Somos Primos

October 2004, 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


Content Areas
United States
Surname  Canales
Galvez Patriots
Orange County, CA
Los Angeles, CA
Northwestern US
Southwestern US
East of Mississippi
East Coast
Family History
-- 153
2003 Index



Jorge H. Delgado and Gilberto Arteaga
September 10, Santa Ana, California
El Comite de la Fiestas Patrias Celebration

Jorge H. Delgado is President & General Manager of Los Angeles KMEX 34, UNIVISION station, standing with Gilberto Arteaga, Community Liaison to the Hispanic community in Southern California for the LDS Church (Mormons) 

Topic of discussion: The need to promote Hispanic heritage and the subject of the
Gabriel Award won by Univision.  Presented each year by the Catholic Academy for Communication Arts Professionals and celebrating its 39th edition, the Gabriels recognize outstanding artistic achievement in television or radio programming that serves, enriches and challenges audiences.   Click for the complete story.

Character is the only secure foundation of the state.
-- Calvin Coolidge, 30th American president (1872-1933)

Letters to the Editor
Mimi, Please keep the monthly notification coming my way. I enjoy the way you present the introduction. Makes wanting to read the monthly more interesting. You have created a lot of Genealogy Monsters. And I am one of them.  Faus(tino) F. Rios
Hola, mi nonbre es Elva y actualmente estoy trabajando en la busqueda de mis ancestros, soy mexicana del estado de Jalisco, y me gustaria mucho poder obtener el CD Latin America Family History Resources que ustedes estan ofreciendo gratis, o si es que debo pagar por el favor de hacermelo saber.  Muchas gracias.  Quiero decirte que me gusta mucho su Site, y que es uno de mis pasatiempos favoritos, buscar en sus publicaciones, historia y otros
articulos de mucho interes. Lo que ustedes estan haciendo es algo muy bueno y los felicito por eso.
Elva Pina-Ramirez  
Please add my name to your list of subscribers for Somos Primos, and your networking database.
My main Surnames are: Alvarado, Elezalda / Lisalde (many different spellings), Grijalva, Guirado
Lopez, Silvas, Yorba, Valenzuela.
Your newsletters are fascinating and informative. Thank you for all the wonderful work you do.
Valerie Hall

Somos Primos Staff: 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna de Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Carlos Alvares
Juan Pablo Alvarez
Ruben Alvarez
Gilberto Arteaga
Tom Ascencio
Salena Ashton
Louie Arecco
Joyce Basch
Treyce Benavidez 
Danielle Brown
Salvador Cabral Valdés

Jaime Cader
Roberto Camp
Bill Carmena
John Cruz
Jorge H. Delgado
Gil Dominguez 
Johanna De Soto
Karla Everett
Lupe Fisher
Ed Flores

Lorri Fran
Ernest Garcia
JD Garza 
George Gause
Adan Griego 
Eddie Grijalva

Valerie Hall
Tesya Harris
Elsa Herbeck 
Lorraine Hernandez

Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Cindy LoBuglio
Dr. Ann Lopez
Alfred Lugo
Eddie Martinez
JV Martinez, Ph.D.
Rueben Martinez
Armando Monte
Miguel Angel Munoz Borrego 
Cat Nelson
Paul Newfield
Robert Andres Olivares
Maria Angeles Olson
Guillermo Padilla Origel
Michael S. Perez
Elva Pina-Ramirez 
Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso 
Faustino F. Rios
Blas Roldán
John B.Schmal
Diane Sears  
Howard Shorr
Lynna Kay Shuffield
Robert Tarin
Lic. Leonardo de la Torre 
        y Berumen 
JD Villarreal
Maazya E. Villanueva
Linda Zambrano-Robinson

SHHAR Board:      
Laura Arechabala Shane 
Bea Armenta Dever
Steven Hernandez
Mimi Lozano Holtzman
Pat Lozano 
Henry Marquez 
Yolanda Ochoa Hussey 
Michael S. Perez 
Crispin Rendon
Viola Rodriguez Sadler 
John P. Schmal



"Hispanics & the Formation of the American People"  Oct 1-2
John Philip Sousa
Book: They Answered the Call
Treyce Benavidez
A Worker's Handprint
Is Search of Fatherhood
National Assn of Hispanic Journalist
How Time Magazine Got It Wrong
Question on Hispanic Origin
Schools Creative, Hike MBA Enrollment
Gabriel Awards to Univision Network 
Thoughts on Distance learning 


"Hispanics & the Formation of the American People"  Oct 1-2

Drawing of the new William G. McGowan Theater 
Keynote address and panel discussion, Oct 1st

10:30 a.m. to Noon

National Archives and Records Administration
Constitution Avenue, between 7th and 9th Streets, NW, Washington, DC 20408
For the full schedule of panels, lectures, and workshops, 
go to the September issue of Somos Primos.

Contact for more information and for reservations: 
Sam Anthony, Director of Lecture Programs, 
(202) 208-7345 

Mission Statement 

To educate the American public concerning the contributions of all  Hispanics/Latinos, (multi-racial, multi-national) in the settlement of the North American continent and the founding of the United States of America. In order to accomplish this mission, in concert with NARA's exceptional Director of Lecture Programs, Sam Anthony, a committee of citizens participated to help mount the first conference dedicated to Hispanic research at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., "Hispanics & the Formation of the American People".

1) To educate governmental, educational, historical, genealogical, service, military, and church
2) To provide these organizations with historical, genealogical and social data, resources, internet
    links, and access to experts in the aforementioned fields.
3) To ensure that the information received is correct, useful, and practical.

1) Participants will receive meaningful information from the conference panels and workshops which
    will  help them in their dedicated fields.
2) Participants will receive data, documents, and lists of resources and Internet links for continued
   development of personal expertise in the area of Hispanic historical contributions.
3) Participants will be provided with organizational support, following the conference, to assist in
    networking with individual sharing a common interest, whether historical, genealogical,
    educational or service based.

John Philip Sousa American Composer, Conductor & Patriot

[[Editor's note: The writer of the following brief biography states that Sousa's father, John (Juan) Antonio Sousa was born in Spain of Portuguese parents.  Further research by your editor revealed that both of Sousa's paternal grandparents, John (Juan) Antonio Sousa and Josephine De Blanco were also born in Seville, Spain.  The surnames Sousa and (de) Blanco are found both in Spain and Portugal.

Sousa today is known as one the great patriotic American composer, first and foremost, regardless if his heritage was Spanish or Portuguese. Those looking for the contributions of the Hispanics to the U.S. surely John Philip Sousa should be included.]]

1854: Born Washington, DC, Nov. 6. John Philip was 3rd of 10 children of John Antonio Sousa (born in Spain of Portuguese parents) and Maria Elisabeth Trinkhaus (born in Bavaria). John Philip's father, Antonio, played trombone in the U.S. Marine band. He grew up around military band music. 

1860: Began musical study around age six, studying voice, violin, piano, flute, cornet, baritone, trombone and alto horn.

1867: His father enlisted him in the Marines at age 13 as an apprentice after he attempted to run away to join a circus band. 

1872: Published first composition, "Moonlight on the Potomac Waltzes".

1875: Discharged from Marines. Began performing (on violin), touring and eventually conducting theater orchestras. Conducted Gilbert & Sullivan's H.M.S. Pinafore on Broadway. 

1879: In February, met Jane van Middlesworth Bellis during Pinafore rehearsals; they were married December 30, 1879.

1880: Returned to Washington in September to assume leadership of the US Marine Band.

1880-1892: Conducted "The President's Own", serving under presidents Hayes, Garfield, Cleveland, Arthur and Harrison. After two successful but limited tours with the Marine Band in 1891 and 1892, promoter David Blakely convinced Sousa to resign and organize a civilian concert band.

1892: The first Sousa Band concert was performed September 26 at Stillman Music Hall in Plainfield, New Jersey. Two days earlier, bandleader Patrick Gilmore had died in St. Louis. Nineteen of Gilmore's former musicians eventually joined Sousa's band, including Herbert L. Clarke (cornet) and E. A. Lefebre (saxophone). The original name of the band was "Sousa's New Marine Band", but criticism from Washington forced the withdrawal of the name. 

1895: Sousa's first successful operetta, El Capitan, debuts.1896: Sousa's promoter David Blakely dies while Sousa and his wife are on vacation in Europe. On the return voyage, Sousa receives the inspiration for The Stars and Stripes Forever.1900: The Sousa Band tours Europe.1901: Second European tour.1905: Third European tour. 1910: World Tour: New York, Great Britain, Canary Islands, South-Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji Islands, Hawaii, Canada.1917: During World War I, Sousa joins the US Naval Reserve at age 62. He is assigned the rank of lieutenant and paid a salary of $1 per month.1919-1932: After the war, Sousa continued to tour with his band. He championed the cause of music education, received several honorary degrees and fought for composers' rights, testifying before Congress in 1927 and 1928.1932: Sousa dies at age 77, after conducting a rehearsal of the Ringgold Band in Reading, Pennsylvania. The last piece he conducted was "The Stars and Stripes Forever". 

The Works of John Philip Sousa
Source: John Philip Sousa - American Phenomenon by Paul Bierley

This site has a listing of all of John Philip Sousa's work, and you actually hear clips from most of the marches. He must have been one of the most prolific composers.

Marches (135)
Operettas (15)
Suites (11)
Descriptive Pieces (2)
Songs (70)
Other Vocal Works (7)
Overtures (4)
Concert Pieces (2)
Instrumental Solos (4)
Trumpet and Drum Pieces (12)
Arrangements and Transcriptions (322)

THEY ANSWERED THE CALL: Latinos in the Vietnam War
by Gil Dominguez

This book is an attempt to fill the void in the literature dealing with the role of Hispanics in the Vietnam War. Latino soldiers, sailors, airmen and marines have served in various US wars with great distinction and bravery, compiling a record of courage unmatched by any other group of Americans: Thirty-nine Medal of Honor were earned--fourteen of those for service in Vietnam.

Gil Dominguez
The author interviewed twenty- one warriors who related their experiences and what it felt to be a Latino Vietnam Vet. The first chapter is devoted to the experiences of Medal of Honor recipient, Master Sgt. Roy Perez Benavides.
220 Pgs., 6 x 9 Item #24488  $19.95  Shipping: $2.75

Also can be purchased through the publisher, PublishAmerica, and Barnes and Noble.

New book on Latino Vietnam vets makes debut

A book on the role of Latinos in America’s longest and most unpopular war has been published by Gil Dominguez, a writer from San Antonio, Texas.

Titled They Answered the Call: Latinos in the Vietnam War, the book describes the experiences of veterans from different parts of the United States who fought in the jungles, on the waterways, and over the skies of Southeast Asia.

Based on interviews with the veterans themselves and backed up by many hours of research conducted over the course of twenty years, the author tells the stories of twenty-one Latinos who answered the call to military duty when their nation needed them.

Hispanics fought in every major battle of the Vietnam War, from the Ia Drang Valley to Hamburger Hill and earned fourteen Medals of Honor in the process.

And regardless of their personal feelings about the war or whether they were drafted or volunteered for service, these men served honorably and with selfless courage.

The book relates the experiences of Marine and Army grunts, sailors on riverboats, door gunners aboard attack helicopters, Special Forces Medal of Honor recipient Roy Benavidez, and an Air Force aviator held as a POW in the infamous Hanoi Hilton.

The book, however, is more than just war stories. It delves also into the lives of these veterans before they went to Vietnam and what things were like for them when they returned from the war. Many had a difficult time adjusting to normal life and struggled with post-traumatic stress disorder and drug and alcohol addiction.

But above all, They Answered the Call: Latinos in the Vietnam War is about sacrifice and courage on the part of the Hispanic fighting man.

Dominguez, an Air Force public affairs specialist, writer and editor, is himself a Vietnam veteran, having served with Army engineer units in the Mekong Delta.

He holds a bachelor’s degree in journalism and master of education degree in political science from Texas State University-San Marcos.

Treyce Benavidez
Handwriting Analyst

I became interested in Handwriting Analysis when I was 11 years old. My "Uncle Charlie" was the founder of the San Francisco School of Handwriting Studies and was great friends of my father. 

Although not my 'real Uncle' he was close to our family and I didn't even know he wasn't my uncle until I was 18 years old. Uncle Charlie is really Charles Stahl. Before the FBI had their own profilers he worked with many federal and local agencies performing "profiling" services. 

When I was in elementary school I didn't have any close friends; in high school I even got beat-up because I didn't party or "go with the flow".  I was the outsider because I didn't want to do things that I knew would get us in trouble. I ended up with many 'hate notes' in my locker. 

Uncle Charlie told me that, instead of throwing them away, collect them and other writing samples. He said to get two shoe boxes - one for those individuals that I like, and one for those I did not like. When Uncle Charlie would come and visit us, he would sit with me and teach me the similarities and differences and what they meant about the person. 

When I grew up and was going to college as an undergraduate in Psychology and Criminal Justice, I also tutored through those years with Uncle Charlie. That's when I discovered that handwriting analysis is what I wanted for my career. I wanted to profile people, and that is what I do.

What I love most about my career is the fact that I can help others. I have worked with homeless people to develop traits needed to get back on their feet such as self discipline, ambition, assertiveness, and trust. I have worked with many kids to change their lives around as well and am busy trying to launch a research study with kids who have been  "through-everything -but- nothing- works" programs because I know that the Handwriting Formation Therapy will help them ! In fact, one of my best clients - a juvenile probation agency - stated, "Treyce based on your profiles, and our setting up treatment plans based on your profiles, not one of the juveniles has ever re-offended. Thank you so much for what you do!"

For an analysis of Southwest colonizer, Juan Pablo Grijalva, click

COLUMN OF THE AMERICAS by Patrisia Gonzales and Roberto Rodriguez
Source: Dr. Ann Lopez 

This is a first-person column by Patrisia Gonzales.

I descend from a family of sheepherders, migrants, farmers, floor sweepers, bookkeepers, midwives and curanderos -- people who do good work with their hands.

They were artists and artisans, carpenters, upholsterers and seamstresses who took pride in their work. They picked this nation's foods (my grannies were said to be faster than the boys and drank the hottest coffee), built the roads and bridges, lived in boxcars, caves and wagon yards, left their worker's handprints in cement and earth.

My grandpa was a dynamiter for the WPA -- the most dangerous job, but it paid the most to feed 13 mouths, plus the three or four uncles who happened to be in the house on any given day. A Mexican Comanche, he worked from age 6 when his family returned from Mexico before the 1910 revolution.

My first job, apart from baby-sitting, was at age 12 as a soda fountain girl at my aunt's restaurant. Later I was a weekend cashier at her beauty shop. As a student at the University of Texas-Austin, I'd visit the places on campus where my grandpa laid concrete. My grandpa made this, I'd think. I learned to like work from Grandpa.

As a preschooler, I remember looking up at the yellow kitchen bar stools. There'd be Grandpa at 3 a.m., frying eggs in an iron skillet and eating pork rinds and chile made by his own hand. By 4 a.m. he'd be laying concrete to beat the sun. At 4 p.m., he and my great uncles would eat hot chile after a long day at the construction site. I always wondered why the men got to eat first. Granny said it was 'cause they worked hard. I'd help him pull off his concrete-crusted boots, barely able to lift them off his feet. Once, we thought Grandpa was going deaf. It was just dried concrete in his ears.

My dad was a worker and a good dresser. He'd come home after working as a janitor and forklift driver and change into his three-piece Sears suit, after a good shave and shower and some smelly cologne. Grandpa had a few suits in his life: the one he married in, the one he wore to give his eldest daughter away, the one he celebrated his golden wedding anniversary with and 15 years later was buried in (with the sleeves still too short). Of course, there was the unaccounted work of my granny, who seemed to cook all day -- a stack of fresh tortillas every day for a lifetime. My uncle Paul recalls the day my grandma stopped getting up to make those pre-dawn eggs. She threw a yellow steel ashtray at Grandpa and told him, "I've raised 11 children, go make your own breakfast!"

The other day, I came in from the garden with my forearms full of dried earth and I remembered Grandpa's caked tierra on his pant legs, the grease in my uncle's nose from working in the steel mills and machine shops. We had two soaps in the house, Ivory soap and lye. And I wished for some of that gritty lye.

Recently my Uncle Chuy passed away. For years he owned and operated an air-conditioning repair business. At his funeral, the family shared a poem about how God saw him getting tired: "Your hardworking hands put to rest."

Often there was the prospect of labor strikes because we were a union family. My father, uncles and several cousins worked in union shops. My father died on Labor Day 1985, the night I went on strike for almost seven weeks while working for The Philadelphia Inquirer. His union brothers gave me a cigar box full of dollar bills at the funeral that helped me make it through the strike while I walked the picket line.

A day without a Mexican -- where would this country be without men and women like my grandparents, the workers who fuel our GNP? In Detroit, Mexican immigrants have revitalized the boarded-up buildings with their skilled hands and hardworking ganas -- will and desire -- and in the Midwest and South, they are buying farmland -- to actually farm it. They have not lost the knowledge of how to work the land or how to build something from scratch without a loan or grant. They bring with them enduring cultural knowledge, and many of them speak more than Spanish, hailing from Indian communities like my grandparents -- Otomies in Florida, Zapotecs and Nahuas in California and even Wisconsin.

Grandpa's heart gave out at age 79 while he was laying concrete. It was supposed to be his last job. Mama said he left his handprints when he braced the fall in the wet cement. The other day my mama told me, "I wonder if they are still there?" Forever.
(c) Universal Press Syndicate 2004
The writers can be reached
 or 608-238-3161, PO BOX 5093, Madison, WI 53705. Column of the Americas is posted every Sat at:   If you would like to see it in your local newspaper, please call/your local editor and call our editor Greg Melvin at 1-800-255-6734.

Sent by Diane Sears

BSI International, Inc. is pleased to announce that IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(R) is now a "blog" and can be viewed or posted to at Share and express your ideas about Fatherhood and Men's issues. So, what's on your mind?

National Association of Hispanic Journalist

National Association of Hispanic Journalist recognized 42 journalists with the NAHJ Journalism Awards for their exceptional work during the past year ranging from stories about Latino soldiers in Iraq to the struggles of undocumented workers in the United States.  Awards were granted in the categories of Print, Television, Radio, Photography and Multimedia.  

Founded in 1984, NAHJ's mission is to increase the percentage of Latinos working in our nation's newsrooms and to improve news coverage of the country's Latino community. With more than 2,000 members, NAHJ is located in Washington, D.C. 

Noche de Triunfosl took place Sept 16 during Hispanic Heritage Month in Washington, D.C., marking the first time that the gala was held outside of the annual convention. The organization's prestigious new ñ awards will provide greater visibility to the contributions made by Latino journalists and to stories about the Latino community. 

For a complete listing of this year’s award recipients, please visit NAHJ’s Web site at     Washington, D.C. - NAHJ is proud to announce the winners of its 2004 ñ and Journalism Awards. The winners will be honored at NAHJ's Noche de Triunfos Journalism Awards Gala Sept. 16 at the Ritz-Carlton in Washington, D.C. 
The National Association of Hispanic Journalists
1000 National Press Building
529 14th St., NW
Washington, DC 20045-2001, USA
E-mail:    Phone: 202.662.7145  Fax: 202.662.7144  1.888.346.NAHJ 

How Time Magazine Got It Wrong: Illegal Immigration Is Not 3 Million A Year
From the National Foundation for American Policy. (
Sent by Howard Shorr

After recent examples of media missteps we have another one on our hands. In this week's cover story (September 20, 2004), Time magazine erroneously reported that illegal immigration has increased to 3 million a year, having based the estimate on assumptions that don't bear out under scrutiny. A new Policy Brief from the National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP), an Arlington, Va.-based policy research organization, explains how Time got it wrong and what are the best solutions to reducing illegal immigration.

In its sensationalistic article "America's Border," the magazine reports:  "It's fair to estimate, based on a Time investigation, that the number of illegal aliens flooding into the U.S. this year will total 3 million ­
enough to fill 22,000 Boeing 737-700 airliners, or 60 flights every day for a year." Time uses these figures to help reach its conclusion that illegal immigration has increased significantly in the past few years. The problem is that to arrive at its estimate, Time magazine's "investigation" involved nothing more than taking the annual number of Border Patrol apprehensions and multiplying by three because some people told them that at least three people get through for every person caught.

The main error in the Time report is that it misses the double- and triple-counting that goes on in reporting official apprehensions data: the same person may be apprehended 6 times over the course of a year but it would be counted as 6 apprehensions. Simple math shows that multiplying 3 "people who get through" times 19 million (the number of apprehensions of Mexicans just since 1990) yields a number equal to nearly 60 percent of the population of Mexico, illustrating the implausibility of the Time figures. As the Policy Brief explains, if the Time analysis was correct, then we should no longer have an illegal immigration problem with Mexico, since everyone from Mexico should already be in the United States.

Time editors James Steele and Donald Barlett, co-authors of the article, did not reference U.S. government analyses of illegal immigration. Official government estimates showed a net of 350,000 people added to the illegal immigrant population each year between 1990 and 1999, with a gross average of 706,000 each year.  

The Policy Brief also points out that without a change in policy that provides additional avenues for individuals to enter the United States and work legally, it is not surprising that illegal immigration has not sharply declined during the past few years. The issue is not a matter of will or toughness, but rather adopting intelligent policies that channel those who want to work here onto a legal path. Expanding the availability of legal visas for lower-skilled jobs greatly reduced illegal entry in the 1950s.

Question on Hispanic Origin
by Arthur R. Cresce, Audrey Dianne Schmidley and Roberto R. Ramirez

Population Division
U.S. Census Bureau
Washington, D.C. 20233 
Population Division Working Paper No. 75

Schools Get Creative to Hike Minority M.B.A. Enrollment
By Pepi Sappal

Sent by Louie Arecco
Louie Arecco,
Hispanic Alliance for Career Enhancement (HACE)
25 E Washington Street, Suite 1500
Chicago, Illinois 60602
312.435.0498 x 14     Mobile  224.628.8350

Graduate schools of business are coming up with creative ways to attract minority M.B.A. students, but it wasn't always this way. Just ask Eddie Correa. When he applied to b-schools six years ago, "just gathering all the information you needed, from various business-school-admissions procedures to acquiring GMAT qualifications, was a chore," says Mr. Correa.

Now president of the San Jose, Calif., chapter of the National Society of Hispanic MBAs (NSHMBA), Mr. Correa says minority applicants can learn everything they need about b-school admissions by attending a single event, such as Destination M.B.A.

Destination M.B.A. events are usually organized by such groups as the NSHMBA or the National Black MBA Association (NBMBAA). Representatives of leading schools attend and discuss the advantages of earning the degree, their specific application procedures and available financial aid for minorities, such as scholarships, says Mariela Perez-Rea, president of the NSHMBA chapter in San Francisco. About 200 attendees were expected at a regional event last month sponsored by the San Francisco and San Jose chapters of NSHMBA.

Schools are turning to meetings like these to boost the percentage of underrepresented minority students, now about 10% nationwide. One reason for the push is that recruiters are avoiding schools that don't produce enough African-American, Hispanic and American Indian graduates.

"Firms are demanding diversity, especially from these groups, so we are boosting numbers to provide a rich pool of minority candidates, because schools that don't are quickly dropped from their recruitment circuit," says Angela Noble-Grange, director of office of women and minorities at The Johnson Graduate School of Management at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y.

Members of underrepresented minority groups aren't pursuing M.B.A.s because they lack role models and guidance about career opportunities in business, according to school officials. A study by the Boston Consulting Group indicates that minorities seeking advanced degrees gravitate toward medicine or law instead of business.

Passing the b-school entrance exam is another barrier. "Very few minorities actually get more than the 500 points out of 800 required to get into a business school," says Edwin Garcia, president of NSHMBA, which is based in Irving, Texas. "To get into one of the top-10 business schools, you need more than 600 points."

Business schools' current outreach efforts are designed to make minorities more aware of current opportunities and support for entering business school. Some schools are trying to raise awareness of the value of an M.B.A. degree among undergraduates and high-school students, even though the decision to attend may be years away, says Tiffany Showell, assistant director of M.B.A. admissions at Stanford University's Graduate School of Business.

"Stanford is pursuing its own undergraduates as well as [those at] other schools around the country, and not just those in business fields," she says. "We now work closely with career counselors at those universities to identify future stars."

The Johnson School and several other business schools host events and programs for Leadership, Education and Development in Business Inc. (LEAD), a Philadelphia-based organization that encourages talented African-American and Hispanic high-school students to pursue careers in business. "Really early outreach is a must for us," Ms. Noble-Grange says. "It's about planting the seeds early and informing them about what an M.B.A. can do for them."

Mr. Correa stresses that minority M.B.A. enrollment will increase only if schools are committed to diversity for the long term. "Half-hearted measures only end up sending mixed messages to prospective candidates, which potentially can put them off from applying," he says.

-- Ms. Sappal, the former editor of GlobalHR magazine, is a free-lance writer in London.

Gabriel Awards Bestowed on the Univision Network 
and its Los Angeles Miami Sacramento and Phoenix Stations

Sent by Hispanic PR Wire, 13205 SW 137th Avenue, Suite 229, Miami, FL 33186

Miami, FL--(HISPANIC PR WIRE)--September 1, 2004--Univision Communications Inc. (NYSE: UVN) today announced that Univision, the leading Spanish-language television network in the U.S., and its Los Angeles, Miami, Sacramento and Phoenix stations have been recognized with 2004 Gabriel Awards. Presented each year by the Catholic Academy for Communication Arts Professionals and celebrating its 39th edition, the Gabriels recognize outstanding artistic achievement in television or radio programming that serves, enriches and challenges audiences.

The Univision Network was honored in the category of Religious National Program with its live broadcast of "Las Mañanitas a la Virgen de Guadalupe," a yearly Mexican Holiday tradition that pays homage to the Patron Virgin of the Americas, Our Lady of Guadalupe. Live from the Cathedral of Guadalupe in Mexico City, the Univision Network took Hispanic TV viewers to the heart of the celebration that has been taking place for over 50 years. The special was also broadcast live from San Antonio, Texas and St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York City.

KTVW Univision 33 Phoenix was awarded in the category of Religious Local TV Program, KUVS Univision 19 Sacramento in the category of News/Informational Local TV Program and WLTV Univision 23 Miami in the category of News/Informational National TV Program. KMEX Univision 34 Los Angeles also was recognized with the Television Station of the Year Certificate of Merit Award.

Univision Communications Inc. is the premier Spanish-language media company in the United States. Its operations include Univision Network, the most-watched Spanish-language broadcast television network in the U.S. reaching 98% of U.S. Hispanic Households; TeleFutura Network, a general-interest Spanish-language broadcast television network, which was launched in 2002 and now reaches 79% of U.S. Hispanic Households; Univision Television Group, which owns and operates 24 Univision Network television stations and 1 non-Univision television station; TeleFutura Television Group, which owns and operates 31 TeleFutura Network television stations; Galavisión, the country’s leading Spanish-language cable network; Univision Radio, the leading Spanish-language radio group which owns and/or operates 68 radio stations in 17 of the top 25 U.S. Hispanic markets and 4 stations in Puerto Rico; Univision Music Group, which includes Univision Records, Fonovisa Records, and a 50% interest in Mexico-based Disa Records labels as well as Fonomusic and America Musical Publishing companies; and Univision Online, the premier Spanish-language Internet destination in the U.S. located at Univision Communications also has a 50% interest in TuTv, a joint venture formed to broadcast Televisa’s pay television channels in the U.S., and a non-voting 27% interest in Entravision Communications Corporation, a public Spanish-language media company. Univision Communications is headquartered in Los Angeles with television network operations in Miami and television and radio stations and sales offices in major cities throughout the United States.

For more information, please visit
Contact: Univision Network
Cristina Romano 
(305) 463--4608

Thoughts on Distance learning 
Robert Andres Olivares

I think in the future we will look at distance learning as a great asset to life, not just to education. Weather it is through fiber optic cables on our desktop or beamed into our living rooms, I think it will prove to be a great tool to our community and society as a whole. As individuals and families we grow up with certain feelings and thoughts, often compiled misconceptions about other races, based on our own opinions or the opinion of someone else.

Distance learning could help break through those barriers and misconceptions by bringing the reality of what people are like all over the world to our children and ourselves. Once we are able to show our children what other cultures are like, I feel that it might help to help raise the level of peace and understanding, by using distance learning as sort of an olive branch. An extended hand and the exchange of ideas, turn them into educational tools.

In addition, it could be a useful for stay at home parents who can't afford to attend school and find daycare for their children. Distance learning beamed into the home could allow single parents the freedom to continue their education and take care of their kids. So that they could better provide for themselves and their children, while improving their way of life, as well as set an example for their children on the importance of continuing education,  even if it’s at home.


SURNAME  Canales


Hubo en España diferentes casas solares de este apellido, sin relación entre ellas, siendo una de las más antiguas la que radicó en el lugar de Canales, -cuyo nombre tomó-, del hoy partido judicial de Murias de Paredes, en la provincia de León, seguida de la que está enclavada cerca de Villafranca del Bierzo. De ambos lugares, se ramificaron ramas por toda la Península Ibérica.

También hubo un asentamiento muy principal en Uncastillo, Zaragoza, al que perteneció don Pedro Canales, nacido en 1720, que se encuentra empadronado entre los demás infanzones en la localidad referida.

En Cataluña existió un noble solar de esta estirpe en la población ilerdense de Guisona. A él perteneció don José Canales Cruels, Coronel de los Reales Ejércitos, llegado al mundo en Barcelona el 20 de agosto de 1678, quien después de presentar las correspondientes pruebas de su nobleza de sangre, fue admitido en la Orden Militar de Santiago, el año 1707. Era hijo de don José Canales Fermí y de doña María Cruels Semane, ambos de la dicha Guisona.

Don Francisco Canales Gacio, Barberá y Cabestany, natural de Reus, Tarragona, vistió el hábito de la Orden de Calatrava en 1691, ante cuya institución nobiliaria hizo patente su calidad.

Ante la Sala de los Hijosdalgo de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid, litigaron por el reconocimiento de sus preeminencias, los siguientes miembros de esta familia vecinos de los lugares que se indican:

Don Andrés de Canales Cea, León, 1613; don Antonio y don Melchor de Canales Sahagún, León, 1544; don Melchor Canales, Sahagún, 1577; don Diego de Canales. Barrios, Tierra de Saldaña, Palencia, 1586; don Diego de Canales, Almanza, León, 1611; Rodrigo Canales. Quintana del Monte, León, 1624, y el Capitán don Diego Canales de la Cerda. Sevilla, 1588.

Ante el Santo Oficio de la Inquisición, demostró su "limpieza de sangre" en 1789, don Pedro Canales y Mérida, natural de Aldea del Río, Córdoba, a fin de obtener el cargo de "Familiar".

Doña Josefa Canales y Castellón, Pérez y Bolea, natural y originaria de Cartagena, Murcia, demostró su legitimidad, cristiandad y nobleza en 1827, ante la jurisdicción castrense española, con la finalidad de contraer matrimonio con el Subteniente de Infantería don Francisco Castellano López.

El Alférez don José Joaquín de Canales, desempeñó el cargo de Regidor de la ciudad de MonterRey, en el Nuevo Rey de León en 1788, y don Blas Canales, posiblemente pariente el anterior, fue poblador de San Nicolás de Agualeguas, en 1708, de donde llegó procedente de la villa de Cerralbo.

Don Francisco Canales y Gacio,Barberá y Cabestany, natural del "Can" de Tarragona, de la villa de Reus, importante mercader de la ciudad de México, dejó de existir aquí el 24 de abril de 1694. Testó ante el escribano Martín del Río, el 21 de dicho mes nombrado albacea a su esposa doña Juana de VillaSeñor y Lomelí.Así aparece en el padrón de 1689, con notas adicionales del doctor Rubio Mañe ,y se sabe que fue admitido en la Orden Militar de Calatrava,en 1691.

En el censo que se efectuó en 1753, figura don José Canales, español, comerciante, casado y con cinco hijos, residiendo en la calle de Ortega.

Las armas de los Canales, se describen así:


En 1798, don Pedro Antonio Canales, era Cirujano del Regimiento de Infantería de Puebla; en 1804, don Antonio Canales, casado con doña Joaquina Gómez, era Visitador de las Rentas Reales de Polvora y Náipes, y el Capitán don Manuel Canales, Ayudante del Castillo de San Juan de Úlua, en 1805.

Extract from BLASONES Y APELLIDOS, 828-page book by Fernando Muñoz Altea
In its second edition, the book can be ordered from or at
P.O. Box 11232, El Paso, Texas 79995  or by contacting Armando Montes

  Galvez Patriots

Jaime Cader,  San Jose, California asks a question.
Dr. Granville Hough, Irvine, California answers.

Dear Dr. Granville Hough,

    I hope that all is well with you.  Yesterday I was  looking through some Somos Primos issues from previous  years and I saw your article about the SAR in I  believe the April issue of the year 2000.  I read it  and I enjoyed it.  It was very informative.  It was  giving reasons why one should join the SAR.
    I have a question.  I know that my Spanish ancestor  in Central America was around during the years from  1779 to 1783.  According to one source he had a city  government position in that time frame.  (His daughter  was born in 1786.)
    In the only document that I have that mentions his  name, it is said that he was an officer in the Spanish  army.
    If he was once in the Spanish army, was it  considered that he was always in the army once he
 enlisted?  For example, when he held a city government  position would he still have been considered to be in  the Spanish army?
    I am trying to figure out if I am going to be able  to join the SAR.

    Thank you for all of your help.  
    Sincerely,  Jaime Cader

Granville Hough, Ph.D. response:

Jaime, this is what I recall from studying civil and military duties in New Mexico and Texas. I would expect similar customs in other areas.

The alcalde (mayor) was War Captain of his district and the nominal head of the militia, which had age limits of all able bodied males 16 to 60 as I recall. The militia did get called out, both in New Mexico and Texas, more than it wished to be because of the Commanche or Apache raids.

It was the alcalde's duty to furnish the response, or requested number of horsemen and horses for a chase or even an extended campaign. He did not himself have to go if he had a competent alcalde (teniente) assistant who relished that duty. It is my own belief that most alcaldes were older, less physically active men, who did not mind at all if an assistant wanted to do that hard riding and often fruitless work. In addition, it was never safe to have all the militia away at the same time. That just invited an attack by the Indians behind the lines.

This was so routine in New Mexico that there is seldom anything listed more than the number of men furnished by each neighborhood. Leaders or alcaldes are seldom mentioned directly. Sometimes the militia got paid for being called out for extended periods; but for a day or two of chasing horse thieves, they generally got only the experience.

Now there is another aspect of wartime duty for alcaldes. They were Commissioners to collect the voluntary contribution called for by King Carlos III. In New Mexico, we have a pretty good listing of the alcaldes who performed that duty. It is a basis for joining either the SAR or DAR. In the materials I studied for Central America, sadly mostly secondary, I found no mention of the voluntary contribution. I know the proclamation went to all parts of New Spain, and it must have been honored in Central America. I just did not find references to it.  (I did an article in the current Sept Somos Primos on the California contributions.)

The SAR might not accept as sufficient the fact that an ancestor held office in the 1779-1783 period in a certain town. It would also want a record that that town militia was called out for duty and that the ancestor either led it or arranged to have someone else lead it (in which case the alcalde would be the backup or rear guard commander.) Alternatively, the SAR might accept a record that the
alcalde was Commissioner to collect the voluntary contributions. So far as I know, we have had no SAR cases or applications which would test the review process. Possibly the DAR has accepted descendants of Alcaldes who served as Commissioners in New Mexico.

I do think of a third possibility where a civil servant in some capacity of little significance was also a militia officer in his area, either by election or appointment. In such a case, you would just need
a record of his militia service, with his civil service status making no difference.

What about civil service as a category of qualifying service in its own right? That would include all the normal offices of civil service, elective or appointive, jury duty, tax collecting, Committees of
Correspondence, Selectmen (councilmen), etc. In the case of the thirteen colonies, you held these offices IN SPITE OF British authority, and acceptance was tantamount to declaring rebellion or committing treason (in British eyes.) If you were captured after holding these offices, you could be severely punished. That is why Henry Laurens from SC was a Capital prisoner held on public display in the Tower of London after he was captured. He had been President of the Continental Congress from Nov 1777 until Dec 1778. 

In the Spanish and French civil service, you received appointments indirectly from the crown, and you served at the pleasure of the crown.  If you were captured, your risks were no greater than those of any other citizen of equal rank. So I think a distinction could be made, but we would have to have a test case to develop the pros and cons. The best reference I found for militia activity began on page 150 in Marc Simmons' Spanish Government in New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM,
University of New Mexico Press, 1968.

With my regards, Granville W. Hough.


Oct 3, California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc.  2nd Annual Awards Night
6th Annual Dia de la Familia, Westminster LULAC Chapter, #3017
Dr. Rita Cepeda Farewell, leaving for to
Compton Community College
Jose Antonio Esquibel speaking at Golden West College
"Betrayal & Violations" Documentary on the Repatriation of the 1930s
Chimes of Mission Bells, Tribute to Junipero Serra & Mission Padres
Oct 9, "Buscando Nuestras Raices" Monterey Park -  - Click to LA


(lf to rt) John Cruz, Gilberto Arteaga, Carlos Olamendi

Sunday, October 3, 2004 

Second Annual Orange County Community Service Awards

California Rural Legal Assistance, CRLA is a statewide nonprofit, social justice organization dedicated to legal advocacy for farm worker and other rural low- income families throughout California. 

Photo at El Comite de la Fiestas Patrias Celebration, 9-10-04 

Carlos Olamendi, Founder, of the Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center to receive the Community Leadership Award at the Second Annual Orange County Community Service Awards.  John Cruz and Carlos Olamendi are current members of the Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center. Gilberto Arteaga,is Community Liaison to the Hispanic community in Southern California for the LDS Church (Mormons).

Other individuals to be honored are Judge Gregory Munoz, Judge Superior Court, Jessie de la Cruz Lifetime Achievement Award, and Dr. Juan Francisco Lara, Assistant Vice Chancellor, UCI Educator Award. 

Attorney Maurice Jourdane Civil rights attorney and Author of The Struggle for the Health and Legal Protection of Farm Workers Aat the home of Bette and Wylie Aitken, Anaheim, CA 4 p.m. - 7 p.m. Ticket Price: $75  R.S.V.P. Darren Aitken, Aitken & Cohn at 714.434.1424 or
Event & Sponsorship Information: Joseph L. Chairez, Baker & Hostetler, LLP at 714.754.6600 or   All proceeds benefit California Rural Legal Assistance,  CRLA. 

El Comite de la Fiestas Patrias Celebration Program
The Friday September 10th event at the Santa Ana Performing Arts Center was one event in a series of  three full days of activities organized by the committee. Community booths, food, entertainment, and a  parade.  Included in the programs were dancers from Aguascalientes, Mexico,  and a bevy of local princesses representing each of the 31Mexican states.

The ringing of a bell Sunday September 12th at midnight was heard by thousands gathered  on 4th Steet in Santa Ana to be part of the Grito de Independencia. The Consul of Mexico in Santa Ana, Luis Miguel Ortiz Haro, rang the bell and lead the shout, ¡Que Viva México!

6th Annual El Dia de la Familia
Held September 12
Community Festival, Siegler Park, Westminster

This event has been a very successful collaboration between the City of Westminster and the LULAC Chapter 3017 of Westminster.  The event is coordinated through the Westminster Cultural Arts Committee.  Several members of LULAC serve on the committee, Lupe Fisher (seen above as the event MC) and Sergio Contreras, a young man running for the third time for the Westminster School Board.  All the entertainment was provided by local talent and usually draws between 500-1000 people to the day's activities, which includes entertainment, food, displays

Cris Villasenor, Chapter 3017 LULAC president, co-chaired the event. Coincidently, about 23 non-profit organizations participated this year and about 23 dozen homemade tamales were sold.  

Dr. Rita Cepeda Community Farewell

A community farewell was held for Dr. Rita Cepeda at Martinez Books and Art on September 17th. Dr. Cepeda came to Santa Ana College in 1999 and served faithfully for five years as the first Latina President in the 85 year history of the college.  She begins this month as the new Superintendent of Student Learning at Compton Community College.

During her term of office she has been listed as one of the “Twenty-five Most Influential People of Orange County”, was selected for the Orange County Mexican American Opportunity Foundation 2001 Community Leadership Award and the 2004 Association of Community College Administrators David Mertes Award for Excellence in Community College Research. 

Jose Antonio Esquibel,
Speaking on October 23, 2004, Golden West College, 15744 Goldenwest Street, Huntington Beach CA.  Esquibel is a well-know, frequently published genealogist, author and research consultant specializing in the history and genealogy of the colonial families of New Mexico and beyond.  He will be the guest speaker at the Familia Ancestral Research Association meeting that will begin at 9am. His topic will be on "Restoring Family Memory: Uncovering Family History and Genealogy through Original Spanish and Mexican Records". For further information you may contact Ed Flores at or call 760 940 4211.  Parking is free.  Park on the Gothard St parking lot.  

"Betrayal & Violations" Documentary on the Repatriation of the 1930s

Funding effort to produce a documentary on "Betrayal & Violations" - Mexican Repatriation of the 1930s.  Information: Gerardo Briseno 714-754-1004  Alfonso Alvarez 714-309-4072

The documentary will tell the story of the forced relocation and deportation of Mexicans and Mexican Americans from the United States during the 1930s. It is estimated that between 1 million to 1.5 million were "repatriated" during this time period, with the majority of those victims being American citizens. 

This documentary follows survivors through the state hearings initiated by senator Joe Dunn in 2003 and the proposed congressional investigations. Donations are tax-deductible through partnership with El Centro Cultural de Mexico

Source: Ruben Alvarez   E-mail:

Chimes of Mission Bells, Tribute to Junipero Serra & Mission Padres.
By Maria Antonia Field.

Sent by Johanna De Soto

Read at the Crowning of the Serra Statue, Monterey, Nov. 23, 1913.

The fickle world oft times applauds the rise 
Of men whose laurels are but vainly won, 
Whose deeds their names could not immortalize
For their soul-toils were wrought for transient ends; But heroes of the Cross, they truly great 
Shall live, their halo shall no hand of fate

Have power to rob, albeit oblivious years 
May veil the radiance of their glorious works, 
Or slight their excellence, their light appears
But brighter, statelier in its splendor calm, 
Or like the flowers that sleep through winter's snow To bloom more fair, their lives' pure beams shall glow

With greater brilliance and sweetly gleam 
As lodestars in the firmament of worth;
Such is the memory whose holy stream 
Of noblest virtue, valor, truth and Faith, 
Illumes our path and stirs our souls today, 
Immortal Serra by whose tomb we pray!

What peerless aureole wreathes his saintly brow? 
What stately monument doth bear his name? 
Let this admiring thousands tell us now!
Let youthful lips pronounce his name with love! 
Let California proudly sing his praise! 
Let scions of fair Spain their voices raise,

And tell of him to whom so much we owe, 
Tell of his interceding power with God, 
His strong and lofty soul his children know, 
His prayers where Carmel's River flows so clear; 
O this his aureole, this his monument, 
The lasting kind which ne'er will know descent.

Another lesson must the worldly learn, 
From him who sought nor praise nor fame; 
His birth, ten score agone, and still we turn 
To him in reverence, his name is sweet 
As vernal bloom, his life shows forth God's might, 
Through him this soil received Faith's warm sunlight!

This beauteous land was strange, unknown and wild, Spite all its treasures, lordly trees and flowers; For tribes with pagan rites its wastes defiled, Till came Spain's noble band of godly men, Explorers true and zealous priests who gave 
Their lives' best years, forgotten souls to save!

'Tis just we venerate each hallowed stone 
Which rears the wond'rous "Temples of the West"; The tears, the toils, the nightly vigils lone; 
The pilgrim-journeys of Saint Francis' sons, 
The rescued souls by lustral waters cleansed, 
The wealth of hospitality dispensed.
All this and more if but their walls could speak, 
Would tell this day; and we in whose veins flows 
The fervent blood of Spain, to us each streak 
Of light which doth reveal a picture true 
Of gentle friar and lovely vanished times 
Is tender as the Angelus' sweet chimes.

Well may each Mission have a holy spell, 
And Serra's name become a household word, 
What marvels can each yellowed archive tell 
Of him and of his martyr-spirit band. 
O faithful, dauntless hearts! What brilliant sons 
Of that great galaxy of Spain's brave sons!

We love their saintly lives to ponder o'er, 
While childhood's fireside tales come back to us, 
And memory unfolds her precious store, 
The bygone glories of the Mission towns, 
The grand old hymns sung at sweet Mary's shrines 
The Spanish color rich as luscious wines

Of Mission vineyards, and the festive hours 
So full of life yet innocent and good, 
When blessings seemed to fall as welcome showers, The Indian tribes were ruled with Christian love, And shared the sons and daughters of Castile Their loved Franciscan Fathers' patient zeal!

But still we love each altar and each cross 
Of these dear fanes; e'en as departing rays 
Of sun doth kiss the crags outlined with moss, 
We love to linger by their altars' light. 
But oh fair Carmel, she of Missions Queen 
What guarding spirits hover here unseen!

Sweet Carmel, center of the hero-band, 
What holy treasures hold thy sacred vaults? 
Junipero and others! Here we stand 
In awe of all thou hast been and art still!
Cruel times took glory, splendor, power 
From Missions all, but not their priceless dower,

Religion, love and all we hold as dear, 
No hand can tarnish and no might destroy, 
And from each hallowed altar ruddy, clear, 
Still burns the mystic lamp, for God is there!
The cross-crowned towers tell that all is not dead, 
E'en though more splendid times have long since sped.

And like a glowing ember in the night 
Our Lady's love has burned through every change;
'Tis thus the Missions ever saw the light
Through labors, ripened harvest-joys and wrongs; 
Their noon-sun splendors of well won renown 
Will shine their glorious heritage to crown.

O Saintly Serra we implore thy prayer, 
Thy dauntless spirit sowed the "mustard-seed" 
Which grew as if by miracle of wonder rare, 
Upon this now rich land which thou did'st till, 
O let they mantle on thy clients fall 
Who on thy gracious aid do humbly call.



Flag Raising Ceremony, Oct 2, 2004
Michael Perez, Homeland Security Oct 6
Buscando Nuestros Raices, Oct 9
Mexican Cultural Institute, Oct 9
African-American & Latino Conf.  Oct 12,14

Rancho Los Cerritos, Oct 16
Latino History Parade, 12-1 pm. Oct 16
Book: Love & Riot
Los Angeles Times 
Don Antonio Ynacio Avila
J.F. Moreno
Mary Hossman



A newly erected pavilion of flags and a plaque honoring the 40 Latino-American Congressional Medal of Honor recipients will be dedicated in Fr. Serra Park at the El Pueblo de Los Angeles Historical Monument on Saturday, October 2, 2004. The ceremonies will begin at 1, ending at 2 p.m. The program will include band music, honor guards, and representatives of the armed forces and numerous veterans’ groups. 

The event is sponsored by the office of Councilman Antonio Villaraigosa and will be hosted by the Eugene Obregon/Congressional Medal of Honor Memorial Foundation, a group of veterans and volunteers dedicated to raising on the same site a large monument designed by prominent artist Eddie Martinez, commemorating the 40 Latino-American recipients of America’s highest award for valor; a monument “not glorifying war, but rather, the courage, sacrifice and love for America demonstrated by all Hispanic-Americans who fought and died in the defense of freedom.”
Keynote speaker will be Councilman Antonio Villaraigosa. Numerous entertainment celebrities, members of the armed forces, community and political leaders are expected to attend and names will be announced when confirmed.  

Veterans, their families, and all members of the public are invited to attend. 

6953 Trolley Way
Playa del Rey, CA 90293
Bill Lansford Tel: (310) 823-1097 

 Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Borders.

October 6, 
Michael S. Perez to speak at a special Hispanic Heritage luncheon. 

Michael Perez, SHHAR Board member and Ethnic Chair, for the California State Genealogical Alliance will be assuming the responsibility for the SHHAR/Somos Primos Speaker's Bureau. Looking ahead to 2005, if you interested in arranging for a speaker for next year, please contact him 


Family History Conference

How-To Classes offered FREE in Spanish & English
throughout the day
8 AM TO 5 PM

2316 Hillview Ave.
Monterrey Park, CA 91754



Chair, Department of Chicano Studies, San Diego State University

Historian, author of 4 books on Chicano/indigenous roots

Explore your history using family sources
Find ancestors using the Internet
Learn how to organize your family tree
12 beginner to Advanced workshops
Displays. Lunch at a nominal price

Sponsoring organizations:
East Los Angeles Stake, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research

For more Information call Umberto Barillas: 818-371-7822
After 6 pm. 818-352-4338

SHHAR is proud to co-sponsors the
Buscando Nuestras Raices  conference. Twenty years ago in 1984, the first Buscando Nuestras Raices Conference was held in the city of Riverside.

George Ryskamp, a practicing attorney in Riverside organized the conference to help Spanish heritage researchers.  Although  not of Hispanic heritage, Ryskamp fell in love with the language and the people through a two-year experience in Spain.  Returning to his studies, Ryskamp majored in History with a special emphasis on Latino Studies and Spanish genealogy.  Through yearly researching trips to Spain, his expertise concerning record collections is unsurpassed. 

Marriage and children did not alter the pattern of yearly researching trips to Spain.  When a teaching opportunity opened up at Brigham Young University, Ryskamp gave up his law practice to pursue his dream, full-time dedication to genealogical research.  Currently George Ryskamp is the Director of the Center for Family History and Genealogy at Brigham Young University. 

It was through the
Buscando Nuestras Raices  conference in 1985, that the four co-founders of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, Ophelia Marquez, Tony Campos, Raul Guerra and your editor met.  The vision and dedication of the four resulted in rapid growth for the Orange County group. Somos Primos as a paper-copy quarterly was first published in 1990.  Somos Primos and its message of unity and inclusion attracted membership from all over the United States. July 26, 1997 SHHAR went online, increasing membership and outreach. January 2000, membership dues were dropped and Somos Primos went online as a monthly e-magazine.

Buscando Nuestras Raices conferences were organized by Ryskmap for seven years. When, he left California, SHHAR took over the responsibility of hosting the annual conference for another seven years. Among the facilities where the conference was held were Bowers Museum, Golden West College, and the Autry Museum.  1998 was the last time a  Buscando Nuestras Raices conference was held in Southern California.   

The vision and message of SHHAR resulted in the formation of other family history groups.  Seeking support to very specific heritage interests, six special interest groups were started,  a Sephardic group and the Santa Ana Canyon Historical Society were the first two.  A chapter of  the GSHA-SC was started by SHHAR members with a special interest in New Mexico connections.   Then a group pursuing Chihuahua and Durango research, La Familia was formed.  In addition, SHHAR members organized the first Hispanic Heritage Committee in Santa Ana, to promote heritage awareness in the community, and then the Visibility Committee of Orange County to increase media coverage. 

This year SHHAR has had the honor of helping in the organization of the very First Hispanic Heritage conference to be held at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.. George Ryskamp will be the keynote speakers. Most fitting. 
Buscando Nuestras Raices started it all.

Mexican Cultural Institute, El Pueblo de Los Angeles Historic Monument and GSHA-SC hosts its second Hispanic Genealogical Festival,
Viva La Familia!  10 am to 4 pm.  Speakers will be presenting in the historic Plaza Methodist Church.  The day will include displays, fun art activities for children, two speakers in the morning, Dr. Andy Anderson and Patricia Wilkes.  Three family history workshops will be conducted in the afternoon. For more information, contact Leonard Smith at the Mexican Cultural Institute at 213-624-3660.      

Celebration of African American and Latino Genealogy 

Second Annual Genealogical Conference 
Los Angeles City College

Tuesday, October 12th:  11 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Michael S. Perez,** The Riberia Family, the Galvez Project 

Juan Mayans, Liaison to Spain, the Galvez Project


Thursday, October 14th:  11 a.m. to 4 p.m.  

Marjorie Sholes Higgins, Introduction/Workshop to Genealogy Research

Charles G. Meigs Jr., The African-American Cherokee Connection

Los Angeles City College
855 N. Vermont Ave.
Los Angeles, 90029
Holmes Hall, Rm 6

Conference Coordinator
Tesya Harris



Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site
4600 Virginia Road, Long Beach, CA 90807
(562) 570-1755

Sat. October 16, 10 a.m. - noon
Spanish Influences on California Horticulture

Discover how the Spanish and Mexican cultures affected the California landscape through this engaging lecture; $5.00 adults/$3.00 members and students. Light refreshments included.

Latino History Parade, 12-1 pm.
Saturday, October 16, 2004 
Los Robles Ave and Washington Blvd. in Pasadena
Sponsors: Pasadena Scholarship Committee, City of Pasadena, Pasadena Unified School District
Information: Latino Heritage Association 626-791-7421

Love & Riot: Oscar Zeta Acosta and the Great Mexican American Revolt.  By Burton Moore. With Preamble by Diego Vigil with the assistance of Richard E. Vigil, Nome de guerre, Mangas Coloradas. Edited by Andrea Alessandra Cabello. $39.95 Hardbound. ISBN: 0-915745-29-1 $39.95 This is the story of the rage and fury of the Los Angeles Riots that swept LA during the gestation of the Movimiento Chicano, MECHA, Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan, and of the remarkable life of Oscar Zeta Acosta—a radical civil-rights lawyer who defended Chicano activists, among them the LA 13, won new rights for Latinos, and challenged the LA establishment.

Los Angeles Times Articles Extracted and Shared
by Karla Everett EverettKA@bak.rr

Los Angeles Times, Sep 9, 1895:


A Statement Made by One of the Claimants. - 

Says the Property Went to the First Six Children of Ascension Avila's Daughter, Her Two Daughters by Pio Pico Being Ignored.

The matter of the claims to be prosecuted by the Avila Estate Company, mention of which was made in the dispatches a few days ago, has given rise to come conflicting reports as to the facts of the case.

In order to put the question before the public in a right light as to the facts stated, James Moreno, one of the parties interested in the company, made some explanations in reference to it to a Times reporter yesterday.

"Don Antonio Ynacio Avila," Mrs. Moreno said, "was born in Los Angeles in 1765, as has been related in the dispatches. He died in this city about fifty-four years ago. He was married to Dona Ros Ruis and by her had ten children, one of whom was named Ascension. After the death of Don Avila, his estate, which was a large one, consisting mostly of lands granted directly to him from the Mexican government before California was ceded to the United States, was divided among the children, Ascencion receiving a share.

"Previous to the death of Don Avila, Ascencion married Thomas Sanchez, and by him had six children, one of whom was Thomas Sanchez, Jr. After the death of her husband, Ascencion lived with Don Pio Pico, who was the last Governor of California under the Mexican dominion. In those days the laws in reference to marriage were not as strict as they are now, and, as a matter of fact, public opinion in the matter of marriage formalities did not compel or press particular requirements as it does now. County clerks' offices were few and far between, and such a thing as a marriage license was unheard of. I have been told on what I believe to be good authority that Don Pio Pico intended to go through the formality of a marriage ceremony with Ascencion. Just as he was about to do that, however, he was called away on business as Governor, which took him to a remote part of the State. In those days traveling was slow at best, so that considerable time elapsed before he returned. When he did reach home again, it was only to find that Ascencion was dead.

"Be that as it may, Ascencion had two daughters by Pio Pico, Griselda and Joaquina. The former has never married. Joaquina, who is my mother, married Jose Moreno, and my aunt Griselda lives with us at No. 136 West Fifteenth street. Besides myself there are six brothers and sisters.

"The eldest of these is Delfina, who is the wife of Vicente Sanchez, a son of Thomas Sanchez, Jr., and lives at No. 529 Alpine street. The next oldest is Porfirio Moreno, who is one of the directors of the Avila Estate Company, and lives with us on Fifteenth street. Next in order is Alejandro Moreno, who is unmarried and is the electrician in the Supreme Court building at San Francisco. Then comes Joseph, who lives in San Francisco. I am the next in age and after me is my sister Leonias and my brother Manuel, he being 13 years of age; both of whom live with us.

"After the death of Ascencion, Thomas Sanchez, Jr., who was a son of hers by Thomas Sanchez, was the Sheriff. He administered upon her estate and divided it among her children by his father. No part of the estate was given to the two children by Pio Pico, and they at the time made no contest.

"The Avila Estate Company has been formed for the purpose of securing for the heirs thus ignored their portion of the estate of Ascencion. Pio Pico, who died a year ago, stated to a number of persons besides myself that Griselda and Joaquina were his daughters by Ascencion. Only a few days before his death he proposed to go with me to a notary public and make affidavit to this fact. I arranged to go with him for this purpose a day or two later, but at the appointed time he was ill, and the matter was delayed. His condition became worse and he died a few days later.

"The estate of Ascencion which was divided among her children by Sanchez, but to which claim is laid through her children by Pio Pico, consists of a number of pieces of land. One of these pieces is a part of Redondo Beach, including the Centinela ranch. Just how much area this piece includes is in doubt and will probably remain so until the abstract can be prepared. Another of the pieces of land lies between First and Fourth streets in this city and extends from Alameda street westerly to Vine street and perhaps further. The third tract of land to which the company is to lay claim includes the Guaspita, Salina, Laguna Seco, Coroas and Piletas ranches, comprising the neighborhood known as Sonoratown. The boundaries of this tract it will require an abstract to determine. The value of these lands is estimated to be $3,000,000.

"Abstracts of the lands in question are being prepared and a prominent attorney is expected to come from Washington, D.C., to assist in prosecuting the claim"

Los Angeles Times, Jan 18, 1910:

One of Spanish Old Guard, Dies at Date Street Home After Life Residence Here. -
J. F. Moreno, Spanish pioneer in Los Angeles, died early yesterday morning at his home, No 807 Date street.  Mr. Moreno was in the saddle business at Los Angeles and Aliso streets for more than forty-five years, and watched the business of the town grow from the small beginnings of village traffic to the world commerce of a great city. He was 70 years of age at the time of his death, and had been ill, of a cancerous complaint, for about six months.

Mr. Moreno is survived by a large family, five boys, three girls and a widow. All the children save two are married.  Several of his sons have won distinction, and all are doing well and are a credit to the family name. Edward Moreno holds a responsible government position as an original employe of the Taft regime in Manila. P. I. Claude Moreno is a chief accountant on the Los Angeles aquaduct, Albert and Frank Moreno are in the saddlery business, while Julio Moreno is a plumber.
The daughters are Miss Lola Moreno, Mrs. L. C. Florez and Mrs. C. G. Lopez.


Los Angeles Times, October 24, 1930:


Mrs. Mary Hossman Will Be Paid Final Homage by Numerous Friends

Final rites will be conducted today at 10 a.m. from the chapel of Vesper and Son, 1930 East First street, for Mrs. Mary Hossman, 68 years of age, native of Los Angeles and one of the last survivors of the old Feliz and Sanchez California families.

Mrs. Hossman died in San Francisco last Tuesday following a short illness.  Her body was shipped here yesterday and will be interred in Calvary Cemetery.

The entire life of Mrs. Hossman was spent in Los Angeles.  She was the daughter of Steven Sanchez and a member of the Feliz family, and was born on the extensive Feliz ranch which Riverside Drive now traverses northwest of the metropolitan district.

Her husband, Everisto Hossman, who resides at the family residence, 2451 Fairmont street, is one of the city's most colorful figures.  He was a member of the fire department for many years and was widely known when the present city was surrounded by great ranches similar to the one on which his wife was born.

Besides her husband, Mrs. Hossman leaves five sons, Henry and Julius of San Francisco, and Steven, Alfonso and Everett of Los Angeles; three daughters, Mrs. Carl Carey of San Francisco, and Mrs. Irene Culp and Mrs. Grace Schaffer of Los Angeles.



Festival de Cabrillo, Oct 1-3
Californio Women Rancho Owners
Californio Women Land Claimants  
Women in Conquest of California 
The Bandit's Last Hurrah
1850 Missouri-to-California Journal 
Mary Refugio Garcia de Libbey
The Library of Congress
Accessing Alameda Co.  Records
Searching for Tataviam Answers  

Ceremonia en el Monumento Nacional de Cabrillo en Point Loma

El 1, 2, y 3 de octubre se celebra el aniversario del descubrimiento de San Diego en 1542 por Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo.

1 de octubre.  Ceremonia en el Monumento Nacional de Cabrillo en Point Loma a las 6:00 de la tarde.
2 de octubre.  Banquete y baile en el S.E.S. Hall, 3818 Avenida de Portugal en Point Loma a las 6:30 de la tarde. $40 por persona. (619) 4260769 ó (619) 222'2825.
3 de octubre.  Bailes folclóricos de México, España, Portugal e Indios nativos.  Degustación de platos típicos de cada país a precios moderados.  A partir de las 10 de la mañana.

El Cónsul General de España en Los Angeles y el Agregado Naval de España en Washington asistiran a los festejos.

Un cordial saludo, Mª Ángeles Olson,
Honorary Consul of Spain in San Diego



1. Aguine, Maria del Rosario de Estudillo, in 1846 granted San Jacinto y Nuevo Sobante Rancho, Riverside County, five leagues.

2. Alvarado, Joaquina, in 1841, granted Larga y Verde Canada Rancho, Ventura County, one half leagues. Claimant for 6,659 acres, patented 26 Mar 1873.

3. Angeles, Maria Juan de los, in 1845, granted Cucu, or El Potrero Rancho, San Diego County, one half leagues. Claimant for 2,174 acres, patented 22 Jul 1878.

4. Buelma, Hilaria, in 1839, granted Jarro Rancho, Santa Cruz.

5. Caballero, Maria Antonio, in 1833 granted Sisquac Rancho, Santa Barbara County.

6. Cacres (or Cazares) Antonia, in 1844 granted Canada de Pogolomi, or Poglimi Rancho, Sonoma County, two leagues, claimant for 8,781 acres, patented 3 Nov 1858.

7. Carrillo, Francisca de Thompson, in 1844 ceded Isla de Santa Rosa, Santa Barbara County, and who was claimant for 62,696 acres. Patented on 3 Oct 1871.

8. Carrillo, Manuela de Jones, in 1844 ceded Isla de Santa Rosa, Santa Barbara County, and who was claimant for 62,696 acres. Patented on 3 Oct 1871.

9. Carrillo, Maria del Espiritu Santo, in 1839 granted Loma del Espiritu Santo Rancho, San Benito County, two leagues, and whose claim was rejected.

10. Carrillo, Mara Josefa de Fitch, in 1845 granted Valle de las Palomas Rancho, Santa Barbara County.

11. Carrillo, Ramona, in 1845 granted Matzultaquea Rancho, Los Angeles County, four leagues; Suey Rancho, San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties, granted in 1837, and Ramona Carrillo de Wilson was claimant for 48,834 acres, patented 10 Aug 865.

12. Castro, Maria de los Angeles, in 1839 granted Rufugio Rancho, Santa Cruz County, one league.

13. Castro, Martina, in 1833, 1834 and 1844 granted Shoquel (or Soquel) y Palo de Yesca Rancho, Santa Cruz County, who was claimant for 34,370 acres, patented 19 Mar 1860.

14. Castro, Modesta, in 1844 granted Canada de los Osos, or Pecho y Islay Rancho, San Luis County, 11 leagues, whose claim was rejected.

15. Delgado, Cristina, in 1833 granted Rincon de los Salinas Rancho, Monterey County, one half league.

16. Dominguez, Vicoria, claimant for 4,437 acres of Janul, or Otay Rancho, San Diego County, patented 13 Jun 1872.

17. Lataillade, Maria Antonia de la Guerra de, was claimant for 13,322 acres of Corral de Cuati or Quate Rancho, Santa Barbara County, patented 7 Aug 1876.

18. Linares, Maria Antonia, in 1842 granted Carneros Rancho, Monterey County, one league.

19. Lopez, Maria Ignacia, in 1841 granted Cabeza de Santa Rosa Rancho, Sonoma County.

20. Lorenzana, Apolinarea, in 1843 granted Canada de los Coches, 400 varas within El Cajon Rancho, San Diego County; and in 1840 granted Jamacha Rancho, San Diego County, claimant of 8,881 acres, patented 11 Apr 1871.

21. Martinez, Josefa, in 1844 and 1845 granted unnamed rancho of five leagues in Monterey County.

22. Mesa, Maria Antonia, in 1841 granted Riconada del San Francisquito Rancho, Santa Clara County, one half league.

23. Munras, Catalina Manzaneli de, in 1833 and 1834 granted Laguna Seca, or Canadita Rancho, Monterey County, claimant for ,2179 acres, patented 24 Nov 65.

24. Nieto, Manuela, in 1834 granted Cerritos Rancho, Los Angeles County, five leagues.

25. Pedrorena, Maria Antonio Estudillo de, in 1845 granted Cajon Rancho, San Diego County, 11 leagues,

26. Peralta, Teodora Maria, in 1846 granted Buacocha Rancho, Marin County, about 2,600 acres.

27. Ruiz, Catarina, in 1834 confirmed Bolsas Rancho, Orange County, seven leagues.

28. Sanchez, Ramona, in 1844 granted Butano Rancho, San Mateo County, one league.

29. Soberanes, Josefa, in 1841 granted Coches Rancho, Monterey County, two and half leagues, and claimant of 8,794 acres.

30. Soto, Casilda, in 1844 granted Merced Rancho, Los Angeles County, one league.

31. Soto, Josefa, in 1844 granted Capay Rancho, Glen County, ten leagues, and claimant for 44,388 acres, patented 18 Aug 1859.

32. Soto, Teodora, in 1842 granted Canada del Hambe, or Las Bolsas del Hambre Rancho, Contra Costa County, two leagues, and claimant for 13, 354 acres, patented 31 Dec 1866.

33. Valdez, Maria Rita, in 1841 granted Rodeo de las Aguas, or San Antonio Rancho, Los Angeles County, claimant for 4,449 acres, patented 27 Jun 1871.

34. Yorba, Isabel, in 1836 granted Guadalasca or La Lguna Rancho, Ventura County, six leagues, claimant for 30, 594 acres, patented 1 Sep 1873.




1. Angeles, Maria J. de los, in 1845 granted Cuca, or El Potrero Rancho, San Diego County, claimant for 2,174 acres, patented 22 Jul 1878.

2. Bennett, Mary S., claimant for 359 acres in Solar en Santa Clara Rancho, Santa Clara County, patented 19 Jul 1871.

3. Boronda, M. Conceptcion, in 1842 granted Potrero de San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, one league, claimant for 3,506 acres, patented 1 Jul 1870.

4. Briones, Juana, claimant for 4,439 acres, Pruisima Concepcion Rancho, Santa Clara County, patented 5 Aug 1871.

5. Castro, M. Antonia Pico de, claimant for 30,901 acres, Bolsa del Moro Cojo, Monterey County, patented 20 Nov 1873.

6. Castro, Rufina, patented on 18 Mar 1885, 33 acres near Castorville, of unnamed rancho granted to Mariano Castro in 1839.

7. Chabolla, Maria C., claimant for 35,508 acres of Sajon de los Moquelumnes Rancho, San Joaquin County, patented 3 May 1865.

8. Cota, Antonia M., claimant for 8,901 acres at Tepusquet Rancho, Santa Barbara County, patented 23 Feb 1971.

9. Gonzales, Marina, claimant for 22,136 acres at San Miguelito de Trinidad Rancho, Monterey County, patented 15 Jun 1871.

10. Harro, Josefa de, claimant for 2,219 acres at Laguna de la Merced Rancho, San Mateo and San Francisco County, patented 10 Sep 1872.

11. Higuera, Marta Frias de, claimed 877 acres at Entre Napa Rancho, Napa County, patented 4 Nov 1879.

12. Lugo, Juana Briones de, claimant for 6,584 acres, at Paraje de Sanches Rancho, Monterey County, patented 9 Aug 1866.

13. Montalva, Josefa, claimant for Temescal Rancho, San Diego County, but claim rejected.

14. Munras, Concepcion, claimant for 19,979 acres at San Vicente Rancho, Monterey County, patented 29 Jun 1865.

15. Nieto, Maria C., one half of 33,460 acres claimed of Bolsas Rancho, Orange County, patented 27 Aug 1877.

16. Ortega, Maria Antonia, claim for Atascadero Rancho, San Luis Obispo County, was rejected.

17. Pacheco, Dolores, in 1839 granted Santa Rita Rancho, Alameda County.

18. Rodiguez, Maria Concepcion V. de, claimant for 1,471 acres, San Francisquito Rancho, Santa Clara, patented 8 Jun 1868; claimant for 13,344 acres at San Gregorio Rancho, San Mateo County, patented 19 Feb 1861.

19. Sepulveda, Ramona, claimant for 30,260 acres at San Vicente y Santa Monica Rancho, patented 23 Jul 1881.

20. Soto, Barbara, claimant for 6,686 acres at San Lorenzo Rancho, Alameda County, patented 14 Apr 1877.

21. Spark, Anna M., claimant, along with Joseph Folsom, for 35,521 acres at Rio de los Americanos, Sacramento County, patented 4 Nov 1864.


Note: Here I use the term Californio, which means a person born in California and a direct descendent from a Spanish/Mexican individual residing in California prior to American conquest. However, one person, Anna M.Spark, #21, under Claimants, on above list is not a Californio. The information listed here may not be complete, as in some cases property was swindled or just taken by force from the Californio after American conquest. At this point published reference of this is not immediately available, and I can only quote my maternal grandfather, Francisco Valenzuela, who often reminisced about his family being driven off the family rancho, Rancho Potrero Chico de la Mision Vieja de San Gabriel, by "Lucky Baldwin" and his horsemen. Also, the source information may not be totally accurate. Any further information or correction on the subject would be appreciated.

1. Ranchos of California, Historical Society of Southern California, Robert G. Cowan, 1977.
2.  Los Californianos, Expediente Records

Special thanks to Lorri Fran forwarding this wonderful research.

Women and the Conquest of California, 1542--1840
Segment:  Women and Power in Alta California:1790-1835
Sent by Johanna De Soto
Virginia Marie Bouvier  

Virginia M. Bouvier
is Assistant Professor of Latin American Literature at the University of Maryland, College Park, and editor of Whose America? The War of 1898 and the Battles to Define the Nation and The Globalization of U.S.-Latin American Relations: Democracy, Intervention, and Human Rights.

Abstract from the introduction.

The Bancroft Library at the University of California in Berkeley houses the largest collection of documents related to California. Of particular interest to me were dozens of handwritten oral histories collected in the 1870s from early California settlers (including women who worked at the missions, Spanish soldiers and officers, and a Christianized neophyte); excerpts and transcripts from the Archives of California (the originals burned in San Francisco's 1906 earthquake and fire); chronicles of and correspondence related to the exploration, colonization, and evangelization of California; and microfilms of California-related documents from other major repositories in Spain, Mexico, and the United States. The Bancroft holdings also include somewhat sporadic census, baptismal, marriage, and death records from the missions, which I supplemented with those available at the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library. The Junípero Serra Collection and the California Mission Documents in the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library also contained correspondence between the California missionaries and church authorities in Mexico that was useful for my study. Finally, I found many pertinent legal documents, petitions, letters, journals, and reports in Mexico's Archivo General de la Nación.

Much of what we know of women's roles on Mexico's northern frontier can be gleaned from mediated sources such as European travel literature, Spanish documents written during or after the conquest, and ethnographic materials collected some two hundred years or more after the initial encounters. Virtually all of the female narratives I located-the reluctant voice of Isidora Filomena de Solano; the poignant testimonies of Toypurina and Delfina Cuero; the insightful interviews given by Eulalia Pérez and Apolinaria Lorenzana; the beseeching petition of María de la Encarnación Castro; and the disturbing testimony of an Indian girl who was raped by Spanish soldiers-were mediated by third parties, some of whom were from different cultures and spoke different languages and almost all of whom were male. Narratives of non-Christianized, indigenous women are rare, and those of Spanish-speaking women in colonial Mexico are only slightly more accessible. These female narratives sometimes allude to the societal constraints of the day, and they tend to portray women as historical agents, that is, as people who exercised choices-to marry or not to marry, to live on the "barbaric" frontier or not; to acquiesce to or to resist the cycles of conquest; and to adhere to or resist the wishes of mission priests. Bringing these female narratives, filtered as they are, into the chorus of history and attending to the silences of the historical record regarding women alters our understanding of the experience and meaning of conquest.

In both content and methodology, my study reflects recent interdisciplinary trends in history, literature, anthropology, ethnic studies, and women's and gender studies. These fields increasingly draw on each other in addressing questions of individual and group experiences in particular local contexts. Given the dearth of female voices, discourse analysis has been a particularly useful tool for teasing out both female experience and gender ideologies.

California Missions Studies, Assn. has another website which includes full text articles and book reviews.

Tiburcio Vasquez in Southern California:  The Bandit's Last Hurrah
By John W. Robinson
California Territorial Quarterly, formerly known as the Dogtown Territorial Quarterly
Sent by Johanna De Soto    
[[Extensive article, please go to the site.]]  

Western outlaws seem to hold a special fascination in the minds of western history buffs. With the passage of time many of these badmen have become folk heroes, no matter how dastardly their crimes may have been. Witness the fact that most of us are far more familiar with the names of Billy The Kid, Jesse James and the Dalton brothers than with the true, deserving heroes of the West. Books by the score chronicle their crimes. You need only to peruse Ramon Adams' bibliography of Western outlaws, Six Guns and Saddle Leather, to realize how abundant is the literature of banditry and how fascinated is the public with this gender of anti-hero.

California has its share of legendary anti-heroes, too. Joaquin Murietta leads the list, but only a notch below is the of Tiburcio Vasquez. Vasquez is particularly interesting to southern Californians because the climactic two years of his twenty-three year criminal career were centered almost exclusively in Los Angeles County or on the wagon routes leading from Los Angeles to the Cerro Gordo Mines and the San Joaquin Valley. His final capture took place in what is now West Hollywood.

The 1850 Missouri-to-California Journal of Cyrus C. Loveland
Edited and Annotated by Richard H. Dillon
Sent by Johanna De Soto

California Trail Herd was originally published in 1961 by Talisman Press (now inactive) of Los Gatos, California with an initial printing of 750 copies. Illustrations from the California State Library, Sacramento.

[[This is only a very small extract from the text.  Good information.]] 

Dr. Herbert E. Bolton found that cattle were driven from Texas missions and ranches to New Orleans as early as the later 18th century but that the first western drives of any consequence came with Texan independence.  In 1837-38 cowboys rounded up wild cattle between the Nueces and the Rio Grande to drive them in herds, ranging from three hundred head to a thousand head, to various towns of Texas.  By 1842 droves were being conducted overland to Shreveport, Louisiana, for trans-shipment by flatboats down the Red River and Mississippi River to the growing cattle market of New Orleans.

With the annexation of Texas to the United States in 1845 and the emigration of Americans into the new Lone Star State, the cattle industry there began to expand.  By 1860 there were more cattle in Texas than in any other state of the Union.  The cattle industry began to boom in ante-bellum Texas and the profits of the business were given wide  publicity.  More and more drives were made to New Orleans and herds were also sent to the Crescent City by ship from now-forgotten ports like Indianola, on Lavaca Bay, or from Galveston.  One trail led from south and west Texas to Liberty, on the Trinity River, then to the Nexhes at Beaumont, then across the Sabine into Louisiana where, after swimming, fording or ferrying the Calcaieu and Mississippi Rivers, the cattle reached New Orleans.  Another trail, from eastern and central Texas crossed the Sabine to Shreveport, to Natchitoches or Alexandria, and then downriver (by boat) to New Orleans.

Soon, however, the supply exceeded the Louisiana demand.  It was with hopes of better prices that Texans turned their attention to the far-distant market of Gold Rush California.  The herds of '49 and '50 were few.  But by 1853 and 1854 quite a number were on the trail and the returned Texas Argonauts brought word home of high prices for cattle in San Francisco, Sacramento and Los Angeles.  The meat supply there could not keep up with the supply of miners pouring in.  Texans soon found that their cattle, bought for five to fifteen dollars a head at home brought sixty to one hundred and fifty dollars each in the San Francisco of 1854.

More and more herds headed westward on the trail blazed in 1849 by W. H. C. Whiting and W. F. Smith.  It began at San Antonio, struck west to Franklin and El Paso and then headed for the Gila River and The Colorado by the Apache-battered towns of Santa Cruz, Tubac and Tucson.  Crossing the Colorado Desert into California, herds were trailed to Warner's Ranch and then to Los Angeles or San Diego.  From these southern California cities, the cattle were trailed north to the population centers--San Francisco and Sacramento.  The Sacramento State Journal in 1854 reported that 9,000 cattle were imported that year over this Gila Trail.  But that figure seems much too modest.  According to Ralph Bieber, another cattle trade historian, the Western Texan of June 1, 1854, reported that at that very moment "between seven and eight thousand head of cattle and stock of all kinds" were en route to what the San Antonio paper called "the Modern Ophir."

By the mid-1850's not only were herds being trailed from Texas to California but from Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas and the Indian Territory.  Cattle were also being driven from the upper Branxos to Missouri to supply trains of California-bound emigrants.  The trail led through Dallas, crossed the Red River at Preston in Grayson County and then led northeast to Boggy Depot and Fort Gibson, Indian Territory, thence to the west or south border of Missouri.

Mrs. Mary Refugio Garcia de Libbey
Extracted from Los Angeles Times Obituraries
by Karla Everett  

os Angeles Times, Oct 14, 1930:


Mrs. Mary Refugio Garcia de Libbey, One of Few Remaining Descendants of Old Families, Passes

SANTA BARBARA, Oct. 13. - Bringing to a peaceful close a colorful chapter in the story of Santa Barbara that witnessed during her eighty-five years the rise of a beautiful American city from a rambling Spanish pueblo, Mrs. Mary Refugio Garcia de Libbey, one of the few remaining direct descendants of early California's proud grandees, died in her home early last evening.

Born the daughter of Eugene and Polina Pico Garcia, Mrs. Libbey was baptized in the old mission in 1845 as Mary Refugio Garcia.

In 1860, a senorita of but fifteen years of age, she married Capt. Charles Douglass Libbey of Boston, a sea captain who settled in Santa Barbara.

Ten children were born to the pair and the six now living reside in this city.  They are Mrs. Isabell Flint, Mrs. Mary Pfleiging, Mrs. Della Mullary, Mrs. Eugenia Nebla, Mrs. Josephine Walden and a son, Charles F. Libbey.

The wedding of Capt. Libbey and Mary Refugio at the Catholic Church in 1860 is still recalled by pioneer residents here.  For days prior to the ceremony, the Garcia mansion, long since wrecked, but then near the Presidio in De la Guerra Plaza, was the scene of a fiesta.  The wedding itself was a colorful affair with the proud Spanish and the merry Yankees joining into the spirit of the event.

Following the marriage, Capt. Libbey and his bride took the home at 200 Gray avenue, where last night Mrs. Libbey died.  The captain continued his sailing until his death in 1883 at the age of 45 years.

The Library of Congress

Hispanic Local History and Genealogy in the United States: Selected Titles at The Library of Congress:  Introduction - I. Handbooks - II. Surnames - III. Hispanic History of - the United States - IV. Arizona  V. California - VI. Florida - VII. Louisiana - VIII. New Mexico - IX. Texas - X. Other States  XI. Puerto Rico - XII. Cuba - XIII. Mexico - XIV. Spain - XV. Emigration from Spain - XVI. Jews  XVII. Catalogs and Archives - XVIII. Other Countries of Spanish America - XIX. Miscellaneous
Sent by Johanna De Soto

V. California 

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. 
California pioneer register and index, 1542-1848. Including Inhabitants of California, 1769-1800, and List of pioneers. Baltimore: Regional Pub. Co., 1964. 392 p.
LC call number: F860 .B27   LC control number: 64017723   Catalog Record
Contains all genealogical information from the author's 7-vol. History of California. Provides names of 1,700 male inhabitants, with occupation. The pioneer register and index is a biographical dictionary of individuals prominent in the state's history. 

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. 
History of California. 7 vols. Santa Barbara: W. Hebberd, [1963- ]. Maps.
LC call number: F861 .B22   LC control number: 64002254   Catalog Record 
Facsimile of the first American ed., San Francisco, 1884-1890.

California. Adjutant General's Office. 
Records of California men in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 to 1867. Compiled by Richard H. Orton. Detroit: Gale Research, 1979. 887 p.  
LC call number: E497 .3 .C16 1979   LC control number: 78023517  Catalog Record 

Documentos para la historia de California relating to José Mariano Bonilla. Isaac Antonio Bonilla and Joy Tenney Bonilla, compilers. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Bonilla, 1976. vii, 199 p. Ill.
LC call number: F864 .D6  LC control number: 78353093  Catalog Record 
Much genealogical information on the Bonilla family, with photocopies of primary documents. 

Eldredge, Zoeth Skinner. 
The beginnings of San Francisco: from the expedition of Anza, 1774, to the city charter of April 15, 1850. With biographical and other notes. 2 vols. San Francisco: Z. S. Eldredge, 1912. 837 p. Ill., maps, ports. 
LC call number: F869 .S3 E3  LC control number: 12022016  Catalog Record 
Covers l769-1850. Detailed notes and bibliography, photographs, and name index. 

Guide to selected California genealogical collections (San Diego to Sacramento). Compiled by MTI Genealogy Services. [1st ed.]. Los Osos, CA: The Services, [1986]. 30 leaves. Ill. 
LC call number: Z1261 .G84 1986  LC control number: 88132791  Catalog Record 
Describes holdings of 31 libraries in California. 

King, Marilyn Bailiff, and Virginia Sefton Meadowcroft, compilers. 
Catalog of California genealogical publications. [California]: California State Genealogical Alliance, [1990]. 129 p. Maps. 
LC call number: Z1261 .K55 1990 F80  LC control number: 92185264 Catalog Record 
Publications commercially available at the time of printing. Each page is an order form with bibliographical information and a summary of the book's contents. 

Kot, Elizabeth Gorrell, and Shirley Pugh Thomson. 
Calif cemetery inscription sources: print & microform. Vallejo, Calif.: Indices Pub, 1994. viii, 283 p. 
LC call number: Z1261 .K68 1994  <LH&G LC control number: 94076040 Catalog Record

Local history and genealogy resources of the California State Library and its Sutro branch. Gary E. Strong and Gary F. Kurutz, editors. Sacramento, Calif.: California State Library Foundation, 1983. 44 p. Ill. LC call number: Z1261 .L6 1983  LC control number: 84129772
Catalog Record  Emphasizes materials that list personal names. 

Lopez, Carlos U. 
Chilenos in California; a study of the 1850, 1852, and 1860 censuses. [San Francisco: R and E Research Associates, 1973]. xxvii, 87 p. Ills. 
LC call number: F870 .C4 L66 LC control number: 73085463  Catalog Record

Mexicans in California after the U.S. conquest. With an introduction by Carlos E. Cortes. New York: Arno Press, 1976. 364 p. in various pagings. [1] fold. leaf of plates. Ill. 
LC call number: F870 .M5 M49   LC control number: 76005225 Catalog Record 
Eight historical essays on Los Angeles and San Diego describing the effects of Spain's cession of California to the U.S. in 1848. 

Morefield, Richard. 
The Mexican adaptation in American California, 1846-1875. [San Francisco: R and E Research Associates, 1971]. vii, 106 p. 
LC call number: F870 .M5 M66 1971LC control number: 72147291 Catalog Record 
Local history of Spanish speakers during this period. Many names and much information on land transfers, copious notes citing additional local histories. 

Nakayama A., Antonio. 
Pioneros sinaloenses en California. Culiacán Rosales, Sinaloa, México: Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias y Humanidades, 1980. 50 p. Ill. 
LC call number: F864 .N25 1980 LC control number: 86185443  Catalog Record 
Brief lists of settlers in California from Sinaloa. Begins with l769, includes names of soldiers, early settlers of San Francisco, Santa Barbara, Monterey, Los Angeles, and San Diego. Tells town of origin, age, marital status, family members, and racial designation.

Northrop, Marie E. 
Spanish-Mexican families of early California, 1769-1850. 2nd ed. Burbank, Calif.: Southern California Genealogical Society, 1987. Ill. 
LC call number: F870 .M5 N67 1987 LC control number: 86062425  Catalog Record

Parker, J. Carlyle, compiler. 
An index to the biographees in 19th century California county histories. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1979. xxiv, 279 p. 
LC call number: Z5313 .U6 C36 LC control number: 79011900 Catalog Record 
Lists 16,500 names for which biographies appear in 61county histories covering 47 of California's 58 counties.

Parker, J. Carlyle. 
A personal name index to Orton's Records of California men in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 to 1867: index. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1978. vii, 153 p. 
LC call number: E497 .3 .C162 P37 LC control number: 78015674 Catalog Record

Quebedeaux, Richard. 
Prime sources of California and Nevada local history: 151 rare and important city, county, and state directories, 1850-1906. Spokane, Wash.: A.H. Clark, 1992. 237 p. Ill., maps. 
LC call number: Z1261 .Q43 1992 <LH&G LC control number: 91074139 Catalog Record

Sanders, Patricia. 
Searching in California a reference guide to public and private records. Costa Mesa, CA: ISC Publications, 1982. 175 p. Map. 
LC call number: F860 .S36 1982 LC control number: 82080341 Catalog Record

Shumway, Burgess McK. 
California ranchos: patented private land grants, listed by county. Edited by Michael Burgess, and Mary Wickizer Burgess. 1st Borgo ed. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press: Glendale, CA: Sidewinder Press, 1988. 144 p. 
LC call number: F860 .S565 1988 LC control number: 87011696 Catalog Record

The Zamorano index to History of California by Hubert Howe Bancroft. Compiled by members of the Zamorano Club, edited by Everett Gordon Hager, and Anna Marie Hager. 2 vols. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 1985. viii, 759 p. 
LC call number: F861 .B193 Z36 1985LC control number: 85051515 Catalog Record

Accessing Alameda County Records
My experience during the past year by
Cat Nelson

Vital Records, Land Records, Fictitious Business licenses are maintained
at the Clerk Recorder's office at
1106 Madison Street, Oakland, CA 94607.

To access birth, marriage, dead (BMD) records you first stop at the guards desk, pick up a
request form for the type of record you seek, and are issued a numbered ticket by the receptionist. You can fill out the form while you wait for your number to be called.

I have ordered BMD records for clients without any problems. I specify that it is not for me, and that I am a genealogist, and submit the request. The document is printed on the same numbered form as a certified copy, but is stamped stating it can not be used for identification. Records that are pre 1960's ish, are mailed to you. To access the computer indexes, you need to tell the receptionist that you need a vital record, and the clerk that you want to view the computer indexes, the clerk logs you onto one of two public access pc's so that you can search. If they are not very busy, and a machine is available, you may be permitted to view the microfilm directly.  All deeds are accessible on microfilm in a separate room off the entrance to the clerk recorders office.

Note, on occasion there is a temporary staff  at the receptionist's desk. If they seem confused about your request, ask for a vital record, and keep your full request for the Clerk. I have found the clerks to be very courteous and helpful but, they have given out conflicting information.

Naturalization records, Probate Records are maintained at the Superior Court at 1221 Oak Street, Oakland, CA 94612

The clerks here very from being helpful and curettes to being outright obstructionists. I recognize the clerks since there is not much turnover, and realize that where they provided a document for me on a prior visit, they deny having the document on the current visit. So, beware.  [[ Editor's note: This is true at most sites of collections, so walk tenderly. ]]

The Naturalization indexes are in the courthouse. They are on shelves behind the window you go to to request court cases. When told they are across the hall where the superior court case indexes are, stand firm and tell them they are on the wall behind them. When they tell you that the indexes are in San Francisco, stand firm and tell them they are on the wall behind them. If need be, ask for the supervisor to come to the window. That seems to be the best memory refresher for the clerks, they
suddenly find what you request. When the clerk knows what you are looking for they will ask you what year and the surname and bring you the appropriate index.

Probate Indexes are split between microfilm and books. The older indexes are on film. I don't remember the year of cutoff for the film vs. books. I am usually told to go across the hall, where I verify that the indexes are too recent and then go back and get the film. The clerks will help set up the film, and they print the documents that are requested. Post 1940 are indexed on the computer. Most probate cases are on file in Oakland, or at a warehouse. Some recent cases are on file
at local superior courts, such as Hayward. Alameda does not charge an access fee to bring a file out of storage.

Cat Nielsen, Alameda County

Dr. John Johnson (left) of the Santa Barbara Museum traced the heritage of 95-year-old Newhall resident Lyda Manriquez (center) and her nephew, Charlie Cook (right). They are of mixed Tataviam, Chumash, Kitanemuk and Tongva ancestry. Photo by Nathan Caswell/The Signal

Searching for Tataviam Answers  
New research attempts to define where and how the SCV's early residents lived.
(Go to September Somos Primos, 2004 for an article on Juan José Fustero who died in 1921 and was considered to be the last full-blooded Tataviam. )

By Katalin Szabolcsi
For The SignalSunday, October 29, 2000
Sent by Johanna De Soto

A renewed interest in the life and times of a long-gone Native American tribe of the Santa Clarita watershed, the Tataviam, seems to be sweeping through the archaeological community in Southern California. Since the dawn of the century, numerous research studies have been conducted about the Tataviam — yet none has managed to shed much light on several fundamental questions about their history, culture or territory.   Southland scholars picked up the thread of research again in the past few months. Their goal, though operating independently from one another, is to answer those questions.
"(The Tataviam) are the least known group of Native Americans in all of California," said Dr. John Johnson, curator of anthropology at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.

They came, they lived, they disappeared. The Tataviam came, unannounced and unexpected, around A.D. 450 and settled in the Santa Clara River Valley.  They lived quietly, peacefully and in harmony with nature and their neighbors.  Then, as quietly as they came, they disappeared. They were absorbed into the first Spanish missions, and within a century they were almost completely eradicated from the pages of the history books.  It is not even known what they called themselves. No early explorer or anthropologist ever asked a Tataviam what the tribe's name was in their own language.

Their Kitanemuk relatives in the Antelope Valley called them "Tataviam," which roughly translates to "people of the southern slopes." Most of the Tataviam territory lies between 1,500 and 3,000 feet above sea level. They built their villages on south-facing slopes of hills and mountains for maximum sun exposure, thus the name. But their neighbors to the west, the Chumash, referred to them as "Alliklik," a derogatory term meaning "grunters" or "stammerers." The Chumash name for them mimicked what they considered the strange sounds of the Tataviam language.  John Peabody Harrington of the Smithsonian Institution and Alfred Kroeber of University of California, Berkeley recorded both names and several variations thereof (which all meant the same in different dialects) between 1907 and 1925.

In the early 1930s, anthropologists from the Peabody Museum of American Ethnology at Harvard University came to research the local tribe, whose artifacts were on display at their museum. It was these men who made "Alliklik" the semi-official name.  The name stuck for decades, until concerned Native Americans in the 1970s popped the inevitable question: Did the scientists know what Alliklik actually meant? They explained it wasn't a friendly term, so they provided the alternative — Tataviam.

The Tataviam were not California natives in the beginning. A few Shoshone bands began migrating westward from the Great Plains in search of more abundant food sources and better climate, during a particularly bad drought period 3,500 years ago.  Dr. Charles Rozaire, a legendary California archeologist, published his "Shoshone Wedge" theory more than half a century ago, postulating that they entered California in a wedge-shaped pattern and spread about the land.  Rozaire wrote that the Tataviam were linguistically related to the Shoshone and spoke a Takic dialect of the Uto-Aztecan language group.  

"Archeological data suggest that the Tataviam began to differentiate from other southern California Takic speakers around 1000 B.C.," states a 1978 article by archeologists Chester King and Thomas C. Blackburn. In A.D. 450, a group of these Takic-speaking people reached the Santa Clarita river drainage and settled in about 25 semi-permanent villages. Archeologists have located several of these village sites, such as Etseng on Piru Creek, Pi'ing under today's Castaic Lake, Cueccho in the Tejon area and more.

However, the places believed to have been the biggest encampments, such as Tochonanga in the Newhall area and Chaguayabit, probably at Castaic Junction, have not yet been discovered.
Johnson, of the Santa Barbara museum, questions the existence of a village called Nuhubit, which appears on a map drawn by Richard F. Van Valkenburgh in 1937. According to Johnson, Van Valkenburgh "was a fine archaeologist but was definitely no writer. He didn't always record his data correctly."   Their territory spanned from Piru to the west, Newhall to the south and the Liebre Mountains to the north.  The eastern boundary of the Tataviam has not yet been determined. To date, neither the first Spanish explorers' accounts, nor the early anthropologists' research — not even recent archeological data — could define the line separating the territories of the Tataviam and the Kitanemuk, another Takic-speaking group. 

And that is exactly what appeals to Dr. Joseph Eisenlauer, associate professor of anthropology at Los Angeles Pierce College, who will run an archeology field class beginning next semester. A main objective of the class will be to try to determine the exact boundary.  Eisenlauer said it was "by pure accident" that he met U.S. Forest Service archaeologist Michael McIntyre, who suggested that Eisenlauer's class study an area in the Angeles National Forest. An archeologist by training, Eisenlauer said his students plan to work on a piece of national forest land near Acton. It is slated to be a long-term comprehensive field program that will provide Pierce students hands-on training in archeology.

Eisenlauer actually has a much bigger agenda. In addition to the quest for the eastern boundary, the field class hopes to verify Tataviam settlement patterns and population densities; plot the distribution and seasonality of food resources — when and what the Tataviam extracted from the canyons; locate the raw materials they used; and clarify trade links with neighboring and distant tribal groups.
Two of Eisenlauer's current anthropology classes are researching the Tataviam, their history, culture and natural environment.  "We are gearing up to become Tataviam experts," Eisenlauer said.
He said the agreement between Pierce and the Forest Service is "on paper" and should be approved by the Los Angeles Community College District in a few weeks.

Eisenlauer's students don't have much material to draw from.  Gaspar de Portolá encountered the friendly Tataviam while searching for mission sites in 1769. And while the New World was about to gain independence from the old, in 1776 another Spanish padre, Father Francisco de Garcés, set out on a discovery journey from Yuma to Monterey. Garcés also met these Indians and in his diary recorded their "particular meekness and affability."  The records of the early Spanish travelers are important historically but are rather vague and often confusing anthropologically.

Harrington's, Kroeber's and several other ethnologists' reports from the late 19th to early 20th century are more abundant — but not much more accurate than the Spanish notes.  Regrettably, these early anthropologists failed to record much of the information that was still available to them at the time on Tataviam costumes, legends, language and history. They could have talked to full-blooded Tataviam Indians, but the people they could have interviewed died before the scientists got around to recording their memories and knowledge.  The result is a huge gap in Tataviam tribal history.
Thus, mission records, and information gleaned from digging in the ground, is where recent scholars have looked for answers.

Archeologists David Whitley and Joseph Simon are recording known and newly discovered villages and other living floor sites, and hope to add them to the National Register of Historic Places. They are concentrating their search in the Acton area, where numerous Tataviam sites have been identified.  Whitley and Simon are not new to Tataviam research. They were contract archeologists for The Newhall Land and Farming Co.'s Newhall Ranch project in 1993, preparing the cultural-paleontological section of the project's environmental impact report. In other words, Newhall Land hired them to appraise possible archeological sites at the future development site.
To their surprise, Whitley and Simon found only eight spots in the 12,000-acre Newhall Ranch area with traces of early human occupation. Only three of them were actual campsites.

Johnson of Santa Barbara has researched the Tataviam for more than 20 years. His interest piqued in 1977 while working as a staff archeologist for the Los Padres National Forest.  "At that time several studies were published that pointed out how little we knew about the Tataviam," he said.
Johnson collected ethnohistoric and archeological information for the Forest Service, and later researched the mission records and Harrington's notes for a different project. He helped create a database for six of the missions in California and came to know many local Native Americans, aiding them in reconstructing their family trees based on mission records.

Johnson specializes in the Indians of Southern California, using "archival sources to reconstruct village names and locations, population size, marriage and family patterns and the histories of California Indian communities," he said.  Guest speaker at the SCV Historical Society's October meeting, Johnson gave a comprehensive account of his research of Tataviam history and genealogy and illustrated his lecture with slides of known Tataviam people and sites.  Of the 50-or-so attendees at the meeting, four were of Tataviam ancestry. Lyda Manriquez was born in 1905 in Newhall and still remembers quite vividly some of the people and places Johnson mentioned in his talk. It was Johnson who reconstructed Manriquez's family tree through the San Fernando Mission records.
During the Spanish mission period, all local tribes were forced to abandon their lands and move to the missions to provide free labor to the padres, in the name of Christianity. Six tribes were uprooted and relocated to San Fernando, one being the Tataviam.

Now that they were closer to each other, intermarriage among tribes became the norm at the missions. Thus there were almost no full-blooded Tataviam following the mission period.
Both Manriquez and her nephew, Charlie Cook, are of mixed Chumash, Tataviam, Kitanemuk and Tongva ancestry.  "I've always known I had Tataviam blood in me," said Cook. "My family has lived in the Santa Clarita Valley for generations, and I knew that I was a descendant of one of the six tribes that built the San Fernando Mission."  Cook's family was the first Johnson studied.

About 600 Native Americans in the greater Los Angeles area claim Tataviam ancestry, and some are fighting for federal recognition. Most can trace their family trees through mission records.
"The problem is that if you can't prove your Native American ancestry through the mission records you don't classify as an Indian in the government's eyes," said Cook. "That is why (attaining) federal recognition is so difficult."

Chester King, another well-known California archeologist, has researched the Tataviam on and off for decades. King has published several works including a study of Vasquez Rocks County Park in 1973. He too has studied mission registers and has "recently been asked to study further in the southern part of the Tataviam territory," he said.  Archeologist David Earle of the Lancaster City Museum is another key player in the new research projects.

As with Johnson and King, Earle's interest in the Tataviam spans decades. He specializes in locating village sites that were occupied during and after the mission period.  "We know of most of them where they are," Earle said. "What I'm doing now is finding the physical location of villages mentioned in the records."  Earle is matching up village names in the baptismal registers with actual locations.  "One of the key things is being able to locate the villages and align them with the historical records," he said. "Using mission records gives clues to population as well. Based on the number of known villages we can estimate a population of about 500-1,000 Tataviam at the time of European contact.  "But we first need to definitively decide how many villages were actually there at the time the Spanish arrived," he said.  Earle and Johnson worked together in 1990 on a Tataviam project, Earle supplying the geographical data, Johnson contributing his genealogy studies of the mission records.

The renewed attention to the Tataviam sits well with Tom Hale, an Acton resident who is considered the "guardian angel" of Native American history in the area.  "I'm very happy and extremely excited about this," said Hale, who admits he is no expert by academic standards. "I'm just an old mountain man who knows a little bit about the history of this watershed."  Yet Hale is frequently sought out by archeologists for advice and assistance because he knows the area better than anybody and because he knows a lot about the early inhabitants of the land.  "I grew up on Tataviam territory," Hale said of how he developed an interest in the tribe. "We would find artifacts all over the place every day just by plowing the field and so forth."  Hale worked for the Department of Commerce's Geodetic Survey from 1961-83. His expertise in geology, topographic surveying and general research is an invaluable tool he uses to locate and save Indian artifacts and sites around Acton.

"I am extremely interested in preserving archeological sites," he said. "What we know now is very interesting. But unless we protect these sites, who knows what will be left of them in 50 years?  "Everything that was here that supported the Indians way back then" is still there, he said — all the food sources and rock quarries and other natural elements, making it easier to reconstruct early lifestyles.  Hale has been gathering as much information about the Tataviam as possible. He noted that several scientific studies had been conducted, but "nobody ever tried to put these together."  "And that is what tickles me most about Pierce College's project," he said. "What their group is attempting to accomplish is going to bring even more attention to the Tataviam."

Sadly, the history of the Tataviam is also a history of lost opportunities. The last full-blooded Tataviam, Juan José Fustero, died in 1921, and the language of his small tribe diminished even before him. The opportunity to study Tataviam culture and language first-hand was lost forever.

Even the 600 Native Americans who consider themselves Tataviam descendants are, in fact, of mixed ancestry.  Had the first Spanish explorers recorded their encounters with the local tribes in more detail, or had anthropologists of the early 1900s done more thorough research while there were still full-blooded Indians around, considerably more would be known.
But these data are not available ... so it is up to present and future archeologists to uncover the secrets of the Tataviam.



Utah, the Seventh Hispanic Family History Conference, October 16
UNR freshman hopes to be first in her home to graduate
Washoe Schools to Increase Bilingual Staff
Northern Nevada Celebrates Hispanic Heritage

The Seventh Hispanic Family History Conference

Saturday, October 16, 2004

Family History Library, 35 North West Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah 84150
A special assembly will be held at the Assembly Hall, Temple Square at 12:00 p.m.

Special guest: Miguel Ángel Muños Borrego from the Secretaria de Gobierno in the department of Instituto Estatal de Documentación, Coahuila, Mexico.

Registration begins at 8:00 a.m. in the library’s foyer.
Cost: $10.00, includes a lunch voucher for ZCMI/Crossroad food courts.
You can pre-register at

Classes and workshops from 9:30 a.m.- 4:30 p.m. 
Classes and workshops will be in offered in Spanish and English.

Subjects will include:

  • How to start your family history
  • Helps on research in Latin America
  • Computer labs on genealogical programs
  • How to find records in Spain and Latin America
  • Internet sites for Spanish genealogical sources
  • Help with Italian and European research

For more information visit: or call Carlos Alvares 801-763-7789 or Ruth Gómez Schirmacher 801-240-1530.  Class schedule below sent by Lorraine Hernandez, Calendar mistress.









Buscando tus ancestro en el

Archivos municipales de México

Catalogo (FNLC)

Encontrando el Lugar

Helping Hispanics in your FHC

World Cat


Registros Parroquiales

Registros Europeos de inmigración

Investigación Italiana

Mandando nombres al Templo

Parish Registers

Antes de 1690




Registros Civiles en México

PAF Avanzado

Recursos Latinoamericanos
en C.D.


Finding the Place

Archivos Españoles en Red.


PAF principiantes

PAF Principiantes

Genealogía en el Internet

Censos y Padrones

Tracing Hispanics in the U.S.A

Archivos Diocesano en México

3:30 Precipitants

Juventud y Genealogía

Preservando y Comunicando el Pasado

Investigaciones Argentina

Immigration Records

Registros Notarios



UNR freshman hopes to be first in her home to graduate


Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

On Monday, Yuliana Chavez began her freshman year at the University of Nevada, Reno carrying books, pens, paper and her parents’ hopes of seeing her become the first in her family to graduate from college.

"We wish for her to realize her dreams at this university for her future," her father, Jose Luis Chavez, said. "Her dreams are our dreams, too." Chavez, 44, and his wife, Maria Camarena Chavez, 41, never went beyond the sixth grade in their native Mexico. Both work at the Silver Legacy. Chavez, a United States citizen, is a busboy, and his wife, who has legal resident status, is a motel maid.

In Yuliana, they see a chance for their eldest daughter to have a better life and pave the way for her 16-year-old sister Yareli and 11-year-old brother Luis to follow. The 18-year-old Wooster High School graduate, who lives at home, feels the pressure. "I do, but I have a lot of support and I know next year my sister will follow me," Yuliana said. "So, yeah, I hope I do well."

UNR doesn’t have statistics on how many of the approximately 15,000 students are the first in their families ever to go to college. Rita Escher, director of the Academic and Opportunity Support Program, oversees programs to provide academic help and counseling for students, primarily those who are first-generation students receiving financial aid.

Without college-savvy parents to help show them the ropes, first-generation students can become frustrated by the bureaucracy and unable to navigate the system, Escher said. "Once you walk onto a college campus, you’re entering a different world and a different culture," she said. "You’ve crossed the border into academe and there are lots of things you have to learn and adapt to."

They also will provide the skilled workforce Nevada needs to attract diversity at a time when Indian gaming in California and across the country is threatening the state’s primary industry, she said.

"Nevada has a very low college-going rate," she said of the state’s ranking among the lowest in the nation for high school graduates who go to college.

"In the past, people were able to get a good job, but those days are over," she said. "Whether it’s a university, community college or technical school, it’s important for high school graduates to get more training if they want to make a good living."

It was the lack of any chance to make a good living in Mexico that caused Jose Chavez to enter California illegally in the 1980s. He became eligible for legal residency under President Reagan’s amnesty program, which allowed immigrants who had been in the U.S. before 1982 to apply for temporary resident status and employment permits. "There were no job opportunities," Chavez said. "Everybody looks for a better job and to improve life for your children."

And now his daughter is taking advantage of an opportunity to improve her life. Yuliana’s 3.6 grade-point average, out of 4.0, earned her a state-funded $10,000 Millennium Scholarship. But even with the scholarship, she plans to work about 22 hours a week doing office work at American Home Companion, a personal care attendant service.

The freshman said she is a little worried about her English and grammar skills but otherwise is ready for her first semester of college. "I hope I do good. I know there’s going to be a lot more studying. Way more studying than in high school," Yuliana said. "I feel prepared, but there’s still the doubts and the what-ifs."


Extract: Washoe Schools to Increase Bilingual Staff,
Geralda Miller Reno Gazette-Journal 8-25-04
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

At least one bilingual staff member will work in the administrative office of each Washoe County high school a minimum of four hours a day at a cost of $127,000 for the year, a school official told a group of Hispanic parents and students.

Interim Superintendent Paul Dugan during a Monday night meeting at Pine Middle School in Reno also outlined a plan for schools with the largest number of Spanish-speaking students to have an attendance clerk seven hours a day. The staff would answer questions and helps parents and students with limited English language skills better understand how the school district works.

"I thought it was important to look at the needs of every high school and then determine what we could afford to do," he said. "Some high schools received a significant amount of hours, much more than four hours a week and some high schools did not receive any."

Dugan told the Galena group, called Ayudando a Superarse or Helping to Move Forward, that hours for the attendance clerk at Hug Wooster and Sparks would increase from 4.2 hours a day to 7 hours a day and that an additional bilingual senior clerk for 4.2 hours a day would be staffed.

Reed High School, North Valleys High School, Spanish Springs High School and Galena High School also would get a bilingual senior clerk for 4.2 hours a day. A new job description would be developed and interviews conducted to fill the job.

In addition, at the request of the parents, Dugan also agreed to hire a bilingual senior clerk for 4.2 hours a week for each of the seven remaining high schools. Funds for the additional staffing would come from the general fund. .

Dugan told the group that the growing Hispanic community is the school district’s number one priority.

There were 3,679 Hispanic high school students in the 2003-2004 school year compared with 3,228 the previous year. "It’s a dramatic change in a very short amount of time in percent of minority students and second language students," he said. "I think we need to help our schools deal and be prepared to meet this dramatic change."

Dugan also announced that Crespin Esquivel, dean of students at Sparks High School and former teacher of English as a Second Language, would become the Hispanic liaison specialist and begin the position Sept. 13. . . .As a Mexican who at one time was a Spanish-speaking student trying to learn English, Esquivel said he understands the challenges Hispanic students face. "That is the reason I applied for it," Esquivel said of the position. "If I didn’t feel I could help my own kind, I wouldn’t have applied for this job. I understand how students feel coming to this country and not being able to speak English."

Northern Nevada Celebrates Hispanic Heritage
Source: Spicy event tops weekend festivities
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

In downtown Reno, a day-long free celebration is planned to commemorate the 100th birthday of the Nevada Historical Society and the Washoe County public library system.

That event, the Centennial Street Fair, will bring barbershop quartets, Chautauqua performances and other theater, music, gold panning, handcar rides and plastic bounce houses to a stretch of Virginia Street between the Truckee River and the county courthouse.

On May 31, 1904, the first public library in Nevada opened its doors in Reno at the corner of South Virginia and Mill streets. That same day, the Nevada Historical Society was founded.

"To celebrate 100 years of continuous service is something we’re very proud of," said Nancy Cummings, library director for Washoe County.

Since that first library was first opened a century ago, Washoe’s library system has grown to 13 libraries that last year served 1.2 million patrons, Cummings said.

Libraries offer far more than books and other informational material, Cummings said. They also serve as a gathering place and provide a wide range of children’s and cultural programs. "We’re very proud of being one of the cultural heartbeats of the community," Cummings said.

In Carson City, culture is also what Salsa Y Salsas Festival is all about, said Raquel Knecht, director of Nevada Hispanic Services in Carson City. The event is good for families and offers an entertaining glimpse into the rich tapestry of Hispanic culture, Knecht said. "I think it’s important just to let people know of the diverse cultures we have in our community and the diverse things that can come from those cultures," Knecht said.



War Stories & Handwriting Analyst 
Rio Sonora Mission Tour
Shalam Colony: Utopian Experiment
La frontera es espacio para el arte

War Stories and a Handwriting Analyst 
Treyce Benavidez

Juan Pablo Grijalva, Colonial Soldier 
Read about Sgt. Grijalva's activities in the De Anza letters,
 Somos Primos, July and September, 2004


Did you know that, whether in war from yesteryears or today’s War on Iraq, handwriting tells a story all by itself. It has been used for hundreds of years in which most of society has no clue it even exists. It is a silent science because, unlike the other sciences where one needs to talk to, examine, or draw blood from the subject of the study, handwriting analysts do not. Did you know that Abraham Lincoln was a victim of forgery and a handwriting analyst solved it for him? The Lindbergh baby case was solved with handwriting analysis and this is the same science that helped convict Ted Bundy on interstate charges.

History is full of examples and war is no different. In fact, my father remembered that we used handwriting analysis in World War II to interrogate the "enemy". Today Michael Alexander is using it in the War on Iraq and the technical name for it is "Propaganda Analysis". Let’s take a look at Juan Pablo Grijalva’s writing and his personality traits during the war.

What is the first thing that you notice when looking at his signature? It is undoubtedly his rubic. This rubic is extravagant showing his thoughts were remarkably over active and his behavior most likely matched those thoughts. In and of itself, these are not "bad traits" and given he was in war they most likely kept him alive. He thought about what he was going to do and did it. To others, especially of those times, his thought processes were far more advanced than theirs so they thought of him as "full of himself", "rudely arrogant" and possibly even "stupid". He wasn’t any of those but he was extravagant in thought, word and behavior.

The ending of his rubic is sword-like which shows the weapons prominent on his mind. Even in today’s world individuals who are obsessed with death or pain (giving or receiving) will draw weapons in their writing. These weapons are not necessarily their weapons of choice but the subconscious is illustrating its thoughts. For example, John Wayne Bobbitt’s signature changed after one of his vital organs was cut off. His signature now has a butcher knife drawn underneath it - a subconscious drawing of traumatic pain in his life. With Juan Pablo Grijalva it is reflective of the "only thing on his mind" – war, weapons and death.

The colored-in tip of his ‘sword’ and the colored-in area of the ‘blade’ reveal that, while remaining in control of himself, he had anger about being away from his private life.

His ‘i’ dots indicate a very realistic viewpoint on his environment. More importantly he was living "one day at a time". He wasn’t thinking about goals or any form of future events. With war going on how could he. This shows that, while the others are thinking he’s "full of it" – he has a realistic view of what is going on around him. The fact that his ‘i’ dot is thick, however, indicates his cynical outlook on life and his extreme nervousness. With the pressure being so impacting on his daily life that he ground the ‘i’ dot into the paper. Given the circumstances… who could blame him. 

Let’s now look at the loop on the ‘b’ and the ‘o’. This shows his perseverance at carrying through and completing the necessary steps to complete the task at hand and go home.

His spacing dictates that he had a desire and need to be close to his loved ones. However the short loops of his capital and lowercase ‘j’ indicate that his interest in fornication was gone but, given the circumstances, he would not have had time for it anyway.

It is clearly evident that he was a very creative thinker and his skills for strategic planning were years ahead of the others in that time. He could think abstractly and invoke ideas that others wouldn’t have ever dreamt about. Overall he was outgoing, caring and loving but driven by his intellect and accompanied by his strong level of self-assurance. He was able to handle stress better than most of those years and one rarely saw him exhibit any irrational attitudes or oppressive reactions. If he could talk his way out – he’d rather do so than to harm anyone. At the same time he knew, in certain situations, he had no choice. One thing is for certain – he longed for his family and they were on his mind every day.

The Handwriting Company
P.O. Box 151468
Austin, TX 78715

I really do not like to analyze a personality by signatures alone. Signatures are stylized and not typically a true representative of one's personality.  In fact, signatures... well, people typically have many different ones: one for business, one for letters, one for cards, one for legal documents, etc.  Signatures are only good for forgeries 

Treyce Benavidez

[[Editor: I asked Eddie how he obtained a copy of a soldiers' signature circa 1770. He answered.]]


August 30, 2004

Dear Mimi:

When I got interested in researching my heritage, I had no idea what was ahead of me.  I did not know any other person that were doing research on their roots until I read and saw the movie ROOTS, about Alex Haley, his quest in finding his roots.  I thought that was just great.

Since I started my research on my family history, I did not know that I would meet such wonderful people like you and many others, too many to mention.

One person that I hve become close to in my research is Mr. Don Garate from Tumacáori National Park, Tumacáori, Arizona.  Website Tumacáori NHP Mmission 2000.  E-mail:
Phone: (520) 398-2341, Ext. 25.  One day Don called me and said, Eddie, how would you like to have Juan Pablo Grijalvas signature, I was just about blown off my chair, and I said, wow, I have been looking for something like that for year and he said, I will translate the documents for you and send them to you.

This is where Don found the:

And that is my friend Don Garate.
Su amigo, Eddie Grijalva

If you would like personal handwriting analysis work done, please contact Treyce directly at:

If you have documents of ancestors and would like to submit them for analysis, to be included in Somos Primos, please contact me directly.


This is more than a tour to visit the mission in Northern Sonora.  This is a cultural exchange with our neighbors to the south.  In addition to visiting historic sites, host families inn Arizpe gives a rare opportunity to learn what life is really like in Sonora.  The host family provides the room, bed and breakfast.  For complete information, visit or call 602-993-1162.


Rio Grande Collection

Shalam Colony: A Utopian Experiment

An experiment in communal living so unusual that it is sometimes called unique, took place near Las Cruces, New Mexico, over a hundred years ago, and yet it has remained almost unknown among area residents until the last few years. Shalam Colony was a utopian community for children established six miles northwest of Las Cruces in the fall of 1884 by John B. Newbrough and a group of his religious followers from New York who called themselves Faithists. 

"The object raise up the children where they shall not witness drunkenness, crime, and profanity; where they may be taught, on the kindergarten system, all kinds of trades and useful occupations, with a time to sing, a time to dance, a time to play, a time to work, and a time to pray. They will be taught the universal brotherhood, and to have faith in Jehovih, their creator; to be non-resistants, to abjure war, to practice the commandments and to do good.... In fact, the plan described in Oahspe, the new Bible, will be carried out."-From the first Convention of Faithists, 1883 

Shalam was founded by a New York dentist and doctor named John B. Newbrough and a group of his religious followers called Faithists. Newbrough claimed to have written a new Bible, called Oahspe, while under spirit control. Contained in this Bible was "The Book of Shalam," which set forth a plan for gathering the outcast and orphaned children of the world and raising them, according to strict religious principles, to be the spiritual leaders of a new age. Newbrough and some twenty Faithists decided to create such a place as described in "The Book of Shalam." 

In 1884, Shalam Colony was finally established on the banks of the Rio Grande, one mile from the village of Dona Ana. It is generally believed that without the help of the villagers of Dona Ana, the colonists would have suffered even more than they did the first year. The villagers showed them how to cook beans and make adobe bricks, and other skills necessary to survive in this new land. Financed by a wealthy wool merchant from Boston, Andrew Howland, the colony was developed into one of the finest agricultural areas of the Southwest. Nearly a million dollars was spent to build and furnish fine buildings and maintain a herd of prize dairy cattle, build a chicken farm with heated runs, and develop a reservoir and irrigation system which was far ahead of its time. 

Disaster befell the colony in 1891 when John Newbrough died of influenza. His widow, Frances Van de Water Sweet, married Andrew Howland in 1893 in an effort to put to an end malicious gossip. Together they tried valiantly to keep the colony going, but the obstacles proved overwhelming. The colony had attracted many who did not want to work; the Rio Grande flooded often and destroyed acres of crops; the financial burden was too great and the markets too few. In 1901, the children who had not been adopted were sent to orphanages in Dallas and Denver and Shalam Colony was closed. 

The children for whom the colony was established were brought from several different cities, although never in the numbers first envisioned. Receiving stations were set up in New Orleans, Chicago, Kansas City, and Philadelphia. 

Katherine Stoes, a Las Cruces history enthusiast and a friend of Frances Newbrough Howland, has described the Newbrough's home in New Orleans as containing a baby crib near which was a sign that read, "Children Wanted and No Questions Asked." 

The Newbroughs stayed in New Orleans for several months in 1889 to gather foundlings. During this time, John Newbrough published a newsletter called "The Castaway," in which he describes the colony in New Mexico and enlisted support for it. Although the report of the first Faithist convention, held in New York in 1883, mentioned plans to raise from 300-500 children in each of several homes, there were only some 50 children at Shalam Colony during the course of its existence.

La frontera es también un espacio para el arte
Claudia Silva
El Universal
Miércoles 22 de septiembre de 2004
Cultura, página 2

El Festival Internacional Tamaulipas 2004 ofrecerá 60 actividades de 12 países

Más allá de border patrols , braseros y traficantes de humanos, la zona fronteriza entre Tamaulipas y Estados Unidos también es espacio para actividades artísticas.

Un presupuesto de 30 millones de pesos servirá para financiar lo que Sari Bermúdez, presidenta del Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, ha calificado como el segundo festival más importante de México: el VI Festival Internacional Tamaulipas 2004.

Para Bermúdez, la administración que encabeza Tomás Yarrington es una muestra de la pujanza de ese estado fronterizo con Estados Unidos y de la fortaleza de sus valores culturales.

A tan sólo unos meses de concluir su mandato, el gobernador de Tamaulipas hizo votos por que el festival permanezca institucionalizado como la mayor atracción cultural del noreste de México ya que, dijo, se ha ganado el prestigio de encontrarse entre los más destacados del país.

Esta ocasión, el festival realizará un homenaje nacional al dramaturgo Miguel Sabido con la reposición de la obra Falsa crónica de Juana la Loca , que durante años se presentó en el Distrito Federal y llegó a contar mil 200 representaciones.

A su corta edad, el festival ofrecerá cerca de 60 expresiones artísticas de 12 países, que se llevarán a cabo del 14 al 24 de octubre próximo en los 43 municipios que conforman ese estado. En especial, se realizarán eventos en la zona fronteriza de Matamoros, Reynosa y Nuevo Laredo, lo que significará una opción cultural para los hispanos que viven en lugares cercanos.

Se estima que acudan al festejo cerca de 300 mil visitantes provenientes en su mayor parte de estados vecinos como Veracruz, San Luis Potosí, Coahuila, Nuevo León; así como gente de Texas.

Entre las producciones que el público podrá observar se encuentra los Solistas del Ballet de San Petersburgo (Rusia), el Ballet Nacional de España, el Quinteto Musical Editus (Costa Rica), la Orquesta de La Magna Grecia (Italia) y Orquesta de El Cairo (Egipto).

A decir de Bermúdez, el festival también ha servido para la creación de nueva infraestructura, pues en la entidad se han abierto cinco nuevos museos y dos centros culturales como el Centro Cultural Metropolitano Metro, en Tampico; el Museo Regional de Historia de Tamaulipas, en Ciudad Victoria, y el Centro Cultural de Nuevo Laredo, que se inaugurará el próximo mes, entre otros.

Por su parte, Fernando Mier y Terán, titular del Instituto Tamaulipeco para la Cultura y las Artes (ITCA), subraya que la alianza entre las instancias gubernamentales, la iniciativa privada y la sociedad civil ha sido fundamental para el desarrollo del proyecto cultural del estado natal de Bermúdez.
Copyright El Universal-El Universal Online

Source:  Adan Griego
Curator for Latin American, Mexican American & Iberian Collections
Green Library-HRG Stanford University
Stanford, CA 94305-6004
(650) 723-3150 / 725-1068 (fax)


Articles on the Black, Latino, Indian Connections 

"As Afro-Latinos embrace both sides of their heritage,
they may provide the bridge to connect both communities."

George Herrera, former president and CEO of the U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce.

Black Latino Connection

Google Search: 267,000 hits in English and Spanish 

NEW YORK, Jan. 20 /PRNewswire/ -- The most recent census reported that of 38.8 million Hispanics in the United States, 1.7 million identify themselves as both Hispanic and African in origin. Many believe this number could be higher, closer to 3.9 million. Historically, attempts by Latinos and African Americans to forge economic, political, and social alliances have yielded lackluster results. "Afro-Latinos, many of whom feel comfortable in both communities, could be the key to a much needed business and political link between America's largest minority groups," reports Features Editor Alan Hughes in the BLACK ENTERPRISE February feature "The Afro-Latino Connection." Hughes reports the merits of bringing these groups together from a business standpoint are considerable. "If we were to combine the African American and Hispanic community, it means a purchasing power block of $1 trillion dollars," says George Herrera, former president and CEO of the U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. "That kind of strength can basically make industry come to a standstill. Power within our communities lays in our discretionary purchasing with corporate America, to be able to change the corporate landscape, and change the dialogue of how corporate America deals with our communities." As Afro-Latinos embrace both sides of their heritage, they may provide the bridge to connect both communities. (Pg. 110)

BLACK ENTERPRISE Examines The Afro-Latino Connection

PR Newswire

Despite the extensive media coverage laying claim that Latinos are surpassing African Americans as the new "largest minority" group, few people have truly noted that a significant number of Latinos are of African descent. But what does this mean? Will the African American community lose any economic progress as a result. We examine the idea. For instance, during our research for next month's upcoming special feature, BLACK ENTERPRISES reports that between 20% to 90% of Latinos who hail from various Latin countries have African ancestry. Many Afro-Latinos have benefited from--and paid the price of--being perceived as African Americans. In fact, many have actually embraced, or have been warmly embraced by, the African American community. They, of course, have also felt the sting of racism from their white counterparts.In the February issue, we profile Afro-Latino professionals, entrepreneurs, politicians, and educators, while soliciting personal stories, fresh insights, and innovative ideas toward developing an overlapping economic, social, and political agenda. Gina Torres is an actress who talks to us about she is 100% Cuban.COPYRIGHT 2004 Earl G. Graves Publishing Co., Inc.
COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group



Report on the Tuskegee Conference 
By Katarina Wittich

During the round table, Paulina Del Moral gave a brief presentation on the plight of the Mascogos in Coahuila, Mexico. They are descendants and relatives of the Seminole Negro Indian Scouts and members of the Black Seminoles who returned to Mexico when the U.S. Government did not fulfill its promise to give them land. The Mascogos are currently facing extreme economic hardship due to many years of drought in their area of Mexico, which is entirely agricultural.

Paulina's presentation was extremely moving. It was backed up by a passionate statement by Izola Warrior Raspberry, a descendant of several of the scouts, that the Mascogos are her people and deserving of help from the United States.  It was then proposed by Rudy Arredondo, President of the Hispanic Organizations Leadership Alliance, that Tuskegee University should adopt a resolution demanding that the Mascogos should be given American citizenship so that they can cross the Mexican/American border with freedom and work on either side of the border if they need to. This proposal was heartily supported by the audience as well as by the roundtable. 
To the great delight of the panelists, the resolution proposal was accepted by Tuskegee University and was announced at the closing banquet on Tuesday night. The resolution is as follows: 


Tuskegee University, Alabama
December 4, 2001 

  WHEREAS, Black Seminoles were fugitives from slavery and free Maroons and expelled from Florida to the Indian territory of Oklahoma from where they fled to northern Mexico and settled in Coahuila and are known as the Mascogos; 
  WHEREAS, the Mascogos community is now isolated, disintegrating and in dire need due to an eight-year drought in the region of northern Mexico where Coahuila is located; 
  THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED THAT the participants of the 59th Professional Agricultural Workers Conference (PAWC) held at Tuskegee University in Tuskegee, Alabama, on December 2-4, 2001, request that the appropriate delegation in the U.S. Congress accept the responsibility for righting this travesty of justice by taking the necessary steps to recognize the Mascogos of  Coahuila, Mexico, as citizens of the United States. 
  LET IT FURTHER BE RESOLVED THAT this resolution be brought to the attention of the Mexican government by Paulina del Moral, as an envoy of this PAWC, asking that the issues and needs of the Mascogos be recognized and resolved to their satisfaction. 

The bridge to a broad-based black-Hispanic alliance?

CID WILSON HAD HIS FIRST UGLY RUN-IN WITH RACISM AS A TEENAGER ON A FRIDAY AFTERNOON. "One kid threw something at another kid," Wilson recalls. "The kid actually thought it was me." One of only 11 minorities in a senior student body of 300, Wilson recalls being called the "n-word" by the white teen. 

"I was so infuriated with him," says the New York native. "The following Monday--it's something I'm not proud of--I looked for him and got into an actual physical altercation. That whole weekend, it was just building up inside, how angry I was." 

Justifiably angry, Wilson's father was the voice of reason. James A. Wilson, a medical doctor, counseled his young son to handle racism in a more constructive way in the future: demand more of yourself and work twice as hard as your white counterparts. 

Now a 33-year-old Paramus, New Jersey, resident, took his father's words to heart and worked hard to excel. A former market analyst at Salomon Smith Barney, he is now a senior analyst at Whitaker Securities, a boutique investment bank, where he tracks past performance and future prospects of publicly traded stocks. Politically active, the NAACP member hopes to run for office someday. But the sting of that racial slur remains to this day. 

Wilson's tale seems a familiar one to African Americans, except he's not African American. He's un puro (pure) Latino, whose parents immigrated to the United States from the Dominican Republic. Wilson, president of the Dominican American National Roundtable, is one of millions of America's Afro-Latinos who belong to both of the United States' largest minority groups. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, approximately 1.7 million of the 38.8 million Hispanics identified themselves as both Hispanic and of African descent, yet many believe this number to be much higher--closer to 3.9 million. (More than 42% of all Latino respondents marked a box labeled "some other race" on the Census form.) Among the more famous Afro-Latinos: Dominican baseball superstar Sammy Sosa, retired Puerto Rican boxing champ Felix Trinidad, and the recently deceased Cuban salsa icon Celia Cruz. 

And while historically attempts by Latinos and African Americans to forge economic, political, and social alliances have yielded lackluster results, it can be argued that this group--many of whom feel comfortable in both the black and Latino communities--could be the key to a much-needed business and political link between America's largest minority groups. 

It's estimated that between 10% and 80% of Latinos who hail from countries like Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Belize, and the U.S. Territory of Puerto Rico have African ancestry. As the slave trade proliferated in the Americas from the 1500s through the 1800s, Europeans used Caribbean ports as a hub to transfer African slaves throughout North, Central, and South America, as part of the African Diaspora. 

And some say Afro-Latinos have as much or more in common with African Americans as their lighter-skinned countrymen. Many regularly face discrimination and battle racism, both in the United States and in their native countries. Such disparaging terms as negrito (little black one), pelo malo (bad hair), or worse are commonplace for this group that often wields little political and economic power in their homelands. Poverty as well as poor educational and employment opportunities are high on the list of concerns to both African Americans and Afro-Latinos. However, the beginnings of a civil rights movement for blacks throughout Central and South America has come about fairly recently and Afro-Latinos are beginning to make some progress. 

"In essence, white Latinos discriminate against black Latinos just like [white Americans] may do here," says Harry C. Alford, president and CEO of the National Black Chamber of Commerce. In order to effect change, Alford believes, "The 40 million blacks in this country need to start communicating better with the 135 million blacks in the Caribbean and South America." 

The good news is, this group is beginning to come together to build a sense of pride in their African heritage by forming organizations and teaching others that Latinos come in all shades. "Blacks have already walked twice the miles we have walked," says Grace Williams, an Afro-Latino who is president of the Atlanta chapter of the National Society of Hispanic MBAs (NSHMBA). "We're starting to walk right now." 

Interestingly, efforts to increase awareness regarding Afro-Latino culture and plight can be found on the campuses of historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). At Howard University, Nadine Bascombe heads Cimarrones, a 50-member black student union of Caribbean, Central, and South Americans that recently expanded to include a chapter at Benedict College in South Carolina. Before Afro-Latinos can even begin to link the black-Hispanic communities, more Afro-Latinos must embrace their African heritage. "Within the population of what are considered Afro-Latinos, not all people identify with being black, so they'll join the Latino organizations because it's more of an assimilation of being white," says Bascombe, a junior. "It seems that if you relate yourself to being black it's something negative, so with that problem existing within the Afro-Latino population, not too many people run towards having an organization with that name." 

Another HBCU, Spelman College, recently hosted a series of lectures, performances, and a conference looking at the African Diaspora and its impact on the Americas. A visiting group of Afro-Latinos from the Spanish-speaking nations of South America discussed their similarities based on common African heritages. "It seems [to be] apparent that Afro-Latinos of various sorts see [African Americans] as role models with respect to political participation and economic success," says Sheila S. Walker, a professor of anthropology, who organized the event. "Their consciousness-raising and civil rights movements were inspired by their knowledge of ours." 

There's no denying the merits of bringing these groups together from a business standpoint. "If we were to combine the African American and Hispanic community, it means a purchasing power block of $1 trillion dollars," says George Herrera, former president and CEO of the U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. "That kind of purchasing power and that kind of strength can basically make industry come to a standstill ... power within our communities lays in our discretionary purchasing with corporate America, to be able to change the corporate landscape and change the dialogue of how corporate America deals with our communities." Herrera says this power can be used to affect corporate governance, procurement, and employment opportunities. 

Currently, the state of black-Hispanic relations in the United States is a mixed picture. Surely the media frenzy surrounding the emergence of the Latino population as the largest minority group has lent itself to a contest-like atmosphere between the racial groups. There's also no denying that old prejudices and rivalries remain on both sides--bringing numerous challenges to overcome before any alliance can be formed. 

In order for an alliance to succeed, a national agenda would have to be created that includes such issues as diversity, inclusion, and access to economic, political, and educational resources, according to Nicolas C. Vaca, a Harvard Law School graduate and author of The Presumed Alliance: The Unspoken Conflict Between Latinos and Blacks and What it Means for America (Rayo; $24.95). "Let's figure out exactly what each party needs and wants, what is important for each group, and then work out a plan for achieving it without the rose colored glasses," he recommends. 

Efforts for alliances are being made on the political front. Members of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation hosted members of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, Congressional Black Caucus, and the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus in a small beach resort in Puerto Rico in October 2003. Politicians were invited for a weekend of social activities as well as political dialogue designed to foster cross-cultural understanding and facilitate the forging of common political agendas. This was the second gathering; the group met for the first time in 2002 at a New Orleans retreat. 

"In order for us to work together and dialogue, we have to be able to interact, to get to know each other," says Congressman Ciro D. Rodriguez (D-TX), chair of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus. Rodriguez adds that the caucuses have worked to jointly draft a minority legislative health initiative that will be presented to Sens. Daschle and Kennedy. 

In the meantime hopefully, Afro-Latinos will continue on the path to becoming an economic and political force, and by doing so, bring the Hispanic and black communities together. This is something Cid Wilson hopes to see. "We can honestly say we know what it's like to feel racism and discrimination--on the Latino and the African American sides," he says. "The way to build bridges is to get involved in both communities." 

Whether these bridges are eventually built remains to be seen. Hailing from different countries with different cultures, the movement toward a stronger sense of Afro-Latino unity and identity must pick up speed. There is no doubt that challenges will abound, but the potential rewards are too promising to dismiss. 


19th Annual Numaga Indian Days
Reno woman proud to be descendent of great chief
Mankillers All Woman Northern Drum
Men participate in the Golden Age Men dance 
Vietnam vet to dance 
Numaga Days celebrates games

Trustee for American Indians


Photo: Andy Nelson


"It's a significant departure in how the new national museum tells the story of native people," says James Nottage, chief curator of the Eiteljorg Museum of Indian and Western Art in Indianapolis. "It's not an anthropology museum. It's a museum of living cultures."

In fact, the $219 million museum, home to one of the largest and most diverse collections of Indian art and artifacts in the world, is an institution about, by, and for Indians, and one in which its founders say they will define themselves.

The newest addition to the Smithsonian Institution is reflected in a wetland feature.     Sent by Johanna De Soto


The Reno Sparks Indian Colony honoring the memory of Chief Numaga.  The photo is among the collection of the Nevada Historical Society.

19th Annual Numaga Indian Days  were held on Sept. 3, 4,5 at the powwow grounds in Hungry Valley.  About 300 dancers and 15 drum groups from the Western states participated.

The following articles were all sent by Cindy LoBuglio.. She writes: "We have Paiutes here in Lassen County; also Maidu, and Pit River, and of course others from other areas. Interesting carvings at the Casino."

Reno woman proud to be descendent of great chief Extract, article by: Geralda Miller Reno Gazette Journal

Doreen Mason, 70, 
the great-grandaughter 
of Paiute Chief Numaga, 

Photo: Liz Margerum 
Reno Gazette-Journal

A Reno woman proudly claims to be the great-granddaughter of the tribal chief Numaga, who defeated the U.S. military in the Battle of Pyramid Lake in 1860. Doreen Mason, 70, said she found out as an adult that she was related to the Pyramid Lake Paiute leader and knows little about the man who supposedly was the nephew of Chief Winnemucca. 

Although Numaga fought in the bloody massacre, history books say he was the only chief who did not want to fight and favored peace. That memory is kept alive with the annual celebration and powwow held by the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony this weekend in Hungry Valley. 

"They want to keep the memory of the Pyramid Lake chief, Numaga, alive," tribal member Sam Johnson said. "He was the so-called peacemaker for this area. And that's why they picked that individual."

Charlotte Baker Bacoch, Mason's first cousin, lives in Big Pine, Calif., and said she was told growing up that she came from well-known ancestors. Her mother's birth certificate has Numaga listed as her grandfather, she said.
"My aunt always told us 'you children come from royalty,'" she said. "And we didn't know what that meant. Royalty, because we read those fairy tale books, was somebody who lived in a castle."

"It wasn't brought out in history," he said. "It wasn't brought out in the schools. You'd actually have to be either a member of the family or from Pyramid Lake to actually know who he was and what he did."

Mason is attempting to gather information about her ancestors. She has census sheets and genealogy forms in Manila envelopes. She said she wants her children and grandchildren to know their heritage.

Michon Eben of Reno (left) 
and Tina Toledo Rizzo of Clovis, Calif.

All-woman drum group perform at Numaga Indian Days.  Photo shows a practice session.

Geralda Miller RENO GAZETTE-JOURNAL, 9/3/2004 09:36 pm

Sent by Cindy LoBuglio



A Reno woman is pounding out new sonic as she sits at a drum and sings with 11 other women in a group she co-founded -- the
Mankillers All Woman Northern Drum. The 13-year-old drum group is one of several all-women groups in the country performing in circles where men continue to dominate.

Group co-founder Michon Eben, a member of the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, said the Mankillers have persevered and today face less acrimony at ceremonies and powwows."It took a while," Eben said. "A lot of men drum groups thought that it was wrong, it was not traditional for women to sit at the drum. We had hate mail."We still have it (animosity) sometimes but not a lot.

the group is named after Wilma Mankiller, the former Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and first woman in modern history to lead a major American Indian tribe. "She’s our role model because she’s done so much for us," she said. "She was a strong woman, and it was a strong name.

We needed that to be strong out there and competitive.  "The name "Mankiller" is a traditional Cherokee warrior name given upon successful completion of battle," says the message on the group’s Web site. "We are women warriors, seeking to create healthy communities and relationships in our lives and the lives of others around us. We are wives, mothers, daughters, aunties, granddaughters; we are educators, students, artists, activists, scientists, dancers, poets and storytellers."

Mankiller said she is aware of the drum group that created an honor song for her family name."It was my impression that they didn’t start out to make a statement about women sitting at the drum," Mankiller said in a written statement. "Rather, they were more interested in making sure they were performing the songs with honor and dignity. Hopefully, everyone at the powwow will not focus on whether there are women at the drum, but on their ability to sing.

Irma Amaro-Davis and Maggie Escobedo-Steele, who were students at Humboldt State University in Arcata, Calif., started the Mankillers in 1991.They asked women to join the drum that they thought would be strong enough to handle the flak. "It was taboo," Eben said. The women also had to be strong community participants who were in healthy relationships, if not married."We wanted to make this a good circle," Eben said.

"The women in the drum circle said they would rather participate in ceremonies where they can empower young women and youths, rather than powwows.

Traditions Come Alive at Numaga Days
Men participate in the Golden Age Men dance 
Photo by Andy Barrera/Reno Gazette-Journal

Extract: Numaga powwow upholds traditions

When Sam Johnson ties his “old man” bustle of 65 eagle feathers to his waist along with the matching black and white beadwork to his body, he does so with deliberation. During the hour long process of getting dressed for a powwow, he makes sure every feather is secure and every bead is attached firmly. The bustle is the framework of feathers worn at the back of his buckskin outfit.

Nothing must ever fall off and touch the ground during a powwow. And if it does, it means the dancer has done something wrong in his or her life. It means immediate elimination. The dancers compete for prize money by age and dance-style category.

Over the past 50 years, Johnson said the powwow has become more commercialized. Tribes with casinos are increasing the prize money, drawing more dancers and getting a larger attendance. 
“Here we have to make do with what we’ve got,” he said. The key to winning — besides not losing a feather or bead from the outfit — is being familiar with the songs performed by the drummers, especially how it ends.  The traditional men and women dancers are interpreting the story being sung by the drummers. The contemporary dancers are moving to the beat of the drum. 

There are several stories told about the jingle dancers and the dress that they wear, which is also called a medicine dress. One is that while a father’s daughter was very ill, he had a vision to design a dress with 365 jingles. The father told his daughter to put on the dress with its seven rows of jingles from tobacco lids that crash together with the rhythm of the song. When she danced the first time around she needed help. The second time she did not need as much help. And by the fourth time, she was able to make it by herself. There are four downbeats in the songs the jingle dancer must emphasize.

The grass dancers, who originated in the lower plains where the grass grows high, were usually asked to clear the ground for a celebration by stomping the grass. With a high step the firmly pound to the drumbeat. 

Johnson, who wears the traditional buckskin, said he enjoys telling the story of the sneak up in his dance. He is down on one knee, hiding during the first verse. Next, he moves from behind a log, to a rock to behind a tree, hiding from his enemy. His aim is to retrieve his fallen comrade and get as close as possible to the enemy without him knowing. “That’s your victory dance,” he said. 

Johnson said the best way to learn about the powwow is to watch it.  The stories have remained constant but the essence of the powwow has changed, Johnson said.
Extract: Vietnam vet to dance 

When Gary McCloud moves in the powwow circle, he is both a Vietnam veteran and an American Indian warrior.  When he dons his regalia as an elder, he is one of the few, the proud. 

Photo: Liz Margerum/RenoGazette Journal

The 58-year-old Paiute, a member of the Reno Sparks Indian Colony, proudly combines an old blue U.S. infantry hat and a breechcloth bearing the seal of the Marine Corps. As a warrior, he carries a tomahawk and a basket containing a bow and arrows.

“When you’re in the combat zone, you don’t carry anything that makes noise,” the elder said. “You try to sneak up on someone.”

McCloud said he began dancing in powwows three years ago and is one of a handful in the 55 to 64 age category from the colony moving to the beat of the drum. The decision to dance “came to him” and he says he will continue until his body no longer permits it. “It makes me feel good,” he said. “It’s an honor. That’s what it is.”

McCloud says he was a “wild cat” when he joined the Marines at age 21 and was part of the 1st Marine Battalion, 3rd Division for 21/2 years. That life is long gone, he says. “I’m dancing for the people,” he said. “I’m showing the younger generation that you can have fun without all this alcohol.”

That generation he wants to teach includes his 12-year-old son, Cante McCloud, who has been dancing for six years.

Numaga Days celebrates games

Long before the modern era of gambling began in Nevada in 1931, American Indian tribes played games and wagered their prized possessions: a pair of moccasins, hand-made gloves -- even a wife. 
CLASSIC GAME: Vinton Hawley, 26, of Pyramid Lake, shows the game pieces that make up the stick game, a traditional guessing game that was played for the first time at Numaga Days  powwow.  

“Nowadays we bet money -- double or nothing,” said Vinton Hawley, a 26-year-old member of the Paiute Tribe who loves a popular guessing game called stickgame or handgame. Hawley is coordinating the hand game tournament in honor of his great-grandmother, Gussie D. Williams, who taught him how to make the sly moves of a skilled hand gamer. 

“She was a good hider is what they would say,” he said of his great-grandmother, who was 89 when she died in 2000. “It was difficult to guess which way she was hiding the bones. This is my way of paying tribute to her.”

Hawley said an estimated 30 teams -- from many of the Western states -- will compete for the $5,000 first-place prize. The camaraderie and cheerful element of the traditional American Indian games is what differentiates it from casino games, said Leslie Williams, Hawley’s teammate and girlfriend.

State archivist Guy Rocha said the American Indians were the “first gamblers in the area that would become Nevada.”  “What I witnessed at the powwow was people having fun,” Rocha said of the stickgames he has observed. “There seems to be a kind of bonding that goes with the activity that has healthy overtones. What is the experience with machines? I argue it’s mindless.”

Each team gets five sticks and a pair of bones, one white and one striped. Two team members are selected to hide the bones while the other teammates sing and drum. The opposing team leader must guess who is holding the white bones by saying “ho.” A wrong guess means losing a stick to the defending team. The guessing game continues until the location of both white bones has been guessed correctly. The cycle repeats until one side has all the sticks.

Hawley, an instructor with the Pyramid Lake Paiute language program in Nixon, says he can almost visualize which hand has the white bone. He said he doesn’t know how or why. “You can see black or white,” he said about his guessing. “Maybe it’s an energy force.” 

Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians

Sent by Johanna De Soto
The Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians (OST)is seeking current addresses for the Individual Indian Money (IIM) account holders listed at the left of this page. If you are or you know an account holder whose whereabouts is unknown to OST, please contact OST and provide the information below. Information needed to update an IIM account:
Name of account holder (First, M.I., Last name)
Date of Birth (if known)
Social Security Number (if known)
Current address
Telephone number

WRITE: Office of the Special Trustee
Attn: Whereabouts Unknown Coordinator
4400 Masthead St., NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109
CALL: Toll Free  1- 800- 678- 6836 ext 392  Email: WAU@CNITD.COM 



"The Crypto-Jews"
350 Years of Jews in America
Sephardic Genealogy Resources
Census Trail
"The Crypto-Jews"
Maazya E. Villanueva
Executive Director
Crypto Sephardic Union

The return of the descendants of 'Anusim,' forced converts, to mainstream Judaism, was the focus of of a series lectures offered in various locations in California and Texas.  . It is a discovery of a way of life that has existed in Crypto Jewish households, in the Southwest, for centuries.  Adult Educator, Yaffah daCosta, Director of Public Relations for Crypto Sephardic Union will discuss this phenomena which only until recently, has gained national attention. Along with Bennet Greenspan, Founder and Director of Family Tree DNA, who will discuss the migratory DNA patterns that have revealed traces of the Crypto-Jews ancestral history.

Contact Yaffah daCosta for more information or interviews

Main Site:

News Coverage:
Radio: Secret Jews
Event Listing:

Uncut:  Mazel Tov: 350 Years of Jews in America
From Portugal to New Amsterdam
September 3, 2004

Sent by John Inclan
IN a way, catching a ride is how it all began. Fleeing the threat of Portuguese violence, 23 Jewish refugees boarded the Sainte Catherine, a ship that was setting sail for New Amsterdam. They arrived in the Dutch colony almost exactly 350 years ago on Sept. 12, 1654. 

They were hardly welcomed with open arms, at least not by the governor, Peter Stuyvesant, who tried to expel these "blasphemers of the name of Christ." But enough of his superiors in the Dutch West India Company thought otherwise: the Jews were allowed to stay, becoming the founding members of what would grow into the North American Jewish community. 

The next three centuries witnessed an amazingly rich and complex American Jewish history: an encounter that would forever invest new meaning in the adjectives Jewish and American. This history and the 350th anniversary itself are being celebrated in New York this year, beginning on Tuesday with a concert at the 92nd Street Y that opens the first annual New York Jewish Music and Heritage Festival. The festival continues in 15 venues around the city, lasting through Sept. 14, and the Y's celebrations will stretch throughout its entire 2004-5 season. 

As a wide variety of events will convey, the story of American Jews became a tale of the passage from the periphery to the center, from immigrant yearning to mainstream achievement. And the journey ultimately transformed this country's Jews as deeply as it did the aspects of American culture they helped to invent. The diverse community today reflects all that was gained in transition but also what was lost in the process of normalization, as a Diaspora people laid its roots and built a home more comfortable and secure than almost any other in its history. 

The first immigrants to arrive were Sephardic Jews, followed in the 19th century by a large German Jewish migration, and finally the Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe. Officially ending in 1924, this huge third wave of immigration had the greatest impact on the contours of the American Jewish experience, partly due to sheer numbers, and the cumulative shock of the new. 

The majority of these Yiddish-speaking Jews came from remote areas in the Pale of Settlement, culturally isolated and often less modernized than their German-Jewish counterparts. They poured into the narrow streets and tenements of the Lower East Side, filling the jobs that were available to them, many of which were in the needle trades. Conditions were cramped, workdays endless, wages

But despite the struggles, or perhaps because of them, a rich and now fabled cultural life arose from the Lower East Side. A thriving Yiddish press brought the immigrants news and politics in their own language, with special columns of advice for the newly arrived. The Yiddish theater boomed,
pioneering a style of popular entertainment, with bittersweet stories of love and loss rendered with an
expressive sweep that captivated audiences and offered a cherished few hours of escape. 

The Yiddish theater had its own rich repertory, but there was also a tradition of Yiddishizing staples of the English stage. Shakespeare was "translated and improved" to produce wildly popular Yiddish-language versions of the classics interwoven with ethnic or religious themes. Jacob Gordin's
"Jewish King Lear," for example, transformed the Shakespearean monarch into a Jewish paterfamilias from Vilna struggling to keep the peace among his three daughters. 

The Yiddishized Shakespeare represented one immigrant impulse to translate the emblems of American life into a Jewish idiom, but the urge to translate in the other direction, from Jewish tradition into American life, was equally strong. Some immigrant families, for instance, took the religious fervor of the Old World and channeled it into political life. 

Others set their sights on creating new forms of mass culture, with Hollywood of course as the most famous example. Harry Cohn, Louis B. Mayer, Adolph Zukor, and Jack and Harry Warner were among the prominent Jewish immigrants who helped build the new Tinseltown. In so doing, they
turned the fears, dreams and fantasies of the newly arrived into mainstream weekend entertainment and helped to define a country's national psyche. 

Similarly, on Broadway and in Tin Pan Alley, Jews rose to prominence, with leading figures like George Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Al Jolson, Jerome Kern, Sophie Tucker and Oscar Hammerstein II, among many others. They built new fusions like "Show Boat" and later "Oklahoma!" that helped
define the golden age of the Broadway musical. Others drew on the musical materials of their own ethnic and religious past to form the bricks and mortar of the burgeoning popular styles. A new book by Jack Gottlieb, "Funny, It Doesn't Sound Jewish," makes the connections explicit, with copious examples of cases where Yiddish songs and cantorial music were adapted, wittingly or unwittingly, by Jewish songwriters as they plied their craft in the mainstream. Sometimes the "accent" of the originals was preserved, oftentimes it was not. 

Children of immigrants often continued the quest, moving forward from immigrant homes into a new Americanness that was beyond their parents' wildest imagining. Saul Bellow spoke Yiddish at home and then went to the public library to read Melville and Poe. Alfred Kazin made his name as a
literary critic with "On Native Ground," a path breaking critical study of American literature. Aaron Copland left an immigrant home in Brooklyn to forge a new American classical music out of invented cowboy tunes, Shaker hymns and the story of a newlywed couple in the hills of Appalachia. 

The examples of public achievement continue, with early radio (Jack Benny, Eddie Cantor and Gertrude Berg), television (William S. Paley and David Sarnoff), comedy (the Marx brothers, Sid Caesar, Milton Berle). But such exercises in list making are inherently limited. They give the impression of telling us much while ultimately telling us little about the real significance of individual or
collective participation in American cultural life. Instead, they merely encourage lingering by the glittering reflecting pools of ethnic pride. 

Some observers have unfortunately gone further, using lists as a basis for speculation on the existence of a uniquely Jewish cultural sensibility, or specially honed talents for imitation, for empathy, for syntheses of high and low, or for the alienation at the heart of artistic modernism - as
if these qualities could be packaged in the genes, or passed down through the generations like a secret recipe for matzo-ball soup. Even if these essential "Jewish" qualities are praised, the arguments tread on slippery ground. It's a short step toward reversing the terms of judgment and arriving at racist theories like the one advanced by Wagner in his anti-Semitic essay "Judaism in Music." 

More fruitful explorations of American Jewish cultural achievement often consider social factors, the routes available to ethnic groups at particular stages in their acculturation. As Hasia Diner points out in her new book, "The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000," the Jewish immigrants' foray into the mainstream coincided with the explosion of growth in such new media as film, television and radio. The performing arts were also open to Jews in ways that other fields were not. 

Even in the places where Jews undoubtedly achieved prominence, as in Hollywood, it is worth wondering whether they did so as Jews or as Americans. In loving the movies, did mainstream America learn to have Jewish dreams, or did the immigrant Jews of Hollywood simply learn to have
American dreams? Two panel discussions this season at the 92nd Street Y (in October and November) will address these thorny questions about Jewish art, Jewish artists and their relationship to mid century American culture. 

After World War II, American Jews cheered from a distance the foundation of the state of Israel, whose embattled birth coincided with American Jews' collective pilgrimage to the suburbs. Success in acculturation soon became so complete that Jews began facing the challenges that lie on the opposite end of Americanization: how to preserve a sense of ethnic particularity amid the mainstream. 

By the 1960's and 70's, memories of immigrant experiences were fading away, even as seminal books like Irving Howe's "World of Our Fathers" attempted to replenish the store. There was no masking, however, a sense that Jewish particularity was on the wane in America, whether measured
in religious, cultural or even linguistic terms. In the novel "Operation Shylock," one of Philip Roth's characters put it starkly: "they had it in their heads to be Jews in a way that no one had ever dared to be a Jew in our three-thousand-year history; speaking and thinking American English, only American English, with all the apostasy that was bound to beget." 

There was an important point here about the loss of traditional Jewish languages and literacy. But as it turned out, American English also proved a surprisingly resilient medium for new expressions of Jewish culture. The 1980's and 90's saw a renaissance in Jewish music, religious life and political engagement. Many of the artists presented in the coming weeks and months will reflect these new contours and fusions of Jewish memory and history with the folkways and found materials of American culture. 

One example is the jazz saxophonist and composer John Zorn, who, like a handful of other experimental artists, has embraced a downtown-particularist impulse and incorporated Jewish themes into his work. (Mr. Zorn's excellent Masada String Trio will be featured on Wednesday.) Mr. Zorn's music defies easy categorization, and yet, with its heady mixture of klezmer, Middle Eastern and jazz influences, it may also suggest a metaphor for the ways that American Jews today grapple with the conflicted geography of memory. 

At the core are competing ties to three homelands: the old homeland in Europe, for which a vicarious nostalgia lingers along with the ghosts of the Holocaust; the old-new homeland in Israel to which Jews are theologically and emotionally bound as surely as they are culturally distanced; and their actual homeland in this country, where comfort and its challenges have been unparalleled. The
tension among these homelands, real and imagined, may be a source of both weakness and strength. It is certainly a reason for many Jews to harbor commitments to a certain outsider status in this country even as the tokens of insider privilege abound. 

The tension will also animate the season of diverse cultural events. It is a fitting way of marking the
anniversary of an arrival that the writer Mary Antin once imagined with a tweaking of traditional religious imagery: sitting in Russia, she dreamed of the waters of the Atlantic parting so that the Jews could arrive in the promised land of America. Almost a century after Antin and 350 years after the first Jewish settlers drifted ashore, the country's promise for Jews remains at once both fulfilled and elusive. 

Sephardic Genealogy Resources
Sent by Johanna de Soto

The Inquisicion in the New World In the earliest years of the Spanish colonies the bishops ran the New World Inquisicion. Their inquisicion files would have originally been in the episcopal archives and, in some places, probably still are in those repositories. The organization sometimes known as the La Inquisicion Espanola, that is the official government run organization with a central headquarters in Madrid and tribunals in various localities in Spain set up to detect and destroy certain crimes associated with religious issues (among which cryptojudaism was one but no means the only-- crypto moslems, witchcraft, fornicating clergy, blasphemy, and several other kinds of illegal behavior also came under its jurisdiction), didn't officially come to the New World until close to the end of the sixteenth century. 

Three tribunals were set up in the New World. One in Mexico City for the North American mainland south to Panama and the Philippines. One in Lima, Peru for most of South America. and one in Cartagena, Colombia (then in Nueva Granada or the Audiencia de Santa Fe) for the northern coast of South America and the Caribbean islands. Two of these archives have survived. That in Mexico City ended up in the Archivo General de la Nacion (AGN). Consisting of 1555 bound volumes dating from 1522 to 1819, they include the records of the inquisicion of the bishops and that of official Tribunal of the Santo Oficio de la Inquisicion which was established in Mexico in 1569. Much, but by no means all, of the bishops inquisicion concerns trials of Indians. 

The arrival of the Inquisicion organization brought with it an intensified search for secret Jews. The colonial records of the AGN (not just the Inquisicion) are very well organized and a very detailed and comprehensive guide to these records is in the process of being placed on a CD-ROM. As of about three years ago the guide to about half of the these holding were searchable by means of this CD-ROM. Also each bound volume of Inquisicion records at the AGN has a brief abstract of each of the files in the volume, allowing one to search them very rapidly. The records of the Inquisicion in Lima have also survived but those in Cartagena disappeared many years ago. Correspondence between these three New World tribunals and the Supreme headquarters of the Inquiscion in Madrid is kept at the AHN in Madrid. These consist of only 175 manuscript bundles and 78 manuscript books. Among them are the few remaining references to cases tried by the Cartagena tribunal.

The Blazquez Miguel book will provide the addresses of several centers in Spain that specialize on Inquisicion studies. Again I very strongly recommend getting a copy of this book.

If you are in Spain, you might visit the old Ghetto in Gerona. It is the best reconstructed/excavated Jewish quarter in the Spains. Won't help you find your ancestors but will provide a better feel for those distant times and places than anything in the more famous Jewish quarters of Andalucia and elsewhere in the Spains.

Finally, if you decide you need someone to search for you, I charge $150 per day plus expenses.

Feel free to ask if you have any other questions, Lawrence H. Feldman, Ph.D and MLS
Post Office Box 2493
Wheaton Maryland 20915-2493

Census Trail

The goal of Census Trail is to restore missing censuses from alternate records that exist and make them readily available on the website.  Of special interest to Sephardic researchers will be the work in Georgia in 1790.  An added benefit for Georgia is the inclusion of names for Burke and Washington Counties which have experienced sever record loss.


Texas Council for the Social Studies
Sen. Hutchison Mr. South Texas 2005
Family Reunion Cummings/Benavides
International Hispanic Cultural Inst.
Be A Part of History, Petition 
South Texas Archives Texas A&M
WorldCat./OCLC and FirstSearch
Zambrano Genealogy
Juan Manuel Zambrano Plaque  
Felipe de Jesus Zambrano


Texas Council for the Social Studies Invitation  52nd Fall Conference 
Sent by JD Villarreal

October 1-3, 2004  
Hotel InterContinental in Addison, TX.

Hosted by the Garland, McKinney, Plano and Richardson councils.  Interesting speakers and presentations for every aspect of education, and wonderful tours that showcase the offerings of their communities. Please download the registration form at the following link:  and send with your payment to:
TCSS-2004 Conference
Attn: Sandra Hayes
707 Arapaho Rd.
Richardson, TX 75081
Or Fax: (469) 593-7409  More information,  visit

Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison Named Mr. South Texas 2005
Sent by JD Villareal

LAREDO, TX -- Citing her decade of work in the United States Senate on behalf of Texas communities, the Washington's Birthday Celebration Association (WBCA) announced on August 24th it was naming Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX) "Mr. South Texas" for 2005.

According to the WBCA, since 1952 the group has bestowed the esteemed award upon individuals each year for their contributions to the growth and development of the area.  Senator Hutchison has consistently been an ally of South Texas, making the needs of its citizens a top priority throughout her career. 

Water - The Senator has secured millions of dollars to better conserve the water we have in South Texas and to compensate farmers suffering the effects of the shortage. Economic Development - Strengthening the region's economy has been a priority. Sen. Hutchison won approval for millions of dollars throughout her career for San Antonio's military-industrial complex, Corpus Christi's Packery Channel project, and the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, among many other job creators.

Colonias - She was the first to champion colonia clean-up efforts and has obtained over $615 million in colonia improvement funding, including the first federal appropriation in 1993, and later introduced legislation that would restrict their growth.

Transportation - Sen. Hutchison has been a tireless advocate of South Texas transportation needs, winning federal clearance and millions of dollars for the Brownsville West Rail relocation project as well as authorization and $7 4 million for the I-69 trade corridor. She supports the Ports of Corpus
Christi and Brownsville. She also has authored a Borders and Corridors bill to ensure states whose roads bear the brunt of international commerce receive a more equitable share of federal funding.

Education: She has been a co-chair of the Hispanic Serving Institution Caucus, securing millions for these colleges that seek to expand higher education for Hispanic American students.

Washington's Birthday Celebration: Over the past 100 years, the Washington birthday celebration in Laredo has become legendary, marking community traditions and promoting greater understanding between the people of the Americas. It also generates national and international affection for the unique culture and rich history of Laredo.

Very First James Cummings & Juanita Benavides Family Reunion
April 2nd. 2005 in Goliad, Texas.

We are looking for family members to invite so I am asking everyone on this mailing list to start gathering names that we can invite.  April 2005 is not to far away, so we need your help now...there is no time to wait. If our planning committee does not get people to contact, they may not be able to properly invite them on time.

Everyone needs time to plan and prepare to be in Goliad, TX. on April 2.
( More information on the site: TBA after Sept. 25th.) 

This is a family chart of our grandparents, James and Juanita. I need your help to start filling in the rest of the family members.  James y Juanita Cummings their children as follows: Mary Elizabeth, Sarah, Anna, Nicolas, Martha, Cora, James, Jr. & Susan

Mary + Tomas Trevino  children are: Telesforo + ???
Sarah + Anestacio Carbajal children: Anestacio, Jr. & Santiago + children:????
Anna + Primitivo de la Garza, children: Primitivo, Jr., Elias, San Juanita, Lucia, Elogia, children:????
Nicolas (never married)
Martha + William McMillan, children ???
Cora + James Kuykendall, children: ???
James, Jr. + Nellie Doughty children: Jamie
Susan + Ike Kuykendall children: ???

Our committee needs names, names, names.
Please find your family root and help me fill in the family members and who they married, etc.
I need help in finding the McMillans. Does anyone know where this family unit lived or moved to?
If you would rather mail me (instead of e-mail) any information my address is:

PH.# (210) 590-6117 / FAX (210) 646-9875

International Hispanic Cultural Institute, El Paso, Texas
Sent by Roberto Camp 

Latino Arts Fiesta, October 1, 2, & 3, 2004
The International Hispanic Cultural Institute (IHCI) was founded with the intent of minimizing the drop-out rate in El Paso schools by using the arts to motivate young people not only to stay in school, but to seek higher education as well. Furthermore, the historical and artistic impact of our region with its unique blend of Indian, Spanish, Mexican, American, Texan and New Mexican influences provide a rich Latino cultural heritage unlike any other. Combining a passionate interest in our area's cultural arts, along with the motivation to help our young gifted artists, IHCI developed the International Latino Arts Fiesta. Over time, we will develop the fiesta into a two to three-week festival showcasing the best Latin artist from our region and the rest of the Latin world.

Important dates leading up to the main event: September 13-24, 2004  Preliminary competitions will take place at each participating  high school and community competitions will be held at the La Fe Center and in Ciudad Juarez. By September 24th, each  participating high school and the community competitions’  site coordinators must provide an entry form for their  representative acts in order for these acts to be included in the quarterfinal competition. . 

Be A Part of History 

Join in the "Historic Effort" to have a U.S. Postal Commemorative Stamp issued in honor of Col. Juan N. Seguin. Since 1995 and in subsequent years, The Seguin Family Historical Society has been instrumental in promoting and requesting this historic stamp. However, let it be public knowledge that in 1981, The Juan N. Seguin Stamp Club in Seguin Texas sponsored the very first petition under the direction of Chairman, Mr. W.F. Kraushaar. As you can see, the idea and desire in this historic endeavor has not weaned. 

Please sign the petition at the following link and forward the link to your family and friends

Petition requesting a U.S. Postal Stamp to Honor Juan N. Seguin
Defender of the Alamo - Hero at San Jacinto           

Citizen's Stamp Advisory Committee
U.S. Postal Service
475 L'Enfant Plaza, SW, Rm 4474E
Washington, DC  20260-2437

Dear Committee Members:

In an effort to recognize a True Texas Hero, Col. Juan  N. Seguin, we the undersigned are requesting your help in securing a place in American history for Juan N. Seguin.

Seguin was a native born Texan and Patriot and Hero of the war for Texas Independence.  It was through his contributions and influence as part of a team and that of as a leader of dedicated men and women that Texas gained it's independence from Mexico in 1836.   In 1848 Texas joined the United States of America.   A union that not only strengthened Texas, but the United States as well.

Seguin's forefathers were among those Tejanos that supplied George Washington's army with Beeves, Honey and Grain via Spain's Bernado de Galvez's army which at the time was protecting the American Colonist southeastern most borders and aiding the Colonist in their struggle for independence from England.

In remembrance of a man who helped change the destiny of two nations, the United States of America and the Republic of Texas.  A union that molded and strengthened two countries into one and forged into the future our country as we know it today.   A country with diversity in population, but united under one flag. 

We the undersigned join Congressman Gene Green, Congressman Ciro Rodriguez and  many other public officials that have joined in a Bipartisan Congressional Effort in requesting that a United States Postal Service Commemorative Stamp be issued to commemorate Texas Hero Col. Juan Nepomuceno Seguin and that it's first day issue should be in the city named in his honor, Seguin, Texas.   (Ref:  H. RES. 12) 

Thank you, we and history, await your historic decision.   
The Seguin Family Historical Society - The Original and Official Seguin Family Organization and Web Site.

Seguin Surname

Found some interesting information on the name Seguin from a French website for origins of names.

I used a free internet translation program to get some rough translations. 

Seguin – Personal name of Germanic origin, Sigwin (sig = victory + win = friend). The name is common
in Bordeaux and in Burgundy. Variants: Seghin (62), Segouin (28, 50), Segoin (14). Diminutives : Seguineau (44), Seguinaud, Seguineaud (17), Seguinel (33, 47), Seguinet (45), Seguiniol (33), Seguinot (85)

Sigouin – Personal name of Germanic origin, Sigwin (see Seguin for reference), carried to Québec where the first carrier of the name, Jean Sigouin or Seguin, came from La Ferté-Macé (Orne) in the XVII century.

Robert Tarín


South Texas Archives at Texas A&M University-Kingsville
Acquires Microfilm Documenting Spanish Colonial Period

Scholars interested in the Spanish Colonial period in Mexico need now look no further than the South Texas Archives and Special Collections at Texas A&M University-Kingsville for information. The university’s archives recently obtained 134 volumes of microfilmed Spanish government documents covering the late 1600s to 1821 and a region that spread from northwestern Mexico to the northeastern Gulf Coast. The region includes what is now South Texas and was once referred to as the Provincias Internas.

The new collection contains thousands of documents, including genealogical records of the founding families of the region. The collection also contains many military documents such as service members’ records, lists of presidios and maps of the area. Vera said the collection also documents the Native Americans living in the area during the time period as well as some information on Spanish land grants.

The collection is entirely in Spanish and will be of most interest to historians, genealogists, archivists and cartographers.  A complete index of the collection was obtained from the University of Arizona, which makes it much more user-friendly.

SOURCE: George Gause and TAMUK news release
South Texas Researcher Newsletter: November 2003 


TX-Loose-Ends-Column: Libraries and Card Catalogs:
WorldCat./OCLC and FirstSearch
Libraries and Card Catalogs
by Lynna Kay Shuffield
Sent by George Gause

Today we are going to discuss getting better acquainted with card catalogs and libraries. There is a trend in family tree research today to rely solely on the Internet. I can't tell you the number of e-mails I receive asking, "tell me where to find it on the Internet" and when I reply you have to go to the library, they get upset!

Many evenings, I go to Clayton Library after work and whereas before you could not get a parking place and there were waiting lines to get a microfilm reader or make photocopies. One night last week, there were four cars on the parking lot that did not belong to staff members. With trends like this, all that is going to happen is library staff and hours of operation will be cut.

To get stared you need to become very familiar with WorldCat. Many libraries are now members of WorldCat (also known as OCLC and FirstSearch) electronic card catalog.

What is WorldCat / FirstSearch? "Founded in 1967, Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) is a nonprofit, membership, computer library service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs. More than 50,000 libraries in 84 countries and territories around the world use OCLC services to locate, acquire, catalog, lend and preserve library materials."

That means you can search the electronic card catalog for all these libraries around the world at one-time! Ask your local librarian how to access this feature at your library or while at home. WorldCat is a key resource for genealogists. To download a free 30-page "WorldCat for Genealogy Tutorial" go to:

Because WorldCat is a "super" catalog of more than 900 million library holdings representing 54 million items held in libraries, you can reduce the number of places you search to locate useful material. WorldCat complements tools such as the LDS Family History Library, and ProQuest's HeritageQuest.

WorldCat is apart of the TexShare Program through the Texas State Library & Archives. Ask your local librarian for the TexShare login ID and password that have been assigned to your home library. Some libraries may use a different method to identify you and may ask you to log in to their Web site with your student ID or library card number before connecting to the Library of Texas.

For more information on the Library of Texas, go to:
Libraries Across the United States. The flagship of America's great libraries is the Library of Congress, which seeks to obtain copies of every book published in the United States. In the areas of genealogy, history, biography, manuscripts and special collections, the Library of Congress has a vast collection of materials.

Every state has a major library and/or state archives devoted to historical materials for that state. Some of these state libraries and archives are combined into one facility however in some states they are two separate facilities. So don't make the mistake to look at one and not the other.

Most large universities and several large public libraries have extensive history, genealogy and/or archives collections. Again, some of these are combined into one facility however Austin, Houston and Dallas have separate genealogy collections, archives and Texas & Local History collections. I hope you are now motivated to get out to your local library to do research instead of sitting only at the computer! Now don't get me wrong, I too spend too many hours in front of the computer but I know that I cannot solely rely on everything being on-line!

In this column, I will be glad to highlight and review any family history, genealogy, county history, or similar book, free of charge, if you donate a copy of the book or item. After it has been highlighted and reviewed, on a space available basis, it will be donated to the genealogy section of a library. You will receive an acknowledgment of the donation from the library. Mail item or book to me at the below address.

To read back issues of this column, go to
Regretfully, I cannot help with individual genealogical research. However, you can submit queries that will be published on a space available basis. If you have any questions, comments, suggestions for column topics, genealogy or historical society announcements, please contact me at: P. O. Box 16604,

Houston, Texas 77222-6604 or e-mail:
Lynna Kay Shuffield - P. O. Box 16604 - Houston, Texas  77222

'Our Loose Ends' Genealogy Column
Milam County TXGenWeb -
San Jacinto County TXGenWeb

Zambrano Genealogy: Descendants of Felipe de Jesus Zambrano
Sent by George Gause
Zambrano Genealogy: Goliad, Texas
Comment by Robert Tarin

Juan Manuel Zambrano mentioned on this plaque was the famous/infamous Subdeacon Lieutenant-Colonel from San Antonio who had participated in the Battle of the Medina and was governor for a temporary period in 1813. He was the son of Macario Zambrano and Juana de Jesus de Ocon y Trillo who were originally from Saltillo. Juan Manuel Zambrano was NOT related (as far as known) to the Felipe de Jesus Zambrano whose family tree was listed in the other email you sent. The fact was that Juan Manuel Zambrano happened to die in Mier, Tamualipas in 1824 and it is coincidental to Felipe de Jesus Zambrano being born in Mier in 1829. Linda Zambrano-Robinson had been tracing her Zambrano lineage and we both had investigated whether or not there was any link with her line and the San Antonio Zambrano line. None has been found yet. I do know there are various Zambrano families, some from Monterrey, some from Saltillo (where the San Antonio branch came from), and some in Durango.

I have recently been in communication with a Zambrano who lives in Colorado and his family is out of El Paso. His line’s connection to the others is also unknown.

He and I have been trying to figure out the DNA testing results to maybe figure some of it out.  Very interesting stuff……
Robert Tarin


Descendants of Felipe de Jesus Zambrano

Compiled:  Linda Zambrano-Robinson

1571 North Arroya, Apache Junction 
AZ   85219

Generation No. 1

1.  FELIPE DE JESUS3 ZAMBRANO  (JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1) was born Abt. 1829 in Mexico-1860 Census.  He married MARIA ANTONIA CAMILA CANTU September 18, 1854 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JOSE CANTU and MARIA PEREZ.
AKA (Facts Page): Jose Felipe Zambrano
Baptism: February 15, 1829, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Baptism: July 18, 1837, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico

 i. JOSE TEODORO4 ZAMBRANO, b. April 01, 1854, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico- 1900 Census B: April 1857; d. March 04, 1935, Kenedy, Texas - Buried at Ross Cemetery.
 ii. JOSE BERNARDO ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1858, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Baptism: September 14, 1858, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico

 iii. JOSE ANACLETO ZAMBRANO, b. July 1861, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
 iv. ANTONIO ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1867, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. at a young age.

 v. TIBUSCIO ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1870, Texas-1900 Census.
 vi. MARTHA ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1873.
 vii. ABRAHAM ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1875.
Baptism: May 01, 1875, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico

Generation No. 2

2.  JOSE TEODORO4 ZAMBRANO (FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born April 01, 1854 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico- 1900 Census B: April 18571, and died March 04, 1935 in Kenedy, Texas - Buried at Ross Cemetery1.  He married ANSELMA RUIZ VELASQUEZ1, daughter of TORIVIO VELASQUEZ and JULIANA RUIZ.
1900 census show date of birth April 1857
headstone at Ross Cemetery show 1854
death certificate shows 1850[Zambrano Family Tree.FBK.FBK.FTW]
1900 census show date of birth April 1857
headstone at Ross Cemetery show 1854
death certificate shows 1850
Baptism: April 07, 1856, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico1
1900 census shows date of birth April 1867 age 33
headstone at Ross Cemetery shows 1872
[Zambrano Family Tree.FBK.FBK.FTW]
1900 census shows date of birth April 1867 age 33
headstone at Ross Cemetery shows 1872

5. i. PETRA5 ZAMBRANO, b. January 1882, Kenedy, Texas.
6. ii. TEODORO ZAMBRANO, b. April 22, 1885, Kenedy, Texas.
7. iii. GREGORIO ZAMBRANO, b. February 1886, Kenedy, Texas.
 iv. WENCESLAO ZAMBRANO1, b. September 28, 1888, Kenedy, Texas1; d. March 1978, Grulla, Texas1; m. RAFAELA1.
1880 census show date of birth September 1891
Social Security No. 458-86-1895[Zambrano Family Tree.FBK.FBK.FTW]
1880 census show date of birth September 1891
Social Security No. 458-86-1895
8. v. ERLINDA ZAMBRANO, b. August 1889, Kenedy, Texas.
9. vi. EUFEMIA ZAMBRANO, b. March 1894, Kenedy, Texas.
 vii. LUCIA ZAMBRANO1, b. December 1895, Kenedy, Texas1.
10. viii. FELIPE ZAMBRANO, b. May 20, 1901, Kenedy, Texas; d. January 26, 1941, Beeville, Texas-Buried at Ross Cemetery.
 ix. JULIA ZAMBRANO1, b. Abt. 1904.
 x. JUAN ANTONIO ZAMBRANO1, b. Abt. 1907.
11. xi. VICTORIA ZAMBRANO, b. June 14, 1908, Kenedy, Texas; d. January 09, 1977, Beeville, Texas.
 xii. ALEJANDRO ZAMBRANO1, b. Abt. 1910.

 i. JOSEFA5 ZAMBRANO, b. November 1886.
12. ii. LEANDRO ZAMBRANO, b. March 1893; d. San Patricio.
13. iii. RICARDO V ZAMBRANO, b. February 07, 1896, Kenedy, Texas; d. December 1972, Kenedy, Texas.
 iv. ANACLETO ZAMBRANO, b. July 1897.
 v. HILARIO ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1902.

4.  TIBUSCIO4 ZAMBRANO (FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1) was born Abt. 1870 in Texas-1900 Census.  He married (1) ESTEFANA.  He married (2) JOVITA JIMENEZ.
 i. APOLINAR5 ZAMBRANO, b. July 23, 1897; d. October 22, 1988, Beeville, Texas.
Social Security # 464-58-4040  Born July 23, 1897
 ii. INEZ ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1899, Texas-1900 Census.
14. iii. BENITO5 ZAMBRANO, b. August 06, 1918; d. August 25, 1997, Alice, Texas.
16. v. HERLINDA ZAMBRANO, b. March 26.
17. vi. JULIO SEMBRANO, b. February 16, 1926; d. October 13, 1997, Concepcion, Texas.

Generation No. 3

Children of PETRA ZAMBRANO and JUAN VELA are:

Burial: Ross Cemetery
Burial: Ross Cemetery
 i. ELVERA6 ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1906.
19. ii. OTILIA ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1910.
20. iii. SIMON ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1912.
 iv. CLEMENCIA ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1914.
 v. JESUS ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1916.
 vi. TEODORO ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1918.

 i. GREGORIO6 ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1920, killed himself in middle 1960's.
 ii. LOUIS ZAMBRANO, b. 1914.
21. iii. TELEFORO ZAMBRANO, b. October 15, 1915, Skidmore; d. January 1984, Corpus Christi, Texas.

8.  ERLINDA5 ZAMBRANO (JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born August 1889 in Kenedy, Texas1.  She married PORFIRIO TAPIA1 October 13, 1906 in Kenedy, Texas.
 viii. JUAN TAPIA1.
9.  EUFEMIA5 ZAMBRANO (JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born March 1894 in Kenedy, Texas1.  She married EUFRACIO RODRIGUEZ1 Abt. 1909 in Kenedy, Texas.
22. i. EUFRACIO6 RODRIGUEZ, b. Abt. 1910.
 ii. LEONARDO RODRIGUEZ1, b. Abt. 1915.
 iii. MIGUEL RODRIGUEZ1, b. Abt. 1920.

10.  FELIPE5 ZAMBRANO (JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born May 20, 1901 in Kenedy, Texas1, and died January 26, 1941 in Beeville, Texas-Buried at Ross Cemetery1.  He married JULIA HINOJOSA1, daughter of TOMAS HINOJOSA and PAULA GONZALES.
23. i. EFREN6 ZAMBRANO, b. October 01, 1922, Beeville, Texas.
24. ii. ELIGIO ZAMBRANO, b. December 01, 1924, Beeville, Texas; d. February 07, 1995, W. Chicago, IL-Buried at Calvary Cemetery.
25. iii. SELIA ZAMBRANO, b. November 27, 1926, Beeville, Texas.
26. iv. BEATRICE ZAMBRANO, b. November 02, 1928, Beeville, Texas.
27. v. FELIPE HINOJOSA ZAMBRANO, b. November 10, 1931, Skidmore, Texas.
28. vi. ERNESTINA ZAMBRANO, b. November 07, 1933, Beeville, Texas.
29. vii. JULIA ZAMBRANO, b. January 14, 1934, Beeville, Texas.
30. viii. ZENAIDO ZAMBRANO, b. May 27, 1936, Beeville, Texas.
31. ix. HORTENSIA ZAMBRANO, b. December 10, 1938, Beeville, Texas.
32. x. MARTHA VELA, b. May 10, 1944, Beeville, Texas.

11.  VICTORIA5 ZAMBRANO (JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born June 14, 1908 in Kenedy, Texas1, and died January 09, 1977 in Beeville, Texas1.  She married (1) VICTORIANO ROMERO1.  She married (2) DOMINGO CASAREZ1.  She married (3) JOSE JASSO1.
[Zambrano Family Tree.FBK.FBK.FTW]
Buried at the Our Lady of Victory #2 - Beeville, TX
33. i. PAULA6 ROMERO, b. March 02, 1926.
 ii. DONACIANO ROMERO1, b. September 06, 1927; d. June 22, 1988, San Antonio, Texas.
Burial: June 24, 1988, Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery , Bexar County Plot: 8A 1431
 iv. LOUIS CASAREZ1, b. May 10, 1931.
 v. SALOME CASAREZ1, b. January 30, 1933.
34. vi. CLAUDINA CASAREZ, b. August 11, 1935, Clairbille, Texas, Bee County.
 vii. RAMONA CASAREZ1, b. August 22, 1942.

 iv. JUAN ZAMBRANO, b. January 01, 1927; d. November 28, 1989.
Social Security Number: 456-42-2452

13.  RICARDO V5 ZAMBRANO (JOSE ANACLETO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1) was born February 07, 1896 in Kenedy, Texas, and died December 1972 in Kenedy, Texas.  He married TEODORA GARCIA, daughter of ENRIQUE GARCIA and ANTONIA PEREZ.
Social Security# 465-09-4633
36. i. RICARDO G.6 ZAMBRANO, b. October 10, 1917, Kenedy, Texas; d. November 15, 1999, Casa Grande, Arizona.
 ii. ENRIQUE ZAMBRANO, b. Abt. 1920.
 iv. MACLOVIA ZAMBRANO, b. December 03, 1927.
 vii. ISAIAS ZAMBRANO, b. February 19, 1945.

 14.  BENITO5 ZAMBRANO (TIBUSCIO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1) was born August 06, 1918, and died August 25, 1997 in Alice, Texas.  He married REYMUNDA VASQUEZ.
Social Security Number: 451-18-1781
37. iii. JOSE ZAMBRANO, b. 1946.

Social Security Number: 381-64-2877
 iv. ROSALINDA ZAMBRANO, b. August 15, 1949, Jim Wells County, Texas.

Social Security Number: 455-12-9888
 iii. JUANA ESPINO, b. June 17, 1941, Duval County, Texas.
 iv. MANUEL JR ESPINO, b. November 13, 1942.
38. v. ALBERT ESPINO, b. November 15, 1944, Kingsville, Texas; d. January 19, 1979, Kingsville, Texas.
 vi. JOVITA ESPINO, b. October 14, 1946.
 vii. CONSUELO ESPINO, b. May 16, 1948.
39. viii. OLGA ESPINO, b. June 27, 1950.
 ix. ANTONIO ESPINO, b. July 10, 1955.
 x. JULIA ESPINO, b. July 26, 1952; m. SANCHEZ.
 xi. NOE ESPINO, b. May 17, 1958; m. CARMEN UTLEY, March 27, 1982.
 xii. DIANA LEONOR, b. April 12, 1954.
 xiii. GREGORIO ESPINO, b. April 20, 1960, Kingsville, Texas; d. March 02, 1978, Kingsville, Texas.
Social Security Number: 465-19-5258
 xiv. ANNABELLE ESPINO, b. August 29, 1962; d. NO CHILDREN, NOT MARRIED.

17.  JULIO5 SEMBRANO (TIBUSCIO4 ZAMBRANO, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1) was born February 16, 1926, and died October 13, 1997 in Concepcion, Texas.  He married JULIA VERA November 15, 1945.
 Children of JULIO SEMBRANO and JULIA VERA are:
41. ii. ALEJO SEMBRANO, b. August 1956.

Generation No. 4
 i. LINO G7 GARCIA, b. March 30, 1943.
 ii. EVANGELINA GARCIA, b. April 14, 1944.

 i. JOSE A7 ZAMBRANO, b. September 18, 1940.
 ii. SIMON A ZAMBRANO, b. November 08, 1942.
 iii. JESUS A ZAMBRANO, b. December 13, 1947.

21.  TELEFORO6 ZAMBRANO (GREGORIO5, JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1) was born October 15, 1915 in Skidmore, and died January 1984 in Corpus Christi, Texas.  He married CONCEPCION REYES August 08, 1943.
 i. MARY JOSEPHINE7 ZAMBRANO, b. July 11, 1949.

42. i. JOSEPH7 RODRIGUEZ, b. June 15, 1947, Beeville, Texas.

24.  ELIGIO6 ZAMBRANO (FELIPE5, JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born December 01, 1924 in Beeville, Texas1, and died February 07, 1995 in W. Chicago, IL-Buried at Calvary Cemetery1.  He married MIQUELA POSADA1.


 i. ADELAIDO JR.7 POSADA1, b. 1948; m. MARY J. AGUILLON, August 27, 1970, Bloomington, Texas.
 ii. ALEJANDRO POSADA1, b. 1950; m. MARIA D. LAMAS, June 06, 1970, Bloomington, Texas.
 v. ARMANDO POSADA1, d. April 10, 1975, Bloomington, Texas.
 vi. FELIPE POSADA1, b. 1958; m. NORMA HERNANDEZ, September 08, 1979, Bloomington, Texas.

27.  FELIPE HINOJOSA6 ZAMBRANO (FELIPE5, JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born November 10, 1931 in Skidmore, Texas1.  He married RUTH ELIZABETH ANN MORGAN1 February 1956 in San Diego, California.
44. i. LINDA JEAN7 ZAMBRANO, b. April 28, 1957, National City, California.
45. ii. SUSAN ZAMBRANO, b. May 16, 1958, National City, California.
 iii. JOANNE ZAMBRANO1, b. August 12, 1959, National City, California1; d. September 04, 1960, El Cajon, California1.
46. iv. LARRY MICHAEL ZAMBRANO, b. September 09, 1960.
47. v. PATRICIA ANN ZAMBRANO, b. November 27, 1961, El Cajon, California.
48. vi. RONALD ERLE ZAMBRANO, b. May 18, 1965, National City, California.

 ii. ESTELLA SANCHEZ1, b. March 24, 1955, Beeville, Texas; d. October 23, 1989, Beeville, Texas; m. NOE J. CABRERA, January 12, 1974, Beeville, Texas.



31.  HORTENSIA6 ZAMBRANO (FELIPE5, JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born December 10, 1938 in Beeville, Texas1.  She married JOHN CLIFFORD MORGAN II1 September 02, 1961 in Beeville, Texas.
 i. JAMES ASHBURY7 MORGAN1, b. February 07, 19651.
 ii. LOUIS WINFIELD MORGAN1, b. April 06, 19671.
 iii. CYBELE ANNE MORGAN1, b. December 21, 19681.
 iv. JOHN CLIFFORD MORGAN, JR.1, b. August 08, 19711.

Children of MARTHA VELA and JUAN PEREZ are:
 iii. JOEL PEREZ1.

33.  PAULA6 ROMERO (VICTORIA5 ZAMBRANO, JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born March 02, 1926.  She married (1) FRANCISCO GONZALEZ.  She married (2) TRINIDAD NOYOLA.  She met (3) FRANCIS N HANDY November 06, 1985 in San Antonio, Texas.
49. i. FRANCISCO JR.7 GONZALEZ, b. June 12, 1950.
50. ii. TOMAS GONZALEZ, b. February 26, 1952.
51. iii. VICTOR GONZALEZ, b. September 12, 1954, El Paso, Texas.
52. iv. RUBEN GONZALEZ, b. May 25, 1955, El Paso, Texas.
53. v. MARIA GUADALUPE GONZALEZ, b. December 12, 1957, El Paso, Texas.
54. vi. CONCEPION GONZALEZ, b. February 14, 1962, El Paso, Texas.
55. vii. TRINIDAD7 NOYOLA, b. November 16, 1945, Bee County, Texas.

34.  CLAUDINA6 CASAREZ (VICTORIA5 ZAMBRANO, JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born August 11, 1935 in Clairbille, Texas, Bee County.  She married CARLOS CANSINO1 in divorced in 1961.
56. i. CHARLES MARTIN7 CANSINO, b. June 19, 1953, Crooksville, MN.
 ii. ROMAN CANSINO1, b. May 07, 1954, San Antonio, Texas; d. not married in 2003.

 i. GUADALUPE7 ZAMBRANO, b. June 05, 1949.

36.  RICARDO G.6 ZAMBRANO (RICARDO V5, JOSE ANACLETO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1) was born October 10, 1917 in Kenedy, Texas, and died November 15, 1999 in Casa Grande, Arizona.  He married MACLOVIA PENA.
 i. ALFRED7 ZAMBRANO, b. September 03, 1941.
57. ii. ANGELITA ZAMBRANO, b. October 23, 1943, Kenedy, Texas.
 iii. ARNOLDO ZAMBRANO, b. November 15, 1946.
58. iv. ARCILIA ZAMBRANO, b. November 15, 1948, Kenedy, Texas.
60. ix. ARMANDO ZAMBRANO, b. July 03, 1966, Casa Grande, Arizona.

 i. JOE7 ZAMBRANO, b. August 04, 1968, Weslaco, TX.
Adopted: Mother is Maria Zambrano-sister to Jose

38.  ALBERT6 ESPINO (HERLINDA5 ZAMBRANO, TIBUSCIO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1) was born November 15, 1944 in Kingsville, Texas, and died January 19, 1979 in Kingsville, Texas.  He married MARIA LAUSIA GARZA September 30, 1967 in Kingsville, Texas.
Social Security Number: 454-68-7663
Children of ALBERT ESPINO and MARIA GARZA are:
61. i. ALBERT STEPHEN7 ESPINO, b. July 25, 1969.
 ii. STEPHANIE MARIE ESPINO, b. July 12, 1974.

Children of OLGA ESPINO and JIM ROSS are:
 iii. MICHEL SU ROSS, b. adopted from Japan.



Generation No. 5



44.  LINDA JEAN7 ZAMBRANO (FELIPE HINOJOSA6, FELIPE5, JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born April 28, 1957 in National City, California1.  She married JOHN LINDSEY ROBINSON1 May 26, 1990 in Apache Jct., Arizona.
 i. JOHN LINDSEY8 ROBINSON1, b. October 17, 1991, Mesa, Arizona1.

45.  SUSAN7 ZAMBRANO (FELIPE HINOJOSA6, FELIPE5, JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born May 16, 1958 in National City, California1.  She married (1) KEVIN ROBERT COLLINS1 June 1976 in Lakeside, California.  She married (2) DAVID GARRETT NOBLES1 October 03, 1993 in San Diego, California, son of BOBBIE NOBLES and CLAUDIA BOONE.
 i. REBECCA ANN8 COLLINS1, b. February 01, 1977, Long Beach, California1.


 i. KRISTINE MARIE8 ZAMBRANO1, b. March 07, 1989, San Diego, California1.
 ii. JEREMY LEE ZAMBRANO1, b. December 09, 1989, San Diego, California1.
 iii. BENJAMIN MICHAEL ZAMBRANO1, b. December 09, 1989, San Diego, California1.

 i. TODD VICTOR8 BERNDT, JR.1, b. November 16, 1984, El Cajon, California1.

48.  RONALD ERLE7 ZAMBRANO (FELIPE HINOJOSA6, FELIPE5, JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1)1 was born May 18, 1965 in National City, California1.  He married SUSAN MOON1 October 14, 1989 in San Diego, California.
 i. BRIAN JOSEPH8 ZAMBRANO1, b. September 23, 19901.






 i. MARLYNE8 CARRILLO, b. December 18, 1980, Renton, Washington; m. RAMON ANTONIO PEREZ, December 21, 1998.

54.  CONCEPION7 GONZALEZ (PAULA6 ROMERO, VICTORIA5 ZAMBRANO, JOSE TEODORO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1) was born February 14, 1962 in El Paso, Texas.  He married ELISEO P MALDONADO October 31, 1998 in San Fernando Catheral, San Antonio.
 i. ALEJANDRO8 GONZALEZ, b. November 16, 1999, San Antonio, Texas.



 i. SYLIVA8 MEJIA, b. March 02, 1965, Casa Grande, Arizona.
62. ii. FRANCISCO MEJIA, b. March 25, 1966, Casa Grande, Arizona.
63. iii. ABRAHAM MEJIA, b. May 06, 1969, Casa Grande, Arizona.
64. iv. CECILA MEJIA, b. April 10, 1976.

58.  ARCILIA7 ZAMBRANO (RICARDO G.6, RICARDO V5, JOSE ANACLETO4, FELIPE DE JESUS3, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO2, JOSE FRANCISCO ANTONIO1) was born November 15, 1948 in Kenedy, Texas.  She married (1) LEOPOLDO HIRM LAUREL January 03, 1970 in Hildago County, Texas, son of LEOPOLDO LAUREL and JUANA ALANIZ.  She married (2) WALTER STANLEY ADAMS October 07, 1985 in Maine.
 i. CHRISTOPHER HIRAM8 LAUREL, b. July 06, 1970, Edinburg, Texas.
 ii. SAMUEL ISAAC LAUREL, b. May 11, 1972, Edinburg, Texas.

 Child of ARIEL ZAMBRANO is:
 i. ADAM8 ZAMBRANO, b. Casa Grande, Arizona.

 i. BRITNIMARIE8 ZAMBRANO, b. August 08, 1985.
 ii. ANDREA ZAMBRANO, b. March 18, 1987.
 iii. ARMANDO JR ZAMBRANO, b. March 23, 1993.

Children of ALBERT ESPINO and CINDY GARZA are:
 i. DEAVON ANAYE8 ESPINO, b. April 19, Kingsville, Texas.
 ii. HOPE LAURIE ESPINO, b. Houston or Kingsville.
 iii. GENEVE DEMETRIA ESPINO, b. Houston, Texas.
 iv. ERIN KADDISY ESPINO, b. Houston.

Generation No. 6

Children of FRANCISCO MEJIA are:

 Children of ABRAHAM MEJIA are:

Child of CECILA MEJIA and SHARPE is:

1.  Zambrano Family Tree.FBK.FBK.FTW, Date of Import: Nov 30, 2003.



New Orleans Archdiocesan  Archives
Cincinnati, Ohio Churches
Relations Between Spain and US
Census Finder New Orleans Records
Spanish-Language Manuscript Materials in Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections

Good website for inquires in the New Orleans area (Canary Islanders , Spanish , French etc. ).
Sent by Bill Carmena

The Archdiocese of New Orleans is comprised of eight civil parishes in and around metropolitan New Orleans: Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, St. Tammany, and Washington. Records for all other Louisiana civil parishes should be requested from the respective dioceses.


The archdiocesan archives houses all sacramental registers that end prior to 1920. Some early 20th-century registers that also include later entries still remain in individual church parishes. All current sacramental records (post 1920) are maintained in individual church parishes.

The archives also houses early records of four New Orleans cemeteries: St. Louis, St. Patrick, St. Joseph, and St. Roch. There are gaps in these records. Current cemetery interment as well as all cemetery ownership records are maintained in the archdiocesan cemeteries office. Access to these records is governed by right-to-know and privacy laws, as well as church policy. Only parish and cemetery staff have access to these records. Certificates are issued to authorized recipients.

All non-current interment records under the jurisdiction of the archdiocesan cemeteries office are housed in the archdiocesan archives. Microfilmed copies of these records are available at the New Orleans Public Library and The Historic New Orleans Collection. Other parish cemetery records remain in the individual church parishes.

Charles E. Nolan, Archivist
Archdiocese of New Orleans
1100 Chartres Street
New Orleans, LA 70116-2505

Telephone: (504) 529-2651  FAX: (504) 529-3075  e-mail:

Cincinnati, Ohio. . . Community Churches embrace Hispanic newcomers 

By Karen Vance
Enquirer contributor 

FAIRFIELD - For Rogelio Flores of Loveland, attending the Miami River Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was an easy choice. 

A member of the Latter-day Saints since birth, Flores, who is originally from Mexico, was looking for a place where he could worship with his wife, Marina, originally from Argentina, and their three children. 

She doesn't speak English well, but that doesn't matter in the Spanish-speaking congregation of the Miami River Branch in Fairfield. The church has a second Latter-day Saints branch, the Ohio River Branch, in Lakeside Park. 

"There's obviously a growing Hispanic population, and many of the people who come here who don't speak English are never going to be fluent in it," Flores said. "It's important for them to have a place to hear God's message. 

"More than half of our congregation is converts. We have a lot of focus on missionary work, and people who were searching for something, have found it with us," said Flores, 30. "There isn't a Sunday when we don't have visitors." 

He and the other members of the church are part of growing population in Greater Cincinnati, and one that is attracting the attention of many area churches. More of them are offering services to Spanish speaking congregation members. 

This summer, Immaculate Heart of Mary Catholic Church in Anderson Township began a regular Sunday Mass in Spanish at 1:15 p.m. 

"We began to look into it a few years ago, and found in the 2000 Census, that we have one of the highest populations of Spanish-speaking people in this area," said Father Jan Schmidt, pastor at Immaculate Heart. "These people are Catholic and if we don't reach out to them, someone else will." 

The Archdiocese of Cincinnati has several other churches with Spanish masses, including St. Charles Borromeo and St. Julie Billiart in Hamilton. It also operates the Su Casa Hispanic Ministry Center. 

In Northern Kentucky, an increasing Hispanic population - the 14-county Diocese of Covington saw a 235 percent increase from 1990 to 2000, according to census figures - has also prompted action. This summer, the diocese established its first new parish since the late 1980s, Cristo Rey (or Christ the King), with not only Sunday masses in Spanish at 12:15 p.m., but also daily Mass. 

Last Sunday, Father John Cahill was installed as pastor of the parish, which meets at the diocese's Catholic Center, 975 Donaldson Road, Erlanger. 

"We have 300 chairs, and last Sunday, we had standing room only," Cahill said of the service. He's performed 12 baptisms since the church's July 11 founding and there are three weddings planned. 

But Hispanic ministry is about more than just Spanish-speaking services. Cristo Rey is also home to the Centro de Amistad, or Friendship Center, which facilitates and organizes services for Hispanic people, such as banking assistance, health fairs and English classes. 

"Worship is never separate from what we live, so we practice what we worship and help each other, showing God's love," Cahill said. 

At the Vineyard Community Church in Springdale, there is an 11:30 a.m. Sunday service with Spanish interpretation. The church also provides a weekly small discussion group, English classes and distribution of food and clothing to those in need. 

The Miami River Branch also provides similar assistance to its members, and at Immaculate Heart, one Sunday each month the congregation has a fellowship meal following the Spanish mass. 

"We hope to be one large parish community with a growing understanding of one another," Schmidt said. 

The Relations Between Spain and the United States: 
Lousiana and the Middle West Territory (1763 - 1795) 
By Antonio R. Peña
Sent by Paul Newfield
This article analyses the political, military and social relations that were established between Spain and the United States on the middle ground territories since 1763 to 1795. A great European power and a new republic fought over those unpopulated territories and the relations between them oscillated between cooperation and confrontation. Two opposite conceptions and political and socioeconomic models clashed and crushed in the same place.

Key words: middle ground territories, Continental Congress, Continental army, Western Conventions, Virginia Assembly, Louisiana, Mississippi, Spanish government, Great Britain, France, James Wilkinson, José Bernardo Gálvez, Esteban Miró, Conde de Aranda, Floridablanca, George Washington, State Board.

El presente artículo plantea las relaciones políticas, militares y sociales que se establecieron entre España y los Estados Unidos sobre unos territorios del medio-oeste o middle ground, muy poco poblados y disputados entre una gran potencia europea y una república que acababa de nacer. Entre estos dos estados se entablaron unas relaciones que oscilaron entre la cooperación y el enfrentamiento. Dos concepciones y modelos políticos y socioeconómicos opuestos coincidieron y chocaron en un mismo espacio físico.

Palabras clave: territorios del middle ground, Congreso Continental, Ejército Continental, convenciones del oeste, asamblea de Virginia, Luisiana, Misisipí, gobierno español, Gran Bretaña, Francia, James Wilkinson, José Bernardo Gálvez, Esteban Miró, Conde de Aranda, Floridablanca, George Whashington.

A.G.I.: Archivo General de Indias. (General Archive of the Indies).
A.H.N: Archivo Histórico Nacional. (National Historic Archive).
Op. Cit: Opus citate
Loc. Cit: Locum citate
Leg: Legajo (file)
PP: pages
Ss: siguientes (following)

[[This is the first part of an excellent historical overview of the political complexities that existed during this time period. ]]


The Peace of Paris on the 10th February 1763 ended the Seven Years War and meant the restructuring of the northern territories of America around the Mississippi.  The 7th article of the treaty established the borders between France and Spain: “(...) the borders will be irrevocably fixed with a line drawn in the middle of the Mississippi River, from its source to the Iberville River, and from there, with another line drawn in the middle of this river with the lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain to the ocean (...)”.  The 20th article established that Great Britain would keep the territories in the east shore of the Mississippi, with Florida, the Penzacola Bay, San Agustín, Mobile and its river, and all the Spanish possessions in the east and southeast of the Mississippi. The territories of the west would be for France. The treaty also declared the free navigation through the river for all the British and French vassals [1] .  This way, Northern of America was divided in two sovereignties, Great Britain and France. However, Spain and France had signed the Treaty of Fontenebleau on the 3rd of November 1762, which obliged France to concede Louisiana including New Orleans and its island to Spain [2] . 

In 1766, Antonio Ulloa arrived in Louisiana with 90 soldiers and 3 civil servants to take over the province as the new governor on the name of the King of Spain. He found it on a critical situation: economical and political crisis. The territory he had to govern was very vast and not very populated. The trade was interrupted and the majority of the French population was worked up on the verge of rebellion. And he only had at his disposal 100 Spanish soldiers [3] . In the meantime, the British army was getting stronger on the west shore of the Mississippi breaking the Treaty of Paris and getting ready to conquer Louisiana, which was the last obstacle to their advance towards the Pacific. The danger of the British invasion got the French Creoles to reject the revolt and to collaborate with Ulloa in return for reestablishing the trade with the French colonies in the Caribbean. In 1768 the situation was untenable, and A. Ulloa had no choice other than accepting the French collaboration and creating a government with the French Creoles. This way, the French controlled the colony again, which became ruled by a Supreme Council that set the governor’s functions. In spite of all that, Ulloa continued making orders, for example he did an edict forbidding the trade with the French colonies in the Caribbean. Finally, the Council and Aubrey, the captain of the French Army, recommended the governor to leave the colony with his 90 soldiers and 3 civil servants. Doing that, Aubrey avoided a confrontation between Spanish and French that would have benefited the British [4] .

       In spite of this situation, the key of the control of Louisiana was in Cuba. The Spanish Council had sent Ulloa as governor under the military jurisdiction of the government in la Havana. That was one of the reasons why the French Creoles avoided an open revolt, because it would have meant a military answer from the government in La Havana. In fact, a military contingent of 2.600 soldiers had already been sent in the command of General O´Reilly with a new Governor, Luis Azanga. Then the Supreme Council sent Aubrey to go meet the Spanish troupes that were about to go up the Mississippi. When the two contingents met, Aubrey was under General O´Reilly orders. He dismissed the Supreme Council, arrested 9 of its ringleaders and executed 5.That ended the riot that had lasted a month [5] . The new government with L. Uzanga had as main aims the pacification and the control of the territory. To achieve that, Uzanga fused the French and the Spanish troupes into only one army commanded by General O´Reilly, creating an army of 5.000 soldiers. He did the same thing with the whole society: trade companies, artisan guilds and associations... This period lasted about 10 years. We can say that in 1776 the colony was pacified. Then L. Uzanga hand the government over to General Bernardo Gálvez. During that period, France had achieved important aims: to get rid off the direct financing of a territory that in 1762 cost them 800.000 pounds and to give it to Spain. This way the Catholic Monarchy was weaker and also it stopped the British advance. France was also controlling Louisiana through its companies and traders [6] .

Gálvez’s Government lasted only 6 years, but in my opinion, they were the most decisive ones.  When he arrived, the control of Louisiana was more nominal than real. There were not enough people to colonize the territory and the British controlled the Mississippi’s Valley but, prudently, they didn’t intervene in Louisiana to avoid the Spanish military reaction from its colonies in Mexico and the Caribbean. Besides, in the decade of 1770, the British were confronting the revolts for independence on their own colonies.  

In 1765 there were 11.000 inhabitants in Louisiana. Half of them were black slaves, 2.500 Spanish and 5.000 French and Acadians. Until the arrival of B. Galvez, Spain had not had clear colonial and immigration policies for Louisiana. In 1776, Colonel Bouligny elaborated a report about the colonization of the territory. On this report, Bouligny said that Spain would disappear from northern America: Luoisiana was a vast territory with not much population loyal to Spain, and the Anglo-Saxon colonies were bigger and continually growing. Those people would arrive soon to the Mississippi, they would cross it and colonize the whole continent to the Pacific. In this situation, the Anglo-Saxons would only have to expel the Indians to make an agreement with them [7] . From the Spanish Court, Conde de Aranda prophetically summarized the situation: “(...) Spain will remain hand in hand with another power in the whole Northern America. ¿And what power? The power that has called itself America. It has two and a half millions of inhabitants, descendents from Europeans, and according to the rules of its propagation, will double its inhabitants every 25 or 30 years, and in 50 or 60 years the population can reach eight or ten millions. Besides, the emigration from Europe will continue because of the attractive laws that the territory offers (...)” [8] .

Census Finder New Orleans Census Records

Wide variety of records, below are two examples:

Submitted By Rosemary Ermis, File 2 of 2 April 1999

Ward 6 New Orleans
Pge Ln Name Age/Sx Birthplace
14 17 Perret M. 35M Sardinia
14 18 Perret Maria 28F Sardinia
14 19 Perret Antonio 8M Sardinia
14 20 Perret Asunta 6F Sardinia
14 21 Perret Joseph 3M Sardinia
14 22 Saltacelli Juan 34M Sardinia
14 23 Saltacelli Angela 35F Sardinia
14 24 Saltacelli Maria 7F Sardinia
14 25 Saltacelli Madalena 4F Sardinia
14 28 Cuneo A. 44M Sardinia
14 29 Cuneo C. 35F Sardinia
14 30 Cuneo M. 13F Sardinia
14 31 Cuneo Carolina 9F Sardinia
14 32 Cuneo Domenico 8M Sardinia
14 33 Cuneo Constantino 5M Sardinia
14 34 Cuneo Maria 2F Sardinia

Ships and Passenger Lists Orelans Parish ARchives LAGENWEB- USGENWEB

File #
Passenger List Indexes Size

000 01-28-1882 Ital Bark Alfeo - Palermo to New Orleans 4 Aug 2001 Donna Volker 
003 02-24-1870 Ital Bark Biaggio - Palermo to New Orleans 2 Aug 2001 Donna Volker 
014 02-25-1877 Ital Bark Domenico - Palermo to New Orleans 2 Aug 2001 Donna Volker 
004 04-03-1877 Ital Bark Emma - Palermo to New Orleans 4 Aug 2001 Donna Volker 
015 04-06-1878 Ital Bark Emma - Palermo to New Orleans 4 Aug 2001 Donna Volker 

Spanish-Language Manuscript Materials in the Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections,

Special Collections, LSU LibrariesSpecial Collections
Sent by Bill Carmena

INTRODUCTION Since 1519, when the Spanish explorer Alonso Alverez de Pineda led an expedition along the northern shores of the Gulf of Mexico and discovered the mouth of the mighty Mississippi, Spanish culture has influenced Louisiana. The Spanish-language manuscript resources in the Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections (LLMVC) at LSU touch upon all these sources of Spanish cultural influence. This guide to these resources includes descriptions of the papers of early colonists, Spanish-speaking people and free people of color in the nineteenth century, and residents of cities and towns like New Orleans and Natchitoches. The documents it describes came from farmers and merchants, writers and artists, women and men, the famous and the anonymous.  Collections in this guide are listed alphabetically, with a chronological index after the alphabetical listing. Brief descriptions include references to sources for additional information--either the LSU Libraries' catalog, which is accessible through the Internet, or the manuscript card catalog in the Special Collections reading room of Hill Memorial Library. Still additional information on some of these collections can be found in detailed finding aids in the reading room. Increasingly, electronic copies of these finding aids can be found on the World Wide Web site for Special Collections, where you can also find information about using the collections, searching the online catalog remotely, and asking us questions.

Hill Memorial Library / Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Public Services Desk: (225) 578-6544 Reference Desk: (225) 578-6568  Fax (225) 578-9425



Salute to Hispanic WW II Veterans
Under Representation of Hispanics in the Federal Service


September 15, 2004

Reflections on "Salute to Hispanic WW II Veterans"
by J. V. Martinez

Three hours ago, I attended the Hispanic Heritage Month commemoration, "Salute to Hispanic WW II Veterans", held at the Hall of Heroes in the Pentagon and hosted by the Hispanic Was Veterans of America. I felt honored to be in attendance and believe it would have been an honor for any other American had he or she been present. This is particularly true for any Hispanic. Hispanics are known to have served in the U.S. military beyond their representation in the U.S. population. Seeming, such service has become a tradition as illustrated by the fact that so far 39 Hispanics have been awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor and that 20 % of American casualties in Iraq have been Hispanic soldiers.

At this event, nine Hispanic veterans were honored: Raymond P. Alvarado, Osvaldo Diaz-Espada, Guy Gabaldon, Andres Ignacio Gallegos, Raul Gonzales, Peter Jimenez, Jose Lopez, Frank Medina and Ignacio Servin. Of these, Jose Lopez, of Mission, Texas, was the only Congressional Medal of Honor recipient.

The keynote address was delivered by Lieutenant General Richardo Sanchez who was flown in from Germany for the occasion. General Sanchez was formerly commander in Iraq and is now Commanding General of the Fifth Corps. Near the end of the ceremony, each honoree was provided an opportunity to share his thoughts with those in the audience. This part of the program had its amusing moments. One honoree wondered how to address the current officers officiating at the ceremony to express his appreciation for the occasion, considering as he said, "I was only a private." General Sanchez responded by stating that he, the private, was the highest ranking officer present in that hall.

Guy Gabaldon, who is being supported for receipt of the Congressional Medal of Honor and who has authored a book of his experiences, was humorous, with some irony, in his remarks. This included mention of his coming across three fellow marines who were pinned in a gully by a machine gun during WW II. Gabaldon went ahead and joined the group of three and noticed that one of them was a Chicano-Gabaldon seemed to honor that label. Gabaldon learned that the marine was from Los Angeles just as Gabaldon was. Upon learning they attended rival high schools, the newly met Chicano volunteered to fight Gabaldon right then and there. Ultimately, the Chicano marine read a passage from a Bible he was carrying after which, he left the gully alone and headed for the Japanese manned pillbox that was firing on the marines. Attempts to convince the Chicano marine to return were to no avail. Rather, the marine managed to reach the pillbox already fatally wounded with a large number of bullet holds in his body and used his hand grenade to destroy the pillbox saving the lives of his fellow marines. This is a poignant story indeed, one of several relayed by the honorees.

Another of the nine veterans stood up to express his appreciation for being provided the opportunity to be present and to thank the organizers for arranging the event.  The veteran began his comment by indicating that as a private, he was unaware how to address the high level officers present.  These included all within the ranks of up to that of  lieutenant general (Ricardo Sanchez).  General Sanchez responded immediately to address the private by saying, "Today in this room, you are the highest ranking officer."  I don't believe a more gracious response could have been made considering the sacrifices the private made during WWII. 


Hispanic War Veterans of .America. HWVA Tribute 
World War II Honorees

Washington, DC September 15, 2004

Raymond P. Alvarado: SGT Alvarado served in the Army. He is a survivor of the greatest sea disaster in WWII, where 1,138 men lost their lives to a German aerial missile attack. During this sea disaster, SGT Alvarado saved the lives of SGT Snyder, CPT Johnson, and helped three British crewmen survive the treacherous waters. SGT Alvarado is the recipient of several military awards including the Purple Heart.

Osvaldo Diaz-Espada: Chief Yeoman Dias-Espada, bom in Ponce, Puerto Rico, served in the Navy from 1942 until his retirement in 1965. He is a veteran of WWII and the Korean War. He served in the Atlantic and Pacific during WWII, including participation in campaigns on the Gilbert Islands, Marshall Island, the Marianas, Okinawa, and Hiroshima. He also served aboard the USS Bonhomme Richard during the Korean War. Chief Yeoman Dias-Espada is the recipient of several military awards.

Guy Gabaldon: PFC Gabaldon, bom in Los Angeles, was adopted by a Japanese American family who taught him Japanese. He served in the USMC in Saipan and Tinian, Mariana Islands, and South Pacific where he distinguished himself by single-handedly capturing over 1,000 Japanese. While serving as a Japanese interpreter, he earned the Silver Star. He also earned the Navy Cross, and there is a petition to elevate this award to the Congressional Medal of Honor.

Andres Ignacio Gallegos: SSG Gallegos, bom in Belen, New Mexico, served in the Army in the European and Pacific Theaters. He served with the 11th Airborne Division, 4th Constabulary Regiment, 83rd Division, and the 89th Division. His awards and decorations include the Bronze Star, the Purple Heart, the Medical Combat Badge, and the Parachutist Badge.

Raul Gonzales:
PFC Gonzales, born in Compton, CA served in the Army with the 98th Division. He served as an instructor at Fort Benning training monolingual Hispanics. PFC Gonzales also served in the Pacific during the mop-up of Japan after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Pete Jimenez: SSG Jimenez served in the Army with the 175th Infantry Regiment, 29th Infantry Division since the beginning of the Normandy Invasion at Omaha Beach, to the surrender of Germany. He also served as one of General Elsenhower's personal bodyguards, when the general visited the Division on the front lines. SSG Jimenez was awarded numerous awards including the Legion D'Honneur/Legion of Honor, by order of President Jacques Chirac on June 6,2003. He also received the Croix de Guerre by order of General de Gaulle, the Bronze Star with V device and five Purple Hearts.

Jose Lopez:
SGT Lopez, born in Mission, Texas served with the 23rd Infantry, 2nd Infantry Division in the European Theater. He was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. The award citation states "SGT Lopez's gallantry and intrepidity, on seemingly suicidal missions in which he killed at least 100 of the enemy, were almost solely responsible for allowing Company K to avoid being enveloped, to withdraw successfully, and to give other forces coming up in support, time to build a line which repelled the enemy drive" The full citation can be viewed at the Congressional Medal of Honor Society website:

Frank Medina: CPL Medina of the Army Air Corps, served as a tail gunner with the 756th Bomb Squadron when his aircraft a B24 was shot down over Italy. He and the crew had to parachute out of the plane. He landed in a cornfield dodging machinegun fire and was trapped behind enemy lines for eight months. He survived by using his wits, military training and assistance from friendly Italians. His story is well documented on his book "Ciao Francesco"

Ignacio Servin:
PFC Servin, born in Miami, Arizona, served in the Army with the 154th Combat Engineers Battalion in the Pacific Theater during WWII. He earned the Silver Star for gallantry in action in September 1944. He and a fellow soldier (now deceased) volunteered to blow up an enemy ammunition site, thus helping to destroy the enemy's hold of the island. PFC Servin waited almost 60 years to receive the Silver Star. On December 5, 2003, Senator McCain pinned the Silver Star on Servin at a ceremony in Phoenix, Arizona.

The lead arranger of this event was Mr. Al Zapanta, Chair of the Reserve Forces Policy Board in the Department of Defense Office of the Secretary. Mr. Manny Mirabal, president of the National Puerto Rican Coalition headquartered in the nation’s capital was called upon to recognize the two sponsors of this event, Freddie Mac and the National Mortgage Association.
The event was sponsored by:
Hispanic War Veterans of America
Reserve Forces Policy Board, Office of the
        Secretary of Defense
National Puerto Rican Coalition

Visit at:     
Freddie Mac
Mortage Bankers Association
A Color of Honor
Tyson Foods
Bello Magazine

Under Representation of Hispanics in the Federal Service
by J. V. Martinez

The Congressional Hispanic Caucus Issues Conference is held during the Hispanic Heritage Month commemoration period. In this year’s conference, Mr. Gilbert Sandate reported on the issue of under representation of Hispanics in the federal service on Tuesday, September 14. Mr. Sandate presented the report on behalf of a sub-commitee of the National Hispanic Leadership Agenda, which claims a membership of 40 Hispanic organizations. The issue is that U.S. Hispanics as a whole are woefully represented in the federal service save for possibly service in the military where, as Mr. Sandate stated, 20 % of the casualties in Iraq are Hispanic.

The issue of under representation if of particular interest since the presence of Hispanics as employees in the federal sector is not being maintained but is actually decreasing. Without a doubt, it is apparent that the Hispanic participation is decreasing relative to its population growth. What’s more, as Mr. Sandate cited is included in the associated press release, the presence of Hispanics is dismal at the highest levels of employee, notably the Senior Executive Service.

The facts Mr. Sandate conveyed is that the fraction of Hispanics in the federal service is near 7 % while the fraction of Hispanics in the U.S. population is 13 %; the absence of an equitable fraction of Hispanics in the service amounts to a several billion dollar loss of revenue to the Hispanic community; the population figures used in making these estimates do not include the near 4 million population in Puerto Rico; of those Hispanics employed in the federal service, less than 3 % are in the highest level pay scales and nearly 9 % are in the lower category of pay scales. Thus, not only is there equity in the federal service in terms of number of employees but in addition, those Hispanics employed by the federal government are concentrated in the lower, non-decision, non-policy making and non-supervisory positions, positions of influence.



StoryCorps is an unusual oral history project that encourages people to share their life experiences with one another in a tiny recording studio in New York City's Grand Center Terminal.  the boxy 8 by 10 foot structure, which opened two years ago in October, stands in a busy passageway.

peek through the soundproof booth's narrow window usually give a glimpse of two people seated at a table, talking, a pair of microphones between them. All ages are attracted to the booth.  Since its opening, StoryCorps has recorded hundreds of interviews.

StoryCorps was created by David Isay, a 38-year-old radio producer who says he wanted to "take oral history and put it in the hands of regular people."  That's in contrast to traditional oral history conduced by academics and journalists.  "You can bring your mother or grandfather or neighbor - anyone you choose - and conduct a 40-minute oral history interview with the help of a facilitator.

Hear recordings of interviews at
Source: Information and photo: Smithsonian, June 2004, pg.52


Aniversario de la Fundación de la Villa de Revilla
Yellow Fever and the Mexican-American War
Looking for your Immigrant Ancestor in Mexico, 1890-1960
DNA Percentages in Mexico

Transcripts of the original text, Archivo General de Indias, Guadalajara
Reclaiming Church Wealth: The Recovery of Church Property After
             Expropriation in the Archdiocese of Guadalajara, 1860-1911
CVI Escritores de Jalisco: Gracias por participar  

Real y Minas del Panuco, Zacatecas

Zacatecas Apellidos de
Salvador Cabral Valdès 
Genealogía de Arizmeni y Gogorrón 
Wal-Mart Upsets Comic Balance of Ruins
The Library of Congress, 27 Select Resources for Researching Mexico
Continuation of Descendants of Don Juan Canales


Aniversario de la Fundación de la Villa de Revilla
Martes 19 de Octubre del 2004
11:00 a. m. Salón del DIF. Municipal

El Colegio de Cronistas e Historiadores de la Frontera Norte de Tamaulipas y Sur de Texas, A. C.
Le invitan a sú XII reunión de trabajo en el marco del 254

Aniversario de la Fundación de la Villa de Revilla, y 51 de Nueva Ciudad Guerrero, que tendrá como tema central la Vida y Obra de Los Hermanos: Coronel Don José Bernardo Maximiliano Gutiérrez de Lara Uribe ( 1774-1841) y el Bachiller y Presbítero Antonio Gutiérrez de Lara Uribe. (A un costado de la Presidencia)

Inauguración Fotografica de Guerrero Viejo
Colección Arqueologa Rose Treviño

1:00 p.m. Comida Ofrecida por la Presidencia Municipal
4:00 p.m. Tour a Guerreo Viejo con el objetivo de conocer los trabajos de restauración que se están realizando

Presentaciones: Las ponencias se entregaran por escrito con el objetivo de reproducirlas y entregarlas ese mismo día a los participantes, la duración será de 25 minutos como máximo, para mayores informes comunicarse con: Ing. Clemente Rendon de la Garza, Presidente del CCHF

(956) 495-7644: e-mail:
Arq. Carlos Rugerio Cazares, Secretario
us (956) 849-0099, 849-1411 y 227-5689
cel en mex: 01-86-88-85-20-28
o al correo electrónico:

Ponencias inscritas.
1.- Presentación del Libro " El Triunfo del Agua"  por el Lic. Mario Garza Ramos, Comentarios Ing. Clemente Rendon de la Garza.
2.- Constantes Arquitectónicas en los sistemas constructivos y materiales en la Villa de Revilla en el Siglo XVIII. por Mtro. Arq. Carlos Rugerio Cazares.
3.- Presentacion del Libro " La Espada y el Caliz" por el Profesor Joel C. Uribe
4.- Semblanza del Historiador y Cronista "Don Lorenzo de la Garza por el Ing. Rafael de la Garza (nieto).  
5.- La Familia Flores en la Historia de Los Dos Guerreros

Sent by George Gause

David W. Tschanz,MSPH, Ph.D.
Sent by JV Martinez, Ph.D.

March 26, 1847 found Major General Winfield Scott in a strangely anxious mood. His army had successfully landed, then invested, the Mexican city of Veracruz. His decision to lay siege to the city -- the most heavily fortified in the Western Hemisphere -- rather than storm it was criticized by some, but the constant American bombardment was starting to have the intended effect. Morale inside the Mexican city was collapsing and it was clearly only a matter of time before the city capitulated.

The cause of Scott's anxiety, in fact, had little to do with the actual military situation. His eye was on the calendar and the steady march of days. Already two months off his original timetable because of incompetence in the War Department, Scott's nerves were on edge because of reports from his medical officers of disease in the ranks. It was this same disease that had dictated the entire strategy and original timing of his assault and now it looked as if every delay would bring it into contact with his forces. 

The Mexican called it La Vomito. A fifth of those who developed it were doomed to die. Victims were racked with headache, fever, chills and vomiting. Their skin took on a pronounced yellow color as their liver was damaged then failed. Splotches of blue and black appeared on the skin as blood vessels ruptured and hemorrhaged into the surrounding tissue. Inside the body the same process cut off the blood supply to major organs. Blood seeping from damaged arteries and veins filled the lungs and the victim began to drown in his own fluids. In the severely stricken the vomit took on the consistency and color of coffee grounds-in reality coagulated blood-as the afflicted literally began to vomit up his own life blood. 

La Vomito frightened Scott more than the Mexicans. Santa Ana's force he knew he could defeat. But La Vomito-yellow fever-was an opponent he was helpless against. Nineteenth Century physicians knew neither its cause nor how it was transmitted. All they could do was provide clinical support for the victim's symptoms and hope for the best. Scott's only workable strategy was to avoid the disease. But it was getting too close to the La Vomito season to suit the American commander.

Yellow fever, popularly called "Yellow Jack" because it was a common cause for quarantining ships and ships in quarantine fly a yellow flag or jack, was and is one the world's most dreaded epidemic diseases.

Yellow fever in the New World

A viral illness, yellow fever is transmitted to man by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Yellow fever was imported to the New World as a result of the African slave trade, ironically necessitated by the importation of European diseases to the New World and the die off of about 80% of the native American population in the space of two generations. Aedes aegypti appears to have arrived at the same time, traveling from Africa as stowaways in the water casks on the same ships as the slaves. Shipboard outbreaks could wipe out entire crews.

Between 1693 and 1901, 95 separate epidemics ravaged the United States inflicting 500,000 persons and killing 100,000. Philadelphia was struck eleven times, one outbreak in 1793 killed 10% of the city's population. Boston and New York were ravaged seven times each. The disease occurred and recurred regularly in Charleston, Mobile, Norfolk, Baltimore, New Orleans and other cities along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. 

Yellow fever played a number of roles in New World history. Its presence effectively closed the Amazon Basin to European exploration and colonization. In 1801 Napoleon sent a French army, under his son-in-law General Leclerc, to suppress the Haitian rebellion of Toussaint l'Ouverture. No sooner had it landed then it was attacked by yellow fever. Of an army of 25,000 only 3,000 survived to return to France. Napoleon lost interest in a New World Empire. He called in the American commissioners James Monroe and Robert Livingston, who had been seeking to purchase New Orleans, and offered them the entire Louisiana Territory for little more than they had been prepared to pay for one city.

Together with malaria, yellow fever defeated the attempts of Ferdinand de Lesseps to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. De Lesseps, fresh from his canal building success at Suez, designed a canal across 120 kilometers of swamp and mountains. In 1884 he brought in 500 young French engineers to supervise construction of the new canal, which he thought would take three years. None of them would live to draw their first month's pay. In September the entire crew of a visiting British warship died of the disease. After losing one third of the entire European work force of 20,000, de Lesseps abandoned the project. The construction rights were sold to the United States. Benefiting from the new understanding of the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of the disease and the work of Walter Reed and William Gorgas, the Panama Canal was completed in 1904. Even then it was a close thing. An outbreak of La Vomito in 1904 caused coffins to be accumulated on the railway stations faster than they could be removed. Panic seized the workers and only a heroic anti-mosquito campaign saved the project from failure.

La Vomito AND The Planning of the Veracruz Campaign

The Mexican-American war had gone extremely well as 1846 began to draw to a close. Major General Zachary Taylor's successes in the northern Mexico territories and the conquest of California were causes for national jubilation. However, the goal of a Mexican surrender had not yet been achieved and the need to "conquer a peace" was growing acute. President James Knox Polk and his military advisors decided that in order to force a Mexican capitulation, further offensives would be necessary. Mexico City was the obvious target. As well as being the political, financial and military capital of the country there was another reason to take it. Mexico City stood on the site of the ancient Aztec capital, Tenochitlan, and was of great symbolic value to the nation as a whole. Capturing it would convince the Mexicans of their complete defeat.

The immediate problem for the Americans was how to get there. An approach by Taylor's forces from the north was ruled out since he would have to cross the northern Mexico deserts. Instead Polk decided on a landing at Veracruz. Once this great city, the most heavily defended in the Western Hemisphere had fallen, the American army, following the same path as Cortes had, would march on the Mexican capital and end the war.

After much soul-searching Polk gave command of the American invasion force to Winfield Scott, the Army's senior general and a man he did not like. Scott was a Whig, whereas Polk was a Democrat. The invasion, if successful, would enhance the Presidential prospects of whoever commanded it. Taylor, whose successes in the north had him being touted as a Presidential prospect (despite the fact that he had never voted), was a reminder of this danger. Always the consummate politician Polk was not enamored with the idea of a Democratic war leading to the election of a Whig general.

Scott was also prone to arrogance and tactlessness. Earlier in the war he had written the Secretary of War that he was not interested in conducting a military campaign with the fire of the Mexicans in front of him, and political intrigue and opposition from the Democrats in his rear. Still, he was a superb military leader.

Scott was a stickler for detail, a brilliant planner, an expert logistician and one of the United States' most overlooked strategists and military commanders. His meticulously laid out plans for the assault, which he did not think he would be allowed to lead, were the reason Polk finally appointed him to command. Scott's entire plan was based on striking Veracruz during the winter, and marching west of the "Yellow Fever Line" into the Sierra Madres before the La Vomito season started. The memory of the fate of Leclerc's army was a vivid reminder of the power of yellow fever. Scott had no desire to see it repeat its victory this time on the American Army. Also driving him was the knowledge that in May he would lose a third of his forces as the enlistment period of the first volunteers came to an end. 

Scott's plan, supported by Commodore David Conner, the naval commander, called for an invasion before the end of January. Conner wanted to avoid the terrible "Northers", storms which annually wreaked havoc with the Gulf weather and might threaten the invasion force with sinking. These same Northers also cleansed the swamps of mosquitoes and eliminated yellow fever in the area for a few weeks. By April however the winds would disappear and spring rains would bring forth a new generation of the disease-bearing insects. These biological interactions were unknown to Scott. All he knew was that taking Veracruz would not be easy and that he wanted to be in the high country of the Sierra Madres by the spring, before La Vomito could whittle his army away. The best time to attack, Conner and Scott agreed, was in late January. However both Conner and Scott failed to anticipate the ineptitude of the War Department. 

It is doubtful that the War Department could have served the American cause any worse if they had been in the pay of the Mexican government and trying to foul things up deliberately. In comic opera fashion the War Department sent ships to the wrong ports, assigned troops to the wrong locations and failed to deliver equipment where it was needed. Elements of the army and navy arrived at the designated assembly point, the Island of Lobos, (about 120 kilometers east of Tampico), in dribs and drabs. It was maddening to Scott, whose attention to detail had earned him the nickname "Old Fuss and Feathers", as the entire month of February vanished amid the confusion. As if to remind him of what disease could do, an outbreak of smallpox caused the entire 2nd Pennsylvania Regiment to be quarantined on Lobos.

The First Amphibious Invasion In American History

Finally, On March 9, nearly two months behind schedule, Scott launched the first amphibious invasion in American history. It was a rousing success. In less than 5 hours 10,000 men had landed without a single casualty. Scott and his men besieged Veracruz and maneuvered to invest it, while the navy blockaded and bombarded the city. Siege life was miserable for both the besiegers and the besieged. Mexican skirmishers kept the American sentries wary and trigger happy. Sand was everywhere and in everything. Happily living in the sand were sand fleas-all of them hungry and looking at the arrival of the Americans as an opportunity to gorge. Battling them took on almost the same importance as fighting the Mexicans-with some unusual results. Young Lieutenant Robert E. Lee and a colleague hit on the idea of covering themselves with pork grease to keep the pesky critters from feasting on them. This experiment in pest control had no impact on the sand fleas, but probably cost Lee most of his friends. Others dealt with the fleas by enclosing themselves completely in their canvas sleeping bags, usually resulting in the complete encasement of victim and a large number of fleas.

More ominously, cases of La Vomito began to occur in small numbers almost as soon as the forces landed, though not at epidemic strength. Scott knew that it was only a matter of time before it did and that it would cripple his army.

Inside Veracruz the citizenry was subjected to a demoralizing bombardment from the warships gathered in the harbor. Further lowering of civilian morale followed the American investiture of the city. Depressing the citizenry more, no relief appeared from Mexico City.

Mexican support from outside the beleaguered city was pitiful. Troops from the upland states of the Mexican republic refused to venture into the coastal regions for fear of the La Vomito, whose season was rapidly approaching.

As the bombardment continued Scott prepared to take the city by storm. He could not afford to be in the low country when the yellow fever season hit-around April 15th-and although he estimated US losses would be close to 2000 if such an assault was conducted, he recognized the eventuality of having to do the same rather than wait.

On March 25, a brief cease-fire was sought by the Mexicans. The foreign consuls inside the city asked that they be allowed to evacuate the civilians. Scott rejected the request. Dismayed the Mexicans realized that the constant bombardment would only continue. Chaos was already rife inside the city and the morale of the citizenry nonexistent. A late Norther struck that night and broke the back of what resistance remained. On the 27th, after a day of negotiations, the city and the fortress of Ulua surrendered to Scott.

On March 29 the Mexican garrison marched from the city, stacked their weapons in the rail yard and marched westward. By noon Scott was in possession of Veracruz.

Scott could not afford to dally in the city and began to advance along the National Highway toward Mexico City on April 2nd. At Cerro Gordo, a motley collection of Mexican troops, the so-called "Army of the East", attempted to halt the American advance. On April 18, Scott's forces won a crushing victory against the Mexicans.

Scott continued to advance along the highway higher into the mountains passing the city of Jalapa and the fortress of Perote. But now he could breathe a sigh of relief as he crossed the Sierra Madres range. He had passed the Yellow Fever Line and only one enemy remained.

Without enough men to hold the National Highway from his base at Puebla to Veracruz, Scott abandoned his line of communications entirely. "Scott is lost," said the Duke of Wellington in London, "He cannot capture [Mexico] city and he cannot fall back upon his base." Scott met Santa Anna's forces at Contreras on August 19th and at Churbusco on August 20th, defeating them on both occasions. On September 13, 1847 the American forces stormed the "Halls of Montezuma" and the city fell. The war was, for all intents and purposes, over.

The Costs

While the American Army did not suffer a major debilitating yellow fever epidemic, disease exacted a terrible toll. In addition to La Vomito, diarrhea, dysentery and typhoid claimed lives amid the poor sanitation of the camps. Other diseases such as measles, smallpox, mumps, syphilis, gonorrhea and cholera claimed lives in lesser numbers.

In totaling all deaths among American soldiers in the Mexican-American War 1,192 were killed in action, 529 died of wounds received in battle, 362 suffered accidental death and 11,155 soldiers died from disease. Disease claimed a toll seven times greater than that of Mexican weapons. Small wonder then that in preparing his campaign, Scott had sought to avoid adding to the count of victims for his unseen enemies.

FROM MEXICO (1890-1960)?
by John P. Schmal

If you do not know the town from which your ancestors came from in Mexico or other areas, it is not likely that you will progress beyond what you have now. You need to learn the name of the town or municipio from which your ancestors came. You may be able to get this information from your own relatives or from your parents papers in storage.

But, one thing you can try to find if you have a non-citizen ancestor living in the US during the 1940s (wartime) is an Alien Registration Card. America wanted to keep track of all the non citizens during this time so they were registered. The Alien Registration Program in 1940 required that all alien residents of the United States register at their local Post Office. The registrations from July 1940 to April 1944 are on microfilm in INS custody, searchable by name, date of birth, and place of birth.

You can write to the address below, saying you are requesting the info "under the Freedom of Information Act" or you can obtain a Form G-639 and fill it out. Do not forget to say that you are specifically asking for the information under the FOIA, or they may send the request back.

If the person is deceased, it might be good to send them a copy of the obituary, Social Security Death index entry or a death certificate. Tell them everything you know, where they lived in the 1940s, possible aliases, etc. This is the address:

INS Freedom of Information
425 I Street, NW
2nd Floor, ULLB
ULLICO Building
Washington, D.C. 20536
Fax: (202) 514-4310

See also:

Between 1903 and 1952, 1.5 million immigrants came across the border at El Paso and their names, ages, birthplaces, and last permanent addresses were recorded. The El Paso office says that the records for the short-term visitors may have been thrown away early on (1910s), but most of the records are available on microfilm at NARA. To find out more information about the National Archives offices and their microfilm holdings for border-crossing and other records, consult these websites:

Mexican Border Crossing Records:

Naturalization Records

Naturalization records after 1907 can offer the researcher a great deal of information about his or her immigrant research. You can Email these facilities to ask them about your immigrant ancestor. If you decide to Email them, it is always good to try and give as much information as possible about the person concerned, birthplace, birth date, when they arrived in America, where they lived, address, and names of family members. Giving approximate dates is better than giving no information at all. Below is the website for NARA (National Archives and Records Administration). 

This site will give the Email addresses of the various facilities around the country:

Once you locate a place of origin, you may want to consult the Family History Library (aka Mormon Library) and access their catalog to see if church or civil records are available. They own 154,000 rolls of microfilm for all of Mexico and it is rare when they haven't had a town that I was looking into.

In our book, "Mexican-American Genealogical Index: Following the Paper Trail to Mexico," Donna Morales and I present the readers with many examples of border-crossing records, alien registration, and naturalization. Available through Heritage Books.

Details: Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail to Mexico
Code: S2139 Price: $21.00


DNA Percentages in Mexico
Sent by George Gause

Everyone,  If you are interested in how the percentages currently stack up for those participants of the Mexico DNA Project, I have attached a spreadsheet listing the population haplogroups and the percentage values. As more people get their DNA tested and take part in this project, we will get a better picture of the genetic makeup of the male ancestry origins of Mexico. Remember, while the greater part of female ancestry would be indigenous, the males were the most likely with roots in the Old Word.

If you want to view the website for further details, it is:
For how to get started on DNA testing check out Family Tree DNA at:

Robert Tarín
San Antonio, Texas

Transcripts of the original text in the Archivo General de Indias,
  Audiencia   de Guadalajara 113.)
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Important Contents:   
Some of the files link to English translations, plus links to related sources. 
Cédula de 15/10/1692 
Acordado sobre composiciones de teirras y aguas 
Cédula de 24 de noviembre de 1735
Invocaron "obedezco pero no complo" clausula para las cédulas 
Cédula de 15 de octubre de 1737

Book: "
Reclaiming Church Wealth: The Recovery of Church Property After Expropriation in the Archdiocese of Guadalajara, 1860-1911." 
Sent by Elsa Herbeck

Author Jose Roberto Juarez, Ph.D. spoke at the Laredo Center for the Arts on September 7th. 

The event was sponsored by the Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical Society, the Webb County Archeological Society and the Webb County Heritage Foundation. 

Juarez new book, published by the University of New Mexico Press, is called "Reclaiming Church Wealth: The Recovery of Church Property After Expropriation in the Archdiocese of Guadalajara, 1860-1911." 

He used previously inaccessible ecclesiastical archives to explain how the church was able to recuperate at least 30 percent of its wealth that had been lost when Benito Juarez nationalized its wealth without compensation in 1859.  He also details why Juarez dream of creating a class of small landholders in Mexico ultimately failed. 

The author notes that by the middle of the 19th Century, the 300-year-old diocese of Guadalajara had accumulated vast holdings in land, property and capital. This came to an end when Juarez liberal government moved to create a new class of small landholders. 

Juarez issued the Ley Lerdo in 1856, which forced the church to sell its real estate but allowed it to be the mortgage holder.  When the church resisted and allied itself with the conservatives, Juarez nationalized its wealth three years later. 

When the Emperor Maximilian did not return the properties and capital the church had lost, the church adopted an accommodationist policy with the liberals after Maximilian's execution in 1867.  Juarez (the author) explains the church continued its policies of lending capital at 5- to 6-percent to haciendas and commercial enterprises which put up real estate as collateral. 

Government officials from the president down to municipal office holders knew about and participated in "settlements" which the hierarchy negotiated to allow buyers to hold on to former church real estate and capital. Emboldened by the good relationships with the Porfirio Diaz government the church risked using surrogates to front for its capital and real estate. 

The Laredo-born author received a masters in Latin American studies and a Ph.D. in Latin American history from the University of Texas at Austin. He was a Woodrow Wilson fellow and taught at St. Edwards University in Austin, the University of California at Davis, and served as academic dean and vice-president of instruction at Laredo Junior College. He retired from Texas A&M International University in May 1997.  For more information, contact San Juanita Martinez Hunter at 722-3497. 

CVI Escritores de Jalisco: Gracias por participar  
Blas Roldán 

Hola a todos:
Gracias por haberse registrado y sobretodo gracias por estar participando en esta comunidad, donde pretendemos agrupar a los escritores de Jalisco.

Ahora, te pedimos forwardea/reenvía este mail a tus amigos y conocidos para que crezca en el acceso a nuestra literatura.

Próximamente,presentaremos el sitio en conocido lugar de Guadalajara, en Octubre. Les avisaremos para que asistan y convivamos en el mundo físico.  Saludos 

Si quieres ir al sitio haz click aquí:

Real y Minas del Panuco, 
hallazgo e historia, pasado y presente

Por Lic. Leonardo de la Torre y Berumen



Pánuco, descubrimiento y documentación histórica. Siglo XVI.

Algunos conocedores de la historia local afirman que el 20 de enero de 1548 se fundó oficialmente la ciudad de Zacatecas, asegurando que en esa fecha se reunieron los cuatro fundadores de la ciudad, para efectuar dicha fundación, inadmisible hecho, ya que Zacatecas, nació a partir de su descubrimiento, poblándose enseguida de haber dado con la mina Descubridora, un 8 de septiembre de 1546, a la que le fue dado el nombre de "La Descubridora de Monserrat".

El día que supuestamente se reunieron los cuatro fundadores de la ciudad de Zacatecas, nada tiene de oficial, ni mucho menos de fundación, simplemente es parte de la vida de uno de los fundadores, como el mismo lo refiere: "..., y año de 1548, día del señor San Sebastián, a 20 de enero, entre yo, Baltazar Temiño de Bañuelos en estas minas.". Por tanto el mencionado día es cuando llega a las minas de los Zacatecas, don Baltazar Temiño de Bañuelos, descartándose así la dicha fundación oficial.

La referencia dada por Baltazar Temiño de Bañuelos se encontraba en una antigua inscripción vista por Rivera Bernardez, mismo que la registró, dando con ello noticia de las primeras minas descubiertas, mencionándose entre estas el descubrimiento de la veta de Pánuco en la dicha inscripción que existió en la Capilla de los Reyes Magos o de La Epifanía, en la iglesia Mayor de Zaca6tecas, hoy Catedral Basílica.

Lo inscripto sobre Pánuco dice: "..., y en ese mismo año, día de todos los santos, se descubrió la veta de Pánuco,..." Así el primer día del mes de noviembre se descubre la primera veta que habría de conformar el Real y Minas del Pánuco, a unos 13 kilómetros al norte de las minas de los Zacatecas, cuya producción fue notoria de 1615 a 1635.

Por la gran producción y sobre todo por la lejanía se desarrollo un notable campo minero, del que los descendientes de Ibarra decían ser mérito de su antepasado el descubrimiento del Pánuco.

Una vez halladas las vetas crecía el poblamiento de los reales de minas, en los que necesariamente habría de emplearse a hombres de gran temple, para la obtención de los preciados minerales, empleando para ello, negros y moros, siendo los últimos de ascendencia musulmán, y a quienes debemos las morismas, representadas después de 1550, año en que se trajo de las minas de Tepeque a un gran número de moros, asentados en la capital neogallega a partir de 1545, año en que pasaron a los reales de minas, existentes hacía el norte del reino de la Nueva Galicia.

La producción minera de Pánuco propició el asentamiento humano, cuyo deseo era explotar sus inacabables vetas, que una vez conocidas eran pobladas con sólo oír hablar de su riqueza minera que en un breve lapso de tiempo daba hacienda y renombre a quien se arriesgase a invertir, y es así que por diceres de la riqueza obtenida en Pánuco, desde la villa de Almazán en el Obispado de Sigüenza vino Martín Garrido, a quien el 6 de septiembre de 1565 la Santa Inquisición le siguió proceso Sumario por auto-denunciante, ya que dijo: No ser pecado mortal sino venial el tener acceso carnal con la mujer. Declarando haber estado en el Real de Pánuco y ser vecino de la villa de Almazán. Esto lo afirmó ante el Bachiller Miguel Hernández de Herrera, visitador estante en las minas de los Zacatecas, que le condenó a mandar decir 2 misas por semana, rezar 5 veces de rodillas el rosario y ayunar 3 días. El mismo Visitador en las minas de los Zacatecas dio seguimiento a otro proceso inquisitorial consistente en la denunciación y sumario de Tomás de Lorrio, estante en el Real de Pánuco, por haber tomado peyote y decir no era malo su empleo, así como afirmar que no era pecado estar amancebado y que por eso no se iba a ir al infierno. Este proceso fue iniciado en la ciudad de Zacatecas por dicho visitador ante el notario Juan de Aranda, el 19 de abril de 1566.

A los primeros años del descubrimiento de las minas de los Zacatecas creció la actividad minera, surgiendo un sin fin de propietarios, como consta en la Relación sacada en suma de Visita General hecha por el Licenciado don Hernán Martínez de la Marcha, Visitador Real y Oidor de la Real Audiencia de Nueva Galicia al Rey. Esta relación se redactó en las minas de los Zacatecas el 16 de abril de 1550, por mandato que hizo dicho visitador, de "contar todas las casas e ingenios que estén edificados en estas dichas minas", registrándose en primer lugar los bienes de Cristóbal de Oñate, que a la letra dice: "El señor Cristóbal de Oñate y Compañía tienen trece ingenios de moler y fundir y ciento una casas de esclavos y su morada, con una iglesia a donde todos los de las minas van a oír misa."Este registro es el primero de las 34 compañías o sociedades que el Visitador encontró funcionando en las minas de los Zacatecas.

La actuación histórica de Oñate es ampliamente conocida, agregando sólo que durante la Pascua de Navidad de 1549 contrajo matrimonio en la Iglesia Catedral de México con doña Catalina de Salazar, procreando seis hijos, de los cuales cuatro fueron varones y el resto mujeres, naciendo algunos de éstos en el Real y Minas del Pánuco, siendo el mayor Hernán Pérez de Oñate, nacido en dicho Real por agosto de 1551. Asegurando así que los gemelos don Cristóbal y don Juan, nacieron en dicho Real, excepto doña María de Galarza, bautizada en el Sagrario Metropolitano de la Catedral de México, el 26 de diciembre de 1552.

El Capitán Cristóbal de Oñate habiéndose retirado a la vida privada a su hacienda, situada en el Real del Pánuco, repentinamente murió de enfermedad, el lunes 6 de octubre de 1567, siendo sepultado en la iglesia de ese real. La muerte le sobrevino en su casa de "los Asientos de Oñate", sin haber hecho testamento alguno, por lo que el 22 de octubre de 1567 el oidor y visitador General Licenciado don Francisco Gómez de Mendiola y Solórzano, otorgó en la misma casa del difunto en el Real de Panuco a su viuda, doña Catalina de Salazar, la tutela y curaduría de sus seis hijos, menores de edad.

A este intestado denunciado por su viuda fueron testigos: Jerónima de Medina, de más de 30 años de edad, residente en dicho real y estante en casa del dicho difunto, declarando no saber firmar y ser mujer de Francisco de Araus, vecino del mismo real, residente y estante en la hacienda de Oñate hace 17 años, declarando ser de más de 35 años y firmó.

Por segundo testigo se presento Vicente de Saldivar, vecino y minero del mencionado Real, de más de 30 años de edad, quien firmó lo atestiguado, diciendo: "... no ordenó su testamento y disposición ante escribano, ni se hizo de ella escritura, aunque con este testigo, como con deudo tan cercano como es suyo, y que tanto le amaba, comunicó algunas cosas...".

Posterior al fallecimiento de Oñate viene el nombramiento que en 28 de enero de 1570 el Venerable Deán y Cabildo Sede Vacante de la Santa Iglesia Catedral del Reino de la Nueva Galicia dio al Reverendo señor don Pedro Hernando de Quiroz,, Arcediano de Catedral, como "Cura y Vicario de las minas de los Zacatecas, Pánuco y su partido", dándole así mismo poder para que nombrara un substituto en dichas minas o en el lugar donde fuera necesario.

Sobre Pánuco el Obispo de Guadalajara envió una breve y detallada descripción al rey, el 23 de diciembre de 1572, que dice: "El beneficio de las minas de Pánuco esta su valor incluso en los quinientos pesos de minas del beneficio de las minas de los Zacatecas porque a causa de estar dos leguas a un mismo de distancia uno de otro se cuenta todo por una cosa es de su mismo temple y cualidad y el distrito es el que esta dicho que es poco, indios no tienen ningunos en la comarca sin los que andan salteando y matando españoles habra como cincuenta vecinos y mercaderes e naturales advenedizos como en las demás minas en cantidad que no tienen asiento cierto porque unos van y otros vienen".

Eclesiásticamente panuco dependía de las minas de los Zacatecas, teniendo por principal Clérigo al Cura y Vicario Juez Eclesiástico de dichas minas, quien nombraba un lugarteniente de Cura para Pánuco, cuyo real hasta el año de 1577 dependió de dichas minas, ya que en este año, el 9 de enero, por petición hecha al rey sobre la necesidad de proveer un cura y beneficiado en las minas y real de Pánuco, fue presentado al monarca el Clérigo Presbítero Francisco Pantoja, hábil y suficiente que habría de administrar por vía de encomienda y no por título perpetuo. Esta petición fue expedida desde Guadalajara por el Cabildo sede Vacante de esa Diócesis, ante el que se presentó dicho clérigo a concurso de curato, convocado por dicho Cabildo, y así el Deán le designo el Beneficio Curado de las minas y partido de Pánuco el 10 de enero de 1577, con remuneración de 100 pesos de oro de minas para la fábrica y Colegio de la Santa Iglesia.

Para 1578 en las minas de Pánuco habitaban 300 vecinos, administrados por dos clérigos que ejercían en dos iglesias adscritas a dos haciendas distintas; una en la de Cristóbal de Oñate, de la que era Cura un Clérigo de apellido Salazar; otra en la de Diego de Ibarra. Estas haciendas pagaban a ambos Curas. El estar en tierra de chichimecas, no les quitaba la consideración de buenos partidos. Otros documentos sobre el Real y Minas de Pánuco son los fechados en 6 y 9 de marzo de 1575, 3 de septiembre de 1576 y 4 de mayo de 1583, siendo este último una relación de la plata que sacó una de las principales haciendas de minas y demás ordinario que hay en las minas de Zacatecas y Real de Pánuco, juntamente con las costas y gastos que hizo para sacar la dicha plata. Firmada por Alonso de Oñate, quien señala "Las costas que se hicieron para sacar la dicha plata son las siguientes: Los salarios de Cura, y mayordomo, y españoles criados de la misma hacienda, montaron dos mil quinientos veintiséis pesos y tres tomines de oro común. En el dicho tiempo se murieron en la dicha hacienda ocho indios esclavos chichimecas, que habían costado a 80 pesos cada uno; son seiscientos cuarenta pesos. De tres esclavos negros que se murieron en el dicho año, que aunque valían mucho más, se tasaron todos en mil pesos de tepuzque. De 30 mulas, que las quince de ellas se llevaron los indios chichimecas y las otras quince se murieron; y habían costado a treinta pesos, son novecientos pesos.

Y seiscientos pesos de pagas hechas adelantadas a indios, que se hulleron con ellas". Son varios los datos que proporciona este documento fechado en la ciudad de México, y recogidos desde el 14 de mayo de 1581 hasta el 14 de mayo de 1582, señalando que la deuda del propietario de la hacienda este año fue mayor que la del año anterior, referencia que nos habla del auge minero y su inversión, de esto mismo habla Gregorio de Quintana, vecino de Pánuco, de donde escribe el 6 de marzo de 1575 a su hermano Juan de Molina, estante en la villa de Río Seco, solicitando le envíe una ejecutoria de Hidalgía comentándole de la basta producción minera, afirmándole que de perseverar habría de "ir rico a esa tierra en breve tiempo", pues su hacienda valía más de cinco mil pesos en ese momento, ya que desde 1573 tiene a su cargo las haciendas de Oñate, dándole de partido mil pesos cada año.

l documento fechado el 9 de marzo de 1575, es referente a que se señale un lugar para tianguis y mercado en las minas de los Zacatecas, señalándose así mismo otro para el Real de Pánuco, exponiendo: "Y porque en el Real de Pánuco se vienen a vender los propios bastimentos y es necesario señalar sitio para el efecto de plaza y tianguis, señalaban y señalaron por tianguis y mercado, del dicho Real de Pánuco, jurisdicción de estas minas, la plazuela que esta frontero de las casas de doña Catalina de Salazar, hasta lo alto del cerro, que esta un corral donde matan ganado para el dicho real de Pánuco y quede la iglesia en medio para compás y mercado, a donde se vendan los bastimentos dichos, so las dichas penas, y mandaron que para que venga a conocimiento de todos, se apregone públicamente en estas minas y real de Pánuco".



Por  Juan Pablo Alvarez

Encomienda en el distrito de la Audiencia de México, en Yucatán, a 6 de julio de 1643.
Ante Diego Zapata de Cárdenas, Marqués de Santo Floro, Gobernador de Yucatán, Cozumel y Tabasco. Ante Francisco de Sanabria, escribano público, y ante Pedro Díaz del Valle.

Archivo: Archivo General de Indias
Código de Referencia: ES.41091.AGI/16403.13.244//MEXICO,243,N.12
Fecha(s): [c] 1644-08-22

Isabel Peraza de Ayala, por medio de su padre Guillén Peraza de Ayala, alguacil mayor de la Villa de Valladolid.

El Capitán Guillén Peraza de Ayala comenzó a servir desde el año 1617 como Capitán de Caballos Lanzas de la villa de Valladolid, en el año de 1622 el Gobernador Diego de Cárdenas lo nombró Capitán de Caballos, titulo que le fue refrendado hasta la fecha de la encomienda. Además sirvió como juez de paz y justicia de dicha villa, siendo alcalde ordinario de aquel distrito en el año de 1620, por muerte del Gobernador Francisco Ramírez Briceño. Fue así mismo oficial de alcalde y capitán de guerra del puerto de Alcoben, Río de Lagartos, Bayas Puertos, y playas de Cozumel. Además en el año de 1624 sirvió apaciguando a los indios que mataron al capitán Francisco de Mirones Lescano, que había ido a conquistar con dos religiosos y doce españoles que así mismo murieron.

Isabel Peraza de Ayala, hija legítima del Capitán Guillén Peraza de Ayala y de Isabel Lucero de Alcocer, nieta y bisnieta de conquistadores de México y la Nueva España. El capitán Guillén Peraza de Ayala fue hijo de otro Capitán Guillén Peraza de Ayala, alguacil mayor de la Villa de Valladolid, y de María de Senos, su legítima mujer.

El Capitán Gaspar Casanova y su mujer Francisca de Aranda. Antes fue de Gaspar de Herrera.

Otros Datos
Hay otro documento del documento del 15 de abril de 1642 que contiene varias probanzas, entre ellas los méritos del Capitán Juan Bernardo Casanova, como padre de Beatriz de Sauli Casanova, solicitando algunos de las ayudas de costa sobre los beneficios que habían pertenecido al Adelantado Montejo y su familia, y ante la muerte de doña María de Valencia y Moscoso y su marido Violante de Aguirre, los antiguos poseedores.

Otra parte del mismo documento habla de los méritos de Hernando de Bracamontes, para pedir beneficios para su hija Beatriz de Bracamontes. A esas fechas, Fernando de Bracamontes tiene más de 60 años que pasó a las Indias en compañía del Gobernador del Río Marañón, subiendo con él por el río. Y desde Puerto Rico fue con la gente que se hizo para el Perú, en compañía de Antonio de Sedeño, donde sirvió como Capitán de Infantería, pasando luego a Yucatán, donde continuó en su conquista y pacificación en compañía del Adelantado Francisco de Montejo, siendo posteriormente teniente de gobernador, alcalde ordinario y regidor de la ciudad de Mérida, siendo además encomendero de indios.

Así mismo se solicitan beneficios para Doña Catalina de Salazar, vecina de la ciudad de Mérida, en relación a los méritos de su tío Fray Gonzalo de Salazar, difunto a esas fechas, y obispo que fue de aquellas provincias. Ayuda que anteriormente tuvieron Jerónimo de Castro y María Ordóñez, su mujer, fallecidos anteriormente.

Se habla de también de doña Beatriz de Alcocer, nieta y bisnieta de los primeros pacificadores y pobladores de la Nueva España y Yucatán, con el objeto de que se le den beneficios de los que se quitaron al Adelantado Montejo y su familia después del año de 1612.

Otra solicitud de beneficios que anteriormente fueran de Montejo es para Doña Melchora de Castro, vecina de la ciudad de Mérida, Yucatán, viuda de Luis de Torres e hija de Nuño de Castro, quien fuera conquistador, pacificador y poblador de la provincia de Yucatán.

Encomienda de Yalcon en Valladolid, a 30 de mayo de 1626.

Ante Don Diego de Cárdenas, Caballero del Hábito de Santiago, gobernador y capitán general por su majestad en las provincias de Yucatán, Cozumel y Tabasco. Ante Don Antonio Fernández Treviño, contador y veedor, y el capitán Jerónimo de Yanguas, tesorero y factor de la real hacienda.

Archivo: Archivo General de Indias
Código de Referencia: ES.41091.AGI/16403.13.243//MEXICO,242B,N.35
Fecha(s): [c] 1630-09-26

Antonio de Bohórquez, vecino de la villa de Valladolid, en la provincia de Yucatán.

Datos y Familia del Encomendero
Antonio de Bohórquez es hijo legítimo de Simón de Bohórquez y de Bernardina de Cisneros, su mujer, y nieto legítimo de Antonio de Bohórquez, uno de los honrados conquistadores que sirvieron a su majestad en aquellas provincias. Por parte de su madre es bisnieto de Rodrigo de Cisneros y de Gaspar González, así mismo conquistadores y pacificadores de aquellas provincias, que fueron elegidos alcaldes ordinarios y de la santa hermandad. Antonio de Bohórquez en su persona, acudió todas las veces que fue requerido.

Antonio de Bohórquez fue casado con Isabel de Alemán, hija legítima de Juan de Lamas de León, que sirvió un tiempo a su majestad en aquellas provincias,

Juan Farfán.
Encomienda y Fecha
Encomienda de Tahmek en Mérida, Yucatán, a 22 de agosto de 1628.

Ante Don Diego de Cárdenas, Caballero del Hábito de Santiago, gobernador y capitán general por su majestad en las provincias de Yucatán, Cozumel y Tabasco.

Archivo: Archivo General de Indias
Código de Referencia: ES.41091.AGI/16403.13.243//MEXICO,242B,N.31
Fecha(s): [c] 1630-09-06

ENCOMENDEROGaspar Pacheco, vecino de la ciudad de Mérida. Presentada por Doña Isabel de Benavides y Castro, su madre y tutora, viuda a esas fechas.

Datos y Familia del Encomendero
Gaspar Pacheco fue hijo de Melchor Pacheco y de Doña Isabel de Benavides y Castro. Melchor Pacheco fue hijo del Maestre de Campo Gaspar Pacheco y nieto de Melchor Pacheco, hombre noble y caballero hijodalgo notorio, sirviendo a su majestad en la conquista de la Nueva España, particularmente ante los zapotecas, donde pobló y fundo la villa de San Ildefonso, posteriormente partiendo a la conquista y pacificación de las provincias de Yucatán, donde apoyó a Don Francisco de Montejo en sus tareas, nombrándolo éste, su teniente de gobierno, capitán general y de justicia mayor, fundando además una villa de españoles.

Gaspar Pacheco es nieto materno del secretario Don Fernando de Castro Polanco y de Doña María Jiménez, su mujer. Don Fernando de Castro Polanco sirvió en aquellas provincias como poblador y principalmente como tesorero de la Santa Cruzada en aquel obispado, así mismo fue capitán de infantería para defender el puerto de Santa María de Sisal, bajo el servicio del Gobernador Carlos de Sámano y Quiñónez.

Melchor Pacheco, el padre de Gaspar, continuó con los servicios de su padre y abuelos, sobre todo en lo que concierne a la defensa de los puertos de San Francisco de Campeche y Santa María de Sisal, además dados sus méritos y servicios, fue electo en la ciudad de Mérida como Alcalde Ordinario.

Zacatecas apellidos
Pongo a consideracion el siguiente archivo

Gracias, Salvador Cabral Valdès
Pagina Personal  Colaborador en



Guillermo Padilla Origel



I.-capitán Don Pedro de Arizmendi y Gogorrón, nació hacia 1560, de origen judío, en Vizcaya, España, luego en 1592, vecino del real y minas de Zacatecas de la Nueva Galicia, minero en San Luis Potosí, comisario del santo Oficio, minero en "Tlaxcalilla", "San Antonio" y la hacienda de "San Pedro de Gogorrón", en la jur. de San Luis Potosí, casó por 1590 con Doña María Antonia de Rivas Palomino, y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Doña Elena de Arizmendi y Gogorrón y Rivas Palomino, nació en "Tlaxcalilla", en San Luis Potosí, hacia 1600 y se casó en primeras nupcias con Don Pedro Pérez de Bocanegra y Xaramillo, hacia 1619 en San Luis Potosí, dueño de la hacienda "Atotonilco", y fueron sus hijos nacidos en Querétaro:

Alonso, Josefa, Juana , Teresa y Elvira Pérez de Bocanegra Arizmendi y Gogorrón, esta última de padre desconocido tuvo a : Francisco y Margarita, casada con Joseph de Sagasta.

Doña Elena de Arizmendi y Gogorrón, se casa en segundas nupcias con Don Juan de Villaseñor y Cervantes, h.l. del capitán Don Gonzalo López del Castillo y de Doña Luisa de Cervantes, descendiente de Don Juan de Villaseñor y Orozco (ver familia Villaseñor).

2.-Don Pedro de Arizmendi y Gogorrón y Rivas Palomino, comisario, regidor de la villa de Celaya.

3.-Don Antonio de Arizmendi y Gogorrón y Rivas Palomino, denunciado del santo oficio, minero en San Luis Potosí, propietario de varios sitios y tierras en San Miguel el Grande, alcalde de la santa Hermandad y se casó con Doña Juana Rodríguez, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

Don Martín de Arizmendi y Gogorrón y Rodríguez, nacido por 1648

Don Andrés de Arizmendi y Gogorrón y Rodríguez, nace por 1650, casado con Doña Felipa González, y fue su hijo Don Pedro de Arizmendi y Gogorrón y González, bautizado el 14 de agosto de 1678 en la villa de Pozos , San Luis Potosí

4.-Don Francisco de Arizmendi y Gogorrón y Rivas Palomino, diputado de las minas de San Luis Potosí, en 1641, se casó con Doña Juana de Zavala y Eiguía, heredaron la hacienda de San Pedro de Gogorrón, ella , hija legítima de:

Don Juan de Zavala y Fanárraga I, natural de San Pedro de Luzúa, en España, testó en 1649 en San Felipe, y se casó con Doña Ana de Eiguía y Leyva, fue su primo hermano :

Don Martín Ruíz de Zavala, originario de San Pedro de Luzúa, España, dueño de la hacienda del "Xaral", (hoy de Berrio), casado con María de Gordejuela y Lois y fue su hijo

Don Juan Ruíz de Zavala y Lois, casado con María Centeno y Maldonado, originaria de Yucatán, y fue su tío quien les heredó a ambos Zavala: Don Juan de Zavala, nacido en Vizcaya España , por 1559, dueño en México de las haciendas de " Zavala", "Valle de San Francisco", "Xaral", etc., se casó con Doña Catalina Vázquez, sin descendencia.

Don Francisco de Arizmendi y Gogorrón y Rivas Palomino y Doña Juana de Zavala y Eiguía, fueron padres de :

Don Diego Saenz de Zavala y de Don Juan de Zavala Fanárraga II, que a su vez fue padre de:

1.-Doña Juana de Zavala y Arízmendi y Gogorrón, quien vendio la hacienda de Gogorrón a Don Juan Antonio de Urrutia y Arana, Marqués de la Villa del Villar , en 1798

2.-Don Cecilio de Zavala Arízmendi y Gogorrón, casado con Doña Teófila Fos, hermana de Don Juan Nep. Fos, casado con María Hernández y Don Cecilio y Doña Teófila, fueron padres de :

Doña Agustina de Zavala y Fos, bautizada en 1849 y enterrada en la hacienda de "Gogorrón" y Don Sixto de Zavala y Fos, bautizado en 1851 en San Luis Potosí


Wal-Mart Upsets Comic Balance of Ruins
by Jo Tuckman in Teotihuacan
September 4, 2004 by the Guardian/UK 
Sent by  Howard Shorr
and JV Martinez

Protesters decry building of store near mysterious Mexican city of Teotihuacan as attack on heritage which could spoil rural valley.

From the top of the Pyramid of the Sun in the ancient ruined city of Teotihuacan, Emma Ortega blows a haunting ode on her conch shell and points out a half-built Wal-Mart supermarket in the valley below. 

Her blood boils at the sight. "It is an attack on our heritage," fumes Ms Ortega, a colorful figure in a small but vocal protest movement against the construction of a Bodega Aurrera superstore, a Wal-Mart Mexico subsidiary, half a mile from the monuments. "It is an attack on our cosmic equilibrium." 

The protest is brought down to earth by traditional conservationists who fear that the development will encourage urban spillover from the capital 30 miles away and spoil the largely rural valley for ever. Then there are the local shopkeepers and stall owners from the small town of San Juan who cannot compete with the biggest retailer in the world. 

Most recently the anti-Wal-Mart campaign in Teotihuacan has attracted support from other campaign groups because of the undeniable importance of the ruins. 

One of Mexico's oldest and most mysterious civilizations, Teotihuacan boasted a population of up to 150,000 about 300AD. It faded away a few centuries later for unknown reasons and leaving few clues about what life was like. Archaeologists furiously debate issues such as whether it was ruled by kings or collectives. "A big supermarket so close to the monuments sounds worrying," says Javier Villalobos, of the Paris-based International Council of Monuments and Sites, an influential conservation group. Mr Villalobos is planning to visit Teotihuacan this weekend to evaluate the threat. 

But even if the protesters get international heavyweights on their side, theirs is no easy battle. There are many who welcome Wal-Mart, seeing modernization where the protesters fear desecration. 
"These people who are trying to stop it [the supermarket] don't understand the meaning of progress," says Victor Hernandez, a bicycle salesman who is fed up with traveling 15 miles to shop in bulk. He is hopeful that Wal-Mart will give his son a job. "This is progress," he says. 

The protesters are also having a tough time challenging a construction that apparently has all its permits in order. The development on an alfalfa field, just outside the zone where all building is prohibited, was approved by the archaeological authorities on condition that Wal-Mart employed archaeologists to survey the site. The archaeologists have reported that there is little worth saving beyond a semi-rural domestic compound unlikely to produce anything of value when excavated. They have also questioned the authenticity of the protesters' claims to have found pots and ceramic figurines in waste heaps from the site. 

The Library of Congress
Sent by Johanna De Soto

The Library of Congress  Especially for Researchers  Research Centers Local History & Genealogy Reading Room Home Bibliographies & Guides Find in & Hispanic Local History and Genealogy in the United States: 

Selected Titles at The Library of Congress:
Introduction - I. Handbooks - II. Surnames - III. Hispanic History of - the United States - IV. Arizona  V. California - VI. Florida - VII. Louisiana - VIII. New Mexico - IX. Texas - X. Other States  XI. Puerto Rico - XII. Cuba - XIII. Mexico - XIV. Spain - XV. Emigration from Spain - XVI. Jews XVII. Catalogs and Archives - XVIII. Other Countries of Spanish America - XIX. Miscellaneous

XIII. Mexico

Archivo General de la Nación (Mexico). 
Catálogo del ramo expulsión de españoles. 2 vols. to date. México, D.F: Departamento de Publicaciones del Archivo General de la Nación, 1980- 
LC call number: Z1426.2 .A7 1980
LC control number: 91126250
Catalog Record
Paragraph-length descriptions of 1,091 documents concerning the deportation of Spanish citizens from Mexico. Many are requests for exemption from deportation, citing personal circumstances and histories. Surname index and place name index that includes parts of Mexico that are now in the United States. 

Archivo General de la Nación (Mexico). 
Ramo pasaportes. Elaborado por Clotilde Martínez de Reyes. México, D.F.: Dirección de Difusión y Publicaciones del Archivo General de la Nación, 1980. 196, 31 p.
LC call number: CS103 .M49 1980 
LC control number: 81216816
Catalog Record
Indexes the first eight of 58 volumes and covers the years 1821 to 1827. Listed by volume, year, city, and surname. 

Archivo Histórico del Estado de Sonora. 
Catálogo del Archivo Histórico del Estado de Sonora. 4 vols. to date. [Mexico City]: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Dirección de Centros Regionales, <1977- . 
LC call number: CD3675 .S66 A73 1977
LC control number: 82197661
Catalog Record

Arrigunaga Icaza, Joaquín de. 
Indice-resumen alfabético y cronológico de los matrimonios del sagrario de Mérida, Yucatán, 1814-1821. Mérida, Yucatán, México: Academia Yucateca de Historia y Genealogía Francisco de Montejo, 1976. 1 vol. (unpaged). 
LC call number: CS108 .M47 A77 1976
LC control number: 96233118
Catalog Record

Arrigunaga Peón, Joaquín de. 
Estirpe de conquistadores. Mérida, México: Academia Yucateca de Historia y Genealogía Francisco de Montejo, 1967. 230 p., [4] leaves of plates. Geneal. tables. 
LC call number: CS109 .A77
LC control number: 75408790
Catalog Record
Families of Yucatán. Cites primary documents.

Cabrera Ypiña de Corsi, Matilde.
De la Peña. San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., México: Editorial Universitaria Potosina, 1985. 201 p. [1] folded leaf of plates, ill.
LC call number: CS110 .D4 1985 
LC control number: 91168847
Catalog Record
Genealogy of the de la Peña family of San Luis Potosí in Mexico up to 1983. Because the family was perpetuated by four daughters, it soon became part of many other families and for this reason is a valuable adjunct to the genealogies of these additional families.

Camara Peón, Oswaldo. 
Indice-resumen alfabético y cronológico de los matrimonios del sagrario de Mérida, Yucatán, 1776 a 1788. Mérida, Yucatán, México]: Academia Yucateca de Historia y Genealogía "Francisco de Montejo," 1981. N.p.
LC call number: CS108 .M47 C36 1981 
LC control number: 96147747
Catalog Record
Gives names of groom and bride, parents of each, notation if birth was out of wedlock, date of marriage, and number of original document in Mérida. 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints Genealogical Society. 
Major genealogical record sources in Mexico. Series H., no. 2. [Salt Lake City], 1970. N.p., col. map. 
LC call number: CS101 .G45 LH&G
LC control number: 70029773
Catalog Record

Dahl, Torsten. 
Linajes en México. México: Casa Editora de Genealogía Ibero Americana, 1967- .
LC call number: CS109 .D3
LC control number: 79407772
Catalog Record
Genealogies of Mexican families. Many of non-Spanish origin. Lists several generations in Europe, the immigrant to Mexico, and succeeding generations to the 1960s. 

Esparza, Manuel. 
Padrón de capitación de la Ciudad de Oaxaca, 1875. [Oaxaca de Juárez]: Archivo General del Estado de Oaxaca, 1983. xvii, 131 p. 
LC call number: CS108 .O17 E84 1983
LC control number: 86150090
Catalog Record
Lists are by section of the city and by block of residents obliged to pay tax. Alphabetical lists are by first name with age, occupation, and marital status. 

Esparza, Manuel. 
Padrón general de los habitantes de la Ciudad de Oaxaca, 1842: 450 aniversario, 1532-1982. [Oaxaca]: Centro Regional de Oaxaca, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, 1981. xxii, 224 p. 
LC call number: CS108 .O17 E853 1981 
LC control number: 83236370 
Catalog Record
A street directory giving name, age, occupation, and marital status of residents. 

Fernández de Recas, Guillermo S., ed. 
Cacicazgos y nobiliario indígena de la Nueva España. 1. ed. México: Instituto Bibliográfico Mexicano, 1961. xxvi, 351 p. Plates, coats of arms.
LC call number: CS104 .F4
LC control number: 62042344
Catalog Record
Includes 35 documents from the Spanish monarch confirming pre-Columbian ownership of land, titles of nobility and coats of arms, and conferring Spanish titles and arms beginning with the generation of Montezuma. Genealogies show connections between pre-Columbian Mexican nobility and Spanish nobility. The author found these documents by happenstance in the Archivo de la Nación and believes that more exist. Black and white photographs of coats of arms. 

González de la Garza, Rodolfo. 
Hispanic roots = Raíces hispanas: genealogy, history. 1st ed. 1 vol. to date. N. Laredo, México (Allende 701, Nuevo Laredo 88000): R. González de la Garza, 1996- . Ill. (some col.).
LC call number: CS109 .G67 1996
LC control number: 97121670
Catalog Record
Origins of most families of northeastern Mexico: Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and part of Guadalajara. Many have branches in the United States. Volume 1 contains 17,000 entries and the set, when completed, will contain approximately 250,000. Data are from primary sources in church and civil archives (cited on p. 10). Both paternal and maternal surnames are given for principals and parents. Brief historical sketch of the region, including a statement that the Inquisition was not active here and thus provided a haven for families of Jewish background. Describes kinds of documents consulted and defines the racial terms "castizo," "tresalbo," "mestizo," "mulato," "coyote," "lobo," and "casta" (p. 20). 

González de la Garza, Rodolfo. 
Mil familias de Tam., N. León, Coah. y Texas. 2 vols. N. Laredo, Tamps., México: H. González de la Garza, 1980-1981. Ill. 
LC call number: CS109 .A2 G66
LC control number: 81117624 
Catalog Record
Extensive genealogies, drawings of coats of arms indicating colors, summary of accomplishments of each family. Surnames that have articles are listed in capital letters in the index; following each are surnames in lowercase letters that are mentioned in the article. 

Greenleaf, Richard E., and Michael C. Meyer, compilers and editors. 
Research in Mexican history; topics, methodology, sources and a practical guide to field research. Compiled for the Committee on Mexican Studies, Conference on Latin American History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, [1973]. xiii, 226 p. Maps.
LC call number: F1225.5 .G73
LC control number: 72086020
Catalog Record

Guerra, Raúl J., Jr., Nadine M. Vásquez, and Baldomero Vela, Jr., compilers and editors. 
Index to the marriage investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara pertaining to the former provinces of Coahuila, Nuevo León, Nuevo Santander, and Téxas. Vol. 1. 1653-1750. Ill.
LC call number: CD3678 .G82G84 1989
LC control number: 90093092 
Catalog Record

Ibarrola Arriaga, Gabriel.
Familias y casas de la Vieja Valladolid. [1. ed.]. Morelia, Mexico: Fimax Publicistas, 1969. 599 p. Ills. (part. col.), col. coats of arms, ports. 
LC call number: CS108 .M65 I2 1969 
LC control number: 79530302
Catalog Record
Genealogies and color illustrations of coats of arms of families of Morelia, Mexico. Some photographs and family charts. 76-page name index. 

Indice del archivo militar del Estado de Jalisco, 1810-1940. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México: H. Ayuntamiento de Guadalajara, 1989. 75 p. 
LC call number: CS108 .J35 I53 1989
LC control number: 94136242 
Catalog Record
Name guide to reels. 

Martínez, Pablo L. 
Guía familiar de Baja California, 1700-1900 = Vital statistics of Lower California. México, D.F., México: Editorial Baja California, 1965. 1,019 p. Port. 
LC call number: CS108 .B34 M37
LC control number: 81129591
Catalog Record
Abstracts of 12,000 parish and civil records relating to marriage, birth, and death.

Menes Llaguno, Juan Manuel. 
Fuentes para la historia de la tenencia de la tierra en el Estado de Hidalgo: índice de documentos del ramo de tierras del A.G.N. Pachuca: Centro Hidalguense de Investigaciones Históricas, 1976. 242 p. [1] leaf of plates, map.
LC call number: Z7165 .M45 M46
LC control number: 78112170
Catalog Record

Muriá, José María. 
Historia de las divisiones territoriales de Jalisco. México: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, SEP, Centro Regional de Occidente, 1976. 219 p. Maps.
LC call number: JS2119 .J353 A215
LC control number: 77451622 
Catalog Record

O'Gorman, Edmundo.
Historia de las divisiones territoriales de México. 6a ed. rev. y puesta al día. México: Editorial Porrúa, 1985. xvii, 326 p. 8 folded leaves of plates, 8 maps. 
LC call number: JS2112 .L7 O35 1985
LC control number: 87400360
Catalog Record

Ortega y Pérez Gallardo, D. Ricardo. 
Estudios genealógicos. México: Impr. de E. Dublan, 1902. 365 p.
LC call number: CS104 .O8
LC control number: 07036806
Catalog Record
Genealogies of Mexican families that possess titles of nobility or have received special honors from the Spanish or Mexican governments. Covers 16th to 19th centuries. 

Parroquia de Nuestra Señora del Refugio, Ciudad Victoria, México. 
El libro de bautismos de la Parroquia de Nuestra Señora del Refugio de Aguayo. Cuidad Victoria [México]: Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, [1975]. 121 p. Ill.
LC call number: CS108 .C58 P37 
LC control number: 77453239
Catalog Record
Names of persons baptized, parish priests, apostolic visits, and genealogies.

Potash, Robert A., compiler, with Jan Bazant and Josefina Z. Vasquez.
Guide to the notarial records of the Archivo General de Notarias, Mexico City, for the year 1829[-1875]. Amherst: University of Massachusetts; and México: [University Computing Center] Colegio de México, 1982-<1997 .
LC call number: CD3656 1829
LC control number: 82229246
Catalog Record
Notarial records contain much information, but are difficult of access because they are filed by the names of the notaries only. This index makes them accessible by names of the principals in each transaction. 

University of Texas at Arlington Library. 
Catálogo de las fotocopias de los documentos y periódicos yucatecos en la Biblioteca de la Universidad de Texas en Arlington = Catalogue of Yucatan documents and newspapers on microfilm in the University of Texas at Arlington Library. [Arlington]: UTA Press, 1983. xiii, 211 p. 
LC call number: CD3676 .Y83 U55 1983
LC control number: 84620839
Catalog Record
Archivo de la Mitra, Archivo General del Estado, Archivo Notarial del Estado, virtually all Yucatán newspapers for the 18th and 19th centuries. Includes dispensas de parentesco, becas y órdenes, información de cristiandad, matrimonios ultramarinos, asuntos de monjas, renuncias de becas, legitimaciones, órdenes sagradas, decretos y oficios, asuntos terminados, documentos de sacerdotes fallecidos, fallecimientos, órdenes y decretos eclesiásticos, visitas pastorales, concursos a curatos. This is a reel guide to the microfilmed documents. An address is included for obtaining photocopies from the University of Texas at Arlington. 

Villaseñor y Villaseñor, Ramiro. 
Epigrafía del Panteón de Belén. 1. ed. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México: Gobierno de Jalisco, Secretaría General, Unidad Editorial, 1985. 415 p. [1] folded leaf of plates, ill.
LC call number: CS108 .G8 V55 1985
LC control number: 91226534
Catalog Record
Inscriptions in the "Panteón de Belén" cemetery, Guadalajara, Mexico. Fold-out map of the cemetery.

Continuation of the Descendents of Don Juan Canales
Compiled by John D. Inclan

Generation No. 6



ii. CESARIO CANALES-GONZALEZ, d. killed by Indians.




97. i. MARIA-DE-LA-LUZ9 SALINAS-ARISMENDEZ, b. July 12, 1854, Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 


98. i. CESARIO9 DE-LOS-SANTOS-IBANEZ, b. March 08, 1826, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

He married MARIA-DEL-REFUGIO MOLANO-MELO January 12, 1824 in Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSE-ANDRES MOLANO and MARIA-MANUELA MELO. She was born December 06, 1805 in Nuestra Senora de la Victoria, Nadadores, Coahuila, Mexico. 

Military leader and politician. 
He studied law and earned his license in 1829. 

Antonio Canales Rosillo, military leader and politician, son of Josefa Rosillo Canales and José Antonio Canales Treviño, was born in Monterrey, Nuevo León, in 1802. He studied law, earned his license in 1829, and with his wife, María del Refugio Molano, reared five children. Canales served as a militia officer in fights against Comanche and Lipan raiders. He served a term in the Tamaulipas Chamber of Deputies and in 1834 joined in liberal opposition to Antonio López de Santa Anna'sqv Centralist move against the Constitution of 1824.qv As commander of Federalist forces in Tamaulipas, Canales sent envoys to appraise Anglo-Texan, Tejano, and Indian sentiments. When he discovered that the Texans' intentions were to secede from Mexico, he practiced neutrality while he fostered the idea of an independent border republic. The geographical and ideological boundaries of this republic fluctuated, but Canales easily raised armed forces from both sides of the Rio Grande. In 1839 he visited San Antonio, Austin, and Lipantitlán on the lower Nueces to enlist men. During these visits he offered substantial bounties to those Texans who joined his cause. The Texian Auxiliary Corps, an irregular militia composed of 270 officers and men under separate command of colonels Richard Roman, Reuben Ross, and Samuel W. Jordan, allied with Canales and participated in various campaigns. 

During this period of revolts and counter revolts, Canales, Antonio Zapata,qv and others met at Guerrero in January 1840 and proclaimed a separate Republic of the Rio Grande, drafted a constitution, and selected Laredo as their capital. The republic would have included Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and the sub-Nueces portion of Texas. Jesús Cárdenas was selected president, and Canales was appointed secretary of war and commander in chief of the army. Although Texas did not recognize it politically, the republic existed in the minds of many border people. 
As the Centralist state continued to transform Mexico, Canales continued resistance against it, but he was defeated at Monterrey by Centralist forces and retreated to the Rio Grande. At Santa Rita de Morelos, Coahuila, he lost Zapata. Along with several Texan volunteers, Zapata was captured, court-martialed, and executed on March 29, 1840. Canales eventually capitulated to Centralist forces and forsook his Texan allies, a move for which he received a commission as brigadier general in Santa Anna's army. He later led campaigns against Anglo-Texans at Corpus Christi and Lipantitlán and in 1842 was instrumental in stopping a Texan filibuster at Mier. He was dismissed in 1844 for abandonment of his post but was later reinstated. 

During the Mexican War Canales harassed United States troops stationed between Corpus Christi and Matamoros. He fought at Palo Alto and at Resaca de Guerrero. He served under Gen. Pedro de Ampudiaqv at Cerralvo and under Santa Anna at Buena Vista. Between 1848 and 1851 Canales served Tamaulipas as surveyor general, legislative envoy, and interim governor. On July 22, 1852, he received a gold award for exemplary conduct. His sons Servando and Antonio served several terms as governors of Tamaulipas. Canales apparently died in 1852, after leading government forces that suppressed the Tamaulipas Rebelión de la Loba at El Paso de Azúcar, Camargo. 

Source:The Handbook of Texas Online. 
1851 - Interin governor of Tamaulipas, Mexico. 


i. INDALECIO9 CANALES-MOLANO, d. Abt. 1846, Doctor Coss, Nuevo Leon,
ii. ANTONIO CANALES-MOLANO, b. 1825; m. FANNIE O. TRUEHEART, March 16, 1889, San Fernando, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.
Served as governor of Tamaulipas. Source:The Handbook of Texas Online.

iii. GENERAL SERVANDO CANALES-MOLANO, b. 1830, Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico; d. June 28, 1881, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.
Fought against the United States between 1846-1847 and the liberals in the War of Reform. Served five times as governor of Tamaulipas (1866, 1870, 1872, 1876). Policial rival of Juan Nepomuceno Cortinas Goseascochea 

Source:The Handbook of Texas Online
Juan Cortina and the Texas-Mexico Frontier by Jerry D. Thompson. 

The following story about the Battle of Santa Gertrudis was written by Don Ernesto Garza Sáenz, cronista or historian of Cd. Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, in his book, "Segundas Cronicas De Camargo". I have translated the story with permission by Don Ernesto. Santa Gertrudis is a few miles outside of Cd. Camargo, Tamaulipas. 

Once more we meet here at this place known as the Ebony Mesa, before this monument that honors our heroes that fought on June 16, 1866 in defense of our country. 

It has been centuries that the Spartan mothers would tell their sons when they went off to war: "Come back with your shield or on it". 

It looks like this same phrase was received by the soldiers, under the command of General Escobedo on the 16th of June 1866, in combat on the hills of Santa Gertrudis, when they destroyed the Imperialist Army that was under the command of General Feliciano Olvera. 

The attack of the imperial forces was not improvised, it was a well planned battle. It was fought body to body. The soldiers of the republic, within one hour of battle, destroyed their enemies. 

This military action resulted in 368 dead enemies and 1,001 prisoners. Furthermore a convoy comprised of 200 carts that carried merchandise and supplies to the city of Monterrey, Nuevo León was decommissioned. 

It was lamentable the order given to execute one of the prisoners, Colonel Iglesias, of the Imperialist Army. 

With the pardon of their lives by General Escobedo the 1,000 prisoners, in gratification for his benevolence, embraced with enthusiasm the cause of the Republic by joining the army of the north. 

It is undeniable that the triumph at the Battle of Santa Gertrudis consolidated the Republican Government of President don Benito Juárez. 

Eight days after the defeat suffered by the Imperialists at Santa Gertrudis, we see how General don Tomás Mejia surrendered the port of Matamoros to General Juan José De La Garza, keeping the northeast of Tamaulipas in power of the Republic. 

It was the custom houses of Matamoros and Camargo, considered in that epoch important ports, and now controlled by the Government of the Republic, that started to proportion cash revenue to the government of President Juárez. 

Everyone knows the importance of the triumph of the Battle of Santa Gertrudis. We are conscience that we were one of the pillars that upheld the just cause of the Republic and that we contributed to the disappearance of the second ephemeral Imperial. Nevertheless, the sons of Camargo have always lamented the versight that our federal government has had to declare June 16, 1866 a national holiday. 

I'm going to permit myself to read the names of each one of the integrants of the Camargo Squadron that pertained to the Canales Brigade, everyone originally from this population. 

General Servando Canales Molano
Comandante Macedonio Rodriguez Garza
Capitán Primero Julián García
Capitán Primero Pedro Díaz
Capitán Primero Esteban García
Capitán Segundo Regino Ramón
Capitán Segundo Macedonio Recio
Capitán Segundo Diego Valle
Teniente Marcelo Sáenz
Teniente Rafael Garza Moreno
Alférez Félix Garza
Alférez Pedro Elenos
Alférez Gaspar Canales
Alférez Rafael Rodriguez
Alférez Isidro Canales
Sargento Primero Jesús Peña
Sargento Primero Pioquinto Medina
Soldado Santiago Rodriguez
Soldado Manuel Salazar
Soldado Baltazar Reyna
Soldado Bruno Infante
Soldado Pablo Garza
Soldado Luciano Molina
Soldado Calixto Acevedo
Soldado Homógono Garza
Soldado Cosme Juárez
Soldado Pedro Rodríguez
Soldado Candelario Sáenz
Soldado Manuel Garza
Soldado Martin Jaime
Soldado Andrés Delgadillo
Soldado Antonio Garza
Soldado Guillermo Flores
Soldado Eutimio Villarreal
Soldado Servando Morin
Soldado Martin Vargas
Soldado José Ma. Villarreal
Teniente Jesús Alegria de Guerrero, Tamp.
Teniente José Ma. González Benavides 

We have been able to conserve the names of these valiant patriots who participated in the Battle of Santa Gertrudis thanks to the desire and care that Colonel Dionisio Rodriguez Garza, son of the hero of our town, Commandant of the Camargo Squadron, don Macedonio Rodriguez Garza, had. 

Note: We thank don Ernesto for giving us permission to publish this story as it is one that is not well known in the Mexican much less the U.S. history books. 

Nació en Camargo Tamaulipas, el año de 1830, siendo hijo de Antonio Canales Rosillo y Refugio Molano; sus primeras letras las atendió en su pueblo natal, en el Seminario de Monterrey cursó francés y latín. 

Combatió al lado de los liberales en la guerra de Reforma otorgándose a sí mismo el Grado de Coronel, que después le fue reconocido. 

Hizo la campaña contra la Intervención Francesa en el norte del Estado. Al frente de sus tropas de rancheros convertidos en soldados, participó en la victoriosa batalla de Santa Gertrudis, en que fueron vencidos los imperialistas; logró la capitulación del traidor imperialista Tomás Mejía el día 23 de junio de 1866 e informó a sus superiores de la Toma de Matamoros por las fuerzas republicanas ese mismo día. 

Alcanzó gran prestigio y popularidad en Tamaulipas donde se convirtió en cacique. Desde los días de la guerra extranjera comenzó a ejercer el gobierno, que no dejaría hasta su muerte. Eludió hábilmente la presión de Juárez, cuando éste lo quiso desalojar del poder; nunca lo pudieron vencer. Apoyó la rebelión de Tuxtepec contra Lerdo, expidiendo papel moneda para financiarlo, y ayudó a Porfirio Díaz en la toma de Matamoros en abril de 1876. El 18 de noviembre de 1876 libró la batalla de "Las Antonias", derrotando al General lerdista Pedro Martínez. 

Gobernó Tamaulipas, ya sin la voluntad del General Díaz, hasta el 28 de junio de 1881, en que murió en Matamoros, Tamaulipas, a la edad de 51 años. 



La Genealogía de  Puerto Rico   

Papeles de Cuba


La Genealogía de  Puerto Rico

Sent by Bill Carmena JCarm1724

Welcome to The Genealogy of Puerto Rico web site sponsored by The Caribbean Genweb Project.  We hope you will visit us often.  To achieve success with Puerto Rican genealogy one has to learn much about ones family history.  One has to have a basic understanding of  the history, culture and language of Puerto Rico.  The effort requires one to interview living members of the family.   Genealogy requires an understanding of how to interpret the information found in the birth, death and marriage records of your ancestors.  One must also have an understanding of how to categorize and preserve the information collected so it can be accepted as the bona fide genealogy of a family.  It is the objective of The Genealogy of Puerto Rico web site to provide, the beginner, as well as the experience genealogist, with information via the Internet relative to these themes.


INDEX to the links and resources. . .

General Message Board
PRHGS Message Board
GenForum Message Board
How To Post A Query
PR Mailing List
Centro de Orientación para la Genealogía Puertorriqueña
Surname Database of Dr. Javier Alvarez Rios
Personal Surname Listing Pages
Genealogical Societies
Gotitas de Información - Los Pueblos
UPR: Guía De Los Documentales Existentes
Personal Web Pages
Microfilm Index
Parroquias de Puerto Rico
Información Histórica
Artículos de Interés
Query Archives
The Negroni Family

1910 Census
El Buen Genalogista
Preferred Reading
Historia de San Sebastián del Pepino
Photograph Library
Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña
Centro de estudios Puertorriqueño
Telephone Number Information
Pasajeros a Nueva York
Resources - General Information
Tracing Family Trees
Instrumentos para la genealogía
Líneas y grados de parentesco
Organization and Degree of Familial Relationships
Vital Records Information
Hispanic Genweb Links
Board of Certified Genealogists
Hispanic Name Archive
Most Common Hispanic Surnames in the USA
Glossary of Basic Spanish Words
Sign Guest Book -View Guest Book

Papeles de Cuba
Archival Calendar at the University of Florida
Sent by Bill Carmena

The Papeles Procedentes de Cuba (761 microfilm reels) is a section of the Archivo General de Indias in Sevilla holding records of the Spanish colonies throughout the Caribbean and on the North American continent. They contain documentation from the mid-seventeenth century well into the nineteenth century and are particularly rich for the period from circa 1760 to 1821.  

These documents complement the Stetson and East Florida collections as they contain the records of the Spanish posts on the northern rim of the Gulf of Mexico. The Reales Cajas legajos of both East and West Florida found in the Papeles Procedentes de Cuba contain the most complete New World treasury records in existence. The calendar of the P.K. Yonge Library's holdings of the Papeles Procedentes de Cuba incorporates about 60,000 catalog cards. The collection is organized by legajo number and then by date within each legajo. Individual reference entries generally represent documents, but may represent various document details, depending on what the legajo contains (letters, court cases, etc). Reference Materials: F016 H647d, Descriptive Catalogue of the Documents Relating to the History of the United States in the Papeles Procedentes de Cuba deposited in the Archivo General de Indias at Seville by Roscoe R. Hill F016 G216c, Catalogo Parcial de los Fondos de la Seccion XI (Cuba) del Archivo General de Indias 
by Cesar Garcia del Pino and Alicia Melis Capa F016 S735, Spanish Florida Borderlands Finding Guide/ Calendar to the Papeles Procedentes de Cuba, Seccion XI, Archivo General de Indias F016 C669, The Hispanic World 1492-1898: A Guide to Photoreproduced manuscripts from Spain in the collections of the United States, Guam, and Puerto Rico 
by Guadalupe Jiménez Codinach 


Monasterios de La Rábida 
Old meets new in Basque country
España completará su archivo de la Inquisición, acuerdo con Vaticano


Monasterios de La Rábida 
de donde partió Cristobal Colon para el Descubrimiento de América.
Photos by Angel Custodio Rebollo Barroso

Las carabelas son una reproducción de las que utilizo Colon y se encuentran en La Rabida, en un recinto denominado "Muelles de las Carabelas", donde se reproduce un puerto en la epoca de Colon. 

Monasterios de La Rábida 

La Rabida, Andalucia, Sur de Espana

La Rábida está situada al sur de la ciudad de Huelva, cruzando el Río Tinto. En este lugar existen numerosas referencias sobre las andanzas de Cristóbal Colón. 

El Monasterio está abierto al público y allí se puede pasear entre los mismos claustros que en un tiempo fueron recorridos por Colón. 



SU HISTORIA  por  Ángel Custodio Rebollo


Hace unos días, cuando acompañaba a unos amigos dominicanos para visitar el Monasterio de la Rábida, alguien dijo la frase "aquí empezó todo" ... y hubo un silencio de asentimiento que duró casi un minuto. Y es verdad, porque aún cuando Cristóbal Colon, tenía la idea de descubrir una nueva ruta para el camino de las especias desde hacia mucho tiempo, (algunos dicen que desde que conoció a Alonso Sánchez de Huelva en la Isla de Madeira), fue cuando vino desde Portugal, donde el rey Juan II le había negado su participación en la aventura, al llegar con su hijo Diego a La Rábida, sintió el apoyo de los frailes franciscanos y estos consiguieron la ayuda económica de los Reyes Católicos para partir el 3 de agosto de 1492 del puerto de Palos de la Frontera, en la confluencia de los ríos Tinto y Odiel, para su gran descubrimiento. Por eso hay que decir que en el Monasterio de la Rábida empezó todo, porque si aquellos frailes no inician las gestiones con los reyes y hospedan al Almirante y su hijo durante el tiempo de espera, difícilmente Colon hubiese llegado al buen fin de su aventura.

El Monasterio de la Rábida esta en un promontorio dominando los dos ríos y su leyenda nos lleva hasta tiempo de los fenicios donde nos dicen que fue un templo dedicado a la diosa de la fertilidad, después, al parecer, cuando la dominación romana el templo fue de una diosa romana y al final parece que lo conquistaron los Templarios y estos se lo entregaron a  la Orden de San Francisco.

Al parecer en 1261 llegaron a La Rábida los franciscanos , según afirman algunos historiadores del siglo XVI, pero el primer documento probatorio en el que se habla de la existencia de los franciscanos en La Rábida es una bula expedida en 1412  por el Papa Benedicto XIII, a favor del ermita rabideña y en la que menciona a la Virgen titular.

La primera visita de Cristóbal Colon fue en otoño de 1484, y volvió en 1491 por segunda vez para recoger a su hijo Diego y es entonces, cuando el Padre Marchena que había sido confesor de la Reina Isabel,  al verlo tan decaído, le anima y empieza su ayuda eficaz y definitiva.

De aquí partieron el 3 de agosto de 1492 la nao Santa Maria y las carabelas Pinta y Niña, que llegaron a la isla de Guanahaní, una de las islas Lucayas que Colón denominó San Salvador,  el 12 de octubre de 1492.

El Monasterio fue objeto de varias obras de construcción para su ampliación y conservación, hasta el 1 de noviembre de 1755, que con motivo del famoso terremoto de Lisboa, destruyó el claustro de la portería, varias celdas y otros destrozos.

En 1810 la invasión de España por las tropas napoleónicas hizo que los franceses llegaran hasta Palos y La Rábida y ocasionaron también múltiples daños, que fueron reparados hasta 1835 que con motivo de una Ley de Exclaustración los franciscanos fueron obligados a marcharse, quedando el Monasterio en total abandono, tal que en 1851 pensaron en destruirlo. Pero a ello se opuso el entonces Gobernador de Huelva, Mariano Alonso del Castillo y se respetó lo que quedaba, comenzando entonces una tímida reparación

El 20 de febrero de 1856 La Rábida es declarada monumento nacional y se hace cargo tanto de su reconstrucción como de su mantenimiento y conservación la Diputación Provincial de Huelva,  que continua haciéndolo hasta hoy.


El entorno de la Rábida, que ahora está dedicado a los miles de turistas que lo visitan, está compuesto actualmente por el Monasterio, donde viven cuatro frailes franciscanos; el Muelle de las Carabelas, donde se conservan reproducciones a tamaño natural y visitables de los tres barcos, Santa Maria, Pinta y Niña; el Parque Celestino Mutis, donde se conservan plantas traídas del continente americano y que normalmente no hay por aquí; el Foro Iberoamericano, de nueva construcción y donde se celebran conciertos y actos al aire libre, y varios edificios especialmente de hospedería.

En el Muelle de las Carabelas, los días en que se celebran actos conmemorativos, se reproduce, con la intervención de actores, como funcionaba un puerto andaluz en la época de Cristóbal Colon.

Old meets new in Basque country
Sights range from new museum to scarred Guernica
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

BILBAO, Spain — Many visitors to Spain tend toward the cities of Madrid, Barcelona and the more Mediterranean-flavored south. Our destination, occasioned by the wedding of a friend from the region, was Bilbao.  [[Extract of two items of interest.]]

The town, which sits on a hill, was walled for protection in the 13th century. No cars are allowed inside the walls because vibrations from rumbling automobiles might disturb the wine cellars built under many of the streets. The absence of cars makes aimlessly wandering around the narrow paved streets a romantic delight. The homes are narrow and built together, like rowhouses. Because there are no yards, many of the small stone buildings have colorful windowboxes overflowing with flowers.

Since the Middle Ages, Basques had met here under an oak in town to proclaim local law. When the tree died in 1860, a sapling from its acorn was planted, and it survived the bombing of the village of Guernica after Hitler’s Condor Legion in 1937 used the village for bombing practice.

España completará su archivo de la Inquisición gracias a acuerdo con Vaticano

Instituto Estatal de Documentacion, Informacion y Estadistica.
Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, Mexico.
(844) 4881344

Source: Miguel Angel Munoz Borrego []
Sent by George Gause

España completará su archivo de la Inquisición gracias a acuerdo con Vaticano
MADRID, 16 Ago. 04 (ACI).-El director general del Libro, Archivos y Bibliotecas del Ministerio de Cultura, Rogelio Blanco anunció que en breve España podrá completar su archivo del Tribunal de la Inquisición gracias a un acuerdo de intercambio de documentos con la Santa Sede.

Según informó Blanco, en septiembre tendrá lugar la reunión con Mons. Alejandro Cifres, director del archivo del Santo Oficio, "para completar los procesos más relevantes del Tribunal de la Inquisición en España, ya que éstos se iniciaban aquí, pero las apelaciones y recursos ante la Santa Sede se quedaban en el Vaticano y no volvían".

"Hoy disponemos de una información incompleta sobre los mismos que pretende subsanarse con este intercambio de documentos microfilmados: nosotros facilitamos al Archivo de la Santa Sede los expedientes de la parte española de los que carece, y éste proporciona al Estado español la parte romana, con lo que se cierra un círculo de información sumamente interesante para el conocimiento de la Historia", explicó.
Blanco precisó al diario ABC de Madrid que "toda la información que podamos obtener en este intercambio pasará a engrosar la Sección de Inquisición del Archivo Histórico General de Salamanca. Además, tenemos la intención de incorporarla al Plan de Archivos Estatales en Red (AER), proyecto que necesita ser impulsado y mejorado, para que, a través de Internet, esos fondos puedan ser consultados por los investigadores de cualquier parte del mundo, especialmente de Iberoamérica, en donde también actuó el Tribunal de la Inquisición española, y hay mucho interés por esta cuestión".

Recurso valioso para conocer la historia
El pasado mes de junio Mons. Alejandro Cifres, director del Archivo de la Congregación para la Doctrina de la Fe, explicó que la iniciativa es parte de un proyecto cuyo "objetivo es catalogar todos los fondos inquisitoriales existentes en Italia y procedentes de cualquier Inquisición, esto es la medieval, la española o la romana".

"Los historiadores distinguen tres inquisiciones: la medieval, ejercida por los obispos locales, o por la Santa Sede con carácter puntual y esporádico (por ejemplo, la Cruzada contra los Albigenses); la española (y más tarde, por imitación, la portuguesa), creada a finales de 1400 por los Reyes Católicos con el beneplácito y bulas papales, con actuación restringida al territorio de la Corona española (y Portuguesa), o sea, también en América y en los territorios europeos (en particular italianos) dependientes de ella; y una tercera inquisición, la romana, la más moderna, fundada por el Papa Pablo III en 1542 e inspirada en el modelo centralista español, pero con ámbito teóricamente universal", explicó.

"Estudiar o completar los respectivos archivos, el de la española conservado en el Archivo Histórico Nacional, y el de la romana (mi archivo) significa poner en relación documental dos realidades más unidas de lo que a primera vista pudiera parecer", señaló en aquélla oportunidad Mons. Cifres.

Según Mons. Cifres, "en la investigación histórica es fundamental el contexto. Los hechos y los textos no pueden separarse del ambiente, la época, las personas, en definitiva, del entorno que los ha visto nacer. Cuanto más ampliamos ese contexto, más se facilita una profundización objetiva, libre de prejuicios, de los hechos que estudiamos. En el caso de la Inquisición, tanto española como romana, disponer de la documentación más completa permitirá estudiarla con más objetividad".



Hispanic Surnames Database
Flags of the Canary Islands 
Estudios Históricos en Centroameríca
Researching in Columbia 
Ferdinand Magellan
Historical Records in Hawaii



El 10 de diciembre hemos abierto una nueva librería en pleno centro de Madrid a 500 metros del Prado, en una calle peatonal, Huertas 40. Se trata de una librería especializada para hispanistas y latinoamericanistas en la que con mucho gusto esperamos su visita. 

10th AATSP Biennial Northeast Regional Meeting, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 
10-12 septiembre de 2004

8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 
15-17 octubre de 2004

Hispanic Surnames Database             27920 entries           Base de datos de apellidos hispanos
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Flags of the Canary Islands
Sent by Bill Carmena

Welcome to my web site on flags of the Canary Islands. Here I intend to collect all the information available about the flags of the Canarian archipelago at any level, regional, insular or local, both official and unofficial, and both current and historical. [[Editor:  The development of flags offers many clue to the country it represent.]]

Asociación para el Fomento de los Estudios Históricos en Centroameríca

Diccionario Biografico website:

La asociación quiere ser un canal de información y un punto de encuentro:

Canal de información via el sitio de la AFEHC en la medida en que ha de dar la mayor difusión posible a los estudios históricos en Centro America, Talleres, actividades, publicaciones y otras iniciativas científicas que se consideren relacionados con el ámbito de la Historia Centroamericana.

Punto de encuentro ya que, al permitir un esbozo de cuáles son hoy las líneas prioritarias de la investigación en la Historia Centro Americana, reunir las direcciones electrónicas de la mayoridad de los investigadores y exponer de forma sintética las principales publicaciones. Con esa herramienta el visitante podrá reconocer posibles socios o colaboradores.

Sent by Jaime Cader
Source:  Jordana Dym

Researching in Columbia
Sent by Paul Newfield
[[The site is comprised of the listing of hundreds of historical articles. Apparently, contact has to be made directly for the web master. ]] 

Ferdinand Magellan
Online Encyclopedia - Ferdinand Magellan

Sent by Bill Carmena
JCarm1724, Bill writes: Check out the crew of Ferdinand Magelland on the VICTORIA. Item #7 on the Index and you will find one of my ancestors DIEGO CARMENA

Ferdinand Magellan, Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães (circa 1470 - April 27, 1521) was a Portuguese sea explorer who sailed for Spain. He was the first to sail from Europe westwards to Asia, and he named the Pacific Ocean. He is also remembered as the first to circumnavigate the globe, although not in a single voyage: in an earlier voyage he sailed to Indonesia 1511, and in his last voyage he reached the same longitude from the opposite direction.

Born to the nobility
Born into the nobility as Fernão de Magalhães (or Magalhãens), he was raised a page at the royal court of King John II of Portugal and Queen Eleonora. At age 20 he was sent to India, to viceroy Francisco de Almeida for military training, where geography caught his interest. Returning from India, he was sent to Morocco, where he fought in the Battle of Azamor (28 - 29 August 1513) and received a knee wound. He was also accused of trading with the Moors. The accusation was subsequently dropped, but Magellan fell into disfavour with the Portuguese crown.

Dismissal from the Portuguese court
He returned to Portugal, and stayed at the royal court of King Emanuel I, but Emanuel let him understand that he would have no further employment in his country's service (after 15 May 1514). Magellan formally renounced his nationality, and went to offer his services to the court of Spain. He reached Seville on 20 October 1517, and thence went to Valladolid to see the Spanish King Charles I. With the help of Juan de Aranda, one of the three chief officials of the India House at Seville, and of other friends, especially Diogo Barbosa, a Portuguese like himself, naturalized as a Spaniard, who had acquired great influence in Seville, and whose daughter he now married, he gained the ear of Charles and of the powerful minister, Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca, bishop of Burgos, the persistent enemy of Christopher Columbus, the steady supporter of his great successor.

His project: to sail around the world
By this time, Magellan had found a map, based on reports from prior voyages, that indicated the Rio de la Plata, a large bay-like river mouth in South America, as a passage through that continent to the Pacific Ocean. He decided to pioneer this route to reach the Moluccas (Spice Islands), the key to the strategic and tremendously lucrative spice trade. He allegedly declared himself ready to sail southwards to 75° to realize his project.

Ruy Faleiro the astronomer, another Portuguese exile, aided him in the working out of his plan, and he found an invaluable financial ally in Christopher de Haro, a member of a great Antwerp firm, who owed a grudge to the king of Portugal. On 22 March 1518, Magellan and Faleiro, as joint captains-general, signed an agreement with King Charles by which one-twentieth of the clear profits would fall to them; further, they and their heirs would gain the government of any lands discovered, with the title of Adelantados.

The voyage around the world
On 10 August 1519 a fleet of five vessels, under Magellan's command, left Seville and dropped down the Guadalquivir to San Lucar de Barrameda, at the mouth of the rivers where they remained more than five weeks. Spanish authorities were wary of the Portuguese admiral and almost prevented from sailing, but on September 20, 1519 Magellan's armada put to sea.

Magellan's ships, 1519
Ship         Tonnage Crewmen: 234  
Trinidad        110          55  
San Antonio  120          60  
Concepcion   90           45  
Victoria          85           42  
Santiago        75           32  

Upon hearing of his departure, King Emanuel of Portugal ordered a naval detachment to pursue him, but Magellan contrived to shake off the Portuguese. His next great challenge was a mutiny by his Spanish captains, which he put down by imprisoning his second-in-command. Soon the fleet reached the South American coast, where the weather and the natives were generally friendly. These good conditions caused them to delay, so that the southern winter struck while they were still on the Argentinian coast.

Magellan decided to spend the winter in a place he called Puerto San Julian in Patagonia. Another mutiny occurred here, involving three of the five ships' captains, but it was again put down, because the crew remained loyal, and two expedition leaders (one, a priest) were marooned on that inhospitable coast. One ship, the Santiago, was sent down the coast on a scouting expedition, but it was wrecked on the return trip. Only two sailors returned, overland, to inform Magellan of what had happened. At 'exactly 52° south' latitude, on October 21, 1520 they started an arduous passage through what is now known as the Strait of Magellan. Magellan assigned San Antonio and Concepcion to explore the strait. Their crews concluded they had found the passage, because the waters were brine, deep inland. The four ships thus started the passage, three of them entering the South Pacific on November 28. Magellan named the waters the Pacific Ocean because of their apparent stillness.

Three ships were left now (after Estevan Gomez took the San Antonio and turned back during the Straits passage), crossed the Pacific and on March 6, 1521 found the Marianas and on March 16 the island of Homonhon in the Philippines. By this time, there were 150 crewmen left. Magellan was able to communicate with the native peoples because his Malay interpreter could understand their language. They traded gifts with Rajah Calambu of Limasawa, who guided them to Cebu, on April 7. Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly to them, and even agreed to accept Christianity. Magellan died in the Philippines on April 27, at the Battle of Mactan, after intervening with about 50 armored crewmen in a local conflict between Lapu-Lapu of Mactan and Rajah Humabon of Cebu. Eight crewmen died as they faced 1500 warriors. The crew were forced to leave Magellan to die, surrounded by warriors, in the surf.

The first man to circumnavigate the globe

Magellan's Malay interpreter, who was baptized Enrique in Malacca 1511, returned from enslavement by Sumatran slavers to his home islands (which were to become named the Philippines), making him the first man to circumnavigate the globe (in multiple voyages). The surviving ships masters refused to free Enrique, but Enrique escaped his indenture on May 1, with the aid of Rajah Humabon, amid the deaths of almost 30 crewmen. However, Antonio Pigafetta had been making notes about the language, and was apparently able to continue communications during the rest of the voyage.

The three ships fled westward to Palawan, which they left on June 21 1521, where they were guided to Brunei, Borneo by Moro pilots, who could navigate the shallow seas. They anchored off the Brunei breakwater for 35 days, where the Venetian Pigafetta mentions the splendor of Rajah Siripada's court (gold, 2 pearls the size of hens eggs, etc.). In addition, Brunei boasted tame elephants and armament of 62 cannon, more than 5 times the armament of Magellan's ships. Brunei disdained the cloves which were to prove more valuable than gold, upon the return to Spain. Pigafetta mentions some of the technology of the court, such as porcelain (which was not yet widely available in Europe), and spectacles (eye-glasses were only just becoming available in Europe).

After reaching the Moluccas (the Spice Islands) November 6 1521, 115 crew were left. They managed to trade with the Sultan of Tidore, a rival of the Sultan of Ternate, who was the ally of the Portuguese.

The Concepcion was abandoned, and her spices were transferred to Victoria and Trinidad, but Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese, when attempting to return via the Pacific route. The Victoria set sail via the eastern route home on December 21 1521. By May 6, 1522, the Victoria, commanded by Juan Sebastián Elcano, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, with only rice for rations. Twenty crewmen died of starvation before Elcano put in to the Cape Verde Islands, a Portuguese holding, where he abandoned 13 more crewmen July 9 in fear of losing his cargo of 26 tons of spices (cloves and cinnamon). They returned to Spain, on September 6, 1522. The expedition actually eked a small profit, but the crew were not paid their full wages.

Name  and Rating              The crew in 1522, These 18 men returned to Seville with the Victoria
Four crewmen of the original 55 on the Trinidad finally returned to Spain in 1525.
Juan Sebastian de Elcano Master  
Francisco Albo Pilot  
Miguel de Rodas Pilot 
Juan de Acurio Pilot  
Antonio Pigafetta Supernumerary  
Martin de Judicibus Chief Steward  
Hernando de Bustamente Mariner  
Nicolas the Greek Mariner  
Miguel Sanchez Mariner  

Antonio Hernandez Colmenero Mariner 
Francisco Rodrigues Mariner  
Juan Rodrigues Mariner  
Diego Carmena Mariner  
Hans of Aachen Gunner
Juan de Arratia Able Seaman  
Vasco Gomez Gallego Able Seaman  
Juan de Santandres Apprentice Seaman  
Juan de Zubelita Page  
Directory of Historical Records Repositories in Hawaii
Sent by Johanna De Soto

The Association of Hawaii Archivists and the Hawaiian Historical Society are pleased to present this updated fourth edition of the Directory of Historical Records Repositories in Hawaii. What new insights will scholars of the next millennium discover? It is our hope that all researchers, veterans and novices alike, will benefit from this new edition as they map their way into Hawaii's past.

It has been five years since the directory was last revised. This latest edition includes more than a dozen new listings--complete with holdings and locations, of course--but also enhanced with email addresses and websites. For added convenience and accessibility the directory is available on the Hawaiian Historical Society website in electronic format.

Some of these new listings represent fledgling collections that are still being processed and may therefore not be as easily accessible as some of the older, well established repositories. We felt, however, that these sites should be included to present the researcher with every possible avenue of exploration. New repositories should be contacted prior to a visit in order to clarify what is available to researchers.

Mahalo a nui loa to the Atherton Family Foundation, whose generous support made this updated edition possible.

Judith A. Kearney, MLIS
President, Association of Hawaii Archivists
Bishop Museum Archives 
Brigham Young University Hawaii Campus Archives 
Central Union Church Archives 
City and County of Honolulu, Municipal Reference and Records Center 
Daughters of Hawaii 
Episcopal Church in Hawaii 
442nd RCT Archives and Learning Center 
Grove Farm Homestead Museum 
Hana Cultural Center 
Hawaii Medical Library--Mamiya Medial Heritage Center 
Hawaii Plantation Village 
Hawaii State Archives 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Archives 
Hawaiian Historical Society 
Hawaiian Mission Children's Society Library 
Iolani School Archives 
Japanese Cultural Center of Hawaii 
Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate Archives 
Kauai Historical Society Archives 
Kauai Museum 
Kawaiahao Church Archives 
Kona Historical Society 
Lahaina Restoration Foundation 
Lyman House Memorial Museum 
Makiki Christian Church 
Marianist Province of the Pacific Archives 
Maui Historical Society, Bailey House Museum 
Pacific Tsunami Museum 
Palama Settlement Archives 
Punahou School Archives, Cooke Library 
Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu 
Sisters of the Sacred Hearts Archives 
Tropic Lightning Museum 
United States Army Museum of Hawaii 
University of Hawaii at Hilo Hawaiian Collection 
University of Hawaii at Manoa Archives 
University of Hawaii at Manoa Special Collections 
U.S.S. Arizona Memorial 
U.S.S. Bowfin Submarine Museum 



Woman to woman...Why we should vote! 
Sent by Joyce Basch

A short history lesson on the privilege of voting. 
"Courage in women is often mistaken for insanity."

The women were innocent and defenseless. And by the end of the night, they were barely alive. Forty prison guards wielding clubs and with their warden's blessing went on a rampage against the 33 women wrongly convicted of "obstructing sidewalk traffic."

They beat Lucy Burn, chained her hands to the cell bars above her head and left her hanging for the night, bleeding and gasping for air. They hurled Dora Lewis into a dark cell, smashed her head against an iron bed and knocked her out cold. Her cellmate, Alice Cosu, thought Lewis was dead and suffered a heart attack. Additional affidavits describe the guards grabbing, dragging, beating, choking, slamming, pinching, twisting and kicking the  women.

Thus unfolded the "Night of Terror" on November 15, 1917 (a mere 87 years ago), when the warden at  the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia ordered his guards to teach a  lesson to the  suffragists imprisoned there because they dared to picket Woodrow Wilson's  White House for the right to vote.

For weeks, the women's only water came from an open pail. Their food--all of it colorless slop--was infested with worms. When one of the leaders, Alice Paul, embarked on a hunger strike, they tied her to a chair, forced a tube down her throat and poured liquid into her until she vomited. She was tortured like this for weeks until word was smuggled out to the press.

So, refresh my memory. Some women won't vote this year because--why, exactly? We have carpool duties? We have to get to work? Our vote doesn't matter? It's raining?

Last week, I went to a sparsely attended screening of HBO's new movie "Iron Jawed Angels." It is a graphic depiction of the battle these women  waged so that I could pull the curtain at the polling booth and have my say. I am ashamed to say I needed the reminder.

All these years later, voter registration is still my passion. But the actual act of voting had become less personal for me, more rote. Frankly, voting often felt more like an obligation than a privilege.

Sometimes it was inconvenient. My friend Wendy, who is my age and studied women's history, saw the HBO movie, too. When she stopped by my desk to talk about it, she looked angry.  She was--with herself.

"One thought kept coming back to me as I watched that movie," she said. "What would those women think of the way I use--or don't use--my right to vote? All of us take it for granted now, not just younger women, but those of us who did seek to learn.  "The right to vote" she said, had become valuable to her all over again.

HBO will run the movie periodically before releasing it on video and DVD. I wish all history, social studies and government teachers would include the movie in their curriculum. we  are not voting in the numbers that we should be, and I think a little shock  therapy is in order.

It is jarring to watch Woodrow Wilson and his cronies try to persuade a psychiatrist to declare Alice Paul insane so that she could be permanently institutionalized. And it is inspiring to watch the doctor refuse. Alice Paul was strong, he said, and brave. That didn't make her crazy. The doctor admonished the men: "Courage in women is often mistaken for insanity."



Family Sources and Interviews
Evaluation of Secondary Resources
Writing an Honest Family History
Challenges with the Living

Deciphering Lies and Family Myths
Start a Surname DNA Project
WW I Draft Registration Cards


Your family, and the family of your parents, grand parents, aunts, uncles, and cousins will have vast amounts of information to get you started on your research. This information will come in the form of birth, marriage, and death certificates, cards and letters, pictures, memories that are written, memories that will need to be extracted from Grandpa Joe’s head, and perhaps there will even be some compiled genealogy.

When you start talking to people about family history you will first want to start with yourself, then your parents and siblings. Then you can talk to aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents. You will want to ask specific questions. When people tell you what they know, it is good to be prepared:

    • Paper and Pencil. Take notes on what you learn. Write down the specific questions you want to ask. Very few of us will be able to keep all of the facts straight in our heads. Don’t take chances.
    • Tape Recorder, tapes, and extra batteries or an extension cord. Unless you are super human, you won’t be able to write as fast as people talk, neither will you be able to remember what people tell you. Using a tape recorder allows you to enjoy talking with people without worrying about getting down all of the facts. It also allows the person to talk without worrying about your writing.
    • Ask specific questions. Which question will be easier to answer? "Grandma, tell me about your childhood?" or the second question, "Grandma, can you tell me how you got to school everyday?"

Anything that the family lends to you, be sure to return it. Get a Xerox copy of what they hand you. Take notes on who gave you what. The last thing you want to do is create a family feud by giving Aunt Flo’s pictures to Uncle George.

Speaking of family feuds, very few of us come from a perfect family. There are tough situations that you may have to deal with. If parts of your family don’t talk to each other, you will have to overcome that. Unless the problems involve you directly, overcoming these obstacles will be easier. Most often the reason people fight will have to do with other generations and you as the child of your parents are just ‘caught’ in it. By simply re-establishing contact with a grandparent or aunt, you can assure them that you still want to speak with them and get to know them.

If your family will not help you in gathering information and resources, then that is fine. Keep trying. It might take two or three contacts. It might require that you pay for all expenses. It might require two weeks or six years of patience. But do what you can. Most often, when relatives see that you are not just kidding around about genealogy, but that you are serious, they will usually lighten up. For example, my dad’s side of the family ‘tree’ resembles a collection of family splinters. No one talks to anyone. After I moved out on my own, I could start talking to them without my parents forbidding me. Imagine how hard that was for an eighteen year old! Well, the family is not nice and my parents had good reason to cut off all contact. However, they are still my family. They have the same ancestors that I do, and those ancestors have as much need for genealogy and being remembered as we do.

It is not our place to pick and choose the ancestors we’ll research. That is called "judging" and it is not our place to judge.

And so it happened that the family would not cooperate with me. I had to start from scratch. About five years later, I presented an aunt with the work I had done (keeping in contact with her from time to time). She saw how much work I had been able to do and three weeks later she gave me some names, dates, facts, stories, and some pictures to be Xeroxed. I had to constantly keep contact with people who disliked my parents, who avoided my calls, and who could care less about genealogy. I had to work for years to do what I could. I learned the name of my third great grandma Rosa May Wolfe. Now tell me, was all that work worth it? Ask Rosa May Wolfe. Don’t you think she feels better having been remembered? Yes, this work is worth it.


Now that you have been able to search family records, the Internet, FamilySearch and other LDS sites, social and local histories, and maybe even obtained information from more distant relatives, you now face the challenge of knowing what to do with your information. Before you go on to your original research, there are a few other things that you need to secure:

Preliminary Research

          a. What information do I have? Birth, marriage, death information, spouse’s information, information for all the children? (Note: By now you should have organized your information. If you haven’t, you will soon discover the difficulties of knowing what you have and what you don’t have. Then one of two things will happen. You’ll either organize your research, find what you have, and will be able to continue, or you will look at the piles of papers, throw them in a box and declare your hatred for genealogy. Please organize your files).

          b. What information do I still need? Am I missing a birthdate? Do I have all the children and their information? Write the things you want to learn on a list, preferably your research log. Just as you narrow your focus for writing a paper, you need to narrow your focus for your research.

          c. What information conflicts? How many birthdates do I have for this guy? When you gather information, be sure to write down its source. Once you reached a point where five different sources give five different birthdates, for example, then you start doing some serious analysis.

                    i. The closer the document’s creation was to the time of the event, the more accurate it
                       is likely to be.    Example: John Ball.  Information Source


John? Ball, served in Civil War= b. 1840s?

Grandma Rene (1980)

John Ball, born 1842 Tennessee

1920 Census

John Ball, born 1844 Tennessee

1900, 1910 Census

John Ball, b. Jan, 1844, TN

Cocke County History (1951)

John Ball, b. Jan 21, 1843 Cocke County, TN

Enlistment/ Military Papers (1862)


                    ii. Consider the nature of the source. Though my Grandma Rene was a smart woman, I
                        cannot honestly expect her to know more than the man who asked John Ball himself
                        about his age when he enlisted for the Union. Census enumerators may have made
                        mistakes, and people (especially women) sometimes lied about their age.
                        Sometimes only one person gave the information for the whole family. Most of the 
                        time, wever, when census data conflicts, it’s usually because people weren’t so time
                        oriented as they are today.

Exercise: Go to your husband (or wife) and ask him to give you the full name, birth date and birth place for himself, you and your children. If there are no children, ask him for this information about his parents and siblings. Soon, you will quickly realize why it is so important to not take your dear grandmother’s memories to the bank.

                    iii. Was the document an original, secondary source, or a transcription? Sometimes
                         well-meaning transcriptionists make mistakes when they copy information from an
                         original source.

Make a Plan-- After you know what information you have, and have resolved as many conflicts as you can, now you focus on what you need to research.          

                    iv. Missing information: You will focus on what you need to learn about an ancestor.
                         Birthdates, marriages, missing children, etc.

                     v. Conflicting information: Sometimes the only way you can learn the truth about which
                         source is correct is to research it yourself. If you have five different versions of the
                         truth, then you may want to do some checking. What matches? What conflicts?

                    vi. Learn more about your area. Maps, gazetteers, geographical dictionaries will often
                         tell you political and ecclesiastical boundaries that are necessary for you to know if
                         you are going to do genealogy. They will also give you some social history and
                         other hints that will aide you in finding your ancestors. We will go into that the next

By taking these steps before you dig into original resources, you are saving yourself time and trouble. Planning and evaluation help you focus on what needs to be done. It also tells you what you need to do next. Having a plan not only makes us feel more confident in our research, it often makes our research more successful.


Salena B. Ashton, BA Family History

None of us should be writing the ‘perfect family’ history because none of us have the perfect family. Sometimes we may not want to write about a particular event, or even a particular ancestor, because they did something we believe was wrong. Other times we choose to not write about them because we do not know how.

Family history can serve as a foundation for personal healing, family communications, and personal growth.[1]We can write about our imperfect family members with love; we can learn about ourselves, and others, through this process of self-discovery and self-healing. Writing a history invites us to understand the skeletons in our ancestral closet to bridge gaps between the living. "These skeletons remain unreal, unpractical, until we work with our familial past. Words, in the same manner, have a history, an ancestral past, and by uncovering the top-soil and tilling the roots of this etymological earth, we find the myths and meanings hidden within."[2] Through writing, we can come to a better understanding of ourselves, our family and its traditions, and of the trends we set for our children and future generations.


The degree of exposure in our writing gives us the freedom to trim down or flesh out our character. We don’t have to completely avoid writing about a situation; we can simply say as little or as much as is necessary. In commenting on his book Growing Up, Russell Baker states, "If I want to honor my mother in this book I must be truthful…I felt that it dishonored her to lie. Honesty would serve my mother best in the long run; it would make her plausible.[3]" Likewise, we can still respect and honor the people we write about by choosing how much of a flaw we tell our readers. For example, note the following different degrees of exposure in writing about my grandfather:

  1. My grandfather is tall with gray hair and brown eyes…He lives in Colorado… (If you do not want to write about him, or go into details, you can limit your work to neutral statements).
  2. My grandfather was a mean man. (Nice, but boring. Perhaps if this is all that you are willing to say, it would be better to say nothing at all).
  3. My grandfather was cruel to his family. (You may want to give an example of something he had done. Allow the reader to decide for himself whether or not he was cruel).
  4. My grandfather would hit his wife and son, but not his daughter. (This exposure allows the reader to see why he was a cruel man).
  5. Dad learned to ride a bike when he was seven. As can be expected, he lost his balance and crashed into the car. My grandfather, drunk and enraged, grabbed my dad by his shirt, socked him in the face, and then threw him on the dusty ground. He then threw dad’s bike into the local dumpster, returned home and beat my father for ‘scratching the car.’ (This is a general example, to which we all can relate, and leads into a specific event. The statements focus on the fact and give no opinion of character. This detailed of a story can enrich your family histories, but too many of these examples will depress your reader.)
  1. Do not make a list of negative traits. You are not a gossip columnist so don’t write like one. Lists paint an unfair picture of the man, present problems but no development, and your reader will eventually tune out.

The idea of dual audience can help your readers understand a tough situation without having to expose them to unnecessary heartache. Take the following example:

"While I was in the hospital, my mother moved in our home to help Daniel take care of the kids…I was unsure of what to tell Linda [ten-year-old daughter] when she told me that my mom threatened Daniel with a frying pan…"

Two people could read this excerpt, (and in greater context with the story), and get two completely different ideas about this family. Readers who have not experienced a fair amount of abuse may find this a little sensational, but their attention will increase. Since this was the most graphic detail found in this particular history, these sensitive readers will not feel unnecessarily exposed.

On the other hand, those readers who have experienced abuse would be able to read between the lines. They understand that something had to lead up to this particular scene, and they are allowed to wonder about the unwritten scenes—and it is okay to sometimes let our readers wonder. You are under no obligation to tell your readers everything. The tone of a story is what a reader feels while reading between the lines. They are the unwritten words, the "voice" of the story. If you write with an informative and honest tone, readers who can read between the lines should not feel like you are purposely trying to hide the story. They will appreciate what you do write, but they will appreciate more what your tone adds to the story, thus making it more complete without having to give more detail.

The first best way to learn how to write is to start by writing. Take a writing class from an experienced teacher who will give you honest feedback. Then write. It may feel akward at first, but remember that the only people who will read your writing will be those with whom you share the writing. Write and learn to trust your own writing, then you will gain confidence.

With that confidence you will find writing easier. And when writing becomes easier, when you have learned more about writing from your class and growing experience through practice, you will become better equipped to write about tougher situations.

The second best way to learn how to write better is to start reading more books. Read family histories, biographies, autobiographies, and social histories. When you find a phrase, chapter, or even just a few sentences that appeal to you, make a photocopy of it. Then write in the margins what you like about the phrase. Did this author use descriptive details? Did they tell about a tough situation in a calm and plausible manner? Did the writing have a good tone to it? Did you like how much or how little they expressed about the situation? Make notes on what you liked about it, and file the examples in your writing notes. When you find examples of writing that you do not like, copy those too. Write down what you did not like about it, then file these in your writing notes.

Learning the social history of your ancestor’s time and location will facilitate your writing. For example, I have two lines of my pedigree that were slave traders in Missouri and Tennessee. Instead of not writing about these families, I read about slave trading, the concept of Southern honor, and about business transactions of the 1800s. Though I do not agree with the practice, I saw how I could write about the situation in a fair manner because I gained that extra knowledge, which then gave me more confidence and greater ability to write.

The point of view will make a difference in the tone of your writing. Family histories or memoirs are not the same as going out to war; we don’t write to attack others nor do we take the opportunity to defend ourselves. Write to tell the story. When writing about tough situations, it is best to state the facts and events and leave the judging of character to the reader. Frank McCourt’s Angela’s Ashes, tells of the horrors of alcoholism and poverty, yet he never makes a judgmental comment. "It’s not entertaining if it’s imbued with self-pity.[6]" He based his story on events and added love and humor.

After writing down the stories, enrich them with an analysis or a solution to current problems. James McBride’s The Color of Water is full of conflict and resolution to his childhood problems. We can do the same about my grandfather. Instead of making the negative stories the focus of the family history, we can develop his general roles as a husband, father, and how strong of a woman it took to remain married to him. I could develop the stories into certain themes: racism, interracial marriages, spousal and child abuse, effects on the family during Depression. We could also develop the story by explaining how writing this family history allowed me to see that this man wants to love, except he is too afraid to expose his true feelings.

When we go beyond reporting events we invite the reader to learn from our experiences. We can use lessons from the past to deal with current problems. Family histories can "elevate the pain of the past with forgiveness, arrive at a larger truth about families in various stages of brokenness. There’s no self-pity, no whining, no hunger for revenge.[7]" We can still write about troubled family members or ancestry with love and positive purpose. We do not want to write a history only to have our readers say, "Oh, that was terrible! What’s for dinner?" Invite your readers to experience the raw, human emotions and acquaint themselves with the people you present. Share something profound.

[1] Delight E. Champagne, "In the Field: The genealogical search as a Counseling Technique," Journal of Counseling & Development 69 (Sept./Oct. 1990): 85-87, as quoted in Genealogy as a Tool for Self-Knowledge and Family Therapy, by Thomas S. Rue, M.A.,CCMHC,CASAC,NCC, 1998.

[2] Murray Bowen, "The Use of Family Theory in Clinical Practice," Comprehensive Psychiatry, no.7 (1966): 345-374, as quoted in Genealogy as a Tool for Self-Knowledge and Family Therapy, by Thomas S. Rue.

[3] Russell Baker, "Life with Mother," in Inventing the Truth: The Art and Craft of Memoir, ed. William Zinsser (Houghton Mifflin Company: New York, 1998), 37. See also Russel Baker, Growing Up, (Congdon & Weed, distributed by St. Martin’s Press: New York, 1982).

[4] Frank McCourt, Angela’s Ashes, (Scribner: New York, 1996).

[5] McCourt, "Learning to Chill Out," in Inventing the Truth, 80.

[6] James McBride, The Color of Water: A Black Man’s Tribute to his White Mother, (Riverhead Books: New York, 1996).

[7] William Zinsser, Inventing the Truth, 5.


Sometimes I joke to my dear husband that my favorite relative is the dead relative. I believe the hardest part of family history is working with the living. Persistence, patience, and results are often what will get a family to take the genealogist more seriously. I had an aunt who chose to not tell me stories (or waste her time, as she bluntly told me). I researched the family without her help. After a few years I gave her copies of census, marriage, and land records. I then told her that if there was anything else that she could do to help me; stories, pictures, names, etc., I would be able to expand the research. She grunted at me. A year later she 'happened to find' a box of pictures and let me copy them.

If your family will not give you information or resources, keep trying. It may take two or three contacts. It may require that you pay for all expenses. It may require two weeks or six years of patience. Keep researching. Share your results with the family and tell them that their help would facilitate your research. Show them by example that you are serious. Show them that you are not interested in the dirt. If you are interested in the dirt, perhaps you should become a gossip columnist and put your genealogy on the shelf. [8] When relatives see that you are interested in the genealogy they may be more willing to share information with you.

 [8] The difference between fleshing out a person and throwing in dirt is that the former is objective and the latter is somewhat uninformed and biased.


Family lies and myths can be as trivial as an exaggerated claim to German ancestry, or as serious as learning your father is also your grandfather. Decide if the truth is worth the energy, hurt feelings, and your time. Is it worth finding out how much German ancestry you really have? If the family lies about it, you will eventually find out, so don’t worry about it. When family members do not want to talk about their family, talk to more distant relatives. If different family members give you conflicting details about an event, compare and contrast the details that do agree. When family members talk about a complicated, sensitive issue, but every detail matches exactly, be aware that you may not be receiving the entire truth. When you discover secrets, decide whether or not you should share them. Is it worth your time finding out the circumstances of an incestuous conception and the resulting adoption? You may want to learn her true parentage for your records, but that is all that is necessary for genealogy. The rest is not worth hurting people’s feelings.

Remember, you don’t have to tell the whole story. Simply choose the degree of exposure that best suits your purpose. Keep a neutral point of view that allows your audience to make their own conclusions. Develop the negative situation into an edifying, plausible setting. Remember, we should not write the ‘perfect family’ history, but instead, a history that is perfect for our family.


How to Start a Surname DNA Project.

Have you wanted to start a Surname Project, and have hesitated because it seems overwhelming? Almost everyone feels this way at the beginning.  Our educational resources, combined with our email and telephone consultation, help you each step of the way. Being confused or overwhelmed
will quickly pass, and be replaced with the excitement of new discoveries.

Anyone with experience with family history research can start a Surname Project. We supply the tools and guidance so your Surname Project is successful. There are just two steps to take to become a Group Administrator of a Surname Project:

1. Find out if a Surname Project exists for your surname. Click on the link below to search our database of Surname Projects:

2. If a Surname Project hasn't been established for your surname, then use the email contact below to establish a Surname Project, or to discuss establishing a Surname Project:   for Bennett Greenspan
Facts & Genes from Family Tree DNA 
August 25, 2004  Volume 3, Issue 5
Sent by Tom Ascencio

WORLD WAR I DRAFT REGISTRATION CARDS, 1917-18 (Images and index)
Update adding cards for Oklahoma continues to update its exclusive collection of World War I Draft Registration Cards adding cards for Oklahoma. Images and indexes are now available for the following states: 
Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, and 
Wisconsin. Look for more states to be added in the near future. 

The WWI Draft Cards are available to subscribers at:

For printable blank draft registration forms:

FAST FACT: MILITARY RECORDS IN THE U.S. RECORDS COLLECTION's U.S. Records Collection is home to over 130 U.S. military databases, covering conflicts dating back to the American Revolution. The records of your ancestors who served may be waiting for you! Check out the entire inventory of military databases at:
To subscribe to's U.S. Records Collection, go:

Genealogy Family Tree Information & Genealogy Search Tools  Website definitely needs exploring. . . .

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Advanced Topics:  http://www.genealogist/professional.htmlgenealogist/professional.html 
This area of the site is oriented towards professionals (including librarians and educators) and serious genealogists. 



Link to Ancient Life in Utah

Did the First Amercians Come From, Er, Australia?


Link to Ancient Life in Utah
by Paul Foy,  
Associated Press via OC Register, 7-3-04

For more than 50 years, Waldo Wilcox kept a closely guarded - and ancient secret.  Scattered through out his 4,200-acre ranch were almost perfectly preserved remains of ancient life, ranging from arrowheads to village sites. "I look at  it like this: I wanted to keep it the way it is," said Wilcox, 74. "But when I I die, I'm not going to have a lot to say about it.  I finally decided I'll take a little money and get out now.  
The ranch eventually was turned over to the state, and remains were revealed this week after archaeologists led reporters to the site. The remote canyon offers some of the best evidence of the Fremont culture - hunger-gatherers and farmers who lived mostly within the present-day borders of Utah.  Archaeologists said the villages were occupied more than 1,000 years  ago, and they may be as old as 4,500 years old.  

The San Francisco-based Trust for Public Land bought Wilcox's ranch for $2.5 million.  The conservation group transferred the ranch to the Bureau of Land Management, which turned it over to the state of Utah.  The deal calls for the ranch to be opened for public access, a subject certain to raise debate over the proper stewardship of a significant archaeological find.


Did the First Amercians Come From, Er, Australia?
Reuters Top Stores
Sent by John Inclan

EXETER, England (Reuters) - Anthropologists stepped into a hornets' nest on Monday, revealing research that suggests the original inhabitants of America may in fact have come from what is now known as Australia. 

The claim will be extremely unwelcome to today's native Americans who came overland from Siberia and say they were there first. 

But Silvia Gonzalez from John Moores University in Liverpool said skeletal evidence pointed strongly to this unpalatable truth and hinted that recovered DNA would corroborate it. 

"This is very contentious," Gonzalez, a Mexican, said with a smile at the annual meeting of the British association for the Advancement of Science. "They (native Americans) cannot claim to have been the first people there." 

She said there was very strong evidence that the first migration came from Australia via Japan and Polynesia and down the Pacific Coast of America. 

Skulls of a people with distinctively long and narrow heads discovered in Mexico and California predated by several thousand years the more rounded features of the skulls of native Americans. 

One particularly well preserved skull of a long-face woman had been carbon dated to 12,700 years ago, whereas the oldest accurately dated native American skull was only about 9,000 years old. 

"We have extracted her DNA. It is going to be a bomb," she said, declining to give details but adding that the tests carried out so far were being replicated to make sure they were accurate. 

She said there were tales from Spanish missionaries of an isolated coastal community of long-face people in Baja California of a completely different race and rituals from other communities in America at the time. 

These last survivors were wiped out by diseases imported by the Spanish conquerors, Gonzalez said. 

The research is one of 11 different projects in America, Africa, Asia and the Middle East being funded over a four-year period by Britain's Natural Environment Research Council. 

The projects, focusing on diet, dating and dispersal of people down the millennia in the face of climate change, aim to rewrite anthropology. 

"We want to make headlines from heads," said Professor Clive Gamble of Southampton university. "DNA will give us a completely new map of the world and how we peopled it." 



Dear Diary

Long gone are the days when a young girl's diary was a pretty little book with a lock and key.  Now savvy teens can record their memories electronically.  YM Magazine offers YM Diary, "journaling" software with word processing and database technology that allows users to insert digital pictures, music and video clips with their entries.  It also comes with password protection to ensure privacy.  The program costs $19.95. For  more information, visit



                12/30/2009 04:49 PM