Somos Primos

July 2004, 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


Content Areas

United States
Surname: Padilla
Bernardo de Galvez
Orange County, CA
Los Angeles, CA
Northwestern US
Southwestern US
East Mississippi
East Coast
Family History
2003 Inde


"50 Years Under God".

U.S. Senator Sam Brownback admires the "50 Years Under God" banner with Rev. Rob Schenck and other clergy. The new banner hangs across the street from the US Supreme Court, and was unfurled the very day the Supreme Court dismissed the suit against the Pledge. Coincidently, it was also the date of the 50th anniversary of the insertion of "Under God."  Sent by Odell Harwell  

"A nation may lose its liberties in a day, 
and not miss them 
for a century."

Baron de Montesquieu

Somos Primos Staff: 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna De Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Rina Dichoso Dungao, Ph.D.
Contributors or Source: 
Gilberto Arteaga
Joyce Basch
Eva Booher
Danielle Brown 
Roberto R. Calderon
Rene Caraballo
Bill Carmena
Dennis V. Carter
Bonnie Chapa
Maria E. Cortez
Johanna De Soto 
Alan Duaine
Miriam Galicia Duarte 

Don Garate
David Cisneros Garcia 
Domingo Garcia
George Gause
Eddie Grijalva
Glenn Harding 
Michael Hardwick
Joan Harmon

Odell Harwell
Elsa Herbeck
Sergio Hernandez
Dara Jones
Joe Martinez, Ph.D.
Armando Montes
Gus Montes
Paul Newfield
Jaime Oaxaca, Ph.D.
Robert Andres Olivares
Cindy LoBuglio
Alex Loya
Gloria Oliver 
Guillermo Padilla Origel, Lic. 
Jose Pantoja,
Willis Papillion
Roberto Pérez Guadarrama, Lic.
Marvin Perkins
Tom Pollino
Joseph Puentes
Angel Custodio
Art Reina
Linda J. Rushton
Michael Salinas
Benicio Samuel Sanchez 
      Garcia, Lic.
Virginia Sanchez
John P. Schmal
Albert Seguin
Howard Shorr
Greg Bernal Smestad, Ph.D.
Bob Smith
Mira Smithwick
Viola Sadler 
Leonardo de la Torre 
        y Berumen, Lic.
Paul Trejo

Phil Valdez, Jr.
Francisco M. Vega
J.D. Villarreal 


" I am so happy with "SOMOS PRIMOS." My husband and I moved from Puerto Rico to Michigan ten years ago, and it is kind of hard, starting with some USPS employees. When we start sending mail they were sure that Puerto Rico was part of Mexico (nothing against Mexicans) and it took us a while to let them know that puertorricans are American citizens and that Puerto Rico is in the Caribbean.  

May you keep getting strong and able to show that we as Latinos are together and ready to get the respect that as honest hardworking human being we deserve.  May you have a blessed weekend,  Magda Solano"  6/4/2004 

"I always enjoy everything you send me, even if it does not refer to Castaneda.
Thank you, Alice"  6/4/2004 

"Thank you for the work you do to instill in us the urge to find out more about ourselves.
My Full Name is Maria Dolores Armenta Acosta de Martinez.  I like to sign my name this way because I do not want my children to loose track of our last names!!
Maria "  6/5/2004 


2004 Heritage Calendar
Medal of Honor Gravesites
WWII Enlistment Records
U.S. Congress, 1822  -1995
Populations Shifts, 1850-2000
San Antonio Population Surging
Ethnic Balance Shifting by Spring
California Hispanics, Majority 2040

Fernando Oaxaca
Schools are "resegregating" 
Dare to Dream

Latino Pre-School Population 
The Poster's Place in Wartime

Military Gravesite Locator  
War Dead Information 
Logging Latinos' Legacy
Workers, Late Shifts Locked Exits  
Sears Policy for military reservists 
Rewriting history (ACLU version) 
Good Idea
AAD Access to Archival Databases
Voices of Civil Rights
Corn Tortillas Losing Popularity
Digital divide might be narrowing   
National Awards, Univision 

Flag of Flowers
Sent by Tom Pollino
Aerial photo courtesy of Bill Morson 

The 2002 Floral Flag is 740 feet long and 390 feet wide and maintains the proper Flag dimensions as described in Executive Order #10834. This Flag is 6.65 acres and is the first Floral Flag to be planted with 5 pointed Stars comprised of White Larkspur. Each Star is 24 feet in diameter; Each Stripe is 30 feet wide. This Flag is estimated to contain more than 400,000 Larkspur plants with 4-5 flower stems each for a total of more than 2 million flowers. You can drive by this flag on V Street south of Ocean Ave. in Lompoc, CA, 2 1/2 hours north of Los Angeles.



Free Calendar
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Each year remembers Veterans' Day with the release of a special calendar for the following year.  Our FREE, DOWNLOADABLE 2004 Medal of Honor Calendar will be available on November 11, 2003, and will remain available throughout the year. This year's calendar is designed to serve as a tribute not only to our Medal of Honor heroes of past generations, but to the heroes of a new generation who serve around the world to defend our nation and our world from acts of terrorism. The Torch is Passed.... ....To a New Generation!

The 2004 Heritage is a unique, full-color, patriotic calendar you and your friends can enjoy all year long.  Every month displays not only holidays and important dates from history, but something new in this, our fourth year of calendar production. 

In each month's calendar from the 2004 edition, you will see the faces and learn the names of some of the heroes of this new generation. 

      Though there are far too many for us to highlight them all, we have attempted to find photos and information reflecting a cross-section of those brave men and women of all branches of military service who have received awards for their heroism and sacrifice in Iraq, Afghanistan and around the world.  The October page alone (pictured above) will introduce you to eight American soldiers who have received the Silver Star, including two Army captains who are identical twins.

Medal of Honor Gravesites
Another activity of the Home of Heroes is a compilation of the gravesites of Medal of Honor recipients by state.  Their goal is to have a photograph of each gravesite. They are seeking help to accomplish that task.  You can go to any state by substituting the state of your interest in the URL below.
Sent by Johanna De Soto

This site can be searched for
WWII Enlistment records. Here is the place to go:

I received this information from another mailing list and the source is Lynna Kay Sheffield from "Along Our Lines" from Williamson County, Texas.

Now, in order to search it, you *CANNOT* enter the term TX or Tex or Texas for searching in Texas. You have to get the state code which is available clicking on the link next to the entry for that state. Same goes for the county you want to search! The code for Texas is 85, but there are codes for Texas Concientious objector and other such things. The code for Bexar county is 029.

For example, my great grandfather's brother Richard C. Padilla served in WWII. He can be found by just typing in his name as "Richard C Padilla" in the name box and pressing enter. His record will be the only one to come up and then I can click on "Select Record" and then his record comes up showing specific details about his enlistment. I can also choose a "Printer Friendly Version" of this information to either print up as a hard copy or (control-c) copy to my computer. Neat 'eh? 

Danielle Brown
Sent by George Gause


U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 1995
136 Hispanics served in both House/Senate
Analysis and table prepared by Mimi Lozano
(John P. Schmal is preparing an update of this information for August)

Compare date of statehood 
or status of Commonwealth,
 with first year of representation.

NEW JERSEY, 1787   
1993-           Robert Menéndez (D)

NEW YORK, 1788
1978-1990     Robert Garcia (D)
1990-             Jose E. Serrano (D)
1993-             Nydia M. Velázquez (D)

1913-1927     Ladislas Lazaro (D)
1931-1941     Joachim Octave Fernández (D)

1993-             Louis Gutiérrez (D)

1822-1823     Joseph Marion Hernández (W)
1989-             Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R)
1993-             Lincoln Diaz-Balart (R)

TEXAS, 1845
1961-            Henry B. Gonzalez (D)
1965-            Eligio "Kika" de la Garza II (D)
1983-            Solomon P. Ortiz (D)
1985-1993    Albert G. Bustamante (D)
1993-            Henry Bonilla (R)
1993-            Frank M. Tejada (D)

1877-1878     Romualdo Pacheco (R)
1879-1883     Romualdo Pacheco (R)
1963-1993     Edward Roybal (D)
1979-1989     Antonio Lee Coelho (D)
1982-             Matthew G. Martinez (D)
1983-             Esteban Torres (D)
1993-             Xavier Becerra (D)
1993              Lucille Roybal-Allard (D) 

Commonwealth, 1901

1901-1905    Federico Degetau (IR)
1905-1911    Tulio Larrinaga (U)
1911-1916    Luis Munoz Rivera (U)
1917-1932    Felix Cordova Davila (U)
1932-1933    Jose Lorenzo Pesquera (PR)
1939-1945     Bolivar Pagan (C)
1945-1946    Jesus T. Pinero  (PD)
1946-1965     Antonio Fernos-Isern (PD)
1965-1969     Santiago Polanco-Abreu (PD)
1969-1973     Jorge Luis Cordova Diaz (NP)
1973-1977     Jaime Benitez (PD)
1977-1985      Baltasar Corrada del Rio (NP)
1985-1992      Jaime B. Fuster (D)
1992-1993      Antonio J. Colorado (D)
1993-             Carlos Antonio Romero-Barcelo (NP)

1853-1857       Jose Manuel Gallegos (D)
1871-1873       Jose Manuel Gallegos (D)
1856-1861       Antonio Otero (D)
1863-1865       Francisco Perea (R)
1865-1867       Jose Francisco Chaves (R)
1877-1879       Trinidad Romero (R)
1879-1881       Mariano Sabino Otero (R)
1881-1884       Tranquilino Luna (R)
1884-1885       Francisco Antonio Manzanares (D)
1899-1901       Pedro Perea (R)
1915-1917       Benigno Cardemas Hernandez (R)
1919-1921       Nestor Montoya (R)
1921-1923       Nestor Montoya (R)
1931-1935       Dennis Chavez (D)
1943-1956       Antonio Manuel Fernandez (D)
1957-1964       Joseph Manuel Montoya (D)
1969--1989      Manuel Lujan, Jr. (R)
1983-            William B. Richardson (D)

1991-               Ed Lopez Pastor (D)

VIRGIN ISLANDS, Commonwealth
1973-1979          Ron de Lugo (D)
1981-1995          Ron de Lugo (D)

GUAM, Commonwealth
1985-1993          Ben Blas Garrido (R)
1993                    Robert A. Underwood (D)
New Jersey, no Hispanic representation for 206 years.
Illinois, no Hispanic representation for 175 years.
Texas, no Hispanic representation for 116 years.
Louisiana, no Hispanic representation for 101 years.
Arizona became a state in 1912, no Hispanic representation for 79 years.
Florida, Hispanic representation, one year, 1822-1823, then a lapse of 66 years until 1989.

Puerto Rico, continuous Hispanic representation since it Commonwealth status, 1901.
New Mexico became a state in 1912, but has had representation, on and off since 1853.
All the Hispanic U.S. Senators have been from New Mexico.
1928-1929   Octaviano Larrazolo
1935-1962   Dennis Chavez
1964-1977   Joseph Manuel Montoya

Populations Shifts in Southwest Population, 1850-2000
by Mimi Lozano

These figures are those of the United States census which 
determine the allocated number of representatives.    









































N Mexico


N Mexico









N Mexico









N Mexico


Source: US Census Bureau Resident Population and Appointment of US House of Representative
To view the state of your interest, use the link below and type in the targeted state.

Louisiana was an extremely important state in the affairs of the United States. In 1850 the population of all the Spanish Southwest territories and Florida together did not equal the population of Louisiana.
The westward movement contributed to population shifts. Louisiana went from first (1st) in population, to second (2nd) in 1870, to third (3rd) in 1900, and to fifth (5th) in 2000.

Texas has remained consistently in the top two positions in population size, first (1st) in 1870 and 1900 and now in second (2nd) place behind California.

California was third (3rd) in population size in 1850 and 1870, but by 1900 had moved to second (2nd) position and in 2000, first (1st) position by a huge margin.

Florida was fourth (4th) in 1850 and 1870, fifth (5th) in 1900 and moved up to third (3nd) in the 2000 data, experiencing, like California a huge population increase, much of the growth Spanish speaking residents.

Colorado and Arizona have each experienced major growth periods, Colorado between 1870 and 2000 and Arizona between 1950 and 2000.

New Mexico remained the least populated of these Southwest states.

Percentage of population increase 1850-2000 
(Arizona and Colorado, figures from 1860)



New Mexico



San Antonio Population Surging 
BY MARK BABINECK Associated Press Writer, 06/24/04
 Sent by Elsa Herbeck
San Antonio, buoyed by a steady population influx and plenty of room to spread out, has eclipsed Dallas as the nation's eighth-largest city, according to estimates released Thursday by the Census Bureau. 

At around 1.7 million in population, the San Antonio metropolitan area remains far smaller than that of the Dallas-Fort Worth region, which stands at about 5.6 million and is climbing heartily. 

Still, San Antonio is proud to return to its former glory. The city became Texas' first urban center when Spanish missionaries established it in 1718. It was the state's largest city as late as 1920 before Houston and Dallas surpassed it. 

Ethnic Balance Shifting by Spring
 By Jeff Claassen, Forth Worth Star-Telegram Staff Writer, June 22, 2004
Sent by George Gause
Source: Domingo Garcia  and Roberto Calderon

Anglos are likely to be the minority in Texas by spring, about two years earlier than originally expected.  The Anglo population is growing more slowly because the flood of newcomers that Texas saw in the 1990s has slowed to a trickle, Texas' state demographer said Monday.

Meanwhile, births, primarily for Hispanics, kept a fast pace from 2000 to 2002.  The more rapid shift in Texas' racial and ethnic diversity means that the state must find ways to improve education, access to health care and job training to remain competitive economically, researchers said.

"A company doesn't want to put itself in a place where it has to hire from a population with more health and education problems," said Mitchell Rice, director of the Race and Ethnic Studies Institute at Texas A&M University. "This affects how we compete not only with the other 49 states but within
the global arena," he said.

Undocumented immigrants are not specifically accounted for, but some of them are part of the Census 2000 head counts that serve as a starting point for the estimates, said Steve Murdock, the state demographer. If the official counts could estimate undocumented immigrants, he said, Anglos would probably already be in the minority in Texas.

The future of Texas' racial and ethnic makeup was just one part of a report on population trends released Monday by Murdock. The report also notes:

Texas is expected to have 36 million residents in 2040, increasing 62 percent from today's 22
million. The United States is expected to grow more slowly, by 49 percent, over a longer time
frame, 2000 to 2050.

Ads and stores aimed at Hispanic customers would be more numerous, and Hispanic politicians would play a much larger role in state government, Rice said. The state will need many more bilingual workers and may need to reassess its move to a smaller government that provides fewer services, he said.

"The state will need more social services than are being provided now," Rice said. "Cutting back on various programs may have a devastating impact on how well the state will fare in taking care of its residents and in how it competes in the global market."

First on the agenda should be improving the education of Texas' Hispanic children, said Terry Clower, associate director of the Center for Economic Development and Research at the University of North Texas in Denton.

"We sometimes get overly focused on getting people with advanced degrees," Clower said. "It's also important to have people doing assembly and other basic jobs who have a good education so they can be trained."

ONLINE: Texas State Data Center,
Jeff Claassen, (817) 390-7710
Knight Ridder | Copyright 2004


SACRAMENTO - California's population will have jumped by more than 20 million people over 50 years to reach a total state population in 2050 of nearly 55 million, according to long-range population projections released today by the California Department of Finance.

From fewer than 34 million Californians counted in the 2000 Census, the new data indicate that the state is projected to pass the 40 million mark in 2012, and to top 50 million by 2036.
The new projections also show that Hispanics will constitute the majority of Californians by 2040. 

By the middle of the century, the projections indicate that Hispanics will represent 53.6 percent of the state's population, with Caucasians comprising 23.3 percent , the Asian population at 12.1 percent; the African American population at 6.4 percent, the Pacific Islander population at less than one-half of one percent, and Native Americans and people of more than one race 2.1 percent each.

This is the department's first population projection series that separates the Asian race group from the Pacific Islanders race group, and is also the first projection series that includes a multi-race category.

The 2000 Census marked the first time that Asians and Pacific Islanders were listed as separate
racial/ethnic groups, and the first time that respondents were allowed to self-select more than one racial category.

The new projections also show changes in the State's county populations. Los Angeles will remain the largest county in California, exceeding 11 million in 2050. In numeric terms, Riverside County is expected to add more people than any other county with 2.8 million new residents. By 2050, Riverside is projected to overtake Orange County and become the third most populous county behind Los Angeles and San Diego.

San Joaquin County is expected to triple in size and experience the greatest percentage increase over the 50-year period - 201 percent. Other counties with large percentage increases include Merced, Riverside, Placer, and Madera. Seven counties in California - Inyo, Marin, Modoc, Plumas, San Francisco, Siskyou, and Trinity - are expected to have fewer people at mid-century than they did in 2000. The population loss in these counties is for the most part due to natural decrease - the amount of deaths over births. 

By 2050, the new projections indicate that Sierra County will have the highest percentage of Caucasians of any county, and Imperial County will have the highest percentage of Hispanics. San Francisco City and County will have the highest concentration of Asians, San Mateo County will have the highest percentage of Pacific Islanders, Sacramento County will have the largest proportion of African Americans, and Alpine County will have the highest percentage of Native Americans. Californians identifying themselves as being multi-race are expected to have the highest concentration in Inyo County. Whites will remain the majority in less than 40 percent of the counties in California. Hispanics will be the majority race/ethnic group in 20 counties in California.

This is the first Department of Finance projection series to incorporate 2000 Census information.
Compared to the projections released in 1998, these projections forecast 7 million fewer people by 2040, which was the end point of the previous projection series. Projections of the age and sex characteristics of the population will soon be available from the Demographic Research Unit.

Mary Heim, Melanie Martindale and Nicola Standish prepared this population projection series.
California State Department of Finance, May 2004
Demographic Research Unit
915 L Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
(916) 323-4086
Sent by JV Martinez,



Fernando Oaxaca – Legacy of an American Statesman
HispanicVista.Com Editorial, May 29, 2004

A founding director of, Fernando Oaxaca, after a prolonged illness passed on Friday, May 28. He was accompanied at his bedside by his loving wife, Bertie, his best friend and brother, Jaime, and other family members and close friends.

When we say, "he passed on" we also mean he passed on the baton to a new generation of Americans. First and foremost, Fernando will be remembered as an American statesman. A man of passion for his country and conviction for his principles, with unmatched dedication, loyalty and patriotic fervor Fernando devoted his life to his country. His love for America, adherence to his family values, appreciation for his Hispanic heritage and traditions, his belief in democratic ideals, rule of law, equality and justice - these are the hallmark of his legacy.

Born in el Paso, Texas of Mexican parentage, Fernando always held his parents with the utmost love and respect. He often quoted his father's witty directives that guided him through his life. His strong family values, supplemented by his Hispanic heritage and American work ethic empowered Fernando to become the unique statesman that was his destiny.

After graduating from the University of Texas in 1950 he moved to Los Angeles where he became a successful businessman. He was a co-founder of Coronado Communications, engaged in broadcasting and radio, and pioneered marketing and advertising to the Spanish language consumer. His business success catapulted him to community service and political involvement. He served in the Nixon/Ford White House and became with his close friends, the recognized leaders of the Hispanic coalition of the Republican Party. A position he occupied until his recent illness.

To his credit and honor, Fernando broke ranks with the Peter Wilson California Republican Party when they turned on the defenseless immigrant community. The measure, Proposition 187, was passed by the electorate in an election riddled with biased and inflammatory anti immigrant rhetoric, was declared unconstitutional. And subsequently Fernando was instrumental in bridging the divisiveness with a more compassionate and understanding policy toward the undocumented immigrant working class.

He joined forces with Dionicio Morales, a living role model in the Hispanic community, and became the Chairman of the Mexican American Opportunity Foundation. MAOF today is the biggest Hispanic community services institution in the United States. He was also Chairman of the Mexican Cultural Institute in Los Angeles, co-sponsored by the Mexican government and private donations, to promote the Mexican culture and foment cultural exchange between the two countries. Both of these organizations awarded Fernando with their 'Life Achievement Award' - an accolade not previously accorded.

Fernando will be best remembered for his statesmanship. He preached what he practiced. He believed in a welfare system that was a safety net and not an entitlement. He believed in self-help, self-esteem and a work ethic. He believed in government accountability and fiscal responsibility.  He was committed to a democratic society that was governed by institutions grounded on principles of justice and equality - the rule of law. Above all, he believed that America's strength was grounded on family values, love of country and cultural diversity. Had it been possible, he would have endowed America with the gifts he treasured, his fluency in the Spanish and English languages, and his bi-cultural heritage. 

His 'Oaxaca Journal' essays published in HispanicVista articulate, incisive, well documented commentaries espousing his conservative philosophy and ideals. He championed fair treatment and respect for all Americans. His enemy, whom he defined as America's real enemy, is the bigoted supremacist who cowardly drapes himself in the American flag and Christian credo. 

Fernando, hermano, we will continue to champion your cause. You will be remembered by grateful future generations of Americans, of all political affiliations, backgrounds and creeds.

Sent by brother, Dr. Jaime Oaxaca
[[ Editor: I never had the opportunity of meeting Fernando Oaxaca, but I thoroughly enjoyed his opinions, and clear logic in expressing his ideas. Below is a letter from Francisco Vega written before Fernando’s passing on. ]]

For your information:  

Fernando and I met in 1967 at a meeting of thirteen Latin-Americans, Hispanos, Chicanos, Latinos, and some with the identification of  Other,  in Washington, D.C., with the intent of "getting involved in government".  

As far as I can recall the meeting came about by word of mouth... we were from Florida, California, Texas, New Jersey, Michigan, and several other states.... most of those present had been in service in World War I I, had taken advantage of the GI  Bill for their education and were well-off financially... We arrive on Saturday, looked at the statues and monuments on Sunday, and on Monday went to the National Office of the Democratic Party and they did not want us.  We then went to the National Office of the Republican Party, and they did not want us either. -- -- -

One of my businesses for over 45 years is designing, building, owning, managing cemeteries. .. .   and when we returned to the hotel, I have never been to a worse wake when someone has died. - - - We were down because we felt that we had accomplishments and had a lot to offer.... but it was soon apparent that we did not know politics.

The discussion brought out that we all said we were Democrats; however, not one of us had ever been to the local offices of ANY political party.  People started to leave and five of us stayed and kept on talking.

The five were:  Fernando Oaxca (CA); Martin Castillo, Esq. (CA), Benjamin Fernandez (CA), Manuel Lujan (NM), and Francisco M. Vega (MI&TX).  We organized ourselves as "The Republican National Hispanic Council".    Ben was the first President.  Ben appointed me Secretary, and I refused.  He then said I would be the Historian.  We laughed and I accepted.  The next year we changed the name to "The Republican National Hispanic Assembly".  Ben continued as President and he was then followed by Fernando as our second National President..... 

All this was done without the Republican Party's knowledge.... All five of us assumed the work of  organizing State Chapters in our regions.... I had the five Great Lake States and Missouri..... 

We raised our own funds and in 1968 we walked into the Republican Headquarters in Washington, D. C., and handed a check for over $400,000.00 for the campaign of President Nixon !!! The person that received the check was a man by the name of  Ben Cotton... he was nervous and went to get someone else... the second person thinking that this was some kind of joke by these identifiable minorities was upset, more angry than upset.... and Ben asked him to call the bank to verify the check.... he came back and smiled and was quite nervous... and blurted out, "All right, what do you people want?"- - - Ben, who never was at a loss for words, answered, "We do not want anything, we are cutting ourselves in!! - - -  In 1972, the Republican National Hispanic Assembly (RNHA) was formally recognized by the Republican Party as the official political body to represent Hispanics. Saludos,

Francisco M. Vega  PANCHO

Schools are "resegregating", records show
The Bremerton SUN -- Newspaper 5/17/2004

Dear Editor: In response to your article; Schools are "resegregating", records show, by Thomas Hargrove, 5/17/2004.A bit of history is in order--due to the 50th anniversary of "Brown vs. Board of Education. Its now apparent that there were more then one famous school desegregation case. There was the California class action suit, by a group of Hispanic students/parents--Mendez vs. Westminster School District/1944.Because Mexican children were force to go to an all Mexican
" Unequal school" This suit was ruled in favor of the Hispanic students--making California, the first state to desegregate its schools. These two school desegregation landmark case had glaring similarities. Both cases had the brilliant legal mind and defender of;" Equal Education", Thurgood
Marshall and the defender of Civil Rights--Gov./Chief Justice Earl Warren. Who was the deciding official. Somewhere in the scheme of things---the Mendezs' desegregation case was lost in the shuffle and not given credit for actually giving impetus for Brown vs. Board of Education.

As for the re-segregation of our public schools--that is cause by low-income, single families, changing housing patterns and white flight. It doesn't appear that in the near future--that we are going to re-distribute/or re-locate our low-income minority families. And as the schools reaching 60-to 80% minority--the level of quality education spiral downwards. Which is associated with lack of resources and low teacher/student expectations, parent involvement and negative student learning behaviors. And low ethnic teacher parity.!!

It doesn't appear that we going reach ethnic teacher parity--so the next best thing that must be do is;1-Re-trained our existing teachers in the practice of high teacher expectation of all there students 2-Assure that all teachers educate all of their students--at the same high level--at the same time!!3-Required all parents to sign a parent/student involvement learning contract. Especially, those parents that are not working, on Welfare, Food Stamps and free lunches. These parents have more time for student involvement. And it their children that are academically performing low--according to the WASL test results.

As for the WASL, it evidence last year--that our state had 526 failing schools. Sixteen in our County of Kitsap. According to the No Child Left Behind Act, there were over 9000 failing schools---across the Nation!! We're certainly not moving with " All Deliberate Speed", to provide all our students a equal and quality education.--according to the mandates of Brown vs. Board of Education. Also, it would appear that with over 9000 failing schools, across the Nation--and with
Black and Hispanic students, only attaining academic proficiency at about 35%,in all subject matters. According to National Assessment of Education Progress. This should trigger public outcries of indignation from the NAACP, Congressional Black Caucus--protest marches from Rev. Jessie Jackson and Al Sharpton. Why the conspicuous absence--is it because of their closed
ties and dependency on the teacher unions??

Willis Papillion
1578 Reo PL., NW
Silverdale, WA 98383

    Dare to Dream 
    Robert Andres Olivares

    A 27 year-old past gang member expresses his perspective.

Once upon a time we read about a man who had a dream about the world and what it could one day be, a great man with a dream that all people would one day be equal regardless of race. If I close my eyes, I can see it. A former President referred to it as a shining city on a hill, yet it seems so far away. 

There has been so many different ways that men have tried to get us to pull together. Pan-Africanism is a philosophy that is based on the belief that African people share common bonds and objectives and that advocates unity to achieve these objectives. 

It seems that no matter how far and how often we dream about what we could one day be, we are stuck in purgatory plagued by violence at our own hands. In Barrio communities and Project Complexes young black and Mexican children and teenagers are fighting and killing each other still over color. Red or blue, north or south has taken over and replaced the fight for equality among our young. 

Our young men are taking stands as soldiers fighting over property they inhabit, but shall never own. Most of them will leave their mark on this world in chalk outlines and bloodstains, rather then helping each other survive and succeed as a race. 

It is sad to see how we have become so removed from ourselves, and the goals of the generations before us. Our fathers and grandfathers lived harder lives then we, and had to change the world so we could live in freedom, and yet here we are fighting in a war . . . . Against ourselves. 

Latino Pre-school population Weekly Digest, 6/21/04

Data released yesterday by the U.S. Census Bureau about the growth of the nation's Hispanic population underscore the need for President Bush and Congress to invest in initiatives that benefit Latino children, especially in the area of early childhood education. According to the report, Hispanics were the most likely of all Americans to be preschoolers; more than one in ten (10.4%) Latinos are five years old and under. In fact, Latinos are the only racial or ethnic group whose five-and-under population exceeds 10%. 


The Poster's Place in Wartime

During the First World War, posters were the primary form of public communication; but by 1940 posters had been supplanted by radio, movies, and billboards. Why then did government and private industry turn to posters to rally the public in World War II?

First, people would encounter posters in places that other media couldn't reach--schools, factories, offices, store windows, and other places outside the scope of paid advertising. Second, posters had democratic appeal--they could be made by anyone; they could be seen by all. Both medium and message spoke of democracy, which made posters ideal for expressing American war aims: why we fight, what we fight for. For example, artist John C. Atherton's first-prize poster for Defense Bonds was painted on a 48-foot billboard at one of New York's busiest street corners, 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue, July 1941.

To tap the creative energies of American artists, the Museum of Modern Art organized a National Defense Poster Competition in 1941. The contest was sponsored by the museum and two of the government's largest users of posters, the Army Air Corps and the Treasury Department. First prize in the Defense Bond category was won by John C. Atherton, a prominent commercial artist. Atherton's winning design--showing the factory as the front line of decisive action -- was echoed in other posters as America entered the war after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.


The 1930s had been an era of violent labor disputes. Now the war emergency demanded a change in American industry--not only a switch from consumer goods to war material, but also a change in workers' and managers' attitudes from antagonism to cooperation. The government launched a campaign urging workers to make personal sacrifices to win the war, and individual businesses and labor unions quickly followed suit. Eventually, privately produced posters vastly outnumbered official government-issued posters.

For manufacturers, the war was an opportunity to gain greater control over their work force. In the push for increased productivity, factory managers called for employees to suspend union rules, abandon traditional work patterns, and make sacrifices in the name of patriotism.

Government agencies offered tips on the design and placement of posters in the factory, urging employers to "use enough" -- at least one poster per 100 workers. Plant managers, company artists, paper manufacturers, and others needed little encouragement to carry out this advice; private industry produced vast numbers of production-incentive posters during the war.


Nationwide Military Gravesite Locator  
Buried Veterans' Records Now on Web
By Suzanne Gamboa / The Associated Press
[McAllen Monitor, Tuesday, April 13, 2004 / page 4A] 
Sent by George Gause

WASHINGTON – Sally Naporlee turned to the Department of Veterans Affairs to find out more about her grandfather, who served during World War I.

After a few weeks wait for a response, Naporlee learned from the VA that Carmelo Castorina is buried at Pine Lawn National Cemetery in New York.  Unexpectedly, she also learned from VA that her grandmother is buried with him, a privilege extended to veterans’ spouses.

VA has made it easier and faster for the public to get answers about family history, old war buddies or famous war heroes.  The agency put on the Web 3.2 million records for veterans buried at 120 national cemeteries since the Civil War.  The Web site is

The VA’s Nationwide Gravesite Locator also has records for some state veterans cemeteries and burials in Arlington National Cemetery since 1999.

Joe Nosari, VA’s deputy chief information officer for Memorial Affairs, said the records used to be on paper and microfilm.  Private companies have put some of the information online and charged for it, but the VA information is free, he said.

Naporlee, of Spokane, Wash., also learned her grandfather served with the Army’s 161 DB unit, enlisting June 24, 1918.  He was honorably discharged December 17, 1918.

The VA’s gravesite navigator includes names, dates of birth and death, military service dates, service branch and rank if known, cemetery information and grave location in the cemetery.  The VA will withhold some information, such as next of kin, for privacy purposes.

The site will be updated daily.  Annually, about 80,000 veterans are buried at national cemeteries.
The VA also hopes to add records for veterans whose families requested grave markers from the VA.  Those markers may go to private cemeteries or cemeteries overseas.
War Dead Information 
Sent by George Gause

The War Dead at is a web site you shouldn't plan on visiting unless you set aside at least a couple of hours to see what is there... many of us have friends and relatives listed amongst the dead and for the youngest ones on this mailing list there are bound to be relatives of those you know.  

The Korean War dead sections has room to have a photograph of each of those who died while in the service and in my viewing only a few cases had a photo.

Mistakes are out there... an example was Chicago spelled Xhicago, doesn't sound like much but it could prevent a relative from finding this soldier... so if anyone has the time to donate to correct some of these mistakes everyone will eventually benefit.

There are partial lists of those who died in many of the following wars: Mexican War, the Spanish American War, the Civil War, WWI, WWII, the Korean War, but not the Vietnam War.

SOURCE: Dennis V. Carter []
Logging Latinos' legacy, Encyclopedia explores influence on U.S. culture
Peter Ortiz, The Arizona Republic, Jun. 14, 2004
Sent by Howard Shorr
A group of Arizona State University professors spent three years on a project that will encompass 400,000 words and 500 essays, along with images and photos, in the Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Popular Culture in the United States. The two-volume set promises its readers a comprehensive look at the diversity among Latinos in the United States and examines well- and lesser-known pioneers in literature, music, art, folklore, religion, geography, sports, politics and food. It is expected to come out in the fall.

Cordelia Candelaria and Peter Garcia, ASU professors and co-editors on the project, enlisted help from 75 writers and focused attention on the three largest Latino populations in the United States: Mexican, Cuban and Puerto Rican.

The writers not only showcased their subjects' popularity but also cited their lasting influence on American culture. Garcia points to Desi Arnaz, a Cuban-born actor who is etched in the minds of many as the passionate and funny musician Ricky Ricardo from I Love Lucy. 

What many fans of the show may not realize is the pioneering role he played in introducing an innovative technique involving three cameras instead of one, making it easier to film sitcoms. Arnaz also shattered perceptions that a Latino man could not play the husband and lead role to his Anglo wife in front of millions. Arnaz, who played the husband of Lucille Ball's character, also was married to the actress in real life. 

"Things like that give a fuller perspective and put some flesh where often we (Latinos) are a caricature," Garcia said. "I'm hoping it will encourage readers to delve deeper."  "For Latinos, there is ignorance within the culture . . . so this will fill in a lot of gaps for many of our students," he said.

Carlos Elvira-Galindo, director of leadership and community relations for Valle del Sol, said it is a "one-stop shopping guide on Latino culture." "It lifts up the contributions made by Latinos and gives some recognition," Elvira-Galindo said.

The encyclopedia cites political accomplishments, like that of Loretta and Linda Sanchez, the first sisters to serve in the U.S. Congress at the same time. Attention is given to locals like Arturo "Arte" Moreno, an Arizona millionaire who purchased the Anaheim Angels baseball team in 2003. 

The encyclopedia also examines the lives of Latinos who dealt with American racism.

Roberto Clemente, who played for the Pittsburgh Pirates, became the first Latino player in the National Baseball Hall of Fame when he was posthumously inducted in 1973. The proud Puerto Rican embraced his Latino and Black roots and rejected racists who only saw the skin color of him and his African-American teammates. 

About 15 percent of the encyclopedia's content features Latinos who fall outside the Mexican-American, Cuban-American and Puerto Rican sphere, such as Shakira, the crossover star and Pepsi spokeswoman of Colombian and Lebanese descent. 

Immigrant Workers Say Late Shifts Often Mean Locked Exits  
By STEVEN GREENHOUSE, New York Times, June 18, 2004
Howard Shorr
David Sandoval, who cleans the floors of the Met Foods Supermarket in Cobble Hill, Brooklyn, walks in through the front door most evenings around 8:30. But when the gates come down an hour later, he says, the door is locked, and he is unable to leave until the manager comes in the next

Zeferino Arenas Abundez, who scrubs and waxes floors at a Pioneer supermarket in Clinton Hill, says much the same thing happens to him most nights.  Indeed, he said that when smoke set off the fire alarm at one supermarket he used to clean in the Bronx, firefighters had to saw through a large lock to get in. 

Interviews with janitors, state officials and local organizers who work with immigrants indicate that the experiences of these men and many others are part of a hidden threat in dozens of stores across the city, where concerns about theft trump worries about the fate of workers. 

To prevent workers from stealing merchandise, they say, many stores padlock their rear fire exits, even as the front doors are sealed behind steel gates. 

The Fifth Avenue Committee, a community group in Brooklyn that has helped immigrants for years, says it has taken similar accounts from 11 immigrants who work in Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan and the Bronx who say much the same thing goes on at some of the most familiar groceries in the city. The group has identified more than 30 stores that lock cleaning workers in at night. 

David Billig, a spokesman for the New York City Fire Department, said that he had not heard of the allegations, but that the department would look into them. He said it made regular inspections, but did not know how widespread such lock-ins were. Calling the practice illegal, he said, "Obviously, we would not support locking people into places like this." 

According to the late-night cleaners, they arrive - sometimes by themselves, sometimes with a partner - shortly before a store closes, often being paid $60 a day for 10 or 12 hours of work. The storefronts are shuttered by pull-down metal gates, and the back doors, often padlocked during the day, remain locked. 

Mr. Saldaña and other cleaners said they had gone to the Fifth Avenue Committee to complain that the cleaning contractor who employed them was not paying them time and a half for overtime. The committee directed them to the attorney general's office, and when investigators in that office began interviewing the janitors, they said they were surprised to hear about the lock-ins. 

Mr. Arenas said that he was upset that J & J's owner, Julio Navarro, had not pressed the supermarket to stop locking in the workers after some workers complained to him. 

Artemio Guerra, director of organizing at the Fifth Avenue Committee, said, "It's very clear there is a shared responsibility on the part of the contractor and the store manager for the well-being and safety of these workers."  Mr. Guerra added, "This is the type of thing that people don't pay attention to until there's a tragedy." 

"I worry that I will have no place to run if an armed robber comes in," Mr. Juarez said. "In that situation maybe I'd hide in a freezer. And sometimes I think if there's a fire, I'll hide in the freezer." 

Sears Policy for military reservists  
Sent by Joyce Basch

By law, companies are required to hold their jobs open and available, but  nothing more. Usually, people take a big pay cut and lose benefits as a result of being called up...but listen to this!  
Sears is voluntarily paying the difference in salaries and maintaining all  benefits, including medical insurance and bonus programs, for all called up reservist employees for up to two years. I submit that Sears is an exemplary corporate citizen and should be recognized for its contribution. Suggest we all shop at Sears, and be sure to find a manager to tell them why we are there so the company gets the positive reinforcement it well deserves. 
 I decided to check it out before I sent it forward. I sent the following e-mail to the Sears Customer Service Department:  
 I received this e-mail and I would like to know if it is true. If it is, the Internet may have just become one very good source of advertisement for  your store. I know I would go out of my way to buy products from Sears instead of another store for a like item even if it was cheaper at the other store.  
 Here is their answer to my e-mail......................  
 Dear Customer:  
Thank you for contacting Sears. The information is factual. ! We appreciate your positive feedback. Sears  regards service to our country as one of greatest sacrifices our young men  and women can make. We are happy to do our part to lessen the burden they bear  at this time.  
 Bill Thorn, Sears Customer Care  
 web  1-800-349-4358

Rewriting history (ACLU version)

Sent by Bill Carmena
--I received  this from a Friend---

Today  I went to visit the new World War II Memorial in Washington, DC. I got an unexpected history lesson. Since I'm a baby boomer, I was one of the youngest in the crowd. Most were the age of my parents, veterans of "the greatest war" with their families. It was a beautiful day, and people were smiling and happy to be there. Hundreds of us milled around the memorial, reading the inspiring words of Ike and Truman that are engraved there.

On the Pacific side of the memorial, a group of us gathered to read the words President Roosevelt used to announce the attack on Pearl Harbor: "Yesterday, December 7, 1941-- a date which will live in infamy-- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked."  One woman read the words aloud: " With confidence in our armed forces, with the un-bounding determination of our people, we will gain the inevitable triumph." But as she read, she was suddenly angry. "Wait a minute," she said. "They left out the end of the quote. They left out the most important part. Roosevelt said 'so help us God."

"You're probably right," her husband said. "We're not supposed to say things like that now."
"I know I'm right," she insisted. "I remember the speech." The two shook their heads sadly and walked away.  Listening to their conversation, I thought to myself, "Well, it has been 50 years. She's probably forgotten."

But she was right. I went home and pulled out the book my book club is reading. It's "Flags of Our Fathers" by James Bradley. It's all about Iwo Jima. I haven't gotten too far in the book. It's  tough to read because it's a graphic description of the battles in the Pacific. 

But right there it was on page 58. Roosevelt's speech to the nation. It ends "so help us God."
The people who edited out that part of the speech when they engraved it on the memorial could have fooled me. I was born after the war. But they couldn't fool the people who were there. Roosevelt's words are engraved on their hearts.

Good Idea  

Albert Seguin 

You may have heard in the news that a couple of Post Offices in Texas have been forced to take down small posters that say "IN GOD WE TRUST," The law, they say, is being violated. 
The suggestion has been made to write "IN GOD WE 'TRUST " on the back of all our mail. 
If you like this idea, please pass it on and DO IT. 

AAD Access to Archival Databases 

NARA . . . ready access to essential evidence
Sent by Bob Smith Regriffith6828 
AAD has approximately 400 data files with millions of records available online, but how do you know which one will be of interest to you? To assist you, NARA has grouped the series available in AAD in eight ways. Select one type of list below, click "Submit" and you will see all the relevant series grouped in that way. Click on a series title, and you will get more information about the series, including links to information about the data files in the series. 

Voices of Civil Rights

Dear Organizational Leader, AARP and the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) would like to invite members of your organization to be a part of history and a part of Voices of Civil Rights. 

Voices of Civil Rights is a multifaceted, year-long collaborative effort to create the world’s largest archive of firsthand accounts of the Civil Rights Movement. Already more than more than 1,200 stories have been submitted to the project. You can view some of those stories now on the Voices of Civil Rights website at

Your members’ experiences and memories are an important part of American history and an important part of the Voices of Civil Rights. That’s why we’re asking you to share with your members this invitation to add their personal civil rights memories to the Voices of Civil Rights project. To submit a story, in 500 words or less, go directly to  

Stories also may be submitted to the address below. 
AARP / Voices of Civil Rights
601 E Street, NW
Washington, DC  20049

For more information or to schedule a presentation on Voices of Civil Rights for your members, please contact: Ben Morgan, Voices of Civil Rights Outreach Coordinator
202 434 6107

The entire Voices of Civil Rights collection will be donated to the Library of Congress, as a tribute to those who witnessed or experienced America’s quest for equality and as an educational resource for generations to come. 

Corn Tortillas Losing Popularity 

Sent by JV Martinez

Status-conscious Mexicans are starting to turn their backs on what has been the chief staple of the diet since before there was even a country called Mexico: the corn tortilla. While Americans wrap
tortillas around grilled meats at a record pace, the increasingly urbanized and globalized Mexican consumer is moving on to sliced bread, processed foods and a little more protein, nutrition experts
and industry officials said. "This is partially a status issue," said Salvador Villalpando, a researcher at the National Institute of Public Health. "The tortilla is considered a rural foodstuff."  Advertising for bread, chips, cookies and cakes is driving consumer tastes, he added.

Average tortilla consumption has fallen 15 percent in four years, according to new figures from the Mexican Chamber of Corn Processors. The average urban Mexican consumes 185 pounds of tortillas a year, or about 1,700 tortillas. The figure four years ago was 215 pounds, or nearly 2,000 tortillas. Rural consumption has fallen as well. And while the drop amounts to less than one tortilla per day per person, industry officials say the trend is alarming for the 4,000-year-old maize disc. The tortilla is still Mexicans' No. 1 source of calories. But Jose Enrique Tron, the corn chamber director, said rising incomes have made meat a bigger part of diets. Another factor is the
government's lifting of tortilla price controls five years ago. Sales have fallen as prices have doubled and quality has suffered. "The tortillas in the United States . . . are better than those in Mexico
City," Tron said.  Source: Dallas Morning News: 06/08

The digital divide might be narrowing. 
Colleen McCain Nelson -- The Dallas Morning News, June 21, 2004 
Study Finds More Minorities Surfing Web Waves for News

Minorities are logging on in greater numbers, making cyberspace a more ethnically diverse place, according to a new study. And blacks and Hispanics increasingly are surfing the Web for their news. 

Four years ago, the percentage of minorities online lagged behind whites, but a study issued last week by the Pew Research Center found that the gap has shrunk. Now, nearly two-thirds of whites and Hispanics and 61 percent of blacks use the Internet. 

The study also found that nearly one-third of Hispanics log on for news - a larger percentage than whites or blacks. 

National Journalism Excellence Awards Announced: 
Univision Network Receives Two Edward R. Murrow Awards

Fifth Time The #1 Spanish-Language Network Is Recognized With Prestigious Honor

Miami, FL--(HISPANIC PR WIRE)--June 24, 2004--Univision Communications Inc. (NYSE: UVN) today announced that the Univision Network, the leading Spanish-language television network in the U.S., has been honored for its excellence in journalism with two prestigious 2004 Edward R. Murrow Awards. The first and only Spanish-language network to ever receive this national award, the Univision Network has now been honored a total of five times by the Radio-Television News Directors 
Association (RTNDA). This year, "Univision News" was recognized in the category of Videography and Univision's daily newsmagazine "Primer Impacto" was recognized in the category of Outstanding News Series. 

Univision received two out of the 11 awards given in the category of Network Television, with the other nine awards going to CBS (3), NBC (2), ABC (2) and ESPN (2).


SURNAME  Padilla

        Tratadistas genealógicos como Julián del Castillo en “Historia de los Reyes Godos”, (1582) Francisco Rades y Andrade, en su crónica de las Ordenes de Caballería de Santiago, Calatrava y Alcántara”, 1572; Gonzalo Argote de Molina en “Nobiliario de Andalucía”, 1588: Luis de Salazar y Castro, en “Historia Genealógica de las Casa de Lara”, 1696; Juan Félix de Rivarola, en su “Monarquía Española”, 1736; el padre Antonio Ramos, en su “Descripción Genealógica de la casa de Lara”, 1696; Juan Félix de Rivarola, en su “Monarquía Española”, 1736; el padre Antonio Ramos, en su “Descripción Genealógica de la Casa Aguayo “, 1781 y otros muchos autores de reconocido prestigio son unánimes en afirmar que el apellido Padilla es uno de los más antiguos y nobles que existieron en Castilla, ya que en el año 

1033 aparece don Diego Núñez Padilla (sic) como confirmador en un privilegio dado a la Iglesia de Oña, Burgos, por el Rey don Sancho. Después, en 1166, figuran en documentos de esa fecha los hermanos don Nuño Gutiérrez de Padilla y don Gonzalo Gutiérrez, quienes dotaron y fundaron el Monasterio de San Miguel de Villamayor de la Orden Premonstratense fundada en San Norberto, siendo originarios aquellos del lugar de Padilla de Yuso, en la Merindad de Castrogeriz, Burgos, donde esta casa solar tuvo tantas preeminencias, que el “pecho” de la Martiniega se cobraba por mitad entre el soberano y los de este linaje.

En las crónicas de su época, se relatan las batallas que sostuvo el Conde Soberano de Castilla contra el Rey Almanzor, en los principios de la segunda mitad del siglo X, señalándose en ellas que por su Alférez Mayor don Godomiro de Padiella o Padilla, poblador de las villas de Padilla de Suso y de Padilla de Yuso en tierras de Treviño en la repetida provincia de Burgos, de las que tomó su nombre, diciéndose que de don Alvaro de Padilla, hijo de aquél, procedió este esclarecido apellido.

En el repartimiento de Sevilla realizado por el Rey don Alfonso X “el Sabio” en 1253, se hace memoria de don Gutiérrez González de Padilla, caballero de mesnada, el que fue heredado con importantes tierras.

En una vieja historia de la Orden de Calatrava se habla de don Garci Gutiérrez hijo de don Gutierre Gómez y de su mujer doña María Suárez, quien fundó y dotó el Monasterio de Monjas de San Felices, en Burgos, por el año de 1219, indicándose en esa narración que entroncaron después con la casa de Lara y los Castro en la mitad de ese siglo, procediendo estos caballeros del linaje de Padilla.

Por el libro Becerro, resulta que don Pero López de Padilla “el Viejo”, fue padre de don Juan Fernández de Padilla y de otros hermanos que florecieron en el tiempo de Alfonso XI, por cuyo mandato se escribió dicho libro donde se asentaron las Behetrias de las Merindades de Castilla, a mediados del siglo XIV, donde se acredita que don Pero López de Padilla “el nieto”, fue casado con doña María González de Leyva, por lo que heredó parte del lugar de Coruña en Santo Domingo de Silos, comprando lo que le toco de él a los demás herederos y fundando allí su casa y mayorazgo. De esta persona se hace memoria, entre otros Caballeros que fueron testigos el año 1304, en la sentencia arbitraria del Rey Fernando IV de Castilla y el Infante don Alonso de la Cerda, sobre los Reinos de Castilla y León, según lo refiere Jerónimo de Zurita en su “Crónica o Anales del Reino de Aragón”, 1621.

Son multitud los Padillas notables de la antigüedad pudiendo citarse entre ellos a: Don Diego García de Padilla, Maestre de Calatrava; doña María Díaz de Padilla, en quién el Rey Don Pedro I “el Cruel” tuvo un hijo y tres hijas de las cuales una se llamo doña Constanza y casó en Inglaterra con el Duque de Alencastre, que la hizo madre de la Reina doña Catalina de Castilla, como esposa de don Enrique III, ambos padres de don Juan II de Castilla, 1405-1454; don Juan Fernández de Padilla, Señor de la Casa de Padilla, Coruña y Calatañazor, Camarero Mayor de la casa de Castilla, quién se desposó en 1339 con doña Mencía Manrique, Señora de Santa Gadea y de otros lugares, más tarde Adelantado Mayor de Castilla del Consejo de Juan II y Ayo del Príncipe Don Alonso, fundador de San Felices de Amaya y de la Asunción de Almagro, Ciudad Real, en la Orden de Calatrava; don Martín de Padilla natural de la ciudad de Valladolid, primer Conde de Santa Gadea por Merced de Felipe II, en 1586, Adelantado Mayor y Perpetuo de Castilla, Señor de Valdecaray. Comendador del Corral de Caracuel y de la Orden de Calatrava; don Pedro López de Padilla, que en su esposa doña Isabel Pacheco tuvo a don García de Padilla, Comendador de Lopera y de Malagón en la Orden de Calatrava, Clavero, Comendador Mayor y Tesorero de ella, primer refrendario de la Cámara del Emperador Carlos V, de sus Consejos de Estado y de Justicia, Letrado de las Cortes, Presidente de las Ordenes de Calatrava y Alcántara y del Consejo de Indias, así como gran bienhechor del Monasterio de Frex del Val.

Don Antonio de Padilla y Bobadilla, Alcaide de las Fortalezas de la villa y Peña de Martos, Jaén, Señor de Noves y Mascaraque, en Toledo, Mayordomo de Felipe IV, su Gentilhombre de Boca, creado Conde de la Mejorada por Felipe III en 1617; don Juan de Padilla nacido en Toledo hacia 1490, uno de los Jefes de las famosas Comunidades de Castilla nombrado Capitán general del ejército comunero, quién después de varios combates con los realistas que dirigía el Conde de Haro, cayó prisionero de estos en Villalar, Valladolid, siendo decapitado junto con sus compañeros de armas don Francisco Maldonado y don Juan Bravo, en 1521,por orden del Emperador Carlos V; doña Rosa de Padilla y Chaves, viuda de don Cristóbal Ximénez-Herradura y Hurtado de Mendoza, Regidor Perpetuo de Antequera, Málaga, premiada por Felipe V el 12 de marzo de 1739,con el Condado de Colchado, y don Francisco de Borja Fernández de Padilla y Arias de Saavedra, que recibió de Isabel II el Condado de Casa Padilla, por Real Despacho de 27 de mayo de 1856,como recompensa a sus servicios en el desempeño de los cargos de Corregidor de Puente Geníl, Córdoba y de Alférez Mayor de su ayuntamiento.

Aunque hay autores que señalan origen gallego a esta estirpe, lo cierto es que desde hace varios siglos aparece ya en ambas Castillas, antes de que los principales nobiliarios hablen de asentamientos galaicos, e inclusive los genealogistas portugueses dicen que en su país hubo ramas de los Padilla desde muy antiguo, todas procedentes de Castilla, afirmando que su solar estaba en un lugar próximo a Castrogeriz, en Burgos, añadiendo también que tenían vinculación con la Casa Real española y de otras naciones europeas.

En 30 de abril de 1530 y en 23 de agosto de 1532,respectivamente, don Juan III de Portugal expidió sendas certificaciones de blasones a caballeros de este apellido, en cuyos documentos está señalado el origen castellano.

Ante la Sala de los Hijosdalgo dela Real Chancillería de Valladolid, acreditaron su noble origen, don Antonio de Padilla, vecino de Atienza, Guadalajara, en 1565; don Cristóbal de Padilla, morador de Miranda de Ebro, Burgos, en 1534,y don Juan de Padilla, estante en Valdorros, en dicha provincia, el año 1557.

Los Padilla están presentes en Andalucía desde los principios de su reconquista, con importantes afincamientos en las provincias de Córdoba, Jaén, Sevilla y Cádiz. Tuvieron un destacado papel en la toma de la ciudad de Baeza, Jaén, en 1227,donde el año 1467 era Clavero de la Orden de Alcántara don García de Padilla que tenía a su cargo la custodia y defensa del convento de la misma.

Son innumerables los miembros de este linaje que probaron su nobleza de sangre en las diferentes instituciones nobiliarias españolas, Reales Maestranzas de Caballería y Real Chancillería de Granada, en el transcurso de varios siglos así como en el Santo Oficio y los diferentes ayuntamientos de las villas y ciudades de donde fueron residentes, cuya enumeración sería interminable.

Las armas mas generalizadas de los Padilla, que incluso han venido utilizando los de este linaje en México desde la época de su conquista, se describen así:


Así se confirman por los diferentes tratadistas que al principio de este trabajo se citan.

Corominas, en su “Diccionario Crítico (1954),dice que esta palabra procede de Padiella, del latín “patella”, diminutivo de “patina”, fuente, cacerola, denominación del castellano que se aplicaba a una especie de horno donde se cocía el pan.

El primer Padilla que pisó territorio americano, fue don Gregorio Don José Gregorio de Padilla Villalobos, natural de la ciudad de Sevilla, el año de 1512, quien al parecer se asentó en Santo Domingo.

Don José Gregorio de Padilla y Estrada, Gómez de Arratia y Niño de Castro, natural de la ciudad de México, ingresó en la Orden Militar de Calatrava el año 1741, siendo el cuarto poseedor del título de Santa Fe de Guardiola, por su propio derecho, y fue cónyuge de doña Juana María de Cervantes y Gorráez, hija legítima de don Juan Leonel Gómez de Cervantes, mayorazgo de su casa, y de doña Francisca de Gorráz.

Don Juan Ildefonso de Padilla y Gómez de Arratia, Guardiola y Guzmán, padre del anterior, nació en la isla de Santo Domingo y también fue calatravo en 1691.Había contraído nupcias con doña Micaela Gregoria de Estrada y Niño de Castro, segunda titular de la citada dignidad nobiliaria. Este, a su vez, hijo de don Juan de Padilla y Guardiola, Castrejón y Guzmán, que vio la luz en Sevilla el año 1643, quien igualmente fue admitido en la expresada Orden, en 1682; desempeñó los cargos de Alcalde de Lima, Oidor de la Audiencia de Caracas y de la de México, recibiendo en premio a su servicios, el título de Marqués de Santa Fe de Guardiola, otorgado por Carlos II, el 6 de marzo de 1689.

Este linaje es uno de los más ilustres que se avecindó en la Nueva España, donde emparentó con las familias mas prominentes del pais en todas sus épocas. Merecen atención las ramas establecidas en Guadalajara y Tepatitlán, en hoy Estado de Jalisco. Del primero de estas lugares procede el Capitán don Diego de Avila y Padilla, que en su enlace con una Señora de apellido Dávila tuvo, entre otros hijos, a don Diego de Padilla y Mota, Corregidor de Ixcatlán en 1663, y a don Lorenzo de Padilla y Mota, con igual cargo en la capital tapatía el año 1647. También hubo otros asentamientos, de los que se hará detallada mención al final de este trabajo.

Don Gaspar de Padilla y Guzmán, desempeñó el cargo de Alcalde Mayor de San Juan de Teotihuacan, en 1709; don José Padilla y Estrada, el de Corregidor de la ciudad de México, en 1729; don Ignacio de Padilla, Obispo de Mérida, Yucatán, en 1753,y don Pedro Padilla, Oidor de la Real Audiencia de México, según consta en el padrón dela capital efectuado en 1753,en el que se dice residía en la calle de San Francisco.

El Bachiller don Nicolás de Padilla y Maldonado, de Pátzcuaro, hizo información de su “limpieza de sangre, ante el Santo Oficio dela Inquisición de México, 1717, con la finalidad de obtener el cargo de Comisario del mismo. En 1800, don Antonio de Padilla, tenía el cargo de Ayudante Mayor del Regimiento de Infantería de Toluca, y en la misma fecha don Vicente de Padilla era Teniente de Dragones Provinciales de la Nueva Galicia.

Una línea de los Padilla procedente de Jerez de la Frontera, sentó sus reales en la región de la Nueva Galicia, posiblemente en la primera mitad del siglo XV, cuya continuada genealogía es como sigue:

Don Bartolomé Martínez Dávila, natural de la expresada ciudad, poseedor allí de la casa de San Salvador, quien se distinguió en la derrota del príncipe musulmán Abdelmelic, descendiente de los Ávila o Dávila afincados en Jerez después de su conquista por don Alfonso X “el Sabio”, en 1255, que también concurrió al cerco y toma de Algeciras en 1342, y al sitio de la plaza de Gibraltar, casado con doña Leonor de Padilla, conforme aparece en las ejecutorias ganadas por don Jerónimo y por don Martín Dávila, sus descendientes, de 1562 a 1564 y 1679, de quienes procedió como su legítimo hijo don Juan Bernalte Dávila, Señor de esta casa en la collación o parroquia de San Salvador, quien sirvió a don Juan I en la batalla de Aljubarrota, librada el 15 de agosto de 1385, y a don Enrique II en las guerras de Portugal, de 1396 a 1398. Otorgó su última voluntad el 15 de octubre de 1439, mencionando a su cónyuge doña Leonor García de Sigüenza, por cuya alianza entró en la casa de Dávila el donadio de Villamarta.

De los anteriores consortes fue vástago don García Dávila “el de la Jura”, vecino de la collación de San Lucas, Regidor de Jerez por merced de Juan II, personaje de gran representación de su tiempo, jefe del bando del Marqués de Cádiz, en 1469. Cuando los Reyes Católicos entraron en aquella población el 7 de octubre de 1547, llevando la población, pidió a los monarcas jurasen y confirmasen los privilegios de la repetida ciudad, a lo que estos accedieron, quedándole de ahí el sobrenombre referido. Con sus ocho hijos concurrió a las guerras de Granada y dispuso su testamento el 6 de octubre de 1486. Casó en primeras nupcias con doña Leonor Gutiérrez de Padilla, Alcaide de Arcos de la Frontera y Mayordomo de Jerez, desposándose en segundas con doña Francisca de Hinojosa, en la que no dejó descendencia.

Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila, hijo de los mencionados don García Dávila “el de la Jura”, y de doña Leonor Gutiérrez Padilla, se dio las manos el 30 de julio de 1492 con doña María de Vera, hija de don Gonzalo Pérez de Gallegos y de doña Beatriz de Vera, y siguiendo una costumbre muy usual en su época, adoptó Padilla como apellido de varonía.

Fue su hijo primogénito, don Fernando o Hernando de Padilla Dávila, Caballero y Comendador de la Orden de Santiago, Continuo de la Real Casa del Emperador Carlos V, Veinticuatro de Jerez y Alcalde de Tempul, quien armó a su costa una armada para combatir a los infieles en Berbería. Después, sirvió como Capitán de Caballos en la guerra de Túnez, y más tarde se trasladó a las Islas Canarias, donde efectuó su enlace con doña Leonor de Machicao por 1515, la que testó en 1566, hija de don Fernando de Machicao y de doña Constanza de Rivas. Tuvieron, que se sepa, cuatro hijos, siendo el mayor de ellos don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila o Padilla Machicao, nacido en la cuna de sus mayores, que después de estar como Capitán en Flandes, pasó a la Nueva Galicia, siendo el fundador de la hoy ciudad de Lagos de Moreno, en 1563, celebrando su himeneo con doña Mariana de Temiño y Velasco, en la que engendró, en Guadalajara, a don Diego de Padilla y Velasco, Alcalde Mayor de Lagos, fallecido en su lugar de origen y cónyuge de doña Ana de la Mota y Vera, ambos progenitores de don Lorenzo de Padilla y Mota, de la misma naturaleza que su progenitor, también Alcalde en 1647 y Regidor, que en su mujer doña Josefa Arias de Orozco y Valdés, engendró al Capitán don Cristóbal de Padilla y Arias, igualmente jalisciense, el cual se trasladó a la región alteña, en Xalostotitlán, siendo con su esposa, en aquella parte del país, genearcas de dilatada e importante descendencia, que al correr del tiempo y después de vivir varias generaciones de esta rama en el rancho denominado “El Águila”, se diseminaron profusamente por la zona, especialmente con motivo de los movimientos insurgentes y otras situaciones políticas y militares .En León, principalmente, y en otras poblaciones del Estado de Guanajuato, existen numerosa descendencia procedente del tronco estudiado.

Extract from BLASONES Y APELLIDOS, 828-page book by Fernando Muñoz Altea
In its second edition, the book can be ordered from or at
P.O. Box 11232, El Paso, Texas 79995  or by contacting Armando Montes


Bernardo de Galvez

Descendant of Moctezuma
The Louisiana Territory
Los Islenos Heritage
Website with Incorrect History 
Santa Barbara Historic Trust 
Spanish, War for Independence


Source:  The Cajuns
Sent by Joan Harmon

A Descendant of Moctezuma at the Battle of Mobile,  1780

Sent by Paul Newfield

Generation One

1. Motecuhzoma1; married Miaxochitl, daughter of Ixtlicuechahuamátzin; born 1467; died between 29 
June and 1 July 1520 (details of his murder by Cortez are obscure).  He was also known as Montezuma II and was called "emperor" by European historians. He eventually succeeded his father, Axayácatl, 6th lord of Tenochtitlan, who died in 1481.
Children of Motecuhzoma1 and Miaxochitl included:

Generation Two

2. Tlacahuepantzin2 (Motecuhzoma1); married Quanxochitl; (1st cousins; she was his father's niece); died after 8 September 1570 in Mexico City, Mexico; buried at the Convent of Santo Domingo, Mexico City, Mexico.  His baptismal name was Pedro de Moctezuma. He left a will on 8 September 1570 Mexico City, Mexico.
Children of Tlacahuepantzin2 and Quanxochitl included:
  • + 3 i. Ihuitemotzin3, married Francisca de la Cueva de Valenzuela.
Generation Three

3. Ihuitemotzin3 (Tlacahuepantzin2, Motecuhzoma1); married Francisca de la Cueva de Valenzuela, daughter of Francisco de la Cueva Bocanegra and Isabel de Valenzuela; died after 31 May 1606 Valladolid, Spain.His baptismal name was Diego Luís de Moctezuma. He was brought to Spain by King Philip II.  
Children of Ihuitemotzin3 and Francisca de la Cueva de Valenzuela included:


Generation Four 

4. Pedro4 Tesifón de Moctezuma (Ihuitemotzin3, Tlacahuepantzin2, Motecuhzoma1); born Guadix, Spain; married Jerónima de Porres, daughter of Jerónimo del Castillo Porres and Francisca.  Gutiérrez Palomiro Avalos; died after 7 November 1639 Madrid, Spain. On 13 September 1627, he was created 1st Count of Moctezuma de Tultengo. He left a will on 7 November 1639 Madrid, Spain. Children of Pedro4 Tesifón de Moctezuma and Jerónima de Porres included:

Generation Five

5. Diego Luís5 de Moctezuma y Porres (Pedro4Tesifón de Moctezuma, Ihuitemotzin3, Tlacahuepantzin2, Motecuhzoma1); died after 14 Jan 1680 Granada, Spain.  He was 2nd Count of Moctezuma de Tultengo  (the title passed to his legitimate daughter by his wife). He left a will on 14 January 1680 Granada, Spain.
Child (illegitimate) of Diego Luís5 de Moctezuma y Porres and Gregoria de Torres was:

  • + 6 i. Pedro Manuel6 Moctezuma, baptized 28 February 1654 Lapeza de Monterrocana, Spain; married Isabel de Loaysa y Ovalle.
Generation Six 

6. Pedro Manuel6 Moctezuma (Diego5de Moctezuma y Porres, Pedro4Tesifón de Moctezuma, Ihuitemotzin3, Tlacahuepantzin2, Motecuhzoma1); baptized 28 February 1654 Lapeza Monterrocana, Spain; married Isabel de Loaysa y Ovalle 5 February 1679 Cadiz, Spain; died after 19 September 1717 Ronda, Spain. Children of Pedro Manuel6 Moctezuma and Isabel de Loaysa y Ovalle, all born in Ronda, Spain, were as follows: 

  • + 7 i. Jerónimo Miguel7 Moctezuma y Loaysa, born 6 October 1681; married Teresa Micaela Salcedo y Ahumada.
  • 8 ii.Tomasa Antonia Moctezuma y Loaysa; born after 1682.
  • 9 iii.María Moctezuma y Loaysa; born after 1682.
  • 10 iv.Diego Luís Moctezuma y Loaysa; born after 1682.
  • 11 v.Vicenta Moctezuma y Loaysa; born after 1682.
  • 12 vi.Gregoria Moctezuma y Loaysa; born after 1682.
  • 13 vii.Francisco Moctezuma y Loaysa; born after 1682. He became a friar.


Generation Seven

7. Jerónimo Miguel7 Moctezuma y Loaysa (Pedro6Moctezuma, Diego5de Moctezuma y Porres, Pedro4Tesifón de Moctezuma, Ihuitemotzin3, Tlacahuepantzin2, Motecuhzoma1); born 6 October 1681 Ronda, Spain; married Teresa Micaela Salcedo y Ahumada, daughter of José Nuño de Salcedo and Bernarda de Ahumada y Mendoz, 26 Jul 1702 Ronda, Spain; died after 10 Oct 1751 Ronda, Spain.  He was Judge of Ronda. He left a will on 10 October 1751 Ronda, Spain.
Children of Jerónimo Miguel7 Moctezuma y Loaysa and Teresa Micaela Salcedo y Ahumada included:
  • + 14 i. Bernarda8 Moctezuma, baptized 10 March 1716 Arriate, Spain; married Pedro Morejón Girón y Ahumada.

Generation Eight

14. Bernarda8 Moctezuma (Jerónimo7Moctezuma y Loaysa, Pedro6Moctezuma, Diego5de Moctezuma y Porres, Pedro4Tesifón de Moctezuma, Ihuitemotzin3, Tlacahuepantzin2, Motecuhzoma1); baptized 10 March 1716 Arriate, Spain; married Pedro Morejón Girón y Ahumada, son of Andrés Morejón Girón y Alarcón and Catalina de Ahumada Villalón, 4 October 1739 Ronda, Spain.Children of Bernarda8 Moctezuma and Pedro Morejón Girón y Ahumada included:

Generation Nine

15. Jerónimo9 Girón y Moctezuma (Bernarda8Moctezuma, Jerónimo7Moctezuma y Loaysa, Pedro6Moctezuma, Diego5de Moctezuma y Porres, Pedro4Tesifón de Moctezuma, Ihuitemotzin3, Tlacahuepantzin2, Motecuhzoma1); baptized 8 June 1741 Ronda, Spain; married Isabel de las Casas, daughter of Manuel de las Casas and María de Aragorri, 22 October 1770 Barcelona, Spain; died 17 October 1819 Seville, Spain, at age 78.

He served as a page to King Ferdinand VI in 1751. He began military service circa 1757, entering the army at the outbreak of the Seven years War. He was promoted to 2nd lieutenant in the Royal Guards circa 1761. He was in the vanguard of the infantry that stormed across the Portuguese border under Count de Maceda in 1762, and was promoted to 1st lieutenant in 1763, and to captain in July 1770. About 1775, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in the Príncipe Infantry Regiment.

In December 1778, his regiment embarked for Cuba, and in April 1779, he took command as colonel of Príncipe Infantry Regiment. In July of that year, he was promoted to general and was ordered to New Orleans as deputy to Gov. Bernardo Gálvez. On 14 Jan 1780, he embarked with Gálvez from New Orleans with his troops on an expedition against the British at Mobile Bay. On March 10th, he served as actual battle commander (Gálvez was involved with the plans for the further expedition against Pensacola) and laid seige to Ft. Charlotte at Mobile. The Biritish surrendered on March 13th.

On 29 March 1780, he returned to Havana to prepare for the expedition against Pensacola. In October, the expedition was driven back to Cuba by a hurricane outside Havana Bay, but was reorganized and embarked again on 28 February 1781; Girón was again appointed battle commander. On May 8th, he laid seige to Ft. George at Pensacola, which quickly capitulated. The next month he was named field marshal.

In October 1781, the planned expedition by the French and Spanish to capture Jamaica was halted with calling of peace negotiations, and Girón returned to Spain in 1783, where he was created a knight of the Military Order of Santiago.

In 1778, he was appointed Judge for Life of his home town of Ronda. In 1786, he became civil and military governor of Pamplona; in 1790, he took over the same duties in Barcelona. In February 1791, he was promoted to lieutenant general. Between 1793 and 1795 , he acted as commander of Spanish forces in Catalonia during the French invasion. In August 1795, he was named a member of the Junta de América. Between 1798 and 1807, he served as Viceroy of Navarre. In 1807, he was named Counselor of the Supreme War Council, but was abruptly relieved of that position by Napoleon. On the death of his aunt in December 1791, he became 3rd Marqués de las Amarillas.
Children of Jerónimo9 Girón y Moctezuma and Isabel de las Casas included:

  • 16 i.María10 de la Paz; born Barcelona, Spain; died before October 1819 Spain.
  • + 17 ii. General Pedro Agustín Girón de las Casas, baptized 3 January 1778 at the Church of Santa María Matriz, San Sebastian, Spain; married María de la Concepción Espeleta.
Generation Ten

17. General Pedro Agustín10 Girón de las Casas (Jerónimo9Girón y Moctezuma, Bernarda8Moctezuma, Jerónimo7Moctezuma y Loaysa, Pedro6Moctezuma, Diego5de Moctezuma y Porres, Pedro4Tesifón de Moctezuma, Ihuitemotzin3, Tlacahuepantzin2, Motecuhzoma1); baptized 3 January 1778 at the Church of Santa María Matriz, San Sebastian, Spain; married María de la Concepción Espeleta, daughter of José de Espeleta, 1802 Pamplona, Spain; died 17 May 1842 Madrid, Spain, at age 64.He succeeded has father in 1819 as 4th Marqués de las Amarillas. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1820 and became Minister of War in 1835. He was created 1st
Duke of Ahumada in 1835.
Children of General Pedro Agustín10 Girón de las Casas and María de la Concepción Espeleta included:


Generation Eleven

18. General Francisco Javier11 Girón y Ezpeleta (Pedro10Girón de las Casas, Jerónimo9Girón y Moctezuma, Bernarda8Moctezuma, Jerónimo7Moctezuma y Loaysa, Pedro6Moctezuma, Diego5de Moctezuma y Porres, Pedro4Tesifón de Moctezuma, Ihuitemotzin3, Tlacahuepantzin2, Motecuhzoma1); born 1803 Pamplona, Spain; married Nicolasa de Aragón y Arias de Saavedra 29 January 1834 at the Royal Palace of Aranjuez, Spain; died 18 December 1869 Madrid, Spain.In the family tradition, he reached the rank of lieutenant general. He also founded the Guardia Civil of Spain. He was Gentleman of the Chamber to King Ferdinand VII. He held the titles of 2nd Duke of Ahumada and 5th Marqués de las Amarillas, and was also made a Grandee of Spain.

Children of General Francisco Javier11 Girón y Ezpeleta and Nicolasa de Aragón y Arias de Saavedra were as follows:

  • 19 i.Pedro Agustín12 Girón y Aragón; married Isabel Mesía 1866 Spain; died without progeny. He held the titles of 3rd Duke of Ahumada and 6th Marqués de las Amarillas.
  • 20 ii.Agustín Girón y Aragón; born 30 Sep 1843 Madrid, Spain; married María de los Dolores Armero y Peñalver 15 Oct 1870 Spain. He succeeded his brother as 4th Duke of Ahumada and 7th Marqués de las Amarillas.


SOURCES: All material on this page was taken from: Eric Beerman, "An Aztec Emperor's Descendant, General Jerónimo Girón y Moctezuma: Spanish Commander at the Battle of Mobile, 1780." The Genealogist, vol. ? (19??), pp. 172-187.

Another brief pedigree:  
Sent by Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama

    1 Monctezuma

      2 Ignacia_Maria Navarro_Monctezuma
      + Juan_Francisco de_Unda_y_Garriz

        3 Jose_Francisco de_Unda_Navarro
        + Francisca Garcia_Viera
          4 Francisca de_Unda_y_Garcia
          + Juan_Jose Marquez_Vargas
            5 Victorino Marquez_Unda
            + Virginia Febres_Cordero Goicoechea
Al hablar Usted de Moctezuma, me recordé que había una Persona que tenia entre sus Ancestros al Famoso Emperador Monctezuma.

Aprovecho la oportunidad para enviarle un pequeño archivo que es un resumen Genealógico de un Libro que se llama : Pampán y sus Gentes ( Estelas Perdurables ) Tomo I Y II, Imprenta Oficial Trujillo 1976, del Escritor: Gilberto Quevedo Segnini 
( Venezolano, Nacido en Pampán, Estado Trujillo ).

Como este Libro habla sobre los Orígenes, Biografía de Pampán y sus Pobladores,... dado que Mi Familia Paterna proviene de ese Pueblo Andino de Mi Pais y tiene muchos datos Genealógicos de los Pobladores del Pueblo, Yo hice un resumen de todas las Personas que son mencionados en este Libro.   Roberto José Pérez Guadarrama


The Los Islenos Heritage and Cultural Society

Sent by Bill Carmena

Los Isleños Heritage and Cultural Society was organized in 1976 in an effort to preserve the culture and history of the Canary Islanders who settled in Louisiana between the years 1778 and 1783. The Isleños, or Islanders, were a hearty group of pioneers who braved the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean and the marshes of Louisiana to mold St. Bernard Parish and other areas of the state into livable and productive communities.

[[Editor:  A few paragraphs from the site which helps explain the presence of the Spanish in Louisiana, usually associated with just a French presence.   

France ceded Louisiana to Spain and Great Britain in 1766 following the French and Indian War. Spain acquired that part of Louisiana lying west of the Mississippi River and the Island of Orleans, an area east of the Mississippi including New Orleans. Early in the 1770's Spanish officials learned that the British were planning to invade and occupy the Province of Louisiana, using the province as a base from which to attack Mexico and deprive Spain of the vast deposits of Mexican silver and gold. The British attempted to realize their plans almost fifty years later during the Battle of New Orleans.

Consequently, Spanish administrators started developing Louisiana as a barrier between Mexico and the British colonies east of the Mississippi River. Reacting to successful British colonization efforts along the Gulf Coast in British West Florida, Spain settled thousands of immigrants from Malaga and the Canaries, as well as Acadian refugees, in Louisiana. The settlers came to Louisiana to increase production of food, populate the province and defend it against the projected British invasion.

The first Isleños arrived in Louisiana during 1778 and continued to arrive in the province until 1783. They were settled in four locations, strategically placed around New Orleans to guard approaches to the city.

The Louisiana Territory
: Dec. 20, 1803 - April 30, 1812

In 1800, Spain officially returned the Louisiana territory West of the Mississippi to France by the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso to avoid the continued deficits the colony caused and the growing possibility that Spain might have to fight the restless Americans to retain control of the lands. On May 2, 1803, the U.S. representatives Livingston and Monroe agreed to purchase the Louisiana territory for $15M and the size of the U.S. doubled overnight! Louisiana was officially transferred from Spain to France on November 30, 1803, and on December 20, 1803, France transferred Louisiana to the United tates. 

Upon concluding the purchase agreement, Robert Livingston, America's Minister to France, said of the transfer, "We have lived long, but this is the noblest work of our whole lives ... From this day the United States will take their place among the powers of the first rank ... The instruments which we have just signed will cause no tears to be shed; they prepare ages of happiness for innumerable generations of human creatures."

Over 900,000 square miles - nearly 600 million acres - were purchased for 15 million dollars (an average of only four cents an acre!).  Thirteen states or parts of states have been carved from The Louisiana Purchase Territory. They are as follows: Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Wyoming, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Colorado and Montana.

1804 - Louisiana is divided into the Territory of Orleans (south of 33 degrees latitude) and the District of Louisiana (north of 33 degrees latitude). W. C. C. Claiborne is appointed governor of the Territory of Orleans

1805 - The Territory of Orleans is divided into counties (see map).

Jan. 10, 1812 - The first steamboat to navigate the Mississippi River, the "The New Orleans," arrives at New Orleans from Pittsburgh.

The State of Louisiana: April 30,1812 (the 18th State)

 Warning:  some historians are still limited in their research concerning the American Revolution. 

Evidence in the following website: American Revolution, 1775-1783, The complete History of the American Revolution. .  Webmaster: 

Statement concerning Foreign aid,  text reads . . " . . . . . Spain entered the war against Great Britain in 1779, but Spanish help did little for the United States, while French soldiers and sailors and especially French supplies and money were of crucial importance."

ON THE OTHER HAND. . this website, 
The Regiment of Louisana and the Spanish Army in the American Revolution
By Thomas E. DeVoe and Gregory J. W. Urwin states. . .

"Much has been made of the military and economic help France so generously supplied to the struggling United States, but the many notable contributions of France's Bourbon ally, the resurgent Spain of Charles III, have been virtually ignored."

In the matter of just a few weeks, Colonel Gálvez and his motley army had captured 550 British and German regulars, 500 armed settlers and Negroes, and three forts. They had added 1,290 miles of the best land along the Mississippi to their sovereign's domain, and all at the ridiculously low cost of one Spaniard killed and two wounded. It had been a brilliant coup, but Gálvez was just getting started.    

Go to the website for more statistics:
Sent by Bill Carmena|

The Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation

The Santa Barbara Trust hosted the Spanish Consul General and his wife from Los Angeles at a spring fund raising event honoring endowment contributors to the Trust.  Present also were living historians Michael Hardwick as Felipe de Neve and George W.  Decker as Alferez Diario Arguello.

Trust Board member Jim Mills and Richard Ogelsby with
Felipe Neve and Diario Arguello. 

Consul General of Spain in Los Angeles, Jose Luis Dicenta Ballester and his wife

Neve with Quintro descendant, Elizabeth Hvoboll

The Spanish Helped During the American War of Independence

Soldados List Server Documents Spain Contribution to the American Revolution.  
Sent by Mike Hardwick
Source: Tito  forwarded the following request 

Hola, I saw the following on the BAR (Brigade of the American Revolution) list and thought I'd forward it in case someone could assist in an answer or giving direction for further research. Thanks, "Tito"

All, In the spring, 2004 issue of the COLONIAL WILLIAMSBURG magazine there is an article titled "Spain's Sweet Revenge." In it the author talks about Spain's assistance to the Colonies in the early days of the revolution.

It mentions that the King of Spain joined in the establishment of Hortalez & Co. in 1776, six weeks before the Declaration of Independence, of a loan of 2 million Spanish dollars, etc., etc.

Of particular interest to me is the article's reference to the arrival in Boston in 1777 of Spanish ships (from France via Bermuda) which delivered 215 bronze cannons, 4,000 field tents, 12,826 grenades, 30,000 muskets and bayonets,

30,000 uniforms, 51,314 musket balls and 150 tons of gunpowder.

Does anyone have more information on this shipment? Were the articles French, just carried in Spanish bottoms? Or were the muskets, cannons,  uniforms, etc., of Spanish origin? What did the uniforms look like? And many other questions that could be asked but are too numerous to be mentioned here.  Any information and/or leads would be appreciated. Many thanks in advance.

All the best, Norm Fuss, 1st North Carolina  Send any response to:


 Hispanic Youth Conference 2004
 SHHAR May Meeting of Artists
13th Annual Black Chamber Awards

Annual Orange County Hispanic Youth Conference 2004


On June 26, 2004 The JPL Diversity Programs Office coordinated with Amigos Unidos to conduct a program for the Annual Orange County Hispanic Youth Conference 2004 (youth from 12-18 years old) with discussions and presentations on Outer Space, Mars and the Mars Exploration Rover Mission (including an exhibit of mission artifacts and technologies). Learn the contribution Hispanic professionals are making to planetary and outer space exploration, and to overall NASA mission.  Amigos Unidos is an association of Hispanic JPL Professionals involved in outreach programs to positively impact our communities. The Youth Conference is a critical component of the youth program sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. For contact information: Gilberto Arteaga, Public Affairs Director  (949) 653-091

SHHAR's May Meeting was an Opportunity for a Visual sharing of History

Yolanda Ochoa stands by one of her family history posters with histories, pedigrees, and photos of her extended family.

Henry Godines (left) shows Jose Prieto a postcard of one of his many historical oils, Texas hero Juan N. Seguin

Eddie Martinez, illustrator, artist points out the historical significance of sites along the map.  Eddie has created maps demonstrating the relationships between indigenous groups based on language similarities.

Photos by Pat Lozano

Judge Fredrick Aguirre shares an article in the Excelsior concerning the veterans that traveled from Orange County to Washington, D.C for the WW II Memorial dedication.

BLACK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE—Orange County, California

The 13th Annual Awards Banquet was attended by over 900 persons who packed the Arena at the Anaheim Convention Center for the biggest Dinner and Celebration of the year. The evening included entertainment, speakers, awards and dinner.  

The Community Leadership Award was given to
Sandra Membrila-Robbie, the Emmy award-winning writer/producer of the KOCE-PBS documentary "Mendez vs. Westminster: For All the Children / Para Todos Los Ninos."  "Mendez" tells the story of the historic California school desegregation case that  began in Orange County and ended segregation in California seven years before Brown v. Broad of Education.  Among many surprises, both cases shared two key players: NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall who oversaw the amicus brief the NAACP contributed to the Mendez case; Earl Warren who as Governor of California ended school segregation throughout the state soon after the Mendez case was won, and later as the Chief Justice on the Supreme court, wrote the decision for Brown v. Board of Education.

Others receiving Awards: 
Howie Phanstiel, PacifiCare, Corporation of the Year
Bob Menzies- Westminster GMC, Business Person of the Year
Olympic Heritage Presentations to:
Wille Banks, Rafer Johnson, Evelyn Furtsch Ojeda, Mel Whitfield
Master of Ceremonies Dorian Harewood, Star of the Jessie Owens Story


Fall East L.A. Conference
L.A. County Sued Over Official Seal
Dona Josepha Sepulveda
Wells Fargo InterCuenta Express 

Monterey Park Hispanic/Latino Family History Fall Conference 

The SHHAR Board is collaborating with the Public Affairs Department of the LDS Church to mount a fall Hispanic Family History Conference in Monterey Park. Veronica Jenks on the left and George Muriel on the right are co-chairs, your editor in the middle.  A tentative date has been for October 9th.   Save the date!! 

ACLU Wants the Removal of the Cross from Los Angeles County official Seal 
LOS ANGELES — The American Civil Liberties Union (search) plans to sue Los Angeles County if it does not remove a cross from its official seal. 
County officials say the cross represents the Spanish missions (search), which are part of California's history. They add that it would be expensive to redesign the county seal, which was designed in 1957 and appears on most official county property: walls, documents, water bottles, uniforms, cars and trucks. On Friday, the ACLU gave the county two weeks to eliminate the seal. 

"What is the message that it sends?" said Ramona Ripson of the ACLU. "What that message is to everyone in California is one of Christianity, and we are a state of diverse people." 

Last month, the threat of litigation by the ACLU forced the city of Redlands, about 50 miles east of Los Angeles, to redesign its 40-year-old logo, which also included a cross. 

"Here you have this radical left-wing organization whose own symbol should be the hammer and sickle," said Mike Antonovich (search), one of five Los Angeles County supervisors. "They are using pressure tactics trying to rewrite history." 

Some local officials argue that the cross simply reflects history. The ACLU says that shouldn't matter because some members of the public find it offensive.  The county has asked its lawyers for a legal opinion on whether to fight the ACLU. 

Thursday, May 27, 2004,

The Los Angeles Times, Jan 8, 1899: 
Dona Josepha Sepulveda

Dona Josepha Sepulveda died on Friday at her residence, No. 811 Kohler street, at the advanced age of 65 years.  This lady formed a link between the olden days of Mexican rule in California, and the modern, bustling times of a more aggressive civilization.  Her husband, Rafael Sepulveda, in early days owned the Los Feliz and San Vicente ranchos, comprising in round numbers, about 70,000 acres, but at the time of his death about fifteen years ago, the larger part of this acreage had passed into alien hands.  Dona Josepha was the mother of twenty-two children, the ex-secretary of the American legation at the City of Mexico, Judge Sepulveda, being a nephew.

Visit the California Spanish Genealogy website
Sent by Karla Everett

Wells Fargo Expands its InterCuenta Express Consumer Money Transfer Service; Creates Largest U.S. Bank-Managed Remittance Distribution Channel

Los Angeles, CA--(HISPANIC PR WIRE)--June 10, 2004--Wells Fargo & Company (NYSE: WFC) said today it will create – through a new partnership with HSBC Mexico – what it considers the largest distribution channel among U.S. banks for consumer remittance customers in Mexico.  

InterCuenta Express(TM) allows customers to safely and conveniently transfer money to Mexico through multiple channels, including phone, store visit, ATM, and Online Banking. Earlier this year, Wells Fargo increased its daily remittance limit from $1,000 to $3,000. This latest partnership reaffirms Wells Fargo’s commitment to provide products and services that meet the financial services needs of the Hispanic community. 

“The agreement between Wells Fargo and HSBC Mexico strengthens bi-national ties between Mexican and American banks and grants new momentum to collaborative financial relations," said Ruben Beltrán, the Consul General of Mexico in Los Angeles. “This partnership also creates a significant network of financial distribution that will facilitate access to banking services for Mexican families." 

According to a recent study by the Inter-American Dialogue, consumer remittances to Mexico exceeded $14 billion in 2003 and have surpassed foreign direct investment in Mexico.

Sent by: Medios: Miriam Galicia Duarte  213- 253-3721
Inversionistas: Betsy Flanagan 415-396-8454
Sala de Prensa de HISPANIC PR WIRE (866-477-9473)
NOTE TO EDITORS:  A graph image is available at:


The Anza Letters
El Polin Springs
Latino Arts Network

Paul Edgar Trejo, Part II Early Years
Early California Wills
Migrant Worker Aims for the Moon 

Struggle for Chicano Representation


The Anza Letters

Sixteen cartas written by Juan Bautista de Anza and addressed to Fernando Javier de Rivera y Moncada have recently come to light.

In this article, Californio descendant Phil Valdez Jr. interprets excerpts of three of sixteen cartas written by the Gran Capitan during the 1775/76 expedition after his arrival at Puerto de San Carlos in what is now Riverside county. In an effort to retain the flavor of Anza’s writing the spelling in Spanish has not been modernized, but left as it appears in the cartas.

As with any article large or small, it requires the work of many, therefore, it is with pleasure to acknowledge Jose Pantoja, Don Garate, and Dr. Greg Bernal Smestad for their contributions.

Puerto de San Carlos

The flat, Puerto de San Carlos where the Juan Bautista de Anza Colonizing Expedition of 1775/76 camped on December 26, 1775. 
Note path on the ridge, top right hand corner.

One of the rocks that Father Font mention on his diary. Quote" From the highest point one follows 
a dry arroyo for a short stretch, and on coming to some large round rocks one descends a gentle slope for a short distance where we halted". 
They are still there plain to see.

here is a commemoration monument placed in Dick Cary's ranch to the left of the camping place and about a quarter of a mile distant.
While, many books and articles have been written on both the 1774 exploratory and the 1775/76 colonizing expeditions, few readers have seen the cartas that were exchanged during the second expedition between Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza and the Governor of the Californias, Captain Rivera y Moncada.

  Other than what has been alluded to in both Font’s and
Anza’s diaries, little had been known about them until now. 

This exchange commenced on December 28, 1775 at the Puerto de San Carlos where the expedition had made camp and ended on May 3, 1776 when Anza was returning to Sonora.
Even though this corresponding event had been a puzzling affair for me ever since first glancing at the diaries several decades earlier, not much thought had


been given to them until one evening while re-reading the diaries, as I often do, it all fell into place.

If these letters had not been found under Anza’s correspondence where could they be? Then it hit me like a ton of adobe bricks, they must be under the Rivera y Moncada documents as they were directed to him and surely he must have kept them.



Armed with this information, my initial quest for answers took me to the Bancroft library and the uncovering of sixteen letters under the Rivera y Moncada papers ( Banc Mss C-A 368), which, from all indications, have not been seen but by a few people. Certainly, they had never been translated, as I have never seen them in print, nor have scholars that have been polled. Somehow these valuable treasures, yet unseen, but by a few, had been missed. Now with their translation we can have a better understanding of what transpired between these two giants during those tumultuous times.

As mentioned earlier, the first carta, written upon Anza’s arrival at Puerto de San Carlos, informs Captain Rivera y Moncada of the troops he is conducting (que condujo para) to the Presidio of Monterey and which he has furnished with clothing, arms, and other necessities granted by the most Excellent Lord, the


This statement corroborates the letters sent to Governor Rivera by Viceroy Bucareli dated January 02, 1775, informing him of the forthcoming expedition to augment the Presidio of Monterey and to establish both the Presidio de San Francisco and Mission San Francisco de Asis.

Anza continues to describe how the settlers were provided with a little more than three months wages at the onset, and that because they have been in service for eight months, their wages were all used up as well as their clothing.

However, this statement does not agree with what the Gran Capitan tells the Viceroy on his letter dated November 17, 1774, when he says, "I think best to send them the articles of clothing, for to send their pay in cash will serve no purpose except to afford the opportunity for prodigality and gambling."

He continues that because of


the cold season (estacion) that has been encountered, "la estacion tan cruda," [this was the coldest winter ever recorded in the Borrego Springs desert], they were truly in need of underwear for men, women, and children and asks that if it didn’t sound inconvenient, to send a provision to the rendezvous, " si no pulssa imcombeniente les enbie al encuentro alguna provision de ropa interior que verdaderamente estan necessitados hombres, mujeres, y ninos."

Among the families he is bringing is included the wife and children of a soldier named Duarte of that (esse) presidio [Monterey], who had asked at the [Royal Mining] Camp of Los Alamos, which he, as a favor, is transporting her to the side of her husband, who, as Anza puts it, serves Your Honor. "Entre las familias que llevo va agregada la mujer y hijos del soldado Duarte de esse Presidio quien me pidio des de el Real de los Alamos le hiciese el bien de conducirla a



el lado de su marido a quien le server a Vuestra Merced ."

Interestingly enough, this piece of historical information was not known to readers of the Anza and Font diaries until this finding. However, we do know that on Anza’s roster, ff75,75v,76,76v Archivo General de la Nacion, he says "that included among them is a woman and three children who has just arrived and is going to Monterey to be with her husband." We now know her husband’s name is Duarte.

He closes the first carta by stating that he is sending this notice so relief might be sent (if possible) in the form of cattle and whatever else is deemed appropriate, " darle esta noticia para que le embie, (si puede ser), socorro de bestias y lo demas que le paresca".

Captain Rivera y Moncada sadly recalled how he felt when he was handed Anza’s carta upon his arrival at Mission San Gabriel, when he states in his diary dated January 02, 1776,


"y despues de dejar seis bestias cansadas, llegue a las 11 de la noche a esta [mision] de San Gabriel, en donde me participio el Cabo de la escolta que se hallba cerca el teniente coronel don Juan Bautista de Anza, de quien me entrego carta. No la lei; que seguramente en la actualida no me halle para el caso." He writes, " and after having left six tired animals [behind], I reached this [mission] of San Gabriel, where the corporal of the guard handed me a letter from Lt. Colonel Don Juan Bautista de Anza informing me that he was close by. I did not read it because, in actuality, I did not find myself up to it".

It can be inferred that Rivera did not feel up to it because of the conditions at San Diego, with the killing of Father Jaime, a blacksmith (un herrero), a carpenter (un carpintero), and the burning of the Mission on November 07, 1775, word of which he received on December 13, 1775, and the reason why he was on his way to San Diego.

He however, does not mention that with approximately 267 soldiers, he had been given the task to guard a country larger than Spain, that the Padres were after him to build more missions, with the soldiers being poorly armed, insufficiently provisioned, and often not paid, forcing him to advance them money of which he had very little as he was never paid by the King.

Perhaps not being up to reading Anza’s letter can be explained for fear of more bad news.

Here, is perhaps the greatest mistake Rivera ever makes in avoiding Anza’s letter. By not reacting with precision timing, it appears Rivera alienated the only man that could possibly help him at that juncture in time.

Anza’s letter two, written at Puerto de San Carlos as well, tells of how the Viceroy for the second time put in his charge the task of conducting thirty soldiers with their respective



families to reinforce those establishments under his [Rivera’s] charge, "Suponiendo a Vuestra Merced noticias de la expedicion que segunda vez ha puesto a mi cargo el Excelentisimo Senor Virrey para conducer trienta soldados
con sus respectivas familias al
refuerzo de los establecimentos
del mando de Vuestra Merced

That since the departure of the expedition from the Presidio of Horcasitas at the end of September, sickness and other occurrences had plagued them. Anza does not mention the maladies. However, that his Excellency having foreseen these problems had left it up to him to arbitrarily stop at any of the establishments when necessary to secure help, "las que previstas por su excelencia, dejo a mi arbitrio el salir a cualquiera de los establecimientos para poderme reparar en ellos".

Anza says that what he had stated previously was reason


why he did not find himself at that (ese) presidio [Monterey] under his [Rivera’s] charge, with no hope of seeing it until the last days of January and only if he receives at the smallest opportunity the help he is requesting from Your Honor, "lo dicho anterior ha causado, el que hoy no me halle, en ese presidio de su cargo y sin esperanza de verificarlo ha fines de enero proximo, ocurrente si recibo al poco oportuno los auxilios que expressare a Vuestra Merced".

Anza continues to say that at mission [San Gabriel], he will leave the rest of the cattle after having taken the precise number for the maintenance of the troops and twenty destined for support of the new establish-
ments, which could be reduced to a little more than 100 head even though there should be 200 or more. He says to the Commander and Father [Paterna] of this mission, "I am asking that they send to the
rendezvous those horses which
can be sent with the necessary



"A este comandante y Padre Ministro de ella [Mision de San Gabriel], pido me envien al encuentro las caballerias que puedan remitirme, y los viveres necesarios".

And finally, Anza ends letter two by inserting a postscript informing Rivera that he has forgotten to tell him that the troops were also lacking in soap and footwear, and that first thing at the missions [misions del Ejercito], he will ask for and distribute the same.

Posdata "Se me paso expresar a Vuestra Merced que tambien de lo que faltaba la Tropa es de jabon y calzado. Ahi el primero, en las misiones del Ejercito, lo pedire para socorrer les".

Anza’s letter three is written after his arrival at Mission San Gabriel and dated February 20, 1776.

Here, the Gran Capitan writes



how he was unable to dispatch the pack string as they had agreed upon, because on the 14th of the month, a soldier by the name of Yepis had deserted along with three mule packer from the expedition, and a servant of the sergeant of the same.

They had stolen tobacco, pinole, beads, chocolate, a musket of the guard, and other things of little value, belonging to the soldiers. Also taken, which was more sensible (es mas sensible), were twenty five saddle animals of the mission and guard.

He says that even though the incident had been known since midnight, Lt. Moraga did not take pursuit until 10 o’clock of the next day. " y es el caso que el dia 14 del presente en que arribe a esta Mision, halle en el[ella] la ocurrencia de que la noche anterior se deserto el soldado Yepis de esta escolta (a quien tocaba estar de caballada) y tres marranos de mi expedicion y un serviente del Sargento de ella, los effectos que estavan


a sus cargo como tabaco, pinol, abalorios, chocolate, una escopeta de la escolta, y otras cosas de poco monta, de los soldados mios, y lo que es mas sensible como vienti cinco bestias de la Mision y escolta. Aungue este suceso se supo a la media noche no pudo salir el Teniente Moraga hasta otro dia a las diez".

Here we have always known that Juan Pablo Grijalva was the only sergeant of the expedition. However, what was not known is that his servant was traveling with him. This servant could very well be the Claudio that Anza lists as being 21 years of age with Sergeant Grijalva and wife listed as being 33 and 31 respectively. Therefore, it is impossible for Claudio to be their son, as some historians claim. This statement has been corroborated by Edward Grijalva descendant of the famed Sergeant.

Here Rivera in his diary dated February 25, 1776 concurs with Anza’s report when his says "a


soldier of the Mission [of San Gabriel] and four mosos (sirvientes) belonging to the expedition have deserted".

Anza continues, "I will advise Your Honor of all I have decided to do, so you will not be ignorant of anything, and you are able to take the appropriate measures"

"Y a Vuestra Merced comunicarle aviso de todo lo que me ha parecido resolver para que de nada este ignorante, y segun ellos, tome por ahi las providencias que le convenga".

Anza’s says he will leave the next day for Monterey with most of his individuals of the expedition, leaving twelve soldiers there with their families under the command of the sergeant [Grijalva]. The mission will remain guarded by the sergeant and five soldiers, and beyond that he is leaving three more to accompany Lieutenant Moraga as soon as he returns. He is leaving provisions of corn and beans for all of them to last



twenty-three days which is the same amount that he is taking (llevo yo).

Here, we get a glimpse of the expedition’s daily fare.

"El dia de manana salgo para Monterey con los mas individuos de mi expedicion dejando en esta, dose soldados con sus familias a cargo del Sargento. Esta Mision queda resguardada con el sargento y cinco soldados, a mas de esos, tres para que acompanen al Teniente Moraga asi que se regrese. A cuyo total quedan comestibles de maiz y frijol para vienti tres dias cuya especie para el mismo tiempo llevo yo".

Anza says that the expedition has been thrown off course because of the chase the lieutenant is making in pursuit of the deserters. That because of this reason, he is not sending any horses to Your Honor, as they had planned. However, in


consideration of the situation
they find themselves in, the guard will remain there.

That he will be able to put in place, at said presidio [Monterey], all of the requests that are contained in the letter of Your Honor [Rivera]. " Con el motivo de la seguida que hace el Teniente de los desertores nos emos desairado todos, y es el que causa el no remitir a Vuestra Merced (como aviamos quedado) algunos caballos. Pero en consideracion al desasio en graduo quedara esta escolta. En el mencionado presidio pondre en practica todos los encargos de Vuestra Merced contenidos en su ultima carta".

He continues, "the cattle has recuperated such that they will be able to continue to our destination, with the exception of a few, which he is leaving with the sergeant so that the calves will not suffer". " El Ganado bacuno se ha establecido de


modo que puede sequir para arriba a excepcion de unas pocas, que dejo a Sargento para no malograr las crias".

Anza closes letter three stating that it has also occurred to him to advise Your Honor [Rivera], that the corn furnished by the Reverend Father Paterna amounts to more than forty-nine fanegas and six almudes, stating " tambien me ha parecido avisar a Vuestra Merced, que el maiz que has suministrado el Reverendo Padre Paterna hacien de a cuarenta i nueve fanegas y seis almudes".

Clearly, Anza’s first three letters not only shed light on the needs of the expedition up to that point such as: clothing, soap, footwear, and horses, but the need to continue and accomplish the task of establishing the presidio and mission of San Francisco.

However, in Rivera we can



begin to see the complex
behavior of a man that perhaps had been in the military too long. He had joined in 1742.

With the difficult tasks of pacifying the Indians, keeping the padres in check, and establishing the presidio and mission of San Francisco, it appears Rivera was facing tasks far too difficult to handle.

This has lead historians to believe that he was inept and unable to cope with the situation.

Look for more to come with cartas four, five, and six.

These copies of pages from the letters are examples of the detail recorded. 

The letter at the top identifies some of the items that they have with them, such as Tabaco and  Pinol . . .   

This letter to the right requests clothing.. . "alguna provision de Ropa" . . .

For Information on the
Juan Bautista De Anza route through the Anza Valley, contact: Margaret Jaenke
 Hamilton Museum
39991 Contreras Road
 P.O. Box 391141, 
Anza, Ca  92539
 Phone: 1 909 763-1350



AUGUST 26-29, 2004

Juan Bautista de Anza, early Spanish Explorer, founder of the land route to California and founder of San Francisco, California, will be celebrated in Salida, Colorado on August 26 – 29, 2004. Those dates will mark the 225th anniversary of Anza and his soldiers crossing Poncha Pass to challenge the Comanches. Come celebrate this heroic Spanish explorer and his soldiers and join us as we learn more about the Spanish history of the southwestern United States.

We will be departing Albuquerque on August 26 at 8:00 am and driving in vans with Anza historians to Santa Fe to tour the Palace of the Governors. From Santa Fe we will drive to Ojo Caliente for lunch and the on to Salida. Our tour leaders will bring this historic journey alive at we travel north along Anza’s trail. After our check in to our motels, pizza and a panel discussion on Thursday night will provide lively entertainment as five Anza history experts debate the various routes Anza is alleged to have taken in the area. The Conference itself will be held on Friday, August 27 and papers will be presented by members of both the Anza Society US and the Anza Society Mexico. Saturday, August 28 will see us on the road following those Anza Trails through the beautiful Colorado landscape. Our banquet will be after the road trip. We will be departing for Albuquerque on Sunday morning.

Please check out our website – or e-mail your questions to We look forward to having you join us for this annual celebration.

The Anza Society, Linda J. Rushton, Event Planner


Stanford Archaeologists resume excavation at
El Polin Springs, Presidio of San Francisco

On Monday, June 21, 2004, Stanford University resumes its archaeological investigation of El Polin Springs at the Presidio of San Francisco (in San Francisco, California). During the Spanish-colonial and Mexican period (1810-1840s), El Polin Springs was the home of the Briones family, a large
colonial family whose members were founding citizens of the City of San Francisco. Archaeological investigations at El Polin Springs have also revealed that Native Californians were also living and/or working at El Polin Springs during the same time that the Briones family lived there.

The public is invited to visit the excavation and field laboratory while the dig is in process (June 21 - July 20, Mondays - Fridays, 9am - 4pm). There are also public lectures, volunteer opportunities, and an oral history study associated with the project. Details and directions are available at the project website:
The project is conducted by Stanford University under the direction of Professor Barbara Voss in partnership with the Presidio Trust and the National Park Service. For more information: contact Dr. Barbara Voss at 415-816-7222 or at

LATINO ARTS NETWORK  Newsletter  [Newsletter reflects diversity of group] 

"Dedicated to strengthening and deepening the cooperative relationship among California’s Latino artists, arts organizations and the communities we serve"

Founding Member Organizations: Arte Américas-Fresno, Centro Cultural de La Raza-San Diego, East Bay Center for the Performing Arts-Richmond, El Andar Publications-Santa Cruz, Galería de la Raza-San Francisco, La Peña Cultural Center-Berkeley, La Raza Galería Posada-Sacramento, Plaza de La Raza-Los Angeles, Mexican Heritage Corporation-San Jose, Self Help Graphics-Los Angeles 

To subscribe, send an email to





My Mother’s People


I was born October 31st, 1926 in San Jose California. My Mother was Eldana Shelton, and my father was Ernest Ambrose Trejo. All the people on my Mother’s side of the family were of German extraction except her father, who was Scotch-Irish. My Grandmother’s maiden name was Carrie Blanch Yoakam, and she was born June 20, 1883 in Lacona, Iowa.of Candace Ann Oxenreider and Abraham Lincoln Yoakam.

The Oxenreiders and Yoakams had come to this  country from Germany about 1776. Both of these families migrated over the years to Virginia, Ohio, and Iowa, and their main occupation was farming. Abraham Lincoln Yoakham was born in 1862 in Iowa.  

He was the son of Lewis Yoakam and Rachel B. Fletcher. Lewis Yoakum was born March 30th, 1826, in Ohio, and Rachel B. Fletcher was born November 18th, 1827 in Ohio They were married about 1845. They had one son, Abraham Lincoln Yoakam, born in 1862 in Iowa. His mother, Rachel, died February 4th, 1911, in Iowa. Lewis died in the early 1900s.

Abraham Lincoln Yoakum married Candace Ann Oxenreider on February 12, 1882, in Lacona, Iowa. Candace’s parents were John Oxenreider and Sophia McAdams. Candace was born October 14th, 1859, in Lacona, Iowa. Candace died in San Jose July 27th, 1942, in San Jose, California, at age 82.

Candace was my great grandmother. About 1893, Candace and Abraham decided to "Come West". They came by covered wagon over the Old Oregon Trail, arriving in Pendelton Oregon in 1894, where they settled for a short time. There were seven children that made the trip, the oldest being my Grandmother, Carrie Blanch age 10. the others were John age 8, Albert age 7, Clara age 5, Harold age 3, and Robert age 1. Another child, Clara, was born April 28, 1894, probably in Oregon. After a short time the family moved to San Jose, California, where their last child (my namesake) Paul Yoakum was born on October 10, 1896.

Maternal Grandmother
Carrie Blanch Yoakum Brien 
1919, Age 36



My Grandmother told me some stories about this  trip. She told me that distance along the trail was measured by "Wagon Greasings". Evidently, every 20 miles they stop and grease the wheels of the wagon. Therefore, a distance of 100 miles was 5 "Wagon Greasings".

She also said that only six people could fit in the wagon, and that since there were seven altogether, some one had to walk. The three older children, Blanch, John, and Albert took turns walking behind the wagon all the way across the country. 

My Grandmother Carrie Blanch Yoakum-Shelton- Brien witnessed a world of changes during her lifetime. She died May 29, 1973, in Pacific Grove, California, at the age of 90. During her lifetime she saw the invention of the automobile, the airplane, and man’s landing on the moon, all in two generations.



My mother, Eldana Shelton was born March 20, 1908, in San Jose California. Her parents were Sylvester Shelton and Carrie Blanch Yoakum, and she grew up in San Jose. On February 10, 1924, at age 16, she married my father Ernest Ambrose Trejo in Stockton, California. My father was from an old Mexican-Spanish family, with early roots in San Luis Obispo, California. He was born in San Luis          Obispo on December 7th, 1904. Ernest Ambrose’s Father, Tibo "Santos" Trejo, was born in San Luis   Obispo, January 4th, 1878, and his mother was Maria Clotilda Garner, born February 22, 1877, in          Castoville, California. Clotilda was the granddaughter of William Robert of Monterey and Antonia           Francisca Emigdia Butron. Francisca’s grandfather was the soldado Manuel Butron.

My father’s grandfather was Julian Trejo. Julian was born in Arispe. Senora, Mexico in 1838. Julian’s father was Jacinto Trejo, and his mother Maria Josefa Lopez. Julian came to California about 1847, and settled in San Luis Obispo. He married Catalina Bielmas, at the old Mission San Luis Obispo on October 23rd, 1867. She was 16, and he was 29 years of age.

Catalina’s parents were Francisco Bielmas, and Roberta Garcia and they were in San Luis Obispo in the 1840's. Julian Trejo and Catalina Bielmas had 9 children, one of which was my grandfather Santos Trejo.

Mother, Eldana Shelton, 16 years old.
Richmond Chase cannery in San Jose, 1924

The Early Years

My older brother Ernest Santos was born August 30th, 1924, in San Jose, and I was born October 31st, 1926, in San Jose. My mother and father divorced when I was one years old, and in the later half of 1927 my mother, brother, and myself moved to Pacific Grove, CA, where we moved in with my grandparents in a tiny house on Caladonia street in Pacific Grove. 

My mother got a job as a grocery clerk at Holman’s Department, the major employer in town. In 1929 the great depression hit the nation and this was the start of terrible economic times for our country. Many people lost their jobs and families drew together to survive.

Then, my mother’s sister Violet, her husband Edward Silva, and their daughter Gloria Ann moved into the Caladonia house. Ed was a skilled glass cutter, who worked for the Del Monte Glass company in Monterey. He was laid off as the company was forced to cut it’s staff for lack of business. There was no bedroom space left in the house, so the Silvas moved into the double garage where some beds a few pieces of furniture were installed. Gloria Ann was my brother’s age, and I considered her somewhat of a brat. For one thing, she refused to sleep in the garage. Consequently, my brother and I alternated sleeping in the garage while Gloria Ann took our beds and slept in the house every night. There are many memories from those early years, but they have no place in a short biography. Suffice to say, we were as poor as church mice, but everyone else was in the same boat, so as kids we didn’t know we were poor. I can still remember walking along the railroad tracks with my grandmother, picking up wild mustard green. She would put them in a great iron pot on and old wood stove, throw in a ham hock, and we ate them with lots of vinegar! On Sundays we would visit the lettuce fields in Salinas. The farmers would plant four or five rows of lettuce next to the road. Then there was a 10 foot space where the main field was planted. People were allowed to take all the lettuce they wanted from the rows along the road, but were to stay out of the main field. I never recall anyone violating that trust.

The next major milestone in my life was when my mother met Glen David Berwick. They were both clerks in the grocery department in Holman’s Department Store. They were married September 6, 1930, when I was four years old. My stepfather bought a house at 218 Alder in Pacific Grove for $2800.00 dollars. A few years ago that same house sold for $250,000 !

My stepfather was one of the most talented men I ever knew. He only had a high school education, but he was a semi professional photographer and extremely good in the shop. In those days, people couldn’t afford to buy things so they made them. He was and avid amateur radio operator who built all his own equipment. During the WW-2 he was commissioned a radio officer in the Merchant Marine, and served in the Pacific on various ships until 1947.

In 1932 I was enrolled in Kindergarten at Robert down Elementary School in Pacific Grove.I was there through grade eight, graduating in June 1940. My teachers were strict but fair. An there was no such thing as "social promotion". If you did not pass, you were held back a year, which was considered by your classmates as a real stigma. There were no computers, so you learned your multiplication tables backwards and forwards. Our high school population reflected the makeup of the town, Pacific Grove had a population then of only 2300 people. and the total number of students was around 250. I will always attribute what successes I have had in life to my foundation schooling in the Pacific Grove school system. I was active in sports, lettering in track all four years and in Football three years.

I had just commenced my Sophomore year of high school when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Overnight the whole world changed. We became paranoid. Japanese submarines shelled areas along the Pacific Coast of California and Oregon, which contributed to this paranoia. Because the Fleet had been so heavily damaged at Pearl Harbor there was a general feeling that the Japanese might attempt a landing on the west coast. The location of large military installations at Fort Ord and the Presidio of Monterey caused precautions to become doubly tight. Fifteen inch batteries were installed along the coast between Monterey and Santa Cruz, and manned by Army Field Artillery troops. The bunkers for these old batteries are still in place today. Monterey Bay is a large crescent shaped bay, that is really and open roadstead. It stretches from Point Pinos in Pacific Grove in the south, to Santa Cruz on the north, a distance of 20 miles across the mouth. There are miles and miles of ideal beaches to make and amphibious landing.

All the roads along the beaches were patrolled by heavily armed soldiers in jeeps. The waterfront at Monterey was closed to the general public, and only fisherman with special passes were permitted on the wharfs.

At this time I was a member of a Sea Scout Troop. We had a 26 foot power boat called the Sturgeon that we kept for our training. Early on we were employed by the Coast Guard to patrol the waters on the bay from Monterey, over to Santa Cruz.  We had orders to report any suspicious thing we might observe. We had no firearm or radio, only semaphore flags, so to this day I’m not sure how effective we could be, but it was "heady stuff" to be doing our part.

As one example of how ridiculous thing could be I will cite on example. My brother Ernest was attempting to take ariel photographs from a box kite using a Baby Brownie camera and a sting tied to the shutter. The only place with wind enough to fly the monster contraption he had built was out on the Point along the beach. This was a restricted area . He had just got his giant kite air born when and Army Patrol came by in a Jeep. This guy taking pictures from a kite in a restricted area had to be a spy! They took my brother, kite, camera and all down to the local MP station. They called the Pacific Grove police chief who knew our family, so it was straightened out OK.

A picture taken just prior to enlisting in the Navy. 

I turned 17 on October 31, 1943. I started the process to enlist November 1st, 1943. I graduated from high school on June 6, 1944. 

Due to processing problems of  having used my step father's surname (Berwick) all my life, I was not sworn in until February 28, 1944 as and Aviation Cadet.  I was sworn in at the Office of Naval Officer Procurement in San Francisco. I reported for active duty July 1, 1944, to the Navy V5/V12 unit at the University of Redland, Redlands, CA.  

Enlistment Card

The United States Navy

I turned 17 on October 31st, 1943 and was determined to enlist in the Navy. If I waited until I graduated from high school in June of 1944, I would only have four months until I turned 18, and then I would be drafted. There was and old peacetime law still in effect from the depression years that would allow a young man to enlist at 17 for a period until he reached his majority of 21 years, provided he could get his parents or guardian to sign the papers. This was known in the Navy as a "Kiddie Cruise." This was essentially a four year enlistment, and your ID Card which always had on it your discharge date would list it as your 21st birthday. However in this space was the letters DOW, which meant duration of war.

The first week in November I persuaded a high school classmate, John Hamilton, that we should both make the 120 miles trip to San Francisco to enlist. We both had written parental permission in hand. Besides that, John had the transportation, and old Indian motorcycle with the "suicide shift". So, up we traveled to the Office Of Naval Officer Procurement at 707 South Market Street in San Francisco. We were given a packet of documents to comply with, namely letters of recommendation to obtain, and told to report back when we had the proper paperwork, for a physical, and to be sworn in. I had a another problem, my birth certificate said my name was Paul Trejo, but all my other paperwork said my name was Paul Berwick, my stepfather’s surname. The Navy requires either legal adoption papers or a legal change of name. I had to return to Pacific Grove to get affidavits from everyone who had written a recommendation that Berwick and Trejo were one and the same person. On February 28, 1944, I was sworn in as and Aviation Cadet, Class V-5. Under the terms of enlistment, I had to complete high school.

I graduated June 6th, 1944 from high school, and reported July 1st to the Naval V-5/V-12 unit at the University of Redlands, California. The unit comprised 500 navy seamen cadets, and 200 marine privates. The marines would go on to Quantico, Virginia, after their Redlands training to be commissioned second lieutenants. From there they would become cannon fodder for the next landing in the Pacific. The V-5 seaman would be commissioned midshipmen, and be sent to preflight training. From there they would be sent to flight school, and on completion earn their wings. The next step was off to type training in the aircraft they would be flying. Their final stop was the fleet. The V-12 seaman would be sent to midshipman school and commissioned midshipman. On completion of that training, they were commissioned ensigns and shipped of to the fleet. The program was one of intense physical training, and academics leading to a four year college engineering degree. The discipline was extremely ridged, the physical training rugged, and the academics demanding. It was easy to wash out for almost any reason, and many did. When I was in grade school my mother insisted I learn to play some musical instrument. In grade school the instruments were assigned by drawing lots. I ended drawing a B-Flat Clarinet. I had hoped fore a trombone! In high school I played in the band except during football season. At any rate, at Redlands I joined the Navy Unit Marching Band, that played every Saturday when the Battalion stood inspection, and then marched in review. The band did not have to stand inspection! Those Saturday inspections were a bear. The average July temperature was from 100 degrees Fahrenheit

to 110 degrees on a summer’s day. It took an hour for the Commanding Officer, LtCdr. Jennings Courts to inspect the entire unit. Even at parade rest people would pass out in the heat. There was and ambulance and medical corpsmen on hand to take the fallen to sick bay.

In October of 1945, they decommissioned the Redlands Unit, and a lot of people were sent to the fleet. I was transferred to the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, where I was transferred first from the V-5 program to the V-12 program, and then to the NROTC program, where I was commissioned a line Midshipman. The problem was that the Navy had thousands of officer candidates in all their various programs, the war was nearly over, and they needed to downsize big time. On what basis they made the cuts we were never told.

On June 6th, 1947, I received a Bachelor of Naval Science Degree from USC, and a commission as and Ensign in the regular navy. After a months leave and six weeks of Damage Control School at Treasure Island, I flew out to Pearl Harbor to report on board my first ship the USS McCook (DMS- 36/DD-496).

Commissioned Ensign, USN,
 June 6, 1947, from the Naval ROTC Unit, University of Southern California. 

USS McCook 

My first ship the USS McCook. Passing under the Golden Gate February, 1949. I served on her from 1947 to 1949. If you look carefully you can see the out line of the bridge in the background.
That is ME in the bow with my elbow cocked. The other officer was Lt. Bud Butler..  

Author:    Daughters of the American Revolution. California State Society. 1952: California.

Vol. 1/2. 1850-1890, Los Angeles -- v. 3. 1848 to 1900, San Diego County, California -- v. 4. Placer, Shasta and Yuba Counties, 1849-1900 -- v. 5. Probate Court, Kern County, California early marriage records -- v. 6. Santa Clara County, 1850-1864, Solano County, 1850-1873.

   Vol. 1. Title page
   Vol. 1. Front matter
   Vol. 1. Table of contents
   Vol. 1. Early California wills...
   Vol. 1. Explanation to index
   Vol. 1. Index
   Vol. 2. Title page
   Vol. 2. Early California wills
   Vol. 2. Explanation to index
   Vol. 2. Index
   Vol. 3. Title page
   Vol. 3. Table of contents
   Vol. 3. Front matter
   Vol. 3. Index: List of ranchos
   Vol. 3. Part I: Introduction
   Vol. 3. Probate proceedings: Register of actions
   Vol. 3. Indexes of wills
   Vol. 3. Probate proceedings: Will books I, II, & III
   Vol. 3. Explanation to index
   Vol. 3. Index
   Vol. 4. Title page
   Vol. 4. Table of contents
   Vol. 4. Vital records-Shasta County
   Vol. 4. Early wills-Shasta County
   Vol. 4. Early marriage records of Placer County, Auburn Court House
   Vol. 4. Early wills of Placer County, California Book "A"
   Vol. 4. Early wills, Yuba County
   Vol. 4. Index
   Vol. V. Title page
   Vol. V. Front matter
   Vol. V. Table of contents
   Vol. V. Kern County wills
   Vol. V. Abstracts of wills Superior Court of Kern County, California
   Vol. V. Marriage licenses
   Vol. V. Explanation of index
   Vol. V. Index
   Vol. VI. Title page
   Vol. VI. Table of contents
   Vol. VI. Santa Clara County wills
   Vol. VI. Index (Santa Clara County wills)
   Vol. VI. Solano County wills
   Vol. VI. Index

Source:   via

Extract: Former Migrant Worker Aims for the Moon 

By Guy Gugliotta, Washington Post Staff Writer
Tuesday, May 25, 2004; Page A15       
Sent by Joe Martinez

Jose M. Hernandez, a mission specialist candidate in NASA's 2004 astronaut class, traveled from Mexico to California as a child to work on several farms. "It took 2 1/2 days," remembered Jose M. Hernandez, the youngest of the four. "My dad put cans of Campbell's soup on the engine manifold so they would heat up. Then we'd open them and eat the soup in the back seat."

On May 6, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration chose Jose Hernandez, the son of Mexican migrant farm workers from Stockton, Calif., and Michoacan, as an astronaut candidate, destined, perhaps, to be the next human to set foot on the moon.

His credentials are considerable. Hernandez, now 41, is a materials engineer at Houston's Johnson Space Center and an expert in X-rays, tomography, ultrasound, and other nondestructive means of medical and materials analysis. As part of the 11-member astronaut class of 2004, he will train as a mission specialist.

Before joining NASA in 2001, he worked for the Department of Energy, where he helped develop the inspection techniques and monitoring procedures used in the disposal of 15 tons of Russian enriched uranium.

And at the DOE's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the 1990s, he and a colleague used experience gained working on the Reagan administration's X-ray laser defense initiative to develop the first full-field digital mammography system for detecting breast cancer in women.

Along the way, he also become president of the Society of Mexican-American Engineers and Scientists, an avid runner who has participated in the Marine Corps Marathon and the father of five children.

Hernandez was born in French Camp, Calif., just outside Stockton, the family's final stop on its annual "California circuit," which began in February, when they arrived in California's Central Valley and headed for the strawberry fields near the city of Ontario.

"Then we'd move north to Salinas, for lettuce," Hernandez recalled. "And then to Stockton, for cherries, cucumbers, apricots, peaches, tomatoes. . . We finished with grapes" in October, he said, then drove back to Michoacan for an extended Christmas vacation.

But "during all the stops, we went to school," Hernandez said. "We didn't work Monday through Friday, but always on the weekends. And late in the school year, when all the kids were looking forward to summer vacation, I was dreading it."

It was sometime during grammar school in the early 1970s when Hernandez's itinerant life began to change. He went to his teacher late in the harvest season to pick up enough homework to tide him over until the next circuit began, but the teacher insisted on talking with his parents.

They had some bright kids, who needed some stability, the teacher told them. " 'You should put down some roots' is the way it came out," Hernandez recalled. "After that we stayed with the same school district -- we adapted well."

And performed well. Hernandez's sister is an accountant and his two brothers are a mechanic and a DOE engineer. Salvador Hernandez eventually ran his own business driving a fertilizer truck and is semi-retired in Stockton with Julia.

"My mom never learned English," Hernandez said, which is the chief reason he speaks fluent Spanish. And with two Mexican-born parents, Hernandez enjoys dual citizenship, to the delight of Mexico, whose embassy feted him here after his selection as an astronaut.

Hernandez went to Stockton's University of the Pacific on a scholarship, graduating with a degree in electrical engineering in 1984, and then earned a master's at the University of California at Santa Barbara.

He had joined Lawrence Livermore as a work-study undergraduate and was rehired when he returned from UCSB. But even as a young Energy Department up-and-comer, his ultimate goal was to become an astronaut.

"I remember [in 1981] when NASA chose [Costa Rican-born] Franklin Chang-Diaz as an astronaut, opening the road to Latinos," Hernandez said. "I said to myself that I had no excuse now. I can't say they don't let Latinos in."

(c) 2004 The Washington Post Company



By John P. Schmal


The struggle for Chicano representation in the state of California began as soon as the United States took over California in 1847. This struggle has been a long-fought battle to assert one ethnic group’s rights as American citizens. However, the outcome of this confrontation remained in question for the better part of 130 years. This is the story of that struggle.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

On May 13, 1846, the United States Congress, at the request of President James Knox Polk, declared war on the Mexican Republic. And thus began the Mexican-American War. The war in California ended less than a year later with the Treaty of Cahuenga, signed on January 13, 1847. Another year later, on February 2, 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo forced Mexico to hand over to the United States 525,000 square miles of landing, including California.

Of the treaty’s twenty-three articles, four defined the rights of Mexican citizens and Indian people in the territories. Californians were given the freedom to live in ceded territories as either American or Mexican citizens. The new American citizens would be entitled to "the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States according to the principles of the constitutions."

The California Constitution

A year later, forty-eight delegates met in Monterey to put together the first California Constitution. For six weeks from September to November 1849 the Constitutional Convention created a constitution that would guarantee rights to all citizens living within California’s borders. The final Constitution – written in both English and Spanish – provided that all major legislation in the future would be written in both English and Spanish.

Article XI, Section 21 of California’s 1849 Constitution reflected the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo’s guarantee, declaring, "All laws, decrees, regulations, and provisions, which from their nature require publication, shall be published in English and Spanish." Article II, "Right of Suffrage," Section 1, stated that "Every white male citizen of the United States, and every white male citizen of Mexico, who shall have elected to become a citizen of the United States, under the treaty of peace exchanged and ratified at Queretaro, on the 30th day of May, 1848 of the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been a resident of the State six months next preceding the election, and the county or district in which he claims his vote thirty days, shall be entitled to vote at all elections which are now or hereafter may authorized by law."

Section 5 decreed: "Every citizen of California, declared a legal voter by this Constitution, and every citizen of the United States, a resident of this State on the day of election, shall be entitled to vote at the first general election under this Constitution, and on the question of the adoption thereof." Eight Californios – six of them Mexican Californians – represented Hispanic interests at the Convention. They were as follows:

1. Antonio M. Pico from San Jose
2. Jacinto Rodriguez from Monterey
3. Pablo de la Guerra from Santa Barbara
4. M.G. Vallejo from Sonora
5. José Antonio Carrillo from Los Angeles
6. Manuel Dominguez from Los Angeles
7. Miguel de Pedrorena – a native of Spain – from San Diego.
8. José M. Covarrubias – a native of France – representing Santa Barbara.

The sad reality of this bilingual convention is that – even before the ink was dry on the official paper – certain Anglo-American interests were taking steps that would lead to a gradual and continuous appropriation of Chicano suffrage. This action, to some people, may have been regarded as the logical prerogative of a conquering people over a conquered people. But the conquerors – once Mexico had requested peace – signed a treaty and wrote a constitution that guaranteed citizenship and voting rights to the Californios who had well-established roots in this region. This had been a promise but – by 1893 – most of these guarantees would be eliminated through legislation and plebiscites.

During the first couple of decades, several prominent Californio families of Spanish and Mexican origin who held large tracts of land called ranchos, shared the reigns of power with the Anglos who were arriving in their territory in ever-greater numbers. But, in the First California Constitutional Legislature, which commenced on December 15, 1849 in San Jose, was attended by a nineteen delegates from the northern states of the U.S. Another ten hailed from the southern states, but no natives of California were represented in the Assembly. Jose M. Covarrubias, a Californio landowner in the Santa Barbara area, but a native of France, was one of the few Assemblypersons with any strong California ties going back more than a decade.

Early Chicano Representation

The first California Senate in 1849 was composed of nine members from northern states, five members from southern states, and only two members who were native Californians. The session last four months and adjourned on April 22, 1850. Less than half a year later, on September 9, 1850, California would be admitted as the thirty-first American state.

The first session of the California Legislation after statehood commenced on January 6, 1851 and lasted until May 1, 1851. One of the delegates representing Los Angeles for the Whig Party was a well-known Californian named Andres Pico. Andres – the brother of the last Mexican Governor, Pio Pico – was the Mexican military officer who had fought the American forces under his commander, General Jose Maria Flores.

In the early days of 1847, General Flores, recognizing that he was losing control of the situation, turned over command of his forces to his deputy, Andres Pico, and fled south to unoccupied Mexican territory. On January 13, 1847, Andres, seeing his own situation as untenable, met with Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Fremont, the commander of the American forces who was occupying the San Fernando Mission. On this date, Fremont and Andres Pico, Commander-in-Chief of the remaining Mexican forces in California, signed the Treaty of Cahuenga in the San Fernando Valley. Article 5 of the capitulation declared, "equal rights and privileges are vouchsafed to every citizen of California as are enjoyed by the citizens of the United States."

Andres Pico became the first Californio to be elected to the Assembly as the representative of District 2 in the 2nd (1851) and 3rd (1853) legislative sessions. He changed his party affiliation to Democrat and was elected to the Assembly from District 2 once again for the 9th (1858) and 10th (1859) legislative sessions. Another Californian landowner, Jose M. Covarrubias, served on the California state assembly off and on from 1849 to 1862, representing Santa Barbara district.

For the first three decades after statehood, some Chicanos were able to find the occasional support of their constituency and represent their home districts. Pedro C. Carrillo of Santa Barbara served as a delegate from the 2nd District in 1854-55. Manuel A. Castro of San Luis Obispo served as a delegate from the 2nd District in 1856-57 and from the 6th District in 1863. Esteban Castro from Monterey served in the State Assembly as a delegate to the 3rd District (1857-58) and the 6th District (1863-65).

Ygnacio Sepulveda of Los Angeles became a member of the California State Assembly in 1863-65 as the representative of the 2nd District. Ygnacio went on to become a Judge of the Seventeenth Judicial District, one of the first two Superior Court Justices in Los Angeles County. Another Californio, Mariano G. Pacheco served as a representative of California’s 3rd District from 1852 to 1854.

Romualdo Pacheco

It was Mariano’s brother who stands as the most spectacular Chicano legislator during California’s Nineteenth Century. Born in Santa Barbara in 1831, Romualdo Pacheco was a proud Californian who also had roots in the Mexican state of Guanajuato. Señor Pacheco originally served as superior court judge in San Luis Obispo from 1853-1857. Romualdo moved on to serve in the State Assembly in 1853-55 and 1868-70. In 1857, he first started serving in the California State Senate and he continued to serve intermittently, also in 1861-63 and 1869-70.

But Romualdo Pacheco’s best days were ahead of him. Governor Leland Stanford appointed him as a brigadier general in command of the First Brigade of California’s Native Cavalry during the American Civil War. During the Republican State Convention of 1863, Governor Stanford nominated Pacheco for the position of state treasurer. Fluent in both Spanish and English, Romualdo Pacheco was a popular politician who got along well with both Californians and Anglos-Americans.

In June 1871 Pacheco received the Republican Party nomination for Lieutenant Governor of California. In 1875, when Governor Newton Booth was elected to the U.S. Senate, Pacheco became the Governor of California. His stay in the Governor’s office was relatively short and, in November 1876, Romualdo ran for and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives to serve in the Forty-fifth Congress (1877-1878), winning by a margin of one vote. He later served in the Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh Congresses (March 4, 1879 to March 3, 1883).

Even when Pacheco’s career as a representative drew to a close, her served in his later years as a minister to several Central American countries before his death in 1899. Loren Nicholson is one of several authors who has written about Romualdo Pacheco’s extraordinary career as a Chicano politician in his 1990 publication, "Romualdo Pacheco’s California!: The Mexican-American Who Won," a California Heritage Series (San Luis Obispo: California Heritage Pub. Associates, 1990).

However, as the Nineteenth Century wore on, a gradual erosion of Mexican-American’s rights as citizens took place. The Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1870, had promised "the rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." In theory this amendment gave all Californian Mexican-Americans and other minorities a voice in both local and national politics.

In practice, however, the Fifteenth Amendment was flagrantly violated in the years to follow by the California Legislature. One of the most blatant examples of this was the adoption of the 1879 California Constitution. The revised Constitution officially rescinded the linguistic protective provisions of the 1849 Constitution, providing that "no person who shall not be able to read the Constitution in the English language and write his or her name, shall ever exercise the privileges of an elector in this State." With one fell swoop, the guarantee of bilingual publication of laws was revoked and no documents relating to elections were thereafter published in Spanish.

The Literacy Requirement (1894)

Then, in 1891, Assemblyman A. J. Bledsoe introduced an English literacy requirement as a proposed constitutional amendment in the State Assembly. Bledsoe had earlier belonged to the vigilante Committee of Fifteen that had expelled every person of Chinese ancestry from Humboldt. In his introduction, he lamented the "the increased immigration of the illiterate and unassimilated elements of Europe, and believe that every agency should be invoked to preserve our public lands from alien grasp, to shield American labor from this destructive competition, and to protect the purity of the ballot-box from the corrupting influences of the disturbing elements ... from abroad."

Although the Assembly voted down the proposal on January 21, 1891, a flood of petitions from the public favoring the literacy requirement flooded Sacramento. With such overwhelming support from their constituents, the Legislature hastily adopted Bledsoe’s proposal as a constitutional amendment subject to ratification at the next general election. In 1894, the people of California voted to approve the English literacy requirement, which henceforth before part of Article II, Section 1.

The anti-immigrant attitude – directed at Asians, Mexicans and Eastern Europeans – prevailed into the first half of the Twentieth Century to the point that it was even written into the California election laws. Section 5567 of the California Elections Code, as adopted in 1941, required that elections be conducted in the English language and prohibited election officials from speaking any language other than English while on duty at the polling stations.

Such actions violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and, therefore, were unconstitutional. But the literacy law remained on the books in California until it was challenged in the California courts many decades later. In the landmark court case, Genoveva Castro et al. versus the State of California, the constitutionality of the English literacy requirement was challenged [CASTRO v. STATE OF CALIFORNIA, March 24, 1970. L.A. No. 29693. 2 Cal. 3d 223].

In analyzing the causes of the literacy legislation, the Court found that "fear and hatred played a significant role" in promoting California’s lawmakers to pass the voting requirement. Although it may have appeared to be "a genuine desire to create an intelligent and responsible electorate," the court concluded "the English literacy requirement was a direct product of the narrow and fearful nativism rampant in California politics at the end of the nineteenth century."

For the first half of the Twentieth Century, anti-immigrant legislation and sentiment did, in fact, prevent fair political representation of Chicanos and other minorities groups in California. One of the most devious means of limiting minority representation was a practice known as gerrymandering. In California, legislatures were able to divide a county or city into oddly shaped representational districts to give political advantage to Anglos in elections. Gerrymandering resulted in voter dilution, in which the political representation of a political unified minority was obstructed or diminished so severely that political representation of Latinos was nonexistent.

The End of World War II

The year was 1947 and the place was California. World War II had ended two years earlier and millions of American GI’s had returned home to their families and jobs. The Great Depression had ended with the coming of World War II and California – like the rest of the country – was experiencing a newly found economic prosperity.

As a result of this prosperity, Los Angeles was drawing large numbers of people from all around the United States and from Mexico. Between 1940 and 1950, the population of California increased from over 6 million people to 10 ½ million. During the same period, the population of Los Angeles County jumped from 3 million to 4.7 million people.

During World War II, hundreds of thousands of Hispanic Americans had served in the U.S. military, many receiving decorations for their service to their country. These proud veterans returned to their native land, but still experienced many forms of discrimination and prejudice in the job market.

However, as the war drew to an end, an important piece of legislation presented Chicano veterans with an opportunity for advancement in California. The G.I. Bill Act of June 22, 1944 – or the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act [Public Law 346, 78th Congress, Title III, §§500-503, 58 Stat. 284, 291-293 (1944)] – put higher education within the reach of thousands of Mexican-American veterans. The Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952 [Public Law 550, 82nd Congress, July 16, 1952, Ch. 875, 66 Stat. 663, 38 U.S.C. 997] provided similar privileges to Korean War veterans.

Over the next decade, Mexican-American veterans attended local and nationwide colleges and universities to obtain college degrees. In many cases, these vets were the first members of their families to receive a higher education. Armed with the weapon of education, many of these Chicano veterans became the politicians of the 1960s and 1970s.

In California’s expanding wartime economy, some Mexican Americans had become skilled workers, putting them into a new economic bracket. But, the new prosperity had not translated into political representation yet. Not a single Hispanic person from California had served in Congress since the end of Romualdo Pacheco’s tenure as representative in 1883. Additionally, not a single Mexican American had served in the California Legislature since the end of Miguel Estudillo’s tenure in the California Senate (1911). The last Latino to serve as mayor of the City of Los Angeles, Cristobal Aguilar, had been voted out of office in 1872 and the last Mexican-American member of the Los Angeles City Council had stepped down in 1881.

The Emergence of Edward Roybal

It was in this vacuum of non-representation that a unique individual came onto the scene. More than any other person, Edward Roybal would pave the way for two generations of Mexican-American Californians, who would achieve representation in the Los Angeles City Council, the U.S. Congress, or the California Legislature.

Born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Roybal had come to Boyle Heights in 1922 with his parents, when his unemployed father sought new employment. Roybal graduated from Roosevelt High School and attended UCLA before going to World War II. After the war had ended, he returned to Los Angeles and became the Director of Health Education for the Los Angeles County Tuberculosis and Health Association.

In 1947, 30-year-old Edward R. Roybal decided to run for councilman of the 9th Council District, which included Boyle Heights, Bunker Hill, Civic Center, Chinatown, Little Tokyo, and the Central Avenue District. The racial makeup of the district’s 185,033 residents was: 45% White, 34% Latino, 15% African American, and 6% "other." Even Roybal’s political base, Boyle Heights, was just 43% Hispanic at the time, while 34% of the inhabitants were native-born Whites.

Professor Katherine Underwood has analyzed Roybal’s run for office and noted that Roybal’s first campaign lacked endorsements and neglected voter outreach. In the primary election on April 1, 1947, Edward Roybal and three other candidates ran against the incumbent councilman, Parley Parker Christensen. On Election Day, Christensen won 8,948 votes, while Roybal came in third with 3,350 votes (15% of the total ballots cast). Seventy-five percent of Roybal’s support had come from Boyle Heights. (Katherine Underwood, "Pioneering Minority Representation: Edward Roybal and the Los Angeles City Council, 1949-1962," Pacific Historical Review – 1997).

Following this loss, Roybal became involved with several of his campaign supporters to create the CPO (Community Political Organization) in September 1947. The organization, which was later renamed CSO (Community Service Organization), became the first broad-based organization within the Mexican-American community, representing veterans, businessmen, and workers.

The primary goal of the CSO was to register Mexican Americans to vote. For this purpose, the organization recruited 1,000 members and registered 15,000 new voters in the Latino sections of Boyle Heights, Belvedere, and East Los Angeles. By 1949, Roybal believed that he had enough support to run for the Ninth District seat once again.

In the April 5, 1949 primary election, Roybal knocked Daniel Sullivan and Julia Sheehan out of the council race by capturing 37% of the total votes cast. This forced a runoff with Christensen in the May general election. In the general election held on May 31, 1949, Edward Roybal soundly defeated six-term Councilman Christensen by a vote of 20,472 to 11,956, winning by a 2-to-1 margin. With this victory, Ed Roybal became the first Mexican American since 1881 to win a seat on the Los Angeles City Council. He would serve as Council member of the 9th District from July 1, 1949 to Dec. 31, 1962, before moving on to the U.S. Congress in 1963.

Even with Roybal’s victory, CSO continued its registration efforts. By 1950, some 32,000 Mexican Americans had been added to registration rolls, contributing to the election of businessman Albert G. Padilla to the San Fernando City Council. Mr. Padilla was made Council member on April 18, 1950 and served for four years. (Source: Elena Sanchez, San Fernando City Clerk). A year later, Roybal was reelected to the Council seat for the 9th District in the primaries on April 3, 1951 when he defeated Irving Rael by 17,941 votes to 5,762 votes (almost a 3-to-1 margin).

The Election of Charles Navarro (1951)

In the meantime, a second Hispanic, Charles Navarro, ran for the City Council. In the April 3 election, five candidates ran for the Council seat, representing District 10. In this primary election, left-wing Assemblyman Vernon Kilpatrick received 5,301 votes, while Navarro received the second largest number of votes with 5,077. Navarro and Kilpatrick thus advanced to a showdown in the general election, to be held in June.

The Los Angeles Times reported that this election represented "one of the bitterest Council fights in years," pitting the Conservative income property owner and "champion of free enterprise" Charles Navarro "on a strong anti-Communist platform" against the left-wing Kilpatrick. Kilpatrick had already served for twelve years as an Assemblyman but, according to the Times, "had a long record of left-wing activities and associations."

Once the complete returns had been tallied, Navarro had defeated Kilpatrick 9,075 votes to 7,382 on June 29, 1951 at the general election. Navarro took office as Councilman on July 1, 1951.

In the 1953 contest for the 9th District, Roybal ran unopposed, winning his seat in the April 7, 1953 primary election. Charles Navarro was also reelected at the same time. Very little changed in the political representation of Latinos for the rest of the 1950s. Edward Roybal sought the nomination for Lieutenant Governor in 1954, but failed.

Then in 1958, Ed Roybal announced that he would run for the Los Angeles Board of Supervisors. The outgoing Supervisor John Anson Ford endorsed Roybal. He and Councilman Ernest Debs opposed each other. The Eastside supported Roybal, but last minute defections hurt Roybal as several prominent Chicano leaders defected to Debs. Because Roybal had openly opposed the Chávez Ravine and Boyle Heights issues, the Los Angeles Times opposed him and endorsed Debs. On the first ballot, Roybal led by 393 votes, 139,800 to 139,407. But the County Voter Registrar reported that a 12,000-vote error had been made. After four recounts, Debs won 141,011 to 128,994.

In the 1950s, large numbers of Mexican Americans moved from Texas to the Midwest and California. By 1959, the Mexican-American population of Los Angeles County had increased to 600,000. However, aside from the two Latinos on the Los Angeles City Council, representation was nil. No Mexican American represented East Los Angeles or other Hispanic communities in Sacramento, nor did any Hispanic represent California in the U.S. Congress.


To address the issue of representation in California, the Mexican American Political Association (MAPA) was organized by 150 volunteer delegates at Fresno. Meeting for the first time in April 1959, MAPA

Delegates drew up a plan for direct electoral politics. From the beginning MAPA declared that its main goal was to become the political voice of the Mexican American community. Ed Roybal was elected first MAPA president.

Navarro as City Controller

In 1961, Los Angeles City Councilman Charles Navarro decided to run for the office of City Controller, challenging the incumbent City Controller, Don O. Hoye, who had served in that capacity since 1957. In the May 31, 1961 General Election, Navarro coasted to an easy victory of the incumbent Hoye, taking a 2-to-1 lead over Hoye in the early returns and maintaining his lead throughout the night. The final tally from June 2, 1961 gave Charles Navarro 331,340 votes, well above Hoye’s 161,690 votes.

Charles Navarro took office on July 1st as City Controller, thus vacating his council position. Upon his victory, he stated, "I’ll miss the debates and personality clashes of the City Council, but I’m looking forward to my new responsibilities as controller." An Anglo, Joe E. Hollingsworth, was appointed on August 25, 1961 to Charles Navarro’s unexpired term on the 10th District seat. Hollingsworth would be succeeded by Thomas Bradley, who was elected at the April 2, 1963 primaries to replace Hollingsworth on June 30, 1963. Bradley served the 10th District until July 1, 1973, when he became Mayor of Los Angeles.

1961 Reapportionment and Redistricting

In 1960, California had a total population of 15,717,204 persons. This new figure increased California’s representation in the U.S. Congress from 30 seats in 1950 to 38 seats. Roughly 1.5 million Hispanics made up more than 9% of the California population, but 20% of these Hispanics were foreign-born, many of whom were not naturalized and, as a result, were not eligible to vote. In Los Angeles, Latinos only made up 9.6% of the population in 1960, slightly above the African-American population of 7.6%.

As the new decade commenced, there were still no Chicanos in the State Senate, the Assembly or in the California Congressional delegation. There was no representation of the Mexican-American population in any part of California, primarily because of political fracturing. "Fracturing" is the drawing of district lines so that a minority population is broken up. Members of the minority are spread among as many districts as possible, keeping them a minority in all the districts.

Because of fracturing, the Latino community of Los Angeles was unable to concentrate its strength so that it might elect representatives in some of its districts. And so it was that the East Los Angeles Barrio, with its large population of Hispanics, was split up into nine different Assembly districts, seven State Senate districts, and six different Congressional Districts. 

Most of these districts were combined with neighboring Anglo communities so that Hispanics rarely made up more than 20% of any one district's population.  This district manipulation was effective in depriving the Latino community of legislative power and influence.

In 1961, with the 1960 census statistics as a guide, the California Legislature reapportioned the Senate and Assembly pursuant to section 6 of article IV of the California Constitution. Testifying before the Reapportionment and Elections Committees of the Senate and Assembly, Los Angeles City Councilperson Edward Roybal, complained about the fragmentation of the Chicano communities in L.A. He stressed the importance of creating Hispanic districts.

After the 1961 reapportionment, Mexican Americans represented significant populations in the following Assembly Districts: the 40th, 45th, 48th, 50th and 51st Assembly Districts. All of these districts fragmented the Chicano community and attached the districts to surrounding Anglo districts.

The California Supreme Court later ruled that California's congressional districts, as drawn in 1961, were unconstitutional and ordered reapportionment of the districts (Silver v. Reagan, 67 Cal. 2nd 452). Similarly, the Supreme Court also ruled that the Assembly and Senate would have to reapportion their districts (Silver v. Brown, 63 Cal. 2nd 270).

Although most of the redistricting that took place in 1961 resulted in obvious and continued gerrymandering of the Latino community in the Los Angeles area, the increasing Latino population in the Los Angeles area finally led to the election of Mexican-American representatives. Most significant was the creation of a congressional district, which would pave a way for Edward Roybal to run for Congress.

The 1962 Elections

In the June 5, 1962 California Primary Election, thirteen Chicano candidates ran for office. City Councilman Edward Roybal had announced that he would run for the 30th Congressional District. Around the same time, Henry Mendoza, a Republican, announced that he would run for the 21st District.

Altogether, eleven Chicanos were on the ballot for the 40th, 45th, 48th, 50th, 51st and 77th Assembly Districts. In East L.A.’s 48th District, Frank Lopez and Frank Paz had run against each other in the primaries. Political analysts believed that Frank Paz might have won that election if he had not faced another Latino in the primary.

Of the thirteen candidates, only three men would take office following the November 6, 1962 General Election. In the primaries, John Moreno had faced three other Chicano Democratic candidates in the contest for East Los Angeles’ 51st Assembly District seat. A native of Los Angeles, Moreno had attended USC and served in the U.S. Navy from 1945 to 1947. Before running for his Assembly seat, John Moreno served as the Mayor of the City of Santa Fe Springs. Once elected, Assemblyperson Moreno would serve as the representative of the 51st District for only two years: 1963 and 1964.

Philip Soto, a Democrat from La Puente, was a veteran of the U.S. Air Force and was a member of the La Puente City Council prior to his service in Sacramento. He became the state representative for the 50th Assembly District.

With their November 6 elections, Philip Soto and John Moreno became the first two Latinos from Los Angeles County to be elected to the California State Legislature in the Twentieth Century. They were also the first Latinos to be elected to serve in the State Assembly since the election of Miguel Estudillo of Riverside County in 1907. The election of these two men set a precedent for a long line of Latino legislators committed to the service of their communities.

While Soto and Moreno celebrated their Assembly districts, Ed Roybal also savored his own victory. On November 6, 1962, after defeating Loyola University Professor William Fitzgerald, the City Councilman became the first Hispanic from California to be elected to Congress since the 1879 election of Romualdo Pacheco.

Edward Roybal took his seat in the House of Representatives on January 3, 1963 at the start of the 88th U.S. Congress. He would serve for twenty years from the 88th Congress to the 102nd Congress, retiring on January 3, 1993. At the start of his Congressional career, Representative Roybal represented the 30th District from 1963 to 1975. From 1975 to 1993, he served in the 25th District. In 1976, Roybal became one of the founding members of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus.

As Ed Roybal prepared to run for Representative of the 30th Congressional District, he resigned from his City Council seat on July 31, 1962. An African-American, Gilbert W. Lindsay, was appointed to replace him on January 28, 1963, even though the 9th District had a large concentration of Latinos. Lindsay would serve in this capacity to Dec. 28, 1990, when he died in office. In three years, African Americans went from having no representation on the Los Angeles City Council in 1960 to having three representatives in 1963. At the same time, Latino representation went from two council members to zero.

The City Council apportionment of 1962 split East Los Angeles among seven councilmanic districts. Because of this fragmentation, Chicanos could not be a majority in any one of the city’s fifteen districts, even though they represented a large portion of seven of the council’s fifteen districts.

The 1964 Elections

In the June 2, 1964 California Primary Election, Ed Roybal received 49,151 votes in the 30th Congressional District, easily winning reelection to his Congressional seat. His closest opponents received only 15,153 and 13,228 votes.

In the elections for the California Assembly, many Chicano candidates stepped forward to seek a mandate for representing their communities. A total of eleven Chicanos ran for the 10th, 38th, 40th, 45th, 48th, 50th 51st, and 75th Assembly District seats. However, by the time the elections had ended, only one Hispanic Assemblymember would take office.

In the 50th Assembly District, Philip Soto won reelection by 2,178 votes in the general election. Two years later in 1966, however, facing the same opponent in 1966, Soto would lose his seat by 4,309 votes, most likely because of boundary changes to his district after the 1966 reapportionment.

When Assemblyman Moreno tried to get reelected to his 51st District seat, he found himself up against another Chicano candidate, Dionisio Morales. This contest split the Chicano vote and led to victory in the Democratic Primary by Jack Fenton. Jack Fenton received 16,278 votes to John Moreno’s 12,850 votes.

1965 Reapportionment of the California Legislature

In 1965, the California Legislature was forced to reapportion itself under order of the California Supreme Court. Governor Edmund "Pat" Brown called a special session of the Legislature to consider reapportionment, and, in October, the California Legislature passed Assembly Bill No. 1, which fashioned new Assembly and Senate districts.

However, the 1965 redistricting continued the fracturing and dilution of the East Los Angeles Chicano community. Five Assembly Districts – the 40th, 45th, 48th, 50th, and 51st – all dipped into East Los Angeles for 20-30 percent of their registered voters, while five other Assembly Districts – the 52nd, 53rd, 56th, 65th and 66th – all dipped in for smaller percentages. (Richard Santillan, "California Reapportionment and the Chicano Community: An Historical Overview 1960-1980," in The Chicano Community and California Redistricting, Vol. I (Rose Institute of State and Local Government, Claremont Men’s College, 1981).

The 1966 Elections

In the 1966 California Primary Election on June 7, 1966, four Hispanics ran for the 14th, 19th, and 29th Congressional Districts, and all of them lost. Fifteen Chicanos also ran for positions on the Assembly. All of these candidates, some of whom opposed one another in the primaries, lost their elections. The one Latino incumbent, Philip Soto, lost by 4,309 votes,.

In addition, nine Latinos also ran for State Senate seats, the 9th, 10th, 27th and 28th and 30th. Richard Calderón received the CDC and MAPA endorsements for his bid for the 27th Senatorial District but lost by 311 votes. Cecilia Pedroza and Raúl Morín had splintered the Mexican-American vote, preventing Calderón from winning.

In his reelection bid for the 30th Congressional District, Ed Roybal received 48,117 votes against the 22,347 votes of his Republican opponent, Henry O’Bryant, Jr. This represented the only bright spot for the cause of Chicano representation in the 1966 election year.

Julian Nava’s Election (1967)

The election of Professor Julian Nava in 1967 to the Los Angeles Unified School District Board was significant in many respects. He was the first Latino elected to the school board and he was able to defeat an incumbent in an at-large election. His vote total, over two million, was actually the largest ever received by a victorious Latino candidate in the United States up to that time. In an interview with the author, Julian stated that his election "lit fires in many places" and "inspired the famous ‘Walk Outs’ of the Los Angeles high schools in February of 1968, just seven months after I took office." Julian explains that these walkouts took place because "the students (and their leaders) believed that for the first time their demands for reform might be met with one of their own on the school board."

But Julian Nava’s surprise victory was one of the few events that gave representation to Latinos during this period. The author, Richard Santillan, in "Chicano Politics: La Raza Unida" explains that:

"After 1968, the Mexican-American… looked at the American political system and found that the Mexican-American after almost 120 years of being an American citizen did not have any real political voice. The Mexican-American tried to work in the two-party system, but the system failed him. In 1968, the California Legislature did not have one Mexican-American in the Assembly nor the Senate." (Richard Santillan, Chicano Politics: La Raza Unida (Los Angeles: Tlaquilo Publications, 1973), p. 11).

The 1968 Elections

By 1968, the California Legislature was once again without Latino representatives. In the June 4, 1968 primary elections, 13 Latinos ran for Assembly seats. Philip L. Soto once again ran for the 50th Assembly seat again but lost one more time. By the time the elections had ended, only one Chicano was given a ticket to enter the Assembly.

In the primary election for the 40th Assembly District, the Democratic candidate Alex Garcia had faced twelve other candidates in the primary election, including four Hispanics. For Mr. Garcia, this election would begin a political career, as he served in the Assembly from 1968 to 1974 and in the State Senate from 1974 to 1982. Assemblyman Garcia was a veteran of the U.S. Army and a graduate of East Los Angeles Junior College, the University of California, Los Angeles and the Southern California Business School. Before his election to the State Legislature, Garcia was a field Representative for Congressman Ed Roybal for five years.

A New Decade (the 1970s)

The 1970s represented new opportunities for Chicano candidates. The beginning of true Hispanic representation would be established during these years. In 1970, California had a total population of 19,971,069 persons. Of this total, 2,369,292 were Hispanics, who made up 10.8% of the state’s total population. However, in this year, out of 15,650 elected and appointed officials at the municipal, county, state, and federal levels, only 310 (1.98%) were Chicanos ("Political Participation of Mexican Americans in California," Report of the California Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Sacramento, Calif., August 1971, p. 15).

Of the 2.4 million Hispanics living in California, 490,892 were foreign-born, making up 22.9% of the total Hispanic population. Many of these people were not citizens and ineligible for American voting privileges. This represented a significant stumbling block in electing Chicanos to public office.

Assemblyman García was the lone Latino in the California Legislature at the beginning of 1970. However, in the June 2, 1970 primary election, three Republican Latinos ran for Congressional seats in the 9th, 16th and 22nd Congressional Districts. In addition, fourteen Chicanos also ran for Assembly seats in the primaries, but only two men won.

In the primaries, Alex P. Garcia won reelection to the 40th Assembly District by a wide margin, getting 15,151 votes out a total of 22,953. The Democrat Peter Chacón was elected as the representative for the 69th Assembly District in San Diego County. After receiving a bachelor’s degree, teaching credential and M.A. from San Diego State University, Mr. Chacon worked as an educator and administrator for the San Diego Unified School District.

The Elections of 1972

The Elections of 1972 represented another step forward for the Hispanic community of California. Richard Alatorre and Joseph Montoya were elected from their respective districts in Los Angeles to the California Assembly, while Ray Gonzales was elected to represent his Bakersfield District.

Ray Gonzales, a Democrat, won a stunning victory against a veteran Republic legislator in a bid for the 33rd Assembly District, which took up most of Kern County, including Bakersfield, one of the most conservative areas of the state. Gonzáles had graduated from Mount San Antonio College and UCLA, and spent four years in the U.S. Air Force. His career in elective politics began at the age of 28 with a one-vote victory to the La Puente City Council in 1968. He later served as Mayor of La Puente before his election to the State Legislature.

Richard Alatorre, a Democrat from Los Angeles, was elected to serve as the representative of the 55th District to the California Assembly. A native of East Los Angles, Alatorre served in the Assembly from 1972 to 1985. In 1985, he took a seat on the Los Angeles City Council representing the 14th District. Alatorre would be elected as the first Chair of the Chicano Legislative Caucus.

Aware of their unified strength, the five Latinos now serving in the State Legislature officially formed the Chicano Legislative Caucus. The establishment of the Caucus marked a significant turning point in the political empowerment of the Latino community. For the first time in California's legislative history, an agenda was established and legislative priorities were put forward to protect and preserve the rights of Latinos throughout California.

Later Years

The Chicano Assemblymen and Congressional delegates of the 1960s and early 1970s forged an important path for other people to follow, and Latino representation slowly, but steadily, increased.

As the 1970s progressed into the 1980s, more Chicano legislators stepped forward. But, in the eyes of many, their progress remained painfully slow. By 1985, seven Latinos were in the state legislature, making up only 6% of the total legislative branch. Three Latinos also served as representatives to the U.S. Congress from California (Ed Roybal, Marty Martinez, and Esteban Torres). In this year, Richard Alatorre left the Assembly to join the Los Angeles city Council, once again bringing Latino representation to that political body.

By the end of the 1980s, the Latino community of California had elected ten people to represent their districts: Three were members of the U.S. Congress. Three were State Senators and four were serving in the State Assembly. The Hispanics in the State Legislators represented only 5% of the total seats in the Assembly and Senate.

In many ways, the Latino community of California remained disenfranchised, when one considers that by 1990, they represented 26% of the California population. However, because many Latinos were foreign-born non-citizens or below the age of 18, they only made up about 5% of the California electorate at this time, effectively reducing their influence in electing their choices for political representation. The Latino share of the electorate, however, would increase dramatically to 14% by 1998 (Alvarez and Nagler, 1999: 19).

The 2000 Elections

A decade later in the November 2000 elections, the first major elections of the new millennium, Latino candidates recorded a net gain of eight state house seats. In California, the number of Latinos in the 80-member State Assembly increased from 16 to 20, giving them 25% of the seats.

November 2002

After the November 2002 elections, Latinos representatives to Congress numbered seven. In the State Senate, the elections brought the number of Latino Senators to nine, while Hispanic membership in the Assembly reached 18. The struggle has been long and hard-fought. But, with the Latino population increasing at a significant rate, Chicano political analysts see that time is on their side.

© 2004, John P. Schmal. All Rights Reserved.


Fernando J. Guerra and Dwaine Marvick, "Ethnic Officeholders and Party Activists in Los Angeles County" in Institute for Social Science Research, Vol. II (1986-87).

Malcolm E. Jewell, The Politics of Reapportionment," (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962).


Lawrence (or Larry) Kestenbaum, "The Political Graveyard: California: State Assembly, 1850s." [Last full revision: September 1, 2003].

Library of Congress: "Hispanic Americans in Congress, 1822-1995: List in Chronological Order."

Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund and William C. Velasquez Institute, "California Congressional Redistricting Plan" (Submitted July 17, 2001, Los Angeles).

"Political Participation of Mexican Americans in California," Report of the California Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Sacramento, Calif., August 1971.

Richard Santillan, "California Reapportionment and the Chicano Community: An Historical Overview 1960-1980," in The Chicano Community and California Redistricting, Vol. I (Rose Institute of State and Local Government, Claremont Men’s College, 1981).

Richard Santillan, Chicano Politics: La Raza Unida (Los Angeles: Tlaquilo Publications, 1973).

Katherine Underwood, "Pioneering Minority Representation: Edward Roybal and the Los Angeles City Council, 1949-1962," Pacific Historical Review – 1997





"Unveiling Ancient Knowledge"
U.S. District Judge Ricardo Martinez
Search for an Equal Education
Scrapbooking Boom 


"Unveiling Ancient Knowledge" Art Exhibit featuring Peruvian Artist, Ernesto Apomayta, hosted in Utah

Peruvian Artist hosts art exhibit

SALT LAKE CITY, UT (PRWEB) June 21, 2004 -- Award winning cross-cultural Peruvian artist, Ernesto Apomayta, announced today the “Unveiling of Ancient Knowledge” art exhibition on Saturday, June 26, 2004 in Bountiful, Utah. Displaying many of his works with influences from around the world, Mr. Apomayta will show pieces that express his spirit through watercolors, oils, natural inks, acrylics and charcoal applied to textured paper, rice paper, silk and the walls of structures.

Having lived for extended periods in China and studied art among the Chinese masters such as Li Keren, Zhang Ping and Jiao Youfu at the renowned Central Institute of Fine Arts in Beijing. Mr. Apomayta has a unique ability to bridge cultures through his art and community outreach. With influences from around the globe and to complete the circle of Apomayta’s quest for a model of expression, he pursued his advanced art studies at the distinguished Autonomous National University of Mexico in Mexico City. The experience elevated his ability to blend many different cultural influences into his paintings. His admirers say he has done this in a way so complementary to each culture that the compilation is seamless, even in the creation of large-scale frescos he mastered while in Mexico. In a country famous for timeless murals, it is no small achievement that Apomayta has been honored again and again by the Mexican people for his skill as a muralist.

Mr. Apomayta will be honored by the attendance of la Consul General of Peru in Denver, Marita Landaveri at the art exhibit. The consul general of Peru in Denver will be providing consular services in Orem, Utah, on Saturday June 26th. She will then be participating in the special event and exhibition in the Mr. Apomayta’s Art Work.

To enhance the beauty of Mr. Apomayta’s art, music will be provided by pianist, Elly Savage. To learn more about this unique cultural event which takes place on Saturday, June 26 from 5 p.m. – 9 p.m. visit or call Sophia at 801. 637-6452.

About Ernesto Apomayta
Born and raised in Puno, Peru, Ernesto Apomayta-Chambi was identified as an artistic prodigy at the tender age of five. As a boy, Apomayta was first influenced and inspired by the natural marvels surrounding the humble home he shared with his family. In close proximity to shimmering Lake Titicaca, the striking beauty of the Andes and the awe-inspiring Incan ruins of his ancestors, Apomayta was spiritually compelled to express his wonder visually through his paintbrush. A direct ancestor of the legendary photographer, Martin Chambi, Apomayta derived inspiration from the same native influences and his legacy that encouraged Apomayta to fulfill his own artistic destiny.

For a complete media package or to interview Mr. Ernesto Apoymayta contact Kathleen Gage at 801.619.1514 or email    Sophia at 801. 637-6452.

"They're Cheering in the Martinez Household!"  
Source: Senator Murray's Hispanic News Update:
Sent by David Cisneros Garcia
Dear Friend: We’re thrilled to share with you the latest Hispanic News Update from U.S. Senator Patty Murray.  Tuesday, June 15, 2004   Senator Murray's Ten-Month Effort Succeeds in Confirming Washington’s First Latino District Court Judge Murray's work for home-state nominee leads to confirmation of highly qualified judge

Today, the U.S. Senate confirmed Judge Ricardo Martinez as a District Court Judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington.  Since her first meeting with Judge Martinez in August 2003, Senator Murray has worked with Senator Maria Cantwell (D-WA) and the White House to get Judge Martinez nominated and confirmed.  The nomination was approved today by a vote of 98-0.  

Immediately after the vote, Senator Murray called Judge Martinez from the Senate floor to congratulate him.
"They're cheering at the Martinez household.  I am proud to have worked to confirm Judges Martinez.  He is a highly qualified jurist of great integrity, and his confirmation marks progress for Washington state," Murray said.  "Today's vote proves that when we work together to find strong, qualified candidates for the judiciary, Washington state wins."

Judge Martinez, the first Latino district judge in the history of Washington state, has been a distinguished Magistrate Judge for the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington.  He has also served Washington state as Superior Court Judge and a King County prosecutor.  Judge Martinez was named the first Drug Court judge in Washington state and worked tirelessly to ensure the success of this program, which uses treatment services as an alternative to incarceration.
"Judge Martinez clearly meets the standards of fairness and adherence to the law that we look for in our federal judges.  Outside of his numerous professional credentials, I have met with him, and I have been impressed by his professionalism and decency," Murray said.  "It is my pleasure to support the nomination of Judge Martinez to the federal bench, where he will continue to serve the people of Washington state well.”

A 10-Month Journey.  Senator Murray met with Judge Martinez in August 2003 and immediately supported his nomination, which the White House announced on August 13, 2003.  On October 14th, 2003, the White House officially sent his nomination to the U.S. Senate for consideration.  On January 13, 2004, Murray introduced him before the Senate Judiciary Committee and urged her colleagues to support his confirmation.  On February 20, 2004, Murray shared Martinez’s inspiring story with students at the fourth annual conference of Washington’s Latino/a Educational Achievement Project (LEAP) in Olympia, Washington.  On March 4, 2003, the Senate Judiciary Committee approved Martinez’s nomination and sent his confirmation to the full Senate, which today confirmed Judge Martinez.

More Information:  Murray's work on Latino issues:
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In response to your May 9, 2004 feature article; 
The Search for an Equal Education: Legacy of Brown vs Board of Education

Dear Seattle Times Editor:                                    May 10,2004
In response to your May 9,2004 feature article; The Search for an Equal  Education; The legacy of Brown vs Board of Education, by Sanjay Bratt--Fifty years have passed and we haven't fully implemented the mandates of this Supreme Court ruling. After 39 years[ 1965] and 120 billion education dollars later, invested in Title 1, Compensatory Federal/State Compensatory Education  designed  to increased the academic achievement of low-income/minority  students--and closed the academic proficiency cap of these students.
And even after 39 years [1965],Elementary, Secondary Education Act-150 plus billion educational federal/state dollars.[ See US Dept. of Education reports : Washington State Profiles/ State Education Indicators--Title 1and " Closing the Education Achievement Gap: Is Title 1 Working, by Marvin H. Kosters We still haven't provided an equal integrated quality education for all our students!!
And with," All Deliberate Speed'', Brown vs. Board of Education. We didn't get educationally serious, about providing an integrated equal quality  education, for all our students--until18 years later,1972--with the Emergency School Aid Act, designed to physically and culturally desegregated and integrated our nations' public schools. While at the same time, increasing the minority students Academic Achievement--and reducing their Minority isolation. I had the opportunity and honor to administer [ fund, monitor and evaluate] the ESAA  educational programs, for the Western-Court order and Volunteer  Desegregating School Districts, while employed with about 15 other federal  education employees--of the U.S. Office of Education, HEW/Region 1X, SF,Calif. And we accomplished all of this, without busing.! By using educational programs of Math and Science / Magnet Schools--multi-cultural, Computer assisted Instructions, AP programs, in English, Reading , Chemistry. and history classes. And teacher training in the ethnic histories, of their  students. Also, using local funded non-profit Community Organizations, to assist in the implementation of the School Districts' desegregating plans.
Phllys Beaumonte and William Huelett, retired excellence teachers of the Seattle School District--with their collective 50 plus of K-12 teaching and administrating education programs--makes a qualifying assessment: 1]Low teacher expectation 2] re-segregated schools 3]The need for ethnic teacher  parity. While the causes for failure to fully implement the mandates of Brown vs Board Education, and recommendations for cure, are many. Somehow, I'll attempt to address a few.
1-Low-income and changing housing patterns, and re-segregated public schools. Not in our State of Washington.
2-Low teacher exceptions of their Black and Hispanic students.
3-White flight
4-Poor distribution of the limited educational resources.
A-We should try and re-distribute and re-locate some of our low-income single families.
Since that won't be an occurrence in the foreseeable future--and we won't  we reaching ethnic  parity of our teachers--in the near future.
C-Then we must re-train our existing teachers, in the practice of high teacher student expectations.
D-Required that all of our State teachers, teach to the " Essential Academic Learning Requirements, recommended by the educational research;" A Decade of  Reform," by Dr.Fouts--2003,Seattle University. And assure that all of our students, are educated at the same high level--at the same time.!!
E-Require all non-working parents, on Welfare, Food Stamps, medicaid,Subsided housing and the Free Lunch program--to assure their children plosive learning behaviors and attendance. And sign a parent/student learning commitment contract --or risk penializing their entitlements!! 
F-Release all working parents/non-parents/citizens--from their  employment, during the day--on a rotating bases--to be involved in their educational development of their children.
As Black-Americans, we should put more emphasis on our accomplishments and success---then  on our failures! We need to teach our children the values of a quality education. And that " Poverty and Racism--are not a sentence to failure" Prof. John Mc Whorter, UC 
For an educationally sound program and producer of an equal education for all its students--we need not look any further then our own State. There is a Math, Engineering, Science Achievement[ MESA ],statewide funded program--for the last 22 years. With five MESA Centers,Classes in 23 Schools Districts and 80 schools. That has been steadily increasing the Academic Achievements of Black, Hispanic, Native-Americans and Females students. And increasing their representation in the fields and careers, of Math Science and Engineering. On a very low level funding. The MESA program is sponsor by University of Washington/College of Engineering.
I'm educationally please to report, that Bremerton and Central Kitsap School  Districts---have incorporated the method of teaching to the," Essentials Academic Learning Requirements", recommended by, " A Decade of Reform". We  should see some positive results, in about two years. Also, the Bremerton School District--will begin its MESA program, this Fall.!
Willis Papillion, A lifelong participant in the struggle for a quality
education--for all our students.!!
Kitsap Peninsula MESA-Interim Director
1578 Reo PL.,NW
Silverdale, WA 98383
The Scrapbooking Boom 

Scrapbooking is believed to have begun in Utah among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, who have a passion for genealogy, said Don Meyer of the Hobby Industry Association. From there, the phenomenon exploded, Meyer said. In 1996, Americans spent about $200 million on scrapbooking. In 2001, that figure grew to $1.5 billion and last year topped $2.5 billion, according to association research.

Mormon community early to scrapbook
By Rachel Sauer, Palm Beach Post Staff Writer, Friday, June 4, 2004

Only 15 years ago, few outside of Utah had heard of scrapbooking. Sure, people kept scrapbooks in which they stuck ticket stubs and playbills, but the phenomenon of scrapbooking quietly percolated for years before it hit the mainstream.

It began in Utah among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, who have a passion for genealogy, said Don Meyer of the Hobby Industry Association ( Slowly it spread, quietly spawning companies such as Creative Memories, for which consultants went into homes and taught groups how to scrapbook.

From there, the phenomenon exploded, Meyer said. In 1996, Americans spent about $200 million on scrapbooking. In 2001, that figure grew to $1.5 billion and last year topped $2.5 billion, according to association research.

Scrapbooking is most widespread in the West and Midwest, though it's popular across the country. It ranks third in popularity among hobbies, behind cross-stitch and home-decor painting, and is the fastest-growing in the craft industry.

He attributed the hobby's popularity to a number of factors.

"In the last five to 10 years, crafting has really become much more mainstream than it was, say, 20, 25 years ago," he said. "And in the last five years or so, there's been something of a rebellion against technology, a more do-it-yourself sensibility. Scrapbooking is an interactive activity, it's a creative outlet for people, it's a way to express yourself and a way to give a little piece of yourself to someone.  "To some extent we've turned away from the accumulation of material goods, and now it's about the accumulation of experience."

Though it's mainly women who scrapbook, he said, men become involved in the picture-taking, downloading and printing aspect of it. The advent of digital photography has affected only the way people print their photos, he said.

Scrapbooking has spread so widely that now mainstream retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target and Office Depot carry some sort of scrapbooking supplies, which can include anything from hand-made paper to fancy pens. According to the association, there are 4,000 independent scrapbooking retailers nationally and 15,000 retail outlets that carry supplies.

This helps explain how the average scrapbooker spends $50 a month on scrapbooking supplies and has $1,600 worth of supplies at home. On average, scrapbookers spend 10 hours a month on their hobby.  Scrapbooking also has spawned several off-shoot hobbies, including card-making, which utilizes many of the same materials, and altered books, in which books are cut, painted and embellished to become scrapbooks.



Jose Teofilo Sanchez, 80-year old
        Receives High School Diploma

Hispanic-businesses top 500 
DNA Mexican-Americans Colorado
Los Lunas, N.M. Mystery Rock
Keystone Heritage Park, Inc.
Juan Matias Sanchez, Southern
          California Ranchero


Jose Teofilo Sanchez

80-Year Old Receives High School Diploma

Written by daughter
Virgina Sanchez

On May 29, 2004, 80-year old Jose Teofilo Sanchez became the first World War II veteran to receive his high school diploma under rules recently approved by the New Mexico State Secretary of Education. Sanchez participated in the Class of 2004 Mora High School commencement ceremony in Mora, New Mexico. He was escorted by an honor guard and he received a standing ovation when he was presented his diploma.

Sanchez said, "I was surprised and happy to receive my high school diploma 60 years after leaving high school to serve in the United States Navy in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Like so many other New Mexicans who left school to serve in the war, we did so as our duty and honor and proudly served our country. The impact World War II had on us is that of patriotism, change, and personal growth."

     Sanchez, born in El Oro near Ledoux, New Mexico left high school to serve in the Navy on the USS California. The USS California joined the task force of the 7th Fleet, which consisted of the USS Colorado, two aircraft carriers, a cruiser, some destroyers, and her sister ship the USS Tennessee. The fleet sailed to its first operation -- shelling enemy costal batteries off Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Seaman 1st Class Jose Teofilo Sanchez was an Ammunition Handler on a five-inch gun mount.

     After the war, like many men from northern New Mexico, he migrated to Wyoming to find work with the railroad. He worked for the Union Pacific Railroad for 38 years until my retirement. He enjoys reading and learned about carpentry and plumbing and became a self-employed carpenter specializing in cabinetry. 

"I was self-taught in the art of laying tile, roofing, and house framing," said Sanchez. By the time he was 52, he became a self-employed contractor who built nine custom brick homes, remodeled several other homes, and developed the Sanchez subdivision in Cheyenne, Wyoming. "I attribute my fondness for learning to my family upbringing and to my New Mexico ancestral roots. I will always consider New Mexico my home," said Sanchez.

In a letter to the graduating students of Mora High School, Sanchez wrote, "I wish you happiness in your future endeavors. I advise you to find a way to continue your higher education, study hard, widen your horizons, and follow your dreams. I encourage you to take part in the political process and exercise your right to vote. I ask that you to reach out to other World War II veterans and encourage them to apply for their high school diplomas. Help instill a commitment to education, community, and family."

For a State’s school board to issue a high school diploma to a World War II veteran, the veteran must be an honorably discharged member of the armed forces of the U.S. who left high school before graduation to serve in World War II. Veterans who hold a high school equivalency diploma may also apply, and high school diplomas may be issued posthumously. Similar laws have been enacted in at least 18 states, whose legislatures have approved the program in cooperation with their Veterans Affairs and Departments of Education.

Just thought I'd add to what I submitted on my father's WWII diploma.  His diploma actually reads, "Given this month of May 1944."  Although he went through commencement with the 2004 class, the school district backdated the year on his diploma. I found this interesting and thought you'd like to add this tidbit.   Virginia


Local Hispanic-owned businesses in top 500 
By Mike Hall LMTBusiness, Journal editor
Mike Hall may be contacted at 728-2529 or by e-mail at  06/10/04 
Sent by Elsa Herbeck

Three Laredo-based companies were listed in the nation’s top 500 Hispanic-owned businesses in the 25th anniversary issue of Hispanic Business, a major business publication published from Santa Barbara, Calif. A fourth business in neighboring Zapata County was given the listing honors. Also a major Texas auto insurance company, with five locations in Laredo, made the list. 

“I think it’s a good indicator Laredo has as a place to do business,” commented Miguel Conchas, president and CEO of the Laredo Chamber of Commerce. “Several on the list (from Laredo) have been there before, and this shows that these companies are maintaining their strength in the community. 

International Bancshares Corp, a Hispanic-controlled public company, was listed 13th in the nation, up from 60th in 2003. The financial services institution started in 1966, currently has 2124 employees, and $335,650,000 in revenue as of 2003, according to the magazine. 

Another Laredo-based financial services institution, Falcon International Bank, started in1986 by Adolfo E. Gutierrez, lists 167th, according to the magazine. It ranked 163rd in 2003. The firm has 171 employees and revenues of $26,140,000 as of 2003. 

Pan American Express Inc, an interstate transportation service company, ranked 210th with $20,780,000 in revenues in 2003. The company’s rank was relatively unchanged with 203rd place in 2003. 

Med-Loz Lease Service Inc., of Zapata, ranked 226th with revenues of $18,030,000 in 2003. The oil field construction services company that started in 1984 was reported to have 187 employees. It improved its rank from 232nd in 2003. 

Fred Loya Insurance, a leading provider of non-standard auto insurance based in El Paso, Texas since 1974, had $91,160,000 in revenue in 2003 enough to place it 58th on the Hispanic Business top 500 companies. 

Hispanic Business said in a comparison with the list five years ago (1999), fewer large Hispanic companies from Texas made this year’s list, while such businesses were growing in Georgia, New Mexico, Illinois and the New York-New Jersey corridor. Despite this trend, Texas remained third overall with 65 businesses listed for $2,612,770,000 in revenue. California was first and Florida was second in total revenue. 

DNA of Mexican-Americans living in Colorado.
The Genealogy of Mexico
Sent by Johanna De Soto

DNA studies on Mexican-Americans show a higher European admixture. *Anthropologist Andrew Merriwether and colleagues conducted a study on Mexican-Americans living in Colorado. Using classic genetic markers they estimated an admixture of 67% European and 33% Native-American. 

He further tested their mitochondrial DNA (mtdna) which is a test to find the origins of your great, great...grandmother, going back 10's of thousands of years. This one ancestor which is your families "Eve" so to speak, showed up as Native-American 85% of the time and European in origin 15% of the time. Thus showing that the majority of unions in this admixture were of European males and Native-American females. 

Other findings in Mexico showed varying results depending for the most part on what the cultural influences were on the population under study.

Is this the world's oldest surviving inscription of the Ten Commandments?
Sent by Armando Montes

     There is a fascinating old site some few miles west of a little town called Los Lunas in New Mexico. The site has been known as "Mystery Mountain" by the locals for many years. At the foot of this hill there is an ancient rock inscription. Many scholars now believe that it contains the Ten Commandments, including 3 instances of the Tetragrammaton, inscribed in old Hebrew letters.


Photo 1997 J.Neuhoff

Text from website:
However, conventional history teaches that the Americas were discovered by the Europeans either in 1492 by Columbus, or maybe a few hundred years earlier by the Vikings. There still seems to be an aversion among the establishment historians to even consider the idea that ancient Mediterranean peoples from the Middle East might have traveled to the Americas in the centuries before Christ. Only so-called diffusionists (14) would have accepted a different view. And yet, there it is, this inscription in New Mexico, an undeniable witness from an ancient past telling its history ... 

Keystone Heritage Park, Inc.

Sent by Armando Montes
Visiten ésta dirección: 


The Keystone Site is important mainly for the houses it contains.  Twenty-three known or suspected buried house locations were identified by the small-scale test excavations.  Only four of the house floors were fully exposed, and they yielded C14 dates of approx. 3,600 to 4,800 years old (Middle Archaic period).  More importantly, the density and distribution of the known and suspected houses suggests there may be as many as 40 houses contained in the site.  This is, by far, the largest site containing Archaic period houses anywhere in the western U.S. or northern Mexico.  It is the oldest know village site in the western U.S. 

The Archaic pit houses consisted of a shallow, basin-shaped floor excavated out of the soil, covered by a framework of timber and branches, such as mesquite, cottonwood and willow, then plastered with a thin layer of clay.  They were about three meters in diameter, with simple doorways facing east.  They are clustered in groups of 2 to 5 houses.  Because they are more substantial than some other types of desert shelters, it is believed they were occupied during the winter. 

The Keystone Archaeological Site (41 EP 494) is unique in its ability to inform us about the major behavioral changes that occurred during the Archaic period.  

This is when people changed from being mobile hunter-gatherers and began the shift towards a reliance on cultivated plants.  This change, the beginnings of domestication, is believed by scientists to be the single most important behavioral change in the development of modern humans as a species.  

The Keystone Site predates the introduction of crops (corn, beans and squash) into the Southwest, but it contains evidence of an organized village, a social development traditionally thought to be dependent on a farming way of life.  So, the site contains evidence that could require a major revision of the way we think about the development of complex societies in the Southwest. 

Juan Matias Sanchez, 
Southern California Ranchero

Southern California & New Mexico Family History
Sent by Dara Jones

Features a streaming video and featuring photos owned by Lucy Sanchez and period music performed by Los Californios.

This is a forum for descendants of Juan Matias Sanchez and others who are interested in early California history to gather and contribute information. We have included a portion of our family tree here, though not all of it. If you have interest in learning more about it, contributing your own information or writing an article for the web page, please contact me at We are currently in the planning stages of including articles by various family members as well as others about the history of California, New Mexico and the Sanchez family. I don't know about you, but I can't wait to hear our family stories! Dara Jones

Juan Matias Sanchez Extended Family    
There are 92 individuals and 34 families representing 29 surnames in this database. These WWW pages were produced on Sat Mar 6 02:23:37 1999 . 

Alvitre(1), Andrade(1), Archuleta(1), Baca(1), Basye(5), Bojorquez(1), de Herrera(1), de Leon(1), Fresquis(1), Garcia(1), Gonzalez(1), Guirado(1), Gutierrez(1), Jeffredo(1), Maldonado(1), Martin(2), Romero(5), Romo(1), Rosas(1), Rowland(1), Sanches(14), Sanchez(20), Sandoval(1), Serna(1), Silva(18), Vallejos(1), Vigil(1), Williams(1), ?(6) 

Bud Sanchez is doing a  family tree of those of us descended from Juan Matias and I am doing version which includes the families of his parents and grandparents as well. There are many holes in the information each of us have and we need your help to get them filled in. If you'd like to add your family's information and are using gedcom software, please send your family info in gedcom file format as an attachment to If you aren't using this software, either email or mail your info to me at Dara Jones 214-361-0829 660 Preston Forest #333 Dallas,TX 75230 Please include as much information as possible especially birth and marriage dates and places, siblings, oral family history, etc. In exchange, we'll add you to our list of contributors and send you a copy of the complete family tree. We have not included a large part of it online in order to protect the privacy of the living. 


Genesis and Darius Gray
GI Bill, great Emancipator/Equalizer 
France Honors Tuskegee Airman 
Darius Gray, of Salt Lake City, one of the original members of the Genesis formed in 1971 to encourage African American research. Mr. Gray is a frequent lecturer and was responsible for the development of the Freedman Bank Records CD to aid in African American family history research.  

For information on how to obtain a copy of the CD, please contact Marvin Perkins

The GI Bill is the great Emancipator and Equalizer of our time.!

The American Legion Magazine                          
700 N. Pennsylvania St.--P.O. Box 1055
Indianapolis, IN 4626 IN

May 31, 2004

Dear Editor:

In response to your article; The Greatest Legislation, by Kenneth E. Cox, June 2004, issue. 
The GI Bill has been and continue to be the greatest instrument for Diversity, on Americas' College Campuses!!

In spite of the restrictive laws, during the 40s and 50s; Jim Crow --segregated schools, and segregated housing. The GI Bill, along with the initial tremendous and continuous assistance of the American Legion---have deposited a very large representation of Americans--of Color, low-income and females, on our College Campuses. Resulting in the development of thousands of State and National Educational and Political leaders --of Color!!

In my own personnel life, I have received my Masters' degree from UC Berkeley, in the 70s--with only the GI Bill and a G.E.D from the US Air Force. I'm from a family of ten children, who lived the majority of our young adult lives, in government projects. The GI Bill, not only provided me a College education, but it gave me the opportunities to purchased two homes, and provide a better life for my children and grandchildren's. The GI Bill reinforce my long held beliefs, that; " Poverty and Racism--are not a sentence to failure"

As a Black-American, its my educated opinion--based on 11 years of military service, both active duty and reserves, and 13 years working in education, plus 36 years of government service, I can unequivocal say; that the GI Bill has been and continue to be the only program, including the combination of Welfare, Food Stamps, Subsidizes Housing, Medicaid and Affirmative Action--that has been a catalysts for positive social change for Americans--of Color!!

Willis Papillion, American Legion Post 245
Poulsbo, WA
1578 Reo PL.,NW
Silverdale, WA 98383

Tuskegee Airman Honored in France 
By USBE&IT News Services
Jun 4, 2004, 17:27

Sent by Willis Papillion

Col. Charles E. McGee, U.S. Air Force (Ret.), one of the celebrated Tuskegee Airmen of World War II, will be named a knight of France's Legion of Honor during this week's events in Paris and Normandy marking the 60th anniversary of D-Day, the landing of Allied forces on the European mainland. Acceptance into the Legion of Honor is one of the highest awards France gives to non-citizens of the country.

Col. McGee, 84, a decorated combat record-holder, was one of 450 pilots who served overseas in the all-Black 99th Fighter Squadron or 332nd Fighter Group. In all, approximately 922 Black cadets entered Army Air Corps Flight Training at the historic Tuskegee Institute/Moton Field during WWII.  The Tuskegee Airmen never lost an escorted bomber to enemy fighters. No other escort unit could claim such a record. 

Col. McGee remained on active duty in the Air Force for 30 years, flying more than 6,100 hours, and became a command pilot. Col. McGee's daughter, Charlene M. Smith, Ph.D., associate dean of the New York College of Osteopathic Medicine at the New York Institute of Technology, has written a book about her father's military career: "Tuskegee Airman: The Biography of Charles AE. McGee, Air Force Fighter Combat Record Holder."



Lowry American Indian Artist 
The Yaqui Indians Resistance
Indigenous Identity in Mexican
Racial Makeup of Native-Born Mexicans
Indigenous Identity Mexican Census Table
Herederos de Moctezuma reclaman sus 

Judith Lowry explores her American Indian heritage
by Sevil Hunter, RENO GAZETTE-JOURNAL, 5/26/2004
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio

Nevada City, Calif., artist Judith Lowry

Nevada City, Calif., artist Judith Lowry paints. She uses images from her life to tell her stories. "It is of the American Indian experience and how we are part of contemporary art.”  Lowry said. “I am not a painter. I paint. I am a storyteller.”

Lowry, 55-year-old artist and mother of three, was selected to participate in the  Smithsonian Institution`s National Museum of the American Indian in New York City in June. She is among 12 contemporary American Indian artists to have their own gallery inside the new museum.

“Their work confirms the presence of native people at the forefront of the visual arts, while addressing issues, such as identity, place, language and history, that have personal, cultural and universal relevance,” said W. Richard West, director of the National Museum of the American Indian. “These Native artists, who were influenced by European modernism and American art movements, were originally rejected as ‘inauthentic’ by mainstream art dealers and institutions.”

No longer. Lowry’s work combines life’s experiences, the story of creation, and blends each image in her personal folk-art style. The death of her father caused Lowry to reflect on her own life, purpose and passion. Lowry’s father was Army Lt. Col. Leonard Lowry of Susanville. He was of the Maidu tribe and the most decorated and highest-ranking American Indian to serve in World War II. He died in 1999. 

Her father appeared in her 1996 painting “Beautiful Dreamers.” The handsome war hero stands in a bar, where he’s celebrating New Year’s Eve in 1945. The seemingly happy scene is loaded with demons and social commentary.

Her paintings will be on display in the museum’s exhibit titled “Continuum.” Her exhibit runs through Aug. 25. The artists in the exhibition represent the Arapaho, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Colville, Cree, Flathead, Hamowi-Pit River, Hawaiian, Mohawk, Mountain Maidu, Nisenan Maidu, Pueblo Santa Clara, Seneca, Shoshone, Tuscarora, Yuchi and Yurok cultures. “Being chosen to do this show is such an honor,” Lowry said. “It’s not only to show the contemporary side of art, but there is a responsibility that comes with it.” 

Check out the Smithsonian`s National Museum of the American Indian at
Guía preliminar de fuentes documentales etnográficas para el estudio de los pueblos indígenas de Iberoamérica
Sent by Paul Newfield

Es una publicación de la Fundación Histórica Tavera, España
Para mayor información:

Comentarios Preliminares
Iberoamérica: Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, México, Paraguay 
Perú, Venezuela 

Estados Unidos: por Daniel Restrepo Manrique
Nota preliminar
Biblioteca del Congreso (Library of Congress - Washington) 
Brancroft Library (Universidad de Berkeley - California) 
John Carter Brown Library (Universidad de Providence) 
Nettie Lee Benson Library (Universidad de Texas - Austin) 
William Clements Library (Universidad de Michigan) 
Yale University Library (Universidad de Yale) 
Newberry Library (Chicago) 
Henry E. Huntington (California) 
Sociedad Filosófica Americana (Philadelphia) 
The Latin American Library (Universidad de Tulane) 
Tozzer Library (Universidad de Harvard) 
St. Louis University Library (Universidad de St. Louis) 
Lilly Library (Universidad de Indiana) 
Flager College (Florida) 
Otros archivos (USA)

Europa: España, Francia, Gran Bretaña, Italia y Estado del Vaticano, Portugal 

The Yaqui Indians: Four Centuries of Resistance
By John P.Schmal

Over the years, I have met many Americans who have proudly stated that they had a Yaqui grandmother or Yaqui great-grandfather or are in some way descended from the Yaqui Indians of Mexico's northwest coastal region.  Many Mexican Americans have indigenous roots from various parts of Mexico, but the assimilation and mestizaje that took place in many northern and central states of Mexico has obscured any cultural or linguistic identity with specific tribes.  However, the Yaqui Indians - and their cousins, the Mayo Indians - have held tightly to their ethnic and linguistic identity in a way that many other indigenous groups have not.

Although many cultural, spiritual and linguistic traits of Mexico's Amerindians have been preserved in the southern states. It is difficult to find indigenous tribes in northern Mexico who have continued to practice at least some of their ancient practices.  The Tarahumara, Tepehuanes, Huicholes, Yaquis and Mayos stand in that rare breed of Native Americans that has held onto many aspects of their original culture.  The story of the Yaquis and their resistance is a truly dynamic story that reminds that the spirit of a people cannot be conquered if a people truly believe in their unique destiny.

The story of the Yaquis and their Mayo cousins takes us to the Mexican states of Sinaloa and Sonora. The State of Sinaloa, with a surface area of 58,487 square kilometers (22,582 square miles), is basically a narrow strip of land running along the Pacific Ocean. The state of Sonora, which lay north of Sinaloa, consists of 182,554 square kilometers (70,484 square miles) and has a common border with Arizona and New Mexico. The following paragraphs analyze the various confrontations and wars that the Yaquis and Mayos waged to protect their native lands and customs from imperialism.

First Contact: 1531.

In December 1529, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán left Mexico City with an expedition of 300 Spaniards and 10,000 Indian allies (Tlaxcalans, Aztecs and Tarascans).  Guzmán, a lawyer by profession, had already gained a reputation as a ruthless and cruel administrator when he served as Governor of Panuco on the Gulf Coast.  Traveling through Michoacán, Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Sinaloa, Guzmán left a trail of devastation and terror wherever he went. 

In March 1531, Guzmán's army reached the site of present-day Culiacán (now in Sinaloa), where his force engaged an army of 30,000 warriors in a pitched battle. The indigenous forces were decisively defeated and, as Mr. Gerhard notes, the victors "proceeded to enslave as many people as they could catch."

However, before long, however, reports of Guzmán's brutal treatment of the Indians reached the authorities in Mexico City.  In 1536, the Viceroy of Nueva España Antonio de Mendoza arrested Guzmán and imprisoned him.  He was returned to Spain in chains where he was put on trial and died in obscurity and disgrace.

The indigenous people confronted by Guzmán in his 1531 battle belonged to the Cáhita language group, and were most likely the Yaqui Indians. Speaking eighteen closely related dialects, the Cáhita peoples of Sinaloa and Sonora numbered about 115,000 and were the most numerous of any single language group in northern Mexico. These Indians inhabited the coastal area of northwestern Mexico along the lower courses of the Sinaloa, Fuerte, Mayo, and Yaqui Rivers.


During his stay in Sinaloa, Guzmán's army was ravaged by an epidemic that killed many of his Amerindian auxiliaries. Finally, in October 1531, after establishing San Miguel de Culiacán on the San Lorenzo River, Guzmán returned to the south, his mostly indigenous army decimated by hunger and disease. But the Spanish post at Culiacán remained, Mr. Gerhard writes, as "a small outpost of Spaniards surrounded on all sides by the sea by hostile Indians kept in a state of agitation" by the slave-hunting activities of the Guzmán's forces. 

Epidemic Disease - Sinaloa and Sonora (1530-1536). 
Daniel T. Reff, the author of "Disease, Depopulation, and Culture Change in Northwestern New Spain, 1518-1764," explains that "viruses and other microorganisms undergo significant genetic changes when exposed to a new host environment, changes often resulting in new and more virulent strains of microorganisms." The Indians of the coastal region, never having been exposed to Spaniards and their diseases previously, provided fertile ground for the proliferation of smallpox and measles. It is believed that as many as 130,000 people died in the Valley of Culiacán during the Measles Pandemic of 1530-1534 and the Smallpox Plague of 1535-1536. 

As the Spaniards moved northward they found an amazing diversity of indigenous groups. Unlike the more concentrated Amerindian groups of central Mexico, the Indians of the north were referred to as "ranchería people" by the Spaniards. Their fixed points of settlements (rancherías) were usually scattered over an area of several miles and one dwelling may be separated from the next by up to half a mile. The renowned anthropologist, Professor Edward H. Spicer (1906-1983), writing in "Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533-1960," stated that most ranchería people were agriculturalists and farming was their primary activity. 

Hurdaide's Offensive in Sinaloa (1599-1600). 
In 1599, Captain Diego de Hurdaide established San Felipe y Santiago on the site of the modern city of Sinaloa. From here, Captain Hurdaide waged a vigorous military campaign that subjugated the Cáhita-speaking Indians of the Fuerte River - the Sinaloas, Tehuecos, Zuaques, and Ahomes. These indigenous groups, numbering approximately 20,000 people, resisted strongly.

Initial Contact with the Mayo Indians (1609-1610). 
The Mayo Indians were an important Cáhita-speaking tribe occupying some fifteen towns along the Mayo and Fuerte rivers of southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa. As early as 1601, they had developed a curious interest in the Jesuit-run missions of their neighbors. The Mayos sent delegations to inspect the Catholic churches and, as Professor Spicer observes, "were so favorably impressed that large groups of Mayos numbering a hundred or more also made visits and became acquainted with Jesuit activities." As the Jesuits began their spiritual conquest of the Mayos, Captain Hurdaide, in 1609, signed a peace treaty with the military leaders of the Mayos.

Spanish Contact with the Yaqui Indians (1610). 
At contact, the Yaqui Indians occupied the coastal region of Sinaloa along the Yaqui River. Divided into eighty autonomous communities, their primary activity was agriculture. Although the Yaqui Indians had resisted Guzmán's advance in 1531, they had welcomed Francisco de Ibarra who came in peace in 1565, apparently in the hopes of winning the Spaniards as allies in the war against their traditional enemies, the Mayos.

In 1609, as Captain Hurdaide became engaged with the pacification of the Ocoronis (another Cahita-speaking group of northern Sinaloa), he reached the Yaqui River, where he was confronted by a group of Yaquis. Then, in 1610, with the Mayo and Lower Pima Indians as his allies, Captain Hurdaide returned to Yaqui territory with a force of 2,000 Indians and forty Spanish soldiers. He was soundly defeated. When he returned with another force of 4,000 Indian foot soldiers and fifty mounted Spanish cavalry, he was again defeated in a bloody daylong battle. 

Conversion of the Mayo Indians (1613-1620). 
In 1613, at their own request, the Mayos accepted Jesuit missionaries. Soon after, the Jesuit Father Pedro Mendez established the first mission in Mayo territory. In the first fifteen days, more than 3,000 persons received baptism. By 1620, with 30,000 persons baptized, the Mayos had been concentrated in seven mission towns.

Conversion of the Yaqui Indians (1617-1620). 
In 1617, the Yaquis, utilizing the services of Mayo intermediaries, invited the Jesuit missionaries to begin their work among them. Professor Spicer noted that after observing the Mayo-Jesuit interactions that started in 1613, the Yaquis seemed to be impressed with the Jesuits. Bringing a message of everlasting life, the Jesuits impressed the Yaquis with their good intentions and their spirituality. Their concern for the well being of the Indians won the confidence of the Yaqui people. In seeking to protect the Yaqui from exploitation by mine owners and encomenderos, the Jesuits came into direct conflict with the Spanish political authorities. From 1617 to 1619, nearly 30,000 Yaquis were baptized. By 1623, the Jesuits had reorganized the Yaquis from about eighty rancherías into eight mission villages.

Detachment of the Province of Sinaloa and Sonora (1733). 
In 1733, Sinaloa and Sonora were detached from Nueva Vizcaya and given recognition as the province of Sonora y Sinaloa. Ms. Deeds commented that this detachment represented a recognition of "the growth of a mining and ranching secular society in this northwestern region." 

Rebellion of the Yaqui, Pima, and Mayo Indians - Sinaloa and Sonora (1740). 
The Yaqui and Mayo Indians had lived in peaceful coexistence with the Spaniards since the early part of the Seventeenth Century. Ms. Deeds, in describing the causes of this rebellion, observes that the Jesuits had ignored "growing Yaqui resentment over lack of control of productive resources." During the last half of the Seventeenth Century, so much agricultural surplus was produced that storehouses needed to be built. These surpluses were used by the missionaries to extend their activities northward into the California and Pima missions. The immediate cause of the rebellion is believed to have been a poor harvest in late 1739, followed in 1740 by severe flooding which exacerbated food shortages. 

Ms. Deeds also points out that the "increasingly bureaucratic and inflexible Jesuit organization obdurately disregarded Yaqui demands for autonomy in the selection of their own village officials." Thus, this rebellion, writes Ms. Deeds, was "a more limited endeavor to restore the colonial pact of village autonomy and territorial integrity." At the beginning of the revolt, an articulate leader named El Muni emerged in the Yaqui community. El Muni and another Yaqui leader, Bernabé, took the Yaquis' grievances to local civil authorities. Resenting this undermining of their authority, the Jesuits had Muni and Bernabé arrested. 

The arrests triggered a spontaneous outcry, with two thousand armed indigenous men gathering to demand the release of the two leaders. The Governor, having heard the complaints of both sides, recommended that the Yaqui leaders go to Mexico City to testify personally before the Viceroy and Archbishop Vizrón. In February 1740, the Archbishop approved all of the Yaqui demands for free elections, respect for land boundaries, that Yaquis be paid for work, and that they not be forced to work in mines. 

The initial stages of the 1740 revolt saw sporadic and uncoordinated activity in Sinaloa and Sonora, primarily taking place in the Mayo territory and in the Lower Pima Country. Catholic churches were burned to the ground while priests and settlers were driven out, fleeing to the silver mining town at Alamos. Eventually, Juan Calixto raised an army of 6,000 men, composed of Pima, Yaqui and Mayo Indians. With this large force, Calixto gained control of all the towns along the Mayo and Yaqui Rivers. 

However, in August 1740, Captain Agustín de Vildósola defeated the insurgents. The rebellion, however, had cost the lives of a thousand Spaniards and more than 5,000 Indians. After the 1740 rebellion, the new Governor of Sonora and Sinaloa began a program of secularization by posting garrisons in the Yaqui Valley and encouraging Spanish residents to return to the area of rebellion. The Viceroy ordered the partition of Yaqui land in a "prudent manner." The Yaquis had obtained a reputation for being courageous warriors during the rebellion of 1740 and the Spanish handled them quite gingerly during the late 1700s. As a result, the government acquisition of Yaqui lands did not begin began until 1768.

Mexico Wins Independence - 1822. 
Mexico won independence from Spain. Following independence, Nueva Vizcaya in 1824 was divided into the states of Chihuahua and Durango.

Yaqui, Mayo and Opata Rebellions of 1825-1833. 
After Mexico gained independence in 1822, the Yaquis became citizens of a new nation. During this time, there appeared a new Yaqui leader. Ms. Linda Zoontjens, the author of A Brief History of the Yaqui and Their Land, referred to Juan de la Cruz Banderas as a "revolutionary visionary" whose mission was to establish an Indian military confederation. Once again, the Mayo Indians joined their Yaqui neighbors in opposing the central authorities. With a following of 2,000 warriors, Banderas carried out several raids. But eventually, Banderas made an arrangement with the Government of Sonora. In exchange for his "surrender," Banderas was made the Captain-General of the Yaqui Militia. 

By early 1832, Banderas had formed an alliance with the Opatas. Together, the Opatas and Yaquis were able to field an army of almost 2,500 warriors, staging repeated raids against haciendas, mines and towns in Sonora. However, the Mexican army continued to meet the indigenous forces in battle, gradually reducing their numbers. Finally, in December 1832, volunteers tracked down and captured Banderas. The captive was turned over to the authorities and put on trial. A month later, in January 1833, Banderas was executed, along with eleven other Yaqui, Mayo and Opata leaders who had helped foment rebellion in Sonora.

The Yaqui people, after the capture and execution of Banderas, subsided into a tense, uneasy existence. Some, during periods of food shortage, would take up "peaceful" residence outside the presidios, to ask for rations. Others undertook low-level raiding. 

The Resistance of the Yaqui Indians (1838-1868). 
After the death of Banderas, the Yaqui Indians attempted to forge alliances with anyone who promised them land and autonomy. They would align themselves with the Centralists or Conservatives as long as those groups protected their lands from being encroached upon. But when General José Urrea took power in 1841, he oversaw the division of Yaqui lands from communal plots into private plots. 

Governor Ignacio Pesqueira of Sonora drew up a list of preventative measures to be used against the Yaquis, Opatas and their allies. These orders called for the execution of rebel leaders. In addition, hacienda owners were required to make up lists of all employees, including a notation for those who were suspected of taking part in rebellious activity against the civil government. These measures were ineffective in dealing with the growing unrest among the Yaqui and Opatas.

In 1867 Governor Pesqueira of Sonora organized two military expeditions against the Yaquis under the command of General Jesus Garcia Morales. The expeditions marched on Guaymas and Cócorit, both of which lay in the heart of Yaqui territory. These expeditions met at Medano on the Gulf Coast near the Jesuit-founded Yaqui town of Potam. The two expeditions, totaling about 900 men, did not meet with any organized resistance. Instead, small parties of Yaquis resisted their advance. By the end of the year, the Mexican forces had killed many Yaquis. The troops confiscated much livestock, destroyed food supplies, and shot most of the prisoners captured. 

Yaqui Insurgencies - Sonora (1868-1875). 
During these years, the Yaquis regained their strength and periodically attacked Mexican garrisons in their territory. In March 1868, six hundred Yaquis arrived near the town of Bacum in the eastern Yaqui country to ask the local field commander for peace terms. However, the Mexican officer, Colonel Bustamante, arrested the whole group, including women and children. When the Yaquis gave up forty-eight weapons, Bustamante released 150 people but continued to hold the other 450 people. Taking his captives to a Yaqui church in Bacum as prisoners of war, he was able to identify ten of the captives as leaders. All ten of these men were shot without a trial.

Four hundred and forty people were left languishing in the church overnight, with Bustamante's artillery trained on the church door to discourage an escape attempt. However, during the night a fire was started in the church. The situation inside the church turned to chaos and confusion, as some captives desperately tried to break down the door. As the Yaquis fled the church, several salvos fired from the field pieces killed up to 120 people.

In 1875, the Mexican government suspected that a Yaqui insurrection was brewing. In an attempt to pacify the Yaquis, Governor Jose J. Pesqueira ordered a new campaign, sending five hundred troops from the west into the Yaqui country. A force of 1,500 Yaquis met the Mexican troops at Pitahaya. In the subsequent battle, the Yaquis are believed to have lost some sixty men. 

Cajeme and the Yaqui Rebellions During the Porfiriato (1876-1887). 
During the reign of Porfirio Díaz, the ongoing struggle for autonomy and land rights dominated Yaqui-Mexican relations. An extraordinary leader named Cajeme now took center stage in the Yaquis' struggle for autonomy. Cajeme, whose name meant "He who does not drink," was born José María Leyva. He learned Spanish and served in the Mexican army. Although Cajeme's parents were Yaqui Indians, he had become very Mexicanized. 

Cajeme's military service with the Mexican army was so exemplary that he was given the post of Alcalde Mayor of the Yaqui River area. Soon after receiving this promotion, however, Cajeme announced his intention to withdraw recognition of the Mexican Government if they did not grant the Yaquis self-government. Cajeme galvanized a new generation of Yaquis and Mayos and led his forces against selected towns in Yaqui Country. 

Mexican Offensives Against the Yaquis (1885-1901). 
Dr. Hatfield, in studying the struggle over Indian lands, wrote, "Rich Yaqui and Mayo valley lands possessed a soil and climate capable of growing almost any crop. Therefore, it was considered in the best national interest to open these lands to commercial development and foreign investors." During the 1880s, the Governor of Sonora, Carlos Ortiz, became concerned about his state's sovereignty over Indian lands. In the hopes of seizing Indian Territory, Ortiz withdrew his state troopers from the border region where they had been fighting the Apache Indians. In the meantime, Cajeme's forces began attacking haciendas, ranches and stations of the Sonora Railroad in the Guaymas and Alamos districts.

With rebel forces causing so much trouble, General Luis Torres, the Governor of Sonora, petitioned the Federal Government for military aid. Recognizing the seriousness of this rebellion, Mexican President Porfirio Díaz authorized his Secretary of War to begin a campaign against the Sonoran rebels. In 1885, 1,400 federal troops arrived in Sonora to help the Sonoran government put down the insurrection. Together with 800 state troops, the federal forces were organized into an expedition, with the intention of meeting the Yaquis in battle. 

During 1886, the Yaquis continued to fortify more of their positions. Once again, Mexican federal and state forces collaborated by making forays into Yaqui country. This expedition confiscated more than 20,000 head of livestock and, in April 1886, occupied the Yaqui town of Cócorit. On May 5, the fortified site of Anil was captured after a pitched battle. After suffering several serious military reverses, the Yaqui forces fell back to another fortified site at Buatachive, high in the Sierra de Bacatet, to make a last stand against the Mexican forces.

Putting together a fighting force of 4,000 Yaquis, along with thousands of Yaqui civilians, Cajeme prepared to resist. On May 12, after a four-day siege, Mexican troops under General Angel Martinez, attacked Buatachive. In a three-hour battle, the Mexican forces killed 200 Yaqui soldiers, while capturing hundreds of women and children. Cajeme and a couple thousand Yaquis managed to escape the siege.

After this staggering blow, Cajeme divided his forces into small bands of armed men. From this point on, the smaller units tried to engage government troops in small skirmishes. Although Cajeme asked the Federal authorities for a truce, the military leaders indicated that all Yaqui territory was part of the nation of Mexico. After a few months, expeditions into the war zone led to the capture of four thousand people. With the end of the rebellion in sight, General Luis Torres commenced with the military occupation of the entire Yaqui Nation.

With the end of hostilities, Mexican citizens began filtering into Yaqui territory to establish permanent colonies. On April 12, 1887, nearly a year after the Battle of Buatachive, Cajeme was apprehended near Guaymas and taken to Cócorit where he was to be executed before a firing squad in 1887. After being interviewed and photographed by Ramon Corral, he was taken by steamboat to Medano but was shot while trying to escape from the soldiers. 

Government forces, searching for and confronting armed Yaquis, killed 356 Yaqui men and women over a period of two years. A comprehensive search for the Yaqui holdouts in their hiding places forced the rebels into the Guaymas Valley where they mingled with Yaqui laborers on haciendas and in railroad companies. As a result, the Mexican Government accused owners of haciendas, mining and railroad companies of shielding criminal Yaqui fugitives. Circulars were issued which forbade the owners from giving money, provisions, or arms to the rebels. During this time, some Yaquis were able to slip across the border into Arizona to work in mines and purchase guns and ammunition. The Mexican border guards were unable to stop the steady supply of arms and provisions coming across the border from Arizona. Eventually, Mexico's Secretary of War ordered the recruitment of Opatas and Pimas to hunt down the Yaqui guerillas. 

In 1894-95, Luis Torres instituted a secret police system and carried out a meticulous survey of the entire Sierra de Bacatete, noting locations of wells supplying fresh water as well as all possible entrances and exits to the region. Renegade bands of Yaquis, familiar with the terrain of their own territory, were able to avoid capture by the government forces. During the campaign of 1895-97, captured rebels were deported to southern Mexico to be drafted into the army. 

In 1897, the commander of the campaign forces, General Torres initiated negotiations with the Yaqui leader Tetabiate, offering the Yaquis repatriation into their homeland. After a number of months of correspondence between the guerilla leader and a colonel in one of the regiments, a place was set for a peace agreement to be signed. On May 15, 1897, Sonora state officials and the Tetabiate signed the Peace of Ortiz. The Yaqui leader, Juan Maldonado, with 390 Yaquis, consisting of 74 families, arrived from the mountains for the signing of the peace treaty. 

In the six years following the signing of peace, Lorenzo Torres, the Governor of Sonora, made efforts to complete the Mexican occupation of Yaqui territory. Ignoring the terms of the peace treaty, four hundred Yaquis and their families defied the government and assembled in the Bacatete Mountains. Under the command of their leader Tetabiate, the Yaquis sustained themselves by making nighttime raids on the haciendas near Guaymas. 

In the meantime, Federal troops and army engineers, trying to survey the Yaqui lands for distribution, found the terrain to be very difficult and were constantly harassed by defiant rebel forces. The government could not understand the Yaqui refusal to divide their land and become individual property owners. Their insistence of communal ownership based on traditional indigenous values also supported their objection to having soldiers in their territory. However, resentful of the continuing military occupation of their territory, the Yaqui colonies of Bácum and Vícam took up arms in 1899. Large detachments of rebel Yaqui forces confronted troops on the Yaqui River and suffered large casualties. Afterwards, a force of three thousand fled to the sierras and barricaded themselves on a plateau called Mazocoba where they were defeated by government troops.

When Tetabiate and the rebel forces fled to the Sierras, the government sent out its largest contingent to date with almost five thousand federal and state troops to crush this latest rebellion. Laws restricting the sale of firearms were reenacted and captured rebels were deported from the state. On January 18,1900, three columns of his Government forces encountered a party of Yaquis at Mazocoba in the heart of the Bacatete Mountains. The Yaquis, mostly on foot, were pursued into a box canyon in a rugged portion of the mountains. 

After a daylong battle, the Yaquis ceased fighting. The soldiers had killed 397 men, women, and some children, while many others had committed suicide by jumping off the cliffs. Roughly a thousand women and children were taken prisoner. By the end of 1900, there were only an estimated 300 rebels holding out in the Bacatete Mountains. Six months later, Tetabiate was betrayed and murdered by one of his lieutenants and the Secretary of War called off the campaign in August 1901.

Deportation of Yaqui Indians (1902-1910). 
After the turn of the century, the Mexican federal government decided on a course of action for clearing Yaquis out of the state of Sonora. Colonel Emilio Kosterlitzky was placed in charge of Federal Rural Police in the state with orders to round up all Yaquis and arrange to deport them southward. Between 1902 -1908, between eight and possibly as many as fifteen thousand of the estimated population of thirty thousand Yaquis were deported. 

The years 1904 through 1907 witnessed an intensification of guerilla activities and corresponding government persecution. The state government issued passports to Yaquis and those not having them were arrested and jailed. The Sonoran Governor Rafael Izábel was so intent on pacifying the Yaquis that he conducted his own arrests. These arrests included women, children as well as sympathizers. "When Yaqui rebellion threatened Sonora's mining interests," writes Dr. Hatfield, "Governor Rafael Izábel deported Yaquis, considered superior workers by all accounts, to work 
on Yacatán's henequen plantations." 

In analyzing the Mexican Government's policy of deportation, Dr. Hatfield observed that deportation of the Yaquis resulted from "the Yaquis' determination to keep their lands. Yaqui refusal to submit to government laws conflicted with the Mexican government's attempts to end all regional hegemony. The regime hoped to take Yaqui lands peacefully, but this the Yaquis prevented." 

The bulk of the Yaquis were sent to work on hennequen plantations in the Yucatán and some were sent to work in the sugar cane fields in Oaxaca. Sonoran hacendados protested the persecution and deportation of the Yaquis because without their labor, their crops could not be cultivated or harvested. In the early Nineteenth Century, many Yaqui men emigrated to Arizona in order to escape subjugation and deportation to southern Mexico. Today, some 10,000 Yaqui Indians live in the United States, many of them descended from the refugees of a century ago. 

The Yaquis Indians Today. 
Dr. Hatfield, in looking back on the long struggle of the Yaqui against the federal government, writes "A government study published in 1905 cited 270 instances of Yaqui and Mayo warfare between 1529 and 1902, excluding eighty-five years of relative peace between 1740 and 1825." But from 1825 to 1902, the Yaqui Nation was waging war on the government almost continuously.

By 1910, the Yaquis had been almost entirely eliminated from their homeland.  In the 1910 census, 5,175 persons classified as speakers of the Yaqui language five years of age and older lived within the Mexican Republic.   However, by 1930,  the Yaqui population had dropped to 2,134.  It is very likely that many persons of Yaqui heritage may have denied that they spoke the language or belonged to the ethnic group.

The Yaquis fought their last major battle with Mexican forces in 1927.  However, in 1939, Mexican President Cardenas granted the Yaqui tribe official recognition and title to roughly one-third of their traditional tribal lands.  

Even today, the Yaquis have managed to maintain a form of autonomy within the Mexican nation.  In the 2000 Mexican census, Sonora had a total of 55,694 persons who were classified as speakers of indigenous languages five years of age and over.  This group represented only 2.85% of the entire population of Sonora.  The population of persons speaking the Yaqui language, however, was only 12,467.  

The Yaqui identity endures in the present day, but is in danger of extinction.  "They are threatened continually by the  expansion of the Mexican population, as landless Mexicans invade their territory or intermarry with Yaquis and  start to take over some of the lands,"  said Joe Wilder, Director of the University of  Arizona's Southwest Center.  "The Yaquis are at once deeply admired  by Sonorans and deeply despised," said Wilder, noting that the Yaqui deer dancer is the official state symbol.

To many Americans, the Yaqui Indians represent an enduring legacy of the pre-Hispanic era.  Because the mestizaje and assimilation of many Mexican states was so complete and widespread, the Yaqui Indians are seen as a rare vestige of the old Mexico.

© 2004, John P. Schmal.


Susan M. Deeds, "Indigenous Rebellions on the Northern Mexican Mission Frontier: From First-Generation to Later Colonial Responses," in Susan Schroeder, Native Resistance and the Pax Colonial in New Spain. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1998, pp. 1-29.

Shelley Bowen Hatfield, "Chasing Shadows: Indians Along the United States-Mexico Border 1876-1911." Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998.

Oscar J. Martínez, "Troublesome Border." Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1988. 

Cynthia Radding, "The Colonial Pact and Changing Ethnic Frontiers in Highland Sonora, 1740-1840," in Donna J. Guy and Thomas E. Sheridan (eds.), "Contested Ground: Comparative Frontiers on the Northern and Southern Edges of the Spanish Empire," pp. 52-66. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1998.

Daniel T. Reff, "Disease, Depopulation and Culture Change in Northwestern New Spain, 1518-1764." Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1991.

Robert Mario Salmon, "Indian Revolts in Northern New Spain: A Synthesis of Resistance (1680-1786)." Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1991.

Edward H. Spicer, "Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533-1960." Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, 1997.

Edward H. Spicer, "The Military History Of The Yaquis From 1867 To 1910: Three Points Of View." <Online: . September 12, 2001.

Linda Zoontjens, "Brief History of the Yaqui and their Land." Online: .  July 8, 2001

John Schmal is the author of "Indigenous Mexico: A State-by-State Analysis" (a manuscript in progress).  With Donna Morales, he has written "The Indigenous Roots of a Mexican-American Family," about the assimilation and mestizaje of the Mexican Indians and their incorporation into the Mexican nation.  The book is available from Heritage Books (Item M2469) at:

John P. Schmal

The Mexican Republic of the Twenty-First Century, boasting more than a 100 million inhabitants, has evolved from many indigenous nations five centuries ago into a single national entity, with Spanish as its primary language.  But beneath the Spanish culture and language, the indigenous identity of the Mexican people is unmistakable.  It is manifested in their appearance, their culture and spirituality and, to some extent, in their language and traditions.  Few of the original Indian cultures still exist in their pure and untainted forms, but most are present in some form in various traditions, customs and religious practices.

In the twelve censuses between 1895 and 2000, the Mexican government has asked its citizens to answer a wide variety of questions.  In many ways, the Mexican census has been much more detailed than the United States census, asking questions about age, disability, nativity, literacy, language, and economic status. 

However, for the most part, the census has not been able to gauge the level of indigenous identity beyond the criteria of those who actually speak indigenous languages.  In 1895, 26.09% of persons five years of age and older in the Mexican Republic spoke indigenous languages.  By 1940, this figure had dropped to 14.8%.  It dropped farther to 11.2% in 1950, 7.5% in 1990 and 7.1% in 2000.  The linguistic status, however, does not necessarily explain if a Mexican citizen feels that he or she is an Indian by blood, by culture, or tradition.  However, the 1921 and 2000 Mexican Federal Censuses stand out as exceptions.  In these two censuses, performed 79 years apart, we get a unique view into the ethnic identity of the Mexican people.

In the 1921 census, Mexican natives were asked if they fell into one of the following categories:

1. "Indígena pura" (of pure indigenous heritage).
2. "Indígena mezclada con blanca" (of mixed indigenous and white background)
3. "Blanca" (of White or Spanish heritage).
4. "Extranjeros sin distinción de razas" (Foreigners without racial distinction).

The five states with the largest populations of "indígena pura" were:

1. Oaxaca - 675,119 persons
2. Puebla - 560,971 persons
3. Veracruz - 406,648 persons
4. México - 372,703 persons
5. Guerrero - 248,526 persons

Because the populations of the various states vary widely, the percentage of pure indigenous persons in a given state may provide us with a different set of results.  The five states with the largest percentages of "indígena pura" people are:

1. Oaxaca - 69.17%
2. Puebla - 54.73%
3. Tlaxcala - 54.70%
4. Chiapas - 47.64%
5. Yucatán - 43.31%

In the 1921 census, the status "Indígena Mezclada con Blanca" implied that a person was of mestizo origin.  Persons classified by this identity usually did not speak Indian languages, but still felt an attachment to their indigenous roots. The five Mexican states with the largest populations of "Indígena Mezclada con Blanca" were:

1. Jalisco - 903,830
2. Guanajuato - 828,724
3. Michoacán - 663,391
4. Veracruz - 556,472
5. Distrito Federal - 496,359

The states with the largest percentages of "Indígena Mezclada con Blanca" were:

1. Sinaloa - 98.30%
2. Guanajuato - 96.32%
3. Durango - 89.10%
4. Zacatecas - 86.10%
5. Querétaro - 80.15%

The states with the largest populations of "Blanca" or White persons were:

1. Distrito Federal - 206,514
2. Chihuahua - 145,926
3. Sonora - 115,151
4. Veracruz - 114,150
5. México - 88,660

In percentage terms, the "blanca" classification was most prominent in these states:

1. Sonora - 41.85%
2. Chihuahua - 36.33%
3. Baja California Sur - 33.40%
4. Tabasco - 27.56%
5. District Federal - 22.79%

Seventy-nine years later, the 2000 census attempted to determine the number of Mexican people who considered themselves to being indigenous, without reference to language.  In order to calculate the indigenous people, the census used three criteria:

1. Persons who speak indigenous languages (aged 5 and over)
2. Persons aged 0 through 4 who live in indigenous households
3. Persons who consider themselves Indian but do not speak an indigenous language.

The five states with the largest numbers of persons classified as "Indígena" in the 2000 census were:

1. Oaxaca - 1,648,426 persons
2. Chiapas - 1,117,597
3. Veracruz - 1,057,806
4. Yucatán - 981,064
5. Puebla - 957,650

The five states with the largest percentages of Indigenous people were:

1. Yucatán - 59.2%
2. Oaxaca - 47.9%
3. Quintana Roo - 39.3%
4. Chiapas - 28.5%
5. Campeche - 26.9%

In contrast, the five states with the largest numbers of persons who spoke indigenous languages and were five years of age or more were:

1. Oaxaca - 1,120,312 speakers of indigenous languages
2. Chiapas - 809,592
3. Veracruz - 633,372
4. Puebla - 565,509
5. Yucatán - 549,532

Of great interest to some people would be the states with the least populations of indigenous persons in the 2000 census:

1. Aguascalientes - 3,472 persons 
2. Zacatecas - 4,039 persons
3. Colima - 6,472 persons
4. Coahuila - 7,454 persons
5. Baja California Sur - 11,481 persons

In terms of percentages, the five states with the smallest percentages of indigenous persons were:

1. Zacatecas - 0.3%
2. Coahuila - 0.3%
3. Aguascalientes - 0.4%
4. Guanajuato - 0.6%
5. Nuevo León - 0.8%

While many of the inhabitants of Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, and Guanajuato do have indigenous roots, the level of assimilation and mestizaje that took place in these areas over the last four centuries has diminished the original Indian identity.

The indigenous identity of the Mexican people is hard to quantify and classify from one state to another, from one linguistic group to another, so census statistics cannot be considered entirely reliable.  However, the 1921 and 2000 censuses do give us the best view of indigenous identity, when compared to other census years.

Note:  The 1921 and 2000 indigenous figures for all the states of the Mexican Republic will appear in the July issue of the in a story written by John Schmal

© 2004, John P. Schmal.  All rights reserved.


CONAPO, "Cuadro 1. Población Total, Población Indígena, y Sus Características."
Departamento de la Estadística Nacional, "Annuario de 1930" (Tacubaya, D.F., Mexico, 1932), pp. 40, 48.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística Geografía e Informática (INEGI), Estados Unidos Mexicanos. "XII Censo General de Población y Vivienda,  2000, Tabulados Básicos y por Entidad Federativa. Bases de Datos y Tabulados de la Muestra Censal."

Schmal, John P. "Indigenous Mexico: A State-by-State Analysis" (manuscript in progress, 2004).

John Schmal is the coauthor of "The Indigenous Roots of a Mexican-American Family" (available as item M2469 through Heritage Books at  He is currently writing a state-by-state analysis of the indigenous people of all the Mexican states.

The indigenous classifications 
as tallied by the 1921 & 2000 Mexican census 

are provided in the following charts 
(compiled and organized by John Schmal):

Racial Makeup of Native-Born Mexicans (from the 1921 Mexican Census)

© Copyright 2004, John P. Schmal. All Rights Reserved.


Indígena Pura*


Pura (% of

Total State Population)

Indígena Mezclada con Blanca**


of Indígena Mezclada

con Blanca

Total State Population


Pura (% of "Indígena

Pura" of Mexican Republic)








Baja California – North and South










































District Federal






































































Nuevo León




























Quintana Roo







San Luis Potosí































































The Mexican Republic







* Indígena Pura - Pure Indigenous Origins

** Indígena Mezclada con Blanca (Indigenous Mixed with White)

Source: Departamento de la Estadística Nacional,

"Annuario de 1930" (Tacubaya, Distrito Federal: 1932).



© Copyright 2004, John P. Schmal. All Rights Reserved.


Persons Classified as "Indígena"

"Indígena" as a % of the State Population

Persons Aged 5 or More Who Speak Indigenous Languages




"Indígena" Population as a % of the Population of the Mexican Republic

















































San Luis Potosí






Quintana Roo






Distrito Federal










































Baja California
















































Nuevo León












Baja California Sur






























Mexican Republic






Instituto Nacional de Estadística Geografía e Informática, "XII Censo General de Población y Vivienda 2000: Síntesis de Resultados."

CONAPO, "Cuadro 1. Población Total, Población Indígena, y Sus Características."



Herederos de Moctezuma reclaman sus pensiones

Los descendientes del último emperador azteca, Moctezuma II, intentan recuperar las pensiones que el Reino de España y posteriormente el Gobierno de México les otorgaba desde 1550 de manera vitalicia pero que en 1934 fueron suspendidas.

Moctezuma II el joven, (1466-1520) fue emperador de los aztecas entre 1502 y 1520. Moctezuma II, herederó su imperio de Auítzotl y fue el gobernante de la gran ciudad azteca de Tenochtitlán.

En la primavera de 1519, recibió la primera noticia de la llegada de extraños a la costa este de su imperio. El 8 de noviembre de 1519, se encontró con Cortés, a quien tomó por el dios Quetzalcoatl, algo que vino muy bien al conquistador español.

Durante la ausencia de Cortés, el gobernador delegado decretó que el ritual azteca del sacrificio humano debía finalizar. El pueblo se alzó en una revuelta, y los españoles hicieron prisionero a Moctezuma, quien en un intento de sofocar el violento tumulto, se asomó a la balconada de su palacio, instando a sus seguidores a retirarse. La población quedó indignada de la complicidad de su emperador con los españoles por lo que comenzaron a arrojarle piedras y flechas, falleciendo poco tiempo después del ataque. -(Existe la version de que ya Moctezuma habia sido asesinado y solo fue exhibido para simular su muerte en un populacho, bssg)-

La princesa Isabel Xipaguazin Moctezuma hija de Moctezuma contrajo matrimonio con dos compatriotas del conquistador, primero con Alonso de Grado y luego con Pedro Gallego de Andrada. Ambos murieron poco después del enlace. Luego, según se sabe por algunas fuentes, Isabel se casó por propia voluntad con Juan Cano de Saavedra. De estos dos últimos matrimonios proceden sus actuales descendientes.

La princesa, fue nombrada por el rey Carlos I propietaria "a perpetuidad" del señorío de Tacuba, un área que actualmente corresponde a gran parte del Centro Histórico de la ciudad de México. Las rentas por el usufructo de ese señorío se constituyeron en las "Pensiones de Moctezuma" que la Corona española otorgó a perpetuidad a Isabel y todos sus descendientes, antes de que ella muriera en 1550.

Las "pensiones de Moctezuma" se han convertido actualmente en una deuda gigantesca. Tan sólo del pago de los intereses podrían vivir sin preocupaciones los descendientes de Isabel en México y los que se trasladaron a la península. La familia Acosta, que vive en México, y los condes de Miravalle -españoles que residen en Granada- son herederos de estas pensiones.

Cuando en 1821 México se independizó, el nuevo estado asumió los compromisos de la antigua colonia española y con ello también las "pensiones de Moctezuma". Pero a finales de 1933, el presidente Abelardo Rodríguez declaró nula la deuda, cesando los pagos. Luego dio inicio en España de la Guerra Civil (1936-1939) y México nunca reconoció la dictadura de Franco (1939-1975), rotas por tanto las relaciones diplomáticas entre ambos paises los descendientes españoles no volvieron a reclamar sus derechos hasta 1991.

"México tiene que reconocer que fue un error suspender estas pensiones", afirma el historiador Alejandro González, representante de los intereses de la familia Miravalle en México. Acosta apunta que los Miravalle nunca fueron expropiados formalmente y menos aún renunciaron a sus derechos, y por ello sus demandas siguen siendo válidas hoy. "El reconocimiento de los derechos de los Miravalle podría contribuir a que aquellos mexicanos, que se habían negado a ignorar la parte española de su identidad, se reconcilien con ella". Además, señala que el hecho de que muchos mexicanos sigan hoy culpando a los españoles actuales de lo que hizo Cortés, es "como si los franceses les echasen en cara a los italianos lo que hizo Julio César en la Guerra de las Galias. México tiene que aprender a reconciliarse con su pasado, con su historia" afirma el historiador.

Pero no todos los descendientes de Moctezuma II están de acuerdo con la actitud de sus parientes. "En España siempre reclamaban. No les importa México un pito, pero quieren el dinero. Eso me molesta, me indigna como mexicana que amo a mi país". Así opina la historiadora Blanca Barragán Moctezuma que se muestra orgullosa de su árbol genealógico, en el que figura el nombre de Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin. Blanca vive el la capital mexicana, es descendiente en decimosexta generación del emperador y muy conocida porque desde hace años intenta con ahínco, pese al poco éxito obtenido, que el Museo Etnológico de Viena (Austria) devuelva la corona de plumas de Moctezuma a su país de origen. Blanca dice que su abuela también cobraba dicha pensión pero que sólo en el caso de que los Miravalle reciban realmente dinero del Estado mexicano, entonces, y sólo entonces, también reclamará sus derechos, aunque tiene serias dudas de que eso realmente vaya a suceder.

Guillermo Acosta, descendiente de Moctezuma II en decimocuarta generación también reside en México. Su familia junto a la Miravalle está dispuesta a llegar hasta el final, "Incluso tras la Revolución (1910), todos reconocíeron las pensiones, hasta que en 1934 sin más, nos dijeron adiós. El gobierno mexicano obró mal, obró con prepotencia, con todo su poder y dijo ¡no te reconozco nada! ", lamenta Guillermo Acosta.

Antes de la suspensión de las pensiones, la familia de los condes de Miravalle recibía por este concepto un pago de 5.258.090 pesos oro al año. El "peso oro" en aquella época equivalía a 1.480 gramos de oro puro, (alrededor de 250.284 onzas), que cotizadas al valor actual del mercado, equivaldría a una pensión de 90.000 Euros anuales"

Doña María de las Mercedes Enríquez de la Luna del Mazo, actual condesa de Miravalle, dice haber dejado el asunto en manos de sus hijos y lamenta no haber podido viajar nunca a la tierra de sus antepasados por razones de salud. Sobre cómo se siente al ser una descendiente del gran Moctezuma, ella contesta: "Hoy en día no hay nada, se siente uno como todo el mundo".


Sent by
Contact Name: Benicio Samuel Sanchez Garcia
Other E-mail:
Notes: Presidente de La Sociedad Genelogical del Norte de Mexico



Crypto-Jews of Monterrey
Document Victims, Locate Survivors 
Izkor Books Go Online 
Sephardic Jews in Northern Mexico
Melugeon DNA Project

Conquistadores and Crypto-Jews of Monterrey by David T. Raphael.  
Sent by George Gause
Recommended by Dr. Adalberto Garza,. Call Number:   F1391.M79 J475 2001 
Publisher : Valley Village, Calif. : Carmi House, c2001. 

How to Document Victims and Locate Survivors
Basic steps, a case study and more help you research people caught up in the Holocaust. 

Izkor Books Go Online 

Family Tree Magazine Email Update 6-10-04 

The New York Public Library (NYPL) has put digitized images of nine Jewish yizkor books on its Web site at and announced plans to do the same with the rest of the 700-plus books in its collection. 

Jews have written yizkor (or memory) books throughout history to memorialize the dead. After the Holocaust, European Jews revived the practice. Their books tell the histories--often stretching back 
decades or centuries--of decimated communities. Many of the books contain photos and necrologies, or lists of Holocaust victims. NYPL's initial posting of yizkor books covers 12 towns. 

For more information on yizkor books and how to find them, visit JewishGen's Yizkor Book Project Web site at . The volunteer-run site contains a database of the 1,200 or so books known to exist, translations from dozens of them and a list of libraries and archives that have yizkor books. The site also has a Necrology Index from the books that have been published. 

If you find a yizkor book about your ancestor's town, you might be able to purchase a copy. The Yiddish Book Center sells reprints of the books from NYPL's collection as well as its own for $120 ($90 to the center's members). Visit

Sephardic Jews in Northern Mexico

The July speaker for Los Bexarenos in San Antonio, Texas was Mr. Richard Santos. His topic:
Sephardic Jews in Northern Mexico. Mr. Santos is the former Bexar County Archivist and is the author of over 30 works, including Silent Heritage: the Sephardim and the Colonization of the Spanish North American Frontier, 1492-1600.

Melugeon DNA Project
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Interesting site with a variety of bits and pieces of historical information on early colonizations primarily on the East coast.   A file of Melugeon Surnames by Elizabeth Hirschman included: 

Moore: This surname is common, so one must be very careful to collect DNA from a known relative in order to determine origins. This DNA sample is from a Moore family which immigrated to Virginia in the early 1700's from England and then came to live in Melungeon settlements in Appalachia. We believe that many persons surnamed Moore, Muir, Morea and Moorhead, received those names as a result of immigrating to Britain from the Mediterranean, where Moro meant dark or swarthy. Many were likely Sephardic Jews. They may also have been Moors (i.e., Muslims) from Spain who left during the Inquisition. 

Carter: This DNA sample is from a descendant of Captain Thomas Carter whose family settled in Tidewater Virginia in the mid-1600's. (See Early Carters in Scott County, VA. for additional details).  
The DNA is centered in Spain/Iberia and the Carters typically were dark haired and dark skinned according to portraits. Elizabeth Hirschman believes they were also Sephardic Jews who had likely made their way to England from France. Their surname in France may have been akin to Cartier. They married into the Dale, Skipwith, Ball and Williamson families.

Wallen / Walling / Walden: Wallen/Walling/Walden One of the early long-hunters with Daniel Boone was Elisha Wallen/Walling. This DNA sample from a descendant is centered in Spain/Iberia. The Wallens married into the Blevins family and Elizabeth Hirschman believes that they were Sephardic Jews also. Index 

Ramey: Ramey/Remey The Ramey family came to Wise County, Virginia early on and photos show them to be dark skinned and dark haired. Their DNA matches Caldwell and is centered in Iberia/Spain. Elizabeth Hirschman believes they also were Sephardic Jews. 

Alexander, Bruce, Campbell, Gordon, Douglas, Forbes, and Stewart:
The DNA scores representing these surnames are all for persons who can trace ancestry back to   these specific clans in Scotland. We sought these donors to test a very important hypothesis: In 1066 when William the Conqueror invaded England from Normandy, France he brought with him several Jewish families to assist him in setting up the civil administration of England.  Several of these families later migrated to Scotland at the invitation of the Scottish kings (to serve as chamberlains, administrators, stewards, judges, educators, etc.). Based on our interpretation of the genealogies for the clans listed above and documentation that each of these families had originated in France (and were NOT Celtic), we gathered DNA samples.  We have confirmed that these DNA samples are from the Mediterranean (especially Spain- Iberia- Italy) and are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that these families were originally Sephardic Jews. Some members of these families did practice Judaism once they had immigrated to the American Colonies, lending support to the proposal that some branches retained their Judaic affiliation.  


         "Texas is a state of mind.  Texas is an obsession. Above all, 
       Texas is a nation in every sense of the word."--John Steinbeck

Book: Rails to the Rios
Raymondville 100th Birthday
Famed Rancher Body to be Exhumed 
Sanchez Family Donates to TAMIU 
25th Annual Texas State Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference
“Racing through History – Tracing the Lives and Travels of our Ancestors”

Photos Sought to Document 25 year history of conferences 
Six National Flags have flown over Texas
Book: "With All Arms" republished
HOGAR de Dallas
South Texas Museum Captures Blended History 
Texas Newspaper Holdings Index
Lupe Martinez Honored with Likeness  
Texas State Deaths for 2002 released
Saving Texas History!  Texas General Land Office New Initiative
Texas State Library and Archives: Helpful websites
Historical Data on Buildings, Dwellings and Other Structures

Rails to the Rio 
by Glenn Harding

Rio Grande Valley History
St. Louis, Brownsville and Mexico Railroad Centennial 1904-2004

100th Anniversary
Raymonville, Kingsville, Harlingen, 
San Benito, Lyford, Sebastian, Combes, 
Robstown, Sarita, Driscoll, Bishop, Olmito


Sent by George Gause,
Source: Glenn Harding

In July there will be a celebration of the arrival of the St. Louis Brownsville Mexico Railway. On the 4th of July 1904, trains traveling from Corpus to Brownsville and from Brownsville to Corpus Christi passed each other in the inauguration of the completion of the railroad to the Rio Grande River. Festivities were planned at each city to welcome the new form of transportation replacing the 40-hour stagecoach ride from Brownsville to the railhead at Alice. This vision by the ranchers of these vast prairies of the Gulf Coastal Region opened up a new and improved marketing method for the beef cattle raised in South Texas. No longer would it be necessary to walk the cattle up the Chisholm Trail to Wichita, Kansas to the railhead. Now the cattle could be shipped direct to the eastern market slaughterhouses.

The spin off from this great venture created watering and fuel (mesquite wood) loading points along the 141-mile route. At these points new communities sprung up leading to the formation of new towns. Places that had never existed became Raymondville, Kingsville, Harlingen, San Benito, Lyford, Sebastian, Combes, Robstown, Sarita, Driscoll, Bishop, and Olmito. This year we will celebrate this milestone with a centennial celebration.

There will be a Youth Rodeo with prizes on Friday night, July 2. On Saturday July 3 there will be a golf tournament at the Municipal Golf Course. At the Eddie Stark City Park there will be a baseball tournament, train rides for the children, food and drink booths, con junto music entertainment and concession booths. Meanwhile the Historical Museum will be open from 10:00 AM to 5:00 PM as a meeting place for old-timers to congregate and visit, and they will be served punch and cookies while touring the museum. At the Tourist Center during the day there will be an exhibit of 200 enlarged pictures from the new book "Rails to the Rio" by Glenn Harding and Cindy Lee. At 6:00 PM this historical picture exhibit will accompany a reception of food and drinks honoring the event and our guests at the Tourist Center. At 7:00 PM, Mr. Frank Yturria will give a historical 16mm film and Mr. Jimmy Tiller will present a modern slide program of our cattle history in the Historical Museum’s auditorium. The theme will be dedicated to the cattle industry that made it possible for Raymondville to become a town in South Texas. Mr. Yturria’s film will show the old method of rounding up the cattle from the vast pastures with cowboys. Mr. Tiller’s program will show the modern method of using helicopters to round up cattle. Both these ranching programs will be of great interest to the people of this county who have lived in this great cattle-raising area, but have never had the opportunity to witness this exciting part of ranching. Mr. Tiller will sign his new book, "Helicopter Cowboy" for all who are interested in buying a copy. It is a marvelous collection of aerial pictures taken over South Texas ranches during cattle roundups. Also Glenn Harding and Cindy Lee will sell their new book "Rails To The Rio".

On Sunday July 4th the City Park will once again feature train rides, food and drink booths, ice cream, music, "pan de campo" competition, souvenir’s of train whistles and signed copies of "Rails to the Rio". At 8:00 PM there will be a Gala Fourth of July Parade in downtown Raymondville. After dark there will be a spectacular 4th of July fireworks display.

Prior to these events; Red, White, and Blue patriotic street banners will be seen on the light poles in downtown. At the Texas State Bank the 200 historical picture exhibit from "Rails to the Rio" will be shown, during banking hours, from June 17 to July 9, 2004. Mr. Travis Richards invites everyone to come in and enjoy the exhibit and have a cup of coffee while viewing the picture collection.

This Centennial will be a great occasion and the Mayor Joe Alexandre and the city commissioners would like to invite the citizens to come and enjoy this program planned by the Chamber of
Commerce and the Executive Director Mrs. Elma Chavez, who has been working hard to make this a memorable event in the life of this community.

"Rails to the Rio" is in the format of 8 1/2" x 11" and is 172 pages with 300 historical pictures.  Some are from the Runyon collection in Austin at the Univ.  of Texas and others from So. Texas  sources including the large collection of my mother.  There is a bibliography of 26 books, 12 journals and magazines, 16 newspaper articles and 3 unpublished articles.  The book is in black and white and was published by Morgan Publishing Co. in Austin,Texas in a  private limited edition of 400 soft cover and 400 hardcover.  
Soft cover is $30.00 plus $2.50 sales tax and S&H  $2.50 
Hardcover $45.00, sales tax $3.70  S&H $ 3.30
Glenn Harding
P.O. Box 130
Raymondville, Texas
Phone (956) 689-2706   Fax (956) 689-5740

Date Set to Exhume Body of Famed Rancher 

Associated Press Writer
Source: Austin American Statesman
Sent by J.D. Villarreal   June 18, 2004 

HARLINGEN, Texas — A judge on Friday set July 10 as the date to exhume the body of a noted South Texas rancher for DNA testing to prove whether he fathered a Corpus Christi woman during an affair with his maid.

John G. Kenedy died in 1948 without a blood heir. Attorneys for Ann Fernandez say tests may prove she is the rightful heiress to an estate valued at up to $500 million. The 400,000-acre Kenedy Ranch now generates income for Catholic charities throughout Texas.

Judge Guy Herman in January set a Feb. 28 exhumation date, but that date passed as ranch lawyers appealed his jurisdiction. A state appeals court on Wednesday lifted the stay on the exhumation.

Herman said the exhumation would start at 8 a.m. and would be witnessed by representatives of the Oblate Fathers, the charities, the Fernandezes, and the lab companies that would be taking samples. He ordered that privacy tents be provided for the witnesses and the lab workers.

Analysis will be done by private labs in Austin and Houston.

Lawyers for the John G. & Marie Stella Kenedy Foundation and the John G. Kenedy Jr. Charitable Trust, which run the ranch, say they will fight the exhumation.

"It is our intention to pursue whatever remedies are available under law to contest this order," foundation attorney Jorge Rangel said Friday. "We are considering our options. We'll take the appropriate action at the appropriate time."

Ann Fernandez, 79, now suffers from dementia. Her son, Nueces County Medical Examiner Ray Fernandez, says he has been pursuing her legal battle for her since his grandmother, Marie Rowland, told him "You looked like your grandfather, John Kenedy." Rowland worked as a maid on the Kenedy Ranch during the 1920s. Rowland died shortly after making the statement.

From some saliva taken from an envelope licked by Kenedy's mother and from DNA taken from Kenedy's surviving cousin, Ray Fernandez proved enough of a genetic match to persuade Herman to order exhumation.

Kenedy was believed to be sterile from a childhood illness. He was survived by a wife and sister, who set up a charitable trust and foundation to manage the ranch after they died.

Kenedy is buried on the Kenedy Ranch near Sarita, which is about 60 miles south of Corpus Christi. The cemetery is kept by the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate.

Sanchez Family Donates to TAMIU 
Sent by Elsa Herbeck
Times Staff Reports, 06/21/04  

The Sanchez Family Foundation representatives announced their gift of $400,000 to establish the Antonio R. and Maria G. Sanchez Family Scholarships at a small reception for students and their parents at Texas A&M International University this week. 

Twenty incoming freshmen were selected based on their high school academic achievement. 
Antonio R. “Tony” Sanchez and Maria G. “Tani” Sanchez, president and vice president respectively of the foundation, said the gift is considered an investment by the foundation in the future of Texas. 

“We have long maintained that higher education is the only true catalyst to change. The scholarships reflect a commitment to the city and state that has been a home to us for generations and that continues to bless us,” said Tony Sanchez. “We are proud of the recipients and are confident they will succeed at TAMIU,” said Tani Sanchez. Ray Keck, TAMIU president, applauded the foundation’s generosity and the vision of the Sanchez Family. 

“The Sanchez’s are no strangers to TAMIU and have provided gifts through the years which have funded popular initiatives such as the Sanchez Distinguished Lecture Series which has broadened perspectives and minds for the past three years. How fitting that they now choose to further broaden our students’ horizons by making higher education possible for these 20 students for their entire undergraduate experience here,” Keck said. 

The students will be known as Sanchez Scholars. The scholarships will provide books, fees and tuition for a four-year degree program completion. 

25th Annual Texas State Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Conference
“Racing through History – Tracing the Lives and Travels of our Ancestors”

Program of Events
September 17,18, 19, 2004
Holiday Inn Hotel
2705 E. Houston Highway ~ Victoria, Texas 77901

Host Club
Victoria Hispanic Genealogical and Historical Society of Texas 
In partnership with the Cultural Council of Victoria
Sophia Postel Wilson, President
701 N. West Street
Victoria, Texas 77901
Texas State Hispanic Genealogy Conference  

Conference Registration $45.00 per person if made before August 13, 2004, $55.00 per person thereafter.  Reception and luncheon are included with registration.  Student registration $15.00 (no meals included).  No refunds after August 31, 2004.  A $15 administrative fee will be deducted for all

Make checks payable to Cultural Council of Victoria and mail to:
Bonnee Riggs, Project Liaison
Cultural Council of Victoria
PO Box 1758
Victoria, Texas 77902

For more information call Sophia Wilson in the evenings at (361) 573-1228 or
email her at


I wanted to remind everyone that I am working on a history of the Texas State conferences for a presentation at the 25th Annual Conference in Victoria. I would like to include group photos of attendees or different great photos of places or monuments from the various years the group held the conference.
If you have them, you can email them to me, or send me a disc, either way I can work with them as long as they are in a jpeg format. I have a scanner also and can digitize original photos, for photos before the digital age from previous conferences.
I know that you want to make sure that your group past and present members are represented in the history of the conference, and I know there has to be some great photos out there.
If you have any questions, let me know. Please forward this email to members of your organizations.
Thank-you for your support!!
Michael A. Salinas
Events Chairperson
25th Annual Hispanic Genealogy Conference
Victoria Genealogical and Historical Society of Texas
President & Founder
Galvez Society for Hispanic Genealogy
"Racing through History- Tracing the Lives of our Ancestors"

Six national flags have flown over Texas since the first European
exploration of the region by Cortez in 1519. The six flags are:

** Texas under Spain: 1519-1685, 1690-1821
** Texas under France: 1685-1690
** Texas under Mexico: 1821-1836
** Texas as a Republic: 1836-1845
** Texas in the Confederacy: 1861-1865
** Texas in the US: 1845-1861, 1865-Present

"With All Arms"

Sent by Alan Duaine

This is to advise you that there really will be a 2nd Edition of Carl L. Duaine's "With All Arms". It will be coming out this month at Eakin Press in Austin and we should begin mailouts early in July. I have ripped the budget, but it's going to be a Cadillac of a book at 425 pages or so, including more than 15 new illustrations by Jack Jackson, plus a vastly expanded index (which includes every name that appears in the text).
     A late decision was to include a dust jacket; this may take a while to turn out, so please advise if you would be willing to get the book first and the dust jacket later, or if you would prefer to wait for the whole package.
    To honor my aim to present the book at less than $50.00, I am sending out the first 100 at a flat rate of $50.00 (tax and shipping included). If this price is agreeable, send me a check as noted below and stand by for Christmas in July.
Sincerely,  Alan Duaine
Make checks out to Las Animas Press 
and Mail to Las Animas Press, 5801 Trailridge Circle, Austin, TX 78731

HOGAR de Dallas  New website:

South Texas Museum Captures Blended History 

By LYNN BREZOSKY Associated Press Writer 
Corpus Christi Caller-Times, December 26, 2003 
Sent by George Gause

EDINBURG, Texas- The doors of the Museum of South Texas History are carved of mesquite, the chandeliers graced by carvings of yucca plants and longhorn cattle, the wrought-iron door handles crafted by a San Antonio specialist.

From the caliche walls to the Mexican ceramic floor tiles, no detail was spared in transforming what was once a small county museum into a significant history of a region that remains a melting pot of old Mexico and new Texas.

What was once known as the Hidalgo County Museum got a $5.5 million facelift this year that added some 28,000 square feet at a new building alongside the historic jail that housed the old museum. The trademark hanging tower at the jail will remain when the two buildings are joined later this year, as will existing exhibits from the old museum.

Shan Rankin, executive director of the museum, said the goal was to rival large museums such as those in San Antonio and Monterrey, Mexico. But the upgrade also was needed because the history of the Rio Grande Valley merited more space, she said.

Several large Texas charitable foundations eagerly contributed funds for the new museum, which is more than double its former size.

"We are so often called and depicted as a very poor, backward region, and we have a wonderfully rich history," she said. "That story needed to be told."

The new museum tour starts with a walk into a darkened room beneath a 24-long mosasaur, a giant prehistoric sea lizard from thousands of years ago when the region was covered in water. Dappled lighting simulates the effect of being in water.

Exhibits include a 25,000-year-old mammoth tusk and leg bone found over the border in Mexico and donated by a man who remembered sitting on them as though they were stools. There's also a leg bone found in Reynosa, Mexico, and a tooth found in Sinton, Texas.

From there, the rooms progress through history _ an exhibit on the now-extinct Coahuiltean tribe ends at a 16th-century Spanish door that symbolizes a crossing into the New World. There's a ship's hold stocked with models of harnessed horses and a floor featuring a mosaic from a navigational chart.

There is a case of weapons and other artifacts that washed up over the centuries on the Texas coast, including a swivel gun and cannonball from a 1554 galleon.

Then comes the period of Spanish colonial ranching compound, the Mexican-American War era, the pioneer and gold rush era and the riverboat era, where fortunes were made by shipping goods out of Matamoros, Mexico.

"We were the back door of the Confederacy," Rankin said, standing beside a facsimile of a Civil War-era hotel modeled after one that stood in Brownsville. "The cotton would be shipped out of the area to Europe and that s how the Confederacy was able to survive."

The fact that the history of the region is still unfolding is evident in the tales behind the exhibits.

When staff struggled to get the mud-and-stick dwelling known as a jacal right, a contractor who had grown up in one showed them how. Exhibits such as the horno, a beehive-shaped caliche oven used in Spanish colonial ranching compounds, were copied from the ones slowly crumbling away on the lonely grounds of nearby ranches.

Jim McAllen, a rancher whose family is the namesake of the neighboring city, made the fence known as a lena in the cattle kingdom exhibit, threading his own antique staples and fence wire into the wood and insisting on the bent-log hinge.

When a company wanted $1,000 per burlap-covered cotton bale for the riverboat exhibit, a local building contractor came through for a fraction of the price. Trouble finding the right music for the pila, or cattle watering hole, ended when the son of the late rancher John Armstrong donated a 1980s recording of his uncle singing old campfire songs, two in Spanish one in English.

Rankin recalled how the artists who designed the exhibit were on hands and knees throwing the cement so it would appear as wind-blown cattle tracks.

"Every museum has a mission statement," Rankin said. "Ours is to preserve and protect the blended histories of South Texas and northern Mexico. ...The whole premise we want people to go away with is that this region is a mixture of the history of two nations that has formed its own region."

[Information below added by George Gause
Museum of South Texas History
121 East McIntyre
Edinburg, TX   78541
(956) 383-6911  Voice
(956) 381-8518  FAX

Texas Newspaper Holdings Index
Sent by George Gause
Source: Roberto R. Calderón

Center for American History, at The University of Texas at Austin  provides an overview of what Texas newspapers and for what periods, etc. available for research during the 19-20th centuries.

Lupe Martinez Honored with Likeness 
Sent by Elsa Herbeck   06/02/04 

Times Staff Reports, Laredo Community College unveiled Tuesday a bronze sculpture honoring one of its major contributors, Guadalupe Martinez. 

The ceremony was held in the lobby of the college's new Fine Arts Center which also bears Martinez' name. "There are no words that can express our gratitude towards you and your family, Tio Lupe," said LCC Board President Ramiro V. Martinez, whose family shares roots in the ranch land of Zapata County with the donor. "What you have done for the college, for our students, for the arts, should not be forgotten and we will certainly remember you always." 

Guadalupe Martinez, and his late wife Lilia, recently established a family foundation whose contributions helped LCC build the $8.4 million auditorium and classroom building. Contributions from the Martinez family also purchased equipment for the facility, including a Steinway grand piano. 

Mr. Martinez is a retired rancher. His wife, Lilia, is a retired educator from the Zapata Independent School District. 

Their philanthropic efforts have benefited numerous organizations such as the Boy Scouts, Bethany House and the Diocese of Laredo. Mr. Martinez is an active and charter member of the South Texas Development Council and is a member of Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church. 

The LCC Fine Arts Center was dedicated in August 2003. The couple also received the LCC Meritorious Service Award for 2003. 

The bronze likeness of Mr. Martinez, wearing the rancher's traditional cowboy hat, was unveiled at a ceremony that hosted members of the Martinez family, LCC board members, college faculty and administrators. 

Laredo artist Armando Hinojosa created the bronze sculpture, which will be permanently located in the lobby of the LCC Guadalupe and Lilia Martinez Fine Arts Center. 

Texas State Deaths for 2002 released. 
View at
Sent by Mira Smithwick    

This report is best viewed by setting your Browser to a mono-spaced font such as 10-point
Courier. (AOL Users: Because the AOL default Browser's font cannot be set, the report may be
difficult to read.)

The Vitalsearch Month in Review can also be seen from your Browser at:

Work has resumed in rescanning the 1905-29 & 1930-39 CA Deaths from the original source documents.  We thank you.   The Vitalsearch Company Worldwide, Inc

Saving Texas History!  Texas General Land Office New Initiative

Sent by George Gause

Greetings friends of the Archives of the Texas General Land Office -

It is my distinct pleasure to introduce you to the first issue of our latest publication "Saving Texas History - The Newsletter of the Texas General Land Office Archives."  This will be a way to keep all of our interested customers, patrons, donors, and friends up to date on the exciting things taking place in the Archives of the General Land Office.  

As many of you know, under the leadership of Land Commissioner Jerry Patterson, we recently launched a new initiative called "SAVE TEXAS HISTORY!" designed to inspire Texans to get involved in the conservation of our very important collection.  We will be using our newsletter as a way to keep all of our supporters up to speed on important milestones as that initiative develops.  It will also serve as an educational tool for those of you only just now getting involved with the General Land Office Archives.  I hope that it will help you to better understand what we are about and what services we can offer you.

This newsletter is a free publication, distributed via email and the internet.  It will be published on an occasional basis.  To access it, simply click the link below and it will open as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file:

If you do not have Adobe Acrobat Reader, a complimentary copy may be downloaded here:

Please take the time to visit our website at  for more information about the Archives of the Texas General Land Office and our many ongoing projects.

I thank you all for your continuing interest in our collection and wish you the very best.

Jerry C. Drake, M.A.
Archives & Records,
Texas General Land Office
(512) 463-5260
visit our website at:

Texas State Library and Archives: Helpful websites
Texas State Library and Archives / Archival Finding Guides
Texas State Library and Archives / Texas Treasurers (keeps above current)
Texas State Library and Archives (general)
Sent by George Gause

Historical Data on Buildings, Dwellings and Other Structures of 
Fort Ringgold, Rio Grande City, Roma, and Surrounding Areas
Source: Texas Historical Commission and National Registar
Source:  J. D. Villarreal




"They Came in Ships..."

[An address delivered by Paul Newfield III on October 7, 2000, at Donaldsonville, Louisiana, on the occasion of the dedication of the monument celebrating the Canary Islanders who settled in Louisiana in the late 18th century.]

 El año mil setecientos, setenta  y ocho... 
The year 1778.  They came in ships -- men, women, children -- our ancestors.

Seven hundred recently enlisted recruits with their families, departing their native Canary Islands forever, aboard sailing ships that would carry them across the seas to Spanish Louisiana.

By estimate, approximately 2,363 Isleños set sail for Louisiana, but not all of them arrived here.

King Carlos III of Spain required fresh troops to bear arms in the imminent war against Great Britain, and he needed loyal subjects to settle, populate and defend his Louisiana lands.  Over a period of about five years, beginning in the about 1778, our Canary Islands ancestors came to Louisiana.  They settled at places they called San Bernardo, Tierra de los Bueyes, Galveztown, Barataria, Valenzuela.  

I have often tried to imagine what it might have been like for those early Isleños.

Why did they come?  What circumstances would compel a man to leave his native land and boldly travel to the other side of the earth, to a distant destination, Nevermore to return?

It takes Courage, Inner Strength, Faith, and a lot of Hope –Attributes that I admire in my ancestors and that I look for in myself.


These Canary Islanders were loyal subjects of King Carlos III of Spain.  Their native archipelago consisted then, as it does now, of seven volcanic islands situated in the deep blue waters of the Atlantic Ocean, some 800 miles southwest of Spain and 100 miles west of Morocco on the African continent.

They came to this place called Louisiana  --  this flat, featureless land of marshes, bayous, swamps and prairies  --  a place so very different from their homeland.

They were military men, freshly recruited soldiers of the newly established Second Battalion of the Fixed Louisiana Regiment. Earning their pay, they captured Baton Rouge from the British in 1779; they captured Mobile in 1780, and Pensacola in 1781.  In the story of America's fight for Independence, these soldiers justifiably earned a place of honor.  They were pioneer farmers - tamers of the land and cultivators of the soil.

Equally deserving of recognition and a place of special honor were the Women -- the wives, the mothers -- keepers of the hearth, Women who shared the hardships and joys, who bore the children and who reared and nurtured them.

In our research, we are fortunate to have access to the detailed records, penned by Spanish clerks and administrators more than 200 years ago, among which are a series of ledger books called Libros Maestros.

In Valenzuela, the Libro Maestro dates from 1779, and lists 113 family groups, including 3 widows and 9 orphaned girls, for a total count of about 400 souls.
The very first name appearing in that Libro Maestro was Francisco Gonzales Carbo, with his wife and 9 children - 11 family members in all.  It is no wonder that this family name is so well known to us all.  

Many Canary Islanders prospered...  But not all.  Those in Galveztown were not so fortunate.

The recruit Antonio Alonso set sail from Santa Cruz de Tenerife on October 28, 1778 aboard the frigate San Ignacio de Loyola, with his wife Rita and their 5 year old son, Antonio.  Rita was two months pregnant when they began the voyage.

She must have been a strong woman.  A sea voyage, pregnant, but with a spirit full of Hope.  They arrived at New Orleans in early January, 1779, and they were among 28 families of the San Ignacio  who ascended the Mississippi River to Galveztown, a newly established frontier settlement at the confluence of Iberville's Bayou Manchak and the Amite River, directly across from contentious British territory.  The Alonso family would be part of the Galveztown settlement, and the elder Antonio would hope to wear the uniform of Bernardo de Galvez's Second Louisiana Infantry Battalion.

The Alonso family was enrolled on the pages of the Libro Maestro, and from these pages from Galveztown we read the following notations:
"On May 27, 1779 was born a daughter.
"On the 8th of July, 1779 the son died;
"On the 25th of July, 1779 the daughter died;
And then lastly we read, 

"All the remaining individuals of this family died on the 2nd and the 16th of September, 1779...."

Only 11 months after Antonio Alonso and his family sailed, they were all gone.  Vanquished Hope!  Sic transit gloria mundi.

The old settlement at Barataria has all but disappeared, returned now to its original moss and palmetto, but its cultural legacy to us is a small, languid bayou, remembered to this day as Bayou des Familles  -  "Bayou of the Families"  -  in recognition of the Canarian families that once inhabited its banks.  Ironically the name of the bayou is in French.

From the settlements of San Bernardo and Tierra de los Bueyes in St. Bernard parish, those early Isleños bequeathed to us their Spanish language, which they passed along to their children and their children's children.  They perpetuated the old stories, and they sang their decimas - those distinctive songs of a particular form and meter that celebrate life.  The Isleños of St. Bernard, above all, have been "keepers of the flame", where that glowing ember of "Spanishness" has continued to smolder for more than 200 years.

And back to the settlement of Valenzuela - along the banks of Bayou Lafourche des Chetimaches - where we are today.

We have come here, this October 7th, 2000, to this old venerable parish cemetery of the Church of the Ascension, in Donaldsonville, Louisiana, to dedicate and bless this beautiful monumental stone.  And in so doing, let us also call upon our Isleño ancestors - those bold immigrants - for their blessing upon us and our families;  and we pray that their strengths and virtues will continue to pour down upon us, their lineal descendants and heirs of their blood - upon us here, who, in their time, were the Hope for which they prayed.

 Paul Newfield III
Sent by Bill Carmena



National Archives Hispanic/Latino Family History Conference
Friday and Saturday, October 1st and 2nd 
14 workshops will be offered

If you have never researched in the National Archives in Washington, D.C., this might be a good time to schedule a trip. Workshop speakers have been selected, but not firmed, except for the keynote, Dr. George Ryskamp, Director of the Center for Family History and Genealogy at BYU. 

Dr. Ryskamp is the author of many books and articles on tracing Spanish-language family lines. 
Dr. Ryskamp's first book, and the only one on the subject at that time, was first published in 1984,
Tracing Your Hispanic Heritage, 972 pages packed with How-To information.  The latest book, just released was co-authored with his wife Peggy, A Student's Guide to Mexican American Genealogy published by Oryx American Family Tree Series.

As the program information is available Somos Primos will publish it. In addition, a NARA website will soon be set up to post the information as it develops. Although the program is geared to adult family history researchers from beginners to advance, every attempt will be made to encourage teachers, youth social workers, high school and university students to attend. Cost of the conference will be minimal, or none at all. 
Friday, October 1 
10:30 a.m. to Noon : Keynote address and panel
12:15 to 1:15 p.m. - 3 workshops 
1:15 to 2:30 - Lunch (patrons on their own) 
2:30 to 3:30 - 3 workshops 
3:30 to 4:30 - 2 workshops 
4:30 to 5:30 - Reception 
Saturday, October 2
All events in Conference Rooms:
10:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. - 3 workshops 
11:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. - 3 workshops 
Patrons will have the option of spending time Saturday afternoon conducting research at Archives or in other nearby areas (library of congress, DAR library, etc).  

All historical and genealogical societies and organizations that have a specific outreach to Spanish-language heritage Hispanics and Latinos are invited to send brochures and a poster for display. 

They may be mailed directly to: Sam Anthony
Director of Lecture Programs, National Archives and Records Administration
700 Pennsylvania Ave. NW  Room G-7   Washington, DC 20408 
For more information send, an email to >


Homenajearán Don Israel Cavazos  
San Isidro Labrador 1820-1841
Racial Makeup Native-Born Mexicans 
Colegio de Cronistas  e Historiadores

Don Francisco del Árbol y Bonilla
Sitio Genealógico en Español  
Padilla Dávila en España y Mexico
Jalisco's Registro Civil 
Cristobál de Villarreal-de-las-Casas

Homenajearán historia de don Israel Cavazos  
Por Daniel de la Fuente
El Norte, 22 Junio 2004 


La trayectoria del hombre que ha dedicado más de medio siglo a erigir la obra gris de la historiografía nuevoleonesa será reconocida mañana cuando varias instancias, conducidas por el Gobierno del Estado, rindan un homenaje al Cronista de Monterrey, Israel Cavazos Garza.

El Consejo para la Cultura y las Artes de Nuevo León, la UANL y el Municipio de Monterrey se unirán para brindar tributo a Cavazos en el Museo de Historia Mexicana.

El evento iniciará a las 17:00 horas con la mesa redonda "El quehacer del historiador en el México contemporáneo", a cargo de César Morado, Sonia Calderoni Bonleux, Javier Rojas y José Antonio Olvera.

Las palabras en reconocimiento del autor del monumental "Diccionario Biográfico de Nuevo León" estarán a cargo del presidente del Conarte, Alfonso Rangel Guerra.

Luego, el Gobernador Natividad González Parás le entregará un reconocimiento al historiador, entre cuyos trabajos se encuentra haber puesto a la luz al "Cronista anónimo" Juan Bautista Chapa, y anunciará el Premio de Investigación Histórica 2004, cuya convocatoria estará a cargo del Conarte y que dará un estímulo de 50 mil pesos.

Cavazos es el símbolo de una generación fundamental de promotores, historiadores e intelectuales de relevancia para la cultura nuevoleonesa. Organizador y clasificador de archivos, autor de libros que contienen miles de documentos clave, su nombre ha sido distinguido con muchos premios.

Su obra se encuentra dispersa y la mayoría de sus ediciones, por ser de autor o de tirajes reducidos, están agotadas. De allí que numerosas asociaciones de historiadores, incluso de provincia y de la capital del País, han manifestado la urgencia de que sus trabajos sean reunidos bajo la dirección del propio autor de "El Muy Ilustre Ayuntamiento de Monterrey".

Sent by George Gause
Source: Elio Botello (McAllen) told me about this article.
Rogelio Hinojosa (Laredo) provided me with a copy of the text.


Located at present day Arteaga, Coahuila
By Carlos Federico Valdes Ramos
Papercover, 8.5X11 inches, Tape binding, 42 pages 

This book contains records of 1585 baptisms. The record gives the name of the child being baptized, date, name of father and mother, and page number of the original microfilm.

This book is $12.00 plus $1.35 postage
The book is available from:
Los Bexarenos Genealogical Society
P.O. Box 1935
San Antonio, TX 78297


Racial Makeup of Native-Born Mexicans (from the 1921 Mexican Census)

© Copyright 2004, John P. Schmal. All Rights Reserved.


Indígena Pura*

Indígena Pura (% of Total State Population)

Indígena Mezclada con Blanca**

of Indígena Mezclada
con Blanca

Total State Population

Indígena Pura (% of "Indígena
Pura" of Mexican Republic)








Baja California – North and South










































District Federal






































































Nuevo León




























Quintana Roo







San Luis Potosí































































The Mexican Republic







* Indígena Pura - Pure Indigenous Origins

** Indígena Mezclada con Blanca (Indigenous Mixed with White)

Source: Departamento de la Estadística Nacional,

"Annuario de 1930" (Tacubaya, Distrito Federal: 1932).

Junio 16 del 2004, Camargo, Tamps.

El Colegio de Cronistas e Historiadores de la Frontera Norte de Tamaulipas y Sur de Texas, A. C.
Le invitan a sú X reunión de trabajo en el marco del 138 de la Historica Batalla de las Lomas de Santa Gertrudis, de Camargo, Tamaulipas.

Aniversario 138  Miercoles 16 de Junio del 2004
8:30 a.m. Ceremonia Conmemorativa en el Obelisco de Santa Gertrudis
11:00 a.m. Reunión de trabajo del Colegio en la 
Presidencia Municipal de Ciudad Camargo

Presentaciones: Las ponencias se entregaran por escrito con el objetivo de reproducirlas y entregarlas ese mismo día a los participantes, el tema sera libre la duración será de 25 minutos como máximo, para mayores informes comunicarse con: 

Ing. Clemente Rendon de la Garza, Presidente del CCHF su (956) 495-7644: 
Arq. Carlos Rugerio Cazares, Secretario us (956) 849-0099 cel en mex: 01-86-88-85-20-28
o al correo electrónico:

Sent by George Gause


Por Leonardo de la Torre y Berumen

Testamento del General don Francisco del Árbol y Bonilla


En el nombre de Dios nuestro Señor Todo Poderoso y de la Virgen Santísima su madre y señora nuestra concebida sin pecado original. Amen. Sea notorio a los que la presente carta de mi testamento y ultima voluntad vieren como yo don Francisco del Árbol y Bonilla vecino de esta dicha villa, hijo legítimo del Capitán don Alonso de Bonilla y de doña Juana la Hermosa, naturales delos Reinos de Castilla en la villa de Fernán Núñez Obispado de Córdoba de donde yo lo soy natural estando sano y bueno en mi libre juicio memoria y entendimiento natural y creyendo como firmemente creo el misterio de la santísima trinidad Padre, hijo y Espíritu Santo tres personas distintas y un solo Dios verdadero y en lo demás que tiene cree y confiesa nuestra santa madre Iglesia Católica Romana en cuya fe he vivido y protesto vivir y morir invocando como invoco por mis intercesores y abogados a la Purísima siempre virgen María, Santos Apóstoles San pedro y San Pablo, Santo de mi nombre y Ángel de mi guarda para que aboguen y rueguen por mi a Dios nuestros señor temiendo de la muerte que es cosa natural a toda criatura y deseando salvar mi alma otorgo mi testamento en la forma siguiente: Primeramente mando y encomiendo mi alma a Dios Nuestro Señor que la crió y redimió con el riquísimo tesoro de su sangre y pido y suplico a su Divina Majestad la lleve consigo a su gloria para donde fue criada y al cuerpo mando ala tierra de que fue formado el cual es mi voluntad que cuando la de Dios nuestro Señor fuera servido de llevarme de esta presente vida sea amortajado con el habito de mi padre San Francisco de los hijos descalzos del señor San Diego y sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de esta dicha villa en la parte y lugar que a mis albaceas les pareciere a cuya voluntad dejo la disposición de él y forma del entierro advirtiendo que mi voluntad y sea con entierro humilde y siendo hora competente se me cante presente mi cuerpo una misa ofrendada de pan y vino y cera y sino siguiente día. Y también mando y es mi voluntad se den a las mandas forzosas y acostumbradas a dos pesos con que las aparto de mis bienes. Y también mando y es mi voluntad se digan por mi anima y la de mis padres, hermanos y demás de mi obligación quinientas misas rezadas dándose por ellas la limosna acostumbrada. Y también mando y es mi voluntad se digan doscientas misas rezadas por el anima de doña Dominga García de Soto mi esposa que fue dando por ellas la limosna ordinaria. Y también mando y es mi voluntad se digan cien misas rezadas por el anima de doña Josefa de Arce y Castilla y por la de sus padres y por ella se de la limosna ordinaria. Y también mando y es mi voluntad se digan otras doscientas misas por el anima de doña María de Valladares, sus padres, hijos y demás descendientes y por ella se de la limosna ordinaria. Y también mando y es mi voluntad se digan otras doscientas misas para aquellas personas con quienes yo hubiere tenido trato y contrato por si en alguna manera ignorándolo les fuere en cargo en algo una cosa y se den por ellas la limosna ordinaria. Y también mando y es mi voluntad se digan por las animas benditas del purgatorio que tuvieren más (dignidad) y fueren del agrado de Dios Nuestro Señor cien misas rezadas dándose por ellas la limosna ordinaria. Y también mando y es mi voluntad se den de limosna a cada uno de los tres conventos de esta villa cincuenta pesos. Y también mando y es mi voluntad se den de limosna para ayuda de la fabrica de la capilla mayor de la parroquia de esta villa cien pesos. Y también declaro para el descargo de mi conciencia que tengo en mi poder setenta pesos de oro común en reales pertenecientes a Vicente de Ávila difunto vecino que fue de esta villa y es alcanzándose de ellos lo que justo fuere de mis derechos del inventario que hizo don José de la Escalera, mi teniente. Y también mando y es mi voluntad que si alguno pareciere y dijere que le soy deudor de alguna cantidad justificándola mando a mis albaceas se la paguen. Y también declaro para el descargo de mi conciencia que he sido casado y velado in facie eclesiae según el orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia tres veces, la primera con la dicha doña Dominga de Soto, vecina de los Reinos de Castilla, donde murió y aunque con el tiempo que fuimos casados tuvimos y procreamos por nuestra hija legítima a Teodora Elena del Árbol y Bonilla, murió pequeñita. La segunda vez con doña Josefa de Arce y Castilla, hija legítima del Capitán don Ventura de Arce y Castilla y doña María Rincón Gallardo, difuntos y vecinos de esta villa y aunque tuvimos y procreamos por nuestra hija legítima a María Josefa de los Dolores del Árbol y Bonilla, murió pequeñita después de la dicha su madre y la tercera con doña Gertrudis Gallardo, hija legítima del Capitán don Juan Antonio Gallardo y doña Juana Bernarda de Reinoso, vecinos de la jurisdicción de Lagos y al tiempo y cuando me casé con la dicha doña Josefa me dieron en dote sus padres cinco mil trescientos y dos pesos aunque celebre escritura de siete mil pesos fue en confianza porque se me deben hasta hoy dos mil ovejas que me dieron a seis reales, doce caballos a cuatro pesos y seis mulas a veinte y cinco pesos de todo lo cual me di por entregado en confianza en cuya fe otorgue dicha escritura y dicha dote de dicha mi hija y con la doña Gertrudis Gallardo me dieron en dote un mil doscientos once pesos y cuatro reales según la memoria que dicho don Juan Gallardo mi suegro me dio y entrego en que consta lo recibido con su firma y mi capital era entonces diez mil pesos , aunque hoy hay algo menos y durante el tiempo de nuestro matrimonio no hemos tenido ni procreado hijo ninguno por cuya razón mando y es mi voluntad que si cuando falleciere no hubiere tenido hijos de este matrimonio es mi voluntad se funde una capellanía de dos mil pesos de principal y ciento de réditos en cada un año con al carga y obligación de veinte misas rezadas en cada un año que han de decir en los días de nuestra señora y santos apóstoles y en la parte y lugar que quisiere el capellan que fuere de dicha capellanía la cual se ha de fundar en las casas de mi morada de esta dicha villa en que reconozco diez pesos que pago cada año al Bachiller don Nicolás Marín de Santa Cruz, Clérigo Presbítero domiciliario de este Obispado de su capellanía y dichas misas se han de aplicar por mi anima la de mis padres abuelos hermanos mujeres y demás de mi obligación señalando como desde luego señalo hoy de cosa para entonces por primer capellán a los hijos de dicho don Juan Antonio Gallardo mi suegro entendiéndose el que tuviere mas apto y prefiriendo el mayor al menor y si ninguno de estos se aplicare es mi voluntad pase el derecho a los hijos legítimos de don Juan Urbano Arce y Castilla, mi compadre y hermano (cuñado) y nombro por patrón de dicha capellanía al cura que fuera de esta dicha villa y pido y suplico al Ilustrísimo Señor Obispo de este Obispado se sirva de admitir esta fundación y convetio de bienes temporales en espirituales y hacer por fundada dicha capellanía cuando se presente la escritura que en virtud de esta cláusula otorgare por ser mi voluntad gocen de este sufragio las venditas animas del purgatorio. Y también declaro por mis bienes los siguientes: Primeramente las dichas casas de mi morada que se compone de Sala tres recamaras portal cocina zaguán tienda y trastienda escritorio trojes portal caballeriza secretas y huerta y corral de gallinas y dos patios y la tierra en que esta fabricada.

Y también otra dicha en el real de los Asientos de esta jurisdicción que se compone de zaguán, sala y recamara dos aposentos, tienda y trastienda, otro aposento, cocina, portal, patio y corral. Y también una mulata esclava nombrada Andrea de edad de 24 años. Y también otra mulata nombrada Ana de edad de 18 años. Y también otra esclava nombrado Cristóbal Moran de edad de 30 años. Y también otra mulata esclava nombrada Teresa de edad de 4 años, hija de la dicha Antonia, criolla mía. Y también una negra esclava nombrada María de la Cruz de 30 años que me dieron en dote con la dicha doña Gertrudis y un negrito nombrado Domingo de edad de 4 años hijo de la dicha María de la Cruz, que donó mi suegro a la dicha mi esposa. Y también un mulato nombrado Joaquín Blanco y Bermejo que anda huido y lo declaro, por bienes míos para que mis albaceas lo soliciten. Y también mil trescientos cabezas de ganado menor. Y también cuatro mulas de carga y coche. Y también tres caballos de mi silla. Y también una silla jinete bordada de correa con su almastigo de plata nuevo. Y también un par de pistolas con sus fundas nuevas bordadas de correa. Y también una escopeta larga con su funda. Y también otra dicha escopeta maltratada. Y también un espadachín de plata. Y también setenta marcos de plata labrada y quintada en diferentes piezas. Y también la ropa de mi uso blanca y de color. Y también trescientos cincuenta pesos de posas. Y también dos pares de zarcillos de perlas y oro. Y también una concepción de oro guarnecida de amatistas y orlada de perlas. Y también una sortija de diamantes que valdrá setenta pesos. Y también una esmeralda grande que valdrá cincuenta pesos. Y también otras tres sortijas de piedra ordinaria en oro. Y también unas pulseras y rosario de corales. Y también dos cofrecitos el uno de filigranas de plata y el otro de carey guarnecido en plata. Y también otra sortija que sirve de rosa de piedra blanca y ordinaria en oro. Y también un vestido triple de fondo de Toledo con su paladín guarnecido con su villaveta de plata y dos guardapiés de violeta todo nuevo y demás del adorno de dicha mi esposa. Y también una uniado de pintura nuevo doce cojines de damasco y una alfombrita. Y también ocho sillas mejicanas de sentarse nuevas, un armario de madera, una mesa. Y también un San Sebastián de tres cuartas de alto de bulto con su peaña y una nuestra Señora de Belén de pincel y una de Guadalupe y otra de Dolores y una de talla de la Concepción. Y también los metates, casos y demás trastos de cocina y un almofrez con su ananta petaquilla y dos petacas. Y también seis cajas y dos más de distintas madera y todo lo demás que se hallaré en dicha mi casa y así de mi uso y adorno como del de mi esposa lo declaro por mis bienes como así mismo quinientos pesos que tengo en distintas cosas y géneros en un tendajón que tengo. Y también dos mil pesos en reales en poder de dicho capitán don Juan Gallardo mi suegro de que tengo cartas y recibo en mi poder que del declaro por mis bienes como así mismo las dos mil ovejas, doce caballos, seis mulas que dicho Capitán don Ventura de Arce y Castilla mi suegro me debe que también declaro por mis bienes y mando a mis albaceas lo cobren de sus bienes. Y para cumplir y pagar este mi testamento mandas y legajos en el contenidos instituyo y nombro por mis albaceas testamentarios al Capitán don Juan Rafael de Osaña, vecino y mercader en el Real de los Asientos de esta jurisdicción y a la dicha doña Gertrudis Gallardo mi esposa a los cuales y a cada uno ... doy el poder que de derecho se requiere para que de los más bien parado de mis bienes vendan los que bastaren y cumplan y paguen las mandas y legados de este mi testamento sobre que les encargo de conciencia y lo que obrasen valga como si todo lo otorgase. Y también mando y es mi voluntad que se den al dicho mi albacea seiscientos cincuenta pesos para que por su mano y cargo se remitan a España y se entreguen a las personas que diré abajo: a Teresa González mi sobrina 200 pesos, a doña Josefa González, otros 200 pesos a doña Juana la Hermosa otros 200 pesos que les dejo por ser mis sobrinas carnales hijas de mis hermanas y los 50 pesos restantes a doña Francisca Cordero de Espejo mi cuñada y por su ausencia o muerte a doña Francisca Cordero su madre, y si las dichas mis sobrinas estuvieren muertas se le den a sus hijos o padres cogiendo recibo de ellos mis albaceas y las dichas personas viven en Palencia ciudad de Castilla que es donde vive doña Josefa González hija de don Gregorio González, y en la villa de Pastrana vive doña Teresa González y en la villa de Montalbán Obispado de Córdoba vive doña Juana La Hermosa casada con Benito López y doña Francisca Cordera vive en Cádiz junto a la puerta de Sevilla en la calle de Los Flamencos. Y cumplido y pagado este mi testamento según y en la forma referida en el remanente de mis bienes derechos y acciones que me pertenecen instituyo y nombro por mi legítima y universal heredera a la dicha doña Gertrudis Gallardo mi legítima esposa para que lo haya, goce y herede procurando haga todo el bien que pudiere por mi alma sobre que le encargo la conciencia y revoco y anulo otros cualesquiera testamentos y codicilos que antes de hoy se haya hecho por escrito de palabra o en otra forma para que valgan ni hagan fe, salvo este que ahora otorgo que quiero que valga por mi testamento y última voluntad por la mía y forma que mejor haya lugar de derecho. En cuyo testimonio otorgo así en esta villa de Aguascalientes en once días del mes de diciembre de mil setecientos y once años. Y yo el Escribano doy fe que conozco al otorgante y cual parece esta en su entero juicio cabal y natural memoria que así lo otorgó y firmó en el registro, siendo testigos por su parte rogados y llamados don Nicolás de Aguilera y Ignacio de Burgos y Pedro Rincón de Ortega, vecinos de esta villa. Enmendado. Enmendó. No vale. Entre renglones susodicho de doscientos pesos que mando reconoce mi heredera hasta que lo faquite y redima. Ana vale. Don Francisco Árbol y Bonilla. Rúbrica. Ante mi don Baltasar de Aguilera. Escribano Publico y de Cabildo. Rúbrica.

Al margen: "di testimonio de fe al otorgante. En Aguascalientes en 5 de julio de 1717 años al Capitán don Francisco del Árbol y Bonilla canceló este testamento ante mi el escribano y me pidió lo anotase en cuya virtud y de haberlo hecho hoy dicho día en el protocolo de mi cargo este año donde se hallara lo certifico en debida forma dio y lo firmó el dicho de que doy fe. Testigos: don Serapio Toral y don Francisco Garay Bonilla. Ante mi y lo signe Aguilera. Escribano Real y Publico".

Primer Sitio Genealógico en Español

Queridos Amigos, Bienvenidos al mundo de la genealogía !!!
Muchas novedades ya estan en en la sección de LIGAS, se han agregado mucho nuevos sitios para que puedas visitar On Line Archivos, Bibliotecas, Cementerios, Imágenes Satelitales, y muchos programas para computadora para que hagas tu Arbol Genealógico (software).

Tambien hemos incluido Fraternidades y Sociedades a las que posiblemente tus ancestros pertenecieron, algunas tienen sitios web y podrás solicitar información. Una liga constantemente se actualiza y es la de Cementerios, cada semana un promedio de 10 panteones se añaden a la base de datos en consulta gratuita, y es internacional.    Busca tu Pais.

Envíanos tus comentarios, sobre que debemos agregar sobre todo de tu pais o ciudad si es que esta ofrece alguna consulta via internet.

Si ya usas un programa genealógico y tienes deseo de compartir tu informacion, Compartela con el mundo enviándonos un archivo de exportacion de información llamado GEDCOM, y podras ver tu informacion en linea. 

La sección de educación tiene Preguntas Frecuentes y Articulos de Interés.  Y las publicaciones entre las que destacan las de la Genealogísta Maria de la Luz Montejano.

No olvides iniciar tu sesión correctamente, escribiendo tu e-mail y password, si lo olvidaste solicitalo en el espacio correspondiente.



 Guillermo Padilla Origel


Ancestrado en su origen de las villas de Padilla de Yuso y de Suso, del partido judicial de Castrojeriz, cerca de Ávila en Castilla la vieja, emparentados en varias ocasiones con la real familia de los Dávila de las navas del Marqués y de la ciudad de Ávila, viviendo desde tiempos remotos en dicha región , hasta que invitados por Don Alfonso X el sabio, para la reconquista del sur, se establecieron en la Andalucía, principalmente en Jerez de la Frontera desde la edad media hasta nuestros días, emigrando Algunas familias a mediados del siglo XVI hacia América, principalmente en la Nueva España.

I.-Don Pero López de Padilla , "el viejo" y de el descienden:

II.-Don Juan Fernández de Padilla,
natural de Ávila, y luego alguacil mayor en Toledo y comisario del Rey, se casó con Doña Juana García de Ayala

III.-Don Gutierre de Padilla, originario de Ávila, y luego vecino de Jeréz de la Frontera, se casa con Doña Leonor de Aguilar, y fue su hija :

IV.-Doña Leonor Gutierre de Padilla,
testó en 1470, en Jeréz, y se casó con Don García Dávila, el de las "juras", descendiente de varias generaciones de los Dávila de Ávila y de las Navas del Marqués, en Castilla la Vieja , luego establecidos en Jeréz y fueron sus hijos:

V.-Don Juan Bernalté Dávila
, casado con María Osorio en primeras nupcias y fue su hija:
1.-Doña Leonor de Padilla, casada con Don Pedro Spinola 

y Don Juan Bernalté, casado en segundas nupcias con Doña Catalina de Mendoza y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Doña Francisca de Mendoza, casada con Alonso López de Hinojosa y
2.-Don Garcia Dávila II, casado con Francisca de Hinojosa.

V.-Don Gutierre de Padilla, casado con Isabel de Villavicencio, y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Doña Isabel de Padilla Dávila, casada con el caballero veinticuatro de Jeréz, Don Fernán López de Melgarejo y
2.-Don García Dávila II

V.-Don Diego Dávila,
quien fue a la expedición a Berbería, se casó en 1480 , con Doña Beatriz de Pineda y Ponce de León y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Don Juan de Pineda y Ponce de León, casado con Inés de Porres
2.-Doña María de Pineda, casada con Pedro Riquelme, alcalde de la santa hermandad, que testó en 1500

3.-Don García Dávila II, casado con Antonia Benítez, y fueron sus hijos:
Diego Dávila, muerto en Indias, sin sucesión e Isabel Dávila, monja profesa.
V.-Don Fernando de Padilla, viajó en la expedición a Berbería, y casó con Doña Catalina de Fuentes, sin sucesión.

V.-Don Bartolomé Dávila
, murió en 1519, y se casó con Doña Leonor Méndez de Sotomayor , y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Don García Dávila II
2.-Doña Ana Méndez de Sotomayor, casada con Cristóbal Dávila
3.-Doña Leonor de Padilla, casada con García Dávila II
4.-Doña Isabel de Padilla, casada con Jácome Adono
5.-Don Gutierre de Padilla
6.-Don Fernando de Padilla, casado en primeras nupcias con Catalina de Salazar y en segundas con Inés de Padilla.
7.-Don Pedro Núñez Dávila, casado con Catalina de Cuenca.

V.-Don Gómez Dávila, casado con Catalina Gutiérrez de Valdespino, y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Don García Dávila, II, casado con Leonor Núñez de Villavicencio en primeras nupcias y en segundas con Leonor de Hinojosa.
2.-Don Gómez Dávila II, casado con Isabel de Herrera
3.-Doña Catalina Dávila, casada con Charles de Valera
4.-Doña Francisca Dávila, casada con Juan de Herrera
5.-Doña Teresa de Villavicencio, casada con Gedeón de Hinojosa
6.-Doña Beatriz Dávila, casada con Diego Suazo
7.-Doña Leonor de Padilla, casada con Luis Suárez de Carrizosa
8.-Bartolomé Núñez Dávila, casado con Isabel de Cuenca

V.-Don Martín Dávila
, casado con María de Cuenca, y fueron sus hijos:
1.-Doña María Dávila Padilla, casada con Dionisio Revilla
2.-Doña Leonor Dávila, casada con Pedro Gaytán
3.-Don García Dávila II

V.-Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila
, casado en Jeréz el 30 de julio de 1492, con Doña María de Vera, hija de Don Gonzalo Pérez de Gallegos y de Doña Beatriz de Vera, y fueron sus hijos de Don Lorenzo y Doña María :

1.-Doña Leonor de Padilla, casada con Álvar López de Hinojosa Spínola
2.-Don Gutierre de Padilla, casado con Isabel de Villavicencio
3.-Don García de Padilla, casado con Luisa de Valencia y el

4.-Comendador de la orden de Santiago Don Hernando o Fernando de Padilla Dávila, casado en 1515 en canarias con Doña Leonor de Machicao y Rivas, hija legítima de Don Fernando de Machicao y de Doña Constanza de Rivas, y fueron sus hijos de Don Hernando y de Doña Leonor :

a.-Doña Constanza de Padilla, casada con Juan de Pastrana

b.-Doña Leonor de Padilla, casada con Álvar López, caballero veinticuatro de Jeréz.

c.-Doña María de Vera o Padilla Dávila, casada con Don Luis de Barahona, hijo legitimo de Don Juan de Barahona y Padilla y Beatriz de Vera y fueron sus hijos:

Aa.-capitan, Don Juan de Barahona y Padilla, muerto en 1588 en la batalla de la Armada Invencible y es probable que fue padre de Don Juan de Padilla Dávila, que se casó en 1616 en la villa de las Aguascalientes en la Nueva Galicia con Doña Petrona de Siordia, con numerosa sucesión en los altos de Jalisco.

Bb-Don Alonso Martín de Barahona y Padilla
, vecino luego en Nueva España del pueblo de Taximaroa en Michoacán, donde fundó una capellanía en 1569 y fue padre de :

Don Hernando de Padilla Dávila y Barahona, casado con Doña Jerónima Hurtado de Mendoza, quien tuvo una numerosa sucesión en Taximaroa, donde fue dueño de varias tierras entre ellas el valle de Jaripeo en Michoacán.

d.-Capitán Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Machicao, capitán en Flandes, se traslada a la nueva Galicia por 1550 en compañía de su esposa Doña Mariana Temiño de Velasco, hija del conquistador Pedro Pacho y Doña Ana Velasco de Temiño, esta última hermana de Don Baltasar Temiño de Bañuelos, co-fundador de Zacatecas; Y Don Lorenzo y su esposa fueron co-fundadores de la villa de Santa María de los Lagos en 1563 y fueron sus hijos nacidos en la capital de la nueva Galicia :

Aa.-Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Temiño de Velasco, casado con Juana Domínguez y Barahona, hija de Juan Domínguez Caballero y Catalina Padilla Barahona, con sucesión principalmente en Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco, y fueron sus hijos:

Aaa.-Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Domínguez, casado con Ana de Nava, padres a su vez de Lorenzo de Padilla y Nava, bautizado en 1635 en Lagos y Pedro de Padilla y Nava, bautizado en 1636 en Lagos.

Bbb.-Doña Mariana de Padilla Dávila y Domínguez, casada con Don Diego de Porres Baranda, viudo dos veces, y fue su hija:

Andrea de Porres Baranda y Padilla Dávila, casada con el capitán Francisco Ruíz de Otálora, padres a su vez de Don Marcos Ruíz de Otálora y Porres Baranda, bautizado en Lagos en 1643

Ccc.-Don Juan Padilla Dávila y Domínguez, alcalde de la santa hermandad en la villa de León en 1644 , casado con Doña Catalina Corona y fue su hija a su vez: Doña María de Padilla, bautizada en 1637 en Lagos y se casó con Joseph López de Lara en 1656 en Lagos y fue su hija: Catalina López de Lara y Padilla bautizada en Lagos en 1659.

Ddd.-Doña Juana Padilla Dávila y Domínguez, casada en 1627 con Don Pedro Villegas y Peralta.

Bb.-Don Sancho de Padilla Dávila y Temiño de Velasco, casado con Doña Isabel de Medina, hija legítima de Don Gaspar González de Medina y Doña Catalina de Mesa, con sucesión parte en Culiacán, Sinaloa, y fueron sus hijos:

Aaa.-Lic. Sancho de Padilla Dávila y Medina, Pbro. radicado en Culiacán.

Bbb.-Doña Mariana de Padilla Dávila y Medina, casada con el capitán Don Francisco de Reynoso, originario del Perú, y fueron sus hijos:

Don Juan de Reynoso y Padilla Dávila, bautizado en 1632 en Guadalajara.

Don Diego de Reynoso y Padilla Dávila, bautizado en 1634 en Guadalajara.

Don Joseph de Reynoso y Padilla Dávila, casado con María de Orozco y Valdés

Don Antonio de Reynoso y Padilla Dávila, bautizado en 1639 en Guadalajara

Don Francisco de Reynoso y Padilla Dávila, casado con Josefa de Rentería y Valdés.

ccc.-Doña Leonor de Padilla Dávila y Medina, casada en primeras nupcias el 1 de agosto de 1642, con Don Joseph de Lima y Olarte, originario de México, regidor de Guadalajara y viudo de Ana Alcalá, y fueron sus hijos :

Don Joseph de Lima y Padilla Dávila, casado con María Bracamonte

Don Cristóbal de Lima y Padilla Dávila, bautizado en 1628 en Guadalajara

Don Sancho de Lima y Padilla Dávila

Doña Leonor Padilla y Medina, se casó en segundas nupcias con Don Antonio de León y Gálvez y fue su hijo:

Don Juan de León y Gálvez y Padilla , bautizado en 1643 en Guadalajara.


Cc.-Don Hernando de Padilla Dávila y Temiño de Velasco, murió joven , asesinado por los indios Guachichiles camino de Lagos a Guadalajara

Dd.-Doña Leonor Padilla Dávila y Temiño de Velasco
, religiosa de Santa María de Gracia.

Ee.-Don Diego de Padilla Dávila y Temiño de Velasco
, casado con Doña Ana de la Mota y Vera, hija del capitan Don Gaspar de la Mota y Mena y Doña Mariana de Vera, y de este matrimonio hubo una numerosa sucesión , radicada principalmente en Aguascalientes, Guadalajara, y en la Zona Alteña de Jalisco, como: Jalostotiltán, Tepatitlán, Cuquío, Arandas, San Miguel el Alto, Ayo el Chico, y San Julián., y fueron sus hijos:

Aaa.-Don Luis de Padilla Dávila y Mota, cuya relación con Isabel Hurtado de Mendoza, tuvo un hijo natural que fue:

Don Diego de Padilla Dávila y Hurtado de Mendoza, casado con Catalina Cortés Benavides el 1 de octubre de 1644, en Nochistlán, Zacatecas, y fueron a su vez, sus hijos:

Jerónimo, Luisa, Diego, Tomás, Gaspar y Juan de Padilla Dávila y Cortés Benavides, este último casado en primeras nupcias con Doña Gertrudis Muñoz de la Barba y a su vez fueron sus hijos: José Manuel , Juan Manuel, Nicolás y Josefa María Padilla Dávila y Muñoz de la Barba, con sucesión

Don Juan Padilla Dávila y Cortés Benavides , se casó en segundas nupcias con Doña Josefa Padilla Dávila, con sucesión. 

Bbb.-Don Gaspar de Padilla Dávila y Mota,. Presbítero, testó en Guadalajara en 1641

Ccc.-Doña Leonor de Padilla Dávila y Mota

Ddd.-Don Diego de Padilla Dávila y Mota, se casó con Doña Jerónima de Arteaga, el 16 de mayo de 1622, en Guadalajara, y fue su hijo :

el capitan Don Tomás de Padilla Dávila y Arteaga, nacido en 1626 en Guadalajara y se casó con Doña Petronila de Hermosillo, en Jalostotitlán y fueron sus hijos a su vez:

Ignacio , María y Gertrudis Padilla Dávila y Hermosillo, esta última bautizada en Jalos. en 1691 y casada con Don Juan Gallardo, con sucesión.

Eee.-Don Fernando de Padilla Dávila y Mota
, murió joven

Fff.-Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Mota, nace en Guadalajara, y se casa en primeras nupcias con Doña Catalina de Híjar y Mesa, y fue su hijo Don Diego de Padilla Dávila e Híjar , quien tuvo un hijo natural y fue Don Felipe de la Mota Padilla, con suceción en Tepatitlán; Don Diego se casa con Lucia Flores de la Torre, hija del capitan Don Diego Flores de la Torre y Anda y Doña Teresa de Hermosillo, y fue su hija de Don Diego y de Doña Lucía:

Doña Ana de Padilla Dávila y Flores de la Torre, nacida en 1670 en Juchipila, y se casa el 11 de mayo de 1684 en la villa de León con el extremeño Don Matías López y Sánchez, los cuales fueron padres a la vez del ilustre Historiador y escritor tapatío:

Don Matías Angel López de la Mota Padilla , casado y de cuya sucesión se formó la familia Mota-Velasco , y ya viudo fué Presbítero.

Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Mota, se casa en segundas nupcias con Doña Josefa Arias de Orozco y Valdés, el 17 de noviembre de 1635, y a su vez fueron sus hijos:

Don Gaspar de Padilla Dávila y Arias, Pbro.

Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Arias, murió joven

Doña Ana de Padilla Dávila y Arias, bautizada en Guadalajara en 1645

Don Joseph de Padilla Dávila y Arias, casado en Jalos. con Teresa de Hermosillo, luego vecinos de Cuquío, y padres del capitan Jerónimo de Padilla Dávila y Hermosillo, casado con María de Vargas Machuca.

Capitán Don Cristóbal de Padilla Dávila y Arias
, nacido en Guadalajara en 1640, y casado en Jalos. con Doña Luisa Gutierrez de Hermosillo y Camacho Riqueleme, Genearca de numerosísima sucesión en los altos de Jalisco, radicados en la actualidad principalmente en esa zona alteña, Guadalajara, Aguascalientes, León, Gto. y los estados Unidos de Norte América, y a su vez fueron sus hijos:

Doña María de Padilla Dávila y Gutierrez, casada con Nicolás de Ayllón y Monroy, con sucesión

Don Lorenzo de Padilla Dávila y Gutiérrez, casado con Rosa María Alvarez Tostado, con sucesión.

Doña Catalina de Padilla Dávila y Gutiérrez, casada con Joseph Marquez, con sucesión.

Don Francisco de Padilla Dávila y Gutierrez, casado en primeras nupcias con Ana Muñoz de la Barba , con sucesión y en segundas con María Martín del Campo, con sucesión

Don Cristóbal de Padilla Dávila y Gutiérrez, casado en primeras nupcias con María Martín del Campo, con sucesión,. y en segundas con María Gómez Hurtado de Mendoza, con sucesión.

Doña Josefa de Padilla Dávila y Gutierrez, bautizada en 1676, casada en primeras nupcias con el capitan Don Joseph Jiménez de Mendoza, con sucesión. , y en segundas con Don Juan Padilla Dávila, con sucesión.

Doña Mariana de Padilla Dávila y Gutiérrez, casada en primeras nupcias con Don Juan Muñoz de la Barba, con sucesión. y en segundas en 1725 con Jerónimo Ibarra, vecino de Teocaltiche, con sucesión.

Doña Ángela de Padilla Dávila y Gutiérrez, casada con Marcos Macías Valadez, con sucesión.

Doña Juana de Padilla Dávila y Gutiérrez, casada en primeras nupcias con Estéban Martín del Campo, con sucesión. y en segundas con Francisco Javier Gutiérrez de Laris, con sucesión.

Don Juan de Padilla Dávila y Gutiérrez, ( mi sexto abuelo), nacido en 1680 en Jalos., se casa por 1705, con Doña Antonia Martín del Campo y Flores de la Torre, con numerosa sucesión.

Jalisco's Registro Civil  

Sent by Maria E. Cortez
Source: Joseph Puentes 

I recently learned that Jalisco has a website from which you can order certified civil records online. You can pay by credit card and the records are sent to you via messenger service. The website address is: 

Descendents of Cristobál de Villarreal-de-las-Casas

Part  2 of 3

(Part 1 is in the February 2004 issue)

By John Inclan







ii. MARIA-ANTONIA CISNEROS-PEREZ, m. JOSE MARIA TREVINO-SAN-MIGUEL, August 12, 1804, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; b. Villa de Pilon, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.





13. JUAN-NEPOMUCENO6 CISNEROS-GUAJARDO (MARIA-ANTONIA5 GUAJARDO-VILLARREAL, MARIA-IGNACIA4 DE VILLARREAL-TREVINO, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born Abt. 1765 in Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico, and died in Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico. He married MARIA-TERESA-DE-JESUS SALINAS-VILLARREAL December 29, 1787 in Nuestra Sra de Santa Anna, Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of JOSEPH-FRANCISCO-JAVIER SALINAS-GARCIA and MARIA-QUITERIA VILLARREAL-HINOJOSA. She was born Abt. 1768 in Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico, and died in Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.




21. ii. JUAN-NEPOMUCENO CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. Abt. 1788, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

iii. GUADALUPE CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. 1789; m. JOSE-RAFAEL GARCIA-HINOJOSA, February 25, 1805, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


23. v. RAFAEL-MARIA CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. Abt. 1798, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico; d. Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

vi. FRANCISCO CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. Abt. 1801, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico; m. MARIA-PAULA CHAPA-GUERRERO, August 16, 1825, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

24. vii. JOSE-RAMON CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. Abt. 1802, Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. March 29, 1830, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

viii. JOSE-DAMACIO CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. 1804; m. TERESA HINOJOSA-SALINAS, July 26, 1829, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


x. MARIA-ANDREA CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. Abt. 1808, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico; m. JOSE-ANTONIO GARCIA-GOMEZ, April 30, 1821, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

xi. JOSEFA CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. Abt. 1809, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico; m. BENITO VILLARREAL.


xiii. MARIA-RITA CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. June 14, 1814, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

14. PEDRO-JOSEPH6 GUAJARDO-DEL-RIO (CRISTOBAL5 GUAJARDO-VILLARREAL, MARIA-IGNACIA4 DE VILLARREAL-TREVINO, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born 1735 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married (1) ANA-MARIA GALINDO September 25, 1757 in Sagrario Metro, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. He married (2) MARIA-ANTONIA ELIZONDO-DE-LA-GARZA May 18, 1778 in Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSEPH DE ELIZONDO-VILLARREAL and FRANCISCA DE-LA-GARZA-VILLARREAL. She was born 1742 in Hacienda de San Nicolas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Marriage Source;From the book, Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 241 [115-15]



i. MARIA-DE-LA-TRINIDAD7 GUAJARDO-GALINDO, b. October 11, 1764, San Juan Bautista, Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



25. ii. PEDRO-JOSE7 GUAJARDO-ELIZONDO, b. June 02, 1782, San Pedro, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon Mexico.




26. i. JOSE-VICTORIANO7 VILLARREAL-ELIZONDO, b. San Francisco, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.






ii. JUAN JESUS DE-LA-GARZA-VILLARREAL, m. ANDREA BENAVIDES-GARCIA, September 02, 1824, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.

28. iii. FABIANA DE-LA-GARZA-VILLARREAL, b. 1790, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

29. iv. JOSE-LAZARO DE-LA-GARZA-VILLARREAL, b. 1800, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

30. v. MARIA-LORETA DE-LA-GARZA-VILLARREAL, b. 1800, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.

17. MARIA-MICAELA6 VILLARREAL-DE-LA-GARZA (JUAN-FRANCISCO5 DE VILLARREAL, JUAN-CAYETANO4, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born 1775 in Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died in Laredo, Webb County, Texas. She married FRANCISCO FLORES-SANCHEZ January 27, 1800 in San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JOSE FLORES and MARIA-MARGARITA SANCHEZ. He was born 1774 in Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died in Laredo, Webb County, Texas.



i. GREGORIO7 FLORES-VILLARREAL, b. Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS CAMACHO-GUERRA, September 09, 1826, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. 1808, Revilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. JOSE-TOMAS FLORES-VILLARREAL, b. Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. MARIA-TRINIDAD VILLARREAL-TREVINO, May 24, 1830, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. Laredo, Webb County, Texas.

18. JOSEPH-EUSEVIO6 DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL (MARIA-GERTRUDIS5 DE VILLARREAL, ANTONIO4 DE VILLARREAL-MARTINEZ, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born November 16, 1762 in Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) MARIA-TOMASA GALVAN. He married (2) MARIA-GERTRUDIS DE VILLARREAL August 01, 1804 in Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



31. i. JOSE-RAFAEL7 URRUTIA-GALVAN, b. November 07, 1788, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. MARIA LEONARDA URRUTIA-GALVAN, b. November 17, 1790, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. ANA-MARIA URRUTIA-GALVAN, b. February 07, 1793, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. MARIA-ESTEFANA URRUTIA-GALVAN, b. September 14, 1797, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

32. v. MARIA-PETRONALDA URRUTIA-GALVAN, b. June 08, 1799, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



vi. MARIA-JOSEFA7 DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. May 14, 1805, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vii. HIJINIO DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. January 13, 1807, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

33. viii. JOSE AGUSTIN DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. August 31, 1808, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ix. JOSE MARIA DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. August 17, 1810, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




i. JOSE-GREGORIO7 GIRON-URRUTIA, b. November 23, 1788, San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-CAYETANA GIRON-URRUTIA, b. November 18, 1790, San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. MARIA-DEL-LORETA GIRON-URRUTIA, b. September 14, 1792, San Jose, Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. JOSE-MANUEL SALAZAR-GONZALEZ, January 11, 1816, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


Generation No. 5







34. iii. JOSE-GREGORIO VILLARREAL-CISNEROS, b. November 26, 1820, Reynosa, Tamaulipus,Mexico.

21. JUAN-NEPOMUCENO7 CISNEROS-SALINAS (JUAN-NEPOMUCENO6 CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, MARIA-ANTONIA5 GUAJARDO-VILLARREAL, MARIA-IGNACIA4 DE VILLARREAL-TREVINO, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born Abt. 1788 in Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico. He married (1) MARIA-FELIPA PEREZ-DE-LA-GARZA October 19, 1821 in Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of FELIZ PEREZ and MARIA-IGNACIA DE-LA-GARZA. He married (2) MARIA-ISABEL PEREZ May 07, 1843 in Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



35. i. REFUGIO8 CISNEROS-PEREZ, b. April 27, 1822, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico; d. Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-LUISA CISNEROS-PEREZ, b. July 13, 1825, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.


iv. MARIA-DE-LOS-SANTOS CISNEROS-PEREZ, b. November 03, 1827, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.


vi. MARIA-GUADALUPE CISNEROS-PEREZ, b. May 07, 1830, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.




i. MARIA-RITA8 CISNEROS-HINOJOSA, b. December 24, 1812, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

ii. RITA CISNEROS-HINOJOSA, b. May 28, 1814, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

iii. MARIANA CISNEROS-HINOJOSA, b. July 21, 1816, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

iv. MARIA-ANTONIA CISNEROS-HINOJOSA, b. August 22, 1818, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

v. MARIA-ESTEFANA CISNEROS-HINOJOSA, b. August 21, 1822, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

vi. MARIA-DEL-REFUGIO CISNEROS-HINOJOSA, b. February 28, 1828, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

vii. SAN-JUANA CISNEROS-HINOJOSA, b. August 28, 1829, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.



i. JOSE-PABLO8 CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. February 21, 1814, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-ANGELA CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. August 15, 1816, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

iii. TIBURCIO CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. April 21, 1819, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

iv. MARIA-NAZARIA CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. August 20, 1822, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

v. MARIA-PETRA CISNEROS-SALINAS, b. October 10, 1829, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

24. JOSE-RAMON7 CISNEROS-SALINAS (JUAN-NEPOMUCENO6 CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, MARIA-ANTONIA5 GUAJARDO-VILLARREAL, MARIA-IGNACIA4 DE VILLARREAL-TREVINO, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born Abt. 1802 in Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died March 29, 1830 in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He married MARIA-ANTONIA LONGORIA-CANO January 07, 1818 in Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of IRENEO LONGORIA-VILLARREAL and MARIA-ANTONIA CANO-FLORES. She was born Abt. 1795 in Matamoros, Tamaulipas,Mexico, and died in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


i. MARIA-PETRA8 CISNEROS-LONGORIA, b. February 02, 1819, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. JUAN NEPOMUCENO GUERRA-CHAPA, September 03, 1832, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; b. July 04, 1812, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. FELIPE CISNEROS-LONGORIA, b. May 29, 1820, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; m. MARIA LUISA CISNEROS, May 25, 1840, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. VENTURA CISNEROS-LONGORIA, b. Abt. 1826, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iv. LEANDRO CISNEROS-LONGORIA, b. March 28, 1828, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

v. ANTONIO CISNEROS-LONGORIA, b. Abt. 1829; m. MARIA-ROSALIA HINOJOSA-SALINAS, October 29, 1848, Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

36. vi. FELIX CISNEROS-LONGORIA, b. 1829, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico; d. Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.



i. JOSE-MARIANO8 GUAJARDO-VALLE, b. July 29, 1829, San Pedro, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon Mexico.

ii. JOSE FELICIANO GUAJARDO-VALLE, b. 1832, Villaladama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. MARIA-DEL-CARMEN ALEJANDRO-DE-LA-PENA, August 09, 1855, San Pedro, Boca de Leones, Villaladama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1839, Villaladama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

37. iii. MARIA-DE-JESUS GUAJARDO-VALLE, b. March 18, 1836, San Pedro, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon Mexico.

iv. MARIA-DEL-REFUGIO GUAJARDO-VALLE, b. April 18, 1826, San Pedro, Boca de Leones,Villaldama,Nuevo Leon,Mexico; m. JOSE-ROMAN ALEJANDRO-DE-LA-PENA; b. March 06, 1833, San Pedro, Boca de Leones,Villaldama,Nuevo Leon,Mexico.




38. i. MARIA-ANTONIA8 VILLARREAL-ZAMBRANO, b. April 09, 1849, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. October 25, 1942, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




39. i. JOSE-RAFAEL8 MARTINEZ-VILLARREAL, b. October 23, 1822, Marin, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.





ii. CORPORAL JOSE CRISTOBAL MENDIOLA-DE-LA-GARZA, b. Laredo, Webb County, Texas; d. 1836, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. MARIA JUANA SANCHEZ-GARCIA, May 07, 1829, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. Laredo, Webb County, Texas.




i. ANACLETA8 DE-LA-GARZA-GUITRON, m. (1) MELITON CARDENAS; m. (2) JESUS JAUREGUI, September 04, 1871, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. 1841, Reynosa, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-NICOLASA DE-LA-GARZA-GUITRON, b. 1824; m. JOSE-MARIA RAMIREZ-REYES, May 13, 1839, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. 1817, Guerrero, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

iii. MARIA-CASIMIRA DE-LA-GARZA-GUITRON, b. 1828, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. INES SANCHEZ-LOZANO, November 17, 1843, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. 1811, Silao.




i. MARGARITO8 SANCHEZ-DE-LA-GARZA, b. 1821, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; m. MARIANA GONZALEZ-GARCIA, March 14, 1840, San Agustin, Laredo, Webb County, Texas; b. 1823, Laredo, Webb County, Texas.

31. JOSE-RAFAEL7 URRUTIA-GALVAN (JOSEPH-EUSEVIO6 DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, MARIA-GERTRUDIS5 DE VILLARREAL, ANTONIO4 DE VILLARREAL-MARTINEZ, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born November 07, 1788 in Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married MARIA-GUADALUPE CANTU-GONZALEZ January 10, 1807 in Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



i. MARIA FRANCISCA RAMONA8 URRUTIA-CANTU, b. February 01, 1808, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. JOSE MARIA DE JESUS URRUTIA-CANTU, b. August 07, 1810, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

40. iii. MARIA GUADALUPE FULGENCIA URRUTIA-CANTU, b. January 20, 1813, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. PEDRO JOSE URRUTIA-CANTU, b. May 02, 1815, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

41. v. JOSE ESTEBAN URRUTIA-CANTU, b. August 07, 1817, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vi. MARIA IGNACIA URRUTIA-CANTU, b. August 03, 1819, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

42. vii. JOSE GERONIMO URRUTIA-CANTU, b. September 29, 1821, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

viii. JOSE SOSTENES URRUTIA-CANTU, b. November 29, 1823, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ix. MARIA GILA URRUTIA-CANTU, b. September 03, 1825, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. AGUSTIN HERNANDEZ, October 14, 1840, Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

x. JOSE GRACIANO URRUTIA-CANTU, b. September 08, 1827, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

xi. JUAN NEPOMO URRUTIA-CANTU, b. May 24, 1831, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

32. MARIA-PETRONALDA7 URRUTIA-GALVAN (JOSEPH-EUSEVIO6 DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, MARIA-GERTRUDIS5 DE VILLARREAL, ANTONIO4 DE VILLARREAL-MARTINEZ, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born June 08, 1799 in Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married JUAN JOSE ROBLES November 21, 1818 in Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



i. MARIA ISABEL CESAREA8 ROBLES-URRUTIA, b. November 12, 1819, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. JOSE TEODORO ROBLES-URRUTIA, b. November 12, 1821, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. JOSE BONIFACIO ROBLES-URRUTIA, b. May 15, 1827, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




i. ESTANISLADA8 URRUTIA-DE-LA-GARZA, m. JUAN VILLARREAL-TREVINO, March 02, 1874, Nuestra Sra de Santa Anna, Camargo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.


Generation No. 6





i. MARIA-DEL-REFUGIO9 VILLARREAL-LONGORIA, b. April 24, 1848, Reynosa, Tamaulipus,Mexico; m. CLEMENTE REINA-DE-LA-GARZA.

35. REFUGIO8 CISNEROS-PEREZ (JUAN-NEPOMUCENO7 CISNEROS-SALINAS, JUAN-NEPOMUCENO6 CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, MARIA-ANTONIA5 GUAJARDO-VILLARREAL, MARIA-IGNACIA4 DE VILLARREAL-TREVINO, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born April 27, 1822 in Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico, and died in Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico. She married JOSE-ALEJANDRO LONGORIA-CHAPA September 10, 1854 in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, son of LEONARDO LONGORIA and MARIA-ANA CHAPA-GUERRA. He was born February 23, 1829 in Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.



i. ADRIAN9 LONGORIA-CISNEROS, b. 1855, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

43. ii. ISIDORO LONGORIA-CISNEROS, b. October 03, 1857, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico; d. June 24, 1904, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

iii. LUCIA LONGORIA-CISNEROS, b. February 23, 1861, Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

36. FELIX8 CISNEROS-LONGORIA (JOSE-RAMON7 CISNEROS-SALINAS, JUAN-NEPOMUCENO6 CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, MARIA-ANTONIA5 GUAJARDO-VILLARREAL, MARIA-IGNACIA4 DE VILLARREAL-TREVINO, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born 1829 in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, and died in Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico. He married MARIA CESARIA GOMEZ-CHAPA March 02, 1847 in Nuestra Sra del Refugio, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, daughter of BRIGIDO GOMEZ and MARIA-FRANCISCA CHAPA-CAVAZOS. She was born 1831 in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.



i. EDUARDO9 CISNEROS-GOMEZ, b. March 15, 1853, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

ii. MARIA DE LOS SANTOS CISNEROS-GOMEZ, b. December 13, 1856, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

iii. GUADALUPE CISNEROS-GOMEZ, b. November 04, 1859, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

44. iv. MARGILA CISNEROS-GOMEZ, b. Abt. 1865, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.





i. JOSE SABINO9 ALEJANDRO-GUAJARDO, b. January 01, 1859, Rancho Matatenas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. CONCEPCION DELASERNA-TREVINO, February 18, 1900, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

45. ii. MARIA-APOLONIA ALEJANDRO-GUAJARDO, b. April 14, 1860, San Pedro, Villaldama, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. MARIA JOSEFA ALEJANDRO-GUAJARDO, b. December 03, 1861, San Pedro, Boca de Leones,Villaldama,Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

iv. MARIA FELICIANA ALEJANDRO-GUAJARDO, b. April 09, 1864, San Pedro, Boca de Leones,Villaldama,Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

46. v. MARIA ROMANA ALEJANDRO-GUAJARDO, b. March 09, 1866, San Pedro, Boca de Leones,Villaldama,Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

vi. MARIA FLORENCIA ALEJANDRO-GUAJARDO, b. March 22, 1868, San Pedro, Boca de Leones,Villaldama,Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

vii. MARIA EDUVIGES ALEJANDRO-GUAJARDO, b. November 19, 1871, San Pedro, Boca de Leones,Villaldama,Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

viii. MARIA MANUELA ALEJANDRO-GUAJARDO, b. November 05, 1873, San Pedro, Boca de Leones,Villaldama,Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

38. MARIA-ANTONIA8 VILLARREAL-ZAMBRANO (JOSE-VICTORIANO7 VILLARREAL-ELIZONDO, JOSE-HERMENEGILDO6 VILLARREAL-VILLARREAL, JOSEPH-FRANCISCO5 VILLARREAL-CANTU, MIGUEL4 DE VILLARREAL, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born April 09, 1849 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died October 25, 1942 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married JOSE-HESIQUIO GONZALEZ-DE-LA-GARZA. He was born November 23, 1837 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



47. i. DELFINA9 GONZALEZ-VILLARREAL, b. December 24, 1876, Hacienda de Mezquital, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. January 01, 1958, Carrizo Springs, Dimmit County, Texas.




48. i. JOSE-LIBERADO9 MARTINEZ-DE-LA-GARZA, b. August 16, 1853, Marin, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




i. ANTONIA9 TREVINO-URRUTIA, b. July 05, 1844, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




i. MARIA CATARINA9 URRUTIA-CANTU, b. November 26, 1841, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. MARIA GIL URRUTIA-CANTU, b. September 03, 1843, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. REMIGIO URRUTIA-CANTU, b. October 03, 1845, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. MA HIJINIA URRUTIA-CANTU, b. March 24, 1853, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

v. JOSE ATANACIO URRUTIA-CANTU, b. May 04, 1853, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vi. JUAN URRUTIA-CANTU, b. June 13, 1856, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vii. MARIA URRUTIA-CANTU, b. March 27, 1858, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

viii. MARIA ANACLETA URRUTIA-CANTU, b. July 15, 1863, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ix. JOSEFA URRUTIA-CANTU, b. March 19, 1864, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

x. JOSE FABIAN URRUTIA-CANTU, b. January 28, 1865, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

xi. ANDREA URRUTIA-CANTU, b. 1878, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.




i. MA GABRIELA9 URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. March 20, 1846, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. SECUNDINO DE LA GARZA, November 20, 1867, Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. MA MONICA URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. May 06, 1849, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. JOSE ACENCION URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. August 17, 1854, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. MARIA ASENCION URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. August 17, 1854, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

v. MARTINIANA URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. January 06, 1857, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vi. ALBINA URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. December 12, 1857, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. AMBROCIO DE-LA-GARZA, October 01, 1881, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vii. MARCELINO URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. April 28, 1860, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

viii. JUAN URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. May 11, 1861, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ix. GABINO URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. February 26, 1864, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

x. BLAS URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. October 01, 1865, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. SEVERA VILLARREAL, June 09, 1886, Cienega de Flores, Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

xi. JUANA URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. May 21, 1868, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

xii. FELICITAS URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. July 19, 1869, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. VIVIANO TREVINO, June 15, 1888, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



Jose Caraballo

Jose Caraballo (1930-1992) was a World renown painter and writer. His collection of art ranges from mixed media on canvas to pencil sketches. His love and dedication to his craft resulted in a prolific legacy of artwork for the future generations to explore and enjoy. Rich in motifs and signs, Jose Caraballo's art has something for every art lover, young and old.

My name is Rene Caraballo, I have been promoting my fathers art work since 1998.  My father was a Folk art artist who specialized in the Taino Indians and bought it here to New York between the years 1970-1989. These were the years where our culture did not even want to be heard. He struggled to bring our culture here and learned the master techniques of artist like Picasso, Miro, Tamayo, Matisse.But one day in 1997 I decided to look for the lost soul I called "Jose". We were apart for many years, he was a very complex man. When I finally reached an old friend who informed me my father had passed away in 1992. I went to Tennessee where I found his legacy buried in a garage. I was very upset! I decided since that time to let the world know who Jose Caraballo was.  

I have set up a Website   . There you can get a sense of what he did. But that is small in comparison to the other 700 -800 works I have of his. I believe that having a segment on him an what he did will greatly enhance my goal. I hope that we can share a few moments together to collabrate and put in his own words. "These paintings will act as a constant reminder of the existence of these Puerto Rican artists whose struggle....should be noted in the history of art".....Lets make that happen. 
Rene Caraballo,  Curator  212-410-082    



Maria Anne de Cupis de Camargo
Cultura Canaria
La Villa de Grijalba
Datos Sobre La Familia De La Garza
From Colon to Columbus, who/why?
Project Gutenberg eBook
De la Garza, de Lepe
Old newspapers in Canary Islands
Venezolano Mestizaje 


Maria Anne de Cupis de Camargo
Sent by Art Reina

"She is considered to be one of the most brilliant dancers to be seen, in particular for her sensitive ear for music, her airiness, and her strength."  -a critic about 15 year old Marie Anne de Cupis de Camargo 

Marie was born in 1710 in Brussels, Belgium to her Spanish family. She was instructed in dance early on by Mlle Francoise Prevost, and made her first appearance on May 5, 1726 when she was 15 years old. She debuted in the Paris Opera ballet "Les caracteres de la danse", starting her dancing career. 

In her debut, Marie was the first woman to execute the entrechat quatre, a jump where the dancer crosses his/her legs four times in the air. She also improved this jump in 1930. Marie also is said to have invented the 90 degree turnout. Another thing that she did to influence dance was to change the heeled shoes in ballet to slippers, and she also shortened her ballet skirt. Both of these changes were further used in ballet's future. 

In 1734, Marie retired from dancing and became the mistress of the Comte de Clemont, but they never married. However, she returned to dancing for 10 years in 1741, and danced 78 ballets with great success. She retired for good from ballet in 1751 on a French government pension and died in 1770. 

Still, Marie set a fashion during her time with her popularity in many art forms, not just dancing. There were many dishes in her name, including some of the chef Escoffier's most famous dishes: Souffle' a' la Camargo, Bombe Camargo, Filet de Bouef Camargo, and Ris de Veau grilles Camargo. There were also many paintings and portraits done of her, including one by Lancret titled Camargo. A Camargo ballet was created by Retipa and Minkus about the time when Marie and her sister were abducted by the Comte de metun in 1928. Two operas were also written about her, one by Enrico de Leva and the other by Charles Le Cocq. Finally, the Camargo Society was founded in London in 1930 in her name. 

Cultura Canaria

Manuel Hernández González
Profesor Titular de Historia de América Universidad de La Laguna

The site has information on migration from the Canary Islands to all parts of the world. The paragraphs below is specific to the United States. It shows the early relationship between Florida and Cuba.

Sent by Paul Newfield

En 1740 la Corona decide crear la Compañía de La Habana para impulsar el comercio entre Cuba y la metrópoli. Se obligaba a transportar 50 familias a la Florida. En 1757 fueron trasladadas 375 personas. En años sucesivos hasta 1761 su número llegaría a 711. En 1763, como consecuencia de la Guerra con Inglaterra, Florida pasó a manos británicas. La mayor parte de los canarios, aunque no todos, decidieron trasladarse a Cuba, donde se establecieron en el occidente de la isla. 

La Corona desde fines del siglo XVII se interesó por la colonización de Texas. Entre 1724 1733 137 familias  salieron con ese destino. Pero, al arribar a La Habana, decidieron establecerse en Cuba. Sí próspero, sin embargo, con 64 personas la fundación de San Antonio en 1731. Éstos se constituyen como su oligarquía, canalizando en su provecho el regadío, lo que les originó conflictos con las misiones allí establecidas. Apoyaron tanto la independencia de Méjico como al República de Texas, muriendo algunos de ellos en la defensa del Álamo frente a las tropas mejicanas.   

La Corona decide poblar Luisiana, ocupada por los españoles desde 1763 Entre 1777 y 1783, años de aguda crisis en las islas, agravada por la paralización del comercio como consecuencia de la Revolución Norteamericana, se embarcan con ese objetivo sobre 4.000 canarios, de los cuales arribaran definitivamente a ese territorio norteamericano en torno a los 2.000, porque  la mitad desertaron en Venezuela y Cuba. Constituyeron cuatro poblaciones que tuvieron una vida plagada de dificultades. Sólo prosperó San Bernardo, donde siguieron manteniendo la cultura y el habla canaria hasta nuestros días y Valenzuela, donde se mezclaron con los franceses. La mayoría se trasladó hacia la Florida Occidental y Baton Rouge, la capital de Luisiana, donde una parte de la localidad continuó con el nombre de “Spanish Town” durante el siglo XIX. 


La Villa de Grijalba (Grijalva)  

La Villa de Grijalba (Grijalva)
  Art, culture, economy, history
Sent by Eddie Grijalva

Situación y vías de acceso: Se encuentra situada al oeste de la provincia de Burgos, dentro de lo que fuera demarcación del partido judicial de Castrojeriz. La única carretera de acceso se encuentra en su lado norte, empalmando desde Villamayor de Treviño con la Carretera Villadiego-Melgar de Fernamental. Existen caminos de concentración asfaltados que llevan a Sasamón por el este; Villasandino por el Sur y Padilla de Abajo por el oeste. Según la hoja 199 del Instituto Geográfico Nacional su altitud es de 816 m. Todo su término se caracteriza por el predominio del llano. El núcleo urbano se levanta sobre una pequeña prominencia del terreno. A unos 500 m. por el saliente, discurre el río Odra.

  Angel Custodio Rebollo


He aquí  lo que hemos averiguado sobre la llegada a América de la familia De la Garza. Para ello tenemos que iniciar nuestra exposición con el Licenciado Álvaro García de Navia, natural de Navia (Asturias), hijo de Francisco García de Navia y de Mayor García de Navia y casado con Antonia de Ruenes, de Valladolid y de este matrimonio tenían dos hijos, Álvaro y Catalina.

El Licenciado García de Navia fue nombrado fiscal de la Audiencia de Chile y obtiene licencia para trasladarse a Perú el 26 de abril de 1566 con toda su familia y acompañado de los siguientes criados:

“Marcos Alonso con su mujer Constanza de la Garza y sus hijos, Isabel Márquez (acompañada de su marido Francisco Sánchez), Luisa, Constanza, Melchor, Sebastián y Francisco.

Según parece esta familia a su paso por Nueva España, desembarcaron y cambiaron su destino, cosa muy habitual en aquellos tiempos, ya que el acompañar en el séquito, como criado o ayudante, era lo mas normal para conseguir medios para viajar desde España para América en aquellos tiempos, y después  aposentarse en uno de los lugares que en los que hacían escala los barcos, que era el lugar al que verdaderamente se dirigían.”

También iban en esta expedición como criados del Licenciado, las siguientes personas: Alonso Álvarez de Navia (asturiano), hermano del nuevo fiscal , Bernardino de Ledesma (de Zamora) Pedro de Guilis (de Andagoya), Juan Rodríguez Amor y Ana Álvarez (de Valladolid), Alonso Sánchez (de Huelva) con su mujer Antonia Pérez y sus hijos, Sebastián, Alonso, Lucía y Ursula; Elvira Díaz (de Ribadeo) y Alonso García de Villamiel (de Sevilla).                    

Who changed Cristobal Colon to Cristopher Columbus?

The question was asked by Gus Montes.
Answered by Alex Loya
Sent by Armando Montes

Gus, there really is no conspiracy to change his name here, what you see in the "change' of the name Cristobal Colon to Cristopher Columbus is simply what is called a "phonetic modification" of a name. 

A phonetic modification occurs when a person of one language immigrates to a place where a different language is spoken to conform to the phonetic rulings of the new place. Cristopher Columbus is simply an Anglicized version of the Italian name "Cristoforo Colombo" which was his original name. 

This Anglicization of Cristopher Columbus' name is not due to him moving to England, he did not, it is simply the way his name is said by people who speak English. 

Cristobal Colon, on the other hand, is a genuine Hispanization of the Italian name Cristoforo Colombo. This Hispanization of his name occurred when he moved from his native Genoa in Liguria, Italy, to Spain. 

In Spain, the Italian name Cristoforo Colombo was phonetically modified to conform to local phonetic rulings to Cristobal Colon, Diego Colon is a true product of the Hispanization of an Italian name. 

We have to remember that at the time America was discovered by Columbus, Italy was considered a full part of Spain, it was fully ruled by Spain and Italians were considered Spanish subjects. Consequently, Cristopher Columbus aka Cristobal Colon aka Cristofor Colombo was not the only Hispanicized Italian to come to the new world under the Spanish crown and in the quality of a Spanish subject. 

In San Elizario, an old Spanish colonial own, it is really interesting to observe that not a few names among the old graves in the cemetery are of Italian origin, names such as my own family name Loya (a phonetic modification of the Italian Loia), Porto, Pisana, Pizana, Libertini and many others, including the surname Colombo. 

What is very, very interesting as well is to observe that the Italian names found in the Spanish colonial town of San Elizario, Texas reflect the Italian migration to Spain during Spain's political control of Italy rather than the Italian migration to New York which occurred much later at the turn of the 20th century. 

The great majority of Italian Americans who came to New York at the turn of last century came from Southern Italy and Sicily and their surnames reflect that migration.

The Italians who migrated to Spain and who came with the Spaniards to Texas and other parts of New Spain migrated to Spain from Central to Northern Italy, from Tuscany, Liguria etc. and the island of Sardinia, these are the Italian names reflected in the town of San Elizario, Texas.

On the other hand, although I have not read the whole article yet, I did peruse it, and I have a hard time believing that Cristopher Colombus murdered anyone to steal the glory of discovering the new world. I have studied extensively on the subject, and although Cristopher Columbus does seem to have been corrupted in time by the wealth and power he acquired, for which he paid dearly, he was
evidently a man of excellent character judging by his own writings and his own testimony concerning his original motivation to travel. 

Columbus was motivated by a desire to bring salvation and the Word of god to people who were spiritually lost, he was a man who had a vital relationship with Jesus Christ judging by his own words. Judging by his end in chains and humiliation, I would say this relationship with Jesus was real because seeing that Columbus had become corrupted by gold and power, "the Lord chastises those He loves and every son whom He receives", as the Scripture says. Cristiforo or Cristobal or
Cristopher means "Christ bearer" and Colombo or Colon or Columbus means "Dove".  In the beginning of his endeavor, although modern secularist rewriters of history would claim otherwise, Christopher Columbus certainly seems to have reflected the character of a dove bearing the light of Christ to the new world he discovered. I hope your question is answered and you find this information useful and interesting.   Alex Loya

Custodio Rebollo
Publicado en Odiel Información, 25 julio 2003 

Entre los años 1500 y 1700, la costa onubense era zona de paso obligado por los barcos que con cargamentos de oro y plata procedentes de América llegaban a España. Estos barcos después de una travesía tan larga y su construcción esencialmente en madera, llegaban deteriorados y muchas veces con una tripulación diezmada por las enfermedades y los golpes del mar.

Hace pocos días vimos publicado en no se que lugar que en nuestra costa, entre Huelva y Doñana, hay hundidos  mas de veinticinco barcos de esta época que podrían ser rescatados, pero que con las leyes del patrimoniales de cada país, en la mayoría de los casos, lo legal es que todo lo que encuentren pase al tesoro nacional y solo una pequeña parte en metálico sea para los rescatadores.  Por eso hay cada vez mas modernos piratas del rescate que con unos potentes detectores de metales localizan  los restos del naufragio y burlando a las autoridades logran rescatar parte del botín, pero dañando mucho la información arqueológica  que podría facilitar si se hace científicamente.

Ayer leíamos una noticia fechada en Santiago de Chile  que decía que entre Valdivia y Valparaíso hay registrados mas de quinientos hundimientos. Y eso es solo en la costa chilena, pero si nos desplazamos por toda América del Sur, los naufragios se podrán contar por miles. Algunos sin valor material, pero otros pueden albergar grandes tesoros, porque son de la época en la que España traía los metales preciosos  allí encontrados.

Es duro pensar que a pocos kilómetros de nuestra vivienda, en el fondo del mar  reposan hermosos lingotes de oro y plata, junto a los restos de unos marineros que no pudieron abrazar a sus mujeres, a sus hijos o a sus padres.

Project Gutenberg eBook, Diario de la navegacion empredida en 1781,
by Basilio Villarino, Edited by Pedro De Angelis

Sent by Paul Newfield
"This is an e-book, in Spanish, dealing with some voyages of exploration of the Patagonian region of Argentina in the 1780s and in the 1830s."

It is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at

Title: Diario de la navegacion empredida en 1781, desde el Rio Negro, para reconocer La Bahia de todos Los Santos, Las Islas del Buen Suceso, y el desague del Rio Colorado.
Author: Basilio Villarino, piloto de la Real Armada
Primera Edicion, 1837

Release Date: February 26, 2004 [eBook #11302]
Language: Spanish, Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
Produced by Distributed Proofreaders Europe,
Project by Carlo Traverso and Paz Barrios
This file was produced from images generously made available by the
Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at

[[ Editor: The example below is interesting for the subject of  logging very specific time.  Also the use of the word chalupa.  It certainly meant something different at that time.  I also could not find a translation for jabalies.]]

DIA 7 de Mayo

Al amanecer bajé á tierra á reconocer el campo, á fin de hallar agua dulce, observando la latitud, y la hora de la pleamar: anduve toda la mañana sin que pudiese descubrir agua. Al mediodia observé el sol á la lengua en 40° 32', y la pleamar á la una y tres cuartos de la tarde, y siendo en el Rio Negro en este dia, á las once, tres quintos, se sigue que hay dos cuartos nueve minutos de diferencia de un puerto á otro. Al anochecer me retiré á bordo, y se mataron hoy 17 jabalies, á cuyo tiempo llegó la chalupa de registrar la isla, en la que no halló otra cosa digna de notar que muchas gamas; estando esta circundada de mar por todas partes, y siendo la distancia mas breve á tierra firme de cinco millas, de las cuales trajeron diez muertas.

De la Garza, de Lepe
Angel Custodio Rebollo
El boletín mensual que publica en Internet la Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, de los Estados Unidos, ha reproducido alguno de mis artículos en Odiel Información,  especialmente los que se refieren a onubenses que emigraron a América en la época del Descubrimiento, lo que me ha originado alguna correspondencia

Entre las comunicaciones que he recibido se encuentra la del Sr. Carlos Martín Herrera de Victoria en el Estado de Tamaulipas, México, quien me dice que ha estado durante años investigando sobre el origen de su apellido materno “de la Garza” y que su datos le llevan a Lepe, lo que ha despertado mi interés.

Me comenta el Sr. Herrera que todo parte de Constanza de la Garza, nacida en Lepe en 1529 que en 1550 se casó con Marcos Alonso, también nacido en Lepe, 1525. De este matrimonio nació un hijo, que emigró a México o formó parte de las milicias, que se llamó Marcos Alonso de la Garza Falcón, que allí se caso con  Juana de Treviño Quintanilla, de cuyo matrimonio nacieron hasta ocho hijos.

Marcos Alonso murió en Coahuila (México), en 1634.

Después de las primeras averiguaciones, no he encontrado en Lepe a nadie con ese apellido, “de la Garza”, pero el mayor problema es que al parecer en la época de la Desamortización de Mendizábal, desaparecieron los archivos de Lepe, y para averiguarlo habrá que estudiar muchos documentos que puedan arrastrar dicho apellido.

Por lo expuesto, desde estas líneas hago un llamamiento para, si alguien conoce a alguna persona que en su familia o de algún conocido, fuera poseedor de dicho apellido, por favor  me lo informe, para si es lo que buscamos,  lleguemos a buen fin en nuestras investigaciones. Yo lo seguiré intentando por las vías habituales.

                                              Angel Custodio Rebollo

Family Tree of Some Descendants of Blas Maria de la Garza from the Delgado Arredondo Family Tree

Old newspapers in the Canary Islands, and where to find them . . 
Revista Latina de Comunicación Social 
La Laguna (Tenerife) - diciembre de 1998 - número 12
D.L.: TF - 135 - 98 / ISSN: 1138 - 5820

Sent by Paul Newfield

[noviembre de 1998]
Las otras hemerotecas canarias
(2.160 palabras - 5 páginas)
Dr. Javier González Antón ©
Profesor de Documentación Periodística la Universidad de La Laguna

En un número anterior de la revista Latina (1) se incluía un trabajo sobre la hemeroteca canaria de la Universidad de La Laguna, que se complementa ahora con el análisis del resto de las importantes hemerotecas existentes en las islas.

Canarias posee importantes hemerotecas que han salvado la colección de publicaciones periódicas de las islas. La Hemeroteca del Museo Canario en Las Palmas tiene más de 1.000 títulos de publicaciones periódicas, y la mejor colección de periódicos palmeros se encuentra en la Sociedad Cosmológica de Santa Cruz de La Palma. La Hemeroteca Municipal de Santa Cruz cuenta con unos 500 títulos y la colección completa del Semanario Misceláneo, primer periódico de las islas. Como ya comprobamos, la Universidad de La Laguna posee también una de las más importantes de las colecciones hemerográficas de las islas; pese a ello el conocimiento de los fondos documentales y hemerográficos es reducido con escasos y poco fiables catálogos.

Las grandes colecciones coinciden casi siempre con las principales bibliotecas. Aparecen a partir de finales del siglo XVIII: en La Laguna, la de la Real Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, y la de la Universidad de San Fernando. En Las Palmas, la biblioteca aunque sin interés como hemeroteca del seminario diocesano, a la que se suma en la segunda mitad de siglo el Museo Canario. Luego la Municipal de Santa Cruz; posteriormente, la Cosmológica en Santa Cruz de La Palma y la Municipal de La Orotava, completan un conjunto de grandes bibliotecas que poseen gran parte del patrimonio hemerográfico de las islas, tanto los impresos procedentes de fuera, como los periódicos canarios.

La historia de estas instituciones, fenómenos culturales muy complejos, se enriquece día a día. En Canarias, como en el resto del estado español, su aparición viene ligada, cual hermana menor, a las bibliotecas y cuando la colección de publicaciones alcanza un volumen considerable, se convierte en sección más o menos autónoma, o en hemerotecas Independientes. En cuanto a las ediciones de la prensa que alberga, primero aparece la hemeroteca general con periódicos españoles y extranjeros (Biblioteca Universitaria, Casino), y después la hemeroteca local, sólo de publicaciones editadas en Canarias: Museo Canario, Universidad. 

1. La Real Sociedad de Amigos del País de Tenerife.

Cuenta con una interesante colección de periódicos, de carácter retrospectivo, y no limitada a los editados en Canarias, con muestras de algunas anteriores a la aparición de las publicaciones canarias (2). El interés por la prensa es casi coetáneo con la fundación de la Sociedad. Así, ya el año 1781 discute en sus juntas el inscribirse a El Mercurio, y en 1793 se inscribe al Correo Mercantil de España y sus Indias, "quedando en comunicar a sus Directores, Don Diego Gallardo y D. Eugenio Larruga, cuantas noticias fueran interesantes publicar".

Colecciones de periódicos peninsulares o extranjeros de los que destaca El Semanario Erudito, Madrid. 1790, El Semanario de Agricultura de las Artes Madrid. 1804, o La Gazzetta Universale" 1785. Italiana, impresa en Roma.

Entre las publicaciones periódicas canarias: la Revista Hespérides. 1926, una de las más importantes de La Laguna, con magníficos grabados. Aguere, revista literaria quincenal, publicada a partir de 1913, de 1952 un semanario dominical dirigido por Luis Alvarez Cruz incompleto, y periódicos grancanarios que en Tenerife sólo se pueden consultar en dicha hemeroteca, como El Defensor de Canarias, del año 1919. También publicaciones especializadas caso de El Balón, semanal y primer deportivo de las islas, publicado los años 1915-1916, aunque se conserva incompleto.

El Casino de Santa Cruz

Un factor importante en la vida de los casinos, al igual que en muchas otras de las capitales de provincias españolas, era la lectura, sobre todo de publicaciones periódicas. Del Casino de Santa Cruz tenemos la referencia expresa de Carballo y Wangüemert (3) sobre esa labor de fomento de la lectura de periódicos y revistas.

Ya prácticamente desde su fundación, el Casino lleva una política de suscripción de publicaciones periódicas, que se acentúa en los períodos de expansión, tanto de la ciudad, como de la institución, como acontece el último tercio del siglo XIX.

Las actas nos dan continua muestra de esa labor hemerográfica, así las de 1881 nos informan de la suscripción a La Esfera, Madrid cómico, o La Revista de Dos Mundos, dándose de baja, por el contrario a varios periódicos, y a revistas como La Voz de las Clases Pasivas, El Mundo Político, La Gaceta Universal, Revista Contemporánea, y La Ilustración Alemana.

Por lo que hace referencia a la información de actualidad, el Casino estaba suscrito a los principales periódicos de Tenerife y Las Palmas, así por las actas sabemos que en 1881 se da de baja de El Correo y El Iris. También a los periódicos de Madrid, como La Ilustración, desde 1853, o el ABC, desde 1903.

Las revistas suscitaban también una gran aceptación, sobre todo las de más calidad, o con despliegues de recursos gráficos, como la Revista de Madrid, de 1841 al 43, El Museo Universal, desde 1885, El Blanco y Negro, desde 1901. A ello se añadían revistas y periódicos extranjeros de los que las actas dan citas constantes de variaciones en estas suscripciones: baja de la Ilustración Alemana en 1882; y de La Revue de Deux Mondes y el Evenement, seguida del alta en el Le Figaro en 1883; alta de La Nature en 1912; etc. (4)

Entre las más antiguas cabe señalar la Illustrated London News (1844-1945) con más de 100 volúmenes; o los 19 volúmenes de Family Friend (1850-1860). Las revistas francesas, aunque de menor importancia numérica que las inglesas, también enriquecieron los fondos de la Hemeroteca del Casino: así L'Ilustration (1850-60), con 70 volúmenes, o los 10 volúmenes de L'Ilustration Theatrale (1906-1912). También, La Ilustración alemana de la que se da de baja en 1882.

Las revistas técnicas o científicas constituyen otro importante bloque; entre ellas sobresalen las de derecho. Junto al famoso Aranzadi, como Jurisprudencia Criminal, desde 1901, Legislación y Jurisprudencia 1902 al 14, etc. Entre las revistas especializadas destacan las militares como la Revista General de Marina (1877-1915), 50 volúmenes. En 1881 tenemos la baja en las suscripciones de La Ilustración Militar, Estudios militares y La Revista Técnica de Infantería y Caballería.

3. El Museo Canario

En la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, y auspiciada por un grupo de intelectuales grancanarios, encabezados por el Dr. Chil y Naranjo se crea una sSociedad encargada de promover el cultivo de las artes y las ciencias con preferencia en la historia del archipiélago, ello ha posibilitado la consecución de un importante fondo hemerográfico y documental. 

La hemeroteca fue creada por el presidente del Museo José Díaz Hernández, y en 1943 publica un catálogo de sus periódicos canarios hasta entonces 347 títulos, de los que son más de 1.000 en la actualidad, en el conjunto regional más compensado de los existentes.

Entre los ejemplares más valiosos figuran tres periódicos manuscritos de don José de Viera y Clavijo, casi todos los primeros periódicos impresos o publicados en las ciudades principales de las islas, y un número inesperado de ejemplares raros y de títulos no citados en la extensa bibliografía de Maffiotte.

Los más antiguos son los tres periódicos manuscritos de Viera y Clavijo, El Correo de Canarias de 1762, El Personero dos años después, y la Gaceta de Daute el año 1765 y del que cuenta con varios números.

También las colecciones completas del primer periódico impreso el Semanario Misceláneo Enciclopédico Elemental, La Laguna 1785-87, El Correo de Tenerife, así como la mayoría de los primeros periódicos de Gran Canaria, el Boletín Oficial de Gran Canaria, 1840-41, y El Porvenir de Canarias, 1852, y otros particularmente innovadores como El Daguerrotipo, impreso en Santa Cruz el año 1841.

4. La Hemeroteca Municipal de Santa Cruz

La colección hemerográfica es de la mayor importancia, con aproximadamente 500 títulos de publicaciones periódicas canarias, aunque mucho más abundante la presencia de las publicaciones periódicas de la provincia de Tenerife, que de Gran Canaria. También se encuentra desde las obras madrileñas dirigida por Clavijo y Fajardo Mercurio Histórico y Político de 1783, pasando por el mismo título editado en Lisboa, hasta la colección completa del primer periódico de las islas el Semanario Misceláneo Epistolar, de Amat de Tortosa, en 1785, y del segundo, El Correo, editado por la Junta Suprema en 1808, o el Atlante primer periódico de Santa Cruz.

Los primeros títulos de periódicos de otras islas, tales como El Ómnibus de Las Palmas, en 1855, o El Time y El Pito de Santa Cruz de La Palma, los años 1863 y 1866 respectivamente, la Asociación de la Orotava en 1869, Iriarte del Puerto de la Cruz, y otros periódicos canarios fuera de las islas como Las Canarias dirigido por Benigno Carballo Wangüemert, a partir de 1863, La Atlántida de Camilo Benítez de Lugo, cinco años después, impresas ambas en la capital española, o en América de lugares de impresión tales como Buenos Aires, Caracas, Montevideo, o la Habana, del que posee el Islas Afortunadas, de la Imprenta Nacional Cubana, en 1909.

Cuenta también con colecciones únicas como las del mensual Canarias, los años 1937-39, y La Luz, Masónico, en 1931, también de periodicidad mensual. La revista mensual Cartones, con sólo 200 ejemplares de tirada, y colaboradores como Pedro García Cabrera, etc.

También con la prensa órgano de asociaciones obreras como En Marcha de la federación obrera. 1930-36, sindical-anarquista, de periodicidad quincenal. El Campo, publicado en La Orotava 1921. Minerva, Revista popular de La Laguna de orientación ¡católica y periodicidad decenal.

La Nación, una publicación semanal de la Falange en 1936. Rebelión, de la Federación sindicalista el año 1934, también Renovación, un periódico semanal de la UGT impreso, el año 1933. 

5. La Hemeroteca Cervantes de la Sociedad Cosmológica de La Palma

Se inaugura en 1906, pocos años después de la creación de la sociedad en 1881. Sus colecciones proceden de la desamortización y de donaciones particulares de próceres palmeros como Elías Santos Abreu o don Pedro Poggio. En la actualidad cuenta con la mayoría de los periódicos editados en La Palma, con una muy completa del Time, y del Diario de Avisos, decano de la prensa en las islas.

La hemeroteca es depositaria de la práctica totalidad de los periódicos que se han publicado en La Palma. Casi todos pertenecen a Santa Cruz salvo los casos de El Eco de la Verdad (1907-1908) y La Voz del Paso (1901), ambos de la ciudad a la que se refiere el último de ellos, así como Puntallana (1912) y Tazacorte (1910-13), igualmente pertenecientes a estas localidades. Desde El Time, primer periódico de la isla que vio la luz en 1863 y que tuvo como director al gran poeta -"cantor de Benahoare"- y dramaturgo Antonio Rodríguez López (1836-1901), hasta las ediciones actuales de Diario de Avisos, más de un centenar de títulos enriquecen esta importante fuente de información.

Aparte de El Time, otros de los títulos más antiguos que se conservan son: El Pito (1866), El Clarín (1870), El Noticiero (1872), La Palma (1875) y La Nueva Palm y El Iris (1880), entre otros. 

El periodismo, bastante arraigado en la Isla, se constituiría casi siempre, así lo apunta Juan Régulo Pérez, en la voz de las distintas banderías existentes. Para el profesor Régulo, el Diario de La Palma (1912-1914), escrito y dirigido por republicanos y liberales, representa, dejando sentir sus influencias, a la mejor prensa informativa palmera. Tal título está sólo en la Cosmológica, y el año 1912 en la Biblioteca de la Universidad de La Laguna.

6. La Biblioteca Municipal de La Orotava 

Cuenta con una importante hemeroteca; a la que recientemente se le han incorporado colecciones entre las que destaca la de la familia de don Fernando del Hoyo Solórzano, y doña Laura Salazar, a los que se añade los de la familia la "Viña Massieu", y sobre todo la colección de periódicos y revistas de don Antonio de Lugo y Massieu, periodista e impresor.

En el valle se han publicado muchos impresos y folletos, así como diversos periódicos, entre los que se encontraba su propia revista El Campo, dedicada a los temas agrícolas, y, como señala Sebastián Hernández, también ecológicos, con una gran repercusión social en el norte.

La colección custodiada en la hemeroteca es enorme. e imprescindible para conocer lo publicado en el Valle de la Orotava, de los que en algunos casos, cuenta con títulos únicos como el Diario de La Orotava (1896), o el decenal La Orotava (1901), dirigido por Alfonso Ascanio. También Taoro (1898), La Orotava, semanario dirigido por Manuel Fierra Delgado.

(1) Javier González Antón. La hemeroteca de Canarias de la Universidad de La Laguna. Revista Latina, 2, febrero de 1998.
(2) Enrique Romeu Palazuelos. Actas de la Real Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País. La Laguna, 1980.
(3) Carballo Wangüemert. Recogido por A. Guimerá: El Casino de Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Santa Cruz, 1995.
(4) Actas del Casino de Tenerife.1881 y 1882. Recogido por Guimerá, Ob. cit. pág. 92.

Nombre del autor, 1998; título del texto, en Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, número 12, de diciembre de 1998, La Laguna (Tenerife), en la siguiente dirección electrónica (URL):

/ Estudio del IVIC demostró que fenotipo venezolano es mayoritariamente español Mestizaje con acento europeo  
por Jenny Lozano, El Universal
Sent by
Roberto Pérez Guadarrama

Enfermedades como la hipertensión pueden provenir de la raza africana (Foto Archivo)
El trabajo señala que la mayoría de los genes europeos vienen por línea masculina

La llegada de los colonos españoles a esta tierra de gracia trajo consigo, el idioma, la religión, las costumbres y especialmente una fuerte carga genética que hoy marca el fenotipo o las características físicas del venezolano. 

Contrario a lo que muchos piensan, la distribución de los genes europeos, amerindios y africanos no es tan equitativa. Un estudio genético realizado por Dinorah Castro, antropóloga del Laboratorio de Genética Humana, del Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), demostró que en el venezolano predomina el fenotipo europeo.

"La proporción es la siguiente: genes europeos 59%, amerindios 29% y africanos 12%", dijo Castro, quien aclaró que en regiones como Barlovento, la distribución es diferente pues prevalece la ascendencia africana.

En poblaciones costeras como La Sabana, Patanemo, Birongo, Panaquire y Ganga, "cerca de 43% del aporte genético o biológico proviene de los españoles e indígenas. Esto significa que el mestizaje es mucho mayor, incluso que el producido en las islas del Caribe o en Estados Unidos".

Por su parte, en las localidades ubicadas en los Altos Mirandinos hay una mayor proporción de genes europeos. "Aunque se conocía que pueblos como San Diego de los Altos, era predominantemente indígena, la fuerza genética del europeo se impone", señaló la antropóloga.

Según Castro, el que Venezuela haya sido colonia española, así como la llegada de un importante grupo de inmigrantes del Viejo Continente, durante la década de los cincuenta, influyeron en el proceso de mestizaje.

La especialista _en compañía del investigador Alvaro Rodríguez_ tomó la muestra sanguínea de 4 mil habitantes de los estados centrales del país. "Aún debemos seguir indagando en la región oriental y sur de Venezuela. No obstante, la crisis presupuestaria que atraviesa el instituto ha impedido la continuidad de los estudios".

Dominio masculino

Según Castro, la mayoría de los genes europeos que portan los venezolanos vienen por línea masculina. "Recientemente elaboramos un estudio de ADN cromosoma Y, tomando como muestra un grupo cercano a las 400 personas, y los resultados preliminares hacen suponer que al parecer hubo un avasallamiento de tipo numérico que estimuló mucho más el mestizaje o el cruce de hombres europeos, con las mujeres del país que estaban disponibles", destacó.

Castro estima que las características indígenas y africanas provienen de la línea materna. En este sentido, "se están comenzando a elaborar investigaciones de ADN mitocondriales para indagar la línea femenina", explicó.

Dolencias heredadas

Aunque en materia médica, los estudios realizados por el IVIC apenas están iniciando, algunos resultados han demostrado que enfermedades como la hipertensión pueden tener su origen en la raza africana. Investigaciones han demostrado que los africanos al ser trasladados a zonas con condiciones climáticas diferentes generan una alteración de su presión arterial, destaca Castro.

De los europeos se han podido heredar enfermedades como la fibrosis quística y las esclerosis. Y por último se ha comprobado que los indígenas desarrollan dolencias como la diabetes si su dieta, medios y hábitos son modificados.

[Se han eliminado los trozos de este mensaje que no contenían texto] Si quieres saber a donde vas, averigua de donde vienes.

La utilización de Yahoo! Grupos está sujeta a su aceptación de las Condiciones del servicio   así como de la Política de privacidad



Charting Louisiana
Who was the First President of the United States? 
Check out these facts  . . .  Did you know?


Charting Louisiana: Five Hundred Years of Maps, is a publication of The Historic New Orleans Collection, that tells the story of Louisiana and the Louisiana Territory from the earliest explorations of Hernando de Soto to the modern American state—from cartographers’ attempts to chart the course of the Mississippi River to a color-enhanced satellite view of the state. The Collection offers Charting Louisiana as a gift to the community and the nation in celebration of the bicentennial of the Louisiana Purchase.

Historic and contemporary maps chosen for the atlas trace the discovery, colonization, and development of the region from its first charting in the sixteenth century. Providing a broader context for understanding the maps are essays by Paul E. Hoffman, Alfred E. Lemmon, Ralph E. Ehrenberg, Mark F. Fernandez, Jason R. Wiese, and John T. Magill, accompanied by more than forty chapter illustrations. Serving as consulting editor of the atlas is John R. Hébert, chief, Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress.

The unprecedented compilation of 193 significant manuscript and printed maps comes from the extensive holdings of The Historic New Orleans Collection; the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress; Chicago’s Newberry Library; the Louisiana State Museum; and archives in France, Spain, Great Britain, and Mexico. Maps that are works of art as well as priceless historical documents embellish the pages of Charting Louisiana, the only such work at this time to focus exclusively on Louisiana. 
Who was the First President of the United States?  
Sent by Eva Booher

I called my nephew Giles McNeill who is a genealogist at in Shell Beach, California to verify the accuracy of this e-mail.  He called his good friend Dr. Martin Olsen (ret.) a history professor at Cal-Poly University in California and Dr. Olsen verified the accuracy of this e-mail.

Think you know HISTORY? 

**Who was the first President of the U.S.A.? I suspect that George Washington was your first guess. After all, no one else comes to mind. But think back to your history books - The United States declared its independence in 1776, yet Washington did not take office until April  30, 1789. So who was running the country during these initial years of this young country?  It was the first eight U.S. Presidents.  In fact, the first President of the United States was one John Hanson. I can hear you now - John who? John Hanson, the first President of the United States. 

**Don't go checking the encyclopedia for this man's name - he is one of those great men that are lost to history. If you're extremely lucky, you may actually find a brief mention of his name. The new country was actually formed on March 1, 1781 with the adoption of The Articles of Confederation.  This document was actually proposed on June 11, 1776, but not agreed upon by Congress until November 15, 1777. Maryland refused to sign this document until Virginia and New York ceded their western lands (Maryland was afraid that these states would gain too much power in the new government from such large amounts of land). Once the signing took place in 1781, a President was needed to run the country. John Hanson was chosen unanimously by Congress (which included George Washington). 

**In fact, all the other potential candidates refused to run against him, as he was a major player in the revolution and an extremely influential member of Congress. As the first President, Hanson had quite the shoes to fill. No one had ever been President and the role was poorly defined. His actions in office would set precedent for all future Presidents. He took office just as the Revolutionary War ended. Almost immediately, the troops demanded to be paid. As would be expected after any long war, there were no funds to meet the salaries. As a result, the soldiers threatened to overthrow the new government and put Washington on the throne as a monarch. All the members of Congress ran for their lives, leaving Hanson as the only guy left running the government. He somehow managed to calm the troops down and hold the country together. If he had failed, the government would have fallen almost immediately and everyone would have been bowing to King Washington. 

**Hanson, as President, ordered all foreign troops off American soil, as well as the removal of all foreign flags. This was quite the feat, considering the fact that so many European countries had a stake in the United States since the days following Columbus. Hanson established the Great Seal of the United States, which all Presidents have since been required to use on all official documents. President Hanson also established the first Treasury Department, the first Secretary of War, and the first Foreign Affairs Department. Lastly, he declared that the fourth Thursday of every November was to be Thanksgiving Day, which is still true today. The Articles of Confederation only allowed a President to serve a one year term during any three year period, so Hanson actually accomplished quite a bit in such little time. Seven other presidents were elected after him - Elias Boudinot 1782-83), Thomas Mifflin (1783-84), Richard Henry Lee (1784-85), John Hancock (1785-86), Nathan Gorman (1786-87), Arthur St. Clair (1787-88), and Cyrus Griffin (1788-89) -all prior to Washington taking office. 

**So what happened? Why don't we hear about the first eight presidents? It's quite simple - The Articles of Confederation didn't work well. The individual states had too much power and nothing could be agreed upon.   A new doctrine needed to be written - something we know as the Constitution. And that leads us to the end of our story. George Washington was definitely not the first President of the United States. He was the first President of the United States under the Constitution we follow today. And the first eight Presidents are forgotten in history. 
Check out these facts  . . .  Did you know?

Sent by Sergio Hernandez
       and  Gloria Oliver

In George Washington's days, there were no cameras. One's image was either sculpted or painted. Some paintings of George Washington showed him standing behind a desk with one arm behind his back while others showed both legs and both arms. Prices charged by painters were not based on how many people were to be painted, but by how many limbs were to be painted. Arms and legs
are limbs," therefore painting them would cost the buyer more. Hence the expression "Okay, but it'll cost you an arm and a leg.

As incredible as it sounds, men and women took baths only twice a year! (May and October) Women kept their hair covered, while men shaved their heads (because of lice and bugs) and wore wigs. Wealthy men could afford good wigs made from wool. The wigs couldn't be washed, so to clean them they could carve out a loaf of bread, put the wig in the shell, and bake it for
30 minutes. The heat would make the wig big and fluffy, hence the term "big wig." Today we often use the term "here comes the Big Wig" because someone appears to be or is powerful and wealthy.

In the late 1700s, many houses consisted of a large room with only one chair   Commonly, a long wide board was folded down from the wall and used for dining. The "head of the household" always sat in the chair while everyone else ate sitting on the floor. Once in a while, a guest (who was almost
always a man) would be invited to sit in this chair during a meal.  To sit in the chair meant you were important and in charge. Sitting in the chair, one was called the "chair man." Today in business we use the expression or title "Chairman or Chairman of the Board."

Needless to say, personal hygiene left much room for improvement. As a result, many women and men had developed acne scars by adulthood. The women would spread bee's wax over their facial skin to smooth out their complexions. When they were speaking to each other, if a woman began to
stare at another woman's face she was told "mind your own bee's wax." Should the woman smile, the wax would crack, hence the term "crack a smile." Also, when they sat too close to the fire, the wax would melt and therefore the expression "losing face."

Ladies wore corsets that were laced up in the front. A tightly tied Lace was worn by a proper and dignified lady as in "straight laced."

Common entertainment included playing cards. However, there was a tax levied when purchasing playing cards but only applicable to the "ace of Spades."  To avoid paying the tax, people would purchase 51 cards instead. Yet, since most games require 52 cards, these people were thought to be stupid or dumb because they weren't "playing with a full deck."

Early politicians required feedback from the public to determine what was considered important to the people. Since there were no telephones, TV's or radios, the politicians sent their assistants to local taverns, pubs, and bars, who were told to "go sip some ale" and listen to people's conversations and political concerns. Many assistants were dispatched at different times. "You go sip here" and "You go sip there." The two words "go sip" were eventually combined when referring to the local opinion and, thus we have the term "gossip."

At local taverns, pubs, and bars, people drank from pint and quart-sized containers. A bar maid's job was to keep an eye on the customers and keep the drinks coming. She had to pay close attention and remember who was drinking in "pints" and who was drinking in "quarts," hence the term minding your "P's and Q's."


Joey Chapa Honored
New Ryskamp Book
Free LDS Genealogy Software 
Heraldry & Genealogy
Tip of the Week


 Joey Chapa Honored 

Some cemeteries are including photos in their database. 
Bonnie Chapa sent this information, honoring her nephew, 
Joey Chapa, a handsome young man
  that died in a automobile accident.
Remembering  in perpetuity.

Dear Mrs. Chapa:

Thank you for the photograph of Joey Chapa.  I have added it, along with the full text of the obituary which ran in the July 20, 1995, edition of the Plainview Daily Herald.  Here is the link for the revised entry for Joey Chapa:

John Sigwald, Librarian
Unger Memorial Library 
825 Austin Street 
Plainview, TX 79072-7235
(806) 296-1149
(806) 291-1245 Fax

A Student's Guide to Mexican American Genealogy 
by George Ryskamp, Peggy Ryskamp 
(Oryx American Family Tree Series)
List Price:   $29.95 
Reading level: Young Adult Your Market Place for Genealogy
Sent by Bill Carmena

Free Genealogy Software from the LDS Church

Sent by Bill Carmena
Cut and paste entire URL. .

Surname Navigator Website
Sent by Bill Carmena

Heraldry & Genealogy - Heraldica y Genealogia - Libreros Reunidos, S.L.
Sent by Paul Newfield



Suplemento al Elenco de Grandezas y Títulos Nobiliarios españoles. Apéndice I. Nombre de los primeros poseedores de la Merced. Madrid, 1982, 96, páginas. $7.00

Obra en la que aparecen alfabéticamente los primeros poseedores de las Mercedes nobiliarias, facilitando los estudios referentes a Títulos nobiliarios.

Títulos nobiliarios con Grandeza de España concedidos en Indias (su Heráldica y Genealogía). Madrid, 1984. 126 páginas. $10.00

Trabajo que comprende las Dignidades nobiliarias, en donde figura su heráldica, genealogía y profusión de datos de carácter genealógico e histórico de cada uno de los poseedores de la Merced nobiliaria.

Caballeros de las Ordenes de Santiago, Calatrava, Alcántara y Montesa que ostentaron un Título nobiliario (siglo XIX), Madrid, 1991. 134 páginas. $10.00

Recopila el autor la totalidad de los Caballeros de las cuatro Órdenes españolas que en el siglo XIX ostentaron un Título del Reino, consignando en todos ellos una serie de datos que constituyen una importante aportación para los estudios heráldicos, genealógicos y nobiliarios.

Títulos vacantes y Títulos extranjeros cuyo uso fue autorizado en España. Suplemento al Elenco de Grandezas y Títulos Nobiliarios Españoles. Apéndice II. 1991. 128 páginas. $7.50

Indice donde se relacionan las Mercedes nobiliarias de las que, en alguno de los diferentes fondos documentales que existen, se han encontrado pruebas fehacientes de haber sido otorgadas por un Monarca español y que, actualmente, no son ostentados por ningún sucesor del primer titular. Se incluyen las Dignidades concedidas por los Soberanos de la Dinastía Carlista y los Títulos pontificios y extranjeros que específicamente fueron autorizados en España.


Family Tree Magazine Email Update 6-10-04
This week's tip comes from Jackie Switzer:

"After assembling your family history information in a scrapbook, don't put the album away. Color photocopy the pages, resizing to 8 1/2x11 inches if necessary, and use them to make a family
calendar. Your word processing or desktop publishing program probably has calendar page templates, and you can get them spiral bound at a copy shop. Mark anniversaries and birthdays,
and include a pedigree chart to ensure everyone can keep their ancestors straight."

Do you have a great idea for discovering, preserving or celebrating family history? E-mail us your tip at with "TIP OF THE WEEK" in the subject line. If we publish it, you'll win a free copy of Scrapbooking Your Family History by Maureen A.Taylor
(Betterway Books, $24.99), also available for purchase online at


Extract: Diving the Maya Underworld
Lead article, Archaeology, May/June 2004


The Maya in the northern lowlands, which encompasses parts of the present-day states of Yucatán, Quintana Roo, and Campeche, relied on cenotes (a Spanish corruption of the Yucatec Mayan word for sinkhole, dzonot) as their primary source of water. According to tradition, caves and cenotes are also the home of Chac, the Maya god of rain, as well as the entrance to Xibalba, the Underworld. In times of drought or stress, or when, Maya leaders appealed to Chac by making offerings to him in cenotes.

By the time the Spanish arrived in the Yucatán and recorded the practice in the sixteenth century, the Maya had been performing human sacrifice for at least a thousand years. Bishop Diego de Landa, who recorded acts of sacrifice at Chichén Itzá in the sixteenth century, wrote:

Into this well it was their custom to cast living men as a sacrifice to the Gods in times of drought; and it was their belief that they did not die, although they never saw them any more. They also threw in many other things of precious stone and articles which they highly prized.

This is not to say, however, that all cenotes contain ritual offerings. Archaeologists believe the Maya kept their "ritual" cenotes separate from their "domestic" cenotes. Spiritual considerations aside, the practicalities of disease prevention alone would prevent communities from contaminating their drinking water with human remains. The challenge for archaeologists is to determine which cenotes were used by the Maya for domestic purposes--these usually just contain pots, construction materials, and some animal remains--and which ones were used to make appeals to Chac. "Human remains in a cenote are usually a good sign that it was used for ritual purposes," says de Anda. "Of course, there are always accidents," he adds, "but when you have a number of remains, the possibility that they're all accidents is obviously not likely." 

Other contemporary descriptions of Mayan human sacrifice in cenotes


Genealogy Fever
AOL Translation program
Your Encylopedia


      A Deadly and Infectious Disease

-Symptoms: Notepapers stuffed in pockets and files; heart palpitations at the sight of gravestones and old trunks filled with letters; bloodshot eyes from excessive microfilm exposure; erratic speech patterns punctuated with pilgrims and princes; cold sweat upon the arrival of the daily mail.

-Treatment: Medication is useless. Disease is not fatal but gets progressively worse. Patient should attend genealogy workshops, subscribe to historical magazines and be given a quiet corner of the house where they can be alone.

-Remarks: The unusual nature of this disease is, the sicker the patient gets, the more they enjoy it !  Source:

Sent by George Gause
Source: Dennis V. Carter

Linkpendium is attempting to include *every* Website that contains information relevant to American genealogy. This includes both:
o Websites specific to a geographic area.
o Websites specific to a particular surname or group of surnames.

The primary focus of the collection is county-level resources and resources by family name. The collection now includes pointers to 319,219 sources of information, and the collection is growing rapidly.

Virtually every county in America is covered. And there are 134,059 links to information on specific surnames.

We are now in permanent production and expect the URLs of the pages to remain fairly stable. Please feel free to link to either our homepage or deeply into the pages that might be relevant to visitors to your sites.

Check to see if your personal Websites and your favorite other sites have been included in the 319,219 sites indexed so far. If you find a site that's missing, you can click on a link near the top of every page to submit that site for inclusion.

Thanks to everyone for helping make the link collection as complete as possible! It's no secret that the link collection is just the first of a family of powerful research tools for genealogists and, the better the link collection is, the better the more powerful tools will work.

Thanks again, B. Dr. Brian Leverich 
Co-moderator, soc.genealogy.methods/GENMTD-L
P.O. Box 6831, Frazier Park, CA 93222-6831

Source: Dennis V. Carter

AOL Translation program
Sent by Eddie Grijalva
Quick automatic computer translation

Your Encylopedia
Sent by Bill Carmena

Resource for those infrequently used words that your paper-back dictionary does not have. 

The Spanish language (Castellano or Español) is a Romance language, the third or fourth most spoken language on the planet, spoken by about 352 million persons in 1999 in the seven continents, especially in The Americas (417,000,000 including second language users). The Spanish name of the language is a political issue. Many Spaniards speaking Spanish call their language español. Most Spaniards speaking other languages call Spanish castellano (Castilian). In Spanish schools, the official name of the language tends to be castellano rather than español, mainly because there are many regions where there are two mother tongue signatures - castellano and the regional language (Catalan, Basque, Valencian or Galician), which are, in a sense, also "Spanish" languages (they are separate languages, not dialects). On the other hand, in some Latin American countries people prefer the word castellano because español is heard more as a nationality than the name of a language. Speakers of English call the language Spanish, whereas to them, Castilian is the dialect spoken in the spanish region of Castile. Therefore, we will use Spanish in this article.

Spanish is spoke in Spain and 43 other countries.  Total number of speakers, 352 million.  
Explore the site.  

THE YEAR 1904, Some of the U.S. statistics for 1904: 
Sent by Armando Montes
      The average life expectancy in the U.S. was 47 years. 
      Only 14 percent of the homes in the U.S. had a bathtub. 
      Only 8 percent of the homes had a telephone. 
      A three-minute call from Denver to New York City cost eleven dollars. 
      There were only 8,000 cars in the U.S., and only 144 miles of paved roads. 
      The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph. 
      Alabama, Mississippi, Iowa, and Tennessee were each more heavily populated than California.  
      With a mere 1.4 million residents, California was only the 21st most populous state in the 
      The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower. 
      The average wage in the U.S. was 22 cents an hour. 
      The average U.S. worker made between $200 and $400 per year. 
      A competent accountant could expect to earn $2000 per year, a dentist $2,500 per year, a
              veterinarian between $1,500 and $4,000 per year, and a mechanical engineer about 
              $5,000 per year. 
      More than 95 percent of all births in the U.S. took place at home. 
      Ninety percent of all U.S. physicians  had no college education. Instead, they attended
      medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press and by the government as
      Sugar cost four cents a pound.  Eggs were 14 cents a dozen. Coffee was 15 cents a pound. 
      Most women only washed their hair once a month, and used borax or egg yolks for shampoo. 
      Canada passed a law prohibiting poor people from entering the country for any reason. 
       The five leading causes of death in the U.S. were: 
               1. Pneumonia and influenza 
               2. Tuberculosis 
               3. Diarrhea 
               4. Heart disease 
               5. Stroke 
      The American flag had 45 stars.
      Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Hawaii, and Alaska  hadn't been admitted to the Union yet. 
      The population of Las Vegas, Nevada, was 30 
      Crossword puzzles, canned beer, and iced tea hadn't been invented. 
      There was no Mother's Day or Father's Day. 
      Two of 10 U.S. adults couldn't read or write. 
      Only 6 percent of all Americans had graduated high school. 
      Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were  all available over the counter at corner drugstores.
      According to one pharmacist, "Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, 
      regulates the stomach and bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health." (Shocking!) 
      Eighteen percent of households in the U.S. had at least one full-time servant or domestic.
      There were only about 230 reported murders in the entire U.S.   


Sent by Viola Sadler

The next time you are washing your hands and complain because the water temperature isn't just how you like it, think about how things used to be.  I don't know how factual they are, but they are   interesting.

Most people got married in June because they took their yearly bath in May, and still smelled pretty good by June. However, they were starting to smell, so brides carried a bouquet of flowers to hide he body odor.  Hence the custom today of carrying a bouquet when getting

Baths consisted of a big tub filled with hot water. The man of the house had the privilege of the nice clean water, then all the other sons and men, then the women and finally the children. Last of all the babies.  By then the water was so dirty you could actually lose someone in it. Hence the saying, "Don't throw the baby out with the  bath water."

Houses had thatched roofs-thick straw-piled high, with no wood underneath. It was the only place for animals to get warm, so all the cats and other small animals (mice, bugs) lived in the roof. When it rained it became slippery and sometimes the animals would slip and fall off the roof.  Hence the saying "It's raining cats and dogs."

There was nothing to stop things from falling into the house. This posed a real problem in the bedroom where bugs and other droppings could mess up your nice clean bed. Hence, a bed with big posts and a  sheet hung over the top afforded some protection.  That's how canopy beds came into existence.

The floor was dirt. Only the wealthy had something other than dirt. Hence the saying "dirt poor." The wealthy had slate floors that would  get slippery in the winter when wet , so they spread thresh (straw) on floor to help keep their footing. As the winter wore on, they adding more thresh until when you opened the door it would all start slipping outside.   A piece of wood was placed in the entranceway.  Hence the saying a 'thresh hold."

In those old days, they cooked in the kitchen with a big kettle that always hung over the fire. Every day they lit the fire and added things to the pot. They ate mostly vegetables and did not get much meat. They would eat the stew for dinner, leaving leftovers in the pot to get cold overnight and then start over the next day. Sometimes stew had food in it that had been there for quite a while. Hence the rhyme, "Peas porridge hot, peas porridge cold, peas porridge in the pot nine days old."

Sometimes they could obtain pork, which made them feel quite special. When visitors came over, they would hang up their bacon to show off. It was a sign of wealth that a man could "bring home the bacon." They would cut off a little to share with guests and would all sit around and "chew the fat."

Those with money had plates made of pewter. Food with high acid content caused some of the lead to leach onto the food, causing lead poisoning death. This happened most often with tomatoes, so for the next 400 years or so, tomatoes were considered poisonous.

Bread was divided according to status. Workers got the burnt bottom of the loaf, the family got the middle, and guests got the top, or "uppercrust."

Lead cups were used to drink ale or whisky. The combination would sometimes knock the imbibers out for a couple of days. Someone walking along the road would take them for dead and prepare them for burial.  They were laid out on the kitchen table for a couple of days and the family would gather around and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up.  Hence the custom of holding a "wake."

England is old and small and the local folks started running out of places to bury people. So they would dig up coffins and would take the bones to a "bone-house" and reuse the grave. When reopening these coffins, 1out of 25 coffins were found to have scratch marks on the inside and they realized they had been burying people alive. So they would tie a string on the wrist of the corpse, lead it through the coffin and up through the ground and tie it to a bell. Someone would have to sit out in the graveyard all night (the "graveyard shift") to listen for the bell; thus, someone could be "saved by the bell" or was considered a "dead ringer."

And that's the truth... Now, whoever said that History was boring !!!


                12/30/2009 04:48 PM