Somos Primos

November 2004 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


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A U.S. soldier stationed in Iraq asked his wife to send him dirt, grass  seeds, and fertilizer so he could have the sweet aroma, and feel the grass grow beneath his feet. He is cutting the grass with a pair of a scissors.   Photo sent by Johanna De Soto

Sometimes we are in such a hurry that we don't stop and think about the little things that we take for granted. Upon receiving this, please say a prayer for our soldiers that give (and give up) so unselfishly for us.  If your would like to do soften their load, please read the email below.  

Below is an email received October 23rd from a soldier in Iraq. I hope some readers will respond.

"Hello There Mrs. Lozano. I saw your e-mail address on "somos primos". Just wondering if you could find us some "hispanic" sponsors?? We're currently in Iraq. There are just a few of us but we would appreciate care packages from our "ethnic" group. We miss our music, food, and families. Don't know what you can do or who would be willing to help but here we are:
Michael Rodriguez  (Dominican)
Lilly Amador       (Honduras)
Victor Hernandez   (Puerto Rico)
Jayson Osorio      (Dominican)
Amanda Graves      (Mexican)
Chai Perez         (Dominican)                   
Thank You, Rachel Contreras
all the same address:   HHC 1-25 AVN REGT
                                  CAMP TAJI, IRAQ
                                  APO AE 09313"   
Somos Primos Staff: 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna de Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez

Rebecca Alvarez-Shokrian
Ruben Alvarez

Mercy Bautista-Olvera
Arturo A. Bienedell
Eliza Boné,
Carmen Boone de Aguilar     Buchanan
Jaime Cader
Roberto Calderon
Roberto Campo
Sylvia Caravajal Sutton 
Dennis V. Carter 
Bonnie Chapa
Rachel Contreras

Johanna De Soto 
Edna Elizondo 
Daniel Enriquez
Karla Everett

Lorraine Frain
Lydia Garcia Peterson 
George Gause
Rosa Gonzales
Eddie Grijalva 
Juan Pablo Alvarez Guedea
Gabriel Gutierrez
Odell Harwell
Lorraine Hernandez
John Inclan 
Cindy Lobuglio 
Carrie Longoria
Dora Luz Haw 
Eddie Martinez
JV Martinez  
Bobby McDonald 
Barbara Miller
Fernando Muñoz Altea

Rafael Negrete
Michelle Norris
Rodrigo Leon 
Robert Olivares
Daniel Olivas 
Sal Osio
Guillermo Padilla Origel
Nikki Palley
J. Orozco
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Crispin Rendon  
Faus(tino) F. Rios
Viola Sadler
John P. Schmal

Diane A. Sears 
Howard Shorr   
Marianna (de la Torre) Bowers
Phil Valdez, Jr.

Marge Vallazza, 
Carlos B. Vega, Ph.D. 
J.D. Villarreal
Brent Wilkes 
Lucy Wilson  

Thank you so much for Somos Primos!!!!!  It is the best genealogy publication anywhere, bar none!  Today I had confirmed for me by the information found through a link in the Cabral Valdez article about my De La Torre ancestors.  You can bet I will include that in my talk tomorrow!  
Bless you!  Love, 
Marge Vallazza,  Shawnee Mission, KS.
Just wanted to let you know how much I appreciate the information you so regularly provide.  It has to be added work and time away from your own responsibilities.
Thank you! Lydia Garcia Peterson
Please keep the monthly notification coming my way.  I enjoy the way you present the introduction. Makes wanting to read the monthly more interesting.  You have created a lot of Genealogy Monsters.  And I am one of them.
Faus(tino) F. Rios
Another great newsletter -- good job!
For sure, we all plan to vote in November. The article, "Woman to Woman" which describes what Alice Paul (one of our BPW champions) suffered is a "must read" for all women, and men, too.
Thank you -- Lorri  Lorraine Frain
You are my best find on the internet!  Currently working my Avila side in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Into the early 1800/to mid 1700. It's all so exciting.  Thank you so very much!
Marianna (de la Torre) Bowers  BowersofNM
Gracias MIMI, excellent work. best wishes and God bless you, 
Jaime G Gomez, M.D.
148 Newcastle Drive
Jupiter, Florida 33458
Dear Mimi: It contines to amaze me how you find the time, energy, and all that knowledge, to put out SOMOS PRIMOS, and every new issue is more interesting, more complete, more far-reaching. It is truly an outstanding piece of work. Congratulations once again!

See you soon, Carlos B. Vega, Ph.D.

Estimada señora Mimi:  le agradezco nuevamente su constante envío de Somo  Primos con su muy importante contenido.

Nosotros seguimos aquí con nuestra lucha a favro de la conservación de las  costumbres y nuestros museo y archivo. 

Felicito a Ud. y su staff por la labor que desarrollan. Atentamente desde la Argentina,
Arturo A. Bienedell - San Francisco - Córdoba
Hi Mimi! Got the newest info for Hispanic Heritage Month! Thank you again for all that you do for us! It is wonderful. I am helping to put together a bulletin board in Anchorage's City Hall to highlight Hispanic Heritage Month--I'll be looking thru all the info you have forwarded to help make the bulletin board special and a celebration for Hispanics! Cheers Always and Take Care, Carrie
Hola Mimi, 
Just wanted to let you know that we are in the last two weeks of receiving story submissions for Latino Soul. After that we are in final editing and the ultimate decisions. If you think you could get any more people interested in submitting from you site now would be the time. It’s amazing that we are getting so close. It’s all very exciting. Thank you so much for your support for this project.  
Abrazos, Susan

Susan C. Sánchez, Ph.D.
Co-author, Chicken Soup for the Latino Soul 
PO Box 247
Clinton, NY  13323

SHHAR Board:                                                           For information:  
Laura Arechabala Shane 
Bea Armenta Dever
Steven Hernandez
Mimi Lozano Holtzman  
Pat Lozano 
Henry Marquez 
Yolanda Ochoa Hussey 
Michael S. Perez 
Crispin Rendon
Viola Rodriguez Sadler 
John P. Schmal


National Hispanic-Latino & Migrant
      Agenda Summit
Aztec Eagles
Hero Street, U.S. A.
Rueben Martinez
Men's Studies, Fatherhood 
Let's Have a Talk 
Federal Judge, Reynaldo Garza
Diversity & Assimilation
History Mexican-American People 
Dept. of Defense Aims to Attract
     More Hispanics to the Military
Untapped home market  
National Archives to go digital
Assimilation Happens -- Deal With It
La Página del Idioma Español 
a Misma Gallardía, Rafael Negrete
What does it mean to be a Hispanic?
Mexican-Americans Struggle, Jobs
50 Most Important Hispanics in   
      Technology and Business
Devil Talk: Stories
  by Daniel Olivas  
Millions Latinos added voting rolls
Maya and Miguel, PBS Series
Making Their Vote Count: Latino
      Voting Trends

  "A Challenge to America's Political Leaders:  Earning the Hispanic-Latino Votes"  

Editor: This is a 74-page report, a non-partisan perspective on issues of concern for Hispanic-Latinos. I am serving as National Issues and Platform Coordinator for the area of Arts, Heritage and Culture. I am in complete agreement with the recommendations for that component

I will be happy to email the file to anyone.  Just send an email with the word REPORT in the subject window.  The comments the report has gotten are  . . Wow. . . Excellent . . Tremendous undertaking. . . Good job . . . congratulations !!

Peter Fontanes,

Peter Fontanes, National Coordinator-Founder says. . .
"We need for this report to be read by everyone who is even remotely involved with the economic, political, cultural and social life of our people. We believe that, as we raise the level of debate and truth seeking, the level of participation and involvement will increase for our people thus contributing to our economic and political empowerment. This, by itself, would be the greatest tribute that we can give to this report."  Website:


Sent by

Drama / Comedy / Action by Cynthia Buchanan

                                                                        Hero Street    U.S. A.  


From the little Mid-West town of Silvis, Illinois is a street that has great history and tradition to uphold its name. It has earned the name with honor and with the blood of eight boys, all of Mexican descent, who tragically gave their young lives on fields of combat for a country they felt was well worth dying for.  It has been researched and documented by The Department of Defense in Washington, D.C., that there is no other street of comparable size that has sent as many men and women to serve in the armed forces than this block of approximately twenty-five homes.

Hero Street USA has sent more than 110 men and women into the military. Fifty-seven men went in during World War II & Korea, and over 20 more to Vietnam. These eight men: Joseph Gomez, Peter Macias, Johnny Muños, Tony Pompa, Frank Sandoval, Joe Sandoval, William Sandoval, and Claro Soliz, lost their lives in World War II and Korea. Now, a street remembers them in their honor and a committee, The Hero Street Monument Committee, is building a monument to memorialize these brave men and pay homage to all who have proudly served our country.  The Monument will be located at 1st Ave and 2nd Street in Silvis, IL.  To see the Hero Street Memorial Site,  For more information you may contact: THE HERO STREET MONUMENT COMMITTEE P.O. BOX 124, SILVIS, IL 61282  or e-mail us at:



Rueben Martinez
by James Ricci
Los Angeles Times Section: California Metro; Part B; Metro Desk, Sep 28, 2004.  pg. B.1
Sent by Barbara Miller

invited to celebrate with Rueben, click for more information.

When a Kansas schoolteacher named Krista Meisel e-mailed Rueben Martinez to make an appointment with him at his Santa Ana bookstore for last Tuesday, the bookseller didn't think much about it. An erstwhile barber turned nationally recognized missionary for Latino literacy, Martinez met with students and teachers almost every day.

At the appointed hour, however, there was no Krista Meisel. Instead, the telephone at Libreria Martinez Books & Art Gallery rang, and the man on the other end of the line, Daniel J. Socolow, congratulated Martinez for winning a $500,000, no-strings-attached MacArthur Foundation grant.

"I almost hung up on him, because I thought it was a crank call," Martinez recalled. "About a fourth of the way through the conversation, he said, 'Mr. Martinez, don't hang up, because this is the real stuff.' "
To prove it, Socolow asked Martinez if he had an appointment with a certain Krista Meisel for this hour."  They just wanted to make sure I was here," the bookseller said.

Martinez is one of 23 recipients whose names the foundation formally revealed today. Eight live in California. Martinez is the only one in Southern California and no doubt the only one who cut hair for a living for more than 30 years before opening his bookstore in 1993.

The thought of half a million dollars, to come in quarterly payments of $25,000 for the next five years, has left Martinez a little dazed, he said. Having accustomed himself to the life of a bookseller -- a small, rented apartment in Santa Ana, a 19-year-old Volvo with 342,000 miles -- he's not sure whether he will invest the money in expanding his business, which includes the main store in Santa Ana, a children's bookstore next door and a satellite store in Lynwood, or save some of it for his old age.

"But I'll tell you what, man, the money comes only if I stay alive, so I'm not going to take chances on the road anymore when I ride my bike," he said.

At 64, Martinez is a small, trim, muscular man with perfectly cut gray, swept-back hair and apparently inexhaustible energy. When discussing books and Latino literacy, his dark eyes glow with zeal and his steady stream of words accelerates without warning into a whitewater of exhortation. This he typically delivers bent forward from the waist toward his listeners, his hands churning, a style he has demonstrated from podiums at local grade schools, national booksellers' conventions, as well as Harvard and Oxford universities and the Sorbonne.

"We Latinos are a large population and we're growing fast, but it doesn't do us any good if we don't get educated so we can help the next generation," he said, growing restive on the couch in the bookstore's office. "So, love education," he commands, leaping to his feet. "Work hard. Don't give up. It's all about learning, all about pride, all about life."

The importance of Martinez's mission was underscored by two recent studies showing that about 50% of Latinos graduate from high school nationally, roughly 20 percentage points lower than the overall rate. Moreover, of Latinos entering college, only 23% get bachelor's degrees by age 26, compared with 47% of whites, according to another recent study.

Martinez was born in the tough little desert town of Miami, Ariz., where his parents were copper miners. His mother misspelled his first name on his birth certificate, transposing the "e" and "u" and writing "Rueben," his legal name. (Even the MacArthur people got the name wrong, spelling it "Reuben" on their website.)

A peripatetic boy, he nonetheless was an enthusiastic reader who moved from Edgar Allan Poe to Dumas to Tolstoy, Dostoevsky and Hemingway as he grew older. His reading fed a fascination with distant locales, and at 18 Martinez set out for Long Beach, a place he had read about. Once he laid eyes on the Pacific Ocean, he knew he would never return to Arizona to live.

Eventually, he built a prosperous life as a hairstylist. He put his three children through college (his son runs a home-remodeling business in Fresno, and his two daughters own an office machine- leasing business in Orange County). With business flourishing, Martinez had money to spare. "I was a Cadillac guy," he said. "I had a Corvette, rings galore -- phony stuff, man."

His metamorphosis into a bookman has been decidedly less pecuniary. "Nowadays," he said, "I don't even own a watch." The life change had its origins in two volumes he kept in his barbershop among the usual sporting magazines. As customers paid increasing attention to the books, Martinez slowly added to the collection.

When the number of books reached 100, Martinez had no choice but to build a bookcase for them. But buying books and lending them out in such numbers began to become financially untenable, and in 1993, when his collection had grown to about 200 volumes, he began selling.

Even as a barber, Martinez had been a community and political activist who often spoke to schoolchildren about the value of reading and education in general. "But I started getting more attention to what I was saying because now I was a bookseller."

For the first three years, his barbering paid the bookshop's expenses, but gradually rising book sales began to contribute more to the pot, and Martinez found himself with a new career, one that "just gave me a deeper pleasure in my heart."

By 1998, when he opened for business at his current location, his barbering had declined from as many as 30 appointments a day to a handful a week. He became a full-time and very noisy apostle of literacy and book-loving among the burgeoning Latino population of Santa Ana.

Eventually, he carried the gospel nationwide, helping alert publishers to the growing market for Spanish-language books in this country. He co-founded the Latino Book Festival, which now tours nationally, serves on the board of directors of Critica, a Publishers Weekly guide to Spanish-language titles, and speaks regularly at national conventions of publishers, librarians and teachers.

Each Thursday morning, he rises at 4 to drive to Univision studios in Los Angeles, where he has a live, five-minute program called "El Club de Libritos" ("The Little Books Club"). On the program, which is broadcast nationwide at 6:30 a.m., he reads to young children and urges parents, and fathers in particular, to read to their children.

At present, Martinez says, he sells about 125,000 books a year, the great majority in Spanish. The 7,000-square-foot Santa Ana store is a colorful, sunlight-filled place where books by eminent Spanish- language authors mingle with English-language classics translated into Spanish and with books in English.

On entering the store, a customer comes upon a table bearing bestsellers. Bill Clinton's "My Life" and its Spanish-language version, "Mi Vida," are stacked side by side. Clinton, Martinez said, was to have done a signing at the store but was hospitalized for heart bypass surgery.

Other famous authors, including Mexican literary giant Carlos Fuentes, Isabel Allende, Sandra Cisneros and Univision newscaster and author Jorge Ramos, have drawn throngs to the store for signings.

Martinez said he will have to expand his business to survive and, accordingly, is considering establishing stores in other densely populated, working-class Latino communities. His original store's reputation as bookshop, community center and artistic and literary hotspot has drawn the interest of numerous mayors who have asked him to open a business in their cities.

Expansion should be easier since Libreria Martinez incorporated in January. Martinez believes the publicity surrounding the MacArthur Foundation announcement will increase investors' interest in the business. His ultimate goal, he said, is to become "the Barnes & Noble of Spanish-language books."

Even before today's announcement, word of Martinez's selection leaked out in Santa Ana. At the weekly story hour at his children's bookstore, an event that typically draws a score or so of youngsters, nearly 300 turned out last Saturday to congratulate him.

On Sunday, however, it was business as usual. Martinez spent the day washing the front windows of his shop and sweeping the long stretch of sidewalk. "Clean windows and a clean sidewalk -- what they say is, 'We're open for business,' " he said.

[[Editor:  I've known Rueben since he was a full-time barber.  The books  he loaned were in a single bookcase in the front section of the barber shop. When Rueben opened his first bookstore, it included a large hall which community groups frequently used for free. His second bookstore has a separate children's bookstore, next to it.  Rueben schedules children's activities with the many volunteers who support his vision.  It is a joy to see that Rueben has received national recognition. Congratulations Ruben. We are all proud of you!! ]] 

Article URL:

Men's Studies and Fatherhood Program at Akamai University seeks imput

Diane A. Sears, Member, University Council - Akamai University
BSI International, Inc. http://

Akamai University, with world headquarters in Hilo, Hawaii, seeks input concerning its emerging Men’s Studies and Fatherhood Program.  The program is now available for public commentary.  Knowledgeable individuals working to improve the status of men and the equality of fathers in today’s societies may review the program and submit concerns and suggestions for improving the content and focus of the program.   

Let's Have a Talk   
Robert Olivares

In movies or in the days of the past young boys and men were to expect a talk from the Father of the girl or woman they wanted to date. In my house it’s me. Some people might say it’s not my place to put my nose into the love life of my sister but I say that my sister’s happiness is my business. Through out my life I have gone through and suffered many pains o due to the foolishness of my youth to the point where death was a true possibility but all that can not compare to the pain I feel when my sister is hurt. I would gladly suffer the pains of my past to keep on tear from washing away her smile. As her brother I want someone to look at my sister and see that she is a beautiful inside and out. I want a stand up guy to want to spend his life making my sister happy and I don’t think that is too much to ask for. Today is August 8th in the year two thousand and four almost twenty-six years after the day my sister was born. Eight pounds and I can’t remember how many inches but that day and every day since until the day that I leave this world my sister is and has been beautiful. So I know I might be stepping over boundaries or infringing on her freedom and I admit that but it’s because I love her and I just want her to be happy. 

My mom wanted to know if the people we are both seeing right now since they do not get along would effect how my sister and are. I think she is scared that our relationship will suffer but it is impossibility. I love my sister with all of my heart and there is no force in this world including death that would change that. 

Legendary Federal Judge, Reynaldo Garza, Laid to Rest 
Jesse Bogan, San Antonio Express-News Border Bureau Obituary, Web Posted: 09/19/2004 
Sent by George Gause
Source: Roberto Calderon

BROWNSVILLE - Reynaldo Garza, the nation's first Mexican American federal judge and a local icon, was buried Saturday beneath a reaching ebano tree. About 1,000 people turned out for Garza's funeral at Fort Brown Memorial Center, just a few blocks from the border. Many of them then went to Buena Vista Cemetery for his burial.

Tony Garza, U.S. ambassador to Mexico, said Reynaldo Garza was a towering figure in the community. "Very few people who die take a bit of the soul of the community with them," said Tony Garza, who grew up here and is not related to the judge. "His presence was that large."

When President Kennedy appointed Garza to the federal bench in 1961, the young judge worked hard to set a standard for more Hispanics to follow. "He felt that by being the first Mexican American to serve as a federal judge, he had a responsibility to do a good job so it would help others have the opportunity to be appointed to similar positions, like myself," said U.S. 5th Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Ed Prado of San Antonio.

Garza passed up an opportunity to be President Carter's attorney general. Instead, in 1979, he accepted Carter's appointment to the U.S. 5th Circuit Court of Appeals.

Garza, 89, had been fighting pneumonia for several weeks, but those close to him said his mind was sharp until the end. He died Tuesday. In August, from his hospital bed, Garza swore in U.S. District Court Judge Ricardo Hinojosa of McAllen as chairman of the U.S. Sentencing Commission.

"At the end of our careers, we all should feel very lucky to have accomplished just a fraction of what Judge Garza accomplished in his lifetime," Hinojosa said.

Garza, born here in 1915 to parents from Matamoros, Mexico, received a bachelor's degree and a law degree from the University of Texas at Austin. Garza's father managed the only bank in Brownsville for a while and owned a downtown hardware store, family said.

After serving in the Air Force from 1942 to 1945, he returned to private practice and eventually became the first Hispanic to serve on the Brownsville City Commission. Meanwhile, he was a state leader with the Knights of Columbus, an advocate for education and a campaigner for Lyndon B. Johnson, who recommended Garza's appointment to the federal bench.

Garza's son David, 56, an attorney here, said his father was comfortable in his job, except when it came to sentencing people. Back then, judges had much more leeway when it came to punishment, he said. "My dad hated to sentence people, because he knew he had the power to put somebody behind bars and separate them from their families," he said.
   Online at:

America's Diversity and Assimilation
by Sal Osio

The evolution of acculturation and assimilation is very evident among American Hispanics. The McKinsey Quarterly (1998) and a similar study by VNV Spectra in 2003, found that only 28% of America’s 40 million Hispanics are Spanish language mono-cultural – the foreign born 1st generation – and that 59% are acculturated (2nd generation) and become assimilated, wherein the English language and American culture is dominant, from the 3rd generation onward. The Pew Hispanic Center, National Survey of Latinos, 2002, relying on the 2000 U.S. Census, finds that 78% of 3rd generation Hispanics are English language dominant and 22% are bilingual. The same study found that the overwhelming majority, 71%, of U.S. born Hispanics (2nd generation onward) preferred the English language with another 20% selecting both languages equally. After the 2nd generation the studies found that an estimated one-half of Hispanics marry outside their ethnicity. The experience of Hispanics in climbing up the economic ladder in successive generations is similar to the experience of other immigration groups according to the RAND Corporation study published in 2003. 

Millions of Latinos added to voting rolls
Sent by Howard Shorr

"The Latino community has reached a critical mass," said Victor Landa, central regional director of the Southwest Voter Registration and Education Project, a national nonprofit based in San Antonio, Texas, that helped to set the benchmark of 2 million. "The politicians are taking note of us. But we've been here all along, little by little, increasing our numbers."

The boon has come through a variety of efforts, including a $12-million program of the Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration. It was criticized by the Commonwealth taxpayers who funded it as a misallocation of public money because it incidentally registered Hispanic voters from other backgrounds. Still, the campaign reported 322,000 voters added to the rolls over the last three years, 80 percent of them Puerto Rican and many in New York and pivotal Florida.

Meanwhile, Landa's organization reported some 90,000 new Latino voters over it's yearlong effort in 16 states. And the Manhattan-based Hispanic Federation reported 12,000 voters signed in the tri-state area during a campaign that began only two months ago.

. . . . . the battleground state of New Mexico reported nearly 1 million new registered voters for the 2004 ballot in an area where 40 percent of the electorate is Latino. America's Families United, a Washington D.C.-based nonprofit that funded programs in 24 states, said it has registered some 2 million underrepresented voters of all ethnic backgrounds, estimating 700,000 of them to be Latino.

"Take our 700,000 and add that to the 300,000 by the PRFAA [Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration] and that's a million new voters alone," said Juan Marcos Vilar, executive director of America's Families.

. . . .  organizers credited the registration increase to the work of bilingual foot soldiers, some paid, some volunteers, who went door-to-door or to public places to corral voters. Elena Parreno, who is paid $11 an hour by the Hispanic Federation, armed herself with a clipboard and sought late registrants at a Westbury shopping center on Tuesday. Days before, she had been in Corona, Long Beach and Hempstead.

"If they don't register, someone else will cast a vote for them," Parreno, 34, of Queens Village said, explaining that Latino concerns would be overshadowed if they don't engage in the political process.

Parreno, the voter registration worker, explained that she -- like many Hispanic immigrants -- had taken years of English courses and would not rely on Spanish-language materials at the polls. She emigrated from Ecuador six years ago, and said she was taking her citizenship test in November, eager to become registered herself.  "I'll elect my government like I did my old country," she said. "Because I'm part of this country now."

A History of the Mexican-American People
Sent by Johanna De Soto

[[ Johanna sent chapter 18 which focused on mutual support organizations and the formation of unions. Quite insightful. It appears that our grandfathers were actively involved in seeking just treatment.]]

When A History of The Mexican-American People was first published in 1977 it was greeted with enthusiasm for its straightforward, objective account of the Mexican-American role in U.S, history. Since that time the text has been used with great success in high school and university courses such as United States History, Chicano History, and the history of the American southwest. This new, revised edition of the book brings up to date the history of these invisible people and their continuing struggle for social justice. 

The opening section covers the years of exploration and northward Spanish expansion into what is the present-day United States. The book then scans the North American continent in the 1 19th century, highlighting Mexico's achievement of independence from Spain and consequent loss of its northernmost territories to the United States. Samora examines the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican-American War, U.S. violations of the treaty, and contemporary repercussions. The third part of the book evaluates the impact of the Mexican Revolution on both sides of the border and the effect of mass migrations from Mexico.

Samora then tackles the complex and decisive events from The mid-1950 through the present such as the problems of transition from rural to urban life, the question of discrimination, and the search for civil rights. This new edition contains a revised chapter on Chicano contributions to art, literature, music, and theater, and a completely new chapter on the religious life of Mexican-Americans. An extensive bibliography of Chicano literature covering the past 50 years is also included. 

Julian Samora is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame. Los Mojados: The Wetback story (Notre Dame Press, 1971) is one of many books he has published. 

Department of Defense Aims to Attract More Hispanics to Its Work Force
By Donna Miles, American Forces Press Service
Sent by Brent Wilkes

WASHINGTON, Oct. 12, 2004 - The Defense Department is increasingly reaching out to Hispanic organizations to get the word out about the broad range of military and civil service opportunities open to Hispanics, the Pentagon's top personnel officer told the American Forces Press Service today.

Undersecretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness David S.C. Chu said Hispanic representation in the armed forces has grown steadily during the past 10 years, and that DoD is continuing to make a concerted effort to attract more Hispanics to its work force.

Hispanics represent 9.9 percent of the active-duty enlisted force and 4.7 percent of the active-duty officer corps. In the reserve components, Hispanics make up 9.1 percent of enlisted service members and 4.3 percent of officers.  In contrast, Hispanics make up 16 percent of the 18-to-24-year-olds in the U.S. population.

Chu said Hispanic representation isn't shared equally by the military services. The Marine Corps is doing the best job of attracting Hispanics, he said, with Hispanics making up 14.5 percent of its enlisted force and 6.4 percent of its officer corps. The Army follows closely behind, trailed by
the Navy. But with Hispanics making up just 6 percent of its enlisted force and 3.6 percent of its officers, the Air Force faces "the biggest challenge," Chu said. Hispanics make up 6.2 percent of DoD's civil service work force, officials reported.

Chu said DoD is working with several Hispanic organizations to help overcome roadblocks in attracting Hispanics into military and civilian jobs in the department. One problem, he said, is that the Hispanic community doesn't tend to put as much emphasis as some other groups on finishing high school -- a virtual prerequisite to enlisting in the military.

Chu said the military's requirement that enlistees receive a high school diploma "isn't about smarts," but rather, provides an indicator of the person's ability to function in a structured environment.

Similarly, Chu said, Hispanics are less likely than some other groups to go on to college, possibly because they don't know about programs such as ROTC available to help them. Because all military officers must have a four-year degree under their belt, Chu said this means fewer Hispanics qualify to earn commissions.

At the same time, Chu said, Hispanic youth are facing the same phenomenon he said young people in other cultural groups are experiencing: their parents, teachers and other role models aren't necessarily supporting their interest in military service.

In response, the Defense Department is using a far-reaching strategy to attract Hispanics, from partnering with Hispanic groups to running ads directed at young people as well as adults in a position to influence their decisions, to sponsoring stay-in-school campaigns directed at Hispanic youth.

For the first time this year, DoD and all the military services participated in the League of United Latin American Citizen's annual training conference and convention, held in July in San Antonio.

During the session, DoD entered into a memorandum of understanding with the league supporting efforts to recruit and employ more Hispanics, showcased Hispanic military heroes from the past as well as on the battlefield today in Afghanistan and Iraq, and sponsored a career fair luncheon.

The Army also has a "You Soy El Army" advertising campaign, the Spanish-language counterpart to the "Army of One" program, which airs nationally on the Univision and Telemundo cable networks as well as on radio stations in key Hispanic markets.

"We must appeal to the full cross-section of young Americans with sufficient encouragement so they are interested in considering a tour of military duty or perhaps a career," he said.

Untapped home-loan market: immigrants 
By Macario Juarez Jr. Denver Post, October 04, 2004 
Sent by Howard Shorr

Billions of dollars in new home mortgages could have been generated nationally in 2000 if lenders would have taken a chance on thousands of undocumented Hispanic immigrants. That's according to a new report to be released today by the National Association of Hispanic Real Estate Professionals, an industry group that commissioned the study.

"Until now, no one has attempted to quantify the positive impact these consumers can have on our nation's marketplace," said Gary Acosta, the group's chairman and co-founder.

Today's report - derived from 2000 census and U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Services data - estimates that some 216,000 undocumented Hispanic immigrants could have qualified for some type of home mortgage, based on their household income.

No law prohibits undocumented immigrants from owning real estate - if they have cash or private financing. But they can find themselves ineligible for most favorable types of financing like an FHA or conventional loan because of their immigration status and lack of adequate identification and credit history.

"As homeowners, these people would make enormous contributions to local communities all across America," Acosta said.

Rob Paral, a research fellow with the American Immigration Law Foundation in Washington, D.C., prepared the study as an independent consultant. He described his results as conservative and most likely lower than the number of undocumented Hispanic immigrants today who could afford a home.

"If you take the population that I looked at, they are now a little older, probably have a higher income and are more likely to want to be a homeowner," Paral said.  Paral estimated that $44 billion in new mortgages could have been generated in 2000 by undocumented Hispanic immigrants.

National Archives to go digital
Sent by George Gause

The National Archives will award contracts of greater than $20 million to begin building the Electronic Records Archives (ERA). ERA will be a comprehensive, systematic and dynamic means for preserving virtually any kind of electronic record, free from dependence on any specific hardware or software. The project, encompassing several petabytes (one million gigabytes) of data, is scheduled to open by 2007, and is expected to be completed by 2011.

Assimilation Happens -- Deal With It  
The lower birthrate among second-generation Latinos has huge import for California.
By Gregory Rodriguez, Gregory Rodriguez, a contributing editor of Opinion, is an Irvine senior fellow at the New America Foundation.

Los Angeles Times, October 10, 2004
Sent by Howard Shorr

Last week, The Times reported that California demographers had scaled back their state population projections for 2040, citing a sharp decline in the Latino birthrate. They had overestimated population growth in part because their assumptions incorporated a 1970s nostalgia that treated culture the same way that Americans have always regarded race.

As a result, the demographers didn't properly take into account assimilation and its effect on fertility across generations of immigrants. As with previous newcomers, today's second generation tends to have fewer children than the first, and the third fewer still.

Americans traditionally considered race as unchangeable and biologically determined. Culture and ethnicity, by contrast, were seen as less innate and more malleable; they changed and adapted over time. Though it was scandalous for a black man to "pass" for white, it was always more acceptable for a Jew to pass for a WASP (think Ralph Lauren) or a Mexican to identify herself as Italian or Spanish (think New Mexico).

Incorporating this idea into its questions, the Census Bureau asked Americans about their parents' place of birth. This allowed analysts to sort the data across at least three generations. The first generation reported being foreign-born, the second native-born to foreign-born parents and the third and beyond were native-born to native-born parents.

In 1970, ancestry replaced parent's place of birth in the bureau's decennial questionnaire. This shift was a product of the times. Only 5% of the U.S. population was foreign-born then, the lowest percentage in American history.

Many latter-generation Americans felt alienated from their ethnic roots; others reacted to the emergence of black nationalism. The new ideology of multiculturalism attracted them. Though many of its adherents were thoroughly assimilated, an increasing number of Americans of all backgrounds came to see the U.S. as less of a melting pot and more of a confederation of permanently separate races, ethnicities and cultures.

Multiculturalism emphasized and celebrated cultural continuity across generations. It preached that a third-generation Japanese American had more in common with his foreign-born grandmother than with his fifth-generation Polish American neighbor.

Assimilation was a dirty word in such a scheme. It was viewed as necessarily coercive rather than as a process by which people of diverse origins gradually achieved a "cultural solidarity sufficient at least to sustain a national existence," as sociologist Robert E. Park wrote in the 1930s. Because assimilation was said to promote ethnic self-hatred and homogenization, it was assumed that if immigrants were not forced to assimilate, they wouldn't.

For African Americans, railing against assimilation was another way to reject a mainstream culture that had long rejected them. But for many whites and Mexican Americans — there was no such thing as a Latino in 1970 — the driving force behind their rebuff of assimilation was nostalgia.

The typical white American was several generations removed from the immigrant experience. The majority of Mexican Americans were at least third generation. Multiculturalism and its sentimental emphasis on cultural continuity allowed these latter-generation Americans to reclaim a culture, and sometimes an identity, they felt had slipped through their fingers. Highly assimilated, English-dominant Mexican Americans could reclaim a strong Mexican identity. A sixth-generation white suburbanite of mixed European ancestry could call herself Irish and thus enjoy a sense of intimacy that whiteness never bestowed.

Ironically, just as the U.S. was about to receive one of the largest immigrant waves in its history, Americans began to view ethnicity and culture in terms of preservation rather than change.

Multiculturalism did allow contemporary immigrants the space to retain and adapt new and old behaviors and styles as they wished. One result was that the nation became more comfortable with cultural differences. Gone were the days when the children of immigrants were punished for uttering a foreign language in school. The sometimes humiliating Americanization programs of the 1910s and 1920s were no more than bad memories.

But over time, multiculturalism also kept us from understanding how the United States was changing. The celebration of difference hasn't allow us to see how immigrant and the majority cultures so often influence each other and converge.

The cult of cultural preservation encouraged us to believe that contemporary immigrant ethnicity and culture are constant, if not static, over time. New immigrants and their children were expected to continue playing their assigned roles. We're astonished and disappointed when a third-generation Mexican American politician speaks poor Spanish, yet we'd never think of scolding Rudy Giuliani for his poor Italian skills or Barbara Boxer for her nonexistent Yiddish. Some post-ethnic Americans even romanticize new immigrants, particularly Latinos, as symbols of resistance to the anomie and cold commercialism of contemporary American life.

But like it or not, assimilation happens.

In a 2002 study by the Public Policy Institute of California, demographers Laura Hill and Hans Johnson discovered that higher educational achievement, lower rates of marriage and less poverty accounted for the decline in fertility among second-generation Latinas. In fact, it is the fast growth of the second generation of Latinos that has state demographers lowering their estimates of Latino population growth.

Even as government, business and organizations strive to better reach the first-generation immigrant by crafting new messages and speaking their languages, they may soon have to reconsider their approaches because the number of American-born children of immigrants is exploding. Korean immigrant churches must offer services in English to hold on to their second-generation parishioners. Marketing firms are studying the eclectic consumer and entertainment tastes of the children of immigrants.

The question of whether we view ethnicity as fluid or rigid is not merely academic. State population projections, for instance, help planners determine the long-term needs for schools and other public services. There is serious money at stake. The assumption that immigrant cultures remain static over time is a quaint relic from another era. We cannot properly plan for the future if we don't understand that culture is as ever-changing and dynamic as it has always been

 "La Página del Idioma Español ( Portada"  
Sent by Viola Sadler
Here is an article that has this respected academician declare how watching telenovelas enrich our language. Interesting reading. 

La Real Academia Española y las telenovelas

Barcelona (dpa) Å\ El profesor Gregorio Salvador, vicedirector de la Real Academia Española, opinó que la telenovela "es un vehículo de cohesión lingüística para los hispanohablantes", según declaró en la II Cumbre Mundial de la Industria de la Telenovela y Ficción aportando su visión como lingüista.

Salvador, que en 1994 publicó el libro "Un vehículo para la cohesión lingüística: el español hablado en los culebrones", relató que se sintió motivado a escribir esa obra cuando en 1990, en el marco de una reunión de las veintidós academias de la lengua española, alguien comentó el esfuerzo que se hacía en las telenovelas por utilizar un español comprensible para todos.

Ese mismo día, oyó a una joven española comentar a una amiga ante un escaparate: "¡Qué chéveres esos zapatos!". En esa época en España se emitía la telenovela venezolana "Cristal". "Una muchachita de una ciudad castellana estaba utilizando una expresión venezolana. Me di cuenta de que las telenovelas enriquecían el vocabulario", contó Salvador.

Al presentar en la Cumbre su ponencia sobre "El uso del español en los medios", el académico citó un ejemplo más reciente. En un autobús, también en España, una joven le dijo a otra: "Voy a pololear un rato". La expresión chilena, que se refiere a estar un rato con el novio (pololo), había sido tomada de la telenovela "Machos". Ahora un montón de hispanohablantes saben lo que es pololear.

"Todo esto ayuda a ampliar la riqueza de la lengua", comentó Salvador, quien destacó asimismo que el lenguaje de los culebrones intenta evitar expresiones que en algunos países tienen conotaciones sexuales.

"Me llamó la atención que en una cena una señora española decía ‘agarrar la copa‘ en vez de ‘coger la copa‘, como es normal en España. Después descubrí que había estado viendo una telenovela argentina. Me parece un acierto que las telenovelas hayan sabido huir de esas palabras que pueden resultar desagradables en otros países", expresó el académico.


Con la Misma Gallardía
/With the Same Elegance

By Viola Rodriguez Sadler
Interview, September 21, 2004


It was a great treat to meet a young man who exuded charm, elegance and enthusiasm all at the same time. Rafael Jorge Negrete is a proud descendant of one of the biggest icons of Mexican films. His grandfather, Jorge Negrete, had only one daughter, Diana Negrete. She in turn had three daughters and two sons by her marriage to Manuel García.

Rafael Jorge Negrete is the fourth child of this marriage. He has not only inherited his grandfather’s handsome looks, but also the unmistakable voice that has the ability to sing operatic arias as well as rancheras and baladas.

Although Rafael Jorge is aware of how big an icon his grandfather was in Mexico during its cinematic ‘Golden Era’, he is probably prouder of another accomplishment. Jorge Negrete was the responsible force in the restructuring of Mexico’s actors’ equity known as ANDA. The elder Negrete became aware of the exploitation of the movie crews and extras during the filmings. Under his leadership those groups were protected by their inclusion in ANDA. Although this made him unpopular with producers, Negrete was still popular at the box office. The adoration of Negrete’s fans made producers and directors bend, and cast him in his latter films.

Rafael Jorge started his training at the Conservatorio Nacional de Música in Mexico City and went on to Europe where he continued his studies. He spoke of a German teacher and other projects that included some acting as well as singing.

Back in Mexico he pursues his major interests which are singing and teaching. He shared that he enjoys the music of Revueltas as well as the folklore music of Mexico. He is well versed in the history of the mariachi and the sones. Among some of his favorite songwriters are those that also wrote songs for his grandfather. They include Manuel Esperón, Jose Alfredo Jiménez, Tomás Méndez, Humberto Estrada and Martín Urieta.

Young Negrete is well aware that his grandfather’s name may open a door for him, but it is his own talent that the public will accept. He is ready for the opportunity to prove himself. We wish him the best of luck!

Hispanic Heritage Month 2004 
Part 2,
What Does It Mean to be a Hispanic?
Sun Oct 17 16:33:02 PDT 2004
Washington Hispanic; Washington, Maryland, Virginia - Metro 
Sent by Dr. Carlos B. Vega

Today’s Hispanics are on the march. They are beginning to realize their self-worth and place in history. Indeed Hispanics are making big strides in pulling themselves up and preparing for a brighter tomorrow. We see it all the time in schools. Day after day, Hispanics, with great effort and sacrifice, fill the classrooms across the nation to pursue a career, to become more skillful and compete in the marketplace. This is indeed admirable. They are also recognizing the inherent right of women to become equal partners and aspire to the same goals. They are becoming more condescending, more understanding, more willing to give and share than to take. As a result, the nation is getting stronger and we are becoming better people. 

We wish, however, that some Hispanics would follow this example, specially those holding the reins of power, such as the media and television. Nothing could be more disheartening and depressing, more painful and offensive than to see the image they portray of Hispanics in most, if not all, television programs. To those unfamiliar with the Hispanic culture, such an avalanche of grotesque and distorted images would lead to an abhorrence, to a loathing of anything Hispanic; and to us, knowing who we are, to a deep depression and a deep sense of unworthiness. We fight, hit one another, curse, yell-- mothers against daughters, fathers against sons.

It is all over the news, the novelas, the talk-shows, except, of course, in the commercials, where we seem to love each other deeply, whether we are buying a car, talking on the phone, or sitting around the dinner table. Here we are portrayed as noble and loving, holding hands, embracing and kissing each other as if apart for years. 

Schools should also become aware of the disservice they are doing to Hispanics, by distorting their history and emphasizing false values and virtues. Gloria Estefan, Ricky Martin, Jennifer Lopez (we have intentionally left out the accent mark on her name [“ó”]) and the like, are not, repeat, are not, true icons of Hispaninism, neither are Hidalgo, Martí, or Bolívar our only heroes, nor our only food black beans and fried bananas, all of our men machos and all of our women damsels in distress, nor all of our people live in poverty, are plagued by social and political unrest, nor are our only music salsa and mariachi. The same applies to textbooks.A word about the U.S. Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

These are documents that frame the lofty ideals and aspirations of a new breed of people born in America, setting forth a revolutionary new concept aimed at establishing the inherent right of the common man to everlasting liberty, self-government, and justice. They are noble documents, exuding a candor and humanity unequaled in the long trajectory of civilization. They place man at the center of the universe and the sole master of his own actions and destinity, rejecting any notion of God-given rights to a chosen few to shackle the mind and spirit of the downtrodden and the meek.

The Declaration of Independence is a gut-felt outcry denouncing the injustice perpetrated on people bonded by the same consanguinity, on the brethren on the other side of the Atlantic, specially by an despotic and insentitive monarch, and detailing the causes for which, regrettably, a separation is both justified and imminent. The language and style in which it is written set a milestone in American historical and literary writing, never again surpassed. In fact, it has withstood the scrutiny of thousands of so-called linguistic purists to their total surprise and frustration. Not a single word has been found out of place, nor any word misused to express a given thought or sentiment. And if we would add the circumstances in which it was written by its creator, Thomas Jefferson, we would conclude that it was indeed a work inspired by Divine Providence.

The Constitution, written about a decade later, and still the oldest-living among all nations, resembles the creation of the human body in its total perfection. Here we suspect again the hand of Divine Providence, as nothing has ever been created by man without flaw in one aspect or another. It is an amazing document in multiple ways. 

First, it shows a political maturity and breadth of purpose uncanny for a nation barely ten years old. Second, it sets forth a system of government in which every citizen bears equal and direct responsibility. Third, it balances power so as not to rest on any given institution or individual but on several; Fourth, and this is most extraordinary, it allows to future generations the flexibility to amend any of its provisions, meaning that the framers had the wisdom and foresight to realize that no work of man is infallible.

Something they did not foresee, however, in our opinion, was the social evolution of the nation, a matter to us of some concern. Hence, these two questions to ponder:

First question: Was the Constitution primarily intended for a social elite or for all of the people?
Second question: Was the Constitution intended for an ethnically cohesive society or for ethnically-diverse one?

These are questions that only time can answer. We do know that the Constitution has weathered many storms, so we are hopeful that it will weather many more. However, the challenges are enormous as we face a new society at home and an hostile world abroad.

Percent of People 5 Years and Over 

Who Speak Spanish at Home 

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2003 American Community Survey

Rank    Place                        Percentage     Lower        Upper
                                                                  Bound         Bound


El Paso city, TX





Miami city, FL





Santa Ana city, CA





Los Angeles city, CA





San Antonio city, TX





Anaheim city, CA





Dallas city, TX





Riverside city, CA





Corpus Christi city, TX





Houston city, TX





Long Beach city, CA





Newark city, NJ





Phoenix city, AZ





Tucson city, AZ





Bakersfield city, CA





Austin city, TX





Fresno city, CA





New York city, NY





San Jose city, CA





Chicago city, IL





Fort Worth city, TX





Stockton city, CA





Las Vegas city, NV





San Diego city, CA





Oakland city, CA





Albuquerque city, NM





Arlington city, TX





Denver city, CO





Aurora city, CO





Mesa city, AZ





Tampa city, FL





Boston city, MA





Milwaukee city, WI





Sacramento city, CA





San Francisco city, CA





Washington city, DC





Wichita city, KS





St. Paul city, MN





Charlotte city, NC





Oklahoma City city, OK





Philadelphia city, PA





Omaha city, NE





Minneapolis city, MN





Colorado Springs city, CO





Buffalo city, NY





Raleigh city, NC





Cleveland city, OH





Tulsa city, OK





Indianapolis city (balance), IN





Portland city, OR





Atlanta city, GA





Detroit city, MI





Nashville-Davidson (balance), TN





Kansas City city, MO





Anchorage municipality, AK





Jacksonville city, FL





Lexington-Fayette, KY





Memphis city, TN





Columbus city, OH





Virginia Beach city, VA





Seattle city, WA





St. Louis city, MO





Baltimore city, MD





New Orleans city, LA





Toledo city, OH





Honolulu CDP, HI





Pittsburgh city, PA





Cincinnati city, OH





The table above shows the margin of error, represented by the lower and upper bounds of the 90-percent confidence interval. The confidence interval gives a range of values likely to include the population true value.  The smaller the confidence interval the more precise the estimate of the characteristic of interest.  

Brownsville / McAllen / Laredo (etc.) NOT found.
Cameron / Hidalgo Counties (etc.) found under "county level" link to right.
Sent by George Gause

Mexican-Americans Struggle for Jobs
By CHARLIE LeDUFF, New York Times, October 13, 2004
Sent by Howard Shorr

EL PASO - Ernestina Miranda left Mexico for the United States in 1979 in the trunk of a car. 
She found a job sewing blue jeans in one of the dozens of clothing factories here. Work was steady, six days a week, 12 hours a day. She married and bought a trailer - without running water or electricity - on a plot of land. She was awarded citizenship in the late 1980's. 

Now, those blue jeans jobs that brought Mrs. Miranda and thousands of others like her north have gone south, to Mexico. "My American dream has turned into a nightmare," she said,  over a glass of strawberry Kool-Aid in her listing trailer.  Until recently, she had made a life on $7.50 an hour. She has become a temporary worker in a plastics plant that used to be based in Michigan, earning minimum wage, no benefits, no security. Her husband, Miguel, is unemployed. The mortgage on the slapdash home is in peril. 

"I worry about the future," she said, echoing the sentiment of blue-collar and increasingly of white -collar workers from Los Angeles to Detroit, people who find their jobs being shipped to countries where wages are a small fraction of theirs. 

When VF Jeanswear, the maker of Wrangler and Lee jeans, announced in September that it was moving the last of its jeans production and more than 1,000 jobs to Mexico, it was the death of that industry in a town once known as Blue Jean Capital, U.S.A. Levi Strauss, Sun Apparel, Wrangler,
Lee and Farah do not make jeans here anymore. 

But in the 11 years since the North American Free Trade Agreement, known as Nafta, was ratified, more than 17,000 garment manufacturing jobs have gone away, according to the Texas Workforce Commission, some to Mexico, some to China, and some to China by way of Mexico. Gone, too, is the good American life described by women like Mrs. Miranda, who has two teenage children. The $7- to $10-an-hour job, the health insurance, McDonald's double cheeseburgers, the $200
apartments in the back of a day care center with a communal toilet, all gone. 

In a strange post-industrial twist, most people who have lost their jobs in the garment industry here are first-generation Mexican women. They typically are illiterate and speak little English. They came to El Paso in the 60's, 70's and 80's, when the American factories moved down from the Northern states in search of cut-rate border labor. 

With those factories having moved out of El Paso, these American citizens find they are members of the obsolescent class. "I cannot move back to Mexico," said Soledad Renteria, 51, who waded across the Rio Grande with her son on her back nearly two decades ago. "My life is here, and my family there is poor," Ms. Renteria said. "My son wants to work, but I tell him he has to stay in school or he'll end up like me, working as a janitor." 

Yet Nafta has affected the low-skilled, low-wage Latino workers near the border more than any other place. According to an analysis by the Economic Policy Institute, which focuses on labor issues, California lost 116,000 jobs from 1993 through 2002 because of Nafta, many of them textile jobs. The federal government has certified that 7,800 workers in El Paso County were displaced by Nafta over the past three years, more than double the number displaced in Cook County, Ill., which was second. 

Immigrants elsewhere find their jobs being shipped back to their motherland. In September, the San Francisco Sewing Association closed its doors after 22 years. Once a provider of clothing for Gap, Esprit and Koret, the company lost the last of its contracts to China. Its 200 unionized employees, almost all Chinese and Mexican, were sent to the breadline.
11271 Ventura Blvd. #151  Studio City, CA 91604

New job website for Spanish-speaking professionals,  thousands of job opportunities posted by  leading companies who are searching for Spanish-speaking individuals. Job seekers can register, upload a resume and apply for a job totally free. Every job seeker who uploads their resume will get an opportunity to be featured on the home page. Currently all companies can also post job openings for free and search the resume database for job seekers. was founded by a Human Resources professional in 2004 in Los Angeles, California and is the career site for employers who want to reach Spanish speaking professionals. provides one central place to do all of your online recruiting to find Spanish speaking individuals from all over the world. Employers/Recruiters can post jobs for free and randomly become a featured employer. Each job that is posted with us becomes a featured job on the home page until the next job is posted. This gives  maximum exposure to reach a large talent pool. enables employers to search the database at any time.

Employers/recruiters will be able to: · Post, update, delete any amount of jobs for free · upload a company logo · Search the database for candidates · Advertise to candidates with company profile · Contact specific candidates for interviews · Be notified about candidates that register · See how many people viewed your job posting.            Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

The 50 Most Important Hispanics in Technology & Business
Pushing to the Top in American Industry
Hispanic Engineer & Information Technology Online

Sent by Johanna De Soto

As might be expected, many of the "50 Most Important Hispanics in Technology and Business" are engineers, many of whom repeat here from last year. Engineers, modern wizards whose scientific mastery drives American industrial progress, are the people who create America's wealth. But not all of the "50 Most" are engineers. Many are savvy executives, managers who understand how technology is to be used and sold, marketers whose sophistication in meeting customer needs undergirds the success of entire enterprises. Some started as engineers and learned business skills while mastering the difficult art of turning ideas into products.  Little bios and photos.

Extract of review on:
Devil Talk: Stories

"Anything can happen in one of Daniel Olivas' stories.  These are disorienting sometimes disturbing, but always entertaining tales told by a master folk-teller who knows we would much rather listen to the devil talk than hear an angel sing."   --Rob Johnson, editor, Fantasmas (Bilingual Press, 2001)

"In a stunning departure from the social realism of his previous collection, Daniel A. Olivas takes readers into a disarming other-world of the surreal and the supernatural with his second book of stories, "Devil Talk" (Bilingual Press, $13 paperback). The quick succession of 26 narratives covers a wide territory of moods, from the strangely elliptical to the whimsical. But in each case, just as the storyline begins to settle into its alternative universe, Olivas discombobulates the reader with plot twists and unexpected endings skillfully engineered into his unusual premises."  Yet far from mere gimmicks, the plot devices function as unique portholes that capture perspective on human thought and folly from a slightly different angle.

The pleasure of "Devil Talk" is that no story repeats its surprise element, so there is no guessing what happens next. And because many of these stories are touching as well as entertaining, it is clear Olivas doesn't compromise characterization to narrative design. 

At the end of the book, readers will have stretched the imagination to exhaustion. But by then even the improbable is no longer unreachable. One character considers the idea of a flying rhinoceros and then calmly asks, "What's so strange about that?" Nothing. Not after reading "Devil Talk," that is.

Review by Rigoberto González, award-winning writer based in New York City. His Web site address is   and he may be reached at

Cartoon PBS series, 
La nueva serie educativa ‘Maya & Miguel’ se enfoca en el entorno familiar y bilingüe de los gemelos protagonistas

José Morales, Reportero de La Opinión
10 de octubre de 2004
Recommended by Viola Sadler

"Me gusta trabajar en esta serie no solo porque es divertida sino porque es una familia muy bonita, donde el secreto está en saber comunicarse. Los productores hicieron una prueba con una audiencia de niños de 3 a 11 años de edad y el comentario comun fue ‘si mi familia fuera así… una madre que nunca grita, un padre que siempre escucha’. El mensaje de esta serie está en que se debe respetar y enseñarle a nuestros hijos que estamos en una cultura diferente a donde los padres crecimos y que si ellos fallan en alguna cosa deben aceptarse como son y negociar, porque todo lo que se quiere se puede dar, pero siempre hay buenos resultados si se hace con amor”.

La serie de 30 minutos está dirigida a niños de seis a ocho años de edad y se complementará con una página en Internet que proveerá material para los padres y maestros escolares (






By John P. Schmal


The act of voting is one of the most important privileges of American citizenship. Through this action, Americans can choose their leaders and attempt to make changes in governmental policy. For many Americans, the act of voting is the most significant manifestation of American citizenship.

The Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1870, promised that "the rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." In theory this amendment gave Mexican Americans, African Americans, Asian immigrants, and other minorities a voice in both local and national politics.

However, the Federal Government, from time to time, has taken action against certain alien groups. For example, the Chinese Exclusion Acts of 1882 and 1892 effectively stopped Chinese immigration and denied citizenship to Chinese people living in the United States. In addition, the Federal Government also gave each state broad power to set up its own qualifications and restrictions for voters. These restrictions varied considerably from one state to another, but, over time, many state governments employed a plethora of insidious tactics in an effort to prevent African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans from exercising their voting rights.

In 1889, Florida enacted a poll tax that would effectively keep poor Blacks out of the voting booth. Eleven more Southern states followed suit and enacted their own poll taxes. In 1901, the Texas Legislature passed its own poll tax, which required voters to pay $1.75 at the voting booth. In November 1902, Texas voters ratified the poll tax by a two-to-one margin. Such an expense was effective in keeping many poor Tejanos from exercising their right to vote. In effect, the poll tax was able to circumvent the rights that had been guaranteed to Tejano citizens by the Fourteenth Amendment.

In California, strong anti-immigrant sentiment against Asians, Eastern Europeans, and Latin Americans led to a more unique undermining of voting rights. In 1894, the people of California voted to approve an English literacy requirement for California’s voting booth. Because of these restrictions on the voting rights of Mexican-American citizens, many native-born American citizens who were uneducated or whose primary language was Spanish were unable to vote. Both the poll tax and the literacy requirement stayed in effect for several decades until they were declared unconstitutional in court cases.

At the end of World War II, a new generation of Latinos returned to America from their overseas duties. The young Hispanic soldiers who had defended America so bravely on the battlefields of Europe and Asia returned home with new ideas about their rights as citizens and, in particular, about their rights as voters. The Federal Government – which had been so effective in enacting anti-immigrant and anti-minority legislation – provided these young veterans with the weapon of education.

The G.I. Bill Act of June 22, 1944 – or the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act [Public Law 346, 78th Congress, Title III, §§500-503, 58 Stat. 284, 291-293 (1944)] – put higher education within the reach of thousands of Chicano veterans. The Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952 [Public Law 550, 82nd Congress, July 16, 1952, Ch. 875, 66 Stat. 663, 38 U.S.C. 997] provided similar privileges to Korean War veterans. Over the next decade, Mexican-American veterans attended local and nationwide colleges and universities to obtain college degrees. Armed with the weapon of education, the veterans formed organizations that advocated for Hispanic voting rights in many parts of the country.

The American G.I. Forum, founded in 1948, was organized by Mexican-American veterans in Texas and began to campaign vigorously to increase electoral participation of Latinos in the political arena. In an effort to get Hispanics to vote, they initiated local "pay your poll tax" drives to register Tejano voters. Although they were unable to repeal the tax, their efforts did bring in new Hispanic voters who would begin to elect Tejano representatives to the Texas House of Representatives and to Congress during the late 1950s and early 1960s.

In California, a similar phenomenon took place. When World War II veteran Edward R. Roybal ran for a seat on the Los Angeles City Council, community activists established the CSO (Community Service Organization). The CSO was effective in registering 15,000 new voters in the Latino neighborhoods of Boyle Heights, Belvedere, and East Los Angeles. With this newfound support, Roybal was able to win the 1949 election race against the incumbent Anglo councilman and become the first Mexican American since 1886 to win a seat on the Los Angeles City Council.

The Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), founded in Fresno, California came into being in 1959 and drew up a plan for direct electoral politics. MAPA soon became the primary political voice for the Mexican-American community of California. Edward Roybal, elected the first president of MAPA, would become the first Chicano representative to Congress from Los Angeles in the Twentieth Century, in large part because of the efforts of MAPA and the CSO.

One of the primary Latino organizations contributing to increased Latino voter registration on a nationwide level was the Southwest Voter Registration Education Project (SVREP). Reminding Latinos that the democratic process was their right and privilege, the SVREP conducted 2,200 voter registration campaigns in fourteen states and initiated "Get-the-vote-out" campaigns throughout the Southwest. Because of these extraordinary efforts, Latino voter rates increased from 2 million voters in 1974 to 7.7 million in 2001. In 1997, the Southwest Voter Research Institute changed its name to the William C Velasquez Institute (WCVI) in honor of their founding father.

In 1981, the National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials Educational Fund (NALEO) was established to promote the integration of Latino immigrants into American society and encourage them to become citizens so that they might participate in the electoral process. The efforts of MAPA, SVREP, NALEO, CSO and several dynamic individuals would become instrumental in the dramatic increase in the Latino electorate that took place between 1960 and 2000.

Voting Rights Act

On January 23, 1964, the U.S. Congress ratified the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which stated that "the right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election… shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax..."

The Twenty-fourth Amendment paved the way for the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA), which was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on August 6, 1965. Section 2 of this act prohibited any state or political subdivision of a state from using any "standard, practice, or procedure" which would result "in denial or abridgement of the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color."

The Voting Rights Act suspended or banned literacy tests and other racially discriminatory devices, and it also guaranteed direct federal supervision of voter registration, voting procedures, and elections in seven Southern states and several other non-Southern states.

The Voting Rights Act had not included a provision prohibiting poll taxes, but had directed the Attorney General to challenge its use. In Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections [383 U.S. 663 (1966)], the Supreme Court held Virginia's poll tax to be unconstitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment, thus nullifying Texas’ poll tax. The literacy law remained on the books in California until it was challenged in the California courts by the landmark court case, Genoveva Castro et al. versus the State of California [CASTRO v. STATE OF CALIFORNIA, March 24, 1970. L.A. No. 29693. 2 Cal. 3d 223].

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 gave African Americans access to the voting booth in many states where access had previously been denied to them. In fact, the law was so effective that a quarter of a million new Black voters had been registered to vote by the end of the year.

Latino activist groups took note of this fact and began to believe that it could do the same for Chicano voters in the Southwest. The Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF) soon began to lobby intensely for the extension of the Voting Rights Act to Latinos. Upon hearing extensive testimony about voting discrimination that had been suffered by Hispanic, Asian and Native American citizens,

Congress responded to these lobbying efforts in 1975 by amending the Voting Rights Act to include provisions that affected Latinos and "minority-language citizens."

The revised Act now prohibited discriminatory election devices, including both literacy tests and poll taxes. The Act also required bilingual ballots in areas where a minority group exceeded 5 percent of the vote, and it safeguarded minorities against gerrymandering schemes that would dilute the power of their vote. These legislative interventions permitted that Latino voting base to expand, although issues of redistricting and reapportionment continued to plague the Latino electorate of several states in the decades to follow.

Presidential Elections and the Latino Vote

In 1960, Hispanics represented only 3.2% of the national population. But it was during the 1960 Presidential election that the potential influence of Latinos in very close elections was first recognized. Early in the year, "Viva Kennedy" clubs were organized by Mexican-American activists in nine states to support the election of John F. Kennedy to the presidency. When the general election was held in November, it was one of the closest in history, with Kennedy winning by a plurality of only 144,673 votes.

With such a small margin of victory, many political analysts believe that the Hispanic vote actually helped Kennedy to win.  Although Latinos made up a very small portion of the electorate, they voted in large numbers for Kennedy, who received about 85% of the national Hispanic vote.

Even more significant is the fact that Kennedy received 91% of the Hispanic vote in Texas, a state with a significant Mexican-American population. However, even with the Latino vote, Kennedy’s victory in Texas was by a razor-thin margin, having carried the state by only 46,000 votes. Kennedy also carried Illinois by only 9,000 votes, another state in which the Latino vote had been mobilized by the "Viva Kennedy" movement.

The November 3, 1964 Presidential Election provided President Lyndon Baines Johnson with 42,825,463 votes, or 61% of the total popular vote, while Republican candidate Barry Goldwater received only 27,146,969, or 38.4% of the popular vote.  In this case, the Latino vote was not considered crucial to Johnson's victory.

However, according to the former public policy analyst and author, José de la Isla, Johnson received 90% of the Mexican-American vote and 86% of the Puerto Rican vote in his 1964 election.  The relationship of LBJ with the Mexican American electorate was analyzed in Julie Leininger Pycior's, "LBJ and Mexican Americans: The Paradox of Power" (Univ. of Texas Press, 1997).

In the 1968 Presidential Election, the Democratic candidate Hubert H. Humphrey garnered a large percentage of the nation's Hispanic votes.  According to the estimates of José de la Isla, Humphrey won 87% of the Hispanic vote, while Richard Nixon received only 10% of the Mexican-American vote and 15% of the Puerto Rican vote.  The Latino vote, however, did not help Humphrey to win the election.  Richard Nixon won the popular vote with 31,710,470 votes (43.2%) against Humphrey's 30,898,055 votes (42.6%). 

In the November 1972 Presidential Election, Nixon was reelected by a landslide, garnering 46,740,323 votes (60.7%) against the Democratic candidate, George McGovern, who polled only 28,901,598 votes, or 37.5% of the popular vote.  Nixon won the electoral vote over McGovern by 520 to 17. 

During this election, President Nixon and his advisers took notice of the potential of the Latino voter. Even before the 1972 election, explains José de la Isla, President Nixon had already named some fifty Spanish-speaking civil servants, mostly Mexican Americans, to top government positions.  (By contrast, the Johnson administration had named only six Spanish-speaking officeholders). 

In 1972, the Latino voting age population numbered 5,616,000, of which only 44.4% were registered to vote.  According to the Federal Election Commission, 2,103,000 Hispanics voted in the 1972 election.  In the end, the Spanish Speaking Committee for the Re-election of President Nixon was able to help Nixon win 35% of the Hispanic vote in the 1972 Presidential Election.  This was a significant gain over Nixon's 1968 performance with the Hispanic electorate.

It was during the 1972 campaign, that George H.W. Bush, the Chairman of the Republican National Committee (RNC) first discussed the possibility of establishing the Republic National Hispanic Assembly (RNHA). This organization, officially organized by Bush in 1974, is the only major Hispanic Republic organization affiliated with the RNC today.

More than 81,555,889 votes were cast in the Presidential election of 1976.  The Democratic candidate, Jimmy Carter of Georgia received 40,825,839 votes, or 50% of the popular vote, defeating the incumbent, President Gerald R. Ford of Michigan, who received 39,147,770 votes, or 48% of the popular vote.  The electoral college vote was also close, with Jimmy Carter receiving 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240.

At the time of the 1976 Presidential Election, 2,098,000 Hispanics voted, representing only 2.4% of the total voters in the Presidential election.  According to Network News Exit Polls, 82% of Latinos voted for Jimmy Carter, while Mr. Ford received only 18% of the Latino electorate's vote.  However, in an election as close as this one was, it is possible that the Latino vote was significant in helping the winner.

In the 1980 Presidential Election, the Republican candidate, Ronald Reagan of California soundly defeated President Jimmy Carter, winning 43,901,812 popular votes (50.9%) against Jimmy Carter's 35,483,820 votes (41.1%).  Ronald Reagan's showing with the electoral college was even more impressive, winning 489 votes against Carter's 49.

By the time of the 1980 Presidential Election, Hispanic Americans had come to represent 6.4% of the national population. But the SVREP also pointed out that eighty-five percent of the Hispanic voters in 1980 were concentrated in nine states, which controlled 193 electoral votes, 71% of the 270 votes needed to win the presidency at that time.

However, in 1980, the United States Census Bureau pointed out that only 36.3% of qualified Hispanic citizens were actually registered to vote. And, when the election took place in November, only 2,453,000 Latinos - or 29.9% - of the 8,210,000 Hispanics registered to vote actually went to the polls. According to CBS and New York Times Exit Polls, Jimmy Carter received 60.1% of the Hispanic vote.   In contrast, the Los Angeles Times exit polls indicated that Carter had received 76% of the Latino vote, and that Reagan received only 22%. 

However, Ronald Reagan's strongest Hispanic support came from the Florida, where he received at least 80% of the vote in the predominantly Cuban-American precincts of Southern Florida. This was the beginning of a trend that would continue through all of the Presidential elections into the Twenty-First Century. The loyalty of Cuban-American voters towards the Republican Party grew with the years and almost rivaled the traditional support that many African-American voters gave to the Democratic Party.

Out of 92,652,842 votes cast in the November 1984 Presidential Election, Ronald Reagan won the popular vote by 54,455,000 votes (58.8%) to 37,577,000 (40.5%) against Democratic candidate, Walter F. Mondale of Minnesota.  Reagan also won the Electoral College vote by a wide margin: 525 to 13.

A total of 3,092,000 Hispanics actually voted in the Presidential Elections of 1984. Although their participation had increased since the 1980 elections, they still represented only 3.3% of the national electorate. According to CBS / New York Times Exit Polls, Mondale, the Democratic candidate, received more than 66% of the Hispanic vote, while Reagan received only 34.82% of the vote.  

The Los Angeles times Poll indicated that Reagan received 47% of the Latino vote in 1984, while Mondale received 53%.  However, as in 1980, Cuban precincts in Florida voted for Ronald Reagan with over 82% of the vote in the predominantly Cuban precincts.  Mondale received only 12.41% of the Hispanic Precinct votes in Dade County.

In the November 1988 Presidential Election, George H.W. Bush received 47,946,000 of the popular vote (53.4%) against the Democratic candidate, Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts, who received 41,016,000 votes (45.6%).  Bush received 426 Electoral College votes, while Dukakis received only 111.

According to government statistics, only 3,710,000 Latinos voted in the Presidential Election of 1988, although their share of the electorate increased to about 7% of the national electorate. According to CBS / New York Times Exit Polls, Bush won 30.85% of the Hispanic nationwide vote, and Dukakis received 70.15% of the nationwide vote. However, in Miami's heavily Cuban precincts, Dukakis received only 15.45% of the vote.  According to the Los Angeles Times and CNN Election Day Polls, Dukakis received 65% of the Latino vote, while Bush received only 33% of the Latino vote.

In the November 1992 Presidential Election, 104,600,366 votes were cast for President. The Democratic Candidate William J. Clinton of Arkansas clinched the Presidency, winning 44,908,254 votes (42.93%).  The incumbent George H.W. Bush, received 39,102,343 votes (37.38%), while the Independent candidate, Ross Perot received 19,741,065 votes (18.87%).

In 1992, 14,688,000 Latinos were of voting age.  However, only 62.5% of eligible Hispanic citizens were registered to vote.  When the final vote was tallied, only 4,238,000 Hispanics - or 28.9% of this ethnic group - had actually voted.  After the results were tallied, it was determined that Latinos now accounted for 8% of the national electorate.

Exit polls and analysis conducted about the 1992 election indicate that Bill Clinton received 61% of the Latino vote, while Bush received 25% and Perot received 6%. The Los Angeles Times exit polls gave different results, indicating that 51% of Latinos voted for Clinton, 27% for Bush, and 21% for Perot. However, Bill Clinton lost Florida.  He received only about 22% of the vote in the predominantly Cuban-American precincts of Dade County. 

On the other hand, George H.W. Bush carried the Hispanic precincts of Dade County with approximately 70 percent of the vote, far surpassing his proportion of the vote either nationally or statewide. In striking contrast, 55% of non-Hispanic Whites and 85% of African Americans in Dade voted for Clinton.

The 1996 Presidential Election

With more than 96 million votes cast in the 1996 Presidential Election, President Bill Clinton received 47,402,357 votes, or 49.24% of the popular vote.  Senator Bob Dole of Kansas received 39,198,755 votes, receiving only 40.71% of the votes. 

At the time of the 1996 Presidential Election, the Latino voting age population of the U.S. had reached 18,426,000.  But only 11,209,000 of these Hispanics were citizens qualified to vote. And, of this group, only 6,573,000 were registered to vote. It is noteworthy that almost sixty percent of the Latinos registered to vote lived in four crucial states: California (2.1 million voters), Texas (1.6 million), Florida (570,000) and New York (540,000). During the 1990s, these four states held 133 electoral votes between them: California (47 votes), Texas (29), New York (36) and Florida (21).

However, on Election Day, only 4,928,000 Hispanics went to the polls. In effect, only 26.7% of the total Latino population qualified to vote actually cast their ballots. In 1996, the Latino electorate voted overwhelmingly Democratic, with Bill Clinton winning 71% of the Hispanic votes. On the other hand, the Republican Senator Bob Dole received only 21%, while ten percent of the vote went to third-party candidates.

The Cuban vote in Florida turned out to be an important factor in Clinton’s reelection. President Clinton received 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban-American vote, a 15-percentage point improvement over his 1992 showing. This vote helped Clinton to win the state, which no Democrat had won since 1976. In Arizona, Clinton also won 90% of the Latino vote, making him the first Democrat to win the state since 1948.

Many political analysts believe that the poor showing of the Republican Party in the 1996 elections was related to the anti-immigrant proposals that were sweeping the country during the mid-1990s. For Cuban, Mexican and Central American immigrants, the passage of the "Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996" (the so-called Welfare Law) had excluded non-citizen immigrants from many benefits and represented a personal attack on them. Many Latinos saw the Republican platform as being inherently hostile to Latino immigrants, including Cubans.

The Chicano Vote in California

In 1961, after the redistricting of the Los Angeles political boundaries took place based on the 1960 census, the Chicano vote was essentially fragmented. Even a majority Hispanic community like East Los Angeles was not able to send Hispanic representatives to Sacramento or Washington, D.C.

Gerrymandering had split Greater East Los Angeles into nine different Assembly districts, seven State Senate districts, six different Congressional districts, and six Councilmanic districts.  Most of these districts were combined with neighboring Anglo communities so that Chicanos rarely made up more than 20% of any one district's population.  This district manipulation was effective in diminishing the Latino vote, and as a result very few Chicano candidates were elected to state or federal positions during the next twenty years.

In the 1970 census, the Chicano population of California was tallied at 2,369,292. Although Latinos now made up 10.8% of the state’s total population, their voting power was dramatically reduced by the presence of 490,892 foreign-born Hispanics, who represented 22.9% of the total Hispanic population. Many of these people were not citizens and were therefore ineligible for American voting privileges. This represented a significant stumbling block in electing Chicanos to public office.

By 1990, the Latino population of California had reached 7,687,938, representing 25% of the total population. Mexican Americans made up 81% of all California Latinos, while foreign-born persons represented 47% of their population.

In the 1990 Midterm elections, 844,000 Latinos in California cast their ballots, representing 7.9% of the total state vote. The large presence of foreign-born non-citizens or Latinos below the age of 18 effectively reduced their influence in electing their choices for political representation.

By the time of the 1994 Midterm Elections, Latinos made up 24% of the adult population of California and 15% of all citizens eligible to vote. The number of Latinos arriving at the polling stations increased to 1,134,000 Latinos, bringing California’s Latino electorate to 9.6% of the total state vote.

In 1994, however, certain events became a catalyst for the Chicano communities, initiating in them a new determination to make a difference at the polling booths. The controversial ballot measure, Proposition 187 – also referred to as the so-called "Illegal Immigration Act" – represented a challenge to all California Latinos. Proposition 187 was just the first of several legislative initiatives which were directed against immigrant groups in California. Although the provisions of the proposition were specifically directed at undocumented residents of California, many Latinos saw the initiative as the hallmark of an anti-Hispanic vendetta directed at the entire Latino community.

Proposition 187 aroused a great deal of passion among Latino voters throughout California and led to flurry of naturalizations and voter registrations. More than 2.7 million illegal aliens, many from Mexico and Central America, had been awarded lawful permanent residence as a result of the amnesties granted in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. During the mid-1990s, the leading edge of these undocumented immigrants had fulfilled their citizenship requirements and became eligible to vote for the first time in 1996.

According to INS statistics, a record 879,000 immigrant adults had been naturalized in California between 1994 and 1997. These new citizens led to significant demographic changes. In 1992, foreign-born Latino voters made up only 19% of Latino voters; by 1996, this had increased dramatically to 32.9% in 1996 and 35.6% in 2000. During an eight-year period in the 1990s, 441,000 Hispanics in California had become citizens.

In California, the 2000 census indicated a significant increase in the Latino population, which numbered 10,966,556, or 32.4% of the total state population. California also had the nation’s largest number of registered Hispanic voters (3 million). When Election Day arrived, 1.6 million of the Latinos  - or 24.5% of all Latinos in California - cast their ballot for President.

In the 2000 census, Mexican Americans in California represented more than 77% of the Hispanic population. Because Mexican Americans were largely Democratic in their party affiliation, most analysts believed that this fact would play a role in giving California’s 55 electoral seats in the 2004 Presidential Election to the Democratic candidate, John Kerry.

The Tejano Vote

According to the 1980 Census, Texas had a total Hispanic population of 2,985,824, representing 20.98% of Texas’ total population of 14,229,191. By the time of the 1990 Census, Texas' total population had increased to 16,986,510, of whom 4,339,905 (22.55%) were Hispanic. This was sharply in contrast to their national population, where Latinos made up 8.8% of the total population of the U.S. Mexican Americans represented 91% of the Latinos, while foreign-born Latinos made up 28% of Latinos. By 1990, the Tejano population of Texas had been able to elect 27 Latinos to the Texas State Legislature.

At the time of the 2000 census, the Hispanic population of Texas had reached 6,669,666, or 31.99% of the total state population. Mexican Americans represented more than 76% of this total. This was seen as an important factor in future Presidential elections, especially with the increase of Texas electoral seats to 34 by the time of the 2004 election.

The New York Latino Vote

In 2000 census, the Latino population of New York reached 2,867,583 persons and represented 15.1% of the total state population. Of this figure, 1,050,293 persons were of Puerto Rican heritage and culture, representing 36.6% of the state’s Latino population. Dominicans represented another 15.9%. The majority of Puerto Ricans and Dominicans were registered as Democratic voters.

New York’s Latino population had grown so rapidly by 2000 that New York contained the third largest concentration of Hispanic voters (8.2 percent of the state electorate). When Election Day arrived, an estimated 502,000 of New York’s Latinos cast ballots, with 80% of their vote going to Vice President Al Gore, the Democratic candidate. At this time, New York’s 31 electoral seats represented another important asset for any presidential candidate.

The 2000 Presidential Election

In the controversial Presidential Election of November 2000, the Latino vote in Florida became an important factor, possibly winning the election for Republican candidate, George W. Bush. By 2000, the Latino population of the United States reached 35,305,818, representing 12.5% of the national population. 5,934,000 Hispanic voters, representing 27.5% of the Hispanic voting age population, actually went to the polls in this election.

Democratic candidate Albert Gore, Jr., won the popular vote by 50,996,064 to 50,456,167, but George W. Bush, the Republican candidate, won the office of President by winning the electoral vote by 271 to 266.

It is very likely that the minority electorate played a role in winning the popular vote for Vice President Gore. At least 90% of African American voters cast their ballots in favor of Gore. A smaller number of Latinos - approximately 67% - cast their votes for Gore. Thirty-one percent of Hispanics voted for Bush.

Florida turned out to be the pivotal state in this election, and it was the Latino vote, which may have carried the state for Bush. In the 2000 census, Latinos made up 16.8% of the state population. At the time of the election, 802,000 Latinos were registered to vote, and by the time the voting booths had closed, 678,000 of the Latinos had voted.  In Florida, Latinos made up 12.5% of the state electorate.

In Florida, George W. Bush carried the Hispanic vote by 50% to 48%. The Florida Hispanic vote, however, was largely Cuban, and the Cuban community had been voting Republic for the previous two decades. In most elections, Democratic presidential candidates had traditionally received only 13 percent to 15 percent of the Florida Cuban vote.

In 2000, unofficial returns showed that Mr. Gore won the heavily Cuban Miami area by a very slim margin of 39,000 votes. However, in the two heavily Cuban precincts, the 510th and the 555th, Mr. Bush won 79 percent and 89 percent respectively. In the final tally, George W. Bush carried the Florida popular vote by 2,912,790 to 2,912,253.  Although the results were contested at first, on December 13, 2000, Gore conceded to George W. Bush.

It is widely believed that the outcome of this election was influenced by events that took place in Florida’s Cuban-American community months earlier. In 1999, a six-year old Cuban boy named Elían González had been picked up off the Florida coast after his mother and other Cuban refugees died when their boat capsized after fleeing Castro’s Cuba.

Miami-based Cuban relatives of Elían had gained control of the young boy and campaigned vigorously to keep him from being returned to his father in Communist Cuba. The resulting international custody dispute involving Elían González gained widespread attention around the country and the world. Then, in April 2000, the Clinton Administration enraged the Cuban community when federal agents seized Elían in a dramatic predawn raid. This action would have important political repercussions that were not clearly anticipated at the time.

In June 2000, after several court battles, Elían returned to Cuba with his father. When Vice President Al Gore ran for President in November 2000, many Cuban Americans continued to blame the Clinton Administration for its handling of the Elían González case. The anger directed toward the Democratic Party caused many Cuban-American citizens to vote for George W. Bush. Democrats and Republicans alike turned out in large numbers to vote in the Cuban precincts of Dade County in order to vent their wrath towards the Vice President and the Democratic Party.

As a result, Al Gore only received 19% of the Cuban vote. Florida was the state that decided the close election, and most political analysts are convinced that the Cuban American community played an important role in putting George W. Bush in the White House.

As the 21st Century began, political analysts were warning that the Latino vote would become the most important factor in future elections.

But, they also warned that the Latino vote is not a monolith. As a matter of fact, the Latino voter comes from a multitude of communities, with diverse cultural, economic, social, and educational experiences.

The three major Latino groups are Mexicans, Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In 1990, 60% of Latinos were of Mexican origin, 12.1% were Puerto Rican, 4.8% Cuban origin, and 10.7% were either Central or South American. The remaining 10.7% of Latinos were members of other Latino origin groups. By 1999, 65.2% of Latinos were of Mexican origin, 9.6% were Puerto Rican, 4.3% of Cuban origin. Another 14.3% of Latinos came from Central and South American backgrounds and heritages.

Because of this enormous diversity, experts have stated that candidates would help their campaigns by learning the various regional, cultural and political differences among Hispanics. Even more importantly, it is important to understand that all Latinos do not share common opinions about the issues of immigration, crime, education, abortion, and foreign policy. Although many Latinos are Democrats, as many as one-third of Latinos may vote for Republican candidates in certain circumstances.

Large Hispanic communities reside in five states with high numbers of electoral votes: California, Texas, New York, Florida, and Illinois. It is in these states that politicians must evaluate their audience carefully before beginning a political campaign.

According to the United States Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey, Latino voter registration had soared to an all-time high of almost 8.2 million voters in the 2002 General Election. Antonio Gonzalez, President of the William C. Velasquez Institute (WCVI) commented on this fact as follows: "This statistic adds another chapter to the story of rising Latino voter clout. While all voter registration has declined for every off year election since 1990, Latino voter registration accelerated its growth."

Although Hispanic voters still make up a small percentage of the overall electorate, President George W. Bush and Democratic Presidential Candidate John Kerry began to aggressively court them in the 2004 Presidential Race. By 2004, Hispanic voters had become a significant percentage of the voters in the swing states of Arizona (16 percent), Florida (14 percent), Nevada (13 percent) and New Mexico (40 percent).

History has shown that until very recently, the Latino electorate was almost ignored by some candidates. And, before the provisions of the Voting Rights Act took effect, many Latino Americans saw that their vote was diluted by gerrymandering and reapportionment tactics. In some cases, Latinos could not vote at all. In the early years of the 21st Century, however, Latinos have traveled a long distance and have become a political force to be reckoned with.

Isla, José de la.  The Rise of Hispanic Political Power (Santa Maria, California:  Archer Books, 2003).

Field Institute.  "A Summary Analysis of Voting in the 1994 General Election" California Opinion Index, Vol. 1 (San Francisco, California:  January 1995).

Garcia, Ignacio M.  Viva Kennedy: Mexican Americans in Search of Camelot (College Station:  Texas A&M University Press, 2000).

Institute for Latino Studies, University of Notre Dame, "Historical Trends in Voting and Registration Among the Voting-Age Population," Latino Research, Vol. 1, No. 2 (December 2003), pp. 11-12.

Menifield, Charles E. Representation of Minority Groups in the U.S.: Implication for the Twenty-First Century (Lanham, Maryland: Austin & Winfield, Publishers, 2001).

Vigil, Maurilio E. Chicano Politics (Washington: University Press of America, 1978).

Recommended Websites:  [SVREP - "Important Facts About SVREP"].  [U.S. Census Bureau: "Voting and Registration"].
[William C. Velásquez Institute, "Latino Voter Statistics"]

[Federal Election Commission, "Voter Registration and Turnout in Federal Elections by Race/Ethnicity 1972-1996"]




Originariamente, este apellido se escribía Schiapapria, pero al llegar una rama de este linaje a México, se trasformó en Chapa, con cuya denominación se extendió profusamente por el actual Estado de Nuevo León, a partir de su asentamiento a mediados del siglo XVII. El primero de esta estirpe en pasar a la Nueva España, fue don Juan Bautista Schiapapria, nacido en la villa Albisola, en la Liguria italiana, en 1631, hijo de don Bartolomé Schiapapria y de doña Batestina Badi.
Este personaje, conocido desde los primeros momentos de su arribo a la Nueva España, fue un famoso conquistador y descubridor; desempeñó como escribano y sus sesenta y cuatro años de vida fueron muy fecundos, dejando a la posteridad una historia sobre Nuevo León. Dejó de existir el 20 de abril de 1695, y de su matrimonio celebrado en Monterrey el año 1653, con doña Beatriz de Treviño y Olivares, dejó por su hijo legítimo a don José Chapa Treviño, que se desposó dos veces: la primera con doña Nicolasa Fernández, en 1694, y la segunda, en 1697, con doña Josefa Sánchez, dejando numerosa prole en el norte de la República.

En 1688, don Juan Bautista Chapa, vecino de la villa de Cerralbo, antes mencionado, elevó memorial al Rey, haciendo relación de sus méritos y servicios, durante veintiséis años, alegando también estar casado con hija y nieta de los primeros conquistadores, y posteriormente, en 1696, don Juan de Chapa, de la misma estirpe, residente en Monterrey, pariente del anterior, también acudió al soberano con la finalidad de obtener merced de tierras.

El gran historiador y cronista novoleonés don Israel Cavazos, investigador de la notable trayectoria de don Juan Bautista Chapa, menciona la magnífica biblioteca de este personaje y transcribe parcialmente su testamento, viéndose por este documento la acuciosidad de su firmante en todo lo concerniente a su legado.

Don José Manuel Chapa, Sargento de Milicias de la Villa de Camargo, en Nuevo Santander, fue designado Alférez en 1810.

Las armas utilizadas por esta estirpe, se describen así:


Extract from BLASONES Y APELLIDOS, 828-page book by Fernando Muñoz Altea
In its second edition, the book can be ordered from or at
P.O. Box 11232, El Paso, Texas 79995  or by contacting Armando Montes
Juan Bautista Chapa
  • Born 1631 in Arbisola, a small village outside Genoa, Italy. Parents, Bartolome Schiapapria and Batestina Badi. Very literate middle class family, owned a vineyard.
  • Studied for the priesthood in Spain for two years.
  • At 18 years old Chapa emigrated to New Spain.
  • Meets Captain Alonso De Leon, who chronicled 50 years of colonization activities of Nuevo Leon, starting date 1577. He found no governmental interest in publishing.
  • Chapa served in a clerical position under De Leon and also performed ranch and administrative work. .
  • Appointed as Secretary to the State of Nuevo Leon in 1662 by Governor Zavala.
  • Chapa served an uninterrupted forty years under nine governors.
    He held the office of second-in-command in governmental and war matters.
  • Chapa rode out on all expeditions. He made detailed maps and pinpointed major land features with observed longitude and latitude. He kept meticulous records. Adding to 60 years to the work of Alonso De Leon.
  • He did not identify himself in any way. ." and if I remain unknown, they will not have a target to shoot at."
  • 219 years later in 1909 his manuscript, Historia del Nuevo Reino de León, is published in    1909, credit is given to an Unknown Author.
  • 1961 Chapa identified through the work of Israel Cavazos Garza, Historian for the State Nuevo Leon.
  • 1990 Cavazos Garza prepared a more exhaustive study of the autor anónimo.
    in which he stresses the value of Chapa's work which covers about forty Texas counties.
Editor: My gggggggggrandfather, direct descendant of  Bartolomé Schiapapria y de Batestina Badi.

Juan Bautista Chapa/ Beatriz Olivares de Trevino, 1653
Jose Maria Chapa/Josepha Gallardo Sanchez
                Augustin Javier Chapa/Antonia Margarita Guajardo
                        Joseph Javier Chapa/Josepha Garza
                               Jose Antonio Chapa/Maria Encarnacion Barrera
                                       Jose Dionicio Chapa/Prima Feliciana Flores
                                              Jose Anestacio Chapa/Teodora Sanchez
                                                            Alberto Chapa is my maternal grandfather


Alberto and Petra Chapa, 1915
Sabinas Hidalgo, Mexico

Editor:  The photo above are of my maternal grandparents, Alberto and Petra Chapa, aunts and uncle.  The photo was taken in Sabinas Hidalgo, Mexico, a small town, about 70 miles from the border city of Laredo.  My mother is the child standing to the right of grandma. Three children were born after this picture was taken. The boy in the photo, Alberto, Jr. died before the family immigrated to the United States.  

Grandfather Alberto was the Superintendent of Schools in Sabinas Hidalgo.  Well educated, grandfather and grandmother frequently spoke French as a means of private conversation around their children. Grandfather served in the Sabinas Hidalgo city council during the tumultuous years of the revolution, 1816-1817.  In one incident, marauding revolutionists were ready to kill him because of his position of leadership in the community.  Fortunately, Grandfather's  life was spared through the efforts of the town's women who with pitchforks in hands surrounded and protected him, crying out, "¿Quien va ha enseñar a los niños sus letras? Déjenlo. Váyanse"  

Grandfather Alberto served as a Congressman/Diputado with some auditing responsibility directly under the president.  Mom said at one point when a town would not open its records to him, he stormed the city hall with military force and had all of records loaded onto a train. The records were sent to Mexico City and examined carefully.  After that, he had no problem getting municipal cooperation. 

The family of nine immigrated legally to San Antonio through Laredo in three waves between 1924 and 1925. Grandfather and the three older girls first, the middle group, and lastly Grandmother with the last baby in arm and toddler. A fee was paid per person, proof also had to be given that the family had sufficient fund to maintain themselves.

By the early 1930s some of the family had moved to Los Angeles.  Grandma and Grandpa lived in a Bunker Hills.  Older homes built in the 1870 were being made into apartments and room rentals. 

By the late 1930s homes could be purchased by Mexicans in the Jewish areas of Boyle Heights.  In the 1940, Grandfather and Tia Deya, the older daughter and her husband, Rudy Amparan  bought homes next to each other on Evergreen Street.  Then my Dad and Mom bought a home across the street from them, their first.  I was in the 3rd grade when we moved there.  Lots of fun memories sliding down the mustard hills behind our house, and playing at the Wabash Playground.  

Two vivid family memories:  When Uncle Albert entered the Marines, grandma and all my aunts and Mom were crying and crying and crying. He was the infant that Grandma carried into the U.S..  Gratefully he came home after serving throughout the war in the South Pacific.  I remember him laughing when I hesitantly touched the top of a medal which he had received.  My Uncle Oscar, in the center of the photo, served in the Army Air Force, Sergeant Major of a crew of mechanics.  

I remember Grandfather receiving a letter from the president of Mexico.  The letter was imploring Grandfather Alberto to return to Mexico and accept an important position in the government.  After much emotional family discussion, the family decided to remain in the U.S.

After the second world war, most of the family moved to Stockton, California, bought homes and settled.  Some of the descendants are still living in Stockton. The summer between my Freshman and Sophomore years, I lived with my grandparents and attended University of Pacific.  I was impressed with my grandfather's knowledge.  I could ask him for a definition to any English word that I could not understand and he always knew the answer. However, he would explain in Spanish because he did not like his own pronunciations of English words.  

The compilation of this information is in response to those who claim that Mexicans are not assimilating fast enough into the dominant culture.  The information is presented in two forms for two different Chapa Clans. The first, my family, the older Chapa family includes the percentages of marriage with non-Hispanics, surnames that are now part of my family, occupations, and dominant language.  Only one in the photo is still living, Uncle Oscar in the middle. The second Chapa clan information is presented visually. 



Chapa Family I, (c) 1935 Los Angeles
Mexico >    Texas >   California

Alberto and Petra Chapa in the middle, 
Oldest daughter, Deya to the left of Grandma,
Second oldest daughter, Adelpha, to the right of Grandpa    
Standing from the left to the right
Albert, Jr., my mom Aurora, Dora, Oscar, Elia, Dora, Alba  

Analysis of Marriages of Alberto Chapa Family 
who immigrated from Mexico to the U.S. in 1924-1925
Evidence of Rapid Assimilation

Language spoken refers to those of direct blood lineage

Born in Mexico, 
9 individuals, 12 marriages 
50%  with Hispanics 
50%  with Non-Hispanic 

All Spanish speaking. The three
older siblings, dominant Spanish.
The rest, strong bilingual skills.
Born in US
(22 individuals) 27 marriages
15% with Hispanics, 
85% with Non-Hispanics 

Some with bilingual skills
Most dominant English
Varying degrees of bilingual skills.
Born in US
37 marriages thus far
24% with Hispanics, 
76% with Non-Hispanics, 

All dominant English speaking. Some with excellent Spanish skills, obtained through marriage, education and/or experiences abroad.



Army Air Force Sgt 
farm accountant for field workers
bar owner
cook for field workers
dry cleaner store
house cleaner
legal advocate for field workers
Navy officer
psychiatric technician
street preacher
radio station owner
real estate
slaughter house
taxi driver
taxi fleet owner
TV repairman
Air Force Major
civil servant
college teachers
communication specialist
Dress designer
horse raiser
landscape contractor
Navy,  regular  and Officer
night club owner
police officer

As diverse as the general population,
from a judge and physician to businessmen and political activists.


Chapa Family II  (c) 1958 Texas
Children of Christobal Chapa and Esperanza Jimenez Chapa 

Ruben "Bill" & Bonnie Chapa  Arnold, Missouri

                                                                               Ruben, born in Odem, Texas March 25, 1935 

The following information and photos were sent by Bonnie Chapa. Bonnie put her work skills of  retrieving medical records  for lawyers and  insurance companies into gathering information from family members.  Her husband is Ruben, the oldest of the children of Christobal Chapa and Esperanza Jimenez Chapa.  He is in the last in the Air Force uniform. 

These families start in Alice, Texas and now live in  
Missouri, Colorado, Texas, Arizona, Illinois 

Left to right, back row:  Israel Chapa TX  9-18-47,  Olga
Chapa Sarabia  TX  8-23-46, Alberto  Chapa 1- 23- 44, Alfredo Chapa-TX  4-42, Ruben (Bill) Chapa- 3-25-1935  
MO.  Virginia Chapa Villarreal  5-2-1938 TX , Viola Chapa Esquvel  Illinois  4-27- 45

Middle, row:  Miguel ( Mike ) Chapa  4-26-50 CO,  Father Christobal  Chapa TX   7- 1-1915 died
5- 6-1961 TX.   Mother Esperanza Jimenez Chapa TX  4-12-1917 died  5-24-1992,  Christobal Chapa 9-8-48 TX   

Front row, small children:  Antonio ( Tony ) Chapa 1-5-1955  TX . on his father's lap, George Chapa  TX     8-3-51 .and Gonzalo (Jeff ) Chapa AZ  6- 18- 1956  on his mothers lap.  
Photo (c) 1950 Esperanza Jimenez Chapa

Bonnie writes: My husband Ruben Chapa was born March 25, 1935 in Odem TX, the oldest of 14 children.  Twelve are alive.  My husband's father was Christobal Chapa, son of Estevan Chapa and Edwarda Martinez, born 1915.  Christobal died in 1961 in a car accident in Lubbock.

His mother Esperanza Jimenez was the daughter of Antonio Jimenez and Elosia Villarreal, born April 12, 1916 Zapata TX.  She later married  R. Escalante.   Records seem to indicate that the grandparents were born in Guerrero Mexico. They lived in Zapata TX.  Her parents died in Alice, Texas. Esperanza in Odessa TX in 1992.

Ruben Chapa parents burying her first born, Aliberio 1934

Ruben (Bill) Chapa's two sisters at a Catholic Church  for their  first communion.  

Right to  left in 1958   
Olga ( Sarabia)  Chapa  born 8-23-1946 TX    Viola  ( Esquvel ) Chapa  born 4-27-1945 TX  .

We all  had to wear head scarves  and keep our heads covered in church.  I  sure can remember  going to Catholic school throughout  grade school and high school.  Then  they said we could  wear the lace chapel cap . And now nothing on our heads. What a change,  we couldn't even wear sleeveless tops or slacks.

This picture was taken about (c) 1968.

Ruben (Bill) joined the Air Force SAC in Texas.  He was assigned and severed in Europe for over 9 years. When he got out he came back to the states and got jobs with an airline in Colorado, then in St. Louis.  Eventually he became a flight instructor and held that position for many years.  He is now retired from both.  HE'S ONE OF THE BEST !!  His love of flying affected the whole family.  Sons and nephews also fly.

Reynaldo and Modesta (Jimenez )Chapa
The 50th Anniversary of Ruben (Bill) Chapa's Aunt and Uncle.  
His mother Esperanza was also a Jimenez married to a Chapa.

Children, grandchildren and great grandchildren 
Christobal Chapa (b.1915/d.1961)
Esperanza (Jimenez) Chapa (b.1916/d.1992)

1: Aliberio Chapa (b.1934/d.1934) Pneumonia
2: Ruben "Bill" Chapa
(b.1935)= Bonnie McNabb 
          Dave Chapa =
          Steve Chapa
          Margurite Chapa = Jay Rex Spent
                    Alexander C. Spent 
3: Virginia Chapa
(b.1938) =Guadeloupe Villarreal VillarreChristina = Pena
                   Ronnie  Pena
                   Brian Pena
          Nora = Albert Salas
                   Melanie Montez
                   Megan Montez 
          Norma Jean = Northcutt
                   Priscilla Northcutt
                   Cito Jr Northcutt
         Mary Helen =
         Hilda =
                   Davis Lee
         Danny = Mary
         Lupe Jr.
4: Alfredo "Sonny" Chapa
          Alfredo Jr

5:   Esperanza Jimenez still born 1943

6: Albert Chapa (b.1944)= Halide Loy
          Albert Jr = Doris
          Jerry Lee
7: Viola Chapa (b.1945) = Ruben Esquivel        
          Johnny Ray Lopez = Marian
                    Micheal Ray
                    Andria Kara
                    Malina Kara
                    Alaiha Kara 
          Rico Esguivel 
8: Olga Chapa (b.1946)= Pedro "Pete" Sarabia
          Sandra Sarabia 
          Danny Sarabia 
9: Israel Robert "Beto" Chapa (b.1947)
           Paul  (d.)
10: Christobal "Chris" Chapa (b.1948)= Flora
           Chris 3rd
            Joey  (d.)
11: Miguel "Mike" Chapa
(b.1950)= Olga
            Mike Jr  = Yvette 
            Tommy Chapa =
12: George Chapa (b.1951) = Mary
13: Antonio (Tony) Chapa (b.1955) = Thelma
            Marisa Chapa =
             Sonia Chapa
14: Gonzalo Jeffery "Jeff" Chapa (b.1956)
             Cindy Chapa Davis = Jordan Davis
              Jeff Jr

David Wayne Chapa,
oldest son of Ruben Chapa, born 3-1-63.  He is a
Facilitator for  Boeing in St. Louis MO . Here he is in
St. Charles,  airport, boarding the plane.

Ruben took his children and nephews flying frequently.


It left an impression on many of them. Dave's wife Krisie Chapa holds their baby daughter Jessica next to the plane. He also has a son  Christin. 

This is a picture of  the first grandchild 
Steven M. Chapa born Oct 29 1985.  

                   Baby's shirt reads 
                "Grandpas little co- pilot" 


Steve Chapa photo on the right is  the  second son of Ruben ( Bill ) Chapa.  He is the first Chapa to be an owner of a business in the city of St. Charles, Missouri.  He is a real-estate  broker.   He owns two companies,  Equal  Mortgage and  Chapa  Reality. 

Steve is a single father of his son Steven who just graduated from High school this  year. Steven is in college studying  for real-estate license to join his father's companies. 

Olga Chapa Sarabia, Ruben's sister, of Houston, Texas is a Spanish teacher. Her husband Pete ( Pedro) Sarabia is a shop foreman for a 18-wheel diesel  leasing truck company in Houston. They have a son Danny and a daughter Sandra.  Sandra is a Manager for a supermarket in Austin TX called Randalls.  
Danny Chapa Sarabia  graduated from Odessa high school in 87', played sports (mainly baseball)  through college.  He graduated in 92'  from Howard Payne U. with a Bachelor's of Science in Business and made the All-Conference team in his Jr. and Sr. year.  He was also awarded Gold Glove honors both years. 



Danny lives in Austin.  As a child he frequently went up with his Tio Ruben  "Bill" Chapa.  He is currently working on his private pilot's license.   

Albert Chapa Jr.  flies jets, planes, and helicopters out of Lubbock, TX.  He is a commercial chief pilot  for Seven Bar, AeroCare Aviation Company.  

Albert flies a medical crew in emergencies, saving  lives with  flight  for life.   He says he is greatly rewarded when his  passengers whose lives he has flown in emergencies return to find him  to shake his hand  and thank him.

He is the son Albert  and Heladia Loy Chapa of Plainview TX . Albert is married to Doris Chapa.  They have  2 children,Josh and Kristen Chapa .

Albert's fascination with planes was started as a young boy. He sits in the cockpit of a King 200 getting ready  to take off from Denver Colorado to Lubbock Texas. Albert is the nephew of Ruben (Bill) Chapa who frequently took him flying with him.

Christobal Chapa Jr. and Family 

Seated, Christobal Chapa Jr. and his wife Flora Chapa.  (Christobal is Ruben's brother.)

Their son Chris Chapa III standing and his daughter Brittany of Amarillo, Texas. 

Chris and Flora had another son who passed away in an auto Accident Joey Chapa born Aug 27 1973 to July 18, 1995. 
Christobal Chapa Jr is retiring from the carpet business. Wife Flora is a Bilingual Service Consultant for SBC.  Son Chris  is an electrician  for Auto-Chlor of  Amarillo  Texas. 

Miguel and Olga Chapa family 
Colorado Springs, Colorado
(Miguel is Ruben's brother.)
Two sons: 
Mike Chapa Jr. of Mesa, AZ 
Tommy Chapa of Phoenix, AZ as 
as young  boys.

They have four grandchildren.
Mike Sr. Is a Senior Operations
Controller of the operations Control center of El Paso Energy Co. and his wife Olga Chapa  
Para-Professional   for special  education  in CO.  Mike is a big game hunter and fisherman .  

Mike Chapa Jr. is a Sr. Designer in Drafting for Paradigm Engineering, Inc.  He is a married to Yvette Chapa. They have 2 children a son Jay and a daughter Brittany.  Paradigm designs and packages new products for companies like Fluke, Motorola, 1st Texas, Creamiser Products and Cinta Tools. Yvette she works from home selling Gold Canyon Candles.
Tommy Chapa is a single father of two daughters.

Tommy works for
Pitny Bowls he is a Fax and Copy Technician.
Brandee and Shavanna

Jay and Brittany

Tommy enjoys hunting with his father, is an expert hunter of big game over 800 lbs, expert bowman. . 


Virginia Chapa Villarreal (Ruben's sister) 

Left to right: Hilda Sanchez - Mary Helen Cruz - Virginia Chapa Villarreal - and Nora Salas - Norma Jean Northcutt and Christina Pena

They have 2 brothers Danny Villarreal and Lupe Villarreal Jr.




Our daughters wedding Nov. 26 1999 a lot of Chapas came, but not all are in this picture.
Seated are the bride and groom, Margurite Chapa and her husband, Jay "Rex" Spent..

2nd row:  Bonnie Chapa & Ruben "Bill" Chapa. Erika Chapa holding baby of Cindy Sierra Davis , Rubens sister Olga Chapa Sarabia, his other sister Virginia Chapa Villarreal, Christina Chapa Pena, Brenda Chapa, Nora Chapa Montez & Tim Montez

3rd row Rubens Baby brother Gonzalo "Jeff" Chapa. Pedro "Pete" Sarabia, Benito Chapa & Mary Lou Chapa our cousins. Danny Sarabia, Jeff Chapa JR. Cindy "Chapa" Davis & Jorden Davis .

Last row, standing:  Ruben's Brother Mike Chapa and wife Olga Chapa , Ruben's son Steve Chapa , Krisie Chapa wife of Dave Chapa Ruben's oldest son . George Jimenez his cousin. Some of the people in this picture are in the 1958 picture of Ruben's Mom and dad 12 children.


Summer of  2004 
Tio Thomas Chapa, 95 years  He lives in Ralls, Texas.  He is with  his nephew Benito Chapa of Chicago, son of Jesus Chapa and  Cruz Olivarez Chapa .

Benito and Mary Lou   Olivarez Chapa are the parents of  four grown children.  One of whom is Illinois State Rep Linda Chapa LaVia, 83 district in Aurora Illinois.  She is serving her second term. 










Benito  and Mary Lou opened a real estate business in Aurora Illinois, 1957.  In 1970, another Chapa Realty office was opened in Chicago, Il. Son Fernando and Rep. Chapa LaVia joined the family business. Fernando's wife Zaida is secretary. Their other children are Benito Jr. and   Esmeralda Gorski, children, Christopher  and Lauren  Gorski


Benito and Mary Lou Family 

llinois State Representative, 
Linda Chapa-La-Via

The daughter of Texans with roots going back to Monterrey, Mexico, and the youngest of 4 siblings, Linda Chapa-La Via was born and raised in Aurora. During her college years she lived in Chicago, but after marrying Vernon Lavia (an Italian originally from the East Coast of the U.S.) they moved back  to Aurora. They have two children, Veronica and Jacqueline.

"Every time I read a headline from Aurora, it was news about gangs and violence. There were no young leaders in Aurora and talented young professions were moving to other areas. It was in 1997 when I decided that it was time to return and work for positive change in Aurora.

Linda Chap-La Via began to make a name for herself in the same way as her mother did, as a business women and real estate agent. Little by little, the idea of running in an election had begun to cross her mind. " My intention was to announce my candidacy for the city council of Auora, but another Latino David Marquez had beat me to it, and I didn't want to split the Hispanic vote.

Eventually Chapa-LaVia was elected Representative of District 83 with 54% of the vote. The rest, as they say is history. In November Linda will celebrate her second anniversary as state representative and will begin her second term. She was elected to the position without opposition.  

It is complicated to be the first Latina elected outside of Cook County.  She arrived in Aurora in a period when Latinos couldn't enter certain restaurants and she made it in spite of the obstacles. My mother came from a family of fruit-pickers, but she inspired us to love learning. She achieved her dream of sending us to college."

In La Raza, she is quoted: "Many people from all over the world come to the United States for a better life", said Chapa LaVia. "We need to assure those immigrants that it is possible to achieve the American dream for these families", she added.  The initiative for this program was proposed last month by the Governor and gives $3,000,000 to neighborhood organizations, religious groups, community colleges and immigration counselors. These groups utilize the funds to support the immigrants that are eligible for naturalization, helping them to become citizens.

  "America is a land of promise and opportunity, but citizenship is a prerequisite to receive the majority of these opportunities", said Chapa LaVia. "Supporting people to become citizens, we hope that more people can have access to the state services and can become active citizens", she added. Linda Chapa has said that she will actively work to assure that this program be maintained within this year’s relative budget.  For more information about this program you can call the office of Representative Linda Chapa LaVia at (630) 264 6855. © La Raza

Illinois State Rep. Linda Chapa LaVia  


Another national figure >  Milwaukee Brewers: Jon Michael ( Chapa ) Adams  

Full Name: Jon Michael Adams
Born: 07/29/1978
Birthplace: Corpus Christi, TX
Height: 6'5"   Weight: 190
Bats: Right   Throws: Right
College: Texas A&M Kingsville
MLB Debut: 05/18/2004

Graduated from Sinton High School (TX) where he played basketball and baseball earning All-State honors in both sports ... attended Texas A&M Kingsville and played basketball and baseball ... enjoys fishing ...

My husband Ruben  (Bill) Chapa  father Christoval  Chapa  had a brother Jesus Chapa  of Alice TX. he had  10  children.  One of them was Estaven Chapa he married Amelia  ( Nino ) Chapa .  Among their children was a daughter ,  Irma who married Orlando Adams.  Their son is Jon Michael ( Chapa) Adams  who  plays for the Milwaukee Brewers . 

Finished 3-7 with a 3.15 ERA and a team-leading 14 saves for the Double A Huntsville Stars of the Southern League, striking out 83 in 74.1 innings ... named to the Southern League All-Star team ... held opposing batters to a .208 average, allowing just 58 hits ... threw 5.1 innings of hitless relief while striking out six in a 5-3 loss June 23 vs West Tennessee ... posted a sterling 1.10 ERA in eight June appearances going 1-0 with a pair of saves ... in his first career start July 3 at Birmingham, allowed three earned runs in four innings ... in 20 appearances from May 30-August 11, had six saves and an ERA of 1.72. 


I know that there are many more Chapas fully assimilated, contributing greatly to the well being and fabric of this nation.  I hope the point has been made.  Here are a few more:
Dr. Arthur Chapa, Regent, Board of Regents, Arizona
Amancio Jose Chapa, Jr., Ph.D.
Served on the National Council of La Raza Board of Trustee 
The Center for History and Culture at La Joya Independent School District, La Joya, TX 
Judge Endercio Chapa, McMullen County, Texas 
Dr. Eric Chapa, M.D.  (first cousin, family physician)
Robert Chapa Cortez, Air Force Major, (Retired, a first cousin)
Judge Miguel Chapa Valdez, (second cousin)

Also received an email from Dr. Chapa who is a forensic epidemiologist for New York City and  teaches health courses for the College of New Rochelle.  His father had grown up in the same town as my mother's family, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon.  

His father Luis Chapa Garza  moved to Chicago around 1955,  and married Bertha Morales Arenas from Anahuac NL.  Dr. Chapa was born in Piedras Negras, Coahuila, but completed doctoral work at the medical school at Yale in epidemiology, a fine example of rapid assimilation.

During a recent tour of the Pentagon our group was privileged to view the newly opened memorial to those that died tragically by the hands of Muslin terrorists on September 11th.  Among the names carved in stone was the name of  wife and mother,   Rosa Maria Chapa.     

  Galvez Patriots

California Spanish Genealogy
Don Juan Pablo Grijalva 

The Texas Connection 
to the American Revolution

California Spanish Genealogy

Don Juan Pablo Grijalva 
Eddie Grijalva

For the record... Don Juan Pablo Grijalva, soldier, settler, rancher and pioneer -- came to California with the Anza expedition in 1775. At that time there were only five missions, two presidios and a single Rancho of some 120 square yards (140 varas). Grijalva's heritages dates to the time of Cortez and his legacy includes the only Spanish rancho in Orange County. 

"Juan Pablo Grijalva, Alfaréz (second-lieutenant) at the San Diego Presidio, retired from active duty at age 54 in 1796. [He] petitioned for...Rancho Santiago de Santa 1801. Grijalva received concession documents in 1802 [and] died in 1806."  [1] 

"Grijalva created the first Rancho in what became Orange County," [2] [and was] "a founding father of Orange County." [3] "He was kind of the Pioneer's pioneer [and] was the first to stake a private claim in Orange County." [4] [In fact] "the first adobe building in Orange County, outside the limits of Mission San Juan Capistrano, was erected by the grantee* of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, Juan Pablo Grijalva about the year 1798." [5] "The historical traditions of Orange County begin with the San Juan Capistrano Mission and Juan Pablo Grijalva." [3]  Unlike most soldiers, he was held in high regard: "Lieutenant Grijalva...fills his post with honor and stands in high repute." [6] (* In actuality, grants were given only in the Mexican period; this was a concession.) 

The final quote is by Padre Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuen. Lasuen founded nine missions, the last of which took away Grijalva's first rancho at Las Flores. 

The Grijalva Heritage 

The Grijalva story begins in 1518 when Juan de Grijalva led an expedition to the Yucatan. Discovering a large river, the soldiers insisted it be named for Juan and the Rio de Grijalva, so named, flows today. The expedition itself was so successful Gobernador Diego de Velasquez ordered a second command for Hernando Cortez the following year; the result was the conquest of the Aztec empire. [7] 

Sebastian de Grijalva, a member of the entrada of Panfilo de Navarrez in New Spain, received his command of Sosola y Tenexpa in 1520 which was preserved in the hands of the family through three generations. [8] 

Hernando de Grijalva helped lead the exploration of the west coast of Mexico in 1533. The San Loranzo, a ship captained by Hernando de Grijalva, became separated from Hernando de Cortez' flagship, and later discovered an island about four hundred miles west of Colima, New Spain (Mexico) and later put in at Acapulco in 1534. Cortez discovered California as a part of the expedition. [8] 

Presidio Terrenate 

Padre Kino, a Jesuit priest, opened the Sonora territory including Northern Mexico, Arizona and New Mexico from 1687 to 1711. Juan Pablo Grijalva, born near Mission Guevavi (Arizona) in 1741, grew up in Prima Alta Sonora. At that time, there were more than 50 Missions, six Pueblos and perhaps three Presidios. [9] 

He enlisted in the military at Presidio Terrenate, Sonora, (Mexico) on January 1, 1763. He married Maria Dolores Valencia about a year later and over the course of 12 years, they had two girls. [10] 

The record shows that he served honorably for ten years, receiving a promotion to corporal and that he could read and write. During his years of service in the garrison of Terrante, Sonora he had nine campaigns against both the Apaches and Seris, and during which he was twice wounded. [11] 

The Anza Expedition 

Juan Pablo Grijalva was second corporal of the Presidio Terrenate when appointed by Juan Bautista de Anza as Sergeant of the Expedition to Alta California. An important factor of the trip were the women and children -- four of which were born along the way (Bancroft states eight). [12] 

The initial group of 177 people left San Miguel de Horcasitas on September 29, 1775, increasing the people to 240 at Presidio Tubac. From Tubac the march would slowly descend from an elevation of 3,250 to almost sea level at San Francisco. [12] 

During the stay at Santa Olaya, Padre Garces overtook the party, having already set out to explore the country toward the mouth of the Colorado. Anza divided his force into three parties under the command of himself, Sergeant Grijalva, and Alfaréz Moraga. [13] 

Of Grijalva's family, his wife and two daughters, we know some detail. There is a name of Claudio, listed as Grijalva's son, however it proves to be only a young man who changed his last name to Grijalva so he could come on the expedition. The expedition reached San Francisco on June 27, 1776. 

San Francisco 

Stationed in San Francisco for 10 years, Grijalva participated " 11 barricades in California [where] he made 10 departures with two terminations, in performing these, [included] eight commands to discipline harmful and fugitive Indians. [11] 

Established on September 17, 1776, the Presidio San Francisco stood on the headland of the peninsula. The Mission Dolores [Mission de Nuestro Sera Pico Padre San Francisco de Asis a la Laguna de los Delores] was founded about one month later on October 9.  [12] 

Later the next year, a portion of that same group went on to found Mission Santa Clara [Mission Nuestra Madre Santa Clara de Asis de Thamien] on January 12, 1777. That same year, they also started the first pueblo [Pueblo San Jose del Rio Guadalupe] on November 29 - the foremost reason for the Anza Expedition. [12] 

During Grijalva's tenure at Presidio San Francisco, both daughters married soldiers at Mission Dolores. Maria Josefa Grijalva, the oldest married Antonio Yorba, then a widower on November 3, 1782. She was then 16, he almost 40, only two years younger than her father. [10] 

Maria del Carmen Grijalva married Pedro Regaldo Peralta on October 27, 1785. He had come as a boy on the Anza Expedition with his family. She was 14 he was 21. The following year, Juan Pablo Grijalva was transferred to San Diego. His wife went with him, leaving his two married daughters behind. The Yorba family followed by 1789.  [10] 

Presidio San Diego 

In late 1785, a vacancy came available at the Presidio in San Diego through he death of Alfaréz Jose Velasquez. Transferring in 1786 to San Diego, Grijalva gained the promotion, and remained active as Alfaréz until his retirement. [12] 

The 1788 Registry of the existing Missions, [was taken] by Alfaréz Juan Pablo Grijalva at Presidio San Diego. From Loreto, Baja California to San Francisco, Alta California. [14] 

Later, Grijalva led a group to Northern Baja California where "...having founded this mission in the mountain range among the Rosario y Santo Domingo, [we] fulfill the orders of the Viceroy on the 27th of March, 1793. The chosen site was named for the indigenous Casilepe, and now has given it that of San Pedro M rtir de Verona. He returned again in April of 1794. [15] 

[Beginning] January 3 1795, [from] San Diego, Grijalva and Grejera, [had] ...taken the census of the missions of the North. Juan Pablo Grijalva on visit(s) to the Escoltas (Military Escorts) de San Miguel, de San Juan, San Gabriel, y de San Miguel. [14] 

Padre Juan Mariner in 1795 filed a "report on the survey which we made in company with Alfaréz Juan Pablo Grijalva, Corporal Juan Vicente, etc." Claudio, when in the military, accompanied them to locate the site for the Mission de San Luis Rey de Francia. [16] On June 13, 1798 Padre Presidente founded this his last mission. 

Rancho Las Flores 

1796 March 1st, San Diego Juan Pablo Grijalva, second-lieutenant to the company of the Viceroy, requests his retirement... On the margin you see the endorsement of Governor Borica.  [11] 

An Indian uprising in 1796 brought Grijalva to Mission San Miguel in Baja California where during the foray his horse was shot out from under him. He was 55 years of age, and retired that same year.  [11] 

He petitioned for Rancho Las Flores (probably around 130,000 acres) the following year. Founded in 1798, the Mission San Luis Rey claimed Las Flores for agriculture, taking it from Grijalva. We now call Rancho Las Flores, Camp Pendelton.  [1] 

Padre Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lausan, who had founded this mission had praised Grijalva only a few years before. [17] 

Rancho Santiago De Santa Ana 

Not to be daunted, Grijalva traveled up El Camino Real to an area we now refer to as Orange. Receiving a post-retirement promotion to Lieutenant, he again petitioned for land, this time for Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, only about 60,000 acres, about 1801. [1] 

The diseño shown on pages 8 & 9 is the first map drawn of northern Orange County. The original resides in the Bancroft archives in Berkeley. It is made on linen, in color and is the predecessor of the diseño of 1809. Three casas were present on the Rancho. [12] 

In Yorba tradition, Juan Pablo Grijalva was the first to occupy the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana [Paraje de Santiago]. [He] built an adobe on Santiago Creeks south side, just north of El Modena, at the point of the hills. [18] 

The adobe ruins and evidences of a vineyard are attested by American pioneers in that vicinity as late as 1900. Old settlers also recall that there were tan and tallow vats on the north side of Santiago Creek opposite the adobe so that the ruin may have had some occupancy by vaqueros, employees of the Yorbas, throughout a period of years. [18] 

Grijalva Testament 

1806 June 21, San Diego. Juan Pablo Grijalva: his testament. Conferred by the...Lieutenant graduate, Pablo Grijalva. He leaves his goods to his wife and grandsons, Jos‚ Antonio Yorba and Juan Pablo Peralta. Nothing is left to his daughters Maria Josefa and Maria del Carmen. [11] 

1806 July, 25 San Diego. Rodriguez and Arrillaga: Death of an official. Advised of the death of the...Lieutenant graduate, Pablo Grijalva. [11] 

...I report to his Excellency the Governor, that I have examined the archives of this garrison, and that I have not found the document which the deceased Grijalva presented to the Government in order he might place himself with his property in [Rancho de] Santiago. [12] 

...Dona Dolores Valencia [Grijalva], widow of said deceased...replied that she know[s] from the deceased Captain Don Raymundo Carrillo, that [although] it existed in his power; that he did not deliver it to her. She heard her deceased husband say that he had presented for himself alone. [12] 

Actually, there is evidence Grijalva's grandson and namesake, Juan Pablo Peralta, lived with the Grijalvas after 1800, working the Rancho which would some day be his. 

Casa Remnants 

William Wolfskill passed the point [of Hoyt Hill] in 1831 and saw adobe ruins. The ruins [in 1870] were not very different when he first saw it. [20] 

Wm. W. Hoyt...on a high spur of the hills just above the present junction of Alameda [Hewes] and Santiago Boulevards, built a ten-room house. It is on the site of the Grijalva Adobe, built about the year 1800. When the Hoyts built their home in 1888 the lava rock that formed the foundation of the adobe was still in place and was used around the new dwelling. Pieces of rusty iron, spurs, bits, etc. 
have been found around the site of the first house in Orange County outside the mission village of San Juan Capistrano. [21] 

"I was born on Hoyt Hill [in 1889], near where the house still stands. I don't remember them [the adobe ruins], but they were there. It was supposed to be the first house in Orange County. There were terraces. They don't show...[but]...they were made from the stone that was in the [adobe] house and they used the stone to build up the terraces against the driveway. [But the adobe was there]...because the ruins were there...when Father bought the property. I guess they were put together with adobe. They filled the walls with the stones and used the adobe for binding." [22] 

In 1992, Eddie Grijalva went home. Not to his, or his fathers -- not even his grandfathers. He went home to 200 years ago, that of Juan Pablo Grijalva. Near the Hoyt Victorian, a rock wall helps to shore up a driveway. A neighbor points to a three car garage and states the adobe was there, about 35 years ago. The owner of the house gives one of the old stones from the wall to Eddie, who donates it to the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana. A piece of the old casa of Juan Pablo Grijalva is now home -- resting in the Bowers Museum. [23] 

Rancho Towns 

The Peralta Hills are named for Juan Pablo Peralta - the grandson and namesake of Juan Pablo Grijalva - the original Ranchero of the Rancho de Santiago de Santa Ana. North of the hills by the Santa Ana River is Santa Ana Arriba, (Upper Santa Ana) the townsite and adobe of the Peraltas. [24] 

Southward near the vicinity of the Portola crossing of the Santa Ana river, is Santa Ana Viejo, (Old Santa Ana) the main town of the area. The name Santa Ana stayed with the river and this place: there is California State Historical Marker #204 near Lincoln and Orange-Olive road. Later, in the early 1800s, a town started up on the site, called Santa Ana. It grew to the point of having a general store and a mayor, but faded away prior to 1850. [25] 

The settlement of Santa Ana is mentioned in 1846-47 (Emory), and the name Santa Ana Viejo shows on maps after that time. The modern city of Santa Ana, at its present site south of Santiago Creek, was not founded until 1869. [24] 

The river is now west of the old river bed - floods have changed the course several times. Santa Ana Viejo was a real town, essentially started by the Yorba family. The Yorba hacienda site overlooks the location of the old town. One Yorba casa sat on the hill where the old Olive grade school is now on Orange-Olive Road, past Lincoln. [25] 

Near Chapman Ave. on the Santa Ana river was Santa Ana Abajo (Lower Santa Ana), an extension of the town to the north. Also here was (and still is) a favored crossing of the Santa Ana River, El Camino Real the forerunner of Highway 101, now the Santa Ana Freeway, I-5. South of here is the junction with Santiago Creek and the site of El Refugio (the Refuge), one of the earliest haciendas. [25] 

Edward Trinidad Grijalva 

"Grijalva's personal search for his roots has unearthed information that challenges conventional versions of Orange County history." [26] "[He] traces his roots back to his cousin, Juan Pablo Grijalva, a military leader during the De Anza trek and colonization. Juan Pablo applied for the first Spanish land grant in what is now Orange County where Eddie was born and raised." [27] 

In 1992 he located the remains of Juan Pablos casa in the city of Orange, where Eddie now lives. In addition, Eddie is a Gabrielino Indian which maintains a direct link between the Spanish and Gabrielino of 200 years ago. [3] 

"Presentations by Eddie Grijalva are a testament to California's heritage and inspire individuals to pursue their own history." [2] "Eddie is a bona fide historian/researcher whose credentials include access to the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley." [28] "Spending time with Eddie Grijalva is like touching history." [3] 

References & Bibliography (see footnote numbers next to text above): 

1 - Eddie Grijalva, Orange City Magazine, Fall 1994. 
2 - Douglas Westfall, Orange County Publisher. 
3 - Paul Apodaca, Educator on Native Americans, Chapman University 
4 - Jim Sleeper, Orange County Historian & Author. 
5 - Don Meadows - Historic Place names of Orange County. 
6 - Padre Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuan, Padre Serra's successor. 
7 - Bernal Diaz, Conquest of Mexico, 1530s. 
8 - The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft Vol XV. 
9 - Marie Northrop - Spanish & Mexican Families of Early California Vol I. 
10 - Cartes del Teniente Grijalva, 1794-1806. * 
11 - The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft Vol XVIII. 
12 - Padre Pedro Font, 1774. 
13 - Explicacion del Registro desde San Diego, 1795. * 
14 - Con las Memorias de este Presidio, 1794. * 
15 - Informe sobre exploradas pro Pedro Mariner, 1795 * 
16 - Wayne Dell Gibson, Orange County Historian & Author. 
17 - WPA Historical Project, 1936 
18 - Francisco Mar¡a Ruiz, Concession de Arrillaga, 1810. 
19 - William Wolfskill - Told to M. Pleasants, 1870c. 
20 - Don Meadows - Historic Place Names of Orange County. 
21- Jessie Hoyt Campbell - Cal State Univ Fullerton, Oral History Program, 1976. 
23- Laura Saari - Orange County Register, 1992. 
24- Excerpted from the Orange Addition, Dec 1994. 
25- Excerpted from the Orange Addition, Nov 1994. 
26- Brian Langston, Publicist, Bowers Museum 
27- Mimi Lozano-Holtzman, Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research 
28- Joe Osterman, Orange County Historian 

* Bancroft Library Manuscript 
Submitted and reprinted by permission of Edward Grijalva, 2004 

The Texas Connection 
to the 
American Revolution

    We Americans should not be surprised at the view other countries take of us. Throughout world history, the strongest, most powerful countries on this planet have always stood alone and battled jealous distracters. And today, America occupies that position on this Earth.

    But what sets America apart from all other ruling nations of the past is our founding Christian belief and therefore obligation to help other countries when and where we can. This "Country 'Tis Of Thee" was no accidental formation of Kings or dictators but a precious gift from God which few of us truly deserve. But for the Grace of the Almighty, we might be living in disease ridden Africa or barbaric Iraq or any of those places from which people would give anything to have just a piece of America. Those of us who have traveled the world can state without reservation, that with all its faults, there is no second place to America.

    And, therefore, we must never lose site of our obligation to God, our forefathers, our fellow citizens, and those who will come after we are long departed. That obligation is to keep this country strong, moral, and just as God intended and to continue to hold high, the guiding light of hope for all who seek freedom throughout the world. That is why we pay the price to free the world -- from the American Revolution and all the wars to the one we are now fighting in Iraq and why we give more to the UN than we probably should. 

    Jefferson reminded us that freedom isn't free and that a blood payment must periodically be paid to keep that God given right. Do we now say that the people of Iraq do not deserve that which God so graciously has given us and for which blood payments have been so willingly sacrificed throughout American history? If our answer is, "They do not," then where is the justification for our own freedom? Indeed, there is none!

    Our life on earth is nothing, if we refuse to be our brother's keeper. Worship in or out of any church you wish, but never exclude God from America, for without his blessing, there is no freedom, there is no worth. 

    God (please continue to) Bless Us All. . . . .   
    Jack Cowan, President, Texas Connection to the American Revolution
    President, San Antonio chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution
    For information on the plans for Tejanos during the American Revolution, click


Nov 5, 2004
Rueben Martinez Party
2004 MacArthur Fellowship
Nov 6,  Latino Advocates for Education
8th annual Veterans Day Celebration honoring Mexican American veterans of World War II.

Congratulations Rueben!  >   2004 MacArthur Fellow  >  $500.000

Please join us and Rueben Martinez to celebrate his 2004 MacArthur Fellowship award. Don’t miss out on the appetizers, refreshments and a host of Rueben’s colleagues and friends celebrating this magnificent award and sharing their thoughts on Rueben’s success. This is going to be a very special and memorable evening for Rueben and all who attend.

The MacArthur Fellows Program awards unrestricted fellowships to talented individuals who have shown extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits and a marked capacity for self-direction. 

                       Sincerely,  Libreria Martinez Books & Art Gallery Staff and Volunteers 

Let’s get the party started!!!  
When: November 5, 2004    Time: 5:30 PM - Whenever
Where: Libreria Martinez, Santa Ana
1110 N. Main St., Santa Ana, CA 92704   714 973 7900
Sent by Ruben Alvarez

Dear Friends and Family of Libreria Martinez,

We are extremely excited to announce today (September 28) that Rueben Martinez, Owner and Founder of Libreria Martinez Books and Art Gallery, has been named a MacArthur Fellow for 2004 by The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Each MacArthur Fellow will receive support by a fellowship grant that extends over the next five years.

The MacArthur Fellows Program underscores the importance of the creative individual in society. Fellows are selected for their originality, creativity, and the potential to do more in the future. Candidates are nominated, evaluated, and selected through a rigorous and confidential process. No one may apply for the awards, nor are any interviews conducted.

Daniel J. Socolow, the director of the MacArthur Fellows Program, noted that "it is exciting, especially in these times, to see such a collection of decidedly bold and risk-taking people who are changing our landscape and advancing our possibilities. Included among the new MacArthur Fellows are such people as a farmer, a microbiologist, a poet, a ragtime pianist, a marine roboticist, an inventor, a high school teacher, and so many other fascinating people in vastly different fields. What they share in common is that each is highly focused, tenacious, and creative. As in past years, these Fellows are not only very good at what they do, their work is also important and distinctively original."

Typically, between 20 and 25 Fellows are selected each year. As the only Southern California MacArthur Fellow recipient in the class of 2004, Mr. Martinez is very grateful and honored to receive this prestigious fellowship. Mr. Martinez said, "I would like to thank all of you who have helped me, throughout the years, make my dream a reality. Coming from a small Arizona mining town and receiving this award today, along with the rest of the MacArthur Fellows, is truly overwhelming. It just goes to show that with hard work, dedication and support from your community and friends, you can make miracles happen. Just look at what we have accomplished together over the years in Santa Ana and what we are starting in Lynwood."

Mr. Martinez’ vision has been recognized by the MacArthur Foundation’s selection committee as unique and a benefit to our community and society as a whole. We hope that you will join Mr. Martinez in sharing this exclusive national award when we host an open house celebration soon at Libreria Martinez Books & Art Gallery in Santa Ana. Look for your email invitation.


Libreria Martinez Staff, Volunteers and Friends

A press release and the biography below of Mr. Martinez will be released to the national media by the MacArthur Foundation today, so be sure to look for the exciting news in your favorite newspaper and news related television programs or visit the MacArthur Foundation at

About Rueben Martinez: Rueben Martinez has elevated bookselling from a business to a campaign in support of underserved populations in California and throughout America. His Santa Ana bookstore, Libreria Martinez Books and Art Gallery, was originally a barbershop and is now among the largest commercial sellers of Spanish-language books in the country, serving as the cornerstone of cultural events and community activities that promote the benefits of reading to Hispanic-Americans and Spanish-speaking immigrants. A co-founder of the Latino Book Festival (which now tours nationally), Martinez motivates Spanish-speaking people to value literature, to read for themselves, and to read to their children. The record number of enthusiastic adults and children drawn to Libreria Martinez makes the store a destination for leading bilingual and Latino authors. Acclaimed by educators and librarians throughout the country, Martinez’ unique brand of entrepreneurship and advocacy is an important complement to institutional and program efforts to enrich and anchor the lives of a large and growing population in America.

Rueben Martinez has been a professional barber and entrepreneur for more than forty years. In 1993, he founded Libreria Martinez Books and Art Gallery, a small business operating out of his barbershop. By 1999, the bookstore had expanded and moved into its own location, and, in 2001, he launched a second venue dedicated to children’s literature. Martinez is a founding member of Santa Ana’s Reading City Committee. In 1997, he helped develop the multi-city Latino Book Festival.

About Libreria Martinez Books and Art Gallery

Bookstore, art gallery, children’s books center, community center, and ground zero for the campaign to get entire communities reading - Libreria Martinez Books & Art Gallery has emerged from its humble origins as a barbershop with books into a national phenomenon. It is rather, to develop a community of readers thereby improving the performance of children in schools, enriching families, instilling pride in the cultural roots and traditions of Latinos, and celebrating the successes of learners. Writers value the invitation from Libreria Martinez to appear for book signings. Carlos Fuentes, Mexico’s leading intellectual, appeared for his only book signing ever in the US. Other well-known writers who frequent the bookstore include Isabele Allende, Sandra Cisneros, Rudolfo Anaya, Jorge Ramos, Gary Soto and Victor Villasenor, and so many, many others. Libreria Martinez currently has three locations with two in Santa Ana, California and a one in Lynwood, California. Lastly its books (and ganas) are available via the Internet at

Visit Libreria Martinez on-line

Saturday, November 6, 2004 

Latino Advocates for Education, Inc. and California State University, Fullerton will host the 8th annual Veterans Day Celebration honoring Mexican American veterans of World War II. The patriotic ceremony will commence at 11:00 a.m. and will be held in the Pavilion of the Titan Student Union on the Fullerton campus. Admission is free. The public is invited to attend.

Over 200 Southern California Mexican American veterans will be honored for their patriotism.  Special guests include Congressional Medal of Honor recipients Ysmael Villegas, Alejandro Ruiz and David Gonzales.  U. S. Representatives Ed Royce and Loretta Sanchez will present proclamations. Many of the veterans will display their World War II photographs and memorabilia.

 Contact person: Linda M. Aguirre  at (714) 225-2499



Reflections on:  Eugene A. Obregon Monument Memorial Ceremony
Eddie Martinez, designer of the memorial, Latino Blood, American Hearts
       by Mercy Bautista Olvera
SHHAR Speaker's Committee Chair:  Michael Perez
Buscando Nuestras Raices Conference, Keynote: Decade of Betrayal  
Spanish Influences on California Horticulture 
Free Cuentos de la Familia, Long Beach Performing Arts Center, Nov 13
Los Angeles City Council: The Struggle for Chicano Representation



Flags from left to right: 
U.S., California, Los Angeles, POW
Monument in El Pueblo
Eddie Martinez

On Saturday afternoon, October 2, in Father Serra Park, my wife and I were settling in our seats, waiting for the Eugene Obregon Flag Raising Ceremony to begin. As I looked around, I noticed people greeting old friends and making new ones. Then I glanced up at the 40-foot tall flagpoles shining against the clear, beautiful, blue sky. I felt a sense of pride being at the birthplace of "El pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Angeles del Rio de Porciúncula."  I was born in Los Angeles and have memories of shining shoes (about six decades ago) in Olvera Street's Placita during the Second World War. The Union Train Station across the street was filled with soldiers, sailors, and marines, who were either coming home or leaving for the war. Those were good times for me because at 10 cents a shine, I was scoring big tips from the G.I.s.

My thoughts then turned to the absent members of The Eugene A. Obregon Congressional Medal of Honor Memorial Foundation. I could feel the presence of the co-founder Al Flores, and dedicated fund-raiser Pete Valdez, Sr. My mind began to drift back, remembering how I became involved with the monument project.

William Douglas Lansford and I have spent countless hours through the years of our friendship discussing movies, art, history, books, life, politics, and of course our two favorite subjects, Mesoamerican culture and Latino history. During one of those conversations, Bill shared with me his vision for a monument dedicated to the Latino Congressional Medal of Honor recipients. The more we talked, the more convinced we were about building a Latino monument. Soon our plans became a defiant si se puede project. It didn’t take long for Lansford and I to have enough written material and color renderings to package The Eugene A. Obregon Congressional Medal of Honor Monument presentation.


I remember the emotions I felt while I was designing the monument. After completing the scaled drawing, I turned my attention to illustrating Eugene Obregon and Bert Johnson. I tried to imagine what it must have been like just before Eugene’s life was taken from him; an impossible task. But I wanted to try to capture the drama of a 19-year-old facing the enemy, firing his M1 Carbine. I placed Eugene's body in a position so that he would shield his buddy, Bert. As I sketched their faces, I tried to capture their unique emotional expressions. I wanted the overall composition to represent the dynamics of Obregon's heroic sacrifice. Satisfied with the results, I began drawing their hands and fingers and how they clutched each other's arms, expressing their bond as U.S. Marines. While sketching, I began thinking of the image as a piece of sculpture, a three-dimensional statue and how the sun would cast its light onto the figures. Once I was satisfied with the highlights and the shadows, I began delineating the details of the uniforms, weapons, and equipment until the drawing was complete.

Booming music preformed by the Roosevelt High School Band brought me back to Father Serra Park and the day's event. The ceremony began with the Los Angeles Chapter of the 11th Airborne Division color guard, lead by Sgt. Rudy Garcia, raising the United States flag, and the band playing of our National Anthem. Superior Court Judge Fredrick Aguirre welcomed the audience and dignitaries. He told stories of Latino servicemen, "First In – Last Out" during World War II. One story in particular stuck with me. A fighter pilot, who on an early morning in December 7, 1941, took off from his aircraft carrier and flew in the direction of Pearl Harbor. He was scouting for the USS Enterprise returning to its homeport. The pilot was a young Latino from Los Angeles, whose ill-fated mission took him smack into the invading force of Japanese planes flying into Pearl Harbor. Manuel Gonzalez's engagement
with the enemy caused him to be the first fatality of World War II ... a Latino pilot. Two elderly Latino veterans in the audience were introduced as being two of the last POW’s in World War II. Later in the ceremony, William Lansford spoke of the Latino Congressional Medal of Honor recipients and how the Obregon Monument was not meant to glorify war, but honor those who unselfishly gave their lives so that their comrades would live.

 With those fine words, Lansford stood hugging Virginia, Eugene's sister, and the dignified 96-year-old mother, Henrietta Obregon. Bill graciously presented the Obregon family with a memorial plaque from the Memorial Foundation organization. The event host, Councilmember Antonio Villaraigosa spoke warmly throughout the ceremony about growing up in the community and his pride for Los Angeles' Hispanic history. He also spoke of the value of having the Obregon Monument in the El Pueblo de Los Angeles Historical Monument site. Afterwards, we all moved to the area below the four flags of our Country, State, City and the POW/MIA. Council member Villaraigosa removed the colorful sarape revealing the bronze marker on polished granite stone and then read aloud the inscription:

Unveiling the Marker - Pictured from left to right; 
Eddie Martinez, Designer, Roger I. Brautigan, Undersecretary of Veterans Affairs, Bill Lansford, Foundation Founder, and City Councilman, Antonio Villaraigosa reading from Bronze Marker


This site is dedicated to the Latino-American heroes who received the
Congressional Medal of Honor, our nation's highest award for bravery.
For love of country, they performed above the call of duty.

Heroes y compatríotas, con orgullo y honor los saluda nuestro pueblo!

Courage and Gallantry graced their deeds and their guide was Honor.
Erected by the
Eugene Obregon/Congressional Medal of Honor Memorial Foundation
October 2, 2004

Throughout the entire Eugene A. Obregon Flag Raising Ceremony "there wasn't a dry eye in the house." Afterwards there was a lot of hugging, picture taking, and congratulations. When Jessie and I were leaving Olvera Street, I couldn't help but think of our next biggest challenge, the challenge of raising the needed funds to build Obregon Monument through to its completion.  

To contact Eddie Martinez:

(Left to right)  

Guest of Honor, 96-year-old Henrietta Obregon, mother of Eugene Obregon, his sister, Event Host, Councilmember Antonio R. Villaraigosa, representative of Congresswomen Loretta Sanchez, Master of Ceremonies, Superior Court Judge, Fredrick P. Aguirre, and representative of Congresswomen, Lucille Roybal-Allard

Eugene A. Obregon (Congressional Medal of Honor Memorial) 
Sent by Mercy Bautista-Olvera

Dear Mimi, 

My family and I went to the Flag Raising Ceremony of the future Eugene A. Obregon Monument on Saturday October 2nd. 2004 I was not aware of Eugene Obregon until I read it on Somos Primos, made a copy of the flyer and made sure my family read it.

My husband, son, daughter and I went to see it at Father Serra Park. It was quite an experience and so emotional. There were some Veterans from WWII, Korean, Vietnam etc., in their uniform.

Eugene Obregon's mother and sister attended, Henrietta Obregon and sister Virginia. Master of Ceremonies was Superior Court Judge, Frederick P. Aguirre.  Council member Antonio R. Villaraigosa spoke, as did William D. Lansford, Foundation Founder of the Eugene A. Obregon Congressional Medal of Honor Memorial, and of course I took some pictures.

We witnessed the raising of the flags and the unveiling of Marker, we even met Eddie Martinez (Monument Designer) another very handsome Veteran, I can't recalled his name, but he was the one escorted Presidents Nixon and Ford to go inside the airplane when traveled. They also had music by the Roosevelt High school Band, Band Master, Jose Arellano. 

After reading the article on Somos Primos, I told my husband that I really wanted to go see it but it would be nice if he could come with me, (his father and uncle) are WWII veterans were lucky that they didn't fight. My father-in-law, Joseph Olvera Sr., was in the Army, sent to India and his brother, Robert Olvera, traveled to Germany (Air Force) but never fought during that time. 

I copied a few articles and place them all over the house and told my family about it, and kept saying that I really wanted to go. On a Friday evening before the event, my husband tells my kids to be ready for Saturday, that all of us were going to see this event. Michael and Monique were excited about it. I didn't even know that they wanted to come with us, you know teenagers... was surprised. My kids were the only teenagers attending besides the Roosevelt Band students and a few younger children. All of us experienced such and honorable event! First time ever for us.

There were many people, but wished there were more. I know that you had another conference some place else on that particular day.  [[ I was in D.C.]]

This is one of the experiences that my kids would not forget, and happy that they went with us. By reading Somos Primos we were able to know about this event. You know Mimi I checked on the Los Angeles Times and the editors didn't mentioned anything about this event before or after, that I know off. I kept checking and nothing. That is so sad, however, I went all over the place to find "La Opinion" newspaper, ended up finding it at a gasoline station in La Puente, California, the article was very good, and showed a photo of Congressmember Antonio Villaraigosa, unveiling the marker in front of Eugene Obregon's mother and sister. Henrietta Obregon and sister Virginia. They seemed so proud to be there. 

Love, Mercy Bautista-Olvera

SHHAR Speaker's Committee Chair:  Michael Perez

On Oct. 7th, 2004 I presented on behalf of SHHAR, "The de Riberas, an Hispanic - American Family Experience 1599 to Present".   The venue was Customs and Border Protection Los Angeles International Airport Organization held at the Los Angeles Air Force base in El Segundo, California.

The two hour luncheon included Mexican cuisine, a wonderful Mexican dance troop "Grupo Folklorico," and myself as guest speaker.  Over one hundred were present and all enjoyed the wonderful celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month. 

On Oct. 12th, 2004 I presented twice on behalf of SHHAR, First was the "The de Ribera Family an Hispanic - American Family Experience 1599 to Present". Secondly, discussed the Galvez Project and his contributions to the Founding of The United States.  The venue was Los Angeles City College, held in Los Angeles, California.

The celebration included lunch for student attendees and myself as guest speaker.  Many students attended and all enjoyed the wonderful celebration of the Second Annual Genealogical Conference Celebrating African - American, Chicana, and Latina Genealogy. 

If your organization would like a speaker for an upcoming event:  
Please contact Michael Perez  or

SHHAR Board members involved with the Buscando Nuestras Raices Conference  included your editor, Michael Perez, and from left to right, seated with Yolanda Magdaleno, speakers

                                  Yolanda Ochoa,            John Schmal,                   Steve Hernandez.

The Buscando Nuestras Raices Conference morning keynote speaker was Dr. Francisco E. Balderrama, co-author of the book Decade of Betrayal.  For those unfamiliar with the repatriation/ deportation of 1.2 million Mexican Americans and Mexicans during the early 1930s, the facts stirred considerable interest.  Many of those that were moved or voluntarily went to Mexico, were actually American citizens. 

Dr. Francisco Balderrama

Dr. Francisco Balderrama is a Professor of History and Chicano Studies at Cal State University Los Angeles.  You can view a May 5th 2001 VistaLA interview.  Below is a 2003 article which was published during the California repatriation/ deportation hearing in Sacramento.  

Keyword search in Somos Primos will take the reader to previous articles published on the subject in Somos Primos.  
Lawsuit sheds light on sad chapter in US-Mexican History, By Joe Rodriguez
Mercury News of Silicon Valley, Jul. 18, 2003 

She was only a little girl when the authorities rounded up her family, ordered them into boxcars and sent them away. It was 1935, the depths of the depression. A slogan took hold throughout Los Angeles: ``Employ no Mexican while a white man is unemployed; get the Mexican back into Mexico regardless by what means.''
So Emilia Castaneda, born in the U.S.A., ended up in Mexico along with 600,000 other ``Mexicans.'' Scholars estimate that 60 percent of them were actually U.S. citizens.

``We cried and cried,'' Castaneda recently told the Los Angeles Times. ``I had never been to Mexico. We were leaving everything behind.''

She's 77 years old now, one of the uncertain number who made it back, living quietly in southern California -- until this week.

Castaneda was in Sacramento the other day testifying before a legislative committee looking into the mass deportations. Meanwhile, civil rights lawyers filed a class-action lawsuit in Los Angeles against the city and state on behalf of Castaneda and 400,000 Mexican Americans deported from California.

Finally! Seventy years later, justice may be done. And many Americans may hear for the first time about one of the worst and least-known chapters in their history.

Not in history books: Here's a telling anecdote: A few years ago, Stanford University professor Alberto Camarillo was giving a lecture on basic, Mexican-American history to a group of journalists. He had just finished talking about the ``repatriation'' program started by President Herbert Hoover in 1930 when an angry hand shot up from the audience.

``I can't believe this wasn't in our history books.''

The professor shrugged. Yes, it really did happen, and no, it probably wasn't in the schoolbooks.

For a full account, I recommend the 1995 book, ``Decade of Betrayal.'' Scholars Francisco Balderrama and Raymond Rodriguez recall how America recruited Mexican workers during the Roaring 20s, turned against them during the depression, and swept up citizens and whole families as the anti-immigrant hysteria grew out of control.

Although President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ended the federal deportations in 1933, state and local governments continued them throughout the decade. In public gathering places across the country, anyone who looked Mexican could be stopped and asked to show papers to prove citizenship or residency. Railroads agreed to carry the deportees for half fare. Entire families were rounded up.

Half of the struggle for civil rights in this country is to educate the American people on what really happened to minority groups under the thumb of discrimination. The other half is apologizing, making amends and learning from history.

Unfortunately, governments don't apologize or make amends unless they're sued. Japanese Americans interned during World War II had to threaten a lawsuit before winning reparations and an apology. As with the Nisei, Mexican-American deportees lost their property, personal belongings, savings and livelihoods. We could put a dollar figure on all of that, but it would be wrong to assume it's all about money.

The surviving Japanese-American internees said the apology and lessons learned were far more important. So does Emilia Castaneda.

``Somebody could say, `We were wrong for the injustices committed to you and apologize for what was done,' '' she said. ``Maybe other people who are still in Mexico would hear about this and would come back.''

Deported citizens: Just how many Mexican Americans remained in Mexico is anybody's guess, and it will be interesting to see if American and Mexican officials are interested in finding them. Here's one lead, from a letter written to Los Angeles officials by Pablo Guerrero, who was deported in 1932 with his American-born children:

``I want to arrange everything legally,'' he wrote two years later from Baja California, ``and I want my passport issued with the seal of an American citizen.''
``I worked in the U.S. of A. since 1904 with different companies,'' he said, although it's unclear whether he was legal himself. ``The Mexican government here does not give any assistance nor protection to children born in the U.S. of A., and for that reason I ask that my children and myself be allowed to return to the country in which they are entitled to live.''

JOE RODRIGUEZ is a Mercury News columnist. Contact him at (408) 920-5767 or

Another book by Dr. Balderrama,
In Defense of La Raza

Spanish Influences on California Horticulture

Sat. November 13, 6:30-10:00 p.m.

Nacimientos Workshop
Artist and educator Daniel F. Martinez leads a historical lecture and hands-on workshop on a Spanish tradition brought to Mexico in the late 1500s. Martinez will teach participants to create their own Nativity, or Nacimientos, from an array of various materials such as wood, fiber, cardboard and paint. Cost is $35 per person and includes all materials, appetizers and wine; reservations required.  

Eliza Boné, Public Relations Coordinator
Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site
4600 Virginia Road, Long Beach, CA 90807
(562) 570-1755

ICT Free Saturday Children's Theatre- Cuentos de la Familia- November 13th at 11am
Long Beach Performing Arts Center:

"Cuentos De La Familia" - "Family Stories", is a bilingual production of a collection of story-plays based on folktales from the Latino culture.  The richness of heritage, a love of language and the essence of family values ring through these stories. Children from the audience will have the opportunity to come up on stage, and be a part of the story telling.  It is free to all! 

International City Theatre is the resident professional theatre of Long Beach, performing at the Long Beach Performing Arts Center.  Our website is:  Our FREE Saturday Family Theatre Series presents up to 10 performances or workshops for children from February through December each year.  The series is sponsored in part by the Los Angeles County Arts Commission and TARGET STORES.  Parking is $8 in the performing arts center parking garage or at parking meteres on Ocean Boulevard.

Please RSVP to Nikki Palley:  or 562-495-4595, ext 17. Please tell all your friends or pass this e-mail on.  The more the merrier.  The series has been called "a gift" and "a treasure" and some audience members drive up to two hours each way to attend.



By John P. Schmal


Los Angeles was founded in 1781 by Mexican settlers from Sonora, Sinaloa and Jalisco. The influence of Mexico on the cultural and political direction of Los Angeles remained strong even after the city became part of the United States in 1848. Twenty-two persons with Spanish surnames served on the Los Angeles Common Council – now known as the City Council – between 1850 and 1886. Some of these councilman included well-known members of Californio society: Manuel Requena (served 1850-54, 1856, 1864-68), Julian Chavez (1850, 1865-66, 1871-72), Cristobal Aguilar (1850, 1855-56, 1858-59, 1861-62), Pio Pico (1853), and Eulogio de Celiz (1873-75).

Cristobal Aguilar also had the distinction of serving as the last Mexican-American Mayor of Los Angeles (from 1866 to 1868 and 1871 to 1872). In 1870, the former Mexican city of Los Angeles still had a Latino voting registration of 22%. However, with a large influx of Anglos in the decades to come, this percentage steadily dropped. The enactment of a literacy requirement in 1894 further reduced the number of Spanish-speaking voters. After the 1886 reelection of M.V. Biscailuz to the Common Council, no person of Hispanic heritage was elected to serve on the Los Angeles City Council until the very end of the first half of the Twentieth Century.

Edward R. Roybal (9th Council District, 1949-1962)

Born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Edward R. Roybal came to Boyle Heights in 1922 with his parents, when his unemployed father sought new employment. Roybal graduated from Roosevelt High School and attended UCLA before going to World War II. After the war had ended, he returned to Los Angeles and became the Director of Health Education for the Los Angeles County Tuberculosis and Health Association.

In 1947, 30-year-old Roybal decided to run for councilman of the 9th Council District, which included Boyle Heights, Bunker Hill, Civic Center, Chinatown, Little Tokyo, and the Central Avenue District. The racial makeup of the district’s 185,033 residents was: 45% White, 34% Latino, 15% African American, and 6% "other." Even Roybal’s political base, Boyle Heights, was just 43% Hispanic at the time, while 34% of the inhabitants were native-born Whites.

Professor Katherine Underwood has analyzed Roybal’s run for office and noted that Roybal’s first campaign lacked endorsements and neglected voter outreach. In the primary election on April 1, 1947, Edward Roybal and three other candidates ran against the incumbent councilman, Parley Parker Christensen. On Election Day, Christensen won 8,948 votes, while Roybal came in third with 3,350 votes (15% of the total ballots cast). Seventy-five percent of Roybal’s support had come from Boyle Heights. (Katherine Underwood, "Pioneering Minority Representation: Edward Roybal and the Los Angeles City Council, 1949-1962," Pacific Historical Review – 1997).

Following this loss, Roybal became involved with several of his campaign supporters to create the CPO (Community Political Organization) in September 1947. The organization, which was later renamed CSO (Community Service Organization), became the first broad-based organization within the Mexican-American community, representing veterans, businessmen, and workers. The primary goal of the CSO was to register Mexican Americans to vote. For this purpose, the organization recruited 1,000 members and registered 15,000 new voters in the Latino sections of Boyle Heights, Belvedere, and East Los Angeles.

By 1949, Roybal believed that he had enough support to run for the Ninth District seat once again. In the April 5 primary election, Roybal knocked Daniel Sullivan and Julia Sheehan out of the council race by capturing 37% of the total votes cast. This forced a runoff with Christensen in the May general election. In the general election held on May 31, 1949, Edward Roybal soundly defeated six-term Councilman Christensen by a vote of 20,472 to 11,956, winning by a 2-to-1 margin. With this victory, Ed Roybal became the first Mexican American since 1887 to win a seat on the Los Angeles City Council. In the years to come, Roybal would continue to win reelection and would serve as Council member of the 9th District from July 1, 1949 to Dec. 31, 1962, before moving on to the U.S. Congress in 1963.

Charles Navarro (10th Council District, 1951-1961)

In the meantime, a second Hispanic, Charles Navarro, ran for the City Council. In the April 3 election, five candidates ran for the Council seat, representing District 10. In this primary election, left-wing Assemblyman Vernon Kilpatrick received 5,301 votes, while Navarro received the second largest number of votes with 5,077. Navarro and Kilpatrick thus advanced to a showdown in the general election, to be held in June.

The Los Angeles Times reported that this election represented "one of the bitterest Council fights in years," pitting the Conservative income property owner and "champion of free enterprise" Charles Navarro "on a strong anti-Communist platform" against the left-wing Kilpatrick. Kilpatrick had already served for twelve years as an Assemblyman but, according to the Times, "had a long record of left-wing activities and associations."

Once the complete returns had been tallied, Navarro had defeated Kilpatrick 9,075 votes to 7,382 on June 29, 1951 at the general election. Navarro took office as Councilman on July 1, 1951.

According to the 1960 census, Latinos made up 9.6% of the population of Los Angeles, slightly above the African-American population of 7.6%. By this time, both Roybal and Navarro had been reelected by their respective constituencies during the 1950s and still sat on the City Council at the beginning of the new decade. However, in 1961, Councilman Charles Navarro decided to run for the office of City Controller, challenging the incumbent City Controller, Don O. Hoye, who had served in that capacity since 1957.

In the May 31, 1961 General Election, Navarro coasted to an easy victory of the incumbent Hoye, winning 331,340 votes, well above Hoye’s 161,690 votes. Charles Navarro took office on July 1st as City Controller, thus vacating his council position. Upon his victory, he stated, "I’ll miss the debates and personality clashes of the City Council, but I’m looking forward to my new responsibilities as controller." An Anglo, Joe E. Hollingsworth, was appointed on August 25, 1961 to Charles Navarro’s unexpired term on the 10th District seat. Hollingsworth would be succeeded by Thomas Bradley, who was elected at the April 2, 1963 primaries to replace Hollingsworth on June 30, 1963. Bradley served the 10th District until July 1, 1973, when he became Mayor of Los Angeles.

No Chicano Representation (1962-1985)

On November 6, 1962, Edward Roybal was elected as a Representative of the 30th Congressional District to the United States Congress. In preparation for this move, he had resigned from his City Council seat on July 31, 1962. Roybal urged the Council to hold an election to pick his successor in the 9th District since several Chicanos had expressed an interest in succeeding him.

However, the Council vetoed Roybal’s suggestion and instead appointed an African-American, Gilbert W. Lindsay, to replace Roybal on January 28, 1963, even though the 9th District had a large concentration of Latinos. Lindsay would serve in this capacity to Dec. 28, 1990, when he died in office. In three years, African Americans went from having no representation on the Los Angeles City Council in 1960 to having three representatives in 1963. At the same time, Latino representation went from two council members to zero.

Although the African-American community was finally seeing the beginning of true representation on the Los Angeles City Council, the Eastside Chicano community watched as its voting power became diminished by fracturing and gerrymandering. The City Council apportionment of 1962 had split the East Los Angeles community into seven councilmanic districts. Most of these districts were combined with neighboring Anglo communities so that Hispanics rarely made up more than 20% of any one district's population.  This district manipulation was effective in depriving the Latino community of power and influence in the City of Los Angeles for the next two decades.

The Council District with the most significant population of Latinos during the next two decades was the 14th District, which included significant parts of East Los Angeles. On July 1, 1967, Arthur K. Snyder succeeded his mentor, Councilman John Holland, as representative of this district. However, in 1972, the 14th District was redrawn by court order with a 67% Latino majority population. Initially, Snyder – who was of German and Irish heritage – complained. However, he soon adjusted and became a tenacious fighter for his newly configured district, which included Boyle Heights, Lincoln Heights, El Sereno and Highland Park.

From 1972 to 1985, Arthur K. Snyder represented his constituents, mainly drawing support from older Hispanic voters and from conservative Anglos living in the Eagle Rock section of his district. Although many Latinos ran against him at election time, Snyder was able to maintain the support of his district’s voters. With great enthusiasm, he attended church and civic festivals and spoke Spanish at public gatherings. He paid scrupulous attention to the needs of his constituents’ communities, and was able to survive two recall efforts.

A graduate of USC and a resident of Eagle Rock, Snyder also navigated several controversies, including a state conflict of interest fine, accidents in city vehicles, drunk driving charges, and a messy divorce. Through all Snyder's personal and political controversy, his constituency remained loyal and he served in office for eighteen years. However, on January 2, 1985, Arthur K. Snyder announced that he would resign as Councilman for the 14th District of Los Angeles later in the year so that he might pursue a career in law and spend more time with his family.

By the time of his resignation, Arthur Snyder’s 14th District contained 200,000 residents, 75% of whom were Latinos. However, only about half of its 60,000 registered voters were Chicano, and a great deal of the district’s voter strength was still based in its mostly Anglo, conservative Eagle Rock neighborhood.

With Snyder’s impending resignation, several well-known Chicano politicians were considered for the council seat, including Larry Gonzalez (a member of the Los Angeles Board of Education), Assemblywoman Gloria Molina, and Assemblyman Richard Alatorre. With Snyder’s backing, Assemblyman Richard Alatorre, formally announced on October 3, 1985 that he would begin his campaign for Snyder’s Council seat that would be vacated by Councilman Snyder the next day.

The competition for the 14th District seat became fierce as many Latino activists accused Alatorre and his supporters of trying to secure an appointment to the position. Such a designation would have put Alatorre in office for the rest of Snyder's term, which would not end until 1987. Because Alatorre’s Assembly district roughly coincided with the 14th Council District, many people thought that Alatorre was the logical successor for Snyder. However, on October 4, when Snyder stepped down, his Council colleagues approved a December 10 special election to decide who would represent the Eastside’s 14th Council District.

Richard Alatorre (14th Council District, 1985-1999)

In the special election held on Tuesday, Dec. 10, 1985, Assemblyman Richard Alatorre won 60% of the vote in the Eastside special election held to replace former Councilman Arthur K. Snyder. Alatorre's closest competition was city planner Steve Rodriguez, who obtained only 16% of the votes. Richard Alatorre thus became the first Latino in 23 years to be elected to the Los Angeles City Council. He took office on December 20, 1985.

Ironically, two weeks earlier, on November 26, 1985, the United States Justice Department had filed a lawsuit against the City of Los Angeles, charging "a history of official discrimination" against Latinos. With this suit, the Justice Department sought to invalidate the City's 1982 redistricting plan as a violation of the Chicano community’s rights as a minority. The civil complaint, filed in federal court in Los Angeles, named Mayor Tom Bradley, thirteen current City Council members and City Clerk Elias Martinez as defendants.

The suit accused the City of Los Angeles of deliberately drawing political boundaries in such a way as to disperse Latinos over several council districts to intentionally splinter their political power. The Justice Department contended that the redistricting plan – approved unanimously by the City Council in September 1982 – violated Section 2 by dividing an expanding core concentration of Latinos surrounding the downtown area among seven of the 15 council districts.

As a result of this fracturing, only one council district contained a majority of Latinos and strength of the Chicano voting community was diluted. This violated their rights under the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment and the voting rights provisions of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution. The suit concluded that this redistricting plan was "... effectuated for the purpose, and with the result, of avoiding the higher Hispanic percentages in certain districts that would be the logical result of drawing district boundaries on a non-racial basis." It alleged that their reapportionment plan – approved at a time when no Chicanos served on the Council – violated the 1965 Voting Rights Act, which bars any practice or procedure that abridges a person's voting rights.

Between 1970 and 1980, the Latino population of Los Angeles had risen from 18% to 27%. But, until Alatorre took office on December 20th, 1985, that 27% of Los Angeles’ population was essentially without the representation of an elected Chicano official on the Council. In contrast, three African-American Councilmen – Gilbert W. Lindsay, Robert Farrell and David Cunningham – sat on the Council, while Mayor Tom Bradley served as Mayor of the entire city.

On Tuesday, Dec. 17, Richard Alatorre, three days before he was scheduled to take office as Los Angeles' first Latino council member in 23 years, was appointed Chairman of the Council’s Charter and Elections Committee, which would review the city's controversial reapportionment plan. The topic of redistricting took up a great deal of the Council’s time during the first half of 1986. However, on August 12, 1986, Los Angeles City Councilman Howard Finn had died very abruptly of a ruptured aorta. Since 1981, Councilman Finn had represented the 1st Council District, which ran through the northeast part of the San Fernando Valley, including Shadow Hills, Pacoima, Sun Valley, and Sunland-Tujunga.

Immediately, it was recognized that Finn's death might open the way to the eventual election of the first Latino from the San Fernando Valley to the Council. The council had adopted and scrapped two plans before settling on final boundaries for revised Councilmanic districts. The 1st District, left vacant by the death of Councilman Finn, was carved from six existing districts and recreated into a new district north and west of Downtown Los Angeles. Now containing a 69% Latino population, the 1st District included Elysian Park, Elysian Valley, Chinatown, Lincoln Park, Cypress Park, Pico-Union, Temple-Beaudry, Montecito Heights and parts of Highland Park, Echo Park, Glassell Park and Mount Washington. It also had a population that was 25% Caucasian, 14% Asian and 2% black. However, although the district had a majority Latino population, Chicanos represented only 40% of the voters, in large part because of its large immigrant population and the traditionally low voter registration among Hispanics at that time.

Joan Kradin became the Chief Deputy for the newly reconfigured 1st District, which contained a population of 200,000 residents. On October 2, 1986, the Council announced that a special election would be called for February 3, 1987 to fill the seat. Soon there were four candidates vying for the 1st District seat: state Assemblywoman Gloria Molina, Larry Gonzalez, Leland Wong and Paul D. Y. Moore, a former aide to Mayor Tom Bradley.

Gloria Molina (1st District, 1987-1991)

On Nov. 6, 1986, Assemblywoman Gloria Molina, backed by significant political support, announced that she would run for a seat on the Los Angeles City Council representing the newly created, largely Latino 1st District. On February 3, 1987, Assemblywoman Gloria Molina took an early lead and went on to win with 6,526 votes, or 57% of the vote, while Larry Gonzalez placed a distant second with 2,952 votes, or 26%. Gonzalez, who was backed by most of the Eastside political establishment, failed to force a runoff election as many had expected.

On February 27, 1987, Gloria Molina became City Councilperson. She was the fourth woman to serve on the Council and was its first Latina representative in history. Councilwoman Molina would serve as Councilperson for four years. In February 1991, Molina resigned her Council position after winning election to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Her term ended on March 7, 1991.

Mike Hernandez (1st Council District, 1991-2000)

In June 1991, Cypress Park bail bondsman Mike Hernandez and Chinatown attorney Sharon Mee Yung Lowe both announced that they would take part in the August 1991 runoff election for the City Council seat left vacant by Gloria Molina. Thirty-eight-year-old Hernandez raised nearly $100,000 and had the endorsement of Molina. As a result, he led the six-candidate field in the runoff election, balloting with 42% of the votes cast in the 1st Council District. By this time, Latinos made up nearly 74% of the 223,000 residents in this 13-square-mile district, but only a small part of the 33,000 registered voters, primarily because the Pico-Union, Westlake and Echo Park were inhabited by a large population of immigrant non-citizen Latinos.

On August 13, 1991, Mike Hernandez defeated Sharon Lowe by 64.5% to 35.5% to become the second Latino to sit on the 1st District seat. Taking office on August 27, 1991, Mike Hernandez joined Richard Alatorre as the second Latino to be sitting on the fifteen-member City Council.

During the next year, the rapid growth of the Latino population in the San Fernando Valley led many Latino leaders in that area to press for the City Council to redraw district lines in the Valley. The District that drew the most interest was the 7th District of Councilman Ernani Bernardi, which included Sylmar, Pacoima, Sun Valley and Van Nuys. The 7th District had grown so rapidly that it had nearly 40,000 more residents than the optimum population of 232,000 – which represented 1/15th of the city's population. Although 62.3% of the 7th District's residents were Latinos, only 26.2% of its 73,500 registered voters were Latino, according to city demographic data. Some political analysts expressed doubt that a Latino district with less than 40% Latino registration would be able to elect a Hispanic candidate. It was already known that Councilman Bernardi was not planning to run for reelection when his term expired on June 30, 1993.

New redistricting plans were drawn up and approved, but civil rights groups, such as the

Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF), believed that proposed district changes only favored the incumbents and violated Latino voting rights. MALDEF noted that while Latinos made up about 40% of the City’s population, only two Latinos served on the 15-member Council. However, some Council members and analysts also pointed out that Latinos made up only 11% of the City’s registered voters, and that the real answer to the problem lay with naturalization and voter registration drives.

In July 1992, the San Fernando Valley’s 7th District was officially redrawn. The district, reaching from the heavily immigrant, working-class neighborhoods in Pacoima and Van Nuys to the middle-class homes of second- and third-generation Latinos in Sylmar, was 70% Latino. However, Latinos represented only 31% of the district’s 30,000 registered voters, while Anglos made up 48% of the voters. African-American registration in the same district stood at 19%.

Richard Alarcon (7th Council District, 1993-1999)

In the April 20, 1993 primary election, Richard Alarcon, Mayor Bradley's top Valley aide, and former Los Angeles Fire Captain Lyle Hall faced off for the 7th District seat. In a June runoff election, Richard Alarcon defeated Hall by a mere 234 votes out of nearly 19,000 votes cast. The election had an unusually high voter turn out with 27% of the district's 50,000 registered voters showing up at the polls.

By defeating Hall, 39-year-old Alarcon became the first Latino to be elected to the Los Angeles City Council from the San Fernando Valley. He joined Richard Alatorre and Mike Hernandez, two Eastsiders, to become the third Chicano on the 15-member Council. Richard Alarcon would serve as Councilman until January 3, 1999, when he resigned to become a California State Senator. The 7th Council seat would be vacant from January 4, 1999 to July 5, 1999 when a new election was held.

Alex Padilla (7th Council District, 1999-Present)

On June 8, 1999, elections to the Los Angeles City Council brought Nick Pacheco and Alex Padilla as two young newcomers to the Council, both representing a new generation of Latino politicians. Twenty-six-year-old Alex Padilla won an overwhelming election victory Tuesday over Corinne Sanchez in the race for the northeast San Fernando Valley's 7th District seat on the Los Angeles City Council. A graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Padilla captured more than 67% of the vote and credited his strong showing to a combination of labor and youth that rallied behind his candidacy. Padilla had been the legislative aide for and was strongly backed by Assemblyman Tony Cardenas (D-Sylmar). Through his victory, Padilla had inherited the remaining two years of the unexpired term left by Richard Alarcon when he moved up from the 7th District seat to the State Senate in December.

Nick Pacheco (14th Council District, 1999-2003)

On June 8, 1999, 35-year-old Nick Pacheco won 52% of the votes in the 14th Council District to succeed Richard Alatorre. His opponent, Victor Griego, had obtained 48% of the vote in this election.

Ed Reyes (1st Council District, 2001-Present)

When Mike Hernandez retried from the Council on June 30, 2001, he was succeeded by Ed Reyes, a former council aide and planning department official, who won his seat in the April primary but did not take office until July 1, 2001.

In the 2000 census, the number of persons living within the city limits of Los Angeles reached 3,694,820. Of this group, 1,719,073 individuals of Latino or Hispanic origin represented 46.5% of the total population of the city. With the results of the 2000 census in hand, the issue of redistricting Council Districts once again came onto the agenda. With a Latino population that was quickly approaching half of the City’s population, many community activists believed that more districts should be in the hands of Latino Council members. Latinos represented a plurality in four of the 15 council districts, while African Americans constituted a majority in three districts.

A new redistricting plan endorsed in March 2002 redrew the Council Districts in such a way as to give Latinos a plurality in five districts, compared to the four they currently had. The new Latino District was created from the Councilwoman Ruth Galanter’s 6th District, which was moved from the Westside to the East Valley. Galanter was scheduled to be forced out of her district on June 30, 2003 by term limits, and could not run for reelection. Portions of Galanter’s Westside district – including Westchester and West Los Angeles – were scheduled to be merged into a reconfigured 11th Council District, represented by Councilwoman Cindy Miscikowski. Under the new plan, the 1st, 7th, 13th, 14th and new 6th districts would all have at least 40% Latino voter registration, giving that ethnic community a plurality of voters.

Tony Cardenas (6th District, 2003-Present)

In the March 4, 2003 election for the Los Angeles City Council, seven Council seats were up for grabs. Former Assemblyman Tony Cardenas faced off against businessman Jose Roy Garcia for Ruth Galanter’s 6th District. A year earlier, in March 2002, Cardenas had been defeated by Wendy Greuel in the 2nd District race. Thirty-nine-year-old Cardenas, a resident of Panorama City, had the backing of City Council President Alex Padilla and took office on July 1, 2003.

Antonio Villaraigosa (14th District, 2003-Present)

At the same time, Councilman Nick Pacheco ran for reelection in the 14th District, but was faced with a serious challenge from former state Assembly Speaker Antonio Villaraigosa and former Olympic boxer Paul Gonzales. On March 4, 2003, Antonio Villaraigosa defeated Councilman Nick Pacheco in their hard-fought race to represent the Eastside council district. Villaraigosa won 57% of the vote to unseat Councilman Pacheco. With this victory, Villaraigosa now represented the communities of Boyle Heights, Eagle Rock, El Sereno, Hillside Village, University Hills, Hermon, Garvanza, Monterey Hills, and parts of Highland Park, Mount Washington, Glassell Park, and Downtown Los Angeles.

Eric Garcetti (13th Council District, 2001-Present)

In the election for the 13th Council District, 30-year-old Eric Garcetti faced off against former Councilman Mike Woo. Garcetti, a professor of political science at Occidental College and son of former District Attorney Gil Garcetti, was a fourth generation Angelino of both Mexican and European heritage. His victory gave him representation over a district that now included Hollywood, Echo Park, Silver Lake and Atwater Village. Garcetti was sworn into office of June 15, 2001 to replace Council member Jackie Goldberg, who had been elected to the State Assembly the year before.

As of October 2004, five majority Latino districts were served by five Councilpersons, Reyes (1st District), Cardenas (6th District), Padilla (7th District), Garcetti (13th District) and Villaraigosa (14th District).


Jaime Pacheco, Professor Julian Nava, Mimi Lozano, The Outlook, The Eastside Sun, the Los Angeles Times.

Jack Cheevers, "Alarcon Victory Confirmed in 7th District," Los Angeles Times, June 17, 1993.

Janet Clayton, "Snyder’s Decision Throws Eastside Seat Up for Grabs," Los Angeles Times, January 3, 1985.

Victor Merina, "Districting Hurts Latinos, U.S. Says: Justice Department Suit Accuses L.A. of Diluting Hispanics’ Political Power," Los Angeles Times, November 27, 1985.




Mission Restoration Bill Advances
Pre-1905 Calif. Death Index Project
Mexican-American Collection
Pomona and Palomares Family
Lugo Dies at Pioneer Ranch Home
La Jolla Rancho and Apis Family
Machado Descendants Sue for Oil

Villa de Branciforte Excavation
Mission Restoration Bill Advances
Quoted verbatim from the Daily News.
Reference: Daily News - Tuesday, October 12, 2004 
Sent by Lorraine Frain
The U.S. Senate has passed a bill to spend $10 million to help restore California's aging Spanish missions, putting the legislation a step away from reaching the president for his signature.
The California Missions Preservation Act, authored by Sen. Barbara Boxer, D-Greenbrae, would send grants over five years to the nonprofit foundation that's overseeing the effort to refurbish the 21 missions. The California Missions Foundation would be required to match the money with state and private funds.

"This has been a long fight, but I am so proud that we were able to get this legislation through and begin the process of restoring these historic treasures," Boxer said in a statement yesterday.  "The missions are on the verge of being lost to us forever, and now is the time to ensure their place in California's history."

The Senate passed the bill late Sunday.  The Senate version still must pass the House, which approved an earlier version of the bill last year. House approval is expected to happen when Congress reconvenes for a lame-duck session after the Nov. 2 election. The bill would then go to the president.

Attempting to resolve a concern that has helped stall the bill, the Senate passed an amendment saying the money can't be given out unless the Justice Department issues a finding that it does not violate the First Amendment.

That is meant to resolve complaints that federal funding for the missions would undermine the principle of separation of church and state contained in the First Amendment.
The advocacy group Americans United for Separation of Church and State had raised that concern since most of the missions still are owned by the Catholic Church and hold Mass.

Pre-1905 California Death Index Project
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Death records from various counties prior to July 1905 when the state of CA began indexing the deaths of the state. California became a state in 1849 with 27 original counties. Although the state mandated the keeping of records, this mandate was NOT enforced and therefore each county kept records according to the whim of the local County Recorder. Today, there are 58 counties from that original 27. Thus, some counties will have records from an earlier date than others, depending upon both whimsy and the inception date of individual counties.  Very few, if any, records are available before the 1860s. Please use the map link above the Table of Counties to see how the counties have changed over time.

Mexican-American Collection

California State University, Fullerton
Sent by Johanna De Soto
As we build our online database of over 3500 oral histories we will highlight our collections and projects below.   Annotated entries can be viewed by clicking on the related links.  Try out our full-text ebook format of one of our interviews and tell us what you think.

Los Angeles Times, June 15, 1897:


Death of Mrs. Palomares Recalls the Early Days.

POMONA, June 14. - The death this morning of Mrs. Lugarda Alvarado de Palomares recalls the days of the Mexican possession of California, for she was born in what is now the city of Pomona, long enough ago to have remembered the discovery of gold and the admission of the State into the Union.

When she first gazed upon Mt. San Antonio there were not a hundred Anglo-Saxons on the Pacific Coast.  That was in 1840, the year before the first emigrant train entered the State.  She was the daughter of Ysidro Alvarado, and was subsequently married to Francisco Palomares, a son of Ignacio Palomares, to whom Gov. Alvarado had in 1837 granted the immense San Jose rancho, including a portion of this Valley.  Here and in San Diego county on the Rancho Monurrate she has passed her life, bridging the whole history of the development of the State.

In 1891 when a cloud was thrown on the land titles of the Rancho San Jose, Mrs. Palomares cheerfully signed quit-claim deeds and was the means of wiping out what might otherwise have been an embarrassing feature of land titles.

Her death was not unexpected, as she has for some time been in poor health. Mrs. Palomares leaves two sons and two daughters to perpetuate the good repute which has always been associated with the family.

Unlike many of the old Spanish families, the deceased was at the time of her death still in possession of great real estate wealth, owning several hundred acres in and near the city and 4000 or 5000 acres in San Diego county.   Source: Karla Everett  via

Los Angeles Times, Feb 22, 1898:
La Jolla Rancho
Important Opinion Rendered by Judge Wellborn 
Judge Wellborn in the United States District Court yesterday rendered a very important opinion in the case of Jesus Machado Apis, Feliciano Williams, Victoria Bridger de Soto, Concepcion Lacey and Repigio E. Drakenfeld against the United States.  In this case action was instituted by the plaintiffs as heirs of Jose and Pablo Apis, to establish their title to La Jolla Rancho, in San Diego county, which was a part of a Mexican land grant made November 7, 1845, by Don Pio Pico, then Governor of California.  Action was commenced by approval of special act of Congress, passed January 28, 1879, to secure confirmation of rejection of plaintiffs' claim to the ranch.  Judge Wellborn held in his opinion that the plaintiffs' title to the land is not valid; that the Indians occupying the land in 1845 and their descendants had and have today valid rights to the same.

Judgment in the case, however, was stayed for thirty days.
Karla Everett  via

Los Angeles Times, Dec 10, 1933

Lugo Dies at Pioneer Ranch Home
Rites for Old Southland Family Descendant Will Be Conducted Tuesday

SANTA MONICA, Dec. 9. - Mercurial Lugo, 75 years of age, descendant of one of the Southland's oldest families, died today after a lingering illness. Death came in the Lugo home on West Jefferson Boulevard at Slauson avenue near Culver City. The site of the home was once the center of the old La Ballona rancho.

Lugo was born in Los Angeles but when 10 years of age moved to the old homestead. Mrs. Francisco Lugo, his mother, whose maiden name was Vicenta Machado, was connected with some of the first families to settle in Southern California.

Besides his widow, Mrs. Rita Lugo, he leaves six sons, all of whom reside at the Lugo homestead, and one daughter. The sons are Frank R., Antonio R., John R.., George R., Lucky R. and Charles R. Lugo. The daughter is Miss Vicenta Lugo. Two sisters are Mrs. E. Carrillo of Los Angeles and Mrs. Francisca Pena of this city.

Rosary will be recited at the residence at 8 p.m. Monday. The funeral services will be conducted at 9 a.m. Tuesday at St. Augustine's Church in Culver City. Burial will be at Woodlawn Cemetery.

Los Angeles Times, May 12, 1934:


Descendants of Augustin Machado, who a century ago was in control of the 14,000-acre Rancho La Ballona by virtue of a grant from the King of Spain, yesterday appeared in Superior Judge Bush's court to do legal battle over an infinitesimal part of the original grant consisting of one and three-tents acres in the Playa Del Rey district.

Names famous in early Californian history, Machado, Figueroa, Valdez, Solano, Olivera, Cota, Carrillo, Lopez and others are among the numerous plaintiffs who claim ownership to the property, which contains valuable oil deposits.

Defendants in the action are the Title Guarantee and Trust Company, Union Oil Company, Del Rey Company and others, who contend the plaintiffs are without legal claim to the land.

Trial of the action is to be resumed Monday.
Karla Everett    Via 

Villa de Branciforte Excavation
Sent by Lorraine Frain

For historic preservation enthusiasts, please click on the web site for information about excavation updates regarding Villa de Branciforte (Santa Cruz, CA).  It is a great educational and interesting web site. Mr. Ed Silveira is the founder and announced plans for this excavation at a meeting of Los Californianos in Monterey not too long ago. I met Ed at that meeting and mentioned to him that our Briones family had resided at the Villa in the late 1700's. 

Founded in 1797, Villa de Branciforte is a unique occurrence in Spanish Colonial history. Unlike the Spanish missions, the Villa was secular, and unlike the other two original secular settlements, the pueblos of Los Angeles and San Jose, Branciforte was a "villa," the only villa to be created during the Spanish Colonial era in California.

The Villa de Branciforte was a hybrid community populated by soldier-settlers and established to colonize and defend Alta California against Russia, England, and France. In 1802, five years after it was founded, the Villa de Branciforte settlers attempted to establish a civil government by electing an alcalde (or mayor), an election that was perhaps the first to be held in Alta California. The settlers were an enterprising and colorful group of people.

We seek recognition and preservation of the unique character and history of the Villa de Branciforte area. This includes the preservation of historical landmarks, the "living history" and diversity of our local architecture with roots in the adobes of the Spanish Colonial period, and significant archaeological features, such as adobe foundations, adobe bricks, roof tiles, burial sites and other archaeological finds pertaining to the early inhabitants of Villa de Branciforte.

A history on the tenure as fifty third Viceroy of New Spain, from 11 July 1794 to 31 May 1798, of Don Miguel de la Grua Talamanca Branciforte, Marques de Branciforte. Paragraph below is an extract from the mini-bio.

The attribute for which he is most criticized was his acquisitiveness. Bancroft asserts that "the main object of the new viceroy was to enrich himself by fair means or foul." (7) When his replacement, Miguel Jose de Azanza, was appointed in the spring of 1798, Branciforte returned to Spain aboard the Monarca with five million pesos in his luggage, three million for the king and two million for himself (Bancroft even questions whether he actually gave three million to the king). The process of collecting this nest egg, including the overt sale of offices, commissions, and other favors, aroused some public criticism. (8)


Miss Nevada Elizabeth Muto: Portrait of a Winner
Luz de las Naciones, a Celebration of Hispanic culture

More Educational alternatives for Mexican abroad

Miss Nevada Elizabeth Muto: Portrait of a Winner
Sent by Cindy Lobuglio  

The story of how Elizabeth Muto was abandoned as a 10-day old baby at Reno’s airport 24 years ago has made her possibly the most well-known Miss Nevada ever to represent the state in the Miss America Pageant. 

Muto said she isn’t hoping all the media attention might cause her biological parents to reveal themselves and try to contact her. “No. I think now more than ever I know who my mom and dad are. I don’t have any questions. My parents already taught me who I am, and I already had a sense of belonging even though I don’t look like them. I don’t feel any void in my life that would be filled by knowing who my biological parents are.” 

Miss Nevada

Elizabeth Muto 

“Liz knows she was fortunate to be placed into a foster home with great people who cared for her and adopted her, but that not all children are,” she said. National and international media have been drawn to the tale of a 10-day-old child discarded in Reno’s airport, Willey said. 

“But that’s a good thing because it gives her an additional voice to speak out for the need to have more and better foster homes. People remember that she’s the contestant who was abandoned, but they have to understand that this didn’t just start with the pageant. This is about a lifelong work of love and dedication for her,” Willey said. 

Muto’s parents, Tom and Catherine, already are in Atlantic City to lend her support in the audience. Their 25-year-old son, Greg, also adopted, has been charged with staying home and taking care of the family dog. Tom Muto, a mechanic, said his daughter not only glows on stage, she also is well-spoken and can think fast on her feet. “She has a great stage presence, and the judges are looking for a Miss America who will be a good ambassador,” her father said. “She also has the gift of gab.” 

There was very little Jan Michels, one of Muto’s pageant coaches and her traveling companion in Atlantic City, wanted to change during the sessions to polish up the contestant. “What I appreciate about Liz is she’s mature beyond her years and very sensitive to people in general, and particularly to those who may have struggled in their lives,” said Michels, who has been involved in the Miss America Pageant for 25 years and helped the previous two Miss Nevadas.

The one rough spot that needed sanding was Muto’s walk.  “There’s a very tomboyish side to Liz,” Michels said. “But she caught on how to be graceful very quickly.”

No Nevadan has won the Miss America Pageant since its inception in 1921. The closest to come to the crown so far has been Stacie James, the Miss Nevada from Las Vegas who became second runner-up in 1987. In 2002, Miss Nevada Teresa Benitez of Reno was third runner-up.

But while Muto would be glad to take that walk today with a tiara and an armful of roses, the prize she really wants is the pageant’s version of the humanitarian award. “Her personal goal is to win the Quality of Life Award,” Willey said. 

Contestants in this category are selected based on their commitment to enhancing the quality of life for others through volunteerism and community service. Muto was a runner-up in the Quality of Life competition, eventually won by Miss Alabama Diedre Downs.

Muto, who has worked with the Boys and Girls Club in Las Vegas and with the Children’s Cabinet and the foster and adoption programs in Reno, has spent more hours in community service than any of the other contestants who made the top 10 finalists for the award, Willey said. 

Muto also started her own organization, HELP — Heal, Evaluate, Learn and Progress. Although based on “the tribulations I had in my life,” Muto said its goal is to help not only foster children but also children from divorced families or who are terminally ill.

“Liz is not here to win the Miss America Pageant,” Willey said. “She is here to tell the world about these children in need. She wants to show children with a troubled past that you might not start off on the right foot, but that dreams can come true even if you have lived through a nightmare.

Luz de las Naciones, a Celebration of Hispanic culture

By Carrie A. Moore, Deseret Morning News, September 16, 2004
Sent by David Lewis

For the third consecutive year, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints will host an all-Spanish gathering, this one billed as "a celebration of Hispanic culture."

Luz de las Naciones will be held on Saturday, Nov. 13, at the Conference Center, beginning at 6 p.m. As in past years, the event will feature a religious message in Spanish from one of the church's general authorities as well as Spanish-language music. But this year's event seeks to cast a wider net, with organizers hoping to attract not only Latter-day Saints, but Hispanics of all faiths.

Rather than simply a religious program, as in years past, the event will include artists and performers presenting traditional music, dances and songs in in the Conference Center lobby from 6 to 7 p.m. The formal program of inspirational music, dance and narration begins inside the auditorium at 7:30 p.m.

"We are getting the word out to Hispanic congregations of the church along the Wasatch Front," event spokesman Jorge Becerra said in a press release. "But we want to emphasize that Luz de las Naciones is for everyone in the Hispanic community."

"We are inviting the entire Hispanic community and anyone else interested in becoming better acquainted with the church while enjoying an artistic and inspirational program," according to Elder Merrill J. Bateman, a member of the church's Presidency of the Seventy.

The first local Hispanic fireside service, in 2002, was originally scheduled for the Tabernacle on Temple Square, but was moved to the Conference Center after demand for tickets far exceeded the 6,000-seat Tabernacle. More than 15,000 tickets were distributed and participants filled two of the Conference Center auditorium's three tiers. Last year's event was held in the Marriott Center at Brigham Young University and drew a similarly enthusiastic crowd.

Organizers say participants are free to wear traditional clothing from their native countries to this year's event but are not obligated to do so. The celebration is free, but tickets are required and will be available beginning Sept. 28 either online at or by calling the Conference Center ticket office at 801-240-0080 (toll-free at 1-866-537-8457). Spanish-speaking representatives will be available to take calls from 2 to 5 p.m. Monday through Thursday. Tickets are also available from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday at Door 4 of the Conference Center.

More Educational alternatives for Mexican abroad
: President Vicente Fox
By Bernardo Mendez Lugo

Mexico is building up a wide network for educational purposes through new technologies and interactive internet and video conference system reaching out Mexicans living abroad. Pointing out his commitment to Mexican migrants, President Vicente Fox Quesada launched the Portland educational portal and symbolically inaugurated 15 community plazas in Oregon on October 13th,  which will give Mexican fellow citizens access to basic, technical, upper-middle, and higher educational services.

This action formalized the Portland educational project being carried out by the National Council for Education for Life and Work (Consejo Nacional de Educación para la Vida y el Trabajo - CONEVyT) and the National Adult Education Institute (Instituto Nacional para la Educación de los Adultos - INEA), together with state educational authorities in Oregon. Its goal is to improve labour competence systems and to certify the abilities of the Mexican community living in the state. A similar project is already operating in San Diego, Miami, Chicago and most of the 46 Consular offices in the USA and Canada are integrated to these networks for educational training and new possibilities of accreditation and certification also done on line through the Consejo de Normalizacion y Certificacion de Competencia Laboral  available by internet and free of charge.

Fox said the project was a true alliance for education and acknowledged it constitutes irrefutable evidence of the commitment of Oregon's authorities to the progress of the Mexican community living in the United States.

He also said that the portal created by this project concentrates a broad educational supply. "There are the programs for literacy, for studying primary and secondary school, or high school. There are the supports to study a technical course or for a profession" 

Mexico's president said that the new community plazas join the more than 80 already operating in the United States and the more than 3,000 operating throughout Mexico, which have become a meeting place for children, youths, and adults interested in training and acquiring more knowledge for life and work.

He stressed the importance for our fellow citizens of these community plazas, which have become tools providing them with legal advice, access to on-line education, through computer systems, and to the certification of studies valid in Mexico, apart from the fact that Oregon's educational institutions could compile information useful to them.

He said that learning English as a second language will facilitate the full integration of our fellow citizens into United States society. Pres. Fox remarked that this link will not only reinforce their sense of identity but will strengthen the values that distinguish us as Mexicans, such as responsibility, honesty, and solidarity.

During the teleconference Mr. Fox was accompanied in Mexico City by the secretary of Public Education, Reyes Tamez Guerra, and the director of the Institute for Mexicans Abroad, Cándido Morales Rosas. Participants in Oregon included Governor Theodore Kulongoski; Superintendent of Public Instruction, Susan Castillo; Executive Director of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Adam Chavarría; Superintendent of Willamette Education Service District, Maureen T. Casey, and Fernando Sánchez Ugarte, Mexico's Consul General in Portland, Oregon.

The portal may be consulted at
The main portal is at:
Bernardo Mendez Lugo is Consul of Mexico for Trade and Business in San Francisco, CA used Information from the Presidency of Mexico for this article. Contact at:



The Anza Letters, Article Three by Phil Valdez, Jr.
Web de Anza, Archive of Primary Source Documents

Digital History, Using new technologies to enhance teaching & research
Chile machines may replace workers
On the advantages of doing business via the Camino Real

The Anza Letters
Article Three 
Phil Valdez, Jr.

After having reconnoitered the San Francisco and East Bay areas for approximately two weeks, and leaving instructions with his able Lt., Don José Joaquín Moraga, to establish the Presidio de San Francisco, where he had planted the cross, Anza was ready to depart for Sonora his home base.  It was about noon time on April 14, 1776, when the
settlers gathered around the Presidio plaza in Monterey to say goodbye to the man who had
lead them successfully to their new homeland, without any major difficulties, other than the death of Manuela Piñuelas de Feliz, after having given birth to a lusty baby boy. José Antonio Capistrano Feliz went on to be on the rolls of Los Fundadores of Alta California.


The Royal Chapel
of Monterrey


Buena Vista school house, approximately the site where Anza met Sgt.Gongoria. 
 April 14, 1776.    

Santa Margarita where the expedition camped 
April 18, 1776

On the day of departure, Anza writes in his diary, "With very little improvement in my health, and after having concluded my tasks at two in the afternoon, I began my return march in the company of Father Fray Pedro Font, seven soldiers of my command, because two had gone to notify Commander Rivera and another had remained at Mission San Gabriel." Here Father Font does not agree with Anza’s number of personnel when he says, "We set out from the Presidio of Monterey at two o’clock in the afternoon, and at six in the  afternoon we halted on the banks of the Monterey River [the Salinas] at the place called Buenvista, having traveled six leagues [a league is approximately 2.56 miles]. The directions of this return journey are the opposite of those traveled in going, for we returned by the same route. The number of people in our party was twenty nine."  Anza continues, "This day has been the saddest one experienced by this Presidio since its founding. For the people who I have led from their fatherland showered me with embraces, best wishes, and praises which  I do not merit. But in remembrance of them, and of the gratitude which I feel to all, and the affection which I have had for them ever since I recruited them, and in eulogy of their faithfulness, may I be permitted to record this praise of a people who, as time goes on, will be very useful to the monarchy in whose service they have voluntarily left their relatives and their fatherland, which is all they have to lose."
They were never to see El Gran Capitan again.
On his return march Anza followed the same route as


his forward march, which was the one he had explored earlier, the 1774 Exploratory Expedition. He passed and camped at places such as Buena Vista and San Bernabe by the Salinas River. It was here, between these two camp sites, where the two giants of early California history briefly met, and now with their letters in hand we can accurately describe their encounter. Anza says, "About three leagues from Buena Vista, I saluted the commander and asked him about his health? To this he replied, I am having a pain in my leg, and after putting spurs to his mule, he said goodbye." Anza continues his southward march camping at Mission San Antonio, in the valley of Santa Margarita, and arriving at Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa on April 19, 1776.
However, here is what the Rivera y Moncada diary, of April 14, 1776 says about the same encounter. De mañana marche en el mismo apuro de mi dolor. Me ayudaron subir a la bestia. De las diez a las nueve de la mañana encontré caminando al Teniente Coronel, lo cual senti mucho, pues no me traía caso otra cosa de San Diego a este Presidio que el que habláramos y tratáramos en asumpto del pueble [o] de San Francisco, pero por haberme cabido en suerte que fuese nuestro


encuentro en ocasión que tanto adolecía, desde caballo nos saludamos y dimos la mano. Lo mismo repetimos a la despedida y seguimos nuestro camino: el de su viaje don Juan Bautista, y yo para este Presidio a donde llegué como a las cinco de la tarde. Temprano por la noche me eché a la cama; me aplicaron una untura.
Rivera writes, "Early in the morning (de mañana) I was helped in getting on my animal, he says caballo and Anza says mula, and continued on my journey with the same [leg] pain. At about ten minutes to nine, on the road, I met the Lt. Colonel, of which I did not feel good, because I carried no news to this Presidio, other than the matters pertaining to the pueble [o]) de San Francisco. But having found myself in not the best of luck because we met during my illness [leg pain], from our horses we saluted each other and shook hands, we repeated the same on our parting, and continued in our directions. He, in the direction of his [southward] journey and mine towards this Presidio where I arrived at about five in the evening, where I went to bed early and an ointment was applied." Carta number seven was written at, Misión de San Luis, as Anza calls Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa 


on April 21, 1776, two days after his arrival. Here Anza writes, "In response to the letter (de la) of Your Honor of the seventeenth of the present month, I say that even though I feel free of any responsibility in not responding to Your Honor because of the brief [conversation] on the day of our encounter. Nonetheless, with respect to the Royal Service I will sacrifice to it, and with my condescending knowledge, I agree to solely answer Your Honor in writing on those matters that only pertain to the establishment of the Port of San Francisco." En contestación de la Vuestra Merced del 17 del presente, digo: que aungue me reconozco libre de toda responsabilidad, para no contester a Vuestra Merced por el paraje acahecido el dia de nuestro encuentro no obstante; en obsequio del Real Servico, me sacrificará a ello, y en intelligencia de mi condescendencia, combengo en contester con Vuestra Merced solamente por escrito en asumptos que únicamente cohincidan al establessimento del Puerto de San Francisco. Anza continues, "Tomorrow in the afternoon, I will depart for the Mission of San Gabriel where we can confirm that which I offer Your Honor, but if you are conducting business for the Royal Service, let me know so I



will not proceed. I have responded to the letters of Your Honor dated 28th of March and 2nd of April of the present year, which I will hand your honor at an opportune time when your (asumpto) official business with the Royal Service and reply will not be interrupted. To which I respectfully agree." Mañana por la tarde salgo para la Misión de San Gabriel en donde se verificará lo que ofrezco a Vuestra Merced, pero si conduciere al Real Servicio, me lo comunicará para detenerme. Tengo respondido a las cartas de Vuestra Merced de 28 de Marzo y 2 de


Abril del presente año, que le entregaré en tiempo oportuno, y occasion que por su asumpto no se interrumpa el Real Servicio y contestación, a que combengo en obsequio de él. Lt. Colonel de Anza closes letter number seven by saying,
Nuestro Señor Guarde a Vuestra Merced Muchos Años, Misión de San Luis y Abril 21,1776

Beso La Mano de Vuestra Merced. Su Muy Seguro Servidor

Signature of Juan Bautista de Anza

Carta number eight was written on April 29, 1776 at Misión de San Gabriel, as Anza calls Mission San Gabriel de Arcangel. He says "In response to Your Honor’s official communication of today’s date, I say that the news from Your Honor indicating that Lieutenant Don Francisco Ortega has been notified does lack foundation. I say this because I had heard it in a private conversation which was referred to me by the proper chain of command (propio modo) in Mexico, but not by His Excellency, nor any other commanding chief [s], and so Your Honor can give the credit where it is deserved. But because, it was an official


matter, it would have not passed by me to communicate it to Your Honor." En contestación del oficio de Vuestra Merced de la fecha de este dia, digo: que la noticia que me indica participada al Teniente Don Francisco Ortega no carece [parece] de fundamento pues en conversación privada la produje yo diciendo que del propio modo se me referió en México pero no por su Excelencia ni otro jefe de los que mandan, y asi le puede Vuestra Merced dar el crédito que juzque: pues de haber sido de oficio no se me habria pasado el communicarsela á Vuestra Merced


Anza continues, "To the second [paragraph] of your cited [letter], I say that I celebrate prior to the confirmation of (that of which you insinuate) the establishment of the Port of San Francisco. However, it flatters me not a little to be the bearer of the news that will be so appreciated by his Excellency. To which concept and for my part, have offered to contribute to its beginnings, and by the same token happily concur with the peons who are staying there to build it, which are the ones that Your Honor proposed I should take back."  Al segundo de su citada digo que celebro ante todo el que se verifique (como me insinúa) el



establecimiento del Puerto de San Francisco. Pues me lisonjea no poco el conducer esta noticia tan appreciable para su Excelencia. E cuyo concepto me había ofrecido á contribuir por mi parte a sus principios y por lo mismo convengo gustoso en que queden para su fabricas los peones que Vuestra Merced me proponía regresase.

Anza says "As to the third and fourth point of the same [letter], in the supposition of the reasons that Your Honor gave me for not proceeding with the establishment of the missions that need to be located in the immediate vicinity of the announced fort. For my part I agree with Your Honor’s line of thinking, believing that it will not delay the effect, but rather a prolonged


time, will prove the value of it’s suspension when His Excellency sees the other side. The most essential (especial) of his [Excellency] superior orders has been put into effect."

Al tercero y cuarto de la misma citada en el supuesto de las causales que Vuestra Merced me expone para no proceder al establecimiento de las Missiones que deben ubicarse a inmediaciones del anunciado fuerte, convengo por me parte en el propio pensamiento de Vuestra Merced, pues creyendo no se retarde su effecto dilatado tiempo que apruebe esta suspensión su excelencia, que domine por otro lado, se ha dado principio a lo mas especial de sus superiors ordenes.  Anza continues, "I will respond to the other two


adjoining letters of Your Honor by separate [mail] and will only add, that I hope that Your Honor will actually write to His Excellency today, tomorrow, and the day after tomorrow, because that is what can strengthen me for that said end and help Your Honor with the proper method to govern."

A las otras dos adjuntas de Vuestra Merced, reponderé por separado y agui solo añadiré que dare espera para lo que á Vuestra Merced, se le ofrezca escirbir a su excellencia hoy, mañana, y pasado mañana, que es lo que puede esforzarme por solo dicho fin, lo que para el propio (modo) le servirá á Vuestra Merced de gobierno. Anza closes carta number eight with,


Nuestro Señor Guarde Vuestra Merced Muchos Años San Gabriel y Abril 29 de 1776

Beso La Mano de Vuestra Merced Su Muy Seguro Servidor

Picture of the first page of letters seven


Copy of one of Anza's letter written at Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa.
Where Anza writes, Mañana en la tarde salgo para la Mición de San Gabriel.


Carta number nine was written at Misión de San Gabriel on April 29, 1776 as well.  Anza writes, "In response to one of Your Honor’s [letters] of today’s date, I say to your first paragraph, that if sentiment has manifested, it has been from the time of our encounter and after having scarcely spoken (articulado) the first few words of common courtesy and good upbringing, Your Honor spurred your horse and rode off without giving me more time for that which I had asked for on that occasion". En respuesta de una de las de Vuestra Merced de fecha de oi, digo a su primer capitula [o], que si me he manifestado sentido, hasido desde mismo punto en que quando se verifico nuestro encuentro, y que apenas havia acavado de articular las primeras palabras de urbanidad y buena crianza: pico Vuestra Merced a sus caballeria y se marcho sin darme tiempo mas para lo que le pedi en aquella occasion.  Anza continues "If I gave you any [reason] for this treatment 
in which I was less than patient, and if service to the king and to the orders of the
Most Excellent Lord, the Viceroy, which this same gentleman ordered earlier, was to give the corresponding satisfaction, with which I am content. Indeed no other action would be sufficient. In the meantime this will confirm that it is Your Honor’s duty to govern. That I did not impede said duty and will contribute that which I am able, is within my reach, and in all that pertains to the Royal Service. In particular to that of Your Honor, while believing in one and/or the other, I will sacrifice most happily".  Si di, yo alguna [rason] para este tratamiento en que soi el menor paciente, y si el servicio del Rey, y órdenes del Excellentismo Señor Virrey, este mismo Señor impuesto de lo anterior hara dar la satisfaccion correspondiente que es con lo que yo me contento. Pues ninguna otra regulo sea suficiente y entre tanto esto se verifica, servirá a Vuestra Merced de govierno que lo dicho no impede aquelle deje yo de contribuir enquetanto alcanse, y pueda en todo lo que sea del Real Servicio, y el de Vuestra Merced en 


particular, creido de que en uno y otro me sacificaré mui gustosso.  "To the second paragraph, I have previously answered that which you omitted in this one. On the third [paragraph] of Your Honor’s letter, where you favor me with that which I had asked via the soldier Gallegos, I recognize your finer points for which I have the greatest of appreciation, likewise that which pertain to the Sergeant Gongoria. I give Your Honor well deserved thanks. In response to the forth and final paragraph, I say that in the same case of the robbery and desertion which occurred here with the soldier and mule-packers, I have always observed that the wages of such people satisfy the first. In whose attention Your Honor may do what is most convenient". En contesstacion al quarto y ultimo, digo que en el mismo casso de rovo y decercion que consumaron aqui, soldado y harrieros siempre hé visto que de los sueldos de tales gentes se satisfaga lo primero en cuia atencion Vuestra Merced dispodrá lo que tenga por mas conbeniente.  Lt. Colonel De Anza closes carta number nine in his usual manner.



Our Lord keeps Your Honor many years. San Gabriel and April 29, 1776

Your most certain servant kisses the hand of Your Honor


What follows is the response by Captain Fernando de Rivera y Moncada to the three letters written by Anza on April 29, 1776. Of these three letters, one and two are letters eight and nine in this article, with letter three being number ten, which will be used in the forthcoming article. All three were written at Mission San Gabriel. Very few people are aware of this letter and it can be found at the Archivo General de la Nacion, Historia de Mexico, segunda serie, vol.1, folios 293-293v, copiada por Hermenegildo Sal, amanuense de Rivera.

Carta De Rivera A Juan Bautista De Anza

Mui Señor Mio,

Usted se sirba dispensarme, cerrando ya mis cartas para mandárselas a usted, al querer coser la diligencia de San Diego que se practicó sobre el indio refugiado, me ha faltado el pliego número primero que es mi presentación en lo pedí; por más diligencia que he echo, no he podido encontrarlo. Para que vuestra merced no se detenga, me precisa pasarle este aviso ( considéreme como quedaré después de tanto travaxar, y lo mucho que necesito de que fusen dichos papeles, sabe Dios lo que de mí quiere) las cartas no pueden ir: hazían relación a la diligencia.

Por no echar más fuego, esperando hablásemos, no contesté a lo que vuestra merced me dize en uno de los tres oficios de 29 de abril próximo passado, pero experimentando no fue possible conseguirlo, digo que de llegada el día de nuestro encuentro nos saludávamos, saludé en el modo que pude a los Reverendos Padres que acompañavan a usted y a don Mariano el proveedor, y dispués de que advertí no producia usted cosa alguna, secunda vez nos dimos la mano, y medio pique, no estanto yo de mi parte para nada . Dixe medio pique porque no llevava espuela en el pie del lado del dolor. Si el sentimiento de usted se originó porque no le hablé en los asumptos, esse mismo pudiera yo tener de usted aunque no tanto y con alqún motivo más, porque usted esta bueno, y yo enfermo; si porque avia recibido offcio de usted tambien, usted Lo avia recivido mio del mismo sargento mas reciente, y me dixo que le contestra el suio a México, y no mencionó el mío; si usted sirbe al soberano, yo también le sirvo y he serbido desde el año de 42, aunque nunca en grado de theniente coronel.

Y igualmente observo las superiors órdenes del señor Excelentísmo Señor, don Juan, con igual rigor que el santo tribunal usa; pido se juzque esta mi causa.

Nuestro Señor guarde a usted, etcétera.
San Gabriel 3 de Mayo de 1776. Etc. 
Fernando de Rivera y Moncada

[PD] Suplico se sirva usted noticiar al Señor Excelentismo de esta mi desgracia para que no estrañe su Excelencia la falta de mi carta.

Rivera writes, "My Dear Sir, You are served to excuse me as I am signing the letters which I am sending to you, wishing to solve the affair over the Indian given refuge in San Diego. I am



missing the first sheet/page of my presentation in which I ask for it: Of all the diligence I have done, I have not been able to find it. So that Your Honor will not be detained, I am compelled to pass on this notice (considering how I will be like after lots of work and how much I need the said lost papers, God knows what he wants of me) the letters can not be sent due to their relationship to the affair. By not adding more fuel to the fire, I was hoping we would talk, [therefore] I did not respond to what Your Honor told in one of the three [letters] of April 29. But after searching it was not possible to find it. I say that on the arrival on the day of our encounter we saluted each other, I saluted the Reverend Fathers who accompanied you and Don Mariano, the purveyor, the best way I could, and after our greeting you did not say a thing. For the second time we shook hands and I half spurred my mount not being in the mood for anything. I said half spurred because I did not have a spur on the foot on the side of the pain. If your sentiment originated because I did not speak to you on the affairs that same reasoning could be used against you, even though not much, but with a greater motive because you were in good health and I was feeling ill. And because I had received letters from you, as well as you had received mine from the same sergeant and much earlier. You told me to respond to you in Mexico, and did not mention mine. If you serve His Excellency, I serve him as well, and have served him since [17]42, even though never in the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. And likewise I observe the superior orders of His Excellency with the same rigor as that of the saint tribunal. I ask that my cause be judged".


                                                            Moncada’s Signature

[Post Script], "I ask that you give notice to His Excellency of my misfortune, so that he will not find the absence of my letter writing strange".

Captain Moncada’s signature has been extracted from a receipt [recibo], he and his correo extraordinario, Juan Bautista Valdez signed upon turning over the Presidio of Loreto in Baja California, as both had been chosen/appointed to join Gaspar de Portolá on the first entrada to Alta California. Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada was at the helm, as second in command and Juan Bautista Valdez, was a soldado de cuera.

This recibo, a copy, I have in my possession and guard dearly.  

As always the writing of articles such as this requires the work and input of many. Therefore, I pay gratitude to Californio descendant Gregorio Bernal Smestad Ph.D, Vladamir Guerrero, Ph.D, Donald T. Garate of Mission Tumacacori and the United States National Park Service, the Bancroft Library, where I found the Anza letters, and to the Diario Del Capitan Comandante, Fernando de Rivera y Moncada, translated by Ernest J. Burrus, Ediciones Jose Porrua Turanzas, Madrid, España.  

Californio, Gregorio Bernal Smestad, who descends from several families who arrived with the Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition has an outstanding website  Readers will not only enjoy reading about his cultural but educational background as well. 

Web de Anza, Archive of Primary Source Documents
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Informative site. Well worth searching beyond the documents, maps, artifacts, links, etc.  The Web de Anza Archives contain ten primary source documents. That is, journals, diaries, and letters which are eyewitness accounts from the Spanish Colonial era. These sources are both available in transcriptions from the original Spanish and English translations.

The center piece of the archive is the Diary of Juan Bautista de Anza compiled from records of his 1775-6 Colonizing Expedition to bring settlers from Sonora to San Francico Bay. Anza's account is supported by a large collection of definitions, explanations, identifications, maps, and pictures which you can access by clicking on words in the text and from indexes available from the Resources Page. You can also jump directly from any entry in Anza's Diary directly to entries for that same day written by either Father Pedro Font or Father Francisco Garcés, who accompanied Anza on the journey.

The other sources in the Archive provide background and supporting material helpful in understanding the Colonizing Expedition. Especially important to this is the account by Don Josef Joachin Moraga of the actual founding of the Presido at San Francisco.

Digital History . . . Bookmark!! Wonderful resource.
Using new technologies to enhance teaching and research
University of Houston, Texas
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Mexican Voices:

Introduction: At the end of the Mexican War relatively few Mexicans lived in what had become the southwestern United States. Outside of New Mexico, there were probably no more than fifteen thousand Mexican Americans in 1848. In the second half of the nineteenth century, however, migration from Mexico increased sharply. This massive movement of people was a product of economic dislocation and civil unrest in Mexico and booming demand for cheap unskilled and semi-skilled labor in the Southwest, resulting from the growth of commercial agriculture, mining, transportation, stock-raising, and lumbering. Western railroads, construction companies, steel mills, mines and canneries recruited Mexicans as manual laborers. So, too, did large commercial farms in Arizona's Salt River Valley, Texas's lower Rio Grande Valley, and California's Imperial and San Joaquín valleys. By 1890, more than 75,000 Mexicans had migrated to the United States. By 1900, the Mexican and Mexican American population in the United States--including immigrants and the native born--totaled between 381,000 and 562,000. Since then, Mexican American history has been shaped by surges of mass immigration from Mexico, punctuated by recurrent efforts at deportation. Between 1910 and 1920, at least 219,000 Mexican immigrants entered the United States, doubling the Hispanic population in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, and quadrupling California's. Mass migration was the product of push and pull. The Mexican Revolution and the expansion of haciendas threw many Mexicans off the land, while the rapid growth of jobs in mining, smelting, railroads, and irrigated agriculture in the Southwest created intense demand for low-wage physical labor. Railroad lines integrated the economy of northern Mexico with that of the southwestern United States and made it easier for Mexican migrants to travel northward. 

The economic recession that followed World War I produced a backlash against Mexican immigration. Between 1920 and 1921, nearly 100,000 Mexicans were shipped across the border or left voluntarily. The mid-1920s brought another wave of large-scale migration: half a million Mexicans entered the United States on permanent visas--one-ninth of total U.S. immigration. This migration was stimulated partly by another revolution in Mexico, the Cristero Revolution fought from 1926 to 1929, and in part by the Southwest's ongoing demand for low-wage labor. Much of the migration from 1910 through the 1920s came from the economically depressed central Mexican states of Jalisco, Guanajuato, and Michoacan. By the late twenties, Mexicans and Mexican Americans made up three-quarters of Texas's construction workers and four-fifths of the state's migrant farm workers. In California, Mexican immigrants comprised three-quarters of the agricultural workforce. By 1930, the 100,000 Mexicans and Mexican Americans who lived in Los Angeles comprised the largest Mexican American population. 

Depression-era unemployment reduced immigration to less than thirty-three thousand during the 1930s. The United States and Mexico sponsored a repatriation program that returned half a million people to Mexico, about half of whom were United States citizens. Although the program was supposed to be voluntary, many were pressured to leave. 

Demand for Mexican American labor resumed during World War II. In 1942, the United States and Mexico instituted the Bracero Program, which allowed Mexican contract laborers to work in the United States in seasonal agriculture and other sectors of the economy. Following the war, however, a new deportation effort sought to expel resident Mexicans who lacked United States citizenship. This site was updated on 13-Oct-04.

Extracts: Chile machines may replace workers
Louie Gilot, Rudy Gutierrez, Mark Lambie / El Paso Times
El Paso Times  9/16/2004
Sent by JV Martinez

New Mexico State University develops crop 'thinner' Some workers fear losing work to new machines. The machine's makers say it might be the salvation of the Southwest chile industry.

The contraption is a "thinner." It cuts off small chile plants that grow too close to others. It was unveiled in August by engineers at the Manufacturing Technology and Engineering Center at NMSU after a year and a half of labor. The thinner has been patented, and several companies have expressed an interest in manufacturing it, university officials said. Thinning is currently done by field workers with hoes.

"People say we're taking their jobs away, but if we don't find a way to mechanize and be efficient, we will lose the entire industry. All we'll have left will be chiles for ristras and chile rellenos," said Rich Phillips, project coordinator at the New Mexico Chile Task Force, a public- private partnership.

Phillips said New Mexico lost 60 percent to 70 percent of its jalapeño and cayenne acreage, mostly to Mexico, because of the North American Free Trade Agreement, signed in 1993. From 1994 to 2000, the chile harvest in Doña Ana County fell from 8,200 acres to 4,900 acres, according to a university study.  

But the Southwest still enjoys a solid reputation for quality long-green chiles, mostly hand-picked for the fresh and processed markets.  Socorro Palomino, 65, of El Paso, has been picking long-greens for 50 years.

In April, he weeds and thins. Then he picks chile until late fall, filling 12-gallon plastic buckets for about 55 cents each. Palomino has a green card and pays into Social Security. But if he retires, he will only receive a $142 check each month, covering his $100 rent but not much more, he said. So he carries on in the fields.  Many nights, he sleeps at the Sin Fronteras migrant farm workers center in Downtown El Paso to catch an early ride to the fields and beat the growing competition among workers.

In addition to a diminished crop, the 8,000 to 12,000 field workers in El Paso have had to contend with droughts, and this year, floods. Now, machines are appearing in the fields.

"What's going to happen to the chile pickers five years from now?" asked Carlos Marentes, the farm workers center's director.  Pickers, most of whom are U.S. citizens but have little education and English-speaking skills, make an average of $7,000 a year. Now, with the competition from machines, they may be willing to work for even less, Marentes feared. Farmers are already complaining of the high cost of hand harvesting, which represents 40 percent of production costs.

But Palomino is optimistic. He just doesn't think much of the machines. "They leave a lot of product behind. They can never do it as perfect as the human hand. We don't leave anything behind," he said proudly.

The mechanical harvesting of chile -- only about 10 years old -- has had a late start compared with larger crops such as cotton and corn. And it is still far from perfect.  The problem: Chile comes in different sizes and matures at different times. Chile must be twisted off the plant or picked off the ground, and green chiles' stems must be removed for processing.

A few U.S. companies make chile harvesters and cleaners that separate the chile from debris. When trying to design a thinner to extend mechanization to the pre-harvest period, the Chile Task Force approached John Deere, which makes a sugar beet thinner. But the company felt the market wasn't big enough, Phillips said.  "We knew we'd have to help ourselves," he said.

So Phillips went to the Manufacturing Technology and Engineering Center at NMSU in Las Cruces two years ago and paid about $25,000 for a team of two engineers and 10 students to build a prototype.

The machine was tested this spring and refined. It is dragged by a tractor between rows of plants, 2 to 6 inches tall. A photo-electric sensor marks the plant's location on a computerized grid and a counter decides when to knock off a plant. A hydraulic pump then activates a blade. If the machine gets manufactured, the center would earn licensing fees.

The Chile Task Force calculated that the new thinner can slice costs to $35 an acre, compared with $75 to $150 an acre for hand-thinning. But with a price tag of $140,000 for a basic harvester-cleaner, smaller chile farmers like Ed Provencio, owner of a 100-acre farm in Berino, N.M., said modernization is still out of reach.

"It's just too expensive for us small farmers. Maybe we could do it with a co-op. Maybe we could get together and buy a machine and maybe rent or share it," he said. "Eventually the labor will be too expensive."

Louie Gilot may be reached at, 546-6131.

Southwest chile facts
New Mexico, West Texas and eastern Arizona represent more than 90 percent of the United States'
    chile production.
The chile industry contributes more than $200 million directly to New Mexico's economy each year
    and contributes 5,000 permanent jobs.
New Mexico produced more than 85,300 tons of chile last year, a 9 percent decrease from the
    previous year. Last year's crop was worth more than $41 million -- 20 percent less than the year
About 80 percent of New Mexico chile is grown for processing; the rest is sold at roadside stands or
    to restaurants.
Chile imports from Mexico increased 1,600 percent between 1994 and 1998. In 2000, almost a quarter
    of the chile processed in New Mexico and Arizona came from Mexico.

NM chile pickers
More than 40 percent of chile production cost is tied! to hand-harvesting the crop.
Harvest labor costs about $6 a day in Mexico versus $65 a day in the United States.
About 3,000 people work in New Mexico's chile fields and processing plants in July, 15,000 in
     August and almost 22,000 in September. After that, the number drops to a few hundred by
The typical farm laborer has a third-grade education.
About 60 percent are U.S. citizens.
They have an average of 4.2 family members and a household income of $7,000 a year.

More online
·  Read more at and
·  Watch live videos of chile harvesters at
Sources: New Mexico Chile Task Force and New Mexico Department of Agriculture.; 
NMSU's Agricultural Experiment Station.

On the advantages of doing business via the Camino Real
Story by Christian Chapman
Interview with: Franz Felhaber President of F.C. Felhaber & Company, Inc.
Sent by Roberto Campo
Empresario, Martes 12 de Octubre del 2004

F.C. FELHABER & Company, Inc. is a Customs Brokerage, licensed in the USA, that offers international trade and transportation services to their customers.  Our company conducts business with U.S. Customs on behalf of individual and corporate importers in addition to assisting importers and exporters in meeting any or all requirements regulated by other governmental agencies involved in international trade.

Franz Felhaber was born in Chihuahua and raised in this region, this entire region, from El Paso to Chihuahua. I attended El Paso High School and went to Texas A & M where I obtained a degree in Economics. I just attended the EPHS 20th year reunion for my class and it was great. Parents and Grandparents that attended EPHS and Lamar Elementary were in attendance. I maintain my school ties.

He is married to Lori Hayes of Houston, three children, Nicolette age 10, Franz age 6 and Johann age 3. I am very supportive of the bi-cultural emphasis aspect of living in this region. My parents Aida Carrillo Felhaber and Frank Felhaber have been in El Paso for 60 years and have set the work ethic example. Great grand-father Frank helped German families settle in Chihuahua.

We are familiar with the Mexican culture which is a huge asset in my opinion. Mexico is a neighbor and a consumer. Mexico is open and loves to buy US products. It is location, location, location. Mexico observes the laws. In my opinion there is no comparison.

I have served as President of F.C.FELHABER & CO., Inc. since 1990. I am the example, the role model. To me it is very important that there be respect and fairness within the company. Prior to my current position, I served as a customs broker for another agency in addition to gaining experience in a twin plant Maquila-related import program that offered a wide range of international trade.

In early July the 2004 World Trade Center Logistic Committee presented the Paso Del Norte EJE DEL CAMINO REAL project (Axis of the Royal Highway) at the EXPO-LOGISTICA trade show held in Mexico City. Our purpose was to let everyone know about the advantages of doing business via the Camino Real.

Our objective was/is to reactivate the international-commercial route of our region. We were very happy with the attendance and the exchange of information with more than 14,000 national and international potential buyers and visitors. They learned about the Camino Real Trade Route and the multitude of benefits that derive from utilizing the route. More than 400 years ago, the Camino Real (Royal Highway) was created. It became and continues to be, the ideal route from Mexico City to the West Coast.

We became familiar with the business opportunities afforded in Mexico. The exhibit created to promote the Camino Real was most effective in that it illustrated the logic and profitability of engaging in trade along the Camino Real. We established first contact with local businesses as well as explored opportunities for future partnerships with Mexican firms doing business in our region. All in all, it was well worth the investment in time and money.

The city of Laredo, Texas is a very aggressive city that markets itself very well. They invest highly in the region and they promote themselves as a unified powerful force. Visitors to the EXPO were hard pressed to believe the El Paso - Juarez route was faster, better, cheaper than the Laredo route marketed by the US-Mexican Brokers. 

OUR GOAL IS TO GET THE MARKET FROM LOS ANGELES TO MEXICO CITY ALONG THE CAMINO REAL. We must compete together by using all of our resources to do as well or better.

The expo was the first step in marketing the region. We will be courting, and bringing down here the business we want to get. There will be two more trade shows on the west coast we will attend. Los Angeles is a very important target.

It is worth repeating that our region is described as three states, West Texas, New Mexico and (Cd. Juarez) Chihuahua and that between us, we share a unique geographical juxtaposition that provides the only direct access between the United States and Mexico making free trade more efficient.

Our region, the axis of the Camino Real, is strategically located at the junction of many interstate and international transportation sources making the shipping of products as seamless as possible. I submit that El Paso is a world-class logistics center providing excellent rail, air and truck transportation to global markets.

The Camino Real has had quite an impact on the Felhaber family.  More than four hundred years ago, the Carrillo Family had become cattle traders in this region, before the United States became a country!

It has been well documented that the Carrillo family founded the first cattle union in the state of Chihuahua. They were the quintessential traders. This was my family, creating the Camino Real and now, here I am 400 years later, trying to promote the Camino Real they helped to create.

The Carillos thrived on large, open spaces, from Spain to Chihuahua to the west coast; they were movers and shakers with results that are still felt to this date. As traders they established a working relationship not only with the Indians but with everyone; it was to their benefit to do so. Trade was the key then, trade is the key now.

Various members of the Carrillo family founded different southwestern cities through cattle trading, Tucson, Arizona, San Diego, California and San Francisco, California. As a matter of fact, their respective homes have been turned into national historical monuments.

The Carrillo’s made their way into American life in many ways: some became Spanish interpreters; some taught music or became professional musicians. Many were farmers or ranchers while others became mining engineers, blacksmiths, barbers, mechanics, police officers, prison guards and so on.

Some developed commercial enterprises such a gravel mining, building ocean piers, operating lively stables, travel agencies. Others sought higher educations and became teachers, college professors and judges.

One Carrillo became a newspaper publisher. Some fought for the North in the Civil War as part of a cavalry unit from California. They have fought as Americans in subsequent wars. Julio Carrillo’s grandson was a pilot lost over Europe during World War II. Another grandchild, patriotically named America Tate, lies buried in the Santa Rosa rural cemetery.

Only a very small percentage of Carrillo descendants are recognizable by the Carrillo surname. Most live in Northern California but many reside in Southern California, Mexico and Central America.

The Carrillo and Lopez families were closely connected to every major figure and every major event in California’s history. They are incredibly important in the history of Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, and all of California.

Maria Carrillo’s grandson, Romualdo Pacheco, became the first native-born and only Hispanic Governor of the State of California. His public service career also included positions as County Judge, State Senator, State Treasurer, Lt. Governor, US Congressman, and US Minister to Central America.

The vast lands including and surrounding Hearst Castle were once owned by the Ramon Carrillo de Pacheco family. Hearst acquired the land after Ramona’s death. Governor Pacheco’s daughter Mabel married William Tevis, son of wealthy financier Lloyd Tevis, owner of Wells Fargo. The prestigious "Tevis Cup" awarded annually for a grueling 100 mile horseback ride through the Sierras originated from the Tevis-Carrillo family.

Various members of the Carrillo family founded different southwestern cities through cattle trading, Tucson Arizona, San Diego, California and San Francisco, California. As a matter of fact, their respective homes have been turned into national historical monuments.

Where can more information be obtained via books, internet, etc.?  Try the following: The families of the Presidio de San Diego, Corey Jon Brown
1.) pso.htm
3.) California – The Mexican era (1911) /articles17/California
4.) Alta California: Mexico rules http://     http://www.bearflag/altacal.htm

There are books available that document the contributions of the family such as; History of San Diego 1542-1908 by William E. Smythe (Part Two: Chapter VI Prominent Spanish Families).

Authorities say ring was smuggling teachers into United States
By Liz Austin, Associated Press Writer, 10/23/2004
Sent by Howard Shorr

[[ Check the graph under U.S. and you will find that in the United States, El Paso has the highest number of people 5 years and over who speak Spanish at home, 74.4%.    The district's desperation to hire teachers of color with Spanish language skills surely lead to this situation.  Unfortunate that it took a turn towards criminal behavior.  Unfortunate too that enough Hispanics/Latinos are not entering the field of education. ]]

Federal authorities say they have uncovered a scheme to lure Filipino teachers to the United States with false promises of jobs in Texas school districts, charging five people with conspiracy to commit alien smuggling and fraud.  

Two former West Texas public school administrators and an elementary school principal also face charges that they sponsored work visas for dozens of the teachers in exchange for free trips to Asia.

The Friday indictment accuses Florita and Noel Tolentino and their company Omni Consortium of persuading the Filipinos to pay them $10,000 each, promising there were well-paying teaching jobs waiting for them in the United States.

The teachers also were told they would receive permanent residency status and could bring their families with them, prosecutors said.

Omni took money from 273 Filipino teachers since 2002, but fewer than 100 ever received positions with school districts, Assistant U.S. Attorney Brandy Gardes told the El Paso Times for a Saturday story.

The immigrant teachers were housed in groups of 10 to 15 in unfurnished properties, and most had to sleep on the floor or on mattresses, according to court documents. The Tolentinos told the teachers they would be deported if they complained about not having jobs or tried to seek employment on their own.

Florita Tolentino, Noel Tolentino, Angelica Tolentino, Cesar Librodo and Owen Cruz were charged with conspiracy to commit alien smuggling and visa fraud, mail fraud, and money laundering. The Associated Press could not immediately reach them for comment.

Former Socorro Independent School District Interim Superintendent Mario Aguilar and his wife, Magdalena Aguilar, an elementary school principal in the district, are charged with conspiracy to commit interstate transportation in aid of racketeering. Raye Lokey, the former associate superintendent for human resources for the Ysleta Independent School District, faces the same charge.

The Aguilars and Lokey were free on Saturday on $25,000 bond each. Each faces up to five years in prison if convicted. They made no comment during a Friday court appearance, answering only basic questions from a judge. The Associated Press could not immediately reach them for comment.

According to the indictment, Omni paid for a November 2002 trip to the Philippines and China for Mario Aguilar and other Socorro administrators. In December 2002 and February 2003, the district applied for visas for 26 teachers.

Mario and Magdalena Aguilar visited Asia at Omni's expense in March 2003, and Socorro applied for visas for 42 teachers, prosecutors said. Ysleta employees took an all expense paid trip to the Philippines in November 2002, and Lokey applied for visas for 63 teachers a few months later, according to the indictment.

Twenty-nine of the Filipino teachers currently work in Ysleta, and 12 are working in Socorro, the newspaper reported. Both districts are located in El Paso. A few others had jobs in other West Texas districts, Gardes said. Magdalena Aguilar has been suspended with pay from her position, district officials said.
"I am shocked. I don't know what to say," Socorro school board president Brenda Castaneda told the newspaper. "All I can say is that we will cooperate and see that the right thing is done here." Gardes said all the teachers are in the United States legally, and those that don't have jobs are being protected by the federal government.



Latino Students Recruited at Black Colleges  Spanish Slavery
Latino Students Recruited at Historically Black Colleges 

By LA MONICA EVERETT-HAYNES, Houston Chronicle, October 15, 2004
Sent by Howard Shorr

Leaving a university with a Hispanic population of nearly 90 percent, Jessica Garcia opted to attend Texas Southern University because of its pharmacy school.

When she arrived at the historically black college, Garcia was surprised to find she wasn't the only Hispanic. Today, more Hispanics are choosing black colleges in a trend that is transforming the campuses.

"Little by little, we started to bring more Hispanic organizations on campus, and the student population kept growing each semester," said Garcia, 22, president of the newly established Hispanic Student Association at TSU.

Behind the growing enrollment is a push by historically black colleges and universities to actively recruit Hispanics, the nation's fastest-growing demographic.

"We're just responding to the marketplace," said Dwayne Ashley, a researcher and president/CEO of New York's Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund.

Catering to Latino needs
Nearly 25 years ago, fewer than 4,000 Hispanic students attended historically black colleges, according to a study by the National Center for Education Statistics released in September. By 2001, the most recent statistics available, nearly 6,700 Hispanic students had enrolled at such colleges.

 One reason for the growth is that black schools are increasingly catering to the needs of their Latino students, including encouraging their admission staff to learn Spanish and staging special events to recognize Hispanic culture.

Today, for example, TSU is hosting its first Hispanic heritage day, called El Dia Del Tigre. The university is inviting Hispanic community leaders and performers to educate high school students and the community about changes on campus.

"Yes, TSU is a HBCU (historically black college and university), but it's open and accepting to everyone," said Sylvia Zamora, the school's student retention coordinator. Nearly 500 Hispanics attend TSU, up from the 420 who attended last fall.

"Parents need to know what this institution is about," Zamora said.

Both the schools and the students benefit, experts say. A school with higher minority enrollment is eligible for additional federal funding. Those who attend such schools benefit from administrators familiar with the challenges facing minority and low-income students, many of whom might be the first in their families to attend college, Ashley said.

Schools with big enrollment increases include Fayetteville State University in North Carolina and St. Philip's College in San Antonio.

At Fayetteville, more than 200 Hispanics enrolled in 2003, up from 10 in the fall of 1999. St. Philip's College now has an enrollment of at least 25 percent Hispanic, and half of them are low-income.

Prairie View to recruit
Other schools are hoping to see faster growth, including Prairie View A&M University. In 2003, the university enrolled 197 Hispanic students, up 87 students from 1999.

Earlier this year, Prairie View hosted a "Hispanic roundtable" and invited parents, students, educators, administrators and community leaders to discuss ways to increase its Hispanic student population.

The university has since announced plans to hire a recruiter to bring in Hispanic students and has begun offering a Spanish class for administrators, said Lauretta Byars, who is taking the class herself.

"They appreciate the fact that I am making the effort to learn their native language," said Byars, the school's vice president for institutional relations and public service. "If I can speak it to their parents, they will feel we are serious about out commitment to the students."

Formed LULAC chapter
After transferring to TSU from Kingwood College, Virna Martinez said she found a warm welcome and a lot of opportunities.

Since enrolling, Martinez has received three scholarships, begun performing with TSU's cheerleading squad and founded the Jesse H. Jones Toastmasters Elite.  

"I wouldn't have been doing so good if not for TSU, and it would have taken me twice as long to graduate," said Martinez, 19, a business major.

In other steps, TSU has introduced a League of United Latin American Citizens chapter, a fraternity for Hispanic men, and TSU Latinas on the Rise, an interest group for women.

"Now it's such a comfy atmosphere," said Garcia, a pre-pharmacy major who will be a graduating senior next fall. "I don't want to leave now. I love it here."


"Spanish slavery . . . was nevertheless more enlightened than that practiced by the British, Belgium's, Dutch and other Europeans. A slave under Spanish arms had rights and could marry; and despite their status as slaves, the marriage was deemed a holy, inviolate union. Contrasting slavery in the U.S., a Spanish owner could not separate a husband from a wife, or a mother from her children. Scholars William Mason and James Anderson from the L.A. Museum of Natural History state that "Slaves in Mexico could petition the government for their freedom if mistreated, and their pleas were often granted -- a policy almost unheard of in the United States. Moreover, "A slave woman could be freed if raped by her master."

The Spanish slave, too, was thought to possess a soul, and human dignity -- an English slave, on the other hand, was considered only property, with no rights, no dignity, no soul, no human worth, and no future.

In Spanish America any murder, or other crime against a slave, was considered a crime against a child of God and was punished accordingly.

By the 17th century Mexico City had become the largest city in the Western Hemisphere, with over 200,000 citizens. Of these 200,000 inhabitants 72,000 were European Spaniards, 80,000 were Native Americans, and 10,000 were Africans, slave and free. The Spanish instituted a race color caste to distinguish between these races.

At the top of the social ladder was the Peninsular, meaning a citizen born in Spain on the Spanish Peninsula. Next was the criollo, which was an individual of pure Spanish blood born in the New World, and was therefore, because of birth in the New World, considered inferior to his European -- born cousins. Next there were the mestizo, who was a citizen of Spanish and Indian blood, a mulato was a child of a parents of European and African blood.

Conversion of the natives was a major theme of communication between Ferdinand and Isabella. A Royal Order concerning Indians was given in the city of Barcelona on May 29, 1493 which states:

". . . . since in all ways it is right and important that respect be paid to the service of God our Lord and to the praise of our holy Catholic faith; there their highnesses, desiring that our hold Catholic faith be enlarged and increased, order and charge the said admiral, viceroy, and governor in all ways possible to seek and work for the conversion of the inhabitants of the said islands and mainland to our holy Catholic faith."

The Spanish Tradition in America, edited by Charles Gibson, Harper Torchbooks, 1968


Empire News Network- When one looks at tourist ads for Mexico or even at Spanish language television targeting people of Mexican heritage the faces often missing are of the many Mexicans and Mexican-Americans of African Heritage, known in Mexico as Afro-Mexicans, and many times referred to by youth in the Southwest U.S. as Blaxicans.

There is a growing trend to correct this omission and to educate the world as to the presence and culture of the Afro-Mexican. One of the most reknown proponents of expanding this knowledge is cultural scientist and filmmaker Rafael Rebollar.

Rebollar has recently announced a new website dedicated to information about Afro-Mexicans at the address of . This site’s intention is to become an informative tool based on discussion about the different aspects that caracterize the African heritage in Mexico. There should be a link for an English version. Or, go to the link "Vinculos" and click on links provided to sites that also discuss this subject in English.

The site also offers the reader the chance to order the first two documentary films Rebollar has made on his study of Black Mexicans. According to him "The core of this project consists in the realization of a series of video documentaries that explore different aspects of the African-Mexican people."

These two documentaries of the series are, "LA RAIZ OLVIDADA" (The Forgotten Root) and "DE FLORIDA A COAHUILA". (From Florida to Coahuila).

Rebollar is presently working on the completion of his third documentary "CORRERIAS EN EL MONTE", (Incursions into the Mountains). He is also seeking financial support in order to finish the work in progress.

According to Rebollar, they are raising these funds in the "form of co-production, sale of rights of distribution and support from organizations with the objective of promoting projects of cultural character." Another way his group is raising money is from sales of the two completed documentaries on video . They are available in a subtitled version in English from their distributor in the US, "Latin American Video Archives" at the web site address of

At Rebollar’s website at, he also offers some very good links to others interested in the culture, history, and contributions of these people. These include the previously mentioned LAVA (Latin America Video Archives) at, the very good

 which is a site created by Bobby Vaughn, who holds a Ph.D. in Anthropology from Stanford University , and who makes his doctorate dissertation available to the readers in a pdf format, entitled "Race and Ethnicity: A Study of Blackness in Mexico". There is also a link to an article entitled "African Roots Stretch Deep into Mexico" written by Roberto Rodriguez and Patricia González of Latino Spectrum and on the website of  

Of particular interest to readers will be the link to "African-Native American History and Culture", a site by Angela Y. Walton-Raji, which focuses on Black Seminoles in Northern Mexico, as well as the history of Native Americans and Blacks in Indian Territory, which is located at http://www/

Rafael Rebollar notes that "In Mexico the role of Africans in the development of the nation is not oficially recognized, and one of the main goals of our project is to fight for that recognition. We want help and support to meet our goals in a timely manner, goals which help, to some extent, to the development of a culture of tolerance and the vision of diversity as the main asset of human kind."


Pronunciation of Aztec Words
Nahuatl spoken in El Salvador
Indians of Northern Colombia
Indio laborio
Indian Nations of Texas

Pronunciation of Aztec Words

 Lucy Wilson < > asks: 

"I was wondering if you could help me break down some Aztec words phonetically so that I can pronounce them correctly.  For example, I was doing some reading about the Aztecs and the article was nice enough to have given an example of how the word Cuauhtemoc was to be pronounced, koo-ow-tay'-mawk but that was the only word done that way.  I listed below some words that I came across in this same article and divided them by consonants first and then phonetically:

Axayacatl =      Ax a ya ca tl       (Ox ah ya caw tal)  
Tizoc =            Tiz oc                 (tees oak)        Is the Z like an s?  
huitzotl =          A hu it zo tl         (Aw ou etz o tal)

Mimi, If you could correctly break down the words listed above and the others listed below I could get an idea of how to pronounce Aztec words:"   

Xocoyotzin =
Cuitalahuac =
Centeotl =
Coatlicue =
Ehecatl =
Huehueteotl =
Huitzilopochtli =
Mictlantecuhtle =
Ometechlti =
Quetzalcoatl =
Tezcatlipoca =
Tlaloc =
Tonatiuh =
Tonantzin =
Tezcatlipoca =
Xilonen =
Xipe totec =
Xiuhtecuhtle =

Having no expertise in this area, I forwarded Lucy's request to Eddie Martinez and Jaime Cader, both of whom had expressed an interest in this area of research.  Following is the very helpful information that Lucy Wilson received from Eddie Martinez and Jaime Cader. ]]

From Eddie Martinez to Lucy Wilson
Dear Lucy,

I am responding to you because of the email that was forwarded to me from Mimi on Aztec pronunciation. As an artist I am not an expert on languages, but I am very interested in the Nahuatl language because of my studies of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic group.

As Jaime Cader stated, the book by Miguel León-Portilla AZTEC THOUGHT AND CULTURE A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind, is a wonderful reference for studying the Nahuatl way of thinking. It is Published by University of Oklahoma Press-1963. This is a quote from page Xi:

"Pronunciation Note

THE AZTEC LANGUAGE, which is also known as Nahuatl or Mexican, has been spoken in Central Mexico, as well as in various parts of Central America, from Toltec times to the present.

Written Nahuatl, using the Latin alphabet, was introduced by the Spanish missionaries immediately after the Conquest. All the letters have the same phonetic value as in Spanish with the following exceptions:

(1)     the h is pronounced with a soft aspiration as in English;
(2)     the tl and tz represents a single sound and therefore should not be divided;
(3)     the x has the sound of the English sh.

Practically all Nahuatl words are accented on the next to the last syllable. This is often indicated today by accents used according to rules of Spanish accentuation."

I have typed in the pronunciations (below) of the Aztec names as written in the book, AZTEC The World of Moctezuma by Jane S. Day, with a Foreword by Eduardo Matos Moctezuma-Denver Museum of Natural History & Roberts Rinehart publishers-1992 and other sources from my collection of information:

Nahuatl (is pronounced in two syllables, ná-watl)
Cuauhtemoc is pronounced (Kwa-uh-TE-mok)

Your request and the Aztec pronunciations:
Xocoyotzin = (Sho-Ko-yot-zen)
Cuitalahuac (Cuitlahuac) = (Kwee-TLA-wak)
Centeotl = ?
Coatlicue = (Ko-at-LEE-kwa)
Ehecatl = (A-HA-katl)
Huehueteotl = (Way-way-TA-otl)
Huitzilopochtli = (Wee-tsee-lo-POCH-tlee)
Mictlantecuhtle (Mictlantecuhtli) = (Mic-tlan-tee-KOO-tlee)
Ometechlti = ?
Quetzalcoatl = (Ket-tsal-KO-atl)
Tezcatlipoca = (Tes-kat-lee-PO-ka)
Tlaloc = (TLA-lok)
Tonatiuh = (Toh-NAH-tyoo)
Tonantzin = (Toh-NAHT-zen)
Tezcatlipoca = (Tes-kat-lee-PO-ka)
Xilonen = ?
Xipe totec = (SHEE-pe TO-tek)
Xiuhtecuhtle (Xiuhteccuhtli) = (She-oo-te-KOO-tlee)

On my website I have created original art work named and identified the principal Aztec gods of the Huitzilopochtli creation story and their Nahuatl pronunciations:
I hope this information has been of some help to you.
Sincerely, Eddie Martinez

From Jaime Cader to Lucy Wilson
Dear Lucy,

Thank you for your recent two e-mails.  If you are able to purchase the two volumes of "Cuzcatlan Tipico" please let me know.  Personally, I believe that it would be difficult to find copies.  Years ago a friend of mine told me that she had seen copies in a glass case at a library at U.C. Berkeley.

The volumes of Cuzcatlan Tipico have a section on the Pipil-Nahuatl language which includes a dictionary of that language.  It also includes information on the Lenca language also spoken in El Salvador and the volumes have much on Salvadoran folklore as far as folk dance and music.  Unfortuately it does not give a detailed description of the dance steps.

And here I will make an announcement so that perhaps someone who reads this can steer me in the right direction.  The volumes of Cuzcatlan Tipico include the words of what appears to be the first national anthem that was sung in El Salvador, -an anthem that predates the one that is sung now. However the author of the volumes was unable to come across the music for that anthem.

I believe that since El Salvador was once part of a country named the United Provinces of Central America, that it is possible that that music can possibly be found in another Central American country today. Perhaps someone can let me know, -the name of that old anthem is "La Patriotica."

I will now write down the information that I have in another book published in El Salvador.  It is from a book that I could have included in the bibliography of my article in the April 2004 issue of Somos Primos. The book is titled "Historia de El Salvador" by Santiago I. Barberena.  The third edition of this book was in 1977.  The first edition was in 1914.

Barberena has some of the exact wording as that found in Cuzcatlan Tipico by Maria de Baratta.  Isuspect that de Baratta got her information from Barberena, since I believe he published his book about 40 years before de Baratta published her volumes.

In any case, here is something on the pronunciation of the ll in the Nahuatl language. From Barberena's first volume, page 176: "En muchas palabras hay doble l, que no debe leerse como ll: asi tlalli = "tierra", se pronuncia tlal-li, siendo digno de notarse que ninguna voz azteca principia con l.  En cuanto a la v, el doble uso que antes se hacia de ella, como consonante y como vocal, en la escritura, y que algunos conservan, ha hecho que algunos pronuncien muy mal ciertos vocablos, v.g. vevetl, ortografia usada por los españoles de antaño, lo leen hoy "a la moderna", dando la v el sonido de consonante, en vez de decir ueuetl, o mejor huehuetl, que es el nombre azteca del tambor.

Hemos de estar que segun Olmos y Parredes, nahuatlistas eminentes, las mujeres si pronunciaban vevetl, por lo que algunos incluyen la letra v en el alfabeto mejicano.

En cuanto a las vocales solo la o tiene un sonido que podemos llamar ambiguo, entre o y u.  De alli proviene que unos digan Teotl y otros Teutl, "Dios"; unos ichpotli y otros ichputli (doncella); &&.  El P. Carochi, autor de una magnifica gramatica de la lengua nahuatl, se inclina, por lo general a dar el sonido correspondente a nuestra o en esos casos dudosos..."

I must mention that some of the words that I wrote above are missing accent marks.  I'd have to look through my files to find how to write an accent mark using the Alt key and some numbers.

                       Sincerely, Jaime Cader

Dear Señor Eddie,

   Thank you for the information on the Nahuatl language.  Years ago I published what a teacher of Nahuatl told me in a community newspaper.  She is from central Mexico and what I published was the anecdote that she told me, which was that she was in Arizona among the Hopi Indians and because she is a Nahuatl speaker, she was able to understand when they were speaking their language.

   Actually she laughed when she heard someone say something.  Then somebody turned to her and said, "but you don't speak Hopi."  She then explained that she spoke the Nahuatl language and thus was able to understand them.

   Do you know anything about the connection between  the Hopi and Nahuatl languages? Anyway perhaps Mimi Lozano would like to reprint my two articles on the Nahuatl language in Mexico and inEl Salvador.  My articles were written in Spanish.  Congratulations on your art work and the cultural information that you present.   

                            Sincerely,   Jaime Cader  


Jaime Cader

Hello everybody,
This is what I found out about the "Aztec" pronunciation. First I spoke to a friend from Mexico and according to him many of the Aztec words that one reads in books have already been Hispanicized. The "x" is pronounced like sh in English, but my friend pronounced Xipe Topec as "Jipe Topec" using the Spanish pronunciation of the letter j as in San Jose.

Anyway this is what I have found in three books and I will state the titles of those books, etc.

In the book "Aztec Thought and Culture" by Miguel Leon-Portilla it says under Pronunciation Note: "The Aztec language, which is also known as Nahuatl or Mexican, has been spoken in Central Mexico, as well as in various parts of Central America, from Toltec times to the present.

Written Nahuatl, using the Latin alphabet, was introduced by the Spanish missionaries immediately
after the Conquest. All the letters have the same phonetic value as in Spanish with the following
exceptions: 1) the h is pronounced with the soft aspiration as in English.
2) the tl and tz represent a single sound and therefore should not be divided.
3) the x has the sound of the English sh. 

Practically all Nahuatl words are accented on the next to the last syllable. This is often indicated
today by accents used according to the rules of Spanish accentuation."

In the book "Stories Told by the Aztecs Before the Spaniards Came" by Carlton Beals it says in a

"Often spelled Ometecuhtli. The "h" was added later by modern scholars in an effort to indicate more
closely the imagined original pronunciation, and has been omitted in this and similar words as it was by many earlier Spanish authorities. Nor is use made in
the text of the curious phonetic alphabet developed in the last few years by etymologists to provide closer approximation to the original sounds. In the case of the Aztecs, it merely adds confusion to confusion, for the modern Aztec pronunciation is not the same as that used five centuries ago; and even in the earlier period, the pronunciation varied widely from place to place, as records in Guadalajara and Mexico City amply
demonstrate. The Spanish tongue is itself phonetic, and strange new spellings to indicate at best
unverified pronunciations merely confuse all the older accounts. For sounds not in the Spanish
language, the Spaniards ussed various substitute letters such as, for instance, x to answer for sh.
Hence, Mexico was actually Meshico; Oaxaca was Oashaca; etc."

In the book "The Aztecs" by Richard F. Townsend it says under Author's Note:
"The Aztecs spoke Nahuatl, a language that was transcribed into Roman script by the Conquistadors
during the early colonial period. Thus the vowels and most consonants are generally pronounced as they would be in modern Spanish..."

Jaime Cader's comment: In reference to the modern Spanish mentioned above, I would say that it is the modern Spanish of Southern Spain and Latin America. Thus Moctezuma would be pronounced Moctesuma and not Moctethuma as it would be in Northern Spain.

I have found that with Spanish many words in other languages can be pronounced. There are exceptions to be sure, such as the Samoan city of Pago Pago is not pronounced the way it looks and it has a sound not found in Spanish. The Arabic language also has some sounds not found in Spanish.  Hasta luego, Jaime Cader

The Nahuatl spoken in El Salvador

Dear Mimi,

I am now sending you information on the pronunciation of the Nahuatl language in El Salvador
which follows basically the same rules as for the Nahuatl of Mexico. However this information is in
Spanish. It is taken from the book "Cuzcatlan Tipico" by Maria de Baratta. I listed this book in the
bibliography for my article in the April issue of Somos Primos.

Sincerely, Jaime Cader

From the book "Cuzcatlan Tipico" by Maria de Baratta: (Volume 1, page 276) "El alfabeto del nahuatl mexicano consta de 17 letras: a,c,ch,e,h,i,l,m,n,o,p,q,t,u,x,y,z, cuya pronunciacion no ofrece dificultad ninguna.

El nahuatl-pipil de los izalcos [en El Salvador] tiene las mismas letras del mexicano, y solo hay que
agregar la g y la j.

La letra k no debe emplearse en la escritura, pues no existiendo en el alfabeto del nahuatl mexicano, no veo la razon por que introducir una letra que desfigura no solo la estetica de la escritura pipil, sino que en la fonetica le es completamente innecesaria, pues tiene la c y la q, que desempeñan mas correctamente las funciones de aquella.

La letra k no debe figurar en el conjunto de caracteres ni aun para suplir las necesidades de poder
escribir la lengua nahuatl.

La letra k campea acertadamente en las lenguas maya, maya-quiche y en el kachiquel.

Nuestros pipiles, en la fonetica de su lengua, forman una sh que da un sonido mucho mas dulce que la ch, usando segun el caso, de las dos formas. La sh es como la letra inglesa en su fonica, y aunque no debiera usarse en el alfabeto de la lengua pipil, a veces su aplicacion se hace necesaria para facilitar la pronunciacion de algunas palabras. Ya esta bien comprobado y sabido que la x latina, correctamente hace las funciones de la sh para las personas que saben la fonetica de la x en la lengua pipli, cuya fonica, segun los casos, es tambien como la j, pero a los que ignoran esto la escritura de la sh los orienta mejor en la pronunciacion..."

Aztec & Spanish Soldiers Date: 

Hi Lucy, Yes, please call me Eddie.

About your October, Hispanic Month in Georgia. I would recommend these 4 children's (and Adult), books. all beautifully illustrated and written in English. They are good educational material that describes the costumes, culture, and architecture of the Aztec, Tenochtitlán civilization. Also included in three of them are Spanish Conquistadores and the conquest.

1) How Would You Survive as an Aztec? Written by Fiona Macdonald and Illustrated by Mark Bergin – Franklin Watts, A Division of Grolier Publishing – New York € London € Hong Kong € Sydney, Danbury, Connecticut 1995 (Fully detailed description of life as an Aztec with Spanish conquerors at the end)

2) The Aztec News Author: Philip Steele, Consultants: Penny Bateman & Norma Rosso – Candlewick Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1997      (This book is part of a series of "Amazing History News Books" that are also available) Candlewick Press, 2067 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge MA 02140 (Aztec daily life and the Spanish conquest)

3) Lost Temple of the Aztecs, What it was like when the Spaniards invaded Mexico By Shelly Tanaka with  Illustrations by Greg Ruhl  and Historical consultation by Eduardo Matos Moctezuma – A Hyperion/Madison Press Book 1998 (Spanish conquest of the Aztecs)

4) Aztec, Inca & Maya, Discover the mysterious world of these ancient peoples – their beliefs, rituals, and fascinating civilization

Written by Elizabeth Baquedano (Eyewitness Books Series) A Dorling Kindersley Book, Alfred A. Knoph € New York 1993 (Beautiful detailed with color photographs and written captions)

2 other children’s books that would be helpful, on the ancient culture of Mexico:

€ Life in ancient Mexico, Coloring Book, by John Green – Dover Publications, Inc., New York 1991 (A well illustrated book with written captions on the Olmecs, Teotihuacáns, Mayas, Toltecs, and Aztecs)

€ The Flame of Peace, A tale of the Aztecs (Ages 5 to 8) By Deborah Nourse Lattimore Harper Trophy, A Division of HarperCollins Publishers 1997 (Deborah has taken some creative license with Aztec Mythology, but I think its fun to read and the illustrations are beautiful)

I hope this will help your children’s education in ancient America. I am always happy to help in promoting "Children & Books."

Sincerely Eddie Martinez,

Indians of northern Colombia
Introduction by Wade Davis
Text and photographs by Stephen Ferry

If they protect their sacred mountain home, the Indians of northern Colombia believe they will keep the entire planet in balance. Descendants of an ancient South American civilization called the Tayrona and numbering perhaps 45,000 today, the Kogi, Arhuaco, and Wiwa peoples fled death and pestilence four centuries ago, seeking refuge in a mountain paradise, whose peaks soar more than 18,000 feet above the Caribbean coast of Colombia. In the wake of the conquest they developed an utterly new dream of the Earth, a revelation that balanced the baroque potential of the human mind and spirit with all the forces of nature.

Separated by language but closely related by myth and memory, they share a common way of life and the same fundamental religious convictions. (A fourth group, the Kankuamo, also found protection in the Sierra Nevada, but they have now become more assimilated into Colombian society.) To this day the Kogi, Arhuaco, and Wiwa remain true to their ancient laws—the moral, ecological, and spiritual dictates of the primordial creator, a force they identify as the Mother—and are still led and inspired by a ritual priesthood. In an arduous process of initiation that can take up to 18 years, young acolytes are taught the values of their society, among them the notion that their spiritual work alone maintains the cosmic (or as we might say, ecological) balance.

When the priests, or Mamas, speak, they immediately reveal that their reference points are not of our world. They refer to the Spanish conquest as if it were a recent event. They talk openly of the force of creation, or Se, the spiritual core of all existence, and aluna, human thought, soul, and imagination. What is important, what has ultimate value, is not what is measured and seen but what exists in the many realms of meanings and connections that lie beneath the tangible realities of the world, linking all things. The nine-layered universe of their cosmology, the nine-tiered temple where they gather, the nine months a child spends in its mother's womb are all expressions of creation, and each reflects and informs the other. A hill can also be a house, the mountains a model of the cosmos. The white hats worn by Arhuaco men also symbolize the snowfields of the sacred peaks. The hairs on a person's body echo the forest trees that cover the mountain flanks. Every element of nature is imbued with higher significance, so that even the most modest of creatures can be seen as a teacher, and every feature of the world mirrors the whole. —Wade Davis

The indigenous peoples of Colombia's Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta have resisted contact with outsiders for centuries. Nevertheless, Spanish conquistadores, Christian missionaries, peasant farmers, and now armed fighters in Colombia's civil conflict have penetrated their land, destroying sacred ancestral sites and pushing Indians farther up the mountain.

In 1987—to counteract the encroachment and communicate concerns to the world—the Kogi, Arhuaco, and Wiwa groups formed an organization led by their spiritual leaders, or Mamas, to communicate with outsiders and exercise their indigenous rights enumerated in Colombia's constitution. The organization, called Gonawindúa Tayrona Indigenous Organization of the Mamas, enables them to convey their unique indigenous philosophy on land and environmental matters to the rest of the world.

Gonawindúa Tayrona actively negotiates with non-Indian settlers on the lower slopes of the massif, buying back ancestral Indian land so that the Indians can restore the natural jungle habitat, mending the ecological balance, and re-attracting animals like wild boars and birds. When the jungle grows back, Indians cultivate only small patches of the restored land in accordance with their belief system. With prayer and offerings, the Mamas conduct spiritual work to heal and revitalize these sites.

If you are interested in learning more about the organization and helping the Indians of the Sierra Nevada, contact the Gonawindúa Tayrona  c/o Margarita Villafañe at:
Carrera 19A No. 23-05, Santa Marta, Colombia

The Indians have also created a website,  , and can be reached by e-mail:  —Christy Ullrich   

Gabriel Gutierrez asked a question which I forwarded to John Schmal. 
Here is the answer:  
Hi Gabriel:

Indio laborio is a common designation in the 1600s and 1700s in Aguascalientes and Jalisco.  It simply means that this person is an Indian laborer, in contrast to being Spanish or mulato libre (free mulato), mulato esclavo (mulato slave) or negro esclavo (black slave).  Sometimes in the 1600s and  early1700s they will even say who the person labors for, such as "indio laborio de Jesus Cruz" or something like that.

Even a child is sometimes baptized as an "indio laborio" because I guess it's assumed that the child is going to follow in the footsteps of the parents.  In other areas of Mexico, they simply call them indio or india, without the labor label.    John Schmal

John thanks. After all these years I come across my first Indian ancestor. I knew we had Indian ancestry but I never really pursue it until my wife insisted. It came from my maternal grandmother's side. Their last names was Roque, not a very common name but very common in Aguascalientes I found. For some reason, in my mind, laborio was synonymous with forced labor like Indians and blacks that worked the mines and missions. I guess my next move is to find out what tribe, probably, based on your Somos Primos Indian articles, Chichimecas o Zacatecos unless they were brought in from the outside. Thanks again. Gabe

Texas State Library & Archives Commission

Indian Nations of Texas
Texas was home to hundreds of tribes of American Indians. They are listed alphabetically with information on each tribe. Text examples.  The following tribes are discussed on this website:
Alabama-Coushatta, Anadarko, Apache, Arapaho, Biloxi, Caddo, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chickasaw, Coahuiltecan.

Coahuiltecan is the name given to hundreds of small Indian groups who lived in northern Mexico and south Texas. These simple hunter-gatherers found themselves caught in the middle between Spanish colonizers and Apache raiders. Due to these pressures and disease, their population went into a steep decline during the early Spanish period, and little is known of their culture or way of life. A large number of the survivors gathered in Spanish missions for protection from the Apaches. By 1800, most of the remaining Coahuiltecans had merged with other tribes or intermarried with the Hispanic population:  Comanche, Delaware, Hainai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kichai, Kiowa, Kickapoo 

The Kickapoos originated in the Great Lakes region. By the time of the Republic of Texas, a number had migrated to Texas and allied themselves with the Cherokees. As Cherokee allies, they were caught up in the violence of President Lamar’s attempt to expel most Indians from Texas. The Kickapoos fled to Mexico, where they formed an alliance with the Mexican army and conducted continuous harassing raids into South Texas. During the Civil War, Kickapoos from Kansas and Indian Territory (Oklahoma) journeyed across Texas to join their kinsmen in Mexico. On January 8, 1865, three bands of Kickapoos were attacked by Confederate cavalry on Dove Creek, a tributary of the Concho River. The Kickapoos successfully fought off the attack and continued to Mexico, where the Dove Creek battle fueled Kickapoo anger and led to even more aggressive border raiding. In 1873, Colonel Ranald Mackenzie led an expedition against the Kickapoos. Mackenzie captured forty of the tribe’s women, children, and elderly and took them to Fort Gibson in Indian Territory. These people served as hostages to compel the Kickapoo warriors to surrender and begin reservation life. Most refused and continued to live at El Nacimiento in northern Mexico, which remains the home for most Kickapoos today. They are notable for their adherence to their traditional way of life: 
Pakana Muskogee, Potawatomi, Shawnee, Tawakoni, Tigua
The Tiguas are descended from refugees from the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, in which the Pueblo tribes of New Mexico united to fight the Spanish. In 1751, the king of Spain granted the Tiguas land near present-day El Paso, a claim that was recognized by the subsequent governments of Mexico, the Republic of Texas, and the United States. However, both legislative acts and unscrupulous land traders eventually robbed the Tiguas of their land. In the 1960s, the Tiguas organized and won recognition from the state as a tribe, then filed a claim for their original grant and other traditional lands in the area. Today they occupy a 26-acre area which contains housing and bingo gambling. 





Sephardic Roots of Northeastern Mexico & South Texas
Classic Jewish Food Recipes

Nueces County Historical Commission and Descendants of Mexican War Veterans
Corpus Christi, Texas
Sent by Rosa Gonzales

The Hidalgo County Historical Society Meeting on Sunday, September 26, 2004 
was held at Temple Emanuel, 1410 Redwood, McAllenCourtesy of Rabbi Steven Rosenberg  PROGRAM:  Miguel Bedolla and Elena Estoupignan, historical researchers in Austin, will present a most unusual program, "Sephardic Roots of Northeastern Mexico and South Texas."  They will explore the subject through a historic analysis of the Sephardic Jews, including the economic, social and political environments, to help us understand the cultural importance of the Sephardim who came to this region.  Both guest speakers are extremely well qualified on this fascinating subject:  Miguel Bedolla is a researcher at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio and at the Pontifical University Regina Apostolorum in Rome.  He previously published on the history of medical ethics codes and has recently begun to publish on the history of South Texas and Northeastern Mexico.  Elena Estoupignan is an independent historical researcher from Austin, Texas and Monterrey, Mexico, who has conducted investigations at the Archivo de Indias in Seville and the Military Archives in Segovia, Spain, as well as most of the Historical Archives of Mexico.  She recently began to publish on the history of South Texas and Northeastern Mexico.  She is also coordinating a project to preserve the ecclesiastical archives of the former Diocese of Linares, which presided over church affairs in that entire region. Not only do they know their subject – they tell about it in a most interesting way.   Miguel has explored his own Jewish-Basque background, which whetted his interest in the twenty centuries of  Sephardic Jews’ history.  They will tell of the Sephardic settlement in Spain, where they had to embrace the Catholic Church or leave Spain, then their migration to Mexico in the early 1500s to escape the authority of the Inquisition.     

Beginning in 1584, a number of Jewish families began to settle what was called the Nuevo Reyno de Leon.  While the majority of these settlers remained Catholic, some returned to Judaism when they discovered their ancestral roots.

Membership in the Hidalgo County Historical Society is only $5.00 a year.  You can mail your dues to HCHS, P. O. Box 81, Edinburg, TX 78540-0081 -  or pay the treasurer at the meeting.

Classic Jewish Food Recipes
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Welcome to the Classic Jewish-Food Recipe archives. Here you will find creations from - literally - all over the world since February, 1996. Our mission is to become the premier resource for recipes handed down from generations - many brought over from the "old country," many of which highlight a wide diversity of local cuisine.

[[ Click on Spain or Mexico and see what you find.  I was pleasantly surprised to find the recipe below because it reminded me of my mom cooking cabbage like this.  I remember her adding the lemon juice para el color.]]

Source: Jewish Traditional Cookbook by Bet-El's women, Mexico
From: Karen

3/4 C. Sliced Onion
1 1/2 C. Peeled and Diced Apples
4 Tbls. Oil
1 Md. Purple Cabbage, sliced very thin
1 C. Fresh Orange Juice
1/2 C. Water
1 Tsp. Lemon Juice
3/4 Tsp. Salt
1/2 Tsp. Cinnamon
1/8 Tsp. Ground Clove

Sugar or Honey to taste, (optional) In a large sauté pan cook the onions and apples with the oil till tender and caramelized. Add the cabbage and stir well till it is all covered with the onion-apple-oil mixture. Add the orange juice, water, lemon juice, salt, cinnamon, and clove. Mix well.

Bring to a boil, reduce heat and cover. Let simmer for abou t 20 min or until the cabbage is nice and tender. Remove from heat and add honey or sugar if desired.


Introducing SHHAR Board member Crispin Rendon
November 18th - Inspire from Within, University of Texas-Pan American 
The Texas Connection to the American Revolution, Oct 16-18, 2005
The McArdle Notebooks, Texas State Library
Harvest Of Redemption
Revolution in Texas
Nov 5-6, 2004, South Texas Historical Association
Nov 12 and 13,  2004,  Austin Research Trip from Laredo - VSALGS  
Reunion Anual de los ELIZONDO, held in October. . 
Clayton Library Research Problem Solving Seminar, Starting Oct 14th
Nueces CO Historical Commission & Descendants Mexican War Veterans
Alvarez - Angel of Goliad Family Reunion, April 3rd,  2005 
Nos Unimos
REFORMA Newspaper  Free subscription    
Clayton Library Research Problem Solving Seminar
Texas State Genealogical Sites 
Book: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression  Turned Mexicans into Americans  
MALDEF Celebrates for Equity in Texas School Finance Litigation 
Sarita's Secret    TEXAS MONTHLY, September 2004

Introducing Crispin Rendon 

Crispin is a SHHAR Board member. About ten years ago, he started collecting pedigree information from SHHAR members with family connections in South Texas and Northern Mexico.  

Crispin writes, "My database  now has 114,525 records. I have prepared an ebook with six generations of descendants of Diego Trevino and Beatriz Quintanilla.  Over 4,000 people on 299 pages with another 90 pages of index.  The information is not isolated bits and pieces of information, but rather connected families and individuals. Also, I thought you would like to know how you are related to Linda Jean Zambrano-Robinson.  Linda's  Zabrano pedigree was in the October issue.  

7th cousins 2 times removed. Common ancestors are Alferez Joseph Alfredo MARTINEZ 
                    GUAJARDO and Margarita GUTIERREZ LARA.
8th cousins 3 times removed.  Common ancestors are Capitan Pedro GARZA and Maria Lucia
10th cousins.  Common ancestors are Capitan Blas GARZA FALCON and Beatriz GONZALEZ
8th cousins 1 time removed. Common ancestors are Capitan Ignacio GUERRA CANAMAR and
                     Maria GARZA.
8th cousins 3 times removed.  Common ancestors are Alferez Bernabe FLORES ABREGO and
                    Josefa FERNANDEZ CASTRO.
8th cousins 2 times removed. Common ancestors are Juan Bautista CHAPA and Beatriz
9th cousins 3 times removed.  Common ancestors are Capitan Rodrigo FLORES VALDES and
                    Maria Isabel SALAZAR TREVINO.

Surely this emphasizes why we say que Somos Primos.  Crispin is considering entering the Diego Trevino and Beatriz Quintanilla on a CD and making it available for purchase. Contact him directly at:   

November 18th - Inspire from Within
Latino Speaker Series - Edinburg, Texas 
2:30 pm–5:30 pm 
Student Union, the University of Texas-Pan American
Edinburg, Texas
Sent by J. Orozco
The event is free, but you must rsvp at

Featured Speakers:
Raul Yzaguirre, President and CEO, NCLR
Dr. Blandina Cárdenas, President, the University of Texas-Pan American
Joaquin Castro, State Representative—Texas
Special Guest Host: Rick Diaz, News Anchor, KRGV-TV

Texas Connection to the American Revolution
Looking ahead to a three day festival honoring Tejano cattlemen
Information: Sylvia Caravajal Sutton  

October 16-18, 2005

October 16, Friday, a social and dance will be held where people can come dressed in costume or the clothes closely related to the cattle drives. Casual will be the order of the evening. Tentative plans are that the social will be held at the Buckhorn Saloon.
October 17, Saturday morning we will have a big parade beginning in the downtown area, moving south to a targeted 1776 historic site. It is from this site that the trail riders will begin their ride to Karnes county. We are considering that some riders might also begin from Golidad-missions and the presidio. All the riders would come together in Karnes County. We have already booked a church grounds where everyone will meet for a real Texas-syle Barbecue. Saturday evening we will have the Grand Youth Ball, hopefully at the old ursuline academy, the Southwest Craft Center
October 18, So far plans for the Seven Mission Mass include San Jose Mission and a mission at La Bajia.   

More Information:
P.O.Box 690696,  City: San Antonio, TX  78269

Sylvia Caravajal Sutton   
or  Jack Cowan, President:
     (210) 651-4709

The McArdle Notebooks; Index of Subjects - Texas State Library

[[ Recently I saw the movie of The Alamo, selected by my 14 year old grandson who said, "All his friends said it was really good." Although, a little slow moving, I was pleased that the presence of the Mexican citizens fighting with the Anglos was included, and thought I should review my history on the Alamo. A few days later, I received this outstanding, remarkable website from George Gause. PLEASE go it!! The Texas State Library has digitized government documents, newspaper articles, communications, illustrations, photos, etc. pertaining to the Alamo gathered and or used by Henry McArdle to create historical paintings. ]]

The Index of Subjects is intended to help visitors to this site quickly locate documents and illustrations that pertain to specific topics. Not every item in the McArdle notebooks can be found in this index. For example, correspondence which was general to the artist's research, such as that discussing efforts to obtain photographs or descriptions of people, places, and things to be depicted, is not indexed unless it actually contains information about those topics. 

Harvest Of Redemption
Sent by J.D. Villarreal

Here a movie being filmed in the Rio Grande Valley at present. It is being made by and independent film company, I believe out of Houston, Tx.  Some of the movie is being shot in the corn fields of a friend of mine in Rio Grande City.  I don't recognize the characters in the movie but one or two faces appear to be familiar.

Revolution in Texas' by Benjamin Heber Johnson

"Revolution in Texas published by Yale University: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans into Americans," His book covers a tragic period in history. His conclusions drawn from his research do not match those of all South Texans.

Johnson begins, "At the southern tip of Texas in 1915, against the backdrop of the Mexican Revolution (1910-20), the uprising that would become known as the Plan de San Diego began with a series of raids by ethnic Mexicans on ranches and railroads in southern Texas."

"The Plan was a document that called for a 'liberating army of all races' to kill all white males over age 16 and overthrow U.S. rule in Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and California in order to form an independent nation. Local violence quickly erupted into a regional rebellion, in which a small guerilla army battled local posses, Texas Rangers, and the thousands of federal soldiers dispatched to defeat them," the book continues. Johnson said estimates of those killed ranged from the hundreds into the thousands.

"Benjamin Johnson has written the definitive study of the Plan de San Diego and the ethnic tensions between Mexicans and Anglos in Texas during the early part of the 20th Century," wrote Mario T. Garcia, author of "Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology, and Identity, 1930-1960."

"Economic upheaval, ethnic strife, and political conflict come together in a book that should be required reading for students of the U.S.-Mexico border region," wrote Greg Cantrell,author of "Stephen F. Austin."

November 5-6, 2004, Joint meeting of the South Texas Historical Associations in Brownsville, Texas, and Matamoros, Tamaulipas. 

The program includes presentations by Jerry Thompson on Juan N. Cortina and Cristina Balli on conjuntos, and features visits to historic sites (including dinner in Matamoros).  For program details and cost, visit:

November 12 and 13,  2004,  Austin Research Trip (from Laredo) - VSALGS  

Villa San Agustin de Laredo Genealogical Society Is sponsoring a trip to the archives in Austin, TX 
Time: 6:00 a.m.  Charter Bus meets at the Laredo Medical Center,  1700 Saunders Ave. and returns late Saturday evening.  Cost of trip:  $65.00  Overnight stay at the Drury Inn - $59.99 per night  single to quadruple occupancy  Call 512-467-9500 for reservations Breakfast/ evening snacks are included.
Friday, November 12th  1:00 – 5:00 p.m.  Historical and research facilities to visit will be:
General Land Grant Office – Mr. Galen Greaser
Bob Bullock Museum Archives – Dr. Andres Tijerina
Nettie Benson Latin American Library – UT Austin  Dr. Adan Benavides
LBJ Library (Barker Archives) UT Austin -  Dr. Andres Tijerina             
Saturday, Nov 13th  10:00 a.m.Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Collection. Return to Laredo after lunch.
For information call: Norma S. Hagy at 723-6276   Reservations deadline was October 18, 2004
SOURCE: Mirta Barrera
Sent by George Gause

Octubre 22-24, 2004, Apodaca, Nuevo León, México
Reunion Anual de los ELIZONDO
Although this event has just passed.  Contact information should be helpful.

Todos los interesados en asistir a la Gran Reunión Genealógica y de Historia Familiar del apellido
Elizondo. * Conferencia dada por el Profr. Mario Elizondo Cronista de Pesquería N. L. * Taller de Historia Familiar.

* Presentación de Libros de Extractos Eclesiásticos.
* Documentos Históricos
* Computadoras para registrar tu información

Responsable: Ricardo Elizondo, Edna Elizondo, Mario Elizondo 

Clayton Library Research Problem Solving Seminar, Starting October 14th
Using Genealogical Records and Techniques for Problem-Solving

The Clayton Library Friends and the Houston Genealogical Forum announces a Clayton Library Seminar seven-part Series: Using Genealogical Records and Techniques for Problem-Solving. The course will provide you with research skills when you can’t go any further and have hit the "brick wall".

The course is designed for all genealogists, those just interested, a beginner and experienced.

Classes will be held on Thursdays starting October 14, 21, November 4,18 and December 2, 9. 6:30-8:30 pm at The Bayland Community Center 6400 Bissonnet. The Internet class will be held Dec 13 and 16, 6:30 pm – 8:30 pm. and Dec 14, 10:00 am – 12:00 noon at the downtown Central Library. 

Course consists of the following series in Searching Original Records:
1. Clayton Library finding aids and reference sources. 10/14/04 taught by Lesley Douthwaite 
2. Census records. 10/21/04 taught by Marje Harris
3. Military records 11/4/04 taught by Marje Harris
4. Land records 11/18/04 taught by TBD
5. County courthouse research (Deeds, Probate, miscellaneous) 12/2/04 taught by David Hardin
6. Local and State Records 12/9/04 taught by Robert de Berardinis
7. Genealogy and the Internet (Computer Lab will be scheduled on 3 different days. You will be able to sign up for one. Dec 13, 2004 and 16, 2004, 6:30 pm – 8:30 pm. Dec 14, 2004, 10:00 am – 12:00 noon. These times have been set aside for our students) Taught by Irene Walters.
This is an exciting educational and skills development opportunity. Seating is limited, so be sure to complete and submit your registration form as soon as possible. The announcement and registration form is attached. They are also available at the Clayton Library, or online at the Houston Genealogical Forum website at
See you there.  Dick Warren, Clayton Library Friends

The Nueces County Historical Commission and the Descendants of Mexican War Veterans held an event Sunday, September 19, 2004,in Corpus Christi at the Old Bayview Cemetery. The event was for the Monument Unveiling and Dedication to honor 69 soldiers who died due to various causes during the U. S. Occupation of Corpus Christi, Texas (1845 - 1846).  For those whose exact burial locations are unknown.           

Alvarez - Angel of Goliad Family Reunion, April 3rd,  2005 
Sent by Rebecca Alvarez-Shokrian 


Dear Mimi, I would like to inform you that we the descendants of the Angel of Goliad will be having our Alvarez-Angel of Goliad Family Reunion in Goliad Texas on Sunday April 3rd. We are seeking the Telesforo Alvarez descendants from Mexico to attend. He was married to Panchita Alvarez the Angel of Goliad in the near mid 1800s. 

We would like to refer all the cousins to our website:  for further information. You will note that Panchita Alvarez was officially declared a Texan Heroine one of the very few Hispanic women from Texas during the Mexican War of the Battle of Goliad in 1836. We the descendants have formed the Angel of Goliad Descendants Historical Preservation this year and hope to inform the Hispanic communities who and what she did to deserve this honor. Her compassion and assistance in saving many lives during this period in history has earned her a beautiful statue in Goliad which was dedicated this year to her memory. You may read and see the statue on our website. We hope to devote our talents to helping those in need as she did many decades ago and preserve her memory in charitable deeds. 

If there is a cousin out there who is interested in attending our family reunion please contact our President Rudy Ramirez at  or addressing him at 117 Redwood St. Palestine, Texas Phone: AC 903-729-5800 Thank You, Rebecca Alvarez-Shokrian Treasurer of the Angel of Goliad Descendants Historical Preservation

Nos Unimos
An online, interactive exhibit of families who lived and are living in San Antonio’s Westside.
For more information, contact UNIMOS at 210-533-2912 or

This cross-generational project is a direct attempt to foster senior citizen access to the tools of our ever-increasing technological society.  With its Internet debut on December 1, 2003, UNIMOS is functioning as an on-line, interactive collection of photographs uniting the families of San Antonio’s Westside neighborhoods. Based on the fact that bricks and mortar projects consume vital community dollars and time, this virtual exhibit allows for greater audience participation for contributing materials and developing content that can be update as acquired.

This project is funded and supported by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the University of Texas-San Antonio, The URBAN-15 Group, the Youth Opportunities Program of the City of San Antonio’s Department of Community Initiatives, Alamo Community College District and private funds.


The UNIMOS-SA Project is fully operational. Over 2,700 images have been acquired and reside on the server. These images were obtained from the participating seniors with the help of volunteers and students from Fox Tech High School, Lanier High School and San Antonio College. The City of San Antonio’s Community Initiatives Program has been helpful by allowing the UNIMOS-SA teams to work in the Senior Nutrition Centers. Over eighty individuals from these nutrition centers have provided family images. The centers include: The Madonna Center, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Holy Family and Christ the King Nutrition Programs. In addition, social services providers such as the Guadalupe Community Center and the Edgewood Family Network have hosted scanning events to include their members.

Over the next six months, the UNIMOS-SA Project will continue to develop its eMuseum site to reach its goal of 6,000 images. The text descriptions of these images are being collected and edited. The next level of content will be the oral histories and video interviews that are being recorded. Much attention is being directed toward extended family members to help archive and identify pictures.


REFORMA Newspaper  Free subscription
Para obtener tu acceso, por favor sigue las instrucciones que aparecen en el recuadro verde.
Sent by Carmen Boone de Aguilar        

 Clayton Library Research Problem Solving Seminar    

The Clayton Library Friends and the Houston Genealogical Forum announces a Clayton Library Seminar seven-part Series: Using Genealogical Records and Techniques for Problem-Solving. The course will provide you with research skills when you can’t go any further and have hit the "brick wall".

The course is designed for all genealogists, those just interested, a beginner and experienced.
The program series starts VERY SOON, on October 14th.
Classes will be held on Thursdays starting October 14, 21, November 4,18 and December 2, 9. 6:30-8:30 pm at The Bayland Community Center 6400 Bissonnet. The Internet class will be held Dec 13 and 16, 6:30 pm – 8:30 pm. and Dec 14, 10:00 am – 12:00 noon at the downtown Central Library. These times have been set aside for you)

Using Genealogical Records and Techniques for Problem-Solving Course consists of the following series:
1. Getting started & Clayton Library finding aids and reference sources. 10/14/04 taught by Lesley Douthwaite
Searching Original Records:
2. Census records. 10/21/04 taught by Marje Harris
3. Military records 11/4/04 taught by Marje Harris
4. Land records 11/18/04 taught by TBD
5. County courthouse research (Deeds, Probate and Administration and miscellaneous records) 12/2/04 taught by David Hardin
6. Local and State Records 12/9/04 taught by Robert de Berardinis
7. Genealogy and the Internet (Computer Lab will be scheduled on 3 different days. You will be able to sign up for one. Dec 13, 2004 and 16, 2004, 6:30 pm – 8:30 pm. Dec 14, 2004, 10:00 am – 12:00 noon. These times have been set aside for our students) Taught by Irene Walters.
This is an exciting educational and skills development opportunity. Seating is limited, so be sure to complete and submit your registration form as soon as possible. The announcement and registration form is attached. They are also available at the Clayton Library, or online at the Houston Genealogical Forum website at
Dick Warren, Clayton Library Friends

Texas State Genealogical Sites


The state of Texas was established as part of the United States on December 29, 1845, making it the 28th to join the union. Texas ranks 2nd in size* with 261,914 sq. miles of land, and Houston is the largest city. Texas also ranks 2nd in population* with 20,851,820 residents (2000 est.), and Austin is the state capital. The official bird of Texas is the Mockingbird, and the official flower is the Bluebonnet. *Texas statistics obtained from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
Texas Vital Records
Texas Historical Societies
Texas Cemeteries
Texas Census 
Texas Obituaries
Texas Adoption Support
Born in Texas
State Links for Texas Vital Records
For birth, marriage, divorce, and death records...
Bureau of Vital Statistics, Dept. of Health  ( Rules for ordering )
P.O. Box 12040
Austin, TX 78711

+ The Records Room
Historical societies are a great resource when you are unable to visit the town of your ancestors. Many societies keep local records, photos and even information about cemeteries.  + Society Hill Directory

National Cemeteries and Transcriptions
In the summer of 1862, thousands had already died in the second summer of a terrible war that few believed would last more than several months. On July 17, Congress enacted legislation authorizing the President to purchase "cemetery grounds" to be used as national cemeteries "for soldiers who shall have died in the service of the country."
Dallas Forth Worth National Cemetery              Fort Bliss National Cemetery
Mountain Creek Parkway, Dallas, TX                5200 Fred Wilson Rd.
Florida National Cemetery                               Ft. Bliss, TX 79906
6502 SW 102nd Avenue
Bushnell, TX 33513

$ Johnson County, Texas, Cemetery Inscriptions (Online)
$ Pleasant Hill Cemetery Inscriptions, Pritchett, Texas (Online)
+ Cemetery Junction       +

Texas Census
"The Census, while not created for the purpose of genealogical research, is nevertheless one of the public records that genealogists find most helpful and tend to use most often. The amount of information that can be found or verified by finding a single family's census record is enormous." -     + The Records Room     + Census Online

Newspapers & Obituaries
It is sad to think about all the people who pass away on a daily basis, however, it is sadder still for the relatives and friends who don't even know. If you just happen to stop by today and have the local paper handy, take a few minutes and catalog the obits.
+ Obituary Depot        +

Adoption Support
The biggest thing lacking in the Adoption Community is the fact that all sides of the Triad need to listen, understand and learn from the other sides. It seems to often go unnoticed that in order for adoption to work there has to be three sides to the story. Each side is very unique in what they bring to scenario. They are equally important to each other and need to be recognized as such.
+ Adoption Puzzle - Texas      +

Civil War: "No soldier in any army ever did more service, or suffered more hardships, and none can boast of a prouder or more brilliant record than that of the Confederate Soldier. From the spring and summer of 1861 they bravely took up arms in defense of the South, and did not lay them down until General Robert E. Lee surrendered the army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Courthouse on the 9th day of April, 1865."

+ Barrel of Civil War Links
+ Civil War Home Page
African-American (10)
Archives (7)
Cemeteries (32)
Census (24)
Church Records (269) 
Civil War (54)
County Links (203)
Court Records (9)
General Sites (32)
History Sites (14)
Immigration (16)
Libraries (54)

Mailing Lists (8)
Maps/Atlas (26)
Military Resources (41)
Miscellaneous (73)
Newspapers (88)
Obituaries (264)
Personal Pages (68)
Probate Records (3)
Queries (258)
Ships (10)
Societies (54)
State Government (6)
Tax Records (2)
Vital Records (19)
Wills (258)

How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans into Americans  by Benjamin Heber Johnson

"Benjamin Johnson's study of the Plan de San Diego uprising is a clear, absorbing analysis of a bloody but little-known revolt along a border that's been troubled ever since it was a border. By looking both backward and forward from the Plan de San Diego, the book does much to explain why Mexican-American identity is the complex fate we know it to be today." -Larry McMurtry

At the southern tip of Texas in 1915, against the backdrop of the Mexican Revolution, the uprising that would become known as the Plan de San Diego began with a series of raids by ethnic Mexicans on ranches and railroads in southern Texas. The Plan was a document that called for a "liberating army of all races" to kill all white males over age sixteen and overthrow U.S. rule in Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California in order to form an independent nation. Local violence quickly erupted into a regional rebellion, in which a small guerilla army battled local posses, Texas Rangers, and the thousands of federal soldiers dispatched to defeat them. The even bloodier counterinsurgency saw indiscriminate harassment of ethnic Mexicans, forcible relocations, and mass executions of hundreds, perhaps thousands. 

In REVOLUTION IN TEXAS: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans into Texans (Yale University Press; publication date November 4, 2003; $30), Benjamin Heber Johnson tells the story of one of the most intense and protracted episodes of racial violence in United States history, showing how and why those of Mexican descent first came to think of themselves as American citizens. Faced with the overwhelming forces arrayed against it, the uprising eventually collapsed. But, as Johnson demonstrates, the rebellion resonated for decades in American history. Convinced of the futility of using force to protect themselves against racial discrimination and economic oppression, many Mexican Americans elected to seek protection as American citizens with equal access to rights and protections under the U.S. Constitution. A new kind of American identity was forged in the midst of this terrible violence. 

Johnson presents these fascinating episodes-forgotten by most though they happened less than a century ago-with sensitivity and thorough research on both sides of the border. REVOLUTION IN TEXAS is a compelling tale of past violence, the imprint of which can still be seen today in the racial and ethnic landscape of an increasingly Hispanic United States.

"An eye-opening account of a time when the Mexican Revolution came to the United States, when conflicting ethnic and national loyalties produced ghastly violence, deep bitterness, and a happier ending than anyone involved could have hoped for."

- H.W. Brands, author of The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream

About the Author . . . 
Benjamin Heber Johnson is assistant professor of history at Southern Methodist University. He grew up in Houston, Texas, and much of his interest in this history comes from the way in which these events are not remembered in Texas or taught in its schools. 

After earning his Ph.D. from Yale University in 2000, Johnson was a postdoctoral instructor at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, and later assistant professor of history at the University of Texas at San Antonio. He is also one of the authors of Steal This University: The Rise of the Corporate University and the Academic Labor Movement.

Title: REVOLUTION IN TEXAS: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans into Texans 
Author: Benjamin Heber Johnson
ISBN: 0-300-09425-6 Pages: 272 
Illustrations: 29 illus. Price: $30 
Publication Date: November 4, 2003 

More Advance Praise for REVOLUTION IN TEXAS, By Benjamin Heber Johnson

"The Plan de San Diego of 1915 played a major but little-remembered part in the turmoil created by the Mexican Revolution in south Texas, perhaps because of the dark stain it left on both Anglo Texans and Mexican Texans. This very readable book places the story in its larger context and assesses its significance."
- Robert M. Utley, author of Lone Star Justice: The First Century of the Texas Rangers

"Economic upheaval, ethnic strife, and political conflict come together in a book that should be required reading for students of the U.S.-Mexico border region."
- Gregg Cantrell, author of Stephen F. Austin

"Provocative and pioneering. . . . An exciting study that overturns older interpretations about Tejano history, among them that Tejanos did not build a 'Mexican American identity' until the 1920s or the 1930s." - Arnoldo DeLeón, Angelo State University

"Having scoured the archives on both sides of the United States-Mexico border, Ben Johnson has written a meticulous history of the last armed conflict between the two on Texas soil. One legacy was the birth of a 'Mexican American' political identity, an argument that is sure to provoke much discussion about ethnic conflict and its consequences. Without question, Johnson has raised the standard for the emerging field of Borderlands history." - David Montejano, Associate Professor of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley

"Benjamin Johnson has written the definitive study of the Plan de San Diego and the ethnic tensions between Mexicans and Anglos in Texas during the early part of the 20th century. He has elevated a localized conflict to a sophisticated analysis of race and ethnic wars in American culture."
- Mario T. Garcia, author of Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology, and Identity, 1930-1960

MALDEF Celebrates for Equity in Texas School Finance Litigation 
Sent by JV Martinez   

(AUSTIN, TEXAS) Today, at the conclusion of a complex six-week trial that began on August 9, Judge John K. Dietz, Chief Judge of the District Court in Travis County, declared the Texas school finance system unconstitutional.  MALDEF and Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy (META) represent the Edgewood Intervenors, a group of 22 property-poor school districts, many of which filed the original landmark school finance suit in 1984, successfully challenging the inequities of the then-current system.

This latest lawsuit, West Orange-Cove v. Neeley, was brought in 2001 by property-rich school districts alleging that the state had unconstitutionally imposed an ad valorem tax and that they lacked the funds needed to provide their students an adequate education.  The Edgewood Intervenors later joined the case and raised three central claims at trial:  first, the state failed to close the systemic gap between the revenues of property-poor and property-rich districts, forcing property-poor districts to make do with grossly inadequate resources; second, the state failed to provide sufficient funding for economically disadvantaged and limited English-proficient (LEP) students, further burdening property-poor districts enrolling high percentages of students who need additional resources if they are to meet state standards; and third, the state failed to fund school facilities equally and sufficiently, consigning students in property-poor districts to unhealthy, unsafe, and educationally inadequate schools.  

Judge Dietz heard testimony from the superintendents of Ysleta, South San Antonio, Edgewood, Pharr-San Juan-Alamo, who testified from long and direct experience of the numerous obstacles faced by property-poor districts.  He ruled for the Edgewood Intervenors, holding that the demonstrated inequities render the school finance system inefficient, in violation of Article VII, Section 1 of the Texas Constitution.  Moreover, by trial end, the property-wealthy districts conceded the need for equity components in any school finance system.

"MALDEF is very pleased with today's ruling," said MALDEF President and General Counsel Ann Marie Tallman.  "It reaffirms the fundamental principle that all children, regardless of where their parents can afford to live, are entitled to a quality education."

Added MALDEF Staff Attorney and Co-Lead Counsel David Hinojosa:  "In 1995, the Supreme Court upheld a projected $600 gap in per-pupil funding because the gap was supposed to grow smaller and eventually disappear.  Instead, the Legislature not only caused the gap to grow substantially, but made it permanent.  As experienced Texas educators demonstrated to the court, closing this gap must be a priority.  But insofar as the state continues to rely so heavily on local property taxes, the recapture and equalization provisions built into this system must survive."

MALDEF Senior Education Attorney and Co-Lead Counsel Hector Villagra stated:  "The judge's ruling is clear: Texas can and must do better.  As the judge saw and heard from many educators, too many children lack the basic programs they need to succeed, too many attend schools in deplorable conditions, and too many disappear from the school system every year.  It's time to invest in our children - all our children."

MALDEF, 634 S. Spring Street, Los Angeles, CA 90014   (213) 629-2512 

Sarita's Secret    TEXAS MONTHLY, September 2004

Sent by George Gause

Once the seat of a famous ranching empire, this sleepy town has kept hidden for eighty years the answer to one of South Texas's greatest riddles: Is Ray Fernandez, the descendant of a Mexican maid, the heir to the gigantic Kenedy fortune?

by Gary Cartwright

THE TRAIN DOESN'T STOP IN SARITA anymore. They tore down the depot years ago, along with the hotel, the lumberyard, and the cotton gin. It has been a century since anyone referred to this part of South Texas as "the French Riviera of Texas," as land speculators once did. Driving a desolate stretch of U.S. 77, twenty miles south of Kingsville, I almost missed Sarita entirely: The only visible landmarks are a green sign identifying the town, a blinking yellow light, and a water tower off in some distant trees. Sarita has an elementary school and a Catholic church but no shops, cafes, or even a convenience store. The closest supermarket is in Kingsville; the nearest major medical center is in Corpus Christi, seventy miles north; and the pharmacy of choice is in Nuevo Progreso, Mexico, an hour-and-thirty-minute drive for cheap drugs. The only place to spend the night is a one-suite bed-and-breakfast run by Patti Fain, who is also the justice of the peace; her husband, Mike, a retired game warden, is the local gunsmith. The only source of soft drinks is a vending machine at the Kenedy County courthouse, a dim cavern of mostly empty hallways and faded photographs. When I was there in June, a dog slept in the dusty street between the courthouse and the former home of the old Kenedy Pasture Company, now a museum.

Sarita is not a ghost town in the usual sense. But the ghosts of the Kenedys-Captain Mifflin Kenedy and his star-crossed heirs, especially his two grandchildren, John G. Kenedy Jr. and Sarita Kenedy East, for whom this unincorporated county seat is named-hover like the hot blue sky over the tiny town of around 250, which appears as a footnote to the huge ranch that the captain founded after the Civil War. Though all the Kenedys are dead, their legend is as alive as the front page of your morning newspaper. It crackles with the legacy of the patrón system: tales of stolen land and inheritance, racial and religious conflict, endless courtroom battles, violence, avarice, and shadowy family secrets, all of which connect the cultures and histories of South Texas and northern Mexico.

Mifflin Kenedy was one of the three great ranchers of far South Texas, the others being his close friends Richard King and Major John Armstrong. Though he was a Quaker from Pennsylvania, he never let religion get in his way. He met and fell in love with a beautiful 26-year-old devout Catholic from Mier, Mexico, Petra Vela de Vidal. Depending on which version of history you believe, Petra was the wife, mistress, or widow of Luis Vidal, a captain in the Mexican army. Some historians believe that Kenedy arranged the murder of Luis, who had already fathered at least six children by Petra. Kenedy moved his bride to Brownsville, where they had six more children. Most of their sons lived fast and died young. Tom Kenedy, the eldest, was killed by a deputy sheriff in Brownsville whose estranged wife the young ranching heir was courting. Adrian Vidal, Mifflin's adopted son, was executed in a Mexican prison while the captain stood helplessly outside the prison walls. After driving a herd of cattle to Dodge City and getting into a fight with the town's mayor, James Kenedy barely survived a shoot-out with a posse that included Wyatt Earp and Bat Masterson, only to succumb later to typhoid fever. When Mifflin died intestate, in 1895, the 400,000-acre ranch ended up in the hands of his sole surviving son, John Gregory Kenedy, known as Don Gregorio.

The dynasty might have gone on indefinitely, except that neither of Don Gregorio's two surviving children produced an heir. John G. Kenedy Jr., known all his life as Johnny, was a boozer and a womanizer who died in 1948 in Saltillo, the home of his Mexican-born wife, Elena, who inherited his half of the fortune. According to family legend, Johnny was rendered sterile by a childhood case of the mumps, and his sister, Sarita, the last of the Kenedys, died childless in 1961, leaving the bulk of her estate to the John G. and Marie Stella Kenedy Memorial Foundation, named for her parents. Elena died in 1984, leaving her estate to the John G. Kenedy Jr. Charitable Trust. The two institutions are handled by administrators and lawyers; together, they control assets valued between $500 million and $1 billion, of which about 80 percent of the income goes to the Catholic Diocese of Corpus Christi, the Christus Spohn Health System, and various Catholic charities. In the final years of her life, Sarita was attended by a number of ambitious men, including clerics, with designs on her millions. "Vultures," she called them. Lawsuits over her fortune began two months after her death and continue to this day.

In the heyday of the Kenedys, the ranch headquarters was located far from town, down a long, narrow road toward the coast that dead-ended at La Casa Grande, the thirty-room family estate. Sarita bequeathed the house and the 10,000 acres surrounding it, including the family chapel and cemetery, to the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. Today the Oblate fathers use the property-since reduced by settlements to 1,010 acres-as a religious retreat called Lebh Shomea House of Prayer. ("Lebh shomea" is Hebrew for "listening heart.") This veneer of peace and tranquillity is profoundly deceptive, however. One of several lawsuits still pending threatens to expose the darkest secret of all: that Johnny Kenedy may have sired a child by one of the Kenedy maids in 1925. The allegation started bubbling to the surface on Mother's Day, 2000, with a chance remark to a Corpus Christi man named Ray Fernandez by his dying grandmother. Speaking in Spanish, she told her grandson: "You look just like your grandfather Johnny Kenedy." Assuming she was talking about the late son of the late president, he dismissed it as the babbling of an old woman with dementia, dying of bone cancer.

But as Ray began to research his family's history, he realized that it seemed intrinsically linked to the Kenedys. He eventually uncovered evidence that he believes establishes that his mother, 78-year-old Ann Fernandez, is the biological daughter and sole living heir of Johnny Kenedy. She was born in a home for unwed mothers in Waco in 1925 to Maria Rowland, who was at the time a teenage maid on La Parra, as the Kenedy ranch was known. After the birth, the child was sent to live with an aunt in Driscoll, and Maria went to work in the Kenedy mansion on Upper Broadway in Corpus Christi. Two years after Ann's birth, Maria may have conceived a second child by Johnny, a boy named Raul. The boy died mysteriously at age two, the victim of some poisoned food apparently provided by a stranger who appeared at the family home; Ann, who was four at the time, also ate the poisoned food but recovered.

In May 2002, acting as a guardian for his mother, who had by then slipped into dementia, Ray filed a lawsuit in Kenedy County against the estates of John G. Kenedy Jr., Sarita Kenedy East, and Elena Kenedy. The lawsuit claimed that Johnny's will did not make a disposition of his real property, and accordingly his interest in La Parra and all of his other real estate should have passed at least in part to his daughter, Ann Fernandez. Therefore, the lawsuit contended, Elena never properly owned Johnny's real estate and wasn't capable of leaving it to the trust. If all this is true, Sarita's closest surviving biological heir, Ann, has a claim on the assets of the foundation.

Attorneys for the foundation and the charitable trust argue that even if Ray wins a legal battle to exhume Johnny's body and DNA testing proves that Johnny Kenedy is Ann Fernandez's father, the lawsuit was filed years too late. Attorneys for the Fernandez family counter that it couldn't have been filed earlier because the Kenedys concealed the truth. Ray hasn't decided what he will do if the DNA proves that he is descended from the Kenedys. "This is not about the money or the land or the mineral rights or one of the great ranches of Texas," he told me. "This is about my mom and our family."

THE OFFICE OF THE NUECES COUNTY MEDICAL examiner is located across the parking lot from the giant Christus Spohn complex, in Corpus Christi. Ray Fernandez, who has held the position since January 2003, grew up in this West Side neighborhood. His father's family came here from Beeville before World War II and opened a grocery nearby. His father, Reynaldo Fernandez, worked in the grocery and later as a fingerprint and identification specialist in the Nueces County sheriff's department. Ray was close to his father's family but knew hardly anything about Ann's. And he knew nothing at all about the Kenedys, although, as he is now discovering, the crosscurrents between the families ran deep. He knows now that the cathedral where he sometimes attended Mass was built on the site where the Kenedy mansion once stood: The Kenedys donated the property to the church in the thirties. Christus Spohn Health System is named for Arthur Spohn, who was married to Mifflin Kenedy's daughter, Sarah Josephine, after whom Sarita was named. Ray's first job was working as a janitor at the hospital, the year after he graduated from high school. After a 22-year odyssey of medical schools and hospitals across America, he returned to take the job as medical examiner. "I've still got my name badge from when I was a janitor," Ray told me, producing from his desk the badge, now brown and faded, issued to him in 1977. Earlier that day he had testified at a murder trial in San Patricio County, one of fourteen South Texas counties that contract for his services, and now had changed into his customary work clothes-baggy green scrubs. In his years as a student and as a medical examiner, he has done roughly 2,500 autopsies and testified in more than one hundred trials. Solving puzzles is what he does for a living, and the puzzle of his heritage is his greatest challenge.

Forty-four years old, Ray is darkly handsome, with shaggy black hair, a broad chest, and-as others have remarked-the trademark Kenedy jowl. He is pragmatic, stubborn, and acutely aware of who he is and where he is going, traits that Johnny Kenedy is said to have possessed. The walls of his small office are covered with certificates and diplomas testifying to how he learned his profession: an associate degree in applied science radiology from Del Mar Community College, in Corpus Christi, where he first heard about forensic science; a bachelor of arts in biology from the University of Texas, where he worked his way through school as an x-ray technician at the student health center; an MD from the UT Health Science Center, in San Antonio, where he trained in the office of Vincent Di Maio, the noted Bexar County medical examiner; a degree in anatomic and clinical pathology from the University of California, Irvine; an internship at Frankford Hospital, in Philadelphia; training in forensic pathology at the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department. "I'm just now paying back the last of my student loan," Ray told me. "It totaled about $100,000."

Ann was about eighteen when she met Johnny and Sarita Kenedy. Their mother, Marie Stella Turcotte Kenedy, was dying on the hospital floor where Ann served as a volunteer, and at different times she introduced the young nurse to both of her children. On another occasion, she introduced Ann to Johnny's wife, Elena. At the time, Ann's mother, Maria, lived in a small house near the Kenedy mansion in town. She had married a vaquero named Desiderio Peña two years after Ann was born. One month after the wedding, she gave birth to her second child, Raul, the boy who died of poison. Peña left her and married another woman after Raul was born. When Ann was thirteen or fourteen, she left her aunt in Driscoll and came to live with her mother in the small house in Corpus Christi. Her mother never talked about her past or about working on the Kenedy ranch, and when Ann asked questions, Maria would turn away in anger.

Ray was working as an assistant medical examiner in Miami when the secret began to leak out. He had taken a week off to teach a course in forensics in Latin America and stopped to spend Mother's Day in Corpus Christi on the return trip. The family visited Ray's grandmother Maria, who was in a nursing home. Her remark about him looking like his grandfather Johnny Kenedy didn't start to register until a few days later, when he returned to Miami and found his wife, Marie, distraught and near tears. While searching the Internet, trying to locate the burial place of her father, who had supposedly died years ago, she learned that he had died recently in Oklahoma. Apparently, Marie's mother had lied to conceal the humiliation of a divorce. Marie soon discovered that someone claiming to be her brother had moved into her father's home and stolen his coin and stamp collections. "These few things were her only connection to him," Ray explained. "We hired an attorney and went to court to get my wife title to the house. It was just one house on one lot-it wasn't the Kenedy ranch-but this is what lawyers for the foundation and trust don't understand: It's not the property that's important, it's the link to family."

(page 2) When Ray saw what his wife was going through, he decided to look at his own family history. He began by gathering baptismal certificates, which provided the first clue that his grandmother might have told him something important. He knew that his mother was born in a home for unwed mothers but had assumed that her father was Desiderio Peña; the certificate issued by St. Francis Church in Waco, however, left the space for "father" blank. Next, he telephoned the Corpus Christi library and asked for information about a John Kenedy Jr. "I didn't know anything about this man, even how to spell his name," Ray recalled, "but the librarian did. She sent me John G. Kenedy Jr.'s obit." When Marie saw the old photograph of Kenedy, she said, "This looks like your mother." It looked like Ray too. Same long face, same hefty build, same prominent jowl.

Old newspaper articles led Ray to the discovery that a man in Raymondville named Max Dreyer was a grand-nephew of Mifflin Kenedy's, which made him a cousin to Johnny Kenedy. Ray telephoned a DNA expert in Miami, who said that a match with a paternal cousin could establish his mother's relationship to the Kenedys. Dreyer agreed to give a DNA sample, and the expert concluded that there was a 25 percent likelihood that Ann and Dreyer were related. In the courthouse at Sarita, Ray's wife discovered a sealed envelope that had been licked by Marie Stella, Johnny's mother. An analysis of this DNA sample revealed a 72 percent likelihood that she was Ann's grandmother.

Finally, Ray tracked down Maria Rowland's brother, Daniel Rowland, who after considerable prompting confessed the family secret: He and Tom Goates-a Corpus Christi detective who was Maria's second husband-both knew that Ann's father was John G. Kenedy Jr. But they never discussed this with other members of the family. In a sworn affidavit, Daniel explained: "We were frightened of what the Kenedy people might do. We wanted to protect [Maria's] reputation. She was only a teenager. . . . South Texas was a much different place in the thirties and forties for working-class Mexican Americans. Those with money and large ranches made the rules." He remembered on one occasion going with Goates to La Parra to ask for money from Johnny Kenedy. Daniel waited in the truck while Goates went into the house. He returned with a stuffed envelope.

Ann viewed a video of her uncle's conversation with Ray over and over, her confusion mounting. In an advanced stage of dementia, she gave her own deposition a short time later, telling conflicting stories. She remembered first meeting Johnny Kenedy at the hospital but later recalled that he had brought her dolls and fruit baskets at Christmas when she was much younger. She also remembered sitting on Marie Stella's lap at the mansion and that Johnny's mother had once talked of sending Ann to a convent to be a nun. Did Ann ever suspect that John G. Kenedy Jr. was her father? Once, when she was fourteen or fifteen, she recalled, her cousins made some vague reference to her real father. But when Ann asked her mother about this, Maria shot her a glare that warned her to ask no more questions.

Ray had an older brother, Joe David, who died in 1997 after an agonizing 48-year struggle with cerebral palsy. Watching Joe David live and die, while his mother tried desperately to find help, was one of the formative factors of Ray's life and a reason he chose medicine as a career. "My mother quit her job as an elevator operator and took care of him full-time," Ray says. Money was a constant problem. Ray's dad worked at the courthouse by day and moonlighted in the evenings, guarding county prisoners at the hospital. Ray learned later that the family had borrowed money and had gotten $100 from the March of Dimes to pay for a bus trip to New York, where there was a hospital that specialized in treating cerebral palsy. The hospital might have been able to treat Joe David, but the cost was far more than the Fernandez family could afford. When Ray talks about lawyers for the defense claiming that Ann has known for years that John G. Kenedy Jr. was her father-a charge that, if proved, would mean that Ray's lawsuit is barred by the statute of limitations-his face twists with anger. "If that was the case," he says, slamming his hand on his desk, "don't you think my mother would have moved heaven and earth to get the Kenedys to help my brother?"

MIFFLIN KENEDY AND HIS LIFELONG friend Richard King made their fortunes during, after-and mainly because of-the Mexican War of 18461848, which changed the face of South Texas. Kenedy and King had a virtual monopoly on the steamship trade on the Rio Grande from the 1840's until after the Civil War, freighting passengers, cargo, and troops up and down the river and running Union blockades with shipments of cotton for the Confederacy. The Mexican War erupted over a border dispute following the annexation of Texas into the United States. The U.S. claimed that the boundary was the Rio Grande. Mexico argued that the true boundary lay 130 miles to the north, along the Nueces River. From 1767 until the Texas Revolution in 1836, Mexican families had received land grants and established ranchos in the region. Known to the Spanish as the Wild Horse Desert and to Mexicans as the Desert of the Dead, this great sea of grass and scrub stretched across the Rio Grande to the present sites of Del Rio and Corpus Christi and everywhere in between. Tejanos ran herds of Longhorns and sheep across their ranches, some of which covered many thousands of acres.

In the years after the war, the Tejanos and their land grants were the focus of a bloody and brutal conflict that continued to rage over the disputed land between the rivers, which became known as the Nueces Strip. Raiders from both sides of the border burned, murdered, and pillaged at will. Texas Rangers, sent to restore order, were viewed by the Tejanos as mercenaries in the employ of the big Anglo ranchers. At a fair in Corpus Christi in 1852, Kenedy and King and others discussed what they saw as the chance of a lifetime: They could buy abandoned or vulnerable land grants in the Nueces Strip for a fraction of their worth. In 1868, after King and Kenedy dissolved their partnership, Kenedy bought the Los Laureles grant, north of Baffin Bay, and made ranching history by enclosing 131,000 acres, making it the first fenced ranch of any size west of the Mississippi. In 1882 he sold Los Laureles to a Scottish syndicate (which later sold it to King) for $1.1 million, money he used to purchase more land grants, including La Parra, the site of the future ranch headquarters.

In the early decades of the twentieth century, as the railroad moved south, the Kenedy ranch prospered beyond all expectations. Mifflin Kenedy had once used his political connections to stop a railroad, lest it hurt his steamship business, but his son Don Gregorio helped found the St. Louis, Brownsville and Mexico Railway, which later was acquired by the Missouri Pacific. Don Gregorio and others began buying land rights along the proposed path of the railroad. Small towns sprung up along the tracks-Skidmore, Alice, Robstown, Bishop, Kingsville, Riviera. Theodore Koch, a promoter from Minnesota, founded the tiny community of Riviera Beach on Baffin Bay, an inlet of the Laguna Madre that separates the northern part of the Kenedy Ranch from the King Ranch. Koch built a resort hotel, a wide boulevard with flowers and tropical trees, and a dance hall and pavilion that extended over the water. All that is left of his dream are the cypress pilings of the old pavilion at Riviera Beach, a few feet out into the bay.

(page 3)  When the tracks finally reached the Kenedy ranch, in 1905, Don Gregorio donated land for the right-of-way and chartered a town, which he named for his daughter, Sarita. He lived in the four-bedroom plantation-style ranch house Mifflin had built, on the highest point on this relentlessly flat coastal plain, a sand dune 37 feet above sea level. But in 1918 he hitched the house to teams of oxen and mules and moved it two hundred yards to the east. Then, on the dune, he began construction of La Casa Grande, the "Great House." He built a wharf on Baffin Bay and had material shipped from New Orleans. The Spanish Revivalstyle estate had eighteen-inch reinforced concrete walls and ten bedrooms. A Gatling gun was mounted in a watchtower above the second floor for protection against Mexican bandits, and an escape tunnel was concealed within a walk-in safe in Don Gregorio's office. He and Marie Stella had a suite of rooms at the south end of the second floor. Sarita and her husband, Arthur East, had a suite on the opposite side of the house. Johnny and his wife, Elena, lived in Mifflin's old house east of La Casa Grande. The Kenedys divided their time between the mansion in Corpus Christi and the ranch.

The Kenedys took care of their Mexican workers, known as Kenedeños, in the patrón style, providing housing and medical care and seeing that their children were educated. The Kenedeños, particularly the vaqueros, whose ancestors had pioneered the cattle business in the New World, taught the Kenedys how to ranch. About three hundred Kenedeños were needed to run a spread that huge: cowboys, wranglers, fence menders, groundskeepers, carpenters, plumbers, electricians, butlers, chauffeurs, cooks, maids. In the early twenties, one of the maids was Maria Rowland, a pretty teenager of Cherokee and Spanish descent. Her family was from Kingsville, but she lived on the ranch. In the era of the patróns, it would not have been surprising for a liaison to have taken place. Many a wealthy South Texas rancher took a mestizo mistress and stashed her in a casa chica, a small house convenient to the rancher's needs.

JOHNNY WASN'T THE MOST DYNAMIC Kenedy, but he had the most fun. He had an eye for the ladies and a weakness for the grape. His drunken benders frequently included his neighbors, King Ranch boss Bob Kleberg Jr. and Major Tom Armstrong. The three ranching scions hunted, partied, played poker, and caroused together. In the Kenedy County courthouse, at Sarita, there is a faded photograph of the trio, strapping men all, taken at La Parra Ranch in 1930, after a well-oiled hunting trip. In their book about the Kenedy family, If You Love Me You Will Do My Will, authors Stephen G. Michaud and Hugh Aynesworth give an example of Johnny's "boyhood prodigality" that so dismayed his parents. While he was a student at Texas A&M, Johnny read about polygamy among the Mormons. "Mistaking a religion-based practice for promiscuity," they wrote, "he and a pal took a train out to Salt Lake City to sample this imagined lotus land of unfettered carnality." Don Gregorio had to send the Pinkertons to fetch him home.

Sarita tolerated and probably enjoyed their rowdy behavior. She was a cowgirl all the way, able to ride, shoot, and drink whiskey as well as any man. After Don Gregorio died, in 1931, Sarita rather than Johnny or Arthur East took charge of the ranch. Her brother loved the ranch but not ranching, and her husband didn't mix well with the other men; he spent most of his time alone at Sarita's San Pablo Ranch, near Hebbronville, adjacent to a ranch owned by his nephew Tom East Jr. Fluent in Spanish, Sarita was comfortable around the families of her vaqueros and sensitive to their needs. She was a devout Catholic, same as her mother and grandmother, but she was the only Kenedy woman seen by the Kenedeños as a true patrona.

"She was a very beautiful lady with a very big heart," Rafael Cuellar told me one rainy afternoon as we sat in the cab of his pickup. "You could see her everywhere, drinking coffee with the people, eating tortillas. She made sure nobody suffered needlessly." The 66-year-old Cuellar has lived in the town of Sarita all his life. His grandfather came to the ranch as a vaquero in the 1800's, at age sixteen, and his father achieved the rank of corporal, boss of a crew of vaqueros. A retired three-term sheriff of Kenedy County, Cuellar lives east of the tracks in a small house that Sarita gave to his father; in her will, Sarita deeded ranch-owned houses to all the cowboys who had worked for her for at least 25 years. Elena bequeathed a permanent fund that supplies all the citizens of Sarita free water and sewage services, but she is not remembered as fondly as her sister-in-law. "Elena was a fine lady, but different," Cuellar told me. "Some people help because they think they have to, and others help because they enjoy helping. You know what I mean?" I asked Cuellar what he thought about exhuming Johnny's body and testing it for DNA, as Ray Fernandez wants to do. To my surprise, he showed me a newspaper clipping taped to the underside of the sun visor of his pickup. It had a photograph of John Kenedy Jr. next to a photograph of Ray Fernandez. "See?" he told me. "They look alike."

The vaquero way of life is dying. There is still livestock to be worked, primarily on land leased from the foundation by the family of Tom East Jr., but the number of cattle pales in comparison with Don Gregorio's time. The foundation and the trust own all of the land except for the relatively small parcel given to the Oblate fathers, and they lease it to various corporations who in turn sublease parts of it for hunting and birdwatching. The surviving Kenedeños live in dozens of small houses on both sides of the tracks, on Sarita's narrow, mostly paved streets. Some are retired; others, like 86-year-old José Salazar, who started work here in the early thirties, still ride every morning. Their yards tend to be neat and orderly; some are fenced and many display the flags of Texas and the United States.

In June the range was surprisingly green and lush, thanks to near-record rains. Vast waist-high pastures of native grasses, growing much as they did centuries ago, stretched as far as the eye could see, interspersed with patches of oak and mesquite. The best place to view La Parra is from the tower that sits atop La Casa Grande. I climbed up there one afternoon with Father Francis Kelly Nemeck, the director of Lebh Shomea House of Prayer. The soft-spoken 68-year-old priest wore a cowboy hat, a short-sleeve sport shirt, and sneakers. Entrance to the former ranch house is normally restricted to those approved for silent meditation by Father Kelly or one of the nuns who assist him, but it was closed for repairs, and we were alone except for a few workmen. A stiff sea breeze blew in from Baffin Bay, which appeared as a gray-blue sliver on the eastern horizon. From this magnificent perch the world seemed bucolic and peaceful. An alley of tropical palms led to the back of the house, where wild turkeys, javelinas, rabbits, and roadrunners wandered about like pets on the manicured grounds.

In the family cemetery, next to the chapel, the grave sites of the Kenedy clan are laid out in a single, neat row. Johnny and Sarita rest beside their parents. Curiously, I found no graves for Captain Kenedy or Petra. I learned later that Sarita had removed her grandparents from a Corpus Christi cemetery and reburied them in Brownsville, surrounded by four of their children. Father Kelly told me that he strongly opposes exhuming Johnny's body. "His will left everything to his wife. That should be the first issue," the monk said. "Even if he is the father, he chose not to give anything to the child."

JOHNNY KENEDY'S HANDWRITTEN WILL is what this lawsuit is all about. It bequeaths "all of my property of every character and description both personal and mixed"-no mention of real property-to his wife, Elena. Austin attorney Mark Schwartz and other lawyers representing Ann Fernandez contend that the will was effective only to dispose of Kenedy's personal property and that it did not specify who got the ranch. In such cases, they argue, the law requires that two thirds of the real property goes to the child and one third to the widow, with her portion reverting to the child upon her death. The defense argues that Ann is not a legitimate heir and that even if she is, Johnny clearly intended to leave his fortune solely to Elena. "In Texas you can leave your property to whoever you want," Buster Adami, a lawyer for the trust, told me. "You don't have to include children, either legitimate or illegitimate."

Schwartz believes that Elena and her lawyers were aware that the will was flawed. In 1949, the year after Johnny's death, they prevailed upon Humble Oil and Refining Company, which held oil and gas leases on the ranch, to file a friendly suit asking the court to declare Elena the rightful owner of the ranch. "This was a put-up job," Schwartz says. "They didn't even bother to introduce the will into evidence." Nor did they make any attempt to determine the heirs of Johnny or Sarita Kenedy. "The fact that they didn't invite Ann Fernandez to be part of the proceedings means it is not binding on her," Schwartz told me. Is it possible that Elena didn't know that the baby born to their maid was Johnny's? "A wife knows," Schwartz says. "If a maid gets pregnant and leaves for five months, then returns not to the ranch but to the family mansion in Corpus Christi-that couldn't have happened without the wife knowing."

Ray Fernandez came to the same conclusion as he began piecing together the parallel stories of his family and the Kenedys. "Elena was a little Napoleon," he said. "I talked to an old cowboy at Kenedy ranch named Duckett who told me that cowboys had to ask Elena's permission to get married. Elena would have done anything she could to keep the blemish from her husband's reputation. I think Elena kept the secret from Sarita." If Sarita had known that she had a niece, might she have included Ann in her will? In her later years, Sarita openly mourned the Kenedys' vanishing bloodline. In the evenings she would take her bottle of whiskey to the tower above La Casa Grande and stay there for hours. Vaqueros told of hearing her plaintive sobs and moans.

When Johnny died, Sarita and Elena became co-owners of the ranch, but the relationship was decidedly chilly. They found a common interest only after a Trappist monk who called himself Brother Leo came into their lives. He appeared one Sunday after Mass when they were placing flowers on Johnny's grave. Brother Leo had been released from his vows of silence and sent out to convince rich Catholics that the way to heaven was to trust their fortunes to his Trappist order. Handsome and magnetic, the monk became Sarita's closest spiritual adviser for her remaining thirteen years; some historians suspect he was her lover too. Sarita had already written at least two wills, one after her mother died and a second in 1948, after Johnny died. On his visits to La Parra, Brother Leo began to comfort Sarita, coaxing her to go easy on the whiskey and to think about leaving her fortune to a foundation, which he would be happy to oversee. Both Sarita and Elena made frequent and generous contributions to Trappist charities in South America and, at Brother Leo's invitation, took an ocean voyage to visit the missions their charities supported.

By the mid-fifties, there were many contenders for the Kenedy millions, including Sarita's husband's nephew Tom East Jr.; Peter Grace, a wealthy New York businessman who was active in Catholic charities; and Bishop Mariano Garriga, of Corpus Christi. Grace had been a friend and mentor to Brother Leo but eventually fell out with the monk and developed his own agenda. Sarita opened several bank accounts at the Grace National Bank, in New York, apparently without telling her lawyer, Jake Floyd, of Alice. (Floyd was known as El Víbora Seca, "the Dry Snake," a nickname bestowed by his bitter rival, political boss George Parr.) Brother Leo used one of the accounts to finance his various activities. Bishop Garriga warned Grace and Brother Leo that some South Texas "hothead" might do them irreparable damage if they continued funneling Sarita's money out of Texas. But the real power behind the scene, according to authors Michaud and Aynesworth, was Jake the Snake. He represented the Alice National Bank and wanted the bank to control the foundation Sarita planned to establish. In 1960 Sarita rewrote her will again, cutting out family members and leaving most of her estate to the foundation. Grace and Floyd continued to fight over control. Brother Leo, meanwhile, was helping Sarita make plans for another trip to South America. Already in failing health, she was diagnosed with cancer while in Argentina and was flown back to New York, where she died in February 1961 without ever seeing her beloved ranch again. Leo claimed that he was at Sarita's bedside at the end (although several nuns reported that he was in the cafeteria) and that on her deathbed she signed a document naming him the sole director of her foundation.

With Sarita's death came a mighty flood of lawsuits and more than 180 claimants, including Mexican descendants of Petra Vela de Vidal and descendants of Mifflin Kenedy's younger brother, Elisha. A nephew of Marie Stella filed a suit charging that Brother Leo and Grace had exerted undue influence over Sarita and asking the court to remove them from the foundation board. The dispute reached the highest levels of the Roman Catholic Church. Pope John XXIII supported the decision of New York's Francis Cardinal Spellman to give the Texas Catholics 20 percent of the money and the New York Catholics 80 percent. This provoked an angry tirade from Bishop Garriga. In 1964 a papal negotiator settled the suits, mostly on Floyd's terms. Grace received $14.4 million to start his own Sarita Kenedy East Foundation, devoted to worldwide Catholic charities. Brother Leo was frozen out, forced to resign from the foundation board and exiled to a remote monastery in Canada. Bishop Garriga was reduced to an ex officio board member of the John G. and Marie Stella Kenedy Memorial Foundation, and control went to Floyd's allies at the bank.

In the eighties rumors that the bank was fleecing the foundation found their way to Attorney General Jim Mattox, who launched an investigation. A new bishop in Corpus Christi, Rene Henry Gracida, wrested control from the bank, with Elena's help, and began funneling the bulk of its grants to his own diocese. This caused a revolt by the bishops of other dioceses in Texas, who in 1996 took their case to another attorney general, Dan Morales. He filed suit against Gracida, alleging misallocation of foundation funds. The mess over church control was finally resolved in 1997, when the makeup of the board was changed so that independent voices could prevail. But other messes remained. Descendants of Mifflin Kenedy's adopted daughter, Carmen Morrel, claimed that Sarita's father, Don Gregorio, had stolen her inheritance. The foundation settled for an undisclosed amount, and the trust is still fighting that one in appeals court. Then came a claim by descendants of a prominent Tejano family, the Ballís, who said that Mifflin Kenedy had leased their ancient grant rather than purchased it. They offered several ancient documents as evidence, but the nonprofit corporation won a summary judgment. The case is now on appeal.

The last of the cases is Ann Fernandez's. The legal obstacles are formidable. Buster Adami, on behalf of the trust, and Richard Leshin, on behalf of the foundation, will argue that the wills of Johnny and Sarita Kenedy took effect decades ago, and unless those outcomes are set aside, this finality bars a claim by Ann. Moreover, they contend, this lawsuit could destroy all those charities so dear to the Kenedy family. Mark Schwartz rejects this contention: "We're not asking for the moon. We want the charities to continue. We're asking pennies on the dollar and a seat at the table." Ray Fernandez would like to sit on the boards of the two nonprofits, help decide who gets the Kenedy money, and maybe expand the Hispanic representation.

Since Kenedy County doesn't have a probate judge, the case was assigned to the court of Travis County probate judge Guy Herman. In early 2004 Herman reviewed the evidence and decided that the law required the exhumation of Johnny Kenedy's body and a comparison of his DNA with that of Ann Fernandez's. Two times Herman ordered exhumations-in February and again in June-but both times lawyers for the two charitable institutions temporarily blocked it with appeals to higher courts.

But sometime in 2004, the exhumation is likely to happen, and forensic science will reveal what happened on the Kenedy ranch in 1925. Nobody has come right out and said it yet, but this case is really about the history of South Texas and a century and a half of cheating and lording over Mexican Americans by patróns. Even the darkest secret can't hide forever.


"They Came in Ships..." Colonial Louisiana History and Genealogy
Indians Decry Lewis and Clark Re-Creation
"They Came in Ships..."

[An address delivered by Paul Newfield III on October 7, 2000, at Donaldsonville, Louisiana, on the occasion of the dedication of the monument celebrating the Canary Islanders who settled in Louisiana in the late 18th century.]   Sent by Bill Carmena 

El año mil setecientos, setenta  y ocho... The year 1778.  They came in ships -- men, women, children -- our ancestors.

Seven hundred recently enlisted recruits with their families, departing their native Canary Islands forever, aboard sailing ships that would carry them across the seas to Spanish Louisiana. By estimate, approximately 2,363 Isleños set sail for Louisiana, but not all of them arrived here.

King Carlos III of Spain required fresh troops to bear arms in the imminent war against Great Britain, and he needed loyal subjects to settle, populate and defend his Louisiana lands.  Over a period of about five years, beginning in the about 1778, our Canary Islands ancestors came to Louisiana.  They settled at places they called San Bernardo, Tierra de los Bueyes, Galveztown, Barataria, Valenzuela. 

I have often tried to imagine what it might have been like for those early Isleños. Why did they come?

What circumstances would compel a man to leave his native land and boldly travel to the other side of the earth, to a distant destination, Nevermore to return?  It takes Courage, Inner Strength, Faith, and a lot of Hope – Attributes that I admire in my ancestors and that I look for in myself.


These Canary Islanders were loyal subjects of King Carlos III of Spain.  Their native archipelago consisted then, as it does now, of seven volcanic islands situated in the deep blue waters of the Atlantic Ocean, some 800 miles southwest of Spain and 100 miles west of Morocco on the African continent.

They came to this place called Louisiana  --  this flat, featureless land of marshes, bayous, swamps and prairies  --  a place so very different from their homeland.

They were military men, freshly recruited soldiers of the newly established Second Battalion of the Fixed Louisiana Regiment. Earning their pay, they captured Baton Rouge from the British in 1779; they captured Mobile in 1780, and Pensacola in 1781.  In the story of America's fight for Independence, these soldiers justifiably earned a place of honor.  They were pioneer farmers - tamers of the land and cultivators of the soil.

Equally deserving of recognition and a place of special honor were the Women -- the wives, the mothers -- keepers of the hearth, Women who shared the hardships and joys, who bore the children and who reared and nurtured them.

In our research, we are fortunate to have access to the detailed records, penned by Spanish clerks and administrators more than 200 years ago, among which are a series of ledger books called Libros Maestros.

In Valenzuela, the Libro Maestro dates from 1779, and lists 113 family groups, including 3 widows and 9 orphaned girls, for a total count of about 400 souls.

The very first name appearing in that Libro Maestro was Francisco Gonzales Carbo, with his wife and 9 children - 11 family members in all.  It is no wonder that this family name is so well known to us all.

Many Canary Islanders prospered...  But not all.  Those in Galveztown were not so fortunate.

The recruit Antonio Alonso set sail from Santa Cruz de Tenerife on October 28, 1778 aboard the frigate San Ignacio de Loyola, with his wife Rita and their 5 year old son, Antonio.  Rita was two months pregnant when they began the voyage.

She must have been a strong woman.  A sea voyage, pregnant, but with a spirit full of Hope.  They arrived at New Orleans in early January, 1779, and they were among 28 families of the San Ignacio  who ascended the Mississippi River to Galveztown, a newly established frontier settlement at the confluence of Iberville's Bayou Manchak and the Amite River, directly across from contentious British territory.  The Alonso family would be part of the Galveztown settlement, and the elder Antonio would hope to wear the uniform of Bernardo de Galvez's Second Louisiana Infantry Battalion.

The Alonso family was enrolled on the pages of the Libro Maestro, and from these pages from Galveztown we read the following notations:
 "On May 27, 1779 was born a daughter.
 "On the 8th of July, 1779 the son died;
"On the 25th of July, 1779 the daughter died;
 And then lastly we read,

"All the remaining individuals of this family died on the 2nd and the 16th of September, 1779...."  Only 11 months after Antonio Alonso and his family sailed, they were all gone.  Vanquished Hope!  Sic transit gloria mundi.

The old settlement at Barataria has all but disappeared, returned now to its original moss and palmetto, but its cultural legacy to us is a small, languid bayou, remembered to this day as Bayou des Familles  -  "Bayou of the Families"  -  in recognition of the Canarian families that once inhabited its banks.  Ironically the name of the bayou is in French.

From the settlements of San Bernardo and Tierra de los Bueyes in St. Bernard parish, those early Isleños bequeathed to us their Spanish language, which they passed along to their children and their children's children.  They perpetuated the old stories, and they sang their decimas - those distinctive songs of a particular form and meter that celebrate life.  The Isleños of St. Bernard, above all, have been "keepers of the flame", where that glowing ember of "Spanishness" has continued to smolder for more than 200 years.

And back to the settlement of Valenzuela - along the banks of Bayou Lafourche des Chetimaches - where we are today.

We have come here, this October 7th, 2000, to this old venerable parish cemetery of the Church of the Ascension, in Donaldsonville, Louisiana, to dedicate and bless this beautiful monumental stone.  And in so doing, let us also call upon our Isleño ancestors - those bold immigrants - for their blessing upon us and our families;  and we pray that their strengths and virtues will continue to pour down upon us, their lineal descendants and heirs of their blood - upon us here, who, in their time, were the Hope for which they prayed.


Colonial Louisiana History and Genealogy
Sent by Johanna De Soto
Many many Links, these are just a few. . . of the Archives and Libraries
Archival Research Repositories in New Orleans 
Center for Louisiana Studies - USL 
Many reels of film abstracted, including some 
from French Archives, Spanish Archives; Kaskaskia and Upper Mississippi Records 
from Illinois State Archives 

Louisiana State Library 
Online interlibrary loan and searching for your Louisiana ancestors 

751 Chartres St. 
New Orleans, LA 70176-2448 
Phone: 504-568-8214  Fax: 504-568-2678 
Kathryn Page, Curator of Maps and Manuscripts 
appointment preferred. Holdings include records of the French Superior Council (1704-1769) and Spanish judicial records (1769-1803). Also, 
social, political, economic, medical conditions 
of Louisiana, 18th-century to the present. 

National Archives of Canada 
They offer a free publication "Tracing your Ancestors in Canada" available online. 
National Archives (US) Genealogy Page 

Mississippi State Historical Text Archive Online 
Missouri State Archives 
French and Spanish Land Grants 1790-1803 

New Orleans Catholic Archdiocese Archives 
Room B-4, Civil District Courts Building 
421 Loyola Ave.  New Orleans LA 70112 
Phone: 504-868-8577 Fax: 504-568-8599 
Housed here are notorial records from 1731 to date and many colorful maps, blueprints, topographical elevations, and design drawings. 

New Orleans Public Library 
St. Louis Public Library 
Lots of books on Ft. Chartres, Colonial Louisiana, etc. See "Research Tips" below if you are planning a visit. 
Tulane University Special Collections Home Page 
University of Missouri - Merlin Catalog Search 

First Families of the Colony of Louisiana
First Families 
d'Iberville's 1697 List of Engagees 
Roll of Recruits at Biloxi 1699-1700 
The Pelican Girls 
The Marriages of the Pelican Girls 
The Saucier Family Links to Other First Families 
David, Menard, Detroismaison, Marchand Families

Ladner and Ladnier 
Randall Ladnier's page of descendants of Louis Christian Ladner and Marie Barbe Brunel 
Trepagniers in Louisiana 
Luc Trepagnier's page of descendants of Claude Trepagnier and Genvieve Burel

Indians Decry Lewis and Clark Re-Creation
by Joe Kafka, Associated Press Writer, Sep 24, 2004

Sent by John Inclan

FORT THOMPSON, S.D. - A project by a team of history buffs to retrace Lewis and Clark's expedition has proved historically accurate in at least one respect: The adventurers have encountered hostile Indians.

A group of about 25 Indians told the expedition members to turn their boats around and go home last week as they made their way up the Missouri River near Chamberlain, where the rolling prairie opens to a grand vista on the lofty banks of the river.

The Indians condemned the re-enactors for celebrating a journey that marked the beginning of the end for traditional Indian culture.

The confrontation was laced with threatening language, according to the man who portrays Capt. Meriwether Lewis.

"They crossed the line with threats of physical violence and damage to our boats," Scott Mandrell, a teacher from Illinois, said this week as police watched over the re-enactors' camp from a bay nearby.

The Indians were led by Alex White Plume of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, who said they wanted to make the point that the re-enactment is glorifying the westward expansion that resulted in broken treaties, genocide and the loss of Indian lands.

"Lewis and Clark brought the death and destruction of our way of life," White Plume said Thursday from his home in Manderson, where he raises buffalo, horses and industrial hemp.

The modern-day explorers began their expedition on Aug. 23 in St. Charles, Mo., to mark the journey's bicentennial.

Just as Meriwether Lewis and William Clark did 200 years ago, the 33-man, modern-day crew wears 1800s-era garb, cooks under an open fire, and has fished for some of their food. They paddle part of the way, but fire up the engines of their replica 55-foot keelboat and two smaller boats when the current gets too strong.

Camped along the shore here Wednesday, four days after the encounter and about 50 miles upriver, Norman Bowers said he was surprised by the Indians' reaction — especially after the group received a warm reception during the first 900 miles of its trip.

"We did not expect to be treated in the fashion that we were," said Bowers, keeping dry under a canvas awning during a steady drizzle as several large pots of coffee simmered over an open flame.

The Indians said they will continue peaceful protests during the re-enactment, and expedition members said they will not alter their northwesterly course.

The journey will end for the season on Nov. 4 near Bismarck, N.D., then resume next year. The history buffs hope the re-enactment will provide a public forum for both the significance of Lewis and Clark's explorations and the eventual effect on Indians.

Jay D. Vogt, director of the South Dakota Historical Society, said Indians generally have dim views about the Lewis and Clark expedition, and he noted that the modern-day encounter occurred close to where the original expedition nearly had a fight with the Teton Sioux after exchanging angry words in the fall of 1804.

"It did change the destiny of all people on the North American continent," he said. "Most people involved with the Lewis and Clark bicentennial use the word `commemorate' instead of celebrate because American Indian people can easily make the case that it isn't a celebration for them."

Forty tribal governments belong to an advisory group for the National Council of the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial, and they have endorsed the re-enactment journey as a means of spreading the Indian perspective on exploration of the West, said Sammye Meadows, cultural awareness coordinator for the council.

"The consequences of what happened after the Lewis and Clark expedition have been very severe in Indian country," she said. "This is a shared history."  White Plume said he is not convinced that the re-enactors are the best choice to relate Indian history.

"I believe they are honorable men, but what they represent is irritating," he said. "How can we allow Lewis and Clark to tell our story when they're the ones who brought death and genocide to our people?"

Jon Ruybalid, a Nebraska lawyer who has spent several weeks as a crewman on the re-enactment journey, said tribes all along the route were asked in advance for permission to land and none refused. He acknowledged that many injustices were committed against Indians, but added: "We're not Lewis and Clark. We are a group of volunteers."



Brief Report on DC trip
Senator Orrin Hatch, "The Dream Act"
Senator Orrin Hatch,
Washington Hispanic
Public School Failure

Editor: My husband accompanied me for a very full week in Washington, D.C.  Board member Yolanda Ochoa and her husband, Steve Hussey were also involved in many of these activities. 
A full report will be in the December issue. 

September 30th: (a) Pentagon, Hispanic Heritage Program presenter
                          (b) National Hispanic/Latino American Agenda Issues Board Meeting 
October 1-2: Presenter, Hispanics in the Formation of the American People National 
                     National Archives and Records Administration
October 3: Visited the National Museum of the American Indians, WWII Memorial, Holocaust,
                  Islamic Art of Spain 
              4:  Tour of the Library of Congress, Congress, Senate and House
              5:  (a) White House, American Museum of Art
                   (b) Meet with some members of the Smithsonian Latino Initiative staff, 
                        Black-Latino information shared
              6:  U.S. Senate Task Force on Hispanic Affairs, Mini-presentation

"The DREAM Act" 

The legislation, known as "The DREAM Act" is sponsored by Senators Orrin Hatch (R-UT) and Richard Durbin (D-IL). Senator Hatch was the originator of the concept.  He has been gaining bi-partisan support.

Specifically, The DREAM Act would:  Provide undocumented students the opportunity to gain conditional permanent resident status provided they: 
(a) have lived in the US for at least 5 years and were under the age of 16 at the time of entry;
(b) have graduated from high school or been accepted to a college or institution of higher education; 
(c) are of good moral character;
(d) are not deportable on account of a criminal conviction, alien smuggling or document fraud.

Permit undocumented students to convert their conditional status to that of a lawful permanent resident provided that they do one of the following: 

(a) obtain a diploma from a junior college or trade school;
(b) complete at least two years of a bachelor's or graduate program;
(c) join the Armed Forces and if discharged, be honorably discharged; or
(d) perform part or full time volunteer community service under the direction of the USA Freedom Corps or with an entity eligible to receive funds from the Combined Federal Campaign. 

For those who cannot fulfill these requirements, they would need to demonstrate both a compelling reason why they cannot meet the requirements, and exceptional and extremely unusual hardship if they were removed from the United States.

To become a lawful permanent resident, the applicants must remain persons of good moral character, not be a public charge during the period of conditional residence, or violate any of the criteria initially required to obtain conditional resident status.

In California, many of the students who would benefit from the legislation are children of parents who have already been granted amnesty and are waiting for their adjustment of status applications to be adjudicated. Others are children of migrant farm workers. The majority of the students consider California their home and are expected to become citizens.

The Songs and Lyrics of Senator Orrin Hatch

Most people are not aware of the fact that Senator Hatch has written the lyrics to many, many songs.  In collaboration with a well known Utah composer, Janice Kapp Perry, they have produced the following albums:
How His Glory Shines
America United
Heal Our Land
The Locket
Like a River
Freedom's Light
Many Different Roads
My God is Love
Put Your Arms 
         Around the World
I have four albums myself,  two patriotic and two spiritual.  Heal Our Land, I think it is my favorite, thus far, especially the song entitled Heal Our Land. It is difficult not to get a lump in your throat.  It is a beautiful prayer.  You can hear samples from the selections at 

Washington Hispanic
, Spanish language
Sent by Carlos Vega
Information of Washington, Maryland, and Virginia,  variety of topics both metro and national. 

Public School Failure
by Paul M. Weyrich
Sent by
Odell Harwell

If the students at Washington, D.C.'s Eastern High School think hard about what happened on their first day of school, it might be the most valuable lesson of the entire school year. If only more students throughout our country could be granted the opportunity to learn such a lesson.

Here's what occurred: The City's cumbersome school department summoned the will -- for once -- to act quickly and decisively in the interest of the public and the students, handing out pink slips to the school's Principal, an Assistant Superintendent of the school system's Senior High School Division, and a staff member in the Office of Information and Technology. Why? Students arrived at Eastern on opening day only to find that there were no class schedules. Schedules should have been prepared by mid-August. Robert C. Rice, Interim Superintendent of Schools, had been led to believe that everything was fine, only to discover early in the morning of the opening day that he had been misled.

Rice expressed an anger heard too rarely from school officials in Washington, a system that has become notorious for excusing inefficiency and incompetence. "The school leaders who allowed this unacceptable situation to transpire failed not only my team, but [they also failed] the students and parents of D.C. public schools who rely on us. There is no remediation for this kind of failure," he said.

 P. Greene, Senior Fellow with the Manhattan Institute's Education Research Office, recently told the Rocky Mountain News that after adjusting for inflation the rate of spending per-pupil on K-12 education has doubled over the last thirty years. Despite the increased investment, student achievement has failed to make corresponding leaps in improvement. Greene insisted: "Nobody can function in the private sector without in fact improving their productivity, getting more out of their resources all the time. In education we're doing the opposite, getting no more even though we're spending a lot more." Greene and Manhattan Institute Research Associate Marcus A. Winters estimate, based on U.S. Department of Education estimates for 2001-2002 and adjusted inflation rates, that $10,000 per pupil annually is spent by public education.

The failure to achieve high standards in public schools can be measured in more personal terms, however. Take the recent study conducted by David N. Figlio, Professor of Economics at the University of Florida, and Maurice E. Lucas, Director of Research and Assessment for the public school system of Alachua County, Florida, that was published in the Spring 2004 edition of Education Next. They discovered that only 9% of the students who received A's from their teachers received a correspondingly excellent score on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Fifty percent received the equivalent of a "B" on the test. Even worse, the overwhelming majority of "C" students failed to match that level of competency on the test.

Figlio and Lucas also concluded that teachers demanding higher standards often motivate low-achieving students to perform better academically. Parents tend to become more involved in helping their children with their schoolwork when their child has a more demanding teacher. However, the researchers reported that one "intriguing finding from this survey is that parents do not perceive tougher teachers to be better teachers...Parents were 50 percent more likely to assign a grade of B or below to a tough teacher than to a relatively easy teacher."

Students who have easy grading teachers and incompetent administrators in their K-12 education, very likely encountering similarly low caliber professionals and standards in college, are likely to be in for some severe shocks upon entering the workforce. They then will be expected to have the skills necessary to achieve results. Unfortunately, the current state of American public schools too frequently fails to provide the competent, demanding instructors and the necessary level of instruction that can help students reach acceptable standards of proficiency. Parents either fail to recognize the lack of quality instructors and standards in their children's schools and demand more or they are willing to overlook mediocrity.

It was reported last year that approximately forty percent of Georgia students who earned a Hope Scholarship in 2000 to attend a public university in the state ended up losing it after completing a year's worth of work, based upon their failure to perform at a satisfactory academic level. In Nevada, nearly a third of the students who received scholarships to attend public universities need remedial classes.


Guerrero Viejo
Cathedral of Monterrey 1667-1781
Encomiendas de Yucatan
Granjenal, Michoacan
Orientalism in Mexican Art 
REFORMA newspaper 
Retablo robado en Tochimilco
Descendants from Chiautla, Puebla 
El Nahuali "Demonio o Brujo"
Colonial Tlalpujahua, Michoacán
Age & Marriage in Colonial Mexico
La Familia de la Mota
Archivo de Notarias
Continuation of the CANALES family


Guerrero Viejo: Old Mexican town may soon be re-submerged  

Old Mexican town may soon be re-submerged [Guerrero Viejo]
Travis M. Whitehead, McAllen Monitor / October 3, 2004

GUERRERO VIEJO — Scrub growth, cactus and mesquite push their way through the crumbling sandstone walls of structures ravaged by progress. Guerrero Viejo, established in the 1750s, was once a vibrant city known for its fine lace and embroidery. However, it was relocated in the 1950s when Falcon Dam was built, and the reservoir slowly flooded the town. Residents rebuilt Guerrero Nuevo a few miles away, and many believed the town was lost to history. 

The recent rains have begun pushing the levels of Falcon Lake back up, and Wednesday morning a finger of water, reaching in from the lake like a slow, efficient virus, lay still about 50 feet from the old church, already covering half the town. 

Glenn Housley, a regional history buff, has given numerous presentations on the old town and its skilled inhabitants. 

"They would make embroidery and lace, beautiful special lace, stuff for doilies, weddings," said Housley, 80. "My understanding is that the mother of the bride-to-be would bring in the group in the wedding party and they would stay at the Las Flores Hotel. It took many days of choosing the material and fitting everybody." 

Housley said Guerrero Viejo became so renowned for its lace work that, at one time, any lace not made in that city was considered "junk." 

There is another reality lingering in the rough gravel streets, imposing walls and stone fireplaces. Many of the stone doorways have curious keystones built into the top, and the buildings themselves, so solidly built, have an Old World appearance. 

Housley said the town’s Spanish colonial architecture was brought by immigrants from Spain where they had been strongly influenced by the Moors of Africa. The Moors ruled parts of Spain for several hundred years before Spain overthrew them in the late 1400s. 

Many of the original settlers of Guerrero Viejo who built the city, he said, were of Jewish ancestry. They brought the Moorish influence with them. "These people were skilled and knowledgeable," he said. "They looked for a place that had the kind of stone they needed. They found a little hill and they created a quarry." 

Housley said he hoped those in charge of controlling the lake levels would avoid flooding the historic city again.   "They are aware and conscious of the treasure that lives in that," he said. "If they are in a position to do so, they would protect that. We don’t want to lose it if there’s any way in the world." 

Travis M. Whitehead covers Mission, Starr County, and general assignments for The Monitor. You can reach him at (956) 683-4452.   SOURCE: Dennis V. Carter

Cathedral of Monterrey years 1667-1781.

Arq. Jose Francisco Garza Carrillo has just completed extractions of marriage records of the "Cathedral of Monterrey years 1667-1781"..  He extracted each marriage entry verbatim and includes page number where one can locate the marriage record.  The book is an excellent piece, hardbound, and now available for sale .  Cost is $50 dollars plus shipping.

You may contact Jose Garza Carrillo ("Pepe") at the following e-mail addresses:
Telephone at home:  011-52-81 83-40-31-28 or  office (011-52-81) 83-50-42-42

This book will be a wonderful reference source for any family historian or genealogist.  If you have a genealogy buff in your family, this would make an excellent gift for Christmas.  Also consider donating a copy to your local library as it will be worth your investment and certainly appreciated by many in the future.

(If you are a Gaspar Garcia descendant, you will find his first marriage in this book along with his and Tomasa Sanchez's parents' name.  Please note that when an entry states:  CASE Y VELE, the priest is telling us this is the first marriage for that person.  If it doesn't say that, then the individual has been married before.  

Have a great day,  Mira Smithwick

PhD Juan Pablo Alvarez Guedea
León, Gto.


Este trabajo abarca la paleografía y resumen de todos los documentos sobre encomiendas que pertenecían a Yucatán, Campeche y Tabasco en los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII que se encuentran en los archivos de España.

En el texto siguiente encontrarán la muestra de una encomienda (más tres que se publicaron en el número anterior) en la que incluyo los siguientes datos: el nombre de la encomienda (normalmente con faltas de ortografía por no conocer los nombres exactos en lengua maya), los datos del documento original, la fecha en que se realizó el documento (la original de la realización del documento y posteriormente la fecha con la que se inventarió en el Archivo), los datos del encomendero con sus méritos, y si es que existen, los datos de la familia del encomendero (lo más importante para los genealogistas y que es un tesoro en estos documentos), así como los datos del encomendero anterior, quien normalmente había fallecido.

Este trabajo, que seguramente tendrá muchos errores, lo hago a manera de tener un compendio de datos sobre la sociedad yucateca en la colonia, y con el fin inicial de poder complementar la genealogía de los mismos.

En dichos documentos se encuentran situaciones importantes (que tal vez no están en los ejemplos que puse), como reseñas sobre los piratas (Ej. Francisco Draque - o Francis Drake), conquistadores de Chile, Perú, Nueva España, etc., conquistadores, militares, clérigos, etc., pero sobre todo de la historia Yucateca, gobernadores y pobladores importantes de cada ciudad o villa.


Otorgamiento de la Encomienda de Hunalku en Valladolid, Yucatán en 1657 
a el Maestre de Campo don Pedro de Azcárraga

Encomienda de Hunalku en Valladolid, Yucatán, a 24 de noviembre de 1657.

Ante don Francisco de Bazán, del consejo de su Majestad en su Tribunal Mayor de Cuentas, Gobernador y Capitán General por el Rey en las provincias de Yucatán, Cozumel y Tabasco. Ante don Pedro Díaz del Valle, don Jerónimo de Ortega Arana, escribano público. Ante don Cristóbal de Guzmán y don Antonio Muñoz.

Siendo testigos el capitán Diego Moreno de Andrada, el padre Juan Sánchez de la Seña, el sargento mayor Diego de Burgos Cansino, Diego del Granado Baeza, y el sargento Salvador Polanco, vecinos de la villa de Valladolid, donde se encontraba la encomienda.

Archivo: Archivo General de Indias
Código de Referencia: ES.41091.AGI/16403.13.245//MEXICO,244,N.34
Fecha(s): [c] 1664-03-11


El Maestre de Campo don Pedro de Azcárraga, vecino de la ciudad de Mérida, quien al momento de la solicitud se encontraba en la Nueva España por asuntos de la provincia de Yucatán, y quien como su procurador general había servido a su majestad en diversos puestos y ocupaciones tanto de paz como de guerra, así en el otro reino de la Nueva España como en la ciudad de Manila e islas Filipinas, así como en la provincia de Yucatán, siendo primero alférez de infantería de las compañías de socorro que despachó a Filipinas el señor virrey Marqués de Cerralbo en el año de 1627, donde sirvió en la ciudad de Manila, especialmente en la ocasión cuando bajo las ordenes del gobernador Joan Niño de Tabora se embarcara en la conquista de la isla Hermosa, y después en los galeones que fueran a la ciudad de Macán en guardia de los navíos de ella, y otros servicios de su majestad a cargo del capitán don Juan de Arcarazo, que en la otra armada sirvió ocho meses, ocupándose de recorrer toda aquella costa y apresando algunos bageles del enemigo con el que peleara en diversas ocasiones. Y volviendo a la Nueva España, don Pedro de Azcárraga fue por segunda vez alférez de infantería española en la ciudad de San Juan de Ulua, y dada la satisfacción que por sus servicios tenía el Marqués de Cerralbo, le nombró capitán de infantería española de la gente de guerra que se condujo y levantó en la ciudad de la Puebla de los Angeles en el año de 1633 para dirigirse a las Islas Filipinas, conduciendo a la gente al puerto de Acapulco con no pocas incomodidades, y el mismo año el virrey le ordeno llevara dos compañías a su cargo hasta la villa de Cuernavaca o al puerto de Acapulco, si no encontrase a la persona a quien había de entregarlas. Posteriormente fue vuelto a enviar al puerto de Acapulco como juez de residencia, para tomarla al general y almirante de las Naos de China, y a los demás oficiales y ministros de guerra, y gente de mar, satisfaciendo las necesidades de comisión tan importante, por lo que el virrey le nombrara por alcalde mayor de los pueblos de Coacomán, con titulo de capitán de guerra de aquellas provincias y costas del mar del Sur, y ante sus buenos servicios el virrey Marqués de Cadereyta le prorrogó el cargo de alcalde mayor, y en la residencia que se tomara de él no se le encontró culpa ni cargo, sino que se le calificó de buen juez. Don Pedro de Azcárraga pasó posteriormente a las provincias de Yucatán, en tiempos que gobernara el señor Maestre de Campo don Esteban de Azcárraga, su hermano, quien le nombrara así mismo Maestre de Campo de las provincias de Yucatán, oficio que sirvió con total satisfacción de los señores gobernadores y capitanes generales, siendo además heredero de todos los méritos de su hermano don Esteban de Azcárraga, quien sirviera primeramente como soldado, quien dados sus servicios llegara heroicamente hasta el puesto de Maestre de Campo, dados los servicios y méritos que tuvo en Cataluña y otros puestos de mucha reputación, hasta ser gobernador de las provincias de Yucatán, donde muriera recibiendo muchas heridas en uno de los encuentros que tuvo en la guerra.

Por medio de don Juan Jiménez de Rivera, quien fuera teniente de capitán general y alcalde ordinario de la ciudad de Mérida, y encomendero de indios, por poder de Pedro de Azcárraga.


Pedro de Azcárraga fue esposo legítimo de doña Catalina de Salazar, quien era bisnieta legítima del capitán Gonzalo Nieto, uno de los más principales conquistadores y pacificadores de aquellas provincias, llegando a conquistarlas en el puesto de alférez de infantería española, siendo su bandera la primera que arboló en dicha provincia, y en consideración a los muchos méritos que hizo, y por ser persona noble, el adelantado Francisco de Montejo le nombró cabo de muchos soldados, además de que pagó 450 pesos por una yegua, precio altamente excesivo, y que pagó dada la alta necesidad que tenía de ella para servir a su majestad, y fue tan cuidadoso con sus soldados, que estando la mayoría de ellos enfermos por el nuevo clima, buscó bastimentos entre los indios rebeldes en compañía de cinco soldados, con gran riesgo de su vida. Y habiendo poblado el puerto de Campeche, el adelantado Montejo le nombró por su teniente de capitán general, y habiendo servido un tiempo en dicho cargo, y en consideración a sus servicios, el adelantado Montejo lo llevó consigo a la Nueva España en busca de navíos y municiones para continuar la conquista de Yucatán, donde el dicho capitán Gonzalo Nieto fue nombrado por capitán de dos navíos para la conquista de Tabasco, logrando su conquista y pacificación, siendo nombrado el dicho capitán Gonzalo Nieto, por alcalde mayor de la misma, y después por teniente general, dada la gran confianza que le tenía el adelantado, por su experiencia, prudencia y pericia militar, quedándose a residir en la dicha provincia, comportándose como hijodalgo notorio que era, y antes de haber servido en Indias, sirvió a su majestad el emperador Carlos V en las luchas que hubo contra los franceses que saquearon a Fuenterrabía, en cuyo socorro fue por soldado bajo las órdenes de don Beltrán de la Cueva, donde sirvió hasta que el enemigo fue desbaratado y la ciudad liberada, además sirvió como soldado contra los comuneros el la batalla que el almirante y condestable de Castilla les dio en Villalar, donde los venció y desbarató.

Así mismo dona Catalina de Salazar fue nieta legítima del capitán Martín Nieto, hijo del capitán Gonzalo Nieto, el cual siempre asistió con sus armas, criados y caballos a la defensa de la provincia de Tabasco en la villa de la Victoria, infestada continuamente de enemigos, donde fuera teniente general y administrador de la Real Hacienda, oficios de los que dio muy buena cuenta, continuando los oficios de su padre, cuya nieta legítima fue doña Catalina Nieto Sarmiento, madre de la otra doña Catalina de Salazar, esposa legítima del licenciado Gaspar León de Salazar, antiguo poblador de la ciudad de Mérida, quien fuera nombrado en cinco ocasiones por teniente de gobernación, y además ejerciera los oficios de alcalde ordinario y procurador general, además de haber sido asesor de los señores obispos, abogado de los naturales y juez de bienes de difuntos. De los numerosos servicios que prestara el licenciado Gaspar León de Salazar, el más importante fue el de haber conservado y asegurado a su majestad aquella provincia, cuya ruina fuera a ciertas si el otro licenciado León de Salazar con comisión y orden que tuvo del señor Antonio de Vozmendiano, no hubiera apresado en la villa y puerto de Campeche, a Andrés Cocom, indio principal, desterrado a la Nueva España por el doctor Diego García de Palacios, visitador general de aquella, provincia por alborotador en ella, el cual quebrantando el destierro, secretamente trató de sublevarla, convocando a muchos principales y caciques de diversos pueblos, que conjurados tenían dispuesto matar a todos los españoles, y extinguir la cristiandad de aquellas provincias, intitulándose rey el otro Andrés Cocom, y sabiendo de la confabulación, el licenciado León de Salazar fue a la villa de Campeche con gente de guerra pagada a su costa, sosegando a los indios alborotados, prendiendo al dicho Andrés Cocom, rey intruso, y a sus cómplices, y les degolló poniendo sus cabezas en los caminos, para temor de los demás naturales que con tan justo ejemplo se sosegaran. Ante lo anterior, el gobernador Vozmendiano estimó y agradeció mucho al licenciado León de Salazar por servicio tan considerable.


Don Lucas Bernardo de Rivera, muerto el 10 de octubre de 1657, dato que recibiera el gobernador Bazán por carta del capitán don Sancho del Puerto, Alcalde Ordinario y Teniente de Capitán General de la villa de Valladolid, de donde era vecino el difunto.

Granjenal, Michoacan
Sent by Rodrigo Leon

Una de las tradiciones mas grandes de la raza de granjenal son los jaripeos. Jinetes de Granjenal y otros lugares sercanos partcipan cada ano. 

Este ano, el equipo de Granjenal hiso buen papel en el torneo de el Dia 12 de Diciembre. 

Orientalism in Mexican Art by Rubén Gallo
Conference in Wroclaw, Poland - June 1999

Sent by Johanna De Soto

In 1888, the US. Government in an effort to halt the wave of Asian immigration to the State of California, decided to suspend work permits for Chinese immigrants. Immediately, the Chinese population in Mexico began to grow: hundreds and hundreds of Chinese workers settled near the border in the hope that the law of the United States would eventually change and allow them in. This is what gave rise to the huge Chinese quarters of Mexicali, Mazatlán, Tampico, and Chihuahua. By 1910, Torreón had the most numerous and prosperous Chinese community, many of whose members were proprietors of shops and enterprises that displayed signs such as, "Port of Shanghai," "Wing Hay Lum Groceries," "Oriental Laundry," "Wah Yick Bank:' Many of these shops were located on "Chee King Tong Street." 

In spite of their prosperity, the Chinese were not well liked in Torreón. The poor ones, willing to work for a pittance, were accused of undercutting Mexican wages and the wealthy ones of employing only their countrymen and of sending their profits back to China. Resentment and hostility mounted until the disorders of the Revolution touched off an explosion: on May 15, 1911, Madero's troops took the city by surprise. Amidst the confusion and chaos, the mob attacked the Chinese businesses. There was sacking, mayhem, and innumerable killings that culminated in a massacre that took the lives of three hundred Chinese. Anti–Chinese prejudice became one of the most terrible effects of the intense nationalism fostered by the post–revolutionary government: mass deportations of Chinese were carried out in the twenties; in 1930, a law was passed which prohibited marriage between Mexican women and Chinese men; and in the years that followed, ultra-nationalistic organizations were founded with names like the "Executive Committee of the National Anti-China Campaign" (composed of representatives of the legislatures of Sonora and Sinaloa), the "Anti–Chinese Committee of the Port of Veracruz"; and the Mexican Anti–China League" of Chiapas. José Angel Espinoza, one of the most violent of the anti–Chinese, published a series of pamphlets bearing such titles as "The Chinese Problem In Mexico" (1931) and "The Example of Sonora" (1932) which proposed strategies for the "deschinatización de Mexico" [cleansing Mexico of Chinese]. 

Free subscription  REFORMA newspaper

Para obtener tu acceso, por favor sigue las instrucciones que aparecen en el recuadro verde.
Sent by Carmen Boone de Aguilar             
Descendants from Chiautla, Puebla Sought!!

Daniel Enriquez writes: I am not a professional; have an MA from New York University in Latin American & Caribbean Studies; work at Morgan Stanley (financial services firm).  Research is of my family - mostly Spanish ranchers/merchants and their descendants in Chiautla, Puebla and surrounding areas/states; so interested in making contact with anyone doing similar research (distant and not so distant cousins) and sharing information without charge.

Most research is of espanoles (criollos) (90%), but also includes some castizos, mestizos, indios; mid 1600s to present; ~3,500 individuals. Surnames include but not limited to:

AvilaAvilaBarreraCalderonCaleraCalveloCanongoCantoranCardonaCardosoCaro del Castillo Carrasco CarrilloCastilloCastroCastroChavarriaCorichiCoronelCortez de  GuadalupeCrespoCruz CurielDelgado DiazDiaz de OlivanDominguezEcheverriaEnriquezEspinosaEstradaFierroFloresFlores de Arroyo Flores MillanFuentesGalindoGalvezGarciaGarcia de NajeraGonzalezGonzalez de Amigon Guerrero GuevaraGusmanHernandezHerreraIbarraJimenezLeiteLeonLeonLinarteLunaMacareno
MadridMalpicaMalpuestaManzanoMarinMarquezMarquinaMartinezMedinaMercadoMillanMillan FloresMillan SarinanaMirandaMolinaMontealegreNajeraNavaNino de RiveraOcampoOchoaOlivan OliveraOmanaOreaOropezaOrtizPachecoPantaleonPardoPatronPeres de AgueroPerez de Oropesa PitaPlacenciaPliegoPoncePriegoQuintanaQuinteroQuirozRamirezRebolledoRendonReyesRios
RodriguezRomanoRomeroRosaRosendoRuizRuiz PachecoSalazarSaldivarSalgado Sanches SarinanaSerranoSorianoSosaSuritaTapiaTorresTurijano UmanaValenciaValle y LunaVergaraYbarra 

Mostly research is from San Agustin Parish, Chiautla de Tapia, State of Puebla (80%) and also includes but is not limited to Cathedral of Puebla (Sagrario Metropolitano), and San Jose and San Marcos Parishes, Puebla de Zaragoza, Santa Maria de la Natividad Parish, Atlixco, Santa Maria Parish, Izucar de Matamoros, San Francisco Parish, Chietla, San Pedro Parish, Cholula de Rivadabia, San Martin Parish, Huaquechula, San Nicolas Parish, Huehuetlan El Chico, Santa Maria Parish, Jolalpan, Santa Maria de la Asuncion Parish, Piaxtla, El Sagrario, Tehuacan, San Miguel Parish, Tilapa, La Asuncion Parish, Tecamachalco, State of Puebla; Cathedral of Mexico (Asuncion) and Santa Veracruz Parish, Mexico, D.F., El Sagrario, Chilapa, San Miguel Parish, Cualac, Santa Maria de la Asuncion Parish, Huamuxtitlan, San Francisco Parish, Olinala, and also Alpoyeca, Buenavista de Cuellar, Chilapa, Chilpancingo, State of Guerrero, El Sagrario, Toluca de Lerdo, and also Tecualaya and Tenancingo, State of Mexico; San Francisco Parish, Amacuzac, San Juan Evangelista Parish, Xochitepec, San Pedro Parish, Jantetelco, and also Jonacatepec, Cuautla, Yautepec, State of Morelos; Cathedral of Oaxaca (Sagrario Metropolitano), Oaxaca de Juarez, El Sagrario, Huajuapam de Leon, San Pedro and San Pablo Parish, Teposcolula, San Pedro and San Pablo Parish, Tequictepec, State of Oaxaca and La Inmaculada Concepcion, Cordoba, State of Veracruz.

Daniel Enriquez
Morgan Stanley 
1585 Broadway, New York, NY 10036 
Phone: +1 212 7586

El Nahuali "Demonio o Brujo"
Carlos Manuel Aguirre
Sent by Johanna De Soto

En el estado de Sinaloa se encuentra un pequeño rancho, cerca de Mocorito, conocido por el Valle. La tierra es prodiga, es allí el sostén directo de todos: las mujeres la transforman en loza de diversas formas y tamaños, en grandes ollas que llenan de agua limpia y fresca en el cristalino arroyo, y llevándolas sobre la cabeza, adquieren las mozas cierta elegancia y esbeltez; los hombres la cultivan y obtienen la mazorca bien granada o la cana blanca y dulce para la molienda de Julio Gallardo, de donde sale panocha blanca y buena.

En el valle la gente es sencilla y supersticiosa, como ocurre con casi todas las rancherías de nuestro estado, principalmente las que se encuentran próximas a la sierra. Las noches de invierno , bajo una enramada que protege de las miradas de un cielo tachonado de estrellas , alrededor de una fogata, se reúnen viejos y jóvenes , la mayoría embozados en sus cobijas y con el sombrero de palma hundido hasta las orejas.

Los viejos, entre chupada y chupada de tabaco envuelto en hijas de maíz, relatan o escuchan, junto con los jóvenes, toda clase de historias fantásticas. Hasta los perros echados en la cerca parecen escuchar emocionados los misteriosos relatos. Y cuando un can en la lejanía aúlla a la luna, se comprende que por los alrededores ronda la muerte o el diablo. Los animales por instinto perciben los peligros y hasta las mismas gallinas anuncian con lúgubre cacareo la presencia de la Parca y su guadaña.

Es el diablo que ronda la casa de Marcelina -comenta uno-.
La Marcelina, que tiene fama de bruja, no le teme a los fantasmas, ni a los ruidos que salen de la oscuridad, ni los ruidos que salen de la oscuridad a media noche, o al crujir de huesos y sonar de caderas cuando anda en busca de algún entierro. Su casa esta retirada de las demás y vive completamente sola.

Tal vez el Nahuali anda cerca de las casa comenta uno.
El Nahuali es un animal muy raro, que solo sale por las noches. Unos dicen que es el mismo demonio. Otros , que presumen de enterados, aseguran que es algún brujo que toma esa forma para amedrentar a la gente.

Y así entretejen los mas extravagantes comentarios y se explica como el diablo le teme a un machete mocho o a unas tijeras sin punta.

Lopez un locero de esos lares, fue a Mocorito a comprar algunas cosas que necesitaba. Llevaba dinero para algunos encargos. En Mocosito se bebió todo, hasta lo de los encargos y ya regreso sin nada.

En el trayecto de Mocosito al Valle, existe al lado derecho el camino un cerro en el que se encuentra una gran cueva, cuya entrada siempre esta rodeada de tupida vegetación. 

Cuentase que alguien una vez que pasaba por allí oyó música en aquel sitio y la misma curiosidad lo encamino hacia allá. Se asomo y para sorpresa suya vio varias parejas que danzaban alegremente, vestidas todas con exagerada elegancia. La música era sencillamente maravillosa y pensó que los ricos del pueblo se divertían; mas al bajar la vista descubrió que las madejas y los músicos tenían una pata de gallina y otra de cabra. Ya no pudo ver mas. El pánico se apodero de el, y lo encontraron después tirado a un lado del camino real, temblando de fiebre y con una locura que ya no sano.

Cuando López pasaba frente a la cueva del Diablo, todavía bajo los efectos del licor, se sintió valiente y le grito a Satán: 

Vaa, Diablo, no te tengo miedo, necesito dinero, se iba rebotando acá y allá y se perdía en los confines del bosque, hasta quedar todo, casi en silencio, dejándose oír únicamente ruido de los casdos del caballo al continuar el trote, y de aquí y de allá, que venían de los cerros. Ronco de gritar, se pudo a reflexionar en las disculpas que tendría que dar por haber gastado dinero que ya no era suyo.

Un jinete de brioso corcel fue alcanzado, primero para la mirada de López a la luz de la luna, y luego por el en persona.

Buenas noches ¿Hacia donde se dirige? 
Aquel jinete, elegante de ojos grandes y duros, rostro encendido, hablar melodioso, contesto al saludo de López y luego se enfrascaron en una charla corta.

Si necesitas dinero estoy dispuesto a dártelo, pero naturalmente con una condición tu alma. Ha de ser mía dentro de determinado tiempo. Ponle precio.

López llego loco a su rancho, pero llevaba dinero. Lo encamaron y como el plazo era breve, al poco tiempo era elevado por un remolino que lo llevo lejos, dejándolo caer encima de un vainoral, de donde levantaron su cadáver.

Y así se sigue tejiendo y entretejiendo toda clase de leyendas fantásticas en algunas de nuestras pacificas rancherías, alrededor de fogatas como el Valle. Historias de nahualis y aparecidos se cuentan , que a través destiempo van aumentando en fantasía y metiendo miedo en las almas de las gentes sencillas en el Valle.

Regresa EU retablo robado en Tochimilco
Considera el Procurador Macedo que el hurto pudo ser cometido sólo por contrabandistas profesionales

Por Dora Luz Haw
Grupo Reforma

Ciudad de México (29 septiembre 2004).- Sólo contrabandistas profesionales coludidos con gente que ocupa altos cargos de autoridad en México pudieron robar, trasladar a Estados Unidos, restaurar y ofrecer en venta por internet, un retablo que pesa 200 kilos, mide 2.35 metros de altura y 1.70 metros de ancho, con un espesor de 16 centímetros, acepta Rafael Macedo de la Concha, titular de la Procuraduría General de la República (PGR). 

San Francisco recibiendo los estigmas es el nombre de la pieza virreinal tallada en madera que data de finales del siglo 16 y principios del 17, que fue sustraída ilegalmente del Ex Convento Franciscano de Tochimilco, Puebla, en el 2001, devuelta ayer por Estados Unidos.

El Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) levantó la denuncia de hechos ante la Agencia del Ministerio Público de Atlixco y se integró la averiguación previa 137/D/2004-VIIIA. La Interpol intervino en su rescate y en abril de este año localizó la obra en la Galería Peyton Wright de Santa Fe, Nuevo México, cuyo dueño es John Schaefer, galerista que aseguró no ser propietario directo de la pieza.

Macedo de la Concha afirmó que tanto las autoridades policiacas estadounidenses como las mexicanas realizan una investigación al respecto, pero hasta ahora no se ha localizado a los responsables del robo.

La obra, que fue entregada ayer en las instalaciones de la Agencia Federal de Investigación (AFI) por el Embajador estadounidense en México, Tony Garza, al titular del INAH, Sergio Raúl Arroyo, se encontraba catalogada dentro del Proyecto de Registro de los Bienes Culturales Muebles de 1997.

Teresita Loera, titular de la Coordinación Nacional de Conservación del Patrimonio Cultural del INAH, aseguró que la pieza, que se vendía en 255 mil dólares, fue restaurada en Estados Unidos ya que se le quitaron varias capas de pintura que le daban un color azul, para dejar libre el estofado.

"Se encuentra en buenas condiciones de conservación, en mi opinión fueron expertos quienes limpiaron las capas de pintura. Nosotros haremos análisis químicos y pruebas especiales de solubilidad para identificar cuáles de estas capas pictóricas son recientes y cuáles originales. 

La especialista asegura que en México sólo existen unos seis retablos de alto relieve que tengan características y dimensiones similares al de éste.

De autor anónimo, el relieve representa a San Francisco, reclinado, en posición de tres cuartos de perfil, viendo hacia el cielo, donde un serafín rodeado de nubes y suspendido en el aire, le imprime en el cuerpo las llagas de Cristo.

El director del INAH explicó que en el País existen alrededor de 17 mil iglesias totalmente catalogadas, pero los bienes muebles dentro de ellas aún no son identificados en su totalidad.

"Se ha hecho una labor especial en sitios como Tlaxcala, Puebla, Querétaro y Oaxaca, pero apenas llevamos catalogado alrededor del 25 por ciento. Calculamos que existen 5 millones de piezas dentro de los templos", dice.

De la Concha aseguró que en la AFI hay especialistas en arte sacro y trabajan conjuntamente con Aduanas.

"Sabemos que existen grupos de personas que se dedican a este tipo de saqueos y si somos vulnerables en México, se debe a que el registro es deficiente y en algunos casos ni siquiera existe. Estamos seguros que este tipo de robos se hacen con la complicidad de mucha gente involucrada con personas con altos cargos", agrega.

En la página de internet de la Galería Peyton Wright hay a la venta 17 piezas sacras provenientes de México, como objetos bautismales y una corona de plata del siglo 19 y óleos como el de La Pasión de Cristo del siglo 16.

Records of Colonial Tlalpujahua (Michoacán, Mexico)
(C0867) 1562-1903, bulk 1720-[1830s]
Sent by Johanna De Soto

A Finding Aid Prepared by Heather A. Shannon and Karla J. Vecchia 
Manuscripts Division, Depart. of Rare Books & Special Collections, Princeton Un. Library 1999, 2002

The Records of Colonial Tlalpujahua (Michoacán, Mexico) consists of papers pertaining to the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, as well as miscellaneous papers that document matrimonial and criminal legal cases, land transactions in Tlalpujahua and Toluca, and genealogical information compiled by Austacio Rulfo. Additional papers to the collection include accounts, religious petitions, assorted documents, and correspondence, many pertaining to the Benavides family. 

Historical Background

This collection is comprised of records that document the social and ecclesiastical history of colonial Tlalpujahua (Tlalpuxagua), a town located in the northeast part of what is today Michoacán, Mexico, and its environs. Tlalpuxagua was a jurisdiction within Spain's northernmost viceroyalty of New Spain the Indies. After silver mines were discovered in the vicinity in 1558, Tlalpujahua became a secondary mining center, and as a result the municipality gained its first alcalde mayor of the newly-established Real de Minas de Tlalpuxagua. A considerable indigenous population lived in the region surrounding the town and mines. The ecclesiastical documents pertain to the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, a Franciscan monastery built in Tlalpujahua in 1703. It fell within the Franciscan province of San Pedro y San Pablo de Michoacán (established 1565), whose boundaries overlapped with Diocese of Michoacán. While Franciscans arrived in New Spain as early as 1523, the friars were not active in the jurisdiction of Tlalpuxagua until just after 1538, when a monastery-parish was founded in San Pedro y San Pablo Cinapécuaro. There was a resident diocesan curate at San Pedro y San Pablo Cinapécuaro by 1565. Franciscan activities increased at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries, when mining activity increased in the area. In June 1686 a Third Order Secular of St. Francis was established under the guidance of the friars and, in February 1703, a hospital and the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe were founded.(1) 1.  See Peter Gerhard, A Guide to the Historical Geography of New Spain (London: Cambridge University Press, 1972), Carlos Herrejón Pereda, Tlalpujahua (Morelia, Mexico: Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán, 1980), and Esperanza Ramírez Romero, Catálogo de monumentos y sitios de Tlalpujahua (Mexico: Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán and Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, 1985). 

Scope Note Consists of papers of the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, a Franciscan monastery established in 1703. There are various administrative documents (libros de patentes and libro de inventorio) that date from 1724 to 1849; account ledgers (libros de cargo y descargo) that date from 1719 to 1839; and a significant number of ledgers (a libro de institucion, a libro de determinaciones y constituciones, and several libros de asientos de recepciones y profesiones) belonging to the Third Order Secular of St. Francis that date from 1686 to 1832. There are also miscellaneous ledgers from Tlalpujahua and Toluca that contain information regarding various land transactions and title transfers, last will and testaments, and a ledger regarding a general store (casa de comercio). Moreover, one ledger was used to record legal proceedings during the mid-1740s in matrimonial and criminal cases in Tlalpujahua. In addition, there are papers that belonged to Austacio Rulfo (1820-1903) that trace the genealogies of the Rayón and Rulfo families, relatives of independence leader Ignacio López Rayón. Furthermore, there are additional papers that include account ledgers and accounting documents (receipts, inventories, appraisals, and expenses) (1599-1901); religious petitions (1722-1882); documents relating to estates, houses, land, livestock, and other topics (1660-1898); and correspondence (1774-1901). While the majority of these documents pertain to the Benavides family, some relate to the Third Order Secular of St. Francis, and others to the Rayón and Rulfo families. Arrangement The collection has been arranged in the following series: I. Papers of the Convento de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, Tlalpujahua, Michoacán, Mexico. Franciscan Province of San Pedro and San Pablo of Michoacán-A. Administrative Documents, B. Account Ledgers, C. Third Order Secular of St. Francis; II. Miscellaneous Papers, Tlalpujahua and Toluca; III. Additional Papers-A. Accounts, B. Religious Petitions, C. Other Documents, D. Correspondence. Added Entries The following added entries have been assigned to this collection to highlight significant sources (other than the main entry), subjects, and forms of the collection's materials. Where possible Library of Congress Subjects Headings have been used, and the forms of names reflect international cataloging standards. As a result, all of these entries may be searched in the Department's database (MASC), in the Library's online catalog, and the public card catalog to find other related material.     
Age and Marriage in Colonial Mexico
by Claude Morin
Paper read at the International Conference "Women's Employment, Marriage-Age and Population Change", University of Delhi, Developing Countries Research Center, March 3-5, 1997

[[ Editor's note:
This is only an extract from the introduction. Excellent article concerning social status as it related to work. Definitely suggested to read the whole paper.]]
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Author: My purpose here is more modest. What I offer below is an overview of marriage age, marriage patterns and female employment in colonial Mexico and of how they could be connected. If advances in research cannot compare with what is known about Europe, they are sufficient to warrant this kind of report.

Colonial Mexico (or New Spain, as it was called during three centuries up to 1821) was first and foremost a multiracial society. The ethnic factor had a decisive impact on social hierarchies. Ethnicity has played a major role in the formation of the Mexican people. Hundreds of ethnies coexisted in ancient Mexico. Spaniards were to subsume all of them under one single label, that of "Indios". Negro slaves were soon imported from various parts of Africa. But the group that was to experience the fastest natural growth was that of "Castas", a term that applied to any nonwhite who was not clearly an Indio. The white component considered itself the American counterpart of the noble estate in Spain and sought to behave accordingly. Castas were affected by suspected illegitimacy or slavery in their lineage. Accordingly, contemporaries would distinguish between "mestizos", easily absorbed into the white group, at least at the individual level, and "mulatos", openly scorned upon. Colonial censuses and parish registers usually recorded racial identities. Distinctions based on race were repudiated in 1823, when every one was made a citizen of the new Mexican republic.(3)

There were "many Mexicos". This aphorism must be understood both ethnically and spatially. Mexico is a land of stark contrasts. In terms of population history, the chief contrast opposed the plateau and the coast. Other distinctions arose from south to north. The isthmus of Tehuantepec stands as a great divide within Mesoamerica. Culturally, the southern part of Mexico has been within the domain of Mayan peoples, closer to Guatemala, and it has remained to this day more Indio than any other major areas. The core area, in the axis Acapulco-Mexico-
Veracruz, witnessed the major interactions between indigenous communities and Spanish cities. State and church exercised better control. North of the Lerma river lay open the ancient Chichimec territory. This region was settled by the Spaniards and their Indio allies. Miscegenation occurred there on a larger scale.

This was the general setting in which marriage and employment took place. Both were strongly influenced by racial considerations. Status was a common obsession and it exhibited a strong racial component. Elite sought to preserve and improve status. Ordinary folks hoped to better their lot. Marriage was a major mechanism to move upward in social prestige. Since partners were viewed as a steppingstone in that process, inequality (mainly framed with racial referents) could be an obstacle to marriage, at least for one of the families involved.(4) Because marriage was not
always feasible, other types of unions ran their own parallel course.

As to employment, it was a sign of status for Mexican women not to work. Of course, women dedicated themselves to managing their households, with the help of servants if they belong to the elite, alone otherwise. Housewives oversaw the production of meals and clothing, the purchase of household goods, the care and training of their children, specially their daughters. Widows carried out legal transactions and ran small shops and businesses. Indias were the main provisioners of foodstuffs for the towns. But by work, one means more than housework done for the family inside the home. Contemporaries meant a life-earning occupation, a destino. If upper-class women were not totally idle, they came the closest to the aristocratic ideal of a good life without toiling. Women who worked were those who could not depend on an inheritance, a government pension or an husband. They were either single or widow, or they belonged to a poor household which could not survive without their working outside the home. Not only were they nonélite women, but they usually had Indio, black and mixed racial background. Woman's work was thus associated with widowhood, poverty and low social condition, three features that could often be found in the same person.


Guillermo Padilla Origel

I.-Capitán y Conquistador Don Francisco de la Mota
, regidor en Guadalajara, murió en la guerra del Mixtón, flechado por los indios en 1542, se casó con Doña Catalina de Mena, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

II.-Don Francisco de la Mota y Mena, Doña Antonia de la Mota y Mena, sin datos de sucesión.

II.-Don Gaspar de la Mota y Mena, quien el rey de España entregó blasón en reconocimiento a los méritos de su padre con las palabras latinas "Dulce Mori Pro Rege" casado en primeras nupcias con Doña Bernardina Temiño de Bañuelos, hija del Conquistador Don Pedro Pacho y Doña Ana de Temiño, y fue su hija de Don Gaspar y Doña Bernardina:

Doña Catalina de la Mota y Temiño, casada con Don Diego de Porres Baranda, primer mayorazgo tapatío en 1581

Don Gaspar de la Mota y Mena , se casa en segundas nupcias con Doña Mariana de Vera, hija legítima de Don Juan de Vera , y fue su hija entre otras de Don Gaspar y Doña Mariana:

Doña Ana de la Mota y Vera, casada en Guadalajara, con Don Diego de Padilla Dávila y Temiño de Velasco, hijo legítimo de Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Machicao, oriundo de Jerez de la Frontera, España, co-fundador de Lagos en 1563 y de su esposa Doña Mariana Temiño de Velasco, y fueron sus hijos de Don Diego y de Doña Ana :

1.-Don Gaspar de la Mota y Padilla, Pbro., testó en Guadalajara en 1641

2.-Don Luis de Padilla Dávila y Mota, se casa con Doña Aldonza de Híjar Bracamonte y Meza, y fue su hijo Don Juan de la Mota Padilla e Híjar, y Don luis, tuvo un hijo natural con Isabel Hurtado de Mendoza y fue Don Diego de la Mota, casado con Catalina Cortés Benavides, con numerosa sucesión en los altos de Jalisco.

3.-Don Fernando de Padilla y Mota, sin datos

4.-Doña Leonor de Padilla Dávila y Mota, casada con Don Antonio de León y Gálvez

5.-Don Diego de Padilla Dávila y Mota, corregidor de Ixcatlán, casado con Doña Jerónima de Arteaga, con descendencia en los altos de Jalisco.

6.-Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Mota, nace por 1598 en Guadalajara, se casa en primeras nupcias con Doña Catalina de Híjar y Mesa, y fue su hijo Don Diego de Padilla Dávila e Híjar, casado en Juchipila, con Doña Lucía Flores de la Torre, y fue su hija Doña Ana de Padilla Dávila y Flores de la Torre, casada en 1684 en la villa de León de la Nueva España, con : Don Matias López y Sánchez, oriundo de Guadalupe en Extremadura y fue su hijo entre otros :

a.-Don Matías Ángel López de la Mota Padilla, ilustre escritor e Historiador tapatío, testó el 11 de julio de 1766, y se casó con Doña María Micaela Fernández Cordero y Perea, hija legítima de Manuel e Inés; Don Matías, una vez que enviudó se ordenó sacerdote y fueron sus hijos entre otros de Don Matias y Doña María Micaela:

1.-Doña Mariana Regalado y de la Mota y Padilla, casada en 1762, con Don Juan Nepomuceno de Parga y Ulloa, con sucesión.

2.-Don Pedro Regalado y de la Mota y Padilla, murió en la infancia

3.-Doña Josefa Petra Regalado y de la Mota Padilla, casada en 1754 en Guadalajara con Don Antonio Clemente de Velasco y Ximénez, hijo legítimo de Don José Francisco de Velasco y Doña María Antonia Ximénez de Ulloa, casados en 1709 en Ameca, Jalisco, y fue su hijo, quien adoptó el apellido compuesto que perdura hasta la fecha, entre otros:

a.-Don Manuel Jerónimo de la Mota y Velasco, casado en Guadalajara el 17 de junio de 1782, con Doña María Ignacia Josefa Cónique y Zavaleta, hija de Don Manuel José y de María, y fueron sus hijos de Don Manuel y de Doña María Ignacia, entre otros:

aa.-Doña Mariana Mota Velasco y Cónique, casada con Don Jorge W.Eayros, y fue su hijo a su vez; Don José Martín Eayros y Mota Velasco, bautizado en 1824 en Guadalajara.

bb.-Don José Tomas Cresencio Mota Velasco y Cónique, bautizado en 1790 en Guadalajara.

cc.-Don Manuel Mota Velasco y Cónique, casado el 3 de diciembre de 1810 en Ameca, Jalisco, con Doña María Loreto Gómez y Velasco, hija de Don Félix y Juana Antonia, y fueron sus hijos de Don Manuel y María Loreto entre otros:

1.-Don Manuel Mota Velasco y Gómez, casado el 19 de marzo de 1868 en Teocaltiche, Jalisco, con Doña María de Jesús Ordorica, y fueron sus hijos a su vez:

Altagracia , y José Albino Mota Velasco y Ordorica, nacidos en Teocaltiche, Jal.

2.-Don José María Julián Mota Velasco y Gómez, bautizado en 1818 en Guadalajara..

3.-Don José Salvador Mota Velasco y Gómez, bautizado en 1827 en Guadaljara, y casado el 23 de mayo de 1852, con Doña Rafaela Abad y Amador, hija de Francisco Javier e Ignacia, naturales de Cocula, Jalisco, y fueron sus hijos de Don Salvador y Doña Rafaela:

Florencio, baut. en 1852; Rafaela , casada con Manuel García de Quevedo y Zubieta en 1876, con sucesión; María Maura, bautizada en 1853; Ignacia, casada con Emiliano González de Riestra, en 1878en Guadalajara y

el Ing. Francisco Salvador Mota Velasco y Abad, baut. en 1855, presidente y fundador de la academia tapatía de genealogía y heráldica "Mota Padilla", casado con Doña Amelia Santoscoy, sin sucesión.

4.-Don José Miguel Mota Velasco y Gómez, bautizado en 1824 en Guadalajara, casado con Doña Luisa Marmolejo , el 7 de noviembre de 1852 en Guadalajara, y fueron sus hijos entre otros :

a.-María Luisa, b.- Miguel Celso Mota Velasco y Marmolejo y

c.-Don José Mota Velasco y Marmolejo, casado con Doña Felipa Quintero, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

1.-Don Andrés Mota Velasco y Quintero, investigador e historiador,

2.-Don Elias Mota Velasco y Quintero, nacido en Zacatecas, por 1898, casado con Doña Sara MacGregor, de Ascendencia Escocesa, radicados en la ciudad de México y fue su hijo entre otros:

Contador Público Don Luis Mota Velasco MacGregor, nacido en México, el 1 de septiembre de 1925, casado el 6 de noviembre de 1949, con Doña Nelly Torres Landa Gay, originaria de León, hija de Don Francisco Torres Landa y de Doña Nelly Gay Aranda, y fueron sus hijos de Don Luis y de Doña Nelly:

a.- Doña Maria Milagros Mota Velasco Torres Landa, casada con Don Fernando Coello
b.-Doña Sara Mota Velasco Torres Landa, casada con Don Daniel Blázquez
c.-Doña Luisa Mota Velasco Torres Landa, casada con Don Humberto Gloria
d.-Doña Elisa Mota Velasco Torres Landa, casada con eñ Arq. Alberto Lenz

e.-Doña Nelly Mota Velasco Torres Landa, casada con el lic. Pedro Ramírez Campuzano, hijo del Arq. Don Pedro Ramírez Vázquez y de Doña Olga Campuzano, y fue su hija Nelly Ramírez Mota Velasco.
f.-Doña Cecilia casada con el Arq. Ramiro López Muñoz, y fueron sus hijos a su vez: Cecilia, Cristina, Alonso y María López Mota Velasco, y

g.-Arq. Don Francisco Mota Velasco y Torres Landa, casado con Doña Marina Melgar y fueron sus hijos:

Marina, Andrea y Francisco Mota Velasco y Melgar.

6.-Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Mota, se casó en segundas nupcias con Doña Josefa Arias de Abella Orozco y Valdés, originaria de Aguascalientes, y de esta rama descienden entre otros el Capitán Don Cristóbal de Padilla Dávila y Arias , nacido en Guadalajara en 1640 y casado en Xalostotitlán, Jalisco, con Doña Luisa Gutiérrez de Hermosillo y Camacho Riquelme , genearcas de numerosísimas ramas de los Padillas, ( que firmaban Padilla-Dávila o de la Mota Padilla ) establecidos en los altos de Jalisco, luego en Guadalajara, León, Gto., Aguascalientes, y algunos en los Estados Unidos de Norte América.

Archivo de Notarias

Fernando Muñoz Altea

"Acabo de terminar la recopilacion de una serie de interesantes fichas del Archivo de Notarias, segun explico en el preambuo adjunto.  Te agradeceria lo hicieses del conocimiento del grupo.Cada CD con dicha informacion, tiene un costo de 40 dolares donde va incluido el envio por via aerea certificado."   


Los rico y variado acervo documental que conserva el Archivo General de Notarias de la ciudad de México, ofrece en sus fondos muy diferentes posibilidades para el investigador que se interese por el conocimiento de la historia de este país, ya que en él están pormenorizados una serie de aspectos poco conocidos del devenir la nación y sus hombres.

A pesar de las numerosas vicisitudes que sufrió esta documentación, considerablemente mermada en lo que atañe a los siglos XVI y XVII, principalmente, aún es posible hallar en ella multitud de noticias que pueden contribuir al mayor enriquecimiento de la historia de México y sus familias. 

En el tiempo que me tocó estar al frente de la Sección Histórica de este Archivo, fuí recopilando una serie de fichas relativas a documentos que me parecieron interesantes y que hoy comienzo a ofrecer a los amantes de las genealogía. Generalmente son testamentos, documentos éstos sumamente importantes, ya que por lo general fueron otorgados poco antes del fallecimiento, reflejándose  en ellos la posición social del otorgante. su filiación personal, parentescos, cargos y multitud de antecedentes  que en la mayor parte de los casos no se concreta en los asientos de los libros sacramentales. 

Somero extracto de los mencionados documentos, se ordenó alfabéticamente, y abarca más de mil fichas, escogidas entre aquellas que consideré podrían tener mayor interés para, los investigadores, bien por la importancia del personaje o la rareza del apellido.

No solamente atañen a personas nacidas o residentes en la capital  del Virreinato, sino a gente de los más variados lugares del territorio mexicano, que accidentalmente  se encontraban en ella en razón de sus cargos o por distintas causas. 
A los antecedentes  reseñados en los documentos notariales, se le agregaron en diferentes ocasiones, otros datos de interés para el estudioso de la genealogía. 

Continuation of the
 Canales Family 
John Inclan

MARIA-JUANA-DE-LA-EXPECTACION8 CANALES-ROSILLO (JOSE-ANTONIO-NEPOMUSENO7 CANALES-TREVINO, JOSE-JOAQUIN6 CANALES-GONZALEZ-HIDALGO, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born December 28, 1809 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married MIGUEL DE SADA May 26, 1832 in Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.Children of MARIA-JUANA-DE-LA-EXPECTACION CANALES-ROSILLO and MIGUEL DE SADA are:i. JOSE-MARIA-DE-JESUS-MARCOS9 DE SADA-CANALES, b. April 25, 1836, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

100. ii. ANTONIO DE SADA-CANALES, b. 1838.

iii. MARIA-ANA-VICTORIA DE SADA-CANALES, b. December 23, 1839, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. MARIA-ANTONIA-MACRIMINA DE SADA-CANALES, b. August 22, 1844, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


i. JOSE-EUTIQUIO9 CANALES-TAMEZ, b. September 10, 1826, San Juan Bautista, Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-INOCENCIA CANALES-TAMEZ, b. January 28, 1829, San Juan Bautista, Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. MARIA-CLEMENCIA CANALES-TAMEZ, b. December 15, 1830, San Juan Bautista, Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. FILUCRECIO CANALES-TAMEZ, b. December 14, 1832, San Juan Bautista, Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.











i. MARIA-DE-LA-ENCARNACION9 DE-LA-PENA-VIDAURRI, b. September 12, 1817, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. August 20, 1833, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

73. JOSE-LAUREANO8 VIDAURRI-CANALES (MARIA-LEONOR7 CANALES-GARCIA, JOSE-JUAN-ANTONIO6 CANALES-GONZALEZ, JOSE-SALVADOR5 CANALES-BENAVIDES, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born July 06, 1818 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died in Rancho San Jose de Corralitos, Zapata County, Texas. He married TRINIDAD CUELLAR-BENAVIDES May 23, 1852 in San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas, daughter of SALVADOR CUELLAR-SANCHEZ and MARIA BENAVIDES-GUZMAN. She was born 1835 in Laredo, Webb County, Texas.Notes for JOSE-LAUREANO VIDAURRI-CANALES:

The 1860 Census listed his age as 40. "Fundadores de Laredo" indicated he was born about 1832, and listed his occupation as "stockfarmer". Laureano was a native of Ciudad Mier and resided at San Jose De Corralitos Ranch, Zapata, Texas

On the 1880 USA census he is listed as 62 years of age. San Jose De Corralitos, Zapata, Texas



101. ii. ANTONIA VIDAURRI-CUELLAR, b. 1857; d. Falfurrias, Brooks County, Texas.


iv. JESUS-MARIA VIDAURRI-CUELLAR, m. JULIANA RAMIREZ, April 18, 1910, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.




102. i. DIEGO9 CANALES-CANALES, b. 1845, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


76. GENERAL JOSE-ANTONIO-TIBURCIO8 CANALES-SALINAS (JUAN-FRANCISCO-JAVIER7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born April 04, 1773 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died February 01, 1838 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married MARIA-SEGUNDA GUERRA-CANAMAR-TREVINO 1802 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JUAN-MANUEL GUERRA-DE-LA-GARZA and ISABEL-MARIA TREVINO-GARCIA. She was born Abt. 1783 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


i. JACINTA9 CANALES-GUERRA, b. Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

103. ii. FRANCISCA CANALES-GUERRA, b. Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

104. iii. ANA-DOMINGA CANALES-GUERRA, b. Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iv. SERBANDO CANALES-GUERRA, b. Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

105. v. MARIA-MICHAELA CANALES-GUERRA, b. May 08, 1810, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

77. MARIA-CLARA8 CANALES-SALINAS (JUAN-FRANCISCO-JAVIER7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born August 22, 1784 in Mier, Rancho el Alamo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died September 18, 1855 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married RAFAEL DE-LA-CADENA-SAENZ October 14, 1800 in Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of GREGORIO-JAVIER DE-LA-CADENA-VILLARREAL and MARIA-LUGARDA SAENZ-DE-LA-SERNA. He was born 1778 in Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died November 12, 1840 in Agualeguas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.Notes for RAFAEL DE-LA-CADENA-SAENZ:

In the book, Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, he is listed as a descendent of Don Alonso de Estrada, Duke of Aragon. Page 19.









viii. MARIA-CELDONIA CADENA-CANALES, b. September 23, 1801, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ix. JOSE-SIMON CADENA-CANALES, b. April 03, 1803, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

108. x. JUAN-ANTONIO CADENA-CANALES, b. September 02, 1808, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.




Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 233.


i. MARIA JOSEFA9 CANALES-YZAGUIRRE, b. April 15, 1812, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. JOSE ANTONIO DE JESUS SABAS HINOJOSA-SALINAS, November 26, 1828, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Notes for MARIA JOSEFA CANALES-YZAGUIRRE:

Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 232.


110. i. JOSE GERONIMO9 CANALES-CANALES, b. October 03, 1824, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


82. JOSE MANUEL DE LA CRUZ8 CANALES-YGLECIAS (JOSE CASIANO BENITO7 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, JOSE-ANTONIO-BLAS6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born September 15, 1815 in San Juan Baptista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married FRANCISCA DE-LA-GARZA October 28, 1844 in San Juan Bautista, Cadereyta Jimenez, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


i. CLEMENCIA9 CANALES-DE-LA-GARZA, b. December 01, 1845, San Juan Bautista, Lampazos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




112. i. ESTEFANA9 SOLIS-RIVAS, b. 1828; d. 1922.

113. ii. MARIA-FELICITAS SOLIS-RIVAS, b. July 11, 1832; d. Aft. 1880, Cameron County, Texas.

114. iii. TERESA SOLIS-RIVAS, b. September 03, 1835, Brownsville, Cameron, County, Texas; d. August 07, 1927, Brownsville, Cameron, County, Texas.

115. iv. CIRILA SOLIS-RIVAS, d. Aft. 1879, Cameron County, Texas.

116. v. SANTIAGO SOLIS-RIVAS, b. July 25, 1829, Soliseno, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. March 15, 1915, Texas.

vi. LAZARO SOLIS-RIVAS, b. February 1840; d. December 01, 1904; m. FRANCISCA CANTU-LOPEZ; b. November 1848; d. February 18, 1911, Brownsville, Cameron, County, Texas.


117. i. DAMASIO9 HINOJOSA-HINOJOSA, b. Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


Marriage source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 227.


i. MANUEL9 CADENA-CANALES, b. June 21, 1835, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. EUFEMIA GUTIERREZ-CANALES, November 05, 1858, Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. JOSE MARIA CADENA-CANALES, b. December 20, 1837, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

118. iii. ESTEFANA CADENA-CANALES, b. August 06, 1839, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. January 11, 1912, Palo Blanco, Texas.

iv. CAYETANO CADENA-CANALES, b. April 24, 1842, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


120. vi. ASMUALDA ENCARNACION CADENA-CANALES, b. 1847, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vii. MARCOS CADENA-CANALES, b. October 13, 1849, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

viii. DONACIANO CADENA-CANALES, b. September 07, 1850, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. TERESA HINOJOSA-GUERRA, December 23, 1878, Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

121. ix. ALEJANDRO CADENA-CANALES, b. April 26, 1853, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

122. x. FERNANDO CADENA-CANALES, b. June 11, 1855, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



i. ENCARNACION9 CANALES-CANALES, b. September 24, 1866, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. 1928; m. HIPOLITO DE-LA-GARZA-FLORES; b. 1863.

88. ALBINO8 CANALES-CANALES (JOSE-DE-JESUS7 CANALES-GUERRA, JOSE-VICENTE6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born March 07, 1831 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died 1904. He married JOSEFA GONZALEZ-MARTINEZ February 10, 1849 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She was born Abt. 1831, and died 1903.Children of ALBINO CANALES-CANALES and JOSEFA GONZALEZ-MARTINEZ are:


124. ii. AGAPITO CANALES-GONZALEZ, d. December 12, 1913.

125. iii. JESUS-MARIA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. 1850; d. May 28, 1923.

iv. VIDAL CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. May 05, 1850; d. March 28, 1923; m. PAULA GONZALEZ-ELIZONDO, January 07, 1873.

126. v. ANDRES CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. February 12, 1852, Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. Aft. 1880, Ebonita, Nueces County, Texas.

127. vi. FRUCTUOSO CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. November 11, 1870; d. April 03, 1933.


Source:Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza, page 232-233.



ii. MARGARITA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. June 19, 1847, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. FRANCISCO RIOS-PEREZ, October 07, 1869, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. JULIANA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. February 21, 1849, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. PONCIANO CHAPA-RAMIREZ, September 23, 1866, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iv. LUCIANO CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. December 12, 1850, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

128. v. EULOGIA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. October 30, 1853, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vi. ELENA CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. August 28, 1858, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vii. IRINEO CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. July 11, 1860, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. 129. viii. JUAN-MANUEL CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. February 08, 1862; d. August 27, 1919, Benavides, Duval County, Texas.

ix. MARIA-DE-LA-CONCEPCION CANALES-GONZALEZ, b. May 22, 1862, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

90. FRANCISCA8 HINOJOSA-CANALES (MARIA-DE-JESUS7 CANALES-GARCIA, JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born October 08, 1822 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died December 22, 1888 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married FLORENCIO DE-LA-GARZA-RAMIREZ February 07, 1846 in Mier, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JOSE-FRANCISCO DE-LA-GARZA-GARCIA and MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS RAMIREZ-REYES. He was born 1820 in Guerrero, Tamaulipas.Children of FRANCISCA HINOJOSA-CANALES and FLORENCIO DE-LA-GARZA-RAMIREZ are:

i. JUAN-BAUTISTA9 DE-LA-GARZA-HINOJOSA, b. September 03, 1846, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-DE-JESUS DE-LA-GARZA-HINOJOSA, b. January 06, 1849, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. October 23, 1852, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. JOSE-FLORENTINO DE-LA-GARZA-HINOJOSA, b. October 24, 1852, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. October 24, 1852, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iv. FAUSTINO DE-LA-GARZA-HINOJOSA, b. Abt. 1853, Hidalgo, Coahulia, Mexico; d. November 16, 1930, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. (1) DAMIANA LOZANO, Abt. 1888, Villa Hidalgo, Coahuila, Mexico; b. August 23, 1863, Hidalgo, Coahulia, Mexico; d. September 27, 1895, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. (2) JOSEFA GARCIA-DE-LA-BARRERA, January 15, 1902, Hidalgo, Coahulia, Mexico; b. March 19, 1880, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. December 10, 1908, Hidalgo, Coahulia, Mexico.

v. MARIA TOMASA DELAGARZA-HINOJOSA, b. December 24, 1853, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

vi. MARIA-TOMAS DE-LA-GARZA-HINOJOSA, b. December 24, 1863, Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

91. MARIA JOSEFA DARIA8 HINOJOSA-CANALES (MARIA-DE-JESUS7 CANALES-GARCIA, JOSE-RAMON6 CANALES-ANZALDUA, JOSE-BLAS5 CANALES-BENAVIDAS, BLAS4 CANALES-MONTEMAYOR, JUAN3 CANALES, JOSE2, ANTONIO1) was born December 22, 1824 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico. She married JOSE TOMAS HINOJOSA-CANALES December 26, 1844 in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of MARCOS HINOJOSA and CALIXTA-CELESTINA-DE-JESUS CANALES-GUERRA. He was born in Mier, Tamaulipas, Mexico.Child is listed above under (85) Jose Tomas Hinojosa-Canales.



130. i. CASIMIRA9 JAIME-CANALES, b. March 1836.


















Publicado en Odiel Información, España 
el 22 octubre 2004


Los científicos españoles que están realizando un estudio genético de los restos que se conservan en la Catedral de Sevilla y que se atribuyen a Cristóbal Colon, han celebrado hace unos días una rueda de prensa para informar a la opinión pública sobre el estado de sus investigaciones, atreviéndose a confirmar y a falta de alguna prueba final, que los restos pertenecen a Colon, pero que no por ello, los que están en la Republica Dominicana no puedan ser también del  cuerpo del Almirante.

Colon hasta en sus restos es misterioso, porque son varias  poblaciones las que se atribuyen que tienen guardados los restos de el Descubridor del Nuevo Mundo, además de Sevilla y Santo Domingo, también  dicen que los tienen en La Habana, Pavía y Valladolid.

Todo se debe a que cuando murió Colon en Valladolid y en el registro diario de defunciones de personas importantes, solo varias semanas después de su muerte se decía documentalmente que "dicho almirante ha fallecido. 

Según se dice fue enterrado en la cripta de una iglesia, hoy desaparecida. Posteriormente, al parecer fue trasladado a Sevilla, donde  fue enterrado en un monasterio cartujo y de allí, debido a las peticiones de los familiares de Don Cristóbal para respetar los deseos que había manifestado en vida, fue llevado a La Hispaniola (Hoy Republica Dominicana.), adonde llegaron en 1585.

Pero cuando una parte de la Isla fue cedida a Francia (1795) para formar la actual Haití, la familia de Colon y las autoridades españolas, no quisieron  que los restos estuvieran en suelo francés y fueron trasladados a la Catedral de La Habana, al parecer en 1795.

Cuando realizaban una obra en Santo Domingo, años después, en el lugar donde estuvieron los restos, encontraron una cámara secreta donde se conservaba un ataúd y unos huesos, que fueron atribuidos al Almirante y que son los que reposan actualmente en aquel País.

Al abandonar Cuba en 1898, los españoles trajeron consigo los restos de Cristóbal Colon, que son los que actualmente reposan en Sevilla.

El problema es mayor, porque al parecer algunos familiares, hijos y hermanos, también estaban enterrados junto a los del Almirante y en los distintos traslados pueden haberse mezclado unos y otros.

Cristóbal Colon siempre será un misterio, porque unos dicen que nació en Génova, otros Portugal, otros Galicia,  también le atribuyen haber nacido en Pavía, en Ibiza y en un sin fin de sitios mas. 

Pero ahora sus restos también son motivo de discordia, y veremos si se consigue averiguar donde están  y no nos llevemos siglos intentando saberlo.

                             Angel Custodio Rebollo       

Publicado en "Folha do Domingo", de Faro Portugal, el 22 de octubre de 2004


Os cientistas espanóis, que estâo realizando un estudo genético dos restos mortais que se conservam na Catedral de Sevilha e que se atribuam a Cristóvâo Colombo, realizaram, recentemente, uma conferencia de imprensa, para informar a opiniâo pública sobre o estado das suas investigaçôes, atrevendo-se a confirmar, nâo obstante a falta da prova final, que os mesmos pertenecem aquele Navegador, mas que, nâo por tal, os que se encontram na República Dominicana, nâo podem ser tambén parte do corpo do Almirante.

Cristóvâo Colombo até nos seus restos mortais é misterioso, porque sâo várias al localidades que se atribuem terem guardados os ossos do Descubridor do Novo Mundo. E que para além de Sevilha e Santo Domingo, também se reclaman de tal as cidades de Habana, Pavia e Valladolid.

Tudo se debe a que, quando Colombo morreu em Valladolid e no registo diario de falecimento de pessoas importantes, só várias semanas depois da sua morte se dizia documentalmente que o dito Almirante havia falecido.

Segúndo consta foi enterrado na cripta de uma igreja, hoje desaparecida. Posteriormente, aí que parece, foi trasladado para Sevilha, onde foi enterrado num mosteiro dos Frades Cartujos e, dali, devido ás petiçôes dos familiares de D. Cristóvâo, para respeitar os desejos que havia manifestado em vida, foi levado à Ilha de La Hispaniola (hoje República Dominicana e Haití), aonde chegaram en 1585.

Mas quando uma parte desta Ilha foi cedida a França (1795) para fundar o actual Haití, a familia de Colombo e as autoridades españolas, nâo quiseram que os restos mortais estivessem em solo francês e foram trasladados para a Catedral da Habana, por volta de 1795.

Quando realizavam uma obra em Santo Domingo, anos depois, no lugar onde estiveram os restos mortais, encontraram uma câmara secreta onde se conservava um ataúde e uns ossos que foram atribuidos ao Almirante e que sâo os que repousam actual mente naquele país da América Latina.

Ao abandonar Cuba em 1898 os espanhóis trouxeram consigo os restos mortais de Cristóvâo Colombo, os quais repousam na Catedral de Sevilha.

O problema é mayor ainda, porque segundo consta, alguns familiares (Filhos e Irmâos) também estavam enterrados junto aos ossos do Almirante e nas varias trasladaçôes podem haver-se misturado uns com os outros.

Cristóvâo Colombo será sempre um misterio ainda, porque uns dizem que nasceu em Génova, outros em Portugal, uns outros na Galiza, mas também atribuem o seu nascimento em Pavia, em Ibiza e num sem fin de sitios mais.

Por agora os seus restos mortais sâo motivo de discordia e veremos se se consegue averiguarem em definitivo onde se encontram e nâo levarnos séculos procurando sabe-lo.

Ángel Custodio Rebollo



Army of Spain 
De la Corte
San Juan del Puerto
Gente de San Juan 
Manuscritos de América Colecciones Reales
Timeline Spain thru 1899


Army of Spain 
Sent by Bill Carmena

Here is the website and CD number for The Spanish Army of the 18th Century in the New World. It is GREAT and only $10.29 a copy for 135 prints on a CD. 

De la Corte

Publicado en Odiel:   Información.Investigando sobre algunos datos de mi apellido materno, he encontrado unos sobre la historia de otro apellido, De la Corte, muy extendido en Huelva y no he podido resistirme a convertirlo en la base de mi articulo de hoy.

En las primeras escaramuzas de Don Pelayo con los invasores se citan a Gome de la Corte y en otros privilegios figura el caballero Sancho de la Corte. También  se nombra a Pedro de la Corte, que fue a la conquista de Sevilla con San Fernando y que puede ser la primera rama que se quedó por Andalucía.

Los abuelos de Gonzalo González de la Corte eran uno de los doce linajes de hijodalgo que fueron pobladores de Soria. Se casó Gonzalo con Elvira de Barrionuevo, un linaje antiquísimo e ilustre descendiente del doncel y vasallo del Juan II, Ramir Yáñez Barrionuevo.

El rey Fernando IV firmo un privilegio el 2 de abril de 1303, en Burgos, por el que estaban exentos de concurrir a las mesnadas de los ricos-hombres, salvo que a la lucha fuese el rey en persona. Por esta causa Gonzalo Barroso de la Corte, hijo del anterior acompañó al rey Fernando V a la guerra de Francia y como supo el rey  que se había distinguido en el enfrentamiento con las tropas del mariscal Bretón, que habían cercado la fortaleza de Salsas, le armó caballero de espuelas doradas y home fijo-dalgo el 30 de octubre de 1505 al pié de la fortaleza.

Asistió Pedro a la conquista de Ronda y su tierra, y fue nombrado primer alcalde del  castillo de Jimena. Se caso en Ronda con Ana de Morales,

Según consta del testamento que esta señora otorgó ante Gonzalo de Palma en el año 1553.

Los privilegios originales fueron conservados en Ronda y sirvió, entre otros, a su nieto Alonso Gonzalez Borrego Soriano de la Corte y a su quinto nieto Manuel Martín de la Corte, para ser continuado como hijo-dalgo.

Alonso González Barroso Soriano de la Corte, hijo de Pedro, residió en Jimena y también obtuvo la alcaldía de su castillo.

Y esto es lo que, por azar, he encontrado sobre la historia del apellido De la Corte, que fue reconocido por ilustre y de primera calidad en Córdoba, Cabra, Andujar y Jerez de la Frontera .

                                                       Custodio  Rebollo,



Edición 8 de octubre de 2004 de Odiel Informació Huelva

San Juan del Puerto es el pueblo donde nació mi madre y aun cuando no tengo actualmente ninguna familia allí, siempre me ha resultado simpático y muchas veces visito la población para ver sus viejos rincones y percibir su sabor tan andaluz, además de pasear por la calle donde mi madre me contaba que había nacido.

Hace unos días y buscando unos datos sobre personas que fueron al Nuevo Mundo en el siglo XVI, me encontré con un nombre, Cristóbal de Ayala, soltero, natural de San Juan del Puerto, hijo de Francisco Hurtado y Juana de la Cueva, que el 13 de mayo de 1566, marchó a Honduras.

Presentí que podía existir algún otro familiar que también le habría acompañado y seguí buscando datos hasta que me encontré con Melchor Hurtado, natural de San Juan y también hijo de Francisco Hurtado y Juana de la Cueva. Este fue el primero que emigró, como criado del clérigo Miguel Serra, en la expedición de Fray Tomás de San Martín, Dominico y Obispo de Charcas que viajaba para hacerse cargo de su Obispado.

Charcas, hasta 1810 fue una de las mas extensas regiones de América bajo jurisdicción de España y abarcaba hasta el Pacifico y comprendía el actual Paraguay y parte de lo que es hoy Argentina, Brasil y Perú. En 1776 entró a formar parte del Virreinato de Río de la Plata.

Pero no todo quedó aquí, porque después encontré a otro hijo de Francisco Hurtado y Juana de la Cueva, también natural de San Juan del Puerto, llamado Rodrigo Hurtado, que el 24 de abril de 1561, fue a Santo Domingo.

Una familia de las muchas de Huelva que marcharon a las recién descubiertas tierras, ignorando si alguno de ellos o sus familiares regresaron.

Custodio Rebollo


Odiel Información, Huelva, Edición 15 de octubre de 2004


Hace unos días escribí un articulo sobre una familia de San Juan del Puerto que en el siglo XVI había emigrado a América, los hijos de Francisco Hurtado y Juana de la Cueva. Nunca pensé que habría gente interesada en saber mas sobre ello, y han sido varios los que me han  preguntado  si conocía datos sobre algún ascendiente, a lo que sinceramente me es difícil contestar. Soy aficionado a estudiar la genealogía, pero nada mas que aficionado, aunque me gusta a veces, profundizar en los datos que poseo y en algunos casos averiguo algo más, pero no siempre.

Como tengo más sobre naturales de San Juan del Puerto que marcharon al Nuevo Mundo, los voy a detallar, por si con ello, puedo contribuir a complacer a algunos de los que me han escrito.

Hay un clérigo, el Licenciado Barbosa, que nació en San Juan, hijo de Pedro Rodríguez y Juana Gómez, que el 1 de septiembre de 1561 marchó a Nueva España, acompañado de sus criados Francisco Martín, natural de Moguer, hijo de Juan Caballero y Catalina González y Gonzalo Díaz, natural de San Juan del Puerto, hijo de Diego Díaz y Elvira Martín.

También, el 13 de marzo de 1535, Gines Díaz, hijo de Gonzalo Martín y Catalina Delgado, vecinos de San Juan, con su mujer  Catalina y Ana, Beatriz, Leonor y Pero Ximenez, fueron autorizados para marchar a Nueva España.

Rodrigo de Villalobos, soltero y de San Juan, pasó a Nueva España en 1554, como criado de Beatriz  Medina, de Salamanca

Algunos iban como criados, porque era la única forma de conseguir las autorizaciones para viajar. Los que así figuraban, en muchos casos, al llegar a América, se dispersaban y quedaban incontrolados para las autoridades.

                                            Custodio Rebollo


Sent by Paul Newfield

Timeline Spain thru 1899
Sent by Bill Carmena


La Escuela "Marqués de Avilés"
Dance Awards, Barcelona
Julio N. Rancel's  Genealogy 
Guadarrama world-wide contact
Expert Tips: Genealogy Answered
Hispanic American Collection
Numismatic Services


Source: Miguel Ángel Fernández González
Sent by Paul Newfield
Comunica que, del 15.09.04 al 4.10.04, se abre la matrícula de su Curso 2004 - 2005 de Investigación genealógica, heráldica y nobiliaria. Se trata de un "curso presencial", con una duración superior a 100 horas lectivas, que puede ser realizado completo en un año académico, o en dos cursos para quienes se incorporen al inicio de alguno de sus temas a lo largo del mismo, o incluso por asignaturas sueltas. Plazas limitadas.

"The 12th DANCE AWARDS BARCELONA Competition"
March 23-27, 2005.

The Dance Grand Prix Festival literally draws thousands of people from all across Europe and other parts of the world, the festival is a thrilling extravaganza of hundreds of artists performing dance, theater and music within a wonderful and stage theatre near the famous Spain Art Cities, courtyards, outdoor cafes and the hotel accommodations on the beach of the Brava coast this truly promises to be an unforgettable experience.

Choreographers receive hotel three star accommodations in twin/three beds rooms with bathroom/ shower, based on two/three persons sharing a room. We provide an entire and complete production package which includes excellent theaters, lighting, sound, technical assistance, publicity, pre-show rehearsal arrangements, and printed programs and poster advise all over the city, all for 399 Euro per person (excluding airfare from your country to Spain) and we advise all of you to book the airfare by the Low Cost Air Line Ryanair, with destination Girona Barcelona GRO Airport.

Our managers will meet your dance groups on the "Welcome Bus Service" in the meeting pointe airport. Please mail your materials and payment to our mailing address: If you have further questions, fee of participation, etc. don't hesitate to Fax us at 0039 178 220 5864 or
Walter Rossi, Director, Dance Awards Europe 2005 Season


Julio N. Rancel's Home - Genealogy
Sent by Bill Carmena

Beautiful, include history and coats of arms. Lots of links, English and Spanish versions
Surnames in the Genealogical Tree

Publicado el 30 de agosto de 2004 en Odiel Información, de Huelva


He recibido correo electrónico de Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama, de Valencia en el Estado de Carabobo, Venezuela. Este Sr. está muy interesado en contactar con personas, instituciones, historiadores, cronistas y comunicadores sociales, para establecer una amplia base de datos sobre las personas que han tenido o tienen el apellido “Guadarrama”.

El origen del apellido es sin lugar a dudas español y procede de un pueblo enclavado en la sierra de Guadarrama que lleva ese mismo nombre. El único que he encontrado en el catalogo de pasajeros a Indias es “Francisco de Guadarrama, hijo de Pedro López y Juana López, vecinos de Guadarrama, Arzobispado de Toledo, que embarcó para Indias el 18 de julio de 1513”

Como no poseo todos los tomos del catalogo de pasajeros, ignoro si en otros años marcharon a América mas personas que portaran este apellido, pero creo que sería así, porque en los datos que me ha facilitado el Sr. Pérez Guadarrama, me informa que ha encontrado ese apellido en personas de México, Estados Unidos de América, Venezuela, España, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Filipinas, Chile, Francia y Canadá, siendo el país que cuenta con mas portadores de este apellido, México seguido por los Estados Unidos, generalmente descendientes de mexicanos.

En España ha encontrado 253 personas, de ellas 2 en Granada, 2 en Málaga, 2 en Sevilla y 1 en Córdoba, en lo referente a las provincias andaluzas.

Como puede que algún lector tenga ese apellido o conozca a alguien que lo posea, en caso de estar interesado, puede ponerse en contacto con mi interlocutor venezolano directamente, haciéndolo a alguna de las siguientes direcciones:  ó

                                                Custodio Rebollo.

I am interested in contacting People, Institutions, Historians, Cronistas of Cities, Sociales, Signallers... to assemble and to share Base de Dato on the People whom they have had, they have and will have Apellido: Guadarrama. This Apellido you have its Origins in Spain, in fact in Spain there is a Town and a Mountain range (Mountain range) with this Name: Guadarrama In Venezuela and Costa Rica also they have Towns with this Name: Guadarrama Mexico has the greater one I number of People with Apellido: Guadarrama, followed by the USA (Descending Mexican), Venezuela, Spain... In Venezuela I have an ample registry of the Guadarrama Venezuelan and some Guadarrama of the rest of the World. In Venezuela the People with Apellido Guadarrama of first Last name, are in the States: Falcon (Teasel, Fixed point, Judibana...), Federal District, Zulia (Maracaibo, Coquivacoa), Miranda (Sta. Teresa of the Tuy, Guatire, Higuerote, Guarenas, Tacarigua, San Antonio of the Stops), Lara (They dwell, Ayacucho), Carabobo (Valencia), Bolivar (Ordaz Port) and Aragua (Maracay, the Victory) This information of this Capitulo or Entrega to date improved with the Ecclesiastical registries previous to the year the 1836 in which the first one has arrived or first Guadarrama to Venezuela. Very interesting it is the information found in the consulted Bibliography, where it are expressed that 2 Brothers of Last names: The Perez Guadarrama and the Rodriguez Guadarrama settled down themselves in 1752 in Paraguana, where they acquired some Properties. Apellido Guadarrama is little frequent in Venezuela and the rest of the World. The Countries that have inhabitants with this Apellido are: Mexico, the USA, Venezuela, Spain, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Philippine, Chile, France and Canada (the order in which they estan placed these Countries indicates where " are greater numbers of People with Guadarrama Last name; first Last name ", according to White Gui'a Telefo'nica-Paginas of these Countries). In Spain of where Apellido comes, the Guadarrama which I found is not very numerous (253 People), nor estan in all the Cities or Towns of Spain. According to White Gui'a Telefo'nica-Paginas there is Guadarrama (first Last name), in the following Cities: Tenerife (78 People), Madrid (71 People), Valladolid (49 People), Barcelona (15 People), Pontevedra (5 People), Ávila (5 People), Zaragoza (3 People), Ourense (3 People) Alicante (2 People), Granada (2 People), Malaga (2 People), Segovia (2 People), Seville (2 People), Biscay (2 People), The Palms (2 People), Balearic (2 People), Cordova (1 Person), Guipúzcoa (1 Person), Leon (1 Person), Murcia (1 Person), Salamanca (1 Person), Valencia (1 Person), Zamora (1 Person) and Girona (1 Person).

Estoy interesado en contactar a Personas, Instituciones, Historiadores, Cronistas de Ciudades, Comunicadores Sociales,...para ensamblar y compartir la Base de Dato sobre las Personas que han tenido, tienen y tendrán el Apellido: Guadarrama.

Este Apellido tienes sus Orígenes en España, de hecho en España hay un Pueblo y una Sierra ( Cadena de Montañas ) con este Nombre: Guadarrama

En Venezuela y Costa Rica también tienen Pueblos con este Nombre: Guadarrama

México tiene el mayor numero de Personas con el Apellido: Guadarrama, seguido por USA ( Descendientes Mexicanos ), Venezuela, España,... 

En Venezuela tengo un amplio registro de los Guadarrama Venezolanos y de algunos Guadarrama del resto del Mundo.

En Venezuela las Personas con el Apellido Guadarrama de primer Apellido, se encuentran en los Estados: Falcón ( Cardon, Punto Fijo, Judibana,... ), Distrito Federal , Zulia ( Maracaibo, Coquivacoa ), Miranda ( Sta. Teresa del Tuy, Guatire, Higuerote, Guarenas, Tacarigua, San Antonio de los Altos ), Lara ( Moran, Ayacucho ), Carabobo ( Valencia ), Bolívar ( Puerto Ordaz ) y Aragua ( Maracay, La Victoria ) 

Esta información de este Capitulo o Entrega se mejorara con los registros Eclesiásticos anteriores al año 1836 hasta la fecha en que haya llegado el primer o los primeros Guadarrama a Venezuela.
Muy interesante es la información encontrada en la Bibliografía consultada, donde se expresa que 2 Hermanos de Apellidos: Pérez Guadarrama y Rodríguez Guadarrama se establecieron en 1752 en Paraguana, donde adquirieron algunas Propiedades.

El Apellido Guadarrama es poco frecuente en Venezuela y en el resto del Mundo. Los Países que tienen habitantes con este Apellido son: México, USA, Venezuela, España, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Filipina, Chile, Francia y Canadá. ( El orden en que estan colocados estos Países indica donde hay mayor números de Personas con Apellido Guadarrama " primer Apellido ", según las Guía Telefónica-Paginas Blancas de estos Países ).
En España de donde proviene el Apellido, los Guadarrama que encontré no son muy numerosos ( 253 Personas ), ni estan en todas las Ciudades o Pueblos de España. Según la Guía Telefónica-Paginas Blancas hay Guadarrama ( primer Apellido ), en las siguientes Ciudades: Tenerife ( 78 Personas ), Madrid ( 71 Personas ), Valladolid ( 49 Personas ), Barcelona ( 15 Personas ), Pontevedra ( 5 Personas ), Ávila ( 5 Personas ), Zaragoza ( 3 Personas ), Ourense ( 3 Personas ) Alicante ( 2 Personas ), Granada ( 2 Personas), Málaga ( 2 Personas ), Segovia ( 2 Personas ), Sevilla ( 2 Personas ), Vizcaya ( 2 Personas ), Las Palmas ( 2 Personas ), Baleares ( 2 Personas ), Córdoba ( 1 Persona ), Guipúzcoa ( 1 Persona ), León ( 1 Persona ), Murcia ( 1 Persona ), Salamanca ( 1 Persona ), Valencia ( 1 Persona ), Zamora ( 1 Persona ) y Girona ( 1 Persona ).

Bueno espero que sea de su interés y utilidad la información de este primera Entrega.
Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama
Urb. Trigal Norte, Avenida Del Antártico,
Conj. Red. Valle Escondido, Casa # 10,
Valencia, Edo. Carabobo, Venezuela 2001
Telf.: 58-0241-8432029
Cel: 04143403359

Los invito a entrar a esta paginas web: del siglo xvii.htm#176 del siglo xix.htm#191


Expert Tips: Genealogy Questions Answered
by Rhonda R. McClure
Bill Carmena

Birth Certificates in Portugal

Q: I'd like to know how to go about obtaining the birth certificates of ancestors in Portugal. A trip there is financially out of the question. My grandmother's father, Bernadino Gonsalves Teixeira, was born in Madeira, Portugal on May 20, 1897. My grandfather's father, John Ferreira, was born on April 14, 1855 in Fayal, Portugal and his mother, Margaret Oliver, in 1861 (no month or day known) in the Azores. I already have their death certificates, as they all died in the states. I'm hoping to gain information about their parents. — Sandy

A: When researching Portugal, as is the case when you are researching many other European countries, you must first determine the town of birth or the town where the other event, such as marriage or death, took place. For most researchers this is the hardest aspect of the research. For you this has already been established. So in that respect you have one of the major steps behind you.

The civil registration in most towns begins in 1911, though there are some town registrars that have records dating back to the early 1800s. Keep in mind that civil registration in Portugal is far from complete. Even with the recording of contemporary records, it is estimated that only about 85% of current births are actually recorded. Earlier records are even less complete. Something to keep in mind as you pursue your research.

Representatives from the Family History Library have been to Portugal and have microfilmed many of the records in the country. The good news is that there are some civil registrations for Madeira. According to the Family History Library Catalog there are civil registrations of births, marriages, and deaths from 1834 to 1911 for non-Catholics in the district of Funchal. This brings up another point. In addition to civil registration, if you find that the records that are available do not cover the time you need, or in this case if your ancestors were Catholic, you will need to venture into the church records to find the information you seek.

Also, there are times when the older Portuguese records have been transferred from the town registrar to the District Archives. As I noticed with the catalog entry for the records of Madeira, while the search I did was for Madeira, the civil registration records that showed up were for those that were microfilmed in the District Archives which is in Funchal. I did not have any luck with the town of Fayal in the Family History Library Catalog, though once you identify the district Fayal is in, you may want to search the catalog for that district and see what they may have.

Hispanic American Collection  (Mss 1350)
Special Collections, LSU Libraries
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Geographic locations:  Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Louisiana.
Inclusive dates.          1580-1940.Bulk dates.                 1800-1930.
Languages.                 Spanish, English, French.
Summary.                   Court transcripts, personal and business correspondence, poetry and plays, newspapers, legal documents, inventories, mining reports, military records, recipes, and other miscellaneous items of colonial and national Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Mexico.
Scope and Content Note
The Hispanic American collection contains a wide variety of records ranging from the colonial period through the revolutionary and national periods of Latin America. Geographically, the collection is more narrow than its chronological span, covering only the activities of New Spain and New Granada, later to become Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Mexico. Most records are economic and legal in nature, and the bulk of the collection covers the history of colonial and national Mexico. The Mexican series is divided into sub series facilitating access to this part of the collection. The dates for the Mexican series range from 1582 to 1940 and contain information regarding colonial race relations and economic activities, military records of the revolution period, and constitutional and legal records of the state of Puebla, 1825-1895. A final element to the Mexican series is the Frans Bloom correspondence (1928-1940) and miscellaneous records that include personal correspondence and legal documents. Frans Bloom was the director of the Middle American Research Institute at Tulane University during the 1930s. 

Another strength of the collection is the literary records from Guatemala and Mexico. Poetry and plays from Guatemala and Mexico, 1830-1900, include Guatemalan poets Ricardo Carrasquilla, Eduardo Bustillo, and Jose Joauquin Palma and Mexican playwrights T. A. Herrara, Palamena, and P. Maranon. All of the  literary records are in manuscript form and represent a variety of themes. 

List of Series and Subseries

I. Colombia, 1830-1831 (box 1)
II. Ecuador, 1729-1892; 1868-1921 (boxes 1-2)
III. Guatemala, 1821-1931 (box 3)
Subseries 1. Correspondence, 1812-1821
Subseries 2. Literature, 1870-1930
Subseries 3. Legal documents, 1850-1870

IV. Mexico, 1582-1940 (boxes 4-11)
Subseries 1. Colonial Race Relations, 1582-1769 (box 4)
Subseries 2. Colonial, economic, 1605- 1802 (boxes 5-8)
Subseries 3. Revolutionary period, military, 1810-1824 (boxes 8-9)
Subseries 4. National period, records of the state of Puebla, 1825-1895 (boxes 9-10)
Subseries 5. National period, Frans Bloom Correspondence and miscellaneous, 1833-1842; 1928-1940 (box 11)

V. Puerto Rico, 1823 (box 12)
VI. Latin American Literature, 1830 -1900 (box 13)
VII. Miscellaneous, 1830 -1930 (box 14) 

Series and Subseries Descriptions

I. Colombia, 1830-1831
Two documents regard a personal debt of three reales owed to Isidora Romero by Jose Gomes.

II. Ecuador, 1729-1892; 1868-1921
Court transcripts and legal papers pertain to debts, property disputes, thefts, and other legal matters. 

III. Guatemala, 1812-1931
Subseries 1. Correspondence, 1812-1821
Personal and business correspondence of Francisco Planas, Guatemalan merchant, deal with shipment of goods to Leon, Sonsonate, and Antigua from Guatemala City between 1812 and 1821. Letters also discuss the shipment of cacao, the Comision del Cacao de Guayacil, rebel activities and social and economic conditions of the Captaincy General of Guatemala. 

Subseries 2. Literature, 1870-1930
Poetry, newspapers, and one manuscript volume, A History of the Revolution of Guatemala, by Federico Larrainzar, 1872, are included in this subseries. Poets include Elena Valmu, Jose Joaquin Palma (1844-1911), Ricardo Carasquilla (1827-1886), Manuel Maria Giron, Manuel Llordon, Manuel Valle G., Manuel Dardon, Eduardo Bustillo (1836-1908), Mariano Carreras y Gongales, F. L. Cheron, Arturo Cuyas (1845-1925), Martin Cesar Fincaz. Newspapers found in this subseries are La Semana in Broma and La Parajoja. The newspapers contain some articles and many cartoons. The cartoons satirize twentieth century Spanish American and United States politics. 

Subseries 3. Legal documents, 1850-1870
Contained in this subseries is an untitled manuscript volume detailing the duties and responsibilities of the Juicios Ordinarios and Juicios Criminales and some discussion of legal precedents from the colonial era. Other legal documents in this subseries are four manuscripts prepared by surveyor Jose Maria Ramirez for the Department of San Salvador. Most of the land titles pertain to the towns of Chacalapam, Ahuechapam, and Santa Ana, all located near Sonsonate, Guatemala.

IV. Mexico, 1582-1940
Subseries 1. Colonial Race Relations, 1582-1769
Lawsuits and court proceedings regard free Negroes and negro slaves and proceedings of purity of blood (limpieza de sangre) trial of Joseph Carreto's family to prove they were untainted by moorish, mulatto, Jewish, or Indian blood. Documents relating to free and enslaved Negros deal with possession of weapons, slave ownership and recovery of run-away slaves. 

Subseries 2. Colonial Economic Activities, 1605-1802
This subseries consists of hundreds of items including inventories and expense lists of churches, hospitals, and private property, wills, trust funds, and accounting papers of the Intendancy of Puebla. Mining reports for the Guanajuato silver mine, some in English, are also found in this subseries. Inventory and expense list of the church at Los Angeles, Mexico, 1663 to 1694 and a report of possessions and list of expenses of hacendado Bernardo de la Vega and other items document colonial economic history. 

Subseries 3. Revolutionary Period, military, economic, and social activities, 1810- 1824
Records document assaults, accusations, and other activities dealing with insurgents and the army in the Intendancy of Puebla. Information on the assault of Saint Francis of Iztacamaztitlan by 100 armed men with shotguns and other weapons and the assault upon one Jose Cervantes by five insurgents provide insights into the Mexican revolution. Other kinds of records include petitions and accusations regarding supposed insurgents and others connected to the revolutionary movement. Other nonmilitary records include miscellaneous information regarding disputes over the reading skills of a schoolteacher, edicts about the closing of the alguacil of Huejocingo written and signed by Viceroy Bernardo de Galvez, 1786. There are also some papers relating to sale of offices, 1792-1794, and the trials of accused adulterers, soldiers, and the tobacco monopoly of Puebla.

Subseries 4. National Period, records of the state of Puebla, 1825-1895 
The bulk of this subseries consists of personal and business correspondence of Jose Maria Correto with associates and members of his family, especially his son who was a student in Mexico City from 1835 to 1837. The letters reveal many insights into the social conditions of the capital city. Correspondence with associates are from Toluca, Atlixo, and Coyoacan. Also in this subseries are many decrees of the state of Puebla ranging from 1869 to 1895. 

Subseries 5. Frans Bloom Correspondence, 1928-1940, and miscellaneous correspondence, 1833-1842.
Frans Bloom was the director of the Middle American Research Institute at Tulane University. While in Mexico, Bloom corresponded with other noted archaeologists and anthropologists regarding archeological finds. Letters from Bloom and other scholars are found in this subseries. Unrelated to the Bloom correspondence are miscellaneous letters written in 1833, 1842, and 1839 from Mexico City (one letter is in French), Vera Cruz, and Puebla. Also included in this subseries are miscellaneous legal petitions from Puebla (1812, 1819) and manuscript volumes regarding property titles (1776-1856; 1853-1876). 

V. Puerto Rico, 1823
Items from Puerto Rico include a one page communication in Spanish to the U. S. Commander of an Anglo-American squadron from the Captain General of Puerto Rico, March 1823. Contents of this stationery folder are missing. 

VI. Latin American Literature, 1830-1900
This series contains one manuscript volume of poetry and eight plays, five of which are by Mexican playwrights. The authorship of the poetry and three remaining plays is unknown. Also included is a translation of an Elbert Hubbard piece about fictitious experiences in Frederic Chopin's house. 

VII. Miscellaneous, 1830-1930
This series contains a potpourri of items from documents describing methods of soap making to six manuscript volumes of recipes for soups, pasteries, breads, and mole among other things. Also included in the recipe books are instructions for making watercolors. Other miscellaneous items include a travel account of Mexico and Cuba, 1831 to 1832, written for the London Chronicle, and a sheet of undated manuscript music. 

Lois & Don Bailey Numismatic Services

I was born and raised in south central Michigan. Born in Marshall, and raised in Jackson. Left to join the Marine Corps during the Korean War. Retired out of the Marines at Yuma, Arizona, where I lived for seventeen years. While there I acquired an interest in Mexico and its history. I started collecting US coins in the early 1960s, but quickly turned to just Mexican numismatics because of it's vastly interesting history, and its relationship to the history of the United States. I disposed of all the US inventory, and jumped into Mexico with a passion.  

I started serious studies of Mexican numismatics, writing articles on various areas of Mexican numismatics. My first article was published in June 1967. In my early years I concentrated on Emperor Maximilian and the French Intervention period, specializing in all aspects of that period.

Over the years my numismatic activities included serving in many numismatic organizations as an organization officer. I have been a member of the Sociedad Numismatica de Mexico for over thirty years. A life member of the American Numismatic Association, (LM1050). I served for a number of years as the official representative for the Sociedad in the United States. A few years ago I was appointed by the Banco de Mexico to serve as it's liaison with the numismatic press.

Over the years I have written numerous articles on mainly Mexican historical, or numismatic subjects, but have written on other areas as well. The best and most notable was the Front page Coin World article on "Mark Hoffman", the Mormon forger and murderer back in the 1980s. My articles have appeared at one time or another in all of the numismatic publications, deceased, and still in operations. Some of these have received literary awards. I have the past few years served as the "Mexican Trends" Analyst for Coin World. This is the listing and pricing of all Mexican coinage, from the 1905 coinage reform to date. I have been a contributor to all of Krause Publications numismatic references pertaining to Mexico since day one, such as; Standard Catalog of Mexican Coins, Standard Catalog of World Coins, and Tokens of Latin America. Other contributions were made to all three of Frank Grove's Medals and Decoration books, his Token book, The Guide Book of Mexican Coins, by Buttrey and Hubbard to name a few..

For over the past year I have written a monthly column for World Coin News, called "Mexican Numismatic Potpourri" or "Mexican Potpourri" for short. Over this period the readers have been taken a trip through the numismatic history of Mexico, and by the time the series is over all areas of Mexican Numismatics will have been covered.



Uniformology William Worth Belknap, U.S. Secretary of War 1869–76 
105 Coates Trail Weatherford, Texas  76087
Sent by Bill Carmena

The American Civil War Prints of Gordon Davis
This set of 24 prints depicting some of the more obscure regiments and units that fought on both sides during the American Civil War was done as original paintings by the late Dallas, Texas artist Gordon Davis between 1966 and 1974 on commission by historian and collector Bob Cowan. Each painting was carefully researched and executed. Never before printed or published as a set we are proud to offer them here- we are first offering these as 8.5X11 inch prints on our deluxe watercolor paper. Cat. No. ACW 25 plates $32.95 Find a dealer

William Worth Belknap

Belknap, William Worth, 1829–90, U.S. Secretary of War (1869–76), b. Newburgh, N.Y. After practicing law in Iowa, he served in the Civil War, was a division commander under Sherman in Georgia and the Carolinas, and became a major general in 1865. An internal revenue collector in Iowa (1865–69), he was made Secretary of War by Grant. In 1876 a political scandal broke when a House committee found evidence that Belknap had indirectly received annual bribes from the trader at an Indian post. Impeachment was unanimously voted. Grant accepted Belknap's resignation. At the Senate trial, the vote was 35 "guilty," 25 "not guilty"—falling short of the two thirds necessary to convict. Of the 25, 22 declared that they voted "not guilty" on the ground that the Senate lacked jurisdiction after Belknap's accepted resignation. He later practiced law in Washington,

And to cap things off, in 1876 Ulysses S. Grant's secretary of war, William Belknap, was impeached for accepting thousands of dollars in bribes in exchange for a lucrative appointment in Indian Territory. Belknap resigned almost immediately, thereby avoiding a conviction by the Senate.




Spanish Records Extract Manual
Sample Census Forms
Postmaster Finder 

In 1981, the LDS Church published the Spanish Records Extract Manual. It was prepared as a training manual for reading colonial Spanish language documents. An excellent resource, but by about 1988 copies were no longer available.  SHHAR was given permission to reprint and distribute copies at cost.  Now the entire manual is digitized and online.  
Designed as an aid for reading old parish records written in Spanish colonial script.


Sample Census Forms:
Sent by Danielle Brown

Census extraction forms are doubly valuable: not only do they allow researchers to see the format and column headings for various census years (especially if the schedules themselves are hard to read), they also provide a clean and convenient method for extracting and filing important information you find. You must have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer to view these forms. If you do not have Acrobat Reader installed you can download it for free now.  


Postmaster Finder
Sent by George Gause

Get information about postmasters and post offices quickly and easily. Choose from the categories below.  What you will find: Most postmasters appointed after 1986 and some postmasters appointed before 1986. What you will not find: All past postmasters and post offices.  Presently, the site offers complete information on about 12,000 post offices, and the number increases weekly. 
We regret that we can't respond to requests.
Postmasters by City
Postmasters and Where They Served
Post Offices by County
Post Offices by State
Post Offices by Established Date
Post Offices by Discontinued Date
Post Offices by ZIP Code
FAQs about Postmaster Finder



Finnish find sheds new light on prehistoric Andean culture
South Carolina finds could reveal humans lived here earlier than thought
He Left His Head in San Francisco: Olmec presence in the USA

AFP/HO Photo 

Finnish find sheds new light on prehistoric Andean culture
Tue Oct 19,
Sent by John Inclan

HELSINKI (AFP) - Ceramic artifacts found by Finnish archeologists during a dig in Bolivia have shed new light on the prehistoric Tiwanaku people, of whom little is known, Helsinki University officials said. 

"The discovery demonstrates that the Tiwanakus made the highest quality ceramics in the Andean region, with very naturalistic portraits, and thanks to this we now know what they looked like," Martti Paerssinen, a professor from Helsinki University who led the excavations, told AFP. 

The Tiwanaku people settled on the Bolivian side of Lake Titicaca in the Andean mountains around 400 BC. They built their administrative centre, the city of Tiwanaku, around 300-500 AD, and their influence in the region continued to grow for several centuries. 

Knowledge about the Tiwanakus is however limited as they left no writings and their culture died out in the 11th century. 

Today, the Tiwanaku's former capital, some 75 kilometers (45 miles) west of La Paz, is Bolivia's most important archeological site. 

The Finnish university has carried out excavations in the area around Lake Titicaca, which is shared between Peru and Bolivia, together with Bolivian archeologists for some 15 years. 

During surveys on the island of Pariti in the lake this summer, the team of archeologists found a Tiwanaku burial site containing more than 300 kilograms (660 pounds) of ceramic artifacts, which have been dated to between 850 and 1050 AD. 

"The ceramics also tell a lot about their costumes and jewelry, which we knew little about before since the textiles from this period have almost all disappeared," Paerssinen noted. 

Artifacts in South Carolina cold reveal humans lived here earlier than thought.
Find may rewrite continent's past
Extract: by Peter N. Spotts, the Christian Science Monitor via OC Register, 9-25-04

Stone tools found recently in South Carolina are25,000 years old - or older.  This would imply that humans lived on this continent before the last ice age, far earlier than previously believed.  it would also pre-date the earliest-known inhabitants, known as the Clovis culture.  

Clovis groups were thought to have crossed a broad land bridge across the Bering Strait, hiking through breaks in the glaciers to what is now the loser 48 states.  But if people lived on the continent at least 2,000 years earlier, they would have arrived when the glaciers were impassable.  This has led some to argue for a sea route along the land bridge and then the western coastline  Others suggest some may have come from Australia or the Iberian Peninsula.

He Left His Head in San Francisco: Olmec presence in the USA
By Dick Davis

Saturday, October 9th, Governor Miguel Aleman of the State of Veracruz, Mexico donated a colossal stone sculptured Olmec head to the City College of San Francisco.   The gift, a 14-ton, 9-foot tall replica of “El Rey” (The King) was made in honor of the new Pan American Center at City College.  It is now the centerpiece of the proposed Frida Kahlo Garden next to the Diego Rivera Theater at City College of San Francisco.

Placing Olmec replicas in major cities has been a personal endeavor of Governor Aleman.  These heads, of enormous size, demonstrate the power, scale and majesty of the Olmec culture, which was centered in the State of Veracruz.

Maestro Ignacio Perez Solano carved the replica and was present for the dedication.

Tomas Roman, a local TV personality, opened the presentation with an anecdote. He told of his reaction when he first heard that Henry Parker, director of the Fine Arts Museum, said, “How would City College like an Olmec giant head?”  He was startled.   An “Old Mick head? ” why would anyone be interested in an Irish stone?  The audience laughed.

Professor Edgar Torres gave a brief account of the Olmec discoveries. “El Rey” the largest head was discovered in 1932.  It is 3000 years old. In total 17 giant carved heads have been found.  Although little is known for certain, the Olmec culture is considered “the mother culture” of Mexico.  The heads are famous not only for their size but for their characteristics: flat noses, thick lips, round faces and a helmet like headgear.  The Olmecs are also known for their ball courts. Some archeologists have speculated that the headgear was worn for protection in a ritual ball game.

Alfonso de Maria y Campos Castello the Mexican General Consul spoke of the importance of relations between Mexico and California.   He mentioned that California was home to the largest number of Mexicans living abroad and that Mexico is California’s best trading partner.

Sr. de Maria y Campos emphasized that the Olmec mother culture and the colossal head called El Rey was symbolic of “Who we are, where we come from and where we are going.”  He added with a touch of humor, “Only El Rey knows.”

Governor Miguel Aleman formally presented El Rey to Dr. Phillip Day, chancellor of the City College. Then he added that, as a Mexican, he felt the emotion of being surrounded in San Francisco by the Diego Rivera Mural, the Frida Kahlo Garden with its walls painted in Frida’s favorite blue and the garden’s new centerpiece, the Olmec colossal head.

He closed his remarks with wry humor.  He mentioned that in November his term of office was up and therefore the presentation had to be in October.  Then he said, you may “lose your heart in San Francisco, but never the head.”  
Dick Davis is a Features writer at OurMexico   .



Heirlooms Lost Google Alerts
Heirlooms Lost
Sent by Lorraine Hernandez
Source: Michelle Norris

List of items people have found in junk shops ,garages etc that belong to other peoples families. Items listed as from as far away as Russia, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Australia, North Ireland and Canada...and of course many from the U.S.A.    Search the site by surname , country, or item. 
Some of the listed items were...
Wills/Estate items
Legal Documents
Marriage Certificates
Funeral cards
Engraved items
Post cards

Google Alerts
Sent by Lorraine Hernandez

Google Alerts are email updates of latest relevant Google results (web, news, etc.) based on your choice of query or topic.  Some handy uses of Google Alerts include: Monitoring a developing news story, keeping current on a competitor or industry, getting the latest on a celebrity or event, keeping tabs on your favorite sports team, Create an alert with the form on the right. You can also sign in to manage your alerts. 




                12/30/2009 04:49 PM