENDEZ ( 1844 /30.01.1928) 








21 ISABEL(1879/1937) / CANDIDO DE CANDELARIA(02.06.1885/)/ 
JUAN JOSE( 24.01.1899 / )/PEDRO(06.04.1897/ )/JUANA DE CANDELARIA(23.10.1887)(44)/ 


23 JOSE Mª GUADARRMA ARMAS (1825 - / 14.04.1889) (DE LAS CASAS DEL MONTE) 5










(26.10.1929/ ) / ELVIRA(01.02.19257 ) / NICOLAS RAMIRO (07.04.1923/ ) 

LEANDRO CABRERA GONZALEZ (2 HIJO ) AGUEDO (08.02.1909/ )(49) / EMELDA(12.06. 
1907/ ) 

29 VIDAL (32) / ESTEBAN (32-A) / AURELIO(32-B) / MAXIMIANA(32C) / SEVERINA ( 33) 
CARMEN(17.07.1885/ ) / JOSE DE CANDELARIA(06.01.1892/ ) 





32 VIDAL GUADARRAMA PADRON (18.03.1900 - 1979 ) CASADOS 1920 3





……………. ( HIJOS)………….. 

(BAUTISMO 29.10.1905) 


MARIA MENDEZ CASAÑAS (1 HIJA - ALICIA Que casó con Manuel Angel -sin hijos ) 

(1 HIJA - FLORA Que casó con Juan Febles )(2 hijos) 



35 GREGORIO GUADARRAMA PADRON (01.07.1926/10.03.1998) (LOS MOCANES) 2

36 JESUS ANGELES (04.01.1953/ )( 37) / ROSA MARIA (38) / VIDAL (09.09.1961/ ) (39) 



39 VIDAL GUADARRAMA GARCIA (09.09.1961/ ) 























61 CANDIDO MORALES PADRON(12.02.1927/ ) 







67B MARIA DE LAS MERCEDES(24.09.1894/ )/ADELAIDA (16.12.1900/)VICTORIANO(23.03.1897/ ) 






72 NORBERTA DE CANDELARIA ( 06.06.1885/ ) 








Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama
rb. Trigal Norte, Avenida Del Antártico,
Conj. Red. Valle Escondido, Casa # 10,
Valencia, Edo. Carabobo, Venezuela 2001
Telf.: 58-0241-8432029
Cel: 04143403359


Mexicans in the U.S. Civil War 
War of 1812 Service Records  
Reading a Statue


Mexicans in the U.S. Civil War
From: John Inclan

Refugio Benavides, Atanacio Vidaurri, Cristobal Benavides and
     his brother-in-law John Leyendecker.

Capt. Cristobal Benavides

Capt. Joseph De La Garza killed in

the Battle of Mansfield, Louisiana.
BENAVIDES, SANTOS (1823-1891). Santos Benavides, the highest ranking Mexican American to serve the Confederacy, the son of José Jesús and Margarita (Ramón) Benavides, was born in Laredo, Texas, on November 1, 1823. He was the great-great-grandson of Tomás Sánchez de la Barrera y Garza,qv the founder of Laredo. Benavides married Augustina Villareal in 1842, and the couple eventually adopted four children. As a political and military leader in Laredo, Benavides brought a traditionally isolated region closer to the mainstream of Texas politics while preserving a sense of local independence. His prominence in Laredo resulted initially from the influence of his uncle, Basilio Benavides,qv who was three times elected alcaldeqv under Mexican rule, then mayor and state representative after annexation.qv Santos Benavides's success as a merchant and rancher also contributed to his selection as procurador in 1843, then to his election as mayor of Laredo in 1856 and chief justice of Webb County in 1859. He won further distinction as the leader of several campaigns against the Lipan Apaches and other Indians. Under both Mexican and American rule, his politics remained consistent. During the Federalist-Centralist wars that swept the Rio Grande frontier in the 1830s and 1840s, geographically isolated northern Mexico supported the Federalist cause of local autonomy against the Centralists, who wanted power focused in distant Mexico City. As a young man Benavides fought for the Federalists. Frustrated with the Mexican government, he cooperated with the forces of Mirabeau B. Lamar,qv which occupied Laredo during the Mexican War.qv Benavides joined his uncle in opposing the annexation of the Laredo area by the United States, as called for by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,qv because he feared it would compromise the independent character of northern Mexico. When Texas seceded, Benavides and his brothers supported the Confederacy, whose states'-rights principles were so close to their regionalism.

Commissioned a captain in the Thirty-third Texas Cavalry (or Benavides' Regiment) and assigned to the Rio Grande Military District, Benavides quickly won accolades as a fighter. He drove Juan Cortinaqv back into Mexico in the battle of Carrizo on May 22, 1861, and quelled other local revolts against Confederate authority. In November 1863 Benavides was promoted to colonel and authorized to raise his own regiment of "Partisan Rangers," for which he used the remnants of the Thirty-third. His greatest military triumph was his defense of Laredo on March 19, 1864, with forty-two troops against 200 soldiers of the Union First Texas Cavalry,qv commanded by Col. Edmund J. Davis,qv who had, ironically, offered Benavides a Union generalship earlier. Perhaps Benavides's most significant contribution to the South came when he arranged for safe passage of Texas cotton along the Rio Grande to Matamoros during the Union occupation of Brownsville in 1864.

During Reconstructionqv he continued his mercantile and ranching activities with his brother Cristóbal Benavidesqv and remained active in politics. In support of his son-in-law, Gen. Lázaro Garza Ayala, and Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, he was accused of using his rancho, Charcos Largo, as a supply depot for filibustering expeditions against Mexican president Porfirio Díaz. He served three times in the Texas legislature from 1879 to 1884 and twice as an alderman of Laredo. He was instrumental in the formation of the Guarache or citizen's party in South Texas, a faction of the Democratic party opposed to the powerful Botas (see botas and guaraches). His political affiliations indicated his continued belief in regional independence from national authority. His leadership built Democratic support among Hispanics in Webb County and contributed to the eclipse of the Republican party in the region. Benavides's friendship with the followers of Benito Juárez and his kinship ties to Manuel Gonzales prompted Porfirio Díaz to select him as an envoy to the United States during the reciprocity controversy in 1880. In recognition of his political achievement, he was appointed Texas delegate to the World Cotton Exposition in 1884. Benavides died at his home in Laredo on November 9, 1891.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Evan Anders, Boss Rule in South Texas: The Progressive Era (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982). John Denny Riley, Santos Benavides: His Influence on the Lower Rio Grande, 1823-1891 (Ph.D. dissertation, Texas Christian University, 1976). Jerry Don Thompson, "A Stand along the Border: Santos Benavides and the Battle for Laredo," Civil War Times Illustrated, August 1980. Jerry Don Thompson, Vaqueros in Blue and Gray (Austin: Presidial, 1976). The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. J. B. Wilkinson, Laredo and the Rio Grande Frontier (Austin: Jenkins, 1975).

Jerry Thompson



When the United States declared war on Great Britain in 1812, Congress authorized the President to accept and organize volunteers in order to win the war. This database is a listing of men mustered into the armed forces between 1812 and 1815. Taken from records in the National Archives, each record includes the soldier's name, company, rank at time of induction, rank at time of discharge, and other helpful information. It provides the names of nearly 600,000 men. 

Source Information: Direct Data Capture, comp. "War of 1812 Service Records." [database online] Provo, UT:, 1999-. Original data: National Archives and Records Administration. "Index to the Compiled Military Service Records for the Volunteer Soldiers Who Served During the War of 1812," M602, 234 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. subscribers with access to the U.S. Records Collection can access this database at: 

Reading a Statue
Sent by Win Holtzman

If a statue in the park of a person on a horse has both front legs in the air, the person died in battle. If the horse has one front leg in the air, the person died as a result of wounds received in battle. If the horse has all four legs on the ground, the person died of natural causes.

Only two people signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4th, John Hancock and Charles Thomson. Most of the rest signed on August 2, but the last signature wasn't added until 5 years later.



A personal visit to Google
Google Makes Public Domain Books Accessible To The World
Google Gives the Library of Congress $3 million got 'digital library'
MSN Readies Book-Searching Service
History of the use of Soundex for the Census Records 
Surname to Soundex Coder - Converts English only
Fun family tree charts for Kids ... 
Identifying Sources in Nauvoo Database (FYI) 
Acceso gratuito a las revistas electrónicas LARR y BLAR 
LDS Family History Library 
Godfrey Memorial Library
Genealogy Mine
Info. how to Volunteer to help with Church indexing program 



About six years ago, as Somos Primos was shifting from paper to online I visited a very dear friend, Sally who lives in Palo Alto.  She suggested we drop in to Google,  visit her daughter and perhaps pick up some soup for lunch.  I thought we were going to Google,  a restaurant. I had not been doing much in the way of online searches and did not know that Google was a search engine. Now 
I use Google dozens of times daily.  


Last month I again had the fun of visiting my friend and Google.  Arrangements were made for us to have a private tour of their fascinating facilities.  The growth is so extraordinary.  The basic philosophy which is a bit anti-establishment is reflected in the loose work schedules, and relaxed atmosphere of the brilliant work force. Vibrating chairs, lounge areas, sofas, and even massages are available. . Breakfast, Lunch, and dinner are available, free of cost, plus each floor has a kitchen for coffee breaks and refreshments, 24 hours a day.  Interesting with all that food, most of employees are slim.  Balance is encouraged with a vollyball net, putting green, gymnasium, exercise classes, and a pool with a current for swimming stationary laps.  

The whole Google atmosphere and administrative structure is one to encourage creativity, horizontal, rather than vertical.   In the visitor's center, on several walls,  each search request made of Google is posted, scrolling down, as they come in for everyone to view. 

Google Makes Public Domain Books Accessible To The World

Google Print Unveils Collection of Public Domain Books from Libraries at University of Michigan, Harvard, Stanford, and the New York Public Library

Mountain View, Calif. Nov. 3, 2005 - Today, Google Inc. (NASDAQ: GOOG) announced the availability of the first large collection of public domain books on Google Print. This collection, scanned as part of the company's book digitization project with several of the world's largest libraries, includes works such as U.S. Civil War history books, government documents, the writings of Henry James and other materials.

Because they're out of copyright, these cultural artifacts can be read in their entirety online at, where anyone can search and browse every page. They are fully searchable and users can save individual page images.

"Today we welcome the world to our library," said Mary Sue Coleman, President of the University of Michigan. "As educators we are inspired by the possibility of sharing these important works with people around the globe. Think of the doors it will open for students; geographical distance will no longer hamper research. Anyone with an Internet connection can search the text of and read the compelling narratives, historical accounts and classic works offered today, and in doing so access a world of ideas, knowledge and discovery." 

Examples of the public domain books available on Google Print today include:
·Civil War regimental histories and early American writings from the University of Michigan
·Congressional acts and other government documents from Stanford 
·The works of Henry James from Harvard
·Biographies of New York citizens and other collected biographies from the New York Public Library

More information and images of pages from these materials can be found on the Google Blog at These works however are just a small fraction of the information that will eventually be made available as a result of Google Print. 

"Our goal is to make these public domain books and the knowledge within them accessible to the world," said Susan Wojcicki, vice president of Product Management at Google. "Any researcher or student, whether they're in New York or New Delhi can now research and learn from these books that previously were only available in a library. This underscores the value of Google Print and the work we're undertaking with our library partners."

The Google Print program was introduced in the fall of 2004 to help users search through the oceans of information contained in the world's books and to help authors and publishers promote their books and expand their sales. Google is working directly with publishers through the Google Print Publisher Program and libraries through the Google Print Library Project to digitize the world's books.

Users can visit to search only the Google Print index for book results; however, the Google Print index is also integrated into web search results pages. As they can with web pages, users can search the full text of every book Google has scanned and, when they find a book that interests them, view a card catalog-like entry with brief excerpts of their search term in context. Users can only see more of any book they find if the book is out of copyright or if the publisher has given explicit permission to show full pages of a limited portion of the book.

About Google Inc.
Google's innovative search technologies connect millions of people around the world with information every day. Founded in 1998 by Stanford Ph.D. students Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Google today is a top web property in all major global markets. Google's targeted advertising program provides businesses of all sizes with measurable results, while enhancing the overall web experience for users. Google is headquartered in Silicon Valley with offices throughout the Americas, Europe and Asia. For more information, visit

Google Gives the Library of Congress $3 million got 'digital library'

The donation to the Library of Congress will help support an effort to make more rare documents available online.

By Michael Liedtke, AP via Orange County Register, Nov. 22, 2005

San Francisco 'Google Inc. is giving $3 million to the U.S. Library of Congress to help set up a system for creating digital copies of rare documents from around the world - the latest step in Google's crusade to expand the amount of information that can be indexed by its Internet-leading search engine.

With the donation announced Tuesday, Google becomes the first business to back the "World Digital Library," a concept that began to take shape about five months ago.

The worldwide program is loosely modeled after the Library of Congress' American Memory project launched 11 years ago.

Backed with $48 million in private donations and a $15 million infusion from the federal government, the American Memory site at now has more than 10 million items, Including early maps of the United States as well as photos and letters from the Civil War.

Librarian of Congress James Billington now wants to create similar sites devoted to other cultures outside the United States and Europe.

Although nothing has been finalized, Billington envisions devoting large sections of the Digital Library to material from China, India and Islam.

"Much of this will be one-of-a-kind material that you won't be able to find anywhere else," Billington said during a Monday interview. "Getting the material out there (online) is really important. "We have already preserved a lot of material that might have perished in other hands.

Google co-founder Sergey Brin characterized the donation as no-brainer for his Mountain View-based company as it pursues its avowed mission "to organize the world's formation and make it universally accessible and useful." .

"This is a philanthropic initiative for us" Brin said during a Monday interview, "It is all about making more information available more people."  

Google's motives aren't entirely altruistic. Because Google makes most of its money from the ads that appear when Web surfers are searching for something, the company stands to profit whenever more material comes online.

MSN Readies Book-Searching Service

Microsoft's project starts with non-copyrighted materials, but may expand.

Elizabeth Montalbano, IDG News Service, October 26, 2005
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Microsoft's MSN division plans to digitize and index for search copies of books and other printed material, and is joining an industry coalition to help them with this strategy, the company plans to reveal Wednesday.

The move comes as competitor Google is embroiled in a legal battle with publishers and authors over its library project, a plan to digitize and make library books available for indexing and search.

Microsoft MSN Wednesday will unveil MSN Book Search, which by the first half of 2006 will provide the capability to search books that are not under copyright, said Danielle Tiedt, general manager for search content acquisition for MSN. She said books published before 1923 are not subject to copyright in the U.S.

MSN also is in talks with both libraries and publishers to have copyrighted books indexed and available for search sometime next year, presumably in the second half, she said.

Microsoft also Wednesday will announce plans to join the Open Content Alliance (OCA), a group of companies that are building a digital archive of published materials that respect copyrights and will ensure no commercial company will own printed intellectual property, Tiedt said. Adobe, Hewlett-Packard, and Yahoo are among the OCA members.

The OCA will be digitally scanning the published material Microsoft plans to make available through MSN Book Search, she said.

At this point Microsoft is not planning to charge for searches of noncopyrighted materials once they are available. However, the company could charge fees for premium services involving searching the materials, such as collaborative services that let users share information they have found by performing searches, Tiedt said.

"For instance if you're viewing a page in the book, we can use the community assets through Messenger and Hotmail [to let users] talk about a page or a book online," she said.

The company plans to have a business model for copyright books, but is not sure at this time if searches of that material will be for a fee or free. That decision depends on whether there is enough interest from advertisers to support free searching of copyright materials, which is something Tiedt said she doubts.

"I personally don't believe [advertising] would be as effective as it would need to be to be the only business model," Tiedt said. "We're going to need to explore other business models to make it valuable for all parties along the value chain--publishers, libraries, authors, search providers."

Google's Rival Efforts

Last December Google launched Google Print Library Project, a project to scan all or portions of the library collections of the University of Michigan, Harvard University, Stanford University, The New York Public Library, and Oxford University and make them searchable on Google.

So far, the search company has been hit with two lawsuits over the project--one filed by the Association of American Publishers, and one filed by the Authors Guild and three individual writers--because it planned to allow for searches of copyright material without seeking permission from the publishers of that material.

Google in August temporarily halted the scanning of in-copyright library books until November 1 to give publishers an opportunity to let the company know which of their books they did and didn't want scanned.

Google also has a Google Print Publisher Program, in which it has deals with publishers to enable searches of copyright materials.

Note: PC World has a partnership agreement to provide content to MSN.

History of the use of Soundex for the Census Records 

Beginning genealogists often disregard valid information on an ancestor simply because of the way a name is spelled. Remember, we enjoy much more formal education than our ancestors typically did. They may not have been able to read or write English, or even to speak the language well. It's easy to imagine how a New England town clerk could record Johnson when speaking to an older German man named Janzen, or how a census taker in the Deep South could mistakenly record Capley for the young southern belle named Kepley. National and regional dialects can also dramatically affect the way a name might be spelled phonetically. And some of our ancestors anglicized their names intentionally, while others simply preferred a new spelling. The spelling of the name doesn't change who that person was—after all, how often has someone misspelled your name? 

The secret to keeping it all straight is called Soundex. Developed to address the name-spelling problems of the 1880 census, Soundex has remained a valuable tool for family historians ever since. So in the Soundex system, Johnson, Janzen, Johanson and Jansen are the same name—they're all J525. Sometimes a name is spelled different ways even in the same immediate family: One brother is John Smith while the other is William Smythe. Using Soundex, however, they become John and William S530. 

A Soundex name always contains four characters, no more and no less. The first letter of the name becomes the first character of the Soundex code. The remaining three numbers are drawn from the name sequentially (see chart). Some letters in a name are ignored. When adjacent letters are from the same category, the second is ignored. An example is Schmidt: Since the number 2 represents both S and C, the C is ignored. The letters A, E, H, I, O, U, Y and W are also ignored except at the start of the name (so Adams is A352). An empty space is represented by a zero. Once the four-character limit has been reached, all remaining letters are ignored.


Surname to Soundex Coder - Converts English only

Important: For a name with any of the letters C,S,G,J,K,Q,X,Z on both sides of the letter H or W, the original census soundex coders may have calculated the name in one of two different ways. Read WHY. Use this soundex calculator to obtain the alternative soundex code and use both soundex codes to search the census. 

The following tips are written and copyrighted by Kathi Reid The Soundex Algorithm 
Soundex codes begin with the first letter of the surname followed by a three-digit code that represents the first three remaining consonants. Zeros will be added to names that do not have enough letters to be coded. 
Soundex Coding Guide (Consonants that sound alike have the same code) 
1 - B,P,F,V 
2 - C,S,G,J,K,Q,X,Z 
3 - D,T 
4 - L 
5 - M,N 
6 - R 

The letters A,E,I,O,U,Y,H, and W are not coded. 
Names with adjacent letters having the same equivalent number are coded as one letter with a single number. 
Surname prefixes such as La, De and Van are generally not used in the soundex. Mc, Mac and O generally are not considered prefixes for soundex. 

To Calculate a Soundex Code by Hand:
Print name. 
Cross out spaces, punctuation, accents and other marks 
Cross out any of the following characters A, E, I, O, U, H, W, Y (unless first letter of surname) 
Cross out the second letter of duplicate characters 
Cross out the second letter of adjacent characters with the same soundex number. 
Convert characters in positions 2 to 4 to a number 
B, P, F, V = 1 
C, S, K, G, J, Q, X, Z = 2 
D, T = 3 
L = 4 
M, N = 5 
R = 6 
Fill any unused positions with zeros e.g.. Lee is L000, Bailey is B400. There is always one letter followed by 3 numbers. 

Soundex Limitations
Names that sound alike do not always have the same soundex code. For example, Lee (L000) and Leigh (L200) are pronounced identically, but have different soundex codes because the silent g in Leigh is given a code. 

Names that sound alike but start with a different first letter will always have a different soundex code. Thus, names such as Carr (C600) and Karr (K600) should be calculated separately. 

Soundex is based on English pronunciation so European names may not soundexed correctly. For example, some French surnames with silent last letters will not code according to pronunciation. An example is the French name such as Beaux - where the x is silent. Sometimes this surname is also spelled Beau (B000) and is pronounced identically to Beaux (B200), yet they will have different soundex codes. This could be true of any surname that does not use English pronunciation. 

Sometimes names that don't sound alike have the same soundex code. When I am searching for the surname Powers (P620), I have to wade through Pierce, Price, Perez and Park which all have the same soundex code. Yet Power (P600), a common way to spell Powers 100 years ago, has a different soundex code. 

Surnames with prefixes were usually coded without the prefix, but not always. If you are searching for a surnames such as DiCaprio or LaBianca, you should try the soundex for both with and without the prefix. 

US Census soundex confusion arises with names such as Ashcraft. When the original soundex coder didn't code the H and didn't consider the H as a separator between the adjacent letters with the same code S and C , then the S and C would be considered adjacent letters to be coded only once and the soundex will be A261. In the 1920 NY Census, Ashcraft is found under A261. To calculate a soundex code by this method, use this soundex calculator. 

Those who coded the soundex for the 1880*, 1900 and 1910** census may or may not have used this rule. They sometimes considered the H as a separator, and did not code the S and C as adjacent letters that would only be assigned one letter, but rather gave a number code to each letter. In this case Ashcraft would be A226, the result you receive with the calculator on this page. 

The important thing to know is that the US Census was not consistent with using the letter H and W as separators between adjacent letters. If you are trying to calculate the soundex for a name with the letters W or H that separate two adjacent letters, it is best to calculate the soundex using the two different methods to locate the name in the US census. This would be true of any name that has any of the letters C,S,G,J,K,Q,X,Z on both sides of the letter H or W such as SHC, SHS, CHS, KHZ, SWS, KWS, CWK. 

A surname of more than one word, or a surname that commonly comes before a given name, such as Native Americans, Catholic nuns and Chinese surnames, may have been coded under the name which appears last, even though it might not be the actual surname. In the case of multi-word surnames, only the last word may have been coded. 

Uses for the Soundex CodeOnce you have a soundex code for a surname, you can order the soundex microfilm for the 1880*, 1900, 1910** and 1920 US census. This census soundex microfilm is an index to the actual census where you will receive a lot more information than is on the census soundex. 

If you cannot find your ancestor with the soundex code you calculated for his surname, try a soundex variation keeping the soundex limitations (see above) in mind. 

The purpose of the soundex indexing system is to keep all spelling and pronunciations of a given name together, but because of the limitations of the soundex, you may have to try different spellings of a name that may give you a different soundex code. 

Do not assume that your surname was always spelled the way it is today, and that is the way it will appear on the census 100 years ago. The census taker, in a lot of cases, wrote the surname how he heard it. Try listening outloud to the surname and write down as many spelling variations as you can think of. One of these may be how your surname was spelled in the census. 

*There is only an 1880 soundex census if there was a child under the age of 10 living at that address. 

**The 1910 U.S. Census was indexed for only a handful of states, and it was called the Miracode instead of Soundex. The Miracode index uses the same phonetic code and abbreviations as the Soundex system, but the method of recording the census page reference is different. The Miracode index card lists county, volume, ED, and the sequential family number assigned by the census taker, while the Soundex card shows the county, volume, ED, sheet, and line numbers on the appropriate census schedule. 
The states indexed in the Miracode system for the 1910 U.S. Census are: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. 

To use the census soundex to locate information about a person, you must know his or her full name and the state or territory in which he or she lived at the time of the census. It is also helpful to know the full name of the head of the household in which the person lived because census takers recorded information under that name. The soundex is a coded surname (last name) index based on the way a surname sounds rather than the way it is spelled. Surnames that sound the same, but are spelled differently, like SMITH and SMYTH, have the same code and are filed together. The soundex coding system was developed so that you can find a surname even though it may have been recorded under various spellings.

To search for a particular surname, you must first work out its code.

Basic Soundex Coding Rule Every soundex code consists of a letter and three numbers, such as W-252. The letter is always the first letter of the surname. The numbers are assigned to the remaining letters of the surname according to the soundex guide shown below. Zeroes are added at the end if necessary to produce a four-character code. Additional letters are disregarded. Examples:

Washington is coded W-252 (W, 2 for the S, 5 for the N, 2 for the G, remaining letters disregarded). 
Lee is coded L-000 (L, 000 added). Soundex Coding Guide

Number Represents the Letters
1 B, F, P, V
2 C, G, J, K, Q, S, X, Z
3 D, T
4 L
5 M, N
6 R

Disregard the letters A, E, I, O, U, H, W, and Y. 

Additional Soundex Coding Rules 
Names With Double Letters If the surname has any double letters, they should be treated as one letter. For example:

Gutierrez is coded G-362 (G, 3 for the T, 6 for the first R, second R ignored, 2 for the Z).

Names with Letters Side-by-Side that have the Same Soundex Code Number If the surname has different letters side-by-side that have the same number in the soundex coding guide, they should be treated as one letter. Examples:

Pfister is coded as P-236 (P, F ignored, 2 for the S, 3 for the T, 6 for the R).

Jackson is coded as J-250 (J, 2 for the C, K ignored, S ignored, 5 for the N, 0 added).

Tymczak is coded as T-522 (T, 5 for the M, 2 for the C, Z ignored, 2 for the K). Since the vowel "A" separates the Z and K, the K is coded.

Names with Prefixes If a surname has a prefix, such as Van, Con, De, Di, La, or Le, code both with and without the prefix because the surname might be listed under either code. Note, however, that Mc and Mac are not considered prefixes.

For example, VanDeusen might be coded two ways: V-532 (V, 5 for N, 3 for D, 2 for S)
or D-250 (D, 2 for the S, 5 for the N, 0 added).

Consonant Separators 
If a vowel (A, E, I, O, U) separates two consonants that have the same soundex code, the consonant to the right of the vowel is coded. Example: 
Tymczak is coded as T-522 (T, 5 for the M, 2 for the C, Z ignored (see "Side-by-Side" rule above), 2 for the K). Since the vowel "A" separates the Z and K, the K is coded.
If "H" or "W" separate two consonants that have the same soundex code, the consonant to the right of the vowel is not coded. Example: 
Ashcraft is coded A-261 (A, 2 for the S, C ignored, 6 for the R, 1 for the F). It is not coded A-226.
Free Brochure 
This essay is based on "Using the Census Soundex," General Information Leaflet 55 (Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995), a free brochure available from (include your name, postal address, and "GIL 55 please").

Family Health History Initiative/Kit 
From: Lorraine Hernandez

Health care professionals have known for a long time that common diseases - heart disease, cancer, and diabetes - and even rare  diseases - like hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia - can run in families. If one generation of a family has high blood pressure, it is not unusual for the next generation to have similar  problems.

Tracing the illnesses suffered by your parents, grandparents, and other blood relatives can help your doctor predict the disorders to which you  may be at risk and take action to keep you and your family healthy.

To help focus attention on the importance of family health history, U.S. Surgeon General Richard H. Carmona, M.D., M.P.H., in cooperation with other agencies within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has launched a national public health campaign, called the U.S. Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, to encourage all American families to learn more about their family health history. For more information on the Family Health History Initiative go to

Remember that November is Family Health History month. Take a few minutes and talk with your family about Health History. Keep watching for a Family Health History Tool Kit produced by the Utah Department of Health at

Fun family tree charts for Kids ... 
From: Janete Vargas

"The Tigger Movie" Disney movie. It is an animated story of Tigger trying to find his
family tree and along the way all the other animals show him how they
remember their ancestors. Its cute. It keeps kids attention. 
There are some fun family tree charts that you can download for free from
the movie's website.

Identifying Sources in Nauvoo Database (FYI) 
From: Janete Vargas

Identifying Sources in Nauvoo Database 

The "Writings" references are to a collection of about 1000 text-entered journals, diaries, obituaries, and so on, that are in the Nauvoo Databank. In the Databank they have the source cited at every paragraph so if you download any paragraph you get where it is from. But if you want to download the entire journal or article you 
can do it from a separate Writings folder that contains all these text files without the paragraph "breakups". You can always edit the broken up version, but the Writings folder versions are cleaner. The crytic titles were used because the old DOS operating system would only allow 8 characters in the name of a file. All of those text 
files in the Nauvoo Databank are available in Nauvoo at the Nauvoo FHC and in St. George at the Regional FH Training Center. They are *not* publically available for people to look at in the Land and Records Office, but are at the Nauvoo FHC. Also, the SGRFHTC has a 
copy of the Nauvoo Databank on one of their computers so you can go there and download the information, too. My wife and I taught a couple of classes on the Nauvoo Databank at the Nauvoo FHC a couple of months ago and the notes are posted on

We have just been released from our missions in Nauvoo and have returned home to Utah. In fact, we are scheduled to give a presentation on our work there at the Utah Valley PAF Users Group meeting on Saturday morning, 12 Nov. Some of the details are on We will be talking about working with large databases and, in particular the Nauvoo Database which is currently a 47,000-name PAF database of the early LDS members from 1830 up to the 
early Utah period. That's not the Nauvoo Databank, which is all text files. The Nauvoo Database will be posted online in the next couple of weeks (we hope) and there will be a link to it from, which is the Illinois Nauvoo Mission web site.

Acceso gratuito a las revistas ele ctrónicas LARR y BLAR 

We need your help to promote that:  The Latin American Research Review (LARR) and the Bulletin of Latin American  Research (BLAR) are now available online at no charge to Latin American  Institutions. 

In recognition of the soaring costs of electronic journals that make online  access to articles an impossibility for most Latin American educational institutions, LARR and LASA are promoting free access to LARR-On-Line for one year. In addition, and in collaboration with SLAS, the UK based Society for Latin American Studies, and Blackwell Publishing, these institutional users will also enjoy free access to the Bulletin of Latin American Research all via LARR-On-Line ( ).

For further information about Latin American Institutional Access to LARR and BLAR, visit

We hope that other Latin American studies journals will also join the initiative, making electronic journal access more widely accessible among Latin American higher education institutions. But we urgently need your support in drawing this free service to the attention of your librarians and colleagues who are in a position to promote institutional registration to LARR/BLAR. Please feel free to forward this e-mail to those who you think might be interested, and have them contact us at LARR at

 LDS Family History Library 
From:  Bill Carmena

The following info may be of interest regarding the LDS Family History Library digitizing Family History books in their collection.

LDS Family History Library has announced that it has begun the process of digitizing and making available on the Internet all of the Family History books in their collection. 

These are primarily books in the "929.273 Series" that are currently housed on the first floor of the Family History Library (previously housed on the fourth floor ofthe Joseph Smith Memorial Building). At the present time (September2005), about 5000 books have been digitized and are available, and they have announced that they are adding about 100 titles a week tothe on-line collection. Copyright issues are playing a role in determining the order in which they progress through this task; books out of copyright are being done first." 

Go to the web site of the Harold B. Lee Library at BYU at ,then on the home page, follow the links: Find Other Materials; Electronic; On Line Collections at BYU; Text Collections tab; Family History Archive; or you can go right to the page where you want to search  The search box on the left seems to be he one to find your books at and the search box on the right is for searching within the pages on screen.

Orange County California Genealogical Society Newsletter
November 2005 Volume 39, Issue 11

Godfrey Memorial Library

By Bob Spidell

The Godfrey memorial Library in Middletown, CT, claims to "offer more online digital documents, records, newspapers and books than any other library." It was founded in 1947 as a " public library of books, pamphlets, periodicals and other materials in the fields of American biography and genealogy and in cognate fields; to carry on and promote investigation and research in these fields and to publish the results thereof..."

Some of the data bases are free to the public, and others require you to become a "Godfrey Scholar," which costs $35 for a one-year membership. I tried the public area first as a guest and was so impressed that I became a Godfrey Scholar. As a Godfrey Scholar you have 24/7 access to:

• Complete US Censuses, 1790-1930;
• 26.000.000+ digital newspaper pages, every word searchable;
• 25.000 digital genealogies, local histories, etc., every word searchable;
• PERSI Index;
• 81.000+ Revolutionary War Pension Applications;
• Marquis Who's Who;
• Columbia International Gazetteer;
• Extensive African American resources;
• Extensive Irish resources, including Griffith's Evaluation;
• Scottish early book collection; and
• Early Mass. Pre-1850 published Vital Records.

Although the library is located in Connecticut, the newspaper collection represents all areas of the country ^including such well-known newspapers as:
New York Times (1851-2001);
Los Angeles Times (1881-1984);
Washington Post (1877-1988); and
Chicago Tribune (1860-current).

Other data bases include such items as birth, marriage and death records for various states, most of which are not complete. However, I was able to find the death date for my wife's great grandfather who died in Brainerd, Crow Wing Co, MN in 1921.

You may want to visit this site as a guest, and become a Godfrey Scholar if you decide that the data bases contain enough useful material to make it worthwhile. www.qodfrey.orQ

Genealogy Mine
Sent by Janete Vargas 
Well worth digging into this mine. . .!!!

Info. how to Volunteer to help with Church indexing program 

You can make a difference. With only a few hours a month, you can join thousands of other volunteers who are finding and preserving our world family history. Getting started is quick and easy . . . and the rewards are timeless.
Free worldwide access to the indexes!
That's right, free access to the FamilySearch Indexes will be available over the Internet and through your local Family History Center as soon as the first phase of the project is completed.

For Volunteers

Do I need to be a member of your church to volunteer?
No. We are excited to work with everyone who is willing to participate.

If I volunteer, will I be contacted by missionaries from your church?
No. But if you would like to know more about us, you may go to and click on information about The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Can the A and B key indexing be done at the same time?
Yes. Both indexing processes can be going on simultaneously and be independent of each other.

Can I index in my native language?
Not yet. To begin with, all indexing will be done in English or Spanish. We hope to add other languages soon.

How can I receive training?
You will find information on the FamilySearch Indexing web site. You will also receive written documents by mail or e-mail. If you still have questions and concerns, you may contact Church headquarters by either phone or e-mail. For calls made from outside the Salt Lake City area, the number is 1-800-346-6044. Local calls may be made to 240-2584. The e-mail address is


Letters from Arizona
Florentine Codex 
Tracing Your Genetic Roots 

 Archaeologist Peter Pilles 

Letters from Arizona

Northern Arizona is famous for its plentiful archaeological sites and natural wonders. Within an hour and a half of Flagstaff there are no less than six National Monuments, including Wupatki, Sunset Crater, Walnut Canyon, Montezuma Castle, Montezuma Well, and Tuzigoot. Also close by is Coconino National Forest, which is home base to archaeologist Peter Pilles, who knows this region as well as anybody. Join us for the next three months as we look over Peter's shoulder as he excavates at Elden Pueblo and carries out his duties as Forest Archaeologist for the Coconino National Forest. Check in for his weekly updates and be sure to ask him about his work and what it's like to be a Forest Service archaeologist in one of the country's richest archaeological landscapes.

We'll begin our adventure with the excavation season at Elden Pueblo, a 65-room pueblo with trash mounds, smaller pueblos, kiva, a large community room, and numerous pit houses that both pre-date and are contemporaneous with the main pueblo. It is the type site for the Elden Phase of the Northern Sinagua tradition (A.D. 1150-1250), although earlier and later components are also present. Pilles and the Elden Pueblo Archaeological Project aren't the first to dig here, that was the Smithsonian's Jesse Walter Fewkes back in 1926. Fewkes' excavation, and a later field school in the 1960s, have barely scratched the surface of what Elden has to offer.

Elden Pueblo

The current work, which began in the 1980s, is a model of public participation in archaeology--those doing the excavations include volunteers through the Museum of Northern Arizona and the Arizona Archaeological Society, as well as the general public. Also engaged in the program are the Arizona Natural History Association, as well as the Hopi Cultural Preservation Office (Elden is recognized by the Hopi as an ancestral site). The new excavations are being undertaken to confirm data, collect new information, and stabilize the pueblo as a public archaelogy project. Recent work has revealed much about the construction sequence of the site, late Sinagua social organization, subsistence, and the role as a major trade center for the area. Possible evidence for a long-term eruptive sequence for Sunset Crater volcano is being found to examine new geological and archaeological interpretations for the region.

Florentine Codex 
Sent by John Inclan


The Florentine Codex is available on Latino Studies Resources:

Latino Studies Resources is an outstanding website with SO many topics.  The website was created by Dr. Antonio Rafael de la Cova, December 15, 1997.  Information is quite broad from archeological information, history of each Latin American country to current events.  

Tracing Your Genetic Roots 
GeoGene Newsletter October 2005 

Hi, and welcome to the latest issue of the GeoGene Newsletter, keeping you in touch with the world of genetic genealogy.  Zeena Eate,  GeoGene President:
This issue:
DNA from fossil bones
Our Neanderthal neighbours
The first East Asians
Hot topics in genetic genealogy
Monthly competition 
Have you won?
National Family History Fair 2005

DNA from fossil bones
A new study has found that DNA in fossil bones is preserved best in tiny clusters of mineral crystals. This discovery has the potential to advance research into our ancient ancestors. The ability to extract DNA from fossil bones promises to be a powerful tool for learning even more about the journeys made by ancient human populations but extracting this DNA is problematic. Not only does it degrade quickly but also it is easily contaminated with genetic material from soil microbes, animals and people who have handled the remains.

However, the new research suggests that these problems may be overcome by concentrating on DNA not from the whole bone but from crystal aggregates within the bone. In this way, the scientists found they could recover longer strings of better preserved and less contaminated DNA. The crystal clusters are "a privileged niche within fossil bone, which contains DNA in a better state of preservation" than elsewhere in the bone, reported the team led by Michael Salamon of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science.

Speaking to New Scientist, team member Noreen Tuross of Harvard University said that this method "could dramatically improve archaeological and anthropological studies, as well as forensic case studies."

Our Neanderthal neighbors
Further evidence has emerged to support the claim that our ancestors lived side-by-side with Neanderthals some 38,000 years ago. Archaeologists and anthropologists have long debated the possible co-existence in Europe of the last Neanderthals and early arrivals of anatomically modern humans. Some scientists have been convinced that Neanderthals died out long before early modern humans came along; others have insisted that if the two groups co-existed they did so in different places. Still others maintain that they interacted and perhaps even interbred. (A 2004 study found no evidence for interbreeding: see the August 2004 issue of the GeoGene Newsletter.)

Now new evidence has come from the cave of the Grotte des Fées de Châtelperron in east-central France, where relatively sophisticated tools from the Aurignacian culture were discovered sandwiched between layers of tools attributed to Neanderthals. Radiocarbon dating confirmed the order of layering and appears to show that the cave was inhabited first by Neanderthals, then for a thousand years or so by early modern humans, and then once again by Neanderthals. 

Writing in Nature the scientists, led by Paul Mellars from Cambridge University, state: "These data strongly support the chronological coexistence -- and therefore potential demographic and cultural interactions -- between the last Neanderthal and the earliest anatomically and behaviourally modern human populations in western Europe."

[Source: Gravina B, Mellars P, Ramsey CB (2005) Radiocarbon dating of interstratified Neanderthal and early modern human occupations at the Chatelperronian type-site, Nature, 31 Aug 2005] 

The first East Asians
Genetic analysis has recently been used to explore the prehistoric origins of East Asians. The early population history of East Asia is complex. Some previous research looking at mitochondrial DNA did suggest that modern humans first reached this part of the world from the south, but the situation has remained unclear. 

The new research concentrated on genetic information stored within the Y chromosome and looked at 2,332 males who share a genetic marker called M122. (This marker, which defines a particular genetic group within the M175 lineage, is widespread across East Asia and is found especially often in Han Chinese.) When the results were analyzed, they showed that M122-bearing men exhibited more genetic diversity in southern than in northern East Asia, indicating that this marker was older in the south.

This supports the hypothesis that early modern humans migrated northwards into East Asia. The scientists estimated that this migration occurred between around 25,000 and 30,000 years ago, a date that is consistent with the fossil record.

[Source: Shi, H. et al (2005) "Y-Chromosome Evidence of Southern Origin of the East Asian-Specific Haplogroup O3-M122" American Journal of Human Genetics 77:408-419, 2005] 
The GENEALOGY-DNA website at is the principal online discussion site for genetic ancestry research.  This lively site is extremely interesting and highly recommended for anyone wanting to look more deeply into this fascinating subject. Among the many topics discussed in recent weeks have been the following:  Ancient British mtDNA, Group R1b in Italy, Ancient Irish DNA, Portuguese Y chromosome lineages

This is just a small sample of what has been discussed there recently. To browse all the threads visit the GENEALOGY-DNA archives.

Competition winner
Each month, all of our newsletter subscribers are automatically entered into a free draw to win a personalized genetic heritage wall-chart.  GeoGene's beautiful wall-charts are based on an analysis of your unique DNA and tell the story of your own ancient ancestors. 

We offer two types of wall-chart. Our GeoMother service lets you discover your ancient ancestors on your mother's side by conducting research on your mitochondrial DNA. If you would prefer to trace your ancestry on your father’s side, our GeoFather service is right for you as this analyses DNA in your Y chromosome: GeoMother wall-chart and GeoFather wall-chart  For full details about our wall-charts, visit the GeoGene website. 

So that our scientific team can begin researching your genetic ancestry, we need to send you your DNA sampling kit containing our easy-to-use mouth swab. Email us to let us know an address you would like the kit sent to.   
voice: (US) +1 415 839 5270   (UK) +44 20 8150 6403
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Merry Christmas, Spanglish


T'was the night before 

T'was the night before Christmas and all through the CASA

Not a creature was stirring, CARAMABA QUE PASA?

The work was all done, and the tired old NANAS

Had tucked all the NINOS away in their CAMAS

Their stockings were hung in their place CON CUIDADO

In hopes that St. Nick would feel OBLIGADO

When all of a sudden, I heard such a GRITO

I jumped to my feet like a frightened CABRITO

I ran to the window to look PARA AFUERA

And who in the world do you think it ERA?

St. Nick in a sleigh and a big red SOMBRERO

Came flying along like a crazy BOMBERO

And pulling his sleigh instead of VENADOS

Were eight little burros, approaching VOLADOS

I watched as they came, and this quaint little HOMBRE

Was shouting and whistling and calling by NOMBRE



Then standing erect with his hand on this PECHA

He flew to the top of our very own TECHO

With his round little PARINCH like a bow of JALEA

He struggled to fit in our own CHIMINEA

Then huffing and puffing at last in our SALA

From  bags full of TRENANTS and toys from CHAPALA

He filled all the stockings with lovely REGALOS

For none of the children had been very MALOS

The chucking aloud, he seemed MUY CONTENTO

He turned like a flash, and was gone like the VIENTO

But I heard him exclaim---and this is VERDAD


*peseta is a monetary unit of Spain, Webster's Worldwide Dictionary  English/Spanish


Sent by Jeanne Moody


                12/30/2009 04:49 PM