Somos Primos

December 2004, 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


Content Areas
United States
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. . 32
Galvez Patriots 
. . 34
Orange County, CA
. . 37
Los Angeles, CA
. . 40
. . 51
Northwestern US
. . 58
Southwestern US 
. . 61
. . 65
. . 68
. . 81
. . 85
East Mississippi
. . 102
East Coast
. . 105
. . 109
. . 136
. . 141
. . 153
. . 157
Family History
. . 159
. . 170
. . 171
Community Calendars

. . 176


Peter (Siriaco) Gonzales and Romanita Ramos
circa 1907 California
"I am grateful to have three generation of wedding pictures, 
my great-grandparents, grandparents, and parents."
For more on the family: Rose Gonzales Hardy

"History is not history, unless it is the truth." 
Abraham Lincoln
Sent by Willis Papillion 

"I am spreading the word about Somos Primos, I continue to enjoy the articles.  There is always something new and interesting to find, even when I reread the third and fourth times."

Ron Jaramillo, (Portland, Oregon)

With all respect one could express, Somos Primos is a blessing for those of us who want to keep our heritage alive. I've come across many disappointments and happened across your website when looking for stories about my grandmother.

I couldn't believe my eyes, Somos Primos had taken the time to share my grandmothers passing. Your team of people have renewed my faith and belief that there are others out there who really do care about the Californios, the history and the truth.

My grandmother Angelina Marquez Olivera would have loved to talk your ear off about all of the ranchos, relatives and our history!


My name is Irma Gomez Gutierrez de Lucero, and I have been researching my family for roughly 8 years. I look always look forward to every issue of  Somos Primos. I appreciate the extensive research and time put into this journal. Please continue such supreme work.

I believe that I got the genealogy bug from my abuelito who game me extensive info on my Gutierrez line. By the way, I also have a Lozano line (San Juan de los Lagos, Jalisco). 

Thank you.
Irma   (Sacramento,CA)

Hi Mimi, Just a line to say that I am very proud of you and the wonderful work that you are doing on behalf of our community. Your unselfish energy is an inspiration for me to just keep working harder.

 The last Somos Primos issue was nothing but fantastic, it just keeps getting better. I'm proud to be a part of it. Consider me one of your top fans!

Eddie Martinez
Click here to see a mural designed by Eddie and completed with the help of other Latino artists from Los Angeles in 1975. at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C.
For more of his work, please go to his website:

Good Morning Mimi, You are doing outstanding job and I am very proud of you.

God Bless from, Frank Paras Jr.
Christian Movie Production Ministry

Hi Mimi! Hope you are doing are doing fabulous on the Somos Primos work! Keep it up!!!!   Take care of yourself and keep up the good work that helps all of us.......I certainly appreciate all you do!

Muchos abrazos fuertes, 
Josie Trevino Trevino

I use "Josie Trevino Trevino"  because I was born 
a Trevino and later became a widow of a Trevino. 
I descend from the first Trevino families in New 
Spain and then from the Spain, Italy, and Portugal connections.

Somos Primos Staff: 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna de Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Tom Ascensio Villarreal
Sam Anthony
Salena Ashton

Mercy Bautista Olvera
Frankie/Jerry Benavidez
Treyce Benavidez

Keesee Bermudez
Eliza Boné 
Eva Booher
Ricardo Bracho
Jaime Cader

Bill Carmena 
Joseph Carmena
Bonnie Chapa
Johanna De Soto

Pat Esterly
Karla Everett  
Sandy Fritz
MaryRose Garcia
George Gause
Gloria Golden
Irma Gomez Gutierrez de
Ron Gonzales 
Rose Gonzales Hardy
Horacio Gonzalez 
Ted Gostin
Michael Hardwick
Lorraine Hernandez
Mary Herz 
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Ron Jaramillo
Alex King
David Lewis
Carlos Martín Herrera de la
Eddie Martinez
Ann Minter 
Paul Newfield
Lorna V. Neysmith
Gloria Oliver

Guillermo Padilla Origel
Willis Papillion
Frank Paras Jr. 
Antonio K. Pascual 
Angel Custodio Rebollo
Viola Rodriguez Sadler
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr
Bob Smith 

Josie Trevino Trevino
Lucy Wilson
SHHAR Board:   

Laura Arechabala Shane, 
Bea Armenta Dever,  
Steven Hernandez,  
Mimi Lozano Holtzman, 
Pat Lozano, 
Henry Marquez,

Michael S. Perez, 
Yolanda Ochoa Hussey, 
Crispin Rendon, 
Viola Rodriguez Sadler, 
John P. Schmal

To contact a Board member, please send your email to Your correspondence will be forwarded.
Board member, Bea Armenta Dever is sharing her family Christmas tree.  It is made up of family photos, which expand with the family. In addition to family members, family events and memories of the  year are added. 

Board member, Viola Rodriguez Sadler has created men's ties and decorated stuffed pillows with family photos. 

Merry Christmas from the SHHAR Board.



SHHAR Activities,Washington, D.C.
     Pentagon, Depart. of the Army
     Nat. Hispanic/Latino Agenda
     Nat. Archives & Record Admin.
     Smithsonian Latino Initiative
     U.S. Senate Task Force

LULAC Endores Alberto Gonzales
Bush Nominates Chief of Kellog 
        Commerce Secretary
Bush nominates Anna Escobedo
for the US Treasurer
Community Honors Latino Vets
Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo
State Rep. Linda Chapa LaVia
Encyclopedia Latina
U.S. Surgeon General's Initiative
Racial diversity urged for teachers
Family Fact of the Week: Veterans
Army Human Resources Command
Marine Lance Cpl. Victor Gonzalez
Veterans History Project 
From Roma,TX to Berlin, Germany 
Weekend Warrior: Daniel Abrego
Coming into Manhood
Rise of the Second Generation
Trouble in the 3rd Generation
The Smartest Card. Get It. Use It
Trivial Pursuit
Facts & Genes, Family Tree DNA 

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research in Washington, D.C.
September 29th-October 6th

[[ "As President of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, and Editor of Somos Primos, I was asked to assist in mounting Hispanic Heritage Month activities at both the National Archives and and  the Pentagon.  Board member, Yolanda Ochoa and her husband were able to participate in both activities, as were George Ryskamp and John Inclan.

Headquarters, Department of the Army, September 30, 2004
Pentagon Auditorium

Left to right, Dr. Guzman, John Inclan, Yolanda Ochoa, Dr. George Ryskamp, Mimi Lozano

Welcome.................................................................. Mistress of Ceremonies, Ms. Delia Trimble Director, Hispanic Employment Program HQ Department of Army, EEO/Civil Rights
Presentation of Colors................................................U.S. Army Color Guard
National Anthem........................................................SSG Pablo Talamante, US Army Band
Invocation..................................................................Pentagon Chaplain (COL) Ralph Benson 
Musical Selection.......................................................Guitarist SFC Ramon Merle
                                                                                  Installation Management Agency US Army
Introduction of US Census Bureau Guests.................. Mistress of Ceremonies, Ms. Delia Trimble
                                                             Mr. Fernando Armstrong, Regional Director - Philadelphia 
                                                             Ms.Whittona Burrell, Information Services Specialist

Introduction of Guest Panelists............ Mrs. Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Editor,
                                                             Pres., Society of Hispanic Historical & Ancestral Research 
              Dr. George Ryskamp, History Dept., Brigham Young University 
              Ms. Yolanda Ochoa and Mr. Steven Hussey, SHHAR Webmasters 
              Dr. Joseph Guzman, Senior Economist, CNA Institute for Public Research, 
                              VP of American Society of Hispanic Economists 
             Mr. John Inclan, Presentation of Information on Family Research

Proclamation ...............................................................Mr. Hector Diaz
Musical Selection........................................................"Aire Flamenco"
Presentations.............................................................. Ms. Sandra R. Riley, 
                                                                                   Deputy Administrative Assistant 
                                                                                   To the Secretary of the Army
Benediction .................................................................Chaplain (COL) Ralph Benson
Closing....................................................................... Mistress of Ceremonies, Ms. Delia Trimble

The evening of September 30th, we attended a meeting of the National Central Coordinating Committee of the National Hispanic/Latino American Agenda Summit.  It was held in Washington, D.C. at the United Methodist Building.  I was honored to receive an award for the work that I have been doing to promote Hispanic heritage.  I am serving as the Issues coordinator for Arts, Heritage, and Culture.  

I was very touched by Peter Fontanes, Founder and National Coordinator, introduction of me.  He shared that the concept for forming an inclusive pan-American approach to issues of importance to  Hispanic/Latinos was through coming across Somos Primos on the internet. "I kept linking from one site to another, devouring issue after issue. It dawned on me after days of immersing myself in the great variety of articles that we needed to look at Hispanic issues from a pan-American perspective. We needed to work together, to unify as a body, not based on political parties, but rather issues of common concern to all Latinos."  

National Hispanic/Latino American and MigrantAgenda and Political Action Committee (NHAMAPAC)

Peter Fontanes-National Coordinator
10-93 Jackson Avenue Suite 3RR
Long Island City, New York 11101
646 721 0984
For more information on the history, goals, and vision of
NHAAS which has now broaden to include an agenda for migrant issues, go to:   http://www.hispanicagendasummit.

From left to right: 
Deborah Gonzalez, Abriendo Puertas, Fairleigh Dickinson College, New Jersey, Peter Fontanes,  Mimi Lozano,  Zenaida Mendez, National Organization for Women, Washington, DC and President of Council of Dominican Women and Maria Llaca, California Hispanic Chamber of Commerce.

First "Hispanics and the Formation of the American People"
National Archives Conference, October 1-2, 2004

Some of the Presenters and members of the National Archives staff.

From left to right, Back row: Dr. Carlos B. Vega, prolific author and professor of Spanish at Montclair State University, Arthur R. Cresce, Jr. Chief of the Ethnic and Hispanic Branch in the Population Division of the U. S. Census Bureau, Sam Anthony, Director of Program Lectures at the National Archives, George Ryskamp, Director of the BYU Center for Family History and Genealogy, Ron Whitelaw, with CIS,  and Ivadnia Scott-Cora, NARA Operation Staff, Office of Records Services.

Middle row: Nancy Fortna, Training Coordinator, Archives 1, Research Support Branch; Dr. Caroline Castillo Crimm, Associate Professor of Latin American History, Sam Houston State University, author of De Leon, A Tejano Family History; Dr. Barbara Mujica, professor at Georgetown University's Spanish department, author of Frida - A novel based on the life of Frida Kahlo; John Inclan, researcher/genealogist/historian.

Front row:  Yolanda Ochoa, SHHAR Board, web designer; Mimi Lozano, editor of Somos Primos; Sylvia Ann Carvajal Sutton, The Texas Connection to the American Revolution Commission.

The final panel was a discussion of Books in 
Print about the Hispanic American U.S. Experience. From left to right, Dr. Caroline 
Castillo Crimm, Arthur r. Cresce, Jr., Dr. Barbara Mujica, Arthur R. Cresce, Jr., and moderator, 
Sam Anthony.

At the closing of the conference, Carlos B. Vega took pleasure in presenting to the National Archives a copy of his celebrated book: the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution in English and Spanish, published in 1986 as a tribute to the United States from the nation's Hispanic community.

In-service at the 
Smithsonian Latino Initiative

Look for it as an online resource by 
January 2005.

October 5th, my husband, Win and I met with Luben Montoya, Deputy Assistant to Anna Cabral, Executive Director of the Smithsonian Latino Initiative, and Magdalena Mieri. The purpose was to share research that I had done on the Black-Latino connection, one of the workshops that I had done at the National Archives.  

The Latino Initiative is developing project materials for a Black-Latino June event.  

June 2000, the Black Chamber of Commerce of Orange County and the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce of Orange County published a 53 page, soft-cover book that I wrote.  The book was distributed at a Black Chamber Juneteenth Gala at the Disneyland Hotel in Anaheim, CA. 

U.S. Senate Republican Conference Task Force on Hispanic Affairs
Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah has served as the Chair
 since its inception, 1987. 

Wednesday, October 6, 2004
Hart Senate Office Building, Room 902

October 6th, the morning of the day my husband and I were to fly home, happenstance, the U.S. Senate Task Force was meeting. I have served on the Task Force since 1995 and felt very grateful that the scheduling allowed me to attend, if only the morning session.  It is always exciting to hear first hand from Senators about their proposals targeting Hispanic issues. 
When Senator Hatch invited me to serve on the Task Force, it was specifically as a historian to the group. Through the years, I have been able to share in various ways, with displays, printed materials, and facilitator for the heritage committee discussions.  

Many Hispanics are not aware that Senator Hatch is the originator of the DREAM ACT. As he said in his address:  It is unfair that children who were brought into the United States illegally, and have been raised in the United States, attended schools in the United States should have their dreams of higher education cut off. "It is just wrong."  
Note below: 
IMMIGRATION LAW & POLICY: Immigrant Student Adjustment and Access to Higher Education 
Immigrants' Rights Update, Vol. 17, No. 5, September 4, 2003 
For more information, go to the National Immigration Law Center website:

A new version of the bipartisan DREAM Act, which addresses the tragedy of young people who grew up in the United States and have graduated from U.S. high schools but whose future is circumscribed by current immigration laws, has been introduced in the Senate by Senators Orrin Hatch (R-UT) and Richard Durbin (D-IL). Under current law, these young people generally derive their immigration status solely from their parents, and when the parents are undocumented or in immigration limbo, their children have no mechanism to obtain legal residency. The Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act (S. 1545), introduced on July 31, 2003, provides such a mechanism for those who are able to meet certain conditions. 

Like last year's version of the DREAM Act, which was also sponsored by Sen. Hatch, S. 1545 would enact two major changes in current law: Eliminate the federal provision that discourages states from providing in-state tuition without regard to immigration status; and Permit some immigrant students who have grown up in the U.S. to apply for legal status. 

Senator Orrin Hatch, Utah
Opening of the conference.
Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell of Colorado Senator Larry E. Craig 

Each Senator addressed the demographics in their state, and specific programs that they had implemented, or were in the process of developing to meet the needs of the growing numbers of Hispanics in their state.  Senator Ros-Lehtinen pointed out that 99% of U.S. businesses are small and that Hispanics are the owners of 1.2 million U.S. businesses.

Senator John Cornyn, 
Senator Ileana Ros-Lehtinen of Florida Senator Pete V. Domenici of New Mexico
Senator Ensign said that 50% of the students in Nevada are Hispanic, and that they are looking at different models for  putting more control into the hands of parents, such as private schools models.

Senator Allard spoke on the topic of issues related to small business, tax relief.  The state of Colorado has held 600 town meetings throughout the state for better relating to the Hispanic community.  Senator Allard stated that the tax changes had resulted in between 50-75% more jobs.
Senator John Ensign, Nevada Senator Wayne Allard, Colorado

Senator Kay Bailey Hutchinson
                    of Texas

The conference took place in the Hart Senate Office Building, while Congress is in session. Senators are many times delayed by a vote that is underway, and the agenda allows for change.  That is what happened with Senator Kay Bailey Hutchinson of Texas. 

Dr. JV Martinez, a long a member of the Task Force and supportive friend, suggested that in the interim, I be given an opportunity to share what had taken place at the National Archives.   I was delighted for the chance to share, and jumped right in.  My husband said, "It was like pushing a button . . . you ran to the podium and just started speaking."  

I ended quickly when Senator Bailey Hutchinson entered the room.  Senator Hutchinson is a strong advocate of education.  She spoke on the need to train Hispanics for the development of  leadership skills, and shared information about educational programs that she has initiated.  Please go to her website.  Texas, like California has been dealing with the problems for many decades of successfully teaching limited-English speaking students.

Although most of the historically involved Senators on the Task Force have been from the Southwest or Northwest, Senator George Allen from Virginia  attended.  Senator Allen stated he was anxious to work more with Hispanics and fulfill the goal of "No Child Left Behind" for the State of Virginia. He was pleased that his daughter is learning Spanish in the bilingual school that she is attending.  Senator Allen  speaks to (left to right) Juliann Andreen, Legislative Senator Hatch staff, Yeda Baker, Director of Communications, Republican National Hispanic Assembly of Virginia, and me.

Combating Human Trafficking, Bush has initiatives include $14 million to rescue women and children from slavery.

Since 2001, the Civil Rights Division and the U.S. Attorney's Offices prosecuted 157 traffickers - - nearly a three-fold increase over the previous three and one half years.  Of those prosecutions, 47 have come since October 2003.  thus far, the conviction rate on these cases in 100%

Prosecution rates are increasing.  As of September 2004, the Justice Department had 178 open trafficking investigations.

Since 2001, the Civil Rights Division has helped over 600 trafficking victims from 34 countries obtain refugee-type benefits under the Trafficking victims Protection Act.

R. Alexander Acosta 
Assistant Attorney General,
Division of Civil rights

               Judge Alberto Gonzales, 
     Counsel to President George W. Bush 

The the word was out that Judge Gonzales was to be nominated for U.S. Attorney General. It certainly heightened everyone's attention.

Judge Gonzales said that President Bush is pushing diversity. Since Bush took office, 22 federal circuit judges have been nominated.  Women represent 33% of the nominees. Two final quotes:

"Education is the gateway to freedom."
"As Hispanic go, so goes the nation."

This week in D.C. was certainly one of my most exciting weeks in promoting our heritage."]]  

LULAC Board Unanimously Endorses Alberto Gonzales's Nomination for U.S. Attorney General
Press Release Sent by Brent Wilkes  November 10, 2004
Contact: Lorraine Quiroga  (202) 833-6130; (202) 833-6135 FAX;

Counsel's strong experience, sound legal judgment, accessibility & community commitment are cited as key factors in winning the organization's support Washington, DC - The National Executive Committee of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) unanimously voted to endorse President Bush's nomination of Alberto Gonzales to serve as Attorney General and is calling upon the Senate to quickly confirm him as the nation's first Latino to head the U.S. Department of Justice.

Based upon the nominee's long and distinguished legal career which includes serving as the President's chief counsel, a justice of the Texas Supreme Court, and Texas Secretary of State; the LULAC Board is confident that Alberto Gonzales will make an outstanding Attorney General who will continue to make sound legal decisions that take into account the positions of LULAC
and other civil rights organizations.

"Alberto Gonzales has always had an open door policy with LULAC and has often supported our positions on issues of importance to Latinos," stated Hector M. Flores, LULAC National President. "He was actively involved with LULAC during his time as an attorney in Houston and he has continued to be supportive of Hispanic organizations throughout his career. We are delighted that the President has seen fit to nominate one of our best and brightest to the highest legal post in the federal government."

The LULAC Board also noted the great significance of having a Latino nominated for the first time to head one of the four major Cabinet departments. "We have urged the President to nominate Hispanics to important Cabinet positions in his second term, and we are greatly encouraged that his first nomination to head a principal federal department after his re-election is a well-qualified Latino," stated Brent Wilkes, LULAC National Executive Director. "We encourage the President to continue appointing well qualified Hispanics to high-ranking positions throughout his administration."

Born in San Antonio and raised in Houston with seven brothers and sisters, Gonzales served in the US Air Force and received his JD from Harvard Law School. In addition to his outstanding legal career, he has been deeply involved with the Hispanic community, serving as Director of Catholic Charities, Director of Big Brothers and Sisters, President of the Houston Hispanic Bar Association, and President of the Houston Hispanic Forum. In 2003, he was awarded the LULAC President's Award at the LULAC National Legislative Awards Gala in Washington, DC for his commitment in supporting Latino issues as White House Counsel.

"Al Gonzales is a wonderful example of the American Dream. He rose from humble beginnings and has now been nominated to the top legal position in our country," stated Ray Velarde, LULAC National Legal Advisor. "Based on his strong community involvement and his solid legal track record, we believe that Judge Gonzales will make a thoughtful, balanced Attorney General who will continue to respect LULAC's positions on legal issues affecting minority communities."

The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) is the oldest and largest Latino civil rights organization in the United States.  LULAC advances the economic condition, educational attainment, political influence, health, and civil rights of Hispanic Americans through community- based programs run by more than 700 LULAC councils nationwide.
Bush Picks Gonzales to Succeed Ashcroft 
By Scott Lindlaw,  AP Writer
Bush Names Gonzales to Succeed Ashcroft 
By Terence Hunt,  
AP White House Correspondent
Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

WASHINGTON - President Bush "He is a calm and steady voice in times of crisis," Bush said, his eyes glistening with emotion as he stood next to Gonzales. "He has an unwavering principle of respect for the law." 

A Harvard-educated attorney whose parents were migrant workers, the soft-spoken Gonzales would succeed Attorney General John Ashcroft, one of the most powerful and polarizing members of Bush's Cabinet. 

"`Just give me a chance to prove myself' — that is a common prayer for those in my community," said Gonzales. "Mr. President, thank you for that chance." 

Some of Ashcroft's harshest critics welcomed his selection, while others voiced doubts.  Democrat, Sen. Byron Dorgan, of North Dakota, said the Senate generally allows the president to choose his own team and was likely to do so in this case. 

"My confidence in Al was high to begin with," Bush said. "It has only grown with time." . .  Recruited from a Houston law firm in 1995.  "I am grateful he keeps saying yes," Bush said.
Sent by John Inclan

WASHINGTON - With a hug and words of high praise, President Bush named Alberto Gonzales as attorney general on Wednesday, elevating the administration's most prominent Hispanic to a highly visible post in the war on terror. 
"His sharp intellect and sound judgment have helped shape our policies in the war on terror," Bush said of the man who has served as the White House's top lawyer over the past four years. 

In an announcement in the Roosevelt Room of the White House, Bush touched on Gonzales' personal story — a boy who grew up poor in a family of eight children in a two-bedroom house in Texas — and now is in line for a Cabinet post. 

"'Just give me a chance to prove myself,' that is a common prayer for those in my community," said Gonzales, who would be the first Hispanic to hold the nation's top law enforcement job. "Mr. President, thank you for that chance." 

Gonzales' career has been linked with Bush for at least a decade, serving as general counsel when Bush was governor of Texas, and then as secretary of state and as a justice on the Texas Supreme Court. 

Bush Nominates Carlos Guitierrez, Chief of Kellogg as Commerce Secretary

New York Times, Washington, Published: 
By The Associated Press, November 29, 2004
Sent by JV Martinez

The president called Carlos Gutierrez "a visionary executive" and "one of America's most respected business leaders."

WASHINGTON -- President Bush on Monday, November 29th, chose Carlos Gutierrez, chief executive officer of the Kellogg Co., to be secretary of Commerce, administration officials said.

If confirmed by the Senate, Gutierrez would succeed Commerce Secretary Donald Evans, a Texas confidant of Bush's, who announced his resignation shortly after the Nov. 2 election.

Gutierrez, whose family fled Cuba in 1960 when he was 6, joined Kellogg in 1975. Known for having a strong work ethic and a seemingly endless stream of ideas, he worked all over the world for the company before being promoted to president and chief operating officer in June 1998.

Last year, Gutierrez received about $7.4 million in total compensation, including salary, bonus and incentive payments, according to a Kellogg proxy statement. He owns or has option rights to 2 million shares of company stock.

Gutierrez, Kellogg's CEO since April 1999, is credited with shaping a major corporate and marketing overhaul at Kellogg, narrowing the company's primary focus to cereal and wholesome snacks and reducing the company's debt.

He is known as a charismatic and approachable executive, widely admired in business circles for reviving a flagging company.

Under Gutierrez, Kellogg's net sales rose from $6.2 billion in 1999 to $8.8 billion last year, a 43 percent increase. Earnings per share increased 131 percent, from 83 cents to $1.92, and cash flow went up 82 percent, from $529 million to $961 million.

Bush nominates Anna Escobedo Cabral for the United States Treasurer, Current Director Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives

Extract of statement before the Committee on Finance, United States Senate, October 8, 2004

I am a third generation Mexican American and first generation college graduate. My family came from Mexico in the early 1900s in search of the American Dream. Like so many others, they labored to build the railroads, factories, farms, and cities of this great nation. Four generations on my father's side toiled in California's agricultural fields. I am the manifestation of their dreams and aspirations – that their hard work would earn a better life for their children. I remain eternally grateful to them for the values they instilled in me – for our faith in God and country, a sense of personal responsibility, and a commitment to family and community. This nomination honors each of them.

None of us stands alone. We rest on the shoulders of those who have gone before. We are expected to repay their sacrifices by working to ensure that our children and our children's children inherit a safer, better world.

This great nation serves as a beacon for freedom and opportunity in the world. Among its hallmarks are a free enterprise system, solid financial markets, and sound banking and monetary systems. As Treasurer I would seek to continue and contribute to the great work of the President and the Treasury Department by ensuring that our coin and currency systems remain safe, that anti-counterfeiting measures are strengthened, that our Savings Bond Programs provide greater investment opportunities, and that financial literacy grows at all levels, for all generations.

I consider it a privilege and honor to serve the public. I will work to the best of my abilities to maintain a strong working relationship with the Committee, uphold the duties of the office, and assure accountability within the Department.

From the Office of Public Affairs
From: Linda Rochin

Community Honors Latino Vets

Judges Celebrate Their Fathers' World War II Heroism 
by Liz Valsamis,
Los Angeles Daily Journal Staff Writer
November 10, 2004

Southern California judges and their fathers attend a ceremony honoring Latino World War II veterans in Fullerton.  From left, Orange Superior Court Judge Frederick Aguirre, his father, Alfred Aguirre, Orange Superior Court Judge David Velasquez, his father Gilbert Velasquez, and Riverside Superior Court Judge Helios Hemandez II, who is holding a picture of his father, Helios Hemandez, who could not attend.

FULLERTON — The father of an Orange County judge and dozens of other World War II veterans of Latino heritage gained special recognition Saturday when they were honored before hundreds of spectators at California State University, Fullerton.

The event set the stage for Veterans Day on Thursday and was arranged by Superior Court Judge Frederick Aguirre. who founded Latino Advocates for Education Inc., which among other things recognizes the role Latinos have played in the military services.

"We want. to illuminate Mexican-Americans and their contributions because they have not been accorded (he recognition that they merit," said Aguirre, whose father, Alfred Aguirre, was one of the 200 veterans honored.

Alfred Aguirre was cited before 1,000 onlookers at the campus Titan Student Union Pavilion along with the fathers of three other Southern California Superior Court judges.

''When you. see these men with their sons, what does it say?" Judge Aguirre said. "It says these guys came back and changed the course of history, but it's also a testament to the greatness of dug country."

Also recognized were Gilbert Velasquez, father of Orange County Judge David Velasquez, and Helios Hernandez, father of Riverside Superior Court Judge Helios Hernandez.

Also honored was Harry Gastelum whose son, Orange Superior Court Judge John Gastelum was unable to attend. They and the other Latino veterans at the event served aboard aircraft carriers off the coast of Japan and flew cargo planes over Europe.

The veterans received a commemorative medal and a copy of Aguirre's recently completed book "Undaunted Courage: Mexican-American Patriots of World War II.

"As part of the educational experience of our Latino children," he said, "they [should be) imbued with the proud heritage of Latinos here the United States. And one of those aspects of our heritage is the patriotism of our veterans."

In years past, the group has honored Latino prisoners of war and Korean. War and Operation Desert Storm veterans.

Aguirre said that the event is important because it spotlights what few Americans realize; Latinos have served in the military since the American Revolution. During World War II, 500,000 Latinos served.

Judge Hernandez attended the event on behalf of his father, who could not attend because of illness.

"I think it's important because the World War II generation is what made our, country," Hernandez said. "Before World War II, there was no such thing as average people going to college.
"They just worked. And they rarely owned houses. World War II, with the GI bill, gave people education and access to the middle-income economy."

Saturday's event, Hernandez said, underscored how Latinos' role in World War II elevated them above the hardships they faced in segregated schools in places Eke Orange County.

"Prior to World War II, Mexican-Americans were treated as second-class citizens," Aguirre said. "For example, we had no Mexican-Americans on the bench or to file city councils of major cities or in the Assembly or state Senate or in Congress.

"And in a generation, the changes have been dramatic. That's a statement to the spirit of those who served in World War n, who returned with a conviction that they were first-class citizens and they and their families deserved such treatment"

Life in the service was much different from the fife Alfred Aguirre bad experienced at home.

"In the service, they treated me like an American solider," he said. "No one discriminated against me. We were all brothers. We all fought together."

But when he returned home in 1945, he was dismayed to learn that two of his brothers were still attending segregated schools, like he had done growing up in Placentia.

The next year, segregation in Orange County was abolished with a landmark ruling from U.S. District Judge Paul J. McCormick in Mendez v. Westminster that segregated schools are not equal.

Alfred Aguirre attributes improvements for Latinos to the respect given to World War II soldiers returning home.

He said his son constantly reminds him of the impact his service had on him and all Latinos. '"We did what we had to do,"Alfred Aguirre said. "And it makes me happy now.

"We weren't interested only in our own children but also in the Latino community that was kept away from good jobs and attending good schools."


Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo,
 (1859 - 1930)
Senate Years of Service: 1928-1929   Party: Republican 
Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera
Source: New Mexico Historical Society

LARRAZOLO, Octaviano Ambrosio, a Senator from New Mexico; born in El Valle de San Bartolo (now Allende), State of Chihuahua, Mexico, December 7, 1859; moved to Tucson, Ariz., in 1870 as a protege of the bishop of Arizona; studied theology and attended St. Michael’s College at Santa Fe, N.Mex., in 1875 and 1876; taught in the public schools in Tucson and in El Paso County, Texas; clerk of the district court at El Paso; clerk of the United States District and Circuit Courts for the Western District of Texas at El Paso, Tex.; studied law; admitted to the bar in 1888; elected district attorney for the western district of Texas in 1890 and reelected in 1892; moved to Las Vegas, N.Mex., in 1895 and resumed the practice of law; unsuccessful Democratic candidate for election as a Delegate to Congress from New Mexico in 1890, 1900, and 1908; changed affiliation to the Republican Party in 1911; elected Governor of New Mexico in 1918; member, New Mexico house of representatives in 1927 and 1928; elected on November 6, 1928, as a Republican to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Andrieus A. Jones and served from December 7, 1928, to March 3, 1929; due to illness, was not a candidate for the full term; resumed the practice of law; died in Albuquerque, N.Mex., April 7, 1930; interment in Santa Barbara Cemetery in Albuquerque.

38 years old State representative D-Aurora, Illinois
Focus, 40 Under 40
Chicago Business, November 7, 2004
Interviewer: Sandra Swanson
Sent by Bonnie Chapa

State Rep. Linda Chapa LaVia, a former U.S. Army officer, believes military men and women who fight for national security should get job and financial security in return.

"We ask people to put their lives on the line for us, and then when they come back, we give them nothing," says Ms. Chapa LaVia, who rose to first lieutenant in the National Guard.

The Aurora Democrat sponsored legislation that bars public-sector employers from discriminating against National Guard members and military reservists. In part because of her efforts, Illinois is now the first state to include those groups in its Human Rights Act, which forbids discrimination in employment, promotions and loans. Other legislation she sponsored ensures public-sector employees will continue to acc rue pension and other benefits while away for military reasons, including training.

"She worked tirelessly on behalf of Illinois soldiers," says Gov. Rod Blagojevich.

Ms. Chapa LaVia likes be heard, in more ways than one. "She says the Pledge of Allegianc e louder than anyone I've ever known," says Rep. Jack Franks, D-Woodstock, who sits next to Ms. Chapa LaVia in Springfield. "People turn around and look at her," he says, laughing.

To get voters' attention two years ago, she turned up the volume on her door-to-door campaign, visiting about 31,000 Aurora homes. She lost two dress sizes and won 54% of the vote — and a place in Aurora's history. She was the first Hispanic elected to the Illinois General Assembly outside of Cook County and the first Democrat from her district in 20 years.

Another trait that makes her an atypical freshman: Most Springfield newbies socialize with members of their own party, because it feels safer, says Mr. Franks. But more often than not, both Democrats and Republicans join Ms. Chapa LaVia's dinner groups. (It doesn't hurt that her husband has Republican ties; he served two years ago on the citizens' advisory committee for Republican state Sen. Chris Lauzen of Aurora.) "She makes friendships based not on party labels, but on the individual she's talking to," says Mr. Franks.

Her legislative choices can cut across party lines, too. She voted against a bill allowing illegal immigrants to have state driver's licenses, making her the only Hispanic member, and one of only two Democrats, to do so.

In addition to her current political success (she's running unopposed this year), Ms. Chapa LaVia owns four companies with her husband, including Aurora-based Defibrillators USA LLC. Last year, she donated a defibrillator to the House and Senate after Rep. Bill Black collapsed on the floor during a session. The cause turned out to be a herniated disc, she says, "but it scared the bejesus out of me."

John Schmal, assistant editor for Somos Primos contributed 19 stories to. Publication is in 2005.

Encyclopedia Latina, History, Culture, and Society in the United States 
Grade: 9-up, Illustration Type: full-color photographs, illustrations, tables, and maps
Size: 8 x 11 Pub. Date: 2005  Pages: 1,920 Volumes: 4
Pricing: $499.00/$449.00 Prepub Special: $449.00 until 06-30-2005 ISBN: 0-7172-5815-7

Description:  Grolier Academic Reference Announces a Major New Encyclopedia on Latinos and Latinas in the United States Encyclopedia Latina is a groundbreaking, interdisciplinary reference work that deals with Latino history and culture in the United States from the age of discovery to the present. Comprehensive and analytical, this unique encyclopedia presents all aspects of Latino life in the United States as well as the influence and contributions of Hispanic culture. The 650 substantive, signed articles cover topics, issues, organizations, events, themes, movements, U.S. states and cities, national groups, and people.

U.S. Surgeon General's Family History Initiative  Posted November 8, 2004
Sent by Ann Minter

Health care professionals have known for a long time that common diseases - heart disease, cancer, and diabetes - and even rare diseases - like hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia - can run in families. If one generation of a family has high blood pressure, it is not unusual for the next generation to have similarly high blood pressure. Tracing the illnesses suffered by your parents, grandparents, and other blood relatives can help your doctor predict the disorders to which you may be at risk and take action to keep you and your family healthy. 

To help focus attention on the importance of family health history, U.S. Surgeon General Richard H. Carmona, M.D., M.P.H., in cooperation with other agencies within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has launched a national public health campaign, called the U.S. Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, to encourage all American families to learn more about their family health history. 

In addition to the Office of the Surgeon General, other HHS agencies involved in this project include the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA).

National Family History Day: Surgeon General Carmona has declared Thanksgiving 2004 to be the first annual National Family History Day. Thanksgiving is the traditional start of the holiday season for most Americans.  Whenever families gather, the Surgeon General encourages them to talk about, and to write down, the health problems that seem to run in their family. Learning about their family's health history may help ensure a longer future together.

My Family Health Portrait: Americans know that family history is important to health. A recent survey found that 96 percent of Americans believe that knowing their family history is important. Yet, the same survey found that only one-third of Americans have ever tried to gather and write down their family's health history.

Because family health history is such a powerful screening tool, the Surgeon General has created a new computerized tool to help make it fun and easy for anyone to create a sophisticated portrait of their family's health.

This new tool, called "My Family Health Portrait"  can be downloaded for  free  and installed on your own computer.

The tool will help you organize your family tree and help you identify common diseases that may run in your family.

When you are finished, the tool will create and print out a graphical representation of your family's generations and the health disorders that may have moved from one generation to the next. That is a powerful tool for predicting any illnesses for which you should be checked. Information on other activities of the Office of the Surgeon General, visit    

Racial diversity urged for teachers

source: Orange County Register, Nov 10,2004

Washington, A glaring lack of racial and cultural diversity among teachers is hurting the chances of success for minority students, a coalition of school groups contended Tuesday.

A small but growing body of research shows minorities tend to do better in class and face higher expectations when taught by teachers from their racial or ethnic group, said the National Collaborative on Diversity in the Teaching Force, a partnership led by six groups.

In both the recruitment of teachers and the training of veteran ones, the coalition is calling on policy-makers to set a
priority on diversity and 'cultural competence,' meaning the ability of teachers to understand their students' culture and incorporate it in class.

About 60 percent of public school students are white, 17 percent are black and 17 percent are Hispanic. Yet 90 per cent of teachers are white, 6 percent are black and less than 5 percent are of another race or ethnicity, according to federal figures.

World Congress of Families: Update Online!
Volume 05  Issue 45 9 November 2004 

Family Fact of the Week: Veterans
According to the United States Census Bureau, there are 24.9 million military veterans in the United States. "More than 4 million wartime veterans - almost 2-in-10 - served during World War II. Overall, nearly 10 million veterans are age 65 or over."

(Source: From the upcoming Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2004-2005, reported in "Veterans Day 2004: Nov. 11," The United States Census Bureau, September 23, 2004;

Family Research Abstract of the Week:    

The claim that mothers who work full-time outside the home do so out of economic necessity finds little support from evidence showing that the percentage of mothers in the labor force is greatest among the wives of top-earning males. It also flies in the face of a study by feminist scholars that finds that privileged, white women have higher rates of employment today relative to minorities, a reversal of the situation from fifty years ago when minority women had significantly higher rates of employment. 

Using the 2001 Current Population Survey, the researchers compared the extent of employment (measured by the number of weeks worked in the previous year) of whites, blacks, and Latinas. Although employment rates among black and white women were the same in 1980, the rates for white women narrowly surpassed those for black women in 2000. The employment gap was greater among the Latinas, particularly those of Mexican and Puerto Rican origin, who worked less than both blacks and whites. Their parallel analysis of 1994 data found that employment rates were lower for all groups of women then, but that the gap between whites and minorities was greater than in 2000.

 The researchers suggest that welfare reform and the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit since that time has bumped up minority employment closer to that of whites. Yet among all women in both years, education encouraged while childbearing reduced employment rates. While they do not consider that the higher employment rates of white women may not represent a pattern that minority women should follow, the scholars nonetheless maintain that an "unquestionably greater need for employment" no longer drives women into the workforce as it once did. 

(Source: Paula England, Carmen Garcia-Beaulieu, and Mary Ross, "Women's Employment Among Blacks, Whites, and Three Groups of Latinas: Do More Privileged Women Have Higher Employment?" Gender & Society 18 [2004]: 494-509.) 
For More Information The Howard Center and The World Congress of Families stock a number of pro-family books, including Utopia Against the Family: The Problems and Politics of the American Family, by Bryce J. Christensen. Please visit:

The United States Army Human Resources command (AHRC) is searching for soldiers of Hispanic American and Jewish American descent who were awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) for action between December 7, 1941 and December 12, 2001.

Through an (interagency agreement, the Army has contracted the Library of Congress Federal Research Division to conduct this research. Once completed, the research findings will be provided to the AHRC Military Awards Branch, which wilt prepare eligible files for review by the Senior Awards and Decorations Board. If appropriate, a DSC may be upgraded to the Medal of Honor. 

As in previous research efforts, such as those of African-American and Asian-American DSC recipients, the board will review case histories to determine if omissions at the time may have influenced what awards were approved. Routine time (Imitations for award recommendations have been waived in these cases.

The Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, the principal fee-for-service research and analysis unit, was selected to conduct this research because of its expertise in researching historical documents and archival files of U.S. military personnel and compiling relevant information summaries.

Researchers will use the Library of Congress's collections of historical documents, publications, and collections; service-record information obtained from other U.S. Government repositories, recognized veterans' organizations and family members; as well as published unit and ethnic histories, to fulfill the Army's requirements.

PRD researchers are requesting anyone who has any information concerning former soldiers who meet the specifications to read the instructions below, or visit the bilingual informational website at or phone 1 -866-730-840S for bilingual directions regarding requirements and the submission of case evidence.

Type of information Needed: Provide as many of the following items of information as possible:
Full name and date of birth of the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) recipient
The DSC recipient's Service Number
The theater and command under which the DSC recipient served
The date of the DSC award
The General Orders number under which the DSC was granted
Current contact information for the DSC recipient, or contact information for a surviving family member
Any other information regarding the action that led to the awarding of the DSC

How to submit Case evidence: Please be advised that due to security concerns on Capitol Hill, mail delivery from the United States Portal Service i» experiencing significant delays. As a result, you are strongly encouraged to send your material via Fed-Ex or United Parcel Service (UPS) Please do not submit original document because the document will become the property of the U.S. Army Human Resources Command and will not be returned. Photocopies of official documents will be accepted. Please do not send Information on electronic media, such as computer disks or CDs.
Where to Send Your Material:
Via United States Postal Service:
Federal Research Division 
Library of Congress
ATTN Alice Buchalter
101 Independence Ave S£
Washington, DC 20540-4840
Via Federal Express* or United Parcel Service:
Library of Congress
Federal Research Division 20540-4840
ATTN: Alice Buchalter
9140 East Hampton Dr,
Capital Heights, MD 20743


Marine Lance Cpl. Victor Gonzalez, 19, 
Watsonville: Killed in Combat

Los Angeles Times, October 17, 2004, B15
Sent by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Victor A. Gonzalez, who dreamed of returning to Watsonville, California to become a police officer, was killed Wednesday during enemy fighting in Iraq's Al Anbar province.

Gonzalez, 19, was a rifleman assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, 1st Marine Expeditionary Force at Camp Pendle-ton. He had been in Iraq less than six weeks.
After graduating in 2003 from Watsonville High School; where he was on the track and soccer teams, Gonzalez entered the Marine Corps on Oct. 27. During his sophomore year, he had joined the Watsonville Police Department's cadet program and eventually was promoted to lieutenant and helped oversee the program.

Police Capt. Manny Solano said Gonzalez would volunteer at least 40 hours a month, more than twice the time most cadets put in, helping with traffic control, assisting at crime scenes and going on ride-alongs. "He grew incredibly in character and maturity," he said.

Gonzalez was in excellent physical condition, and Solano said he would take two dozen cadets out to run a mile during their biweekly meetings. "There's no doubt in my mind that he would have been a fine officer," Solano said. Fellow cadet Lt. Monlque Rangel said Gonzalez always seemed to be in good spirits and would do whatever was needed

to cheer up others in the department, including being silly or buying them candy bars.
He was so committed to the Watsonville Police Department that he would make sure to visit the station each time he re-turned home, one or two week-ends a month after he finished basic training in January, Rangel said.

Gonzalez surprised Rangel and another lieutenant in August when he dropped in for lunch while they were in San Diego for the annual cadet academy. Rangel remembers how the trio would often grab a late dinner after cadet meetings or occasionally go to a movie. "He was very close to my heart," she said. "I considered him like a brother."

Although Gonzalez said he was not nervous about going to Iraq, Rangel said he seemed shaken during a telephone call describing one of his first fire-fights, with bullets landing with-in 10 feet of him. "It didn't sound like him; he's always cheerful," she said. "I hated to hear him like that." Rangel said his mood was much more upbeat during two subsequent calls.

Gonzalez's grandfather, Ishmael Avila, said there has been a steady stream of friends and well-wishers visiting the home since the Marine's death was announced.
He described his grandson as a prized student who joined the Marines to get extra training to help with a law enforcement career. "Nobody pushed him or tried to convince him. That's what he wanted to do," Avila said. "He felt he could make a difference."
Though concerned about his other two grandchildren in the military - one with the Navy in San Diego and another stationed in South Korea with the Air Force - Avila said he refused to worry.

"You're not going to help anything at all doing that. You'll just make yourself miserable," he said. "You just have to pray that God brings them home safely."  Gonzalez also is survived by his parents, Sergio and Amalia; a brother, Oscar, 12; and two sisters Edenia, 15, and Myma Celeste, 4. Funeral arrangements were pending, but Avila said burial would be in Watsonville.

Veterans History Project (Library of Congress)   SOURCE: Sandy Fritz

From Roma,Texas to Berlin, Germany    
By Joshua Leighton
U.S. Latinos and Latinas & World War II
Sent by Mercy Bautista Olvera

When Roberto Chapa enlisted in the United States Army on December 2, 1942, he had no idea how much this decision would alter the rest of his life.

Though the war was thousands of miles away in Europe and Asia, Mr. Chapa, from the border town of Roma, Texas, was one of thousands of Mexican Americans to participate in the war, and later to take advantage of the educational benefits  created for veterans.

Mr. Chapa, 77, sits in his cozy south Austin home with his legs crossed and hands folded as he reflects on his life. He smiles as he talks about his wife Estela, two sons, Robert and Ricky, his eight grandchildren and one great grandson. He is somber as he describes the dangers of modern warfare and his military life. And he is jovial as he recalls his early years in south Texas. Mr. Chapa speaks with pride of his involvement with the Hispanic community here in Austin and his role in its education.  "I’m an active guy, I’m not a passive guy. I like to do things, that’s just the way I am," Mr. Chapa says.

Early Life:  Born in Salineno, Texas, November 25, 1922, Mr. Chapa grew up near Roma, where he went to school and worked on his father’s ranch, raising cattle and growing cotton, among other crops. "Hard work, very hard work," says Mr. Chapa, as he recalls his life on the ranch. Mr. Chapa, along with his two brothers and two sisters, worked long days on the ranch.

"I was responsible for everything; I was the oldest in the family so I had to help my father," he said.
Mr. Chapa’s school life was not much easier. Living outside of town, Mr. Chapa remembers his ignoble country bus ride, ten miles to and from school everyday. "We…had a bus with [no] windows,’’ he says. "The old man used to use a canvas to cover it up, so when it got cold, it got pretty…cold."

 Mr. Chapa came of age in the late 1930s, during the height of the Great Depression."We were poor…but, [not too] poor. We always managed to live well because we grew many of the things that we needed to survive…beans and the like, and we always had meat," Mr. Chapa says.

Living in a predominantly Hispanic community, Mr. Chapa did not experience a segregated school system, and had little contact with Anglos and other ethnic groups. But as the Depression drew to a close and Mr. Chapa graduated from Roma High School his days of seclusion were soon to end.

 In 1940, Mr. Chapa joined the Civilian Conservation Corps and went to Colorado for his training. With the Civilian Conservation Corp, or CCC, Chapa worked in soil conservation. The disciplined lifestyle of the CCC was instrumental in preparing Mr. Chapa for his military service.  "The training that they gave me…getting up at 4 in the morning…it’s just like being in the army," he says.

Military Experience: By the time the war began, Mr. Chapa was ready to serve his country. "I was a volunteer…but, a lot of the soldiers in World War II were drafted. They came from whatever environment…and whatever kind of work they were doing…[so] it was very difficult for them. I had been in the CCC…so it helped me out a lot," Mr. Chapa says.

Not only did the CCC prepare Mr. Chapa for his military service, it also gave him contact with people from all over the country. "[It was] very, very interesting…[and I even] became good friends with some of them," recalls Mr. Chapa. When Mr. Chapa went to Camp Adair, Oregon, for his basic training he had already developed more confidence and a better sense of himself, which would be key during his time on the front lines.

 Mr. Chapa enlisted in the army at the age of 20 in 1942.  By the time he and the 415th infantry were deployed in France in October of 1944, he was a Staff Sergeant, in charge of communication for Company B. Mr. Chapa was in Europe during some of the most intense months of the war. When asked what it was like being shot at for the first time, Mr. Chapa replied:  "The first time was pretty scary…any veteran that would tell you that they were not scared was lying."

 Mr. Chapa saw action in France, Belgium, Holland and Germany. Mr. Chapa’s company specialized in strategic night attacks, which were intended to cut the German supply lines. Mr. Chapa recalls what it was like to be in the field, in the middle of the night, taking fire from German artillery:

"They had a lot of fire power and their weapons were more powerful than ours,’’ he said. "All you would hear was a ‘clank’ over there and the [bombs] were right on top of you."
 Mr. Chapa remained in Europe until the end of the war in 1945. Witnessing death, shell-shocked friends and the interrogation of German prisoners made Mr. Chapa realize the nature of combat.
"War…war is [about] being able to survive," he says.

After he returned home in August of 1945, the war abruptly ended when President Truman ordered the dropping of the atomic bomb.

Life After the War: As a result of his military service, Mr. Chapa was able to attend college on the GI Bill, when he returned from the war. Mr. Chapa chose Saint Mary’s University in San Antonio, Texas, and earned his degree in accounting.  "I knew…and lots of my friends knew, that this was an opportunity that we had to take advantage of…I knew that I had to go to school and get a degree and better myself," Mr. Chapa says.

After Mr. Chapa received his degree he became a teacher. In 1951, Mr. Chapa got a job in San Marcos, Texas, where he ran into something that he was all too familiar with, being a Mexican American. Mr. Chapa and his wife tried to rent an apartment with some friends near Southwest Texas State University, but the Anglo landlord would not rent to them because they were Hispanic.

"I got so mad…this was the attitude of the people in San Marcos…so I said ‘Look, I just came back from the war, fighting for this country…I gave my life to serve this nation and I come here and you tell us that we cannot get this apartment because we are Spanish speaking and you’re afraid that the Anglo people…would not like it’," Mr. Chapa says.

The head administrator of the university handled this situation, but its pattern is one that Mr. Chapa has noticed throughout his whole life, even though Mr. Chapa said that the prejudice directed towards him was minimal, perhaps being that he has fair skin.

Mr. Chapa even remembers some of the priests at St. Mary’s showing prejudice to Hispanics, but his determination was just too strong. "No one person is superior to me…we are all equal, you recognize a person for what they are and treat them right," Mr. Chapa says.

Mr. Chapa and his family moved to Austin in 1967, where they have lived ever since. Mr. Chapa has been an active citizen in Austin for 32 years. Besides being a board member for "Mexic-Arte,"  a museum for Mexican American culture, he is a Lions Club member and is involved in organizations to help mentally handicapped people. Mr. Chapa is also involved with the Boy Scouts here in Austin and is currently working on a fund raising banquet for Hispanic students. Mr. Chapa also served in the Army Reserve for 22 years and was treasurer for Austin City Councilman Gus Garcia for seven years.

Mr. Chapa is the first to admit that none of the many things that he has accomplished would have been possible without an education. "Being open minded and educated you are equal to anybody," Mr. Chapa says. Yet, Mr. Chapa also feels that more "doors need to be opened" for Hispanics and other minorities.

"There has to be a means where every child in this country has a chance at an education or a chance to prove themselves, then there’s some good in everybody,’’ he said. "You [can’t] tie them down and choke them."

As a veteran, Mr. Chapa says he has an immense love for the country that he put his life on the line for. "This is a great country. There’s no other country like it in the world," Mr. Chapa says. But, Mr.

 Chapa argues that the country’s greatness may best be shown through the little changes made on an individual level. He feels that more understanding is necessary to fix the racial problems that are still evident around the country. "Prejudice is an evil thing…[but] young guys are the one’s who will have to make that change," Mr. Chapa says.

Weekend Warrior: Daniel Abrego, Ph.D.                                
has taken weekend college courses to a new level

by Holly Ocasio Rizzo 
HISPANIC, September 2004, page 60

Daniel Abrego expected applause from his family when he picked up his doctoral diploma at Our Lady of the Lake University in San Antonio, Texas.
 He didn't expect recognition from strangers. But strangers congratulated him anyway. "When I crossed the stage at commencement, I got a standing ovation," he says. "It caught me off-guard."  What made him special is that Abrego, a 56-year-old husband and father of two, earned all his college degrees by attending weekend classes-for 16 years.

"In 1988, when I started, I saw it as an initiative-builder for my kids," he says. He also had seen the benefits of education at AT&T, where he worked: Employees with educations moved up the ladder.

But with a family to support and nurture, going to college isn't an easy choice. "I think it's similar to a 'normal' person who runs her or his first marathon," says Mark T. Green, one of Abrego's professors. "They will tend to not envision 26 miles. Rather, they will envision the first 10 kilometers, than try to focus on the 13-mile part, then the 20-mile wall, and finally on just making it mile to mile the last 6.

"The ironic aspect of this is that a great number of our students are promoted multiple times in their careers while being a doctoral student. While economically great, it adds more pressure to their lives, as they are now trying to concomitantly manage a new level of professional responsibility while continuing doctoral work."  This happened to Abrego, too.

After graduating from high school in San Antonio in 1966, he and nearly a dozen buddies joined the Navy. Abrego became an aviation jet mechanic. When he returned home to San Antonio, he joined AT&T as a stocker, working a 2-10 a.m. shift filling delivery and repair trucks with parts.

He saw people around him-college-educated people- moving up to positions with better hours and more pay, and decided to follow their path. "You always want to chase a dream, but some don't seem possible," he says. Abrego looked into weekend courses at Our Lady of the Lake, enrolled and buckled down to his studies.

Abrego had the support of his wife, Cynthia, and struggled to spend quality time with his daughter, Kasandra, and son, Daniel. "I'd lock myself up in a back room and start working," he says. "I'd go to family events but wind up studying at 3 or 4 in the morning to make up for it."

He got his bachelor's degree in business, and the company promoted him. Then he got his master's in international business, and another promotion.

A doctorate in leadership studies proved tougher after his son Daniel was seriously hurt in a car accident. Abrego took a year off to help his son through surgeries and months of physical therapy. "When I went back to school, I was lackadaisical," he says. "One of the instructors talked to me and said, 'Do you think you can do this? I think you can.' "  Green helped guide Abrego to his master's and doctorate. "He clearly put in significant time preparing for class, and one could sense he wanted the classroom dialogue to go on after the class formally ended," says the professor.

Colleges increasingly provide options for students who can't take a direct route to a graduate degree, says Gabe DeGabrielle, executive director of the Association for Non-Traditional Students in Higher Education, based in Colorado. The options include study tracks with prior-learning credit, accelerated courses and online learning.

"You're only limited by your financial resources and by what you want to do and how you want to do it," DeGabrielle says. Abrego developed his own philosophy: "You can lose the ring, lose the diploma, or everything could burn up, but you can't lose what's inside you."

He also got another promotion, to AT&T service manager at USAA, a San Antonio-based Fortune 500 company offering insurance and financial services to military personnel.  Now Abrego has a new education goal: teaching college. "I want to teach business leadership at Our Lady of the Lake," he says. "I'd probably like to teach on the weekends." 
HISPANIC, September 2004, page 60

About Hispanic College Fund
Sent by JV Martinez

The Hispanic College Fund is a national non-profit organization dedicated to developing the next generation of Hispanic business leaders in America. Since 1994 the Hispanic College Fund has awarded more than $1 million in scholarships to 600 deserving Latino students enrolled in colleges and universities throughout the country. Located in Washington, D.C., the Hispanic College Fund was founded by a dedicated group of Hispanic leaders who responded to the alarming number of students who cannot afford a college education. The scholarship grants range from $500 to $5,000 and are awarded once a year. The application deadline is April 15.

Coming into Manhood

by Robert Olivares (Former gang member)

Into the daylight I stride my heart heavy and my mind racing with my past and haunted by memories and nightmares. It’s hard for me to rationalize that which I have seen as I made my way into my twenty-seventh year. It’s hard to see the human body reduced to a lifeless shell, to watch people have to say good-bye to their love one that was shot in front of them, and then to live everyday as if you have no memory of them. I remember seeing the body of a baby wrapped in plastic, the white face of a complete stranger dying in front of my cousin and me, while the woman he loved watched him slowly slip away.

Recent study,
The Rise of the Second Generation by Robert Suro of the Pew Hispanic Center and Jeffrey Passel of the Urban Institute found that about 8 percent of first generation Hispanics marry outside their ethnic group, as opposed to 32 percent of second-generation Latinos and 57 percent of the third generation. Consequently, among third-generation Hispanics, virtually none are Spanish-dominant, 22 percent are bilingual and an over-whelming 78 percent are English-dominant. 
Hispanic, September 2004, page 32

The Howard Center for Family, Religion, and Society World Congress of Families:
Family Research Abstract of the Week: Trouble in the Third Generation, 26th October, 2004

For nearly 80 years, when women from Mexico immigrated to the United States, they brought with them a strong orientation to marriage, motherhood, and modesty. So successful were they in passing on family values, their daughters born in America actually experienced lower levels of nonmarital childbearing than their foreign-born moms. At least that was the case until 1970, when the pattern reversed and the generations born north of the border began to move away from the family way of the motherland, according to Elizabeth Wildsmith of the University of Texas at Austin.

Wildsmith studied data from two sources: samples from 1880 through 1990 of the IPUMS census files, which tracks "female headship" of households among whites, blacks, U.S.-born Mexicans, and Mexican-born women, and the 1995 Current Population Survey, which includes a supplement on the marital and fertility histories of women. She found that rates of female headship were universally low among all categories of women from 1880 to 1960, the lowest being among whites, the highest among blacks, and women of Mexican origin in between. After 1960, the rates increased for all women and dramatically so for blacks. Controlled for education, the levels of headship for Mexican-born women are virtually the same as for whites since 1970. But for Mexican women born in the U.S., levels since 1970 are significantly higher relative to native-born Mexicans and have increased over time.

By 1995, the differences were especially pronounced between the second and third generations of Mexican-origin women, the latter which were 2.24 times more likely to be heads of households and 2.72 times more likely to have given birth out of wedlock than white women. For blacks, those Odds Ratios were 4.28 and 5.68, respectively (all correlations, p<.05).

Wildsmith's regression analysis that tracked the relationship between education and nonmarital fertility found that while nonmarital fertility among white women was flat regardless of education, the higher nonmarital fertility rates for minority women depended somewhat on education. Having a high school education exerted a stronger negative influence on nonmarital fertility among first and second generation Mexican-Americans, but much less on the third-generation, whose high nonmarital fertility levels resembled that of blacks.

The limited effect of a high school education to lower nonmarital childbearing in the third generation may suggest other factors may be weaning later generations of Mexican-Americans away from pro-family patterns. Although Wildsmith does not suggest this, the federal welfare system that other studies credit with raising nonmarital fertility rates among blacks since the 1960s appears to have had the same effect on other minorities as well.

(Source: Elizabeth Wildsmith, "Race/Ethnic Differences in Female Headship: Exploring the Assumptions of Assimilation Theory," Social Science Quarterly 85 [2004]: 89-106.)

"The Smartest Card. Get It. Use It. @ your library(R)" Campaign

George Lopez - celebrated author, writer, producer and star of ABC-TV's hit sitcom "George Lopez "(Tuesdays, 8:30-9 p.m. on ABC) - will lend his support to a new national advocacy effort to make the library card the most valued and used card in every wallet.

"The Smartest Card. Get It. Use It. @ your library(R)" campaign, sponsored by the Public Library Association (PLA), a division of the American Library Association, launched nationally at Brooklyn Public Library. Thousands of libraries across the country will use the campaign to promote library card use and enrollment. "George Lopez," the critically acclaimed family comedy now in its fourth season, regularly addresses issues related to literacy with frequent story lines exploring George and his son Max's (played by series regular Luis Armand Garcia) struggles with Dyslexia.

"We are thrilled Mr. Lopez will be a spokesperson for this national initiative," said PLA President Clara Bohrer. "His warmth and humor will be great assets in our efforts to reach people who may not be taking full advantage of all the great resources available for free in libraries nationwide. Libraries are places of opportunity for all Americans, and a library card is the best back-to-school supply and the smartest card a parent can give his or her child."

Lopez, who is a library card holder at the Los Angeles Public Library, will lend his image and voice to promoting library card usage through the ALA's renowned READ poster series, a poster to promote library card sign up and usage, and television, radio and print public service announcements.

"I'm delighted to be part of a program that encourages people to read. Libraries are an amazing source of information and ideas in an environment that is open to everyone, regardless of their color, religion or social statusA library card provides each of us with the same access to knowledge. Reading fuels your dreams," said George Lopez.

With more free public libraries in this country than there are McDonalds, every person in this country can easily find and afford a healthy diet of books, CDs, videos and free Internet access. Sixty-two percent of adult Americans say they have a library card, and adults with children are the most likely to have a library card (73 percent). Studies show that children who are read to in the home and who use the library perform better in school and are more likely to continue to use the library as a source of lifetime learning.

The "Smartest Card" initiative is part of The Campaign for America's Libraries, a multi-year public awareness and advocacy effort by the ALA to speak loudly and clearly about the value of libraries, librarians and library workers in the 21st Century.

"George Lopez," moved to a new night and time - Tuesdays (8:30-9 p.m., ET) - on ABC. The series is from Bruce Helford, Deborah Oppenheimer and Robert Borden - all from ABC's long-running hit comedy series "The Drew Carey Show" - and actress/producer Sandra Bullock ("Speed," "Two Weeks Notice"). The show is produced by Fortis Films and Mohawk Productions, Inc. in association with Warner Bros. Television.


Trivial Pursuit

A new deck of cards promises to educate America's 9-12 years olds about Latinos—and provide some fun trivia for adults. Published by Workman, it's the latest in the company's line of fun learning cards. Brain Quest Hispanic America consists of 850 questions and answers about people, places, culture, heritage, sports and language. The deck includes questions like, "On what side did a Latino named Loreta Joneta Velazquez serve in the civil war?" (Answer: the Confederacy; she reportedly served as a spy and disguised herself as a man to fight in battle.) A two-minute Brain Quest game is available at   Source: Hispanic, October 2004


Facts & Genes from Family Tree DNA 
August 25, 2004 Volume 3, Issue 5
Editor's Corner:
Sent by Tom Ascensio Tom

Welcome to this issue of Facts & Genes, the only publication devoted to Genetic Genealogy.
Facts & Genes provides valuable information about utilizing Genetic Genealogy testing for your genealogy, and keeps you informed about the latest advancements in the field.

Last month, I asked in the newsletter about the oldest participant, and would like to thank all those who responded. It was quite amazing to find so many participants in their 90's and a few in their 100's, which is evidence of the willingness of the senior population to explore new technologies. The oldest participant reported was 103 when they took a DNA test, as part of the International Dalton Surname Project. The next oldest participant was 102, and a member of the Faux Surname Project.

If you have older relatives, especially if they are the last male in a branch, you may want to get their sample stored now, while you still have an opportunity. If you are sponsoring the test, and working within a budget, consider the 12 Marker test, which can always be upgraded at a later date.

You can set your Personal Page or your Group Administrator Page to Favorites, or as a bookmark. You can also set other pages, such as the Y DNA Matches Page under your Personal Page, or the Members List Page under the Group Administrator Page, as a Favorite or bookmark. Setting pages
that you visit frequently at to Favorites or as a bookmark, will save you time, and make it easy to visit our site with just a click.

Have you wanted to start a Surname Project, and have hesitated because it seems overwhelming? Almost everyone feels this way at the beginning. Our educational resources, combined with our email and telephone consultation, help you each step of the way. Being confused or overwhelmed
will quickly pass, and be replaced with the excitement of new discoveries.

Anyone with experience with family history research can start a Surname Project. We supply the tools and guidance so your Surname Project is successful. There are just two steps to take to become a Group Administrator of a Surname Project:

1. Find out if a Surname Project exists for your surname. Click on the link below to search our database of Surname Projects:

2. If a Surname Project hasn't been established for your surname, then use the email contact below to establish a Surname Project, or to discuss establishing a Surname Project:
   for Bennett Greenspan  . Dexter
free subscription:


RANCEL's Home- Genealogy 
Estrada surname Web
Spanish Surname Coat of Arms
Al Sosa's Hispanic Genealogy



De los tres hombres árabes no tengo noticias, pero intentaré averiguarlo y lo del arbol es una variedad del roble que al parecer ser llama "rebollo", aunque hay quien dice que las raices del roble se llaman "rebollo".  Al parecer entre mi antepasados hubo alguno que en la lucha para expulsar a los árabes de España, en alguna batalla le cortó la cabeza a tres. 

Publicado en Odiel Información de Huelva el 12 noviembre de 2004
Angel Custodio Rebollo

Hay un refrán, español que dice: "En casa del herrero azadón de palo" y eso es lo que me ha ocurrido a mi en el estudio de mi apellido. A raíz de la publicación de mis artículos en Internet en la revista "Somos Primos", órgano de la Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research, he recibido muchos correos, principalmente de Estados Unidos y México, solicitándome datos sobre personas y apellidos españoles, lo que hizo que me interesase mucho por la genealogía, con el fin de atender a mis consultantes, pero me he preocupado mucho de otros apellidos y no me había interesado mucho en el mío.

Hace unos días, recibí correo de mi amiga Elva Pina Ramírez, de Estados Unidos, que me decía que era descendiente de Juan Rebollo, de Jalisco y que su bisabuela se llamaba Carmen Rebollo y que le dijese lo que sabía sobre mi apellido.

La verdad es que sé bien poco, porque mis conocimientos genealógicos son el de un aficionado al tema y no me considero un experto, pues por tener el apellido siempre en casa, solo me he preocupado de reunir algunos datos y conservar un escudo de armas que tengo desde el año 1960.

Rebollo, es el apellido de muchos habitantes de la provincia de Huelva, especialmente de nativos de Villanueva de la Cruces, Alonso y Tharsis y sin embargo es nombre que está poco extendido en América. Fueron pocos los que se aventuraron a cruzar el Atlántico.

He encontrado Rebollos en Argentina, Chile, México, Perú, Cartagena de Indias y algún que otro sitio mas, pero ahora por el correo de mi amiga Elva, prometo estudiar mas profundamente el tema y llegar hasta donde mis modestos conocimientos puedan, ya que creo es algo que debo a mis ancestros.                                                  

Apellidos de mis antepasados:
Rebollo – Barroso – Vázquez – Fuentes – Bayo – Moreno – González – Domínguez,  
Y los de mi esposa son:
Aguirre – Galaz – De la Vega – López – Sainz – Serna – Pérez – Marañon – De la Garza.

Julio N. RANCEL's Home- Genealogy
Sent by Johanna De Soto by Bill Carmena

Estrada surname Web at 
It has good information for those who bear that surname. Regards,
Eduardo J. Estrada
Great site,, many Spanish surnames

Spanish Surname Coat of Arms
I am presently taking orders from people who take pride in their Spanish Surname history. I've gotten many requests from my column "Apellidos" that comes out in "La Prensa de San Antonio". I start with the place of origin in Spain, travel to the West Indies, the Main land Mexico then through the expeditions into what is presently the United States. If you are interested in adding this to your research, please feel free to contact me.  Ramon Vasquez Y Sanchez, 

Hispanic Genealogy
Recommended by many researchers.

 Al is part of a group of writers, historians, hobbyists, and just plain ordinary people who are connected by their desire to find their Hispanic ancestral roots.  "We meet regularly on the Hispanic Genealogy Forum to exchange information and to help each other to be more successful in the search for our Hispanic roots.  We love to help beginners get started in the right direction and enjoy spreading little known facts about  our Hispanic culture and History."


Galvez Patriots

Los Soldados del Real Presidio de Santa Barbara, 
dedicated to recreating the Spanish colonial period 1769-1881.

[[Editor: The articles and photos below were extracted from a CD that was sent by Michael Hardwick. What a surprise, the CD was formatted in the style of a book, with pages that could be turned.  It was a remarkable experience, observing the past being brought forth through one of the most recent technology for sharing a book.  Sincere admiration for what has been accomplished by the dedication of Los Soldados del Real Presidio de Santa Barbara.]]

Information sent by Michael Hardwick, reenactor of Philipe de Neve, first governor of California.
More information:

On November 6, 2004, California members of The Sons of the American Revolution organized an event also recognizing the support of the Spanish military during the American Revolution. This is the first in a project which will identify Revolutionary War sites in California. Congratulations to the California Sons of the American Revolution, for their vision of acknowledgement of the Hispanic contributions.

Dedication of a Revolutionary War Site at the Presidio Monterey
Sent by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

On November 6, 2004, the California Society of Sons of the American Revolution recognized the site of Monterey’s San Carlos Cathedral and the “Royal Presidio Chapel” as an American Revolution War Site.

The Very Reverend Peter A. Crivello is giving his presentation at the ceremony. Represented at the ceremony are American Revolution Soldiers,
Soldado Bob Stevens of San Diego, Soldado Leroy F. Martinez of Mission Viejo and SAR member, Soldado Frank Martinez of San Leandro and his daughter Lauriel dressed as an Indian child, Father Serra, Officer's wife dressed in late 1700's clothing Suzanne Novotney, and Soldado Joseph Lopez of San Bernardino.

The Daughters of the American Revolution (D.A.R) were also in attendance represented by the State Regent Nancy Alexander, Vice State Regent Anne Lampman, Commodore Sloat Chapter Regent Sharon Law Tucker and at least ten other D.A.R. members.  We regret the inadvertent omission of D.A.R. Speaker Sharon Law Tucker and appreciated the support from all the Daughters of the American Revolution in attendance.



Images of Orange county, Calendar
OC Mex-American Historical Society
KWANZAA 2004 Celebration
6th Annual Chino Valley Seminar

  Images of Orange County, 2005 

Report by Viola Rodriguez Sadler, SHHAR Board member:

On October 30th, I went to the meeting of the Orange County Mexican American Historical Society, OCMAHS, at the YWCA in Orange. The speakers were Gerardo Briceno, Professor of Ethnic Studies, Santa Ana College & Cypress College and Alonso Alvarez, Film producer. The topic was "Betrayal and Violations: Mexican Repatriation of the 1930s." They addressed the situation in the United States during the Depression, and the reason why U.S. citizens of Mexican ancestry were deported. Mr. Briceno and Alvarez have many hours of film of oral history and they presented excerpts of some of the interviews. Their ultimate mission is to complete a documentary and have PBS pick it up. They asked those attending the presentation to give them names of victims or relatives of victims so they can continue their oral history part of the project.

Below is photo: L-R: Gerardo Briceno, Yolanda Alvarez, president of OCMAHS, and Alfonso Alvarez.

The Orange County Mexican American Historical Society is dedicated to collecting, preserving and sharing historic photographs, stories and artifacts that illustrate the communities of Mexican Americans. 
We offer this segment of history as another chronicle of the human experience.

Orange County Mexican American Historical Society
P.O. Box 4127
Orange, CA 92863-4127 

KWANZAA 2004 Celebration,
Saturday, December 18, 2004,  1:00pm – 4:00pm
Sent by MaryRose Garcia

African Cultural Arts Council (An affiliate of the Bowers Museum of Cultural Art) dedicated to increasing appreciation for cultural diversity through the arts,  YOU are invited to a Pre KWANZAA Celebration 
At The Bowers Museum of Cultural Art,  2002 North Main Street- Santa Ana.

Afternoon of  Entertainment, Food and Fun! Storytellers, Dancers, Drummers, Silent Auction
 Admission: $7.00 per person 20.00 per family (up to 4)  children 10 and under, free tickets sold at the door for information contact: Willia Edmonds  (714) 543-7379

Umoja (Unity) Kujichagulia (Self-Determination) Ujima (Collective Work & Responsibility) 
Ujamaa (Cooperative Economics)  Nia (Purpose) Kuumba (Creativity)  Imana  (Faith)

Finding our "Lost" Ancestors was the theme of the
Chino Valley Family History & Genealogy Seminar held on Saturday, October 16, 2004. This was the Sixth Annual event for the Chino Stake, and this year about 300 registrants attended. My presentation was billed at "Beginning Hispanic Research" and I had 20-25 who attended the session.

All Los Angeles Times articles extracted by Karla Everett
Recommended site by Eva Booher

Los Angeles Times, April 8, 1933: Ysidoro Olivares

SANTA ANA. April 7., - Ysidoro Olivares, 107 years of age, a vaquero in the golden days of California, died today at Orange County Hospital. Until recently he rode his horse daily on his ranch near El Toro. Olivares had been employed on the Lewis Moulton ranch for seventy years. Olivares was a prominent figure in the rodeos of seventy-five years ago, being one of the best ropers in Southern California. Funeral services will be conducted at Mission San Juan Capistrano tomorrow at 9 a.m.

A reader of the CA-SPANISH, Rita writes to Karla Everett who writes Rita, please keep those blurps coming. I file each and every one along with the original story.  

Ysidoro Olivares didn't ride his horse on "his" ranch near El Toro. This would have been the old Jose Serrano Rancho. Rancho Canada de Los Alisos granted to Serrano by Mexican Gov. Juan B. Alverado in 1884 and 1886. Old Serrano Adobe is CA. State Historical. Landmark # 199.  

Jose Serrano married. Petra Avila, (Don Juan Avila's sister), thus my interest in the Serrano Family. Ysidro Olivares could not have worked for Louie B. Moulton for 70 yrs. Moulton didn't buy Don Juan Avila's Rancho El Niquil (Niguel) until late 1870s. Rather I believe Ysidro was a vaquero for Don Juan Avila on his Rancho El Niquil (Niguel) then stayed on with Moulton after he bought our old rancho. The story then seems to be Ysidro Olivares went to work for Serrano Family in late 1890s - early 1900s. He lived with the Serrano Family until he was very elderly & became ill. Not sure if Olivares ever married or had issue. Ysidro was in fact well known for his roping skills and seemed to attend every rodeo in Southern California. Wherever there was a rodeo there was Ysidro & his lore. What a fun era this must have been. Rita AVILA - OLD SPANISH CA FAMILY

Los Angeles Times, April 11, 1912: Ramon Castillo

VENTURA, April 10. - Ramon Castillo, aged 105 years, died yesterday at his home in San Martine Canyon, this county, where he had resided for years in the family of Jo Aros. (Aros, might be Ares?) Castillo had resided in Ventura county section for the past ninety years and put in much of his life on the Camulos ranch of the Del Valle family as a vaquero. He was a native of Mexico and had no relatives in this part of the world so far as is known. 




Canine Curandero, Cesar Millan
Bilingual beasts 
Dec. 3 & 4, Los Cerritos 
Los Angeles Times historical articles
Reflections On Teaching in East L.A.  



Canine Curandero, Cesar Millan is best known as the "The Dog Whisperer"

                                        by Linda Pligas, Hispanic, June 2003, page 38
Since he was 11, the only thing Millan has wanted to do is work with animals. "I just wanted to be the best dog trainer in the world," he says.

The third-generation canine curandero began studying canines on the fields of his Mexican rancho in Sinaloa, Mexico, learning the secrets of the trade from his father, who in turn learned them from his father. Yet neither his dad nor his grand-dad made any money from their skill. Early on, Millan realized that if he wanted to make a living working with canines, he was going to have to leave his country.

So a decade ago, he crossed the border to San Diego with $100 in his pocket-a nest egg he had spent within hours of arriving: "I gave [it] all to the coyote," he says, laughing. Within days, he was clean-ing up dog poop and clipping fur. From the beginning, Millan stood apart: While most dog groomers use noisy electric trimmers to style dogs, he used scissors.

The unconventional groomer soon saw his empty pockets fill with cash. Two years later, he moved again, this time to a place where dog care is ubiquitous and tres chic: Hollywood.

The move soon paid off. Today, actors Will Smith and Annie Potts, supermodel Rebecca Romijn Stamos, Gladiator director Ridley Scott, film producer Barry Josephson and ex-NBA player Dennis Rodman are just some of the clients who fork out $185 to $750 per hour for private consultations, or pay $2,500 per month for intensive therapy.

He trains the dogs in packs-their primordial social custom-with Millan acting as the group leader. It's clearly not ordinary dog training. Millan doesn't teach the pups to sit or roll-over; he rehabilitates.

"I teach them to follow," he explains. When he takes the pack for their daily 6 a.m. exercise outing-usually to the hills for an intensive hike or to the beach for a long run-he doesn't put leashes on them; he uses body language. If a dog rebels, he grabs the back of its neck in precisely the right spot to temporarily immobilize it, forcing it to the ground. It's a natural method, one practiced by dogs in the wild to control rebellious behavior.

Ironically, many times dogs' rebelliousness can be traced back to their owners, he says. Americans tend to view their dogs as having humanistic qualities, but "the right way is [to treat dogs like] dogs." Still, "a lot of people go, 'No, he's my son.' " To change a dog's aggression, Millan says, he needs to change its owner's attitude. "Dogs need a leader, not a lover," he quips.

Daryl Young, a dog trainer with the Beverly Hills-based Professional Dog Training Service, says Millan's story and message are special. "I tell other dog trainers I see, especially those in the inner-city who are not as successful as Cesar, 'You know guys, Cesar comes to this country, barely speaks English, [and] he learns. He comes to the kennels, cleans dog poop, washes dogs, learns the business and becomes a success. You guys have been here all your life and you won't [take extra steps] to learn more about your industry.'"

In a few years, Millan transformed him-self from a penniless, rural, illegal immigrant into a successful, business-savvy Angeleno on the brink of fame. Yet while his story may inspire others, his success is no great surprise, he says: "Whatever you put in your mind, you'll get."

Asked for a last bit of dog wisdom, Milan shares a bit of insight that's especially relevant in the gang-infested South Central neighborhood where his rehabilitation center stands: "Choose your pack," Millan exclaims. "Don't let the pack choose you." 

[[Editor:  I found the article below concerning animal sounds of  particular interest because of several experiences that I had in learning to work with newly arrived Vietnamese refugees.  I live in Westminster, California, home to the largest number of Vietnamese in the nation. Van Tran,  the newly elected first Asian-American to represent Orange County in Sacramento lives in Westminster. 

As an oral-language specialist between 1979-1986,  I worked with K-12 students, in the high school district and two elementary school districts. I had the opportunity of developing strategies for speeding up oral/aural skills.  

In an attempt to connect more with the Vietnamese students, I decided to learn a Vietnamese phrase: Good morning students.  With the assistance of a Vietnamese teacher, I thought I had learned the phrase correctly.  However, after the third time I said it to my class of newly arrived (fresh off the boat) students, I could see by their puzzled expressions . .  that my attempt had failed.  Suddenly one of the girls understood what I was trying to say.  She started clapping and told the rest of the students what I had tried to say.  Smiling and laughing, they all clapped happily.   

After class, the same student was trying to help me with my pronunciation when a Ph.D. Vietnamese candidate came in, my associate Vy Do.  I explained that I was getting a some help with pronunciation.  By the expression of the student, Vy said something very harsh to her. I asked him what and why had said something to obviously hurt her feelings. "I told her you would never be able to pronounce the words correctly, because you can't hear the sounds."  

He went on to explain how children learn to hear certain tones (pre-production), and tune themselves specifically to those sounds. But given the opportunity, children have the ability to learn multiple languages before the process of tuning-out takes place. 

Pacing, accents and inflection further complicates learning a second language. Vy (now Dr. Do) demonstrated that at a conference.  Writing a two-letter word on the board, he explained that it could mean 12 different things, depending on the inflection. This is surely a good reason to encourage foreign born Americans to maintain their language and act as ambassadors in world understanding and communication. ]] 

Bilingual beasts by Richard Read, two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter

Each language has a collection of animal sounds that reveals more about the culture than the creatures.

Every English-speaking child knows that a pig goes "oink, oink." But it turns out that in Thailand, pigs don't say that at all. They go "ood ood"- in a rather high voice, at that. Anyway, that's the way Thais hear it.

Animals-other than parrots, at least-don't really speak the languages of the nations they inhabit. But it turns out that people in different countries hear animals quite differently.

Each language has a collection of animal sounds that tends to reveal more about the local culture than about the creatures themselves. Dogs go "bow wow," or something
equally expansive, in places where large hounds have long been popular. But they tend to go "yip," or the equivalent, in areas frequented by minia-ture poodles and the like.
To the American ear, a duck goes "quack quack." But in Mandarin Chinese, a duck goes "gua gua." The same duck straying into Norway would be heard to say "kvakk kvakk."

An American linguist named Catherine Ball has turned the study of animal-noise vocabulary into a consuming hobby. She maintains a Web site
that catalogs animal noises in different languages and plays the critters' actual sounds.

Ball explains that each language has a distinct system of sounds, like a painters palette that differs from those of other artists. Portuguese, for instance, has nasal vowels that English lacks; therefore to people in Portugal, dogs bark in nasal vowels. "Its as though every-one was asked to paint a picture of a sunset," Ball says, "but some people had only purple and red crayons, and other people had only yellow and green crayons."

Ball began her Web site in 1995, when she was a Georgetown University linguistics professor. People from around the world send in words for animal sounds, which Ball, having earned a Ph.D. in linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania, feels obligated to verify. Sometimes speakers of the same language disagree on entries, whether due to differences in generations, dialects or opinion.

Some supposed animal sounds get pretty strange. "Someone has sent me sounds of ants in Polish," Ball says. "They go 'perim, perim, perim.' To me, that's like the sound of one hand clapping."

The animal-sounds site includes intriguing links, such as one featuring insect noises from the Natural History Museum of Slovenia. It also contains gaps: English has no rendition of elephant sounds, but in Chilean Spanish, an elephant goes "prraaahhh prrraaaahhh."

Source: NWA World Traveler, May 2004, page 19

Dec. 3 & 4, Christmas Candlelight Tours of Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site ite, 6:30-8:30 p.m.

Escorted by lamplight through the adobe house, guests will step back in time to a Mexican-style Christmas in 1850 and experience the pastorelas. Live music and refreshments included.  Tickets go on sale Nov. 1. Cost is $6.00 per person (children under 3 are free). Space is limited; reservations required.

Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site
4600 Virginia Road, Long Beach, CA 90807
(562) 570-1755

Sent by Eliza Boné
Public Relations Coordinator

All Los Angeles Times articles extracted by Karla Everett
Recommended site by Eva Booher

Los Angeles Times, Oct 25, 1898:  "EL VAQUERO" DEAD

Mexican Who Lived a Century and a Quarter. (Associated Press Night Report.)
I'm sure this death must have occurred in Salinas, spelling in this article is Salias.  SALIAS, Oct. 24. - Pardo Lucero, alias "El Vaquero," whose age, as shown by the records of the Mission of Los Angeles and Soledad, was 125 years, died at the County Hospital today. He came from Sonora, Mex., and for the last seventy-five 

 years was well known in this part of the State. He worked as a sheep herder for David Jacks, the Monterey millionaire, for about forty years. He leaves a sister in Mexico and some property on the Yaqui River.

Los Angeles Times, Sep 30, 1893: Funeral of Don Miguel Ortega

VENTURA COUNTY: The funeral of Don Miguel Emigdio Ortego (sic), one of the oldest residents of Ventura, took place today (Wednesday,) and was largely attended. Don Emigdio was born here in 1812 and had spent all the years of his life 

in this town. Old-timers remember him as one of the best vaqueros in the State, his dexterity in handling the riata having made him famous. He left a large family and many friends to mourn his death.

Los Angeles Times, Jun 3, 1904:   A PRINCE OF THE SOIL

Teodore Verdugo Passes Away at a Ripe Age

Old Teodore Verdugo died yesterday on the remnant of the great rancho granted to his soldier father by the King of Spain for his services in the Spanish army.  Teodore 

was an old man, 79 years. He had seen the Verdugo place dwindle from a great tract as big as a European principality to a little place of 1200 acres.

When the rancho was granted in 1776 to Gulio Verdugo, who had been sent with his regiment from Spain to subdue the new land, it contained eight whole leagues - thousands upon thousands of acres. Old Teodore's recollection went back to a time when the whole eight leagues were covered with browsing cattle, in herds so great that no one had any idea how many cattle there were; when a great company of vaqueros guarded the shifting herds, when there were major domos and the solemn grandeur of the great estate.

Teodore inherited the rancho upon which he was born. He married and raised a family of children - nine. They are all there yet on the rancho, with the exception of one daughter, who is married to Vicente Figueroa.  After the gringo came, all the enormous ranchos of the early days were broken up, and this went the way of the others. It used to extend from Verdugo down to where the canneries stand by the river.  Teodore was one of the last of the old ranchero princes of the soil.

Los Angeles Times, Nov 12, 1906:  Francisco Cota, DEATH WINS LAST VICTORY

Francisco Cota, Who Fought Stockton, Dead. Last of Proud Dons Who Made Local History.  Many Spanish Families Will Honor His Memory.

Children and grand-children of the proudest old families of early California gathered last night, in the old Spanish way, to sit through the night with the dead body of old Francisco Cota.

This old man who died last Friday was one of the last of the old Spanish dons who ruled like kings over the vast estates of California before the gringo came. His family is one of the most distinguished in early California history, and his was an honorable part in the family annals.

Francisco Cota was over 90 when he died. He was born in Los Angeles on one of the enormous ranchos; the hacienda was about the spot where the Roman Catholic cathedral at Main and Second streets, now stands, next door to the cathedral, they say.

His father was Guillermo Cota, one of the emigrants from Spain, who were organized in Sinaloa and came north to found the little pueblo that has become Los Angeles.  The family became social leaders in the gorgeous life of the early Spanish land princes.

HAIR OF A DEBTOR:  In those days, it was an insult, a subtle insult, to ask a man how many acres he owned; land was reckoned in leagues. Money was loaned back and forth on the simple word of a man. In those simple-hearted proud days, the Cotas used to go to the pioneer stores and fling down a handful of gold pieces with the order to send out as much as that would buy. For security on large sums of money, it was sometimes a custom to take a hair of the debtor's head as a delicate compliment, implying that his word and one little hair as reminder was enough to insure payment of any sum.

Suspicion and crooked dealing came in with the gringo.

The Cotas used to give barbecues and fiestas that lasted for weeks at a time, visiting back and forth between the Lugos, the Del Valles, the Sepulvedas, the Verdugos and many other of the old families.

Francisco Cota from boyhood was a magnificent horseman and became a typical Spanish grandee, proud, honorable and recklessly brave.  At the death of his father, he inherited a vast estate with parts of several famous ranches, La Ballona, Cerritos, Los Coyotes.

His brother, Leonardo Cota became one of the foremost men in the history of Southern California; he was one of the early alcaldes of Los Angeles in it most strenuous days. It was largely through Leonard Cota and the brother who now lie dead, that the haciendas of the Spanish were opened socially to the early gringos.

His sister was the wife of old Don Manuel Dominguez whose grandsons are Frank, Ralph and Bob Dominguez, well known in this city's business life.

TOOK PART IN BATTLE:  When Commodore Stockton landed at San Pedro and began the march on the Dominguez rancho, Francisco Cota was one of the fiery young Spaniards who armed themselves as best they could and marched with their vaqueros, or rather rushed, to stop the Americanos.

Cota in fact was one of the most picturesque features of that battle. He was one of the pure-blooded Spanish and was a pronounced blond in complexion. This so impressed Stockton's sailors that they were convinced he must be an American held captive by the Mexicans and raised a fund among themselves to try to accomplish his freedom.

Cota often used to tell his grandchildren how the vaqueros rode down the sailors with their plunging horses. The old cannon now planted at Commercial and Main streets, and resting at the Courthouse are souvenirs of that battle.

One of the great events of the early social life here was the marriage of Francisco Cota to one of the daughters of Machado of the Machado rancho.

LEAVES MANY CHILDREN:  They raised a great family of children, most of the daughters marrying into well-known Spanish families. The surviving children are, Mrs. Vicenta Yorba of Yorba station; Mrs. Tadeo Botiller of No. 1672 Harvard boulevard; Mrs. Teofilo Valdez of Hollywood; Mrs. Ramona Olivera of The Palms; Mrs. Manuela Figueroa, La Ballona; Sara Cota, La Ballona; Guillermo Cota and Frank Cota of La Ballona.

The old don was clear in mind up to the time of his death. Until four or five years ago he used to ride his horse with the younger men.  For about two years he has been suffering with cancer of the mouth. He bore his terrible suffering with proud patience, and without complaint.

He died at the house of his daughter, Mrs. Botiller last Saturday night.  The funeral services will be held this morning at 10 o'clock at St. Thomas' Church, Pico Heights; burial at Calvary Cemetery. The funeral will be a representative gathering of the old Spanish families.

Los Angeles Times, Mar 10, 1921: DESCENDANT OF SPANISH DON PASSES.

Mrs. Herlinda Sepulveda to be Buried in Old Cemetery at Santa Barbara Mission.

Where monarchs have trod within the hushed walls of the little cemetery of the Santa Barbara Mission, the remains of another whose name is entwined with the romantic 

pioneer days of California are to be laid to rest, for Mrs. Herlinda Sepulveda died yesterday afternoon. She was the widow of the late Judge Ygnacio Sepulveda and the mother of Mrs. Charles C. Chapman, with whom she had just returned ten days ago from a visit to Mexico City. She was stricken last Sunday at the family residence, 1457 Dana street.

The funeral services are to be held at high mass this morning at St. Agnes Church, Vermont avenue and West Adams street, but the burial will take place in the quaint little cemetery of Santa Barbara Mission, within the shadow of her birthplace and beside the remains of her husband.

Mrs. Sepulveda was 63 years of age and was a descendant of one of the oldest Spanish families of Southern California, which traced its line from Jose de La Guerra, who came to California 110 years ago, and who was one of the wealthiest of Spanish dons, having owned at one time 500,000 acres of land.

The late Judge Sepulveda died four years ago. He was well known as a jurist and lawyer and served as Charge d'Affaires for the United States in Mexico City for two terms.

Besides her daughter, who was formerly Miss Conchita Sepulveda, Mrs. Sepulveda is survived by four sisters, Mrs. Bert Rico, Mrs. Anita de la Guerra, Mrs. Georgia West and Mrs. Maria Yndart; and three brothers, Juan, Santiago and Hannibal de la Guerra.


Andres Machado, one of the last of the old clan of real California dons, who used to feast and race their horses on their great ranchos in Southern California when Los Angeles was but a pueblo, will be laid to rest today in a tiny plot of the ground that was part of the 17,000 acres his father received as a grant from the King of Spain.

The 80-year-old descendant of the Machados will be interred in the family plot in Woodlawn Cemetery following services from St. Augustine's in Culver City at 9 a.m. Father O'Donnell will officiate.

Mr. Machado died in Riverside last Thursday following complications which developed when he received accidental burns on his ranch at Arlington a short time previously.

Jose Juan Machado, a brother of 1301 Jefferson Boulevard, Culver City, the only immediate relative, recounted last night some of the instances that made Andres an outstanding figure in the early life of Los Angeles.

"Andres was one of the few men," Jose said, "who was able to raise horses that were matched successfully against those of the late E. J. (Lucky) Baldwin.

"It was back in about 1860 that Andres told Mr. Baldwin he believed he had seven horses that could beat anything in the Baldwin stables in a relay race. The whole countryside came to Los Angeles, or rather to the outskirts, where Exposition Park now is, when Mr. Baldwin accepted the Machado challenge for a race.

"The course lay from where the park is to the present junction of West Adams street and Washington Boulevard. Everyone around saw that famous race - the fourteen horses, running in rival pairs, tearing along neck-and-neck for most of the way.

"The last Machado rider nosed out the Baldwin entry and it was a great day on our Rancho Ballona, the original grant made to our father, Augustine Machado."

Andres Machado was born in Los Angeles and spent most of his long life at Rancho Ballona. In later years, however, he moved to his Arlington ranch. His mother was Romona Sepulveda, a member of a California family that was equally as prominent as the Machados.

The Rancho Ballona embraced the present sites of Culver City, Palms, Playa Del Rey, Venice and part of Santa Monica.

Los Angeles Times, Feb 15, 1931:
The Lancer, By Harry Carr

RANCHO CASA LOMA:  I am having lunch here today with Mrs. Pico, and it is as though time were turned back and I had stepped into the days before the gringo came.

AN OLD RANCHO:  The Casa Loma is very, very old. The old ranch house in which I am writing was built by the padres of San Luis Ray Mission as a home for the vaqueros who guarded their immense herds of horses and horned cattle. 

In the little valley below the hill is the pathway over which the gallant Juan Bautista de Anza marched when he made the first trip across the plains to California, bringing the first pioneer mothers. In the little hidden canyon across the way there are ghosts and echoes. It is called Massacre Canyon, where the outraged Cahuillas slew a band of marauding Mojaves who had come from the Colorado to steal their stock.

A BELLE OF OLD DAYS:   Mrs. Pico's first name is Dolores. She is a proud and beautiful woman. Her brother was Martin Aguirre, the most honorable man I have ever known. Her father was Jose Antonio Aguirre, whose ships brought the shawls from China and the laces from Peru to adorn the lovely belles of early California.

Mrs. Pico's mother was Rosaria Estudillo, grand-daughter of the first Estudillo, a Spanish navy officer who came to take command of the old presidio at Monterey. Rosaria Estudillo was one of the most beautiful women in California - or anywhere else.

THE CATTLE RUSTLERS: Mrs. Pico remembers when two young cattle rustlers were caught by the Sheriff for stealing and slaughtering a steer. They were well on the way to prison but she saved them. Kill one of her steers? Certainly, why not? If one was hungry why not kill a steer. There were plenty of steers. That was the old California way.

Years afterward she was in San Francisco on a visit. Came to her hotel a messenger with a magnificent bouquet of roses marked simply: "From the boys who ate your steer." They had prospered in California and were no longer hungry.

A GIRL MAJOR-DOMO:  A girl now runs the great Casa Loma Rancho - Miss Ruth Pico. She goes to Arizona and buys cattle to be brought back to the lush meadows of Casa Loma to be fattened for the market.  She says that the cattle business has changed now. Butchers will buy no cattle that are not "pen fed." Pasture-fed stock are no longer marketable. So she has to feed them on oil cake and straw and molasses.

A ROMAN COIN:  Long years ago the site of Casa Loma was an ancient Indian village. In it was a cemetery. All over the ranch they dig up metates where the Indian women bent their aching backs to grind acorns into flour. Not long ago a vaquero on the ranch dug up an amazing relic - a very ancient Roman coin. No one can imagine how it got there.

ME GUSTA MUCHO:  At luncheon today they served many wonderful dishes, but there were also old California dishes - wheat tortillas and frijoles made for my especial benefit by the shy little Mexican girl who cooks in the old kitchens of the padres. The next time I come out I am to have atole, an old Aztec dish of which I am fond.

At Casa Loma the rush and hectic worries of life seem to melt away and a sweet sense of peach steals over you and you hypnotize yourself into the belief that the gringoes have not yet come and the lovely quiet old days live again.

  Reflections On Teaching in East Los Angeles:  
My student's reactions to the movie 
Boulevard Nights
By Howard Shorr,

This essay is dedicated to all my former Roosevelt High School students.


This year marks the 25th anniversary of the film "Boulevard Nights". In 1979, I was teaching at Theodore Roosevelt High School in the Boyle Heights community in East Los Angeles. In this essay, I discuss my student’s reactions to the film, place Boyle Heights/East Los Angeles in a historical context and my teaching methods.

"Boulevard Nights" took place in East Los Angeles. The movie poster had a person dressed in a white shirt and khaki pants with low rider cars. On the poster it read, "Everything happens on the boulevard and the boulevard happens at night." At that time, there were even fewer films with a Latino theme than today. "Boulevard Nights" was made before "Zoot Suit", "La Bamba" or "Stand and Deliver".

The movie was controversial for its stereotypes of Latinos and the community. I wanted to create a project about the movie so my students would be able to use their critical thinking skills to discuss the myth and realities of the movie. It was important for the students to address such topics as: Latinos, East Los Angeles, gender roles and gangs.

I had done this once before during my second year of teaching (1974-1975) at San Gabriel Mission High School. At that time, I was teaching Chicano History and there were many conflicts over the TV show "Chico and the Man" that also took place in East Los Angeles. The show offended some people because the star was the late Freddie Prinze who lived in his van in the garage. He had a Mexican flag on the back of his van and Prinze spoke Puerto Rican Spanish. Also, the title of the show caused concern; as Chico in Spanish slang can mean little boy and the "man" could be defined as the white boss.

My students watched the show every week and critiqued the stereotypes and realities of the show. They were all unhappy how Latinos and East Los Angeles were portrayed on the program. As a teacher, I wanted to take my students to the next level in the learning process. I contacted the producers of the show and asked if we could visit the set and discuss the program with the actors. They agreed and we went to the NBC studios in Burbank.

The actors Freddie Prinze and Jack Albertson along with producer Michael Pressman stated that the program was to entertain and didn't present any negative stereotypes. My students strongly disagreed with them and I was proud of their views. The "Chico and the Man" experience taught me that it was not enough to have students angry in class, but they also needed a positive outlet for their frustrations.

So in 1979, my students started going to see the movie "Boulevard Nights" and were very unhappy with it. They all felt it was a gang film that didn't accurately portray the community. There was no denial that gangs existed there, but they were a minority. They complained in 1979 that there were so few positive Latino role models in films or in any aspect of popular culture.

It is important to put the Roosevelt students in a historical context. They were born in the early 1960's and could remember the Vietnam War, the East Los Angeles "Blowouts" of 1968, and the Chicano Moratorium in 1970. Many of the students also remembered Watergate and the Nixon resignation. The INS raids were also becoming more of a common occurrence in the community.

I decided to be pro-active and to bring people to Roosevelt High School who were involved with the movie. The first person I contacted was Charles Champlin, the film critic for the Los Angeles Times. I was a little nervous contacting him and expected to speak to his secretary. Instead, he answered the phone and my heart dropped. I told him about my project and he quickly agreed to speak to my students.

It was important to have one of the actors from the movie speak to my students and I called the Screen Actors Guild for their agents' phone numbers. The only one who would talk to me was the man who represented the female co-star Marta Dubois. I told him about the project and the agent told me that Dubois would not be available. He changed his mind when I told him that she would be on a panel with Champlin.

The last person I called was Desmond Nakano, who wrote the screenplay. He informed me that his father graduated from Roosevelt High School and agreed to speak to my class. The idea was for Champlin and Dubois to speak one day and Nakano the next day. I told my students, and they were excited to address their concerns to the speakers.

I met the film critic and the movie star in front of the school. There was electricity in the classroom as they sat down in front of my students. Marta Dubois spoke first and discussed her character in the movie without addressing the stereotypes. Champlain spoke next and said that "Boulevard Nights" was a correct portrayal because there are gang members in East Los Angeles.

One of the first students to speak was Norma Acosta who had been very vocal in our discussions about the film. She had never heard of Champlain and told him how he was wrong about the film and East Los Angeles. The Los Angeles Times critic seemed surprised by her comments, and I assumed that most people were not so direct with him. He responded to Norma and other students by reaffirming his belief about the themes in the film. During the discourse, Marta Dubois remained quiet. The next day we discussed the speakers, and they were disappointed that an important film critic knew very little about their community.

The last speaker was the screenwriter Desmond Nakano. He began his talk by telling us that his father graduated from the school and spent six months researching the movie by "hanging out" on Whittier Boulevard. He started off by telling the students that Boulevard Nights was a gang film! Nakano told us that if he had written an East Los Angeles love story, the studio would have moved the location to West Los Angeles with white actors. My students were all taken back by his honest comments.

The next day, I asked my students to write about what they had learned from this project. They wrote that they were now more critical of Latino films and of film critics. The students now understood the impact a movie has on people who don't know Latinos and East Los Angeles. I said to my students that the issues of stereotypes of Latinos and East Los Angeles are ongoing problems. They agreed and felt it was important to explain to people the realities of their lives.

Some of the important lessons of the project for me were to channel my student’s frustrations into constructive ways. It is always important to understand these complex issues in political terms. This project allowed my students to reaffirm their pride in their ethnic identity, their community, and create new avenues to be good critical thinkers. So many issues have changed in the last 25 years but it is important to understand and appreciate the recent past.

Howard Shorr taught at Roosevelt High School during the 1970's/1980's. Howard Shorr now teaches at Portland (Oregon) Community College and can be reached at:



Azusa Garage
Historic Marron Adobe Open House
Contra Costa Portuguese, Dec 11th 
BOOK Southern Calif Vital Records 
California Spanish Genealogy Beginnings of San Francisco 
Oldest San Jose
Los Angeles Times articles


Azusa Garage
Siriaco (Peter) Gonzales 
Sent by Rose Gonzales-Hardy

Azusa Garage, located on Foothill Blvd & San Gabriel Ave, 1932
I inherited my father's family photos and marriage certificates after my father passed away in 1979. I believe my great-grandfather Gonzales is on the right wearing the mechanics uniform. 

Siriaco (Peter) Gonzales is my great-grandfather. He migrated to Azusa from Aguascalientes, Mexico around 1904. 

Peter started his business as a bicycle repairman before 1920.  By 1930 his business became an auto garage. My grandfather Antonio (Tony) Gonzales owned the business until the late 1960's. 

Historic Marron Adobe Open House
Friday, December 10th from 2 until 7pm

"Christmas" open house and reception at the historic Marron Adobe on Friday, December 10th from 2 until 7pm.  (The Marron Adobe is located in northern San Diego county, right where Oceanside, Carlsbad and Vista meet.) I  attended last year and found it thoroughly charming and great way to "kick off" the Christmas season.  The building, property and setting are still in dire jeopardy!
Alex King

It's Christmas time and time for our traditional open house. To show our appreciation for all your support and letter-writing, we would like to invite you to attend, Friday, December 10,  2004, 2-7 P.M. We will be serving hors d'oeuvres and hot cider. Don't forget to bundle up in your winter wear 'cause it is cold in this old adobe. 

Please RSVP by December 5 to 760. 729-1818 or  


The Contra Costa County Historical Society invites researchers to the December Luncheon
Concord Hotel & Conference Center [Formerly Marriott Hotel], 45 John Glenn Drive, Concord, CA 

Speaker:  Bernard Freedman, well known local historian.  Bernie has written about numerous aspects of Contra Costa history including aviation, schools, pioneer Jews and most recently the Portuguese.  A native of Brooklyn, New York, he holds several degrees from New York University.  He retired in 1981 and devotes most of his time to researching and writing about the history of his adopted county.

Time:  11:30 am No Host Bar, Luncheon: 12: 00  
Luncheon cost:  $30.00 per person [includes tax & tip]
Menu:  Grilled Tri-Tip of beef with roasted garlic cream sauce OR Chicken Breast Florence with tomato basil cream sauce.  Chef's choice salad, rolls, Christmas dessert, tea or coffee.

Please make checks to :  CCCHS, 610 Main Street, Martinez, CA  94553
Reservations Deadline is Dec 6, 2004   Questions?  [925] 229-1042 
Sent by

BOOK: Southern California Vital Records   
Volume 1: Los Angeles County 1850-1859
by Ted Gostin
View samples at

This volume presents something never before available - a detailed index to births, marriages and deaths in Los Angles and orange counties at a time when there were no public birth or death records. Data on almost 8,000 events has been compiled from 26 different public and private sources in seven different repositories. These sources can be grouped into nine basic record types:

Public marriage records
Church records
Probable (?) records
Cemetery records
Newspaper announcements
Local histories
Personal memoirs
"Who's Who" books

This groundbreaking work is the first volume in a series which will eventually cover Los Angeles and Orange Counties from 1850 to 1889, a period in which the public recording of vital records was incomplete. This Los Angeles County index actually covers much of Southern California, including all of today's Orange County, as well as all of San Bernardino County from 1850 to 1853, and parts of Riverside, Kern and Ventura Counties. Each successive volume will cover one decade. Information in the first volume was compiled over a three-year period by the author, Ted Gostin a professional genealogist in Los Angeles with over 25 years experience searching Southern California records. Volume 2 is due in the first half of 2005.

California Spanish Genealogy
Eva Booher

Welcome to California Spanish Genealogy! This site is for the genealogical research of the California Spanish families who were here before 1849. It was created to fill a gap left by previous sites. If you have anything you would like to see here, please let me know!

Links to: Surnames, Queries, Mailing List, Societies, Links, Library, Photographs Obituaries

The Beginnings of San Francisco From the Expedition of Anza
A Free Resource Covering the United States and Some International Areas

Sent by Johanna De Soto

The Beginnings of San Francisco From the Expedition of Anza, 1774 to the City Charter of April 15, 1850, With Biographical and Other Notes, by Zoeth Skinner Eldredge Published: San Francisco, Z. S. Eldredge, 1912 Note: Includes much general California history. Lengthy notes, numbered in brackets, are in a separate section, and contain much history and genealogy. The complete text of the book, no illustrations. Copyright, 1912 by Zoeth S. Eldredge, San Francisco. Printed By John C. Rankin Company, 54 & 56 Dey Street, New York 

Oldest San Jose rock station goes to Spanish format.  In a move that reflects the growing influence of the South Bay's Latino population, Clear Channel Communications on Thursday shut down San Jose's oldest rock station and began programming in Spanish.

The full article will be available on the Web for a limited time:
(c) 2004 and wire service sources. All Rights Reserved

Los Angeles Times articles

extracted by Karla Everett  
received via

Los Angeles Times, Jan 11, 1885:  

Wm H Nordholt vs Jose Reyes, Pablo Reyes, Juana Ma R de Boteller, D Boteller, M Leonis, M Morton, Dolores M Vejar, Bersabe R Vejar, Petra Vejar de Bojorquez, Jose Anto Reyes, Jose Ysidro Reyes, Guadalupe Reyes, Ramona R de Flores, Loreta Contreras, Micaela R de Marquez, Nicanor R de Valenzuela, Francisca R de Melendrez, heirs at law of Ysidro Reyes deceased, Refugio R de Reyes, widow of Angel Reyes deceased, Francisco Leon Reyes, Maria Anta Crestina Reyes, Juan Manuel Reyes, Maria Ysida Reyes, Juan Ranolfo Reyes, Adela Reyes, and Rosaura Reyes, minors and heirs at law of Angel Reyes deceased, Refugio D de Reyes guardian, W G Vejar, George M Vejar, Martha Josephine Vejar and Juan C Vejar, minors and heirs a law of Pedro M Vejar, notice of action to quiet title to vineyard lot 5, Reyes tract.

Roso Ramirez de Sylvas, wife of Joseph Sylvas, W 1/2 of lot 1, block 12, range 4, Wilmington.

Sidney Lacey, by County Tax Collector, to A Mecartney, certificate of tax sale of mortgage interest in E 1/2 of lot 10, section 30, township 1 N, range 10 W, Ro Azusa de Duarte, $2805.

- May 2, 1885
W H Nordholt vs Jose Reyes, Pablo Reyes, D Botiller, Juana Maria Reyes de Botiller, M Leonis, M Norbon, Dolores M Vejar, Bersabe R Vejar, Petra de Bojorquez, Jose Antonio Reyes, Jose Ysidro Reyes, Guadalupe Reyes, Ramona Reyes de Flores, Loreta Contreas, Micaela R de Marquez, Nicanor Reyes de Valenzuela, Francisca Reyes de Melendrez, heirs at law of Ysidro Reyes, Refugio D de Reyes, widow of Angel Reyes, Francisco Leon Reyes, Maria Antonio C de Reyes, Juan Manuel Reyes, Maria Ysidra Reyes, Juan Randolfo Reyes, Adela Reyes and Rosaura Reyes, Heirs of Angel Reyes, Refugio D de Reyes, guardian. W G Vejar, M Vejar, Martha Josephine Vejar and Juan C Vejar, heirs of Pedro M Vejar, decree quieting title to vineyard lot 5, Reyes tract.

E J Baldwin vs Juan M Sanchez et al, notice of action for possession of portion of Ro La Merced, lying west of Rio Hondo.

W H Nordholt vs Jose Reyes, Pablo Reyes, D Boteller, Juana Maria Reyes de Boteller, M Leonis, M Norbon, Delores M Vejar, Bersabe R Vejar, Petra Vejar de Bojorquez, Jose Antonio Reyes, Jose Ysidro Reyes, Guadalupe Reyes, Ramona Reyes de Flores, Loreta Contreras, Micaela R de Marquez, Nicanoa Reyes de Valenzuela, Francisca Reyes de Melendres, Refugio D de Reyes, Francisco Leon Reyes, Adela Reyes, Rosaura Reyes, Refugio D de Reyes, guardian, W G Vejar, Geo M Vejar, Martha Josephine Vejar and Juan C Vejar, decree quieting title to vineyard lot 5, Reyes tract.

Los Angeles Times, Oct 12, 1886: COURT NOTES . . . . DIVORCES 
Divorces were granted in Department Two of the Superior Court yesterday to 
Petronilla F. Davis against E. G. Davis and 
Ysadora A. Aguilar against Esmerijildo Aguilar.

Los Angeles Times, Feb 12, 1885: Death of a Very Old Citizen, Jose Maria Romero

On the 24th day of last December there died at Los Nietos, in this county, one of the very oldest native Californians in the State. His name was Jose Maria Romero. He was over 100 years of age, or, as near as his friends could make out, almost 108 years old, and that was the age his family gave to the parish priest at San Gabriel, when he was buried, December 26. Senor Romero saw the foundation of the new San Gabriel Mission, and was present, with his father, at its dedication, where he told the writer of this some years ago, he remembered seeing the late venerable Dona Eulalie de Guillem, who died a few years ago at a very advanced age, who was there with her husband and two or three small children, although she was still quite a young woman (doncella).

Don Jose was a brother of Mrs. Verdugo, the wife of Don Julio Verdugo, the former owner and grantee of the Verdugo or San Rafael rancho; also of Dona Isabel Dominguez, mother of Mrs. Carpenter, of Old Los Nietos, and of the mother of the late Mrs. Wm. Wolfskill, and was therefore related to the Verdugo, Dominguez, Lugo and Wolfskill families, and their descendants. It used to be very interesting to listen to his account of the old and primitive times here in Southern California, when the Missions of San Gabriel, San Fernando and San Diego, and the pueblo of Los Angeles were in their infancy. Senor Romero became very inform during the latter part of his life, though he retained the use of his senses nearly up to the last. H.D.B.

Los Angeles Times, Nov 29, 1893:
Bonifacio Salas, a native of Mexico, aged 29, has secured a license to marry Petra Ortez, a native of New Mexico, aged 18; both reside at El Casco.
Francisco Alverado, aged 27, has been licensed to wed Carmelita de Valencia, aged 16, her mother consenting. Both are native Californians, and reside in San Bernardino.

Los Angeles Times, Jan 27, 1904:
Juana Leyvas, aged 38, surprised the Cupid at the County Clerk's office here yesterday by appearing and asking for a marriage license to wed Anastacio Valenzuela, aged 60 years. The Courthouse contingent put this up as the first leap-year marriage for 1904.

On April 20 the Senora Ascencion Serrano de Valenzuela died in this city, and yesterday Arnulfo Valenzuela, a son, applied in court for letters of administration.

The senora left no will so far as has been learned, and in addition to about $900 on deposit in the bank and the furniture of the family residence, left only a piece of property at Gladys avenue and Seventh street. On this are five cottages, and altogether the property is valued at $25,000.

There are nine children, all well advanced in manhood and womanhood, and a host of grandchildren. The children have joined in nominating Arnulfo as administrator, and have agreed to allow him for his services in that capacity $55 a month.

Los Angeles Times, Aug 16, 1907:  FROM CHILI TO FIGHT.
Heirs of Former Owner of Santa Monica Acres Allege Fraud in Settlement of Estate.

After living in Chile for several years an in apparent ignorance of the rapid increase in value of ten acres of land at Santa Monica, formerly belonging to the family, the heirs of Mrs. Francisca Pena have returned to this city in the hope of securing a portion of the estate, which has long since been settled.

A petition will be filed in the Superior Court by Attorney H. H. Roser, asking that a decree of distribution be set aside and other equitable relief be granted to the alleged rightful heirs.  It is charged that agents of the Penas deliberately neglected to inform them of the real value of the land in question, and permitted its sale at a low figure.

Frederiko, Anna, Manuela and Augustin Pena are entitled, as matters stand, to less than $100 each from an estate they assert was worth $20,000.

Mrs. Pena, one of the Marquez family, inherited the ten acres from her mother, a member of the aristocratic Valenzuela family.  She also owns four lots in Santa Monica.  The Penas went to Chile and in that country, Mrs. Pena died in 1898.

Either by the family's neglect, or that of its agent, the land was advertised to be sold for taxes.  Later the estate went into the hands of the public administrator.  Finally the court appointed P. M. Ballido administrator of the estate.  The property was sold in 1902 for about $1000.  After expenses of administration were paid, the sum of exactly $363.85 was left for distribution to the heirs.

Now that they have returned to this city, they say they will not accept the beggardly little sum in the hands of the County Auditor, and they are preparing to reopen all the probate proceedings.  Fraud is alleged, and the plaintiff's attorney promises some sensational developments.

Los Angeles Times, Jun 26, 1919: 

CARSON HEIRESS TO WED . . Ex-Soldier Wins Daughter of Dons.

Formal announcement will be made this afternoon that Miss Valerie Carson, grand-daughter of the late Mrs. Victoria D. de Carson and scion of the historic Dominguez family, is engaged to marry J. J. Hanrahan, Jr., a young business man of this city, who resides at 1802 Fifth avenue.  The happy news will be told at an informal tea for about forty of Miss Valerie's friends at the home of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. John M. Carson, on the original Dominguez Rancho.

The romance of the young daughter of the dons grew from a childhood friendship that developed into deeper feeling during the dark days of the war, when Miss Carson was busy with canteen and Red Cross work and Mr. Hanrahan wore the uniform of the United States Army.  The engagement announcement comes only a short time after his discharge at the Presidio of San Francisco from the motor transport service.  No date for the wedding has been set.

Mrs. Carson is to be hostess at this afternoon's informal tea, at which her daughters, Miss Valerie and Miss Gladys, are to be the honorees.  The latter is to leave for Santa Barbara in July.

The Dominguez family, of which the bride-to-be is a member, is one of the most notable Spanish families of America.  It dates back to days before the Armada in Spain.  Cristobal Dominguez, a Spaniard of noble lineage, received the original grant of 52,000 acres, including the present California rancho, from the King of Spain as a reward for valor in battle.  He sent his son Manuel to manage the estate for him, and in 1820 Manuel Dominguez built the original home of the family here.  Some 30,000 acres of the original grant yet remain in hands of his descendants.

One of these, a daughter, Mrs. Victoria Carson, the grandmother of Miss Carson, left in 1917 an estate valued at more than $1,000,000.  Three other daughters of Manuel Dominguez are living - Mrs. John F. Francis, Mrs. Dolores Watson and Mrs. Dr. Gregory del Amo, who resides in Spain.

Los Angeles Times, Jan 19, 1931:

Daughter of Historic Dominguez Rancho Owner Will Be Laid to Rest Today

Death yesterday took Senora Susana Dominguez Del Amo, daughter of Don Manuel Dominguez, owner of the historic Dominguez rancho. Dr. Gregorio Del Amo, her husband, was at the beside (sic) when she passed away at 6 a.m. at her home, 1119 Westchester Place. Senora Del Amo, for some time had been in failing health and her death was declared the result of sickness brought on by advanced age.

Senora Del Amo was born in 1848 on the Dominguez hacienda, which included originally 52,000 acres. The Dominguez rancho once extended from the Los Angeles River to the Pacific Ocean and included what are now the cities of Wilmington, Torrance, Redondo Beach and Compton. Senora Del Amo was one of a family of eight daughters and two sons, born to Don Manuel Dominguez and Maria Alta Gracia Cota Dominguez.

The Dominguez family dates back to the time preceding the Spanish Armada. In 17985 the San Pedro or Dominguez rancho was in the possession of Juan Jose Dominguez who owned about 1000 head of cattle. The rancho comprised ten and one-half leagues. After the death of Juan Jose, the property was granted by Gov. Pablo of Sola, on December 31, 1820, to Sergt. Cristobal Dominguez, nephew and heir of Juan Jose. His death three years later brought about another change in ownership at which time the estate came under the management of his son, Don Manuel Dominguez, then about 20 years of age.

Don Manuel was an administrator as well a man of knowledge and culture. In 1855 the family rancho was apportioned between him and his brother, Don Pedro, and his nephews, Jose Antonio Aguirre and Jacinto Rocha. The portion assigned Don Manuel comprised about 25,000 acres and included Rattlesnake Island in San Pedro Bay. On this property he built his home and October 11, 1882, when 79, died. He was followed in death a few months later by his widow. Of the ten children born to them only six daughters were left.

With the death of Senora Del Amo, only one direct descendant of the original Dominguez family remains alive. She is Mrs. John F. Francis of this city.

In tribute to her parents, Senora Del Amo, two years ago, built on the Dominguez rancho the Dominguez Memorial Seminary. The homestead on which she was born adjoins this seminary, which is controlled by the Claretian Fathers, the same order that has the Plaza Church and the San Gabriel Mission. The land surrounding the seminary was given to the Claretian Fathers approximately five years ago by Mrs. Dolores Watson, Mrs. Del Amo and Mrs. John F. Francis.

Senora Del Amo led a retired life. She kept only a small circle of intimate friends. She maintained a home in Spain and divided her time between this country and the home of her ancestors. She had lived at the Westchester Place home for approximately seven years before her death.

Dr. Gregorio Del Amo, her husband, is a graduate of the University of Madrid and comes of a noted family. He distinguished himself recently when he presented gifts to the University of Madrid, the University of Southern California and the University of California at Los Angeles.

Besides her husband, Senora Del Amo leaves two sons, Carlos and Jaime Del Amo, both of whom she adopted. Funeral services, conducted by Cunningham and O'Connor, will be at the homestead at 9:30 a.m. today. Requiem mass will be conducted at 10:30 a.m. at the Dominguez Memorial Seminary, where the body later will be laid to rest in a crypt where space has been provided for both Senora Del Amo and her husband.

Los Angeles Times, Feb 24, 1950:


Rosary for Leo Domingo Carrillo, 63, member of the early California Carrillo family and cousin of Leo Carrillo, actor, will be recited at 7:30 p.m. today in the chapel of Edwards Bros. Colonial Mortuary.  Requiem Mass will be celebrated tomorrow at 9 a.m. in St. Teresa's Church, Glendale and Fargo St., with interment in Holy Cross Cemetery.

Mr. Carrillo, who was born in Santa Barbara, a son of Levario Carrillo and Claudina Garcia Carrillo, was a lifelong resident of Los Angeles.  He died Wednesday in his home, 1642 N Benton Way.

He leaves his widow, Mrs. Helen Carrillo; two sisters, Mrs. Earnestina Cordero of Santa Barbara and Mrs. Margaret Gutierrez of Los Angeles; five brothers, Antonio and Dan Carrillo of Los Angeles, Fred Carrillo of San Jose, Henry Carrillo of Santa Barbara and Albert Carrillo of San Francisco; four grandchildren and his uncle, Selin Carrillo, 83, who figured as last of the old Wells Fargo stagecoach drivers in this area.



Minority kids in majority
LDS Church celebrates Latino culture
Hispanic Presence in Oregon

Minority kids in majority,
Diversity in S.L. District brings with it both a bonus and a price
By Tiffany Erickson, Deseret Morning News, November 12, 2004
Sent by David Lewis

Salt Lake School District hit a milestone this year and Ogden is not too far behind. For the first time, Salt Lake City's school enrollment numbers show that minority students are now the majority. Fifty-one percent of Salt Lake students are minorities. They speak 82 different languages and are from nearly 100 different countries.

"I will have to check my numbers, but I think I have as many Muslims as Mormons," said John Erlacher, principal of Mountain View Elementary.

Such diversity brings with it both a price and a bonus, and it has shaped schools and programs that are unique from those in neighboring areas.

Students at Mountain View speak 23 different languages. The school houses children from Liberia, Afghanistan, Iran, Tonga, Cambodia, and Vietnam, among many others. Minorities make up 86 percent of the student body.

Erlacher said some children attending the school have been slaves in other countries, have watched family members killed and have been victims of violence due to extreme poverty and war.

"It's hard to teach kids who have never experienced a restroom, let alone indoor plumbing," Erlacher said.   But he said he can't think of a better place to work.

Salt Lake City is not alone in its high numbers. Ogden has a 49 percent minority rate and will most likely join Salt Lake City on the majority side next year.  But Salt Lake City is not the first district in the state to hit 50 percent.

Fifty-six percent of San Juan School District is minority students and 41 percent are Native Americans. The district pulls from two reservations — the White Mesa Reservation (Utes) and the entire Utah strip of the Navajo Nation.

According to 2003 enrollment figures, the minority numbers in other Utah districts trail by substantial margins. Granite was at 28 percent, Murray 16 percent and Jordan and Davis hovered a slightly more than 9 percent. Percentages typically go up about 2 percent each year.

Nancy McCormick, principal of Salt Lake City's Escalante Elementary, said diversity carries with it huge advantages, though the numbers aren't something to which she pays a lot of attention. Her school is at 72 percent.

"We don't really even notice it," McCormick said. "If you stop and look at the faces, you will see 20 shades from white to brown, but they are all here to learn."

She said Escalante emphasizes respect for differences, which gets students interested in other children's background — creating prime learning opportunities.

Teachers work with world maps, using geography to show where other students are from. As classes they learn about different religions, clothing, customs and history, all from the first-hand experiences of other students.  "It really gives kids a world view and gives them a broader view of what America is," McCormick said.

Nevertheless, it also poses challenges that have often been answered at the district level. Communication is the major hurdle.  In some Salt Lake schools nearly half the pupils are classed as English as a Second Language students or English language learners — and English is often not spoken at all in the home.

Research shows that if parents are involved with their children's education, students do better. But many parents are unable to navigate the school system, don't speak any English or don't understand how public education works.  They often shy away or don't understand that they have a place in their child's education, McCormick said.  

The district has addressed some communication issues by creating a translation department where both district staff and contracted translators help make newsletters, notes, and documents friendly to all backgrounds.

They send translators to parent-teacher conferences, meetings and other events where they are needed. And they contact families individually to inform them about how to participate in parent-teacher conference and other activities.

Jason Olsen, spokesman for Salt Lake District, said the biggest change made to support the district's diverse population requires that all new teachers have their ESL endorsement. "We've seen schools jump from just a few teachers to 100 percent of their teachers being ESL-endorsed, and that's significant," Olsen said.

Franklin Elementary leads the district with a 93 percent minority rate. And principal Dahila Cordova said that overall diversity has proven to be a plus in every way.  "When you have the opportunity for diverse groups to come together, they are learning skills they need to succeed in a diverse workplace," said Cordova.

Extract of information from another article concerning the event  . . .
LDS Church celebrates Latino culture, by Dawn House 
The Salt Lake Tribune, 11/14/04   Sent by Gloria Oliver
The program was entirely in Spanish, and not all audience members understood the language. But that didn't seem to matter.      Geoffrey Montague, St. George, praised the presentation of the different cultures, the pageantry and beautiful music. He does not speak Spanish. His native tongue is English and he served a Chinese-speaking LDS mission to Toronto. 

"It was beautiful," said Rebecca Atwood, Salem. "I didn't understand the words, but the hymns that are my favorites were every bit as beautiful sung in Spanish."   Spanish is the second most common language spoken by Mormons. About 31 percent of Mormons worldwide speak Spanish, compared with 5.9 percent of the world's population of 6.2 billion.

The third most frequent language spoken by Mormons is Portuguese, which 7.5 percent of the LDS Church population speaks. The 4.3 million Mormons living in Latin America - including the Portuguese-speaking Brazil - is fast approaching the 5.2 million LDS members in the United States.

Hispanic Presence in Oregon

Ron Jaramillo writes: 

There is definitely a growing presence of Latinos in Oregon. This has been occurring since the 60’s. The early migration came primarily from southern Texas and people who were following the farm crops. The growth now is more difficult to pinpoint and is more "across the board" in terms of socio-economic status.

The following link provides some interesting (albeit dated) information on Oregon Latinos:

[[Some of the facts that I found interesting are below, but go to the site for lots more information.]]

We spoke earlier of the Oregon Commission on Hispanic Affairs that was established in 1983 to “to work for economic, legal, social, and political equality for Hispanics in Oregon.”  Their funding has been cut as of the previous legislative session.  They still have the legislated mandate to operate but they are without the funding.  This points out at least two issues: (1) the Oregon Legislature is still clueless as to the current and future impacts of Latinos in Oregon, and (2) we need to further educate our legislators about our presence, and (3) we have more work to build a viable and visible block of voters.  Ron Gonzales


Mexican Flag Controversy
March 5th: Anza Trail Colonization 10-Day tour
The NMGS Web Site: our "world-wide ambassador"
Downtown Underground: Archaeological clues to Tucsons Past 
Book: The Chicana/Chicano Experience in Arizona 
             La Experiencia Chicana/Chicano en Arizona
Day of the Refugios

Mexican Flag Controversy

Criticism over a Mexican flag displayed in a classroom has led school officials in Denver to create a policy that says the display of foreign banners must be temporary and related to what is being taught in class. Administrators at North High School, where almost 85 percent of the student body is Hispanic, received complaints over a photograph that appeared in the Rocky Mountain News. The photo showed a Mexican flag displayed next to the American flag in a classroom. Teacher Andrew Fox said he simply wanted his Latino students to feel more welcome.  Source: Hispanic, October 2004

March 5th: Anza Trail Colonization 10-Day tour to be guided by Historians

In April 1775, Juan Bautista de Anza gathered the first of the Spanish soldiers, their families and colonists in Rosario, Sinaloa to start the long trek to what became San Francisco, California.
 Gathering additional colonists from towns and villages along the way, the final count was 247 people when they finally reached the Spanish Presidio of Tubac in the Pimeria Alta of which Anza was Captain.

The Mexican portion of the Anza Trail Colonization tour will cover all the villages from which colonists originated. If your ancestors were among the colonists in 1775 or if they followed a similar route or if you are interested in Spanish Colonial history, this tour was meant for you! Our 10-day tour will start on March 5 at the El Cid Castilla Beach Hotel at 8:00 am. We will visit Rosario, Culiacan, Mocorito, Sinaloa de Leyva, El Fuerte, Los Mochis, Alamos, Tezopaco, Hermosillo, San Miguel de Horcasitas, the villages along the Rio Sonora, Cucurpe, Magdalena and San Ignacio. Our tour ends in Nogales, although the bus will be making stops in Tucson and Phoenix on March 14th for those making airline connections. Our guides will be Don Garate, Chief of Interpretation/Historian at Tumacacori National Historical Park and author of several books on the Anza family and a living history presenter; Rina Cuellar, Sinoloa State Historian and Spanish Colonial and Anza Historian; and Eduardo Robinson, former President of the Pimeria Alta Historical Society, Founder and President of Sociadad Mexicana de Protecion al Patromonial Cultural and promoter of the Anza Trail in Mexico.

At the present time there are a few seats left. Come join us on this extraordinary historical tour. For further information, call Tour AZ 4 Fun, LLC at 602-993-1162 or e-mail us at

The NMGS Web Site: our "world-wide ambassador"

Over the next few issues, this column will highlight some of the many features on our web site. Comments may be sent to

In the first column (March 2004) we introduced the data bank: "Locating Catholic Church Records in New Mexico." Now: the special online features of the NMGS Press.

NMGS Press is a special group of volunteers who transcribe, translate, type, index and publish books of New Mexico records. A list of all the books published so far by NMGS Press is in every copy of the Genealogist, and, of course, on the web site. From the front page, scroll down a few lines to the Bookstore section. The Bookstore section is a doorway to 1) NMGS Press, to 2) articles from the New Mexico Genealogist, and 3) to a page of recommended books for the research libraries of New Mexico genealogists and historians.

A history of the NMGS Press, and how it has earned its exceptional reputation, is on the web site at  and will also be showcased in our September issue of the Genealogist. This column will look at the online features of NMGS Press.

When you log on to, you'll see that within each section (A: Baptisms; B:census records; C: marriages; and D: all others) each book has information to help you decide which ones may have the documentation to complete your research.

Through the remarkable capabilities of web sites and computers, you can just click on See Description next to any book to view a new page describing the contents, a map of the area covered, and every film number used by the transcribers for that material. The book itself will have much more:

Introduction: with meaningful additional information about the time period.
Map: the area covered by these records.
Church: the correct name of the parish.
Terms: an explanation of the unique terms and phrases used by the priests in these records.

Every film number that was transcribed for the book (so that you won't have to plod through the film yourself.) This is significant for those of us who can't get to the library, spend hours and days reading the microfilms, or who can't read thai ancient Spanish and often nearly illegible script!

Indexes: three alphabetical indexes for each book. If the name you're looking for in the marriages isn't listed as a bride or groom, il may be in the list of parents or witnesses tc the marriage.

You can also print out your book order form from the web site. Be sure to check the web site regularly. Then, if you have extra time while studying all your new resource books, let me know if you found our web site helpful, or if you had any problem maneuvering through the site. Send an email. I'll be happy to hear from you! 

Pat Esterly, NMGS web site editor,  
New Mexico Genealogist, 43:2, June 2004

The Arizona Historical Society and 
present a Teachers Guide to Tucson's Past is a teachers' guide for elementary classroom activities.

Book: Downtown Underground: Archaeological clues to Tucsons Past was written by Arizona Historical Society Rio Nuevo education coordinator, Kyle Lyn McKoy, and sponsored by the City of Tucson and Desert Archaeology Inc.

Teachers can now download this exciting educational resource here.  You will need a copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader to view the book!
Sent by Johanna De Soto

The Chicana/Chicano Experience in Arizona 
La Experiencia Chicana/Chicano en Arizona
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Bilingual website 
Links:  Ranching/Ganadería Mining/Minería Agriculture/Agricultura, Organizations/Organizaciones Family & Community/La Familia y La Comunidad Occupations/Ocupaciones Landmarks/Marcas de Linderos Credits/Créditos References/Referencias Evaluation/Evaluación

During the Arizona territorial years, Mexicans migrated to Arizona for employment, mainly as laborers in agriculture, mining and ranching. Some migrants repatriated to Mexico but others remained in Arizona and contributed their cultural and societal traditions to the region. They maintained their community through work, family, religion, social organizations and ceremonies. The Chicana/Chicano Experience in Arizona Exhibit was assembled to describe, illustrate and present historic images and documents that demonstrate, record and tell the story of the essential contributions Mexican Americans have made to the history and development of Arizona. Census figures suggest that approximately one million Hispanics live in Arizona, and that Hispanics comprise at least 22% of Arizona's population. Mexican Americans remain an important segment of this population 

Day of the Refugios
by Alberto Ríos, Regents Professor of English, Arizona State University 

In Mexico and Latin America, celebrating one’s Saint’s day instead of one’s birthday is common. 
It is an act of community.
I was born in Nogales, Arizona,
On the border between
Mexico and the United States.
The places in between places
They are like little countries
Themselves, with their own holidays 

Taken a little from everywhere.
My Fourth of July is from childhood,
Childhood itself a kind of country, too. 

It’s a place that’s far from me now,
A place I’d like to visit again.
The Fourth of July takes me there. 

In that childhood place and border place
The Fourth of July, like everything else,
It meant more than just one thing. 

In the United States the Fourth of July
It was the United States.
In Mexico it was the día de los Refugios, 

The saint’s day of people named Refugio.
I come from a family of people with names,
Real names, not-afraid names, with colors 

Like the fireworks: Refugio,
Margarito, Matilde, Alvaro, Consuelo,
Humberto, Olga, Celina, Gilberto. 

Names that take a moment to say,
Names you have to practice.
These were the names of saints, serious ones,  
And it was right to take a moment with them.
I guess that’s what my family thought.
The connection to saints was strong: 

My grandmother’s name - here it comes -
Her name was Refugio,
And my great-grandmother’s name was Refugio, 

And my mother-in-law’s name now,
It’s another Refugio, Refugios everywhere,
Refugios and shrimp cocktails and sodas. 

Fourth of July was a birthday party
For all the women in my family 
Going way back, a party 

For everything Mexico, where they came from,
For the other words and the green
Tinted glasses my great-grandmother wore. 

These women were me, 
What I was before me,
So that birthday fireworks in the evening, 

All for them, 
This seemed right.
In that way the fireworks were for me, too. 

Still, we were in the United States now,
And the Fourth of July, 
Well, it was the Fourth of July. 

But just what that meant, 
In this border place and time,
It was a matter of opinion in my family.


Buffalo Soldier Contributions in the Sierra
Hispanics Resist Racial Grouping by Census


Col. Charles Young

Buffalo Soldier Contributions in the Sierra

The first marked nature trail in a national park was built in 1904 by the 9th Cavalry as a part of an arboretum in the Wawona area.  At the time of his death, Col. Young was the highest ranking African-American in the U.S. Army.  He is considered to be the first African-American superintendent of a national park, serving in Sequoia & General Grant (Kings Canyon) National Park in 1903

African-American soldiers built the majority of the first trail to the top of Mt. Whitney,, highest mountain in the contiguous United States located in Sequoia National Park.  In 1903, the 9th Cavalry was actually stopped from completing the trail due to boulders.  Because they were African- American, they weren't allowed to use any explosives.  A civilian crew "finished" the job, taking credit for the trail's accomplishment.

Source: Yosemite Guide, Summer/Fall 2003, Vol. XXXII, No. 1
Sent by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

Hispanics Resist Racial Grouping by Census
October 24, 2004
By RACHEL L. SWARNS, New York Times
Sent by Howard Shorr

SILVER SPRING, Md., Oct. 23 - The music was blaring, the hair dryers humming and the hair stylists laughing in the beauty salon as one of them, Kathia Mendez, loosened her curlers and let her black hair tumble to her shoulders. To many Americans, the vivacious young woman smiling into the
gilded mirror might seem easily recognizable as a black woman.

But like many Hispanics here, Ms. Mendez views race through a decidedly different lens. In her home country, the Dominican Republic, she is known as "india," or Indian, a term often used for people of mixed race who do not have indigenous roots. If she were asked to describe herself in
the United States census, she says she would choose the racial category selected by nearly 15 million Hispanics in 2000: "some other race."

"I'm not black and I'm not white; we don't define ourselves that way," said Ms. Mendez, a 25-year-old hair stylist who has lived in the United States for nine years. "So I would choose 'some other race.' ''

Over the last three decades, the number of Hispanics choosing "some other race" has surged rapidly, making it the Census Bureau's fastest growing racial category. But census officials are now hoping to eliminate the option from the 2010 questionnaire in an effort to encourage Hispanics to choose one or more of five standard racial categories: white, black, Asian, American Indian or Alaska
native, or a category that includes natives of Hawaii and the Pacific Islands.

Census officials say the proposed change, which is expected to remain under consideration until 2006, would improve the accuracy of the nation's racial data because federal agencies typically rely on data from the standard racial groups to make statistical calculations about race. But the proposal to eliminate the category, which was used almost exclusively by Hispanics in the 2000 census, has already stirred a furious debate among Hispanic advocacy groups, statisticians and officials over how the nation's largest minority group should be defined racially.

If approved, the shift would be the first time since 1940 that officials have eliminated a racial category from the census, Census Bureau officials say.

Critics say the change would ignore the evolving views of race emerging in communities across the country as immigration from Latin America has surged in recent decades. Nearly 40 million Hispanics - almost half of them immigrants - live in the United States and many embrace a kaleidoscope of racial identities that transcends traditional notions of black and white.

Many Hispanics refer to themselves as jabao, indio, trigueño or moreno, depending on their skin color and birthplace, while others think that all Hispanics, regardless of color or national origin, should be viewed as a single race.

In the 2000 census, 48 percent of Hispanics described themselves as white and 2 percent as black. Six percent identified themselves as belonging to two or more of the standard racial categories. And 42 percent chose "some other race," with the vast majority writing in responses like Hispanic, Latino or geographic backgrounds like Mexican, Puerto Rican or Dominican.

Carlos Chardon, chairman of the Census Bureau's Hispanic advisory committee and an opponent of the proposed change, said census officials were ignoring America's shifting racial realities by trying to force Latinos to choose one or more of the standard categories. Advocates at the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund and the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund have also expressed concerns.

"We don't fit into the categories that the Anglos want us to fit in," Mr. Chardon said. "The census is trying to create a reality that doesn't exist."

Census officials say they will consult with the Office of Management and Budget, which governs federal statistics, Congress and advocacy groups before a final decision is made. But they say change is necessary to improve the accuracy of the data in the bureau's Modified Age/Race and
Sex, or MARS, file, which many federal agencies rely on.

In the MARS file, census officials assign a race to those who select "some other race'' and include them in standard racial groups to accommodate federal agencies that do not use the ambiguous racial category. Federal agencies use estimates from the MARS files to track population and birth and mortality rates among other things.

Census demographers look for clues to make such determinations, checking to see whether relatives are listed in standard racial categories and checking neighborhood demographics. Census officials say the process is flawed and needs changing, even though they understand that sociologists and advocacy groups want to continue tracking and studying Hispanics who choose the "some other race" category.

"The race question and race in the United States is a very emotional issue and people who are interested in it feel very strongly about it," said Preston Jay Waite, associate director for the decennial census.

"But if somebody writes down that their race is Latino, that doesn't give us any information about which of the race categories they're in," Mr. Waite said. "We're making up the race for 15 million people. We would prefer not to do it. It doesn't seem wise to me that we would put at risk the racial statistics of the nation in order to answer an interesting sociological question."

Some statisticians question the need for change, however, and warn that eliminating the category would create new problems in census files used for political redistricting and enforcement of equal opportunity laws.

Removing the option would increase the number of Hispanics who would include themselves in traditional racial groups and would probably increase the number of those who would identify themselves as white, census officials say. But it would also increase the number of Latinos who would simply refuse to respond to the race question, according to recent tests conducted by the Census Bureau.

Officials have to guess the race of individuals who do not respond, and an increase in those numbers could lead to inaccuracies in data files used to monitor voting rights and civil rights enforcement, said Roderick J. Harrison, a demographer at the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, a research group in Washington that studies issues of concern to blacks.

He said mistakes in categorizing the race of Hispanics who do not respond to the race question could result in inaccurate tallies of blacks, whites or other racial groups in a given community, a major worry for those concerned about redistricting and civil rights issues.

"That's a major concern," said Mr. Harrison, who headed the racial statistics unit at the Census Bureau from 1990 to 1997. "It's not clear what the positive tradeoff is from dropping 'some other race.' I don't know that any federal agency has complained about the category or the quality of the MARS file.''

In a meeting of members of a steering committee that disseminates census data to minority groups, a discussion earlier this year between Mr. Waite and Mr. Harrison on this subject grew so heated that Mr. Harrison was asked to resign from the committee. Hispanic and Native American advocacy groups expressed concern about the resignation, and Representative William Lacy Clay, Democrat of Missouri, said he believed Mr. Harrison was forced out for challenging the Census Bureau's conclusions, a charge that Mr. Waite denies.

The dispute highlights the difficulties the Census Bureau has encountered over the decades as it has struggled to find a racial home for Hispanics living in this country.

In 1930, the census introduced a racial category called Mexican, which was intended to capture the growing number of Hispanics in Southwestern states. But it was dropped in 1940, and by 1960 census officials were instructing its interviewers to record "Puerto Ricans, Mexicans or other
person of Latin American descent as white unless they were definitely of Negro, Indian or other nonwhite race."

The "other race" category, on the other hand, was made up of mixed-race people who claimed some combination of white, black and Native American descent and some people of Asian heritage when it was first included in the census in 1950. By 1980, the category was largely Hispanic, reflecting, in
part, the increased immigration from Latin America.

At Arelis Beauty Salon, Ms. Mendez and her colleaguesmarveled at the differences between the Dominican and American racial palettes as they styled hair and waxed eyebrows and debated whether the census reflected their racial identities.

Zunilda Diaz, 48, said she would describe herself as white even though her mother is a dark-skinned woman who would be considered black in the United States. Nelly de la Rosa, who is 33 and has chocolate brown skin, said she would choose "some other race."

Without that option, she said, she would be hard-pressed to pick a racial category. "We have so much mixture," said Ms. de la Rosa, who said she is described as morena or india at home. "These other census categories just don't reflect who we are."



Book: Walking the Choctaw Road 
Dominicans & Mexicans 
Costanoan-Ohlone Indian Resource
Indigenous Mexico: An Overview 
La Lengua Pipil-Náhuatl
El Náhuatl
History: The Aztec Nation 


Book: Walking the Choctaw Road 

Oklahoma Reads Oklahoma, a project of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries and the Oklahoma Humanities Council, announced the winner of its 2005 Oklahoma Book of the Year Award on Monday morning. And the winner is…Walking the Choctaw Road by Choctaw storyteller Tim Tingle! 

The Oklahoma Reads Oklahoma is a statewide reading activity that invites Oklahomans to examine their state’s unique history, experience its diverse heritage and explore its promising future by reading and discussing notable and important works about the Sooner State. The Oklahoma Department of Libraries and the Oklahoma Humanities Council initiated the program in 2003 to develop interest in the state’s history and culture as the state prepares for its hundredth anniversary in 2007. Each year the program selects six books as finalists for the award and asks Oklahomans to vote on the winner. Libraries and schools around Oklahoma host community readings of the winning book over the course of the year.

Choctaw storyteller Tim Tingle spent the last ten years gathering and developing his first collection of stories, Walking the Choctaw Road. The stories come from his own family, from research he conducted while studying at Oklahoma University and from interviews with tribal elders. He arranges the stories in chronological order so that his book follows the tribe’s history from their roots in Mississippi before the Civil War, through their journey to Oklahoma on the Trail of Tears and to the migration of his own family to central Texas. The book explores the heart of what it means to be Choctaw. Respect for others, truthfulness and generosity are valued far above bravery. Tingle doesn’t shy away from describing how the United States treated Choctaws; through it, he reveals the deep faith, abiding hope and spiritual underpinnings of his people.
Go to Cinco Puntos Press to order Walking the Choctaw Road

Cinco Puntos Press   
701 Texas Avenue, El Paso, Texas 79901
Telephone: 800-566-9072  E-Mail:

Dominicans & Mexicans 
From: Horacio Gonzalez
To: Frankie Baez and Jerry Benavidez
Forwarded by
George Gause

Desde 1721 un grupo enorme de indios armados había tomado por asalto la villa de Monclova, capital del Reino. Mataron a los soldados del Presidio, robaron la caballada y saquearon las casas. 
Algunos vecinos habían llegado hasta Saltillo para pedir socorro y tuvo que salir, en ayuda de Monclova, una escuadra de tlaxcaltecas. En 1723 y 25 de nuevo habían sido atacadas diversas poblaciones y misiones, quedando algunas incendiadas y en ruinas. El Virrey, entonces, solicitó al Rey el permiso para crear una tropa de ataque. El Rey respondió aceptando que a los indios belicosos se les apresara y fueran trasladados a otro lugar en que no hicieran daños. En su carta, el monarca permitía exterminar a las tres grandes etnias que encabezaban la rebelión: los coahuileños, los chisos y los cocoyomes. Sobra decir que en el vocabulario en uso la palabra exterminio no significaba acabar con ellos, sino ponerlos, colocarlos fuera de los límites, es decir, desterrarlos. Un enorme expediente que se encuentra en el Archivo General de Indias de Sevilla relata los pormenores de esta gran insurrección y su castigo por la Armada Real. El grupo étnico que da nombre a nuestro estado, los coahuileños, fue deportado junto con chisos y cocoyomes a las grandes islas del Caribe: uno quedó en Cuba, el otro en Santo Domingo y el tercero en Puerto Rico. La Armada de Barlovento los condujo allá. 

Understanding of Immigrants from Oaxaca is Urged
San Diego Union Tribune, October 16, 2004
By Elena Gaona


SAN MARCOS — A growing number of indigenous immigrants from the state of Oaxaca in Mexico are calling North County home and ifs time to get to know them, organizers of an all-day community workshop said yesterday.

"They're monolingual, they encounter racism by Mexicans and Americans. They face many more challenges than traditional Mexican immigrants," said Felipe Lopez, a researcher with the North American Integration and Development Center at UCLA.

Voiceless because they blend into Mexican communities but don't speak Spanish, these immigrants are nevertheless resilient and are beginning to form networks throughout me state to help themselves, Lopez said.

More than 150 health professionals, community clinic workers, police officers, city officials and North County residents gathered inside the San Marcos Community Center yesterday to address the needs of this community.

Organizers said at least 20,000 Oaxacan immigrants live in North County. Lopez said about three-quarters of the approximately 1 million of them in the United States live in California — most of them in North San Diego County, Oxnard, the San Joaquin Valley and Los Angeles.

They all come from the same southern Mexican state, but depending on whether they originate from the central valley, the highlands or the isthmus of Oaxaca, they may speak any one of more than 100 distinct languages.

Locally, most live in Vista, Oceanside, Encinitas, Escondido, Fallbrook and San Diego and often speak the indigenous languages Mixtec or Zapotec.

"Many use the word 'dialect to refer to these languages," said Lopez, who just completed

a trilingual dictionary in Spanish, English and Zapotec. "These are languages."

Spanish compared with Zapotec, for example, is as different as English is from Navajo, said Konane Martinez, health projects coordination for the National Latino Research Center based at California State I University San Marcos.

Her group partnered with two North-County based immigrants rights groups, the Coalition of Indigenous Communities of Oaxaca and the Frente Indigena Oaxaqueno Binacional, to organize the event

A stream of indigenous leaders Who have gone from naive immigrants to community activists spoke.

A Mixtec man who was wrongly imprisoned in Oregon because he couldn't speak Spanish or English but now is a community organizer and has the ear of lawmakers told workshop attendees to become leaders.

A Mixtec woman who was teased in school growing up started her own immigrants rights group in Vista.

A Mixtec man who raises medicinal herbs in a Vista community garden encouraged participants to honor indigenous cures.

Presenters from Oxnard, a California city that is having success integrating the immigrants into daily U.S. life, pointed to programs that work, such as offering language classes in Spanish and Mixtec, reaching out to the growing Mixtec population of farm workers north' of Los Angeles with social services and celebrating their culture at citywide events.

North County needs translators to help the mostly Mixtec-and Zapotec-speaking immigrants in court appearances and to make sure their children are correctly placed in school

A follow-up workshop is scheduled for March.

Etena Gaona: (760) 476-8239;

California Indians in San Diego County, California1928
The Costanoan-Ohlone Indian Canyon Resource

Sent by Johanna De Soto 

Imported from a Filemaker Database which is about 1/2 complete (so this final County(ies) page will be about twice the size you find it now). This 2 year old project is getting to the point where we will have the complete 1928 California Indian Census online for you. At this point, May 4 1998, we sorted the database by county and last name. If you are searching for your family here, scroll down until you find the last name. The BIA number in the last column will help you get a copy of the INDIVIDUAL ORIGINAL INTERVIEW from the BIA.

Indigenous Mexico: An Overview (Mexico- Connect)  
Source: John Schmal
Indigenous Identity in the Mexican Census:
Are you related to the Aztecs?
Indigenous Mexico: past and present
Yaqui Indians:
The Linguistic Diversity of Mexico:
Indigenous Chihuahua:

The following two articles were written by me in Spanish and were published in community newspapers. I have since then made some changes. After the titles of the articles I will state when and where they were published. Any mention of the actual number of Nahuatl speakers in one of the articles is surely different at the present time.

La Lengua Pipil-Náhuatl
By Jaime Cader

(This article was published in the San Francisco, California newspaper "El Bohemio News" on May 24, 1989. I am writing from a Salvadoran perspective.)

Siglos atrás nuestros antepasados pipiles empezaron a emigrar desde México al territorio que ahora es El Salvador.*

Es por esta razón que el pipil-náhuatl es casi igual al náhuatl de los aztecas. Podemos ver que en el Codex Mendoza de México hay una referencia a un pueblo que se llama Coatepec. En El Salvador tenemos un lago y una ciudad con nombre parecido –Coatepeque. Se pueden encontrar muchos ejemplos como este.

"Tepec" es una palabra que significa cerro. Nuestro Coatepeque quiere decir –cerro de la culebra; Siguatepeque –cerro de la mujer; y Cojutepeque, que durante un tiempo fue la capital de la republica en el siglo 19, significa "cerro de las pavas."

La mayoría de salvadoreños desde hace varias generaciones ya no hablamos el pipil-náhuatl, pero siempre seguimos usando palabras de origen pipil. Un día cuando estuve con un grupo de españoles me dí cuenta que acababa de usar una palabra que ellos desconocían. Pues vi que se quedaron fascinados cuando usé la palabra "camanances" que significa hoyuelos. Mas tarde encontre "camanances" en mi diccionario que tiene palabras que proceden del pipil-náhuatl. (La palabra "camanances" ahora está incluida en el Diccionario de la Lengua Española de La Real Academia Española.)

Lo siguiente son las letras de una canción que apunté mientras escuchaba una grabación donde se oye cantar al Señor Francisco Tepas que es una de las pocas personas que sabe hablar y cantar en pipil-náhuatl en Nahuizalco, El Salvador.

CAN-CALAHUI-TUNAL (nombre de la canción usando ortografía española, también para que el lector sepa la pronuncia-ción, se pudo haber escrito "Can-Calawi-Túnal..")**

Can calahui túnal, Tutecu, Tutecu, neshcucugua, neshcucugua.
Can calahui túnal, Tutecu, Tutecu, neshcucugua, neshcucugua, túnaltit.
Can calahui túnal, Tutecu, Tutecu, neshcucugua, neshcucugua,
nuyulu shuca, nuyulu shuca, nuyulu shuca, túnaltit.

(con casi todas las letras en español –es una traducción- se canta:)

Donde se pone el sol, donde se pone el sol,
me duele, me duele,
mi corazón llora, túnaltit.

Donde se pone el sol, donde se pone el sol,
me duele, me duele,
sol de fuego, sol de fuego, sol de fuego, túnaltit.

Los pipiles de Nahuizalco dicen shuca para decir "el llora" y los pipiles de Izalco dicen shuga. Tónal (túnal en Izalco) significa sol, y tit es fuego. Tutecu es el nombre pipil para decir Dios.

La letra y música de esta canción fue compuesta por María de Baratta. Ella tuvo a su servicio por muchos años a Jesús Ascat, una izalqueña quien le ayudó mucho en el estudio de la lengua pipil-náhuatl.

Según me han informado dos señoras que conozco, se aprendía esta canción bajo la dirección del compositor Cándido Flamenco en las escuelas cuando ellas eran niñas. En El Salvador también tenemos unos cantares autóctonos en pipil-náhuatl como "Tiahuit Tzuntzunat" (Vamos a Sonsonate) y "Nimetzilhui" (Te lo Dije). Ambos se encuentran en los dos tomos de CUZCATLAN TIPICO por María de Barattta.

*Los pipiles también tenían centros de población en lo que ahora son los países de Guatemala, Nicaragua, etc.
**El presente autor escribió el título de la canción a su manera, ignorando unas reglas expuestas por la música y autora María de Baratta.

El Náhuatl

por Jaime Cader

(This article was published on April 4, 1990 in "El Mundo," an Oakland, California newspaper.)

La lengua náhuatl es una de las más hermosas y melodiosas del mundo. Actualmente hay aproximadamente cuatro millones de personas en México que hablan el náhuatl. Esta lengua tiene sus variantes llegando hasta Centro América.

Tuve la suerte un día de conocer aquí en San Francisco a una profesora de náhuatl. Ella es la Señora Irma de Cobb y da sus clases en Sacramento.* Me relató una experiencia que tuvo en un evento de los indios hopis en Arizona. Resultó que empezó a reirse cuando escuchó algo en la lengua hopi que le pareció divertido. Alguien entonces le dijo, "Pero usted no habla el hopi." De Cobb le explicó que ella era de la Sierra de Puebla, México, que hablaba el náhuatl y que sí pudo entender lo que se estaba diciendo en hopi.

Del náhuatl nos vienen palabras como chocolate, aguacate, tomate y coyote. El autor salvadoreño Miguel Angel Espino escribió, "Había en América tantas cosas, en ciencia y en arte, que no tenían nombres en español!"

En la primera fase de un programa para rescatar el náhuatl en El Salvador, llegó a este pais el etnolingüista mejicano, Joel Martinez Hernández quien viajó a unas comunidades indígenas y se comunicó en náhuatl con las personas de aquellos lugares, ya que el náhuatl salvadoreño no se diferencia mucho de la lengua original –el náhuatl que floreció en el imperio azteca y en Cuzcatlán (El Salvador).

Para apreciar más el náhuatl, debe uno de familiarizarse con las escrituras del rey-filósofo azteca Nezahualcóyotl. Sus poesias tratan de las vanidades e inestabilidad de la vida humana. La siguiente poesía es un ejemplo de esto:

Es cierto que en la tierra uno vive?
No estamos aquí para siempre,
solamente durante un tiempo corto.
Aunque sea de jade, se quiebra;
aunque sea de oro, se aplasta;
aunque sean plumas de quetzal, no durarán.

No estamos aquí para siempre, 
solamente durante un tiempo corto.

*Ofrecen clases de náhuatl clásico en la Universidad de Standford en Palo Alto, California.

History: The Aztec Nation 

John P. Schmal

The Aztec Empire of 1519 was the most powerful Mesoamerican kingdom of all time. The multi-ethnic, multi-lingual realm stretched for more than 80,000 square miles through many parts of what is now central and southern Mexico. This enormous empire reached from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf coaHistory: The Rise of the Aztec Empirest and from central Mexico to the present-day Republic of Guatemala. Fifteen million people, living in thirty-eight provinces and residing in 489 communities, paid tribute to the Emperor Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlán, the capital city of the great empire.

The Mexica (pronounced "me-shee-ka") Indians, the dominant ethnic group ruling over the Aztec Empire from their capital city at Tenochtitlán in the Valley of Mexico, had very obscure and humble roots that made their rise to power even more remarkable. The Valley of Mexico, which became the heartland of the Aztec civilization, is a large internally-drained basin which is surrounded by volcanic mountains, some of which reach more than 3,000 meters in elevation.

My understanding of the Mexica Indians and the Aztec Empire has been greatly augmented by the works of the anthropologist Professor Michael E. Smith of the University of New York. Professor Smith has written several books about the central Mexican Indians, including The Aztecs and Aztec Imperial Strategies, which I have used as primary sources for this article. 

The growth of the Mexica Indians from newcomers and outcasts in the Valley of Mexico to the guardians of an extensive empire is the stuff that legends are made of. Many people, however, are confused by the wide array of terms designating the various indigenous groups that lived in the Valley of Mexico. The popular term, Aztec, has been used as an all-inclusive term to describe both the people and the empire. 

Professor Smith uses the term Aztec Empire to describe "the empire of the Triple Alliance, in which Tenochtitlán played the dominant role." Quoting the author Charles Gibson, Professor Smith observes that the Aztecs "were the inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico at the time of the Spanish Conquest. Most of these were Náhuatl speakers belonging to diverse polities and ethnic groups (e.g., Mexica of Tenochtitlán, Acolhua of Texcoco, Chalca of Chalco)." In short, the reader should recognize that the Aztec Indians were not one ethnic group, but a collection of many ethnicities, all sharing a common cultural and historical background. 

On the other hand, the Mexica, according to Professor Smith, are "the inhabitants of the cities of Tenochtitlán and Tlatelolco who occupied adjacent islands and claimed the same heritage." And it is the Mexica who eventually became the dominant people within the Aztec Empire. Legend states that the Mexica Indians originally came to the Valley of Mexico from a region in the northwest, popularly known as Atzlan-Chicomoztoc. The name Aztec, in fact, is believed to have been derived from this ancestral homeland, Aztlan (The Place of Herons). 

In A.D. 1111, the Mexica left their native Aztlan to settle in Chicomoztoc (Seven Caves). According to legend, they had offended their patron god Huitzilopochtli by cutting down a forbidden tree. As a result, the Mexica were condemned to leave Aztlan and forced to wander until they received a sign from their gods, directing them to settle down permanently.

The land of Atzlan was said to have been a marshy island situated in the middle of a lake. Some historians actually consider the names "Chicomoztoc" and "Aztlan" to be two terms for the same place, and believe that the island and the seven caves are simply two features of the same region. For nearly five centuries, popular imagination has speculated about the location of the legendary Aztlan. Some people refer to Aztlan as a concept, not an actual place that ever existed. 

However, many historians believe that Aztlan did exist. The historian Paul Kirchhoff suggested that Aztlan lay along a tributary of the Lerna River, to the west of the Valley of Mexico. Other experts have suggested the Aztlan might be the island of Janitzio in the center of Lake Pátzcuaro, also to the west, with its physical correspondence to the description of Aztlan. Many people have speculated that the ancestral home of the Aztecs lay in California, New Mexico or in the Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa.

The idea that Sinaloa, Sonora, California, and New Mexico might be the site of Aztlan is a very plausible explanation when historical linguistics have been considered. "The north-to-south movement of the Aztlan groups is supported by research in historical linguistics, " writes Professor Smith in The Aztecs, "The Náhuatl language, classified in the Nahuan group of the Uto-Aztecan family of languages, is unrelated to most Mesoamerican native languages." As a matter of fact, "Náhuatl was a relatively recent intrusion" into central Mexico.

On the other hand, if one observes the locations of the indigenous people who spoke the Uto-Aztecan languages, all of their lands lay to the northwest of the Valley of Mexico. The northern Uto-Aztecans occupied a large section of the American Southwest. Among them were the Hopi and Zuni Indians of New Mexico and the Gabrielino Indians of the Los Angeles Basin. The Central Uto-Aztecans - occupying large parts of Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Sonora in northwestern Mexico - included the Papago, Opata, Yaqui, Mayo, Concho, Huichol and Tepehuán. It is reasonable to assume that where there is a linguistic relationship there is most likely also a genetic relationship. Thus, it is highly likely that the legendary Aztlan was located in northwestern Mexico or the Southwestern United States.

It is important to note, however, that the Aztlan migrations were not one simple movement of a single group of people. Instead, as Professor Smith has noted, "when all of the native histories are compared, no fewer than seventeen ethnic groups are listed among the original tribes migrating from Aztlan and Chicomoztoc." It is believed that the migrations southward probably took place over several generations. "Led by priests," continues Professor Smith, "the migrants… stopped periodically to build houses and temples, to gather and cultivate food, and to carry out rituals."

The first group of migrants probably included the Acolhua, Tepaneca, Culhua, Chalca, Xochimilca, all of whom settled in the Valley of Mexico. The second group, including the Tlahuica of Morelos, the Matlatzinca of Toluca Valley, the Tlaxcalans of Tlaxcala, the Huexotzinca of Puebla, and the Malinalca of Malinalco, migrated to the surrounding valleys. The last to arrive, around A.D. 1248, were the Mexica who found all the good land occupied and were forced to settle in more undesirable locations of the Valley.

As the late arrivals in the Valley of Mexico, the Mexica were forced by other groups in the valley to take refuge on two islands near the western shore of Lake Texcoco (one of the five lakes in the area). Their first home was an island in the middle of Lake Chapultepec (Place of the Grasshopper), which is now in Downtown Mexico City. The Mexica were welcomed to Chapultepec by the Tepanec leader of city-state of Azcapotzalco on the understanding that they would work as both mercenaries and laborers. However, around 1315, the Mexica were ejected from Chapultepec by the Tepanecs. 

When the Mexicas first arrived in the Valley of Mexico, the whole region was occupied by some forty city-states (altepetl is the Nahua term). These city-states - which included the Tepanecs, Coatlinchans, Cholcos, Xochimilcos, Cholulas, Tlaxcalans and Huexotzincas - were engaged in a constant and continuing battle for ascendancy in the Valley. In describing this political situation, Professor Smith observed that "ethnically similar and/or geographically close city-states allied to form regional political confederations." By 1300, eight confederations of various sizes occupied the entire Valley of the Mexico and adjacent areas. 

In A.D. 1325, the Mexica, once again on the run, wandered through the wilderness of swamps that surrounded the salty lakes of the Valley of Mexico. On a small island, the Mexica finally found their promised omen when they saw a cactus growing out of a rock with an eagle perched atop the cactus. The Mexica high priests thereupon proclaimed that they had reached their promised land. As it turns out, the site turned out to be a strategic location, with abundant food supplies and waterways for transportation.

The Mexica settled down to found their new home, Tenochtitlán (Place of the Cactus Fruit). The Mexica became highly efficient in their ability to develop a system of dikes and canals to control the water levels and salinity of the lakes. Using canoes and boats, they were able to carry on commerce with other cities along the valley lakes. And, comments Professor Smith, "the limited access to the city provided protection against military attack."

Huitzilihuitl, who ruled the Mexica from 1391 to 1415, writes Professor Smith, "presided over one of the most important periods in Mexica history… The Mexica became highly skilled as soldiers and diplomats in their dealing with neighbors. One of Huitzilihuitl's major accomplishments was the establishment of successful marriage alliances with a number of powerful dynasties." Over time, the Mexica, as the latecomers and underdogs of the Valley region, sought to increase their political power and prestige through intermarriage. 

"Marriage alliances," writes Professor Smith, "were an important component of diplomacy among Mesoamerican states. Lower ranking kings would endeavor to marry the daughters of more powerful and important kings. A marriage established at least an informal alliance between the polities and was a public acknowledgement of the dominant status of the more powerful king."

Sometime around 1428, the Mexica monarch, Itzcoatl, ruling from Tenochtitlán, formed a triple alliance with the city-states of Texcoco and Tlacopan (now Tacuba) as a means of confronting the then-dominant Tepanecs of the city-state of Azcapotzalco. Soon after, the combined force of the Triple Alliance was able to defeat Azcapotzalco. Later that year, Culhuacan and Huitzilopochco were defeated by the Alliance. A string of victories continued in quick succession, with the defeat of Xochimilco in 1429-30, Ixtapalapan in 1430, and Mixquic in 1432. "The only area of the valley to resist conquest for any length of time," comments the anthropologist Mary G. Hodge, "was the southeastern portion occupied by the Chalca confederation. The hostilities with the Chalca city-states were resolved only through conquering this area piecemeal, between 1456 and 1465." 

Professor Smith writes that "the three Triple Alliance states were originally conceived as equivalent powers, with the spoils of joint conquests to be divided evenly among them. However, Tenochtitlán steadily grew in power at the expense of Texcoco and particularly Tlacopan." In time the conquests of the alliance began to take the shape of an empire, with the Triple Alliance levying tribute upon their subject towns. Professor Smith, quoting the words of the anthropologist Robert McCormick Adams, writes that "A defining activity of empires is that they are 'preoccupied with channeling resources from diverse subject polities and peoples to an ethnically defined ruling stratum." 

With each conquest, the Aztec domain became more and more ethnically diverse, eventually controlling thirty-eight provinces. The Aztec tributary provinces, according to Professor Frances F. Berdan, were "scattered throughout central and southern Mexico, in highly diverse environmental and cultural settings." Professor Berdan points out that "these provinces provided the imperial powers with a regular and predictable flow of tribute goods."

Of utmost importance became the tribute that made its way back to Tenochtitlán from the various city-states and provinces. Such tribute may have taken many forms, including textiles, warriors' costumes, foodstuffs, maize, beans, chiles, cacao, bee honey, salt and human beings (for sacrificial rituals).

Aztec society was highly structured, based on agriculture, and guided by a religion that pervaded every aspect of life. The Aztecs worshipped gods that represented natural forces that were vital to their agricultural economy. All of the Aztec cities were dominated by giant stone pyramids topped by temples where human sacrifices provided the gods with the human sustenance that the priests believed their supernatural deities required.

For hundreds of years, human sacrifice is believed to have played an important role of many of the indigenous tribes inhabiting the Valley of Mexico. However, the Mexica brought human sacrifice to levels that had never been practiced before. The Mexica Indians and their neighbors had developed a belief that it was necessary to constantly appease the gods through human sacrifice. By spilling the blood of human beings onto the ground, the high priests were, in a sense, paying their debt to the gods. If the blood would flow, then the sun would rise each morning, the crops would grow, the gods would provide favorable weather for good crops, and life would continue. 

Over time, the Mexica, in particular, developed a feeling that the needs of their gods were insatiable. The period from 1446 to 1453 was a period of devastating natural disasters: locusts, drought, floods, early frosts, starvation, etc. The Mexica, during this period, resorted to massive human sacrifice in an attempt to remedy these problems. When abundant rain and a healthy crop followed in 1455, the Mexica believed that their efforts had been successful. In 1487, according to legend, Aztec priests sacrificed more than 80,000 prisoners of war at the dedication of the reconstructed temple of the sun god in Tenochtitlán.

The Mexica's sacrificial rituals were elaborate in form, calculated by the high priests to appease specific gods at certain times. During the ceremony, a victim would ascend the steps of the pyramid. At the top, a Mexica priest would stretch the victim across a stone altar and cut out the victim's heart. The priest would hold the heart aloft to the god being honored and then fling it into a sacred fire while it was still beating. 

The function of Aztec priests was one of the most important in Aztec society. It was the priests who determined which days would be lucky for engaging in activities such as war and religious ceremonies. They were guided in their decisions by a religious calendar of 260 days, that was combined with a solar calendar of 365 days. The meshing of the two calendars produced a 52-year cycle that played an integral role in Mexica society and religion.

The basic unit of Aztec society was the calpulli, which was the Aztec equivalent of a clan, or group of families who claimed descent from a common ancestor." Each calpulli regulated its own affairs, electing a council which would keep order, declare war, dispense justice. Calpulli ran the schools where young Mexica boys were taught about citizenship, warfare, history, crafts, and religion. Each calpulli also had a temple, an armory to hold weapons, and a storehouse for goods and tribute that were distributed among its members. 

In the Tenochtitlán of later years, during the ascendancy of the Aztec Empire, the function of the calpulli, took on a different form. As the city grew large and complex, the Mexica calpulli were no longer based on familial relationships.  Instead,the capulli became like wards, or political divisions, of the city. Each calpulli cstill governed and provided education to its members, but the members of a calpulli were not necessarily related. It is believed that there were 15 calpulli in Tenochtitlán when the city was founded in 1325. By the time that the Spaniards arrived in the early Sixteenth Century, there were as many as eighty calpulli throughout the city.

In Tenochtitlán and the other Aztec city-states, the leaders of each calpulli were joined together in a tribal council which was given the responsibility of electing four chief officials, one of whom would be selected as the Tlatoani (Great Lord). After Tenochtitlán became the center of Aztec civilization, its ruler became the supreme leader of the empire, to whom lesser rulers paid tribute. This ruler was considered to be a descendant of the Aztec gods and served as both military leader and high priest.

By the beginning of the Sixteenth Century, the Aztec Empire had become a formidable power, its southern reaches extending into the present-day Mexican states of Oaxaca and Chiapas. The Mexica had also moved the boundaries of the Aztec Empire to a large stretch of the Gulf Coast on the eastern side of the continent. But, as Professor Smith states, "rebellions were a common occurrence in the Aztec empire because of the indirect nature of imperial rule." The Aztecs had allowed local rulers to stay in place "as long as they cooperated with the Triple Alliance and paid their tribute." When a provincial monarch decided to withhold tribute payments from the Triple Alliance, the Aztec forces would respond by dispatching an army to threaten that king. 

Professor Smith wrote that the Aztec Empire "followed two deliberate strategies in planning and implementing their conquests." The first strategy was "economically motivated." The Triple Alliance sought to "generate tribute payments and promote trade and marketing throughout the empire." Their second strategy deal with their frontier regions, in which they established client states and outposts along imperial borders to help contain their enemies."

However, Professor Smith, in his essay on "The Strategic Provinces" commented on the existence of "major unconquered enemy states surrounded by imperial territory." The fact that these enclaves remained free of Aztec dominance is some indication that these "enemy states" may have been recognized as "serious and powerful adversaries." The most powerful enclave, Tlaxcalla, located to the east of the Valley of Mexico, was a "confederation of four republics." Tlaxcalla, writes Professor Smith, "was a Nahuatl-speaking area whose population shared a common cultural and ethnic heritage with the rest of the peoples of central Mexico." 

Aztlan migrants had arrived in the Puebla-Tlaxcalla Valley between the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries and, Professor Smith explains, "populations grew and city-states developed in a fashion that paralleled the Valley of Mexico." Thus, by the beginning of the Fifteenth Century, writes Professor Smith, "three polities stood out as the most powerful and influential - Tlaxcalla itself, Huexotzinco, and Cholula." 

Emperor Moctezuma I, who ruled the Aztecs from 1440 to 1469, conquered the states north and east of Tlaxcalla and, according to Professor Smith, began "a process of encirclement that continued under the following emperors and was largely complete by the time Moctezuma I took power in 1502." This encirclement cut the Tlaxcallans off from external trade. As a result elite goods (gold, feathers, and cacao) and utilitarian items (cotton and salt) became rare in the state.

In seeking to conquer Tlaxcalla, the Aztecs maintained an almost perpetual state of war with Tlaxcalla. The many wars between the two nations also provided a source of victims of human sacrifices. However, after the arrival of the Spaniards, the Tlaxcalan confederation offered a fertile ground of opposition and defiance against the Aztec Empire. In 1519, the Spaniards initiated an alliance with the Tlaxcallans that played a major role in the fall of Tenochtitlán and continued for many centuries.

Metztitlan. A powerful Otomí conquest state located in the rugged mountainous region of what is now northern Hidalgo, Metztitlan remained an unconquered enclave within the Aztec Empire up until the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519. The independence of this small kingdom was easily maintained because of the nature of the terrain in the Metztitlan Valley, where, writes Professor Smith, "a small but well-placed force could hold off a larger and more powerful army." Emperors Ahuítzotl and Moctezuma were able to complete the isolation of Metztitlan. Professor Smith believes that the state remained unconquered because "there were few resources of interest to the empire in this area, and the final emperors may have decided that Metztitlan was not worth the effort." 

Yopitzinco. Located in the isolated mountain area along the Coast Chica region of Guerrero, just southeast of present-day Acapulco, Yopitzinco was occupied by the Yope Indians, who had a reputation as fierce warriors. The Pacific coastal regions to the north and south of Yopitzinco were conquered by Ahuitzotl and Moctezuma II but, it appears that Yope territory had little to offer the Aztec Empire.

Tututepec. As a "large and powerful Mixtec conquest state in the mountains of southwestern Oaxaca," write Professor Smith, "Tututepec controlled a long stretch of the Pacific coast and was in the process of expanding to the north and east in the decades prior to 1519."

The Tarascan Empire of present-day Michoacán was not an enclave located within the Aztec Empire but stood on the periphery of the Mexica domain. The Tarascans (Purhépechas) were a constant source of problems for the Mexica. Like the Aztecs, the Tarascans had engaged in militaristic expansion and conquered adjacent states. Located some 150 kilometers west of the Valley of Mexico in the Lake Pátzcuaro Basin, the Purhépecha Kingdom controlled an area of at least 45,000 square miles (72,500 square kilometers), including parts of the present-day states of Guanajuato, Guerrero, Querétaro, Colima, and Jalisco. 

In A.D. 1478, when the Aztec armies met in battle with the Tarascans, it is believed that as many as 20,000 Triple Alliance warriors may have perished. Against a Tarascan force of about 50,000, the Aztec force of 32,200 warriors was nearly annihilated and the independence of present-day Michoacán preserved for another half-century.

In 1502, Moctezuma II Xocoyotl (the Younger) ascended to the throne of Tenochtitlán as the newly elected tlatoani. It was about this time when the Mexica of Tenochtitlán began to suffer various disasters. While tribute peoples in several parts of the empire started to rebel against Aztecs, troubling omens took place which led the Mexica to believe that their days were numbered. Seventeen years after Moctezuma's rise to power, the Aztec Empire would be faced with its greatest challenge and a huge coalition of indigenous and alien forces which would bring an end to the Triple Alliance.

John Schmal, a contributing columnist to (, is an historian and genealogist, specializing in Mexico and the Southwestern U.S.  He has published four works, including "Mexican-American Genealogical Research:  Following the Paper Trail to Mexico" (published by Heritage Books, 2002).  In recent months, Mr. Schmal has written several articles discussing various aspects of Latino representation in American government. Contact at:

Copyright © 2004, by John P. Schmal. 

Frances F. Berdan, "The Tributary Provinces," in Frances F. Berdan et al., Aztec Imperial Strategies. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1996, pp. 115-135.

Ron Hassig, Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

Mary G. Hodge, "Political Organization of the Central Provinces," in Frances F. Berdan et al., Aztec Imperial Strategies. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1996, pp. 17-45.

Michael E. Smith, "The Strategic Provinces," in Frances F. Berdan et al., Aztec Imperial Strategies. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1996, pp. 137-150.

Michael E. Smith, The Aztecs. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, Inc., 1996.

Susan Spitler, "Homelands: Aztlan and Aztlán," Online:    November 20, 2001.



Book: Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans
From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America
Irving Berlin, composers of  "God Bless America"
Handwriting analysis of Irving Berlin by Treyce Benavides

Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans. 
By Gloria Golden,  Floricanto Press, ISBN:0-915745-56-9 $29.95

Hidden deep in the heart of the American Southwest among the larger Hispanic population are descendants of the Sephardim, Jews from Spain and Portugal. Five hundred years after their expulsion from Spain remnants of Judaism are still practiced within Southwestern Hispanic communities. Often unaware of their origins, conversos have revealed, through oral history, how the ancestral faith of the Crypto-Jews has been passed on from generation to generation. "Five hundred years after the Inquisition, Gloria Golden manages to turn the little-known subject of crypto-Jews into an inspiring tale of identity. The rich portraiture and captivating oral histories offer a poignant view of what it means to discover and embrace one's Judaism." Elana Harris, Managing Editor, B'nai B'rith Magazine "Gloria Golden's images and text provide a valuable insight into the Crypto-Judaic world. All who are drawn to this fascinating subject will find great rewards in this volume." Rabbi Joshua Stampfer, Founder and First President of the Society for Crypto Judaic Studies "The impact of these photographs and related interviews cannot be measured. Surely, through their existence, we touch a part of our past, and preserve it for our children's children. It is another piece in the great puzzle of our scattered people." Flora Sussely, Director, Adult Programs, Mittleman Jewish Community Center.

The authoress . . .  sent a little note:

Hi Mimi,
Following the Edict of Expulsion in 1492, Jews from Spain were not permitted to remain on Spanish territories unless they converted to Catholicism. Their choice was to leave or  be burned at the stake.  The Sephardic diaspora brought Jews to many parts of the world, including New Spain.   New Spain consisted of the southwestern part of the United States, Mexico, Central America, and  the islands in the Caribbean. The  Inquisition followed them because of the huge influx of Jews to the New World and reports of Judaizing.  They again had to be more secretive and hide their religious practices .  Five hundred years after the Edict of Expulsion, the descendants of the conversos (Jews who converted to Catholicism)  and crypto-Jews (Jews who converted and practiced Judaism in secret) are mostly Catholic.  Much of their ancestral heritage was lost.   "Remnants of Crypto-Jews Among Hispanic Americans", contains photographs and oral histories of descendants of the Sephardim.   Their oral histories have  indicated that remnants of Judaism are still practiced by descendants of  Iberian Jews .   Also included in the book is an appendix which traces the origin of many of the rituals mentioned by the conversos.  Amazingly,  Jewish practices or vestiges of Jewish practices still exist within the Hispanic communities.

From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America

From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America features more than two hundred treasures of American Judaica from the collections of the Library of Congress, augmented by a selection of important loans from other cooperating cultural institutions.

From Haven to Home is a Library of Congress exhibition marking 350 years of Jewish life in America. This exhibition is one of the commemorative activities associated with the congressionally recognized Commission for Commemorating 350 Years of American Jewish History. The members of the Commission are the Library of Congress, the National Archives and Records Administration, the American Jewish Historical Society, and the Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives. Commission members are lenders to this exhibition and to other commemorative exhibitions in Cincinnati, New York, and Los Angeles. These four exhibitions will be presented between September 2004 and February 2006.

The exhibition examines the Jewish experience in the United States through the prisms of "Haven" and "Home." "Haven" opens with a selection of pivotal documents expressing the ideals of freedom that have come to represent the promise of America. This section also explores the formative experiences of Jewish immigrants as they struggled to become American. The "Home" section focuses on the opportunities and challenges inherent in a free society and the uniquely American Jewish religious movements, institutions, and associations created in response. In telling the story of diverse groups of Jewish immigrants who made the United States their home, the exhibition examines the intertwined themes, and sometimes conflicting aims, of accommodation, assertion, adaptation, and acculturation that have characterized the American Jewish experience from its beginnings in 1654 to the present day.

Jewish refugee children, en route to Philadelphia, aboard the liner President Harding, waving at the Statue of Liberty. "Jewish Refugee Children," New York, 1939. © AP/Wide World Photos. New York World-Telegram and Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

From the time of its discovery, America has been a haven for Europe's oppressed and persecuted. In 1492, the same year that Christopher Columbus set sail for the New World, the Spanish Inquisition reached its apogee. Spain expelled its Jews, and, five years later, Portugal followed suit. The remnants of Iberian Jewry found refuge in the cities and towns of Europe, North Africa, and the Near East, and, in the first half of the seventeenth century, some of their descendants established communities in Dutch-ruled Brazil.

In 1654, Portugal recaptured Brazil and expelled its Jewish settlers. Most returned to Holland or moved to Protestant-ruled colonies in the Caribbean. A group of twenty-three Jewish refugees, including women and children, arrived in New Amsterdam hoping to settle and build a new home for themselves. In the years that followed, the growing Jewish community pressed the authorities to extend to them rights offered to other settlers, including the right to trade and travel, to stand guard, to own property, to establish a cemetery, to erect a house of worship, and to participate fully in the political process.

For Jews, the promise of America was deeply rooted in its commitment to religious liberty. George Washington's declaration in 1790 to the Newport Hebrew Congregation that this nation gives "to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance," provided the Jewish community with an early assurance of America's suitability as a haven.

This congratulatory address, written by Moses Seixas, was presented by the Hebrew Congregation in Newport, Rhode Island, on behalf of "the children of the seed of Abraham" to President George Washington on August 17,1790. Washington's reply-in which he characterizes the government of the United States as one that gives "to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance"-was first used, almost verbatim, in this address by Moses Seixas.

Moses Seixas, "Congratulatory Address to George Washington on Behalf of the Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island," August 17,1790. George Washington Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.

Three hundred and fifty years ago an ancient people first took haven in a new land. From those beginnings until today, Jewish life in America has presented both opportunities and challenges. In the early years, Jews fought to be treated like everyone else, seeking the "equal footing" that was theirs by law but not necessarily in practice. More recently, like other minorities and ethnic groups, they have asserted their right to be different and to have those differences accommodated and accepted by society-at-large.

Perhaps the greatest challenge faced by the Jewish community has been to find ways of maintaining its group identity in an open and free society. To this end, American Jewry has created uniquely American Jewish religious movements, institutions, and associations suited to an ever-changing American scene. When millions of East European Jews arrived between 1881 and 1924, American Jews set up networks of organizations to settle and "Americanize" the new arrivals. And when confronted with prejudice and discrimination, Jews responded by creating organizations that fought for tolerance and acceptance.
          God Bless America

Fifty years ago, the American Jewish community celebrated its ter-centenary. At the culminating event of that celebration, President Dwight D. Eisenhower delivered a stirring address in which he called the arrival of the Jews to New Amsterdam in 1654 "an event meaning-ful not only to the Jews of America, but to all Americans-of all faiths, of all national origins." Then Irving Berlin, himself a Russian Jewish immigrant, sang his patriotic hymn, "God Bless America." In so doing, he put into words the deep gratitude that he felt towards the United States, which had been to him, and to countless new Americans like him, first a haven and then a home.
His tall letters (upper zones) give notice to his extremely vivid and active imagination. His figure-8 letter 's' also confirms this. However he also had distortion in his letters that, if by themselves, do not look like the letters they are supposed to be. This distortion is representative of discomfort of the content written. Let's look at this a bit further:

(1) Notice the word 'God'. The 'd' is distorted in the first word showing that 'God' represents some discomfort. Perhaps he is questioning his spiritual beliefs?

(2) Look at the 11th line down (first word - God. The entire word is mangled showing that he is becoming more and more uncomfortable with God in the symbollic form.

(3) Notice the word 'that' in the second line in the phrase "that I love". For whatever his personal reason was he did not feel love toward America at the time he wrote this song.

I believe he wrote this song for himself... to try and get rid of whatever was troubling him. Perhaps he was upset about Hitler or the U.S. Policy changes that were taking effect during the time he wrote this song. Whatever it was, he was questioning America and the world in general - disturbed at what was becoming of it. 

His wide right margin confirms this with being very apprehensive and guarded about change and the future. His baseline also confirms this - it is wavy showing significant emotional change.

On the other hand he also had some aggression. The aggression is shown in the 'g' in the word "through" however his lower zone is quite short. This aggression is then routed to his imagination which drove him to be who he was. He was not rested physically and therefore made up for it in his work. He does not appear to have been formally schooled due to his discomfort at certain letter formations (not necessarily the same as distorted letters). However he wanted to learn and was most likely a workaholic much into his latest years. Being a workaholic, nearly killing himself to live up to his own self-expectations.

I personally have never known anything about him other than the war songs my father spoke of, but given his handwriting he was able to get along with mostly anyone. His mind was lightning fast - never "shutting off". As he aged I would venture to say that his mind was the very last thing to go. There were two sides to Mr. Berlin:  a business side of which he was stern and very stubborn with business associates and a very private side where he was emotional and supportive with loved ones.


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Manual Montalvo, Texian, Texas Ranger  
The Republic of the Rio Grande Museum 
Mexican American Library Program turns 30
Lupe Valdez, New Head of Dallas County Law Enforcement Office
New book:  The Spanish Acequias of San Antonio
New Book: The Men Named Antonio López de Santa Anna
Power of Attorney for Collecting Salaries, December 31, 1759
New Books for Sale by Los Bexarenos 
New Charges Tarnish Texas Rangers' Image and Reopen Old Wounds 
Kirby Warnock investigates grandfather's indictment of Texas Rangers



April 9, 1802 - April 21, 1882 

Paternal great-great-grandfather
of Angelita Hernandez

(1) 1757 Report, Camargo
(2) Family data from the Census of May 31 1750
(3) November 1874 Statement to Bexar County
     Montalvo member of the Texian Force 
(4) Honorable discharge, 23rd day of April 1837
(5) Serves as Texas Ranger
(6) Grievance, January 12, 1875 
     request for timely payment of pension
(7) Pedigree

Report and Census Document from 
1757 Towns in Mexico (Nuevo Santander)
The Town of Camargo

It was founded on the 5th of March of 1749, with the dedication to Senora Santa Ana, its captain Don Blas Maria De La Garza, it has 66 families of settlers with 378 persons to which are added 19 families which, according to the listing of said captain, have been added after the last registration of married couples with 24 persons from the outside because the others were sons and daughters of the same settlers and, with the previous ones, it comprises 85 families with 402 persons which, with the ones above, comprise 531 persons. 

Its mission, Laredo with the dedication to San Agustin, the minister the R.F. Fray Juan Bautista Garcia has 500 persons of congregated, indoctrinated Indians and there will be many more which abound in the environs who will join, attracted to the good style of the said priest: he has already started his field of corn and of common seasonal beans for which he has farming tools and a good number of major and minor livestock: they have finished the construction of a decent convent of stone, mortar, and adobe, and its flat roof of beams and a kind of bitumen and now the construction of the church has begun: among the reported Indians there are many who are employed as workmen in the construction, as laborers in farming, in making adobe bricks, soap , and other very suitable jobs to which they apply themselves and, according to how it goes, it shall be, in short, one of the best missions of the Indies. 

The settlers of this town are, as is evident from their registry, generally Spaniards: they came in with some major and minor livestock which has produced so much that it causes admiration: Goats commonly produce two, three, and four broods and the sheep two and all of them live, and the mules are commonly large bodied, with which they already find themselves rich due to the great fertility of the land: this last year they harvested a reasonable corn and seasonal bean crop to which they have taken a fancy. 

The great flood of last year of 1751 did some damage to it for which reason I moved it a little farther down to a higher site. They have built some flat-roofed houses and the settlers are preparing for others. 

The situation is beautiful and very merry at the eastern edge of the San Jaun River which forms a square with the one of the north (abundant in fish) which is introduced at a short distance and, for the extension of their livestock, they have passed part of them to the north of the latter one which has helped since it is very important to dominate that area, attract the many Indians that are there, facilitate the removal of salt, and the transit and communication with the Presidio and Mission de la Bahia del Espiritu Santo. 

The irrigation canal which had been built at the said San Juan River, because of their not having trimmed the opening to the canal with stone and mortar: was destroyed by a large flood, but it is easy to build another although those, who ignore the method, think it is difficult, with whose benefit the perfection of the said town shall be complete, which offers much growth. It is situated 10 leagues to the west of that of Reinosa, 30 nearly to the North-northwest of that of Burgos, 25 nearly to the east of that of Cerralvo, boundary of the Nuevo Reino De Leon, and 10 to the southeast of the settlement of Mier. 

Manuel Montalbo's family came from Monterey,  Nuevo Leon to help settle the town of Camargo, Tamaulipas Mexico in 1749. 

The Census of May 31 1750 show that Antonio Montalvo was married to Dona Maria De la Garza, which they had three children Miguel Montalvo who was five, Juana Montalvo who was four and Dorotea one year of age. 

Forty five years later in the Census of December 31, 1795 in San Fernando Tejas lists Miguel Montalvo married to Juana Hernandez and having five children, Maria Thomasa fourteen, Juan Jose sixteen, Juan Simon eight, Maria Trinada three and Maria Josefa two. 

The San Fernando church records show Juan Jose marrying Maria Simona Guerra on April 16, 1801 in San Fernando Tejas. A year later the baptismal records of the San Fernando church show Juan Manuel Anastacio Montalvo to be baptized in April of 1802. His Godfather was Jose Antonio Manchaca and his Godmother Maria Josefa Arocha. 

The census of January 1, 1820 show Miguel Montalvo being Indian widowed, and a farmer. The next census of 1830 has citizens of Texas (A census of 6500 Pre-Revolutionary Texians.) Manuel Montalvo is listed as single age 45, which is not accurate. According to his birth certificate he is only 28 at the time. The 1840 census show Manuel Montalvo as single and owner of one League of land in San Antonio TX. In the census of 1850 of Bexar county, TX list him as 49 married to Polina (Apolonia Valdez.) They are listed as having six children Jose 14, Antonio 11, Blas 8, Manuel 6, and Brehada four and finally Simon one year of age. ( Simon being one of the children kidnapped by Indians when Resurreccion was attack by a large force of Indians in 1861. ) 

In October 28 of 1835 Manuel was in the battle of Conception under Juan Seguian. Later that year two companies of scouts were assembled to determine the best route to which to retake San Antonio. One company was led by Frank W. Johnson and the other by Ben Milam. The volunteers were outside of town in a standoff with Mexican General Perfecto de Cos with 1200 Mexican soldiers Milam realized that the Texans were going to withdraw to Goliad. He shouted the Famous words, Who will go with old Ben Milam into San Antonio? Manuel was one of the people who went with him. In a statement made to the Republic of Texas dated Nov, twentieth 1874 Manuel Montalvo states. 

(The statement below is partial and not the entire statement made to the Republic of TX.) 

"State of Texas on the 30th day of November A. D. 1874 County of Bexar before me John Rosenheimer a Notary Public in and for Said County and state Personally appeared Manuel Cebera a resident citizen of this County, to me well known, who being duly sworn, under his oath does hereby declare affirm and attest, that he was born in the year 1797 of Texian parents, that at the date of the declaration of Guadalupe he was a married man, and the head of family, that at that time he was living at the Rancho of Salvador Flores, on the San Antonio river, about 28 miles below the city of San Antonio, that he and Manuel Montalvo, left said rancho, with S. Flores and joined the Texian Force on the Salado, afliant was an active soldier on the battle of conception, and followed with the balance of the troops to the north of the city of San Antonio, when at the old mill (Molino Blanco) afliant, on the first organization was made a corporal when Manuel Montalvo his comrade was named honorary Sargeant, afliant continued to serve during the seige, and untied in the storming and taking of Bexar, during the fight he was in the Veramendi house. 

Was present at the death of the lamented B. Milam and one of those who helped in burying him in the lot of the Veramendi house in the southern wall facing said lot." 

After the Storming of San Antonio Manuel Montalvo continued in the military as Spy, soldier, and Texas Ranger. A partial listing of the story about the storming of San Antonio explains the purpose of sending B. Milam, and gives a detailed description of the volunteers and associates surrounding his command. 

The penalties affixed for a violation were to be inflicted by the sentence of a court-martial or a reprimand from the captain of the company to which the offender might belong, as the case might be. These regulations were highly satisfactory and had a very happy effect in the army, as they indicated a system which had the effect to establish confidence and guarantee security to the camp; every man, therefore, cheerfully respected and obeyed them. This gallant band of volunteers upon parade having undergone inspection and review for the first time, presented the appearance of an army of regular soldiers rather than undisciplined citizens of the country. All entertained the most implicit confidence in their commanding officer, and it was a pleasure to perform with promptness any duty assigned them. The commander-in- chief being under the impression that volunteers would press forward to join the army without delay from all parts of the country, and that as soon as the necessary preparations could be made for an attack upon San Antonio our forces would be sufficiently strong to insure a successful result, he determined to take up the line of march in that direction immediately. An efficient spy-company, consisting of experienced frontier citizens, was organized and placed in charge of Colonel Benjamin R. Milam, who was dispatched towards San Antonio for the purpose of watching the movements of the enemy and keeping our army constantly advised of their operations and everything of any importance that might be discovered. 

Manuel Montalvo was honorably discharged on April the 23 of 1837. This discharge was by order of the President of the Republic of TX. In a statement made to the republic of TX a brief description and statement shows Manuel becoming a spy. 

"To all whom it may concern, Know ye that Manuel Montalvo a private in the 2nd regiment of Cavalry who was enlisted the 5th day of November 1836, to serve during the war is hereby formally discharged from the army of Texas, (by order of the president) was born in Bexar in the Republic of Texas is 36 years of age five feet four inches high, brown complexion, grey eyes, Black hair and by occupation was enlisted as a Hunter. Given at Bexar this 23rd day of April 1837. 

John N. Seguin     Manuel Flores, Capt." 

It is well documented that Manuel Montalvo joined the TX Rangers under Seguin and Jose Maria Gonzales And Jack Hays. He continued as a TX Ranger through the 1840s. 

In a letter of Grievance addressed to Stephen H. Darden, State Comptroller, From Hispanic Texian Heroes, dated January 12, 1875 Manuel and all his comrades state. 

Sir. We the undersigned citizens of this country respectfully address you this communication to remove from your mind what seems to us an unjust impression as regards the application of certain Mexicans for pensions who participated in the Revolution which separated Texas from Mexico. We assert that the following named persons commanded companies at the taking of San Antonio in 1835. On the 20th of October 1835, Juan N. Seguin followed by thirty seven men of Mexican birth, joined on the Salado Creek according to previous appointment, the first Texan forces that gathered in order to oppose the Central Government proclaimed by Santa Anna in violation of the Federal government constitutionally existing. Placido Benavides of (La Bahia) Goliad joined on the same creek with the revolutionary troops with 26 or 28 men, so that at the Battle of Concepcion, the Mexicans who took part in that fight numbered some seventy men if we add some isolated soldiers. Directly after the Concepcion fight it was agreed between the Texian Leaders to put the siege to the city of San Antonio and to remove the camp to the Northern part of the city. But before the removal, Salvador Flores was detailed to the Mexican ranches on the San Antonio River, and Manuel Leal to the Mexican with object of raising new forces that were very much needed: these two patriots returned soon after, Flores with 15 new men, and Manuel Leal with 26." 

A conflict of authority took place at that moment between Juan N. Seguin and Placido Benavides both claiming to be Captain; it was amicably settled in favor of Seguin for the reason that he had raised more men than Benavides, but with the understanding that although Seguin was to be the Superior officer, Benavides would preserve the direct and immediate Command over the men he had brought from Goliad, and that agreement was intended to Manuel Leal and Salvador Flores; as soon as the troops reach their new camp, on the old mill, they were joined by fourteen privates of the old Company of the Alamo for the most part sons of San Antonio who deserted from Mexican forces of Gen. Cos and joined Seguin's Command with arms and baggage. There was not at that time any thing like a muster roll, or a regular register of enlistment; every volunteer who offered his services was readily accepted, and the men joined the party that suit them best, they acted with a liberty that had nothing in common with the disciplining of a regular army: generally the private followed the order of the officer who had brought them to Camp. During the stay of the troops, before San Antonio, several parties of Mexicans joined the patriots: namely, Miguel Alderete who in company with Mayor Collensworth came from Goliad with twenty odd men: Col. J. C. Neil and Phillip Dimmit who arrived also with a Mexican Company raised in Victoria and in the lower country, without countin isolated enlistment that took place every day. In fact, the company of Seguin alone amounted to over one hundred and sixty men on the day of the Storming of Bexar. 

After the taking of the place, that company was sent out to protect the people of the Ranches, against the devastation made by the retiring Mexican troops. On their return they found that the Mexican volunteers of Benavides and Dimmitt had left for home, as well as the American patriots. There were not fourteen Americans in San Antonio, after the taking of the place. Col. J. C. Neil had received, first the military Command, but he was soon after superceded by B. Travis who had under his former company and that of Seguin. They continued in active service, for several months and relying on the false report that all was quiet on the Mexican borders, a large quantity of the Mexicans were authorized to retire in order to protect their families against the Indian depredations. At the coming of Santa Anna, the company of Seguin had been reduced, and the arrival of the enemy being entirely unsuspected: he most part of the men received the authorization to secure the safety of their families and to join the Texians at the Alamo: it is due to that circumstance that fifteen Mexicans only entered the Alamo with Travis. 

At the gathering of the Texian Army at Gonzales, Seguin had a large Company, in fact the largest of the Army, but it was a new Company quite different from the one he had commanded at the taking of Bexar. He had above one hundred men: out of whom 25 were detached to protect the invaded population. From 15 to 20 were at the order of Deaf Smith; thirty odd were sent Eastward to escort and protect American Families, three men were sick at San Felipe, about ten at least were with the baggage at Harrisburg, four or five remained behind in charge of the horses at the moment of the battle of San Jacinto., so that he mustered only twenty two men, when he was ordered to give the names of those who had actually fought. 

"We would respectfully remind you that we and our comrades took up arms against our own kindred and country, believing we were right, and now we feel humiliated to find that when we have testified on oath to the services rendered by us and our (own) old companions, many of whom are not only suffering from the infirmities of age but also from extreme poverty that their claims should be disregarded and forced to wait for weeks and months for their pensions, when Americans have been promptly paid upon what we consider no better evidence than our friends have furnished. We feel assured, honored Sir, that you must have been misled or misinformed as to the parties who have applied for pensions as well as their witnesses, and we address you this communication to disabuse your mind of any prejudice you may entertained, and to assure you that we entertained for you personally the kindest feelings and only ask for our old companions simply justice and nothing more. 

Signed: Juan Jimenes, Ygnacio Expinosa, Martin Maldonado, Ignacio Arocha, Tomas Martines, Narciso Leal, Juan Martines, Antonio Olivia, Estevan Uron, Manuel Montalvo, Crescencio Montes, Pablo Salinas, Quirino Garza, Nepomuceno Flores, Juan N. Seguin, Antonio Menchaca, Jose Antonio Rodriguez, Antonio Vasquez, Damaso de Los Reyes" 

For more on this subject:

Manuel Montalvo died on the 20th of April, 1882 at 1:00 a.m. in Jiménez, Coahuila, Mexico. 
"En la Villa de Jiménez a los beinte un dias del mes de Abril de mil Ochocientos Ochenta y Dos a las nuebe de la manana ante el Jeuz del Estado Civil C. Luis Faz, comparecio Apolonia Valdez viuda mayor de edad, y de esta vecindad, y expreso; que hoy a la una de la mañana fallecio de paralis en esta villa, su esposo Manuel Montalvo era de noventa aos de edad originario de Bejar y vecino de esta Villa, e hijo lejitimo de Juan Montalvo y de Maria Guerra." 

Angelita Hernandez paternal pedigree 

Antonio Montalbo married (unknown date or place) Maria De La Garza
they had one son Mijuel and two daughters Juana and Doretea.
Mijuel Montalbo married (unknown date or place) Juana Hernandez
they had three sons Juan Jose and Juan Simon, Pedro and three daughters
Maria Thomasa, Maria Trinidad, and Maria Josefa.
Juan Jose Montalbo married Maria Guerra on April 16, 1801 in San Fernando, Tejas
they had two sons Juan Manuel Anastacio and Ignacio.
Juan Manuel Montalbo married (unknown date or place) Apolonia Valdez
they had eight sons Jose Eusebio, Manuel, Jusus, Maximiano, Blas, 
Donaciano, Antonio, and Simon and one daughter Bernabe.
Jose Eusebio Montalbo married Felipa Guevara on July 12, 1854, in San Fernando, Tejas
they had five sons Ysabel, Francisco, Canuto, Eujenio, Jose, and three daughters 
Bitoriana, Natalia and Rosita.
Ysabel Montalbo married Tiodora Zepeda on Jan. 29, 1901 in Del Rio, Texas
They had one son Rafael, and eight daughters. Anita, Guadalupe, Pauline,
Rosa, Maria, Victoria and Felipa.
Rafael Montalbo married Angelita Garcia on April 29, 1940 in Brownwood, Texas
they had seven sons Moses, David, Antonio, Ralph, Ynocencio, Jose, Willie and five 
Daughters Josefina, Angelita, Ysabela, San Juana and Mary.
Angelita Montalbo married Frank Hernandez on Jan, 2, 1968 in Modesto, CA
we have six sons Cecilio, Raymond, Christopher, Mike, Jose Angel, Juan and 
One daughter Maria Elizabeth.


                  The Republic of the Rio Grande Museum

1005 Zaragoza Street
Loredo, Texas
Text from brochure

The story of an independent republic, declared and fought over during the span of ten months in 1840, begins years before that in the political and social turmoil that embroiled Mexico and its vast geographic domain. 

Repudiated by Mexican historians and validated in the writings of Texian and American journalists and travelers, the Republic of the Rio Grande's very existence, like almost everything else in the border region, is a cause for contradictory opinions

Coming out of a valiant and victorious struggle for independence: in 1821 against the 300-year rule of great Spanish Empire. Mexico eventually adopted the republican constitution of l824 which favored a federalist form of government. Almost immediately, the young nation was set upon with attempts at reconquest by Spain, as well as by an independence movement in it northern province of Texas. Indeed, the Texan separatist fractions based their secession on the change form the federalist form of government in Mexico to a centralist one in 1836. This move from states' rights government to one dictated and funded from the capital in Mexico City, led to numerous revolts in Yucatan, Zacatecas, and eventually the northern states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, and Coahuila. Seeing an opening for its own expansion, France also embarked on a blockage of Mexican seaports.

On November 5, 1838, Antonio Canales, a prominent lawyer born in Monterrey, issued a proclamation in Ciudad Guerrero calling for the re-adoption of the federalist constitution f 1824 and opposition to the centralist government. By February 1839, the citizens of Laredo had joined the cause. Helped by the French blockage of the Mexican ports, the Federalists were able to capture several towns. By March, 1839, however, the French had lifted their blockade and made peace with Mexico, allowing the Centralists to devote more resources to fight the Federalists.

Between May and September of 1839, Centralists captured Saltillo, Tampico, Monclova, and Laredo. Antonio Canales and his chief Lieutenant, Antonio Zapata (for whom the South Texas country was named in 1858) retreated to the Nueces River and sought the support of Mirabeau B. Lamar, President of the Republic of Texas. Counting on a buffer state between the newly independent Texas republic and its former government, Lamar officially remained neutral, hoping for Mexico's eventual official recognition of Texas as a sovereign nation. President Lamar, however, did allow the recruitment of Texians into the Federalist armies. The participation of these Texians, who had themselves chosen to separate from Mexico, caused outrage on the part of some Federalists who, still considering themselves loyal Mexican, believed their rebellion to be one of a temporary nature, to last only until the official government returned to its former constitution. These serious philosophical differences eventually led to insurmountable and tragic military disarray for the Federalists.

Between September, 1839 and January, 1840, Guerrero, Mier, Laredo and other villas were taken by the Federalists. On January 7, 1840, the Republic of Rio Grande was proclaimed by constitutional convention and Laredo was named its capital. A small structure across the square from San Agustin Church became its headquarters. That structure now houses the Republic of the Rio Grande Museum.

On the 17th of that same month, officers and general council were elected to lead the new republic. Jesus Cardenas, a lawyer from Reynosa, was chosen President. Antonio Canales was named Commander-in-Chief of the army; Juan Nepomuceno Molano was selected as delegate for Tamaulipas; Franciso Vidaurri y Villasenor, delegate for Coahuila; Manuel Maria de Llano, delegate for Nuevo Leon; and Jose Maria Jesus Carbajal was chose to be secretary to the council. Colonel Antonio Zapata served as commander of the cavalry.

Almost immediately, the Republic's forces embarked on a series of battles with Centralist forces taking, losing, and re-taking various villas along the Rio Grande and further into Mexico.

After a disastrous defeat at Santa Rita de Morelos in Coahuila in which Canales' role is ambiguously described as either cowardly and militarily inept or as cautiously prudent depending on the historian, Federalist survivors of the battle were court-martialed, found guilty, and shot. Antonio Zapata's head was cut off and preserved in a cask of brandy until it was returned to his home town of Guerrero where it was displayed on a pike for three days as a warning to others.

The armed struggle for the border villas continued through the summer months and by the fall it was clear the Federalists could not prevail. On November 6, 1840, Canales surrendered his troops on the north bank of the river at Camargo, and President Cardenas and his forces stacked their rifles and arms in Laredo. The Republic of the Rio Grande was no more.

Webb County heritage Foundation
office is located in the old Mercado building.
500 Flores Ave
Laredo, Texas
For more information, please call (956) 727-0977 or email


Mexican American Library Program turns 30

30th anniversary celebration of the Mexican American Library Program
University of Texas Libraries News
Sent by Viola Rodriguez Sadler

On November 11th the public was invited to an afternoon program celebrating the 30th anniversary celebration of the Mexican American Library Program, MALP, held at the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection on the campus of The University of Texas at Austin.

The reception acknowledged former students, faculty and librarians instrumental in the formation and development of MALP, a unit of the Benson Collection established by the University of Texas Libraries in 1974. In addition, David O. Nilsson was recognized for creating the first endowment in support of acquiring and maintaining Mexican American and United States Latino research materials by MALP.

Exhibits highlighted special collections from Chicano activism in the 1970s to publications devoted to contemporary Latino culture. Music was provided by Trio Romántico. The reception was sponsored by the Benson Latin American Collection in conjunction with the University of Texas Libraries and the Center for Mexican American Studies.

The Mexican American Library Program celebrates 30 years of continuous growth and diligent efforts to acquire research materials on the burgeoning Latino/Latina populations throughout the United States. These groups, from Mexico, the Caribbean and Central and South America, now comprise one of every eight U.S. residents and one-third of the Texas population.

Watersheds in U.S. political and cultural development during the latter part of the twentieth century called for an energetic and prompt response from an academic institution like The University of Texas at Austin and its libraries. The rising voice of Mexican Americans in Texas reached a crescendo that, by 1974, demanded library materials to support cultural studies programs of the mexicano experience along the Mexico-U.S. border. The University of Texas Libraries responded to requests by the newly formed Center for Mexican American Studies and activist students and faculty of the time.

Building on the Benson Latin American Collection's archival records and books of Spanish exploration and settlement of the U.S. Southwest, MALP's scope expanded to meet the changing Latino demographics of the United States. Research materials now number 30,000 volumes, hundreds of newspaper and journal titles, 3,000 microfilm reels on various subjects, thousands of audio-visual materials and over 100 archival collections.

The archival collections include manuscripts, organizational records, family papers, photographs and art works. Through MALP, the Benson Collection is now the permanent home of the records of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and the records of prominent scholars Américo Paredes (anthropologist and folklorist), Carlos E. Castañeda (historian and librarian), Julián Samora (sociologist) and George I. Sánchez (educator). Special collections of original works by artists, photographers and writers such as Amado Peña, Alurista, Diana Molina and Rolando Hinojosa-Smith are also available for research.

Contemporary sources for U.S. urban development since the arrival of Cubans, Haitians, Salvadorans, Guatemalans, Colombians, Dominicans and Puerto Ricans are reflected in scholarly publications and dissertations. Beyond expected printed sources are electronic sources detailing statistical, demographic and economic data; videos of commercial and original cinematography; and recordings of music and poetry and prose readings.

Primary sources in conjunction with a superb print collection make for unique research opportunities for University of Texas students and faculty and the wider national and international research community. About these sources, noted South Texas author and educator David Rice has said, "When I was 18 years old and walked into the Benson for the first time, I knew I could be a writer. College opened my mind, but the Benson freed my heart."

The Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection is located in Sid Richardson Hall, Unit 1, on the east side of campus at the northwest corner of Red River and Clyde Littlefield Drive (formerly Manor Road). Parking is available in Lot 38, adjacent to Sid Richardson Hall, with entry from Red River Street. # # #

The Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection embodies more than 80 years of The University of Texas at Austin's commitment to create and maintain a specialized research library dedicated to the culture and history of Latin America and of U.S. Latinos. The Benson Collection is part of the University of Texas Libraries.

Contact: Ann Hartness  512-495-4520
Head Librarian, Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection
University of Texas Libraries

Lupe Valdez, New Head of Dallas County Law Enforcement Office
Source: Article by Gary Younger
Published on Thursday, November 11, 2004 by the Guardian/UK
Sent by Howard Shorr
Dallas: Lupe Valdez, the daughter of a Mexican immigrant farm worker, became the first ever Democrat and woman to head the county's sole law enforcement office, which includes Texas' second largest city. 

"Since I won, every time I go to a Democratic meeting, they go crazy," Ms Valdez, 57, told the New York Times. Despite the fact that she had little in the way of money and a campaign led by novices, Ms Valdez won comfortably. 

"We fought like we were losing," said Ms Valdez, a former prison guard, who had no idea how she was faring until the votes were counted because she could not afford the $12,000 (£6,500) for a poll. 

Her win was aided by a mixture of white flight from the area and a steady increase in the black and Hispanic population, which is heavily Democratic. A Republican state district court judge who had sat on the bench for 15 years also lost to a woman in a surprise defeat. 

"The Democrats are on their way back," Cal Jillson, a political science professor at Southern Methodist University told the Dallas Morning News. "We can now call Dallas County a two-party, competitive county, which it has not been for 15 or more years." 

In Dallas the sheriff's department is struggling to adjust to their new boss. Ms Valdez will be in charge of 7,000 prisoners and 1,322 deputies, detention officers and bailiffs. 

"Right now the department is in a little bit of shock," said Lt Mark Howard, chair of the Sheriff's Association executive board. "We want her to succeed." 

"It's up to her to earn our trust," said David Teel, second vice-president of the Sheriff's Department chapter of the Fraternal Order of Police. "The ball's in her court. She's got a long, hard road ahead." 

Ms Valdez is undaunted. "Excuse me," she said. "Going from migrant worker to a professional, that was a challenge. Going from jailer to federal agent, that was a challenge." Compared to all that, she says, this new job is "not a challenge". 

New book:  The Spanish Acequias of San Antonio  

The book has 93 Pages and the description is:  " For more than a century and a half, San Antonio depended for water from a medieval system designed by Spanish engineers. . 
The 50-mile network of acequias, or irrigation ditches, originally served both the civilian community and the Spanish missions. It was perhaps the most extensive such network found in the present-day United States. One of the acequias, serving land near Mission Espada, remains in use to this day. In this first book on the remarkable system, longtime archaeologist Wayne Cox, outlines acequia techniques, and the construction and evolution, and in most cases the closing by the twentieth century of San Antonio's Spanish acequias."

"The Spanish Acequias of San Antonio" by I. Waynne Cox sells for $ 21.95 plus $ 2.75 shipping for a total of $ 24.70.  Can be purchased online  in the "What's New" section or by check or money order to:
Borderlands Book Store, Inc.
P.O. Box 28497, San Antonio, Texas 78228

  Book: The Men Named Antonio López de Santa Anna

On the life and times of the archvillain of Texas history, Antonio López de Santa Anna
Written by G. Roland Vela~Múzquiz and illustrated by Richard V. Morales

Was Santa Anna a pompous, cowardly villain?
Did he lose the battle of San Jacinto for visiting with the Yellow Rose of Texas?
Was the Alamo defended by Texan colonists?
Were thousands of Mexican soldiers killed at the Alamo?
Did Davy Crockett die surrounded by the bodies of dead Mexican soldiers?
Were 400 Texan colonists executed at Goliad?
Did Santa Anna wait 13 days to attack the Alamo because he feared the Texans?
If you answered YES to any of these questions, you should read this book

The Men Named Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna is among the best history writings of this author's generation - those who is their later years are responsible for propelling a notably vigorous grassroots history movement in Texas and across the nation.  Among such peers, this book represents a leading achievement.  It will take its place in any future bibliography of books on the subject and its rigorous meted and critical interpretations will make it required reading for years to come.  In this reviewer's opinion, The Men Named Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna is political biography at its best.  It represents a significant contribution to the study of Texas history.
               Professor Roberto R.. Calderon, University of North Texas

Roland Vela views the history of pre-Texas from a personal point of view.  He is a Texan with direct ancestral ties to key figures in the Santa Anna story: A Hispanic modern-day Texan studying the subject with new eyes.  His writing is that of a passionate man dealing with a subject he loves.  His book, The Men Named Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, is an important addition to the soup of Texas history and should be read by all. 
               Keith Shelton, Professor of Journalism, retired
               Editor, Denton Record-Chronicle, retired

269 pages, 8 X 10, Soft cover, 96 B & W and 26 color pictures.  Released October 2004
Price $29.95 + 2.54 tax + 2.26 shipping
Acacia Press P.O. Box 305231, Denton, Texas 76203

Power of Attorney for Collecting Salaries, December 31, 1759
Sent by Johanna De Soto

The names of 56 soldiers are included in the listing. Source: Bexar Archives, R.B. Blake Collection, Supp., Vol. I, Pg. 128.
"In the Royal Presidio of Our Lady of the Pilar of Los Adaes, jurisdiction of the Province of Texas, on the 31st day of the month of December, of this year 1759, before me, Don Marcos Ruiz, Lieutenant of the Company, and comandante (sic) of the said Presidio in the absence of the Sir Governor, and by the witnesses undersigned, with whom I act in absence of a notary, appeared present in their own persons:

who in their own persons representing their actions and rights are able in the customary form to ask and to collect in the royal chests that are in said city the amount of 25,200 pesos, which is what, at the rate of 420 pesos which each one of the sixty soldiers who garrison said Presidio has annually, are due to those stated, including the Lieutenant, in addition to that of 65 pesos which, in addition to the wages stated, they enjoy in each year, the aforesaid officers, which each made, that of 25,265 pesos, which received and collected that may be in the aforesaid form, it is our wish that he have, as also said Don Diego Antonio Giraud will have it, at the disposition of thee Sir Don Angel de Martos y Navarrete, Governor and Captain General for His Majesty (whom God preserve) of this said Province, who at present is in the town of San Gernando, head of it; of which gentleman at the present we are entirely satisfied and paid for it, that he may have to convert it into the things and goods which the instruction contains, which for this purpose we have given him.  For all of which, and which concerning all this is offered, as also in order that also, and in the same form, he may receive and collect in said chests, 300 reales, and sixty pounds of powder, which are what, at the rate of six, that each one of the soldiers of this Presidio have to have, that belong to those stated.  We give and grant to said Don Diego Antonio Giraud this authority, with the power of being able to substitute, revoke the substitutes, and to name others; that in all we exonerate him, in form and his stability and validation, we obligate our persons and goods which we have or will have.  Also they delivered it on said day, month and year, and signed, those that know how, with me and the witnesses of my assistance, who were Don Felipe de Mora, Bernardo Zervantes, and for those that do not know how, I made it an instrumental witness; and is on this common paper, because of having no sealed paper in this Province, to all of which interposing my authority judicially, I certify.


New Books for Sale by Los Bexarenos 
P.O. Box 1935  San Antonio, TX   78297

30. Genealogical & Historical Sources in the San Antonio Area.  By Olga Murray, 1984. Reprint 2004.
Paperbound, 100 pages.   $18.00             $ 1.50

31. Marriages of Sagrario Metropolitano Nov. 1776-31 January 1781. Located at Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.  
By Aida Martinez.  2004.  Paperbound,  41 pages with index.   $20.00              $ 1.75

32. Marriages of Iglesia de Nuestra Senora del Refugio Dec. 6, 1863-Oct 19, 1872.  Located At Eagle Pass, Texas.  By Frances Aguirre Gomez and Daniel Gomez.  2004. Paperbound, 46 pages with index.    $15.00             $1.35      

33. Index to the 1778 Census of Durango, Durango.  By Andres Joseph de Velasco y Restan. 2004. Paperbound, 78 pages including index. Has names of heads of Household.  $16.00             $1.50

34. Baptisms of Santa Rosa de Lima Church,  Melchor Muzquiz, Coahuila 1805-1830. 
By Jesse Rodriguez.  2004.  Paperbound, 213 pages including index.     $32.00              $2.25

35. Censuses of Punta de Lampazos 1753-1818 Located at Lampazos de Naranjo, Nuevo Leon.
By Frances Aguirre Gomez and Daniel Gomez, 2004. Paperbound, 139 pages including index. 
Contains censuses of 1753, 1762, 1768, 1807, 1818.    $22.00       $1.75   

New Charges Tarnish Texas Rangers' Image and Reopen Old Wounds  

by Ralph Blumenthal, New York Times article, October 31, 2004
Sent by Ben Johnson
WACO, Tex. - Back east, for social cachet there is nothing like an ancestor on the Mayflower. In Texas, it is a Texas Ranger in the family tree.

Here at the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum, a shrine to the frontier lawmen who set Lone Star hearts aflutter, some of the most avid visitors come in search of connections to the men who won the West and, it was said, would charge hell with a bucket of water and quell riots single-handedly ("one riot, one Ranger") .

But Southern Methodist University in Dallas says new historical accounts are casting the long-revered outlaw and Indian fighters in a decidedly darker light. The scholarship - being gingerly acknowledged at the Hall of Fame - involves investigations into massacres committed in an obscure border war against Mexican bandits and insurrectionists in 1915, a quagmire of its time. "Not a bright period in the history of the Rangers," concedes the museum's director, Byron Johnson, in a film seen by many of its 80,000 visitors a year.

A recent book by an assistant history professor at Southern Methodist and other accounts exploiting archives on both sides of the border, including a damning but little-known Texas legislative investigation of 1919, link the Rangers to the "evaporations" of up to 5,000 Mexican insurgents and Tejanos - Texans of Mexican origin - whose lands in the Rio Grande Valley were coveted by Anglo settlers.

"People are still coming across skeletons," said the professor, Benjamin Heber Johnson, 32, whose book, "Revolution in Texas: How a Forgotten Rebellion and its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans Into Americans," published late last year by Yale University Press, offers one of the fullest accounts to date of the violence. In the end, he said, the repression led the Mexican-Americans to secure their rights with organizations like the League of United Latin American Citizens.

The university's communications director, Meredith Dickenson, in material promoting the book as a "bullet in the back" to conventional, laudatory accounts of the Texas Rangers, wrote: "Here's an episode unlikely to ever be on 'Walker, Texas Ranger.' "

In addition, a new documentary, "Border Bandits," based on the memoirs of a Texas rancher, offers a firsthand account of the killings of two unarmed Tejanos by a carload of Texas Rangers driven by a legendary Ranger, William Warren Sterling, who later led the force as adjutant general and mythologized his exploits (but not his shootings) in a popular 1959 memoir, "Trails and Trials of a Texas Ranger."

"I thought the killings were an isolated incident," said the director of the documentary, Kirby F. Warnock, a Dallas writer whose grandfather, Ronald A. Warnock, had tape-recorded his recollections of coming upon the victims and burying the bodies. After recounting the tale in a 1992 memoir, "Texas Cowboy," Kirby Warnock said, "I got lots of calls saying, 'The Rangers killed my granddad.' "

Another book just published, "The Texas Rangers and the Mexican Revolution: The Bloodiest Decade 1910-1920," by Charles H. Harris III and Louis R. Sadler, history professors emeritus at New Mexico State University, also recounts the cruelty of both sides.

The disclosures have bruised some feelings at the museum, which has a half-million items of Ranger memorabilia. "You can't put current values on past times," said Mr. Johnson, the director, who is an anthropologist.

In recent weeks, showings of "Border Bandits" and forums on Benjamin Johnson's book have reopened wounds nearly a century old in the heavily Hispanic borderland, where the graves of the two Tejanos can still be found. "I think the real bandits were the Texas Rangers," said Jon Bazan, a grandson of one of the victims, who spoke at a screening in Harlingen in early October. "They were just like James Bond - a license to kill."

Yet critics like Mr. Kirby say they have no wish to malign today's Rangers, an elite force of 116 law enforcement professionals, including 2 women, 14 Hispanics and an American Indian, led by an African-American chief, Earl Pearson, within the Texas Department of Public Safety.

A spokeswoman for the department in Austin, Tela Mange, said that the events occurred before the Rangers became part of the agency, and that she was not familiar with the books.

The museum cites Ranger "aggressions" against Mexicans but treats with reverence icons like Frank Hamer, who tracked down Bonnie and Clyde years after accumulating a fearsome reputation - not acknowledged in the exhibits - for terrorizing Mexicans.

A focus of the recent scholarship is an enigmatic plot that served as the backdrop to the violence. In January 1915, with Mexico in a revolutionary uproar and world war raging in Europe, a Mexican rebel named Basilio Ramos was stopped in McAllen, Tex., with a manifesto calling for an armed uprising to reclaim Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado and California for Mexico, and other lands for Indians and blacks. Prisoners and Anglo males 16 and over were to be executed.

Confusion continues to surround the origins and seriousness of the scheme, called the Plan de San Diego for the small Texas town where it was supposedly hatched, but its exposure at a time of bandit raids from Mexico panicked the settlers. In one attack, Mexican raiders captured an American soldier, cut off his head and stuck it on a pole.

Texas Rangers, first recruited in the 1820's by the early settler Stephen F. Austin to control the Indians, responded with a wave of shootings and lynchings - what one local newspaper called a "war of extermination." The Johnson book quotes witness accounts of mass hangings of prisoners and innocent Mexicans and Tejanos, some of the bodies desecrated "with empty beer bottles stuck in their mouths.''

After an attack on the giant King Ranch, three of the dead raiders were lassoed and dragged by Rangers on horseback, who proudly posed for a photograph later made into postcards. Elsewhere, bodies, dead and alive, were thrown on flaming pyres or left to rot, with relatives too terrorized to bury the remains. A Brownsville lawyer, J. C. George, said, "There have been lots who have evaporated."

Estimates of the dead range from the hundreds to 5,000, historians say. In Mr. Warnock's documentary, his grandfather, who died in 1976, recounts the aftermath of a Mexican bandit attack on the McAllen Ranch in 1915. The raiders were driven off, taking refuge at the ranch of a 67-year-old Tejano, Jesus Bazan, and his son-in-law, Antonio Longoria. Rangers in a Model T Ford hunted down the bandits. "Every man they found they killed, drove off and left them there," Roland Warnock said.

Next, he said, the Rangers came after Bazan and Longoria, who had been too fearful to turn the bandits away. The two, he said, "pulled over to the side of the road to let them pass, and when they did, the Rangers just shot them off their horses." Warnock said he found the bodies from the stench two days later and buried them where they remain today, near the town of Edinburg. He identified two of the Rangers as William Warren Sterling and H. L. Ransom, both of whom are lionized in the Ranger museum. (Kirby Warnock said he was not influenced by the fact that Sterling was also acquitted, on grounds of self-defense, of having gunned down his great-grandfather, Frank Warnock, in revenge for Warnock's killing of a man who had cut off his water supply.)

A showing of the film in Harlingen drew more than the idly curious.  "It touched me, what I saw here," said Richard Martinez, 56, a retired teacher and postmaster, who said he had heard the story of the killings from his mother, Longoria's daughter, now 97, who was 7 years old when her father was killed. "It does anger me," Mr. Martinez said. But, he added: "These are things we overcame. We're stronger for it."

Border Bandits, Kirby Warnock investigates his grandfather's indictment of the Texas Rangers
was shown at the Alamo Cinema Drafthouse, San Antonio on Nov 16
By Alejandro Pérez ©San Antonio Current 2004, November 11, 2004
Source: Kirby F. Warnock
Sent by George Gause
In 1915, Roland Warnock, then a 19-year-old working at the McAllen Ranch, witnessed a team of Texas Rangers shoot and kill 67-year-old Jesus Bazan and Bazan's son-in-law, Antonio Longoria. The elder Warnock's recollection, preserved on tape, and the ensuing investigation into its veracity, are the subject of the documentary film Border Bandits, directed by Warnock's grandson Kirby, who first heard the story as a child and later recorded it in 1975, shortly before his grandfather's death.

A less illustrious moment in the history of the Texas Rangers: a postcard featuring the bodies of three Mexicans killed in "the bandit war" tethered to Ranger horses.

As an act of historical recovery, Border Bandits functions as a counter-narrative to the celebratory accounts of the Rangers, a fiction found in film, print, and Texas folklore. While Warnock's story undermines the mythology of that elite cadre of law enforcement by exposing their use of state-sanctioned terrorism against the Tejano and Mexican inhabitants of the borderlands, it also exposes, in measured, nuanced steps, the still-present racial hierarchy of white over brown as a culmination of land acquisition, forceful repression, and racial discrimination. Inadvertedly, the film hints at anxieties about the present-day racial ordering in Texas while trying to resolve those of the past.

"The thought of the Texas Rangers shooting an unarmed man in the back was unbelievable - but also unthinkable," Kirby Warnock says, in voice-over, of his reaction to his grandfather's story; later, the film's narrator comments how "most Texans" would find it hard to believe the Rangers were capable of such atrocities. As a white Texan, Warnock essentializes his experience for all Texans; while this move marginalizes the film's Mexican American viewers it opens up a space for identification among the Anglos in the audience who may have approached the subject with the same sense of disbelief or doubt he initially held. Here, in clearly elucidated terms, is an occurrence which has profoundly disrupted Warnock's belief in the impartiality of law and order, a point he returns to time and time again.

Initially, Warnock's investigation centered upon the details of Bazan's and Longoria's murder as if it was an isolated incident. With each new piece of evidence or bit of research he uncovers, he builds a case suggesting that the Rangers engaged in systemic, deliberate violence with impunity. In a sly, almost objective, manner of self-reflection, Warnock reveals that Roland Warnock's father was gunned down by one of the Rangers he identified as shooting the two unarmed men. Since Warnock's great-grandfather was a white man, the killing went to trial (although the Ranger was acquitted); the killing of Bazan and Longoria didn't even warrant death certificates. They were just two more dead Mexicans out of an estimated 5,000 individuals (a conservative figure, uncredited in the film but most likely coming from Ranger historian Walter Prescott Webb) who lost their lives during this time period - men, women, children who committed no other crime than to be born brown in a now-white Texas.

At the peak of the "bandit era," while Rangers boasted of killing 14 men, "not counting Mexicans," the San Antonio Express announced it would no longer run stories about murdered Mexican Americans. Chillingly, the documentary shows postcards of victims, like the popular shot of Mexicanos bound and tied to a trio of horses, which made the rounds, much like the images of lynched blacks in other parts of the South. Combined, these acts all served to dehumanize the Texas-Mexican population at a moment of transition and definition, both for the state and the nation.

Anglo Texans of the early 1900s were still aware of the state's pre-Republic origins and of the Mexicano landholders, some of whom at this time still held titles to their property. The Mexican Revolution, with its mass emigration and potential threat of a violent uprising in South Texas concerned the elite. The transfer of land ownership was anything but peaceful, and the enforcement of the new social order proved to be as bloody. Within this context the literal, and very real, killing of Mexicans reverberated on a much larger, symbolic level.

During the course of the film one historian observes that "anybody who looked like he might be a bandit was a target," which meant, in practical terms, anyone with brown skin. "Border bandits" and "the bandit war" conflated horse thieves, revolutionaries, and ranch hands at a time when white Texans used force and intimidation to determine and define their collective identity: who they were and, as importantly, who they were not.

Nine decades after the events which the elder Warnock recounted and the younger Warnock preserved, modern-day Texas remains, in many aspects, very similar to the old one. Speaking to the shifting demographics of the region, one commentator's optimism that we are fast becoming the majority is tempered by the knowledge that numbers alone won't ensure a peaceful transference of power. As long as this state, and this nation, remains in denial of the violent, oftentimes deadly, legal, and extralegal means it used to secure and preserve Anglo superiority - glossed over in a myth of good intentions and western expansion, of protecting the borders and defending property - the granddaughters and grandsons of Bazan and Longoria, along with the 5,000 others who lost their lives and the countless more who bore witness or suffered needlessly under Ranger, rancher, and vigilante rule, will continue to thirst for justice and hunger for a more complex history which tells all our stories, even those parts we'd rather leave out. •



Canary Islanders to 1778-1783
Poblamiento de la Luisiana 1777-1778
Atlanta, Georgia celebrates  Dia de los Muertos


Canary Islanders to 1778-1783

I am a descendant of the Canary Islands people who came to Louisiana in 1778-1783 to serve in the 2nd Battalion of the Regiment of Louisiana. I have been searching for the enlistment papers (Filliaciones) for two of my ancestors Josef Morales of Aguimes , Gran Canaria and Roumaldo Carmena of Anover de Tajo near Toledo. 
 I found your article on the NMGS website about the Filliaciones Espanol and enjoyed reading it and the glossary. Could you please share your source for the Enlistment Records so that I might look up information on my  antepassados. There were 700 recruits from the Canaries who were signed up  for duties as malitia/settlers and they were  settled in 4 sites  in southern Louisiana. We have 3 groups of Canary Island Descendants in Louisiana ande there is one in San Antonio. Any assistance you can provide will be appreciated.  Thank you. 

Joseph Carmena , 1724 Glenmore Ave., Baton Rouge, La 70808. Ph:(225) 925-9501

I would add that the 1778-1783 ships' lists for these soldiers and their families are well documented and are located in the Archivo General de Indias in Sevilla (Papales Procedentes de Cuba; and the Santo Domingo Papers).  They are readily available to family historians. 

It is those pesky filiaciones that we have not been able to locate. Paul Newfield

"La Aportacion de la Isla de La Gomera al Poblamiento de la Luisiana, 1777-1778
Sent by Bill Carmena
Source: Taylor Oncale

German Hernandez Rodriguez, "La Aportacion de la Isla de La Gomera al Poblamiento de la Luisiana, 1777-1778", in IV Coloquio de Historia Canario-Americana (1980), tomo II, pp.225-246.

The author makes reference to a "Padron de la isla de La Gomera", dating from 1757, and located in Museo Municipal de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Fondo Adeje, legajo de poblacion (p.239, footnote #27), which should be of immense interest to researchers. (A Padron is like a census...)

He mentions a letter dated December 13, 1778 from don Rafael José Quijano, the ayudante mayor of the infantry and of the militias of the island to the alcalde mayor of the island, warning<??> of continuous extraction of citizens from La Gomera <vecinos gomeros> (GHR: p.243, footnote #34, citing the Fondo de Adeje, housed in the Archivo del Museo Canario).

The author also notes that the alcalde mayor called the Cabildo into session to study the situation in order to send a brief <un informe> to the Audiencia. That informe is said to mention the families that emigrated to Louisiana, and to Havana, the status of each one, its qualities and circumstances, etc., and the number of individuals in each family (GHR: p.243, footnote #35, citing the Fondo de Adeje, housed in the Archivo del Museo Canario).

It says that we do not know if it was sent to the Real Audiencia by which it would have been sent to the Consejo de Castilla (GHR: p.243).

Atlanta, Georgia celebrates El Dia de los Muertos
Sent by Lucy Wilson  

To: Ana Maria Carrillo Soubic y Remedios Gomez Arnau:  Ladies, thank you so much for informing me about the celebration of El Dia de Los Muertos which was held in the Atlanta History Center on Sunday, 31 October 2004.  (My first participation!)

The air was filled with gaiety and the children's faces were illuminated with lovely smiles.  The adult audience proudly showed their contentment with smiles of joy and merriment in their jet-black eyes.  Both the children and the adult Folk Mexican Ballet dancers (presented by Lupita Sosa) were dressed in an array of colors that adorn the stage like a grand bouquet while they merrily danced around!  The traditional dances, costumes and music filled your veins with boastful pride.  The exotic Aztec dance of the "ancient ones" was a step into another world with the dancers' pheasant plumage head dress, wooden-like bells around their ankles, leather sandals, along with the women's marvelous costumes of both sequence and embroidery.  The women had their eyes  made up which enhanced their beauty even more, their lips were painted a bright, rose petal red that complimented their gorgeous bronze skin (the Aztec men dancers looked pretty awesome too!).  Delightful, lovely, exotic, exciting, interesting and brilliant are only a few of the words that describe the Folk Mexican Ballet! 

Awe, Alberto Cabrera with his Mariachi "Juvenil America" was definitely a treat!  Simply, spectacular!  These fine handsome, gentlemen dressed in the original Mariachi attire with their huge black sombreros, fancy silver buttons and silver cuffs jackets, and black, shiny western boots.  They not only looked good, but they were extremely talented and diversified.  The crowd appreciated their grandioso display of traditional music (they also played music from the Glenn Miller Band and Charlie Daniels [The Devil Went Down to Georgia]).  With charm and charisma they invited the audience to accompany them on stage.  What a delight! 

We were also entertained by a futuristic Mariachi band.  The Sutton Mariachi Ensemble was directed by Natalie Colbert.  The young musicians were from the Sutton Middle School; and they played all the typical instruments used in a regular Mariachi band. The young ensemble had a very promising mariachi singer in their mist!

We were graced with a concert performed by the pianist Demetrio Dudin.  Demetrio displayed his soul on the keyboard with such vitality that it was profoundly captivating.  The poetry read by Margie Bermejo was with such eloquence - what a marvelous voice.  Margie's voice was musically mesmerizing like a soft, flowing brook dancing in the moonlight.  Margie songs were full of wisdom, appreciation of life, respecting and accepting death.  At the same time being able to make light of death and not fear it!  The romantic songs she sang were written by Justin Lara (one of my favorite song writers!).

Wait, there is still more!  We also had the pleasure of hearing Trio "Los Bohemios" who played acoustic guitar and sang songs of Los Ponchos, Los Andes y Los Reyes.  They performed bravisimo!

Hmmmm, by now you should be getting hungry!  Yes, the air was filled with the aroma of tasty Mexican dishes that made your mouth water like a hungry wolf!  The pan dolce was fresh and delicioso!  The food was served by beautiful women, with their long, dark hair and radiant smiles!

Can't have a fantastic outing without being able to buy some lovely jewlry (designed by three charming, talented ladies).  If you love photography, you would have been impressed with the photos of Lupita Sosa's and her ballet dancers.  There was also a spectacular display of altars decorated in honor of the departed!  (It had to be difficult selecting the grand prize winner from all those artistically decorated altars.)

Now, my special thanks to the charming, young gentleman who introduced the Folk Mexican Ballet Dancers, the Mariachi "Juvenil America", and the Sutton Mariachi Ensemble (I am so sorry that I did not get his name!). He kept us entertained with his charming wit and fabulous smile!  My eight year old granddaughter said, "he's cute!" and she was correct.

Yes, I guess, I could say that I had a fantastico time and I am looking forward to el Dia de los Muertos in Atlanta, Georgia  2005!   Lucy



"The Other California" 1975-81
NARA Fights Obsolescence
National Archives December programs:

"The Other California"
Artist, Eddie Martinez
Festival of the American Folklife on the Washington Mall

The Washington Post 
Style, Saturday, July 5, 1975-81
The Other California by Pam Lambert

As soon as you read the stimulus world that follows, you will have 10 seconds to respond with the first image that comes to mind:  California. 

What did you think of? Surfer girls with sun-streaked hair and Ultrabrite smiles? Men in Guccis and Women in Puccis clinking cocktail glasses around a kidney-shaped pool? Golden Gate Bridge glowing rust-gold in the sunset? If you did. your response was like that of most others-and that's why the directors of the Festival of the American Folklife on the Mall organized the "California Heartland" exhibits part of the "Regional Americans" program this year.

The exhibit's theme is the "Other California," the diverse ethnic groups who over the decades have become integral parts of the culture of the region but have achieved little outside recognition because of the "beautiful and the damned" image of the state spread by the media. The closest the festival comes to having anything that is "typical" California is a long San Francisco cable car. The other exhibits range from testing of tuna boat models in the Reflecting Pool to demonstrations of women straw beehives construction. Some of the ethnics present, such as Chinese and Chicanos, also will be familiar to Easterners; such as the Molokans, a Russian Protestant religious sect, are a surprise to even some of the Californians present.

Visible from almost any part of the California exhibit is the 28- by 10-foor mural being by Mexican-Americans from the East Los Angeles area. The boldness of the design and brightness of the colors attract a number of the visitors, almost all of whom want to know what it's about..

In front of the mural yesterday, a deeply tanned man with a leather visor keeping his curly black hair in place was explaining the concept for the nth time. His paint-spattered hands and trousers identified him as one of the muralists and his name badge as Eddie Martinez, the mural's designer.

"The walls on the right of the picture," Martinez told a visitor, "represent the barrio, the figure of justice, with the hypodermic needle the violence and drugs in the environment. On the left side, where you see the shadow of a sniper and the pictures of Martin Luther King and the Kennedy brothers, is the violence of the larger society. "The man in the middle," said the girl, who had been periodically spitting out watermelon seeds while listening to Martinez' explanation, "Just look at the rat."

When he's not working on the murals, Martinez is a freelance designer who works chiefly for Walt Disney. He helped to design the Hall of Presidents for Orlando Disneyworld and is currently working on a 50-foot mural of the great American inventors for Disneyland. He generally earns enough money from Disney to keep him going for a while, then takes a few weeks off work on projects in the Chicano community. Said Martinez about the difference in his artistic endeavors. "I do that Disney to make a living but I can relate more to this; it's our history.

Martinez came down to the festival because of his involvement with Jose and John Gonzalez, owners of the Goez Gallery. A forum for Chicano artists, Goez is housed in a former meat market in East Los Angeles. The Gonzalez brothers are helping Martinez work on the mural, as is another assistant, Jacob Gutierrez.

Both Martinez and John Gonzalez are filled with the kind of enthusiasm for their ethnic traditions that usually characterizes those who have themselves only recently rediscovered them. As it turns out, this is true of both men, who described the negative attitude towards Mexican culture prevalent when they were growing up. Martinez remembers, "When I was a kid, I was a little ashamed of being Mexican; you tended to identify more with the Spaniards because the Europeans were more excepted."

According to Gonzalez, who was born in Mexico and moved to the United States at the age of 4, "We were never taught anything about ourselves. Six years ago I didn't know there were pyramids in Mexico. I wanted to go to Egypt to see the ones there. I didn't want to go to Mexico. I didn't think there was anything good there, just a bunch of lazy people taking siestas under the cactus,"

Gonzalez' awakening came, oddly enough/on a trip to Spain. At the time of his visit, Mexican music was extremely popular and the Spaniards were very interested when they heard he was Mexican. "Back home they just brushed it off as wetbacks music," said Gonzalez "but here they really excited about it. I started to think about the other things our culture had to offer." When he returned to the States, Gonzalez began to think of ways to make others feel the pride he did. 

Murals were one. In the last three years more than 150 murals have appeared in the East Los Angeles area and one - depicting the Virgin of Guadalupe - has even become a shrine (with a blessing from the Pope). But even increased ethnic pride cannot solve all problems immediately. "For some reason in our area." Said Martinez, "Puerto Ricans are taking the jobs that should go to Chicanos." He points to the television show "Chico and the Man," in which a New York Puerto Rican is being passed off as a Chicano barrio native, as one example, and to even more baffling case of Sam Hernandez as another.

Hernandez is a Mexican-American diver who recently won the high diving competition in Acapulco. According to Martinez, Hernandez returned to California- only to find that the Marineland in Palos Verdes was passing off a Puerto Rican impostor as "the Mexican jumping bean." Only in California.

                               NARA Fights Obsolescence

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA, ). faced with the growing problem of how to store the government's zillions of electronic records in an obsolescence-proof format, announced Tuesday that technology and communication systems companies Lockheed Martin and Harris Corp. will duke it out for a chance to solve that dilemma.

As technology advances, today's CD-ROMs, Zip disks and other means of data storage may go the way of the Betamax videocasse+te tape and eight-track audiotape. NARA's challenge for Lockheed Martin and Harris is to design the Electronic Records Archive (ERA)—a system that will permanently store information so it's retrievable with whatever hardware and software ore available.

The ERA system promises to make finding records easy for the public and government officials, and to make delivering those records easy for NARA. "ERA will make electronic information available virtually anytime, anywhere," says National Archivist John Carlin. "We are not just talking about the information contained in government records. We will start with government records, but there is no end to where ERA can take us."
Source: Orange County California Genealogical Society Newsletter, Vol. 38, Issue 10, October 2004

National Archives December public programs: In the William G. McGowan Theater 
For more information: Sam Anthony  

December 7th
The National Archives presents the rarely seen 85-minute version of December 7th (1943), John Ford's documentary about the attack on Pearl Harbor. Because of official objections to some of the ideas expressed in the film, it was cut into shorter versions before being released to the public. One of the edited versions won an Academy Award in 1943. Produced by the Naval Photographic Branch, Office of Strategic Services. (85 minutes) Tuesday, December 7, noon. Reservations required.

America Lost and Found
This award-winning 1983 compilation of rare footage conveys the psychological impact of the economic and social collapse that accompanied the Great Depression in the United States. Guided by historians, the filmmakers spent three and a half years researching and assembling period film, photographs, and other materials. They accumulated revealing images of how America reacted to the loss of its dreams of prosperity and how these dreams were rebuilt. Produced by Tom Johnson; directed by Lance Bird; narrated by Pat Hingle. (59 minutes) Tuesday, December 14, noon. Reservations required.


Vietnam Chronicles, Thursday, December 9, 7 p.m. Reservations required.
Historian Lewis Sorley will discuss Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968-1972 (Texas Tech University Press, 2004). Through the transcribed words of Gen. Creighton Abrams, Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, William Colby, and other top leaders at Saigon strategy sessions, the book reveals new secrets, resolves old arguments, and provides fresh insights into the latter years of America's longest war. 

Founding Mothers, Wednesday, December 15, 7 p.m. Reservations required.
Political commentator and news analyst Cokie Roberts will discuss her book Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation. While the men went off to war or to Congress, the women managed their businesses, raised their children, provided them with political advice, and made it possible for the men to do what they did. The behind-the-scenes influence of these women- and their sometimes very public activities-was intelligent and pervasive. Drawing upon personal correspondence, private journals, and even favored recipes, Roberts reveals the stories of these women, bringing to life the everyday trials and triumphs of individuals such as Abigail Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, Deborah Read Franklin, Eliza Pinckney, Catherine Littlefield Green, Esther DeBerdt Reed, and Martha Washington. 

Old Ironsides, Eagle of the Sea, Thursday, December 16, 7 p.m. Reservations required.
Col. David Fitz-Enz, USA (Ret.), will discuss his latest book, Old Ironsides, Eagle of the Sea: The Story of the USS Constitution. The life story of the "Eagle of the Sea" is dominated by conflicts that lasted for years and carried the frigate far from home. Among the first American navy ships, she defended the American maritime from French privateers, Barbary pirates, and the British Royal navy during the first 20 years of her service. It was the British that gave her the name "Ironsides" when their cannon balls bounced harmlessly off her sturdy hull and sank into the sea. Fitz-Enz puts the story of the great ship into historical perspective, exploring the challenges of seafaring in the "Age of Sail." Navigation before the days of satellite positioning is explained from dead reckoning to the search for longitude. 

These weekly talks given by National Archives archivists and specialists are held in the Training Room (G-24), Customer Service Center. Enter on Pennsylvania Avenue.

Senate Nomination Files
Archives technician John Deeben will discuss the content and organization of Senate papers relating to Presidential nominations for Federal employment, as well as their value and accessibility for genealogy research. Wednesday, December 1, 11 a.m. (This lecture will be repeated at the National Archives at College Park, in Lecture Room C, on Friday, December 3, at 11 a.m.)

Lighthouses and Lifesaving Service
Archivist Susan Abbott will discuss the various research paths to tracking the histories of 19th-century and early 20th-century merchant ships. Tuesday, December 14, 11 a.m. (This lecture will be repeated at the National Archives at College Park, in Lecture Room C, on Thursday, December 16, at 11 a.m.)

FAMILY ACTIVITIES: "The Real National Treasures" Family Weekend, December 11 & 12
Show off your acting skills, sharpen your sleuthing abilities, and enjoy hands-on activities as we celebrate the recently released Disney film National Treasure, in which treasure hunters try to steal the Declaration of Independence. Have fun participating in a reenactment that allows you to experience two of our nation's greatest dramas-the adoption of the Declaration of Independence and the adoption of the Constitution. Learn how skilled artisans create ink and paper to make documents similar to those of long ago. Watch demonstrations by conservation experts who reveal how the real "national treasures" are protected and cared for. Explore gadgets used for actual covert missions throughout history. These family activities and more will be part of our weekend-long celebration. The investigation of covert missions and paraphernalia will be presented by History Is a Hoot, Inc., from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. each day. The reenactment activities will be led by interpreters from the Adams National Historical Park from 1 to 3 p.m. each day. Look for more details and times on our web site, at

EXHIBIT OPENING  Tuesday, December 7 
"The American Presidency: Photographic Treasures of the National Archives," presented by U.S. News & World Report, showcases 40 photographs that take visitors behind the scenes, capturing unexpected moments that reveal the character of our Chief Executives over the last 150 years. 
Lawrence F. O'Brien Gallery, through February 21, 2005 Constitution Avenue entrance.

NATURALIZATION CEREMONY, Wednesday, December 15, 10:00 a.m.

The National Archives, in partnership with the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia and the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, continues its tradition of holding a naturalization ceremony for petitioners seeking American citizenship. This year's ceremony, which will take place on the 213th anniversary of the adoption of the Bill of Rights, will be held in the newly renovated Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom in the National Archives Building. 

The moving ceremony is open to petitioners' families and guests as well as to a limited number of members of the public holding tickets. Tickets are free but must be reserved by calling 202-501-5313, ext. 246.


Morelia Nativity 
Ira Kneeland's Photographs of Topolobampo
Inside Mexico
Italian, French, and Spanish roots in Mexico City
The Genealogy of Mexico, Lists and Links
Extractos de informes matrimoniales del obispado de Michoacán
            duarante el siglo XVII, 
autor, Guillermo PadillaOrigel 
Familia de Marcos González Hidalgo, Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza
Lotería mexicana en libro bilingüe
Join with other Villarreal Researchers
Una Disposicion Testamentaria del Siglo XIX,
Lic. Leonardo de la Torre y 

Elizondo Baptisms, files of 
Sociedad Genealógica del Norte de México  
Café con Historia
 "Chilchota" Del Obispado De Michoacán, en los  siglos XVI Y XVII,  
            Guillermo PadillaOrigel 


A nativity scene with tarascas figuras, from the region of Morelia. The figures are made of wax and can be moved into different positions. 

(Mi apología mas sincerest a quien envió esta foto encantadora. No copié el nombre del remitente cuando transferí el archivo a Somos Primos. Por favor mande su nombre para incluirlo.  Mimi

For information on the Tarascas, go to:

Ira Kneeland's
Photographs of Topolobampo

Special Collections Library 
1836-1979 44.75 linear feet. 
Henry Madden Library, California State University, Fresno
Sent by Johanna De Soto

[[Editor: This is a FANTASTIC COLLECTION!!]]


The original glass plate negatives from which these prints were made are housed in filing cabinet D.  Descriptions for the items listed "No negative, no print" were taken from Ira Kneeland's original list of 73 photographs (numbers 1 through 73), which is available in the collection.  The reason why there are no prints or negatives for numbers 118 through 146 is not clear.  Perhaps there was another list that Ira Kneeland made, in addition to the one with 73 photographs.  The gap in the numbering between 186 and 228 is due to the removal of these images to the Kneeland Family Papers although all the glass plate images for these prints were kept with the Topolobampo glass plate negatives in filing cabinet D.

I. Views of Topolobampo XI. Vegaton
II. 1891 Trip XII. Fuerte River
III. Colonists – Individuals and Groups XIII. Fuerte (Town)
IV. Colony Views, Houses, and Buildings XIV. San José de Gracia and Jésus María Mine
V. November 1890 Party XV. La Purisima
VI. Colony Lumbering Activity XVI. Mexican Villages and People
VII. Surveying Teams XVII. Mexican Sugar Mills
VIII. Los Tastes Ditch .  
IX. Topolobampo Bay .  
X. Views Near Colony

Tour By Mexico ® - Topolobampo in Sinaloa State, Mexico Topolobampo is a beautiful seaport located 20 km. from Los Mochis in the State of Sinaloa in Mexico... This web page 
More results from

Inside Mexico
Appears to be an excellent resource for teachers, with seasonal information, basic background on Mexico, plus positive, cultural articles to increase understanding..

Thank you to John Inclan  for sending the links to  
" The Mexican Revolution - Remembered"
and making us aware of Inside Mexico.

May Herz writes: About Us. .  Quiénes Somos?   
Inside Mexico started producing and distributing educational video programs about Mexico and the Mexican culture, in 1989.  Our programs have been distributed in the United States by established catalog companies that sell to schools , libraries, and museums as well as to the home market.

We started producing videos when we saw the need of showing a more accurate picture of Mexico; giving another perspective, different from the stereotypical images seen so frequently in the media: the siesta sleeping farm worker, the poor and dusty old towns, the corruption and ignorance of the people...........

We wanted to share with our viewers, the richness of this country: its beautiful scenery, its magnificent pre-Hispanic past, its charming pueblos and lovely artesanías, the cosmopolitan modern cities, the warmth and millenary wisdom of its people, their impressive ability to get through the hard times, the purpose they find in their lives.
These years of producing and getting to know this land of magic and color have been enriching and fulfilling. And has led us to start a new venture, the Mexico Newsletter, in which we want to share with our readers some of the aspects that make Mexico so appealing. 
We hope you enjoy these programs and articles as much as we did producing them!

Italian, French, and Spanish roots in Mexico City

I found your website at and would like to be included in the networking database if possible. My name is Ricardo Bracho and my wife's name is Elissa Giardiello.  We were both born in Mexico City  and now we live in Colorado,USA.  

My family from my father side came from Santillana del Mar (Spain) to  Zacatecas in 1790, then moved to Durango and from there my side to Mexico City.  My mother's side is both French and Spanish that came to Sinaloa.  My wife is first generation from Italian immigrants. The following are the surnames we are very interested in finding information.

Del Paso

I have put together a lot of information on my side and perhaps it would be useful to share.

Cordially,  Ricardo Bracho

The Genealogy of Mexico

Sent by Johanna De Soto

Site Contents

The Conquistadors - A list of almost 2000 individuals that served the King with Cortes and stayed in Mexico ( some notable exceptions). The conquest of the Mexico lasted from 1519 to 1521. 5 pages

New! Coats of Arms - Conquest of Mexico - A list of 145 of the individuals that received coats' of arms for their part in the conquest of Mexico from 1525 to 1589. 1 page

The Conquistadors of the Yucatan - A list of 160 of the individuals that served the King with Francisco de Montejo from 1526 to 1546. 1 page

The Conquistadors of Nueva Galicia - A list of 280 of the individuals that served the King with Nuno de Guzman in 1530. Many went on to settle the area and had links to the earlier Conquistadors. 1 page

Early Settlers of Nueva Galicia - 137 settlers arriving after the conquest of the area. Some had links to the earlier Conquistadors. 2 pages 

The Coronado Expedition - A list of 322 settlers that served with the Captain Francisco Vazquez de Coronado. The expedition set out for New Mexico and Arizona but made it as far north as Kansas from 1540 to 1542. 1 page

The Luna Expedition - A list of the 251 settlers that served with the Captain Tristán de Luna y Arellano. The expedition set out to settle Florida in 1559-1564. 1 page

The Onate Expedition - A list of the 336 settlers that served with the Captain General Juan de Onate. The expedition set out to settle New Mexico in 1598-1600. 1 page

New Spain - 433 surnames of the early settlers making their way north into Northeastern Mexico. Many descendants of the early Conquistadors. Their date of first mention in public records for the area is listed in most cases. 8 pages

1700-1726 - New wave of settlers to Northeastern Mex. Some details given on 81 surnames. 2 pages

California 1769-1800 - A list of names of over 1,700 of the earliest recorded male settlers of Alta California. 1 page

Surname Research - Here are Hispanic resources traceable to 320 surnames found in the American Southwest or Mexico. 3 pages

New! The Genealogy of Mexico DNA Surname Project - Find relatives using DNA technology. With DNA it is possible to find out if you share a common male ancestor within 7 generations at a probability of 50% or 23  generations (around the time of the Conquest) at a 90% probability. This 
project is open to anyone with ancestors in Mexico along their father's father's .... line. 

Personal Genealogy - Personal family surnames of Felix, Loera, Santoscoy, Moran, Vejar and Castro are discussed or mentioned. Additional links of cousins doing research on these names are provided as well as other links. 1 page

Photo Gallery - Old family photos. 1 page 


New Book:
Extractos de informes matrimoniales del obispado 
de Michoacán duarante el siglo XVII

Saludos a todos, y por este conducto informo que he sacado a la luz mi libro sobre "Extractos de informes matrimoniales del obispado de Michoacán duarante el siglo XVII" , 1630-1685 con mas de 1,000 extractos e indice onomástico de los pretensos, y 141 paginas.  La edición es muy limitada. El costo es de $100.00 dolares incluido los gastos de envio por paqueteria a los estados unidos y $850.00 pesos en la republica mexicana.    

Se puede communicar directamente con el autor Guillermo Padilla.

Sigue un ejemplo.




El presente trabajo de Paleografía de los documentos del fondo parroquial sacramental en el acervo del archivo histórico "Casa de Morelos" en la ciudad de Morelia, de la sección de matrimonios, es una laboriosa compilación muy extractada y a juicio del autor, de la información realizada por los pretensos españoles o criollos y uno que otro mestizo, mulato y castizo, próximos a contraer nupcias, otorgada por varias causas en diferentes pueblos, Congregaciones, villas o Ciudades pertenecientes al antiguo Obispado de Michoacán, que en ese entonces contaba con una extensión territorial bastante grande, abarcando lo que actualmente son los estados de Michoacán, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí, Colima, y parte de Guerrero y Jalisco.

Cabeceras y Pueblos

Celaya, con los pueblos de: Acámbaro, Apaseo, Chamacuero, Salamanca, Salvatierra, San Juan de la Vega, Valle de Santiago, Xerécuaro y Yuririapúndaro.

Cinagua, con los pueblos de : Ario, Carácuaro, Churumuco, La Guacana, Nocupétaro, Purungueo y Turicato.

Colima, con los pueblos de : Almoloyan, Caxitlán, Comala, Coquimatlán, Ixtlahuaca, Tecomán y Xilotán.

Cuitzeo de la Laguna, con los pueblos de : Copándaro, Guandacareo y Santa Ana Maya.

Charo, con el pueblo de : Tzitzio.

Guanajuato, con los pueblos de : Irapuato, Marfil, Santa Ana y Silao.

Guaymeo, con los pueblos de : Conguripo, Coyuca, Cuiseo, Huetamo, Pungarabato, Purechuchu y Sirándiro.

León, con los pueblos de : Purísima Concepción, Pénjamo, San Francisco del Rincón y San Pedro Piedra Gorda.

Maravatío, con los pueblos de : Angangueo, Irimbo, San Mateo, Taximaroa, Tiquicheo, Tuxpan, Tuzantla y Zitácuaro.

Motines, con los pueblos de : Aquila, Cinacamitlán, Coaguayana, Coire, Cuacomán, Chamila, Guagua, Maquilí, Ostutla, Pomaro, Texupa y Xolotlán.

Tancítaro, con los pueblos de : Acaguata, Amatlán, Apatzingán, Arimaro, Parácuaro, Pizándaro, San Juan, Tetlama, Tlapalcatepec, Tomatlán y Xalpa.

Tetela del Río, con los pueblos de : Asuchitlán, Cutzamala, Polzutla, Tecomatlán, Tlachiapa y Totolapa.

Tinguindín, con los pueblos de : Atapan, Cotija, Pamatácuaro, Sicuicho y Tacáscuaro.

Tlalpujahua, con los pueblos de : Araro, Cinapécuaro, Ozumatlán, Siricícuaro, Taymeo y Ucareo.

Tlazazalca, con los pueblos de : Chilchota, La Piedad y Yurícuaro.

Tuspa, con los pueblos de : Mazamitla, Piguamo, Quitupa, Tamazula, Tonilla, Zapotiltic y Zapotlán.

Valladolid, con los pueblos de : Angamacútiro, Capácuaro, Capula, Cocupao, Comanja, Chocándiro, Erongarícuaro, Etúcuaro, Guango, Guaniqueo, Indaparapeo, Nahuatzen, Paracho, Parangaricutiro, Puruándiro, Santa Clara de los Cobres, Santa Fe de la Laguna, Santa Fe del Río, Tacámbaro, Taretan, Tarímbaro, Teremendo, Tingarabato, Tiripitío, Tzintzuntzan, Undameo, Urecho, Uruapan, Xirosto, Zacapu y Pátzcuaro.

Xiquilpan, con los pueblos de : Charapan, Patamban, Peribán y Tarecuato.

Zacatula, con los pueblos de : Atoyac, Coaguayutla, Potatlán, Tecpan y Zihuatanejo.

Zamora, con los pueblos de : Ario, Caro, Coxumatlán, Guarachita, Ixtlán, Paxacuarán, Azuayo, Tangancícuaro, Tangamandapio, Xacona y Xaripo.

Considero que esta relación, es de gran intereses sobre todo para historiadores y genealogistas, al poder conocer o ligar alguno o algunos personajes de la época con algún suceso o parentesco, y así ir formado o extendiendo su historia familiar. Es difícil dada la época poder entroncar algunos personajes, en virtud de que los apellidos a veces no concuerdan , ya que era común que adoptaban en muchos casos, en primer término el de la madre o los abuelos, sin que en ocasiones se pueda ligar el parentesco como en la actualidad, por ejemplo: Juan Pérez, hijo legítimo de Andrés Hernández y Mariana Pérez, que en este caso tomó el apellido de la madre, o bien Juan Pérez, hijo legítimo de Andrés de Padilla , que en este caso era el del abuelo o quizá el de la abuela , etc., según la importancia del linaje.

Respecto a Algunos pueblos ó lugares, que se mencionan en el texto, actualmente han cambiado de nombre, menciono los mas importantes para que el lector que no este familiarizado, sepa su ubicación, tales como: San Pedro Piedra Gorda, ahora es Ciudad Manuel Doblado, Gto., Yuririapúndaro, ahora es Yuririra, Gto., Taximaroa, ahora es Ciudad Hidalgo, Mich., Guango, ahora es Villa Morelos, Mich., Villa de Peña Aranda, ahora es San Juan Zitácuaro, Mich., Valladolid, ahora es Morelia, Mich., Ayo el Chico, ahora es Ayotlán, Jalisco, Zapotlán, ahora es Ciudad Guzmán, Jal., etc.

Esta información que me llevó varios años de recabar datos y paleografiar documentos, con mucho gusto la hago extensiva como una aportación mas para su consulta, esperando que al lector interesado o especializado en la materia le sea de utilidad

Agradezco el apoyo brindado a su servidor por el director y demás personal del archivo Casa de Morelos, que tan amablemente me atendieron para lograr mi cometido.


Familia de Marcos González Hidalgo

Por: Carlos Martín Herrera de la Garza

Esta información ha sido encontrada en diversos sitios de internet 
y arreglada por el responsable del escrito


1.- Marcos González Hidalgo nació en 1567 en Logroño, Huesca, España y murió antes de 1642 en Monterrey, Nuevo León; se casó en 1585 en Saltillo, Coahuila con Juana Mariana Ursula Navarro Rodríguez y Sosa que nació en 1571 hija del capitán Juan Navarro quien nació en 1533 en Vizcaya, España y murió en 1594 en México; y de María Rodríguez que nació en Saltillo, Coahuila, la hija de Baltasar de Sosa 1537 – 1595 e Inéz Rodríguez.

1.1.- Marcos González Hidalgo, el Mozo

1.2.- Beatriz González Hidalgo y Navarro Rodríguez se casó con Blas de la Garza Falcón Treviño hijo de Marcos Alonso Garza Falcón y de Juana de Treviño Quintanilla

1.3.- Anastacia González Hidalgo y Navarro Rodríguez se caso con el capitán Alonso de Treviño de la Garza hijo de Marcos Alonso Garza Falcón y de Juana de Treviño Quintanilla.

1.4.- capitán Bernabé González Hidalgo y Navarro Rodríguez nació en 1606 y murió en Monterrey, Nuevo León el 30 de diciembre de 1672; se casó con (A) Leonor García Gutiérrez quien nació en 1618 y murió el 2 de enero de 1696 hija de Lorenzo García y Leonor Gutiérrez que nació en Zacatecas en 1596. Bernabé González tuvo segundas nupcias con (B) Beatriz García y tuvo un tercer matrimonio con (C) Josepha Treviño Maya hija del alférez Juan de Treviño Navarro y de Ana de Maya.

Juan de Treviño Navarro era hijo de José Treviño de la Garza y de Maria Navarro. El abuelo paterno de Juan de Treviño Navarro era Marcos Alonso de la Garza Falcón y Juana Treviño Quintanilla.

1.4.1.- Joseph Javier González Hidalgo y Gutiérrez se casó con (A) Maria de Contreras y Peralta y tuvo segundas nupcias con (B) María de la Serna y Alarcón de las Casas hija del capitán Nicolás de la Serna y Alarcón de la Garza y de María Rita de las Casas y de la Vega. Joseph Javier González Hidalgo y de la Serna se casó con Ana Francisca Sánchez. Maria Antonia González Hidalgo Sánchez Ana Maria González Hidalgo Sánchez Maria Rita González Hidalgo Sánchez Maria Gertrudis González Hidalgo Sánchez Maria Ignacia González Hidalgo Sánchez Cándida González Hidalgo Sánchez José Antonio González Hidalgo Sánchez

1.4.2.- Mateo González Hidalgo y Gutiérrez se casó con Maria García Dávila. Carlos González Hidalgo y García Dávila se casó con Matiana Pérez de León García de Quintanilla José Mateo González Hidalgo y García Dávila se casó con Nicolasa Josefa Cantú y Flores de la Garza hija de José Cantú y de Gertrudis Flores de Ábrego y de la Garza Falcón. Los abuelos maternos de Nicolasa Josefa Cantú y Flores de la Garza eran Pedro Flores de Ábrego y Margarita de la Garza Falcón González Hidalgo

1.4.3.- Micaela González Hidalgo

1.4.4.- Leonor González Hidalgo

1.4.5.- Antonio González Hidalgo García se casó con Juana de la Garza.  Antonio y Juana vivieron en Monterrey, N.L. de 1691 hasta 1706 y en Cadereyta, Nuevo León de1706 hasta 1712. María Josepha González Hidalgo de la Garza Francisca González Hidalgo de la Garza Catalina González Hidalgo de la Garza Felipe González Hidalgo de la Garza Ignacia González Hidalgo de la Garza se casó con Joaquín de la Garza Montemayor. Juana González Hidalgo de la Garza Maria González Hidalgo de la Garza Antonio González Hidalgo de la Garza se casó con Juana Treviño. Graciela González Hidalgo de la Garza Catalina II González Hidalgo de la Garza Maria Gertrudis González Hidalgo de la Garza Bernardo González Hidalgo de la Garza Marcos González Hidalgo de la Garza

1.4.6.- Nicolás González Hidalgo

1.4.7.- Juana Josepha González Hidalgo nació en 1649 y murió el 10 de febrero de 1698. Se casó en Cadereyta, Nuevo León Mx. en 1670 con Antonio Leal León y González Leal quien nació en Cadereyta, N.L. en 1645 y murió el 6 de marzo de 1756, hijo del capitán Alonso Perez León y de Josepha González Leal.

A fines del siglo XVII y principios del XVIII Antonio Leal León fue Alcalde Ordinario de Cadereyta y Alcalde Mayor y Capitán de la guarnición militar de dicha población. A la muerte de Juana Josepha González Hidalgo, Antonio Leal León contrajo segundas nupcias con Juana de Treviño y Maya, la viuda del Sargento Mayor Antonio González Hidalgo, quien había fallecido en diciembre de 1698. Antonio Leal y Juana de Treviño no tuvieron descendencia. Miguel González Leal de León y González Hidalgo se casó con Catalina de la Garza Falcón y Sepúlveda de Renteria hija del sargento mayor Francisco de la Garza Falcón González Hidalgo y de Leonor García de Sepúlveda y Fernández de Renteria.

Catalina de la Garza Falcón y Sepúlveda de Rentería ya había estado casada antes con Juan Guerra Cañamar hijo de Vicente Guerra Cañamar Fernández. Lucas González Leal de León y González Hidalgo se casó con ( A) Gregoria Guerra Cañamar y Fernández de Tijerina hija de Ignacio Guerra Cañamar y Fernández de Río Frío y de Catalina Fernández de Tijerina y de la Garza Falcón Lucas tuvo segundas nupcias con (B) Teresa Dávila Cantú. Antonio González Leal de León y González Hidalgo se casó con (A) Margarita de Villarreal Renteria hija de Diego de Villarreal e Inés de Renteria.  

Antonio se casó en segundas nupcias con (B) Manuela Guerra Cañamar y Fernández de Tijerina hija de Ignacio Guerra Cañamar y Fernández de Río Frío y de Catalina Fernández de Tijerina y de la Garza Falcón.

Manuela Guerra Cañamar ya antes había tenido un primer matrimonio con Clemente de la Garza Falcón y Sepúlveda de Renteria hijo de Francisco de la Garza Falcón y Leonor Sepúlveda de Renteria. José Antonio González Leal de León y Guerra Fernández se casó con Antonia González de Ochoa y Flores de Ovalle hija de Nicolás González de Ochoa y de Nicolasa Flores de Ovalle. José González Leal de León y González Hidalgo se casó con Clara Guerra Cañamar y Fernández de Tijerina hija de hija de Ignacio Guerra Cañamar y Fernández de Río Frío y de Catalina Fernández de Tijerina y de la Garza Falcón Mateo Leal de León y González Hidalgo Bernabé Leal de León y González Hidalgo Lorenzo Leal de León y González Hidalgo Margarita Leal de León y González Hidalgo Maria Josefa Leal de León y González Hidalgo

1.4.8.- Bernabé González Hidalgo Treviño Maya se casó con Maria Josefa de León Cantú.

1.4.9.- Marcos González Hidalgo Treviño Maya se casó con Tomasa de León Cantú

1.4.10.- Lucas González Hidalgo Treviño Maya nació en 1686 y murió en 1758. Se casó

en Cadereyta, N.L. el 13 de abril de 1722 con Teresa Cantú y García Dávila hija del capitán Joseph Cantú quien murió en 1726, y de Tomasa García Dávila. José Antonio González Hidalgo y Cantú García nació en 1725 y se casó en Cadereyta N.L. el 30 de octubre de 1758 con Maria Antonia Rendón y Rodríguez Baca, hija de Ignacio Rendón y de Gertrudis Rodríguez Baca. Mariano González Hidalgo y Rendón Rodríguez se casó en Cadereyta, N.L. el 19 de septiembre de 1829 con María Refugio Góngora Cantú hija de Juan José Góngora y de María Manuela Cantú. Rosalía González Hidalgo y Góngora nació en los Herreras, N.L. y fue bautizada en Cadereyta el 7 de diciembre de 1831. Se casó con Cayetano Salinas quien nació en en 1808 los Herreras, N.L. Jacinto Salinas y González Hidalgo nació en 1838 en los Herreras, N.L. y se casó el 18 de noviembre de 1878 en los Herreras, N.L. con San Juana Pérez Hinojosa quien nació en 1841 en los Herreras, y murió el 24 de marzo de 1880 en los Herreras, hija de José Prudencio Pérez de la Laja, N.L y de María Juliana Hinojosa de Cerralvo, N.L.

1.4.11.- José González Hidalgo Treviño Maya

1.4.12.- Maria González Hidalgo Treviño Maya se casó en Monterrey, N.L. con Joseph Lorenzo de la Garza Falcón y Pérez de León González hijo de José de la Garza Falcón Rodríguez Navarro y de Josepha Pérez de León y González Leal. Francisca de la Garza Falcón González Hidalgo se casó con Juan Gómez de Castro Sánchez. Josefa de la Garza Falcón González Hidalgo se casó en Cadereyta, N.L. con Antonio de Quintanilla. José Joseph de la Garza Falcón González Hidalgo se casó en El Pilón, Montemorelos, N.L. con María Gómez de Castro Sánchez. Lorenzo de la Garza Falcón González Hidalgo se casó con (A) María Josefa de Quintanilla y tuvo segundas nupcias con (B) Mathiana de Arellano. María de Jesús de la Garza Falcón González Hidalgo se casó con Pablo de la Garza. Isabel de la Garza Falcón González Hidalgo. María Teresa de Jesús de la Garza Falcón González Hidalgo.

1.4.13.- capitán Juan González Hidalgo Treviño Maya se casó el 10 de febrero de 1732 con Maria de León Cantú

1.4.14.- Ana María González Hidalgo Treviño Maya se casó con Miguel de la Serna y Alarcón de las 
            Casas hijo del capitán Nicolás de la Serna y Alarcón de la Garza y de María Rita de las
            Casas y de la Vega. José Vicente de la Serna y Alarcón González Hidalgo se casó con Ana Dominga de la Garza de Ochoa hija de Ramón de la Garza y Josepha de Ochoa. Ana María de la Serna y Alarcón González Hidalgo se casó con Juan Francisco García Soberón y de la Garza Falcón hijo de Francisco García Zoberon y Clara de la Garza Falcón.

1.4.15.- Josefa González Hidalgo Treviño Maya se casó con Carlos de León Cantú

1.4.16.- Francisco González Hidalgo Treviño Maya se casó con Juana de la Garza. El libro "Investigaciones Matrimoniales de la Diócesis de Guadalajara" (por Guerra, Raúl J. ; Vásquez, Nadine M. ; Baldomero, Vela), menciona a Francisco y Juana en la página 52; Juana hija de Elena de la Garza y Elena la hija de Pedro de la Garza Falcón; pero no hay claridad sobre la mamá de Juana, pues aunque menciona como tal a Elena de la Garza, ésta Elena tal vez sea una hija que Pedro procreó fuera de matrimonio; de ser así ésta Elena es la que se casó con Sebastian Pérez de Gumendio y Irigoyen. Blas González Hidalgo de la Garza se casó con Josefa Montalvo Treviño

1.5.- Sargento mayor Antonio González Hidalgo y Navarro Rodríguez murió en diciembre de 1698. Se casó con Juana de Treviño y Maya quien recibió cristiana sepultura el 27 de marzo de 1724 en la iglesia de San Francisco Xavier de Monterrey hija del alférez Juan de Treviño Navarro y de Ana de Maya. Juan de Treviño Navarro era hijo de José Treviño de la Garza y de Maria Navarro. Juan de Treviño Navarro era nieto de Marcos Alonso Garza Falcón. Juana de Treviño y Maya. Al quedar viuda Juana de Treviño y Maya contrajo segundas nupcias con el capitán Antonio Leal León y González Leal el viudo de Juana Josepha González Hidalgo. Juana y Antonio no tuvieron descendencia.

1.5.1.- José González Hidalgo Treviño Maya se casó con Petronila García de Quintanilla y de la Garza Falcón hija de María de la Garza Falcón y Montemayor Rodríguez y de Tomás García de Quintanilla. Los abuelos paternos de Petronila García de Quintanilla y de la Garza Falcón fueron Lucas García y Juliana de Quintanilla, mientras que sus abuelos maternos fueron el capitán Lázaro de la Garza Falcón González Hidalgo y Petronila  Montemayor Rodríguez.

[[Editor:  Considerable Villarreal research is underway.  
If you have Villarreal lines contact, the following.  They will introduce you to a website and other Villarreal researchers who exchange information with one another, such as the data below.]]. 

Tom Ascensio Villarreal 
Thanks to Primo Danny Villarreal in Texas We have been able to get all the Villarreal line to Diego's Father and Grandfather into Spain, about the late 1400s. I have attached a Microsoft Word text file. that shows the Ancestry of our Great-grandfather Jose Luiciano Villarreal Hinojosa.

The following is a list of Villarreal soldiers and colonizers from the 1500’s
This could be a start for those of you who are from the R1b haplogroup. These people may be our second Villarreal family which does not have Semitic roots and could be the other family we need to research.

La ciudad de Villareal de Chiapas de los españoles, hoy San Cristóbal de las Casas (en el actual estado de Chiapas) fue fundada el 31 de marzo de 1528. Manuel B. Trens en su obra: Bosquejos históricos de San Cristóbal de las Casas (México, 1957, p. 24-25) consigna los nombres de los fundadores de dicha población, aunque por desgracia no indica de que documento obtuvo la información. De cualquier forma retomamos aquí la lista de fundadores. 

TOVILLA, Andrés de la 
RENGIFO, Francisco 
VERA, Juan de 
SAN ESTEBAN, Pedro de 
ESCOBAR, Juan de 
COMONTES, Francisco de 
SOLÍS, Francisco de 
PUERTA, Diego de la 
TALAVERA, Juan de 
HIDALGO, Alonso 
MORENO, Pedro 
La ciudad de Valladolid (hoy llamada Morelia), se ubica en el actual estado de Michoacán, y fue fundada en 1537. De acuerdo con la cédula de dicho año, la fundación se haría con más de 60 familias. Jesús Amaya Topete publicó los nombres de 35 fundadores en su obra: Cédulas Reales de 1537 y 1609 relativas a la Fundación de Valladolid hoy Morelia, (México, VII Feria Mexicana del Libro, 1956) los cuales obtuvo de la obra de Francisco A. de Icaza: Conquistadores y pobladores de Nueva España (Madrid, Imprenta de “El Adelantado de Segovia”,1923, 2 tomos) y de otras. Además agrega que de muchos de esos personajes existen datos biográficos y genealógicos.

Antón de Villarreal, (He is mentioned a founder of Valladolid)

Formulada en Compostela al oeste de México, el domingo 22 de febrero de 1540, la revista acusa toda la fuerza presente en dicho acto, dispuesta en formación militar y equipada para la marcha.

Cíbola  Soldados 
Juan Navarro, cinco caballos, una cota de mallas, armas del país, un yelmo y gorguera.
Juan Navarro was the great grandfather of Beatriz de las Casas Navarro wife of Diego de Villarreal
Juan de Villareal, porta-estandarte, seis caballos, un yelmo, una gorguera, una cota de mallas, armas del país.

(I tend to believe this was the great grandfather or relative of Diego de Villarreal,  Anton de Villarreal and Juan de Villarreal were both around  at the time so they are not the same person) 

(The Muster Roll and Equipment of the Expedition of Francisco Vázquez de Coronado.—Ann Arbor. The William L. Clements Library).


La fundación de la ciudad de Guadalajara sufrió de varias vicisitudes, pues hasta el tercer intento quedó establecida definitivamente en el lugar que ahora ocupa. La primera fundación fue en 1530. La segunda en 1533, y la definitiva en 1542. La lista de vecinos fundadores de la villa la proporciona el cronista Fray Antonio Tello en su obra: Crónica miscelánea de la Santa Provincia de Xalisco (México, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia-Instituto Jalisciense de Antropología e Historia-Universidad de Guadalajara, 1968, Serie de Historia no. 9, p. 227). Dicha obra fue terminada de escribir en 1652).

Miguel de Ibarra
Juan Machain de la Guarda
Tomás de Virrieta
Juan de Villarreal  (Could this be the same Juan de Villarreal above)
Antonio de Urrutia
Juan de Zubia
Alonso de Aróstegui
Juan de Urbina
Pedro Murrieta
Juan de Saldívar  (Saldivar was on the New Mexico Expedition above)
Juan de Virrieta 

Diego de Villarreal    (THIS IS NOT OUR DIEGO DE VILLARREAL AND IS NOT FROM THE NUEVO LEON KLAN, I cannot tie him in with any of Diego’s kids or from the Nuevo Leon group. His wife seems to be from the Bexar family) note the MICHOACÁN connection could this be the Anton Villarreal family.


Could this be the same Juan de Villarreal family  from Guadalajara or from the Anton de Villarreal from Michoacan notice the Names Juan and Juan Antonio

Birth: 1640, Real de Catorce, San Luis Potosi, Mexico,  vecino de Tinguindin  Michoacan, Mexico
source: Mil familias III page 323
Spouse:  Antonia de Bexar Alcocer
Marr:   8 Feb 1717, Patzcuaro Michoacan, Mexico
Children:    Juan de Villarreal
Bach Juan Antonio de Villarreal (priest)

Other spouses:  Maria de Leyva
Children: Bach Nicolas Villarreal de Leyva

1685  Patzcuaro Michoacan, Mexico (priest) 


Por Lic. Leonardo de la Torre y Berumen


El material que expondré me parece de interés, en cuestión de historia regional, sobretodo para el municipio de Jerez en el Estado de Zacatecas, y más para quienes lo habitan, ya que entre esos pobladores hay quienes descienden del otorgante del testamento que a continuación recopilaré, y esperando sirva a ellos va este interesante documento cuyo original es parte del amplio fondo de notarias del Archivo histórico del Estado de Zacatecas. Va para ustedes esta primicia.

"En el nombre de Dios todo Poderoso y de la Siempre Virgen María nuestra Señora, Amén. Yo Don MANUEL DIAZ DE INGUANZO, natural del Principado de Asturias en el Lugar de Puertas, Arzobispado de Oviedo y vecino de la jurisdicción de Zacatecas, en la Hacienda del señor San José de El Maguey: hijo legítimo de legítimo matrimonio de Don Pedro DIAZ DE INGUANZO y de Doña María DE PRADO E INGUANZO, el primero que aún vive y la segunda difunta, naturales también del mismo lugar, hallandome por la Divina Misericordia enfermo del accidente que Dios Nuestro Señor ha sido servido enviarme, pero en mi entero y cabal juicio, cumplida memoria y entendimiento natural, creyendo y confesando como firmemente creo y confieso en el Altisimo e inefable misterio de la Santisima Trinidad, Padre, Hijo y Espiritu Santo, tres personas que, aunque realmente distintas y con diversos atributos son un sólo Dios verdadero y una esencia y substancia y todos los demás misterios y sacramentos que tiene, cree y confiesa nuestra Santa Madre Iglesia, Católica, Apostólica Romana en cuya verdadera fe y creencia he vivido, vivo y protesto vivir y morir como católico, fiel cristiano tomando por mi intercesora y protectora a la siempre Virgen e Inmaculada Serenisima Reyna de los Angeles, María Santisima, Madre de Dios y señora NUestra, al santo Angel de mi guarda, los de mi nombre y devoción y demás de la corte celestial, para que impuren de Nuestro Señor y Redentor Jesucristo que por los infinitos meritos de su presiosima vida, pasión y muerte me perdone todas mis culpas y lleve mi alma a gozar de su beatifica presencia, temeroso de la muerte que es natural y precisa a todo viviente humano, como incierta en hora, para estar prevenido con disposición testamentaria cuando llegue, resolver con maduro acuerdo y reflexión todo lo concerniente al descargo de mi conciencia, evitar con la claridad las dudas y pleitos que por su defecto pueda suscitarse después de mi fallecimiento y no tener a la hora de este algun cuidado temporal que me obste a pedir a Dios de todas veras la remisión que espero de mis pecados, otorgo hago y ordeno mi testamento en la forma siguiente:

1ª.- Primeramente, encomiendo mi alma a Dios Nuestro Señor que de la nada la crio y el cuerpo a la tierra de que fue formado, el cual verificado que sea mi fallecimiento es mi voluntad se amortaje con el habito que visten los Religiosos de la Orden de Nuestro Serafico Padre San Francisco y sepultado en la Iglesia parroquial Mayor en el Altar del señor San José, dejando a disposición de mis albaceas la forma de mi funeral.

2ª. También, es mi voluntad se den a cada una de mandas forzosas y acostumbradas la limosna de un peso, con lo que las segrego y aparto del derecho que pudieran repetir a mis bienes.

3ª.- También,
declaro ser casado y velado segun orden de Nuestra Santa Madre Iglesia con Da. JUANA RAMOS PALOMERA y durante nuestro matrimonio tuvimos y procreamos por nuestros legítimos hijos a Don FRANCISCO que en el día esta ordenado de Presbítero, a Doña MARIA, actualmente casada con Don JOSE URBANO DE CARAZA, a Don FELIPE que murió de edad de 19 años, Don ANTONIO, Don JOSE MARIA, Doña MARIA DE JESUS, Don JOSE FRUCTUOSO, Doña MARIA MANUELA y Doña MARIA JOSEFA, todos estos menores de edad.

4ª.- Cuando contraje el citado mi matrimonio no recibí por vía de dote arras o capital, cosa alguna por parte de mi esposa, y yo si introduje un corto principal, como consta por mis cuadernos, pero todo lo perdí, de suerte que quede con mi familia en grave indigencia, y habiéndome venido para esta hacienda, ha administrarla he adquirido con mi sudor y trabajo personal todo cuanto tengo; lo que declaro por haber sido buscado durante nuestra sociedad conyugal.

5ª.- Asi mismo declaro que en la administración de esta dicha hacienda he procedido fiel y legalmente como lo he acreditado por mis cuentas y en esta materia no me queda remordimiento alguno en mi conciencia por haber cumplido con exactitud las obligaciones de mi encargo y corresponder a la confianza que de mí se hizo.

6ª.- Declaro también que soy deudor por cuenta particular a la casa de mi Amo y tío el señor Marqués de SANTA CRUZ DE INGUANZO de la cantidad de dies mil y más pesos, según conste en su libro de caja, advirtiendo que en abono de dicha cantidad tengo remitidas 203 mulas, con el fin de que según el precio a que se vendan restaren mi cuenta, que procuraran mis albaceas saldar en tiempo oportuno.

7ª.- Del mismo modo declaro que debo al señor arcediano de Guadalajara la cantidad de cuatro mil pesos que me prestó por hacerme bien y buena obra para comprar el rancho llamado Los Pérez, el que tengo empeñado en la misma cantidad hasta verificar su compra en caso de que no debuelva el dinero para el tiempo señalado en la escritura celebrada por el albacea Don JOSE MARIA NAFARRATE. vecino de la villa de Jerez.

8ª.- Es mi voluntad que las dependencias referidas y lo que resultare deberse del cuadrante que corresponde de mis ranchos al Sr. Cura de Jerez, con quien liquidaran cuentas mis albaceas y cualesquiera otra constante en mi libro de Caja, o que se me demande con la respectiva justificación se satisfaga de lo más bien parado de mis bienes, como también que se recauden por mis albaceas todas las cantidades de pesos, frutos o efectos que a mí se deban por cualesquiera personas o que en alguna manera me toquen y pertenescan, para que su producido se agrege al monto de mi caudal.

9ª.- Declaro por mis bienes todos los que al tiempo de mi fallecimiento se encontraren señalados y marcados con mi fierro y señal propia y todos los demás de que mis albaceas estan bien cerciorados.

10ª.- Es mi voluntad que de el quinto de mis bienes se saquen 3 mil pesos de principal para que a disposición de mis albaceas se pongan en finca segura al rédito de un 5 por ciento con el que se celebren 150 misas anuales por las almas de mis padres, mia, de mi esposa, hijos y demas de mi intención, siendo igualmente mi voluntad que en el caso de que llegue a efectuarse la colocación de la capilla rural que estoy fábricando en el rancho de El Tesorero de la feligresía de Jerez, y que por aquel señor Cura se destine Ministro se le encargue a éste la celebración de dichas misas para que logre este subsidio más; pero en el caso de que o no tenga efecto dicha Capilla, o que no se destine Ministro, los dichos mis albaceas, eregiran con autoridad del Ilustrisimo Señor Obispo el referido principal de tres mil pesos en Ramo de Capellanías, para que siempre se digan las misas que dejo insinuadas.

11ª.- Usando de las facultades que me confieren las leyes, nombro a la mencionada mi esposa Doña Juana Ramos Palomera por tutora y curadora adbona de los dichos mis hijos, nuestros menores hijos, gobierno y maternal amor que les profesa y a que por consiguiente cuidara con el mayor celo y vigilancia de la conservación y aumento de sus bienes, la relebo de fianzas y consigno frutos para alimentos para la crianza y manutención de dichos nuestros hijos y suplico al señor Juez ante quien se presente testimonio de esta clausula aprueve y confirme este nombramiento y la decierna este encargo, con la relevación y consignación mencionadas: que así es mi voluntad y por su defecto substituyo en su lugar a mis hijos mayores; pero no con asignación de frutos por alimentos, para que invertido en su subsistencia y crianza lo preciso y necesario según su calidad, el sobrante se deposite y emple siempre que haya proporción para aumento de sus legítimas y me conformo con la ley quinta, del título 16, partida sexta y sobre lo que le encargo extrechamente la conciencia.

12ª.- Para fomentar a mi hijo político don José Urbano Caraza, le he ministrado cierta cantidad, que constará en mi libro de Caja, y como quiera, que lo hice por hacerle bien y buena obra, y sin intereses, ni premio alguno, es mi voluntad que solo devuelva el principal recibido, sin hacerle cargo alguno de cualquiera utilidad por minima que sea que con el haya adquirido. Lo que declaro para que conste.

13ª.- Para cumplir y pagar este testamento nombro por mis albaceas testamentarios fidey comisarios y tenedores de mis bienes, en primer lugar a mi esposa Doña Juana Ramos Palomera, en segundo a mi sobrino don Manuel Inguanzo, en tercero a mi hijo el Bachiller don Francisco y en cuarto a mi hijo político don José Urbano De Caraza, a todos juntos de mancomun, y a cada uno de por si según el orden con que van nominados, y con igual facultad para que lo que el uno comenzare lo pueda seguir y fenecer el otro, confiriendoles amplio poder para que luego que acaesca mi fallecimiento entren y se apoderen de todos mis bienes, vendan de ellos los precisos y efectivos en almoneda o fuera de ella, y con su producido lo cumplan y paguen todo, durandoles este encargo el año legal o el más tiempo que necesiten pues se los prorrogo.

14ª.- En el remanente que quedare de todos mis bienes muebles raices, derechos y acciones, herencias, mandas o restituciones, que en cualesquiera manera me toquen y pertenescan, instituyo por mis unicos y universales herederos, a los expresados mis hijos don Francisco, doña María, don Felipe, don Antonio, don José María, doña María de Jesús, Don José Fructuoso, doña María Manuela y doña María Josefa de Inguanzo y Ramos, mis hijos legítimos y de la referida mi esposa doña Juana de Ramos Palomera, para que los hayan y lleven por iguales partes, según lo dispuesto por leyes de estos reinos, con la bendición de Dios y la mía.

15ª.- Por cuanto tengo la mayor satisfacción y confianza de la de la honrada conducta y cristianos procederes de los expresados mis albaceas, usando de la facultad, concedida a los testadores por su Magestad en las dos últimas reales cedulas de la materia, les relevo de la obligación de hacer inventarios solemnes y mando se este y pase por la descripción extrajudicial que formaren, sin intervención de Juez, Escribano ni contador de menores, pues dichos Albaceas por si y la persona de su satisfacción y confianza han de proceder a la facción del citado inventario, aprecio y avaluó de bienes y su partición y distribución entre los respectivos herederos, para que interpuesta la aprobación real en los términos que disponen las referidas reales cedulas se facilite a los herederos copias de sus respectivas adjudicaciones, procediendo en todo con el menos gasto posible; todo lo que quiero se ejecute y ordene así precisa y puntualmente, por ser mi voluntad.

Advierto, para evitar confusiones, que lo principal que hago mención en la cláusula doce, tengo ministrado a don José Urbano De Caraza, deben rebajarse ocho mil pesos que por mi orden entregó a la casa mortuoria de don Pantaleón De la Torre; por lo que solo deberá ser de su cargo lo restante al completo de la cantidad ministrada, sin que se le requiera, como tengo expresado, por utilidad alguna.

Es también advertencia, que si por no destinarse ministro para el puesto de El Tesorero hubiere de llegar el caso de erigirse en Ramo de Capellanía, los tres mil pesos destinados de principal, la hayan de servir precisamente los descendientes míos y de mi esposa, prefiriendo los primeros a los segundos, el mayor al menor y el más virtuoso y aprovechado a el que no tuviere el Patronato a mis albaceas, según el orden con que van nombrados.


Y por el presente revoco, anulo, doy por nulos de ningún valor ni efecto todos y cualesquiera testamentos, memorias, poderes para testar u otras disposiciones que antes de ahora, haya fecho u otorgado por escrito de palabra o en otra forma para que ninguna valga ni haya fe. Salvo el presente testamento que quiero se guarde, cumpla y ejecute por mi ultima y deliberada voluntad, o en la mejor forma que haya lugar en derecho, que es fecho en esta Hacienda de Señor San José de El Maguey a 31 de mayo de 1803. Y el otorgante a quien yo el escribano, doy fe conozco, y a lo que notoriamente parece se halla en su entero juicio, cumplida memoria y entendimiento natural, así lo otorgó y firmó en este mi registro, siendo testigos el señor Bachiller don Vicente Ramírez, Cura, Vicario, Juez Eclesiástico de este partido el señor Bachiller don José Eugenio Inguanzo, don Ramón Torralva, Don Miguel De San Gines. y don José María Carrillo y Valle, presentes y vecinos de esta jurisdicción: Doy fe. Al tiempo de firmar advirtió haberse padecido algún equivoco en las dos cláusulas respectivas al debito de don José Urbano Caraza; por lo que para evitar cualesquiera disputas se deberá estar por lo respectivo a este crédito para la resultancia de la cuenta corriente y constante en mi libro de Caja. También añado que de mis bienes se ha de sacar cierta cantidad para el cumplimiento de un comunicado que dejaré a mis albaceas, sin que tenga obligación ni precisión de dar cuenta de su aplicación, ni a quien. Fecha ut supra. Manuel Ynguanzo". Rúbrica.


Elizondo Baptisms 
Sociedad Genealógica del Norte de México

Indice Genealógico de:
Agualeguas  1821-1870
Apodaca  1869-1885
Villa de Garcia  1893-1848
Montemorelos  1833-1845

Café con Historia
The Museo de Historia Mexicana [Monterrey] is sponsoring their THIRD series featuring local historians from Nuevo Leon as part of their "Café con Historia".

The SECOND series included:
une 9 Monterrey Profr. Israel Cavazos Garza
June 16 Marin Profra. Elda Feliz Gonzalez
June 23 Lampazos Profr. Jesus Iruegas Zavala
June 30 Abasolo Profr. Martin Salais Cantu
July 7 San Pedro Garza Garcia, Lic. Carlos Gonzalez Rodriguez
July 14 Pesqueria Prof. Mario Elizondo Montalvo
July 21 Dr. Gonzalez C. P. Jesus Ramiro Gonzalez Contreras
July 28 Apodaca Lic. Ramiro Estrada Sanchez
August 4 Los Ramones Dr. Juan de Dios Leal
August 11 Montemorelos Sra. Beatriz Bazan de Vaquero

Sent by George Gause
SOURCE: Blanca Laura Munoz de Palamino / Museo de Historia Mexicana


Guillermo Padilla Origel

El pueblo de Santiago de Chilchota , del antiguo obispado de Michoacán, cercano a la villa de Zamora, fué partido de clérigos desde 1560, en que se desmembró del pueblo de Tlazazalca, quedando sujetos suyos los siguientes pueblos de indios : Urém, Tanaco, Acachuén, Santo Tomás, Tzopoco, Uanstao, Ichán, Tacuro, Santa María Etúcuaro, y Carapan, y el fértil valle de la estancia de españoles llamada : Taramécuaro.

En 1619 el obispo Covarrubias lo describe como pueblo ubicado en una Cañada, y que fué beneficio de clérigos para ayuda de los indios y desde el siglo XVI existían once hospitales, una fabrica con molino de pan; la labor de Don Melchor Masiel, la estancia de Don Alonso de Chávez Romero, y en la estancia de Taramécuaro estaba al mando de Don Fernando de Bocanegra, con muy buenos resultados.(1)

De algunas mercedes de tierras otorgadas tenemos noticias de las siguientes:
En 1565 a Don Alonso de Aguilar, con una estancia y caballería y media; en 1575, a Don Hernando Ortiz, con una caballería; en el mismo año el virrey, solicita a los indios que se apoye a Don Juan Pérez de Vargas en su encomienda ; en 1582 se otorga merced a Don Francisco de la Dueña, con dos caballerías; en 1585, a Don Juan Pérez de Vargas, tres caballerías y media y en 1587 se otorga beneficio a Don Pedro Blancarte como cura con $ 150.00 pesos de salario ; en 1589 a Don Juan Martínez, con dos caballerías ; en 1590 a Don Luis Infante Samaniego, con un sitio para molino; en 1590, se concede el título de Gobernador por un año a Don Antonio Huitziméngari, indio principal , descendiente del Catzontzi, y natural de este pueblo y en 1591, se autorizó a que porte espada ; en 1592 a Don Diego Huerta , con dos caballerías y en 1597 se efectúa un proceso para el clérigo Don Felipe de Ayala , por solicitante.

Ya en el siglo XVII, se saben de otros sucesos en este pueblo de los cuales mencionaremos que : en 1603, Don Vasco López del Rivero , ordena a Don Alonso de Haro, corregidor de este partido, que congregue a los siguientes pueblos: San Miguel Tanaco, Túcuro, Urén, Ichán, Santo Tomás, San Pedro, San Sebastián, San Juan Carápan, y Etúcuaro, dentro del mismo; en 1620, se nombra corregidor de este partido a Don Francisco de Figueroa ; en 1628, se otorga beneficio para que se le pague salario al presbítero Don Juan Pérez Calvillo; en 1636, efectúa juramento Don Francisco Enríquez, como corregidor de este partido; en 1653, efectúa juramento en la ciudad de México, Don Melchor de los Reyes Pinto, para desempeñar el cargo de justicia mayor en este partido; en 1655 efectúa juramento Don Alonso Pérez de Bocanegra, para desempeñar el oficio de Alcalde Mayor de Xiquilpa y Chilchota ; en 1657, hace un juramento, Don Diego de Peñalosa, para desempeñar el puesto de alcalde mayor de Xiquilpa y Chilchota ; en 1661, se otorga fianza a Don Félix Candelas, corregidor de Xiquilpa y Chilchota; en 1669, efectúa juramento Don Estéban de Nalón , por poder de Don Martín Ramírez de Abarca, como alcalde mayor de este partido; en 1674, efectúa juramento Don Francisco Alpierna de Mariorca, para puesto de Alguacil Mayor; en 1676, efectúa juramento como alcalde mayor Don Cristóbal de la Plaza; en 1678, efectúa juramento como alcalde mayor Don Nicolás Maldonado de Morales, como alcalde Mayor ; en 1679, efectúa juramento Don Juan de Contreras, como alcalde mayor; en 1681, efectúa juramento Don Cristóbal de Soria , para alcalde mayor; en 1682, efectúan licencia a Don Manuel de Arbizu, como cura del pueblo por dos meses , según lo establece el concilio tridentino.(2)

Padrón de españoles en el pueblo de Chilchota en el año de 1680 

Valle de Taramécuaro

Don Pedro Ortiz , y su mujer María de Vallejos, Francisca Vallejo, doncella, Micaela Vallejo, doncella, Josefa de Chávez, viuda, con dos hijos: Juan y María.

Casa de Don Juan Ruíz de Aro, y su mujer Teresa de Vallejo, con seis hijos.

Casa de Don Joseph Álvarez, criador y labrador, y su mujer Doña Isabel Álvarez de Mendoza, sus hijos : Nicolás y Diego Álvarez del Castillo.

Rancho y casa de Don Joseph Álvarez del Castillo, el mozo y su mujer Doña Jerónima de Bedoya, sus hijos : Juana, Joseph, Nicolás, María, Francisco, Antonio y María Rosa.

Casa de Don Joseph de Béjar, y su mujer Doña Juana del Castillo, y sus hijas María , Juana y Andrea.

Casa de Don Salvador Álvarez del Castillo y su mujer Doña Josefa de Castañeda, y sus hijos Marcos y Salvador.

Casa de Don Nicolás Álvarez del Castillo, y su mujer Doña Josefa de Magaña, su hijo Don Nicolás Álvarez del Castillo el mozo, y su mujer Doña Ana de Torres, sus hijos: Francisca, Manuela, Juan, Joaquín, Mateo, Pedro, Josefa, María Rosa, María Ana y Alonso.

Casa de Don Isidro Álvarez, y su mujer Doña Antonia de Magaña, su hija Isabel. Nicolás Álvarez el mozo y su mujer Josefa de Torres y sus hijos Juan y Joseph.

Casa de Juan Blancarte y su Mujer Doña Mariana de Mendoza, hijos : Nicolasa, Miguel, Juan Antonio y Josefa.

Casa de Juan de Torres, su mujer Antonia de Mendoza, hijos : Inés María, Francisco y Nicolás Melchor.

Casa de Don Francisco de Origel y Guido, y su esposa Doña Francisca de Bedoya, sus hijos: Nicolás, Joseph, Cristóbal y Antonio.

Casa de Don Francisco Moreno y su mujer Doña Francisca de Lupiana, hijos: María Rosa, Feliciana, Antonio y Marcos.

Casa de Don Antonio de la Mora y su mujer Juana de Sosa y sus hijos : Joseph, Petronila, Catalina y María.
Casa de Bernabé de Chávez y su mujer María de la Serna.

Casa de Don Cristóbal Ortiz y su mujer Nicolasa de la Paz, hijas : Magdalena y María.

Casa de Don Salvador de Aguilar, mestizo, y su mujer Francisca de la Paz, sus hijos: Felipe, Ramón y Cristóbal.

Casa de Doña Beatriz de Ulloa , viuda, hijos: Beatriz, Roque, Andrés, Isabel, y Nicolasa. 

Casa de Doña Juana de Aguilar, mestiza, viuda, con un hijo: Jerónimo.

Casa de Alonso de Magaña y su mujer Doña Aldonza Álvarez del Castillo, con dos hijos : Juan y Joseph.

Firmado por el vicario y cura Don Nicolás de Molina, cura de este partido.(3)

Extractos de Matrimonios del siglo XVII

7 de noviembre de 1695
Aguilar Cristóbal de y Agustina Álvarez

27 de octubre de 1689
Aguilar Rafael Marcos y Juana Tzitziqui

24 de abril de 1689
Alvarado Francisco de, h.l. de Francisco de Alvarado y Luisa de Mendoza y Jerónima de Padilla y Cotreras, h.l. de Luis de Contreras Villegas y de Juana de Padilla

10 de septiembre de 1679
Álvarez del Castillo Isidro, h.l. de Joseph Álvarez del Castillo y María Masiel y Antonia Ximénez de Magaña, h.l. de Andrés Ximénez de Magaña y Beatriz de Ulloa

03 de diciembre de 1664
Álvarez del Castillo Joseph, h.l. de Joseph Álvarez del Castillo y María Masiel y Jerónima de Vargas Orozco, h.l. de Pablo de Vargas Orozco y María de Chávez

9 de octubre de 1688
Álvarez del Castillo Joaquín , h.l. de Nicolás Álvarez del Castillo y Josefa de Magaña y Ana de Liébana, h.l. de Juan Gutiérrez de Raya y María de Liébana.

4 de septiembre de 1690
Álvarez del Castillo Marcos , h.l. de Salvador Álvarez del Castillo y Josefa de Castañeda y Juana de Peña, h.l. de Melchor de Valencia e Isabel Morfín.

21 de Agosto de 1685
Álvarez del Castillo Mateo, h.l. de Nicolás Álvarez del Castillo e Inés de la Mora y Ana Barba Coronado, h.l. de Cristóbal de Vargas Machuca y Juana Barba Coronado

25 de mayo de 1662
Álvarez del Castillo Nicolás, h.l. de Rodrigo Álvarez del Castillo y Marina y Gertrudis Álvarez del Castillo, h.l. de Joseph Álvarez del Castillo y María Masiel

14 de septiembre de 1674
Álvarez del Castillo Nicolás, h.l. de Nicolás Álvarez del Castillo e Inés de Mendoza y Josefa de Torres, h.l. de Francisco de Torres Guerrero y María de Béjar

18 de octubre de 1678
Álvarez del Castillo Ramón, h.l. de Nicolás Álvarez del Castillo e Inés de Mendoza y María de Magaña, h.l. de Andrés de Magaña y Beatríz de Vargas

20 de abril de 1686
Álvarez del Castillo Diego, h.l. de Joseph Álvarez del Castillo y María .... e Isabel de Ulloa.

30 de octubre de 1669
Ayala Fabián de y Francisca de Gallegos, mestizos.

10 de mayo de 1689
Balencia y Piña Antonio de y María de Lupiana.

8 de octubre de 1677
Béjar Joseph de , h.l. de Gregorio de Béjar y Ana de Liébana y Juana Álvarez del Castillo, h.l. de Joseph Álvarez del Castillo y María Masiel.

14 de octubre de 1693
Blancarte Juan de y Jerónima de Urincho, mestizos.

19 de julio de 1687
Blancarte Miguel de , h.l. de Juan Blancarte y María de Mendoza, con María Herrera, h.l. de Juan Herrera y Catarina Rodríguez.

8 de julio de 1697
Camargo de Olvera Juan y Gertrudis Villafaña.

10 de enero de 1688
Castillo Juan del , h.l. Nicolás del Castillo y Josefa Álvarez, con Ángela de Mendoza, h.l. de Francisco Hernández y Margarita de Mendoza.

28 de septiembre de 1681
Chávez Antonio de , h.l. de Pedro de Chávez y Lucía de Liébana con María de Vargas, h.l. de Pablo de Vargas y María .....

3 de noviembre de 1677
Chávez Bernabé de , h.l. de Andrés de Chávez y Magdalena Estrada y María de la Serna, h.l. de Pablo de la Serna y María de la Mora y Mendoza.

10 de mayo de 1689
Chávez Joseph de , h.l. de Andrés de Chávez y Magdalena Estrada, con Rosa de la Mora, h.l. de Francisco Moreno y Francisca de la Mora.

22 de febrero de 1666
Chávez Juan de, h.l. de Andrés de Chávez y Magdalena Estrada y Josefa de los Ríos, h.l. de Cristóbal Méndez y Josefa de los Ríos.

19 de junio de 1685
Chávez Pedro de y Juana de Álvarez.

26 de abril de 1690
Galván Pedro de y Antonia de Chávez.

22 de mayo de 1695
Gallegos Mateo Francisco, h.l. de Antonio Gallegos y María Catarina... y María Nicolasa Lira, h.l. de Diego Lira y Beatriz Antonia....

27 de mayo de 1681
Gallegos Diego, h.l. de Juan Gallegos y Jerónima Herrera y Juana de Chávez, h.l. de Andrés de Chávez y Agustina de Ovalle.

25 de marzo de 1669
García Francisco , h.l. de Antón García y María de la Cerda, e Isabel de Bracamonte.

10 de abril de 1690
Gutiérrez de Raya Antonio y Magdalena de Estrada.

1 de marzo de 1699
Gutiérrez Antonio, h.l. de Juan Gutiérrez y Antonia de Bocanegra, y Feliciana de Lupiana, h.l. de Francisco Moreno y Francisca de Lupiana.

18 de mayo de 1671
Gutiérrez Cristóbal y Felipa de Aguilar.

28 de noviembre de 1659
Hernández Francisco , h.l. de Francisco Hernández y Francisca Tamayo y Margarita de Mendoza, h.l. de María de Mendoza.

18 de febrero de 1699
Hernández Joseph , h.l. de Francisco Hernández y Margarita de Mendoza y Juana Romero, h.l. de Nicolás Romero y María Herrera.

27 de abril de 1687
Hernández Diego y Ana de Ascencio.

16 de julio de 1698
Hernández Santiago , h.l. de Francisco Hernández y Margarita de Mendoza y Sebastiana Solorio, h.l. de Juan López y María Solorio.

29 de diciembre de 1687
Herrera Juan de , h.l. de Juan de Herrera y Francisca de los Valles e Inés de Torres, h.l. de Juan de Torres y Antonia de la Mora.

24 de febrero de 1668
Jiménez Alonso, h.l. de Cristóbal Jiménez y Ana de Valencia y Magdalena de Aguilar, h.l. de Lorenzo de Aguilar e Isabel de Alexandre.

6 de mayo de 1698
Madrigal Joseph de y Rosa de Villalobos.

6 de junio de 1686
Madrigal Diego de , h.l. de Diego de Madrigal e Isabel del Águila y Juana de Castrejón, h.l. de Joseph Álvarez del Castillo y María de Castrejón.

26 de mayo de 1687
Madrigal Joseph, h.l. de Diego de Madrigal e Isabel del Águila y Josefa de Magaña, h.l. de Nicolás Álvarez del Castillo y Josefa Magaña.

26 de febrero de 1687
Madrigal Melchor de , h.l. de Diego de Madrigal e Isabel del Águila y Juana de Magaña, h.l. de Nicolás Álvarez del Castillo y Josefa Magaña.

9 de junio de 1670
Magaña Alonso de y Aldonza del Castillo.

18 de noviembre de 1650
Magaña Bartolomé de y Juana de Sarmiento.

18 de noviembre de 1650
Magaña Joseph y Catalina de Andrada.

19 de junio de 1685
Méndez Nicolás y María de Orozco

27 de noviembre de 1661
Mendoza Antonio de y Ana de Liébana

29 de junio de 1699
Mendoza Antonio de, h.l. de Tomás de Mendoza y Francisca de la Cruz y Juana Ramírez, h.l. de Melchor Ramírez.

29 de octubre de 1663
Mora Antonio de la , h.l. de Nicolás de la Mora y María deLupiana y Juana de Loza, h.l. de Juan Méndez y Catalina de Salazar.

25 de noviembre de 1689
Ortega Salvador de , h.l. de Nicolás de Ortega y Magdalena.. y Catalina García.

20 de mayo de 1661
Ortiz Pedro y María de Raya.

16 de mayo de 1684
Ortiz de Zárate Joseph , h.l. de Juan Ortiz de Zárate e Isabel Rodríguez y Francisca Vallejo.

9 de junio de 1670
Pacheco Francisco y Teresa del Castillo.

26 de mayo de 1662
Plancharte Juan, h.l. de Pedro Plancarte y Melchora de Ovalle y Mariana de Mendoza, h.l. de Nicolás Álvarez e Inés de Mendoza.

28 de marzo de 1680
Ramírez Melchor , h.l. de Diego Ramírez y María de Sosa y Juana de Lupiana, h.l. de Pablo de Vargas y María de Lupiana.

17 de abril de 1658
Rentería Joseph de , h.l. de Antonio Enríquez y Luisa de Alfaro y Juana de Gaona, h.l. de Matías de Gaona y Sebastiana de Castro.

19 de marzo de 1689
Rodríguez Torrero Francisco, h.l. de Jacinto Rodríguez Torrero y María Bravo y Mendoza y María de la Cueva y Lomelín, h.l. de Nicolás de la Cueva y Luisa Ortiz de Cervantes.

28 de mayo de 1677
Rodríguez Juan y Leonor de los Ríos.

7 de Noviembre de 1695
Rodríguez Mateo y Juana del Rincón.

7 de abril de 1681
Rodríguez Nicolás y Mariana López.

30 de agosto de 1661
Ruíz de Ayo Juan y Teresa de Raya

15 de abril de 1698
Ruíz Nicolás y Ana Barba Coronado.

26 de enero de 1676
Salmerón Nicolás y Feliciana de Orja.

15 de enero de 1688
Samacona Lorenzo y Rosa de Vaya.

15 de enero de 1685
Soria Joseph de y Nicolasa de Ovalle.

15 de febrero de 1684
Soto Antonio de y Felipa Duarte.

4 de marzo de 1669
Torres Guerrero Juan , h.l. de Francisco Torres Guerrero y María de Bedoya y Antonia de Mendoza, h.l. de Nicolás Álvarez del Castillo e Inés de Mendoza.

16 de abril de 1690
Trujillo Diego de y Josefa del Castillo.

10 de mayo de 1689
Valencia Ypiña Antonio de , h.l. de Melchor de Valencia e Isabel de Liébana y María de Lupiana.

5 de febrero de 1664
Valencia Ypiña Melchor de , h.l. de Melchor de Valencia y Juana de Orozco e Isabel Morfín, h.l. de Antonio Morfín y Ana de Liébana.

20 de febrero de 1667
Vallejo Francisco de y Matiana de la Raya Purecu.

2 de mayo de 1677
Vázquez Marcos y Magdalena Rodríguez.

4 de marzo de 1669
Zamora Estéban y María Melchora Yexta.

28 de julio de 1699
Zamora Nicolás y María de Bedoya

19 de marzo de 1687
Zepeda Blas de y María de Licuana.(4)


(1).-Libro Michoacán en el Otoño del siglo XVII, de Alberto Carrillo Cázares y libro el obispado e Michoacán en el siglo XVII de Ramón López Lara
(2).-indice del catálogo de documentos de varios conceptos del archivo general de la nación.
(3).-Libro Colonización y poblamiento del obispado de Michoacán de Margarita Nettwel Ross y libro Partidos y Padrones de Michoacán 1680-1685 de Alberto Carrillo Cázares
(4).- relación de matrimonios del Family Search e informaciones matrimoniales del Obispado de Michoacán, del archivo casa de Morelos, en Morelia Michoacán.



Guia genealogica de Espana GenWeb.Consejos. Como empezar
Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century 
Instituto de Historia y Cultura Militar 

Guia genealogica de Espana GenWeb.Consejos. Como empezar
Sent by Paul Newfield

Esta página nace con la voluntad de ayudar a cualquiera que se esté iniciando en este apasionante mundo que es la genealogía o a quién esté intentando descubrir sus raíces en España. Así, procuro ofrecer la información que conozco y que está al alcance de todos, tanto en este fantástico y lleno de posibilidades mundo virtual como el en el mundo real. Lo que a continuación propongo no es más que la ordenación del conjunto de consejos y trucos que otros me han ido dando y que creo, en este orden puede ser de utilidad para quienes los sigan.  ¡Mucha suerte a todos en vuestras investigaciones y espero haberos ayudado!

1. Fijación de un objetivo. Tipos de investigación genealógica.
2. Familiares cercanos.
3. Localización de lugares. Geografía y cultura de España.
4. Primeras consultas, búsquedas en fuentes primarias escritas.
     4. 1. Archivos civiles.
     4. 2. Archivos parroquiales.

5. Otras posibles fuentes a consultar.
     5. 1. Protocolos Notariales.
     5. 2. Pleitos de Hidalguía o Nobiliarios.
     5. 3. Listas de Pasajeros a Indias.
     5. 4. Órdenes de Caballeros.
     5. 5. Cementerios.
     5. 6. Recopilaciones de los Mormones.
     5. 7. Datos Militares.

6. Recopilación de Direcciones y teléfonos.
7. Organización de la información.
8. Numeración de los personajes y representaciones gráficas.
9. Otras reglas a respetar.
10. Vocabulario en genealogía. 
11. Heráldica.

 1. Fijación de un objetivo. Tipos de investigación genealógica.Sin duda alguna, el primer paso que ha de hacerse a la hora de plantearse una investigación  genealógica es la fijación de un objetivo. Podríamos clasificar los distintos tipos de investigación en cuatro grupos:

A.  Creación de un árbol genealógico familiar.

En la Red existen muchas buenas páginas ilustrativas de este tipo de trabajo:- En el mismo Cuaderno de Enlaces Genealógicos, en el apartado Árboles genealógicos familiares - familias. aparecen la mayoría de los estudios publicados en español en Internet. Entre otros podemos destacar el estudio de la familia Condal-Rovira, el de Díaz Infante o el de los antepasados de Dora y Juan Carlos Sandín Agudiez.B.  Estudio genealógico de una línea.

En caso de elegir la línea paterna, se trataría de llegar lo más lejos posible en el tiempo construyendo únicamente una línea de padre a padre.C.  Estudio genealógico de un apellido.

en dónde ya no se investiga una única línea sino varias e incluso diversos orígenes. Este estudio admite multitud de variantes. De nuevo la red nos ofrece excelentes ejemplos:

Beltrán de Heredia
Fernández de Toledo

y ¡Cómo no! Castilla

De todas maneras, en el  Cuaderno de Enlaces Genealógicos en su sección Estudios y Monográficos de Apellidos aparecen los que he encontrado en Internet en lengua española. D.  Estudio de los descendientes de un determinado personaje.

Igualmente existen muchas variantes pero en este apartado, sin duda la gran especialista es Doña Milagro Lloréns Casani que tiene escritos más de 40 libros sobre la genealogía de personajes históricos como Don Alonso Enríquez, I Almirante de Castilla, Federico Barbaroja, etc. 

2. Consulta a familiares cercanos.En todo caso una vez fijado el tipo de estudio genealógico a realizar conviene empezar por la recopilación de los datos más próximos. Así, y sobre todo para los dos primeros tipos de estudios, es necesario acudir sin demorar a visitar a los miembros de la familia de mayor edad. Sin duda nos pondrán al corriente sobre multitud de datos que ignorábamos. Incluso es preferible realizar estas entrevistas al menos un par de veces puesto que posiblemente se olviden de revelarnos datos -para nosotros relevantes- en un primer momento. Desde mi punto de vista, se trata de una tarea muy gratificante. No sólo por el hecho de la segura revelación de datos hasta el momento desconocidos sino también por la posibilidad de conversar con nuestros mayores que, por regla general, estarán encantados de contarnos multitud de historias sobre su juventud y sobre la familia. Por otra parte, conviene decidirse pronto pues el mismo hecho de su edad y los posibles "fallos" de memoria pueden hacer que si no actuamos pronto perdamos para siempre esta oportunidad.  3. Localización de lugares. Geografía y cultura de España.Una vez recopilados los datos que nuestros familiares mayores nos hayan aportado, estaremos en la medida de poder empezar a organizar nombres, lugares y fechas. Si no vivimos en España es posible que necesitemos algún apoyo para encontrar determinadas localidades. Esto mismo puede suceder aún viviendo en España puesto que se ha podido hacer referencia a localidades desconocidas para nosotros. En estos casos nada más fácil que adentrarse en Internet puesto que existen muy buenas páginas geográficas tales cómo:

Pueblos de España 
Fantástico directorio en dónde aparecen recopiladas todas las localidades españolas y sus enlaces en la Red cuando existen.  

Global Gazetteer
Directorio de pueblos y ciudades de España. Con enlaces a mapas.
España Virtual

En este espacio es igualmente posible encontrar mapas sobre las distintas regiones españolas. 

El Callejero de tu Ciudad: Espacio que permite consultar las calles de cualquier ciudad de España. Trae mapas y planos de las calles. Sin embargo, no debemos olvidar, sobre todo para la localización de lugares anteriores a nuestros antepasados más próximos, que hubo pueblos que desaparecieron, cambiaron de nombre, se despoblaron o incluso con el tiempo, han pasado a pertenecer a otra región. Para mayor información, conviene recurrir a textos especializados. Por otra parte, puede que nos interese profundizar y recopilar más datos o conocer en mayor medida la cultura, la actualidad o la sociedad de un determinado lugar -incluso de España en general- en dónde hayan vivido nuestros antepasados. Para eso nada mejor que los recursos que ofrece Internet y en concreto las siguientes direcciones:

Un Trocito de Mi Tierra: Página que he desarrollado personalmente, en dónde encontraremos centenares de enlaces a sitios relacionados con la cultura y sociedad españolas: diarios, multitud de Guías Locales, páginas especializadas en Comunidades Autónomas, en regiones, ciudades, comarcas, páginas de historia, de pintura, literatura, gastronomía regional, universidades, páginas oficiales de ministerios, de partidos políticos, de organismos... para terminar con enlaces a sitios en español relacionados con Internet como por ejemplo 25 guías y buscadores.

Dónde: Se trata de un buscador especializado en dónde los recursos están organizados por Comunidad Autónoma.

Historia de España: Impresionante trabajo de difusión realizado desde la Embajada de España en Canadá.   4. Primeras consultas, búsquedas en fuentes primarias escritas.Así, si hemos seguido los pasos anteriores en principio sabemos ya en qué localidad queremos empezar a buscar y dónde se encuentra dicha localidad. Ahora, nos falta por saber a qué tipo de fuente hemos de acudir. En España, en cuanto a datos básicos sobre una persona tenemos dos tipos de archivos en dónde buscar: los archivos civiles y los archivos parroquiales.  4.1. Los Archivos Civiles.Para este caso, debemos saber que se trata de registros de muy reciente creación para España. En efecto, no encontraremos datos antes de 1870. Estas actas civiles nos serán de utilidad para la búsqueda de hechos posteriores a esta fecha. Así podremos consultar partidas de nacimiento (fecha, lugar, nombre, origen y domicilio de los padres o abuelos) partidas de matrimonio (nombre de los cónyuges, estado civil, padres, lugar y fecha) y partidas de defunción (fecha, lugar, nombre, edad y a veces, si testó, ante qué notario, lugar del entierro, causa de fallecimiento, esposa, hijos...).Ahora, merece la pena saber que si bien en algunas localidades y pueblos sí es posible consultarlos directamente, en otros lugares como Madrid (Calle Pradillo)  estos datos han sido catalogados como públicos pero de uso restringido. Esto significa que si queremos obtener información de estos registros deberemos solicitarla por escrito directamente al Registro Civil o Consulado correspondiente y esperar su respuesta o acudir a gestorías especializadas pero en ningún caso se nos autorizará a consultarlos personalmente. Para dirigirse por escrito a un determinado Registro Civil de cualquier pueblo o ciudad, no es necesario poner ni la dirección ni el código postal. Normalmente es suficiente con poner: "Registro Civil" y el nombre del sitio. Hay muchas localidades pequeñas que no cuentan directamente con tal Registro pero los servicios postales saben dónde corresponde llevar la carta.Aprovecho la ocasión para mostrar mi indignación por el hecho de que hoy todavía, empezando el siglo XXI, siendo la informática una herramienta indispensable para cualquier actividad, con Internet hecha realidad, todavía se siguen realizando a mano cada una de las inscripciones de estos registros civiles. Me parece escandaloso que no se haya informatizado las inscripciones. Es probable que ésta sea la razón por la cual no son de uso público, pues en estos libros se mezclan todo tipo de datos, desde los que requieren publicidad como un nacimiento o un matrimonio, hasta otros que entran ya en el orden de lo privado. Si estos datos estuvieran informatizados no habría inconveniente en obtener únicamente la información permitida...  4.2. Los Archivos Parroquiales.Desde luego, mi recomendación es empezar con los Archivos Parroquiales. Antes de profundizar aquí, conviene saber cual es el contenido, el tipo de información que ahí podemos encontrar. Para este propósito hemos de visitar la página de explicaciones sobre estos archivos, que recoge parte del trabajo de Don Matías Vicario, archivero de Archivo Diocesano de Burgos,

Contenido de los Archivos Parroquiales. Introducción al Censo-Guía de Don Matías Vicario.

Archivos parroquiales

Artículo de Francisco Azcona San Martín. Por otra parte, he recopilado una serie de direcciones y enlaces relacionados con los Archivos Parroquiales que sin duda serán de interés..

Diócesis de España

Página elaborada por la Conferencia Episcopal.

¿Existen Archivos?

Luis del Pino nos explica cómo averiguar qué archivos existen en un determinado pueblo. 

Archivos eclesiásticos españoles: Direcciones y teléfonos de los Archivos Eclesiásticos Españoles, extraídas de la "Guía de los Archivos y las Bibliotecas de la Iglesia en España", publicada por la Asociación Española de Archiveros Eclesiásticos en 1985.

Más sobre Archivos: Más enlaces a sitios relacionados con los archivos desde la página del Anillo de Genealogía.
Los Archivos de las Provincias de Las Palmas
Valoración, explicaciones y listado de centros.
Parroquias de Madrid
Mapa, direcciones y teléfonos de todas las parroquias actuales de Madrid.
Libros de bautizados de Albánchez (Almería) 
Direcciones de las parroquias de Galicia

Aparecen las 1.068 parroquias que integran la Iglesia de Compostela, ordenadas por la primera letra de su nombre

Archivo Histórico Archidiocesano de Tarragona (en catalán)

Información extraída de la "Guía de los Archivos y las Bibliotecas de la Iglesia en España", publicada por la Asociación Española de Archiveros Eclesiásticos en el año 1985.


Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century © 1999-2000
by Juliana de Luna (Julia Smith,
Sent by Johanna De Soto

Household accounts give a wealth of information about the lives of people in the past. These records of expenditures allow us to deduce a great deal about life: what goods were produced in the household and which were purchased, how many workers a family employed, and even the colors and kinds of fabric used in clothing. The account books of Isabel of Castilla (Isabella in English), the queen whose marriage to Fernando of Aragon united Spain and who sent Columbus on t his voyages of discovery, are also a wonderful source of data about naming practice. The names of 1957 men and 456 women who received money from the queen are mentioned. 

From this data, a picture of Spanish naming practice in the last quarter of the 15th century can be drawn. Fifteenth century Spanish names reflect both traditional names that had been used for centuries and new names that were beginning to come into use. Names are fairly simple, with the vast majority of people having a single given name and a single element surname. Moslem and Jewish names appear in small numbers, and are identified separately. 

Table of Contents, all items below are links:

Men's Given Names 
Complete list of men's names by frequency
Complete list of men's names alphabetically

Women's Given Names
Complete list of women's names by frequency
Complete list of women's names alphabetically

Complete list of locative surnames
Complete list of patronymic surnames
Complete list of "other" surnames

Full Names
Christian Names 
Full names of men: A - E
Full names of men: F - I
Full names of men: J - M
Full names of men: N - Z

Full names of women
Jewish Names 
Moslem Names 


De Atienza, Julio, Nobiliario Español (Madrid: Aguilar SA de Ediciones, 1954). 

De la Torre, Antonio and E. A. de la Torre, eds., Cuentas de Gonzalo de Baeza Tesorero de Isabel la Cato/lica (Madrid: Biblioteca "Reyes Cato/licos", 1956). 

Diez Melcon, R. P. Gonzalo, Apellidos Castellano-Leoneses: Siglos IX-XIII, ambos inclusive (Universidad de Granada, 1957). 

Dutton, Brian, et al. Cassell's Spanish and English Dictionary (New York: Collier Books, NY, 1969). 

Talan Gwynek, "A Glossary of the Personal Names in Diez Melcon's Apellidos Castellano-Leoneses", Known World Heraldic Symposium Proceedings (SCA: Chicago, 1993). 

Instituto de Historia y Cultura Militar

Sent by Bill Carmena
Here are the addresses, fax #'s and telephone numbers for the Spanish Army Archives including the one in province of Guadalajara ( Spain ). Wonderful photos of the library and facilities, with links and information to the following cities:


Concepcion Vasquez

When I turned 15, we were living in Mexico and to my mother’s chagrin, I was not speaking English fluently, therefore, I was sent to El Paso to a Private Catholic High School. I joined the High School class that was to graduate in the year 1970. Most of the students had been together since Kindergarten. They all knew each other quite well so I definitely was an outsider. During the Christmas break another girl joined this class as a sophomore. She was from Nicaragua and was transferring from a school in Dallas. The two of us were the new kids on the block, so naturally we ended up bonding. We have been friends since 1967 and this is the year 2004. Thirty-seven years later, we are still friends.

After our graduation, she invited me to visit her country. I was all prepared to go and spend a couple of weeks with her but my great aunt, whom I lived with, got sick and I had to cancel my trip. Somehow I never attempted to go to Nicaragua until this spring.

This trip was not to be a vacation since I really went to accompany my friend’s brother, whom I had known since he attended my 16th birthday dinner party. He had been ill for many years and he had wanted to be buried in his family’s crypt, so I aided in taking him home. Your soul fills with sadness when a friend is gone but Roberto had been such a special person, full of love and kindness that we ended up celebrating his life and his time with us. So the trip was sad but also full of laughter and loving memories.

I arrived in Nicaragua during what they call the dry season: summer. The other season is winter, which is the rainy season, when the country turns green and full of mosquitoes. Coming from a desert area, Nicaragua looked quite beautiful to me, full of flowers and green trees. But, everyone kept saying it was dry and ugly. There were occasional showers and the heat was bearable. In the afternoons, the breezes cooled us when we sat in those wonderful swinging chairs they have all over the country.


The living rooms are open to the gardens and there is quite an active life, sharing the end of the day, with one’s family and friends.

Nicaragua is rich with water, thousands of lakes and volcanoes.

There is even a volcano with my name:   


Nicaragua could have been the recipient of the Canal that links the Atlantic with the Pacific but the lobbyists in the USA from Panama convinced the US Congress that it would not be safe because of the earthquakes and the US built the canal in Panama.

There was a very large quake in the 70’s that destroyed most of downtown Managua, the capital, and it has never been reconstructed so unlike most Spanish colonial cities, Managua, the capital, does not have a main plaza anymore. The once grand Cathedral is rarely open and it is mainly used for special concerts, as it cannot withstand the traffic of a working place of worship.

Nicaragua has many churches. The most famous church is the one in the city of Leon, which is a massive structure. It seems that the plans were inadvertedly switched and this little city ended up with the Cathedral meant for Lima, Peru. Huge Lions guard each entrance, and inside there are many treasures. I guess that is why it is called the City of the Lion or Leon. One of them is the tomb of Ruben Dario 1867 to 1916, one of the most well known poets in Spanish Literature and is considered the father of Latin American literature. One of his most famous poems is an ode to youth, which every child in Latin America knows. Of course, I went to pay my respects, and say a little prayer in this fantastic house of worship, which was bustling with people coming in and out. I even met the bishop. 


In Latin America, people come to church all day just to pray and/or to forget, for a moment, about ones daily life and feel the peace that is offered in a house of worship.
In most of the USA, churches are open only when there are Masses or services with few exceptions such as St. Matthew’s Cathedral and the Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in DC and Saint Patrick’s Cathedral in NY, which remain open most of the day, and of course in the Southwest like Santa Fe, NM.,& El Paso, TX.

When I arrived in Managua, we went immediately to the funeral home. It is customary to stay in vigil through the night accompanying the body but his death had been a couple of months before so we decided to call it a day and go home specially because everyone was exhausted from the trip. We went home but barely slept because we had to get up early, go to Mass and put his body finally to rest. The next day, we traveled for about an hour to a little town called: "Chinandega". It is a very small town with a charming cemetery.

Unlike our almost-always white tombstones, the Nicaraguan cemeteries are full of color. While they were preparing the crypt, I walked throughout and was pleased to see the colorful tombstones, it did not seem like a sad place and I was happy for my friend. He would rest with his parents, his grandparents and be surrounded by the people he loved in beautiful surroundings full of palm trees.

We were invited to have lunch in "Corinto", another little port town reminiscent of New Orleans. It was probably built around the same period in time. The porched-sidewalks transported me to another place in time. This was probably an extremely vibrant town, full of sailors from all over the world, loud music and little restaurants and bars. The buildings were all there, the small hostels, the little bars but 2004 and time was not kind to this almost abandoned port.

Most of the buildings were dilapidated and abandoned
. Even the market place was in ruins.

 I felt I was in a ghost town. At any moment, I would hear laughter and music and the horn of the ships either approaching or leaving the port. Much to my surprise, the names of the establishments were mostly in English, it seems most of the ships were American, and the population had catered to this clientele.

On our way back to Managua, we stopped at "Nagarote" a little village, which is famous for its cheeses, they are called "Quesillos".

We arrived quite late and savored our freshly made cheese on corn tortillas. For those of us, who were brought up with corn tortillas instead of white bread, there is nothing as tasty or more reminiscent of family life than sharing a freshly made corn tortilla with family and friends. Unlike the custom in Mexico to have fresh salsa, they garnish it with a tasty sweet onion sauce. I don’t know if it was the company or the fact that I was starving but this was once of the most tasty treats of the whole trip.

There are two major cities; one is "Leon" Santiago de los Caballeros de Nicaragua. Captain Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba founded this city in 1523. It is full of convents and churches and the other one is "Granada". Both are colonial and full of churches, of all sizes and shapes. It was quite impossible to stop at each one but I visited as many as possible. One of my International visitors picked me up with his wife and took me to Granada.

Granada was founded in1524, we walked downtown, went to the Cathedral and had lunch at a newly renovated Spanish Colonial restaurant which serves the famous "guapote" Central American fresh water sea bass fish, amongst ornately decorated surroundings. We shared and laughed sipping a whole bottle of wine.

They also took me to another little wonder. It seems that thousands of years ago a volcano exploded by the ocean side, the lava encircled a large body of water, which was full of sharks. The water turned from salty to fresh water and the shark adjusted accordingly. There are only two lakes in the world that hold fresh water shark, this is one of them. This area has thousands of little islands of all sizes. Some are only large enough to hold a couple of palm trees and a hammock.

People live here surrounded by shark and fresh water. There is a school in one of the largest islands and the children attend the school paddling their little canoes. We went all around this area on a little boat, which was falling apart and with no safeguards at all, but the captain was so charming and friendly, we enjoyed every minute. Wisely, they did not tell me about the sharks until the end of our tour.

And what is a trip to Nicaragua without visiting a live Volcano. We went to the "Parque Nacional Volcan Masaya". This volcano was the object of veneration by the indigenous people. They believed the eruptions were signs of anger from the gods and to appease them they offered sacrifices, which often included small children and maidens.


The Spaniards called it "La Boca del Infierno" (The mouth of hell). A priest placed a cross "La Cruz de Bobadilla" in order to exorcise the devil. The main crater is called Santiago and there is an Echo Balcony where whatever you say comes back to you. Even though it was the dry season, it was still full of colorful and aromatic flowers. We went all the way to the mouth and got itchy eyes due to the tremendous amounts of sulphor spewing from the center. On a clear day you can see the lava, but I could only feel the heat and the sulphur was so thick I could not see the lava but it was definitely there. Of course, I would have never gotten this close were this site in the USA, so I was glad I had this opportunity in Nicaragua.

We followed the veins of a volcano, which can be seen in an area called "Las Fumarolas". There were pools of red, yellow and brown mud, bubbling mud, which concentrates according to the minerals they contain. We walked in this are collecting mud with the help of children that live in the area. My friend had brought two suitcases full of toys and clothes, which we distributed amongst the children. I had not seen so much poverty in a long time, it was sad but children are children and they were so happy and thankful. Our hearts filled with pure joy of at least for moment helping someone in need and bringing some cheer.


Being around so many lakes, we spent a couple of days in Laguna Apoyo, a warm fresh water lake. It was created over 21 thousand years ago. It is 6 km. in diameter and 900 feet or 280 meters deep. Tropical dry forests, howler monkeys, birds and butterflies surround this lake. You can fish mojarra flecha, guapote and cichlasoma zaliosum Apoyo species only found in this lake. There is also a Nicaraguan natural reserve and a proposed world heritage site around a new development called "Norome".

It was fabulous to sleep on a hammock overlooking the lake and the full moon. The first night I was there, we went on a water skier and I fell in the middle of the lake by a deserted beach. My friend left on the ski jet because I could never get back on and I sat there by myself overlooking the sunset. It was glorious and a little scary until a little local child showed up teasing me that I had been abandoned. I wondered for a moment, actually for about an hour, but they came for me on a jeep.


Another night I was just meditating and praying when suddenly even the insects went quiet, it was a tombstone silence. I had experienced this before but I couldn’t quite remember when or where. In the morning, I realized there had been an earthquake when they kept asking me if I was OK and to gather my belongings close to me at night and be sure that I had a flashlight. Then I realized that that is the thing to do when there is a threat of a pending natural disaster. I was just glad I was on my hammock because if the earth trembled I thought it was the wind and I just rocked to sleep enjoying the wonderful scenery and the swaying palm trees.

We went to viewing areas and markets and in the city of "Masaya".


I bought a couple of hammocks, which I have thoroughly enjoyed since putting them up. There is something about looking at the sky and being caressed by the desert winds of the evening. I love the flowery climates but oh how I love my desert and my sunsets in El Paso.

For about four years, I have been supporting the education of a young child in Nicaragua and I was so excited that I would finally meet my young child but World Vision is very protective and they did not let me see him without prior notice. I left him gifts and he sent me a photo afterwards with his presents thanking me so that means I have to go back.

Life in Nicaragua, if you have money, of course, it is heaven since the labor is cheap and the workers are there for any purpose. We had two drivers; maids, cooks and a lady came to the house to massage us. I guess I could learn to like this type of life but as an American I am used to taking care of myself, I felt extra uncomfortable having servants. People in developing countries have this as a way of life but there is something obscene to me. I like doing things for myself, and not relying on anyone or having a stranger witness all your intimacies. I am glad we don’t have servants in the US. It amazes me the amount of work that an American housewife does in comparison to the developing world women. It is so easy to just get up and order someone around and come home to rest instead of cooking, cleaning and taking care of everything that makes a house a home. Maybe it is a waste of able time but I enjoy cooking, gardening and fixing things.

I am glad that USA society has evolved to the point that everyone is expected to get an education and better themselves. We do not need to be servants. Our young people serve in restaurants while going to college but that is the only time where it is appropriate to be a servant.

 I think all the new immigrants take the lowest paying jobs while they get an education and better their lives and there will always be new immigrants as our country Thank God remains open with a little more care because of the terrorists but still open.

Living in the US, I sometimes forget, that most of the world lives in poverty. I contemplated buying a home in Nicaragua and retiring there but the more I remained there, the more the poverty and the lack of services and infrastructure got to me. I couldn’t help crying when I saw dogs like skeletons walking in the streets and that paled when you see the huts and the children living in sub-human conditions. I don’t know how we can help or if it is appropriate to help. People recent our mingling in their affairs and I don’t know why societies that are hundreds and thousands of years older than ours have fallen so fare behind in their economic development.

Nicaragua has everything. Aside from the lakes, the beaches are incredible with gorgeous homes and vast open spaces.


My friend David, who serves in the Federal Legislature, says: " that is their curse, having all the resources. Nature provides, there is plentiful water and fruits from the trees year round. Fish available in all the lakes and the ocean. People become complacent when they do not have to protect themselves from the elements and store food for the winter, they become lazy". He is working hard to change this mentality.

If any of you want to go, please do, they need the tourist dollars and you can make friends for a lifetime, plus have a wonderful time.

So here ends my trip. I loved every minute I was there and most of all, its people. 

Nicaraguans are loving people, always smiling and caring in their greetings and daily encounters.





Bermudez in Granada, Nicaragua Manila-Acapulco galleons 

My great grandfather and grandmother

Jose Ignacio Bermudez Arguello 

Lastenia Lacayo Bermudez 

(circa) 1890 in front of their home in 
Granada, Nicaragua.

Searching for Bermudez Family Members  


I am seeking anyone who may be a living relative, or descendent, of Jose Ignacio Bermudez Arguello and Lastenia Lacayo Bermudez from Granada, Nicaragua,whose ancestors arrived in Nicaragua around 1750, and before, settling in Granada, and later because of business and political interests some members moved to Leon and Managua.  

The Bermudez and Lacayo families intermarried with the Arana, Arguello, Aguero, Chamorro, Cuadra, de la Cerda, Lugo, Pasos, Sacasa, Somoza, Vargas, Vazquez and other Spanish-Nicaraguense families.

Migration paths:  

Lacayo:  Spain to Nicaragua
Bermudez:  Spain to ? to Nicaragua to England to USA

I would be pleased to share family information and am always seeking more. Please contact Dennis E. A. Keesee Bermudez, at email address , and/or by USPS mail to 17 Byron Close, Laguna Niguel, California 92677-4757. 


The cultural cargo of the Manila-Acapulco galleons 
Philippine Historian, CARLOS QUIRENO

It is with great pleasure that this outstanding 6-page article is included in its entirety in the final quarterly issue of Somos Primos, fall 1999. The article was sent to us by SHHAR member, Antonio K. Pascual, native and resident of the Philippines. Antonio found the article in an old magazine. Recognizing the well- known historian, Carlos Quireno, as the author, Antonio wanted to share it with his global cousins. A big thank you to him and Sylvia Bisner who retyped the entire uncut article.

Mexicans as a whole regard Philippines not as a former colony of Spain, but as of Mexico-not legally, of course, but in every other way.

The fact that Ferdinand Magellan and Miguel López de Legázpi took possession of the islands in the name of the King of Spain cannot be contested. Neither can it be denied that the governors general were appointed by the Spanish kings, a clear attribute of sovereignty. But from 1565 to 1815, a period of 250 years coinciding with the commercial intercourse between Manila and Acapulco, the links between the two countries bordering the Pacific Ocean were so close that they have given rise to the claim that the Philippines was indeed a former colony of Mexico.

Magellan . . . sailed to the Pacific Ocean via the straits at the southernmost tip of South America aboard vessels made in Spain. But starting with Alvaro de Saávedra in 1527, the ships that sailed for the archipelago were constructed on the western coast of Mexico. Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of Mexico, built three small ships near the mouth of the Zacatula River (now Rio Balsas) for his relative Alvaro. Ruy Lopez de Villalobos sailed aboard six vessels made in Jalisco in 1524.

When Legázpi left the port of Navidad, also in the province of Jalisco, his four ships had been built in that small sea town. Although Legázpi was a Basque from the northern region of the Spanish peninsula, he had spent 20 years of his life in Mexico City, while his grandsons, Felipe and Juan de Salcedo, were born and bred in Mexico. The latter – known as the last of the conquistadors, after subduing the native groups in Luzon and thwarting the corsair Limahong, or Lin Feng, from capturing ManiIa – died of a malignant fever in his encomieda in Vigan on March 11, 1576. Probably half of Legázpi's crew was composed of Mexicans: Creoles like the Salcados, mestizos and Aztec indios.

The majority of the military reinforcements and married colonists sent to the Philippines during the first two centuries after Legázpi were Mexicans. The first group of 300 that reached Cebu in 1567 was commanded by Felipe de Salcedo. The second group of 200 reached Panay in 1570, just before Martin de Goiti sailed for the conquest of Manila. Another military group that reached Manila in 1575 was composed of 140 Spaniards and 38 Mexicans, all recruited in Mexico. Much later, prisoners from Mexico were sent to the islands in exile. The total number of Mexicans that emigrated to the Philippines has not been fixed, but in the two centuries and a half of contact we can safely assume that this figure reached several thousands.

Tomás do Comyn, general manager of the Compañia Real de Filipinas, in 1810 estimated that out of a total population of 2,515,406, "the European Spaniards, and Spanish Creoles and mestizos do not exceed 4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages, and the distinct castes or modifications known in America under the name of mulatto, quarteroons, etc., although found in the Philippine Islands, are generally confounded in the three classes of pure Indians, Chinese mestizos and Chinese."

In other words, the Mexicans who had arrived in the previous century had so intermingled with the local population that distinctions of origin had been forgotten by the 19th century. The Mexicans who came with Legázpi and aboard succeeding vessels had blended with the local residents so well that their country of origin had been erased from memory.

Nevertheless, these Mexicans left behind them their linguistic heritage: there are scores of words of Nahuatl origin in the Tagalog language. To mention a few: achuete, atole, avocado, balsa, banqueta, cacahueto, cacao, caimito, calabaza, camachile, camote, calachucho, chico, chocolate, coyote, nana(y), tata(y), tiangul, tocayo, zacate, and zapote. Of course, many more words of Spanish origin had been adopted by the Tagalog and other native groups into their language. A town in the province of Pampanga, originally named masicu, for a place where the fruit chico abounded, was undoubtedly renamed Mexico by the emigrants from the New World who settled there early in the 17th century.

Aztec Garden: A good number of fruits, medicinal plants and flowering plants were exchanged between Mexico and the Philippines. Besides corn (maiz in both countries), tobacco – an American plant – was introduced in the Philippines probably via the Portuguese in Malacca before the arrival of the Spaniards. It grew to be so popular in the islands that the government made a monopoly out of it in 1782 as a revenue raising measure. The avocado, maguey and cacao came from Mexico.

Although pepper was probably indigenous to the Philippines, the word sili undoubtedly was derived from the Mexican chile, while the piquant local sauce called tabasko got its name from the Mexican province of Tabasco. In return, Mexico got its mango from the Islands, and with so high a regard did the Mexicans hold this Oriental fruit –that to the present day, beautiful young maidens still elicit the exclamation of "que manga es."

Among the fruits, vegetables and plants brought into the islands from Mexico and South America were pineapple, arrowroot, peanut, lima and yam beans, balimbing, cassava, chico, papaya, zapote, tomato and squash.

Among the ornamental and medicinal plants: tuberose, spider lily, canna, Mexican poppy, camachile for its tanbark, ipilipil as a hedge plant, the sensitive mimosa, indigo and achuete for dye, madre de cacao, periwinkle, campanella, cactus, lantana, and some kinds of peppers. The sweet potato, or camote, was already grown locally by the time Magellan landed, but other species probably came from Mexico. These items were brought mainly by friars who settled in the archipelago after staying for a year or two in Mexico.

Although present-day Filipinos are not aware of it, a number of their dances and musical compositions did not originate from Spain but from Mexico. "La Paloma" and "Sandunga Mia," for example, were composed and first heard in the New World. The barong Tagalog might have been copied from a province of Mexico. An investigation into this aspect of Filipino culture will reveal more ties between the two countries.

Even in religious matters, the Philippines came under the early jurisdiction of Mexico. In 1578, Pope Gregory XIII created the bishopric of Manila and made it a suffragan to the archbishopric of Mexico. The first bishop, Domingo de Salazar, brought with him 30 Dominicans, four Jesuits and six seculars; we can presume that a minority of them were Spanish Creoles from Mexico. Salazar had been in the New World converting and instructing the indios for a quarter of a century prior to his appointment and was a supporter of the policies of Fray Bartholome de las Casas and Fray Francisco de Vitoria for a more humane treatment of the natives. He came into acrimonious conflict with the civil authorities in the islands because he protected the natives against slavery, exploitation and the tyranny of the encomenderos. He returned to Spain in 1590 to advocate the restoration of the Royal Audiencia, which could check the abuses of the colonizers. He also urged the creation of a Philippine Ecclesiastical Province independent of Mexico, subdividing the archipelago into three bishoprics in Luzon and one in the Bisayas. The aged prelate was successful in his pleas before the king and the Council of the Indies: a royal decree of November 26, 1595, reestablished the Audiencia, while a royal decree of July 17, 1595, raised the See of Manila to the category of a metropolitan, with three suffragan bishoprics under it. The aged prelate, however, never saw the fruition of his labors, for he died in Spain on December 4, 1594.

Mexicans of Spanish parentage occupied numerous posts in the ecclesiastical hierarchy of the Philippines. Of the Spanish peninsular clergy sent to the islands, the majority often spent many years of missionary service in Mexico. 



Confederate military service records Past military facts! 

Confederate military service records
New records in the version of the Family history Library Catalog on the website as of 30 June 2004: Confederate military service records compiled from muster rolls, 1860-1865.

Past military facts! 

Sent by Bob Smith

These few events in history were found in http://www.Military.Com

The "V" for victory sign was the idea of a Belgian refugee in London, Victor De Laveleye. In a short-wave broadcast from London, he urged his countrymen to chalk the letter "V" on all public places as a sign of confidence in ultimate victory. This was plugged in all BBC foreign language programs and later supported by the two finger "V" sign of the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill.

William Bourne, a British mathematician, drew plans for a submarine in 1578. But it was only in 1620 that Cornelius van Drebbel, a Dutch inventor, managed to build a submarine. He wrapped a wooden rowboat tightly in waterproofed leather and had air tubes with floats to the surface to provide oxygen. Of course, there were no engines yet, so the oars went through the hull at leather gaskets. He took the first trip with 12 oarsmen in the Thames River - staying submerged for 3 hours.

The first words spoken on the moon, by Neil Armstrong, are well known, but what were the last words spoken from the moon?

"America's challenge of today has forged man's destiny of tomorrow."

- Commander Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 Mission, 11 December 1972.

The first German serviceman killed in World War II was killed by the Japanese (China, 1937), the first American serviceman killed was killed by the Russians (Finland 1940), the highest ranking American killed was Lt. Gen. Lesley McNair, killed by the US Army Air Corps. So much for allies.

The youngest U.S. serviceman was 12-year-old Calvin Graham, USN. He was wounded and given a Dishonorable Discharge for lying about his age. (His benefits were later restored by act of Congress).

It was a common practice on fighter planes to load every 5th round with a tracer round to aid in aiming. This was a mistake. Tracers had different ballistics so at long range if your tracers were hitting the target 80 percent of your rounds were missing. Worse yet, tracers instantly told your enemy he was under fire and from which direction. Worst of all was the practice of loading a string of tracers at the end of the belt to tell you that you were out of ammo. This was definitely not something you wanted to tell the enemy. Units that stopped using tracers saw their success rate nearly double and their loss rate go down.

Following a massive naval bombardment, 35,000 U.S. and Canadian troops stormed ashore at Kiska, in the Aleutian Islands. Twenty-one troops were killed in the firefight. It would have been worse if there had been any Japanese soldiers on the island.

The US Army had more ships than the US Navy during World War II.

On the morning of April 14, 1865, Julia Grant, wife of US General Ulysses S. Grant had a strong feeling that she and her husband should get out of Washington. As they were leaving, the couple passed John Wilkes Booth on his way to assassinate President Lincoln at the theatre. Grant was also found to be on Booth's death list.

Among the first "Germans" captured at Normandy were several Koreans. They had been forced to fight for the Japanese Army until they were captured by the Russians and then forced to fight for the Russian Army until they were captured by the Germans and further forced to fight for the German Army until they were captured by the U.S. Army.

When the allied armies reached the Rhine River in Germany, the first thing men did was pee in it. This was pretty universal, from the lowest private to Winston Churchill (who made a big show of it) and Gen. George Patton (who had himself photographed in the act).

Generally speaking, there was no such thing as an average fighter pilot during WWII. You were either an ace or a target. For instance, Japanese ace Hiroyoshi Nishizawa shot down over 80 planes. He died while a passenger on a cargo plane.

During the Civil War, the Rains, Ketchum, Adams, and Haynes "Excelsior" were all versions of which military technology? The hand grenade.

You've heard of Chinggis (romanized as Genghis) Khan. But what was his real name? It was Temujin. The honorific of chinggis, meaning "Supreme Leader," was adopted later in an effort to signify the unprecedented scope of his power. Chinggis Khan later united the Mongolian tribes and created one of the largest empires in human history.

Heard of the term Jack of the Dust? The Ship's Baker! Given because the person could have such a covering of flour dust while working as to make them unrecognizable. A good night baker can have a big affect on ship morale. Can you still smell the fresh bread and sticky buns in the morning?

 World War II Factoid: Most members of the Waffen SS were not German.

So where does the computer term "bug" come from? In 1945, Navy Lt. Grace Murray Hopper was working on the Harvard University Mark II Aiken Relay Calculator when the computer began to have problems. An investigation later showed that there was a moth trapped inside the computer. Operators removed the moth and affixed it to the log. The entry reads: "First actual case of bug being found," coining the term we use today.

 An 'abatis' is a type of what? Line of defense. It is a defensive obstacle using fallen trees placed on top of each other with branches, sometimes sharpened, facing the enemy.

One of Japan's methods of destroying tanks was to bury a very large artillery shell with only the nose exposed. When a tank came near enough a soldier would whack the shell with a hammer. "Lack of weapons is no excuse for defeat." -- LtGen. Mutaguchi

 Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first U.S. President to travel by air while in office. Since then, an executive aircraft has been a necessity for the Presidency.

World War II: Actor Norman Shelley impersonated Winston Churchill in a BBC recording of a 1942 speech. Winston had said "I am rather busy, get an actor to do it".

 All opinions expressed in this article are the author's and do not necessarily reflect those of


Free Access to Many Databases
WW I Draft Registration cards
2005 Changes in LDS Family 

Latin American Resource CD
Interviewing Relatives/Friends 


                In Times Past 
                   Lorna V. Neysmith

In times past rapport between young and old
Yielded more harmony and less tension.
This was so because family lived close.
Respect for the old came out of the young.
We have lost the connection between old
and young so generations lack for hope.
It's time to bridge the gap between the two;
humanity can grow with life and hope
and foster future generations' trust.
Connect with your neighbor and family,
then extend your friendship to a stranger.
Intergenerational redemption!
Published In Search of Fatherhood
BSI International, Inc.


Go to our website:
Sent by Lorraine Hernandez
Click on the "Godfrey Online Resources Portal" then click on "Go" and you will see 100+ of the key online genealogical databases that we rely on to document our family lines.

WORLD WAR I DRAFT REGISTRATION CARDS, 1917-18 (Images and index)
Michigan, Texas and Ohio Updated

Images and indexes are now available for the 
following states: 
California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, 
Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, 
Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, and 

Look for more states to be added in the near future. 
The WWI Draft Cards are available to subscribers at:
Note: This project is a work in progress and states are not complete.

Changes coming 2005 in LDS Family History 

Sent by Lorraine Hernandez   Stake Family History Consultant
Source:  Richard L. Halliday 

Coming LDS Family History Attractions  in 2005At a Family History Fair  that was held last Saturday the keynote speaker (George Ryskamp) Head of Genealogy at BYU-Provo made the following observations:

* Big changes are coming early next year.

* This effort has required the reassignment of programmers and other workers from other areas. This accounts for why a part of the Family History Library Catalog has been down for so very long.

* These changes will involve a major increase in interactive Internet use.

* PAF will not be discontinued. 

* More and improved training material for Family History Consultants will be released.

* There will be a transition to digital format to replace the material from the Family History Library that is currently distributed as microfilms or microfiche. No new microfilm reading machines are being authorized for some areas. This transition will begin (or cover) the next four years (sorry, my notes are not explicit). "They" are currently working on the transfer process. It is now 99.5% accurate. The goal is 99.9% accuracy.

This will be a major effort as there are more than 2,000,000 such items in the Family History Library Catalog that will require translation.

* It is recognized that scattered around the world there are people who have expertise in particular areas of Family History work. It is planned to "network" these people so that their expertise will become more widely available.
South Texas Researcher Newsletter: November 2003 

A Directory of Free Census Records, 27,646 links to free census records online. We have compiled this growing directory of census links to help you locate free census records online. More census records are added weekly.  Outstanding resource.  Check it out by your state of interest.

Web Site of Interest: The History Section of the American Library Association has designed a new web site to help students locate and evaluate primary sources on the web. The site includes practical information for students as well as links to many primary source sites. For the "Using Primary Sources on the Web" tap into:





Our last lesson talked about the research process. We are now in the gathering information stage. Genealogy takes up a lot of time—don’t waste it by re-inventing the wheel. This is what family is for (not to make them re-invent the wheel, but to instead reap the information from them so you don’t have to research it yourself later down the road).

Asking questions-- you don’t have to write biographies in order to do your genealogy, but if you ask questions to your family as if you were going to write a biography, your genealogy research will be easier. You will have many clues to help you through the rough spots—and I can guarantee that you will have rough spots if you do not take the time to gather these clues.

Sometimes when we want to interview people, we just don’t have the time or money to fly to their home and ask questions. Though phone interviews are NOT ideal, sometimes they are the only way we can talk to a relative for pertinent information.

If we know the relative well, we tend to immediately call them. Sometimes we’ll hesitate to call a relative that we don’t know well or don’t know at all. Calling relatives that we are unfamiliar with can be an advantage.You won’t be as judgmental, and you will be more willing to ask questions, and more willing to learn about details. Use your unfamiliarity to your advantage to learn new things.

I will assume that some of you have never done an interview before, and start from the very beginning.

Before we get started, there are times when sticky family situations have prevented us from pursuing our genealogy. When dealing with family members, don’t put your feelings aside, but do be aware of them. If, for example, you were very upset at your cousin for some reason, or when a particular issue comes up, you get angry, I am not asking you to avoid asking questions about it. Instead, you could just acknowledge it, and maybe even use the anger to ask questions you have always wanted to ask.

For example, your family is actively involved with the Catholic Church but you are not. That might or might not be a sensitive issue between you. Instead of shunning the topic, you could simply be aware that you have different opinions, and then use the interview as an opportunity to find out more about the family when they were investigating the church, when they joined, how long the family has been in the church, and what others think of the church. How does religion affect your family members? How do others treat them because of their religion? Don’t shy away from sensitive subjects- let them guide your questioning instead.

DO NOT characterize nor judge the people you interview or the ancestors you’re trying to learn about. Don’t make them into martyrs because they lived a hard, productive life. Don’t make them into wimps if they ran away from family responsibilities, don’t make them jerks because they hurt peoples’ feelings. Don’t justify your anger towards family members with loaded questions and don’t sanctify family members/ ancestors with sugar-coated questions and interpretations of answers.

Good genealogies and good biographies stem from good questions. Good questions come from wanting to learn, not from trying to prove that we already knew something. There are a lot of questions that you could ask. But to be most effective, you want to be aware of the best type of questions to ask.


1. INQUISITIVE: These are the find out questions. Open-ended. Rarely closed,
multiple choice or fill in the blank.

Examples: Tell me about Grandma Roybal. What about your children?

2. CRITICAL: These questions tend to scrutinize more. They focus on detail, fill in holes, add logic into the flow of story after story, and clarify. They can be open or closed.

Examples: Is your hair naturally that curly? Is it that you feel a deep connection to your plants or do you just like the humidity in your home?

3. APPLICATIVE: These are the third set of questions that you ask after the first two. They take what you have learned and apply them to real life, future problem-solving, and other situations that render the subject matter useful to a variety of audiences. They are hard questions to think up, ask,
and especially answer. For me personally, family histories and genealogies that lack these
questions and answers make for boring reading.

For example, when I wrote about my second great grandmother, I knew that everyone has them. What made mine special? Why would other people care? Why should I care and why should my kids care about some old lady who died?
The answers to applicative questions make people care.

So I wrote about Western territory propaganda and how that played into the work ethic of nineteenth century Scandinavian women. I then wrote about how her work ethic affected her child (my great-grandmother), my grandmother, and my father. And then I applied principles of her work ethic into today's every day life. Even my 11 year old cousin thought it was 'cool.' And preteens are honest, so this project passed the test.

Examples of these questions would be:

1. You've mentioned that you had a hard time dealing with the knowledge that your grandparents came to this country illegally. Tell me about the changes in your life that lead you to accept who you are today. How would you explain these concepts to a teenager whose parents immigrated illegally?

These questions touch on terrorist attacks, culture differences, American prejudices and egotisms, and many other subjects. That tough set of questions alone would make Mario’s life into a very interesting history that many people would read.

INQUISITIVE PHASE OF QUESTIONING- the kind of questioning you will be doing when you are gathering information.

1. Never ask a yes/ no question. "Are you my dad’s friend?" Because all you will get is a "yes." then they will wait for another question.

2. Don't ask multiple-choice questions. They are just as limiting in their answers: "Were you friends with Dad in his childhood, young adulthood or both?"  "So after Dad joined the military he wanted to stay friends with you or just go on with life?" Multiple choice questions are bad.

3. Fill-in-the-blank questions seem good to ask at first, until we realize how limiting they are. Example: When did you first meet grandpa? What did you like the most about him? What is his greatest flaw? All of these questions could give you a short answer, sometimes a long answer, but they WILL give you a limited subject, because all you will learn is about how they met, Grandma’s greatest characteristic asset and flaw. You won’t learn of anything more.

Other examples of fill-in questions are: When was great grandpa in prison? Who was Dad’s first girlfriend, Where did mom go to church? When did Dad realize he had fallen in love with Mom? Why did you name my dad Jorge? How did grandpa’s voice change when he got angry?

The classic test of a bad question is that the question isn't in the answer. Look at some of these answers:

"I always liked 'Ruth'."

"Angie must have been 12."

"Because of the American soldiers and because they were around and I couldn't understand them."

These are bad answers because the questions were bad. In fact, we have no idea what these questions were. Any question that starts with who, what, where, when, why, or how, IS A BAD INQUISITIVE QUESTION. Contrary to what we were taught in school. 

By the way, the questions were "How did Stephanie get her middle name?"  "When was Stephanie born?" and "What got you interested in learning English?"

4. The best type of question to ask, when you are in the inquisitive stage, is not a question at all. It is a GENTLE DEMAND.

"Tell me about your meeting Dad."

"Describe to me the relationship between Grandpa and his classmates."

"Paint me a picture of Dad and the times he took you to the dances."

"I’m curious about my dad’s reputation once he left the CatholicChurch."

"Describe for me the dark side of great grandpa Martín."

"I’ve always wondered about Grandma’s relationship with her parents when she was a teenager."

These are all gentle demands. If you include who, what, where, etc. in your gentle demands, most others will zero in on that one word. They will, in their own mind, convert your gentle demand to a fill-in question. "Describe to me the relationship between Mario and his classmates" if said with a question word becomes in their mind "Describe to me who Mario got along with" and then becomes "Who did Mario get along with?" and then comes your limited answer.

Never write down questions you are going to ask. Instead, just write key words on a pad of paper. Sometimes people think they are afraid they won’t know what to ask. When you talk to people, do you ever run out of questions to ask? Do you hold a list of questions to ask when talking to a friend? No. And neither do I. Many people, professional genealogists, etc. say you need to have questions ready in order to gather information, but that is stupid. When I interview people, I have a list of questions but I use them for a guide to prompt my thinking, not to guide the interview.

Just talk to your relatives. Enjoy the time you spend talking to them. Enjoy learning about your dad. Be yourself, don’t pretend to know everything. Have fun with it and with the answers.

After you have given a gentle demand, just let them talk. Most people will feel nervous at first, because they are still in the ‘interview mode’ and worry if their answers are right or wrong. But if you are not asking prepared questions, they will feel more relaxed. Listen to what they says. If they say something like, "I don’t know if that is what you wanted to know." Tell her, "Karin, it’s your answer. Tell me more about that." That response validates her answers and encourages her to continue.

Let her talk and talk. Most often people will answer your demand, but then talk about something else. Sometimes subjects come up that you would have never thought to ask about. But they feel it to be important enough to bring up. Let them talk. Sometimes you talk to someone who doesn’t know how to be quiet. They would talk all day long if it weren’t for the sun going down. With these kinds of people just let them talk for a while, then ask a fill-in question to get them back on track. If you ask grandma about Dad’s social life, and she talks about his social life, then about his relationship with his inlaws, that kind of wandering is okay. But if she starts talking about her relationship with her quilting buddies and the one time dad came to the quilting meeting and was really bored just ask a fill in question to get her back on track. "Wow, Grandma. Dad hated quilting? Hmm… what did dad like to do for artistic expression?"

Don’t interrupt her answers.

People often pause when they ‘think’ they are finished answering a question. Don’t be too quick to break the silence. These are called PREGNANT PAUSES. And some of the best information I have ever received during interviews were when I let 30 sec, 1 min, and even 2 min pass without saying a word. You don’t want to go more than 30 seconds when on the phone, however. But in person, they see that you are not saying anything, and then continue to talk. Keep eye contact with them and shake your head, indicating "go on." The next time you are talking to someone, just ask them a question. When they are finished, try the pregnant pause with them.

On the phone, if more than 30 sec. pass, just say, "Tell me more about that."

Hmm, what else? Sensitive issues and confessions. Be prepared to hear them. Sometimes people will tell you things that they might not otherwise. I have heard some wonderful confessions from relatives and others I have interviewed, many after the pregnant pause. They might confess to you some things about someone that irritate them, or take sides in a family feud, or sometimes people will enjoy spilling as many beans as they can.

Sometimes people may worry about expressing their true feelings to you because you are close to the person you guys are discussing. If you find this happening, with say, your great aunt, you may want to reassure her that you are a grown man or woman and you can handle whatever it is that she has to tell you. I cannot tell you how to do that. You will get a feel for how to reassure her when you talk to her. Trust your inner feelings about how to talk to her.

And when she tells you something that is hard to hear, do not show your emotions to her that could affect her future answers. Example of what not to do:

Daniel: Tell me about Dad’s dark side.

Karin: Well, he really doesn’t have any flaws. Maybe that he’s too nice and too trusting, I don’t know. He’s a really good guy.

Daniel: Hmm, okay. Tell me about what makes him good.

AHH!!! You just missed a wonderful story as she successfully brushes you off. Do something like this instead, and note how to react when the beans spill. (and note I am just making up a worse case scenario).

Daniel: Tell me about Dad’s dark side.

Karin: Well, he really doesn’t have any flaws. Maybe that he’s too nice and too trusting, I don’t know. He’s a really good guy.

Daniel: Sure, he is a good guy. But he’s not perfect. And you can be sure that I know all about that.

(pregnant pause opportunity)

Karin: Well, I guess one thing could be is that he’s gullible. But that’s just because he’s so good inside and trusts people.

                    Daniel: Go on.

Karin: (She might take some time to think of something more to say. Allow her that time). Well, he’s just…he doesn’t understand that people aren’t always what they seem to be. And that gets him in trouble.

Daniel: (Say nothing).

Karin: Oh, you know how he is. (she might try to get out of asking questions by putting the responsibility back to you. Don’t let her).

Daniel: I don’t understand what you mean. (Push the interview back on her).

Karin: It’s just that Mario trusts people too much, like with what happened when he was 16.

Daniel: (Pause).

Karin: When he got in trouble with Marie.

Daniel: (You may not have a clue who Marie is, but you don’t need to tell her that. You need to get her talking). Ah, yes. Marie.

Karin: You know, with the abortion and all. She kept telling Mario it was his, and he trusted her. But everyone thought he was stupid because he believed her. That was the reason he didn’t have much money for school, because he gave it to her for baby things. Then she went behind his back and had an abortion. He wanted to marry her and step up to responsibility, you know? But then again, it wasn’t never really his and he wouldn’t listen to me when I tried to tell him it was Juan’s.

(You may feel shocked, betrayed, angry or in denial. But you are the interviewer, not the audience. You could respond, "My father would never do something like that! He was an honest, moral man!" – or—"What? My dad didn’t wait until marriage? But, I never knew this…" That is the fastest way to get her to shut up. Instead, reply something like:)

Daniel: Yeah, Dad has always trusted people too much. And then he found out the baby was never his?

(And then go on from there. You can continue with this subject, or change it).

And don’t judge Karin from her responses. If an active Catholic woman told you "Mario and Irene had sex before marriage." They view that as a serious flaw and you judge them by that. If someone else were to tell you that, they might not view it as a flaw at all, but rather as a symbol of their commitment to each other. For example, from the above scenario, we don’t know how Karin feels about pre-marital sex, but we can clearly see she does not like liars or abortion. You don’t want to judge her morals.

And you don’t want to judge Mario’s morals. Whose right is it to say that Mario made mistakes? Or that marrying Marie would be the right thing to do? That’s not Karin’s right and it’s not your right.

Just be prepared to hear confessions, examples of repressed hatred, accusations and long-pent-up sadness.

Other tips:

  1. Don’t interrupt the person, especially with questions about details you think are important at the moment, Instead, write down a key word to remind you to come back to that question when the time is better.

  2. Don’t feel the need to help them with answers. They may be using the silence as a time to ponder or word their thoughts. Silence is yours—it’s your domain.

  3. Maintain eye contact (in person).

  4. Don’t ever appear impatient. People detect that quickly, especially on the phone where they can’t read your body language.

  5. Don’t in anyway appear judgmental. You might be the first person to ever seriously listen to Karin’s opinion of Mario.

  6. When people start sharing sensitive feelings with you, they are looking for you to be there for them to listen to them, at least for that moment.

  7. If you are in the disadvantage of interviewing by phone, you cannot reassure them with your body language. And you cannot read their body language. Therefore, pay extra attention to tone of voice, both theirs and especially your own.

  8. Many people teach that you need to build rapport before diving into the interview. Personally, I find that deceitful and phony. Just talk to them, listen to them and care about what they say. Answer any questions they might have about you and your motives in starting your genealogy.

  9. Call them up and ask when would be a good time to talk. Schedule a good time for them so there will be no interruptions.

  10. When you call for the interview, talk to them like you would your friends. People are people and we all have many similarities. Don’t be shy or nervous. Just be yourself.

  11. When you give gentle demands, be sure you write down what they says. Take notes, key words are better than phrases, and anything that comes to your mind. If you are interviewing in person, it is better to record what they say, since you cannot write as fast as people speak. However, if you record voice conversations, remember that it is illegal to do so unless you have their consent first. And make you get them to state their consent on tape!

  12. Be sure to thank them for their time, and make sure they understand how sincere you are.

After the interview, take twenty minutes to write your key words into full sentences, so while everything is still fresh in your mind.

After filling in your notes with complete thoughts, take more time to write about your impressions ofthe interviewee, not of the people you talked about. After talking to grandma, ask yourself:

Did she seem okay with the interview? Sad? Upset? Irritated? Loving? Do you think she was keeping something back? If she told you something negative, why do you think she would? How receptive was she towards you? What were some of her concerns about your dad or grandpa? About what you’ll do with this information? Does she want anything in return for the time she spent with you? Does she want a copy of the genealogy?

Latin American Family History Resources
CD produced by the LDS Church
In addition to a quick internet connection to, a five-step sequence on how to begin family research can be viewed. Forms and a computer program (PAF) to organize your family data can be downloaded. Explore the contents by doing some quick searches. 

Go to Ancestral File, family information submitted by individuals who can be contacted.

Go to Library Catalog search the Surname file, family histories list the surnames included in the book

Go to Library Catalog key in Location, check to see what records are available in the city of your ancestry. If you are not sure of the spelling do a browse search.

Go to All Resources try different spellings, dates, places on ancestors, look for clues. The All Resources search might gather information form Census records, Social Security, Vital Records, International Genealogical Index, and/or other sources.  

Research Outlines 

Research Outlines of states and countries were first printed and distributed in the late 1970s. They were developed to facilitate family research. The outlines describe major sources of information about families. The United States Research Outline is an overview of national resources and explains how the contents and genealogical records can be used for researching family history in the United States.

Because of the historical presence of Spanish speaking in the Southwest, the research outlines included in this CD are for researching in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas.  

Most of U.S. state outlines include the following categories:

Archives and Libraries
Bible Records
Court Records
Church Records
Directories, heads of household
Emigration and Immigration
Land and Property
Military Records
Naturalization and Citizenship
Probate Records
Vital Records
Voting Registers

However, there are some differences. Texas does not include a Voting Register. California and Texas do not have Native Races information, whereas Arizona and New Mexico do. Since New Mexico and Arizona did not become states until 1912, their records have been easier to gather. A Guide to the Microfilm of the Spanish Archives of New Mexico covers the period of 1621-1821. 

Latin American Research Outline

Also included on this CD is a Latin American Research Outline. Clear maps of Central American and South American are included with the address of each nation's major archives, compiled biographies and a listing of the census records at the Family History Library for each country.

El Salvador 
1869, 1895

1930* See Mexico

Latin American Country Outlines

Research Outlines for Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are included on this CD. The country outlines are larger. The state outlines are between 8-14 pages, the country outlines between 40-65 pages. The categories suggest historical differences. The Brazil guide includes the topics of Jewish Records, Occupations, Slavery and Bondage. Brazil and Peru both include Nobility and Heraldry. Peru in addition has information on Taxation and Schools, plus considerable information on Native Races.  

Table Selection
Map of the Country
Archives and Libraries
Church Directories
History Geography
Church Histories
Church Records
Civil Registration
Directories, Civil
Encyclopedias and Directories
Emigration and Immigration
Land and Property
Language and Languages
Military Records
Names, Personal
Notarial Records
Probate Records
Social life and customs
Other Records of the Country

Mexico Outline 
The Mexico Outline is one of the most extensive, 64 pages packed with information. In addition, to the following five appendixes, networking is encouraged by the inclusion of five U.S. organizations dedicated to Spanish lineage-heritage research.
A: State Archives address (as of 1992)
B: State Civil Registration Offices 

C: Diocese Archives (as of 1994) Following the addresses and phone number is a listing of how many parishes are found in each diocese court (curia diocesana) and to which Mexican states those parishes are a part. Diocese and state boundaries do not coincide.

D: Civil Records in Distrito Federal, Guerrero, and Oaxaca
Civil Registration in Mexico is kept in all states on a municipal level however the records of the Federal District, Oaxaca and Guerrero are organized and microfilmed differently. Within the Federal District, the records are organized by delegations; Oaxaca and Guerrero have their records organized by district. Therefore accessing these records requiring knowing the district or delegation to which a particular "municipio" belonged. Appendix D provides a guide in locating those records.

E: 1930 Census of Mexico
The kind of information obtained: address, name, sex, age, marital status, literate or illiterate, profession or occupation, place of birth, nationality, language, real property. The Church has produced a 2-CDs set entitled Middle America-Mexico Vital Records Index, information from 1.9 million births, baptisms, and marriages from Mexico. The index includes a partial listing or records covering the years 1659 to 1905. Approximately one-third of the birth and christening records in this index have no surname.



An excellent way to keep up with the latest happenings in is to access the online E-magazine, made available by the magazine, Archaeology at

In addition to the latest information, you can watch the progression of digs, such as this one at the prehistoric city of Tiwanaku.
The prehistoric city of Tiwanaku is located on the southern shore of the famous Lake Titicaca along the border between Bolivia and Peru. During the heyday of this city was between A.D. 500 and 950, religious artifacts from the city spread across the southern Andes, but when the conquering Inka arrived in the mid-fifteenth century, the site had been mysteriously abandoned for half a millennium. Even after its abandonment, Tiwanaku continued to be an important religious site for the local people. It later became incorporated into Inka mythology as the birthplace of mankind as the Inka built their own structures alongside the ruins. Tiwanaku remains an integral locale in the religious lives of Andean people in the turbulent present of modern Bolivia. Although dozens of national and international projects began to unlock Tiwanaku's secrets during the last century, we are only recently beginning to piece together the puzzle behind the origin of this architectural marvel and the people who built it.

A monolith in the semi-subterranean temple with the gateway to the Kalisasaya complex in the background (Courtesy Alexei Vranich)



Story Book Builder Software
Child's hair unravels  kidnapping.

Voice From the Grave
English "transliterations"

Story Book Builder Software Now Available! 

Hello All,  We are very excited to announce the release of the Storybook Builder! There is no software to install.  You can create your storybook on a PC or a Mac.  You can access and work on your book anywhere there is an internet connection.

With Auto"magic" page design--You have complete control over the look of your book.  Choose from over 27 different individual templates that represent over 20,000 different spread design options in a single book.  If you want the Storybook Builder to choose the "best" template for your page, just upload your pictures first and the Storybook Builder will choose your template for you.  You have as much control as you want.

You control your text--You can now create headings, bold, italicize, center, left or right justify your text.  You make your text look exactly the way you want it to.  You can upload all the pictures for your spread at one time. You can see exactly what your book is going to look like on screen.  You can make as many changes to your book as you like.

You should receive you book approximately 14 days from the day you submit your book.  Our mission to create connections through the sharing of story is firmly in force.  We are here to help you do that. Sincerely,  Carol and Bruce  801-261-2982
Cherish Bound,

Luz Cuevas, left, hugs her sister 
Luz de Jesus

Lock of child's hair unravels kidnapping.

Mother gets DNA match after seeing her daughter, believed killed in fire six years ago.

by Joann Loviglio
The Associated Press
March 3, 2004

Philadelphia. Luz Cueva took one look at the dimpled, dark-haired little girl at a birthday party and instantly knew two things: She was watching her own daughter - presumed killed in a 1997 fire - and she needed a way to prove it.

So, Cuevas pretended the 6-year-old girl had gum in her hair, removed five strands from the child's head, folded them in a napkin ad placed them in a plastic bag.

"Because of TV, I knew they needed hair for the DNA," Cuevas said-Tuesday. The DNA tests confirmed a mother's in-tuition. The girl was Cuevas' only daughter, Delimar Vera. Everyone but Cuevas believed she had perished in a house fire when she was 10 days old.

Investigators believe a family acquaintance stole the baby from her crib, set a fire to cover the crime and raised the little girl as her own.

Carolyn Correa of Willingboro, N.J., who was wanted on charges of arson and kid-napping, surrendered to police. The little girl has been taken into state custody in New Jersey. It was not immediately clear when she would be reunited with her mother.
Fire officials believed the 1997 blaze at Cuevas' Philadelphia home was sparked by a home-rigged extension cord connected to a space heater. The fire was put out in 10 min-utes, but Delimar's room was gutted, and investigators concluded that the infant's body must have been consumed by the intense heat and flames.

Cueyas said several things made her suspicious. "I went inside the room and looked the crib and she wasn't there," Cuevas' said, adding that the window was inexplicably open though it was a cold winter evening. Police and fire officials that night told the,hysterical mother that "maybe it was my nerves."

Cuevas, 31, said she was also suspicious because Correa, 42, had announced that she was pregnant during a visit shortly after Delimar's birth. According to Cuevas, Correa abruptly ceased contact after the blaze.

Cuevas, who speaks in halting English, said she instantly recognized the child as her daughter at the Jan. 24 birthday party. It was unclear what brought the girl, who was being called Aliyah, and her biological mother to the same party. "When I see her, I saw that she was my daughter," said Cuevas. "I want to hug her. I want to run with her. 

She sought help from state Rep. Angel Cruz, who represents the poor, largely Hispanic neighborhood where Cuevas lives. He called police, who contacted Correa for, a DNA test that ultimately proved Cuevas right. "It's a mother's way. It's motherly intuition," the law-maker said. Cueva and Delimar's father, Pedro Vera, 39, had a baby boy after Delimar's dis-appearance but broke up under the strain of losing their daughter.

"Right now I want to see my daughter," Pedro Vera said. "I am so happy. I just want to see my daughter." It will be up to a Family Court .judge to determine where the little girl Will live. Correa pleaded guilty to a 1996 arson at a medical office in New Jersey and got five years' probation, according to court records.

Newsweek, Sept 6, 2004, Page 15

Voice From the Grave

Now you can have it-from six feet under., a Dallas-based Web site, allows customers to create a list of people who will receive personalized messages, photos and videos via e-mail upon the subscriber's death. In its first year of service, it has attracted more than 12,000 customers-only a handful of whom have had cause to use the service. 
Site developers Jonathan Yeo and Simon Shurmer devised the system after a friend of Yeo's passed away. The friend's family grieved while also searching for the deceased's bank-account number and life-insurance policy. "He used Microsoft Money for all his finances, but no one knew his password," Yeo says. "I thought there must be a better way to do this." For a lifetime membership of $99, members store (among other things) their passwords, banking details and an electronic will.

Leaving behind essential information is popular, but Yeo says sending e-mails from the beyond draws the most customers. Members leave instructions on how to care for their surviving pets, provide a guest list for their funeral, post daily diary entries of their final days and reveal lifelong secrets (like that hidden Swiss bank account). 

Posthumous acts of kindness become easier, too. As one of the site's demo messages reads "Eric, I have hidden in my brown shoes in my wardrobe. Go get it-it's yours. Best regards, me."

What remains to be seen is whether can escape the fate of rival service, which launched last November and bit the dust this summer. Last Wishes' official motto knows survival isn't certain: "The only two sure things in life are death and taxes." -WILLIAM LEE ADAMS


English "transliterations"
Sent by Carlos Villanueva
Source: Eric Rojo

English language signs throughout the world (collected by Foreign Service people):

Cocktail lounge, Norway : 



Information booklet about using a hotel air conditioner, Japan : COOLES AND HEATES : IF YOU WANT CONDITION OF WARM AIR IN YOUR ROOM, PLEASE CONTROL YOURSELF


Sign in men's rest room in Japan : TO STOP LEAK TURN COCK TO THE RIGHT

In a Nairobi restaurant :

On the grounds of a private school : NO TRESPASSING WITHOUT PERMISSION.

O n a highway, Canada:

On a poster at Kencom : 


On a mental institution building : MENTAL HEALTH PREVENTION CENTER.

A sign seen on an automatic restroom hand dryer : DO NOT ACTIVATE WITH WET HANDS

In a maternity ward : NO CHILDREN ALLOWED



On the menu of a Swiss restaurant : OUR WINES LEAVE YOU NOTHING TO HOPE FOR.



Hotel room notice, Chiang-Mai, Thailand : 

Hotel brochure, Italy : 













An advertisement by a Hong Kong dentist : 



Advertisement for donkey rides, Thailand : 

The box of a clockwork toy made in Hong Kong :

In a Swiss mountain inn : SPECIAL TODAY - NO ICE-CREAM.

Airline ticket office, Copenhagen : 

On the door of a Moscow hotel room :



                12/30/2009 04:48 PM