February 2004, 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


El momento en que fray Gerónimo de Alcalá entrega el manuscrito
 de la Relación de Michoacán al Virrey don Antonio de Mendoza, Siglo XVI

Shared by Armando M. Escobar Olmedo

Content Areas
United States

Hispanic American Heroes 28
Surname 31
Orange County, CA 32
Los Angeles, CA
California 36 
Southwestern United States 44 
Black  48 
Indigenous 522
Sephardic 54
Texas 56
East of the Mississippi 77
East Coast
Family History
2003 Index
Meetings,  SHHAR Quarterly, March 27th 

De la cuna a la tumba es una escuela; 
por eso, lo que llamas problemas, son lecciones. 

Armando Montes

Somos Primos Staff: 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna De Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Rina Dichoso-Dungao, Ph.D.

Judge Fredrick Aguirre
Edward Allegreti
Carolyn Allen
Richard Ameil
Salena Ashton
Camilla Aspey
Mary Ayers
Joe Beine 
Mary Benitez
Greg Bernal-Smestad, Ph.D.
Lic. Arturo A. Bienedell
Eliza Boné
Nancy Bonetti Ray
Dora B. Buckmaster
Troy Bunnell 
Steven Butler
Jaime Cader
Bill Carmena
Andrew Carrillo
Adam Chavarria 
Helen Collins 
William E. Cordero 
William E. Cordero II
Clarissa Cosgrove
Robert J. Cottrol
Jack Cowan
Ray Dall
Lic. Armando M. Escobar 
Lic. Leonardo De la Torre y 
Joan De Soto
Frank Fregoso
George Gause
Ernest J. Garcia
Loida Garcia
Robert Garcia
Henry Godines
Gloria Golden
Robert Gonzales
George Hardwick  
David Vincent Harrell
Michael Eugene Harrell
Sheila Ruiz Harrell
Mark W. Holmerud
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
John Inclan
Thomas Klope
Clarence Lucas
Ancel A. Martinez
Eddie Martinez
JV Martinez
Leroy Martinez
Bill McEwan 
Mary McGinnis 
Nattalia K. Merzoyan
Lorraine Moffat
Armando Montes
Lic. Guillermo Padila Origel
Michael Perez
Luning Rangel
Pauline Reed
Crispin Rendon
Stephen M. Rieden
Mary Ryan
George Ryskamp
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Gail Slade
Al Solis
Paul Trejo 
Margarita Velez
Feng Zhu
Warm welcome to our new Board member, Pat Lozano.  Pat has been an active and supportive member of SHHAR for about 15 years. Her family research interest is in Jalisco.  
SHHAR Board:   
Laura Arechabala Shane 
Bea Armenta Dever
Manuel Garcia 
Steven Hernandez
Mimi Lozano Holtzman 
Henry Marquez
Yolanda Ochoa Hussey 
Michael S. Perez 
Crispin Rendon
Les Rivera 
Viola Rodriguez Sadler 
John P. Schmal
Lourdes Tinajero 
More Information:   714-894-8161


Operation Shield of Strength
Armed Forces Tribute
Eugene A. Obregon Monument 
Mexican American Vets, May 28
Tejano Struggle for Representation
Educational Excellence Project    

Two Newspapers Merge
Hispanics Entrepreneurial Torch
According to the Census
Hispanic Media/Marketing Factoids
Latinos 13% of the US Population 
Hispanics Surpass Blacks for Ads 
Brigadier General Maria I. Cribbs  
Genealogy Military War Records
Save date: Oct 16 Legado Latino
SHHAR Journal, Vol 5 Available

Operation Shield of Strength

It is not "official issue," but thousands of military personnel are now wearing a "Shield of Strength" dog-tag bearing a Scriptural passage on one side (Joshua 1:9 "I will be strong and courageous. I will not be terrified, or discouraged, for the Lord my God is with me wherever I go.") and the words "One Nation under God" on the other. Information on how to participate in Operation Shield of Strength.

More than 200,000 Shields have already been distributed. We currently have sponsors for thousands of additional Shield of Strength tags, and are shipping those tags to military personnel in Iraq, Afghanistan and other military fronts. But there are many military units that do not yet have sponsors. 

Armed Forces Tribute:
This is absolutely beautiful. It is a call to pray for our soldiers. Please go to it. You'll be glad you did. Sent by Margarita Velez

         The Eugene A. Obregon  Congressional Medal of Honor Monument  

Plans are underway for the Obregon monument to be located in Serra Park off of Alameda St. in Los Angeles in the same historical complex as Olvera St.  The monument will in the center of a park, on a knoll.  The monument will honor all the Hispanic Congressional Medal of Honor recipients. To assist financially or participate in any capacity, please go to: 

We are proud to say that the artist is Eddie Martinez, actively involved with the Galvez Project and the Hispanic American Heroes Series. Click to family photos and his story of a recent family research trip to Michoacan, Mexico. 

Mexican American Veterans to be honored in DC

As part of the events associated with the World War II Memorial dedication on May 29, 2004, plans are underway to host a reception honoring Mexican American veterans on Friday night, May 28th.

There will be 3 days of festivities prior to the 29th. All World War II veterans have been invited to attend all the festivities. President Bush is expected to attend the dedication ceremony on the 29th. Undoubtedly, past presidents and other dignitaries will be in attendance. The international media will cover the festivities of such an important event.

The planning committee believes that our Mexican American veterans should be recognized and honored in a hallowed, universally recognized patriotic public building. Their personnel need to be influenced by a positive image of the many contributions made by Mexican American veterans who served during World War II.

African Americans will be honored, especially through their most famous outfit, the Tuskeegee Airmen.
Native Americans
will be cited for their patriotism, notably through their most famous representatives, the Navajo Code Talkers.
Japanese Americans
will be recognized for their heroic service by highlighting the 442nd and 100th Regiments.

Mexican Americans did not serve in a specific unit; however, our history of patriotism is apparent in recent statistics. As of November 6, 2003, 382 U.S. soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen have been killed.  Of that total, sixty are Latinos, which is 16%.

In Iraq, 15-20% of the combat troops are Latinos.

More than 50% of California's and Texas's casualties are Latinos.

More than 28% of Arizona's and Florida's military killed in action, were Latinos.

Of the seven women who have been killed, five are Latinos, that is 70%

The intent of the proposed reception is to honor the half a million Mexican Americans who proudly served in defense of our country during World War II.

If you would like to give visibility to the very deserving 500,000 Mexican American veterans of WWII, please contact: Latino Advocates for Education, Inc.
P.O. Box 5846, Orange, CA 92863    714-225-2499



John P. Schmal


Dedication: This work is dedicated to the Tejanos who fought and died alongside their Anglo brothers in the great struggle against the tyranny of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan (1941-1945).

Special Acknowledgements: to Steve Bickerstaff of the University of Texas School of Law and Kathryn Woosterhausen of the Texas Legislative Library for their advice and contributions. Special thanks also goes to Eligio (Kika) de la Garza.

The state of Texas has an intriguing and diverse history stretching back hundreds of years. For more than two centuries, Texas was part of Spain’s vast American empire. When Mexico achieved independence from Spain in 1821, Texas became part of Mexico. Less than two decades later, Anglo and Mexicano Tejano residents of Texas engineered a rebellion against Mexican rule, which would lead – in 1836 – to the establishment of an independent Republic. Nine years later, Texas became part of the United States.

For the first few decades, some Tejanos shared the reigns of power with the Anglos in Texas. Gradually, as their percent of the population declined, Mexican-American representation nearly vanished from the Texas Legislature. And, by the end of the Nineteenth Century, only one Tejano representative was seated in the Texas House of the Representatives.

Thomas A. Rodriguez (1839-1903) was a native of the Mexican state of Tamaulipas who had served in Confederate Army during the American Civil War. Politically active in San Antonio for a period of time, Rodriguez would eventually serve three terms as the Representative for parts of Atascosa, Karnes, and San Patricio Counties. With the end of Representative Rodriguez’s term of office, the political representation of Tejanos outside of Cameron County effectively ended for several decades.

The Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1870, promised "the rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." In theory this amendment gave Mexican-American Tejanos reassurances that their voice would be heard in both local and national politics. In practice, however, the Amendment was flagrantly violated for the next few decades.

The Poll Tax (1902)

During the first half of the Twentieth Century, the influx of immigrants from Mexico continued to steadily increase, as the need for cheap labor in the commercial agriculture industries of Texas grew. The resulting increase in the Hispanic population of Texas, however, did not lead to increased political representation. One obstacle to Latino participation in Texas during this time was the poll tax amendment. Six attempts to pass poll tax legislation had failed between 1879 and 1899, but in 1901, the Texas Legislature finally passed the poll tax, requiring voters to pay $1.75 at the voting booth. Such an expense was effective in keeping poor Latinos from participating in the electoral process. In November 1902, Texas voters ratified the poll tax by a two-to-one margin.

José T. Canales and Augustine Celaya

Early in the Twentieth Century, the millionaire José Tomás Canales of

Brownsville would serve five terms in the Texas House of Representatives (1905-1910, 1917-1920). Representative Canales was a native of Nueces County and a lawyer by trade. Through his mother, José was descended from José Salvador de la Garza, the owner of a large Spanish land grant that occupied a large portion of Cameron County. With the support of the Cameron County Democratic machine under the control of James B. Wells, Jr., he served from 1905 to 1910 in the Texas House of Representatives as a representative for the 95th District (Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr and Zapata counties).

For a time, Canales served as the County Superintendent of public schools in Cameron County. But, in 1917, he returned to the Texas House of Representatives as the delegate of the Seventy-seventh District, which extended through Cameron and Willacy counties, He served in this capacity to 1920 and won fame for defending the rights of Mexican Americans against the abuses of the Texas Rangers. By embracing prohibition and women’s suffrage, he had received widespread support from his Anglo constituency.

Over the years José T. Canales was extremely influential in the League of United Latin American Citizens. He addressed its founding meeting in 1929 and took part in writing its first constitution. He also became President of LULAC in 1932-33. Representative Canales died on March 30, 1976 in Brownsville.

In 1933, Augustine F. Celaya became the second Mexican American to run for the Texas House of Representatives in the Twentieth Century. Celaya served as the Representative of the 72nd District (Brownsville, Cameron County) from 1933 to 1949 (the 43rd to 50th Legislatures). The third Hispanic person to serve in the Texas Legislature was John Charles Hoyo, who served the 78th District (San Antonio, Bexar County) from 1941 to 1946 (the 47th to the 49th Legislatures). Hoyo was born in 1891 in Weimar, Texas and had served with the U.S. Navy during World War I. He had become a lawyer and a district court judge in Bexar County before taking office as a legislator in 1941.

Diminished Representation

For the first half of the Twentieth Century, Hispanic representation remained very limited, partly because the Mexican-American population of most counties did not make up a majority of most communities. However, in addition to the poll tax, the primary means of limiting minority representation in Texas and other states was the process of gerrymandering. In many states, legislatures would divide a county or city into oddly shaped representational districts to give political advantage to one group or another in elections.

Gerrymandering resulted in voter dilution, in which the political representation of a political unified minority was diminished or altogether obstructed. As a result, even districts containing a majority of Latinos in some parts of the United States frequently found themselves without proper representation thanks to vote dilution. In Texas, gerrymandering of the Latino vote was manifested in the nature of legislative redistricting and reapportionment.

Apportionment or reapportionment, according to law professor, Steve Bickerstaff, "refer to the result of the process of allocating members of a legislative body among areas or political subdivisions." For example, the U.S. Congress "apportions" Congressional seats among the states. In contrast, however, Professor Bickerstaff points out that districting or redistricting entail "the actual drawing of the boundaries of the election districts from which members of the federal or state legislative bodies will be elected."

Legislative Redistricting

Since 1876, the apportionment of legislative districts had been required by Article III, Section 28 of the Texas Constitution to take place following each federal decennial census. This reapportionment took place on a regular basis up to 1921, when the 37th Legislature redrew district lines based on the 1920 census.

However, the Texas political establishment chose to avoid a redrawing of election districts after the 1930 and 1940 census. So, although the 1930 and 1940 census schedules were available for the purpose of reapportionment and redistricting of voting districts, the powers that be decided to protect the people in power and continued to use the districts that had been drawn in 1921. The 1921 districts, therefore, remained in effect until 1951.

One of the reasons to avoid redistricting had to do with the enormous growth of urban areas in Texas during the 1920 to 1950 period. In 1920, two-thirds of the Texas population of 4,700,000 was still rural. However, from this point, the urban areas experienced a dramatic and sustained increase. From 1940 to 1950, the urban population increased 58.4%, while the number of people in rural areas decreased 11.6%. In the 1940s, 146 out of 254 Texas counties lost population, resulting in great discrepancies among the populations of the various districts (Malcolm Jewell, 1962, p. 121).

Congressional redistricting followed the same course as that of the state legislature.

In fact, the last redistricting to determine the number of representatives that Texas would send to the U.S. Congress took place in 1933, using the figures from the 1930 census. But Texas did not redistrict the Congressional Districts for 24 years after that and continued to use the 1930 census even though the 1940 and 1950 census figures were available.

Finally, in 1957, Texas reapportioned its Congressional Districts. By that time, Texas had grown in population enough to receive another representative, but rather than adding another district, the legislature created an "at large" seat. That candidate would be voted on in all twenty-one of the districts. In addition, a 1936 amendment to Article III, Section 26(a) of the Texas Constitution had limited to the number of representatives that one county could have to seven. Only when a county’s population reached 700,000 would it get an additional representative. Such practices were blatant violations of the principle of equally populated districts.

As a result of this provision, Texas’s four most populous counties combined were awarded one representative for each 81,000 people in 1951, while most other counties were receiving one for each 45,000 to 50,000. Thus, Dallas, Bexar and Harris counties were limited in the growth potential of their representation. Article III, Section 25 of the Texas Constitution also did not permit more than one senator to represent a county. Not until 1962, did the U.S. Supreme Court, in Baker v. Carr, declare that these population inequities denied voters "equal protection of the law" guaranteed under the 14th Amendment of the Constitution [BAKER v. CARR, 369 U.S. 186 (1962)].

In 1947 the Texas Legislature passed a proposed constitutional amendment providing for creation of the Legislative Redistricting Board, which would be composed of five high executive officers. The failure of the Legislature to redistrict in 1931 and 1941 had troubled some lawmakers, so the Board was set up to redistrict should the legislature fail to do so during the first regular session after federal census data become available. In 1948, the voters ratified this proposed amendment.

A New Breed

In the devastation and uncertainty of World War II (1939-1945), a new breed of Tejano was created. Fighting alongside their Anglo brothers, hundreds of thousands of young Mexican-Americans had taken part in the battle against the tyranny and oppression of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. With the end of the war, these young Mexican-American veterans came home to a state where their rights as citizens were not always recognized and – in some cases – blatantly violated. These proud young veterans, having fought to defend their native land, believed it was time to assert their rights as American citizens.

Former Representative Eligio (Kika) de la Garza, in a telephone interview with the author, explained that World War II changed the dynamics of Latino representation in Texas. Even in Kika’s small hometown of Mission, Texas (Hidalgo County), young Mexican Americans quickly enlisted to do their duty. In Mission alone, some forty to fifty boys volunteered and went off to serve their country. Seven of these young men died in the service of their country. Kika’s maternal uncle, Roberto Villarreal, flew 54 missions as a gunner but died in an air accident upon returning home.

The pride and joy of Mission was Army Sgt. Jose Lopez, a native son of the town, who saved his entire company from being surrounded by enemy troops in Belgium in 1945. For his service, Lopez won the Medal of Honor. As Kika explains it, the pride of these young men in having defended their native soil was tremendous. And this service was repeated in small towns throughout Texas.

But added to that pride was the reward that survivors were given for their wartime service. It is Kika’s view that the G.I. Bill made it possible for thousands of Tejano veterans to attend college and make a better life for themselves. The G.I. Bill Act of June 22, 1944 – or the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act [Public Law 346, 78th Congress, Title III, §§500-503, 58 Stat. 284, 291-293 (1944)] – put higher education within the reach of thousands of Mexican-American veterans.

The Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952 [Public Law 550, 82nd Congress, July 16, 1952, Ch. 875, 66 Stat. 663, 38 U.S.C. 997] provided similar privileges to Korean War veterans. Over the next decade, Mexican-American veterans attended local and nationwide colleges and universities to obtain college degrees. In many cases, these vets were the first members of their families to receive a higher education. Armed with the weapon of education, many of these veterans became the Chicano leaders of the 1960s and 1970s.

In 1947, the Pan American Progressive Association was founded in order to stress leadership and economic interests among Latinos. The American G.I. Forum, founded March 1948, was organized by returning Mexican American veterans from the war. When a funeral home denied use of its facilities for the wake of a decorated veteran, Felix Z. Longoria, the incident received national coverage and helped the G.I. Forum to consolidate its power base and grow into a national organization.

Stressing their patriotism and service to country, the Forum campaigned to increase electoral participation in the political arena. In 1949 and 1950, they initiated local "pay your poll tax" drives to register Tejano voters. Although they failed in repeated efforts to repeal the tax, a 1955–56 drive in the Rio Grande Valley resulted in the first majority Mexican American electorate in the area.

One of the early pioneers of Hispanic representation in the Texas Legislature was Arnold J. Vale. From 1937 to 1947, Representative Vale had represented the 74th District (Rio Grande City, Starr County). In 1949 he represented the same district for three more sessions from 1949 to 1955.

Fifth-third Session (1953)

In 1952, Eligio de la Garza (b. 1927), known affectionately as "Kika" de la Garza, would run as the next representative of the Hispanic community. Eligio was born in Mercedes, Hidalgo County, Texas, on September 22, 1927 as the son of Dario de la Garza and Elisa Villarreal. In 1945, at the age of 17, de la Garza enlisted in the U.S. Navy, serving in World War II. When he returned from the war in 1946, he attended college, but was later recalled to serve his country during the Korean conflict.

Kika graduated from St. Mary’s University with a law degree in 1952 and was admitted to the bar soon after. In 1952, friends and relatives persuaded Kika to run for office in the 38th District of Hidalgo County, recently created by the 1951 redistricting process. Because his family had already been involved in local politics, he accepted the candidacy and won the election. He would hold this office for five consecutive terms. In the 54th Legislature of 1955-1956, Eligio de la Garza became the only Hispanic legislator, after Arnold Vale’s term had expired in 1954.

The First Tejano Mayor of El Paso

At another location along the border, Mexican American voters were able to pull off another electoral victory in 1957. Raymond L. Telles, Jr., a native of El Paso, became the first Mexican American to be elected as Mayor of El Paso and the first Hispanic to be elected mayor of a major American city.

The son of a bricklayer, Raymond was born in 1915 and attended school in the El Paso area and eventually took a job as an accountant for the U.S. Department of Justice, a job he held for eight years. In 1941, he was drafted into the armed serves and by 1945, had achieved the rank of major. From 1943 trough 1945, Telles served as an aide to several presidents and high dignitaries from Latin America and Mexico who were visiting the United States. He also acted as military aide to both Presidents Truman and Eisenhower on their visits to Mexico City.

His service record was just one of the reasons Telles ran for county clerk in 1948. In 1951, Telles was recalled by the Air Force during the Korean Conflict and served as Executive Officer of the 67th Tactical and Reconnaissance Group. In 1957, Telles and his friends created what they called "The People's Ticket," with the goal of appealing to all groups of people. Voters turned out in record numbers, sweeping Raymond L. Telles into office as Mayor El Paso.

Telles served as Mayor of El Paso from 1957 to 1961. After finishing his term as Mayor, Mr. Telles became the U.S. Ambassador to Costa Rica (1961-1967). Not until 1977, was the next Hispanic Mayor of El Paso, Ray Salazar, able to take office (1977-1979).

Fifty-fifth Session (1957-1958)

In the 55th Legislative Session (1957-1958), Oscar M. Laurel joined Kika de la Garza in the House of Representatives, having won election to Laredo’s 80th District in Webb County. He would serve two full sessions, leaving office in 1960. Oscar M. Laurel was a native of Laredo and a graduate of Loyola University of the South in New Orleans. With the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Oscar answered Uncle Sam’s call and served in the U.S. Air force from 1941 to 1945. He received his law degree in Houston and practiced law in Laredo starting in 1948. In 1955 he was elected the national president of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). He died on March 29, 2001 at the age of 80.

In 1956, Henry Barbosa Gonzalez (1916-2000) broke down another barrier to Mexican-American political representation. Enrique Barbosa González was born in San Antonio as the son of Leonides González and Genoveva Barbosa. His father Leonides had served as Mayor of Mapimí in Durango, Mexico, but fled the turmoil of the Mexican Revolution in 1911 and brought his family to San Antonio.

Henry B. Gonzalez had first run for state representative of San Antonio in the 1950 Democratic primaries. He actually advanced to a runoff election in San Antonio, but lost by 2,000 votes out of 33,000. Gonzalez had failed to gain the necessary support of Anglo precincts, thus losing in the runoff election. However, in his 1956 run for the Senate, Henry B. Gonzalez was successful, taking office in 1957 as the first Mexican American elected to the Texas Senate in the Twentieth Century. Senator Gonzalez would serve from the 26th Senatorial District from 1957 to 1958 and 1960 to 1961 (the 55th and 57th Legislative Sessions).

Fifty-Sixth Session (1959-1960)

In 1959, Kika de la Garza and Oscar M. Laurel were joined by another Chicano representative in the House. Mauro Rosas became El Paso’s first Tejano representative to Austin during the Twentieth Century. Representing the 105th District, Position 3, Rosas would serve in this capacity for two legislative sessions.

In 1961 – after the statistics for the 1960 Census had become available – the Texas Legislature redistricted the House of Representatives. The House retained the maximum number of representatives, which was 150 as mandated by Article III, Section 2 of the 1876 Texas Constitution. In order to comply with this provision, the number of representatives’ districts actually had to be decreased from 105 to 94, mainly because of a large increase in urban population. But large disparities existed between the various state districts. In the Representative districts, the smallest district had 33,987 persons, while the largest had 105,725.

In the Senate, the disparities were even more pronounced. The population of Texas (9,579,677), divided by 31 senatorial seats, yielded a senatorial population mean of 309,022. In theory, the thirty-one districts should have been approximately equal in population. But the population of the largest senatorial district (No. 6) had a population of 1,243,158, while the smallest (No. 16) had a population of only 147,454. The vote of the citizens in the essentially urban senatorial districts of 6, 8, 10, 26 and 29 was worth less than half the vote of the citizens in the 21 smallest districts [Robert B. McKay, "Reapportionment: The Law and Politics of Equal Representation," New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1965, p. 432].

To many political analysts, the Texas style of redistricting and reapportionment seemed to be unfairly rigged in favor of rural areas. A 1936 amendment to the Texas constitution had limited to seven the number of representatives that one county could have. So, Dallas, Bexar and Harris counties were limited in the growth potential of their representation in the House.

A suit was filed in Federal District Court on July 16, 1963 challenging the apportionment of both houses of the Texas Legislature. The "one county" senatorial restriction of Article III, Section 25 of the Texas Constitution was challenged, as was the provision limiting the representation of individual counties. On December 14, 1964, the three-judge Federal District Court held the existing apportionment to be unconstitutional and ruled that both houses must be apportioned by August 2, 1965. They further declared that the redrawing of the legislative districts should conform to the new "one person, one vote" rule. [KILGARIN V. MARTIN, Civil Action No. 63-H-390 (S.D. Texas 1964)].

The Court invalidated the sections of the Texas Constitution that had obstructed fair apportionment by limiting counties to one senator and establishing irrational population limits for House Districts. In May 1965, the Legislature, in response, reapportioned both houses in approximation of equality among the election districts.

The United States, in the Supreme Court Case, Reynolds v. Sims, 1964, required equally populated districts in both houses of a bicameral legislature. In this case, the Court summarized the principle of "one person, one vote" as follows: "[T]he fundamental principle of representative government in this country is one of equal representation for equal numbers of people, without regard to race, sex, economic status, or place of residence within a State." The Court had determined that a voter in a district having a population greater than most districts had less influence in electing a representative than a voter in a district having a smaller population [REYNOLDS v. SIMMS, 377 U.S. 568 (1964).].

When the 1957 Congressional redistricting took place, Texas had grown in population enough to receive another representative. This redistricting created a new "at-large" Congressional seat, District 6. In this unique situation, the candidate would be voted on in all twenty-one of the districts. This approach to redistricting allowed all incumbents' existing districts to remain intact and meant that the at-large candidate had to campaign across and represent the entire state. This policy also guaranteed that an Anglo would be elected to office.

Up to 1965, 22 Texas representatives to the U.S. Congress were elected from statutory districts, while one was elected at large. In Bush v. Martin, plaintiffs from two congressional districts asserted that the congressional districts in Texas were unconstitutional. The Federal District Court in Houston held Texas’ Congressional Districting act to be unconstitutional and stated that the Texas Legislature must redraw the Texas Congressional Districts in compliance with Wesberry v. Sanders. [BUSH V. MARTIN, 224 F. Supp. 499 (S.D. Tex. 1963), affirmed, 376 U.S. 222 (1964)].

The three-judge Federal District Court found that the population disparity among Texas Congressional Districts – ranging from 216,371 to 951,527 – was "indeed spectacular" and noted that marked under-representation was "not surprisingly" found in metropolitan districts. Although Texas boasted a total of 254 counties, more than half of the population of the state was living in only eighteen counties and there were fifteen areas in the state that qualified for the label of "metropolitan."

Fifty-Seventh Session (1961-1962)

The Fifty-Seventh Legislative Session marked a turning point for Tejano political representation. From two representatives in the 55th Session, the Hispanic representation increased to six representatives. Including Senator Gonzalez, this meant that seven Tejanos were serving in the Texas Legislature during that session.

While Kika de la Garza continued to represent Hidalgo County and Rosas served from El Paso, four new representatives took their seats in the House. Two of the newly elected Representatives joined Senator Henry Gonzalez in representing the people of San Antonio and Bexar County. Vidal M. Trevino replaced Representative Laurel, serving the 80th District (Laredo, Webb County) during the 57th Session (1961-63).

Vidal Trevino had graduated from Martin High School in Laredo and had attended Texas A&I University in Kingsville, where he earned both his bachelor's and master's degrees. He served in the United States Army during World War II, after which, in 1950, he joined the Laredo Independent School District, where he became a classroom teacher. As a legislator, Representative Trevino served the constituents of District 80, comprising Webb and Zapata Counties. After leaving the legislature in 1963, Trevino rejoined the Laredo School District, eventually becoming Superintendent in 1973.

In 1960, when Johnny Alaniz ran for state representative from the 68th District, Position 7 (San Antonio, Bexar County), he was a young lawyer who had only recently passed his bar examination. After this election, Johnny became known as "the Giant Killer" because he had successfully defeated the incumbent Freites Seeligson, a well-established conservative leader in the Texas legislature. Representative Seeligson was a wealthy person who had money, experience and a great deal of Anglo support. Nevertheless, John C. Alaniz won the election against Seeligson by a 200-vote margin and took office in 1961 as the first Mexican-American elected as State Representative from Bexar County. Representative Alaniz served the people of the 68th District for three sessions, holding office from 1961 to 1967 (57th to 59th Sessions).

Representative Alaniz was the first author of the state bilingual education act in 1961. He also took a leading role in passing a law for single-member districts for the State House of Representatives and the State Senate and for eliminating the poll tax as a qualification for voting. In 1963, Representative Alaniz was the first Mexican-American to run for Speaker of the House of Representatives, but he won only nine votes out of 150 votes total. Representative John C. Alaniz died on March 26, 2001 at the age of 71.

Also in the 57th Session, Rudy Esquivel was elected as the Democratic representative from the 68th District, Position 2, also from San Antonio (Bexar County). Representative Esquivel would serve in the House for two sessions (57th and 58th) from 1961 to 1965.

During this session, Kika de la Garza would gain a new Tejano ally in the representation of Hidalgo County. In 1960, Raul L. Longoria won election as the Representative of the 38th District, Position 1 (Pharr, Hidalgo County). Raul L. Longoria was born in 1921 as the son of Andres Longoria and Maria Enriquetta. Born and raised in his family’s ancestral home of La Grulla, Star County, Raul joined the United States Army Air Corps in 1942 and served in the European Theater of Operations of World War II for four years up to 1946. Under the G.I. Bill, Raul Longoria received his bachelor's degree in business administration in 1950 and a law degree from The University of Texas at Austin in 1952.

Longoria started practicing law in Edinburg, Texas before running for office in 1960. Representative Longoria served District 38-1 for six terms (1961-1963, 1965-1973). Then in 1972, he ran was elected to the Texas Senate where served from 1973 to 1981 (63rd to 66th Districts). In 1981, Longoria was elected as a Judge to the State District Court in Hidalgo County. He died in May 2001 in Houston.

87th U.S. Congress (1961-1962)

In 1958, Senator Henry B. Gonzales ran for the office of Governor in the Democratic primary, but lost. However, in 1961, Congressman Paul Kilday, a Democrat, was appointed to the federal bench by President John F. Kennedy. This left his congressional seat with the 20th District vacant. In 1961, Henry B. Gonzalez was elected in a special election to fill this position and won by a margin of 10,000 votes, becoming the first Mexican-American representative to Congress from Texas in the Twentieth Century.

In his subsequent reelection bids, Congressman Gonzalez faced very little opposition, usually winning at least eighty percent of the vote and running unopposed a number of times. Although he supported and initiated legislation for the welfare of Hispanic Americans, Gonzalez avoided running on a Chicano platform. He served as a congressional representative from 1961 to 1999 (the 87th to the 105th Congresses).

Fifty-Eighth Session (1963-1964).

Tejano representation in the 58th Session dropped from six representatives to five. In addition, with Henry Gonzalez having moved from the Texas Senate to the U.S. Congress, no Tejanos held office in the Upper House.

Representatives Alaniz, de la Garza, and Esquivel all continued to represent their constituencies in Bexar and Hidalgo Counties. Joining them in the House was Amando F. Canales of San Diego, Duval County, who represented the 70th District. He would serve through two sessions from 1963 to 1967.

Joining the others in the House was the Laredo native, Honore Ligarde. Born in 1920 as the son of Amedee Ligarde and Sara Saenz, Honore had been raised in the Laredo area. He entered the service in 1941 as an Aviation Cadet with the Air Force and left the service in 1945 after serving in the 321st Bomb Group, 12th Air Force. For his service, Ligarde had received the Air Medal with Oak Leaf Clusters and the Presidential Unit Citation. Honore Ligarde was elected as the Representative of the 59th District of Laredo, Webb County. Representative Ligarde would serve in five sessions from 1963 to 1973.

In 1964, an important piece of federal legislation would bring about the end of the Texas poll tax. On January 23, 1964, the U.S. Congress ratified the 24th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution – originally proposed on August 27, 1962. The 24th Amendment banned the use of poll taxes in federal elections, stating that "the right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax."

For two more years, the poll tax still existed for state and local elections in Texas. For this reason, different ballots had to be provided for voters qualified for all elections and for those voting only in federal elections. But, early in 1966, in Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections, 383 U.S. 663 (1966), the Supreme Court held Virginia's poll tax to be unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment. This ruling judicially invalidated the poll tax for all state and local elections.

On August 6, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the "Voting Rights Act of 1965." Section 2 of this act prohibited any state or political subdivision of a state from using any "standard, practice, or procedure," including a redistricting plan, "which results in denial or abridgement of the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color" or membership in a protected language minority group. On a Federal Level, this Act made illegal the Texas redistricting policies of recent decades.

Eighty-Ninth Congress (1965-1966)

After serving six consecutive terms as a representative in Austin, Kika de la Garza was elected in 1964 to the U.S. House of Representatives to represent Texas’ 15th Congressional District, which primarily included McAllen and Edinburg (Hidalgo County) and Kingsville (Kleberg County). When the 89th Congress convened in 1965, Representative de la Garza took his seat as a Democrat, effectively ending a thirteen-year career in the Texas House of Representatives. Kika would served in Congress from January 3, 1965 until the January 3, 1997 (the 89th to 104th Congresses).

Because he hailed from a district with a large agricultural base, de la Garza became a member of the Committee on Agriculture. In 1967 he served as Chairman of the Subcommittee on Department Operations and Foreign Agriculture. And from 1981 to 1994, Congressman de la Garza was the Chairman of the Committee on Agriculture, becoming the first Hispanic since 1917 to be the Chairman of a standing committee in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Fifty-Ninth Session (1965-1966).

After Kika de la Garza moved to the U.S. Congress, his seat in 38th District, Position 3 (Hidalgo County) elected an Anglo named A.C. "Bud" Atwood to replace him. However, even with the loss of Kika’s District, the number of Latinos serving in the Texas House of Representatives increased from five in the 58th Legislature to nine in the 59th Legislature.

In the new session, Representative Alaniz continued to represent San Antonio, while Ligarde continued to represent his people in Laredo. In the meantime, two more Hispanic representatives came onto the scene as a delegate from Bexar County. Joseph J. Bernal (born 1927) was born in San Antonio and attended public schools in the area. He joined the infantry in 1945, taking part in World War II. After he was honorably discharged in 1946, Mr. Bernal took advantage of the GI Bill of Rights and obtained a bachelor's degree in education at Trinity University in San Antonio. A few years later, he started a 13-year teaching career in San Antonio.

In 1964, Joe Bernal defeated Rudy Esquivel, a Democrat, in the election for District 68, Position 2 (San Antonio, Bexar County). After serving for one session, Representative Bernal was elected in 1966 to the Texas Senate, where he served from 1967 to 1973. During his years in the Senate, Mr. Bernal was the primary author of several bills. He authorized the first minimum wage law in Texas and expunged from state statute all laws supporting segregation of the races.

The third Tejano representing San Antonio in the 59th Session was R. L. (Bob) Vale. Born in Roma, Texas in 1931 to Joseph J. Vale and Maria Garcia and the nephew of Arnold Vale, Robert Lee Vale attended law school and served as a Lieutenant in the Army during and after the Korean War (1954-1956). After practicing law in San Antonio, Mr. Vale ran for Representative of District 68-6, replacing C. Jim Segrest. Bob Vale would have a long career in politics, representing the 68-6 District from 1965 to 1979 through seven terms.

When Bob Vale left the House after 14 years, he was ranked eighth in seniority of the 150 members. In 1979, Representative Vale began serving in the Senate from 1979 to 1985, representing District 26 (Bexar County) for another three terms. Senator Vale died in 1992.

In Nueces County, the attorney Tony Bonilla broke new ground with his election as a Democratic representative to District 38-1 in November 1964. Born in Calvert, Texas in 1936, Tony Bonilla had attended college in Corpus Christi before receiving his law degree from the University of Houston. After his election, Tony Bonilla stated, "I am very proud to be today the first state representative of Mexican ancestry to be elected in Nueces County." But, he added, "I am cognizant of the additional responsibility such a privilege places upon me. I will represent all the citizens."

While Amando Canales continued to represent Duvall County, Ligarde represented Laredo. Although Raul Longoria stood up for Hidalgo County, a new Tejano came onto the scene, also as a representative from Hidalgo County. Gregory F. Montoya was elected to serve District 38-2 (Elsa, Hidalgo County), replacing William Coughran in office. Mr. Montoya was served his district off and on for more than a decade.

In the 59th Legislative Session, El Paso once again sent a Tejano representative to Austin. Born in Floresville, Texas in 1932 as the son of Raul R. Muniz and Beatrice Trevino, Raul F. Muniz had served in the Army’s 97th Engineers during the 1950s. When he took office as the Representative of District 74-4 (El Paso) in 1965, he replaced Malcolm McGregor. Muniz would serve the 74th District from 1965 to 1971 (59th to 61st sessions).

Sixtieth Session (1967-1968)

In the 60th Legislative Session, the number of Mexican American legislators in Austin increased to eleven: ten representatives and one senator (Bernal). While Ligarde continued to represent Laredo, Longoria still represented part of Hidalgo County and Muniz stood up for El Paso. Bob Vale continued to represent San Antonio, and Joseph J. Bernal moved to the Senate. In the meantime, Kika de la Garza and Henry Gonzalez represented the only two Tejanos to represent Texas in the U.S. Congress.

However, a whole generation of freshmen delegates now entered the Texas House of Representatives for the first time. Joining Raul Muniz in representing the people of El Paso County were Paul Moreno and H. Tati Santiesteban. Humberto Tati Santiesteban was born in 1934 as the son of Ricardo Santiesteban, Jr. and Carmen Leyva. A native of El Paso, he attended the New Mexico Military Institute and was on active duty with the Army from 1956 to 1959. He attended in law school, and in 1967 became a member of the House, representing District 67-1 of El Paso. Santiesteban would serve in the House from 1967 to 1973 and in the Texas Senate from 1973 to 1991.

Paul Moreno, a native of Alamogordo, New Mexico, was raised in El Paso. He served in the U.S. Marine Corps for six years and was decorated for his service in the Korean War.

Paul Moreno was first elected to the Texas House in November 1966, taking office the next year as the Representative of District 67-3. Representative Moreno has embraced this job and was reelected in 2002 to serve his eighteenth two-year term in the House.

J.A. Garcia, Jr. was elected to represent the 48-F District (Raymondville, Willacy County) for the Sixtieth Legislature. Joseph Alexander Garcia, Jr., was born in Brownsville in 1936 as the son of Joseph Alexander Garcia, Sr. and Bertha Champion. He would serve the people of Willacy County for three sessions until 1972.

Henry Sanchez, Jr., was elected to represent District 47-2 (Brownsville, Cameron County) and served for four sessions from 1967 to 1975. Henry Sanchez had served four years in the United States Air Force. As the owner of a weekly newspaper, he had become a civic leader and activist in the Brownsville area. He died suddenly in 1995 at the age of 63. Representative Sanchez became the first Hispanic to represent Cameron County in many years.

In the 60th Session, Oscar Carrillo, Sr. became the Duval County’s second Tejano representative, following Amando Canales. Born in 1921 in Hebbronville (Jim Hogg County) as the son of David Carrillo Chapa and Emma Peña, Mr. Carrillo served in the U.S. Army during World War II, winning the Bronze Star for his service. In 1947 at age 21, Carrillo became the youngest Mayor of the City of Benavides. Although he was proud to be a rancher and farmer in Duval County, Mr. Carrillo ran for Representative in 1966. He was elected to serve as Representative of District 50 (Benavidez, Duval County) and held that position through three sessions from 1967 to 1973. Representative Carrillo died in 2003 at the age of 81.

The major eastern urban area of Houston was also able to gain a Hispanic legislator in the 60th Legislative District. Born in 1933 in Beaumont, Texas, Lauro Cruz was the son of Manuel Cruz and Margarita Menchaca. He attended the University of Houston and served in the Marines during the Korean War (1950-1953). With the support of LULAC and the GI Forum, Lauro Cruz ran for the position of District 23-5 and won, making him the first Mexican-American to win representation in Houston.

Sixty-First Session (1969-1970).

In the Sixty-First Legislative Session, all ten of the incumbent Tejanos held onto their respective seats in the House, while Senator Joseph Bernal continued to serve in the Senate as the lone Tejano voice in that chamber.

However, the Latino representation in this session increased to a total of 12 (counting Bernal in the Senate). The lone newcomer to the House was Carlos F. Truan. A native of Kingsville, Truan had earned a business degree at Texas A&I University in 1959. In 1968, Truan was elected to serve District 45-2 (Corpus Christi, Nueces County), succeeding Travis A. Peeler in that position.

Representative Truan would have an illustrious career in the Texas Legislature, first serving four terms in the House (1969-1977), then moving on to the Texas Senate where he served from 1977 to 2003. As the representative of Senate District 21, he served a constituency of eight counties and 650,000 people and, by the end of his career, had become the longest serving member of the Texas Senate. In the 69th Legislature, his colleagues in the Senate had elected him to the post of Senate President Pro Tempore during three sessions. Truan himself felt great pride in the fact that he had sponsored the Texas Bilingual Education Act and the Texas Adult Education Act.

Sixty-Second Session (1971-1972)

The 62nd Legislature saw a drop in the number of Tejano representatives. From an all-time high of eleven, the Tejanos saw their numbers drop to nine in the House, while Senator Bernal continued to hold onto his Senatorial Seat.

During this session, many of the Representatives from the 61st Session continued to serve in their districts in Houston, El Paso and Hidalgo County. The one notable addition was that of Dr. Martin E. Garcia, who succeeded J.A. Garcia as Representative of District 46-3 during this session.

In 1971, with the 1970 census data available, the Texas House and Senate both prepared for a new redistricting effort. The 62nd Legislature turned out to be a very turbulent period in Texas Legislative History, especially after Speaker Gus Mutscher and the House leadership were challenged by a reform coalition of Republicans and liberal Democrats known as the "Dirty Thirty," which included El Paso representative, Paul Moreno, and San Antonio representative, Bob Vale.

Mutscher and his political allies sought to "purge" their opponents in the House Redistricting plan. Although Mutscher and his partners claimed that their redistricting schemes were unavoidable and accidental, most legislators knew better. Mutscher was soon ousted from power and found guilty of accepting a bribe. While the House of Representatives fought over redistricting, the Texas Senate failed to reach agreement on a redistricting plan, so the Legislative Redistricting Board had to be activated to do the job.

In 1972, the reapportionment plan for the senatorial districts in Harris County (Houston) was challenged in Graves v. Barnes. In this case, the plaintiffs challenged the state plan on the grounds that the senatorial districts were racially gerrymandered [GRAVES v. BARNES, 405 U.S. 1201 (1972)].

Then, on June 18, 1973, a three-judge Federal District Court invalidated the House redistricting plan, stating that the proposed reapportionment plan "contained constitutionally impermissible deviations from population equality, and that the multimember districts provided for Bexar and Dallas Counties invidiously discriminated against cognizable racial or ethnic groups" [WHITE v. REGESTER, 412 U.S. 755 (1973)].

The District Court's order requiring disestablishment of the multimember districts in Dallas and Bexar Counties was warranted in view of the long history of political discrimination against both African Americans and Mexican Americans in those counties. Having surveyed the historical condition of Mexican Americans in Bexar County, the Court observed that the Bexar community, along with other Mexican-Americans in Texas had, for a long time, "suffered from, and continues to suffer from, the results and effects of invidious discrimination and treatment in the fields of education, employment, economics, health, politics and others."

The Court further stated that cultural and linguistic barriers made the participation of Mexican Americans difficult. This "cultural incompatibility," the Court declared, "conjoined with the poll tax and the most restrictive voter registration procedures in the nation have operated to effectively deny Mexican-Americans access to the political processes in Texas even longer than the Blacks were formally denied access." As a result, the Court wrote, only five Mexican-Americans since 1880 had served in the Texas Legislature from Bexar County, and only two of these had come from the San Antonio Barrio. With these observations, the Court said that single-member districts would remedy "the effects of past and present discrimination against Mexican-Americans."

However, although the House plan was declared invalid, the Court did permit its use for the 1972 election, except for the injunction order requiring the two county multimember districts to be reconstituted into single-member districts. The White v. Regester litigation represents, even today, one of the most important decisions in Texas history relating to Tejano representation.

Sixty-Third Session (1973-1974)

When the 63rd Texas Legislature convened in 1973, ten Tejano legislators took their seats in the House of Representatives, while Raul Longoria and Tati Santiesteban took their new seats in the Senate. Joe Bernal’s tenure in the Senate had ended with the previous session, but the total number of Hispanics in both Chambers had once again reached 12 (as in the 61st Legislature). However, of the ten representatives in the lower chamber, five were newcomers, and Gregory Montoya was a returning delegate.

The first newcomer, Terry Canales, became the first Hispanic person to become the Representative of District 58 (Premont, Jim Wells County) in 1973. Canales served through two terms (1973-1977) and moved on to become a four-term District Court Judge for the 79th Judicial District of South Texas (Jim Wells and Brooks Counties). His daughter, Gabi Canales, later followed in his footsteps as a state representative.

Another Tejano freshman in the House was William N. (Billy) Hall, Jr., who essentially took on Honore Ligarde’s former post as a Tejano Representative from Laredo. Billy Hall was elected to serve the 57th District (Laredo, Webb County) and served through seven consecutive sessions (1973-1987).

A new Tejano representative also came on to the scene from the San Antonio area. Joining Representative Vale in representing Bexar County, Joe Hernandez was elected to serve from District 57-J (San Antonio, Bexar County). Representative Hernandez would hold this seat in the Texas House through six consecutive sessions from 1973 to 1985.

Another Tejano representative from San Antonio also took office in the 63rd Legislature.

Frank Madla, a native of Helotes, Texas (just outside of San Antonio) had received B.A and M.A. Degrees in Government from St. Mary’s University in San Antonio. Mr. Madla started out as a Junior High School teacher. However, in 1973, he took office as the elected representative of District 57-A (San Antonio).

Representative Madla would serve through ten consecutive sessions (1973-1993), and in 1993, moved to the Texas Senate, where he continues to serve. Representative and Senator Madla has gained a reputation as an outspoken advocate for health care and education issues.

Thanks to recently drawn single member districts, Ben T. Reyes took his seat as Representative of District 87 (Houston, Harris County). A twenty-five-year-old Vietnam veteran, Reyes replaced Lauro Cruz, who had resigned his position to run for Texas State Treasurer. He served through four sessions (1973-1980), representing Houston’s Second and Third Wards, Magnolia, and Northside. Gregory Montoya, who had left the House in 1967 returned as the Representative of District 49 (Elsa, Hidalgo County) to serve two more sessions.

In the Senate, Raul L. Longoria moved from the House to serve as the State Senator representing the Rio Grande Valley, becoming the first Tejano to represent south Texas as Senator. He served as State Senator until 1981 when he was elected to the State District Court in Hidalgo County. He served as District Judge for thirteen years until his retirement in 1994.

In 1972, the Mexican American Legislative Caucus (MALC) was established as a non-profit, non-partisan organization of all the Hispanic members of the Texas House of Representatives and Senate. In 1977, Tejano Senators started their own organization. According to the MALC Constitution, the purpose of the organization was committed "to represent the interests of the Mexican American community of Texas before the Legislature." By 1991/1992, MALC had 26 members, representing about a fifth of the House vote. In 2001, MALC’s membership reached 41, representing just over one fourth of the House vote.

Sixty-Fourth Session (1975-1976)

The 64th Legislative Session saw the largest number of Tejano legislators take their seats in both chambers: Sixteen in all. While Senators Longoria and Santiesteban returned to their seats in the Upper Chamber, fourteen Tejano Representatives took their place in the Lower Chamber.

Although many of the Representatives were holdovers from the previous session, several new delegates took their seats. Born in Galveston in 1941, Gonzalo Barrientos grew up in Bastrop and attended the University of Texas at Austin. In 1974, he was elected as the first Mexican-American to represent District 37-4 (Austin, Travis County). He took office in 1975 and served through five sessions until 1984. Then, in November 1984, Representative Barrientos was elected to the Texas Senate, representing District 14, which included most of Travis County and part of Hays County.

65th Session (1977-1978)

The Sixty-Fifth Legislative Session represented a milestone in the representation of Tejanos in the Texas Legislature. For the first time ever, three Mexican Americans took their seats in the Texas House: Longoria, Santiesteban, Truan.

A milestone of gender proportions was also reached when Irma Rangel was elected as the first Mexican-American lawmaker in the Texas Legislature. Born in 1931 in Kingsville, Kleberg County, Irma Rangel had become a schoolteacher and, later, a lawyer. Then in 1976, she became the first Mexican-American woman elected to the Texas House of Representatives as the delegate from District 49 (Kingsville). Irma Rangel served from the 65th to the 78th Sessions (1977-2003), but died in office in 2003.

Another freshman Representative in the House was Frank Mariano Tejeda. Born in San Antonio in 1945, Frank had dropped out of high school to join the Marines (1963-1967). Serving in the Vietnam War, Tejeda earned the Bronze Star and Purple Heart medals. After leaving the service, he continued his education, getting degrees from UC Berkeley, Yale and Harvard Universities.

In 1976, Frank Tejeda was elected to represent the people of District 57-B (San Antonio, Texas) and served through five sessions (1977-1987). He the moved over to the Texas Senate, serving from District 19 (Bexar County) from 1987 to 1992. By 1992, Senator Tejeda had become so popular that no one challenged him when he decided to run for U.S. Congress, as the representative of the 28th District. He served in Congress from 1993 to 1997, when he died in office.

Later Sessions

As the decade of the 1980s began, the number of Tejano elected officials stabilized. Not until the 70th Legislature (1987-1988) did the number of Hispanic legislators in Austin reach 25. With 19 Representatives in the House and six senators in the Upper Chamber, Latinos now felt that they had a strong voice in their own destiny, even though there was a belief that redistricting in some parts of Texas was still not favorable to minorities.

Probably the most notable addition to the Legislature in the 70th Legislature was election of Judith Zaffirini as the first Mexican-American woman to serve in the Texas Senate. Representing District 21 (Bexar County and several border counties), Senator Zaffirini would be reelected three times. She achieved a perfect attendance record and voting record, casting more than 15,000 consecutive votes during six regular and 12 special sessions. As a result, she was honored with more than 250 awards for her professional and legislative performance.

At the first election following the turn of the century (November 2000), Hispanic representatives from the State of Texas to the U.S. Congress numbered six delegates (five Democrats and one Republican). The number of Hispanics in the Texas Senate had increased to seven, while the number of Tejano Representatives in the House reached 28.

In the next election (November 2002), the number of Tejanos in the House would reach a new milestone: 30 Representatives.

The struggle for Tejano Representation in Texas has been a long drawn-out affair. The gains of Mexican American Texans in both the Texas Legislature and the U.S. Congress were, for the most part, achieved by individuals who had already served their country as soldiers fighting for freedom. These soldiers, as veterans, returned home to take part in a new struggle for freedom: the struggle for representation.

© Copyright, 2004, by John P. Schmal, All Rights Reserved.


Steve Bickerstaff, "Effects of the Voting Rights Act on Reapportionment and Hispanic Voting Strength in Texas," Texas Hispanic Journal of Law & Policy (The University of Texas School of Law), Vol. 6, No. 1 (Summer 2001), 99-122.

Robert Cuellar, A Social and Political History of the Mexican American Population of Texas, 1929-1963 (San Francisco: R and E Research Associates, 1974).

Leroy Hardy, Alan Heslop and Stuart Anderson (eds.), Reapportionment Politics: The History of Redistricting in the 50 States (Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1981).

Malcolm E. Jewell, The Politics of Reapportionment (New York: Atherton Press, 1962).

Al Luna, The Mexican-American Legislative Caucus (Austin: Texas Legislative Counsel, 1987).

Robert B. McKay, Reapportionment: The Law and Politics of Equal Representation (New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1965).

Useful Website:
[Hispanic Americans in Congress, 1822-1995: Table of Contents]

White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans

White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, welcomes a newly appointed director,  Adam Chavarria, 

Adam Chavarria joined the White House Initiative in June 2001 as associate director. In that capacity, he worked closely with the President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans in an effort to help the Department of Education and other federal agencies improve educational opportunities for Hispanic Americans, from early childhood to postsecondary education and under the historic No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.



Regarding the announcement, Secretary Paige said: "Every child deserves a quality education, regardless of their skin color or accent, which is why the No Child Left Behind Act and the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans are so important. I know Adam will continue to do a great job in his new role as executive director, and I look forward to our continued close working relationship."

Prior to joining the White House Initiative, Chavarria served for more than eight years as the executive director of the Hispanic College Fund (HCF), a national non-profit organization founded by Hispanic business leaders in 1993. Chavarria headed HCF, located in Washington, since its inception during which time more than $1 million was awarded in scholarships to over 600 deserving Hispanic students enrolled in colleges and universities throughout the country. 

A native of Harlingen, Texas, Adam was the first in his family to earn an undergraduate and graduate degree. He received a bachelor's degree in political science and a master's in public administration from the University of Minnesota.

The White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans was established on Oct. 12, 2001 when President Bush signed Executive Order 13230. The only office of its kind, the Initiative is charged with strengthening the nation's capacity to provide high quality education while increasing opportunities for Hispanic American participation in federal education programs. In addition, the Initiative serves as a resource for information related to closing the educational achievement gap for Hispanic Americans and advises U.S. Secretary of Education Rod Paige on carrying out his responsibilities under this order.

More information about No Child Left Behind may be found at the U.S. Department of Education web site  and the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans web site located at

Extract:  Two newspapers merge to form Hispanic chain
by Ben Berkowitz, Reuters via the Orange County Register, Business Section, Friday, January, 16, 2004  Sent by Carolyn Allen

Executives said they hope to form a company that will represent Hispanics - which make up more
than 13 percent of the
U.S. population. The new company, to be called Impremedia LLC, will combine La Opinion's daily readership of 427,800 in Southern California and El Diario/La Prensa's 297,500 in the New York metropolitan area,

The new company does not plan to start a USA Today-style national Spanish-language newspaper, but will instead focus on buying or starting newspapers in areas where Spanish-speaking populations are growing, officials said. The papers will maintain independent editorial voices.

Jose Lozano, the vice chairman of Impremedia and former La Opinion chief executive who will run day-to-day operations of the new company, told Reuters the new company will focus on local markets. "Our goal is to create a chain of independent newspapers," he said. "Our overarching goal is to participate in the key markets of Hispanic population and the fastest-growing markets that will be key markets in the future." Lozano declined to identify which cities Impremedia will target. 

At a news conference to discuss the deal, his sister Monica Lozano, the new publisher and CEO of La Opinion, dismissed rumors that other media companies are looking to establish national Spanish-language papers. "We're not afraid of competition - we can beat any competition," she said.

Impremedia will be chaired by Steve Rader, managing general partner of Clarity Partners, one of the entities behind privately held CPK Media Holdings, which bought El Diario/La Prensa in July 2003.

The deal to create a national Spanish newspaper company emerges as market researchers TNS Media Intelligence/CMR said that Spanish-language TV is expected to be one of the nation's strongest markets for advertising growth this year.  

Communications last year acquired Hispanic Broadcasting Corp., a deal that gave it the top Spanish-language broadcast network, cable channel, record label, Internet site and radio network as well as the largest group of television and radio stations. General Electric's NBC network acquired Univision's chief rival, Telemundo, in 2001.  

Hispanics Carry Entrepreneurial Torch
New study reveals keys to business startups
By William Plasencia

Call it motivation, verve, moxie, ánimo. Whatever the term, when it comes to launching a business, Latinos seem to have it in spades, according to a new report that examines the makeup of the nation's entrepreneurs.

The study, titled "The Entrepreneur Next Door: Characteristics of Individuals Starting Companies in America," surveyed more than 64,000 people in the United States and found, among other things, that Hispanic-and African American-men who receive at least some college graduate training are two to three times as likely to start their own business than their white non-Hispanic counterparts.

To be sure, the importance of small businesses to the U.S. economy is difficult to overstate. The National Council for Entrepreneurship notes that nearly all Fortune 200 companies had entrepreneurial beginnings. And during the past decade, small businesses have consistently accounted for an average of 50 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product, according to the most recent report to Congress from the U.S. Small Business Administration. 

According to the Census: The number of Latinos has surged from 22.3 million in 1990 to 38.8 million in 2002, according to the Census Bureau The figure for 2003 is expected to top 40 million. That means 13 percent of the US population has Latino origins. 

According to the Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies: The Hispanic population boomed 61% between 1990 and 2001, exploding from 21.9 million to 35.3 million making it the fastest-growing group in America, according to the U.S. Census Bureau; Projections say that the Hispanic population will triple in size by 2050, making up 24% of the total U.S. population, according to Strategy Research Corporation;

In a study conducted for AHAA by Roslow Research, 85% of Hispanics have computers at home and 75% have Internet access from those computers;

The circulation of Spanish-language periodicals has risen from 2.7 million to 14.1 million in the past 15 years, says Western Publication Research.

Hispanic Media & Marketing Factoids
Published by the Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies
Sent by JV Martinez  
Source: Ancel A. Martinez

The Power of the Hispanic Market

The Hispanic population boomed 61% between 1990 and 2001, exploding from 21.9 million to 35.3 million making it the fastest-growing group in America, according to the U.S. Census Bureau;

Projections say that the Hispanic population will triple in size by 2050, making up 24% of the total U.S. population, according to Strategy Research Corporation;

Santiago and Valdés Solutions estimates that Hispanic purchasing power is now $561 billion and will reach $630 billion by 2002;

The Census Bureau reports that over the past three years, the income of the typical Hispanic household has risen $3,880 (15.9%), which is the largest three-year increase of Hispanic income on record;

Santiago and Valdés Solutions also reports that Hispanic household income continues to grow, with 38% earning over $40,000 in 1999 vs. 26% in 1994 and that currently over 3.5 million Hispanic households earn over $40,000/year;

The Hispanic middle class grew 80% between 1979 and 1998, according to the Tomas Rivera Center at Scripps College and the University of Texas;

Strategy Research Corporation reports that there are 9.6 million Hispanics concentrated in 7 states that have more than 1 million Hispanics per state (Arizona, California, Florida, New Jersey, New York, and Texas);

Presently, more than one in six (17%) of all babies born in the U.S. will be born to a Hispanic mother and about one in seven Hispanics are over 50, according to Santiago and Valdés Solutions.

According to Target Marketing, Hispanic households only receive an average of 20 direct mail pieces a year, compared with the 300 or so received by the general U.S. population.  The same article also states that direct mail can get anywhere from a 25 percent to 100 percent greater response from the Hispanic American market than from the population at large;

Hispanics are on-line: In a study conducted for AHAA by Roslow Research, 85% of Hispanics have computers at home and 75% have Internet access from those computers;

The circulation of Spanish-language periodicals has risen from 2.7 million to 14.1 million in the past 15 years, says Western Publication Research.

Generation: According to studies by Nielsen Media Research:
One in five teens in the United States (20%) is of Hispanic descent.  Between 1993 and 2001, the Hispanic teen population grew 30%, while the non-Hispanic population grew 8% during the same period; By 2020, the Hispanic teen population is expected to grow 62% compared to 10% growth in the number of teens overall;

AHAA Headquarters, 8201 Greensboro Drive, Suite 300, McLean, Virginia 22102
Telephone: (703) 610 -9014; fax: (703) 610-9005
Copyright 1997-2001. AHAA, All Rights Reserved.

Latinos Comprise 13% of the US Population  
Sent by Howard Shorr

US Hispanics will go over the 40 million mark at end of 2003 – 13 percent of US population MIAMI (AFP) – December 31, 2003 - America's Latino community emerged as the largest US minority in 2003, with 39 million people and rising on an influx of immigrants, in a demographic shift with far-reaching economic and political effects.

The number of Latinos has surged from 22.3 million in 1990 to 38.8 million in 2002, according to the Census Bureau The figure for 2003 is expected to top 40 million. 

That means 13 percent of the US population has Latino origins. 

Over the next two decades, as immigrants have more children on US soil, the number is expected to near 60 million people, said Jeffrey Passel, a demographer and recent author of a study by the Pew Hispanic Center. 

Between 2000 and 2020, the number of second generation Latinos in US schools will double, and the figure in the country's labor market will triple, said the study released in October. 

Despite the formidable demographic weight of Hispanics in the United States, they have yet to find equivalent economic or political power, according to Antonio Jorge, economics professor at the International University of Florida (FIU). 

Two thirds of US Hispanics are Mexicans. Another 15 percent come from Central America, 10 percent from the US territory of Puerto Rico, and four percent from Cuba. 

The wealth generated by US Hispanics is calculated at 800 billion dollars -- more than the gross domestic product of Mexico or Brazil but only seven percent of America's GDP. 

The Hispanic population here is young -- one in three are younger than 18. They tend to have little formal education and modest incomes, according to the Census. 

One in three have no medical insurance, and one in eight are in the country illegally. 

Average earnings are lower than those of non-Hispanic Americans. Latinos also have only small connection to national politics. 

None of the 100 US senators is Hispanic, and only about 20 of the 435 representatives in the lower house of Congress are Hispanic -- possibly because as a block, voter turnout is low. 

Hispanics Surpass Blacks As Growth Market for Ads 
Washington Post, January 5, 2004

Spending on advertising to Hispanics is outpacing advertising aimed at blacks. At the 23-year-old Viacom Inc. unit Black Entertainment Television Inc., based in the District and the only cable TV channel in the nation aimed specifically at blacks, ad revenue rose 12 percent to $287 million in 2002, said market researcher Nielsen Monitor-Plus.

But that pales compared with the $2 billion that year -- an almost 15 percent jump -- for the two Spanish-language networks, Univision Communications Inc. and Telemundo Communications Group Inc. Los Angeles-based Univision, with 50 stations and 43 affiliates, began small as the Spanish International Network in 1961. Univision's chief rival is Telemundo, founded in 1987 and owned by General Electric Co. Telemundo has 15 stations and 32 affiliates.

Last year, Procter & Gamble Co., one of the world's largest advertisers, aired its first national network Spanish-language TV commercial for Crest toothpaste during the Grammy Awards on CBS. (There was an English voice-over at the end.) Coca-Cola Co. debuted its first bilingual general-market commercial last fall, featuring Mexican-born actress Salma Hayek.

That has meant hard times for black agencies. One of the largest, New York-based Chisholm-Mingo Group Inc., filed last fall for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.  

In the past five years, three black agencies and eight Hispanic firms have joined the American Association of Advertising Agencies, the industry's trade association, for a total of 23 Hispanic members and 15 black-oriented firms, said Harley Griffiths, vice president of membership for the AAAA.

So it's adapt or die these days for black firms. In Bethesda, Eugene M. Faison Jr., chairman and chief executive of Equals Three Communications Inc., said he couldn't afford to focus solely on African Americans and has produced mainstream ads as well as campaigns targeted at Hispanics, Asians, gays and others. The company was the only local ad firm last year in Black Enterprise magazine's annual list of the nation's top-grossing black businesses.

Sabrina Jones writes about the local advertising and marketing industry every other Monday in Washington Business. Her e-mail address is  For more news, or to subscribe to the newspaper, visit

                  Air Force Brigadier General María I. Cribbs 

In the Line of Duty By Eunice Sigler, Hispanic Magazine

It’s not uncommon to see highly-decorated women generals—although that took quite some time. Significant numbers of high-ranking posts for women have only come about in the past 10 or 15 years.  U.S. Air Force Brigadier General María I. Cribbs is one such success story, with a Hispanic twist.

Cribbs, 50, a descendant of Mexican immigrants, works at the Pentagon as director for Manpower and Personnel of the Joint Staff in Washington, D.C. Out of 282 generals in the Air Force, Cribbs is one of only 12 who are women.  She and her staff helped select people from all four branches of the military to serve in command positions under Gen. Tommy Franks for the war in Iraq.

Among her decorations: the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Defense Superior Service Medal, and the Legion of Merit. Cribbs says she owes her career to her parents, both of whom are World War II veterans.

Her mother, Maclovia Covazos, served as a nurse in the U.S. Army and Air Force. Her father served in the Air Force in intelligence and security forces—what is known today as military police. They met when both were on active duty. 

Her mother’s parents emigrated to the United States from Mexico in the early 1900s and settled in the Rio Grande Valley in Texas. Her father was raised in Oklahoma. 

“When my mother graduated from high school, she got off a train to Galveston and went right into St. Mary’s nursing school, then joined the service after that,” Cribbs said. Cribbs says she and three younger brothers were raised on “very conservative values: family first, doing the right thing, respecting others, working hard, and service to others. “It was just a foregone conclusion that I was going to go to school and I was going to get a degree. That’s just the way it was,” Cribbs said. “I wouldn’t be here if it weren’t for my mother and father.”

In her office, Cribbs keeps photos of her parents when they were on active duty. She also has her mother’s old desk nameplate, “Lt. Covazos,” printed on a slip of cardboard, pasted on a piece of wood. It helps her remember how far they—and she—have come.

“They’re my best role models,” Cribbs says. “They were both raised in poverty in the southwestern part of the United States. Through service in the U.S. Air Force, they received not only professional degrees but the opportunity to travel and the opportunity to understand and appreciate service and the world.”

Cribbs was born at Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana. Then her father was transferred to Madrid, where he served as a liaison between the U.S. and Spanish military.  The family moved back to Cleburne, Texas, when she was 3 or 4, and her father retired to teach school and raise cattle. Her mother had separated from the military earlier when she became pregnant with her first child, which women were required to do in those days. In Cleburne, she became the operating room supervisor at the local hospital.

Today, about 80 percent of the jobs and more than 90 percent of career fields in the Armed Forces can now be filled by the best candidate—whether man or woman. About the only jobs still off-limits are those that involve direct ground combat.

Check out
Genealogy Military War Records Family database Links to Civil War< Revolutionary War, WW!, WW2, 1812  
Sent by Joan De Soto

World War I : 
Discover a Legacy of Patriotism and Pride
24 million men with 24 million stories--Find YOUR ancestor's now!
Subscribe now to the WWI Draft Registration Cards collection from of the U.S. & Canada Records Collection.

An Unprecedented Time: In 1917, the U.S. teetered on the brink of global warfare. 
A Strong Call: President Wilson instituted mandatory draft registration. 
An Overwhelming Response: Nearly 100% of eligible citizens and aliens registered. 
A Priceless Resource: The World War I Draft Registration Cards Collection from is now being posted. The entire collection will offer detailed draft registration card images for more than 24 million men born between 1873 and 1900!

Draft registration cards are as detailed in information as they are comprehensive in scope. You'll find:
Registrant’s full name 
Age and birth date 
Home address 
Citizenship status 
Occupation and employer 
Family relationships (marital status, children) 
Physical appearance and more! 

Editor's note:  For fun, I put one of my grandfathers name in, Roman Garcia.  I have not been able to find his parents.  What I got was. .   We've found Roman Garcia in the following databases:
125 matches in U.S. Federal Census Records  (1790-1930)
1,643 matches in Historical Newspapers  (1700's-2001) 

Ancestry is an incredible site, but requires a paid membership for complete access.  However, recently many of the LDS Family History Centers are paying for Ancestry access at their Family History Centers.  I hope to make use of those services soon.  If you want to locate a Family History Center close to you, call 1-800-346-6044, then call the Center and see if they have free access to Ancestry and other paid resources.
Legado Latino 8th Annual Conference is scheduled for October 16, 2004.  
The conference will be held in Salt Lake City, Utah
Conference coordinator, Dr. George Ryskamp, Director of the BYU Family History and Genealogy Center writes: "We will have a keynote speaker from Spain, Mexico or Central America. I am still awaiting confirmation. I also expect that on Friday we will have a special help service with one-on- one assistance for out of town Hispanic visitors at the Family History Library where most of the classes will be taught on Saturday."  

For more information, please contact:,

Hispanic American Heroes

2004 California Events: 
    Temecula: Bernardo de Galvez Exhibit

    Santa Barbara: Juan Bautista de Anza
    San Diego: Teodoro de Croix

2004 Nevada Event:
Rafael Rivera
2004 New Mexico Event: Teodoro de Croix
2005 Texas Event:
Tejano cattlemen who supported the American Revolution
Provincias Internas del Norte
Descendants of French Soldiers 
Genealogical Journal, Vol 5 Galvez pedigree

2004 Hispanic American Heroes Events Planned

2004 California Events

Three events are planned for California. On March 6th, SHHAR will host a reception at the Temecula City Museum.  Eddie Martinez, artist, illustrator, historian is mounting an artistic, historical display to include both the history of the indigenous in the Southwest and the heroic accomplishments of Bernardo de Galvez.  For information on

The second is the Santa Barbara Founders Day celebration. HAHS will be collaborating with the Santa Barbara Trust to honor the contributions made by Juan Bautista de Anza, soldier and explorer. Anza’s two expeditions from the Presidio of Tubac in Sonora (now southern Arizona) resulted in the discovery of a much needed overland route to northern California and the expansion of colonization in "Alta California". This event will be held April 21st through the 24th. Many exciting events are planned including a ceremony reenacting the establishment of the presidio and a soldados encampment at La Purisima Mission State Historic Park. School children will be able to talk to soldiers, see examples of period crafts, participate in living history day and presidio past times.

Later in the year, the City of San Diego, the site that Padre Serra established Mission San Diego on July 16, 1769, will host an HSHA celebration event honoring Teodoro de Croix (1730-1792), soldier and government official in New Spain.

He was born in Prévoté castle near Lille, France, on June 20, 1730. He entered the Spanish army at age seventeen and was sent to Italy as an ensign of grenadiers of the Royal Guard. In 1750 he transferred to the Walloon Guards, bodyguards of the Bourbon kings of Spain. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in 1756 and was decorated in Flanders with the "Cross of the Teutonic Order" which gave him the title of caballero. In 1760 Caballero de Croix was made a colonel in the Walloon Guards. In 1766, when his uncle Francisco, Marqués de Croix, went to New Spain as viceroy, Teodoro accompanied him as captain of the viceregal guard. The viceroy shortly appointed him governor of Acapulco. He became inspector of troops for New Spain with the rank of brigadier in December of that year and served in that capacity until 1770. The next year the Marqués de Croix ended his term as viceroy, and Teodoro sailed with him for Spain in company with José Bernardo de Gálvez Gallardo,qv who was retiring as inspector general.

Commandant General Croix saw little improvement in frontier conditions undertaken at the presidios to establish a new defense line to conform to Royal Regulations of 1772. The staggering toll of Indian depredations all across the frontier convinced Croix of the necessity of reorganizing the presidial line again. He ultimately returned some of the forts to their original position and buttressed them with a secondary line of fortified towns. In August 1777 Caballero de Croix left Mexico to inspect his jurisdiction. The entourage crossed the Rio Grande near San Juan Bautistaqv on December 24 and remained in what is now Texas until January 22, 1778. At Monclova, San Antonio, and Chihuahua, Croix councils to discuss with frontier officers the means of confronting the Apache challenge that was common to all the Interior Provinces. Out of the juntas came a request for the new governor of Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, to join Croix in the Apache campaign, uniting a Louisiana force to 2,000 troops the commandant general hoped to obtain from the crown. Such plans, which might have enhanced the stature of both men, were doomed by the prospect of Spain's entry into the war that the North American colonists were waging against England.

San Diego de Alcala, the first of the great California Missions, marks the birthplace of Christianity in the far West. It is California's first church. This remarkable and significant historical shrine provides an understanding and appreciation of the beginning of Catholicism in this corner of the world, so remote from the Mother Country of Spain and yet so similar.

Established by Spain in 1769, the Presidio of San Diego is the oldest European settlement on the Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada.  Over the next fifty years, this fortified military colony grew to become the chief administrative and judicial center for the region and home to more than five hundred inhabitants.  

For more information on de Croix, go to the article by
Michael R. Hardwick on the website of the 
The California State Military Museum

2004 Nevada Co-Chairs
The HAHS EC is proud to announce the 2004 California Co-Chairs for the Hispanic American Series, Mrs. Veronica Hummel, Director of Grants and Fundraising, NevadaCares 4 Kids.  Her Co-chair is Mr. Robert Borboa, Executive Director, NevadaCares 4 Kids. Both have graciously agreed to serve on the HAHS Executive Committee

2004 Nevada Event
The Nevada HAHS Executive Committee has decided upon the theme of "The Discovery and History of Las Vegas, Nevada." Nevada will celebrate Rafael Rivera, the young scout for Armillo Trading Party, a scouting party based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, commissioned by the U.S. government to map and survey the land west of New Mexico, to San Bernardino, California.

In 1829, young Rivera was to find a safe route around hostile Northern Arizona Indians.  He found himself lost in the desert. Being the intrepid explorer that he was, he capitalized on the experience by navigating and documenting the mountain peaks as he pressed westward.  After two long weeks, Rivera finally found himself in a mountain range looking down at a fertile, green, and lush area of desert.  Traversing the valley, he verified that it was no mirage. Finding water, he and his horse drank their fill and bedded down for the night. Early the next morning Rivera, relying on his superb navigational skills, made his way back to his party and led them back to the place he named, Las Vegas or Spanish for "the meadows".  To this day, Rafael Rivera is commemorated by a Nevada State Historical Landmark No. 214, in the city of Las Vegas, Nevada, for his bravery and courage.

2004 New Mexico Event
The newly formed New Mexico HAHS Executive Committee will also host a celebration event honoring Teodoro de Croix (1730-1792), soldier and government official in New Spain.

Santa Fe, New Mexico, is America's oldest capital city and claims a long history and rich Spanish cultural heritage. Nestled at seven thousand feet in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, it was founded as a capital city in 1607 by Spanish explorers. Its rich history boasts many cultures and peoples. The Pueblo Peoples, Spanish Crown, Mexico, and the Confederacy all had control of the city during its long history. In 1846 it was ceded by the Mexican Federation to the United States of America.

Present day Santa Fe is an international city renowned for its cosmopolitan sophistication and unsurpassed celebration of the arts. Its culture, art, rich Spanish traditions, art market, Santa Fe Opera, and people make it a world class city.

2005 Texas Event
The San Antonio Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution is in the planning stages of a huge event to recognize the Tejano cattlemen who supported the American Revolution. Progress is being made for a commemorative trail ride. The events will include a trail ride (from San Antonio to Karns City), parade, Bar-B-Q, cowboy breakfast, and a Louisiana style masquerade ball. The extensive three-day event will most likely be held in the spring or fall of 2005, due to its complexity and size. A parade in San Antonio is also being considered. This 1779, Texas-Spanish historic style event has been very well received. Several business organizations are showing an interest.

More on the Provincias Internas del Norte 
by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

In 1776 officials in Mexico and Spain were not satisfied with the state of defense of the frontier of New Spain, especially in the western areas where the Apaches were more troublesome than ever. Accordingly, the Commandacy General of the Provincias Internas del Norte was created as a more effective organization for dealing with both Indians and foreign menaces to New Spain's northernmost colonial provinces. Headquarters was to be located at Arizpe in Sonora.

Charles III, King of Spain, appointed Brigadier Theodoro de Croix as the first Commandant General. Croix was born in France and had served the Spanish army for nearly 30 years prior to his appointment. He had come to New Spain in 1766 as a captain of his uncle's [the marqués de Croix, Carlos Francisco de Croix] vice-regal guard. Serving as commandant of the fortress of Acapulco and subsequently as inspector of all troops in the viceroyality, Croix was knighted as a caballero in the Teutonic order.

Croix assumed his new appointment on May 16, 1776. In special royal instructions King Charles III defined Croix's new authority with almost vice-regal powers over the provinces of Texas, New Mexico, Coahuila, Nueva Vizcaya, Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja California. In the new province of Alta California, however, he was to share authority with Viceroy Bucareli.

Sons of the American Revolution acceptance of the Descendants of French Soldiers 
by Granville Hough, Ph.D.
In 1899, the NSSAR began accepting descendants of French soldiers and sailors who served in Continental America or adjacent coastal waters.  It found there were no lists of persons available in the U.S.  Thus began a joint American/French effort to develop a suitable list and this took many months.  It was published in 1905 in France and the United States.  It is still used.  It is entitled "Les Combattants Français de la Guerre Américaine, 1778-1783," Du Ministère des Affairs Etrangères, and Washington Imprimerie Nationale, 1905.
    Those who served under the Spanish flag were first accepted in the 1920 decade, about 1924/25; and the lists made then were done from research by the President of the Louisiana state SAR society, Mr. Churchill.  Mr. Churchill was able to find some lists in Louisiana, or in Cuba, but he hired a researcher in Spain who did the most work.  His lists have been used by the SAR and later the DAR.
Mr. Churchill never published his work, but he did prepare five copies of the main part and several other miscellaneous papers.  The only complete listing of the names he found is included in Spain's Louisiana Patriots in its 1779-1783 War with England During the American Revolution. 
The Genealogical Journal of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, Volume 5, 2003 available. The journal is 260 pages of genealogical and historical information written by individual researcher, edited by Steven F. Hernandez. In addition to a chronology of the Life of Bernardo de Galvez written by Granville Hough, Ph.D., two pedigrees are included, the Ancestors of Bernardo de Galvez and the Ancestors of the Galvez-Saint Maxent Family. Click to view the Table of Contents and for information on ordering the journal. 



Sucede con este apellido de Aguirre como con el de Aguilar, que no todos los que lo ostentan tienen un tronco común, y aún más en éste, ya que la palabra “aguirre” significa en vascuence “lugar alto que domina un terreno”, y con este nombre fueron conocidas muchas casas que tenían esta condición. 

Los Aguirre de Guipúzcoa son los más antiguos de este apellido, ya que Caballeros de este linaje estuvieron con don Ramiro I en la Batalla de Clavijo (850). Pero Ibáñez de Aguirre y López Ibáñez, hijos de Juan Suárez, eran vecinos de Tolosa en 1346, y Juan de Aguirre y su yerno Martín Ibáñez, vecinos de Isasondo, en 1399.
Los Aguirre se extendieron después por toda la península tomando parte activa en la reconquista, acompañando a don Fernando III “el Santo”, en la conquista de Sevilla;y a don Alfonso XI en la Batalla del Salado, etc. 

En la Orden de Santiago ingresaron, en los años que se indican: don Orduño Aguirre y Urbina, natural de Vitoria, 1586; don Juan Aguirre y Zuazo, natural de Vitoria, 1609; don Francisco Aguirre de Arlés, natural de Pamplona, 1617; don Francés Aguirre y Alaxa, natural de Vitoria, 1621; don Francisco Aguirre y Gomendio natural de Lequeitio, 1711; don Juan Antonio Aguirre y de Arguinerena, natural de Doña Marina. Navarra, 1742, y don José Aguirre e Irisarri, natural de Cádiz, Gobernador de Guayaquil, 1792. En la Orden de Calatrava ingresaron en los años que se expresan: don Francisco Javier Aguirre Orendain, natural de Oñate, 1733; don Manuel Santiago y don José Francisco Aguirre Negro naturales de Arroyabe. Alava, 1734. Fueron Caballeros de la Orden de Alcántara: don Tiburcio Aguirre, hijo del Marqués de Montehermoso, 1748;don Antonio de Aguirre y Villalba,Teniente de Navío de la Real Armada,de, Antequera,Málaga,en 1797,y don Antonio de Aguirre,de San Sebasián,en 1677.La Orden deCarlos III,admitió en los años que se mencionan a: don Manuel Mateo de Aguirre Lecué Bolívar y Aguirre, natural de Santa María del Castillo, 1783;y a don Francisco Javier Maria de Aguirre y Aldazábal Sarasúa y Arizaga, natural de Deva, 1796. Entre los numerosos Aguirre que probaron la nobleza de su apellido ante las Juntas del Señorío de Vizcaya, están: don Fermín de Aguirre y Goycoolea, de la casa de Ceánuri, en 1789; don Francisco Lapaza y Aguirre de la misma casa, en 1663; don Juan Bautista de Arteche Sagarminaga Aguirre y Barroeta, de la casa de Castillo Elejabeitia, en 1791. La nobleza de don Martín y don Pedro de Aguirre, vecinos de la villa de Vera, fue reconocida por el Real Consejo de Navarra en 1571. Probaron su nobleza en la Sala de Hijosdalgo de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid en los años que se indican: don Martín de Aguirre, vecino de Brihuega, 1524; don Juan de Aguirre, vecino de Valdestillas 1525; don Antonio de Aguirre, residente en Olmedo, 1536, entre otros. Probaron su nobleza para ingresar en la Real Compañía de Guardias Marinas,: don Juan Bautista y don Juan Ignacio de Aguirre y Ustáriz, naturales de Doña Marina. Navarra, 1772;y don Juan, don Antonio y don Francisco de Aguirre y Villalba, naturales de Antequera, 1768 el primero y 1774 los otros dos. 


El Emperador don Carlos I, por privilegio dado en Talavera a 28 de enero de 1541, concedió a Santiago de Aguirre, conquistador de la provincia de Galicia, en la Nueva España, las siguientes armas: en campo de gules, un castillo de plata, sobre ondas de mar; bordura de azur, con ocho veneras de oro, y por divisa un brazo armado con una porra de hierro en la mano y dos alas de águila, de sable, puestas en vuelo
Extract from BLASONES Y APELLIDOS, 828-page book by Fernando Muñoz Altea
In its second edition, the book can be ordered from
or at P.O. Box 11232, El Paso, Texas 79995 or by contacting Armando Montes

Sent by Bill Carmena


Original Artwork Competition
Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center
Leroy F. Martinez, SAR Chancellor
Save the dates:  
March  6, Temecula Exhibit
March 17, San Juan Capistrano

March 27, Texas Cousins Symposium

Executive Director, Carmen Vali-Cave and Chairman of the Board, John G. Cruz

Lincoln Juarez Opportunity Center
Original Artwork Competition 
The deadline for submission is Friday, February 6th.  

The Lincoln Juarez Opportunity Center with the assistance of the Santa Ana Education Foundation, invites High School student to participate in an original artwork competition.  The artwork chosen will be used as a logo for the Lincoln Juarez Opportunity Center's 2nd Annual Fundraising Gala 2004.

The winning artist will receive an educational scholarship, as well as an invitation to and recognition at the Formal Gala scheduled for Friday, April 23rd to be held at the Santa Ana Performing Arts and Events Center, 505 N. Sycamore, Santa Ana, CA 92701.

The theme for this year's Gala to be incorporated into the submitted artwork is: Tres Llaves: Education, Healthcare and Employment, Keys to the American Dream

Please submit your original artwork to Ms. Bernadette S. Medrano, the Executive Director of the the Santa Ana Education Foundation located at 1601 East Chapman Avenue, Santa Ana.
For further information contact Ms. Medrano at 714-639-9505 or Anna Hall 714-245-1408

The Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that is working to promote the American dream in the Hispanic community. The Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center, located in Santa Ana, assists the members of the Hispanic Community of Orange County by providing resource referral and educational programs to help individuals prosper both personally & professionally.  The Center is located at 117 W. 4th St., Suite 300, Santa Ana 92701. 

For information on the center or the upcoming gala please contact: 
LJOC Executive Director, Carmen Vali-Cave at 714-245-1408 or go to:

LJOC Executive Director, Carmen Vali-Cave was named after her grandmother, Carmen Ortiz.  Grandmother Ortiz immigrated from Aquascalientes, Mexico to the United States without parents.  She supported herself picking cotton.   Her grandfather, Jose Adán, also entered as a young man.  In 1923, Grandfather Adán left the plantations and comfort of his family in Vera Cruz and migrated San Antonio, Texas.  He was 16 years old and became a typesetter, boxing occasionally for additional funds. 

By the 1940 the family had moved to California where Grandfather Adán found work in the San Pedro shipyard.  Eventually he returned to his profession as a typesetter with the Herald Examiner. 

John G. Cruz, an attorney, is Chairman of the LJOC Board.  Cruz, of Puerto Rican heritage, was born in New York and moved with his family to Orange County when he was 12 years old. He graduated from Westminster High School going directly to Cal State University, Fullerton  where he earned a Bachelor's degree.  Cruz left California to attend the University of Michigan's law school. 

Leroy F. Martinez

Newly installed as the 
Chancellor of South Coast Sons of the American Revolution Chapter 

I was asked more than once “What’s the benefit to joining SAR?”  
I have always felt that I was very American. 

I have relatives who were part of the Civil War, WWI, WWII, Korean War, and I wore a military uniform during the Viet Nam period.  Should Spain or Mexico go to war with America then I would still be patriotic to America. 

Being part of SAR helps to tell my family and future family generations that we are in fact Americans. I am neither Mexican nor Spanish.  I am an American. Yes, I may have other world ties, but first, I am an American.
The current State of New Mexico SAR President and first New Mexico Patriot SAR member Charles Martinez y Vigil, said

“We are learning more about the American Revolution then our grandparents knew.  One of them is that Spain and its colonies contributed significantly to the cause of the American Revolution.  These contributions included military Personnel , money, covert action, and overt support.  Based on these requisites, descendants of Spanish soldiers are being accepted into the National Society of the SAR.  This allows us, and our children, to see that the American Revolution was truly a “World War,” and in the end, allows us to get a better picture of the wonderful country we live in.”  I could not have said it better.

SAR members of California Hispanic Ancestors are currently five.  SAR members of New Mexico Hispanic Ancestors are currently six.  We are few, but the list is growing.

I think joining SAR will not make me any more American, but it does make me aware of the history of this great country.  I feel that by joining SAR, and now being a Chancellor, for our South Coast SAR Chapter, I will have a greater hand in changing the history books that I read to the ones that future generations will read.  Perhaps future books will read about George Washington and Juan Bautista de Anza; The American Militia and the Santa Fe Presidio;  Patrick Henry and Bernardo de Galvez.  Maybe my beautiful granddaughter Savannah Marie will tell her grandchildren a more informed history of our family.  Celebrating the Fourth of July and eating a hot dog can be enjoyed by our family proudly.

SHHAR ACTIVITIES IN MARCH. . .  Save the dates:  

March  6, Temecula Exhibit

Eddie Martinez will be mounting an exhibited of his historical maps, illustrations promoting an awareness of the connections between indigenous tribes in the Southwest and Mexico.  In addition, he will be honoring and expanding knowledge about Bernardo de Galvez.

March 13-14 and 17, San Juan Capistrano, Swallows Day Events
Hispanic costumed volunteers needed to walk in the parade on the 17th, and or to man the SHHAR display on the weekend of the 13-14th.

March 27, TexMex Cousins Symposium
Our quarterly meeting will explore the migration from Mexico through Texas into all parts of the United states.  The format will consist of a pael sharing family migration, and the critical part that the train system played.


Women, Spanish/Mexican California
Cinema Media, 5 Movie Locations
Early California Lecture Series  . .
Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site
4600 Virginia Road, Long Beach 90807
February 21 @ 10 a.m. 

Ron Reese, Friends of Rancho Los Cerritos 
He reenacts the character of Juan Cañedo during the Temple and Bixby periods, 1850-1870s

Women in 
Spanish & Mexican California
Women's Roles & Rights  
Lecture by Dr. Donna Schuele 
Eliza Boné  
Public Relations/Marketing Coordinator
(562) 570-1755 Fax: (562) 570-1893
Cost: $5 non-members/$3. members/students

Cinema Media Group Introduces Five Movie Locations
Source: LULAC 
Cinema Media Group introduced 5 movie theaters locations in Metro Los Angeles that target the Hispanic demographic directly. These locations will cater directly to the large Spanish-speaking demographic in the cities of Hollywood, Huntington Park, Highland Park and Santa Ana. Cinema Media Group provides entertainment that puts people in seats prior to the movie. The cinemas' pre-film advertisement network will provide trivia and entertainment features of interest to the 1.6 million Hispanics in Los Angeles. The company is Latino family owned and operated. 
INFO: 562-699-0338 /


Michael Hardwick, Life Trustee
Josef de Zuniga, Comandante,

Family of Jose Raimundo Carrillo
Registrar SARs Silicon Valley
Chasing your tale
11th San Diego Latino Film Festival
Living on the Dime Project
Union Guard
California Soldados


Michael Hardwick
Co-Chair of the California Galvez Committee Project, 2004 

On January 10, 2004
Was the recipient of the 
Life Honorary Trustee
with the  
Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation

In accepting this award, I want to thank the Board of Directors of the Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation for considering me worthy of receiving it. To me it represents a monument to my involvement with the Presidio Project. It formalizes something I have been doing for the last 34 years.

I started working on the presidio project in 1970 while still a student at UCSB. I had just been discharged from the navy after serving on a cruiser in Vietnam. Doing some of the original archaeology at the presidio in the 1970s, I literally spent hundreds of volunteer hours digging, sorting and documenting.

In this 1970 photograph Russell Ruiz and a group of volunteers hold court on a vacant lot next to the old Shalhoob building on the corner of Santa Barbara and Canon Perdido Streets.
The Ruiz’s, (center left) Russell, Alice Ruth, and Russell Clay, along with Dick Whitehead (right), retired planning director of Santa Barbara County, had a lofty goal of discovering the remains of the old presidio in the vacant lot.

Half of the people in the photo have passed on, Russell, Alice Ruth, and Dick Whitehead. In the photo I am much younger wearing my old navy work clothes. Jeremy Hass (seated) used his skills as a lawyer to negotiate property acquisitions for the project.

In the 1970s I also worked at La Purismia Mission State Historic Park and established an archive there. I was a State Park Ranger Intermittent at Purisima for five years. Today I am a docent at the mission, having formally completed the docent 10 week training program.

In 1982 I was appointed to the Board of Directors for The Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation. I served on the Board for 17 years. While on the Board, I served as its Treasurer for 2 years. I chaired the Archive Library, Descendants and Genealogy Committees, and was a member of the Reconstruction Committee.

In 1990 I was instrumental in founding Los Soldados del Real Presidio de Santa Barbara. The organization came to life as we acquired authentic reproduction uniforms and flintlock muskets that were used by the soldiers of the presidio. Jim Martinez became our drill instructor and drilled soldados using commands (which he translated) from an 1808 Spanish Manual of Arms that was acquired from the Los Angeles County Museum.

Los Soldados as an organization today is motivated by the same spirit of volunteerism that started the presidio project. We have a WEB site, and we do a number of events every year. In 1995 we provided the honor guard for the visit of Prince Felipe from Spain. In 1996 we traveled to Washington D.C. with a proclamation from the City of Santa Barbara to participate in the 2nd Annual Hispanic Heroes parade which honored Bernardo de Gálvez, Hispanic Hero of the American Revolution. In October of 2003 Los Soldados rendered honors again to Bernardo de Gálvez, but this time it was in Long Beach as a part of a Hispanic-American Heroes series of events sponsored by Somos Primos, a contemporary Hispanic Heritage organization.

An interesting sidelight of the Long Beach event happened when Hector Diaz, who played the part of Bernardo de Gálvez, came from Baltimore, Maryland, to participate in the ceremonies. Hector had organized the 1996 Gálvez event in Washington in 1996. When he arrived in California, Hector had with him proclamations from the mayor of Baltimore issued some seven years ago.

Los Soldados had so impressed the mayor of Baltimore in 1996 that the mayor issued proclamations from his city to honor not only Los Soldados, but also Jarrell Jackman, executive director of the Trust, and the Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation. So it is with great pleasure that I present these awards now to Dr. Jackman and the Trust. I am only sorry that our colonial courier took seven years to deliver them.

Josef de Zuniga, Comandante, San Diego  1781-1792
Author, M. Hardwick:

Josef de Zuniga was born in Mexico in 1755. He entered service as an officer candidate in the frontier army at the age of 17 enjoying the position of soldado distinguido, which qualified him as a nobleman, not subject to the performance of manual labor or other less distinguished tasks. In 1778 Zuniga became alferéz (sub lieutenant) after extensive service on the Texas frontier. By 1780 Zuniga was promoted to lieutenant while serving at the Presidio of San Carlos de Cerro Gordo in the Big-Bend Country of Texas.

In 1781 Zuniga was recruited by Captain Rivera y Moncada to lead a division of colonists from Guaymas to Loreto and Bahia San Luis Gonzaga by sea. The colonists, destined to found Pueblo de Los Angeles and the Santa Barbara area, were escorted by Zuniga from the Baja Peninsula to San Gabriel Mission.

In September of 1781, Lt. Zuniga was appointed as the second comandante of the Presidio of San Diego. Lt. Zuniga relieved José Francisco Ortega who had served as comandante of San Diego for 8 years. Alferéz José Velásquez was Zuniga’s second in command until he passed away in 1785. During Zuniga’s 11 year tenure as the military commander of San Diego he built and extensive comandancia (house of the commandant) and maintained good relations with his fellow soldiers. He kept good accounts and related well with superiors, missionaries, and the local Indians. In 1783 he built a "beautiful church" at the presidio. He served as carpenter, mason, and painter for the construction of the chapel. In 1784 he received membership in third order of Franciscans.

By 1792 Zuniga had been promoted to captain and assigned to the royal presidio of Tucson. Having to wait for his replacement, he served on detached duty at Monterey and finally arrived in Tucson in 1794. Zuniga served as comandante of Tucson until 1806. Later he ended his career as a lieutenant colonel and as Adjutant Inspector of Presidios in Arizpe Sonora.

Visit Los Soldados on the internet
Presidios and soldiers bibliography

The Family of Jose Raimundo Carrillo (1749-1809)

Jose Raimundo Carrillo was the founder of the Carrillo family in California.  Carrillo was a native of Loreto, born in 1749, the son of Hilario Carrillo. He Came to California as a soldier, probably with the first expedition in 1769, and rose to rank of captain. He served as Commandant in San Diego between, 1807-9. 

1874, San Francisco, California 
"Para papa" of Elena Anita Thompson y Carrillo de Tyng and my grandfather's two older brothers Charles (b.1870) and George (b.1871),
both born in Santa Barbara, California.

He married Tomasa Ignacia, daughter of the soldier Francisco Lugo, the ceremony being performed by Junipero Serra at San Carlos, on April 23, 1781. His early services in California were at Santa Barbara and Monterey, coming to San Diego in 1806. The South Coast Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution has a copy of the 1782 garrison list for Monterey which shows Jose Raimundo Carrillo serving in the rank of Corporal. Upon his death in 1809 at San Diego, he was buried in the chapel on Presidio Hill on November 10th. His only daughter, Maria Antonia, became the wife of Jose de La Guerra y Noriega. His sons, Carlos Antonio de Jesus, Jose Antonio Ezequiel, Anastasio, and Domingo Antonio Ignacio, were all prominent in the early history of California.

This brief bio is found on the San Diego Historical Society website. Credit given to William Ellsworth Smythe's History of San Diego, page 162, courtesy of Professor Steven Schoenherr, University of San Diego Department of History.  American Revolution information added.

The following is my line of descent:
Jose Raimundo Carrillo, Carlos Antonio Carrillo, Maria Francisca Carrillo married Captain Alpheus B. Thompson, Elena Anita Thompson y Carrillo married George Tyng, Francisco Carrillo Tyng married Emma Loraine Hyde, Dorothy Loraine Tyng married William Talbot McEwan

William Talbot McEwan, Jr., married Mary Virginia Thompson son, Paul William McEwan, married Elizabeth Wesley Stephenson children: William Talbot McEwan, III Robert Alan McEwan, Richard Stephenson McEwan, Kathleen Forbes McEwan son, Alan Maxwell McEwan, married Karen Cecilia Schliep children: Monica Ruth Schliep McEwan, Susan Tyng McEwan, married Nicholas Wolf Fels daughter: Sarah Brook Fels, married George Robert Steel, Jane Tracy McEwan

My grandfather Francisco Carrillo Tyng's baptism certificate. He was born September 27, 1883 in Mexico City.
                     Thanks again and saludos!!  Bill McEwan

Registrar for the Sons of the American Revolution in the Silicon Valley

 is Donald B. Miller, 14600 Wild Oak  Way, Saratoga, CA 95070-5550 Phone # 408-227-6404 or the Pres. W.Howard Jones,1471 Woodberry Ave., San Mateo, CA 94403, email or phone Clarence at:  650-572-0461 

The San Luis Obispo County Genealogical Society is holding its annual seminar, February 7, 2004 from 8:30 - 4:00 at the Veteran's Hall, 801 Grand Avenue, San Luis Obispo, CA. 

The featured speakers will include Jan Cloud, Tina Peddie, LeAnn Coshman, Julia George, Cafi Cohen and Martha Graham.  Heritage Quest Publishers will also be there displaying their products.  A full day of speakers, family history displays, freebies, raffle items, vendors, and morning and afternoon refreshments is planned. See website at  and website registration form at   

Living on the Dime Project Series to Begin

Inland (Empire) Mexican Heritage will begin its next series of programs for the 'Living on the Dime' project in February 2004. For more details about Living on the Dime and other programs visit Call Robert Gonzales, Director at 909-347-2379 or email or write, P.O. Box 1413, Redlands, California 92373

Eleventh Annual San Diego Latino Film Festival
, March 11-21, 2004
Volunteers Needed
Sent by Anthony Garcia,

Media Arts Center San Diego's prestigious and internationally recognized San Diego Latino Film Festival, soars into a second decade of impressive and exhilarating new activities, special events and
initiatives. The Eleventh Annual San Diego Latino Film Festival (SDLFF) will take place March 11-21, 2004 at the Madstone Theaters at Hazard Center located in beautiful San Diego, California. 

Last year's festival was attended by an audience of 15,000 actively-engaged film lovers, filmmakers, actors, programmers, distributors, industry representatives and journalists. The San Diego Latino Film Festival has used the unique geographical and cultural position of the San Diego Border Region to make the festival a premiere venue for the exhibition of international and U.S. Latino features, shorts and documentaries.

VOLUNTEERS ARE NEEDED ORIENTATIONS will be March 5th and 9th at 6 p.m. at the
Madstone Theaters Hazard Center located at 7510 Hazard Center Dr., Suite 100 (Exit 163 freeway, off on Friars Road).  If you get lost, please call 619-299-4525.  Ample parking either in Hazard Center parking structure.

For every three hours you work as a volunteer, you and a guest get free tickets to see one of the festival movies.  Also, for any volunteer who works more than 10 hours, you'll get a festival T-shirt
and a FREE Basic Membership to the Media Arts Center San Diego allowing you to receive  special discounts at future MACSD/San Diego Latino Film Festival events. Also, in appreciation for your time, there will be a VOLUNTEER APPRECIATION PARTY on March 27th, 6-10pm at the Media Arts Center San Diego (live music, fun, dancing, drinks and more!).

FOR MORE INFO: Please RSVP for the Volunteer Orientation and sign-up today to start helping out by calling me at 619-230-1938, Wed/Thurs, from 3 p.m. - 7 p.m. or e-mailing me at  More information:   
Luning Rangel,  Volunteer Coordinator
Media Arts Center San Diego Inc., 921 25th Street, San Diego, CA
92102, TEL: 619-230-1938, FAX: 619-230-1937

Union Guard 

"The Union guard was organized August 30, 1864, at Copperopolis, Calaveras County.  the location of the town in the mining  vicinity was such that the citizens felt that military protection was necessary.  A foreign element composed of Mexicans and Chileans moved from place to place, following the opening of mining claims.  They were of a treacherous nature and carried on a campaign of general lawlessness, terrorizing the settlers.  Also Indian hostilities frequently occurred during those years."

#8 Home Guard Series for MHS Newsletter, Research by editor, Les Krames
El Rancho Moraga Newsletter, Box 103, Moraga, CA 94556
Source: History of California National Guard, State Library, Sacramento, California, Vol. II

Union Guard, unattached, Third Brigade 
Reference: Dead Office File, Row 3, File 2
Location: Copperopolis, Calaveras County
Mustered in Aug 30, 1864  Mustered out Jan 31, 1868


CALIFORNIA SOLDADOS: The response from the descendants of California Soldados has been overwhelmingly enthusiastic. Below are the names of the soldados who we will be honoring throughout the year, beneath each is the name of their descendants and an email to facilitate networking.  

Alviso, Bojorques, Borondo, Espinosa, Higuera, Lara, Lugo

Nattalia K. Merzoyan From:

Domingo Alviso
Greg Bernal-Mendoza- Smestad, Ph.D.

Pedro Amador
Mary Benitez
Al Solis

Josef Ygnacio Archuleta
Greg Bernal-Mendoza- Smestad, Ph.D.

Manuel Ramirez (Arellanes) Arellano
Nancy Bonetti Ray

Jose Dario Arguello and two sons Luis Antonio Arguello and Jose Dario Arguello
Dora B. Buckmaster SO DB

Juan Francisco Bernal

Greg Bernal-Mendoza- Smestad, Ph.D.

Pedro Antonio Bojorquz
Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Pedro Bojorques, and son Bartolome Bojorques

Pauline Reed

Josef Ramon Bojorquez
Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Jose Antonio Buelna
Mary Ryan
Gail Slade

Manuel Butron

Paul Trejo

Ignacio Cantua
Edward Allegreti

Jose Raymundo (Raimundo) Carrillo
Andrew Carrillo
Bill McEwan

Miguel Cordero and son Mariano Antonio Cordero
William E. Cordero
William E. Cordero II
Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Don Pablo Antonio Cota
Mary Ryan
Stephen M. Rieden

Roque Jacinto de Cota
Nancy Bonetti Ray

Josef Joaquin Cayetano Espinosa
Greg Bernal-Mendoza- Smestad, Ph.D.
Gail Slade

Jose Miguel Espinosa
Gail Slade

Mariano Estrada
Troy Bunnell

Juan Victoriano Feliz 
Lorraine Moffat

Jose Rosalino Fernandez
Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Felipe Santiago Garcia
Richard Ameil, Pres. California Missions foundations  http://www,

Nicolas Galindo

Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Josef Manuel Higuera
Greg Bernal-Mendoza- Smestad, Ph.D.

Francisco Juarez , son Francisco Xavier Juarez, grandson Jose Joaquin Juarez
Helen Collins

Ignacio Linares

Edward Allegreti
Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Felipe Santiago Lugo
Ray Dall

Francisco Salvadore Lugo
Mary Ryan
Mark W. Holmerud

Jose Manuel Machado
Mary Benitez

Maccimo Martinez
Mary McGinnis

Alejo Miranda

Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Maria Dolores Morales
Greg Bernal-Mendoza- Smestad, Ph.D.

Jose Francisco (de) Ortega
Thomas (Tom) Klope
Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Juan Osuna
Mary Benitez

Juan Salvio Pacheco
Miguel Antonio Pacheco

Greg Bernal-Mendoza- Smestad, Ph.D.

Gabriel Peralta
Luis Maria Peralta
Greg Bernal-Mendoza- Smestad, Ph.D.
Gail Slade

Felipe Santiago de la Cruz Pico

Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Pablo Pinto
Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Josef Antonio Sanchez
Greg Bernal-Mendoza- Smestad, Ph.D.

(Y)Ignacio de Soto
Edward Allegreti
Greg Bernal-Mendoza- Smestad, Ph.D.

Felipe Santiago Tapia
Gail Slade

Eugenio Valdez
Mary Benitez

Don Ygnacio Vicente Vallejo

Nattalia K. Merzoyan From:

Marianno Guadalupe Vallejo
Mark W. Holmerud

José (Josef ) Manuel Valenzuela

Mary Ayers
Ernest J. Garcia
Sheila Ruiz Harrell
and brothers, Michael Eugene Harrell, David Vincent Harrell

Jose Antonio Yorba
Mary Benitez


Two major Southwest Projects:
Paso al Norte Museum
Descendants of Tejano Participants in the Texas Revolution of 1835-36


From Left: Executive Director,  Margarita Rivera Houze,  Chair, Dr. Carlos Arce, Mimi Lozano, Dr. Refugio Rochin
International Advisory Council, January 16, 2004, Camino Real,  El Paso, Texas 

Executive Director, Marguerite Rivera Houze was born and raised in El Paso, Texas. She bring to the position of Executive Director a wide range of administrative and planning experience and a passion for preserving and conveying to the public the story of immigration.

She has worked to develop outreach programs for immigrants in Texas, an effort that culminated in the creation of the Governor's Office of Immigration and Refugee Affairs. In 1995, she received a Presidential appointment to the U.S. Department of State, where she served until 2001 as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State. In this position, she formulated policies and managed programs related to refugee protection, humanitarian assistance and migration in Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas. She also managed the program for worldwide admission of refugees into the Untie States.

Ms. Houze completed her undergraduate studies at the University of Texas at Austin, and has a Master's in Business Administration from the University of Texas at Austin, and a Master's in Public Administration from the Lyndon b. Johnson School of Public Affairs.

If you ancestors lived in El Paso, or came through El Paso, Paso al Norte would particularly like to hear from you. Photos and stories are being collected and archived. Public financial support and involvement is welcomed.  

Marguerite Rivera Houze, Executive Director
Paso al Norte Museum
University of Texas at el Paso
El Paso, Texas 79968
(915) 747-8679

The International Advisory Council was convened for the first time in January 2002. Comprised of leaders in the public and private sectors, in the United States and in Mexico, the members provide expertise and guidance to museum staff in the development of the Paso at Norte Museum. Belen Robles, a new member to the council stands with Dr. Diana S. Natalicio, President, University of Texas at El Paso. Ms. Robles served as National President of LULAC for four years.

The International Advisory Council

Dr. Carlos H. Arce
Founder and Principal
NuStats Research and Consulting
Austin, TX

Mr. Victor Arias, Jr.
Spencer Stuart
Dallas, TX

Dr. Jorge A. Bustamante
Eugene Conley Professor of Sociiology
Institute for Latino Studies
University of Notre Dame
Notre dame, IN

Mr. Ignacio Durán
Director, Mexican Cultural Institute

Washington, D.C.

Mr. Miguel A. Fernández
Embotelladora Argos
Cd. Juarez, Chih, México

Mr. Juan Roberto Job
Corporate Vice President
New York Life Insurance Company
New York, NY

Ms. Elizabeth Lisboa-Farrow
President o& CEO, Lisboa, Inc.

Washington, DC

Ms. Mimi Lozano
President, Society of Hispanic Historical

And Ancestral Research
Midway city, CA

Ms. Adair Margo
Adair Margo Gallery
El Paso, TX

Mr. Victor Miramontes
President and COO, American City Vista
San Antonio, TX

Mr. Gustavo Mohar
Mexico D.F., México

Dr. Diana S. Natalicio
President, University of Texas at El Paso
El Paso, TX

The Honorable Jaime Oaxaca
Chairman of the Board
United State Space Foundation
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA

The Honorable Katherine D. Ortega
Former U.S. Treasurer
Washington, DC

Dr. Demertrios G. Papademetriou
Co-Director, Migration Politcy Institute
Washington, DC

Dr. Raymund A. Paredes
San Antonio, TX

Mr. William Parsons
Holocaust Museum
Washington, DC

The Honorable Silvestre Reyes
U.S. House of Representatives
Washington, DC

Mr. Eugenio Clariond Reyes-Retana
CEO, Grupo IMSA, S.A. de C.V.
San Pedro Garza Garcia, N.L., México

Ms. Belen Robles
President, Belen Robles and Associates, LLC
El Paso, TX

Dr. Refugio I. Rochin
Executive Director
Society for Advancement of Chicanos
and Native American in Science
Santa Cruz, CA

Ms. Marian L. Smith
Historian, Bureau of Immigration and
Customs Enforcement

Washington, DC

Dr. Maria Socorro Tabuenca
Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Juárez, México

Rev. Lydio f. Tomasi
Editor, International Migration Review
Center for Migration Studies of New York
Staten Island, NY

Mr. Luis Alberto Urrea
Associate Professor
Department of English
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, IL

Mr. Victor Villaseñor
Oceanside, CA

Mr. Albert C. Zapanta
President and CEO
U.S.-Mexico Chamber of Commerce
Washington, DC

Marguerite Rivera Houze, Executive Director
Paso al Norte Museum
University of Texas at el Paso
El Paso, Texas 79968  915-747-8679

Descendants of Tejano Participants in the Texas Revolution of 1835-36

The Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society is requesting that individuals submit pedigree information showing a direct descendancy to any Tejano who participated in any conflict of the Texas Revolution of 1835-36. Los Bexarenos will then compile these submissions and publish them in a book later this year. This information will not only be vital and helpful for those who are just beginning to do their family research, but will also serve to honor and recognize those individuals who served in the Revolution. Proceeds from the sale of this book will be used to provide funding for the continued genealogical activities of the Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society. Additionally, copies of this book will be distributed free of charge to various public libraries and other genealogical organizations across the state of Texas so that the information can reach as many people as possible.

Pedigree information may be submitted to the Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society using the form on the following pages. If you have access to a computer, you may submit your pedigree data on-line by going to the following address:

Please also submit to Los Bexarenos, a copy of any documentation to validate your Tejano ancestor’s participation in the Texas Revolution (i.e. State of Texas pension applications, old family letters, excerpts from books to include title and author). Try to limit your documentation to no more than 3 pages reduced to fit on 8 ½" x 11" paper. The Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society will publish both your submitted pedigree chart as well as a copy of the validation which you provide.

Your submission should be mailed to Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society at P.O. Box 1935, San Antonio, Texas, 78297, attention: "Texas Revolution Tejano Descendant". If you have any questions or if you would like to know if your Tejano ancestor is on the list of the approximately 200 Tejanos who applied for a State of Texas pension, please call Robert Garcia of the Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society at 210-695-9825 or if you would like a copy of a listing of all the Tejanos, send an e-mail to .

Sample Submission:

Texas Revolution Tejano Participant  _________Julian Diaz_________
(Name of Texas Revolution Tejano Participant)

Julian Diaz m. Eulogia Fernandez b. 1808, Mission San Juan Mission San Juan, San Antonio

Leonides Diaz m. Mariano Trevino b
. 1841 b.11/12/1829  San Antonio, Tx. San Antonio

Leonides Trebino m. Jose Felix Casanova b
. 1860 (9/01/1875) b. 05/13/1842 
San Antonio,Tx. San Antonio, Tx. d. 01/16/1928 d. 08/19/1917 San Antonio,Tx. San Antonio, Tx.

Mariano Casanova m. Virginia C. Charles b
. 10/10/1886 (11/13/1910) b. 01/23/1887
San Antonio, Tx. San Antonio, Tx. d. 02/11/1969 d. 11/10/1950 San Antonio, Tx. San Antonio, Tx.

Virginia C. Casanova m. Benjamin de Jesus b
. 11/27/1912 (5/10/1947) b. 02/14/1915
San Antonio, Tx. Florida, Puerto Rico d. 04/22/1973 d. 12/10/1996 San Antonio, Tx. San Antonio, Tx.

Sylvia Jean de Jesus Garcia b
. 11/23/1948 San Antonio, Tx.
Submitted by: Sylvia Jean Garcia,
14932 Seven L Trail, Helotes, Tx., 78023

Remember to attach documentation validating Participant’s involvement or activities in the Texas Revolution.


The Black Mexico Homepage
Melting Pot: African Ancestry in CA 

Afro-Argentine library, Argentina

The Black Mexico Homepage

Afro-Mexicans of the Costa Chica
by Bobby Vaughn
Sent by John Inclan

The purpose of this website is to introduce readers to the culture and unique experience of Mexicans of African descent.  If you are like most people, you probably have never heard of Afro-Mexicans and are completely unaware that they exist. If you fall into this category, this page will hopefully be quite a learning experience for you.  

As a cultural anthropologist, I am interested in how issues of race, color, and nationalism make the Afro-Mexican experience what it is, today, and hopefully, I can come to some general conclusions as to larger issues of race and ethnicity. Perhaps the question most central to my thinking about the topic could be expressed succinctly as: "How do black people in Mexico understand and live their black identity?" This question fascinates me primarily because issues of blackness and race are rarely talked about in Mexico, and the black population is extremely small there. 

However, over and above my research interests, the people of Mexico have treated me with such kindness, respect, and genuine affection over the last 10 years, that I carry with me a genuine joy to be doing what I am doing. I endeavor to present the story of Afro-Mexicans in the most respectful way I know how. I therefore refuse to exoticize or caricature the people who have meant so much to me. The site is designed to be introductory, with a brief historical overview of African slavery in Mexico, a discussion of the Costa Chica region -- which is where most black Mexicans live today --, as well as some photographs I've taken. I hope you enjoy the site and I welcome your comments. Also, I should add that I am not a specialist in African American genealogy, Black Seminoles, or African Americans in the southwestern United States.  

Changing of Race in the Melting Pot: African Ancestry in California

California Afri-Am Genealogical Society Guide to African Ancestor Research 
Genealogical Resources on the Internet
Sent by John Inclan

It is interesting to note that, beginning in 1781, a document called a "cedula" could be purchased which would officially change one's racial designation. Many such records can be found at the Bancroft Library in San Francisco and at other California libraries, museums and historical societies. In addition, although Old Mexico had previously used a variety of terms to describe blood quantum similar to Louisiana's methods, once a couple reached California to the north, any of their children born there were automatically classified as Spanish if one parent was Spanish.

For all practical purposes, early California could truly be described as a melting pot. Most people of African descent from 1816-1840 were absorbed into the mix, so that there were few if any real "Negro communities" prior to the Gold Rush. By 1848, the Californio was often tri-racial (Indian, Spanish and African), and included many immigrant bloodlines. The lower economic classes of Californios gradually became more Indian, partly due to intermarriage with California Indians. The upper classes of Californios often "married light", to European-born Spaniards when possible, or to other European or American whites.

Extract: Article by MIREYA NAVARRO, New York Times, January 17, 2004
Howard Shorr
Juan Inclan

The Web site for Black Entertainment Television put the question bluntly: "Does it bother you that Hispanics now outnumber African-Americans in the U.S.?" 

The response has been torrential. One visitor to the site wrote, "Blacks are beginning to experience another wave of racial bias and favoritism not in our favor." The writer complained that employers now have a preference for bilingual applicants, and bemoaned "attempts to replace our threatening stance against discrimination with a Hispanic vote." 

But another cautioned: "Sounds like the same old trick to me. `Divide and conquer.' Are we really going to let some numbers dictate how we treat one another?" 

Those conversations have raised hard questions: Does the ascendance of Hispanics mean a decline in the influence of blacks? Does it doom, or encourage, alliances between the two groups? Does the old formula for those alliances -shared grievances - have much meaning given the diversity
of income and status even within each group? 

The rising number of Latinos has not escaped the notice of whites or other groups, whether in business or politics. President Bush's recent proposal to grant temporary visas to illegal immigrants is seen by many as just the latest effort to woo the Hispanic vote. But many blacks and ispanic Americans say the demographic milestone has special meaning for the nation's two largest minority groups, forcing them to reassess a relationship that has sometimes brought cooperation, and sometimes conflict.  Many Latinos feel their growing numbers have finally grabbed the notice of black leaders. 

"We have as much or more in common than any two ethnic or racial groups in the country, and that's because of the phenomenon of racial discrimination and how it affects our community," said Hilary Shelton, director of the Washington bureau of the N.A.A.C.P. 

Latinos and African-Americans need each other to pursue that joint agenda, Mr. Shelton and others said. While Latinos may dominate in sheer numbers, many are not citizens or are too young to vote, so their political clout is largely unrealized. They also have yet to achieve the power African-Americans have won in other arenas, including what one Latino leader called "gate keeping positions" incorporations and foundations that determine hiring and funding of programs for other minorities. 

In major cities like New York and Chicago, the two groups together make up a majority of the population. "Both groups have the capacity to either help or hurt each other," said Raul Yzaguirre, president of the National Council of La Raza, a civil rights group that works with African-American

But while there has been much joint work by black and Latino national groups around specific issues, alliances do not come naturally. In many places, the two groups have battled over political representation, jobs and public funding. Many blacks and Latinos say the ideal of an enduring
"rainbow coalition" is unrealistic. 

Nicolas C. Vaca, a sociologist and lawyer in California, argues in his new book, "The Presumed Alliance: The Unspoken Conflict between Latinos and Blacks and What it Means for America" (Rayo, 2004), that the groups should not be expected to join forces automatically, given their differences and the tendency of ethnic groups in this country to look out for their own interests. 

Some paramount concerns for many Latino organizations, like legalizing the status of illegal immigrants, conflict with those of black groups, such as the loss of unskilled jobs to those Latino workers, Mr. Vaca noted. And in places where one group dominates, as Latinos do in Miami and
blacks do in Compton, Calif., he said, neither has shown more consideration for the other in sharing appointments and programs than when they had much less power. 

"Whether you're an African-American in the South, or a Latino in California, you have the right to advance your own agenda," Mr. Vaca said. "To the extent they can do it cooperatively, great. To the extent they can't, they're going to have to work out some kind of strategy to avoid conflict." 

Pulling together or staying apart sometimes depends on whether the black and Latino populations in an area have comparable status and see their fates as linked, said Gary M. Segura, a political science professor at the University of Iowa who has written about "black-brown" coalitions. 

Some Latino groups, like Puerto Ricans and Dominicans, who themselves have large black populations, find more common ground with African-Americans than others. Mr. Segura said that Hispanics who were born in the United States and speak English were much more likely to perceive similarities with black Americans than their immigrant, Spanish-speaking counterparts. 

But most Latinos and African-Americans have not lived in proximity until recently because of the concentration of blacks in the South and East and of Latinos in the Southwest. 

As a result, conversations between the groups are taking place for the first time in places like Gainesville, Ga. Faye Bush, director of the New Town Florist Club, said her civil rights group started meetings last year with Latino groups to start bridging a divide that opened up as Latinos grew to a third of the city's population; blacks account for about 16 percent. "They don't interact with each other," she said of the two groups. "Language is the biggest barrier." 

At the state level, the Georgia Partnerships Network, a project of the Southern Regional Council, a civil rights organization, formed in 2002 to try to increase the joint political power of blacks and Latinos by coalescing on specific issues. One is allowing illegal immigrants to get driver's licenses, said Dwayne Patterson, director of racial unity programs for the council. 

"It's only a very small effort around specific issues to build a relationship of trust and respect," he said. "You have two strong entities who are entering into a partnership. That's powerful. That's unprecedented in the South."

Afro-Argentine library in Santa Fe Argentina

This is a request for donations of books to an Afro-Argentine library in Santa Fe Argentina.  Contrary to popular opinion Afro-Argentines are still very much in existence.  There is a small
community in Santa Fe north of Buenos Aires in the interior.  Santa Fe was devasted last Spring by flooding.  A library run by an organization called Casa de la Cultura Indo-Afro-Americana was
severely damaged by the flooding.  The director of the organization Sra. Lucia Dominga Molina is trying to rebuild the library.  Some of the materials may be irreplaceable because they were materials
pertaining to Afro-Argentine history and culture, but their is a general need for works dealing with African Americans in the US and the Afro-Latin experience throughout the hemisphere.  She has
asked me particularly for books dealing with Afro-Argentines and Afro-Uruguayans, but stresses that she is also very interested in receiving books on the US, the Carribbean and other parts of Latin
America.  She can accept books in English and Spanish although books in Spanish would be particularly welcome.   I didn't ask her but I would suspect if you have books in Portuguese on Brazil that those would be welcome too.  Her address is:

                            Sra. Lucia Dominga Molina
                            Casa de la Cultura Indo-Afro-Americana
                             LaMadrid 2956 (3000)
                            Santa Fe, Argentina

So please send your spare books on slavery, race etc.  They will be used for the library and to educate Argentines in the Santa Fe region about issues of race and slavery.  Any correspondence with Sra. Lucia Dominga Molina should be in Spanish.

Thank you,
Robert J. Cottrol
Harold Paul Green Research Professor of Law,
and Professor of History and Sociology
George Washington University

Sent by


Recruiting Native Students  Inca Medicine

Recruiting Native Students  


The American Library Association Spectrum Scholarship provides $6,500 ($5000 tuition scholarship and $1500 in leadership development opportunities) scholarships to a number of eligible 
recipients each year. The application deadline for ALA scholarships is March 1st, 2004. See the website for more information and feel free to contact me with any questions.

Wendy Prellwitz, Program Officer
Office for Diversity & Spectrum, American Library Association
1.800.545.2433 ext 5048

"Honoring Generations," an IMLS supported scholarship, is seeking applications from 
American Indian students interested in careers in tribal librarianship. Scholarships are available for six student to enroll in a 40 graduate credit hour in-residence program at the University of Texas at Austin in the School of Information. Deadline: 15 April 2004 for fall 2004 Admissions

Visit: Or please contact Loriene Roy:
   or (512) 471-3959. 

The Knowledge River Program at the University of Arizona is accepting applications for the class of Fall 2004.  Knowledge River focuses on information and library issues from the perspective of Hispanics and Native Americans.  Knowledge River students combine their Knowledge River Classes with classes from the School of Information Resources and Library Science to receive an MA in Information Resources & Library Science. The Application deadline is April 15, 2004.

The Knowledge River program is a great opportunity to combine your interests in your community with your skills as an information professional. Please see attached announcement for more details and contact information.

Peggy Cabrera, Knowledge River Graduate

Inca Medicine

Website: Scientific Anti-Vivisectionism
Sent by John Inclan

The properties of the bark of the cinchona tree in the treatment of malaria were first written no later than 1633 by an Augustinian monk, Father Antanio de la Calancha, who lived in Peru. The bark reached Seville, Spain - which had a trade monopoly with Peru - and from there was sent to Rome by the family of Cardinal Joannes de Lugo. Once the bark had reached Rome, requests for the bark became widespread throughout Europe - distributed by the Jesuits, which resulted in elements of religious bigatory and confusion as to its merits. In 1658, Brady, a Professor of Physic, in Cambridge, began prescribing `Jesuits` bark to treat an outbreak of malaria. Robert Talbor, an apprentice to a Cambridge apothecary, moved to Essex and then to London, where he treated malaria patients with the `secret remedy`. In 1672, Talbor wrote a small book "A Rational Account of the Cause and Cure of Agues" but avoided mention of actually having used `Jesuit`s` bark himself. However, thanks to his book, his reputation grew. In 1678, Talbor was knighted by King Charles II and appointed as physician in ordinary to the King. The College of Physicians were angered by this - as Talbor was not, in their eyes, a qualified practitioner. In the same year, Talbor cured the French Dauphin and Queen of Spain of malaria with his `remedy`, but again met with hostility - from physicians in Paris and Madrid. In 1679, King Charles II fell ill with tertain fever and was cured by Talbor`s `remedy`. Louis XIV of France, in recognition of the life of his son being saved, offered Talbor a sizeable sum for the `secret` of his `remedy`. Talbor agreed, on condition, that the formula would not be revealed during his lifetime. Talbor died in 1681, and King Louis arranged for a small volume to published that year - in which was disclosed the formula - large doses of `Jesuits` bark infused in wine. The book was translated into English and published as "The English Remedy: or, Talbor`s Wonderful Secret for Curing Agues and Fevers". These revelations and a subsequent book, in 1712, on the therapeutic properties of the bark, by Fransesco Torti, professor of medicine at Modena, helped to popuarize the use of the treatment. In 1737, Charles-Marie de la Condamine investigated the origins of the bark and obtained specimens. With these, Linnaeus, a Swedish botonist, classified the family of trees from which the barks had come as Cinchona - from the Indian name for the fever bark tree.(1)

Over a century later, with concerns about varying responses to treatment with cinchona bark, Bernadino Gomes attempted isolating the active principle. He extract the bark with dilute acid and then neutralized it with alkali and managed to obtain a few crystals which he named cinchonin (later, to be known as cinchonine). In 1819, Friedlieb Runge isolated a base from cinchona, which he named "China base" - which was different from cinchonine. Shortly afterwards, Pelletier and Caventou repeated Gome`s experiments on cinchona and isolated cinchonine from samples of grey bark. They also isolated an alkaloid - quinine - from yellow bark - which, when its properties were compared, was seen to be identical to "China" base. But Runge`s prior discovery was overlooked(1).

refs  1. Sneader,W. Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. 1985


DNA/Semitic DNA Evidence of Crypto What Remnants of Judaism Remain?

Wave of the Future - DNA / Semitic DNA Evidence of Crypto
Sent by George Gause

Lockage or at a stand still with the paternal surnames you are researching?  Take the vital step and venture into the powerful new concept of authenticating your lineage through the use of science – DNA to be more specific.  The DNA project (Family Tree DNA), founded by Bennett Greenspan, is not for surnames traced through female lineage, because females do not have the Y-chromosome DNA. Women would need the assistance of a brother, uncle or other male relative with the surname they are researching.   The Tony Jefferson vs. Sally Hemings proved that the DNA associated with the "Y- chromosome" is passed from father to son then to grandson without alteration for generation.  

A message from Greenspan as presented in his web site, addressed the DNA Surname Project as follows: ttp://

"One item for you to be aware of…. If you are testing male members of the founding families of Mexico, especially the founding families of Northern Mexico, you will probably see a strong % of Semitic DNA evidence of Crypto Jews who were among the Spanish conquerors of Mexico from the 1500’s.  We have clearly seen these footsteps in the testing we have done to date

With DNA we can confirm the theories of Crypto Jewish origins (Cohanim test).  We can see how ancestors with the same surname migrated and consequently which branches of the family settled at what locations.  We would be able to see if similar sounding surnames are related.  We can connect those with the same surname and merge paper trails effectively saving genealogical work and money.  Also we may find out if a maternal name was taken as a surname at some point in time.  
By sharing information we can piece together our family’s history.  The possibilities are endless!"

AR de Dallas Newsletter, Volume 6, Issue 3, January/February 2004

Provided by Dorina Alaniz Thomas, PhD., AR Newsletter Coordinator, HOGAR website webmaster

Judaism, In Memory and Spirit
500 Years After the Spanish And Portuguese Inquisitions
What Remnants of Judaism Remain?

by Gloria Golden

For the last five years I’ve been interviewing Hispanic Americans in New Mexico and El Paso, Texas, whose ancestry dates back 500 years to the Inquisitions on the Iberian Peninsula. Photographing and obtaining oral histories reveal that Jewish rituals and practices still exist within these communities.

Many people are unaware that Sephardic Jews were forced to convert to Christianity or leave their homes forever. To remain in Spain and practice their religion might result in torture or being burned alive. So as to save their lives, Jews transformed themselves, and inevitably, conversions occurred. Jews who converted and accepted Christianity were the conversos, whereas the Sephardim who converted and practiced Judaism in secret were the crypto-Jews. That was 1492 (The Edict of Expulsion was signed.) and rather than convert, a huge proportion of Spain’s Jewish population left Spain and settled in various parts of the world such as North Africa and Italy. Many Jews went to Portugal where they were eventually forced to convert. These Jews were known as the anusim, meaning the forced ones.

Coincidentally, the year 1492 also marked the beginning of Columbus’ voyage to the New World. There are many who believe Columbus had Jewish ancestry for he associated with Jews and sailed to the New World with Sephardim among his crew. According to Professor Seymour Liebman, "The Spanish throne divided its New World colonies into viceroyalties. The first two were Mexico [New Spain] and Peru [New Castile}. . . . Mexico consisted of what is now the southwestern United States, all of Mexico and Central America, the Spanish islands in the Caribbean . . . [and] the Philippines."1

Reports of Jews residing in the New World led to the establishment of Inquisition centers in Mexico, Peru, and Cartagena, Colombia.2 The need for secrecy was extremely important as conversos were constantly observed for evidence of practicing Jewish rituals. Judaizing would result in punishment or torture. Therefore, many conversos, in order to escape the scrutiny of the Inquisition, settled in areas of northern New Mexico, near Colorado.

My interviews with descendants of conversos uncovered Jewish practices, often combined with those of the Catholic Church. Although many were unaware of their ancestry, others were informed of their Jewish heritage by family members. Their lineage from Spain was of utmost importance and a great source of pride.

A particular name or ritual does not indicate a Sephardic heritage, and one must listen carefully to the stories that were told within their families. Some descendants of Jews heard references to a Jewish heritage as they were growing up. Others remembered Jewish practices such as ritual slaughter, slaughtering animals according to Jewish law. Jewish law forbids the consumption of blood, and draining all the blood of the slaughtered animal is necessary. Jewish burial practices were often another indication of a possible connection to the Jews from Spain or Portugal. Jewish burials must take place soon after the occurrence of death, preferably within twenty-four hours. The sum total of the oral histories inform us how descendants of conversos brought vestiges of Judaism into the twenty-first century

A need for secrecy still exists within many Hispanic communities where conversos still hear the voices of their ancestors telling them, "No, do not tell." One feels their emotion and a profound respect for those who came before them.

My belief is that this painful chapter in Jewish history must be brought to the attention of people throughout the world. Many citizens within the Hispanic community will discover that they’re part of this story and will assist in documenting the history of the Sephardim.


War Council Oil Painting
Jose Antonio Navarro
South Texas and Northeast Mexico
Summary of the term Tejano
The Cavazos of New Spain
Writer Inspired by her Heritage

The Alamo Art Exhibit 
Pension Applications 1870-1900
Descendants of Tejano Ranchers
San Francisco de La Espada
Longoria Family in Nueva Espana
Familiar Bring Care to L
Baptismals San Isidro Labrador
Meeting of Cronistas e Historidores

War Council at San Jacinto
by Henry Godines
Completed Dec. 23, 2003

This is the latest painting of Texas born, (Alice, TX) and present day Californian, 
Master Artist Henry Godines.  It is an original painting, 3' x 4' oils on canvas.

Seated from left to right: Edward Burleson, M.B. Lamar, Tom Rusk and Sam Houston
Standing left to right: Sidney Sherman, Ben McCulloch, Antonio Manchaca, Nepromucento Flores, Jess Billingsley, Manuel Flores, Juan Seguin and Erastus (Deaf) Smith.  
I took some artistic license with three of the Tejanos in Seguin's company.  
There were no sketches of A. Manchaca, N. Flores and M.Flores 

It took approximately 300 hours over a period of 3-1/2 months to complete. Asking price $6,000.  Prints will be made in a limited edition of 500 full color Giclee type prints, signed and numbered by the artist.   Sheet size: 24 in. x 30 in.    Image size: 20 in x 30 in. Price:  $95 ea.

As history tells us very little communication took place between Houston and the rest of his command up until  the very day of the battle. There had to be a moment  prior to the battle in which some coordination and planning took place. This is the moment I tried to capture, as seen from an artist or photographer's perspective.    Best regards,  Henry Godines

Remember the Alamo
Documentary shows Tejano role in Texas independence, February 4
By Joseph Tovares, | Web Published 12.22.2003
Sent by JV Martinez  

Long before the Alamo made heroes of Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett and spawned the well-known battle cry, Jose Antonio Navarro and a group of Tejanos Mexicans of Texas who had lived there for generations started the battle for Texas.

Remember the Alamo, a one-hour documentary airing on AMERICAN EXPERIENCE Monday, February 2 at 9pm on PBS, explores the life of the famed Tejano leader and his efforts to protect the sovereignty of his homeland as it passed through the hands of multiple governments.

"After years of research in archives and libraries, and dozens of discussions with descendants and scholars, we have created a film that challenges popular notions of what happened at the Alamo in March of 1836, and in Texas," says producer Joseph Tovares (Zoot Suit Riots), who is himself a descendent of Tejanos from San Antonio.

History books have traditionally painted the battle at the Alamo as a two-sided fight for Texas between the United States and Mexico. Yet inside the Alamo, an old mission in San Antonio, a third group Tejanos fought alongside Anglo settlers from the US. "The irony is that the Alamo is seen as a strictly Anglo-Texan versus Mexican dynamic, when in reality Tejanos initiated the independence movement and developed the principles of independence against the Mexican government," says historian Andres Tijerina.

More than two decades before the battle at the Alamo, Tejanos in San Antonio waged a brutal and unsuccessful rebellion against Spanish rule. At the time, Texas was part of Mexico, which was under Spanish control. Navarro’s family helped lead the rebellion. When it was crushed, they and other Tejanos sought refuge in the United States.

By the time Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, Navarro had
returned to San Antonio. Poised to lead the Tejanos and Texas, he was quickly appointed mayor.

That same year, Stephen F. Austin left his home in Missouri and moved to San Antonio with an ambitious plan to lure United States families to Texas through rock-bottom land prices. Foreseeing prosperity for his homeland, Navarro backed Austin’s efforts and the two started to work as partners.

Austin’s plan succeeded thanks in part to Navarro’s ushering a bill through the state legislature that circumvented Mexican anti-slavery laws. The bill’s successful passage reassured Southern plantation owners that a move to Texas wouldn’t jeopardize their ability to own slaves. But when the number of Anglo settlers in Texas reached 30,000, the Mexican government closed Texas to further immigration.

Meanwhile, in Mexico City, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna had assumed the Mexican presidency. A Spanish loyalist who fought at San Antonio in 1813, Santa Anna held a grudge against Texas, Tejano rebels, and Navarro’s family.

In 1834, Santa Anna concentrated power in Mexico City, dissolved all state legislatures and abolished the federal constitution. Tejanos saw Santa Anna’s rise to power as a severe blow to Texas sovereignty. Newly arrived immigrants from the US feared that Santa Anna would revoke their settlement contracts and confiscate their slaves. Texans and Tejanos organized and by the end of 1835 succeeded in driving all Mexican soldiers out of Texas. What started as a civil war became an overt movement to separate Texas from Mexico. In February of 1836, Navarro and other Texas leaders gathered at Washington on the Brazos,150 miles east of San Antonio, to declare independence.

Meanwhile, Santa Anna was advancing into Texas with 4,000 men, headed for the Alamo, where almost 200 American and Tejano volunteers huddled, awaiting an attack.

The now-infamous battle that occurred on March 6, 1836, resulted in a Mexican victory and the death of every last Alamo defender. Not left unscathed, the Mexicans lost 600 men.

Six weeks later, after a surprise attack on the Mexican forces near the San Jacinto river, Texan army commander Sam Houston rallied his troops with the cry, "Remember the Alamo!" Although the battle was won within minutes, the vengeful Texan army including Tejanos continued fighting for hours, killing any Mexican soldier they found. Santa Anna was captured the following day, effectively ending the war.

For several years following Texas independence, Tejanos and Anglos shared power in San Antonio. But recent Anglo immigrants from the US were unaware of the Tejanos’ contribution to the territory’s independence, and felt a common distrust and hatred for all people of Mexican descent. As the times grew worse for his community, Navarro became a champion of Tejano rights. His Apuntes Historicos historical notes on the role of Tejanos in Texas independence reminded Texans, both Anglo and Tejano, that the fight for Texas had begun generations before the conflict with Santa Anna. Navarro asked that his readers acknowledge the longstanding presence of Tejanos in Texas and to keep their fight for sovereignty in mind as they remembered the Alamo.

Remember the Alamo shows how Tejanos, far from being passive onlookers, actively changed the course of Texas history on the battlefield and in the political arena. It recasts the war for Texas independence as a natural extension of the Tejano fight for self-determination and economic freedom.

"This is a tough story for all three parties involved, but especially for the Tejanos. The frontier was a very unforgiving place," says Tovares, "One can argue with many of the decisions of men like Navarro, but what’s important to remember is that they were not bystanders in this fight."

Written, directed, and produced by Joseph Tovares
Co-producer: Desirée J. Garcia
Editor: Jon Neuberger
Cinematography: Michael Chin
Original music composed by: Claudio Ragazzi
Narrator: Hector Elizondo

Monday, February 2, 2004 at 9pm (check local listings)

Documentarian Joseph Tovares has been a producer, director and writer for television, film and new media. He produced Zoot Suit Riots for AMERICAN EXPERIENCE and is the managing producer for La Plaza, the long-running series about Latinos from WGBH.

Jose Antonio Navarro

PBS American Experience Series:  February 2:  9 pm-Eastern, 8 pm-Central  Check listings.
There's a really excellent film coming up on PBS which deals with Jose Antonio Navarro and the Tejano participation in the revolution, including the revolt of 1813 and up through Navarro's historical writings of the 1850s. Producer/director, Joseph Tovares, currently with WGBH Boston, was originally from San Antonio.  The documentary is well made and historically sound.
Sent by Albert Sequin   A Seguin 

Hidalgo County Historical Society Meeting 

Sent by George Gause

Sunday, February 8, 2004, 2:00 p.m.
Mission Historical Museum, 900 Doherty
Mission, Texas  78596
Program:  Mexican Brick - Manuel Hinojosa, AIA, will share his collection and stories behind Mexican brick found at ladrilleras (brick factories) on both sides of the Rio Grande.

Manuel Hinojosa is a man of many talents.  He is the Director of the Valley office of  Kell Muñoz Architects and is a former City Manager in San Benito and Port Isabel.  Art is his hobby.  He worked weekends for almost a year to create the massive Tom Landry Mural in Mission, which pays tribute to a hometown boy who truly has earned the title of a “Mission Legend.”

Manuel has received the Alpha Rho Chi’s Architect’s Award for Achievement, and was named “Man of the Year” in 1989 for South Padre Island/Port Isabel and again in 1997 for Port Isabel.  He is on the board of the Cameron County Historical Commission and the Palo Alto National Park Service, which just opened its new Visitors Center in Brownsville.

His architectural work can be seen in many parts of the Valley – at The University of Texas Brownsville, at South Texas Community College in the Mid-Valley and Starr County, and at buildings in many independent school districts, to name just a few.

You’ll enjoy meeting Manuel and hearing his presentation.  You’ll also get to see Frank Jacobson’s train exhibit on the second floor of the museum, a favorite with both adults and children. 

Hidalgo County Historical Society
P. O. Box 81
Edinburg, TX  78540-0081

History and Genealogy of South Texas and Northeast Mexico

Ancestors of Guillermo David Guerra Treviño
Sent by Crispin Rendon

Table of Contents
Surname List - A list of all surnames on this site 
Index of Names - A list of all names on this site 

About This Work by Guillermo David Guerra Treviño

Hello fellow History and Genealogy enthusiasts. Although I am not a writer or a historian by trade, (I'm actually a programmer/analyst) I really enjoy studying the history of the people and places of the area where I am from, and where my ancestors were from. I have always been interested in my family's roots. Only recently did I begin to work on my own genealogy. I found such a vast quantity of research material available that I decided to begin compiling it, and presenting it in a new way. 

Some of the elements that will make up the finished work will be:
A genealogical database of linked individuals. 
A detailed and concise study of the Spanish and Mexican Land Grants. 
A study on the transition of some of the land grants into ranches and settlements. 
A detailed study of the towns and settlements in the proposed area. 
Of course there are some towns that have a lot of information available on them, and some do not. 
Chronological data on some of the most historical towns/cities of the area. Hopefully the end result of this work will be a published book. The content of this site will be extracted from a larger work. I set up this web site so that I could get establish contacts and aquire information from readers that share a common interest... Where do we come from? Last Updated: November 13, 2002


Summary of the term Tejano written by Adán Benavides, Jr.
Author of The Bexar Archives, 1717-1836
Sent by Jack Cowan,

The term Tejano, derived from the Spanish adjective tejano or (feminine) tejana (and written in Spanish with a lower-case t), denotes a Texan of Mexican descent, thus a Mexican Texan or a Texas Mexican. The term received greater currency at the end of the twentieth century than previously with subsequent changes in nuance and usage. It encompasses cultural manifestations in language, literature, art, music, and cuisine. As an adjective, Tex-Mex is a recently coined term related to, but not synonymous with, Tejano. Broader terms used at different times or for different segments of this ethnic group are Hispanic American, Latin American, Mexican, Mexican American, and Chicano.qv As early as 1824, Miguel Ramos Arispe, author of the (Mexican) Constitution of 1824,qv referred to the citizens of Texas as Tejanos in correspondence with the town council of Bexar. After the Mexican War of Independenceqv and the establishment of a federal government, the term Coahuiltejano denoted the citizens of the Mexican state of Coahuila and Texas.qv Hispanics in Texas identified themselves simply as Tejanos as early as January 1833, when leaders at Goliad used the term. The term Méjico-Tejano appeared in print in 1855, when the San Antonio newspaper El Bejareño reported a letter by José Antonio Navarroqv read at the second meeting of the Spanish-speaking members of the Bexar County Democratic party. Throughout the nineteenth century, Mexican (mexicano) was the term generally used in popular reference for a Mexican national or a Mexican American. As the boundaries of Texas changed to include the Nueces Strip, Laredo, and El Paso, so too did the term Tejano come to include the Hispanic and Mexican residents of those areas. Historians have applied the term specifically, perhaps anachronistically, to those Mexican Texans in Spanish Texas,qv to distinguish them from residents of other regions, and in Texas from the end of the Spanish era in 1821 to Texas Independence in 1836, in contradistinction to the Texianqv or Anglo-American residents of that time and of the Republic of Texas.qv Increasingly, Tejano, as a term denoting regional identity, referred to Mexican Texans of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and to the Hispanic Texans of the Spanish era. The term occurred with greater frequency in speech and written forms as the political activity of the ethnic group became pronounced, particularly following the Chicano movement of the mid-1960s. Tejano is now widely enough used that it is considered a naturalized item in the Texas lexicon.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Robert A. Calvert and Arnoldo De León, The History of Texas (Arlington Heights, Illinois: Harlan Davidson, 1990). Arnoldo De León, Apuntes Tejanos (2 vols., (Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International, 1978). Arnoldo De León, "Texas Mexicans: Twentieth-Century Interpretation," in Texas through Time: Evolving Interpretations, ed. Walter L. Buenger and Robert A. Calvert (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1991). Dictionary of Mexican American History (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1981). Gerald E. Poyo and Gilberto M. Hinojosa, eds., Tejano Origins in Eighteenth-Century San Antonio (San Antonio: Institute of Texan Cultures, 1991). San Antonio Ledger, July 14, 1855. Andres A. Tijerina, Tejanos and Texas under the Mexican Flag, 1821-1836 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1994). David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992).

The Cavazos of New Spain

© By John D. Inclan

Edited by Bernadette Inclan

Captain Juan Cavazos, the originator of the Cavazos surname in Northern Mexico and Texas, was of Italian ancestry. Born in the village of Santa Maria, in the Province of Old Castile, Spain, and the legitimate son of Don Gabriel Cavazzos and Dona Simona del Campo. As a young man, he entered the service of the Spanish crown and found himself in the new world.. In 1628, he  entered "El Nuevo Reino de Leon". 

No records indicate when he met and married Dona Elena de la Garza, but this union produced nine children. Dona Elena was the daughter of Don Pedro de la Garza Falcon y Trevino and Dona Maria Ines Rodriguez y Martinez Guajardo. She was the grand daughter of the conquistador, Don Marcos Alonso de la Garza y Arcon and Dona Juana de Trevino y Quintanilla, the well connected family of Mexico City. 

Of  their children, the males adopted the paternal surname of De la Garza y Falcon, the females the maternal surname of Trevino. This was a common practice in colonial New Spain. In June 26, 1680, apon giving testimony on an unrelated matter, three of Captain Juan Cavazos offsprings had already died, Gabriel, Pablo and Maria. Gabriel and Pablo left no surviving descendents. Captain Cavazos is the progenitor of his lineage in Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and Texas. He acted as a councilman of the Monterrey municipal government in 1635, 1653, 1658, 1673, 1674; Procurator in 1637 and 1671. In  1645, 1647, 1655, 1666, 1669 and 1676 he served as Mayor of Monterrey.

Captain Juan Cavazos and his family lived at his large estate, la hacienda de Santo Domingo. This hacienda was located at a distance of two leagues from the city of Monterrey. It is noted that the historian, Alonso de Leon, makes reference to this hacienda  in his famous "Relacion Escrita en el Siglo XVII," to hacienda de Santo Domingo. Leon writes, "where today it is the handiwork of Juan Cavazos, being managed by Domingo Manuel, who was unfortunately murdered there by his Indians...." and alludes also to, "La Cienega that is also the property of Juan Cavazos...".  

The surviving children from the Cavazos-de-la-Garza union are as follows:
I. Father Juan Cavazos, an ordained priest in the Franciscan order. Early records from the 1650s, list him as       ministering to the inhabitants of the village of Cerralvo, Nuevo Leon.  

II. Dona Margarita de la Garza was contracted in marriage in 1655 to Captain Pedro Garcia de Avila. Captain Avila served as councilman in 1660. The surname is found listed as Davila.

III. Captain Antonio Cavazos, being the first born son, "el mozo" to distinguish him from his father. He inherited three encomiendas that consisted of large land grants that included the Indians who lived on it. The grants included rights to the labor of two nations of Borrados and one of Alazapas Indians. These encomiendas had been granted to his father by the Governor Martin de Zavala. Captain Antonio contracted marriage with Doña Bernarda Rodriguez de Montemayor, also known as Doña Bernarda de Montemayor. Dona Bernarda was the legitimate daughter of Captain Miguel de Montemayor and Doña Monica Rodriguez, and the great granddaughter of the Don Diego de Montemayor, the founded the City of Monterrey in 1596. Captain Antonio and Doña Bernarda produced the following children: 

1.Don Antonio Cavazos, the first born son. He married Doña Luisa Fernandez de Castro. This couple  produced one son and two daughters:Jose Antonio, Juana Maria and Clara. The records of Monterrey show that Don Antonio received ecclesiastical burial in the church of San Francisco de Xavier 

2. Dona Elena Cavazos became the first wife of Captain Juan Guerra Cañamar. A native of la Villa de Santa Maria de los Lagos, in the state of Jalisco, and in the jurisdiction of Nueva Galicia. Captain.Juan was the son of Don Vicente Guerra Canamar y Vela from village of  Llanes, Asturias, Spain and Dominga, a slave girl. Found in the archives of Jalisco,  Captain Guerra was baptized in the parish church of Santa Maria on March 19, 1664. On September 1694, Juan married in the parish church of Sagrario Metropolitano, in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. Juan and Elena had three sons who would give origin to the  Guerra Cañamar surname in Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Tamaulipas as well as Texas. 

IV. Dona Clara de la Garza married Alferez Agustin de la Vera, a well known surgeon in Nuevo Leon. They had no children. In the 1665 archives of Nuevo Leon, Don Agustin acted as assistant Mayor of the village of Monterrey. In 1675, 1677, 1687 he served as Procurator. His father-in-law, Captain Cavazos,  named him as executor and overseer of his estate, stating "for the extensive experience he has about all matters...." .  Doña Clara died on June 24, 1689, having received the Last Rites or Holy Sacraments

V. Dona Maria de la Garza was contracted in marriage with Captain Ignacio Guerra. He was the the legitimate son of the royal notary of New Spain, Captain Antonio Guerra Canamar and Dona Catalina Luisa Fernandez de Rio Frio, both  native of the Montanas de Castilla, Spain.  

VI. Dona Lucia de la Garza married Captain Antonio de Estrada y Vergara. At the beginning of the 1700th century, they resided in Santa Maria de las Parras (known today as Parras), Coahuila. Two  son, Joseph, Ignacio, and one daughter, Isabel, resulted from this union.

VII. Don Joseph Cavazos contracted matrimony on January 8, 1679 with Doña Jacinta Fernandez de Castro y de la Cerda (A.K.A, Jacinta de la Cerda). She was the legitimate daughter of Alferez Real Diego Fernandez de Castro y Rodriguez and Doña Ana Maria de la Cerda y Porcallo. From this union are born three sons, Gabriel, Joaquin, and Jose Francisco and three daughters, Maria Isabel, Maria Teresa, and Maria. 

A Dona Juana de la Garza, married Don Francisco Gonzalez Hidalgo y Trevino, the son of Captain Bernabe Gonzalez Hidalgo y Gutierrez and Dona Josefa de Trevino y Maya. Their known son, Don Blas Gonzalez de la Garza married Dona Josefa Montalvo Trevino. The book, Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara (by Raul J. Guerrera, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr.) list Blas as the son of Don Francisco and Dona Juana;  Juana, the daughter of Dona Elena de la Garza and Elena, the daughter of Don Pedro de la Garza Falcon. (Page 52).  Note:Records do not clearly state the maternal parentage of Dona Juana. She may be Don Pedro’s illegitimate daughter Elena, who is known to have married Don Sebastian Perez de Gumendio y Irigoyen.

Generations later one will find descendent of Captain Juan Cavazos at the Villa de las Sabinas and Villa de Pilon, in Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

On August 12, 1749, in the parish church at Sabinas Hidalgo, N.L., list the marriage between Don  Jose Manuel Cavazos Sanchez married to Dona Luisa Laurel Fernandez y Villarreal. She was the daughter of Don Pedro Laurel Fernandez de Castro and Dona Luisa de Villarreal Sanchez. Don Jose Manuel was the adopted son of Don Manuel Cavazos and Dona Maria Rosa Sanchez de la Cadena. In reality he was the illegitimate grandson of the Governor of Coahuila. (By strict order of the Catholic Diocese, his birth parents have not been revealed. All that is known is that he was fathered by a Catholic priest in his relationship with the Governor’s daughter).  Their children settled at la hacienda de los Cavazos, located near the historic silver mining town of San Carlos de Vallecillo. To this day, the Hacienda holds “three days of water rights”.  Note:All of the Cavazos of Vallecillo and Sabinas Hidalgo descend from this union.

Of particular interest to the author, my father was born at La Hacienda de los Cavazos, his mother’s ranch.
On February 05, 1742 in the parish church, San Mateo, in Villa Pilon, N.L., (now called Montemorelos)  Don Joseph Manuel Cavazos married, to Dona Maria Josefa Gonzalez Hidalgo. From this union one son, Don Jose Antonio Narciso Cavazos. (known as Narciso Cavazos),  reveal him residing at the Villa de Reynosa, Nuevo Santander. For his loyal service to the Spanish crown, he would received two land grants. One originally granted in 1767 is  known as Porcion #71. The 5535-acre grant borders the northern bank of the Rio Grande River located 5 miles east of  Edinburg in Hidalgo County, Texas This grant is now known as the Jackson Brewster Ranch.
On February 22, 1792, the King of Spain granted Narciso 106 1\2 leagues of land named San Juan Carricitos. This grant amounted to 601,657 acres in what is now the counties of Willacy, Kenedy and Hidalgo, Texas. It is said to be the largest land grant given north of the Rio Grande. On a preliminary survey done on July of 1790, Spanish surveyors noted a well and tank had already been constructed on the land. Today, this ranch is part of the famous King Ranch of Texas.

On August 15, 1844, Comanches Indians kidnapped Narcisco’s granddaughter, Juanna Josefina Cavazos (1824-1906). Three years later, upon recongnizing her in the hands of her captors, her brother secured her freedom by trading horses and merchandise.She later married Charles Barnard and raised fourteen children. This family are recognized as the first white settlers of Hood County, Texas.

Don Jose de Escandon founded  Reynosa on March 14, 1749. The census of July 9, 1757, list six soldiers and their families with the Cavazos surname. Soldiers assigned to protect the settlement of Reynosa headed four families. The census reveals the following:

1. Juan Antonio Cavazos married to Doña Margarita Villarreal. They had two sons. 

2. Jose Francisco Cavazos Ochoa married to Doña Josefa Cantu. They had three sons. 

3. Pedro Jose Cavazos Ochoa married to Doña Felipa Rodriguez. 

4. Jose Antonio Cavazos Ochoa married to Doña Maria Gertrudis Cantu. 

From this same group, the government compensated the following two brothers from Monterrey with 100 pesos to settle in the frontier settlement of Reynosa:

1. Jose Onofre Cavazos Fernandez married to Doña Maria Gertrudis de la Garza. They had seven sons. 

2. Juan Cavazos Fernandez married to Doña Hermeregilda de Ochoa Lozano. They had one son: Jose Antonio Cavazos, who was attached to the Reynosa settlement as a soldier and married to Doña Maria Gertrudis Cantu. 

3. Josefa Cavazos, the widow of Don Jose Balli. She would later move her family to Burgos, Tamaulipas. 
4. Dona Gertrudis Cavazos married to Don Carlos Cantu Gonzalez.

Captain Juan Cavazos died a octogenarian in Monterrey on June 15, 1683. He received the last rites and 

was interred in the convent of Señor San Francisco of Monterrey. The date of Dona Elena’s death is unknown. The archives of the Cathedral of Sagrario Metropolitano, in Monterrey, begin in 1668. It is estimated that she died several years before her husband’s death, after 1659, but before 1668. There is documentation of a written testimony she gave at the ranch of Santa Domingo on November 29, 1659, before her brother, the Alcalde of Monterrey, Don Pedro de la Garza.

Two documents that are available in the Archives and that pertain to Captain Juan Cavazos, dated the 5th and 13th of April 1628. From these documents it appears that Captain Juan at one time was as resident of Real de Minas de San Gregorio (today Cerralvo). On both documents he signs as Juan Cabasso. In a testimony in a letter in favor of his wife, the notary public writes his name as Jhoan Cavaços, but the "s" appears smudged. Later in the same testimony, the name appears written as Cabasso. A section of this document where a date would normally be affixed is missing. However, on the reverse side is found handwritten, the date of "1635 as (años) Carta de dote de mi Juo Cavasos." This phrase means "Year 1635 Letter of testimony from me Juan Cavasos." From this period onwards, his signature appears in various documents as, Juan Cabassos even though the official notaries continue to state his name as Cavaço. In his ultimate voluntary last will and testament and two codicils, created during the final years of 1700th century, there appears four times: Cabassos. During those years his son of the same name and the Franciscan priest signs his name as: Juan Cavasos

 In 1870, my Great grandparents,  Isidoro Cavazos and his wife, Estefana Sanchez appear on the August 2nd,   USA census of Hidalgo County. Natives of Reynosa, they were married on April 23, 1869 in the parish church of Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

 To date my research has found variations  on the spelling of  Cavazos or Cabazos or Cabasos. Note that they are one and the same.

Author Derives Inspiration from Her Hispanic Roots,
December 17, 2003 
The San Antonio Express-News web site is at

Children's book author Diane Gonzales Bertrand shows her latest book, ``The Empanadas that Abuela Made/Las empanadas que hacia abuela'' (Pinata Books, an imprint of Arte Publico Press, $14.95) in her office at St. Mary's University.

Diane Gonzales Bertrand gets a faraway look in her eye when she remembers family excursions to the library.  ``Because there were seven children in the family, and not a lot of money, we went to the library every week,'' recalls the 47-year-old children's author, who grew up in a middle-class, Mexican-American neighborhood of San Antonio. ``It was within walking distance.''

``Books were always part of our lives,'' she said. ``I don't think we noticed whether the characters were Mexican American or not. We just got lost in the stories.''

It wasn't until college, at the University of Texas at San Antonio, where she earned degrees in history and English, that Gonzales Bertrand began to see her culture - herself - in books by writers such as Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Julia Alvarez.

This is Gonzales Bertrand's fifth children's picture book (she has also written nine novels for young adults).

``The Empanadas that Abuela Made/Las empanadas que hacia la abuela'' is a bilingual book about making a traditional Mexican delicacy - in this case, the empanada (think of a pumpkin turnover). It's in the same vein as her 1997 book ``Sip, Slurp, Soup, Soup/Caldo, caldo, caldo.''

Making empanadas has always been a ``family venture'' for Gonzales Bertrand. ``My mother, my sister and I would get in the kitchen, with my mother supervising and us girls carrying out her instructions,'' she says. ``My father would come in and out and offer his suggestions as well.''

The book even contains a recipe that is ``part mother's, part mine and part my sister's.''

After graduation, Gonzales Bertrand taught in elementary and secondary schools for 10 years. She saw a need for books with Hispanic characters in them and decided to return to school to become a better writer - and a more effective teacher.

While in graduate school, Gonzales Bertrand wrote two young adult romances with Hispanic characters for the New York publishing house Avalon.

Since 1992, when she was named writer-in-residence at St. Mary's University in San Antonio, Gonzales Bertrand has written exclusively for Arte Publico Press, a small press in Houston that specializes in books dealing with Hispanic culture and characters.

``When I started writing, I wanted to read stories with me and my family in them,'' she said. ``One of the nice things about Arte Publico is I don't have to explain things to them.''

She adds: ``What I do as a writer I'm not doing for the money or the prestige. I'm doing it because I want kids to read. If I don't get accolades from the New York press, that's OK. My husband and kids still love me.''

The Alamo, The Mexican American Experience is an art exhibit with a story.  
A look at Texas history from the inside out.
Sent by
File: TheAlamoExhibit.jpg (23434 bytes) DL Time (44000 bps): < 1 minute 

Centro Cultural Aztlan will host the exhibit, The Alamo, The Mexican American Experience on Friday, March 5, 2004 at Galeria Expression, Las Palmas Mall, 803 Castroville Rd. San Antonio, Texas.

Mexicans, Mexican Americans and Native Americans with Spanish Surnames called Mexicans, have long been ignored by "Leading" Texas historians when they write about the history of Texas and its birth.  To Them, the origins of Texas started in 1835 with the firing of the cannon in the town of Gonzalez.  Then came the Siege of Bejar 1835, the fall of the Alamo 1836, the battle at San Jacinto, and finally the Republic of Texas. This view is not shared by Tejanos.

Texas was here when the Spaniards came in the 1600's.  The name was given to the area because of the Tejas natives.  The Spanish established Bejar at Yanaguana, a native Coahuiltecaan village of the payayas.  The Spanish allowed 300 North Americans into Texas in 1821.  The Mexican Government closed the doors to foreigners in 1830.  Thousand of illegal aliens entered Texas and took prime Texas land.  By 1835, the illegal aliens outnumbered the Mexican Citizens.  Even those that were killed at the Alamo, the majority of them were not Texians.  Driven by Manifest Destiny, the foreigners decided to take over Texas.  After that it was not healthy to be a Mexican.  The rest is history.

Ramon Vasquez Y Sanchez
Arts Program Director
Centro Cultural Aztlan

State of Texas Republic Pension Applications 1870-1900
Texas State Library Index
List of Applicants With Hispanic Surnames
Sent by Robert Garcia
Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society

Pensions for service to the Republic of Texas were not generally awarded before the 1870s, although the congress or the legislature might, in an act passed during a legislative session, authorize a special pension for an individual. At first pensions were confined to "Each and every surviving veteran of the revolution which separated Texas and Mexico, including the Mier prisoners," Beginning in 1874, pension acts added later military services that would qualify pension applicants, but these acts required that the pensioner be indigent to qualify.

Statements of military service found in these State of Texas Archives files are among the most detailed in the Republic of Texas records. Affidavits testifying to the applicant's worthiness also provide considerable personal information. The files can include:

Affidavit of service (usually handwritten, detailed accounts)
Transcript of County Court ruling on validity of the claim
Certification of continuing indigence
Certified copies of muster rolls (occasional)
Powers of attorney
Pension Certificate
Oath of identity
Widow's Application (1883 or later)

These records can provide name of claimant, date filed, by whom filed, disposition, amount of pension, company commander, service information, age, residence, heir's name, husband's name (for widow's pension), date of death, widow's age, widow's residence (county). The fact that a person has a Republic Pension file does not guarantee that he or she received a Republic pension.

To obtain a copy of a "Petition Application", write or go to the Texas State Library & Archives Commission located in the Lorenzo De Zavala State Archives Library Building, P.O. Box 12927, Austin, Texas, 78711. Provide the name of the person you are searching and indicate that you want his/her "Pension Application". There is no fee or charge for their service.

If you have access to an on-line computer, then open this link:

This link is a search link of the Texas Library & Archives Commission and upon entering a specific name, a digital image of your ancestor’s petition will appear. You can then print the application yourself.  The list of Tejano surnames on file are as follows:

Aguilar, Nepomuceno
Alameda y Gonzales, Rita
Alameda, Jose
Almance, Bruno
Alsbury, Y. Perry
Amador, Tomas
Area, Alexander
Arocha Pena y Cruz, Maria Jesusa
Arocha, Macedonio
Balle, Antonio
Bela, Juan
Benites, Miguel
Bernal, Agustin
Blancas, Santos
Buquor, P.L.
Bustillo, Clemente
Cabasos, Albino
Cadena de Ariola, Guadalupe
Canales y Hernandez, Manuela
Cantu, Agapito
Cantu, Melchora R.
Carillo, Matias
Carr, Anistachio
Carrera de los Reyes, Rita
Casanova, Remigio
Casas, Joaquin
Casillas de Zunigas, Marina
Casillas, Gabriel
Casillas, Mateo
Casillas, Pablo
Castanon, Luis
Castanon, Rumalda
Castillo, Cayetano
Castillo, Francisco
Cerbera, Manuel
Cervantes, Agapito
Chacon, Carlos
Chavez, Leandro
Cobarrubio, Julian
Contis de Tejada, Juana
Contis, Julian
Cordova, Jose
Coro, Marsales
Coy y Cassillas, Anastacia
Coy, Alexander
Coy, Antonio
Coy, Martha J.
Coy, Trinidad
Cruz Silvera, Pilar de la
Cuellar, J. Francisco
Curvier, Angela
Curvier, Fernando
Curvier, Matias
Curvier, Rita
De Cordova & Son
Delgado, Martin
Dias y Zuniga, Juana
Dias, Canuto
Dias, Francisco
Dias, Julian
Elisardo, Trinidad
Escalera, Manuel
Esparza de Gallardo, Refugia
Espinosa, Ygnacio
Fernandez de Reyes, Antonia
Fernandez, Antonio
Fernandez, Pabla
Flores de Cobarrubio, Lucia
Flores de Morales, Francisco
Flores de Seguin, Gertrudis
Flores y Pacheco, Francisca
Flores, Francisco
Flores, Juan Jose
Flores, Nepomuceno
Flores, Pedro
Flores, Roque
Gaona, Pedro
Garcia de Guerrero, Lucia
Garcia, Ramejio
Garza Gonzales, Maria Luisade de la
Garza, Antonio
Garza, Jose Simon
Garza, Paulino de la
Garza, Quirino
Gimenes y Montoya, Gertrudis
Gimenes, Gil
Gimenes, Juan
Gomes, Jesus
Gomez, Luis
Gonzales, Diego
Gonzales, Graviel
Gonzales, Juan Jose
Gortari y Cassillas, Antonia
Gray, Simona F.
Griego, Nicolas
Guerra, Antonio
Guerrero, Brigido
Guerrero, Claudio
Guerrero, Jose Maria
Guerrero, Marcos
Herera, Blas
Hernandez, Antonio
Hernandez, Jesus
Hernandez, Manuel
Hernandez, Santiago
Hidalgo, Pedro
Huizar, Seferino
Huron, Dolores
Huron, Estevan
Lasere, Eugene
Lasolla, Dolores
Leal de Gomez, Concepcion
Leal, Jose Angel
Lopez, Joseph
Lopez, Juan
Lopez, Peter
Luna de Casillas, Guadalupe de
Luna, Desiderio de
Maldonado, Matias
Martinez y Henriquez, Asencion
Martinez, Anavato
Martinez, Felis
Martinez, Ferman
Martinez, Hilario
Martinez, Juan
Martinez, Manuel
Martinez, Roman
Mata, Andres
Menchaca, Antonio
Menchaca, Miguel
Miranda, Francisco
Miranda, Macedonio
Montalvo y Dunn, Cristina
Montalvo, Manuel
Montes, Cresencio
Montes, J. (Mrs.)
Montolla, Juan
Montoya y Ruiz, Dorotea
Montoya, Hipolito
Navarro y Alsbury, Juana
Navarro, Jose Antonio G
Navarro, Nepomuceno
Ochoa, Guadalupe
Oliva, Antonio
Ortiz y Garcia, Dolores
Pacheco, Luciano
Pacillas, Antonio
Palacios, Juan Jose
Perales, Santiago
Rameras, Casciano
Ramos, Susano
Reyes, Demacio de los
Reyes, Juan
Reyes, Leandro de los
Reyna, Ramon
Rivas, Cayetano
Rivas, Felipe
Rivera de Guerra, Ysabel
Rodriguez y Alsbury, Mary
Rodriguez y Chacon, Antonia
Rodriguez y Gimenes, Teodora
Rodriguez, Jose Antonio
Rodriguez, Juan
Rodriguez, Saturdino
Ruiz, Bernardino
Ruiz, Carmen
Sabedra y Salinas, Maria
Saez, Antonio
Salinas, Francisco
Salinas, Pablo
Sanchez, Antonio
Sanchez, Carmel
Sanchez, Juan Jose
Sanchez, Lucas
Santos Coy, Refugia
Seguin, Juan N.
Serna y Lopez, Maria Francisca
Sierra, Noberto
Tarin, Antonio
Tejada, Higinio
Tejada, Jose
Tejada, Sebastian
Tejeda, Pedro
Travieso, Justo
Trevino Villa Nueva, Juana
Trevino, Antonio
Uron de Navarro, Jesusa
Uron, Estevan
Valdez, Florentina
Valdez, Francisco
Vasquez, Antolino
Vasquez, Antonino
Vela de Rubio, Petra
Villasenor, Rafael
Zapata, S.
Pedigree Info of Descendants of Tejano Cattle Ranchers
Sent by Robert Garcia, Rgarciajr2@satx.rr.  January 3, 2004

In your recent January, 2004 issue of "Somos Primos", you asked readers to submit their pedigree information if they were descendants of any of the Tejano Cattle Ranchers during the American Revolution.

My wife, Sylvia Jean de Jesus Garcia is one of the many descendants of those listed; following will be her lineage. Previous to this submission, Sylvia Jean Garcia had submitted to you, which you published, her paper on "First Settlers of Villa de Bejar in 1718". Thank you for you good work and your continuing effort to encourage us to keep looking and researching into our family histories.
Felix Gutierrez
(d. 11/03/1823)
m. Barbara Torres
Josefa Gutierrez
(b. 1780)
m. Santiago Diaz
(b. 1777, d. 08/30/1828)
Julian Diaz
(b. 1808)
m. Eulogia Fernandez
Leonides Diaz
(b. 1841)
m. Mariano Trevino
b. 11/12/1829)
Leonides Trebino
(b. 1860, d. 01/16/1928)
m. Jose Felix Casanova
b. 05/13/1842, d. 08/19/1917)
Mariano Casanova
(b. 10/10/1886, d. 02/11/1969)
m. Virginia Chavez Charles
(b. 01/23/1887, d. 11/10/1950)
Virginia C. Casanova
(b. 11/27/1912, d. 04/22/1973)
m. Benjamin de Jesus
(b. 02/14/1915, d. 12/10/1996)
Sylvia Jean de Jesus Garcia
(b. 11/23/1948)

In addition, I am submitting a document which contains the official transcript from the Bexar County Archives in San Antonio,  Texas, of the “taking of possession” of the physical site for the future Mission San Francisco de la Espada in 1731 in San Antonio.

We enjoy “Somos Primos” very much; keep up the fantastic work.  
Robert Garcia, Los Bexarenos Genealogy Society, San Antonio, Texas

Founding Day of Mission

San Francisco de La Espada

March 5, 1731.


By order of the newly appointed Viceroy of Nueva España, Marquis de Casafuerte, the Missions of San Francisco de los Neches, San Jose de los Nazonis and Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción were relocated to the banks of the San Antonio River. Captain Juan de Almazán told the story of its re-establishment:
In the location where San Francisco de la Espada was placed on the fifth day of the month of March, 1731, I, Don Juan Antonio Pérez de Almazán, acting Captain for our Lord the King of the royal fortress of San Antonio de Béjar, by the authority of the Order of His Excellency the Marquis de Casafuerte, Viceroy, Gobernador and Captain-General of this realm of Nueva España and Presidenté of the Real Audiencia of Mexico, who resides in it by virtue of the same authority which he concedes in me, and when in said place in company with Reverend Father Pedro Muñoz, the Lieutenant of said garrison Matheo Pérez, standard bearer of the same Xaviér Maldonado, Don José de Media Valle y Azona, Don Juan Francisco de Ymitola and others, regarding the re-establishment of the mission, and having recognized it to be a likely location for the mission because of the beauty of the surroundings, the tillable fields, the water supply, pastures, and watering places for the livestock, and proximity of three leagues to the mission San José de Aguayo to the southward, and in accordance with the order of His Excellency, I took the Chieftain of the Pacao nation by the hand in the name of all the Indians of said nation, and I walked throughout the immediate locality and its environs in which I made him throw stones and perform all the rest of the acts of real possession so that by virtue of that possession they could not be dispossessed nor disturbed without first being heard and attended to by the Reverend Father Pedro Muñoz, Apostolic and Missionary Preacher named for said mission by the College of the Holy Cross of Queretaro, or by another priest who administers to other Indians, collecting to another mission the feed of the livestock, water-bags, tools, and servants.

the north, south and west, in which directions the lands are assigned to said missions, these according to right and to royal laws correspond to a newly founded town. To the east is the river, and I, said Captain, with the authority which has been conferred upon me, named for Gobernador the said Indian chieftain, whom I placed in possession of the other town with the other officials of the Republic in order that they might live in the political state, advising them through an interpreter what they should do in the interest of the Christian doctrine, and to get rid of offenses of public sins, to assist in the cultivations of the fields, to open canals, to take care of the flocks of the mission, and all other acts by which they aid its growth, and that I might be assured all would be done diligently. Acting before me as judge receptor with the witness of my assistance in default of a public or royal notary, of which there is none in this jurisdiction, and the presence of the following, done this said day, month and year: Juan Antonio Pérez de Almazán – witness: Sebastian de Manarroz and witness Marcelino Martínez. 

(One of the listed witnesses to the founding of Mission San Francisco de la Espada on the 5th of March, 1731, was Marcelino Martinez. He is the grandfather, 7 generations removed, of Yolanda Garcia Kirkpatrick, Olga Garcia Lizcano and Robert Garcia Jr, all currently living in San Antonio, Texas. At the time that he served as a witness, Martinez was an active duty soldier at the Presidio de Bejar located in San Antonio. He married Ildefonsa Valdez Castro on June, 29, 1728 in the chapel of Mission San Antonio de Valero. He died on February 23, 1760 and was buried in San Antonio.)

Longoria Family in Nueva Espana
The webmaster is Raul Longoria
Sent by John Inclan

This is an amazing website. There is so much information. It gives the overall history and family connections for the first four generation of Longoria into Nueva Espana in 1603. The family settled in northern Mexico, Zacatecas, Monterrey, Saltillo.  If you lines in Northern Mexico, don't miss searching on this site. Historical information goes back to the 900s.

The Genealogy files include: Database Surname List, Name Index, List of Names   This is the list of surnames that you can click to.  

Collection of Photos that includes buildings and sites in Spain and Mexico.
Go to the website and click on the pictures to get an enlarged version of these and others.

Ponciano Longoria

& Maria Rita <Villarreal

Chapel of Casa de Longoria in Spain >

The five Alcalá girls of Mauro Alcalá Quintana and Maria Lydia Garza Longoria. 

I married the pretty one in the middle.

Surname List . . . .


Extract: Familiar Faces Bring Health Care to Latinos, Promotoras
By Claudia Kolker, Washington Post,  January 5, 2004
Sent by Howard Shorr 
  HOUSTON -- Leticia Rojas, community health worker, rummaged through the desk assembling her tools. First she plucked a sack of bottles. "Multivitamins for pregnant mothers," she said. She fished a doll out of a canvas bag. "My adopted child. For teaching infant CPR." Finally she grabbed the tool she uses most, a minutely printed, multi-page insurance form with which she helps Latino immigrants enter the state health system.  "Imagine trying to fill one of these things out if you didn't speak English," Rojas said. "I know how hard it is. Because I've been through it myself."
 Born in Mexico, Rojas is one of Houston's growing army of promotoras -- ordinary people from hard-to-reach populations who learn health care principles from doctors or nonprofits, then plunge back into their communities to share what they have learned. For $8 an hour, Rojas knocks on immigrants' doors, chats up pregnant women at the grocery store and lectures captive listeners in waiting rooms at consulates and clinics. To these audiences, Rojas dispenses health care facts from how to fight cholesterol to how to navigate the paper-flooded straits of Houston's hospital system.
 Peer educators, as promotoras are also known, have been fixtures in Latin America for years. Now, U.S. public health officials have started adopting  the idea. Not only are promotoras less costly than doctors, but research has shown that people of all groups -- not just immigrants -- find health information most credible when it comes from someone from a familiar background. Texas, with its skeletal public funding for health care and its constant influx of immigrants and ideas across the border, is one of the U.S. promotora movement's main incubators.
   "It's effective. It's highly targeted, so it gets into hard-to-reach populations," Wallace said. "And it's relatively cost-effective, because you're taking people from the community and generally paying them minimum wage or something near that. It makes more sense than paying a lot of expensive executives and ad people and physicians that won't be as effective."
 But technique, by necessity, varies wildly. Take the case of ProSalud, a Houston nonprofit first modeled on a program in El Salvador. During that country's civil war, Salvadoran physician Vicky Guzman created a rudimentary medical system for remote villages cut off from hospitals. Choosing rural women with leadership abilities, Guzman taught them how to create tourniquets for machete wounds, ventilate mud huts and halt life-threatening diarrhea. She  trained them to give injections and some medications, which is legal in El Salvador. The women returned as volunteer promotoras, educating neighbor families one by one.
 Six years ago, after visiting El Salvador, Houston physician Peggy Goetz decided health promoters might also work in Houston. The neighborhood she had in mind was Gulfton, a five-square-mile forest of complexes jammed with 60,000 Salvadorans, Guatemalans and Mexicans. About 60 percent of these newcomers lacked legal documents, creating a transient, impoverished population fearful of outsiders.

  At first, Goetz envisioned promotoras forging  individual bonds with families. But Gulfton's apartment complexes were far more vast than Salvadoran mountain hamlets. And unlike their counterparts in El Salvador, U.S. promotoras cannot dispense medication. So health educators such as Rojas, who has worked for Goetz since 2000, instead began to talk at health fairs and other public gatherings. ProSalud's eight promotoras now address specific Latino health concerns such as cholesterol, diabetes and high blood pressure. 
   Promotoras along the Texas-Mexico border often resemble those in Latin America. Emulating a program in Matamoros, Mexico, the Planned Parenthood affiliate in South Texas now sends four promotoras door to door in ramshackle settlements to teach reproductive health. "It's a matter of being able to communicate and a matter of being able to be accepted," said Rosemarie Hermann, executive director of Planned Parenthood in Cameron and Willacy counties.

  Although health educators abroad often work as volunteers, Planned Parenthood -- like several other Texas agencies -- pays its promotoras a small salary. Many groups are also enrolling health promoters in Texas's new certification program. Three years ago, Texas became the first U.S. state  to authorize promotora certification. 



Located at present day Arteaga, Coahuila
By Carlos Federico Valdes Ramos

This book contains records of 1585 baptisms. The record gives the name of the child being baptized, date, name of father and mother, and page number of the original microfilm.

Papercover, 8.5X11 inches, Tape binding,  42 pages, $12.00 plus $1.35 postage
Los Bexarenos Genealogical Society, P.O. Box 1935, San Antonio, TX 78297
Sent by

Invitación: VII Encuentro del Colegio de Cronistas e Historidores 
Sent by George Gause
[[Although the events are past, they are included for your information.]]

VII Encuentro del Colegio de Cronistas e Historiadores de la Frontera Norte de Tamaulipas y Sur de Texas, A. C. martes 27 de Enero del 2004 Reunión Binacional de la Mesa Directicva de la Fundación Binacional de Los Caminos del Rio, Inc / A. C. Lugar: Edificio Alonzo Pacheco, Distrito  Historico  de Brownsville, Texas
Hora: 11:00 a.m. Para mayores informes comunicarse con:  Ratchel Torres,  Directora Ejecutiva: (956) 546-12-47  o   con el Ing. Clemente Rendon de la Garza (956) 495-7644 o con Carlos Rugerio por correo electronico.

Miercoles 28 de enero del 2004
Celebración del 178 Aniversario del cambio de nombre de Villa del Refugio a Matamoros.
9:00 a. m.  a 10: 00 a.m. Plaza principal ceremonia oficial.
10:00 a 11:00 Colegio de San Juan,  7a.  Reunión del Colegio de Cronistas e Historiadores de  la Frontera Norte de Tamaulipas y Sur de Texas.Presentación de los trabajos de restauración del Centro Historico por parte del Fideicomiso FICEMAT.

11:00 a 12:30 Tour por los principales edificios Restaurados.
12:30 a 2:00 comida ( por cuenta propia)

Por la tarde quienes gusten se hara una visita al Museo Nacional del Agrarismo Mexicano.
Para mayores informes. con el Ing. Clemente Rendon de la Garza: (956) 495-7644
Mil Gracias Carlos Rugerio


Military Spanish Florida, 1539-1821 
Louisiana Regiment, 1765-1821

Military Artifacts of Spanish Florida, 1539-1821
Sent by Bill Carmena

y name is John Powell. As an instructor of history dedicated to the interrelated fields of museum studies, military history, and North American colonial military material culture analysis, interpretation and preservation, it is my privilege and duty to both actively conduct research related to my profession as well as to share the knowledge resulting from that research with you. What is presented on these pages comprises the open exhibition of an evolving research effort whose ultimate goal is the publication of an illustrated reference text related to the information and artifact typologies presented here in concise and facilitated form.


   This site is dedicated to the exhibition and interpretation of Spanish colonial military artifacts from that vast region of southeastern North America which once comprised the Spanish Floridas and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Spanish Guale, Luisiana, and Tejas. While other materials are included in the illustrative displays, the interpretive emphasis of this site has been placed upon military clothing and, as they evolved, uniform-related artifacts: the buttons, strap and accoutrement buckles, and insignia worn by Spain's regular, provincial, and urban militia forces in the study region.  The period of interpretation is from ca. 1539—when Hernando de Soto began his epic journey of exploration in what is now the southeastern region of the United States—to the conclusion of Spain's colonial tenure in North America in 1821.

This Internet Museum represents an attempt to display, in a user-friendly manner, an assemblage of Spanish colonial military artifacts reposing in dozens of private and public collections in southeastern North America. It also represents an ongoing effort to interpret the temporal placement, historic deployment, geographic distribution, and manufacturing and stylistic attributes of the examples here exhibited.

The Louisiana Regiment of Infantry 1765-1821
Sent by John Inclan

Introductory paragraphs:

  Initially established and manned by peninsular Spanish regulars in 1765 as an infantry battalion to occupy Luisiana, acquired from France three years earlier, what would ultimately become the veteran and professional  Regimiento de Infantería de Luisiana formed the core of Spain's military establishment in Louisiana and, later, in the Spanish Floridas until it faded into oblivion during the terminal period of Spain's colonial tenure in North America.

    Reorganized after its arrival in North America in 1769, the battalion's detachments performed garrison duties at outposts in Spanish Louisiana as far north as Illinois.  In 1779, when Spain joined France in an alliance against England during the American War for Colonial Independence, the unit was enlarged to regimental strength through the addition of a second battalion and participated with distinction in the 1779-1781 conquest of then-British West Florida under the leadership of Louisiana Governor Bernardo de Gálvez.  Spain's official repossession of Florida by the terms of the 1783 Treaty of Paris resulted in a third battalion being added to the regiment for service in the Floridas in 1786.  This seemingly impressive force was, however, a "paper tiger." It never achieved its newly authorized strength in manpower, nor did it enjoy adequate supplies of material provisions to properly maintain itself.   Detailed information on the uniform, with several illustrations. Photographic close-ups of the buttons, plus the history of military buttons.


Marketing Bilingual Style High Schools Include Adult Immigrants

Marketing Bilingual Style
A new wave of fashion caters to Latino culture and taste.
By Yolanda Perdomo
Source: HispanicOnline

Montañez is from Puerto Rico. She’s embarking on an expedition to sell clothing that embraces her Hispanic roots. Her new clothing line, Wepa Wear, uses bold primary colors and clean graphic lettering featuring Spanish words and phrases on T-shirts. The word “¡Wepa!” is commonly heard in salsa songs. While there’s no official definition of the word, most people understand it as “right on.” 

“The idea came from attending Puerto Rican festivals and trying to find a T-shirt that I can wear past the parade that wasn’t just a flag, that I can wear all year round,” says Montañez. 

Montañez is one of several entrepreneurs who are using Spanish to make a cultural connection with consumers who want to wear their Latino pride. For Montañez, using words like chévere, vaya, and mija on T-shirts and hats are resounding with people of all ages. 

Like Montañez, Helen Martínez is receiving an enthusiastic response from young Latinas across the country. The founder of the popular Chica clothing line says her stylish shirts can be found in more than 200 department stores, such as Sears and Mervyn’s, as well as in trendy upscale boutiques such as Fred Segal’s in Los Angeles. 

Martínez, from San Fernando, California, began creating apparel in 1999 that was geared at young Latinas interested in expressing their cultural pride. Her shirts are embossed with the Chica name in a variety of colors, and feature images of strength such as Mexican artist Frida Kahlo. At that time, “I realized that there wasn’t a company out there addressing the Latina market for apparel,” she says. 

Enrique Gutiérrez, a 31-year-old from El Paso, Texas started his BilingUe line of shirts after playing basketball at the University of Texas at Arlington. He noticed how some clothing lines were targeting his African American teammates. “It gave them individuality,” Gutiérrez says. 

After successfully selling Hispanic-themed shirts out of the trunk of his car, his new line of shirts, in a variety of colors, styles, and patterns, can now be found in kiosks in malls throughout Texas. He plans on selling his clothing online  early next year, as well as taking his shirts to malls in other parts of the country.

Washington D.C. Area High Schools Stretch To Include Adult Immigrants
Sent by Howard Shorr
By Nancy Trejos, Washington Post, January 20, 2003

Dalia Gonzalez has been on her own for years now. At 20, she works nearly full time at a Taco Bell in College Park, earning enough to cover her rent and, sometimes, send a little money to her mother in Mexico. She has a 25-year-old boyfriend and flirts with thoughts of marriage.  She's also a junior in high school.

The growth of Washington's immigrant communities has prompted public schools to focus attention on young men and women such as Gonzalez, who are several years older than their classmates in algebra. Many fled nations in Africa, Latin America and Asia, where war or poverty forced them out of school, and they arrived in the United States lacking the English skills or academic backgrounds to go straight to college.

Some cannot produce transcripts from their homelands to prove that they earned enough credits to graduate; others have not taken the courses required for a U.S. diploma.

So they enroll in their neighborhood high school, seeking to better themselves, even if it means feeling out of place among their younger peers.

"Here are these older students who still want to have a piece of that American dream that is to get an American diploma, and for those who are willing to do anything to do that, I do believe we need to help them," said Carol Bass, a Prince William County school administrator who supervises programs for immigrant students.

Area school officials say there has been a steady increase in adult immigrants, though precise numbers are not available. Evidence of this growth comes in other forms: School districts in Virginia successfully lobbied the state legislature to increase the legal age for free public schooling -- from 20 to 22, if students are still learning English -- in response to the growing numbers of older students.

"Until recent years, educators were not openly embracing this population, because the schools didn't have the appropriate resources to deal with them," said Francisco Millet, director of Fairfax County's English for Speakers of Other Languages program. "School districts are now becoming more cognizant that these students are out there."


Genealogical Journal, Vol. 5, 2003
Relación de Michoacán 
Noticias sobre el Códice 
Rancho de las Ranas
Bautismos Pátzcuaro, Michoacán
Testamentos XVII Jerez, Zacatecas 
Defunciones XVII Jerez Zacatecas
Cristobal Villarreal-de-las-Casas
Monterrey Churches

Genealogical Journal of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, Vol 5,2003, edited by Steven F. Hernández, is now available.
The following Table of Contents demonstrates the wide range of information.  Of particular value to many will be the last chapter, Basic Foundations of Significant Families of Mexico, Tello de Orozco.  This represent a small fraction of the 34 years of research to which Tony Campos has dedicated himself.  Tony has extracted, translated and made links back to the 1500s.  This volume is Steven Hernandez first experience as an editor.  He has done a remarkable job with illustrations, pedigrees, documents.  This is outstanding journal is soft-bound, 260 pages. If you have lines in Mexico, you should get a copy, cost $35, send to: SHHAR Press, P.O. Box, 490, Midway City, CA 92655-0490. 

                                                      Table of Contents

Bernardo de Galvez 
        by Robert H. Thonhoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Some Periods in the Life of General Bernardo de Galvez 
        by Granville Hough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Blasones y Apellidos: Galvez 
        by Fernando Munoz Altea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

Lasting Legacy of Insurgent General Pedro Moreno de Ortega y Gonzalez de Hermosillo:
         A Biographical, Historical, and Genealogical Study 
        by Steven F. Hernandez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Archivo de la Parroquia del Carmen y Abasolo, Nuevo Leon: Confirmaciones, 1893 
        Extracted and Translated by Viola Rodriguez Sadler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Alonso de Robalcaba
       by Lic. Mariano Gonzalez-Leal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63

Michoacan: A Struggle for Identity
        by John P. Schmal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Los Hernandez Gamino: Breve Resena de una Familia Altena
        by Steven Francisco Hernadez-Lopez  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Descendants of Diego Rendon and Maria Valverde
        by Crispin D. Rendon  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111

El Origen de Tres Genearcas Altenos en un Solicitud de Ordenes de Siglo XVII
        Transcribed by Ing. Jose Alfonso Rodriguez Ortiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Basic Foundations of Significant Familes of Mexico: Tello de Orozco
        by Tony Campos and Steven F. Hernandez. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Sent by Armando M. Escobar Olmedo

Este gráfico es la portada de la carpeta de la obra, Relación de Michoacán.  Contiene una vista del lago de pátzcuaro, el Cazonzi ( o rey tarasco) con su arco y plumas de quetzal en la cabeza observa a lo lejos a tres españoles que marchan de regreso a México.  una fotografía tomada del original y repoducida fielmente en el facsimil, las imágenes que te he mandado fueron tomadas directamente del códice original que se encuentra  en la Real Biblioteca de San Lorenzo de El Escorial.  Para hacer el facsimil se pasó por un detallado proceso que reprodujera con la máxima fidelidad los colores, textura, tamaño etc que tiene el original.

Noticias sobre el códice michoacano del siglo XVI,

La Relación de Michoacán

Armando M Escobar Olmedo

Morelia, Michoacán, febrero de 2003


Debido al interés que han manifestado varias personas sobre la Relación de Michoacán, cuya coedición en facsímil se realizó en el año de 2001 entre el H. Ayuntamiento de Morelia presidido entonces por el destacado político y académico Mtro. Salvador Galván Infante y con la decidida participación de la prestigiada y multilaureada editorial hispana Testimonio, especialmente por su dinámico director don César Olmos Pieri, me permito reproducir la parte esencial del texto de la carpeta promocional de la misma, realizado por quien esto escribe esperando se cubran las expectativas de quienes nos han preguntado por tan valioso códice, que ha sido catalogado en su momento como el "mejor facsímil del mundo", y que debido a la excelencia de su manufactura, recientemente (año de 2002) el Ministerio de Cultura español le otorgó el primer premio al mejor facsímil editado en España. Esta distinción que en mucho nos enorgullece nos impulsa a compartir el contenido de la obra y difundirlo ante la comunidad nacional e internacional.

Desde su publicación, hasta la fecha, ha habido tres importantes etapas: la primera, ya comentada, de su aprobación y publicación, que fue sin duda la más difícil por los múltiples problemas que se tuvieron que remontar y en la que se salvaron gracias a la decisiva voluntad del Mtro. Salvador Galván Infante; la segunda etapa fue de su publicación y difusión, la cual estuvo a cargo del entonces presidente Ing. Augusto Caire Arriaga, y la tercera y actual de consolidación por el actual presidente Lic. Fausto Vallejo Figueroa quien ha sido de los más interesados en que se conozca y difunda tan destacado manuscrito, fue por una agradable coincidencia el representante de gobierno que estuvo en la presentación de la obra, junto con el inolvidable don César Olmos y su siempre gentil esposa doña Maria Luisa García-Calamarte de Olmos quienes hicieron ex profeso el viaje desde Madrid para compartir con los michoacanos tan inolvidable momento.

Veamos a continuación lo más destacado de este preciado manuscrito y su entorno.

(gráfica 1 cuyo pie de foto es:)  Mapa de localización de Michoacán, de Pátzcuaro y su región

Gráfica 2: 
Vista del lago de Pátzcuaro, antigua Laguna de Michoacán, con las islas Yunuén y Tecuela.
Foto. J. Antonio Romo Careaga


Se denominó Provincia de Michoacán o Mechoacán a gran parte del territorio perteneciente al antiguo reino tarasco o purépecha, ubicado en la parte media occidental de México. Región de muchos contrastes, con vastas y ricas planicies, escarpados y boscosos montes o valles calurosos, semidesérticos y áridos unos, otros abundosos de aguas, ríos, lagos y peces, de donde se derivó su nombre, Michoacán, "lugar del pescado", en náhuatl. Sus minas de oro, plata y cobre le dieron celebridad y pronto despertaron la codicia de los encomenderos a quienes Cortés repartió la mayoría de los pueblos. A mediados del siglo XIV, la región ahora conocida como Michoacán se encontraba dividida en una gran cantidad de pequeños señoríos que fueron conquistados y cohesionados por Taríacuri, quien antes de su muerte dividió su territorio en tres partes y las repartió entre su hijo Hiquíngare y sus sobrinos Hiripan y Tangaxoán I. Al primero le correspondió "Pátzcuaro", al segundo "Hiuatsio" (Coyoacán o Cuyacán en náhuatl) y al tercero Tzintzuntzan o "Mechoacán" respectivas cabeceras de los tres señoríos que conformaron el gran reino tarasco. Poco antes de la conquista hispana ya era un centro político y religioso, la región central lacustre del actual Estado de Michoacán, y su principal capital, Tzintzuntzan, llamada por los meshicas "Huitzitzilan" o "Uchichila" y mencionada en la "Relación" como " Mechoacán o Ciudad de Mechoacán".

Gráfico 3

En tiempos del asedio de Cortés para conquistar la Ciudad de Tenochtitlan-México, gobernaba a los tarascos el Cazonci o rey ( el que estaba aquí en la tierra en lugar del dios Curicaveri o Gran luminar), Zuangua, hijo de Tzitzispandácuare y nieto de Tangaxoán I. Ya era hombre viejo cuando atendió a la embajada que le enviaron los señores de México en 1521, la cual le pedía con urgencia su apoyo para rechazar a los conquistadores, esta petición fue escuchada con interés pero no fue atendida. Se tenía recelo de la solicitud por las grandes enemistades y guerras que siempre habían existido entre los tarascos y los meshicas. Murió Zuangua al poco tiempo contagiado de viruela y se eligió en su lugar a su joven hijo Tsintsicha o Tangaxoán II, a él tocó rendir al aguerrido señorío tarasco sin pelear, y recibió nueve años más tarde una cruel muerte como luego se verá.

La Provincia de Michoacán se transformó a finales del siglo XVIII en la Intendencia de Valladolid y al triunfo de la República en 1824 como el Estado de Michoacán. A partir de 1861 recientemente fusilado el ilustre político y humanista don Melchor Ocampo se le agregó al nombre del Estado el apellido de Ocampo en homenaje a tan ilustre prócer de la Reforma. Actualmente nuestro Estado está gobernado por el Antropólogo Lázaro Cárdenas Batel quien diligentemente ha dado gran impulso, entre otros rubros, a las artes, la industria, el campo y el turismo.

Origen del Códice o Relación de Michoacán.

El primer virrey de la Nueva España, don Antonio de Mendoza, visitó en varias ocasiones, desde finales de la tercera década del siglo XVI, a la Provincia de Michoacán, cuya capital como ya hemos visto era Tzintzuntan, denominada por los españoles la Ciudad de Mechuacán o Michuacán, a orillas de la bella Laguna de su nombre y sede principal del muy famoso reino tarasco o purépecha.

(Gráfico 4, cuyo pie de foto es: "Guerreros tarascos" fragmento del Mural de Juan O’Gorman
Biblioteca, Gertrudis Bocanegra Pátzcuaro, Michoacán)

Debido la abominable muerte, del gran Cazonci o rey tarasco Tzintzincha Tangaxoán llamado don Francisco en su nombre cristiano por mandato de Nuño de Guzmán en febrero de 1530, la Provincia se encontraba inquieta, a pesar de los esfuerzos tanto de los frailes franciscanos y posteriormente de los agustinos como los del admirable impartidor de justicia don Vasco de Quiroga su primer Obispo. La conquista que Nuño emprendió a Jalisco en la región cercana de los Téules-Chichimecas dejó una estela de destrucción y desolación y tuvo por resultados continuas revueltas de los afectados, las que subían o bajaban de intensidad. El virrey Mendoza decidió, para acabar con ellas, emprender una campaña contra los belicosos "chichimecas" llevando consigo importantes aliados de varios antiguos señoríos, entre otros a los tlaxcaltecas, meshicas y por supuesto a los tarascos, los cuales eran gobernados por don Pedro Cuiniarángari.

Desde la primera vez que Mendoza que pasó a la región en conflicto (hacia 1539), en su estancia obligada por la Ciudad de Michoacán (Tzintzuntzan), trabó amistad con un fraile franciscano, que el destacado historiador norteamericano Dr. Benedict Warren a logrado identificar como fray Gerónimo de Alcalá, y le "dijo dos o tres veces, que porqué no sacaba algo de la gobernación desta gente…" y el fraile, por hacerle un servicio y aprovechando el relato de los más viejos y antiguos de la Provincia, se decidió a escribir esta relación "…esto digo, que yo sirvo de intérprete destos viejos y haga cuenta que ellos lo cuentan a Vuestra Señoría…dando relación de su vida y cerimonias y gobernación y tierra…" y añadió que por ser de mayor utilidad y para aprovechamiento de los religiosos que entendían en su conversión, puso "…también dónde vinieron sus dioses más principales y las fiestas que les hacían…". Gracias a ese gran interés tanto del virrey, como del fraile y muy particularmente de los viejos sacerdotes tarascos de la ciudad en narrar sus antigüedades, se escribió este excepcional documento. No como autor, el mismo fraile insiste que no lo es, sino como intérprete que consignó de primera mano, la vieja historia del valeroso e invencible pueblo tarasco, testimonio único que por su contenido e ilustraciones lo convierten en un valioso tesoro no sólo de México, sino de toda América.

No llegado a nosotros la manera en que se llevó el manuscrito al famoso acervo bibliográfico del rey Felipe II en la Biblioteca del Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial, donde celosamente se le resguarda en la actualidad, lo cierto es que dentro de los miles de importantes libros que ahí se encuentran, a nuestro códice conocido como la "Relación de Michoacán" se le ha considerado como uno de sus más preciados ejemplares y su exhibición ha sido obligada en las más importantes exposiciones.

Desde que en l869 fue publicada la primera vez en Madrid por don Florencio Janer dentro de la Colección de Documentos inéditos para la Historia de España, tomo LIII, la obra ha sido impresa al menos 10 veces y es palpable el empeño tanto de Madrid como de Morelia en editarla pues de éstas, tres corresponden a nuestra ciudad ( 1903, Tipografía de Alfonso Aragón; 1977, Balsal Editores y 1980, Fimax Publicistas.)

De las ediciones que de la Relación de Michoacán se han hecho, la facsimiliar, impresa en Madrid, el año de 1956 por la Editorial Aguilar debido el destacado investigador hispano don José Tudela de la Orden es de las más notables. Incluso su texto e ilustraciones han servido de base a varias de las editadas posteriormente. Las técnicas de su época permitieron reproducirla en fotografía en blanco y negro y posteriormente algunos de sus ejemplares, fueron coloreados manualmente. Muy notable también es la del prestigiado estudioso michoacano Dr. Francisco Miranda Godínez basada en un profundo y magnífico estudio del manuscrito original, con separación de textos. Hay además ediciones en inglés, francés y japonés.

Nuestra Edición consta de dos volúmenes, el primero, que es la más fiel reproducción facsimilar que se halla realizado y el segundo, el Libro estudio que contiene siete estudios de destacados investigadores como Dra. Vicenta Cortés Alonso, Dra. María del Carmen Hidalgo B, Dr. Juan Carlos Batalla R, Dr. Benedict Warren, Dr. Francisco Miranda Godínez y Dr. Gerardo Sánchez Díaz. La transcripción, introducción y notas, apéndice y coordinación general de la obra estuvo a cargo de Armando Mauricio Escobar Olmedo, Presidente de la Academia Michoacana de Historia, de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geografía y Estadística colaborador entonces del Ayuntamiento moreliano.

Mucho han avanzado las técnicas para la edición de facsímiles, que ahora permiten se obtengan obras tan bien logradas que reproducen el papel, textura, color, olor y hasta las imperfecciones del original, es por lo anterior que el H. Ayuntamiento de Morelia presidido por don Salvador Galván Infante ha tomado la iniciativa de publicar tan singular obra y ha unido sus esfuerzos con Patrimonio Nacional de España y la muy prestigiada editorial hispana Testimonio que atinadamente dirige don César Olmos Pieri a fin de editarla y facilitar a los bibliófilos, investigadores y público en general el poder tener en sus manos una verdadera joya de la historia y literatura michoacana y una auténtica obra del arte americano.

El Manuscrito (gráfico 5:)  Título de la obra

La "Relaçión de las çerimonias y rrictos y poblaçión y governaçión de los yndios de la provinçia de Mechuacan hecha al Yllustrísimo señor don Antonio de Mendoça, virrey y governador desta Nueva España por su Magestad, etc.," es un documento manuscrito en papel verjurado, realizado hacia los años 1539-1540 en la Provincia de Mechuacán o Michoacán en la Nueva España. Consta en la actualidad de 153 hojas en tamaño 0.215 x 0.160 mm, de las que solo 140 escritas corresponden a este texto, tiene además 44 láminas o ilustraciones. El documento se encuentra en la Biblioteca del Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial, cerca de Madrid, en la Sección Manuscritos, bajo la clave Ç.IV.5. Su actual encuadernación, que no es la original, fue seguramente realizada en los talleres del famoso encuadernador don Pedro del Bosque a finales del siglo XVI, siguiendo los criterios que para las encuadernaciones de la Real Biblioteca de Felipe II había dado fray José de Sigüenza. Las mismas deberían estar a tono con la unidad de las librerías o estanterías de maderas preciosas y el majestuoso recinto que los albergaría, así, espacio, mobiliario y libros formarían un armonioso conjunto. Para ello se determinó que los libros fueran agrupados y encuadernados dentro de lo posible por tamaños y materias afines. No presentarían como era usual, el lomo con el nombre del texto, sino que su disposición sería a la inversa, con el corte delantero de frente y el lomo por detrás. En el corte, que estaría recubierto de pan de oro, llevaría pintado el título del libro, en el lomo no iría nada. De este modo el dorado de los cortes realzaría entre las nobles maderas y sería un adecuado complemento a las espléndidas pinturas de las paredes y los techos.

Nuestro códice michoacano o Códice de Michoacán como le denomina el padre Miguélez en 1917, y como se encuentra registrado en Patrimonio Nacional, contiene dos obras distintas encuadernadas conjuntamente por la razón ya enunciada, la Relación cuyo título completo ya se ha dado, y otro breve texto intitulado "Calendario de toda la índica gente por donde han contado sus tiempos hasta oy, agora nuevamente puesto en forma de Rueda para mejor ser entendido" cuyo autor es muy probablemente de fray Toribio de Benavente, mejor conocido como Motolinía y que consta de tan sólo 3 hojas, que ocupan de la 141 a la 143v. Para mantener la unidad de nuestra publicación facsímil, ambos documentos se publican bajo el título de la obra principal.

El manuscrito al ser despojado de su primera encuadernación y preparado para la que ahora tiene, al ser refilado, sufrió cortes en sus tres cantos los cuales, incluso mutilaron infortunadamente, algunas letras de varias hojas en el corte delantero y margen exterior, pero además al ser reencuadernado de manera tan justa, también varias palabras se perdieron en sus juntas, al quedar sin un adecuado margen interior.

En el corte delantero, la obra debió lucir el bello dorado del pan de oro, ahora casi desaparecido y en el que se pintó el número "5" para su localización, y la palabra "Mechvacam". Manuscrito tan importante ha sufrido muchas alteraciones, pero de todas la más grave fue sin duda la pérdida de la valiosa información de la primera parte: "…de dónde vinieron sus dioses más principales y las fiestas que les hacían…". Ignoramos en qué momento y con qué intención se hizo, pero tal vez fue para que no se guardara una memoria que se deseaba olvidaran los naturales. Del resto conservado, al ser reencuadernado, por no tenerse el cuidado suficiente en la ordenación de las hojas se trastocó su orden invirtiéndolo y quedando de la siguiente manera:

Comienza el códice con la portada y lámina introductoria y el prólogo, donde el fraile compilador, explica al final de éste, el orden en que irán las tres partes en que se dividió el texto, este prólogo comprende de la hoja 2 a la 4, le siguen las láminas 2 y 3; a continuación debería de ir la Primera parte, ahora lamentablemente perdida, pero se puso equivocadamente en su lugar la parte tercera y última que trata "De la Gobernación que tenía y tiene esta gente entre sí" comprende las hojas 6 a 59, en la foliación actual y termina el manuscrito con la Segunda Parte, cuyo título es "Síguese la historia, cómo fueron Señores, el Cazonci y sus antepasados en esta Provincia de Mechuacan…" hojas 61 a la 140 y última escrita de nuestro documento. Se salvó sólo una hoja de la Primera parte, que es la 10-10v y en la que se describe la Fiesta de Sicuindiro.

La edición de Aguilar de 1956 reubicó las partes y las láminas a como pudieron estar originalmente, aunque no sea esa su actual disposición. Nosotros hemos decidido respetar el "orden" que tiene en la actualidad, con su numeración, tanto de las hojas como de las láminas, para que nuestro facsímil corresponda fielmente al manuscrito. La versión paleográfica en el Libro Estudio de nuestra edición sigue fielmente la secuencia del original y por tanto del facsímil, queda aclarado así que el Códice de Michoacán comienza actualmente, en la tercera parte y termina en la segunda, contiene además 7 trabajos de prestigiados investigadores de Michoacán, de México, de Estados Unidos y de España.

Por lo que se refiere a sus cubiertas, algo maltratadas por el uso continuo, estas son en papelón forrado con piel de becerro color natural (avellanado) y en el centro de la cubierta principal lleva el sello de la Biblioteca del Monasterio, estampado en seco. Sumamente deteriorado se encuentra el "lomo", por alguna razón rasgado y mal cosido y con un parche de refuerzo, de la piel jaspeada, de otro libro donde se lee claramente " Comedias de Vega y Carpio", este parche desmerece notablemente el libro y su valioso contenido.

El papel utilizado es verjurado manufacturado en fibra de lino. Al menos se han detectado 4 filigranas en forma de mano con algunas variantes. En lo que se refiere a su letra es de diferentes manos predomina la cortesano humanística y cortesano-rápida, la tinta es negra de diferente intensidad, en las tachaduras es más obscura.

Tiene algunos espacios en blanco y varias correcciones. Para ocultar lo escrito se utilizó una pintura blanca a semejanza de los correctores actuales. Se usó sobre todo en borrar los títulos de los capítulos para darle mayor espacio a las ilustraciones.

El manuscrito como se ha dicho ha sufrido varias mutilaciones, se le quitó la parte primera, de la que se ignora su extensión y láminas contenidas. En fecha más reciente, pero hace varias décadas, le fueron cortadas varias hojas: una, entre la actual hoja 8 y 9, de la cual quedó solo una pestaña en la que se observan rastros de pintura azul, por lo que se intuye que lo que se cortó fue una lámina entera; otra entre las hojas 48 y 49, que ilustraba el "…Tesoro grande que tenía el Cazonci, y donde lo thenía rrepartido…", por la descripción que hay en el capítulo es fácil comprender el contenido de la ilustración. Al terminar la Tercera Parte, ahora puesta en primer término, en la hoja 59, le sigue la hoja 60 que está en blanco pero foliada y luego continúan 4 hojas más en blanco pero sin foliar, entre esta última y lo que ahora es la hoja 61, se cortaron dos hojas que sí tenían texto. En la hoja 61 comienza la Segunda Parte como claramente lo indica su inicio. Lamentablemente varias ediciones recientes no han tenido el cuidado de cotejar la disposición de las hojas y las láminas que hay en el manuscrito original, y proporcionan datos diferentes al que realmente tiene.

Contenido del Manuscrito Gráfico 6 Prólogo de la obra

En el prólogo el recopilador e intérprete, fray Gerónimo de Alcalá anuncia las tres partes en que dividirá la obra, y el contenido de cada una: en la primera, de dónde vinieron sus dioses más principales y las fiestas que les hacían. Ya hemos dicho que se encuentra perdida esta parte, salvo una hoja, la 10-10v que trata de la fiesta de Sicuindiro; la segunda parte relata cómo poblaron y conquistaron Michoacán los antepasados del Cazonci y en la tercera, de la gobernación que tenían entre sí y de la llegada de los españoles a la Provincia, terminando el manuscrito con la muerte del Cazonci o gran señor, Tangaxoán II conocido en su nombre cristiano como don Francisco. El manuscrito contiene en esencia una larga narración de la historia del pueblo tarasco, que el Petámuti o Gran Sacerdote decía ante todo el pueblo antes de proceder al ajusticiamiento de los condenados a muerte en la principal fiesta denominada de Equata consquaro o de las flechas. Este relato fue transcrito bajo el cuidado del fraile recopilador y de los informantes al manuscrito que ahora nos ocupa. Todo el pueblo atento, si comer ni distraerse pasaba, casi todo un día escuchando la historia de sus antepasados, la misma que era narrada por otros sacerdotes todos los pueblos de la Provincia.

Ignoramos de cuantos capítulos constó la primera parte, que hablaba de sus dioses, fiestas, de cómo fueron creados por ellos y de su llegada a Michoacán, tan valiosa información se encuentra lamentablemente perdida, pero a lo largo del resto de la obra se han podido rescatar los nombres de las fiestas de 14 de los 18 meses del calendario tarasco, y las denominaciones de varios de sus dioses, predominado sobre todos Curicaueri dios del fuego y gran luminar a quien se le daba "mantenimiento" con continuas fogatas y ofreciéndole sacrificios personales y de algunos cautivos.

La segunda parte, compuesta de 35 capítulos trata de las luchas entre dos grandes grupos de pobladores que señoreaban en la cuenca lacustre de Pátzcuaro, unos isleños, pescadores y otros cazadores que así mismos se llaman "chichimecas", por el predominio de la región, ambos tenían idioma parecido que provenía de "los agüelos del camino" o sea de un grupo común en el largo peregrinar en busca de la tierra prometida. Destaca en esta parte la narración de cómo se encontró el lugar sagrado de Pátzcuaro y la vida de su héroe más importante, Taríacuri, cuya historia abarca algo más de veinte capítulos. El periodo de tiempo que comprende el contenido de la narración podría remontarse en nuestro calendario a principios del siglo XIII y terminar en el primer tercio del siglo XVI. La tercera y última parte, que como ya se ha visto se puso por error de encuadernación en segundo lugar, comprende 29 capítulos. El recopilador ya había anunciado su título en el prólogo y en efecto así quedó: De la Gobernación que tenía y tiene esta gente entre sí. Trata de muy variadas materias: los principales oficios; de la manera en que hacían sus guerras; de la forma en que se casaban los señores y la gente del pueblo; del repudio; de las ceremonias a la muerte del Cazonci o gran señor; de cómo se elegía su sucesor; de los agüeros que tuvieron antes de que llegasen los españoles; de la llegada de ellos; la reacción del Cazonci ante esa noticia; del gran tesoro que tenía; del arribo de los primeros religiosos y de la prisión y muerte del Cazonci a manos de Nuño de Guzmán.

Las Ilustraciones. (gráfico 7) Los dioses tarascos Fragmento de la lámina 16.

Un de los principales atractivos de la Relación son indiscutiblemente sus láminas o ilustraciones, actualmente 44, distribuidas de la siguiente manera: 1 en la portada, 17 en el primer apartado (Parte tercera) y 26 en el último (Parte segunda). Estos dibujos, de muy diferente calidad y factura, ilustran la esencia del contenido de los capítulos en que está dividida la obra. No todos los capítulos (65) contarían con ilustraciones, en varios de ellos no hubo la intención de incluir algún dibujo como son : la fiesta de Sicuíndiro, el que habla Del Repudio, De los que se casaban por amores, etc. Por el contrario en el inicio de algunos capítulos se dejó el espacio en blanco para ser luego ilustrado, lo que nunca ocurrió, tal es el caso de los que tratan de: Cómo echaban sus juicios… o Cómo vino Nuño de Guzmán. En otros capítulos, especialmente en la parte segunda, se lograron dibujar varios de ellos entre el muy corto espacio que quedó al borrar el título del mismo y ponerlo forzadamente en otro lugar, entre capítulo y capítulo, de ahí sus extrañas medidas. Como ya hemos referido, en la actual encuadernación fueron mutiladas al menos dos láminas, sin duda muy atractivas y que ocupaban toda la hoja: las que ilustraban el capítulo primero de la "Gobernación" (entre la hoja 8 y 9, y "Del tesoro grande que tenía el Cazonci"(entre la hoja 48 y 49.)

Estas 44 singulares ilustraciones son en la actualidad un valioso aporte para muy diversos campos de la investigación sobre nuestro extraordinario pueblo tarasco. Han sido seleccionadas para esta carpeta las cuatro siguientes:

Grafico 8 Lámina 1 (folio 1) La entrega del Manuscrito o Códice al virrey don Antonio de Mendoza

La ilustración ocupa casi toda la primera hoja, nos muestra el momento en que el recopilador, el fraile franciscano Gerónimo de Alcalá entrega probablemente en la Ciudad de Michoacán (Tzintzuntzan) hacia 1540, el manuscrito al virrey don Antonio de Mendoza quien lo recibe sentado en sillón de madera con ornamentación que aún se usa mucho en la región de Cuanajo, pueblo cercano a Pátzcuaro, el libro está abierto y parecieran conversar sobre algún tema del mismo.

Tras el fraile se encuentra el Gobernador de los tarascos don Pedro Cuiniarángari, vestido a la española y aún muestra el bezote bajo el labio, que era la insignia del "valiente hombre". Detrás de él se hallan tres sacerdotes vestidos a la usanza indígena, dos llevan el bordón ceremonial y traen calabazas engastadas con turquesas a las espaldas, trenzado, y guirnaldas de trébol en las cabezas. Uno de ellos, seguramente el Petámuti fue el que debió aportar la mayor información para la elaboración de la Relación, lleva también bezote. Atrás del virrey (al que se le agregó posteriormente una cruz en el pecho) se encontraba originalmente un extraño personaje vestido de rojo y con el pelo encrespado, pareciera ser un hechicero. Para ocultarlo se puso sobre él un gran cortinaje verde semejando un brocado de follajes de acanto, diseño que se repite en el brazo del sillón. El fraile, estaba en un principio también sentado, como conversando entre ambos, pero para darle más solemnidad a la entrega, se le puso de pie, y a fin de borrar la corrección se alargó su figura, quedando de gran estatura. Destaca en el franciscano lo detallado de su elaboración, su hábito gris sombreado, el rostro minuciosamente realizado, lo rosado de su piel, la barba, los ojos claros, la tonsura, hasta las pestañas son fácilmente visibles, el cordón de su Orden se encuentra finamente elaborado. Indudablemente, es la figura protagónica de esta escena.

Lámina 4. (folio 9) Estos son los sacerdotes y officiales de los cúes.

En ésta lámina que también ocupa toda la hoja, se muestra los principales oficios relacionados con la casta sacerdotal. En el centro destaca la gran figura del Petámuti o sacerdote mayor con su vestido ceremonial y sus insignias: bezote de turquesa, guirnalda en la cabeza, calabazo decorado también con turquesas, trenzado, lanza-bordón ricamente decorado y con plumas, y sus cotaras o sandalias azules. Le rodean 10 grupos de varios de los oficiales que son descritos en el capítulo 2 de la III parte, estos son: los Cuziecha o que ponían incienso, lleva en la mano uno de ellos un sahumador; los Axamencha o sacrificadores, con su pelo largo, trae como distintivo un pedernal ensangrentado; los Hopitiecha eran los que detenían los pies a los que iban a sacrificar, su distintivo aquí es una pierna recién cercenada; los Tihuimencha, destacan por llevar las cabezas rapadas y solo un copete de pelo en la frente, ellos tenían en cargo llevar los dioses a cuestas. Casi a los pies del Petámuti se encuentran los Pazariecha o sacristanes, uno de lo cuales lleva en la mano un templo o cú en el que sobresale la cabeza con un rico penacho de algún dios. Tras ellos se encuentra el grupo de los Quiquiecha (su nombre no aparece en la lámina) encargados de llevar arrastrando a los sacrificados, su distintivo es aquí un hombre con el pecho abierto que se ha puesto debajo de ellos por no tener espacio en el frente. A continuación vemos a los que hacían la ceremonia de la guerra, los Curipecha, portando vistosos bastones. Otro grupo era los que llevaban la rama y juncias para las fiestas, los Curizitacha, que portan a las espaldas un cargamento de ellas. Tras estos se encuentran los atabaleros, o Atapacha quienes tañían los atabales o tambores y por último encontramos a los que tocaban las cornetas o Pungacucha, uno de los cuales toca precisamente una de ellas.

Gráfico 9 Lámina 6. ( folio 15v) "Cómo destruían y combatían los pueblos"  

Esta ilustración, que comprende las tres cuartas partes del folio, describe diversas escenas. En una, se muestra al Capitán General del Cazonci, ricamente ataviado, y con calzado rojo, dando instrucciones a los guerreros sobre la manera en que se realizará el ataque a un pueblo; el diseño con las estrategias de ese ataque se encuentra en el suelo, gran cantidad de guerreros que escuchan con atención, portan sus arcos, flechas, porras y escudos. Hacia dónde se efectuará acción bélica, se aprecia con claridad según lo indican las pisadas, forma prehispánica de indicar acción, éstas confluyen en el diseño hacia el pueblo elegido.

En otra escena, varios habitantes del pueblo atacado, cuya traza es redonda, se esconden temerosos en sus casas, algunos lloran, otros combaten o incendian los hogares, unos más se esconden tras los nopales cargados de rojas tunas. En la parte inferior se escenifica una cruenta batalla, se observan a los guerreros luchando, algunos han caído, los alférez portan las banderas de plumas rojas y blancas.

Lámina 18. (folio 46) El Cazonci despide a tres españoles en la Ciudad de Michoacán.

Está lámina que ocupa toda la hoja nos describe también varias escenas. La más importante, destaca por el gran tamaño de los personajes y muestra a Tzinztincha Tangoaxan II, el infortunado Cazonci o don Francisco en su nombre español, ricamente vestido con un vistoso jubón, collar de turquesas, sus brazaletes de piel de jaguar, cascabeles de oro en las piernas, penacho de plumas verdes, tocado también de jaguar y sus sandalias rojas, le acompañan algunos principales, uno de ellos seguramente don Pedro Cuinarángari, (quien entregó al virrey con el fraile esta Relación ) y el Petámuti que se distingue por su tenaza de oro en el pecho. El Cazonci observa cómo se marchan tres españoles que a lo lejos suben una empinada cuesta a caballo por un camino señalado por huellas (acción de caminar), cada uno porta una gran lanza y el de en medio lleva a sus espaldas una adarga o escudo de cuero. Les siguen cinco tamemes o cargadores que llevan a sus espaldas diversos obsequios y pertrechos para el camino.

Bajo el Cazonci y su casa se ven rodelas y ricos plumajes de quetzal, muy preciados por los pueblos indígenas.

En otra escena, dos canoas bogan por la Laguna de Michoacán, ahora conocida como de Pátzcuaro, una de ellas lleva algunas mercancías. Otro momento es representado por un grupo de tamemes que marchan llevando diversos objetos: bancos o silletas, metates, y hachas, mientras los observan escondidos tras un árbol y unos magueyales unas mujeres y niños; una de ellas saca vino o "pulque" del maguey. Dos muchachos llevan, uno, un perro y otro, un ave que bien pudiera ser un guajolote o pavo.

Gráfico 10: Monasterio de San Lorenzo y la Real Biblioteca

Nuestro valioso códice y una gran cantidad de preciados libros y manuscritos se encuentran en El Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial, obra iniciada en 1563 por el arquitecto Juan Bautista de Toledo y terminada bajo la dirección de Juan de Herrera en 1584. Además de la célebre iglesia, cementerio y regias dependencias, contiene la Biblioteca, una de las más importantes del mundo.

Editorial Testimonio Grafico11: Proceso de elaboración del Facsímil de la Relación de Michoacán
En la Editorial Testimonio. Gráfico 12: Testimonio Compañía Editorial Ayuntamiento de Morelia
Gráfico 13: Presentación en Morelia del facsímil La Relación de  Michoacán

La ciudad de Morelia, con cerca del millón de habitantes, es la capital del Estado y ha sido conocida internacionalmente como "la ciudad de la cantera rosa" por predominar en sus antiguas edificaciones este material que le da su peculiar estilo, fue declarada por la UNESCO Patrimonio Mundial de la Humanidad en 1990 por la belleza de sus construcciones: La Catedral, el Acueducto, Palacio de Gobierno, Ex Convento del Carmen, Palacio Municipal, y las Iglesias de san Diego y las Rosas entre otras, como por la importancia de su historia y su cultura. Baste recordar que como sede del vasto y rico Obispado de Michoacán fue uno de los más importantes centros religiosos, políticos y culturales de México, teniendo como "centro" el famoso Colegio de San Nicolás fundado en la cercana Ciudad de Pátzcuaro por el humanista y benefactor de los indígenas don Vasco de Quiroga y en el que fuera su destacado Rector el preclaro iniciador de la Independencia de México don Miguel Hidalgo; como justo homenaje a ambos personajes, don Melchor Ocampo siendo Gobernador del Estado le dio a aquella institución educativa el nombre de Colegio de San Nicolás de Hidalgo que aún lleva y que ha heredado a la Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo que tantos lauros a dado a nuestro País.

Morelia, fue también el lugar de nacimiento de uno de los más grandes héroes de México, don José María Morelos (1765-1815) de quien tomará su nombre (en 1828) y quien la recordaba como el "Jardín de la Nueva España" se fundó el año de 1541 por mandamiento del virrey don Antonio de Mendoza con el nombre de Ciudad de Michoacán fue posteriormente conocida como Ciudad de Guayangareo y durante más de doscientos años como Valladolid, una de las ciudades con más fama en América.

El entonces Presidente Municipal, M. C. Salvador Galván Infante (1999-2001), fue el decisivo impulsor de la transformación y modernización de la ciudad preservando la importante herencia legada y el principal promotor de la publicación en facsímil de la Relación de Michoacán. El Lic. Fausto Vallejo Figueroa (2002-2004) consciente de la enorme importancia de este excepcional manuscrito, cuyo valor trasciende las fronteras de la cultura michoacana, para adquirir una dimensión continental, ha decidido divulgarla y facilitar así el disfrute no sólo de su contenido, sino permitir además tener en las manos una excepcional obra de arte, como lo es el original.

Gráfico 14 Momento en que don César Olmos Explica la importancia del facsímil 
Al Mtro. Salvador Galván Infante entonces Presidente de Morelia 
y al Lic. Fausto Vallejo Figueroa
actual Presidente Municipal.


"Familia Ramos y Rancho de las Ranas"

By Eddie Martinez

We ventured on a two-week journey driving through the beautiful Mexican States of Guanajuato and Michoacán, seeking my ancestral past.

September 20, 2003 - The morning was bright and sunny, my wife Jessie, her sister, Dolores, and her husband, Tony Gutierrez, and I all climbed into our rented car and departed from the town of Puruándiro, then headed to our destination, "Rancho Las Ranas." I felt good as I drove the brand new white Dodge, thinking about my dream of someday traveling to Michoacán to visit the home town of my father’s parents, and here I was about to discover if this was the place of my family’s roots. The ride was pleasant on the newly paved road. The scenery was breathtaking with colorful wildflowers carpeting the landscape far into the horizon. Everywhere I looked there were trees on distant high mountain ranges with sweeping valleys of cornfields. It was truly an artistically inspiring vista. We drove past many small pueblos, some in the valleys and some up the sides of the mountains. I grew more excited knowing we were getting closer as I looked up to see the small town nestled on top of the mountain I was climbing. It was picture postcard; there in front of me was a small pueblo. Its church steeple peeked through the treetops below a Michoacán blue sky and billowing white clouds. It was a beautiful sight.

The road leading up to Las Ranas was well paved all the way. From there the town road was in a sad state, probably made worse by the unusual amount of rainfall the locals had told us about. As we drove into the town we saw that a man and a small boy were trying to repair the terrible road. They were filling the holes in the road with shovels of dirt and clearing away the larger rocks that had washed down during the rain. I leaned out of the car window and asked the old man which road was best to take to the church. He waved his hand pointing to a side road and said, "Take that one, it will get you there" (of course in Spanish). We looked at the damaged road in disbelief. I took a deep breath, turned the car left and slowly drove up the dirt road, which was filled with potholes and large rocks. After carefully crossing another dirt road full of water I continued until I reached the end (after hitting bottom on the car a few times). We reached a cross street where we saw a small delivery truck had parked. I got out of the car and walked over to talk to the man who was unloading his supplies from a small commercial truck. When I reached him I could see that the cross street was nothing more than a river of rushing water coming down from the top of the mountain. There was no way I could drive through there. I asked the man for directions to get up to the main part of the town. He told me the best way to get there was from where I had started. I asked if it was safe. He said I shouldn’t have any trouble driving my car all the way. When I went back to the car, I realized that there was no way I could turn the car around. We all talked about our situation, and decided the only way to continue to our destination was for me to drive the car in reverse with Tony guiding me on foot, and that’s what we did. Tony walked behind the car signaling me as I slowly drove in reverse. While concentrating on steering, I couldn’t help thinking about the liability of any damage to the rented car. With a lot of patience and Tony’s help, I slowly inched my way back to where we had started. Although it seemed to take forever, we made it back without a scratch. Tony got back into the car and I headed up the road in the direction of the church. The old man was still working on the damaged road as we passed him but he never looked up, he and the boy just kept working.

While dodging the potholes and large rocks, I hoped the unknown of what lay ahead had some kind of information waiting for me. The small side roads we passed were nothing more than channels for the rushing water. Finally, we managed to make it to the center of town. I didn’t really feel like I could drive further. There was a small creek that prevented us from crossing to get to the church. 

A middle-aged man came to the car and greeted us, introducing himself as Sergio Ramos Torrez. We introduced ourselves and I explained to him that I was looking to see if I might have family in Las Ranas. He directed us to park and said that he would try to help us. I showed him the 1869 Puruándiro Matrimonios or marriage records of my great grandparents, Cristobal Martinez and Asuncion Saldaña. He didn’t recognize any of the names, so we all went over and asked two women in the nearby local store if they knew of any of the names listed, we had no luck. He said there was an older lady at the next store that might know about previous residents. No luck there either. Sergio said his mother was older and might know some of the people we were looking for. We decided to visit the local church or temlpo as its called in Mexico, before we went to see his mother. He said he would show us the way if we wanted drive our car. The rocky road looked unsafe so we told him we would walk instead. We began climbing up the pueblo’s winding road to the templo on top.

As we were walking up, Sergio told us an old story of how the pueblo got started. As the story goes, "A man named Jorge Ramos was climbing these mountains hunting for deer when he came upon this area. He liked it so much that he decided to stay and make it his home. Because of its many frogs, he named it Rancho La Ranas (Ranch of the Frogs). He also said that most of the people who lived in Las Ranas were named Ramos or were relatives of a Ramos.

It was too much of a coincidence to have my roots come from a town known for its frogs. Through the years I’ve had a fascination with frogs. I have included them in my work, my favorite is "Sapo Loco," and I also have accumulated quite a collection of frogs.

Sergio continued talking as he walked along side Jessie, telling her that he knew of a María Ramos who married a Secundino Martinez, and moved to Clearwater, California in the United States. My ears perked up as I heard him say those words, "María Ramos from Clearwater." Jessie and I quickly told Sergio that "María" was my grandmother. Sergio said his mother (Narsésa Torrez Ramos) was her niece. I shook his hand and said: "Somos primos!" (We are cousins!). We were all very happy. He said that he needed to return to a small arcade where he was working for his son and his wife who had gone to another town, but that he would meet with us later. After we visited the church, Sergio joined us again and said he wanted us to go with him and meet with his mother and his family at their house.

We drove the car after Sergio convinced us that it would be all right to drive there. After carefully driving over more rocks and bumpy roads, we finally arrived at the home of 85-year-old Narsésa Torrez Ramos. When we entered the house, Narsésa greeted us happily, welcoming us to her lovely home. She had a very fair complexion with blue or light gray eyes, which was like my grandmother. 

Narsésa introduced us to her 89-year-old sister, Carmen; her daughter, Rubiselia; and her niece, Maria Ybarra Ramos. Narsésa showed Jessie and Dolores beautiful flower embroidery she had done, and without a thought she gave each some of her handiwork. We spent the rest of a happy day enjoying many conversations with the Ramos family. Narsésa told us that my grandmother, María Ramos, had married Secudino Martinez and they left for Clearwater in *1917. Later, another of Narsésa’s sons, Maurilio Ramos came to the house. He told us in English that he had worked for many years in the United States in a variety of odd jobs. We exchanged addresses and telephone numbers so that we could keep in touch and invited them to come and visit with us in the United States. The family was a great host. They served us chicken soup, homegrown corn, fideo, beans and handmade tamales. The tamales were made from the corn they had gone to pick while we waited. The corn was taken off the cob and was ground to a "masa." The masa was spread on the fresh cornhusk so they appeared green when they were cooked. The tamales were sweet and very good. Narsésa told us that her father Arcadio and Candido, Josefa’s son had also gone to the United States. They had both went to Avalon, on Catalina Island, looking for work. She said Candido stayed while Arcadio had returned back to Las Ranas. Later on this wonderful afternoon we bid our sad farewells, Narsésa told Jessie she would like to give us her blessing (for all of us). She made the sign of the cross and recited a beautiful prayer for us to have a safe journey on our return home. As we drove back to the town of Puruándiro we all agreed that meeting the Ramos family in Las Ranas was the highlight of our trip to Mexico.

*1917 - Family Search Note: 1917, was the year when Narsésa Ramos said my grandparents came to Clearwater. This is inconsistent with the California Census record of 1920. It shows that my grandparents had left Mexico and arrived in Clearwater in 1909. That may mean that my grandparents may have returned to visit family in Las Ranas a few years later. If Narsésa Ramos was right about Secundino and María (my grandparents) leaving Las Ranas in 1917, then that raises the possibility that they were in Mexico during the years between 1912 to 1917. If this were true then that would help me to answer a question about where my father was born. In the United States or Mexico? I had always understood that he was born in Clearwater, U.S.A., but I couldn’t find a birth certificate on my father, Manuel Martinez in the Los Angeles County records in Downey, California. However, I have a copy of the 1920 California Census Vol. 33 E.D. 48 Sheet 12 Line 81. It reads that 6-year-old Manuel Martinez was from Mexico, which I assume would mean that he was born in Mexico. His birthday is listed as 1913, but his death record shows it as 1914.

I have since written a letter to Narsésa’s niece, María Ybarra Ramos in Puruándiro, thanking her and the family for their hospitality and asking if she can find a birth or marriage records of my grandparents. I included some photographs we took while visiting there. We had our Martinez family cousins from Clearwater come to our home, where we shared the information and photographs with them. They were excited about the discovery of our family in Mexico. Our next adventure of discovery is to visit the Ramos/Saldaña relatives on Catalina Island. I asked my cousin Gloria, "When we go to Catalina, how will we know where to find family in Avalon, do we have telephone numbers or addresses?" She answered simply by saying, "Will just go to ‘Lalo’s Barber Shop’." (Lalo Saldaña Ramos is grandson to tía Pepa Ramos, who is my Grandmother’s sister.)

I wouldn’t have guessed that finding family in Mexico at Las Ranas would have been so rewarding for us. My cousins from Clearwater and I are now working together on locating more relatives, so that we can bring our Torrez Ramos familia closer together, on both sides of the border.


Guillermo Padilla Origel

Primera parte: 1597-1604


15 de octubre de 1597: María, h.l. de Pedro de Guerra y Leonor de Carvajal.

20 de noviembre de 1597: María, h.l. de Bartolomé Castañon y Juana de Gaarfias

8 de enero de 1598: Leonor, h.l. de Álvaro Pérez y Juana de Mendoza

4 de abril de 1598: Luis, h.l. de Pedro Navarro y Catalina de la Cerda.

8 de abril de 1598: Nicolás, h.l. de Juan de Murguia y Juana de la Cerda

28 de junio de 1598: Ana, h.l. de Joseph de Saucedo y Beatriz de Montoya

12 de julio de 1598: María, h.l. de Constantino Pérez y Ángela Pérez

9 de agosto de 1598: Cristóbal, h.l. de Juan Monjaráz y Francisca de Sosa

25 de octubre de 1598: Beatriz, h.l. de Cristóbal de Estrada y Luisa Verdugo.

6 de diciembre de1598: Agustín, h.l. de Baltasar de Cáceres y María de la Cerda

19 de diciembre de 1598: Mariana, h.l. de Juan de Rivera y Leonor de Pantoja

15 de noviembre de 1598: Francisca, h.l. de Antonio de Araujo y Catalina de Dueñas

31 de diciembre de 1598: Pedro, h.l. de Fernando Burgueño y María Rodríguez

23 de diciembre de 1598: Ana María, h.l. de Diego de Castañeda e Isabel Galindo

26 de enero de 1599: Sebastián, h.l. de Blas Ruíz de Gaona y Ana de Carvajal

6 de marzo de 1599: Felipe, h.l. de Diego Arias Puebla y María de Velasco

8 de julio de 1599: Juan, h.l. de Bartolomé Alexandre e Isabel de Villaroel

13 de septiembre de 1599: Nicolás, h.l. de Álvaro Pérez y Juana de Mendoza

13 de octubre de 1599: Diego, h.l. de Pedro García e Isabel Pérez

27 de octubre de 1599: Fabian, h.l. de Fabian Martínez y Catalina de Borja

13 de diciembre de 1599: Jacinto, h.l. de Felipe de Vargas y Beatriz de Castañeda

26 de abril de 1600: Diego, h.l. de Juan de Monjaráz y Francisca de Saucedo

10 de agosto de 1600: Nicolás y Andrés, h.l. de Diego de Castañeda e Isabel Galindo.

12 de noviembre de 1600: Nicolás, h.l. de Francisco Ponce y María de Rueda

12 de diciembre de 1600: Andrés, h.l. de Baltasar de Cáceres y Catalina de la Cerda

22 de enero de 1601: Fernando, h.l. de Juan de Soria y Beatriz de Castañeda

18 de marzo de 1601: Pedro, h.l. de Martín de Villegas y María de Sandoval

25 de marzo de 1601: Joseph, h.l. de Nicolás Núñez y María de la Cruz

25 de abril de 1601: Antonio, h.l. de Diego de Antúnez y María Martínez

15 de junio de 1601: Antonio, h.l. de Diego Arias Puebla y María de Velasco

10 de agosto de 1601: Sebastián, h.l. de Pedro Navarro y Catalina de la Cerda.

9 de octubre de 1601: Juan , h.l. de Fernando de Alba y Ana Centeno

9 de noviembre de 1601: Diego, h.l. de Fernando de Villegas, Alcalde mayor de esta ciudad e Isabel de Sandoval.

5 de diciembre de 1601: Álvaro, h.l. de Luis Méndez y Ana Pérez.

28 de enero de 1602: Sebastián, h.l. de Juan de Ochoa Garibay e Isabel de Ábrego.

6 de junio de 1602: Cristóbal, h.l. de Cristóbal de Estrada y Luisa Verdugo

25 de julio de 1602: Juan, h.l. de Pedro Barajas y María Flores

17 de julio de 1602: Joseph, h.l. de Juan Pérez Guerrero y Mariana Carrera

8 de agosto de 1602: Diego, h.l. de Juan de Rivera y Leonor Pantoja

3 de enero de 1603: Juliana, h.l. de Antonio Rodríguez y Catalina Infante

14 de enero de 1603: Manuel, h.l. de Bartolomé de Alexandre e Isabel de Villaroel

27 de enero de 1603: Sebatian, h.l. de Jerónimo de Alba y Ana Centeno.

28 de marzo de 1603: Joseph, h.l. de Diego de Antúnez y Ana Martínez

15 de julio de 1603: Fabian, h.l. de Juan Martínez de Gara y Ana Calderón

19 de septiembre de 1603: Jacinto, h.l. de Diego de Castañeda e Isabel Galindo

29 de octubre de 1603: Juan, h.l. de Juan Calderón y Ana Ortiz de Luna

7 de diciembre de 1603: Juan, h.l. de Francisco de Ayala y Leonor de Carranza

6 de enero de 1604: Rodrigo, h.l. de Rodrigo de Ayala y Beatriz de Castilleja

7 de marzo de 1604: María, h.l. de Fernando Altamirano y Leonor de Vera y Rodríguez

31 de marzo de 1604: Isabel, h.l. de Gonzalo de Antúnez y María Martínez

30 de mayo de 1604: Diego, h.l. de Luis Méndez de Villegas y Ana Pérez

30 de mayo de 1604: Hipólito, h.l. de Hipólito Álvarez y María de Castilleja

5 de junio de 1604: Catalina, h.l. de Antonio de Pinto y María Bohórquez

20 de agosto de 1604: Clara, h.l. de Pedro Navarro y Catalina de la Cerda

2 de septiembre de 1604: Agustín, h.l. de Cosme de Arévalo y Luisa de Mendoza

19 octubre de 1604: Alejo, h.l. de Pedro Navarro y Catalina de la Cerda


Testamentos del Siglo XVII, 
Jerez, Zacatecas

Por Leonardo De la Torre y Berumen

El interés por rescatar documentos históricos sobre mi lugar de origen, me a llevado a localizar y paleografiar algunos testamentos de gran valor histórico y sobre todo por ser de mis ancestros, por ello los apreció aún más, y deseando compartirlos con quienes indagan su pasado, he aquí una muestra del vivir de nuestros ancestros, que encierran las disposiciones, memorias y testamentos familiares, que son una gran herramienta genealógica a falta de otros documentos, como son partidas de bautismo, matrimonio o defunciones o en ultimo caso de confirmaciones, documentos que son auxiliados por los protocolos de notarias, que en sus varios testamentos dan idea del vivir de quienes ya nos precedieron, dándonos a pesar de sus virtudes y errores una vida mejor, como la tuya o la mía, pues adelante disfruta de esto.

Testamento de doña Águeda del Río y loza

1665. Testamento de doña Águeda del Río. 

Traslado de su original: En el nombre de Dios Todopoderoso. Amén. Sepan cuantas esta carta de testamento y última voluntad Vieren como doña Águeda del Río. Viuda que soy del Capitán Sancho de Rentería. Vecina que soy de la villa de Jerez y su jurisdicción y creyendo como creo en el misterio de la Santísima Trinidad, Padre, hijo y Espíritu Santo, tres personas distintas y un solo Dios verdadero en cuya fe y creencia he vivido y protesto vivir como Católica Cristiana Eligiendo como elijo por mi intercesora y abogada a la Sacratísima Virgen María Nuestra Señora concebida sin pecado original y a los bienaventurados apóstoles San Pedro y San Pablo. Y a los demás Santos y Santas de la corte del cielo. Mártires, confesores y vírgenes para que intercedan por mi alma ante la divina Majestad de Dios que alumbre mi entendimiento para ordenar como ordeno mi testamento y ultima voluntad en la manera siguiente: declarando como declaro ser hija legítima de Mateo del Río de la Loza y de doña Ana Vázquez de Mercado y Tapia, vecinos que fueron de esta villa y su jurisdicción. Primeramente encomiendo mi alma a Dios Nuestro Señor que la crió y redimió con su preciosa sangre y el cuerpo mando a la tierra de que fue formado, y mando que si de mi acaeciera fallecimiento mi cuerpo sea sepultado en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez en la sepultura que esta enterrada mi hermana doña Bernardina del Río, delante del altar derecho. Y si fuere hora competente se me diga una misa cantada de cuerpo presente con su vigilia ofrendada de pan, vino y cera. Y se pague de mis bienes. Y también mando se me diga un (Foja: 1) novenario de tres rondas y al fin de él se me diga una misa de honras cantada en la forma a la del cuerpo presente. Y se pague todo de mis bienes. Y también mando a las mandas forzosas cuatro reales a cada una. Y uno a la Casa Santa de Jerusalén con cargo que lo vengan a cobrar con que los aparto de mis bienes. Y también mando a la cofradía del Santísimo Sacramento de la villa de Jerez los catorce ducados, los cuales se dan para conseguirla la gracia, indulgencia concedida a los cofrades, mando se paguen de mis bienes. Y También declaro ser cofrade del Santísimo Sacramento en la villa de Jerez y de nuestra Señora del Rosario en la ciudad de Zacatecas y de la Santísima Trinidad del pueblo de Colotlán y de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción de San [...] [...]tongo. Y de Nuestra Señora de Juchipila, mando se den a los mayordomos para que hagan lo que tienen de obligación. Y también soy tercera de la tercera orden de San Francisco, profeso y creo en ella. Y también declaro que fui casada con el Capitán Sancho de Rentería, y durante nuestro matrimonio tuvimos y procreamos por nuestros hijos a doña Ángela del Río y Velasco, y a doña Josefa del Río y a Sancho de Rentería. Y la dicha Josefa mi hija y Sancho, mi hijo, murieron en su tierna edad. Y también declaró que yo casé a mi hija doña Ángela de Velasco con el Capitán Juan del Campo y de la Torre, a la cual di y entregue toda la parte que legitima que le pudor caber por herencia paterna con muchos más bienes que yo tenía, destituyéndome de todo para que lo gozase como bienes propios y dados con todo amor y voluntad. Y del matrimonio de dichos mis hijos que son ya difuntos, hubieron y procrearon por sus hijos legítimos a mis nietos doña Juana de Velasco, a Manuel de la Torre y a Juan de la Torre, que hoy están en mi poder(Foja: 1 vuelta) y compañía como mis nietos y como mis menores como soy su tutora y curadora y declarolos por mis nietos y herederos en toda la parte que les pueda caber del reman (remanente) de mis bienes después de cumplida esta memoria, testamento y ultima voluntad. Siendo ante todas cosas enterados en la parte que les toca por bienes que entraron en mi poder, y heredaron de los dichos sus padres: que serán hasta cantidad de tres mil y seiscientos pesos más o menos según pareciere del entrego que se me hizo por la Real Justicia de esta villa. Y también declaro que yo fui albacea testamentaria del Capitán Sancho de Rentería, mi marido. Y las mandas y legados que en esta y hoy están cumplidos. Y lo que no pareciere haberse cumplido, mando se cumpla con mas cincuenta misas que se han de decir conforme tengo comunicado con el Bachiller don Alonso de Oñate, Cura Beneficiado de esta villa. Y también declaro que fui albacea testamentaria y heredera de mi hermana doña Bernardina del Río, la que dejó algunas mandas y legados, las que es mi voluntad se ajusten y paguen, a las personas que refieren las cláusulas del testamento y si alguna demanda hubiere, que parezca deber la dicha mi hermana y jurídicamente se ajustase y con instrumentos que hagacen, mando que se paguen y cumplan. Y también mando se digan tres novenarios de misas, el uno por el alma de mi marido, otro por mi hermana doña Bernardina y otro por mi hija doña Ángela, y que se paguen de mis bienes. Y también mando que ajustado mi testamento, y los que son de mi cargo, no quitando a mis nietos la parte que les toca, o tocar puede por herencia y derecho, habiendo lugar mis albaceas y herederos impongan. Una capellanía de misas para que perpetuamente se digan por mi alma y de todos los difuntos referidos en este mi testamento, y por todos mis herederos y sucesores, y habiendo lugar para ello se imponga sobre esta hacienda y sus tierras. Y pido y suplico al Ilustrísimo Señor Obispo de este Reino lo erija en bienes espirituales y nombro por mi primer Capellán al Bachiller don Alonso de Oñate, Cura de esta villa, o al que le sucediere en ínterin o en propiedad, o en tanto que cualquiera de mis nietos tienen edad, porque si alguno consiguieren ordenación sea preferido a todos y no se ordenando, cualquiera de mis (Foja: 2) deudos, así sobrinos carnales como los demás que por línea paterna y materna me toquen en deudo. Y las misas que se impusieren conforme pareciere según al renta que se pudiere sacar del remanente de mis bienes. Las hayan de decir en la parroquia de esta villa, porque si en otra parte las quisieren decir no puedan ni deban llevar los emolumentos y renta que para ellas se asignare. Y también declaro que debo al Capitán Juan Bautista Díaz veinticinco pesos, mando se paguen. Y también debo a Cristóbal García, veinticinco pesos y medio, mando se le paguen, con más otros seis pesos que el dicho dio a Dieguillo. Y también debo a Pedro de Rentería, vecino y follero de (la ciudad) Zacatecas sesenta pesos, mando se paguen. Y también mando se le paguen a Sebastián de Mercado lo que pareciere por libro de cuenta que le debo, mando se le pague y también a Diego Pérez de Espinel tres pesos y medio que se deben por cuenta de Nicolás Tirado. Y también declaró que mi sobrino Mateo del Río a estado en mi compañía mucho tiempo, por concierto que con él hice de darle el cuarto y quinto de los frutos de esta hacienda y aunque haya mucho tiempo que se cumplió la escritura ha corrido el dicho concierto hasta ahora porque así se lo he prometido porque no me desamparara y estuviere en mi compañía y lo que tiene herrado con su yerro, es suyo, porque no siento haya tenido fraude ni engaño contra la hacienda, antes hallo en mi conciencia le soy deudora de mucha cantidad que en reales y géneros de su partido me ha suplido, así para mi gasto como para el avio de mi hacienda y todo lo que ha vendido y enajenado ha sido siempre con mi consentimiento. Y también mando por donación particular a mi nieta doña Juana, una mulata, mi esclava, llamada Juanotilla, y esta manda se entienda es separada de lo que le puede tocar de parte. Y también mando a mi sobrino Mateo del Río, por haberme acompañado y asistido, cien pesos en reales. Y también mando a María de Rentería, mujer de Nicolás Tirado seis vacas chichiguas con sus crías, y seis yeguas. Y también es mi voluntad que Jusepillo (José), mulato, hijo de la mulata Juanotilla, sea libre por todos los días de su vida y se le de (Foja: 2 vuelta)carta de libertad. En forma la que libertad [...] [...]res causas que me mueven. Y ruego y encargo a mis nietos herederos lo hayan por bien y no pongan a ello [...]. Y también mando que a Petrona, niña huérfana que [...] tuviera en su poder mi nieta doña Juana hasta ponerla en estado, y en tanto se le den una cota de paño. Un jubón y una camisa de lienzo. Y también es mi voluntad que Melchora, negra, mi esclava madre de todos los esclavos que hoy tengo, quede libre por todos los días de su vida y que se le de recaudo en forma sin que le cueste nada, y pido a mis nietos lo hayan por bien. Y para cumplir este mi testamento, mandas y legados, declaro y nombro por mis bienes los siguientes: Unos lienzos de santos con sus marcos que son doce figuras, del Santo Nicolás, uno de Nuestra Señora y otro de una Santa Verónica, y un Santo Domingo de bulto, una cama de madera dorada, un colchón de brin con sabana, tres sabanas de lienzo, un escritorio mediano, y en él algunos papeles, dos festones les doy a mi nieta doña Juana. Y también algunos muebles del servicio de casa. Y también una sobrecama morada, bordada de oro y otras menudencias que se verán. Y también los esclavos siguientes: Juanillo, Zapatón. Josefa, mulata y Juanotilla con su hijo. José queda libre. Agustinillo, mulato, Juan, negro. Felipa y Juana, mulatas. Y también Melchora, negra madre de los dichos, que queda libre. Y también una troje grande y en ella las herramientas de las carretas. Y también dos carretas viejas con su jarcia. Y también los bueyes, vacas y novillos, yeguas y potros y mulares que se hallaren con mi hierro y señal y con el hierro que era del Capitán Juan del Campo que de todo dará cuenta mi sobrino Mateo del Río. Y también otra galera y en ella un molino de pan con sus piedras y rodemo. Y también lo que pareciere deber los indios de mi servicio y a los que se le debieren mando se les pague. Y también las tierras de labor y sitios de ganado mayor y menor que parecieren por mis papeles, los cuales me constan. Más de trescientos pesos de condonación y costas que me hicieron por parte del Doctor Cristóbal de Torres, Visitador general que fue de este reino. Y también una casa de morada que tengo en la villa [...] (Foja: 3) concierto me la dio María de Bañuelos, viuda de Martín González por deuda que el dicho me debía de un vale de más de trescientos pesos. El cual vale es mi voluntad se le entregue a la dicha con cargo de que haga recaudo en forma de dicha casa que me dio y es declaración que esta casa se le de a mi sobrino Diego Carrillo con cargo de me había de hacer otra como ella, la cual tiene puesta por obra y entregándola acabada se le de recaudo para guarda de su derecho. Y también declaro que en el Real y Minas del Fresnillo tengo una hacienda que aunque esta caída y asolada lo declaro para los efectos que convengan. Y también. Y también declaro por mis bienes dos saleros de plata, un platillo, una tembladera, una jarrilla y tres cucharas. La una quebrada y una medalla grande que esta empeñada en dos pesos, quedara razón de ella Nicolás Rodríguez Pasillas. Y también un atajo de ovejas que tienen mi señal y en ellas hay algunas de mi sobrino Mateo del Río y de otros bienes que no me acuerdo, dará cuenta el dicho mi sobrino. Y ruego y encargo a mis nietos se hayan muy bien con dicho Mateo del Río no pidiéndole cuentas de nada porque como tengo dicho a vendido con mi orden lo que falta. Y también dos rejas y seis yuntas, dos casos de cobre, un almirez, tres candeleros de azófar, un comal de fierro. Y también unos berruecos de oro y dos apretadores que son y pertenecen a mi nieta Juana que el uno le dio y dejo su madre y lo demás le hago gracia por vía de mejora en lo que haya lugar. Y también una mantellina de tela rosada, ya vieja con su guarnición de oro, todo viejo. Y también mando que para ajustamiento de todo por si tuviere algunos olvidos, se este y pase por la memoria simple que hiciere después del otorgamiento de este mi testamento para que se este y pase por ella, como si en este testamento y memoria quedase declarado, la que si se hiciere quedara en poder del Bachiller don Alonso de Oñate, o en poder de Antonio de la Torre. Y también dejo por mis bienes: una sementera que esta sembrada de temporal y del fruto de ella. Se le a de dar su partido a mi sobrino con lo más que le pertenece, y para cumplir y pagar este mi testamento, mandas y legados de él, dejo y nombro por mis albaceas testamentarios a Antonio de la Torre, a Sebastián de la Torre y Mateo del Río, y por tenedor de bienes y tutor de (Foja: 3 vuelta) dichos mis nietos, a Mateo del Río, mi sobrino, les cedo y doy poder para que los venda y cumpla este mi testamento y dure el cargo de todo el tiempo necesario y dejo por mis herederos a los dichos mis nietos en la forma que tengo referido, siendo primero enterados en lo que les toca por la herencia de sus padres, para que con la bendición de Dios y la mía lo gocen y posean, y les ruego y encargo se hayan hermanablemente en la partición que hicieren y revoco y anulo otros y cualesquier testamentos, mandas y codicilos que antes de este haya hecho. Que quiero que no valgan, ni hagan fe en manera alguna, salvo este que ahora otorgo ante el señor Antonio de la Torre, teniente de Alcalde Mayor de la villa de Jerez y su jurisdicción, y de los infrascriptos testigos que por no haber como no hay Escribano Real ni público en esta villa pido y suplico al dicho señor teniente interponga su autoridad y judicial decreto, para que autorizado con su firma: y las de los testigos haga la fe que en derecho es necesario Y yo el presente Antonio de la Torre, que doy fe que conozco, a la dicha otorgante y que al tiempo y cuando le otorgo, estaba enferma en la cama de enfermedad que nuestro Señor fue servido de darle. Estando como estaba en su sano juicio y entendimiento y la otorgante no firmó porque dijo no sabía y lo otorgó en veinte de octubre de mil y seiscientos y cincuenta y cinco años. Siendo testigos a lo ver y otorgar el Bachiller don Alonso de Oñate y Bañuelos, Cura y Vicario de dicha villa, y Ignacio de Mercado, y Sebastián de Mercado. Nicolás Pérez Tirado, y Nicolás Pasillas y Antonio Enríquez, y pido a un testigo que firmase por ella. Antonio de la Torre, a ruego de la Otorgante. Y por testigo: Bachiller don Alonso de Oñate y Bañuelos. Ignacio de Mercado. Sebastián de Mercado. Nicolás Pérez Tirado. Antonio Enríquez. Rúbricas. Presentación: En la villa de Jerez de la Frontera en 20 días del mes de abril de mil y seiscientos y sesenta y cinco años, ante mi el Capitán don Fernando de Lazcano, Alcalde Mayor y de la Santa Hermandad de la villa de Jerez y valle de Tlaltenango y su jurisdicción por su Majestad la presento el contenido en ella. Petición: Mateo del Río, vecino de esta villa de Jerez, albacea y tenedor de bienes y testamentos de doña Águeda del Río, difunta. Parezco ante Usted en la mejor vía y forma que haya lugar en derecho y digo que ago presentación de un testamento original otorgado por la dicha doña (Foja: 4) Águeda del Río, difunta, su fecha, del año de cincuenta y cinco, autorizado por ante Antonio de la Torre, teniente de Alcalde Mayor, que lo fue de esta dicha villa, y porque en el consta ser su albacea testamentario y tenedor de bienes y por cuanto a tiempo de diez años poco más o menos que se otorgó dicho testamento, en aquel tiempo estaba en su pujanza la hacienda declarada por el dicho testamento y cláusulas que a ellas me remito y porque a tiempo de un mes poco más o menos que falleció la dicha doña Águeda del Río, y no dejo otorgado ni revocado este testamento por ultima voluntad suya, atento a lo cual la hacienda que en aquel tiempo había declarado tener la han disipado y menoscabado que no ha quedado más de una mulata esclava llamada Josefa con una mulatilla que esta criando de un año poco más o menos, y una casa de vivienda con dos cuartos y una estancia de labor con cuatro caballerías de tierra y media y un pedazo con sitio de ganado mayor y unas casas viejas en la dicha estancia. Por lo cual a Usted pido y suplico sea servido. Porque en ningún tiempo me pare perjuicio de recibirme información que ofrezco de lo alegado en este mi pedimento y que se examinen los testigos que ante Usted presentaré al tenor de él y se proceda: a beneficio de inventario de los bienes que han quedado por fin y muerte de la susodicha que en mandarlo Usted administrara justicia y juro en bastante forma de derecho este mi pedimento, ser cierto y verdadero. Ut supra. Mateo del Río. Rúbrica. Auto: Y por mi visto este pedimento y testamento original los hube por presentados, y mando al dicho Mateo del Río de la información que ofrece y dada en la parte que baste, administraré justicia y se proseguirá al dicho inventario según y como lo pide. Así lo decreté, mandé y firmé como Juez Receptor, por defecto de no haber Escribano Público ni Real en esta jurisdicción. Don Fernando de Lazcano. Rúbrica. Testigo: Diego Carrillo Dávila. En la villa de Jerez de la Frontera en 20 días del mes de marzo de mil y seiscientos y sesenta y cinco años Mateo del Río, como albacea testamentario y tenedor de bienes de doña Águeda del Río, difunta. Presento por testigo para la información que ofrece a Diego Carrillo Dávila, vecino de esta jurisdicción, del que recibí juramento, que hizo por Dios Nuestro Señor y la Señal de la Cruz en forma de derecho so cargo del que prometió de decir verdad de lo que su[...] (Foja: 5). 

Archivo del Arzobispado de Guadalajara, Jal. Copia que obtuvo de su original el Licenciado don Guillermo Tovar y de Teresa, quien con la amabilidad que lo caracteriza, facilitó copia al investigador y genealogista, Ingeniero Bernardo del Hoyo Calzada. 

Testamento del Capitán Juan Carrillo Dávila 

En el nombre de Dios Todopodero Amén. Sepan cuantos esta carta vieren como yo el Capitán Juan de Avila Carrillo, vecino de la villa de Jerez, e hijo legítimo de Pedro Dávila Carrillo y de Francisca García, vecinos que fueron de dicha villa, ya difuntos. Y yo originario de ella, estando sano de mis miembros y deseando disponer de las cosas de mi conciencia para cuando Dios mi señor fuere servido de llevarme, estando en mi entero juicio y confesando como confieso el misterio de la Santísima Trinidad, Padre, Hijo y Espíritu Santo, tres personas distintas y un solo Dios Verdadero y en todo lo que allí confiesa nuestra santa madre iglesia Católica Romana en cuya fe he vivido y protesto vivir y morir como católico cristiano, eligiendo ser mi abogado a la siempre virgen maría Madre de Dios a quien pido humildemente encamine mi alma [...]. [...] de salvación, honra y gloria suya hago y ordeno mi testamento y ultima voluntad en la manera siguiente: Primeramente encomiendo mi alma a Dios Nuestro Señor, que la crió y redimió con su preciosa sangre y el cuerpo a la tierra de que fue formado y cuando de mi acaezca fallecimiento quiero ser sepultado en la parroquia de la parte y lugar donde acaeciere el dicho mi fallecimiento con la cruz, cura y sacristán de ella. Y siendo hora de celebrar y sino el siguiente día se me diga una misa cantada de cuerpo presente ofrendada de pan, vino y cera y se pague la limosna de mis bienes y lo demás del dicho mi funeral dejo a la disposición de mis albaceas. A las mandas forzosas y acostumbradas mando dos reales de plata y cuatro (reales) a la casa santa de Jerusalén que aparto de mis bienes y los vengan a cobrar. Declaro ser mis bienes lo siguientes: cuatro carretas encinchadas con sus cinchos dobles y engarciadas. Once arados con sus yuntas. (Foja: 74) Veinte Fanegas de maíz. Una casa de vivienda en dicha villa con un solar para huerta que costó trescientos trece pesos. Una parte de un sitio de ganado mayor y de otro de menor en El Huejote con su avicore de hierro y señal de los ganados y están añadidos a dichos sitios cuarenta y dos caballerías de tierra. Y esta parte que me pertenece, es una de cuatro partes de ella. Y también siete indios sirvientes en dicha hacienda que me deben lo que parecerá por los libros de cuenta que ellos tengo. Más cuatro carretas, dos azuelas, seis hachas, tres escoplos y cinco cinchos dobles. 
Y también me debe el cura beneficiado del valle de Tlaltenango don Manuel Sarmiento, cincuenta pesos.
Y también me debe Francisco Gracian, cinco pesos y medio.
Y también me debe José de Almeida, cuatro pesos y medio.
Y también me debe Pedro de Luna, un salero de palta que vale 16 pesos.
Y también me debe Pedro Bermúdez mil pesos y más seis pesos y cuatro tomines de maíz. 
Y también me debe Antonio Carrillo Camacho.
Me debe Agustín Carrillo una mula serrera de ...
Y también me debe Pedro Carrillo, cinco pesos y me debe treinta vigas que di por su orden a veinte reales cada una.
Me debe don Juan de la Cueva, ocho fanegas de maíz a doce reales.
Débeme Diego de Pinedo cinco fanegas de maíz diez pesos y dos reales.
Débeme Diego de la Torre el mozo, trece pesos de maíz que le di. 
Francisco Dorado me debe tres pesos
Y Antonio Dávila me debe siete pesos y medio.
Y me debe Sebastián de la Torre treinta y dos pesos de maíz que le di.
Y me debe Mateo del Río diez camas que montan tres pesos y seis reales. 
Me debe Ignacio Gracian tres fanegas de maíz y tres pesos más que pague por él a Bernardo Márquez y también debo al Cura de la dicha villa de Jerez Bachiller don Juan de Quijas Escalante veintiocho pesos y seis tomines, mando se le paguen.
Debo al Capitán Lope Alvarez diez pesos y medio.
Debo a Diego de Pinedo dos pesos y diez camas y 20 razón.
Debo a Blás Gómez dos pesos.
Debo a Gaspar de los Reyes catorce pesos.
Debo a Antonio Dorado, cuatro pesos.
Debo al ayudante de Jaime 83 pesos y seis vales de todas las cuentas que he tenido hasta este día.
Debo al Bachiller Francisco Tostado Presbítero, noventa y nueve pesos.
Y declaro que no debo otra cosa y así mismo declaro por mis bienes cientos ocho vacas de todas edades (Foja: 74 vuelta).
Y también declaro por mis bienes quinientas ochenta y dos ovejas.
Y también ochenta y cuatro bestias caballares. 
Y también doce mulas mansas y también diez mulas serreras. Y también tres burros maestros, ciento diez y ocho bueyes de tiro y arado con más lo que parecieren de mi yerro. 
Y también cuarenta y siete cabezas de ganado de cerda.
Y también dos arcabuces, una silla jineta y un caparazón. 

Declaro que soy casado y velado con Agustina Gallegos vecina de la villa, y al tiempo y cuando contraje el dicho matrimonio recibí por dote con la susodicha: veintidós bueyes, dos carretas engarcias y encinchadas, dos hachas, dos escoplos, una azuela, treinta y ocho vacas y de todo ello no tengo otorgado recaudo ninguno mando que de lo más bien parado de mis bienes se le entregue lo contenido en esta clausula como bienes dótales de la susodicha. Y declaro que al tiempo y cuando contraje el dicho matrimonio tenía yo de caudal conocido mío que lleve a dicho matrimonio diez y seis bueyes, dos manadas de yeguas, la una de mansas y otra de rejegas. La una de treinta y ocho y la de mansas veintitrés. veintidós vacas y no otros bienes ningunos y así lo declaro. Y durante el dicho mi matrimonio hemos tenido y procreado por nuestros hijos legítimos a Cecilia Dávila, Juan Dávila, Alonso Dávila, Antonio Dávila, declarolos por mis hijos legítimos y de la dicha mi mujer. Y también declaro que tengo en mi servicio a Blás Dávila y Antonio Dávila, los cuales me han servido con mucho amor, mando que de mis bienes se le den al dicho Blás, seis vacas, cuatro bueyes, cuatro mulas y un atajuelo que el tiene de hasta 10 yeguas. Y al Antonio Dávila, seis vacas, cuatro bueyes, ocho yeguas con que les satisfago el servicio personal delos susodichos. Y para reconocer y sacar este mi testamento y lo en él contenido dejo y nombro por mis albaceas testamentarios a la dicha Agustina Gallegos, mi mujer y al Bachiller Francisco Tostado, Presbítero, a los cuales y cada uno insolidum doy todo mi poder cumplido cuan bastante de derecho se requiere y es necesario. Que entren en mis bienes y los vendan y rematen en pública almoneda o fuera de ella, y dichos cumplan y ejecuten este mi testamento y demás del termino que el derecho les concede. Les prorrogo el más que hubieren merecer. Y nombro por tenedora de mis bienes a la dicha Agustina Gallegos, mi mujer. Y cumplido y pagado este mi testamento y lo en él contenido en el remanente de todos mis bienes, derechos y acciones que en cualquier manera me pertenezcan dejó y nombró por mis herederos a la dicha Cecilia, Juan Alonso y Antonio Dávila, (Foja: 75) mis hijos legítimos y de la dicha mi mujer. Para que los hereden con la bendición de Dios y la mía en iguales partes y usando de la facultad que el derecho me concede atento a que los dichos mis hijos están todos cuatro en la edad pupilar nombro ser su tutor y curadora de sus personas a la expresada dicha Agustina Gallegos, mi mujer. Y revoco, anulo todos y cualesquier testamentos, poderes y codicilos, mandas y otras disposiciones que haya hecho por escrito de palabra para que no vayan ni hagan fecho[...]. [...] quiero guarde y cumpla por tal en la más bastante forma de derecho y lo otorgue en la ciudad de Nuestra Señora de los Zacatecas en dos días del mes de julio de mil y seiscientos y sesenta y cuatro años. Y de echo doy fe que conozco al otorgante que estaba en pie y al parecer sano de sus miembros y lo firmó siendo testigos: Antonio Caldera, y Ignacio Gracian y Diego Flores, presentes. Firmó como Juan Dávila Carrillo. Derechos dos pesos y dos reales (Foja: 75 vuelta). 


Archivo Histórico del Estado de Zacatecas. Fondo: Notarías. Serie: Colonial/Felipe de Espinoza. Año 1664. Libro Cuarto del Notario Felipe de Espinoza. Testamento No. 85. Fojas: 74-75 vuelta. Partida: 85. Año: 1664. Caja: 2.

Defunciones de Jerez, siglo XVII

Por Leonardo De la Torre y Berumen

Las defunciones que acaecieron en la villa de Jerez de la frontera, hoy Jerez en el Estado de Zacatecas, y de las que se tiene noticia documental datan del siglo XVII, partiendo de 1684 a 1685, años en que las partidas o asentamientos de fallecimiento se encuentran en dos fojas sueltas y semidestruidas que conforman el expediente número 1 de 6 que se hallan en la caja148. Otras partidas son de 1695 a 1699, último año en el que no se asienta partida alguna solo se inscribió en la foja: "año de 1699", por lo que las partidas se registraron hasta el año de 1698, y se encuentran en 8 fojas que conforman una carpeta no clasificada, pero por número de expediente se le asignó temporalmente el número 6, veamos pues estas partidas, que fueron transcritas apegadamente al original el cual se forma parte del acervo documental del Archivo de la parroquia La Inmaculada de Jerez, en el Estado de Zacatecas.


Carpeta de Defunciones, partidas y certificaciones, número: 1 de 6. Caja: 148. Años: 1684 - 1685

Carpeta de Defunciones, partidas y certificaciones, número: 6 de 6. Caja: 148. Años: 1695 - 1699.


ALVAREZ DE NAVIA doña Petronila, española, mujer que fue de don Francisco Osorio Melgarejo y fue su muerte improvisa. No testó. Se enterró en la capilla de la hacienda de El Cuidado, donde murió. 20 de octubre de 1684. Foja: 1.

BALTAZAR MELCHOR, indio natural de Juchipila y radicado en esta jurisdicción desde hace un año. Murió en el Huejote, el 28 de diciembre de 1684. Foja: 1.

GARCIA José, soltero, natural de Querétaro. Murió en el rancho que llaman de M[...] Hace un año vino a dicho rancho. No tuvo que testar. Se enterró en la parroquia de la villa de Jerez. 3 de septiembre de 1684. Foja: 1.

JUAN FRANCISCO, por mal nombre Pichat, indio del pueblo de Tlaltenango, iba con unas carretas de Juan de Miramontes, vecino de dicho pueblo. Fue repentina su muerte y era casado con una india llamada Agustina Esquivel. Se enterró en la parroquia de la villa de Jerez. 24 de septiembre de 1684. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 1.

MURILLO Martín, mestizo de la jurisdicción. No testó por ser muy pobre. Murió el 11 de octubre de 1684 y se enterró al día siguiente en la parroquia de Jerez. Foja: 1.

QUERO doña Isabel DE, española, vecina de Jerez. Casada y velada con Andrés de Olague. Murió el 24 de diciembre de 1684 en Jerez y se enterró al día siguiente en la parroquia de Jerez. No testó. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 1.


ALONSO AGUSTIN, indio, asistente en el pueblo de Santiago, jurisdicción de Tlaltenango. Casado con Juana Catalina. Se le administraron los santos Sacramentos de la penitencia y extremaunción. Murió el 4 de abril de 1685 en la villa de Jerez. Foja: 2 vuelta.

ALONSO LUCAS, indio, casado con Magdalena Ramos. Murió el 3 de agosto de 1685 en la hacienda de El Cuidado, en cuya capilla fue enterrado. Recibió todos los santos sacramentos. Tomás López. Rúbrica. Foja: 3 vuelta. 

ANA TOMASA, mestiza, casada con ... Rodríguez, mestizo, sirviente de José de Almeida. Murió en la estancia de El Arenal, jurisdicción de Jerez el 7 de mayo de 1685. No se confesó porque no avisaron, pero había cumplido con la iglesia poco antes. Se enterró al día siguiente en la parroquia de Jerez. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 3. 

CAMACHO Juan, español, casado con Teresa [...]les, murió en la estancia de Órganos el 13 de mayo de 1685 y se enterró de limosna al día siguiente en el hospital de la villa de Jerez. No confesó porque no avisaron, había 9 años que había caido en una cama. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 3. 

CARRILLO María, viuda de ... de Ordóñez, difunto. No testó por ser pobre. Murió en la hacienda de La Troje el 3 de marzo de 1685. Enterrada al siguiente día en la parroquia de Jerez. Recibió todos los santos sacramentos, que le administro el Lic. Francisco Gracián de Luna. Foja: 2.

CUEVA Felipe DE LA, español, falleció en la villa de Jerez el 5 de mayo de 1685, natural de los reinos de castilla en la ciudad de Sevilla, hijo legítimo de Luis del Castillo y de Felipa Luisa de la Cueva, difuntos. Casado con Doña MARIA DEL RIO, vecinos de dicha villa de Jerez. administrole todos los sacramentos el Licenciado FRANCISCO GRACIAN DE LUNA lugarteniente de Cura, otorgó su testamento en la ciudad de Zacatecas ante JUAN GONZALEZ DE VERGARA Escribano Real. Deja por albacea a MATEO DEL RIO, su suegro, vecino de dicha villa y a Doña MARIA DEL RIO su mujer, encomienda su alma a Dios Nuestro Señor que la crió y redimió con su preciosa sangre, y su cuerpo a la tierra de que fue formado y si fallesiese en esta villa de Jerez manda sea sepultado en la iglesia parroquial y que le acompañen el cura, cruz alta y sacristán. Dejando el demás acompañamiento a disposición de sus albaceas y siendo hora conveniente una vigilia difunta, con su misa de requiem y sino el día siguiente y que se le digan 3 misas que llaman de Santa Catalina y la limosna de todo con la ofrenda de pan, vino y cera se page de sus bienes. También manda a las mandas forzosas a 2 pesos y las aparta de sus bienes. y a la Casa Santa de Jerusalen6 pesos de limosna. También manda a la Cofradía de el Santo Sacramento de esta dicha villa 6 pesos y otros 6 (pesos) a la Cofradía de las benditas Animas del Purgatorio y que se entregue a los mayordomos. También manda den de limosna a la hermita del Venerable Gregorio López 50 pesos, ... reales y se le entreguen al mayordomo o persona que la cuida para que los distribuya en lo que le pareciere conveniente en beneficio de la dicha Capilla. ..... mejor y más bien parado de sus bienes se sa... en reales y se entrieguen al sindico general de la Provincia de Zacatecas que es o fuere para que el susodicho imposieron de ellos en la parte que le pareciere que sea conveniente por modo de memoria perpetua cuya renta que son 25 pesos en cada un año lo distribuya en la limosna de 4 misas que perpetuamente se le han de decir por su alma en el Convento de San Francisco de la ciudad de Zacatecas, las 2 cantadas y 2 rezadas, el día de San Felipe de Jesús y el día de San Andrés Apóstol y que para en caso necesario y para hacer dicha ofrenda de dicha memoria , se de con tanto la 4 cláusula con pie y causa del testamento , al dicho sindico general para la obligación que ha de hacer como tal por dicho Convento. También manda que de sus bienes se saquen 150 pesos en reales los cuales se netregen al al Reverendo Padre Provisor y Comisario de la tercera orden, Fray ANDRES SANCHEZ, para que los distribuya, ya en lo que le tiene comunicado, para el descargo de su conciencia. Hasta aqui sin los legados pios, así lo certifico. Antes de su fallecimiento se acentó por Cofrade de el Santo Sacramento de que hago mención por si deviere los 15 ducados acostumbrados por dicha cofradía, cita en esta villa de Jerez. Enterrose el día de su fallecimiento en la parroquia junto al altar de la Virgen Santisima de lado de la epístola, con misa cantada de cuerpo presente, su vigilia ofrendada de pan, vino y cera y se le hicieron 4 posas donde se cantaron los responsos, y para que conste lo firmé, fecho ut Supra. Bachiller JUAN DE QUIJAS ESCALANTE. Rúbrica. Foja: 2 vuelta - 3. 

GARCIA Martín, indio, natural de Jalpa, casado con Juana de la Cruz, india. Era sirviente en la estancia de San Nicolás de los herederos de don Diego de la Torre, donde murió el 18 de junio de 1685 y se enterró en el pueblo de Susticacán por estar ororoso del tabardillo (fiebre tifoidea) y para que no infeccionara a la villa de Jerez de la Frontera, y por no haber bestias en que pasarlo a la villa de Jerez. Lo confesó y administró el sacramento de la extremaunción el Lic. Francisco Gracián de Luna. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 3 vuelta.

GONZALEZ Ana, morisca, soltera. No testó por pobre. Murió en la villa de Jerez el 1º de julio de 1685 y se enterró otro día en la parroquia de Jerez con misa de cuerpo presente con su vigilia. Le administró todos los sacramentos el Lic. Francisco Gracián de Luna. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 3 vuelta.

GONZALEZ María, india, casada con Juan Hernández, indio, vecino del pueblo de Susticacán, donde murió el 15 de marzo DE 1685 y se enterró en la capilla del pueblo de Suosticacan. El Lic. Francisco Gracián de Luna le administro el Sacramento de la Penitencia y Extremaunción. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 2

IBARRA Petrona DE, mestiza, casada con Matías de Trejo, mestizo, sirviente de Francisco Prieto en el puesto de La Ciénega, media legua de Jerez, en cuya villa murió el 15 de febrero de 1685. Foja: 1 vuelta.

JARA Lucia, india, casada con Simón de Salas, vecino del pueblo de Susticacán, donde murió el 1º de abril de 1685. La confesó el Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante y le administró el sacramneto de la extremaunción. Se enterró en la capilla del pueblo de Susticacan. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 2 vuelta.

JUAREZ Sebastiana, mulata, hija de Manuel de la Cruz. Casada con Lorenzo Hernández, mulato, sirviente en dicho rancho. Murió en la jurisdicción de Jerez el 20 de julio de 1685 y se enterró en la parroquia de Jerez. La fue a confesar el Lic. Francisco Gracián de Luna. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 3 vuelta. 

LLAMAS Diego DE, mestizo, casado con Juana Sánchez. Testó ante el Capitán Pedro Carrillo, teniente general. Dejó por albacea a Miguel Sánchez, su suegro, y a Juana González, su mujer, a quien nombró tenedora de bienes. Mandó enterrarse en la iglesia parroquial de Jerez, con misa cantada. A las mandas forzosas a dos tomines, conque la aparta de sus bienes y un tostón a la Casa Santa, más a la cofradía del Santísimo Sacramento, un peso al hospital [...] otro peso, no hubo más legado píos. Murió en un rancho de la jurisdicción de Jerez el 24 de febrero de 1685. Se enterró en la parroquia de Jerez. Foja: 2. 

LOPEZ Cecilia, india, casada con Juan Melchor. Murió en El Cuidado, el 1º de agosto DE 1685 y se enterró en la capilla de la hacienda de El Cuidado. Recibió los santos sacramentos por mano del Lic. Tomás López, quien firmó la partida. Foja: 3 vuelta. 

María de la Rosa, india, soltera, la cual hace mucho tiempo estaba tullida en una cama. Murió en el rancho de La Calera, jurisdicción de Jerez, el 27 de julio de 1685. Se enterró de limosna en el hospital de la villa de Jerez.

MEJIA Lucas, indio, casado con Inés de la Cruz, india, asistente en la estancia de La Troje en servicio de Francisco de Escobedo. Murió el 24 de febrero de 1685 en la hacienda de La Troje. Se enterró en el hospital de la villa de Jerez. Lo oleó el Lic. Francisco Gracián de Luna. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 2.

PEDRO DE ANGELES, español, soltero de 18 años de edad. Era muy pobre por lo que no testó. Murió el 25 de enero de 1685 en la estancia que llaman La Troje. Se enterró el mismo día que falleció. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 1 vuelta.

PEDRO , indio tarasco, soltero de nación tarasca. Muchacho de 17 años de edad. Se enterró de limosna en el hospital de la villa de Jerez, donde murió el 24 de enero de 1685. Tomás López. Rúbrica. Foja: 1 vuelta. 

PEREZ Juan, indio, sirviente de doña Ana de Haro en la estancia de San Nicolás. Casado con Beatriz López, india, asistente en dicha estancia, donde murió el 17 de julio de 1685. No se confesó porque fue su muerte de repente que cayó de un árbol. Enterrado en la capilla del pueblo de Sutticacan, jurisdicción de Jerez, por no haber bestia para conducirlo a la iglesia parroquial de Jerez. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 3 vuelta.

REYES Andrea DE LOS, casada con Francisco Solis, indio sirviente. Murió el 28 de marzo de 1685 en el rancho de Diego Vázquez Borrego, jurisdicción de Jerez. Se enterró en la parroquia de la villa de Jerez de la Frontera. La confesó el Lic. Francisco Gracián de Luna y le administró el Sacramento de la extremaunción. Foja: 2.

ROSA María DE LA, india, soltera, la cual ha mucho tiempo estaba tullida en una cama. Murió en el rancho de La Calera, jurisdicción de Jerez, el 27 de julio de 1685. No se confesó porque ya era difunta cuando llegó el sacerdote. Se enterró de limosna en el hospital de la villa de Jerez. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 3 vuelta.

RUIZ DE MEZA José, español, natural de El Montegrande, hijo legítimo de Francisco de Araux y de Mariana de la Cruz, vecinos de la jurisdicción de Jerez, donde contrajo matrimonio eclesiástico con Juana Tenorio. No testó porque era muy pobre. Se enterró en la parroquia de Jerez. Murió en la estancia llamada Lo de Calvo el 11 de febrero de 1685. Bachiller Juan de Quijas Escalante. Rúbrica. Foja: 1 vuelta.

SALAS ZAPATA Don Juan de, español, natural de los reinos de Castilla, en la villa de Valtanas, hijo legítimo de Francisco de Salas Zapata y de doña Francisca Mathe. Casado y velado con doña Águeda Alvarez de Navia. No testó por no tener bienes. Hizo una memoria con siete testigos. Se enterró con misa de cuerpo presente en la capilla de la hacienda de El Cuidado, donde murió el 3 de enero de 1685. Le administró los santos sacramentos el Lic. Tomás López, lugar teniente de Cura de la villa de Jerez y Capellán de la hacienda de El Cuidado. Bachiller Tomás López. Rúbrica. Foja: 1 vuelta.


CARRILLO María, falleció en la villa de Jerez el 16 de septiembre de 1695, viuda que fue de don Cristóbal de la Cueva, fue sepultada en la parroquia de esta villa con misa y vigilia de cuerpo presente. Se le administraron todos los santos sacramentos: como son penitencia, eucaristía y extremaunción. No hizo memoria, porque no tuvo bienes y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Foja: 1.

CASTAÑEDA Gertrudis DE, española, falleció en la hacienda de Los Organos, de esta jurisdicción el 8 de octubre de 1695, casada y velada según orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia con Ignacio Martínez, mestizo. Se le administraron los Santos Sacramentos, como son penitencia, eucaristía y extremaunción. Fue sepultada en la iglesia parroquial de esta villa. Se le dijo su misa de cuerpo presente. No hizo memoria y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Foja: 1 vuelta.

GONZALEZ Isabel, española, falleció en la hacienda de las González, de esta jurisdicción en 5 de diciembre de 1695. Se le administraron los santos sacramentos, como son penitencia, eucaristía y extremaunción. Fue sepultada en la parroquia de esta villa. Se le cantó misa de cuerpo presente. No xtremaunción. Fue sepultada en la parroquia de esta villa. Se le cantó misa de cuerpo presente. No hizo memoria y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Foja: 1 vuelta. 

LLAMAS Juan DE, mestizo. Falleció en la villa de Jerez el 29 de septiembre de 1695. Casado y velado según orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia con Francisca de ... india. Se le administraron todos los santos sacramentos: como son penitencia, eucaristía y extremaunción. Fue sepultado en la parroquia de esta villa. Hizo una memoria y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Fojas: 1 - 1 vuelta..

MIGUEL, indio sirviente de doña Ana Carrillo. Falleció en la hacienda de la Ermita, de esta jurisdicción el 4 de octubre de 1695. Se le administraron los santos sacramentos, como son penitencia y extremaunción. Se enterró en la iglesia de esta villa y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Foja: 1 vuelta.

SANCHEZ Agustín, falleció de una caída que dio de un caballo en la villa de Jerez el 16 de julio de 1695. No pudo alcanzar Confesión. Fue sepultado en la parroquia de esta villa, se le dijo una misa cantada con su vigilia y para que conste lo firme. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Foja: 1.


AVILA Isabel DE, española, falleció en la villa de Jerez en 6 de marzo de 1696, viuda que fue de Marcos de Orosco. Se le administró el sacramento de la penitencia y extremaunción. Fue sepultada en la parroquia de esta villa. No hizo memoria, porque no tuvo de que, y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres, Rúbrica. Foja: 2.

CABRAL Catalina, española, murió en la villa de Jerez el 4 de julio de 1696, viuda que fue de Domingo Cabral. Administrosele el santo sacramento de la penitencia y extremaunción. Fue enterrada este dicho día en esta parroquia con misa de cuerpo presente. No testó por ser sumamente pobre y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbirca. Foja: 2 - 2 vuelta.

CABRAL Juan, español, soltero, murió en la villa de Jerez el 8 de julio de 1696. Se le administró el sacramento de la penitencia, viático y extremaunción. Fue enterrado en dicha parroquia el siguiente día. No testó por no tener de que. Y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Foja: 2 vuelta. 

CARRILLO Diego, español, murió en la villa de Jerez el 3 de septiembre de 1696, casado y velado según orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia con Francisca de Orozco. Otorgó su testamento ante Diego Vázquez Borrego, socuya disposición falleció. Fue sepultado su cuerpo en esta parroquia con misa de cuerpo presente, y para conste lo firmé. Se le administraron todos los sacramentos. Bachiller Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Foja: 3.

CARRILLO Sebastiana, española, murió el 8 de agosto de 1696 en la labor que llaman Las Viborillas, jurisdicción de la villa de Jerez, mujer legítima de Miguel Tello, Administraronsele todos los sacramentos por el Licenciado Tomás López, teniente de cura de esta dicha villa y Capellán de la hacienda de El de Cura, enterrose en la iglesia parroquial con entierro mayor y misa. No testó por no tener de que y para que conste lo firmé. Lorenzo Carrillo Dávila. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos de fábrica: tres pesos - 3 p. Foja: 4 vuelta.

CHAVEZ BAÑUELOS doña Quiteria DE, soltera, falleció en 8 de noviembre de 1697. Administrele los santos sacramentos como teniente de cura, no testó - fue enterra en nuestra iglesia parroquial con entierro mayor y misa de cuerpo presente y para que conste lo firmé. Lorenzo Carrillo Dávila. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos de fábrica: 17 pesos y 4 octavos 17 p 4. Foja: 5.

CRUZ Diego DE LA, indio, falleció en la villa de Jerez el 23 de octubre de 1697, casado con Nicolasa de la Cruz, india - sirvientes en la labor de la Cañada, jurisdicción de dicha villa, administrele los santos sacramentos de la penitencia y extremaunción como teniente de cura y lo enterré en la iglesia parroquial con entierro menor y lo firmé. Lorenzo Carrillo Dávila. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos de fábrica: diez reales - 1 p 2. Foja: 4 vuelta. 

CRUZ Lázaro DE LA, indio, falleció en la villa de Jerez el 7 de noviembre de 1697, casado con Isabel Rosales. Enterrose en Nuestra Iglesia Parroquial con entierro menor, no testó por no tener de que y lo firmé. Lorenzo Carrillo Dávila. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos de Fábrica - 1 p 2. Foja: 4 vuelta. 

CRUZ María DE LA, india, murió en el puesto llamado El Chiquiguitillo, jurisdicción de esta villa de Jerez el 30 de julio de 1697, fue casada y velada según orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia con Diego Vázquez. Recibió todos los sacramentos. Fue sepultada en la iglesia parroquial de ella. No testó por ser muy pobre, y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos: diez reales. Foja: 4.

FERNANDEZ doña Catalina, española, falleció en la villa de Jerez en 13 de diciembre de 1697. Casada con Mateo de Silva, administrele los santos sacramentos de la penitencia, eucaristía y extremaunción como teniente de cura. No testó. Enterrose en Nuestra iglesia parroquial con entierro mayor y misa de cuerpo presente, y para que conste lo firmé. Lorenzo Carrillo Dávila. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos de fábrica. Foja: 5.

FLORES Isabel, mestiza, soltera, murió en el puesto llamado Jonacatique, jurisdicción de esta villa el 4 de agosto de 1697. Se confeso y recibió la extremaunción, fue sepultada en la parroquia de esta dicha villa y no testó por ser muy pobre, y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos: diez reales. Foja: 4. 

GARCIA Felipe, indio, falleció en el pueblo de Soticacán jurisdicción de esta villa el 3 de octubre de 1697, casado con Agustina de Saucedo. Recibió los santos sacramentos de la penitencia y extremaunción que se los administré como teniente de cura, enterrose en la iglesia de dicho pueblo con entierro menor, no testó por no tener de que y lo firmé. Lorenzo Carrillo Dávila. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos de fábrica: diez reales - 2 p 2. Foja: 4. 

JUAN JERONIMO, indio, murió en la villa de Jerez el 18 de febrero de 1697. Casado con Francisca de la Cruz, india. No recibió los sacramentos, porque murió repentinamente. Fue sepultado en la parroquia de esta dicha villa y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Foja: 3. 

OROZCO Antonia DE, española, falleció en el puesto de La Gavia, de esta jurisdicción el 15 de julio de 1697. Viuda de Nicolás Carrillo. Confesó y recibió el sacramento de la extremaunción y se enterró dicho día en la parroquia de esta villa. No testo por ser muy pobre y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Al marge: derechos de fábrica: diez reales. Foja: 3 vuelta. 

SOSA Nicolás DE, mulato libre, murió en el puesto de El Arenal el 11 de agosto de 1697. Fue casado y velado con Juana de los Reyes. Confesó y recibió la extremaunción, fue sepultado en la parroquia de esta dicha villa, no testó por ser muy pobre y por que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos: diez reales. Foja: 4. 

SOTO ALMEIDA doña Isabel DE, falleció en la villa de Jerez el 2 de noviembre de 1697, viuda del Capitán Juan de Chávez, adminsitrele los santos sacramentos como teniente de Cura. Hizo testamento que pasó ante el Capitán don Manuel Hurtado de Mendoza, teniente de Alcalde Mayor de la villa de Jerez, deja la disposición de su entierro a la voluntad de sus albaceas que lo fueron Pedro y Francisco de Chávez, sus hijos y así mismo herederos, a los dichos con las demás sus hermanas, a la Cofradía del Santísimo Sacramento los quince ducados de Castilla, a las mandas forzosas a dos reales y a la casa Santa cuatro reales, no dejo otro legado pío, enterrose en Nuestra Iglesia parroquial con entierro mayor, y misa de cuerpo presente y para que conste lo firmé. Lorenzo Carrillo Dávila. Rúbrica. Al margen: los15 ducados. Cofrada. Derechos de fábrica - 19 p 2. Foja: 4 vuelta.


BELAUSTIGI Josefa, española, murió el 4 de agosto de 1698 en la labor que llaman San Francisco del Mezquital, jurisdicción de la villa de Jerez, vecina que fue de la villa de Jerez, fue casada y velada según orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia con Juan de Ayala, confeso y se le administró el sacramento de la eucaristía y extremaunción. Fue sepultado su cuerpo el día siguiente en la iglesia parroquial de dicha villa debajo de la lámpara con misa de cuerpo presente y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos de fabrica y sepultura - 25 ps. Fojas: 6 vuelta - 7.

BAÑUELOS María , falleció en la villa de Jerez de la Frontera el 4 de enero de 1698, viuda de Nicolás Pasillas, vecino de dicha villa. Se le dio sepultura eclesiástica en la iglesia parroquial de dicha villa en la capilla de Nuestra Señora de La Limpia Concepción, administrele todos los santos sacramentos, dijosele misa de cuerpo presente. No testó porque declaró ser pobre, dejó hijos legítimos y de Palabra encargó a sus hijos hicieren bien por su alma y diesen de limosna a la Cofradía del Santísimo de dicha villa, de quien era cofrada, 5 pesos, y para cumplir con la obligación de mi cargo. Y lo firmé. Bachiller Agustín Fernández Cordero. Rúbrica. Al margen: Fábrica: 17 ps 4 ts. Foja: 6.

BRISEÑO Francisco, mestizo, murió en el puesto llamado Jimulquillo, jurisdicción de Jerez el 26 de septiembre de 1698, vecino que fue de la villa de Jerez, el cual en articulo mortis casó según orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia con Antonia González. Recibió todos los santos sacramentos como católico cristiano, fue sepultado el día siguiente en la parroquia de Jerez. No testó por ser muy pobre y no tener que testar y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Agustín Fernández Cordero. Rúbrica. Al margen: fabrica 1 p 2 t. Foja: 8. 

CID DE TREJO Juan español, vecino de la villa de Jerez, donde murió el 10 de agosto de 1698, fue casado y velado según orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia con Agustina de Gamboa. Testó ante Diego Vázquez Borrego, escribano de su Majestad. Deja que se le diga una misa cantada con su vigilia y un novenario de misas rezadas. Confesó y recibió la eucaristía y extremaunción. Enterrose dicho día en esta parroquia y para que conste lo firmé. Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos de fábrica - 25 p. Foja: 7.

GALLEGOS Francisco, indio, del pueblo de Huejucar, casado con Felipa de la Cruz, murió en la villa de Jerez el 23 de noviembre de 1698. Se le dio sepultura eclesiástica en la parroquia de la villa de Jerez y se le administraron todos los sacramentos y por que conste lo firmé. Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: fabrica 1 p 2. Foja: 8 vuelta. 

GARCIA DE LASCANO don Ramón, español, vecino de Cocula, murió en la estancia que llaman La Calera, jurisdicción de la villa de Jerez el 23 de agosto de 1698, fue casado y velado según orden de Nuestra Santa Madre Iglesia con doña Petronila Cordero, en la ciudad de Guadalajara, otorgo poder ante el Capitán Francisco Prieto Gallardo, teniente del Alcalde Mayor de la villa de Jerez, el cual deja al capitán Nicolás García de Lascano, su hermano para que teste por él, confesó y no se le administraron los demás sacramentos por que murió en el puesto de La Calera de repente de una postema yendose a curar a la ciudad de Zacatecas. Fue sepultado el día siguiente en la iglesia parroquial de la villa de Jerez en el altare de Las Ánimas, dijosele misa cantada de cuerpo presente y su vigilia, y por que conste lo firmé. Bachiller Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: fabrica 12 ps 4. Fojas: 7 - 7 vuelta. 

GUTIERREZ Juana, india, doncella, murió en el paraje que llaman el Saus, jurisdicción de Jerez el 14 de julio de 1698. Confesó y se le administró el viático y extremaunción. Fue sepultada en el Hospital de San Miguel, que esta inmediato a esta dicha villa y para que conste lo firmé. Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: Fabrica 1 p 2. Foja: 6 vuelta. 

HARO Juan DE, murió en la villa de Jerez el 4 de septiembre de 1698, indio que crió Nicolás González, vecino de la jurisdicción de Jerez, al cual mataron de puñaladas en el campo que no alcanzó confesión, fue enterrado de limosna en el Hospital de San Miguel inmediato a la villa de Jerez, y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: se enterró de limosna por ser pobre, de solemnidad. Foja: 7 vuelta.

JUAN NICOLAS, murió en la villa de Jerez el 3 de julio de 1698. Ajusticiado en esta dicha villa, el cual fue casado y velado según orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia en el pueblo de Tlaltenango con Angelina Magdalena. Administrole el santo sacramento de la penitencia y viático el Bachiller Gregorio Romero, Clérigo Presbítero, vecino de esta villa. Fue sepultado su cuerpo dicho día en la parroquia de dicha villa y para que conste lo firmé. Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: pobre ajusticiado. Foja: 6 vuelta.

JUAN NICOLAS, indio, murió en el pueblo de Soticacan, jurisdicción de Jerez el 23 de septiembre de 1698, casado y velado con Catalina de la Cruz, Confesó y recibió todos los santos sacramentos como fiel y católico cristiano y se enterró en la dicha capilla del pueblo de Soticacan y por que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Agustín Fernández Cordero. Rúbrica. Al margen: Fabrica 1p 2. Foja: 8. 

JUANA NICOLASA, india, murió en la villa de Jerez el 17 de abril de 1698, viuda, que fue de Diego Felipe, confesó y recibió el sacramento de la extremaunción. Se le dio sepultura eclesiástica en el Hospital de esta villa y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller Agustín Fernández Cordero. Rúbrica. Al margen: Fábrica - 01 p 2. Foja: 6 vuelta.

MARIA, india borrada, soltera, murió en la labor llamada San Francisco del Mezquital, jurisdicción de esta villa de Jerez el 9 de agosto de 1698. Confesó y fue sepultado su cuerpo el siguiente día en el Hospital de San Miguel, inmediato a esta villa, y para que conste lo firmé. Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: derechos de fábrica diez reales - 1 p 2. Foja: 7. 

MENA Juan DE, mulato libre, murió en la villa de Jerez en 26 de febrero de 1698. Fue casado y velado según orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia con Catalina, mulata; y dijeron estar en el puesto de San Pedro. Confesó y recibió la extremaunción. Se le dio sepultura eclesiástica en el Hospital de esta villa, y se le dijo una misa rezada; y para que conste lo firmé. Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: pobre de solemnidad. Foja: 6.

MENDOZA Sebastiana DE, morisca libre, murió en la estancia llamada Los Sauces, jurisdicción de la villa de Jerez el 22 de noviembre de 1698, fue casada y velada segun orden de Nuestra Santa Madre Iglesia con Lucas Contreras, mulato libre. Fue sepultado su cuerpo al siguiente día en la parroquia de la villa de Jerez, el día siguiente dijosele misa cantada de cuerpo presente, confesó y recibió la extremaunción no testó por ser muy pobre y por que conste lo firmé. Bartolomé de Araiza. Al margen: fabrica 1 p 2 t. Fojas: 8 - 8 vuelta. 

MIGUEL DE SANTIAGO, indio, soltero, del pueblo de Santiago, feligresía de Colotlán, dijeron ser hijo legítimo de Pedro Miguel y de Micaela Angelina, vecinos del pueblo de Santiago, murió de repente de un dolor. Diosele sepultura eclesiástica y a pedimento de su padre, se le dio certificación de la partida y por que conste lo firmé. Bartolomé de Araiza. Rubrica. Al margen: fabrica 1 p 2. Foja: 8 vuelta.

PEREZ José, mestizo, murió en la villa de Jerez el 6 de septiembre de 1698, vecino que fue de la villa de Jerez, el cual fue casado y velado según orden de nuestra santa madre iglesia con Isabel de los Ángeles. Otorgó su testamento ante el Capitán Francisco Prieto Gallardo, teniente de Alcalde Mayor de la villa de Jerez, su cuya disposición falleció, confesó y se le administraron todos los sacramentos fue su cuerpo sepultado en la parroquia de la villa de jerez, junto a la pila del agua bendita, se le dijo misa cantada de cuerpo presente y vigilia y por que conste lo firmé. Bachiller Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: fabrica 1 p 2 ts. Fojas: 7 vuelta - 8. 

Sin fecha

CRUZ Marcos DE LA, murió en la estancia de San Pedro de Alcantara, jurisdicción de la villa de Jerez, mulato esclavo que fue de Diego Vázquez Borrego. Fue casado con Nicolasa de la Rosa. Se le administró el sacramento de la penitencia y extremaunción. Fue enterrado en la parroquia de esta villa y para que conste lo firmé. Bachiller don Francisco de la Rocha y Cazeres. Rúbrica. Esta partida se asentó sin fecha, pero es inserta entre las partidas del 18 de febrero y del 22 de mayo de 1697, tiempo en el que ocurrió el deceso de este sujeto. Foja: 3 vuelta.

MARIA, mulata libre, soltera, murió en el puesto de La Gavia, jurisdicción de Jerez, la cual confesó y se le administraron todos los sacramentos. Se enterró el mismo día en la parroquia de la villa de Jerez, y porque conste lo firmé. Bachiller Bartolomé de Araiza. Rúbrica. Al margen: fabrica 1 p 2. Foja: 8 vuelta.

Descendants of Cristobal de Villarreal-de-las-Casas

by Juan Inclan
Part 1of 3 


Generation No. 1

1. CAPTAIN CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS (DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born 1649 in Valle de las Salinas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) MICAELA DE TREVINO-Y-RENTERIA June 25, 1679 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of MARCOS-ALONSO DE TREVINO-DE-LA-GARZA and MARIA-MAYOR FERNANDEZ-DE-RENTERIA. She was born 1650 in Valle de las Salinas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died October 02, 1685. He married (2) IDELFONZA GUAJARDO June 17, 1690 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JUAN MARTIN-GUAJARDO and ANA-CLARA DE AGUIRRE. She was born 1672 in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.

Notes for CAPTAIN CRISTOBAL DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS:In 1687 & 1690 he accompanied Alonso De Leon on the exploration of the Gulf Cost to the Nueces River, in what is now Texas.

Source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Valdomero Vela, Jr. Page 26.

Marriage source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra, Jr., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 139.




3. ii. MIGUEL DE VILLARREAL, b. Abt. 1660, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. Abt. 1734.

iii. CRISTOBAL VILLARREAL-TREVINO, b. May 10, 1680, Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon,Mexico; m. JUANA BOTELLO-DE-MORALES, June 03, 1713, Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon,Mexico; b. Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.





5. vii. ANTONIO DE VILLARREAL-MARTINEZ, b. 1704, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

viii. FRANCISCA-JAVIERA VILLARREAL-MARTINEZ, b. 1716, Valle de Salinas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; m. JUAN-ANTONIO DE IRIGOYEN, September 09, 1730, Saltillo, Coahulia, Mexico; b. 1715, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.


Source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara, by Raul J. Guerra., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 86.


Marriage source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra., Nadine M. Vasquez., and Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 86.


Generation No. 2



6. i. MARIA-ANTONIA5 GUAJARDO-VILLARREAL, b. Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


3. MIGUEL4 DE VILLARREAL (CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born Abt. 1660 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and died Abt. 1734. He married (1) TOMASINA DE VILLARREAL-Y-RENTERIA, daughter of DIEGO DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS and INES DE RENTERIA. She was born Abt. 1660 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (2) FRANCISCA-MARIA SUAREZ-DE-LONGORIA-GARCIA May 20, 1709 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of PEDRO-JOSEPH DE LONGORIA-RODRIGUEZ and AGUSTINA GARCIA-DE-QUINTANILLA-SOSA. She was born July 17, 1692 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (3) CLARA CANTU-DE-LA-GARZA February 17, 1727/28 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of FERNANDO CANTU-ORTIZ-RAMIREZ and GERTRUDIS DE-LA-GARZA-MONTEMAYOR. She was born 1690 in Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Marriage source:Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara by Raul J. Guerra., Nadine M. Vasquez., and Baldomero Vela, Jr. Page 82.


i. GREGORIO5 DE VILLARREAL, b. September 25, 1677, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


ii. CRISTOBAL5 DE VILLARREAL, b. April 27, 1712, Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

8. iii. MARIA-LUISA-MARGARITA DE VILLARREAL, b. September 08, 1717, Sagrario Metro, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon,Mexico.




v. THORIVIO VILLARREAL-CANTU, m. MARIA-LEONOR ESCAMILLA-DE-LA-GARZA, April 29, 1774, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1740.




10. i. JUAN-FRANCISCO5 DE VILLARREAL, b. Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

5. ANTONIO4 DE VILLARREAL-MARTINEZ (CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born 1704 in Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (1) MARIA-JOSEFA VILLARREAL-FLORES 1724, daughter of MARCOS VILLARREAL-DE-LA-GARZA and MARIA-RITA FLORES-Y-AYALA. She was born 1706 in Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married (2) MARIA-MANUELA DE-LA-GARZA-MASCORRO December 09, 1729 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of BERNABE DE-LA-GARZA-DE-LAS-CASAS and JOSEFA GOMEZ-MASCORRO.



11. i. MARIA-GERTRUDIS5 DE VILLARREAL, b. 1735, Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.



ii. JOSE-FRANCISCO5 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LA-GARZA, m. JUANA-PHELIPA DE HERRERA, November 26, 1766, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. Saltillo, Coahulia, Mexico.


Generation No. 3



i. FRANCISCO-TOMASO6 CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, b. Abt. 1746, Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

ii. MARIA-JOSEFA CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, b. Abt. 1748, Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

iii. MARIA-NICOLASA CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, b. Abt. 1749, Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

12. iv. JOSE-ANTONIO CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, b. Abt. 1750, Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

v. MARIA-ANTONIA CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, b. Abt. 1750, Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

vi. MARIA-IGNACIA CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, b. Abt. 1752, Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico.

13. vii. JUAN-NEPOMUCENO CISNEROS-GUAJARDO, b. Abt. 1765, Camargo, Tamaulipus, Mexico; d. Matamoros, Tamaulipus, Mexico.



i. PEDRO-NOLASCO6 GUAJARDO-DEL-RIO, b. February 15, 1732/33, Sagrario Metropolitano, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.

14. ii. PEDRO-JOSEPH GUAJARDO-DEL-RIO, b. 1735, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.



i. MARIA-YGNES6 DE VILLARREAL, b. 1756; m. ANTONIO-MARGIL VILLARREAL-CISNEROS, July 19, 1772, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1747.



15. i. JOSE-HERMENEGILDO6 VILLARREAL-VILLARREAL, b. April 24, 1763, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

10. JUAN-FRANCISCO5 DE VILLARREAL (JUAN-CAYETANO4, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born in Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He married JUANA-GERTRUDIS DE-LA-GARZA-VILLARREAL August 18, 1754 in Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, daughter of JOSEPH DE-LA-GARZA-CANTU and MARIA-ROSA DE VILLARREAL-FLORES. She was born in Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


i. MARCOS-MARCELINO6 VILLARREAL-DE-LA-GARZA, m. MARIA-LUISA FLORES-DE-LA-SERNA, August 28, 1782, San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1778, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. RAFAEL VILLARREAL-DE-LA-GARZA, m. ANTONIA GARCIA-TREVINO, July 29, 1797, San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1777.


iv. PABLO JOSEPH VILLARREAL-DE-LA-GARZA, b. February 02, 1769, San Pedro, Boca de Leones,Villaldama,Nuevo Leon,Mexico.

17. v. MARIA-MICAELA VILLARREAL-DE-LA-GARZA, b. 1775, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; d. Laredo, Webb County, Texas.

vi. MARIA ANTONIA VILLARREAL-DELAGARZA, b. 1778; m. JOSE MARIA FLORES-SANCHEZ, September 11, 1797, San Carlos, Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; b. 1777.

11. MARIA-GERTRUDIS5 DE VILLARREAL (ANTONIO4 DE VILLARREAL-MARTINEZ, CRISTOBAL3 DE VILLARREAL-DE-LAS-CASAS, DIEGO2 DE VILLARREAL, FRANCISCO1 VILLARREAL) was born 1735 in Boca de Leones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. She married JOSEPH-ALEJANDRO DE URRUTIA-FERNANDEZ September 10, 1753 in Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, son of JOSEPH DE URRUTIA-Y-ESCURTA and FRANCISCA FERNANDEZ-DE-LA-GARZA. He was born 1733 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


i. FRANCISCA-JAVIERA6 DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. December 15, 1754, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

ii. BARTHOLOME-AGUSTIN DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. April 01, 1756, Sagrario Metropolitano, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iii. JOSEPH-FRANCISCO DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. November 23, 1757, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

iv. MARIA-GUADALUPE DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. May 20, 1759, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

v. MARIA JOSEFA DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. April 05, 1761, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

18. vi. JOSEPH-EUSEVIO DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. November 16, 1762, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

vii. JOSEPH THOMAS CORNELIO DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. October 10, 1764, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

viii. MARIA-ROSALIA-MAXIMA DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. June 16, 1766, Nuestra Sra de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

19. ix. MARIA-BARBARA DE URRUTIA-VILLARREAL, b. September 01, 1767, Nuesta Senora de Guadalupe, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.


Arquídiócesis de Monterrey
Sent by John Inclan

This is a listing with links to Catholic churches in the state of Nuevo Leon. You will find the addresses, phones, fax numbers and the names of the members of the staff. 




March 27, 2004, Miami, Florida
Dr. George R. Ryskamp
Director of the Center for Family History and Genealogy
Brigham Young University, Utah

Mr. Ryskamp is a noted author, genealogist, and professor at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. This full day seminar, focusing on Hispanic genealogy, encompasses the following one-hour presentations by Mr. Ryskamp:

1. Finding Ancestros from Latin America and Southern Europe on the Internet Some old, some new, many Internet sites offer much about finding Latino people, places and records.

2. The Parish Records Were Burned, What Can I Do? Wars, riots, earthquakes and more destroyed many records in Latin America, Spain and Portugal, but many alternatives exist.  Learn why I have never seen a Hispanic family that could not be traced back to at least 1790.

3. El Lugar es Importante!  The Place is Important! Find and explore ancestral hometowns with us.  Help make your ancestral story more alive and solve those difficult research challenges with 
information about the places where your ancestors lived.

4. Inventories, Indexes and Guides to Research in Southern European Archives Spain, Italy, France and Portugal, not to mention the countries of Latin America, have a wealth of record sources that offer a multitude of genealogical treasures.  Learn the what, where and how of finding and using 
these archival treasure houses.

5. Spanish Connections with Latin American Countries There is much that can be done with records in Spain.  Learn about the records of Latin American countries, in the archives of Spain.

The conference will be held on Saturday, March 27, 2004, from 8:30 am to 5:00 pm, at the Holiday Inn, Miami Airport West in Miami, Florida. The fee is $50 and includes lunch. We also have a great rate for out-of-town guests at the host hotel.

The event is being hosted by the Cuban Genealogy Club of Miami, Florida, Inc., a non-profit organization. 

Eduardo Ramos
Founding Member and 1st Vice-President of the Cuban Genealogy Club of Miami, Florida, Inc.

For more registration information, contact, Martha Ibanez Zervoudakis
Founding Member, Director and Secretary of the Cuban Genealogy Club of Miami, Florida, Inc. Federation of Genealogical Societies Delegate 


Archivo Grafico y Museo Histórico 
Places to do Research in Spain
Castles in Spain, Alcazar of Segovia
Spanish/Portuguese Kings
El Jardin
Spanish Flu
Spanish Arts
Centro Virtual Cervantes

Fundación Archivo Grafico y Museo histórico, AGM  

San Francisco - Córdoba - Rep Argentina
Arturo A. Bienedell, presidente Fundación AGM
Revista Digital Nueva Museologia

El origen de la Fundación Archivo Gráfico y Museo Histórico de la Ciudad de San Francisco y la Región (AGM), data del 1 de marzo de 1996, fecha en que fue creado como asociación civil Archivo Gráfico de la Ciudad de San Francisco, con el objetivo de obtener y conservar fotografías y documentos gráficos que testimonien el ayer sanfrancisqueño para destinarlas a la formación educativa de los estudiantes de la ciudad y las poblaciones vecinas que, como se sabe, tienen un origen en raíces comunes.Las sucesivas donaciones por parte de los vecinos hicieron que en poco tiempo la entidad deba cambiar su denominación por la de Archivo Gráfico y Museo Histórico cambiando también su sede por una de mayores dimensiones, acorde a las nuevas exigencias y en cumplimiento de las disposiciones estatutarias que incluyen brindarse a la comunidad en cuanto con esta obra se apunta a la formación de mejores ciudadanos que conozcan su pasado buscando información en nuestra institución. Una tercera etapa se abrió en abril de 1997 cuando se dio comienzo a las excavaciones que llevaron al hallazgo de numerosos restos fósiles de animales que en el cuaternario habitaron en esta región del este cordobés, los que fueron rescatados y debidamente identificados y expuestos para conocimiento de los estudiantes de las escuelas locales y regionales.  

Other Places to do Research in Spain
Jaime Cader 
(c) 2004 

For almost 20 years I have, when able to travel, gone periodically to Spain to do research on my ancestors and to collect cultural information.  Aside from visiting the main national archives in that country, as for example the "
Archivo General Militar de Segovia," there are other centers that a researcher should become acquainted with.  The following is a description of some of these centers.

Palacio Real in Madrid.  This palace has an archive where old documents are kept.  This place is located near the metro (subway) station of Plaza de España.

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas.  This center has a department for Sephardic studies and a department for Arabic studies. etc.  There is a library which has all of the volumes of "Diccionario Heraldico y Genealogico de Apellidos Espanoles y Americanos" by Alberto and Arturo Garcia Carrafa.  The bookstore sells the books that have been published by this center, such as "La Onomastica de los Moriscos Valencianos" by Ana Labarta.  The address is Duque de
Medinaceli, 4, -28014 Madrid, Spain.  It is walking distance from the Metro Tirso de Molina.

There is a center known as the
Instituto de Cooperacion Iberoamericana (ICI).  I do not have the exact address, however if it is not on the Avenida de los Reyes Catolicos, it is nearby.  It is walking distance from the Metro Moncloa (Madrid).  This center has a library and exhibits are displayed.  In 1982 it published a booklet entitled "Arqueologia Taina" about artifacts, etc. from the time of the Taino Indians in the Dominican Republic.

Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura has its center at Santiago Rusinol, 8, -28040 Madrid, Spain.  They generally only have books that where published within the past 20 years.  The phone numbers are (91)536-88-65 and (91)536-88-79.  (Even while in Madrid, the prefix must be dialed.)

Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales has a library.  They have published books on Spanish immigration to the Americas.  This center is located at Pintor Rosales, 44 in Madrid, Spain.  It is near the Metro Arguelles.

Historians from the
Fundacion 1 (primero) de Mayo have collected photographs and documents concerning Spanish immigrants in other countries.  They have also interviewed individuals, recorded these sessions on DVDs and published books.  They are located at Arenal, 11, primer piso,28013, Madrid, Spain.  The telephone number is (91) 364-06-01.  They publish newsletters which can be down-loaded from their website: On the home page click Archivos y Biblioteca, then click Centro de Documentacion de la Emigracion Espanola, and finally click Boletin Historias de la Emigracion.  The people at this center are basically only interested in historical events which took place approximately within the last one hundred years.

Instituto de Estudios Turolenses has an affiliation with the CSIC in Madrid.  It has the same functions with the exception that its emphasis is on the province of Teruel.  It is located at C/ (calle) Los Amantes, 15, segunda planta, -44001 Teruel, Spain. The phone number is (978) 617-860, 861, or 862.

There is an archive and library in the Valencia City Hall (
Ayuntamiento de Valencia).  This is located at the Plaza del Ayuntamiento and is about two blocks from the Valencia train station.  From this center one can be referred to other places to do research in Valencia.

There is a bookstore for books about the province of Valencia.  Its name is in Valenciano (Catalan) -Llibre-ria de la Generalitat.  The address is Pl.Manises, 3, 46003 Valencia, Spain.  Phone number (963) 866-170. Their website is

A well known Valencian cultural center is
Lo Rat Penat ("murcielago" in Spanish).  The address is C/ (calle) Aparisi i Guijarro, 10, -46003 Valencia, Spain.  Phone number (96) 391-2255.  This center offers Valencian folk dance classes and has book and musical recording sales dealing with Valencian culture.  Do not be surprised if you are spoken to in "valenciano" while there.

I will finally mention that there is an Archivo Historico in Palencia.  The address is C/ Ninos de Coro, 4, Palencia, Spain.

It should be noted also that much documentation can be found in France at the
Archives diplomatiques, which is a part of the Ministere des Affairs Etrangeres. The address is 37 Quai d' Orsay, 75351 Paris, France. One needs to acquire an identification card in order to do research at that center.    The website is

Castles in Spain, Alcazar of Segovia
Sent by Joan De Soto

This Alcazar, a castle-palace, lies in the walled city of Segovia in the province of Segovia in Spain. It's one of the most famous castles in Spain due to the fact that a lot of Spanish kings resided here and because of its beautiful exterior.

[[Beautiful collection of photos taken by the web master.  Please look at it.  You'll be amazed.]]
The construction of this majestic castle-palace probably began in the last quarter of the 11th century, by King Alfonso VI, following the Reconquest, on a site fortified by the Romans, Visigoths and Moors successively. The great keep, with its dozen semicircular sentry boxes, next to the entrance of the Alcazar over the artificial moat (seen left), was the last to be built. A lot of royals resided here, such as; King Ferdinand III, King Alfonso X, King Juan II and King Enrique IV, who all altered the buildings to their likings.

In 1474, in this palace, Isabel was proclaimed Queen of Castile, and Carlos III erected the Royal Artillery College. King Philip II, son of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, established the capital of his kingdom in Madrid but reformed the Alcazar. He altered the roofs, replacing them with the conical slate-covered ones like which he'd seen in Flanders, Belgium.

In 1862 however the Alcazar was devastated by fire. In 1882, it was rebuilt using old sketches of the interior before the fire. So all we see inside today is a 19th century remake. After completion the Alcazar firstly became the Military Archives and later an Artillery Academy and Museum. In the mid-20th century this use also ended and the Alcazar is now used for cultural activities and as a museum. It's state-owned.

Spanish Flu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Sent by Clarissa Cosgrove

The Spanish Flu (also known as the Great Influenza Pandemic and La Grippe) was an unusually severe and deadly strain of influenza that killed an some 25 million to 40 million people (possibly significantly more) world-wide in 1918 and 1919. It is thought to have been the most deadly pandemic so far in human history, killing more people than the Black Plague or AIDS. 

The nations of the Allied side of World War I called it the "Spanish Flu" from mistaken early reports that it originated in Spain. In Spain it was called "The French Flu". Spain did have one of the worst early outbreaks of the disease, with some 8 million deaths in May of 1918. 

The Spanish Flu vanished within eighteen months, and the actual strain was never determined. The influenza virus was not understood by medical science at the time, and most contemporary effort was spent in an unsuccessful quest to find a germ-borne cause of the disease. It has been suggested that the stresses of combat, possibly combined with the effects of chemical warfare, may have weakened soldiers' immune systems thereby increasing their vulnerability to the disease and accelerating its spread. If so then the epidemic might be seen as the last and most tragic outcome of the war. 

On this webpage, it repeats what I remember hearing about why the 1918 flu was named the Spanish Flu.  Between Spain's documentation of the flu and its high fatality rate, both could have contributed to the label.  
Sent by Clarissa Cosgrove

Portugal:  Spanish/Portuguese Kings
Fifty-three portraits or photos of Spanish/Portuguese Kings
Sent by Joan de Soto
County 1095, Kingdom 1139 (1580-1640 personal union with Spain), Republic 1910

   El Jardin  

Por Carlos B. Vega

En recuerdo de mi madre…

Cuando era niño mi madre me pedía que cuidase del jardín de nuestra casa, de sus bellas flores multicolores, de sus docenas de inquietas mariposas, de las ágiles ardillas cuyas acrobacias nos hacían siempre reír. Todo irradiaba vida en aquel pedacito de cielo. --Y no te olvides antes de terminar—me insistía mi madre—de barrer debajo de la cruz y recoger las hojas muertas de la enredadera, pero sin pisarlas, que les duele, ni de limpiar el agua de la fuente--. Lo recuerdo todo muy bien, y una que otra vez he tratado de plasmar aquellos felices tiempos pero me ha faltado decisión o quizá suerte. Siempre cumplía con el deseo de mi madre y ella, al verme afanosamente trabajando en el jardín, resplandecía de alegría y fijaba en mí, asomándose al ventanal de la cocina, sus ojazos negros. La escena se repetía diariamente desde que regresaba del colegio hasta la hora de cenar. No había mayor ilusión para mi madre que la de su jardín.

Pasó el tiempo. El niño se hizo hombre y la madre encaneció y se fue encorvando. Un día salí de casa hacia tierras extrañas y me casé con una buena mujer cubana con la que tuve dos hermosos hijos, Carlos e Isabel. A pesar de la punzante distancia, llamaba a mi madre con frecuencia y siempre le preguntaba por el jardín y ella me contestaba:--Triste es, hijo, triste es, que ha crecido la hierba y todo está cubierto de hojas secas y muchas flores han marchitado. Las ardillas y mariposas han mudado de hogar, quedando sólo las solitarias, como yo. No hay quien lo cuide desde que tú te fuiste y yo, con mis años a cuestas, por más que empujo tirando del recuerdo, no me obedecen mis endebles huesiños--. Y yo le contestaba: --No te preocupes, mamá, pronto volveré y todo será como antes. Te lo prometo--.

Más vueltas del reloj. Ahora el encanecido era yo. Regresé un día a mi casa. ¡Qué sorpresa para mamá! Salté del automóvil y a grandes zancadas me fui derechito al jardín: --"¡Mamá! ¡Mamá!"--. El silencio retumbó en mi alma con grito angustiante y fatídico. El aspecto de mi casa no era el mismo; ya no se respiraba aquel aire perfumado de nuestro jardín en flor. Faltaban la escoba y el ancho sombrero de paja que mamá hacía reposar siempre en el muro de la entrada, encima del tiesto rebosante de geranios y claveles rojos.

Llegué jadeante al jardín, que ya no era sino un crecido y espeso matorral. --¡Mamá!… ¡MAMA!-- Mi voz rebotaba hueca contra los cipreses que se erguían vigilantes en torno al jardín. En el tronco del cerezo, bajo cuya sombra me adormecía siendo niño con el dulce salpicar de la fuente, leí escritas con letras temblorosas estas palabras: "Hijo, yo lo cuidaré desde el cielo por ahora; después lo haremos los dos juntitos, como solíamos hacer"…

22 de septiembre del 2000
© 2000 By Carlos B. Vega, 9-22-2000

Spanish Arts
Sent by Bill Carmena
Fine Arts Includes: 
The  Museum of "El Prado"
A Little History of Art
Reina Sofia National Museum
Literature includes:
The History of the Spanish Literature. 
Medieval Spanish Prose
Medieval Spanish Poetry
Medieval Spanish Theatre
Golde Age Poetry
18th-19th Contemporary Poetry
20thContemporary Poetry

The Quixote in the web: The most universal Spanish literary work, both in Spanish and English with the famous pictures by Gustave Doré.  We'll periodically be offering you chapters of Don Quixote in English along with the original Gustave Doré illustrations. They will be listed below in order as we offer them. 

Centro Virtual Cervantes
Sent by Bill Carmena
Free access to Cultural Resources which have been mounted by an educational division of the government of Spain.  Information on classic literature and art, as well as the works of modern writers are included.


Veterans Grave Registry Project  Did You Know. .  

Veterans Grave Registry Project

Dear Ms. Lozano:
I am corresponding secretary of the Descendants of Mexican War Veterans (DMWV). One of our members recently accessed the most recent issue of Somos Primos (which is a very fine and interesting publication, may I say) and noticed that you had some information there about soldiers who fought in the U.S.-Mexican War, the source of which was obviously our organization's website. She suggested that we contact you to let you know about our ongoing veterans graves registry project, in the hope that you might publicize it in the next issue of the online magazine.
What we are trying to do is enlist our members' and the public's support in locating the graves of men who fought in this war. You may use the below link to learn more about it: 

If you have any questions about the project or about our society, please don't hesitate to ask.
Thanks!   Best Regards,  Steven Butler

DID YOU KNOW. . . . 

Sent by Frank Fregoso

As you walk up the steps to the Capitol Building which houses the Supreme Court you can see near the top of the building a row of the world's law givers and each one is facing one in the middle who is facing forward with a full frontal view - it is Moses and the Ten Commandments! 

As you enter the Supreme Court courtroom, the two huge oak doors have the Ten Commandments engraved on each lower portion of each door.. 

As you sit inside the courtroom, you can see the wall, right above where the Supreme Court judges sit, a display of the Ten Commandments!  There are Bible verses etched in stone all over the Federal Buildings and Monuments in Washington, D.C. 

James Madison, the fourth president, known as "The Father of Our Constitution" made the following statement "We have staked the whole of all our political institutions upon the capacity of mankind for self-government, upon the capacity of each and all of us to govern ourselves, to control ourselves, to sustain ourselves according to the Ten Commandments of God." Patrick Henry, that patriot and Founding Father of our country said, "It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great nation was founded not by religionists but by Christians, not on religions but on the Gospel of Jesus Christ". 

Every session of Congress begins with a prayer by a paid preacher, whose salary has been paid by the taxpayer since 1777. 

Fifty-two of the 55 founders of the Constitution were members of the established orthodox churches in the colonies. 

Thomas Jefferson worried that the Courts would overstep their authority and instead of interpreting the law would begin making oligarchy....the rule of few over many. 

The very first Supreme Court Justice, John Jay, said, "Americans should select and prefer Christians as their rulers." 

How, then, have we gotten to the point that everything we have done for 220 years in this country is now suddenly wrong and unconstitutional? 


Organizing Paper Files: Part 1  
Download free charts and forms
National Archivist
Online  Death Indexes & Records 

Organizing Paper Files: Part 1  

by Salena Ashton

While you are collecting information from your family, obituaries, newspapers, the Internet, and other sources, you may begin to wonder how you are going to keep track of all your information. There are two ways to keep track: computer and paper files. There are many advantages to keeping your files on the computer, and the author would like to refer you to the article previously written about this. (Just go back and click on the article about Downloading and Using Gedcoms).
As for paper files, there is a need for them even if you are using the computer to organize your work. First of all, you should always have a hard copy of your computer files. And second of all, it is difficult to 'computerize' certain items (unless you use a scanner): original birth, marriage, and death certificates; books or magazine/ journal articles about a particular ancestor or family; personal diaries of ancestors, etc.
And so, here are some beginning guidelines on organizing your paper research:
1. As you are collecting your materials, (certificates, newpaper clippings, notes from interviewing relatives, diaries, previously compiled genealogies, family Bibles, etc.) put everything in one large box. Do not worry at this stage about separating things according to family. That will come later. The idea is to place all genealogy- related items in a single location. Spend at least a week doing this.
2. If you have small pieces of paper, consider copying them or taping them onto standard 8 1/2" x 11" paper. You won't run as high of a risk in losing or misplacing these small papers.
3. With ALL ORIGINALS, whether they be birth certificates, obituaries, or anything else that is orginal, make xerox copies. I cannot overstate how often people have told me their woes of losing or accidentally damaging an orginal source of research.
4. And finally, once all the items have been collected from around your house and your relatives, begin to divide them into six categories:
    a. Paternal Grandfather and all his ancestors
    b. Paternal Grandmother and all her ancestors
    c. Maternal Grandfather and all his ancestors
    d. Maternal Grandmother and all her ancestors
    e. All information about your parents and their children except you, meaning: your parents and your siblings.
    f. All information about you, your spouse and your children.
Please take the entire month of January, in this brand new year, to divide your information into one of six categories. By this time come February,  you will be ready to thoroughly go through the files and begin to see what it is you have, what you are missing, and hence, where to start doing your research. February's article will continue with this organization process.

You can
download free charts and forms to help organize and record your family history at:   (Requires free Adobe Acrobat Reader)

National Archivist

A new genealogy website launches to provide access to unique records and otherwise hard-to-find documents, such as: Passport Applications (1851 to 1903); Death Duty Registers (1796 to 1903) and Births, Marriages and Deaths at Sea (1854 to 1890).  In the coming weeks, National Archivist also plans to add previously inaccessible military records, including: Harts' Army List (1888), Waterloo Roll Call (1815), and Peninsular Medal Roll (1793 - 1814).

For more information, please contact:
Camilla Aspey
Tel + 44 (0) 1753 889100   Fax + 44 (0) 1753 889101    Mobile: 07929 950 325

Online Searchable Death Indexes & Records
Sent by Joe Beine  Each state has its own webpage. 


Mexico Scientists Find Ancient Settlement 
By CAMILA CASTELLANOS, Associated Press Writer, Jan 29, 2004
Sent by John Inclan,

MEXICO CITY - Archaeologists say they have discovered an ancient Teotihuacan settlement in central Mexico City, 30 miles from the pyramids where the culture flourished nearly 2,000 years ago. 

The discovery of structures and tools on a hill just behind the landmark Chapultepec Castle in December suggests the Teotihuacan culture spread and influenced the area around Mexico City even earlier than previously thought, archaeologists said Wednesday while giving reporters a tour of the site. 

The ancient city of Teotihuacan lies north of modern Mexico City. It remains largely a mystery, and was so even for the Aztecs, who are credited with founding Mexico City in the 1300s. 

Teotihuacan, one of the largest cities in the world around the time of Christ, had an estimated 150,000 inhabitants, and influenced art and architecture as far away as the Yucatan peninsula. However, it had been abandoned and crumbling for centuries by the time of the Aztecs. 

Scattered settlements and relics dating to the time before the Aztecs previously have been found on the outskirts of modern Mexico City, but few have been found so close to the island that formed the Aztec city's center. 

These are the first remains to be found in Chapultepec park, which served as a retreat for rulers from Aztec kings to Emperor Maximillian. 

The castle was built in 1784 as a residence for the Spanish viceroys. Its construction likely destroyed evidence of the ancient civilization, some of which may have survived on the surrounding hillside. The new site's excavation began when the National Historical Museum undertook a complete restoration of the castle in 1998. Pre-Hispanic vestiges were discovered underneath the castle's structure and in the surrounding hill. 



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                    12/30/2009 04:48 PM