Somos Primos™
April 2004, 
Editor: Mimi Lozano

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research


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Bernardo de Galvez   35
  Campos  37
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2003 Index
June 6th 

Washington Chapel in the United States Capitol
Preserve me O God, for in thee do I put my trust, Psalm 16:1

 "Those people who will not be governed by God 
will be ruled by tyrants."   
                                                                    . . . . . . . William Penn 

Somos Primos Staff: 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna de Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Rina Dichoso-Dungao, Ph.D.


Ruben Alvarez
Yolanda Alvarez
Sam Anthony
Salena Ashton
Tom Ascensio 
Jane Blume 
Chuck Bobo
Eva Booher 
Eliza Boné 
Annette Brown
Jaime Cader
Bill Carmena 
Ricardo Castañón

George Cisneros
Ana Carolina Castillo Crimm
Helen B. Collins
Sterling De La  Ranzie 
Johanna De Soto 
Lic. Leonardo de la Torre y
Lic.Armando Escobar Olmedo
Martin Espino
George Farías
Sylvia Jean de Jesus Garcia
Robert Garcia
Henry Michael Godines
Robert Gonzales
George Gause 
Mark Hardwick 
Odell Harwell 
Elsa Herbeck
Lorraine Hernandez
Mark Holmerud
John Inclan
Jane Lindsey
Paul Newfield 
Dr. JV Martinez
Rueben Martinez
Juan Mayans 
Armando Montes
Yolanda Ochoa 
Lic. Guillermo Padilla Origel Sandra Robbie
Manuel Robles de la 
Dr. Refugio Rochin
Carolina G. Tomkinson
Crispin Rendon 
Major Millie Rosa
Virginia Sanchez
John P. Schmal
Howard Shorr 
Alice Thornton
Lourdes Tinajero 
Paul Edgar Trejo 
Rose Valdez 
Carlos Villanueva 
SHHAR Board:   714-894-8161
Laura Arechabala Shane 
Bea Armenta Dever
Manuel Garcia 
Steven Hernandez
Mimi Lozano Holtzman
Pat Lozano 
Henry Marquez
Yolanda Ochoa Hussey 
Michael S. Perez 
Crispin Rendon
Les Rivera 
Viola Rodriguez Sadler 
John P. Schmal
Lourdes Tinajero 



Hispanic Nation
Latino New Urbanism 
Heroism, Ferry Accident in D.C.
World War II Memorial Dedication
WWII Reception for Latino Vets  
Immigration Reforms 

Congressional seats & Hispanics
¡Si! Something must be done! 
Smithsonian Interpretation Institute
Rise in Hispanics &Asian-Americans
PBS Miniseries, "The New Americans" 
The magic of Gregory Nava
Family Facts on Grandparents
Autobiography of Paul Edgar Trejo  March 15, 2004 shares three scenarios for Hispanics identified by experts for Hispanics role in American life:

Melting In
Hispanics follow the path of all other immigrant groups and gradually meld into American life, giving up Spanish and marrying non-Hispanics.

Most Latinos speak both languages and retain much of their own culture and ties to the home countries, even as they adapt to US lifestyles.

Many remain in Spanish-speaking enclaves and set the cultural and political agenda in soon-to-be majority-Hispanic states like California and Texas.

Hispanic Nation 
By Brian Grow, with Ronald Grover, Arlene Weintraub, and Christopher Palmeri in Los Angeles, Mara Der Hovanesian in New York, Michael Eidam in Atlanta, and bureau reports. 
Sent by 
Dr. JV Martinez, 
Dr. Refugio Rochin 
[[There were many articles in this issue of Business Week. Below are extracts.]]

Hispanics are an immigrant group like no other. 
Their huge numbers are challenging old assumptions about assimilation. 
Is America ready? 

Maria Velazquez was born in a dingy hospital on the U.S.-Mexican border and has been straddling the two nations ever since. The 36-year-old daughter of a bracero, a Mexican migrant who tended California strawberry and lettuce fields in the 1960s, she spent her first nine years like a nomad, crossing the border with her family each summer to follow her father to work. Then her parents and their six children settled down in a Chicago barrio, where Maria learned English in the local public school and met Carlos Velazquez, who had immigrated from Mexico as a teenager. The two married in 1984, when Maria was 17, and relocated to nearby Cicero, Ill. Her parents returned to their homeland the next year with five younger kids. Advertisement 

The Velazquezes speak fluent English and cherish their middle-class foothold in America. Maria and Carlos each earn about $20,000 a year as a school administrator and a graveyard foreman, respectively, and they own a simple three-bedroom home. But they remain wedded to their native language and culture. Spanish is the language at home, even for their five boys, ages 6 to 18. The kids speak to each other and their friends in English flecked with "dude" and "man," but in Cicero, where 77% of the 86,000 residents are Hispanic, Spanish dominates.

The older boys snack at local taquerías when they don't eat at home, where Maria's cooking runs to dishes like chicken mole and enchiladas. The family reads and watches TV in Spanish and English. The eldest, Jesse, is a freshman at nearby Morton College and dreams of becoming a state trooper; his girlfriend is also Mexican-American. "It's important that they know where they're from, that they're connected to their roots," says Maria, who bounced between Spanish and English while speaking to BusinessWeek. She tries to take the kids to visit her parents in the tiny Mexican town of Valle de Guadalupe at least once a year. "It gives them a good base to start from."

The Velazquezes, with their mixed cultural loyalties, are at the center of America's new demographic bulge. Baby boomers, move over -- the bebé boomers are coming. They are 39 million strong, including some 8 million illegal immigrants -- bilingual, bicultural, mostly younger Hispanics who will drive growth in the U.S. population and workforce as far out as statisticians can project (charts). Coming from across Latin America, but predominantly Mexico, and with high birth rates, these immigrants are creating what experts are calling a "tamale in the snake," a huge cohort of kindergarten to thirty something Hispanics created by the sheer velocity of their population growth -- 3% a year, vs. 0.8% for everyone else.

It's not just that Latinos, as many prefer to be called, officially passed African Americans last year to become the nation's largest minority. Their numbers are so great that, like the postwar baby boomers before them, the Latino Generation is becoming a driving force in the economy, politics, and culture.

Cultural Clout
It amounts to no less than a shift in the nation's center of gravity. Hispanics made up half of all new workers in the past decade, a trend that will lift them from roughly 12% of the workforce today to nearly 25% two generations from now. Despite low family incomes, which at $33,000 a year lag the national average of $42,000, Hispanics' soaring buying power increasingly influences the food Americans eat, the clothes they buy, and the cars they drive. Companies are scrambling to revamp products and marketing to reach the fastest-growing consumer group. Latino flavors are seeping into mainstream culture, too. 

The U.S. has never faced demographic change quite like this before. Certainly, the Latino boom brings a welcome charge to the economy at a time when others' population growth has slowed to a crawl. Former Housing and Urban Development chief Henry Cisneros, who now builds homes in Hispanic-rich markets such as San Antonio, says "Here we have this younger, hard-working Latino population whose best working years are still ahead," he says.

Yet the rise of a minority group this distinct requires major adjustments, as well. Already, Hispanics are spurring U.S. institutions to accommodate a second linguistic group. The Labor Dept. and Social Security Administration are hiring more Spanish-language administrators to cope with the surge in Spanish speakers in the workforce. Politicians, too, increasingly reach out to Hispanics in their own language.

What's not yet clear is whether Hispanic social cohesion will be so strong as to actually challenge the idea of the American melting pot. At the extreme, ardent assimilationists worry that the spread of Spanish eventually could prompt Congress to recognize it as an official second language, much as French is in Canada today. Some even predict a Quebec-style Latino dominance in states such as Texas and California that will encourage separatism, a view expressed in a recent book called Mexifornia: A State of Becoming by Victor Davis Hanson, a history professor at California State University at Fresno. These views have recently been echoed by Harvard University political scientist Samuel P. Huntington in a forthcoming book, Who Are We.

These critics argue that legions of poorly educated non-English speakers undermine the U.S. economy. Although the steady influx of low-skilled workers helps keep America's gardens tended and floors cleaned, those workers also exert downward pressure on wages across the lower end of the pay structure. Already, this is causing friction with African Americans, who see their jobs and pay being hit. "How are we going to compete in a global market when 50% of our fastest-growing group doesn't graduate from high school?" demands former Colorado Governor Richard D. Lamm, who now co-directs a public policy center at the University of Denver.

Still, many experts think it's more likely that the U.S. will find a new model, more salad bowl than melting pot, that accommodates a Latino subgroup without major upheaval. "America has to learn to live with diversity -- the change in population, in [Spanish-language] media, in immigration," says Andrew Erlich, the founder of Erlich Transcultural Consultants Inc. in North Hollywood, Calif. Hispanics aren't so much assimilating as acculturating -- acquiring a new culture while retaining their original one -- says Felipe Korzenny, a professor of Hispanic marketing at Florida State University.

It boils down to this: How much will Hispanics change America, and how much will America change them? Throughout the country's history, successive waves of immigrants eventually surrendered their native languages and cultures and melted into the middle class. It didn't always happen right away. During the great European migrations of the 1800s, Germans settled in an area stretching from Pennsylvania to Minnesota. They had their own schools, newspapers, and businesses, and spoke German, says Demetrios G. Papademetriou, co-founder of the Migration Policy Institute in Washington. But in a few generations, their kids spoke only English and embraced American aspirations and habits.

Hispanics may be different, and not just because many are nonwhites. True, Maria Velazquez worries that her boys may lose their Spanish and urges them to speak it more. Even so, Hispanics today may have more choice than other immigrant groups to remain within their culture. With national TV networks such as Univision Communications Inc. (UVN ) and hundreds of mostly Spanish-speaking enclaves like Cicero, Hispanics may find it practical to remain bilingual. Today, 78% of U.S. Latinos speak Spanish, even if they also know English, according to the Census Bureau.

Back and Forth
The 21 million Mexicans among them also have something else no other immigrant group has had: They're a car ride away from their home country. Many routinely journey back and forth, allowing them to maintain ties that Europeans never could. The dual identities are reinforced by the constant influx of new Latino immigrants -- roughly 400,000 a year, the highest flow in U.S. history. The steady stream of newcomers will likely keep the foreign-born, who typically speak mostly or only Spanish, at one-third of the U.S. Hispanic population for several decades. Their presence means that "Spanish is constantly refreshed, which is one of the key contrasts with what people think of as the melting pot," says Roberto Suro, director of the Pew Hispanic Center, a Latino research group in Washington.

A slow pace of assimilation is likely to hurt Hispanics themselves the most, especially poor immigrants who show up with no English and few skills. Latinos have long lagged in U.S. schools, in part because many families remain cloistered in Spanish-speaking neighborhoods. Their strong work ethic can compound the problem by propelling many young Latinos into the workforce before they finish high school. So while the Hispanic high-school-graduation rate has climbed 12 percentage points since 1980, to 57%, that's still woefully short of the 88% for non-Hispanic whites and 80% for African Americans.

Meld into the Mainstream
The failure to develop skills leaves many Hispanics trapped in low-wage service jobs that offer few avenues for advancement. Incomes may not catch up anytime soon, either, certainly not for the millions of undocumented Hispanics. Most of these, from Mexican street-corner day laborers in Los Angeles to Guatemalan poultry-plant workers in North Carolina, toil in the underbelly of the U.S. economy. Many low-wage Hispanics would fare better economically if they moved out of the barrios and assimilated into U.S. society. Most probably face less racism than African Americans, since Latinos are a diverse ethnic and linguistic group comprising every nationality from Argentinians, who have a strong European heritage, to Dominicans, with their large black population. Even so, the pull of a common language may keep many in a country apart.

Certainly immigrants often head for a place where they can get support from fellow citizens, or even former neighbors. Some 90% of immigrants from Tonatico, a small town 100 miles south of Mexico City, head for Waukegan, Ill., joining 5,000 Tonaticans already there. In Miami, of course, Cubans dominate. "Miami has Hispanic banks, Hispanic law firms, Hispanic hospitals, so you can more or less conduct your entire life in Spanish here," says Leopoldo E. Guzman, 57. He came to the U.S. from Cuba at 15 and turned a Columbia University degree into a job at Lazard Frères & Co. before founding investment bank Guzman & Co.

Or take the Velazquezes' home of Cicero, a gritty factory town that once claimed fame as Al Capone's headquarters. Originally populated mostly by Czechs, Poles, and Slovaks, the Chicago suburb started decaying in the 1970s as factories closed and residents fled in search of jobs. Then a wave of young Mexican immigrants drove the population to its current Hispanic dominance, up from 1% in 1970. Today, the town president, equivalent to a mayor, is a Mexican immigrant, Ramiro Gonzalez, and Hispanics have replaced whites in the surviving factories and local schools. It's still possible that Cicero's Latino children will follow the path of so many other immigrants and move out into non-Hispanic neighborhoods. If they do, they, or at least their children, will likely all but abandon Spanish, gradually marry non-Hispanics, and meld into the mainstream.

But many researchers and academics say that's not likely for many Hispanics. In fact, a study of assimilation and other factors shows that while the number of Hispanics who prefer to speak mostly Spanish has dipped in recent years as the children of immigrants grow up with English, there has been no increase in those who prefer only English. Instead, the HispanTelligence study found that the group speaking both languages has climbed six percentage points since 1995, to 63%, and is likely to jump to 67% by 2010.

The trend to acculturate rather than assimilate is even more stark among Latino youth. Today, 97% of Mexican kids whose parents are immigrants and 76% of other Hispanic immigrant children know Spanish, even as nearly 90% also speak English very well, according to a decade-long study by University of California at Irvine sociologist Rubén G. Rumbaut. More striking, those Latino kids keep their native language at four times the rate of Filipino, Vietnamese, or Chinese children of immigrants. "Before, immigrants tried to become Americans as soon as possible," says Sergio Bendixen, founder of Bendixen & Associates, a polling firm in Coral Gables, Fla., that specializes in Hispanics. "Now, it's the opposite."

Selling in Spanish
A few companies are even going all-Spanish. After local Hispanic merchants stole much of its business in a Houston neighborhood that became 85% Latino, Kroger Co. (KR ), the nation's No.1 grocery chain, spent $1.8 million last year to convert the 59,000-sq.-ft. store into an all-Hispanic supermercado. Now, Spanish-language signs welcome customers, and catfish and banana leaves line the aisles. Across the country, Kroger has expanded its private-label Buena Comida line from the standard rice and beans to 105 different items.

As the ranks of Spanish speakers swell, Spanish-language media are transforming from a niche market into a stand-alone industry. Ad revenues on Spanish-language TV should climb by 16% this year, more than other media segments, according to TNS Media Intelligence/CMR. The audience of Univision, the No.1 Spanish-language media conglomerate in the U.S., has soared by 44% since 2001, and by 146% in the 18- to 34-year-old group. Many viewers have come from English-language networks, whose audiences have declined in that period.

The Hispanicizing of America raises a number of political flash points. Over the years, periodic backlashes have erupted in areas with fast-growing Latino populations, notably former California Governor Pete Wilson's 1994 effort, known as Proposition 187, to ban social services to undocumented immigrants. English-only laws, which limit or prohibit schools and government agencies from using Spanish, have passed in some 18 states. Most of these efforts have been ineffective, but they're likely to continue as the Latino presence increases.

For more than 200 years, the nation has succeeded in weaving the foreign-born into the fabric of U.S. society, incorporating strands of new cultures along the way. With their huge numbers, Hispanics are adding all kinds of new influences. Cinco de Mayo has joined St. Patrick's Day as a public celebration in some neighborhoods, and burritos are everyday fare. More and more, Americans hablan Español. Will Hispanics be absorbed just as other waves of immigrants were? It's possible, but more likely they will continue to straddle two worlds, figuring out ways to remain Hispanic even as they become Americans. 

Why Are Latinos Leading Blacks In The Job Market? 
By Roger O. Crockett in Chicago

The booming Hispanic labor force turns out to have an unexpected side effect: Latinos are outperforming blacks in the job market. Part of the reason stems from the fact that many Hispanics have less education or are vulnerable illegal immigrants willing to work for less pay. Economic and cultural factors play a role, too, say some experts, such as Latino immigrants' higher willingness to change cities to find a job. Add it up, and "many are hired to do work that blacks once had," says the Reverend Jesse Jackson.

No question, Latinos have fared better in the job market recently. Despite the recession and the jobless recovery, their employment has surged by 27% since 1999, to 17.4 million last year, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (charts). Meanwhile, the number of employed blacks fell by 400,000 over this period, to 14.7 million. True, the Hispanic jobless rate has climbed two percentage points since its 2000 low, to 7.7% last year. That's because Latinos have entered the labor force to look for work at a faster pace than jobs have become available. Of course, Hispanics are highly diverse, so the total stat masks the 10% jobless rate for Puerto Rican men, for example, vs. a 6% rate for Cuban men, who tend to have more education. Still, black joblessness not only has been higher than the Latino average for years but has also jumped more: three percentage points since 2000, to 10.8% last year.

Why such differences, even though there are roughly the same number of blacks and Hispanics in the U.S.? Chalk most of it up to the several hundred thousand Latinos pouring into the U.S. every year, mostly from Mexico. While many head for neighborhoods where they know someone, others have no established roots and are freer to chase jobs from California to North Carolina.

Hispanics are also more likely to work in industries that have defied economic malaise, including agriculture, construction, and services such as laundry and landscaping. Construction has added 670,000 jobs in the past three years as builders kept pace with booming demand. Fully 12.5% of employed Hispanics work in construction, while only 4.7% of blacks do.

Meanwhile, blacks have a long history of disproportionate employment in manufacturing, finance, and government -- all hit hard in recent years. Over 10% work in manufacturing, which shed nearly 1 million jobs in the past year. While 13% of Latinos work in factories, too, blacks are focused in much harder-hit durable goods such as cars, steel, and electronics. So they suffered factory-job losses of almost 500,000 since December, 2000, while Latinos, who tend to work in less affected industries, such as food processing, lost only 65,000 factory posts.

Latinos' willingness to work for less pay may play a role in their faster hiring rate, too. At $440, the average weekly earnings of Hispanics are nearly 15% less than what blacks make and 31% less than whites. A lot of that reflects Hispanics' lower educational levels. More-educated blacks have walked away from the $9 an hour offered to entry-level workers by Canyon Fireplace in Anaheim, Calif. But Hispanics "take it and run," says owner Robert D. Lewis. The outcome: More Latinos than blacks are rising with the employment tide. 

In early February, BusinessWeek Correspondent Brian Grow spoke with Graciela Eleta, 41, vice-president and general manager of P&G's multicultural-marketing team, about why the company is ramping up efforts to capture the Hispanic market and whether Hispanics are changing the way America does business. Following are edited excerpts from their conversation: 

Question: You've said Hispanics are a key cornerstone of future growth in North America for Procter & Gamble. Why?
Answer: It's obvious -- the changing face of North America. Today, the ratio of people over 70 years old is one to five [for Caucasians] vs. people of ethnic origin. In the less-than-29-years-old category, the ratio is one to one. So, you can expect that a full one of every two consumers in North America will be of ethnic origin -- and about a quarter will be Hispanic. 

We're looking at the multicultural arena as the wave of the future. Not participating in this growing demographic is no longer an option.

Here Come The Latino Home Buyers 
Former HUD Secretary Henry Cisneros says by decade's end, this group will buy some 3 million homes, including thousands from his company 

Few executives have had as varied a career as Henry Cisneros. He was the first Hispanic mayor of a major U.S. city (San Antonio). Later, he served as U.S. Housing & Urban Development Secretary under President Clinton and then as president of Hispanic broadcaster Univision Communications (UVN ) in the 1990s. 

Question: Isn't the reason that builders neglected these neighborhoods because the residents couldn't afford new homes?
Answer: We're working a lot with lenders. Now they pay attention to things like the way they count rental experience, they help people correct credit problems. 

The Latino population is immensely hard-working. It's low-wage, but they have two, three, or four workers per household. In Southern California, 52% had at least three workers in the home. So the whole household functions as a middle-class unit. They may work as gardeners, but when you have three people working, they live like the middle class. It's a huge phenomenon. 

Question: So immigration, from your perspective, is still a good thing for the U.S.?
Answer: It's going to be one of the saving graces of our country. Japan, like Germany, France, and Italy, is worried about the aging and homogeneity of their population. They are facing negative growth scenarios. Here in the U.S., we have this younger, hard-working population, whose best working years are still ahead. 

Most Americans don't recognize what an asset this is. Most people think they are less educated. They speak with an accent, but they are a huge contribution to the country. 

Question: Are Hispanics changing the way America does business?
Answer: Yes. They are forcing companies to come to grips with marketing as we have known it in the past. The era of efficient marketing -- where you blanketed America with one, generic, white-bread message -- is gone. With fragmentation -- cable TV, the Internet, Hispanics, African Americans -- you really are faced with the challenge of how to touch that consumer in a cost-efficient, relevant, and timely way. 


Latino New Urbanism
623 North Azusa Ave.  Azusa, CA 91702,  Phone: (626) 969-5599, Fax: (626) 969-3969
Sent by Robert Gonzales

Heroism, Ferry Accident in Washington, D.C.

Source of information Major Millie Rosa
Sent by JV Martinez

The Air Force Section Battle Commander for the 141st Air Control Squadron of the Puerto Rico Air National Guard is assigned to the nation's capitol to maintain air space security, that includes serving as air traffic controllers and maintaining communications equipment. About this mission, LTC Juan Jose Medina said, " Morale is high and we are extremely proud to have been chosen to protect the nation's capital ." Unexpectedly and through a fortunate coincidence the Rican National Guard was able to came to the rescue of passengers that were being transported on a ferry, a 36 foot pontoon boat , that capsized on March 6 in the Baltimore Harbor. (Reference: March 8 edition.)

The four airmen , MSG David Blakeley, SSG Antonio Acosta, SSG Alejandro Gonzalez, SSG Luis Nazario , happened to be on board the ferry named Seaport Taxi , a two ton boat, which was capsized by a sudden and unexpected air burst sending all the 25 passengers into the bay and of which only 22 survived. The airmen , who were on a pleasure trip on their day off, escaped from the boat by first breaking the windows, well underwater, and were able to help other passengers swim to safety despite 40 degree waters. Three passengers did not survive, a six-year old child and a 26-year old couple. All four airmen sustained minor injuries for which they received medical treatment at a local medical facility, and released. They authorized release of their names and the statements but did not consent to media interviews.

Gonzalez , who suffered a cut on his head from a brush with the remaining broken window while escaping, said, "I don't know how to swim so I don't know how I got out. I just commended myself to God and asked him to give me one last breath to see my children." Gonzalez, "Two minutes after I was up and still catching my breath I was called by Acosta to help Blakeley bring up the crew mate."

Blakeley expressed , "An angel saved me because I can not remember how I got out. I was the last one from our group of to come out. When the boat turned over water started coming in really fast. As the water started coming up to what was now the top of the boat I took a deep breath. A feeling of tranquility came over me and I thought about my wife and the soldiers with me. As I got ready to exhale I saw a light and the next thing I knew I was on the surface and saw our guys. As I came up I saw our guys and breathed a sigh of relief. I saw a couple with a child who still had 2 kids at the bottom and they were screaming for someone to help them. I swam down and felt a foot and got the crew mate who was turning purple. Acosta and Nazario gave him CPR and brought him back to life." An older man floated up and Acosta grabbed him by his jacket whereupon he and Gonzalez pulled him in. An older woman was helped by Nazario and Gonzalez.

Survivors managed to reach the top of the boat on their own or were helped to do so. The overturned boat was about 1,000 feet from shore. The survivors were then rescued by the Navy Reserve. A female Navy Reservist by the name of Cruz , who was not on the boat, secured dry clothing, blankets, food for the survivors, including the airmen, and helped them to reach warm shelter. The involvement of Cruz, a Puerto Rican herself, shows that indeed it is a small world being that she took part in the rescue to provide critical comfort to other Puerto Ricans.

Gonzalez added , "When the RC (Naval Reserve) came up they got into the water without a second's thought to get the others that were still down." He added the RC rescuers did not even stop to put on wet suits, they just dove right in. In light of the fact they were victims of the accident and still went on to save others Gonzalez said, "We were just at the right place at the wrong time."



Smithsonian Castle
1000 Jefferson Dr., SW.

National Archives Rotunda

World War II Memorial Dedication Hispanic activities 
at the National Archives and the Smithsonian

Plans are taking shape for the events being coordinated through the efforts of Latino Advocates for Education and the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research in collaboration with Sam Anthony, Director of Program Lectures at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, D.C. 

Friday, May 28 and Sunday, May 30 in the Washington Room (Room 121) - lectures, book signings, and panel discussions World War II Hispanic American Heroes: One and Apart.  Over 500,000 Hispanic Americans served in the Army, Army Air Corps, Navy, Marines, and Coast Guard. Historians, veterans, and authors will discuss the lives of several of these veterans.   Each event will be 90 minute in length, including prepared remarks by the author/historian, and a question and answer session with the audience. These lectures will be held in the Washington Room (Room 121), and are free and open to the public.  Reservations are recommended, but not required. 

Friday, May 28 at 10:30 a.m. - Lt. Colonel Henry Cervantes, USAF (Ret.) will discuss his book, "PILOTO, Migrant Worker to Jet Pilot".  Born to a family of migrant workers, through initiative and determination, Hank Cervantes was able to rise above the want and misery of the Great Depression to succeed in a profession where few Latinos have. After serving as a pilot in the "Bloody 100th" Bomb Group in Europe during World War II, Hank returned to the States and pursued a military career that eventually earned him the rank of Lt. Colonel and a position in the Strategic Air Command (SAC) overseeing development of the top-secret B-58 Hustler, the world's first supersonic bomber. 

Friday, May 28 at 1 p.m. - Guy Gabaldon, USMC (Ret.) will discuss his service in WW2 and the film Hell to Eternity, based on his experiences in WW2.  Marine PFC Gabaldon received the Silver Star (later Navy Cross) for actions performed on Saipan in 1944 when he captured over one-thousand Japanese soldiers and civilians.  Will have video (Aguirre will have 15 minute video from 'This is your life')

Friday, May 28 at 3 p.m. - Dr. Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez will present, "Unsung Heroes: Mexican American WWII Veterans Who Championed Latino Civil Rights."  Based on her forthcoming book from the University of Texas Press.  Rivas-Rodriguez, Director of U.S. Latino and Latina WWII Oral History Project at the University of Texas at Austin, will be joined by veteran Virgilio Roel, who served with the 517TH Parachute Infantry Regiment in the European Theater.  Mr. Roel became a federal judge in American Samoa from July 1962 to September 1967 and is a member of Hispanic civil rights organizations, including the American GI Forum.  This Oral History Project consists of interviews of over 450 Latinas and Latinos throughout the country.

Friday evening, May 28th, at 6:30 p.m., a reception will be held in the Smithsonian Castle.  The reception is being sponsored by:

Latino Advocates for Education, Inc.
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
American G.I. Forum
Veterans in Community Service, Inc.
Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives

The reception will honor World War II Hispanic/Latino Veterans.  White House and Pentagon dignitaries, including congressional leaders will be in attendance.  Senator Orrin Hatch, Congresswoman Loretta Sanchez and Congressman Ed Royce have agreed to act as Honorary Hosts of the reception.

For information, email or
Please write, Reception information requested  in the subject window.

Sunday, May 30 at 10:30 a.m.
- Dr. Bruce Ashcroft will present "Verneda Rodriguez, Rosita the Riveter, and the Contributions of Latinas during World War II."  The contribution of Latina women to the World War II effort is an emerging story - while these women did not fight on the front lines overseas, they served the nation in a multitude of ways.  The session will focus primarily upon the career of Verneda Rodriguez, one of about 1,000 women pilots who flew in support of the U.S. military during the war.   A discussion of Latinas in the military and in industry provides additional examples of their service will be followed by a question and answer session with the audience.   Ashcroft is an historian with the Air Force at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas.

Sunday, May 30 at 1 p.m. - Historians Frederick and Linda Aguirre will discuss "America's Patriots:  Mexican Americans in World War II" and "Books in Progress: Profiles of Mexican American Veterans of WW2."   Profiles of veterans include:  Pete Limon, USS Swan, Pearl Harbor attack survivor; Lt. Col. Gil Encinas Kuhn, 8th Air Force, B-17 Pilot; Salvador Maldonado, survivor of the sinking of the USS Indianapolis; Henry Duran, Battle of Corregidor and POW; Manuel Grajeda, Battle of Remagen Bridge; Alfred Aguirre and Eutiquio Martinez, Battle of Okinawa; David Gonzalez, Medal of Honor recipient; Julia P. Aguirre and Sara A. Miranda, "Rosie Riveters"; Al Garcia and his 5 brothers who served during World War II.  By example, we honor the 500,000 Mexican Americans who courageously fought in every battle in the Pacific and European theaters.
Extract: Immigration: What Reform Will Bring to our Nation 
Sent by Lourdes Tinajero

WASHINGTON, March 3, PRNewswire-FirstCall

At the National Press Club forum, "Immigration: What Reform Will Bring to our Nation," Charlie Fote, chairman and CEO of First Data Corp called for action: "First Data Corp. and its subsidiary, Western Union, step forward to join a national call for a more enlightened debate. We seek and support ways to allow the voices of those most affected to be heard. This is a critical issue for our country and our consumers." 

The forum panelists included leaders from the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials (NALEO), the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI), North American Integration and Development Center/UCLA. 

In the spirit of the forum's discussion, Charlie Fote, chairman and CEO of First Data Corp. said, "First Data proudly announces our $10 million commitment to the communities we serve here and abroad. By creating the First Data Empowerment Fund, we are announcing our intention to act as a long-term and active participant in the dialogue relating to critical issues such as immigration reform and economic empowerment."  "This debate must take place in full support of the respect and dignity of immigrants and their families," Fote stated.

Fote indicated that any legislation implementing immigration reform should honor the following principles:

     *  A new immigration policy must recognize that immigrants strengthen the
        U.S. economy and diversify the social fabric of our society.

     *  Any new policy must address the educational and health needs of
        immigrants' children. Children are our future -- they cannot
        be ignored.

    *  The policy must contain a mechanism to reduce the backlog of families
       seeking to immigrate to the U.S.

     *  There must be a fundamental reassessment of U.S. immigration and
        migrant worker policies, practices and laws as a means of living up to
        our democratic values.

     *  A new policy must contain new regulations and requirements that are
        reasonable, enforceable and not overly burdensome to businesses or

     *  There must be an acknowledgement that the solution to inhibiting
        undocumented immigration must address economic development and growth
        issues in the exporting countries from which immigrants come.

     *  The new policy must appropriately balance the concerns of immigrants
        with the need to protect U.S. residents. 

Congressional seats held by Hispanics

Although 1 of every 3 Californians is Latino, they hold only 1 of 8 California congressional seats. Latinos hold 1 of every 4 seats in the state Capitol. While it is more difficult to determine the ratio among local elected officials, the Latino elected officials group estimates that about 1 in 20 local 
elected spots are held by Latinos. Copley News Service, extract from Demographics suggest Latino's clout could be much greater than it is.  February 29, 2004

¡Si! Something must be done! 

By Ricardo Castañón/HispanicVista

Occupational accidental death rate 
Mexican workers one in 16,000
US-born worker one in 28,000. 

An investigation conducted by The Associated Press, compared safety statistics among various ethnic groups. Justin Pritchard (AP) reports that the study covered from 1996 through 2002 and based its findings on data from the US Bureau of labor statistics.

The annual death rate for Mexican workers was found to be -one in 16,000- while the average US born worker was -one in 28,000. Our brothers are more likely to be killed than other workers doing similar work. Kids in their teens get buried in ditches at construction sites or in the fields. Others get torn apart by heavy equipment -it is gruesome.

Ignorance of the language and over eagerness are the major reasons why.

Hispanic-Americans who master both languages fluently, need to start an educational campaign to get these folks to read bilingual materials. While there are some cases where indigenous immigrants don't even read Spanish, they still have that same drive to progress as the next guy. They will welcome every opportunity to improve their condition.

Advocacy groups should distribute bilingual fliers at the work place. Workshops should be organized to train legions of volunteers that would visit work sites and conduct preventive seminars on safety standards. English reading and writing courses should be offered by bilingual instructors to the workers and their families.

Pictures of accidents should be distributed along with slogans like:

"Don't let this happen to you!" "No permitas que esto te pase a ti!"

"Do NOT become an statistic!" "No te combiertas en estadistica!"

"READ, learn English!" "Lee, aprende Inglés!"

There are myriads of other messages that would have a positive effect on our folks. We owe it to our heritage, to our family principles and values. We MUST lend a helping hand and try to remedy this awful situation. They are out there helplessly in the middle of the battlefield. Few to guide them and many awaiting to take their place.

We need to reach these folks NOW! We cannot wait 'till Spanish seminars are set up at conference rooms. How would undocumented folks learn about time, place and program' schedules? Even if they did, they are not likely to attend for fear of revealing their status and
potential deportation.

I urge those of us in the printing business, in the paper industry, in the translation services, in the
publishing fields... to PLEASE pitch in. We need to design, print, and distribute thousands over thousands of multi color fliers. We need to get Spanish worded safety warnings and instructions to them. We need to make an effort to reach them out of their foxholes.

Whether by volunteer workers going to the field, or by dropping them them of from an airplane, these fliers would be the first step in a truly effective method to improve their chances. The bright color fliers would catch their attention and make them think twice about the issue. Maybe even talk among themselves about it, and that's the goal we attempt to achieve.

Documented or not, they are human beings in an strange territory. They are easy prey for all kinds of use and abuse by others. We have a moral and a traditional obligation to prevent that from happening. Most importantly, we need to let them know they are NOT alone! Their hopes would be re-lit learning that those of us already aboard are reaching out for them.

They are as soft clay now, but they have an iron heart and a healthy brain. I know there is another Rosario Marin, another Andres Bermudez-Viramontes aka the "Tomato King" among them. Some of these now humble immigrants will eventually father and rear to maturity another Cesar Chavez, another Ricardo Sanchez, another Edward J. Olmos, another Hector Elizondo and etceteras.
This is how our Hispanic genes get perpetuated along with our traditional values.

The time for community reunion is NOW! Top and bottom constitute our union, our moral heritage. Let us pull together in a worthy cause! Let us invest in the future of our nation within our greater nation! Let us show every one, but most importantly to ourselves and our siblings, what we are made of. Let us put that fiber to the test. comfort and abundance have not softened it, we simply had not had an occasion to bring it about. Well... the time has come. Unbutton your shirt and open up your heart. Think and act as your conscience commands. I know we are all connected.

Verdad que... Si?

Ricardo Castañón is a bilingual essayist contributing weekly columns to He has authored an anthology of motivational articles. Book information is at Ricardo is based in El Paso, TX He can be reached at          
10520 Elmridge Ct. El Paso, TX 79925

Smithsonian Institute for Interpretation & Representation of Latino Cultures, June 21 to July 2, 2004

Application deadline April 9, 2004
For more information: or send an e-mail

In 2002, scholars in Latino studies, archivists, and museum professions convened in Washington, D.C.. The purpose was to examine the current status of research and educational literature on the interpretation, representation, and documentation of Latino cultures in museums and academic programs within the United States and Puerto Rico.  It is now available online in its entirety, and absolutely free of charge.  Check it out at:

Rise in Hispanics and Asian-Americans Is Predicted
March 18, 2004, By REUTERS

Sent by John Inclan

WASHINGTON, March 17 (Reuters) - The Hispanic and Asian-American populations in the United States are expected to triple by 2050, when non-Hispanic whites would account for the barest majority, according to a Census Bureau report to be released Thursday. 

Hispanic-Americans would make up nearly a quarter of the nation's population at mid-century, the report says. 

"This is going to be the workforce that sustains us as a nation, so we can make choices today that are dramatically going to change the outlook 20 or 30 years from now," Sonia Perez of the National Council of La Raza said Wednesday, referring to coming national elections. 

The number of Hispanic-Americans should rise to nearly 103 million from about 36 million, and their share of the population would nearly double, to 24.4 percent from 12.6 percent, the bureau report says. 

Asian-Americans, who now make up 3.8 percent of the populace, would represent 8 percent by mid-century, it says. Their numbers would increase to more than 33 million from nearly 11 million. 

The American population over all should also continue to grow, to about 420 million in 2050 from 282 million in 2000, the report says. But non-Hispanic whites would add only moderately to their numbers, to 210 million from 196 million. They would make up just 50.1 percent of the population in 2050, compared with 69.4 percent four years ago, when the last census was taken. 

The black population is projected to rise to 61 million from 36 million, raising its share of the total population to 14.6 percent from 12.7 percent. 

PBS Presents New Miniseries Entitled "The New Americans"  
Sent by Howard Shorr

On March 29, 30, & 31, 2004, PBS will be premiering a seven-hour
miniseries THE NEW AMERICANS. "The series focuses on the search for the American Dream through the eyes of today's immigrants and refugees." (Independent Television Service (ITVS) ) An extensive series guide and activity book can be downloaded from http://www.itvsorg/outreach/newamericans/guide/

To be aired on Oregon Public Broadcasting: 
On the Net:
EPISODE 1 (Monday, March 29)
The two-hour film introduces Barine, Israel and Ngozi, refugees from Nigeria; Dominicans Ricardo Rodriguez and Jose Garcia, highly promising baseball players; and Naima, a young Palestinian woman who marries a Palestinian-American, Hatem.

EPISODE 2 (Tuesday, March 30)
This two-hour episode shows how the subjects struggle in differing ways and degrees to leave their countries of origin and then grapple with the initial culture shock of being in the United States. The second hour of the program introduces Pedro Flores, a Mexican meatpacker living in Liberal, Kansas, as he returns home to see his large, gregarious family on their ranch outside of Guanajuato.

EPISODE 3 (Wednesday, March 31, 9 pm)
The three-hour final episode continues to record the ups and downs of the individuals introduced in the previous programs, and incorporates the story of Anjan, an Indian computer programmer, and his wife Harshani and their adjustment to life in the U.S.

The magic of Gregory Nava's 'American Family' returns
By LYNN ELBER, Associated Press, March 30, 2004

At a theater screening of ''American Family,'' creator Gregory Nava got the reaction he wanted - and the one he hopes to draw from TV viewers.
       The audience of about 900 weighed in as two characters, a pro-Iraq War father and his anti-war daughter, exchanged angry words about the conflict in which another relative is serving.

       ''They went crazy. Some people supported Jess and they were applauding him,'' Nava recalled. ''Some people supported Nina and they were applauding her. You could see the division in the country right there in the audience.''
       When the argument ended in a seemingly irreparable rift between the two, ''the theater turned stone silent,'' Nava said.
       That told him he had made his point.
       ''Because that's really what the show is about. The show's not about the politics of it, it's about the human emotion and how that affects people,'' he said. ''Here are these two people that love each other and they're going to be torn apart by political events.''
       Using real events as a catalyst for the second season of PBS' ''American Family,'' about a Mexican-American clan in East Los Angeles, made sense to Nava.
       In fact, he's confounded by how television and pop culture in general steadfastly ignore the world's cauldron of conflict.
       ''Here we are in one of the most momentous changes the country's gone through since World War II and all of our lives are being changed forever,'' he said.
       Artists have an obligation to address that, said Nava, who speaks with the same vibrant enthusiasm and openness that infuses his work.
       ''It's something that people in the country need because that's something that drama's about, right? It's to entertain us, but in doing that to help us get through what's going on. It needs to be a healing experience, doesn't it?''
       ''Me, personally, I couldn't see it any other way. I have a family, an American family, and this is what American families are going through right now. It was obvious.''
       Nava gained attention as a writer-director in 1984 with the acclaimed ''El Norte,'' about oppressed Guatemalan teenagers seeking haven in the United States. In his varied career, he has written and directed ''Selena'' and wrote the screenplay for ''Frida.''
       ''American Family,'' Nava's rare television foray, reaches back in 13 new episodes (debuting 7 p.m. EST Sunday) to relate the history of the Gonzalez family as well its present-day joys and sorrows.
       With a year's gap between the first and second seasons, Nava uses a Los Angeles wedding scene to reintroduce the characters of the saga, which also takes place in Iraq and revolutionary-era Mexico.
       Edward James Olmos (''Miami Vice,'' ''Stand and Deliver'') stars as family patriarch Jess Gonzalez, along with Constance Marie (''The George Lopez Show'') as activist daughter Nina and Yancey Arias (''Kingpin'') as eldest son Conrado, an Army doctor.
       Esai Morales (''NYPD Blue''), Rachel Ticotin (''Total Recall'') and young Parker Torres play other Gonzalez children, with Raquel Welch upping the series' glamour quotient as Aunt Dora.
       Sonia Braga is another family member, an ephemeral one: Her character, Jess' wife, died last season. That's part of the Latin American literary tradition of magical realism infusing the drama, and which Nava calls true to the tone of such novels as ''One Hundred Years of Solitude'' by Gabriel Garcia Marquez.
       ''If you take the hard social reality out of it, it just becomes like a fairy tale type of thing,'' he said of the art form, which can open ''the doors to the past'' and fuse it with the present.
       ''We start to question what this country's about. What are we going to do, what's our future going to be?''
       Nava tips his hat to another literary lion, Charles Dickens, as an inspiration. Dickens detailed society's shortcomings in novels including ''Oliver Twist'' and published them in serialized form.
       As Nava sees it, ''American Family'' is a complete tale, a movie offered up in 13 parts. Does that mean the series itself, the first broadcast drama about a Hispanic family, is over after two seasons?
       ''Obviously, anything can be continued,'' said Jacoba Atlas, PBS' co-chief programming executive who doesn't preclude a third year if the creative and financial stars align. ''This is a very rich family experience and Greg is a very creative person. But there is a conclusion to this storytelling.''

Family Fact of the Week: Grand-Parents 
Source: World congress of Families: Family Update, Online
"In 2002, 5.6 million children were living in households with a grandparent present (8 percent of all children). ...The majority of children living with grandparents lived in households where the grandparent was the householder (3.7 million). Although these children were using housing resources provided by grandparents, 65 percent (2.4 million) had at least one parent in the household. 

(Source: Jason Fields, "Children's Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002," Current Population Reports, P20-547, United States Census Bureau, June 2003;




The Submarine Training


Parks USN Officers June 1949  

Front Row: Left toRight: Lt. Francis B. Busch, Chief Engineer --- Ensign Marvin S. Hutchinson, Supply Officer------ Commander Herbert G. Claudius, Commanding Officer --- Ensign Albert Bailey Hallman, Assistant Engineer --- Lieutenant R.K. Stewart Cole, First Lieutenant. 

Back Row: Left to Right: Ltjg Harold A. Bres, Jr. Operations Officer --- Lieutenant Daniel M. Karcher, Executive Officer --- Ensign Lewis A. Shea Jr., First Division Officer --- Ensign Robert M. Weidman Jr., Communications Officer --- Ensign Paul E. Trejo, Gunnery Officer
 --- Ensign Albert G. Cohen, Second Division Officer. 

I was detached from the Floyd B. Parks (DD-884) at the Naval Shipyard, Hunters Point, San Francisco, CA on December 8th, 1950, with orders to proceed to the U.S. Naval Submarine School at New London, Connecticut. I had a months leave, with a reporting in date of January 8th , 1951. At that time, my family comprised my wife Ruth Emelia, son Leslie age three, and daughter Catherine Ann age one. We left the shipyard and drove south to Pacific Grove, CA, for a brief visit with my folks. We then drove to Fullerton, CA, for a visit with Ruth’s parents, Sophia and Loyd Holley. We returned to San Diego, where we rented our home on a six months lease, since I fully intended to return there after Submarine School, packed up the old 1941 Pontiac and on December 15th headed cross country. We took the southern route to avoid the ice and snow, especially since the Pontiac had seen better days. We had major engine problems resulting in Tucson, Arizona resulting in a weeks stay at a motel, and more car problems in Hobbs, New Mexico. Any one who has traveled with a small child and a infant is aware of the trauma that can result with the parents.



Floyd B. Parks (DD-884) approaching the USS Boxer (CV-21) (A CV is Fleet Aircraft Carrier) off Singapore on April 24, 1950,  to pick me up. I had been on board the Boxer for three days as the head gunnery observer on a Fleet exercise shoot. Notice the number 2 gun mount is elevated. This is so a "High Line" can be fastened of the bridge of the destroyer and passed over to the carrier. I rode the highline back to the Parks in a Boatswain's Chair.

The Parks 
at the Singapore Man-O-War Anchorage, April 29, 1950. 

We were part of a task force 
sent down to support the British 
who were fighting HUK Insurgents 
on the Malay Peninsula at the time.

May 1950, Floyd B Parks (DD-884), and John R. Craig (DD-885), 
on our way home  from WESTPAC   cruise.  

We traveled through Dalles, Texas, to Shreveport, Louisiana, then East to Vicksburg, Mississippi. It was there that I gained my first impression that the Southerners were still fighting the Civil War. In a park in front of the state capitol building was a monument dedicated "To Our Beloved Civil War Dead" It was and obelisk about 50 feet high, that looked like a small replica of the Washington Monument, extremely impressive. Not far from it was a very small monument and plaque, dedicated to our "Beloved World War Two Dead". Going East, we traveled through Meridian, Mississippi, Montgomery, Alabama, Columbus, Georgia, then over to Savannah. From there we traveled up the Eastern Seaboard to New London Connecticut, where we arrived in the middle of a fierce snow storm. I reported for duty under instruction to the US Naval Submarine School, Groton, on January 4th, 1951, and was assigned officer’s quarters.

The first week involved taking a complete physical, and a rigid battery of written psychological tests, and a long interview with a navy psychologist to see if they could find a flaw in your makeup or character that would make you unsuitable for submarine duty. Next you were required to pass the submarine escape test, which was to train you to escape from a bottomed submarine. A 100 foot tower filled with water was used for this activity. This tower had and elevator up the out side that permitted access into the tower from depths of 25 feet and 50 feet below the top of the tank. Access was also made from the bottom of the tank with 100 feet to the top surface. There were air lock chambers at these level, exactly like the escape trunks found in the forward and after torpedo rooms of Fleet Submarines. You were trained to make and escape through the trunk to the surface of the tank using a Momsen Lung, which was a breathing device that you charged with oxygen. A frogman in Scubba gear would swim up along side you, and if he detects that you are in the slightest trouble, will grab you, hit you in the stomach to expel any residual air in your lungs that may expand and as you go up and burst your lungs, and drag you to the surface.

After making three successful ascents from each depth of 25, 50, and 100 feet, using the Momsen Lung, you were required to make free ascents (escapes) from each of these depths without any device whatever. And these were tricky. In this method, one takes a deep breath, holds it and merely steps out of the airlock. Say you are at the bottom of the tank, the air you breath in the air lock is the same as that of sea pressure at 100 feet depth, so you have a lung full of compressed air. This air in your lungs provides the buoyancy to get you to the surface. In other words your lungs are like balloons full of air. The problem arises in that as you ascend and the pressure around you decreases. Your lungs expand, and will burst if some air is not released through your mouth as you go up. So you must release some of the air, but how much? If you release too much you will lose your buoyance or "run out of gas" and drown, unless you are close enough to the surface to see daylight and can swim up. If you hold too much air in, you are in danger of rising too fast and your lungs bursting as they expand from the reduced pressure. This is known as air embolism and is a leading cause of death among scuba divers who get in trouble and must make a free ascent.

You are safeguarded in this training by a scuba diver who swims up alongside you. If you are letting too much air out and will run out of gas before you reach the top of the tank, he will reach over and grab your nose. If you are holding to much air back and rising too fast he will tap you on the chest. The rule was that you were supposed to follow the bubbles you were releasing from your mouth. If you were passing your own bubbles then you were too buoyant and were rising too fast. If on the other hand, your bubbles were rising rapidly and getting away from you, you were letting out too much air and "would run out of gas" before you reached the surface.

What I have said is a real danger. Civilian scuba divers are lost every year when they get in trouble while diving and attempt a free ascent.

All of us that successfully completed the "Tank" were given certificates. It is one of my treasured documents. We lost two of our officers in the escape training. They just didn’t want to take the training, and were returned to the fleet. Over the years they have only lost two people that I know of in the "Tank" due to some accident, but there could have been more.

Our submarine training was extremely ridged, the idea being that if someone had a hitherto undetected flaw now was the time to find out about it. There were four basic departments at the school: Ordnance, Engineering, Operations and Tactics, and Submarine. Each was headed by a Commander who was a submarine hero from WW-II. There were a lot of Navy Crosses on the chests of this group. All taught classes, and it was a delight to get one to digress into the stories of his war patrols. They were all personable, and though there was a lot if discipline, there was also a lot of informal give and take. There were also a large number of experienced Chief Petty Officers on the staff, and listening to them and heeding their advice was a Godsend. There were two phases to our training, the theoretical " book learning" and the "hands on" practical side. The book learning phase involved considerable classroom work, where every system in a Fleet Submarine was studied in great detail.

For the practical training we were divided into groups or "teams" of six students, and this group stayed together as a team the entire time. The practical side involved the use of high tech simulators and trainers. There was an attack trainer that was the exact replica of the conning tower of a submarine where we learned to make and approach and fire torpedoes. There was a diving trainer where you learned to dive and trim a submarine, and every station being manned a team member, and the stations rotated so that every member could master every diving station. On a Fleet Submarine these were the Conning Officer, Diving Officer, Diving Control Board and Vents Chief ( who was also Chief of the Watch), Trim and Drain Manifold Operator, and Air Manifold Operator.

On the engineering side each team had to change a cylinder and connecting rod on submarine diesel. This was not and easy task, as these engines were huge 1600 Horse Power General Motors Diesels and 1400 horse Power Fairbanks Morse Diesels. Depending on what submarine you were ordered to, you might find either kind installed. This was dirty and difficult work, but it was to teach you what your enlisted ratings had to go through to complete this task. Later on, when I was Chief Engineer on Bashaw this background stood me in good stead.

The at sea phase was a real experience. There were a couple of "School Boats" assigned the task of taking out two teams of officers a day to let us dive a real submarine. Wisely, the operating was in Block Island sound, where the depth was only 200 feet, and the bottom was sand or soft mud. If the boat got out of control during the dive for any reason, the most that could happen was that you would bounce off a sandy bottom, and as the boat was usually backing down emergency at this point, the impact was negligible. Every time a submarine goes to sea, the first dive of the day is called a "trim dive". Prior to diving the boat’s designated diving officer, who is normally the Chief Engineer, makes out a "Diving Compensation Sheet". This sheet records all the changes that have occurred on board since the last trim dive that might affect balance of the submarine. Examples of these are stores or fuel taken on board in port, torpedoes taken on board, or even the addition or loss of a crew member. The Chief Engineer then uses this balance sheet to transfer water between the trim tanks, so that when the boat makes its first dive of the day it will be reasonably in trim.

Our school boat was the USS Bergall (SS-320). Remember this was the dead of winter and the topside and superstructure around the pressure hull of the submarine were covered with ice. I had the first student dive of the day. I filled out the compensation sheet under the supervision of the Chief Engineer. I cleared the bridge and had and dropped to the diving station in the control room.

The two lookouts preceded me off the bridge and dropped down into the control room, the starboard lookout manning the bow planes, and the port lookout manning the stern planes. I bled a shot of high pressure air into the boat, and noted the manometer held at 3 inches of Mercury. This tells you the boat is tight, otherwise the pressure would leak off in a hurry. Next, you observed that the blow and vent manifold has a green board, indicating that all hull openings were closed. If a hull opening had been red, that would probably mean that particular opening was still open, and you would terminate the dive in a helluva hurry. You report to the conning officer in the conning tower, "Green Board Pressure In The Boat", at which time he gives you the ordered depth, usually 60 feet. At about 30 feet you start blowing the negative tank slowly. This is a tank that holds about 20,000 pounds of water, and is designed to get you down in a hurry, but must be blown dry if you are to achieve neutral buoyancy and swim around like a fish. In peacetime you usually dive with about a three to five degrees down angle. At 40 feet you slow to one third speed, as at the start of the dive the speed is usually Standard or Full to help drive the boat under.

What happened in this case is that, I being green as grass, had not take into account the great amount of ice in the super structure of the boat, which in effect made us one giant ice cube, until the ice melted. As a result the Burgall would not go under as expected but seemed to hang up at 30 feet. The Captain in the conning tower began shouting at me to get him down, that there was a destroyer bearing down on him ! I ordered 5,000 pounds of water flooded into the auxiliary tank from sea to make us heavy, thinking that I must have screwed up horribly in the compensation. Then the ice melted, and I was heavy by the 5,000 pound I had just put in. Well the boat started down in a hurry, and I involved the old submarine adage, "BLOW, BACK, AND PRAY".

I also had ordered all back full to make the stern squat. The net result of all this was that I was able to stop the boats rapid decent just short of plowing into the sandy bottom. I was to learn later that this was a favorite trick played on student officers in the Winter Class. I was also told that had I screwed up horribly that was excusable, but had I panicked and frozen at the dive, I would have been on my way back to the surface navy next day. In other words, any thing I did was OK, as long as I did something.

Our class started with 110 officers. We lost 21 along the way for one reason or another, graduating 89. On graduation you were allowed to choose the submarine you wanted to go to by class standing. Each submarine was listed, along with it’s home port. I had worked very hard, as I wanted to go back to San Diego where I owned a home. As a result I stood 14 in the class. There were several boats to choose from that were home ported in San Diego. I chose the USS Blenny (SS-324) as she was not only home ported in San Diego, but was being converted in the shipyard to a high speed, streamlined GUPPY IA boat.

I was detached from Submarine School at New London on June 22nd, 1951. After another memorable trip across country to San Diego, and after taking some leave, I reported on board the Blenny in the San Francisco Naval Shipyard on July 12th. At that time, the conversion was about 90 percent completed. Blenny completed her conversion in August 1951, and reported to Submarine Squadron 3, alongside the USS Sperry (AS-12) in San Diego. The remainder of 1951 and the early part of 1952 was spent furnishing Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) services to destroyers and aircraft of the Pacific Fleet. Perhaps more important, this time frame served as a shakedown period to increase the proficiency of the officers and crew in handling a submarine that could achieve 21 knots on the half hour rate submerged, and especially learning how to snorkel, which really had it’s exciting moments, especially if there is any sea running.

We departed for the Far East on April 30th 1952, for patrol duty in Russian Waters. Since this patrol story has been previously documented, I will not cover it here. 

The USS Blenny (SS-324) 
leaving San Diego for her Far East Patrol assignment on April 30, 1952. 

We returned from our Far East tour on November 8th, 1952. Blenny was awarded the Korean Service Medal, and the United Nation Service Medal for this tour. During my remaining time on Blenny we operated out of San Diego, furnishing ASW services to the fleet. Since I have used this expression before it behooves me perhaps to explain what ASW services entails. This basically is operating with a task force, and assuming the role of and enemy submarine attacking the force. Our task was to penetrate the destroyer screen, make and approach on the carrier if we could get in undetected, and fire a red flare indicating we had simulated firing a torpedo. Part of the time we were to stay on the surface at about ten miles from the task force and let the carrier planes find us. We would then dive. The plane would drop a 25 pound practice depth charge on our dive point, drop a floating flare to mark our point of submergence, called the Datum Point, and call for the "Hunter Killer Force". The Task Force commander then dispatches a division of four destroyers to locate us and make simulated runs over us. We usually left our periscope up so they could get radar contact on it. If there were and inversion layer of cold water we could hide under and their sound beam would be bent upward. So we could remain undetected if we chose to, but then no one would get any training, and a lot of tax payers money would be wasted. There were several occasions that we did remain undetected, just so the surface forces wouldn’t get too cocky. This type of operation normally kept us at sea a week to ten days.

One other story I will relate here, since it was one of those events of such a sheer coincidence. When a submarine is overdue a search and rescue operation is immediately launched called "Operation 1000". In peacetime operations, a submarine is required to send a "Diving Message" when she dives. If operating independently, this message contains the location of the point of submergence, the anticipated course and speeds while submerged, and the time of surfacing. The submarine is required to send a surfacing message immediately on surfacing. If a surfacing message in not received within 10 minutes of the message time due for surfacing, an operation 1000 is launched. When this occurs, all surface ships available steam out of port to the best-estimated position of the submarine. A massive air search is launched to try and locate a marker buoy that the submarine may release. When and exercise to test this is laid on, a submarine is designated to go to a location and play dead on the bottom, release it’s marker buoy, wait to be found, and personnel rescued. To make this more realistic, the Division Commander will come down from the tender and hand the captain of the submarine that has been chosen to be "Lost" a set of sealed orders, which he is allowed to open only after he has rounded the sea buoy. This makes everything that happens spontaneous, and hence realistic.

Blenny was chosen to be the "Lost Submarine" We proceeded to and area off La Jolla and put the boat down in 200 feet of water on a sandy and mud sea floor. We released our red marker buoy from over the forward torpedo room, and waited to be found. Within and hour of bottoming, we were located by and aircraft from the North Island Naval Air Station, an a short time later the Submarine Rescue Vessel, the USS Florikan (ASR-9) arrived overhead, with divers and a McCann Rescue Chamber, more commonly known as the McCann Bell. The basic method is for the rescue vessel to moor over the bottomed submarine. Then the marker buoy containing a telephone, if it hasn’t been damaged when the buoy was released, permits direct communication with those in the torpedo room. The McCann Bell is then used to extract the people from the submarine.

The procedure in this type of rescue was the same as that pioneered when the submarine Squalus (SS-192) was lost on May 23rd, 1938, of the coast of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. She had suffered massive flooding into the engine room, when her main induction valve failed to close. She lay on the bottom in 250 feet of water. There were 26 men that survived, trapped in the forward torpedo room. The Submarine Rescue Vessel Falcon (ASR-2) arrived with the McCann Bell, and extracted those trapped in the forwarded torpedo room. There were men alive in the after torpedo room, but they were lost before they could be rescued. The main reason for this was that the current kept sweeping the divers off the deck on the after part of Squalus, and thus they could never secure the down haul cable to the bell on the after torpedo room hatch, for the rescue Bell ride on down to the submarine. After the bell is seated over the torpedo room hatch, water is blown from it’s lower chamber, permitting rescuers to enter the submarine. Six to eight people can be extracted at a time, thus making it necessary to make several trips between rescue vessel and submarine to get every one out. Squalus was later raised and renamed the Sailfish and had and excellent record of enemy ships sunk during WW-2.

My high school classmate and good friend Norman Brown was a Reserve Lieutenant who was a qualified deep sea diver. At this point in time he had chosen to serve one month active duty time on board the Florikan. He was asked if he would like to ride the Bell on it’s first trip down to the Blenny, to which he responded in the affirmative. As first Lieutenant and Gunnery Officer it was my job to supervise the evacuation of the 12 people we had selected to be "saved" and make the trip from the submarine to the ASR, so I was in the torpedo room to open the lower hatch and receive the first passengers from Florikan. Who should come through the hatch of the Bell but my old friend and high school classmate Lt. Norman Brown. His first words were "Trejo! What the hell are you doing here on the bottom of the ocean ?? !!! My response was, " Where the hell did you come from !!"

On November 14, 1952, I received orders to the Pre- Commissioning detail of the USS Bashaw (SSK-241), then being converted at the Naval Shipyard Hunters Point from a fleet boat to a "Killer" submarine, that is, a submarine specifically designed to hunt down and "Kill" other submarines. I was detached from Blenny on December 29, 1952, and reported to the Commander, San Francisco Naval Shipyard for duty on January 10, 1953.


  Bashaw Fox  1953

          The USS Bashaw (SSK-241) .  Note the huge "bulbous" bow. This was a special sonar dome that was so sensitive we could hear ships for miles. This boat was specifically designed to hunt other submarines. The name of that game is that the first submarine to detect the other and get her torpedoes in the water first will be the victor. This photo was taken at Fox Island near Tacoma, WA, on Puget Sound where we had gone to evaluate the sonar system. I served on Bashaw from 1953 until 1955 when I was detached to attend the Naval Post Graduate School in Monterey.

The heart of this conversion was the installation of a BQR-4 sound array around the bow of the submarine. This array was a passive device which means you could listen only, and not transmit any energy through it. In the event, we were able to lay submerged in a sound channel and hear ships out to more than a hundred miles. The name of the game in hunting other submarines is to hear (detect) him before he hears you. The theory is that the skipper that puts the first torpedo in the water will be the survivor in a submarine to submarine encounter.

The BQR-4 was a real monster. It consisted of about 100 vertical cylindrical tubes, each tube about eight feet long and about 3 inches in diameter. These tubes were filled with crystals that relied on the pizzio - electric effect for there operation. That is, sound energy impinging on these crystals is converted to electrical energy which could then be amplified and displayed on a Cathode Ray tube, similar to a Radar Scope. To protect these tubes, the bow was fashioned into squares of sound transparent windows. These windows varied in size from 3 feet by 4 feet to 6 feet by 4 feet, and were fashioned to shape into a round bow. There was a space between the outer windows and the array of tubes that was filled with castor oil. The space was to provide a shock barrier to absorb protect the fragile tubes in case of colliding with a submerged log, a bad landing, or any other unforeseen event. Castor oil was chosen as it non corrosive transparent to sound energy.

Bashaw had been decommissioned for her conversion, and hence we officers were attached to the shipyard in an advisory capacity. We operated out of a "Line Shack" on the dock, and had an officer of the deck on duty 24 hours a day. The shipyard was working around the clock, in three eight hour shifts, so it was necessary to have a qualified submarine officer patrolling the boat 24 hours a day to prevent any grave error happening. These were prone to occur because Hunters Point had never been a primary submarine yard before, and this was their first submarine conversion. I will sight and example.

There is a signal ejection tube that may be located in either the forward or after torpedo room of a submarine, depending on the class of boat. It is used to eject flares during exercises with the fleet, and to launch distress flares. On a boat built by Electric Boat Company, such as Bashaw, this tube is located in the after torpedo room. On a boat built in the Portsmouth Navy Yard, this tube is located in the after torpedo room. The shipyard had orders to replace the ejection tube on Bashaw with a larger improve model, and we being an Electric Boat submarine had ours located in the after torpedo room. I was making my rounds through the boat on the Midwatch ( 12 midnight ‘till 4 in the morning ) when in the forward torpedo room a shipyard worker was setting up a huge drill. I asked him what he intended, and he responded that he was going to drill a hole in the pressure hull and install a signal gun. I informed him that we already had a signal gun in the after torpedo room, and I thought maybe there was a mistake, as he had the wrong torpedo room, and probable what was meant was to replace the existing signal gun in the after room. I suggested we wait until morning when we could check it out. He showed me his work order, and all it said was to install a signal gun in the forward torpedo room, with a blueprint of how to accomplish the work. He was determined to proceed. It was futile to argue, as he was a big man, so I called the deck watch. He still refused to leave until the deck watch drew his Colt .45 and ordered him off at gun point.

The next morning and official, black navy sedan pulled up to the gangway. Out jumped the shipyard commander, a four stripe navy captain, with blood in his eye. He was followed by our "prospective" Commanding Officer, Harold "Tut" Fry. The first words out of Tut’s mouth were, "I don’t know what you’ve done Paul, but I sure as hell hope you’re right." The first issue was the placement of the signal gun, which made me look like a hero, as drilling a hole in the pressure hole would at best having us end up with two signal guns, and at worst having us in hot water with the Bureau of Ships. Then there was the matter of threatening the use of deadly force on a shipyard worker. And interview with the deck watch settled that matter. It also turned out that some Yo-Yo of a navy architect in the design department had been referring to a set of Portsmouth Shipyard plans when he wrote the job order. We were the first of the four Submarines slated to be converted to SSKs at Hunters Point. The others were Bluegill (SSK-242), Bream (SSK-243), and Cavalla (SSK-244). Thus they learned on us.

The only other error they made, and this was fairly serious, was the relocation of the forward trim tank when they built the massive sonar bow. This tank, along with the after trim tank, are used in balancing the boat to a submerged trim on diving, and are located at the extreme ends of the boat. When they installed the huge hydra phone array around the bow, we lost two of our six forward torpedo tubes, and the forward trim tank, and bow buoyancy tank were both relocated. When we were scheduled to go to sea for our maiden test dive, our skipper wanted two things done. He wanted safety tracks installed on the weather deck, and the bow buoyancy tank moved aft several feet. The tracks were a simple matter, but moving the forward trim tank was a major job and the shipyard refused this request. The next thing that bothered him was that for our maiden test dive out of the yard, they had assigned us a diving area off the Farallon Islands in very deep water. The Captain made a simple point, assign us a shallow area for our test dive or he would not take the boat to sea, as he considered the location of the forward tanks might cause us problems. We were reassigned and area to the south of Point Montera with a depth of 200 feet, and a sandy bottom.

When we dove Bashaw, she took a sharp down angle, and headed down with a mind of here own. Blowing bow buoyancy and backing down full helped, but the net result was that we buried our nose in the sand and mud, and the stern was sticking out of the water. Thank God we didn’t dive in deep water. We could not get much bite with the screws, as they were partially out of the water, but rocking the boat by running the crew back and forth. and blowing all main ballast we freed the boat up. The main casualty was the "tender" bow. Five of the sonar window were damaged beyond repair. This not only was a tremendously expensive proposition, but kept us in the shipyard well beyond our scheduled completion date. There was another "casualty" that could not be predicted, and that was the leading man of one of the shipyard shops. There is a tradition in submarines, that when they go to sea on a maiden dive on completion of a shipyard overhaul, the leading man from any shop that worked on the boat goes to sea with her. The theory being that knowing this the quality of all work done is much more carefully supervised.. This is why when the Thresher (SSN-593) was lost off Portsmouth on October 4th, 1963, eight of the 120 casualties were civilian shipyard workers. This particular leading man had a good scare, and he swore he would never go to sea on another submarine. He was transferred to that part of the shipyard working on surface ships.

In due time we completed the conversion, but we were still not a part on the US Navy. We had to pass a board of Inspection And Survey, before the navy would accept the submarine. One might think that since the conversion was done in a naval shipyard the acceptance would be automatic, but such is not the case. This board comprises 12 very senior, crusty old navy captains, and they swarmed over the ship in overalls and flashlights, and inspected every nook and cranny. I was amazed to see full captains crawling around in the bilges. When they find any discrepancies they order the shipyard to correct them. We then took the boat to sea with the board embarked, and Bashaw was put through every maneuvering exercise possible, including firing water slugs from every torpedo tube.

We were duly re-commissioned a ship of the United States Navy at the shipyard on March 28, 1953. Our guest speaker was Vice Admiral Charles A. Lockwood, USN (Ret). He had been Commander Submarines Pacific (COMSUBPAC) during WW-2. What a thrill it was for us young officers to get acquainted with famous submariner. We reported to Commander Submarine Squadron Three in San Diego for duty. However, we were not destined to spend much time in our homeport. First the navy was eager to determine just how good the sonar system was. So we were ordered to Hawaiian waters to evaluate the system under a variety of conditions. One problem that precluded determining the parameters of the system was the tremendous amount of biological noise in the water from whale and dolphin noises to snapping shrimp and croaker fish.

To solve this the navy constructed a special Sonar Barge, and moored it at Fox Island, which is on Puget Sound just across the narrows from Tacoma. The barge was actually moored on the Carr Inlet side of Fox Island. This site was chosen because of the brackish quality of the water. The large amount of fresh water from all the surrounding rivers and streams emptying into the inlet would actually guarantee the absence of noisy salt water sea life, thereby assuring a proper environment. The loudest noises heard were those of Mullets jumping and falling back into the water.

I was promoted to full Lieutenant on July 1st , 1953. Bashaw spent the later part of 1953 and the first six months of 1954 operating with ASW Hunter Killer groups operating out of San Diego.

In the May of 1954 Bashaw deployed to WESTPAC for a six month tour in the waters of Japan and Korea. During this tour we furnished services to Commander Carrier Divsion 3, in the Badoeng Strait (CVE -116 ), and the carriers Bairoko (CVE-115), and Sicily (CVE-118). We were so good at evading the carrier aircraft that we were told to stay on the surface until the plane made contact. The rules were that once we were sure the plane had detected us we could dive. The aircraft was allowed to drop a 25 pound practice depth charge on our "swirl" as we dove, but not if any part of the super structure or periscope were showing. On one exercise and eager pilot dropped his charge on us before we were completely submerged. It destroyed the entire lens on the periscope, blew out all the periscope packing and we started taking a considerable amount of water down the periscope shaft. That ended the exercise for us. We put into Kobe, Japan, where the large Repair Ship Vulcan (AR-5) was stationed. They were the only ship in the Far East at the time with a crane tall enough to pull a 65 feet periscope straight up and drop another in place. A new periscope had to be flown out from the United States to Atsugi, Japan. Then it was trucked down to Kobe by the US Army. This resulted in three weeks of great liberty in Kobe. Best of all the tender personnel completely overhauled our air conditioning system, and completed many repairs during the wait. Bashaw was awarded the Korean Service Medal and the United Nations Service Medal for this tour.

On July 1, 1954, our much admired Commander Harold E. Fry was relieved Commander Charles B. Bishop, USN, in WESTPAC.

On returning to San Diego, I had received orders to the Naval Post Graduate School at Monterey for the Ordnance Engineering and Electrical Engineering Course. I was detached from Bashaw at San Diego on July 11, 1955, and reported for duty to the Naval Post Graduate School on July 27th

1955. The Ordnance part of the course consisted of the study of physical chemistry, stoichiometric chemistry, and the chemistry of explosives. Mathematics courses started with review courses in differential and integral calculus, then progressed to linear differential equations, partial differential equations, and La Place Transformations, Stability of Servo Mechanism Systems by use of a Nyquist Diagram, a host of electrical engineering courses, and for submarine officers a course in acoustics an transmission of sound energy in the sea. The professors piled on the home work, especially on Friday and due Monday. Consequently, not much time was left for family life, even on weekends.

During the summer between our first and second year, the students were ordered to a navy activity to perform practical work in their field of endeavor. In my case I spent part of the summer at the Naval Ordnance Test Station at China Lake, California. There I was assigned to the Sidewinder Missile program, and became involved in the development of the Sidewinder Air to Air missile. This was to be of great benefit to me later on, although I didn’t know it at the time. When I became a Weapons Officer in the Naval Reserve, my Mobilization Billet was as Sidewinder Project Officer in the Bureau of Weapons. The remainder of the summer I was at the U.S. Naval Air Missile Test Center, Point Mugu, California.

On graduating in June of 1957, another round robin of visits to ordnance facilities was ordered. The most beneficial of these to me was ten day spent at the Missile Test Center, Point Mugu. This time was spent entirely on the study of the Regulus I missile. This was fortunate, as I had received orders to report to the USS Barbero (SSG-317), a Regulus I guided missile submarine.

  In September another trip across country with kids and dogs was taken. On August 10th, 1957, I reported on board the Barbero in Norfolk, Virginia. There I assumed the duties as Guidance Officer, and later Navigator. As third officer I took on other duties to assist the Executive Officer, and was acting Executive Officer in his absence.


 After two years at the Naval Post Graduate School in Monterey I reported to the USS Barbero (SSG-317), in Norfolk, Virginia.  The large round cylinder tank you see on the deck was a hanger that contained two Regulus Missiles stored back to back. They were stored in this hanger, with their wings folded on a cylinder system that operated on the same system as a colt revolver. You would surface the boat, raise the launching ramp hydraulically, run the missile out on the ramp, fire it, close the hangar door, and submerge to periscope depth. With a lot of practice we were able to do this in three minutes. We had radio control of this missile immediately, and guided it on its set path from periscope depth. Since it was a radio control bird, we could only guide it to our visible horizon, where we would turn it over to another guidance submarine. He in turn would pass it to another submarine. We had a division of six guidance submarines that could pass it along a couple of hundred miles, when it was turned over to and inertial guidance system within the missile.  Because of the cold war we spent 22 months of the time I was on this boat deployed.       

The Regulus I was actually a small turbo jet aircraft that carried a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. Even though by modern standards it was "bow and arrow", it was still a weapon with a big punch, and therefore a deterrent weapon. Two missile were stored inside a huge cylindrical hanger on the after deck. They were positioned in the hanger back to back, with their wings folded. They were mounted on a large cylinder that operated like and old fashion Colt Revolver. A launching ramp was located in the deck directly behind the hangar, that could be raised hydraulically when getting ready to fire the missile. After launch, the missile was guided initially by a radio control TROUNCE guidance system, and thereafter by a inertial guidance system built into the missile took over for it’s terminal phase. A submarine missile division consisted of the firing submarine and four guidance submarines. On firing the bird, I would keep control until it was no longer in my line of sight. The missile had two altitudes that it could be preset to fly at, 5000 feet, and 10,000 feet. The higher it flew, the longer it was in my line of sight for control. At this point I would turn the bird over to the first guidance submarine. By passing it from guidance submarine to guidance submarine you could carry the missile several hundred miles before putting it on it’s inertial system.

To practice we were based on the Naval Air Station at Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico. We would fire and exercise missile from a position near Saint Thomas in the US Virgin Islands at a designated target position On reaching this position, I would give the missile a "Dump" command, which was equivalent to firing it. During the exercise I had close radio contact with a "chase plane", and on giving the "Dump" command the chase plane would assume command of the missile, and land it (exercise missiles had wheels!) at the Roosevelt roads Naval Air Station. There the exercise missile would be reworked, and we could pick it us in a couple of days and fire it again. Several of these exercise missiles we considered old friends, in that we fired them many times. Other times we fired the missiles off of the Naval Missile Range, at Wallop’s Island, Virginia.

To fire a missile on and inertial guidance system you must know your exact longitude and latitude on launching, so that the missile computer has a starting point. Therefore it is necessary to calibrate the missile launching computer to a high degree of accuracy. This is done on the Wright Brothers Monument at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. This site has been surveyed to a first order survey, that is, it’s longitude and latitude is known to ten decimal places. The submarine lies offshore, close in, and takes continuous bearings on the Wright Monument for several hours to average out human observation error.

In the Summer of 1957 Barbero deployed on a Nato exercise, to be followed by and Arctic Patrol in Norwegian and Russian Waters. For the Nato phase, Barbero was based at the British Submarine Base at Portland, England. One trip, "To show the flag", was sailing to La Harve, France, from where some of us traveled by train to Paris. The British Navy always assigns a host ship to a visiting foreign naval vessel. That ship is responsible for taking care of your every need, including changing your money to English Pound, when we went to France. We were assigned a British destroyer to be our host. No sooner had we tied along side this ship (her name escapes me now), then a Midshipman came on board with and invitation inviting the wardroom to lunch, "to be served promptly at 1200 hours". In all innocence we trooped across the gangway, leaving only the duty officer on board. Greeting us as we stepped into the wardroom was a Midshipman with a tray of drinks in his hand. You must remember that alcohol is not permitted on board American naval vessels, so one is not prepared to get "snookered" at high noon. We kept waiting for the elusive lunch to be served, but it was soon apparent that the name of the game was to put the Yank under the table. Food was finally served at 3:00 pm., and by that time nobody cared. For the evening meal we would take over steaks and American movies to reciprocate their hospitality. The quickest way to get away from that situation was to take leave and go up to London, which I did. At that time, the exchange rate was highly favorable, so my money went a long way.

It was Sunday morning. In making my get away I did not get off Scot free. I crossed over to the British quarterdeck about 0930 to exchange some dollars for pounds. All was quiet as a church mouse topside. When I entered the wardroom one of the wildest parties imaginable was in progress, and right in the middle of the wardroom table was the ships brass bell, with a fresh inscription engraved on the inside. One of the wardroom officer’s wives had just had a baby boy, and his name had just been inscribed in the bell. The story was that if it was a boy, he would grow up and join the King’s Navy, and if a girl she would marry a Royal Navy sailor. Well, there was nothing for me but to join the party, and it was late afternoon before they deposited me on the tram to London. A wonderful custom !!

We left England and deployed to Norwegian waters where we were based at Trondheim, then Narvik. Our activities included patrol in the Barents sea and other intelligence activities. I was doping the navigating, and it was a real bear. In those days there were no navigation satellites, fixes were obtained from celestial observations. The problem was that it was overcast most of the time, so good sun lines and star fixes were rare. What saved the day were charts I obtained from the Norwegian Coast Guard. They had charted the ocean floor in that area, which was extremely deep. However, there were a great many extinct volcanoes that formed volcanic mountains rose above the ocean floor to within 300 or 400 feet of the surface. It was only necessary to turn of the fathometer and let it run. When the recorded depths began begin to decline from a thousand fathoms to shallow readings, you knew you were going to pass over one of these mountains. Part of the problem of position keeping was caused by the strong currents that are found in these oceans. A surface ship has most of it’s structure above the water, and currents normally have little effect on it. Submarines, on the other hand are submerged in the current, and are thus pushed around some. These currents varied in velocity, but were any where from three to five miles per hour, depending on where you were.

On September 17, 1957 we crossed the Arctic Circle at one degree, thirty minutes East Longitude, and all received our "Blue Nose Cards". We had embarked with us a team of scientific personnel from the Office of Naval Research. They conducted various scientific experiments, and we spent some time under the fringe of the ice cap trying to determine how thick a layer of ice that a submarine could surface through safely, without suffering major structural damage. Of course we were treated while running on the surface at night to glorious displays of the Aurora Borealis.

One of the memorable things that occurred during this deployment was our visit to Oslo during the October Fest. All I can say, is the Norwegians really know how to party.

On returning to the United States we resumed our missile training in the Caribbean, and operated part of the time from and old WW-2 submarine base on the island of Saint Thomas in the US Virgin Islands. It was located at the town of Charlotte Amalie. The most memorable experience here was meeting Herman Wouk, the author at the local watering hole frequented by the American locals. He entertained us in his beautiful home, which was on the other side of the island.

 I had decided to leave the regular navy, as the Barbero was preparing to leave on another Nato cruise. The problem was very basic, every NATO exercise wanted a missile submarine, and we were the only game in town. I detached from Barbero on April 14, 1958, and reported for duty to the staff of Commander Service Squadron Four in the USS Vulcan (AR-5) on April on April 15th.
There I assumed the duties of Assistant Operations Officer and Gunnery Officer.

My tour in SERVRON 4 was memorable. We immediately left for a "show the flag" trip to Havana, Cuba, which was in a state of unrest, While there, we were guests of the Cuban Navy, who’s commanding officer was also the superintendent of the Cuban Naval Academy, and Commander of the Cuban Navy. It was a memorable visit. Our Commodore, H.R. Prince fancied himself quite a pistol shot, and he was. He challenged the superintendent to a shootout and lost! Two weeks later, Fidel Castro led the Cuban Revolution and seized power. He promptly shot all the officers in the Cuban Navy, including the superintendent of the Cuban Naval Academy.

On returning to Norfolk, Commodore Prince was relieved by Captain William Norvell, USN.

We shifted the squadron flag to the USS Truckee (AO-147). This ship was a brand new oiler, having been commissioned October 3rd, 1955. She had a capacity of several hundred barrels of oil, and was a fast ship designed to keep up with a carrier task force. The quarters assigned me were six times the size of those on a submarine. Shortly after shifting the flag to Truckee, we sailed for Vigo, located on the North West corner of Spain. Here we were scheduled to refuel a division of diesel submarines. Before sailing, I asked the Chief Engineering Officer if he had ever refueled a submarine before, and he said he had not. I checked the fueling hoses on Truckee, and they were all 6 inches in diameter. The fueling trunk on a diesel submarine is only 4 inches in diameter ! It would indeed be bad news to get all the way to Spain and have to fuel the submarines with a funnel and bucket. I went over to the local submarine squadron, where I knew the squadron engineer, and he provided me with hose reducing adapters to go from a six inch fueling hose to a four-inch hose. I was a hero, at least for a little while.

While in Vigo, I was employed as the Commodore’s interpreter. Spanish was not my native tongue as I had been raised in and Anglo home. However, I took two years of the language in high school, and two years in college, so with the help of a Spanish dictionary in my pocket I managed pretty well. As a consequence, I traveled with the Commodore to all the parties thrown by local officials. I took some leave and traveled into the countryside. I stopped at and inn, where the innkeeper decided he wanted to practice his English which he had taken in school. So there we were, at a table with beers, and two dictionaries between us!

Truckee proceeded to England and then to Norway. We were in Oslo when the Lebanon crises broke out and promptly sailed for a rendezvous at sea with several MSTS tankers and fueled them to capacity. They in turn were to proceed to various parts of the Mediterranean to fuel units of the fleet. These tankers are all manned by civilian crews. When we approached our first tanker they refused to take our hoses. It seems all the crew were members of a labor union that proclaimed they didn’t have to work on Sunday. I have never seen anyone as angry as the Commodore. He promptly came up on the bull horn and threatened to board the tanker, take her by force if necessary, place the captain and crew under arrest, and operate the ship with a navy crew. It got results in one helluva hurry. The civilian crew poured out on deck, and we were able to transfer fuel to the MSTS tanker in short order. We then proceeded to fuel two more of these ships, but encountered no problems. Our modis operendi had proceeded us.


On June 17th, 1959, I reported to the U.S. Naval Receiving Station for discharge from the regular navy. I was discharged on June 30th after due processing. The same day I was transferred to the Naval Ready Reserve. On August 1st I was commissioned a Lieutenant Commander in the United Naval Reserve. I was assigned a running mate in the regular navy for promotional purposes who was one signal number senior to me on the navy’s lineal list. 

Excellence award
January 1970

Captain Paul Trejo, USNR, 
receives a national award for unit excellence from Captain Hugh Hoy, USN, 
Commanding Officer of the Naval Air Reserve Unit at the US Naval Air Station, Alameda



SERVICE DATES: February 28, 1944- June 30, 1984

1. V-5, V-12 University Of Redlands 1944-1945
2. Midshipman NROTC, University Of Southern California, 1945-1947
Bachelor of Science, Naval Science (BSNS)
3. US Naval Post Graduate School, Monterey, CA, 1955-1957
Bachelor of Science, Electrical Engineering (BSEE)
Designated Ordnance Engineer
4. San Jose State University1959-1961, Master of Arts in Physical Science (MA)

1. US Navy Submarine School, New London, CT. January 1951- June 1951
2. Senior Reserve Officers Course, Naval War College, Newport, RI, June 1974
3. Defense Strategy Seminar, National Defense University, Fort Myer, VA, July 1979

1. Qualified in Submarines August 19, 1952. At sea test phase was on board the 
USS Scabardfish (SS-397), CDR Richard M. Wright Commanding. Received
Confirmation Letter: Bureau Of Naval Personnel Qualification Letter, Dated
October 31, 1952.
2. Instructor Guided Missiles, Naval Reserve Officers School, San Jose, CA
3. 1960 Redesignated EDO Ordnance Engineer (1455)
4. 1961 Redesignated Aeronautical Engineer (1515) on merger of Bureau of Ordnance
and Bureau of Aeronautics into Bureau of Weapons
5. Served on the Captain's Selection Board August1981.
6. Served significant periods of extended active duty : Sidewinder Project Officer, Air 
Systems Command, Washington, D.C., and on Staff Commander Patrol Wings, Pacific 
Fleet, Naval Air Station, Moffett Field, Sunnyvale, CA. 

1. USS McCook ( DD-496 / DMS-36) - August 27,1947 to April 18, 1949.
2. USS Floyd B. Parks (DD-884) - April 24, 1949 to December 8, 1950
3. USS Blenny (SS- 324) - July 12, 1951 to December 29, 1952
4. USS Bashaw (SSK-241) - January 10, 1953 to July 11, 1955
5. USS Barbero (SSG-317) - August 10, 1957 to April 1, 1958
6. Staff Commander Service Squadron Four - April 15, 1958 reported on board
Flagship USS Vulcan (AR-5), Flagship shifter to USS Truckee (AOG-75)

1. Commanding Officer: NAVAIR Reserve Unit G-2
2. Commanding Officer: Captain's Management Unit 
3. Commanding Officer: AIRSYSCOM VTU 0380
4. Commanding Officer: WEP RES Unit 1187
5. Commanding Officer: AIRSYSCOM WEP VTU 0187

1. Qualified Officer Of The Deck At Sea, September 20, 1947
2. Qualified Officer OF The Deck In Port, October 1, 1947
3. Qualified In Submarines August 19, 1952 


1. Discharged LT, USN June 30, 1959, Commissioned LT, USNR 
2. Commissioned LCDR, USNR July, 1, 1959
3. Commissioned CDR USNR, July 1, 1964 
4. Commissioned CAPT USNR. November 1, 1969


1. Navy Meritorious Service Medal 1980
2. Navy Commendation Medal 1983

1. American Campaign WW-II
2. Victory Medal WW-II
3. Navy Occupation Medal (Asia Clasp)
4. China Service Medal
5. National Defense Medal (with bronze star)
6. Korean Service Medal
7. Vietnam Service Medal
8. Armed Forces Reserve Medal with two bronze hour glass devices (10 years each)
9. United Nations Service Medal
10. Republic of Korea War Service Medal 


1. Retired to the Fleet Reserve June 30, 1984, after 40 years 4 months of service.
Retired October 31, 1984, from the US Navy


Hispanic American Heroes Series
Bernardo de Galvez


On February 26th, a major media event of the Hispanic American Heroes Project, HAHP, took place in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Gilbert Martinez, curator of the Terra Bella Gallery, renowned artist, C.J. Wells, and Francisco Osuna, the New Mexico Co-Chairs organized a reception to open the Chapter of the HAHP in Santa Fe, to recognize the historical contributions of Bernardo de Galvez. About 150 artists, historians, media and film professionals and general public attended the event, in support of the concept.

A magnificent 3 foot statue of Bernardo de Galvez was sculpted by
Sergio Rodriguez Delgado of Chihuahua, Mexico. The original in clay is seen in the photo. It has been painted to better reflect the final appearance, which will be in bronze.
The artist Delgado donated the sculpture to the Hispanic American Heroes Project.  HAHP plans to donate the statue to the Spanish Government. Press photographs of the statue and the colorful reception appeared on the United Press International Photo Wire. A Video News Release, produced by a CBS-TV News Crew was serviced via satellite to the worldwide television media (see attached DVD). 

Francisco Serna Osuna, Secretary of the New Mexican Hispanic Culture Preservation League, Paula Del Colle, Historian, were announced at the reception for their work in promoting early southwest heritage through various media. Conchita Ortiz, 92 years of age was honored. She was the first woman to be elected in the New Mexico legislature when she was 22. 

The newly formed New Mexico Executive Committee for the Hispanic American Heroes Project, in collaboration with local schools, are organizing a media project competition. The end goal will be the production of student historical documentaries concerning the life of General Bernardo de Galvez, and the Spanish support of the American colonists. Ultimately, it is hoped that the documentaries will be distributed and viewed throughout the school districts.

Santa Fe, New Mexico, is one of America's oldest city and claims a long history and rich Spanish cultural heritage. Nestled at seven thousand feet in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, it was founded as a capital city in 1607 by Spanish explorers. Its rich history boasts many cultures and peoples. The Pueblo Peoples, Spanish Crown, Mexico, and the Confederacy all had control of the city during its long history. In 1846, it was ceded by the Mexican Federation to the United States of America. 

Present day Santa Fe is an international city renowned for its cosmopolitan sophistication and unsurpassed celebration of the arts. Its culture, art, and rich Spanish traditions, art market, Santa Fe Opera, and people make it a world class city, and perfect location to organize youth media projects in support of the Hispanic American Heroes Project.   

Report by Juan Mayans

Eddie Martinez in front of one of the historical maps on exhibit.

Artist Brings History to Life
Published in Temecula's Neighbors 

Written and sent by Annette Brown

Population began in the Temecula Valley long before cattle started grazing the land. Sometime after the mammoth lay to rest in our dirt and the photographers "captured" California history on film, the first hunters and gathers of Southern California walked the land we now live on. We share the same plains and hills with past Native Americans that were our first rancheros.

They have left evidence of their existence scattered across the region. Sightings of grinding stones are commonplace in some areas. Archeological digs have unearthed clues of who shared our soil, oaks and creeks.

Artist and researcher, Eddie Martinez, has spent several years challenging theories, revealing misconceptions, plotting Native American treks, and awakening the past.

He will share his findings through his artwork, original maps and a lecture at The Temecula Valley Museum from March 6 through April 25. He will be at the museum on Thursday, March 4 for a Gallery Talk at 6pm. Original maps created by Martinez showing routes and settlements of The Native American, including Temeku, will be displayed on the museum’s exhibit walls. He also will exhibit work on the Spanish America and the American Colonies. This reveals how the Spaniards played a vital role in The American Revolution. Two maps also show what he calls "The Pathfinders," everyday men that became heroes as they cleared new paths for men to follow.

Martinez developed a passion for history during his career as an artist. Working on large, intensive projects; such as, The Hall of Presidents for Disney World, often required in depth research. He grew to love the research end of his work and expanded his travels to include historical and archeological sites.

His talent for humanizing history is revealed in this exhibit, as he brings forward the Native and Latin American culture’s intelligence and sophistication. The work displayed includes the Temecula area. Familiar stories we have read or heard about Temecula’s past are expanded upon.

He prides himself on the authenticity of his maps, costumes, military, weaponry, coats of arms, and heraldry. His detailed maps include all of this. You will be awed by his incredible talent, knowledge, and dedication.


SURNAME: Campos 


Es opinión generalizada entre los más conocidos genealogistas que los Campos proceden de la comarca conocida en la antigüedad por Campi-Gotorum, que comprendía los que después se llamó Tierra de Campos, perteneciente hoy a las provincias de Palencia, León y Valladolid.
Una de las casas más rancias de este linaje, radicó en la Merindad de Trasmiera, en las llamadas Montañas de Burgos, actualmente provincia de Santander. El cronista Juan Francisco de Hita, dice al respecto que “Los del linaje y apellido Campos, son naturales de las Montañas de Burgos,

de la Merindad de Trasmiera, Corregimiento de las Cuatro Villas, dos leguas de la de Santander, de los cuales hay en el lugar de Ajo, Hoz, Praves y Las pilas, que son de dicha Merindad, y ellos conocidos y notorios hijosdalgo, de donde se han repartido por diferentes partes y lugares de estos Reinos, sirviendo siempre a los Reyes como tales hijosdalgo, en la paz y en la guerra. Estuvieron en las luchas de la conquista del Reino que se han tenido contra moros y enemigos de nuestra Santa fe, en la restauración de ella y en su ensalzamiento”.

Añade Hita, que en 1214, cuando murió el Rey Alfonso VIII el de las Navas de Tolosa, era Ricohombre, que es lo mismo que Grande de España, el Conde don Ramiro de Campos, que se confirmó la donación de Alcántara; que su hijo el Conde don Rodrigo Fernández de Campos, obtuvo también esta dignidad por Fernando III el Santo; que en tiempos de Sancho IV el Bravo, por el año de 1288, también la poseía don Diego López de Campos, y que en 1312 le repartía Alfonso XI a don Guillén de Campos, como conquistador de Murcia, tierras en este Reino. Ensalza también dicho tratadista la antigüedad y nobleza de esta estirpe y termina diciendo que sus armas son:


Don Juan de Campos Carrasco, natural de Zarza, en Extremadura, de donde fue Regidor y Alcalde de la Santa Hermandad, vistió el hábito de la Orden Militar de Santiago en 1708. Casó con doña María Ortíz Fernández, a la que hizo madre de don Pedro Enrique de Campos Ortíz, quien vistió el mismo hábito en 1742, de la misma naturaleza. Don José de Campos y Martín, natural de La Habana, ingresó también en la expresada Orden, el año 1858. Todos ellos probando antes su nobleza de sangre.

Don Gaspar de Campos y Espinosa, Cervantes y Lorenzo, natural de la ciudad de Sevilla, ingresó en la Orden de Calatrava, en 1643, y don Pedro Campos Orellana y Peralta, natural de Don Benito, y don Pedro Nicomedes Campos de Orellana y Calvo, natural de La Haba, Badajoz, vistieron el de Alcántara en 1703 y 1869, respectivamente.

Don Lino María de Campos y Mendilivar, natural de San Juan de Luz, Francia, en 1835;  y don Clemente de Campos y Sahún, de Zaragoza, en 1793, obtuvieron el ingreso como Caballeros de la Real y Distinguida Orden Española de Carlos III.

Ante la Sala de los Hijosdalgo de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid, litigaron en las fechas que se expresan por el reconocimiento de sus preeminencias, las siguientes personas de este apellido:

Don Bernardo Campos, Villafaña, 1758; don Ceferino, don Facundo y don José Campos, Valle, 1745; don Francisco de Campos, Villafaña, 1760; don Hernando de Campos, Fuenmayor, Logroño, 1568; don Joaquín de Campos, Cifuentes, 1732; don José Antonio y don José Francisco de Campos, Madrid, 1806; don Juan y don Lope de Campos, Valdivieso, Burgos, 1533; don Bartolomé, don Cristóbal y don Rodrigo de Campos Castañeda, Castromocho, Gatón y Valdivieso, 1654, 1714 y 1597, respectivamente.

El primero de esta familia que según parece pasó a la conquista del Nuevo Mundo, fue don Francisco de Campos, natural de Villar de Frades, Valladolid, en 1513.

Don José Esteban de Campos y Armenta, natural de Sevilla, era eEcribano Real y Receptor de la Real Audiencia de México en 1689. Casó tres veces y vivía en la calle del Hospicio, donde su tercera esposa dejó de existir en 1737.

Don Raimundo Simón de Campos, fue nombrado Relator del Crimen de la referida Audiencia, el 30 de diciembre de 1716.

Extract from BLASONES Y APELLIDOS, 828-page book by Fernando Muñoz Altea
In its second edition, the book can be ordered from or at
P.O. Box 11232, El Paso, Texas 79995  or by contacting Armando Montes


Family History Fair, April 24 Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center
Funding raising gala, April 23

The Baptism of Benito Juárez
Art, Santa Ana District Students
Emigdio Vasquez, Social Realist
Latina Conference, April 30, 2004

18th Annual Orange Family History Conference
SAVE THE DATE:  April 24, 2004
NO COST for Conference
Syllabus ($9.50) and Box lunch ($7.25) can be ordered.

35 classes on Starting Family History
3 specifically on Hispanic and many general classes, from writing your family history to taking photos and organizing your documents and files.
For more information, call the FHC at 714-997-7710

Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center

Located in down-town Santa Ana, the Center opened last year. Long the vision of businessman Carlos Olamendi, himself an immigrant, in 2003 the concept became a reality.  Benito Juarez was born in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico on March 21, 1806. He served two terms as President, from 1861-1863 and 1867 until his death in 1872.

On March 21st, 131 years after Benito Juarez's death, the community of Santa Ana became the first center in the United States established to recognize the historical time period when both Mexico and the United States were sharing parallel internal concerns for their countries. Each country affected by the political turmoil of its neighbor.

Historian Jim Tuck writes in Mexico Connect,, "Though they never met personally, the common experience of leadership during fratricidal war bonded them as leaders. When Juárez had to flee Mexico City in 1858, Lincoln sent him a message expressing hope "for the liberty of . . . your government and its people. . . . If we're looking for a true "Lincoln," one who resembled the Emancipator in spirit as well as in his political role, it is instructive to look at the life and career of Benito Juárez. "

In the last year, the Center, located at 117 W. 4th Street, Suite 300, has expanded its outreach as a 501(c)3 nonprofit. The Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center (LJOC) serves as a liaison between the promising Latino community and other non-profit organizations to provide research and referral assistance primarily in the areas of education, employment, healthcare, and immigration. Since opening its doors in March 2003, the Center has helped over one hundred people find stable jobs, proper healthcare, earn their high school diploma, attend college, learn to speak English and become citizens of the United States of America.

In 1998 Olamendi, a successful businessman met Mimi Lozano when they each received the Republican Hispanic Community Leadership Award from the Lincoln Club of Orange County.

Under the leadership of Dale Dykema, the Lincoln Club embraced the future. Dykema, sensitive to demographic changes in the community recognized the need to bond with Mexican leadership. His vision was to connect with Hispanic groups and together meet the challenges of a changing community. Dykema, shared the vision with other members of the Lincoln Club and gathered the support to carry the concept forward. The Awards were meant to make a statement, with an eye to the future and sensitivity to the present. Dykema's associates were persuaded to support an organized outreach to the Spanish speaking community. Olamendi was recognized for his concern and involvement in immigrant issues, Lozano for her effort in promoting historical awareness of Hispanic contributions.

Olamendi and Lozano organized a community-wide Visibility Committee to promote an awareness of the historical facts of immigration from Mexico into the United States and to create a positive visibility. Both felt that historical omissions concerning the relationship between Mexico and the United States had created severe social and economic problems for both countries. Dealing with issues of illegal immigrants, bi-lingualism and school drop-out rates needed to be understood from the historical perspective.

Over its three year period of activism, the Visibility Committee and its members held meetings at all levels of public involvement, from small group coffee chats to university forums. Establishing relationships with newspapers, television and radio links, the Visibility Committee promoted a new image, the positive visibility of the emerging, professional middle class Latinos who were anxious to assist and willing to lead. Olamendi traveled to D.C. and to Mexico frequently. Meetings took place in California, Texas, Chicago, Mexico and D.C. stressing the ramifications of Hispanic trends, such as population increases, migration and immigration within the U.S., needed programs for the reunification of families, as well as the growing financial power of Hispanics/Latinos. Intercultural understanding was the base of the Visibility effort.

The combined efforts of Olamendi, Dykema other Orange County Latino businessmen resulted in a monumental, historical tie. John Cruz embraced the cause and helped take the concept to the next level. Traveling to Washington, D.C. and other places, the Latino businessmen negotiated the selection of the city of Santa Ana as Mexico's First Trade Center in the nation. Five thousand people joined Vicente Fox in the inauguration ceremony, March 22, 2001 at 900 N. Broadway, Santa Ana, California

As editor of Somos Primos, a heritage quarterly, Lozano assisted
the Visibility Committee by the preparation of documents for the committee, and serving on the U.S. Senate Task Force on Hispanic Affairs. In addition, Somos Primos, was moved to the internet to abstract and chronicle the social changes being observed.

"The history of the Mexican-American is interwoven and an integral part of the development of both California and the United States. To view us as distinctly separate, is to observe us in historical ignorance . . . with discernment distorted," said Lozano. "Immigration problems will not be solved until the correct historical perspective is perceived."

In 2001 a report was published by the National Council of La Raza, Beyond the Census: Hispanics and an American Agenda. The report identified Santa Ana as the city in the nation with the highest number of residents who speak Spanish, 74.0 percent. Community events and data awakened the interest and gathered the support of Olamendi's fellow New Majority and Lincoln Club members, Dale Dykema, and John Cruz. Steps were taken to create a center where the historical understanding of the relationship between the United States and Mexico would form the philosophical base, and the local community would receive assistance from a different political perspective. They recognized this as an opportunity to help the immigrant community achieve their American dream by sharing their philosophy of self-sufficiency.

The concept of the Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center was presented to the Boards of both the New Majority and the Lincoln Club of Orange County. The two organizations joined together to provide a significant portion of the financial resources for the first two year of such an operation. The current presidents of these groups are Larry Higby and Tracy Price, respectively.

The Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center exists today through the financial support of the New Majority and the Lincoln Club of Orange County and the unswerving dedication and persistence of John Cruz, Dale Dykema and Carlos Olamendi, who have not veered from their vision of establishing it. "I wanted to do something to show that Republicans do care about Hispanics," said Dykema. "We've got to have involvement in the community itself and a physical presence." Olamendi said, " We are continuing what Lincoln and Juarez started years ago, a relationship of respect."

On March 20, 2003, the centered held its opening reception, in its offices located right in down-town Santa Ana on 4th St. The Lincoln-Juarez Center was honored by the presence of Ambassador Marta Lara, Consul General of Mexico, and many other dignitaries.

The Executive Director is Dr. Carmen Vali-Cave. Dr. Ph.D. Vali-Cave received her doctorate in Educational Psychology from Stanford in 1994. She has the unique history of being the first mayor of Aliso Viejo.

Vali-Cave was named after her grandmother, Carmen Ortiz. Grandmother Ortiz immigrated from Aquascalientes, Mexico to the United States without parents and supported herself picking cotton. Vali-Cave's grandfather, Jose Adán, also migrated by himself. At the age of 16 years he traveled from Veracruz to San Antonio, Texas.

Last year at the September California Republican Convention, Board member and co-founder John G. Cruz, an Irvine attorney, made a presentation entitled, Putting Compassionate Conservatism to Work in the Community. Cruz, of Puerto Rican heritage, was born in New York and moved with his family to Orange County when he was 12 years old.

On Friday, April 23rd, the second annual major fund raising event for the center will be held. The formal gala, Keys to the American Dream will be held at the Santa Ana Performing Arts and Events Center, 505 N. Sycamore, Santa Ana, CA 92701.

The Chair, for the second year, is Laura Martinez McDermott, one of the youngest members of the New Majority, the moderate Republican group based in Orange County. Martinez McDermott graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles with a major in Spanish, after completing studies in both Mexico and Spain. She began her career working for a multi-national advertising firm on Latin American accounts. Currently her energies are focused on being the mother of three and chairing the Gala.

Leaders in the community serving on the Board of the Lincoln Juarez Opportunity Center are Greg Arbues, Karen Juarez Boyd, John Cruz, Dale Dykema, Josephine Goodrich, Mimi Lozano, Laura McDermott, Carlos Olamendi, Mario Rodriguez, Rich Wagner, Donna Varner.

For information on corporate and individual sponsorship, please contact Capital Campaigns: Phone: 949-753-0860, or fax: 949-753-0744

Lincoln-Juarez Opportunity Center
Carmen L. Vali-Cave, Ph.D. Executive Director
117 W. 4th St. Suite 300
Santa Ana, CA 92701
714-245-1408   714-245-1412 fax  

The Baptism of Benito Juárez
Translated by John P. Schmal

En la Iglesia Parroquial de Santo Tomás  Ixtlán, a veintidós de marzo del año de mil ochocientos seis;  yo, Mariano Cortabarría, asistido por el Vicario don Antonio Puche, bauticé solemnemente a Benito Pablo, hijo de Marcelino Juárez y de Brígida García, indios del poblado de San Pablo Guelatao, perteneciente  a esta cabecera de partido; sus abuelos paternos son Pedro Juárez y Justa López; los maternos, Pablo García y María García; fue madrina Apolonia García, india y casada con Francisco García, y le advertí su obligación y parentesco espiritual, y para que conste firmamos la presente acta, etc.

In the Parish Church of Santo Tomas Ixtlan, on the 22nd of March of the year of 1806, I Father Mariano Cortabarria, assisted by Vicar Antonio Puche, baptized solemnly Benito Pablo, son of Marcelino Juarez and Brigida Garcia, Indians of the village of San Pablo Guelatao, belonging to this main district; his paternal grandparents are Pedro Juarez and Justa Lopez; the maternal grandparents: Pablo Garcia and Maria Garcia; the godmother was Apolonia Garcia, Indian and wife of Francisco Garcia, and whom I advised of her obligation and spiritual parentage, and in witness thereof we signed the present act., etc.

Source:  Pere Foix, Juárez (Mexico, D.F.: Editorial Trillas, 1949), p. 23.

History of Mexico - Mexico's Lincoln: The Ecstasy and Agony of Benito Juarez by Jim Tuck in Mexico Connect

Libreria Martinez Books and Art Gallery
Art Exhibit by Santa Ana District Students March 19 to April 12
1110 N. Main Street, Santa Ana, CA 92701


Saturday, April 3  Opening Reception  Exhibit runs from April 3-25, 2004
Fine Art Paintings by Emigdio Vasquez, Social Realist
7-10 PM The Legacy Gallery, Downtown Santa Ana's Artist Village 207 N. Broadway, Santa Ana  714-558-0387  View his work at...
Source: Henry Michael Godines

6th Annual Latina Conference on Friday April 30, 2004
Sent by Ruben Alvarez

Hispanic Lifestyle presents the 6th Annual Latina Conference on Friday April 30, 2004. The event will be held at the Ontario Airport Hilton in Ontario, California. The goal of Latina Conference 2004 is to facilitate the gathering and networking of Latinas to produce meaningful dialog on the roles they assume in the community. Traditionally the conference features exhibitors, seminar sessions, panel discussions, and keynote addresses. Our theme for this year is “Embracing Our Culture.” The event will feature panel discussions on business & finances, Latina authors and how our culture will shape the future of California. Latina Conference 2004 will be yet another sellout! Speakers and 
presenters will be: local and national community leaders, authors, entertainers, health professionals, educators and business owners. 

The conference targets Latina professionals, business owners, students, companies and professionals interested in reaching this important consumer market. Our Job Opportunity Section features employers seeking bilingual applicants for employment. Over the years the number of men attending the conference for the purpose of networking with the valuable consumer has increased. Many national corporations and local businesses have supported the program in the past. The combination of a conference/ business expo, provides the opportunity to directly connect with the event’s attendees. 

To attend the conference or for sponsorship information please contact us 
909.789.7336. or


Dr. Antonio Rios-Bustamante 
Feria de Sevilla
Mendez vs. Westminster 
Oldest Woman, Dies at 116
New Media University Academy 
Embracing Our Culture
L.A. Times  Abstracts, 1890-1955


The History & Heritage of Mexican Los Angeles:
  Ranchos to Barrios, 1781-present

Lecture by Dr. Antonio Rios-Bustamante, 
Professor of Chicano studies at California State University, Stanislaus
April 17, 2004 @ 10:00 a.m.

Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site, 4600 Virginia Road, Long Beach 90807. Located northwest of the intersection of San Antonio Drive and Long Beach Boulevard.  
$3.00 members & students; $5.00 non-members, (Includes light refreshments)
Advance reservations requested; please call (562) 570-1755. 
CONTACT: Eliza Boné (562) 570-1755

Many areas in California inhabited by Mexicans in the 18th and 19th century continue to be part of the core of American cities in the 20th century. Starting with the early pueblos and ranchos and exploring transportation routes and settlement patterns, Dr. Antonio Rios-Bustamante, professor of Chicano studies at California State University, Stanislaus, will examine the development and growth of today's Los Angeles region and its Mexican barrios.

UPCOMING LECTURE: May 8: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Californio Ranchos
More information or make reservations: (562) 570-1755 or visit
Lecture series supported by Friends of Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Cerritos Foundation. Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site, Department of Parks, Recreation and Marine, City of Long Beach. 

Feria de Sevilla,  April 16 and 17, 
Organized by La Peña Andaluza en California,
The taste of Spain
Music, authentic foods, flamenco dance, Andulsian horses, games, 
Entrance donation: Friday 11 am to 5 pm, $3  and Saturday, 11 am to 9:30 pm $5.  Under 12, free
Antiguo Gemmrig Park, 7390 Carson St.
Long Beach

"Mendez vs. Westminster - 
California's Contribution to Brown v. Board of Education" 
Exhibit Opens

March 15, 2004 Contact: Gilbert Acuna
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE (213) 629-3531 X 355

WHEN: Thurs., April 1, 2004 11:00 am - 12:00 noon

WHAT: "Mendez vs. Westminster - California's Contribution to Brown v. Board of 
Education" Exhibit Opens

WHERE: Los Angeles County Law Library, 301 W. First St., Los Angeles, CA 

WHO: Sylvia Mendez, daughter of Gonzalo & Felicitas Mendez who fought the 
landmark California case that ended legal school segregation in California 
seven years before Brown v. Board of Education. Sandra Robbie, Emmy 
Award-winning writer/producer of the PBS Documentary "Mendez vs. Westminster: For All the Children / Para Todos los Ninos"

PHOTO OPS: Original documents from the Mendez case including papers from NAACP
attorney Thurgood Marshall. Historic photos of So. California's 
segregated schools along with photos of Gonzalo and Felicitas Mendez 
who led the lawsuit. The display will also feature copies of news articles and documents signed by then-Governor Earl Warren, repealing California's last remaining school segregation statutes in 1947. 

Segregated schools, swimming pools, movie theaters…that was Southern California in 1943.

Sylvia Mendez was eight years old when she was turned away from the "White School" in Westminster. She and her brothers Gonzalo and Jerome, along with Sandra Robbie, the Emmy Award-winning documentary writer/producer of "Mendez vs.Westminster: For All the Children / Para Todos los Ninos" will be on hand to talk about the exhibit and the historic significance of California's contribution to American Civil Rights. The exhibit will feature photos of California's segregated schools and documents from the Mendez case, including the amicus brief filed by NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall. Seven years later, that brief served as the model for the argument used in Brown v. Board of Education. 

Ms. Robbie says, "In this 50-year anniversary celebration of the landmark Brown decision, it is only appropriate to finally integrate our study of American Civil Rights history. School segregation also existed here in Southern California. Let America know that in California, people of all colors fought to end this injustice and helped to pave the way to Brown v. Board of Education."

Los Angeles Times, Mar 6, 1932

Events that happened more than 100 years ago were clearly recalled almost to the hour of her death by Mrs. Eulalia Salas, who, at the age of 116 years, was believed to be the oldest woman in the United States. Her son, Nolverto, 95, lives at Niles

She died yesterday at her home at 366 South Boyle avenue, after an illness of less than forty-eight hours, according to her daughter, Mrs. Auralia Salas Chavez, who is 66. Death was attributed by the Coroner to hardening of the arteries.

Until a few weeks ago she had taken an active part in the housework and was accustomed to doing her own washing as well as other domestic chores. She had never worn glasses, members of the family declared.

Mrs. Salas was born in Zacatecas, Mex., February 13, 1816, and was 25 years of age at the time the French invasion of Mexico took place.

Age, she always insisted, was purely a state of mind and she declared she was the physical superior, at the century-mark, of most women of 40. In response to questions from members of her family and others, however, she always replied she had no hard-and-fast rule for attaining longevity. Nor did she believe anyone else possessed such a magic secret.

"I eat what I want and when I want it," she told her questioners, "but I never make a glutton of myself!"
Her daily diet, Mrs. Chavez said, consisted mostly of frijole soup with green vegetables eaten in moderate quantities. She ate little meat and had a horror of piles, cakes or sweetmeats in any form.

She was born two years after the fall of Napoleon in 1814 and less than a year after his defeat by Wellington in the Battle of Waterloo.

She was 21 years of age when Samuel Morse obtained his patent on the first telegraph instrument in 1837 and one of the prized possessions of her early womanhood was a sewing machine, invented by Howe in 1846. She remembered clearly the pride with which the gift was received and how her home became a center of interest for less fortunate women eager for a look at the remarkable invention.

The son, Nolverto, who recently celebrated his ninety-fifth birthday anniversary at his home in Niles, is said by the Chavez family to be in excellent health and he is expected to attend the funeral services here. Arrangements for the rites had not been completed yesterday. She also leaves two brothers, Pete Salas (sic) of Salinas, and Jesus of Los Angeles. She had lived in Los Angeles for nearly a quarter-century.

EASTLOSANGELES.NET is a web portal providing focused resources and news.  Empowering Residents, Commerce, Educators and Community Leaders through technology to enhance their quality of life! “Bridging the Gap in the Digital Divide" If you would like to receive East LA News contact:

The New Media University Academy (NMUA) is a free computer training program 
funded by the City of Los Angeles Workforce Investment Act (WIA). It is an 
intensive 10 week program with five instruction hours per day. 

The goal of this program is to teach students to have the necessary academic, technical and social skills that will enable them to pursue higher education and become gainfully employed.
At NMUA you will learn:
• Microsoft Office - Word, Excel, PowerPoint
• Adobe Photoshop
• Adobe Pagemaker
• Basic Training in computer hardware
• Hardiness Training - international award winning program that improves academic, professional and personal performances, morale, stamina and health.
• College preparation and counseling
• Career Preparation and Placement: workshops on resumes, career fairs, job search, job interviews

How to qualify:
• 18-21 years old
• Live in the City of Los Angeles
• Have a high school diploma/GED, or will obtain high school diploma/GED within five months. 

Classes are Monday through Friday, 9am-2pm.  All equipments and materials are provided free of charge, including bus passes. We are located in the heart of Northeast LA in Cypress Park.
For more information or to register, call (323)223-0604 x33.
New Media University Academy
570 W. Avenue 26, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90065

Embracing Our Culture, April 30, 2004

Latina Conference 2004 - Embracing Our Culture is scheduled for Friday, April 30, 2004 at the Ontario Airport Hilton. Information, 909.789.7336 or visit our website

SATURDAY, MAY 8, 2004: Hispanic Lifestyle’s Fiesta at Ontario Mills - Saturday, May 8, 2004 Hispanic Lifestyle Magazine is pleased to announce that we are producing a Fiesta celebrating Latino Heritage at the Ontario Mills, Ontario, California on Saturday, May 8, 2004. The community is invited to celebrate the heritage of the Latino culture in a one day event that will feature Entertainment, Kids Areas, Health Screenings and Latin Artists; To request sponsorship information, please call 909.789.7336


Los Angeles Times Newspaper Abstracts, 1890-1955

These were taken from various newsletters distributed free by CA-SPANISH-L Rootsweb.
Editor is: Ron. . . .
Sent by Chuck Bobo

Los Angeles Times, Feb 26, 1890
AN OLD TIMER: Death of the Aged Don Vicente Lugo

Yesterday morning, at Rancho San Antonio, Don Vicente Lugo died after being confined to his bed only a few weeks.  He was aged 80 years, and is about the last of the big family of children left by old Don Antonio M. Lugo.  Away back in the fifties Don Antonio was considered the wealthiest man in California.  The old Don came here from Spain when quite a boy as a soldier, and when he left the army he made up his mind to settle in Southern California.  He belonged to a wealthy family in Spain, and as he was a good business man he soon acquired large land interests, and at the time of his death, in 1860, it is said he could start out from San Diego on horseback and sleep on his own land every night between that point and Sonoma, a distance of over six hundred miles. The family home was Los Cuerbas, where Compton now stands, and it was there that Don Vicente was born and raised.

In 1854 Don Vicente built the old two-story adobe house on the Plaza, that is now used as a Chinese restaurant.  When built it was considered the finest building in Southern California, and if its walls could speak they would tell some queer stories.

Don Vicente has been very careful in business transactions during the past few years, and it is believed that he leaves a large estate.

He leaves several children and quite a number of nephews and nieces.  The funeral announcement has not yet been made, but it will probably take place tomorrow.


Los Angeles Times, Jul 11, 1891
B. J. Higuera and Concepcion Racha (sic) were the principal participants connected with a Spanish wedding in high life last week.  The festivities were attended by friends and relatives of both parties.

Los Angeles Times, Feb 9, 1892
J. A. Machado, 37 years of age, was granted a license at the County clerk's office yesterday to marry Tomasa Alvarado, 35 years of age.  Both are natives of this State and reside at Pomona.

Los Angeles Times, Jan 27, 1892

Mrs. Francisca Sepulveda de Thompson, wife of James Thompson of this city, died January 25, 1892, in the 66th year of her age, having been born in April, 1826, in this pueblo.  She was the eldest daughter of Don Jose and Dona Francisca Abila Sepulveda.  Mrs. Thompson was twice married, first to Don Jose Antonio Carrillo, a former secretary of the Territory of California, and twice a deputy to the Mexican Congress; and second to Mr. James Thompson, who still survives her.

Mrs. Thompson was one of the most amiable and kind-hearted of women.  An American surgeon who arrived here in early times, and who is a resident of Los Angeles, used to say of her that "she was the first Sister of Charity he had ever seen" referring to her active sympathy for those who were in poverty or in distress.  Indeed, all who knew her not only admired her noble character, but they were attached to her by the strongest ties of affection.

Mrs. Thompson being an Abila and a Sepulveda, both of which were prominent families here in the olden times, and being connected by marriage with the Carrillos (her first husband being a brother of Gov. Carlos Carrillo.) she leaves many relatives to mourn her loss; among them are her two brothers, Don Andronico Sepulveda of this city, Judge Y. Sepulveda of the City of Mexico, and two sisters, Mrs. T. D. Mott and Senorita Tranquilina Sepulveda, Mrs. de Valle of Camulos, who was an Abila, and many others, both contemporary and of later generations.  All who knew Dona Francisca will say:  "Of a truth a good woman is gone!"


Los Angeles Times, Jul 13, 1901

Laid the First Water Pipes in San Luis Obispo and Lassoed Bears in the Arroyo Grande Valley Forty Years Ago.

SAN LUIS OBISPO, July 12. - (From The Times' Resident Correspondent.)  Yesterday at 11 o'clock Jose M. Carlon, one of the oldest residents of this county, passed away at his home in this city.  He was in good health up to within a few days ago, but in some manner contracted blood poisoning, which soon caused his death.

Don Jose Carlon was a prominent figure among the Spanish-Americans of this section of the State.  He was born in Santa Barbara in 1838, and came to San Luis Obispo when a mere boy.  He laid the first system of water pipes in the city, and for twenty years or more had charge of the work of repairing and laying pipe for the San Luis Water Company.

In his boyhood days Mr. Carlon caught a number of bears in the Arroyo Grande Valley in this county, with the lasso.  He was twice married, and twenty children were born to his two wives, twelve of whom are still living.

The Johnson and McCuen quicksilver mines have been purchased by Boston capitalists


Los Angeles Times, Jun 12, 1924

"Pick Lilies for Me and Sister," Says Girl, "for We Are Going;" Both Die

Two pure white lilies were blooming Tuesday in the garden of Mrs. Teresa Garcia at 617 Imperial street.  Yesterday the stately flowers were gone, fulfilling a strange request and a stranger prophesy.

The lilies were seen and admired Tuesday by Mrs. Garcia's 17-year-old niece, Mary Garcia, 664 Imperial street.

"Pick me one," Mary told her aunt, "and pick one and send it to my sister."

"Why do you wish it?" asked Mrs. Garcia.

"I want it to lay across my breast tonight, for I am going to die."  she said.  "The other is for my sister."

This brought terror to Mrs. Garcia.

That night at 9:45 o'clock Mary passed away.  Fifteen minutes later word came to Mrs. Garcia that Mary's 22-year-old sister, Laura Garcia, had just died at her home at 739 Oak street, Watts.

Side by side in a darkened room of the Alvarez and Moore Undertaking Company last night the two bodies lay.  On the breast of each was a lily.

Death was unexpected in both cases, Mrs. Garcia said.  Although both girls were not in good health both did not take to their beds until shortly before the end came.

The mother of the girls is dead and their father, said to be a former judge in a New Mexico town, was not here at the time of their death.  An effort was being made last night to locate him.


Los Angeles Times, Feb 27, 1943
OBITUARY, Mrs. Ysabel Garcia

Mrs. Ysabel Mason Garcia, 90, daughter of the late Luz Figueroa, early Los Angeles settler, died yesterday at her home, 1441 W. Palomares St., La Verne.  Solemn requiem mass will be celebrated Monday at 10 a.m. in the La Verne Catholic church by Rev. Jose Gargolla.  Interment will be in Holy Cross Cemetery, Pomona.  Married when she was 15 to Esperidion (sic) Garcia at the Plaza Church here in June, 1868, Mrs. Garcia and her husband settled in Pomona.  They built an adobe home on the present site of the Los Angeles County Fairgrounds.  Garcia died in 1918.


Los Angeles Times, Apr 11, 1946

Requiem mass for Miss Maria Delfina Moreno, 83, granddaughter of Pio Pico, last Governor of California under the Mexican rule, will be celebrated at 9:30 a.m. today at Calvary Cemetery Mausoleum chapel.  Entombment will follow there under the direction of Pierce Bros. Valley Mortuary.  Miss Moreno was born at El Ranchito, Whittier, and had been a Southland resident during her entire lifetime.  She died at the home of her brother Manuel, with whom she lived at 1776 Elm Drive, Calabasas.  She leaves two other brothers, Porferio (sic) R. and Alejandro, and a sister, Mrs. Paulina L. Dodds.


Los Angeles Times, Mar 23, 1955

Born in 105-Year-Old Vicente de la Osa Adobe, Now Part of Historical Monument

Mrs. Florestina Gilbert, descendant of Spanish dons who came to California in the 18th century, died Monday at her home, 1375 W. 25th St.

Mrs. Gilbert was born in the Vicente de la Osa Adobe in Encino. The 105-year-old adobe, now a part of the Los Encinos State Historical Monument at Encino, was built by Mrs. Gilbert's father, Don Vicente de la Osa, who came to California from Spain in the early 1800s.

Don Vicente purchased a 5500-acre estate in the Encino area from three Indians during the 1840s.

Mrs. Gilbert's grandfather, Don Jose de la Osa, Don Vicente's father, was sent by the King of Spain as a special envoy to Alta California, present-day California, during the 1790s.

Dona Eulalia Perez de Guillen, famed nurse and teacher of San Gabriel Mission during the first half of the 19th century, was Mrs. Gilbert's grandmother.

Dona Eulalia was one of the most famous of early-day Californian women. Easter Day of 1827 she was rewarded for her many meritorious deeds with a grant of 14,000 acres that included much of the present area of South Pasadena.

Mrs. Gilbert and the late Harlow Gilbert were married in San Gabriel in 1887. Gilbert operated a marble and stone business for many years in Los Angeles. He died in 1920.

Mrs. Gilbert was active for many years in the Native Daughters of the Golden West. One of her proudest moments was when the Vicente de la Osa Adobe was set aside as a Southern California historic landmark by the Los Angeles chapter of the organization in 1950.

Extremely alert despite her advanced years, she insisted a few weeks ago that members of her family promise not to disclose her age.

Realizing that death was near, she hand-picked several of her nephews to be pallbearers. "They are to be the best dressed and handsomest members of my family," she told her daughter, Miss Inez Gilbert.

Mrs. Gilbert leaves in addition to her daughter, a son, Vernon Gilbert, and many nieces, nephews, grandnieces and grandnephews in the Los Angeles area.


To receive the CA-SPANISH-D Digest, please contact editor, Karla Everett at: EverettKA@bak.rr

 CA-SPANISH-D Digest Volume 04,  Issue 16.  This issue had the following topics: 
#1 Avila Marriage 
#2 Antonio Aguilar 
#3 Felicia Moreno 
#4 Felipe E. Avila 
#5 Rosalinda Sepulveda 
#6 Mrs. J. G. de Sepulveda 
#7 Jose de la Luz Valenzuela 
#8 Rosana Bernal 
#9 Pedro Padillo 

Los Angeles Times, Feb 18, 1902
Hernaldo J. Avila, aged 27, a native of California, and Maud Gorham, aged 20, a native of Iowa; both residents of Los Angeles.

Los Angeles Times, Aug 18, 1909
Pioneer Who Could Recall Pueblo Days to Be Buried This Morning.
Expert Saddle Maker.

The funeral of Antonio Aguilar, who was accidentally killed on Saturday, will be held at 8:30 o'clock this morning at the family residence, No. 1579 Henry street. There will also be services at Sacred Heart Church. Interment will be at Calvary Cemetery.

Mr. Aguilar was born in Lower California eighty-seven years ago, and came here when Los Angeles was a pueblo and the surrounding country was divided into ranchos consisting of thousands of acres, with countless numbers of cattle and horses roaming over the hills and through the valleys.

He took up as an occupation the manufacturing of stockmen's riding saddles, for which California was, and is today, famous. In this he became most proficient, having made some of the most magnificent designs ever shown in the West. At the time of his death he had been in the employ of the Los Angeles Saddlery and Finding Company for fifteen years.

He was always a public-spirited citizen, upholding the law and using his influence among his people in the cause of justice and good citizenship.

He leaves a widow, a daughter, Mrs. Albert Scheller, who resides in San Fernando; a son in Lower California, and a daughter, Mrs. Henry Shore, and a son, Louis Aguilar, who live in this city.

Los Angeles Times, Feb 6, 1955
Miss Felicia Moreno
Rosary for Miss Felicia Moreno, 69, daughter of the late Mary Sepulveda, pioneer Southland family, and the late Jose Moreno, will be recited today at 8 p.m. at Utter-McKinley's West Hollywood chapel. Requiem Mass will be celebrated tomorrow at 9:30 a.m. at St. Victor's Church. Arrangements are under the direction of Utter-McKinley's West Hollywood Mortuary. Miss Moreno was born in Hollywood and lived at 850 N. Larrabee St. She leaves a niece, Charlotte Alvarez.

Los Angeles Times, Oct 26, 1902
Former Constable Run Down on North Main Street and Received Injuries Which Resulted in Death.
While crossing North Main street near Arcadia street yesterday morning, Felipe E. Avila, formerly a Deputy Constable, and a well-known character about town, was struck by an electric car of the Alhambra line. He was knocked a considerable distance and when assistance reached him was unconscious and bleeding from a wound on the back of the head. It is said that he had been drinking and paid no attention to the warning of the gong on the car. He was taken to the Receiving Hospital, where it was found that his injuries were very serious, and he was then removed to the County Hospital. He lingered there until 9 o'clock last night, when he died without having recovered consciousness. He was about forty years of age. He was married and had one child, but, had not been living with his wife for a long time.

Los Angeles Times, Jan 9, 1899
SEPULVEDA - In this city, Saturday, January 7, Rosalinda Sepulveda, daughter of Sostenes Sepulveda, aged 10 years.
Funeral from the residence of her father, No. 1230 East Ninth street, Monday, January 9, at 1:30 p.m., Cathedral 2 p.m. Friends invited.
NOTE: The address is difficult to read, I'm guessing at 1230.

Los Angeles Times, Jan 8, 1899
DE SEPULVEDA - Mrs. J. G. de Sepulveda, at No. 811 Kohler street, aged 72.
Funeral from her late residence in this city, Monday, January 9, at 9 o'clock, at the Cathedral, Main street, between Second and Third streets. Friends are invited.

Los Angeles Times, Aug 30, 1883
VALENZUELA - August 29th, 1883, at 5 A.M., Jose de la Luz Valenzuela, of this city.
Deceased was a native Californian, and a member in good standing of the Spanish Presbyterian Church of Los Angeles. The funeral will take place at his residence, No. 308 San Pedro street, this afternoon at 4 o'clock. Rev. Carlos Bransby officiating. All the members of the Spanish Church and other friends are requested to attend.

I'm very interested in this man. If anyone has any information regarding him or his family, please contact me. Karla Everett EverettKA@bak.rr

Los Angeles Times, Aug 10, 1883
BERNAL. In Los Angeles, August 9th, 1883, Rosana Bernal, only child of J. A. and Costancia M. Bernal, aged eighteen months and eight days.
Funeral from residence, No. 16 Jackson street, at 4 p.m. to-day.


Juarez Family 
Memories, San Geronimo Rancho

Sutro Library 
Day of the Children Festival

Don Juan Bautista De Anza
Royal Presidio of Santa Bárbara
Descendant, Vallejo & Lugo  Families
California Spanish Genealogy
Society of California Pioneers 

Juarez Family Photos
Courtesy of Helen B. Collins


Standing: Jose Joaquin Juarez 
Seated, his neighbor, Macedonia Lorenzana
Photograph - Tintype

  In 1861, a photographer came to Branciforte (Santa Cruz).  He brought his equipment on the back of a mule.  He wanted to photograph the two oldest citizens of Branciforte.  

Jose Joaquin Juarez and his neighbor, Macedonia Lorenzana were among the early settlers to Branciforte (Santa Cruz), California in 1798. 

He got there just in time, shortly after the photograph was taken, Jose Joaquin Juarez died.   I have the original tintype that was given to me by the daughter-in-law of Isabel King Victor, my great grand aunt.  Her name was Carrie Victor.   

This photo is kind of famous.  It is in Barbara Juarez Wilson's book, appeared on the front page of the Santa Cruz daily newspaper, THE SENTINEL, is in my book, is in the Santa Cruz files and in my book.  You will have to enlarge or make the attachment smaller.  

Matias Cayetano Juarez with his Grandson, Roy Lolito Juarez, Son of Dolores Juarez and Helena Newhouse Juarez, Circa 1879-1880

Vicente Juarez, 1813-1894, Circa 1888 
From left to right: Ethel Juarez (Mackroth), Vivian Juarez (Levin) and Roy Lolito Juarez

Senora Maria Higuera Juarez
Circa 1879

Cayetano Juarez and Vicente Juarez are the sons of Jose Joaquin Juarez and Josefa Pasquala (Lorenzana) Garduna.

The children are the grandchildren of  Cayetano Juarez and Maria Higuera de Juarez.

"Don" Cayetano Juarez 
Circa 1879

Matias Cayetano Juarez,  was the owner of Rancho Tulocay, which was located in Napa, California.  He donated land for Tulocay Cemetery where he and his family are buried, as well as, his mother, Josefa Garduno de Juarez. 

Cayetano went into the army when he was 18 years old, so I am not sure if he was in the Spanish army or Mexican army.  He was a good friend of Mariano Vallejo as they had adjoining ranchos.  Cayetano Juarez also donated the land for the California State Insane Asylum in Napa.

The original San Geronimo Rancho consisting of two leagues and lying on the coast northwest of Cayucos, California, was granted to Rafael Villavicencio in 1842.  The Cayucos creek adobe was originally 120 feet long and stood at that location.  Little if any of it now remains.  The second Villavicencio adobe located in Villa Creek canyon is under the walls of the house built by my grandfather, John McAuliffe in 1874-75.  There are two smaller ranches now, one in Cayucos Creek canyon and one in Villa Creek Canyon that are called San Geronimo.  Our ranch was located three miles up Villa Creek Canyon, which lies seven miles above Cayucos off of Highway One.  The property has been divided and the house and adobe now belong to Winnie Warren.   The Villa Creek ranch property in McAuliffe Canyon now belongs to other Warren family members.   Helen


My great, great grandmother Josefa P. Garduno Juarez's Grave.   I am the great granddaughter of Francisco Xavier Juarez and Maria Dolores Cota.  Helen B. Collins

This grave is in the Juarez Plot in Tulocay Cemetery in Napa, Ca.  Josefa P. Garduno Juarez died
in Napa on the Tulocay Rancho that belonged to her son, Cayetano Juarez. 



Helen B. Collins

In 1874 my grandparents, John and Mary McAuliffe, bought part of the San Geronimo Rancho from Roberto and Guadalupe Villa (Villavicencio). John paid over $4,000 in gold for the ranch, which was located ten miles northeast of Cayucos, California. In the summer of 1874 the McAuliffe’s moved from their ranch at Pinto Lake, in the Pajaro Valley near Watsonville, to their San Luis Obispo County property.

The original owner of the San Geronimo Rancho was Rafael Villavicencio, and he received the Mexican land grant on July 24, 1842. The rancho consisted of over 8,000 acres of land, which included Villa Creek Canyon, Cayucos Creek Canyon and all the land in between. In 1874 Rafael’s son, Roberto Villa, was the owner of the San Geronimo rancho. Unfortunately, due to two years of extreme drought from 1864 to 1866, Roberto was losing his property. His wife Guadalupe Higuera de Villa was the financial expert, and she knew something had to be done to pay off the bank; because they were threatening foreclosure. There was no other choice so she had to sell the Villa Creek Canyon property and keep the Cayucos Creek property. This was a smart move, because she kept the best land for her family.

The Villavicencios had a small cemetery on the hill above the Villa Creek adobe, and they asked the McAuliffes for the right to visit the graves. For years an elderly Senora Villa would come to the ranch and place flowers on her family’s graves. Alas the Senora and the grave markers are gone, and now they are a part of the past.

In 1874 when the McAuliffes arrived at the Villa Creek Rancho there was no house on the property only an old decaying adobe. Swallows built nests on the outer walls of the building, and bats flew in and out of the windows at night. There was evidence cattle had gone into the building and milled about the dirt floor. The adobe stood amongst tall stalks of mustard and weeds, and the only sounds were the calls of blackbirds and the chirping of swallows. My poor grandmother almost had a fainting spell when she saw where she would eventually have to set up housekeeping. Despite the initial shock of seeing her future home, she pulled herself together and made camp for the family. There were six children; one was a baby, and they had to be fed.

There was no time to lose. A decent shelter had to be built and in place before winter set in. John had contacted his cousins in San Francisco and asked them to come down and help him build the house. The men were carpenters and were only too glad to help. John had ordered redwood from Santa Cruz for the walls of the house, and pine slabs from Cambria for the floors. The redwood lumber arrived at Port San Luis Obispo, and was delivered by a team of oxen. The pine floorboards were hauled down from Cambria in a hay wagon. (1)

The three McAuliffe men immediately started building the house around and over the old adobe as the mud walls were sound. The adobe became the front room with a fireplace at one end. At the other end they added a kitchen, dining room, and on one side they eventually added a parlor. A second floor was built over the top of the lower rooms and made into five bedrooms. Two barns, a dairy and a bunkhouse were built near the house. The original house was completed by 1876, and remained that way until 1927 when it was remodeled, and two bathrooms and three porches were added. Electricity service also came to the ranch in 1927. Today the adobe portion of the house can only be seen from the top of the stairs leading to the basement. While the house was being built in 1874 and added to, eight more children were born to John and Mary McAuliffe.

In 1874 the Native Americans were still coming over the hills from the Paso Robles area. My Uncle told me that the Indians walked silently along the tops of the hills until they reached their old campground, which was located in the lower field of the Villa Creek Ranch. They chose this spot because they escaped the ocean fog when they camped in the canyon. While they were staying in the valley they would travel

three miles to the ocean everyday and spend their time fishing and collecting shellfish. In the fall they would return to their rancheria in Paso Robles for acorn harvesting. The McAuliffe family enjoyed having the Indians there, because they were very interesting. One evening the family heard singing and chanting coming from the Indian encampment, and they hurriedly walked down to the lower field to see what was going on. Their children ran along behind them. Grandfather and grandmother and the wide-eyed children stood in a row watching the Indians dancing and singing. The dances imitated bears growling and prowling, birds flying in circles and sometimes a good rendition of mating deer. When the dance of the mating deer started, grandpa and grandma hurriedly took the children home. The Indians came to the ranch for about another five or six years, then disappeared. All that remains is part of an old shell mound where many contented old cows stand surveying the world, and squirrels dig holes for their nests. The squirrels push up mounds of dirt, and sometimes inside there is an arrowhead.(2) 

In the 1870s and 1880’s there were children riding horses, working in the dairy and playing in the fields at the ranch. When they grew up, they became the Victorian ladies and gentlemen of their day. A teacher lived on the ranch and taught the children until Someo School was built, and then the boys went to school there. The older girls were sent to San Luis Obispo where they boarded with the nuns and attended the old convent school. After the older boys finished their schooling most of them wouldn’t have anything to do with farming so they went to San Diego, and four of their sisters soon followed. They all met their spouses there and were married in San Diego.

After several years of farming Grandfather and Grandmother McAuliffe grew old and went to Oakland to live near their younger daughters. Their oldest son, Gilbert, took over the ranch and was the last of the family to own the land. As he grew older he needed help so he took my father as a partner. My mother and father raised three girls, a boy and two cousins during the 1920’s. The children of the 1920’s attended Someo School and Coast Union High School. They were the flappers of the Roaring Twenties. When they finished high school, they either went to Providence Hospital in Oakland to become nurses or went to work in San Luis Obispo. I was born eleven years after them so I became the child of the 1930’s depression. The depression years weren’t hard on my family, but we watched people passing by the mouth of the canyon in old dilapidated cars with children’s handprints all over the windows, and little faces peering back at us. It was a tough time for many people.

When we lived at Villa Creek the countryside around the ranch was filled with wild life. I remember awakening at night and looking out my bedroom window at millions of stars twinkling in the sky. I could hear the coyotes howling in the distance, and a large owl that lived in a nearby tree was enlivening the night with a steady whoo, whoo, whooing. On three occasions during the night a large skunk wandered into the yard and went under the house. When we awoke in the morning and ran downstairs it would alarm the skunk, and it would create an awful odor before it left. The house had to be aired out in a hurry.

In the 1930’s my Uncle, my parents, my brother and I were the only ones left on the Villa Creek ranch, and when I was twelve years old, I was sent to San Luis Obispo to stay with my oldest sister in order to attend Mission School. I only returned to the ranch for vacations. World War II arrived, and my Uncle, my father and my brother were busy supplying food for the home front and the troops. In 1943 my father’s health failed him and he died in 1944. My uncle and brother remained, but soon they were gone; and in 1957 the ranch was sold to Will Warren, an elderly man, who lived alone in the house until he passed away.

Now the valley is quiet, and the only sounds heard are those of birds singing, cattle lowing and an occasional car crunching along the graveled road. The house looks lonely. There are no children there, and a house without a family to love it and care for it looks forlorn because of lack of attention. There seems to be an overcast of dreaded gloom, the trees seem to be dark and grasping; and they make deep dark mysterious shadows. There are no Indians dancing in happiness now, and no Spanish Dons riding their spirited horses up and down the canyon. There are no shouts of children racing their horses to school or wagons swaying along the dirt road. There are no Victorians riding large old-fashioned bicycles, and no flappers chugging by in their 1924 model Ts. The people who lived at the Villa Creek Ranch are gone, and they live only in the memories of their descendants.

(1) The redwood siding and the pine floors are still in good condition.
(2)  Source: Elder family members of the McAuliffe family.

Sutro Library  
Library, located on the campus of San Francisco State University. The library, affectionately known as the "largest genealogical library west of Salt Lake City," is a treasure trove of family history resources.
Sent by Yolanda Ochoa

April 25, 2004 
"Day of the Children Festival"
Sunday Interactive Performances: 10am-5pm  
Monterey Bay Aquarium, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, CA (831)648.4888
NOTE:  Martin Espino write, an incredible  museum with lots of great activities and music too. Centered in downtown Monterey, there's lots of things to do. The scenery is exquisite!!! This is my 4th year of being invited back to perform pre-Hispanic music.

 Don Juan Bautista De Anza

April 9, 1782 , Governor, colonizers, Juan Bautista de Anza published the request of the donativo (free contribution) in support of the American colonists.  
Alice Scoville Barry Collection of Historical Documents, 1684-1863

Newan Park, Riverside 
and the 
De Anza Statue

Located at Magnolia Ave and the 14th Street Intersection. The statue of the Spanish explorer Don Juan Bautista De Anza was sculpted by Sherry Peticolas, with a design by Dorr Bothwell and the support of the Works Projects Administration, in 1940. The model for the statue, Ed. J. Lousanau, was a descendant of De Anza's brother. The Works Project Administration federally funded public improvements in order to create jobs during the Great Depression.

Riverside was founded in 1870 by twenty-five pioneers led by John Wesley North. After the Civil War, Southern California was figured to be the location of the next real estate boom, so North's Colony set out to both invest wisely and to establish a community which would consciously avoid many of the social ills of cities on the East Coast. The original town site measured one square mile and is now commonly known as Downtown.


Don Juan Bautista De Anza

Photo sent by 
Crispin Rendon
This site has a picture of statue and other interesting information.

The Founding of the Royal Presidio of Santa Bárbara Festival
There are many activities planned for the month of April, in celebration of the founding of the Royal Presidio of Santa  Bárbara:  Encampments, reenactments, music, displays, and refreshments.  Contact: Santa Barbara committee member:
Mark Hardwick:

Felipe de Neve, first governor of the Californias, decided in 1777 that the Santa Bárbara Presidio should be located midway between San Buenaventura and Point Concepcíon. This section of coastline was the most vulnerable to a possible landing by a foreign power or to severance of communication between northern and southern settlements by hostile Indians. Neve chose the Santa Bárbara location because it had the best nearby anchorage; it offered a reasonably good supply of water, stone and wood; the Indians were friendly; the soil was fertile; and irrigation works were feasible. 

Founded April 21, 1782, the Royal Presidio of Santa Bárbara was the last in a chain of four military fortresses built by the Spanish along the coast of Alta California, then a wilderness frontier. Others had been established at San Diego, San Francisco and Monterey. Padre Junípero Serra, well known for his leadership in founding the California missions, blessed the site of the Santa Bárbara Presidio four years prior to the establishment of the Mission of Santa Bárbara in 1786. Presidios played a vital role in the occupation of New Spain. They protected the missions and settlers against attack by Indians, provided a seat of government, and guarded the country against foreign invasion. 
The Santa Bárbara Presidio was both military headquarters and governmental center of the entire region extending from the southern limits of present day San Luis Obispo County to and including the Pueblo of Los Angeles.

Presidial commanders were called comandantes. Comandantes of the Presidio of the Santa Bárbara were as follows: 

1781-1784 José Francisco de Ortega
1784-1802 Felipe Antonio de Goicoechea
1802-1807 Raymundo Carrillo
1807-1815 José Arguello
1815-1828 José de la Guerra y Noriega
1828-1830 Romualdo Pacheco (acting)
1830 Domingo Carrillo
1833-1836 Juan María Ibarra
1837-1838 José Castro
1839-1841 José de la Guerra y Noriega
1841-1844 Gumesindo Flores
1845 José Carrillo

Los Soldados on the internet
Presidios and soldiers bibliography


Descendant of the Vallejo and Lugo Families
Sent by Mark Holmerud

Mark Holmerud is one of three pastors at the Zion Lutheran Church of Stockton.  He has served this congregation for nearly 20 years. His three siblings work as a school teacher, a fire chief, and a sheriff's deputy, all in San Diego.

On September 2, 1776, my great-great-great-great grandmother, Maria Antonia Isabella Lugo, was baptized at Mission San Luis Obispo.* Her father was Francisco Salvador de Lugo, who I understand came north with the first families that were recruited by Captain Rivera in September 1774. Baptismal records for Maria Lugo indicate that her father, Francisco, was a "soldier of leather." 

On January 3, 1813, my great-great-great grandfather, Jose Manuel y Salvador Vallejo, the child of Maria Lugo and Don Ignacio Vallejo, a "Sergeant of the company of the Presidio," was baptized in the Royal Presidio Chapel (now San Carlos Church in Monterey).** Jose Manuel y Salvador Vallejo was the younger brother of General Mariano Vallejo, born six years earlier.

At this time, these records are all I have of the service of my ancestors as soldiers in early California. I hope this is helpful for you as you are gathering more of these stories.
Thanks for all of your work,  Mark Holmerud

* Baptism Number 210, San Carlos Book of Baptisms
** Baptism Number 2865, San Carlos Book of Baptisms

California Spanish Genealogy

The CA-SPANISH mailing list is for the discussion of genealogical research of the California Spanish families who were here before 1849, and is meant to be a companion list to the site at:
There are no charges to be a list member.   Anyone with an interest in the early California Spanish  genealogy and history is welcome to subscribe and post messages within the rules and guidelines listed below. CA-SPANISH is a "closed" list, meaning that only list members may post messages, so unwanted "spam" or junk e-mail is something we are rarely subjected to. 

It is hoped that the CA-SPANISH list will provide a friendly and helpful forum for the exchange of interesting discussions regarding California Spanish genealogy and history. Among the support given, is a list of surnames and an individual contact for searching that email

Two versions of this list are available, depending on your preference: Regular e-mail version:  You will receive each post in a separate e-mail message.  Digest version:  You will periodically receive several posts grouped together in one e-mail message.

Society of California Pioneers
Sent by Jane Lindsey, President CGS 

The Society of California Pioneers was founded by pre-Gold Rush pioneers and is perpetuated by direct descendants of those who arrived in California before 1850. The mission of the Society is to preserve, promote and enjoy California heritage through a research library, a museum, a gallery, educational and social activities, and to commemorate those whose sagacity, enterprise, and love of independence induced them to settle in the wilderness and become founders of a new state. 

Territorial Ambitions, Mapping the Far West, 1772-1872
Exhibit: October 31, 2003 through May 28, 2004
[[Wonderful resource, maps, photos, publications, calendar]]

The Society of California Pioneers' building, called Pioneer Hall, is located at
300 Fourth Street (at Folsom), San Francisco, CA 94107.

This exhibition spans the period of Western exploration from the later eighteenth century up until the establishment of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869. During this time, vast, uncharted areas of the West were gradually explored, mapped and remapped, while utopian fantasies of "lost" cities of gold, a Northwest Passage to India, and an American Arcadia on the Pacific Slope were reconciled with geographic reality. This 100-year period of exploration and westward expansion is traced through an evolution of foreign and American maps and mapmaking techniques. In a multitude of ways, many of the maps featured in the exhibition played an influential role in determining the economic, social and political future of the American West.

Territorial Ambitions contains approximately fifty maps from The Society's collection that are being exhibited for the first time. Works on view include Didier Robert De Vaugondy's 1772 Carte de Californie, La Pérouse's journal of 1785-88, John Frémont and Charles Preuss' 1842 Map of Oregon and Upper California, A Map of Discoveries Made by the Russians on the North West Coast of America, 1771, and G.K. Warren's 1854 Map of the Territory of the U.S. from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean. The exhibition also features gold region maps, coastal surveys, railroad maps, bird's eye views, early maps of San Francisco, antique surveyor's equipment and a 15-minute orientation video. 

Exhibition hours: Wednesday-Friday, 10-4, and the first Saturday of the month, 10-4
Admission: $3 Adults, $1 seniors and students
For visitor information, please see
or call The Society at (415) 957-1849. 



Heritage Gateways 
     A re-enactment of the Mormon Trail Trek of 1847

Official sesquicentennial K-12 education project sponsored by Utah State Office of Education, the BYU-Public School Partnership and UtahLINK a service of the Utah Education Network.  This is a great resource for teachers and researchers interested in thae life-style of that time period.
Sent by Johanna de Soto


Wills of a Father and a Son
Ana Pacheco to be honored in May  
El Paso Community College Project
Documentary Relations, Southwest
New Mexico State Library News 
Mexican Art and Life, 1521-1821 


Wills of a Father and Son
A Contribution to the American Revolution

Virginia Sanchez
  © 2004

            Will - Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Twitchell, Roll 611, Frame 1552.


The soldiers of the Santa Fe Presidio were located in Spain’s most northern area and therefore could not participate in active duty on behalf of the American Revolution. However, they honored the request of the King of Spain and gave money to the cause, even though they were sometimes not paid in full or paid in pesos de la tierra (e.g., crops) as opposed to pesos firma (cash).

On January 9, 1765, a soldier lay ill at the Royal Presidio in the Villa Capital of Santa Fe and asks his teniente (lieutenant) to document his last will and testimony. In this will, Cristobál Madríd affirmed his faith in God, his guardian angel, and the saints. He requested of his named executors, his wife Francisca Herrera and son Juan Antonio Madríd, to be buried in the San Miguel parish church in Santa Fe and that his body be shrouded in the habit of Saint Francis. Most notably, he listed among his possessions six horses and his complete military equipment with which he "served the King." 1

On January 4, 1768, Cristobal’s son, Antonio Xavier Madríd, enlisted in the Spanish military "in place of his father," and in all probability, used his father’s military equipment. This recruit signed by the mark of a cross to signify his understanding of his responsibilities as a soldier. Antonio Xavier, age 25 and described as having a swarthy complexion with black hair, eyebrows, and eyes, was assigned to the Tropa de Cuera, the Leather Jacket troop, at the Presidio of Santa Fe. 2 3 4

Antonio Xavier Madríd served in the Spanish military in colonial New Mexico when Spain actively supported the revolution of the American Colonies. During this time, Spain’s northern territory included almost all of the United States west of the Mississippi, Louisiana, and Mexico. Spain and its colonies in America played a significant role in the American Revolution by providing military support, loans, and gifts of cash—historical facts of which most United States citizens are still unaware.

When the American colonies waged a war for independence against England, King Carlos III of Spain sought opportunity to regain land Spain lost to England in 1773. Spain agreed to join France as an ally and covertly shipped arms, munitions, cattle, uniforms, medicine, blankets, and money to the American colonies using France as the go between. Visitor-General José de Gálvez, Spanish secretary of the Indies and his nephew, Count Bernardo de Gálvez, provided secret aid to the American cause by allowing guns, ammunition, and tons of supplies to be shipped up the Mississippi to patriot forces in the north. By 1777, Spain had sent a large shipment of the following from a French port by way of Bermuda to Boston: 215 bronze canons, 4,000 field tents, 12,826 grenades, 30,000 muskets, 30,000 bayonets, 30,000 uniforms, 51,314 musket balls, and 300,000 pounds of gunpowder. 5  Money and supplies were funneled through the French and handled by a third party—appearing as open business transactions. 6

Spain’s support for the American colonists remained secret until June 21, 1779, when Spain officially entered into war with England. Thomas Jefferson wrote to Bernardo de Gálvez on November 8, 1779 and expressed his thanks for Spain’s assistance to the revolutionary cause. 7 History books in United States schools relate the aid France gave to the American Colonists and mention very little about the aid given by Spain.

As stated by Thomas E. Chavez, "…United States history is a story of a country born out of English colonies, the role of Spain has not been genuinely recognized. Nor…have the sacrifices of Spain’s colonies been acknowledged. Eighteenth-century Spanish subjects, who lived in areas that make up the present states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, answered Carlos III’s call for a special [donation] to help with the war and, in the end, secure American independence." 8  In March of 1780, Carlos III decreed that to sustain the war "his vassals in America" were to contribute a one-time donativo (donation) of one peso (approximately $30 by today’s standard) per Indian and other castes and two pesos per Spaniard and noble. Collectors went to towns and pueblos in the New World and collected one peso per Indian over 18 years old and other castes, and two pesos from each Spaniard. Donativos were collected from soldiers and citizens throughout Cuba and Spain’s hard-pressed North American colonies, including the provinces of California, New Mexico, and Texas. 9

New Mexico Governor Juan Bautista de Anza was officially notified of the decree in a letter dated August 17, 1780 from Teodoro de Croix. 10  With regard to donativos made by the Indians of the Province, Anza obtained permission to exempt the Indians of the Zuni and Hopi pueblos. (In the Province of California, Fray Junípero Serra used church funds to pay the [donations] for mission Indians.) 11

By 1783 a total of 3,677 pesos (approximately $110,300) had been collected from soldiers and citizens in the Province of New Mexico; 247 pesos came from soldiers of the Santa Fe Presidio. 12 The donativos were shipped to "Mexico then shipped to Havana and transferred to the American colonies, sometimes via French carriers." 13

Supplies and aid to the American cause came from almost every part of the Spanish empire and currently, historians and genealogists throughout Spain, Mexico, and the United States are reviewing historical documents in an effort to rightfully give Spain and its Colonial Patriots credit for their aid.

The Sons of the American Revolution and the Daughters of the American Revolution are two national lineage societies that are interested in Spain’s involvement in the American Revolution and they are reaching out to descendants of all Spanish soldiers to research their lineage and apply for society membership. By submitting their genealogy, these Colonial Patriots can be catalogued in the SAR and DAR national repositories of genealogical and historical information, and thereby become a part of America’s history.

Some activities recognized by the SAR and the DAR include service in the Spanish military, service in the militia, service as Indian auxiliaries, making voluntary contributions to defray expenses of the War, Spanish cowboys (in Texas) who drove cattle to feed the American colonial troops, and mission priests who lead public prayers on behalf of Spain’s support of the American Revolution. Because many priests did not leave descendants, the SAR’s interest is in locating and marking their graves as patriots. For example, California’s Franciscan mission priest, Fray Junípero Serra, led a prayer for the success of the American colonists "because we believe their cause is just and that the Great Redeemer is on their side." 14

Antonio Xavier Madríd’s military possessions listed in his will dated January 3, 1813 include two rifles (muskets); a Spanish military uniform consisting of a hat, an old blue wool cape, and a heavy woolen waistcoat; an ardaga (shield); a pair of boots and spurs; and miscellaneous garments. Also listed among his possessions are a mule, a horse, a donkey, and an additional musket. According to the Reglamento of 1729, a presidial soldier’s uniform should conform in some measure or common standard and each soldier was required to have six horses and a mule. 15  Even though maintaining any uniformity in military dress was difficult in New Mexico due to short supply and minimal replacements, Antonio Xavier’s uniform and arms on the most part met the day’s requirements. 

To his son, Juan Nepomuceno Madríd, he left a musket from the armament; a cartridge belt without cartridges; and his hat, old blue cape, aged waistcoat, and miscellaneous garments. To another son, José Antonio Madríd, he left a musket, a pair of boots and spurs, and his blue uniform, and shield. His daughter, María Josefa, was married to Josef Manuel Sena, armorer of the Presidio and one of the executors named in his will. In addition, Antonio Xavier entrusted his son-in-law to "guard" 22 pesos. Josef Manuel Sena and two other named executors, brothers-in-law Juan Nepomuceno Madríd and Miguel Rodriguez, were asked to "collect the horse owed" Antonio Xavier by his brother, Juan Antonio Madríd. (For detailed information on the Madríd family genealogy, refer to the following article by Henrietta Christmas.)

Based on the time Spain was at war with England and the Spanish military service records of New Mexico Colonial Patriot Antonio Xavier Madríd, we know he donated two pesos ($60) toward the cause of the American colonies. At this time, the Province of New Mexico was rather poor and sparsely populated. His sacrifice to the cause of the American Revolution came at a time when cash was hard to come by and soldiers were sometimes not paid in full or paid in pesos de la tierra (e.g., crops) as opposed to pesos firma (cash).

Antonio Xavier Madríd’s father, Cristobal Madríd, listed as possessions in his will dated 1765 six horses and his complete military equipment with which he ‘served the King’. In Antonio Xavier’s will dated 48 years later, all that remained as symbols of honor and service were some muskets, a cartridge belt; a shield, various articles of military attire, a mule, and two horses. Like his father, Antonio Xavier affirmed his belief in God and the saints and asked that his body be shrouded in the habit of Saint Francis.

From their wills and from research, we can piece together only a portion of their lives. From their contributions we can document an important part of history that recognizes significant contributions to the American cause by the eastern as well as the southwestern parts of these United States. Only years later would many learn of the significant roles Spain and its colonies played in the American Revolution.

For a Patriot to be recognized by the SAR and the DAR, descendants of Patriots must research and document their lineage and apply for membership. One source of vital information is the Spanish enlistment papers, which provide service dates, physical descriptions, and occasionally name of a soldier’s parents. The list of Spanish enlistments for the Province of New Mexico, as excerpted from Hough and Hough, Spain's New Mexico Patriots During Its 1779-1783 War with England, is available on NMHS Vice President José Esquibel’s website at; and in Virginia Langham Olmsted’s, "Spanish Enlistment Papers of New Mexico, 1732-1820," published in the December 1979 issue of the National Genealogical Society Quarterly. The SAR accepts male applicants, 18 years or older, who can prove lineage back to a Patriot ancestor who contributed to the American cause between the 1779-1783 timeframe, the time Spain officially was at war with England.

The DAR’s criterion for descendants of New Mexico Colonial Patriots is slightly different. Female applicants, who are descendants of New Mexico Colonial Patriots, must be able to prove that the Patriot soldier was at the Presidio of Santa Fe between April 3, 1782 and November 18, 1782, and that he was discharged after November 1782. April 3, 1782 is the date Governor Anza authorized collection of the donativos within the Province of New Mexico. November 18, 1782 represents the date of Anza’s letter to Croix informing him that all but three donativos were collected. 16 The list of New Mexico Patriots and Alcalde Mayores who qualify for DAR patriot status is available on the New Mexico Genealogical Society’s website at and from the author’s website at

As stated by Robert H. Thonhoff, "An important door of recognition has been opened for many thousands of Hispanics if they but do their genealogical homework." 
17 Consider the number of descendants of Spanish Colonial Patriots who served under the Spanish flag (including Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico) who, as a result of Spain’s aid, can say their ancestors aided in the American Revolution and can now be officially recognized through societies such as the SAR and the DAR. Thomas Chavez adds, "Hispanic families in the United States range from recent arrivals to people whose ancestors settled in what is today the United States before Jamestown or the Puritans and Pilgrims." 18 Members of these families can now be included in stating that their ancestors aided the American cause. There is no better way to "open that door of recognition" than to document the contributions of our Colonial Patriots and get their information officially recognized, microfilmed, and catalogued in historical documents.

Antonio Xavier Madríd was but one of many Spanish soldiers and citizens who contributed to the American cause. For generations, descendants of New Mexico Colonial Patriots have made significant contributions by proudly serving in defense of their countries. During the period when New Mexico was under Mexican rule, José Antonio Sena, Antonio Xavier Madríd’s grandson, was recognized for valor in recognition of his service against the aventureros tejanos (adventurous Texans) in 1841. Manuel Armijo, commanding officer and Governor of New Mexico, recommended Sena for an escudo de honor, the Mexican equivalent of the Medal of Honor. This honor was granted to Sena by the President of the Republic of Mexico, along with a promotion to Captain. 19

Filiacion - Enlistment - Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Twitchell, Roll 12, Frame 422. 

Continuing in this tradition, descendants of New Mexico Colonial Patriots as United States citizens have continued to proudly serve their country. As stated by the Eugene A. Obregon / Congressional Medal of Honor Campaign, "unquestioned service to the country is part of the ethos of the Latino community…. Out of a total of 3,427 medals granted by the U.S. Congress, 38 have been given to citizens of Latino ancestry, making Latinos the largest single ethnic group, in proportion to the number who served, to earn this prestigious award." 20

To date, only about ten New Mexico Colonial Patriots have been recognized by the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Sons of the American Revolution; and joining these types of societies isn’t everyone’s "cup of tea." However, there is no better way to honor our Patriot ancestors than by working to ensure that future generations will be aware of the contributions of Spanish Colonial Patriots to the American cause. If you take the number of New Mexico Colonial Patriots, add to that number all their descendants, we would have an impressive number of newly found daughters and sons who can impact and change what traditionally was taught about American colonial history. Through the actions and support of our Spanish Colonial Patriot ancestors, we, as their descendant daughters and sons, solidify our right and privilege to be called Americans.

About the Author:

Virginia Sanchez is an author, historian and genealogist.  She has published articles in cultural and genealogical journals, and family histories she has written are cataloged in libraries in Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming.  She worked for a Fortune 500 telecommunications
company for 20 years as a senior writer and has been researching her family genealogy for 15 years.  She received her Bachelor's degree in Music from the University of Wyoming and received a Master's degree in Technical Communication from the University of Colorado at Denver. She is a member of several genealogical and historical societies and she regularly presents her findings at their annual conferences. She serves as webmaster for the Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy. Her application to the DAR, which honors her eighth great-grandfather, New Mexico Colonial Patriot, Soldado de Cuera Antonio Xavier Madríd, was approved July 3, 2002.

Additional Information:

Any interested male descendant of a New Mexico Patriot can contact any of the following for additional information about the SAR: Charles Martinez y Vigil at, the New Mexico Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Box 525, Placitas, NM 87043; your local SAR chapter; or visit Any interested female descendant of a New Mexico Patriot can contact Virginia Sánchez at; New Mexico DAR State Regent Mary Ann Thornton at; your local DAR chapter; or visit Application and membership fees apply. Chapter membership is optional.


1 Ralph E. Twitchell, Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Series 1, Roll III, Frame 116.

2 Virginia Langham Olmsted, Spanish Enlistment Papers of New Mexico, 1732-1820, (National Genealogical Society Quarterly), December 1979, Vol. 67, (297).

3 Ralph E. Twitchell, Spanish Archives of New Mexico, Number 611, Frame 1552.

4 Ibid. Roll 11, March 1781, Frame 217.

5 The Vital Contributions of Spain in the Winning of the American Revolution: An Essay on a Forgotten Chapter in the History of the American Revolution, Robert H. Thonhoff, 2000, (2) , self published, 617 N. Esplanade St., Karnes City, TX, 78118-2522, (830) 780-3582.

6 Edward F. Butler, Sr., "Spain’s Involvement in the American Revolutionary War, Part 1,

7 Ibid. Part 2.

8 Thomas E. Chavez, Spain and the Independence of the United States, (213-214).

9 Robert H. Thonhoff, The Vital Contributions of Spain in the Winning of the American Revolution: An Essay on a Forgotten Chapter in the History of the American Revolution, 2000, (2), self published, 617 N. Esplanade St., Karnes City, TX, 78118-2522, (830) 780-3582 (

10 Thomas E. Chavez, Spain and the Independence of the United States, (214, Note 9) and Ralph E. Twitchell, Spanish Archives of New Mexico, 2, translated extract.

11 Thomas E. Chavez, Spain and the Independence of the United States, (214).

12 Ibid. (Note 11).

13 Ibid. (214).

14 Ibid (Note 14).

15 Max L. Moorhead, "The Soldado de Cuera: Stalwart of the Spanish Borderlands," Journal of the West, 1969 (46) and Viceroy Marques de Casafuerte, Reglamento para todos los presidios de las Provincias Internas de ésta Governación (Mexico, 1729).

16 Electronic correspondence from Harriet McCallum, Regent of the Santa Fe DAR Chapter in Santa Fe, to Donna Santistevan, DAR Spanish Task Force, April 17, 2002.

17 Robert H. Thonhoff, The Vital Contributions of Spain in the Winning of the American Revolution: An Essay on a Forgotten Chapter in the History of the American Revolution, addendum dated March 18, 2002 (self-published, 617 N. Esplanade St., Karnes City, TX 78118 (

18 Thomas Chavez, "Spanish Sacrifice," The Santa Fe New Mexican, Section F, July 4, 1999 (F1).

19 Robert J. Torrez, La Crónica de Nuevo Mexico, Historical Society of New Mexico, March 2002.

20 Obregon/CMH Foundation, Eugene A. Obregon / Congressional Medal of Honor Campaign, May 21, 2002,

Ana Pacheco to be honored twice in May  
Sent by Jane Blume
Santa Fe, New Mexico publisher Ana Pacheco will be honored twice in May for her decade-long efforts to preserve Hispanic culture and history in New Mexico and the Southwest through her quarterly publication, La Herencia. 

On Friday, May 7th, Ms. Pacheco will receive one of the Governor’s Awards for Outstanding New Mexico Women at a dinner sponsored by the New Mexico Commission on the Status of Women at Albuquerque’s Hyatt Regency Hotel. 

On Tuesday, May 18th
, PEN New Mexico, the state affiliate of the largest international professional association of writers, editors, and translators, will honor her (along with novelist Rudolfo Anaya and poet Margaret Randall) at its annual dinner at La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe.

The idea to establish such a publication began germinating in 1991, when Santa Fe native Pacheco returned to New Mexico after a 15-year hiatus to care for her cancer-stricken mother and noticed that the traditional Hispanic culture and Spanish language she grew up with were fast
disappearing. In the spring of 1994, Ms. Pacheco used her own personal funds to establish a publishing company, Gran Via, Inc., and the magazine, with the goal of preserving the state’s history, folklore and culture for future generations.

Ana Pacheco and many of La Herencia’s contributors are descendants of the oldest continuous Hispanic settlement in northern New Mexico. Historians and ordinary citizens from New Mexico and other parts of the Southwest contribute the editorial content, which includes essays on current issues and trends, oral history, Spanish language and Southwestern literature, book reviews, poetry, recipes, myths and other forms of Spanish and Mexican folklore - retold with documentary photographs and illustrations.

“I’m thrilled that we have sustained La Herencia for the past decade,” Ms.Pacheco said.  “It’s a ‘feel-good’ magazine: people read it to remember their family histories, to get closer to their roots, to get reconnected with long-lost relatives and to revive neglected traditions. The people who write for me are documenting oral history to preserve their family stories for their children and grandchildren.”

Jane Blume,  Desert Sky Communications, 505-294-1976
Albuquerque, New Mexico
Contact: Ana Pacheco, Gran Via, Inc., 505-474-2800

Borderlands, An El Paso Community College Local History Project
Articles on the History of the Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico Border Region
Sent by Alice Thornton

This site was created as part of the Integrating Technical Contexts into Academic Courses (ITAC) Project. Funds for the program were provided by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board under the auspices of the federal Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998. 

By Ruth Vise Borderlands was begun at El Paso Community College in the early 1980s as a grant project. It is now one of the two publications of the English Discipline and appears as a newspaper insert in a Sunday edition of the El Paso [Texas] Times every spring or summer. 

I have been Faculty Editor and Advisor since 1991. Every year, students in my English 1302 classes (Research and Critical Writing, the second college writing core class) research and write on topics of importance to the Texas-New Mexico-Mexico border, a unique place geographically and culturally.  Students can choose from a list of topics or discover their own topic as they do preliminary research from reserve books and articles in the library and on the Internet. 

Borderlands was begun at El Paso Community College in the early 1980s as a grant project. It is now one of the two publications of the English Discipline and appears as a newspaper insert in a Sunday edition of the El Paso [Texas] Times every spring or summer. I have been Faculty Editor and Advisor since 1991. Every year, students in my English 1302 classes (Research and Critical Writing, the second college writing core class) research and write on topics of importance.

Every year Borderlands  features a theme, either a decade or another time frame, or a subject topic. The first theme was Food Folkways of the Border. We have produced two issues on Border Customs and other issues on the decades of the 1930s, 1940s, 1950s, and the 1960s. The 1998 issue explored the 400-year history of El Paso as the city celebrated its Quadricentennial.  The last three issues have dealt with El Paso in the 1800s and have researched topics such as the coming of the railroad, gunfighters, prostitution, early schools, the influence of Catholicism, early pioneers, architecture, and many others.  The 2001-02 issue will feature articles on the Mexican Revolution and other topics relevant to the late 1800s to the 1920s

Student editors turn scholarly research papers into feature articles. Students may illustrate their papers with original or historical photos and/or original art. Over an academic year, editors produce 15-18 articles with illustrations that are printed in a tabloid-size project. Often, several papers are used for one article and all student authors share credit. Historical photos come from local library collections and the El Paso Historical Society. Students also take their own photos and are credited for use. In addition to appearing in the El Paso Times, Borderlands can be found at the El Paso Community College Northwest Campus Library. 

Copyright  2001-2004 Northwest Community Library
Contact Ruth Vise  for reprints.   

Documentary Relations of the Southwest

     The archaeological research and collections of ASM provide the 'prehistory' before written accounts.  DRSW provides the research tools and finding aids to the written record that began with the arrival of the Spanish explorers in the 1530's.  The 1,500 microfilm reels of documents include the diaries of explorers and reports of missionaries and soldiers, from the first written accounts of contact with indigenous peoples in the 16th Century to the Mexican declaration of independence from Spain in 1821.  The place names, architecture, food, and many of the Southwestern cultures have their origin in the history of this region.  The 'Southwest' in this case covers Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and northern Mexico: all of what was northern New Spain.

Office of Ethnohistorical Research
Documentary Relations of the Southwest (DRSW)
Search the DRSW Master Index and Biofile
Research Tools and Finding Aids, Description of DRSW finding aids
Links to other databases
Public Access and Publications
American Division of the Jesuit Historical Institute

New Mexico State Library News
Of special interest: historical postcards online.

Painting a New World: Mexican Art and Life, 1521-1821

At the Denver Art Museum, April 3 - July 25, 2004

Largest exhibition of Mexican colonial painting ever assembled outside of Mexico

Painting a New World: Mexican Art and Life, 1521-1821, explores the rich cultural history and diversity of Mexico during the colonial period that influenced the people and their traditions. This impressive assemblage of approximately 50 works, 20 of which come from the permanent collection of the Frederick and Jan Mayer Spanish Colonial Art Collection at the Denver Art Museum, April 3, 2004 through July 25,2004, is the largest exhibition of Mexican colonial painting ever assembled outside of Mexico. Painting a New World brings together works from the United States, Mexico and Europe, many of which have never been exhibited outside their home venue or at all. Presented thematically, this unique exhibition blends secular and religious images influenced by Aztec traditions, Asian arts and Spanish-European style, while also illustrating the evolution of society. The exhibition gives visitors the opportunity to explore traditional daily life through the eyes of the artists and the people and places portrayed. 




Black Mexicano

I thought readers would enjoy reading Sterling's words.  The joy that he expresses in self-identity, achieved through family research, may encourage other young people to find out who they are too.

I am not sure what book Sterling is referring to, but in June 2000, I did prepare a 53-page booklet, called the Black Latino Connection. It was printed by the Black Chamber of Orange County in association with the Hispanic Chamber of Orange County, and distributed during a Juneteenth gala at the Disneyland Hotel. Attendees came from all over the United States.  In addition, copies were distributed at a Washington, D.C. meeting of the U.S. Senate Task Force for Hispanic Affairs.
March 29th, 2004


I know its been a long time since I last emailed you, but things are going great.  
I found some old census records and on one record,  they had my race down as Mexican, on another record and mulatto.  I'm not sure if it was just something they called Mexicans back then or not.
I just got back from New York I'm a model and actor so that's why I'm always out of town.
Your book really is a great help, and I tell every one to get it.
So far I'm Mexican, Spanish, African, Cuban, Creo, Hawaiian, and Indian . . I really feel more complete now in my life.  And so does my family there is still more to find out like I'm going to Mexico some one said they think after my grandfather was killed they took his body back there.
I'm excited because my career is going really good.  I'm going to be playing a racially mixed character in a lot of the movies they have me working on. And before I went on a search to find who I was I would have never been able to be the person I am.   Your book is what I have to thank for a lot of that.
Well I just wanted to check in I have to go I'm at a photo shoot 
Thank you for everything 
Sterling Je'rome De La Ranzie Santiago Walker~Brown

March 30, 2004

My career just started 2 years ago. You see before I read your book I never really knew what race I was. I knew I was different and part Mexican, but I felt like I was more.

My uncles, Roy and Milton came to live with us. My uncle Milton told me everything about being part Mexican and to be proud of what I am. I used to tell him how I wanted to be an actor or model but I felt like I was never good enough. Before he died, Uncle Milton died, he made me promise that me and my mom would find out what my heritage was mixed with.

After Milton died I felt like my life was going no were, but I had to keep the promise. My grandmother knew what race my mother was, but would not tell me.

 I went to the library and looked for hours then I found this book. I believe it said searching your family tree to Mexico. I know it had a family on the front and it had your picture in the back. I read the whole book.

It helped me, so I started my search and day by day things got better. A clue here and a clue there. Your book told me to go to

In the middle of my search I found out that my uncle had sent off for me to go to an acting agency, it was like he was helping me do my dreams even when he was gone. So I left and went to Chicago for an audition for IMTA

There were lots of people at the audition.  I was number 400. They had told me that there was only 65 people getting in. So when it was my turn to audition for the judges, in my head I'm thinking they won't let me in.  I had tried to make my dreams come true earlier, but  felt I needed to take time off to find out who I was.

I heard someone say once, you will never know who you are until you know were you came from. 

The next day they called me and told me I had made it. I was in. I feel like I would not have been here if I I had not searched for myself. I feel like I could have never been here unless I had searched for my self.

Everyone can see me July28th, I'll be at the IMTA competition.
I'm a little nervous because I'll be interviewed by famous acting and modeling companies.

I'm sorry for going on and on but I really am thankful because your book really has helped me find my cultures and has made me a greater actor and model.

Please let me know if I can help more.
Always a friend, God bless . . . .

Sterling Je'rome De La Ranzie Santiago~Brown
I felt I should add my ancestors name to mine.

p.s I also fell in love with someone.   I found her when I was looking for my grandfather .  Her name is Mayra that's her and her brother and sister. She says hi.


The Recollections of an Artist 
from Izalco, El Salvador

Prehispanic Music 
Ancient language, modern voices


Mayan design based on the lid of a sarcophagus in Palenque, Mexico

The Recollections of Arturo Campos
Artist from Izalco, El Salvador
Jaime Cader

Arturo Campos, an Oakland, California resident, is an artist and a folk musician.  

He was born in Izalco, El Salvador in 1957 and he immigrated to the United States in 1991.  

His wife is also from the city of Izalco and together they have three children and some grandchildren.

 Izalco is one of the few places in El Salvador that has maintained much of its Indian culture.  Although Izalco is a city, it still has many small town characteristics and its residents often refer to it as "mi pueblo" (my village).  The name Izalco, according to two different sources means either "place of obsidian houses" or "on the obsidian snake" in the Pipil-Nahuatl language.

Around 1970 Campos learned to do artwork using wood from his brother.  Around that time they were creating religious art. It was in 1973 that they started making contact with important individuals in San Salvador, the capital city.

In 1977 Campos and his brother began to make the wooden artwork for a religious float in Sonsonate, the departamental capital of the region where Izalco is located.  This was their first big job, -the float being used for the Holy Week processions to carry the figure of the "Nazareno" (Jesus Christ).  The float has beautiful religious objects and it was finally presented in 1978.  This along with the Christ statue is carried by approximately 40 men.

Around 1979 Campos made contact with Mr. Walter Stosdor (Campos believes this is the correct spelling), the president of the Bayer Aspirin Company in El Salvador. Being German himself, that man connected the Camposes to the German Embassy.  Campos said, "The Germans would visit us in Izalco and ask us to do some artwork for them."  Thus Campos worked for German officials up until the time he came to the U.S. in 1991.

Having seen Campos' artwork depicting Mayan figures, this author asked him why he created Mayan replicas when it is the Pipil that is the majority Indian nation in El Salvador.  His response was that the Germans had asked him to create Mayan art, -had they asked him to produce Pipil art, he would have done so also. 

When asked what difference he sees between Izalco and other places in El Salvador, he said that its
uniqueness lies in the historical events that have taken place there, such as the 1932 tragedy when
thousands of Indians were brutally massacred in that region.  

He adds another historical occurrence during the colonial period when King Charles I of Spain donated a valuable bell for the church of Izalco.  When that bell is rung, it can be heard kilometers away. This gift proves the importance that Izalco had to the Spanish Crown, Campos said.

In comparing Izalco to Nahuizalco, another city that has much in terms of Pipil Indian traditions in the department of Sonsonate, Campos said that he feels that Izalco is richer in terms of its customs because there practically is not a month in Izalco in which there is not a festivity taking place.  Campos stated, "I'm not saying that Izalco is better than Nahuizalco, I'm only saying what I know."

Campos, who has made folk instruments and can play them, has also performed in the Izalco celebrations. He said, "The entire year traditions are expressed and among these are the events and activities of the "cofradias" (religious societies whose members keep watch over sacred objects throughout the year and organize the patron saints' celebrations).

According to Campos some of the cofradias show a mixture of Pipil Indian and Spanish customs, while others are more Pipil (their membership is predominantly Indian).  A similar situation as far as
a mix of cultures occurs with the dance drama of the "historiantes" which is also known as the dance of the Moors and the Christians.

Each cofradia has a name and the ones that Campos is familiar with are the Niño Dios de Maria, la Virgen Maria de Concepcion, la Cofradia del Niño Pepe, el Padre Eterno, Virgen de los Remedios, Santa Lucia, and San Rafael Arcangel.  In total there are about eight cofradias in Izalco.

The Niño Pepe in one of the cofradias is a Christ child and Campos expressed that he did not know why it is referred to as Pepe, which is a Spanish nickname for Joseph.

The cofradia del Niño Pepe has its center in the Barrio de Santa Cruz, a district in Izalco.  Before
the actual celebration, young boys go around town playing turtle shell drums and collecting money to be used for putting on the festivity for the Niño Pepe.

Turtle shell drums are only used for the above mentioned cofradia.  At this time the boys carry
around the baby Jesus in a crib believed to be similar to the one Moses was placed in to hide him among the river rushes.  The Niño Pepe is also known as the Niño de las Tortugas (The Child of the Turtles).  Boys walk ahead of the Christ child announcing that he is coming.

This celebration has its "vispera" on January 5.  The actual feast day is held on January 6.  The Christ child is placed on a thrown at a street corner and a large marimba is brought out to be played by three musicians.  The event is also celebrated with fireworks.

The Cofradia del Padre Eterno has its feast in May at the "pueblo de abajo," the lower laying area of
Izalco. The figure in question is a bust that is believed by the Indians to represent God.  The bust is of a bearded man with European features.

Campos said that an anthropologist from Izalco, a Dr. Arocha wrote a thesis stating that the bust came from the prow of a Celtic ship.  The Indians during the colonial period accepted it to be a representation of God.

"That a celtic ships's crew arrived in Izalco hundreds of years ago proves again the importance of Izalco," said Campos.

In reference to the Cofradia de la Virgen de la Concepcion, Campos mentioned that his aunt was in
charge of that religious group.  "So we took part in these feast days since our youth," exclaimed Campos.

It is said that when the Izalco volcano erupted and its lava was flowing downwards, the people brought a statue of the Virgin to a location outside the town and that the lava miraculously stopped flowing.  So a shrine was built at that site to commemorate that event.

For her feast day, the Virgin is taken to town from her shrine accompanied by someone playing the "marimba de arco" (a small marimba having a wooden beam which helps it to stay upright against the person who carries it as it is played), and other musical instruments.  According to Campos, the marimba de arco is practically the symbol of the cofradias.  Without this marimba, the cofradia would not be the same because it is this instrument that gives it all the happiness at the ending hours of the festivity. 

The Virgin statue is received in the town's outskirts with fireworks.  The main celebration follows as she is placed on her thrown.  Both Indians and Mestizos participate in this festivity.  

A part of every cofradia celebration is the "tabal." This is when people will go around the town playing drums and eventually coming to a central place to say "bombas" (improvised stanzas).

The parts of the festivity for a cofradia are as follows:

The "Pregon": In the case of the Cofradia de la Virgen de Concepcion, the pregon is done in the Autumn equinox around September 22.  It has to be done on a Sunday.  The people go to a central park or to a main street and it is announced with a microphone what each person is to contribute for the celebration.  As each announcement is made the people yell out "iten!" to motivate those that are to make donations.

The "Recordada" takes place about two or three days before the actual feast day.  This is done during the evening hours and its purpose is to remind the cofradia members of their obligations (the
contributions that they are to make).  The donations can be of flour, wood, etc.  If a person fails to
contribute, they are made to wear a ridiculous outfit and are taken around the town on a donkey the very next day.

In the "recordada" the jaw of a jackass used as a percussive musical instrument is indispensable for the songs sung which are also accompanied by guitars and drums.

The final celebration for the Cofradia de la Virgen de Concepcion takes place on the 8th and 9th of December.  Tamales are eaten and "chicha" is drinked.  The culminating point is when the people dance to the song of the "Panadero"(baker).  On December 10 people make an excursion to the Izalco volcano, although some may decide to stay at the shrine located at the "Cuesta del Tunco" (hill of the pig).

Campos continued to describe other traditions in Izalco.  As far as the Indian woman's traditional
attire, he said that in Izalco the Indian women hold their "refajos" (wrap around skirts) in place with a sash, -that the remaining material is not tucked in at the side as it is done in Nahuizalco. Their "huipiles" (smock blouses) are generally adorned with multicolored embroidered flowers.

Campos believes that there are few speakers of the Pipil-Nahuatl language in Izalco.  Years ago he knew a Margot Ramon who could speak the language, as could a Mr. Latin and a Mr. Cristobal Iglesias. Iglesias required individuals to bring him gifts for him to teach them Pipil-Nahuatl (also called Nahuat or Nahuate).  He did this in order to know that one was serious about learning the language.  Unfortunately, Iglesias died before Campos was able to receive classes from him.

Campos related how his brother began to associate with the main priest of Izalco in the early seventies. His name was Fr. Oscar Marinez Montoya and he initiated the first festival to promote the Indian culture of Izalco.  This was done primarily in the capital of San Salvador. Ramon, the Nahuatl speaker, cooperated with the festivals in 1970 and 1971. 

A few years before Campos immigrated to the U.S., he assisted in the formation of a folk band.  The intention of that group he said, was to rescue the cultural traditions, especially those related to the cofradias.

The band obtained a marimba de arco and a "quijada de burro"(jaw of a jackass).  As an artisan, Campos made the "teponahuaste" drum (known as teponaxtli in Mexico) and the "tambor mayor" (main drum).  He can also makes "pitos de caña"(Indian bamboo flutes).

The band got involved in the celebrations such as the one for the Christ child in the "pueblo de abajo."  It was a nonprofit band dedicated only to cultural preservation and participation.  Around 1990 the band performed twice in the National Theatre of San Salvador.

Campos played the marimba de arco and the pito de caña. He played, for example, the Panadero, which is the song that is the climax of a celebration.  The Panadero cannot be missing from a cofradia.  When this melody is played, a man will ask his partner to dance and eventually several couples will be dancing.  Even in the song it says that a particular person should take out so and so to dance.  It is a special participaton of the people.

The name of the folk band that Campos was a member of started out with the name "Iniciacion," however a Mr. Tomas Fidias Jimenez, who was not from Izalco, but was a Nahuatl speaker, translated that name into Nahuatl. Thus the band adopted its new name of "Nitemaquistia."

More than being professionals in music, Campos said that they were enthusiasts.  The band was composed of five members and one of their goals was to play the instruments from the Izalco region. 

Besides the musical instruments already mentioned,  Nitemaquistia also played the "vaina" and the
"zambumba" (also known as "juque" or "sacabuche").

Campos showed this author a vaina and he demonstrated how it is played.  It is a large pod from a tree (according to Campos' wife, that tree is called "palo de fuego") and it is about 16 inches long and it resembles a boomerang.  When it is shaken it makes a rattling sound.

The zambumba is a gourd which has a top opening covered with the skin or intestinal lining of a cow. A stick is stuck through a hole in the skin.  When the stick is moved up and down, a sound is produced.

In describing the so called division of Izalco into upper and lower districts, Campos says that nowadays it is primarily only symbolic.  In the past the upper district was known to be Mestizo (Ladino) and the lower one was known as Indian.

Campos relates that when he was in elementary school, the location of that school was at the dividing line of Izalco.  The ones from the lower district would call us "chipilineros," from the word "chipilin" a leaf used in some Salvadoran dishes.  And we would call them ""garroberos"" said Campos. That word comes from the word "garrobo," a reptile similar to an iguana, but of a dark brown color.

Campos recalls that on occasion fights broke out between students from the two areas.  He reiterated, however, that now the division is only symbolic.  He said, "Before the division was recognized and I imagine that in the time of our parents the separation was even worse." 

It was a pleasure to visit Campos and his family in order to interview him.  I want to thank him for the several occasions in which he shared with me his knowledge about Izalco, a place of great cultural importance in El Salvador.

Anyone wanting Campos to make Mayan designs in wood for them or wanting any woodwork done in their homes, can contact this author at


Anderson, Thomas R: "El Salvador 1932," second edition in a Spanish translation, 1982.

Armas Molina, Miguel: "La Cultura Pipil de Centro America," 1974.

Baratta, Maria de: "Cuzcatlan Tipico," No year given, although may have been 1951.

Baron Castro, Rudolfo: "La Poblacion de El Salvador," 1942. (This book also has information about Black slaves being brought to El Salvador during the colonial period.)

Blair Stiffler, David: "The Pipil Indians of El Salvador," 1983. (These are notes accompanying a
musical recording produced by Folkways Records.) 

CONCULTURA: "IV Congreso Linguistico, 1er. Simposio "Pueblos Indigenas de El Salvador y Sus Fronteras." (Manual del Congresista)," 1996.

Comision Nacional de Rescate del Idioma Nahuat, and CONCULTURA: "Ma Timanauika Nauataketsalis (Rescatemos el Idioma Nahuat)," 1992.

Flemion, Phillip F.: "Historical Dictionary of El Salvador," 1972.

Herrera Vega, Adolfo: "Expresion Literaria de Nuestra Vieja Raza," 1961.

Jongh Osborne, Lilly de: "Indian Crafts of Guatemala and El Salvador," 1965.

Monsanto, Carlos H.: "La Marimba," A Guatemalan publication, no year given.

Porter Weaver, Muriel: "The Aztecs, Maya, and Their Predecessors," 1972.

Rivas, Pedro Geoffroy: "La Lengua Salvadoreña," 1978.

Ibid.:"Toponomia Nahuat de Cuzcatlan," 1961.

Rivera y R., Roberto: "Los Instrumentos Musicales de los Mayas," Mexico, 1980.

Schultze Jena, Leonhard: "Mitos y Leyendas de los Pipiles de Izalco," original German edition, 1935. (This book has legends, etc. written in the Pipil-Nahuatl language.)

Vivo Escoto, Jorge A.: "El Poblamiento Nahuat en El Salvador y otros Paises de Centroamerica," 1973.

Warman, Arturo: "La danza de moros y cristianos," Mexico 1972.

Author's Note:  In February Somos Primos published my article about Dr. Manuel Gallardo of Suchitoto, El Salvador.  I have recently discovered that I have information on another publication concerning Gallardo.  Since few books have extensive information on that historical figure, I want to include the title, etc. here:

Universidad de El Salvador: "Estudios Historicos" 1941.  

Prehispanic Music

Music Center of Los Angeles County "In school workshops/instrument making" in San Fernando Valley schools: · April 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 17 & 23 

· April 4 & 5 Quail Botanical Garden - Opening of the "Children's Garden", Encinitas, CA 

· April 10 Elementary School, Long Beach, CA - Two(2) Interactive Assembly Programs. 

· April 12 "Children's Day" at Heritage Park, Santa Fe Springs, CA (562) 946.6476 FREE 12pm - 4pm I'll present Interactive performances all day. Other activities as well. 

· April 13 Bowers Museum's "KIDSEUM" (714) 480.1520 12:30pm I'll give a workshop, for real little kids, to make an instrument "I" invented called "Jaguar Voice". At 1pm I'll present an Interactive Performance" for all ages. 

· April 18 - 21 I'll be visiting and connecting with my Yaqui roots at the San Ignacio Yaqui Tribal "Easter Festivities", I'll witness the Deer Dance and the Coyote Dance and try to pick up some instruments and perform with them as well. 

· April 26 Quail Botanical Garden - "Native People Native Plant" program, Encinitas, CA (760) 436.3036 for info and directions. 10am-3pm. This is a very beautiful place and they will have the "cream of the crop" of native performers like: Jacque Nuñez, Richard Bugbee, Abel Silvas and yours truly hehehe. It's also rare to have all these performer/story tellers in the same place! A totally interactive day amidst the jungle they have growing there. 

Northern CA gigs: 

· April 25 Two(2) Assemblies in San Francisco city school, wow in Haight Ashbury district baby! 

· April 27 Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, CA 11am-5pm Yes, I play all day long!!! I will feature my incredible musician friend, Ernesto Olmos, from Oaxaca, México. 

Ancient language, modern voices

Local students find indigenous Mexican dialect a key to their heritage
By Gil Griffin,UNION-TRIBUNE STAFF WRITER, March 7, 2004
© Copyright 2004 Union-Tribune Publishing Co.
Sent by Ricardo Castanon 

How do you say, 'Mama'?" The teacher smiled as he posed the question to about a dozen men, women and children sitting with him in a circle on the floor.

After a pregnant pause, an answer came. "Nantli," answered one of the students in the

"How about 'Papa'?" the teacher asked. "Tahtli," replied another.

The informal quizzing continued as the group of native Spanish and English speakers who had
gathered on a recent weeknight at the Sherman Heights Community Center heard, then recited, the

These words – unfamiliar, yet central to the students' heritage – form the basis of the ancient and complex language spoken by their ancestors – Nahuatl.

Less than 2 percent of the Mexican population – about 1.5 million people – speaks Nahuatl
(pronounced NAH-waht). The language and its various dialects are also spoken by pockets of
indigenous people in Central America. But, scholars say, it is far from being a dying language.

At these classes – held in Sherman Heights and San Ysidro – the members of Danza Mexi'cayotl
("The Dance of the Mexican people") are drawn to the language to help preserve it, while enriching
their understanding of their heritage and discovering their ancestors' worldview.

"Learning Nahuatl gives me tools to interpret the world around me in a different way," said
Veronica Enrique, a 45-year-old National City homemaker who described herself as a child of the Chicano movement of the late-1960s and early 1970s. Each week she attends the community center classes, bringing her sons, Graciano, 17 and Adrian, 5. 

"It's still very much part of the life and culture of Mexican Indian communities, even though it's not common here. The indigenous Mexican worldview is that things are centered on nature, family and community.

Nahuatl words show that their sense of time is cyclical rather than linear. That adds to the
complexity of being a Chicana in the 21st century."

Today, more Mexican poets and playwrights are writing in Nahuatl. In the Mexican states of
Morelos, Hidalgo and Puebla, it's common to see street signs in Nahuatl. Here in North County,
many migrant workers, of Yaqui, Zacateca and Mixteco ancestry, speak Nahuatl as their first

Teacher Mario Aguilar started Nahuatl classes more than 20 years ago, as part of his Aztec dance group. The classes also have attracted many Mexican and Mexican-American college students,
who are part of this growing movement to embrace elements of their indigenous lineage.

"The European aspect of Mexican culture (in Mexico) had been pushed, but the indigenous part
had been crushed and almost obliterated," said Aguilar, "even though it's been present on this
continent for 60,000 years."

That condition bothers Bettzi Jimenez-Barrios, a 23-year-old SDSU student and Tijuana native,
another Danza Mexi'cayotl member learning Nahuatl.

"In Mexico, there's a lot of racism toward the indigenous people and there are a lot of people
there who don't care about their Indian heritage," she said. "I went to school in Mexico before coming here and the schools never encouraged me to do research about my own culture. The Mexican government wants us to learn American or European ways. I don't want to get caught up in that. I want to learn Nahuatl to get to know who I am."

One day, Jimenez-Barrios said, she'd like to travel around Mexico and get to know the
indigenous people and be able to speak to them in their own language.

Aguilar, who is 49, took up Aztec dance when he was 19 and eventually earned the title of danza
capitan ("dance captain") from tribal elders in Mexico. He has been studying and speaking Nahuatl
– the language the ancient Aztec dancers spoke – for 22 years.

Aguilar said his parents – of Otomi and Tarasco Indian heritage, and participants in the Chicano
rights and consciousness movement – pushed him to learn about his roots.

Aguilar, now an assistant director of an early academic outreach program at the University of
California San Diego, did so by taking Chicano studies and anthropology courses at SDSU. Today's
Chicano college students learning Nahuatl, he said, have a different mentality than when he was their age.

"Back then, there was a revolutionary fervor and feeling like we could make a difference in the world," Aguilar said. "Today, young Chicanos studying their roots are more pragmatic about life and history as opposed to the idealism we had in our youth. It's nice to see people getting interested in Nahuatl again."

This summer, Aguilar said, he may pursue teaching Nahuatl in Mexico at the University of Zacatecas.  In the fall, he said, he hopes to teach the language at an academic setting in San Diego.

But in colleges and universities across the United States, the teaching of Nahuatl is gaining
momentum in some unexpected places.

One of North America's foremost Nahuatl scholars, John F. Schwaller, teaches the language at a
branch of the University of Minnesota in the small town of Morris, near the South Dakota
border. He previously taught Nahuatl at Indiana University and the University of Montana.

"It's a factor of the growing Mexican-American population in this country and in its universities," said Schwaller, who has no Mexican heritage, but has degrees in Latin American studies and spent years traveling throughout Mexico.

Other colleges and universities, Schwaller said, such as Yale, Tulane and Vanderbilt, are offering
formal Nahuatl classes or study groups.

Jimenez-Barrios and other college students say they find learning Nahuatl extremely challenging.
"Learning English is easier," said Jimenez-Barrios, who studiously takes notes during the Nahuatl instruction.

"Here, you hear how people speak English. I have some friends at home who speak some Nahuatl, but there aren't many other speakers. But I wanted to join a group where I could learn it. I'd love to
become fluent."

Other Nahuatl learners, like Elias McGann, say studying the language gives him a greater sense
of self-awareness. "You realize who you are and where you come from," said McGann, a 21-year-old trail keeper at the San Diego Zoo and visual artist who lives in Serra Mesa. He has been a member of Danza Mexi'cayotl since he was 14.

"My family is from the Tarasco tribe in Michoacan and my family members speak Nahuatl. My uncle
first got me into it. It's a very hard language. The grammar and grammar rules are complicated."

Yet, many words in Nahuatl are similar to Mexican Spanish. To make it easier, Aguilar regularly
gives the members of the group handouts reflecting how many modern-day words spoken in
Mexico have Nahuatl origins. Recently, Aguilar gave his students copies of the lyrics of the
Mexican national anthem in Nahuatl.

"One of the beautiful things about classic Nahuatl is that people spoke in allegories and couplets," Aguilar said.

"The Nahuatl word for 'poetry' is 'in xochitl incuicatl.' That means, 'the flower, the song.' That's the kind of worldview they had. They looked at things in a spiritual way, so that even the most mundane object or experience became sacred to them."

Using the Nahuatl word ollin – which loosely means "movement" – as an example, Aguilar compared learning Nahuatl to peeling onions.

"Every time you peel a layer off of one word, there's another one to peel," Aguilar said. "Ollin is the center of the onion, but it relates to the heart moving, the earth moving and the stars moving. In Native American tradition, nothing is ever literal, unlike the European model, which puts words in black-and-white terms."

Augustine Rodriguez, a 38-year-old U.S. Navy retiree, attends the classes with his wife, Angie, daughters Jessica, 13, and Amalia, 6, and infant son, Augustine. The family drives to Sherman Heights for class, all the way from Perris, in Riverside County.

"It's a sacrifice, but it's worth it," he said, while packing up his and his family's dancing gear and gearing up for the 80-plus-mile drive home.

"The language is important. It's influenced a lot of everyday words. We don't want the tradition to
die. It's forgotten in a lot of ways here, but for it to still be around gives us hope that it won't."

With the kind of dedication to Nahuatl shown by Rodriguez and Enrique, the National City woman
who regularly brings her two sons to the classes, the future of the language seems secure.

"I have my children learn it because it's part of who they are," Enrique said. "It's a responsibility and a privilege to provide that for them. It's important to keep Nahuatl alive in our next generation."

                                                         Language comparisons
prickly pear cactus
                                        Source: Mexcayotl Indio Cultural Center



Sobrenomenomes Portugueses e Origem Judaica

[[Editor: Although this is in Portuguese, please read with your Spanish language skills.  You will be able to extract the information. Look carefully at the surnames that were changed.  There appears to be no phonetic relationships, but as this first sentence states, the Jews in 538 were carrying sobrenomes hebraicos and then in a paragraph below thieir names were changed to Nome Cristão Português .]]

A presença judia na Península Ibérica é de remotíssima memória, já se referindo a ela o Concílio de Orleans, realizado no ano de 538, e o de Toledo, em 633. Por essa época, os judeus ostentavam nomes e sobrenomes hebraicos.

Mais tarde, com a ocupação mulçumana, a antroponímia judia também assimilou essa influência, aparecendo nomes de sonoridade árabe, ao lado dos puramente hebraicos e espanhóis.

Em 1492, os Reis Fernando e Isabel de Castela, conhecidos como Reis Católicos, decretaram a expulsão dos judeus da Espanha. Em razão disso, cerca de cento e vinte mil pessoas foram buscar refúgio em Portugal e, nessa mudança, levaram consigo sobrenomes árabes, hebraicos e espanhóis, além dos nomes de família representados por topônimos.

O crescimento da comunidade judaica em Portugal não agradou aos Reis Católicos, que passaram a exercer pressão política sobre o rei português no sentido de que este também expulsasse os semitas do território lusitano. Em 1496, D. Manuel I decretou a expulsão dos judeus de Portugal, oferecendo, contudo, a oportunidade de permanecerem no país, mediante conversão ao catolicismo. 

Essa conversão, através do batismo, exigia nomes cristãos e, via de regra, o converso assumia nome e sobrenome tipicamente portugueses. Muitos mantinham, reservadamente, seus nomes originais, pois grande parte das conversões eram apenas de fachada, preservando a fé na lei mosaica na intimidade da família.

Com o estabelecimento do Tribunal da Inquisição, em 1536, iniciou-se um caçada aos cristão-novos. A bem da verdade, o escopo do Santo Ofício era expungir da sociedade os "infectos de sangue" (árabes, negros, mulatos, judeus, ciganos, etc) e os de conduta reprovável (feiticeiros, adúlteros, sodômicos, etc). Ocorre que o comunidade judia era a de número mais significativo e sempre associada, pelo anti-semitismo popular, à imagem de assassinos de Cristo, passando, portanto, a sofrer maior perseguição.

Nas listas de processados pelo Santo Ofício, por serem judeus ou cristão-novos, encontram-se milhares de nomes e sobrenomes genuinamente portugueses, causando mesmo estranheza que nomes hebraicos raramente sejam mencionados.

Analisando essas listas, nota-se que qualquer sobrenome português poderá ter sido, em algum tempo ou lugar, usado por um judeu ou cristão-novo. Não escaparam ao uso sobrenomes bem cristãos, tais como "dos Santos", "de Jesus", "Santiago", etc. Certos sobrenomes, porém, aparecem com maior freqüência, tais como "Mendes", "Pinheiro", "Cardoso", "Paredes", "Costa", "Pereira", "Henriques", etc. O de maior incidência, no entanto, foi o "Rodrigues." 

Alguns documentos ainda mantêm registrados os nome originais dos judeus que, ao serem batizados, assumiram nomes tipicamente portugueses. Eis alguns exemplos:

Nome Original Judeu --> Nome Cristão Português 
Abraão ...? --> Gonçalo Dias 
Abraão Gatel --> Jerônimo Henriques 
Benyamim Beneviste --> Duarte Ramires de Leão 
Eliézer Toledano --> Manoel Toledano 
Isaac Catalan --> Rafael Dias 
Isaac Tunes --> Gabriel Velho 
Icer ...? --> Grácia Dias 
Luna Abravanel --> Leonor Fernandes 
Salomão aben Haim --> Luís Álvares 
Salomão Coleiria --> Gonçalo Rodrigues 
Salomão Molcho --> Diogo Pires 
Samuel Samaia --> Pero Francisco 
Santo Fidalgo --> Diogo Pires 
...? Arame --> Francisco Martins 
...? Cabanas --> Estevam Godinho 
...? Cohen --> Luis Mendes Caldeirão 
...? Gatel --> Francisco Pires

Costuma-se dizer que os judeus tomavam como sobrenomes nomes de árvores e animais. Mas, a bem da verdade, esses sobrenomes já apareciam na antroponímia portuguesa desde que se tornou usual a adoção de um nome de família, não sendo, portanto, de ocorrência exclusiva entre os hebreus.O Brasil Colonial recebeu um grande contigente de imigrantes portugueses. Estima-se que durante o ciclo do ouro cerca de 800 mil pessoas fixaram-se em nosso país. Entre esses adventícios, certamente, vieram os cristãos-novos. Nas listas dos Autos-de-fé da Inquisição, mencionam-se centenas de processados nascidos no Brasil ou aqui radicados. Contudo, identificar algum deles em pesquisas genealógicas não constitui tarefa fácil.

Muitos judeus modernos, descendentes dos expulsos da Espanha e Portugal, que hoje vivem principalmente na Holanda, Itália, E.U.A. e Israel, preservam seus sobrenomes portugueses, às vezes com grafia já deturpada.

Em resumo, em termos genealógicos, a incidência de determinado sobrenome português, que tenha sido de freqüente uso entre judeus, por si só não autoriza dizer que determinada família seja de origem judaica ou cristã-nova. Por outro lado, nem os sobrenomes tipicamente cristãos garantem que a família seja, usando a terminologia da época, cristã-velha.



Captain Tomas Sanchez
Juan Francisco Farias 
Pedigree of George Farias
Descendant of Tejano Rancher
Cisneros Praises City's Founders
Bexareños and Texas Revolution
The Serna Family Tree website
Vaquero, Genesis Texas Cowboy 
Marriage Records & Certificates
Submit Your Ancestor's Marriage
Graytown Marriages 1854 -1916
Remembering that day 
Brownsville Historic City Cemetery 
San Jacinto Day
Nos Unimos


Juan Francisco Farías, 
of  Captain Tomas Sanchez 


Founder, Alcalde 
and Chief Justice 
of  Laredo, Texas


Laredo, Texas was founded on May 15, 1755, twenty one years before the signing of the Declaration of Independence of the United States. 

Tomás Sánchez de la Barrera on that day arrived with three other families to establish a town under permission granted by Northern New Spain colonizer José de Escandón who named the new settlement after Laredo, Spain, a town close to his home located on the Bay of Biscay.

According to New Mexico historian José Antonio Esquibel, Sánchez was a descendant of Francisco Sánchez de la Barrera born in 1603 in the town of Lepe, in the Andalusian province of Huelva, Spain, during the reign of Philip III. Francisco’s Parents were Juan Sánchez de Ortega and Juana María Márquez de la Barrera. Francisco came to Nuevo León in New Spain in 1626 as a soldier in the company of Governor don Martín de Zavala, and served as notary of the town council in the city of Monterrey in 1632 where he permanently established his family in the New World.

Tomás Sánchez de la Barrera was born at Valle de Carrizal ( Ciénega de Flores) in Nuevo León in 1709 and baptized on July 4th of that year. His parents were Tomás Sr. and María Josefa de la Garza. His mother’s line is a distinguished one noted by Nuevo Laredo, Mexico genealogist Rodolfo González de la Garza as being from la linea de los reyes ( A royal line). María Josefa was descended from Catalina de Salazar from her first marriage to Ruy Díaz de Mendoza. The Mendozas, one of Spain’s wealthiest and most powerful families, were descendants of King Alfonso X "The Wise" whose father was King Ferdinand, later canonized by the Catholic Church as San Fernando. Catalina’s second marriage was notable. She married Cristobal de Oñate, one of the founders of Zacatecas, at that time perhaps the richest man in New Spain. Their son, Juan de Oñate, became the colonizer of New Mexico.

Tomás Sánchez first served in the frontier military forces of Spain and later managed a large ranch in Coahuila. He was known to be a pragmatist who handled current affairs in a fair and capable manner. He had a vision for the future, was aggressive in his relationships, and did not shrink from responsibilities that required decisive action. He apparently had a knack for dealing with Indians, as did Escandón, especially with the Lipan Apaches. Laredo historian Jerry D. Thompson mentions an interview with doña Encarnación García, wife of Bacilio Benavides, wherein she described Sánchez as a man of fair complexion with blue eyes and blond hair. He was known to be "fond of his toddy and of the ladies." Herbert Eugene Bolton, the father of borderlands history, depicted Sánchez as a "veritable medieval lord."

Sánchez first married Catarina de Uribe in 1729 produced as many as 12 children. When Catarina died he married Teodora Yzaguirre and they had a boy Tomás and a girl, Andrea. In 1768 Sánchez gave up the office of Chief Justice to José Martínez de Sotomayor. From all indications Sánchez had governed well and breathed life into an area referred to by historian Thompson as "a Wild and Vivid Land."

While efforts were underway by the British colonists in America to free themselves from their mother country in an unprecedented experiment in democracy, Captain Sánchez and other pioneers like him were developing agricultural, mining, and livestock industries that would later merge with westward moving Americans to form the new culture of the American West.

From the 
Tomás Sánchez line

1. Tomás Sánchez de la Barrera married (February 11, 1729) Catarina de Uribe.

2. Their son Santiago de Jesús Sánchez married (September 30, 1776) Maria Santos González.

3. Their daughter Guadalupe Sánchez married ( November 30, 1803) José Andres Farías, a member of the Third Flying Cavalry Company of New Santander.

4. Their son Juan Francisco Farías, mayor of Laredo in 1861 and secretary of the Republic of the Rio Grande, married (June 15, 1832) Inocente Benavides.

5. Their son Francisco Farías, rancher, county commissioner, and first chairman of Laredo’s school board, married ( September 27, 1862) Francisca Benavides.

6. Their son Cristobal Farías married Marcelina Fernández.

7. Their son Anastacio Farías married (June 12, 1937) Isidra Martínez.

8. Their eldest son is George Farías, San Antonio, Texas.

Juan Francisco Farías, great-grandson of Tomas Sanchez, was mayor of Laredo and secretary of the Republic of the Rio Grande.   Juan Francisco was a friend, neighbor and business associate of Evaristo Madero, the grandfather of Francisco Madero, the president of Mexico. Juan Francisco's youngest daughter Manuelita, became Evaristo's second wife after his first wife died. They married at San Agustin Church in Laredo on January 1, 1872.  


Colonel Santos Benavides
         and wife Augustina Villarreal          

Fabian Pedro Farías,
 son of Francisco Farías 
and Francisca Benavides

Laredo, Texas Police Department, Cristobal Farías is in the middle in plainclothes.
January, 1923 

Thomas, Michael, George Jr., George, Mary Helen (Lozano), Diane, Cynthia, and Richard 

George Farías is the owner of Borderlands Books in San Antonio.
Photos courtesy of Hector Farías, Jr. as found in  
He is also the author of the book (c) 1995
The Farías Chronicles, 
A History and Genealogy of a Portuguese/Spanish Family

Borderlands Bookstore

6307 Wurzbach Rd (at Evers Rd)
San Antonio, Texas, 78240

Family Surnames found in the Ancestry of George Farías  


Anastacio Farías


Isidra Martínez
Ayala, de
Caballeria, de la
Cadena, de la
Canto, del
Cerda, de la
Garza Falcón, del 
Oretga, de
Porcaya, de
Sosa, de


Barquera, de la
Castro, de
Fuentes, de las
Garza, de la
Peña, de la

Pedigree Information by a Descendants 
of  Tejano Cattle Rancher,
Felix Gutierrez

Sylvia Jean de Jesus Garcia
Sent by Robert Garcia


Robert writes, "My wife, Sylvia Jean de Jesus Garcia is one of the many descendants of  Felix Gutierrez, a Tejano cattle rancher. You published her article First Settlers of Villa de Bejar in 1718." In the June issue of 2003, , Sylvia wrote:   

"Our family has inherited the legacy of being descendants of one of the very first settlers (Francisco Hernandez) of our City of San Antonio .  In subsequent generations, each of our ancestors had a difficult and trying life.  Living and soldiering in San Antonio in the 1700s’ during the period of aggressive Comanche and Apache reparations; living in San Antonio and actively participating in the 1800s’ during the period of Mexico’s fight for independence from Spain, Texas’s fight for Independence from Mexico and then Texas’s fight during the Civil War.  We have much to be proud of and there is still much to learn about our ancestors."

Felix Gutierrez m. Barbara Torres  (d. 11/03/1823)

Josefa Gutierrez m. Santiago Diaz 
(b. 1780) (b. 1777, d. 08/30/1828)

Julian Diaz m. Eulogia Fernandez 
(b. 1808)

Leonides Diaz m. Mariano Trevino 
(b. 1841) b. 11/12/1829)

Leonides Trebino m. Jose Felix Casanova 
(b. 1860, d. 01/16/1928) b. 05/13/1842, d. 08/19/1917)

Mariano Casanova m. Virginia Chavez Charles 
(b. 10/10/1886, d. 02/11/1969) (b. 01/23/1887, d. 11/10/1950)

Virginia C. Casanova m. Benjamin de Jesus
(b. 11/27/1912, d. 04/22/1973) (b. 02/14/1915, d. 12/10/1996)

Sylvia Jean de Jesus Garcia
(b. 11/23/1948)

Cisneros Praises the City's Founders 

Rosemary Barnes
Express-News Staff Writer, Web Posted: 03/07/2004  

The 16 Canary Island families selected by Spain's King Phillip V to settle what is now San Antonio left an indelible mark on the community, former Mayor Henry Cisneros said Saturday. 

The legacy of the Canary Islanders who journeyed across the Atlantic Ocean and the scorching deserts of Mexico to reach their destination in the New World can be found in many forms all over San Antonio, including the missions they established, their architecture, their Catholic religion and their language, Cisneros said. "We are grateful for their many, many contributions that have made San Antonio such a vibrant, wonderful city," Cisneros said at the "Canary Islands-Texas: The Historical Connection" symposium at the University of Texas at San Antonio downtown campus Saturday morning. 

About 150 people attended the event. 

Cisneros was among 17 speakers who lauded the Canary Islanders who arrived 273 years ago March 9, 1731, to establish the new settlement named Villa San Fernando de Bejar in honor of Spain's heir apparent, Ferdinand VI. 

The village was centered on what now is San Fernando Cathedral downtown. The town officially was renamed San Antonio in 1837. Many of Saturday's speakers are business, academic and cultural leaders in the Canaries, which consist of seven islands in the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Spain off the coast of Morocco. Each speaker advocated establishing stronger ties between San Antonio and the archipelago. 

"We owe a lot to those 16 families that first came here from the Canaries. What they built has enriched both San Antonio and the Canary Islands," said Francisco Aznar Vallejo, director of the Tricontinental Institute for Democracy in Tenerife, the chain's largest island. 

"People without history have no future. But our future together is outstanding because we already know and appreciate each other," Vallejo said. 

A Mass celebrating the 273rd anniversary of the arrival of the Canary Islanders will be held at San Fernando Cathedral at 10 a.m. today.  After the Mass, descendants of the city's founders will re-enact the establishment of Villa San Fernando to commemorate the anniversary. 

Saturday's symposium was presented by the university, the Friends of the Canary Islands Foundation, the Government of the Canary Islands Foundation, and the UTSA Department of History. 

De León, A Tejano Family History 

by Ana Carolina Castillo Crimm
University of Texas Press, 
P.O. Box 7819
Austin, Texas 78713-7819

"This is the first major study of a Tejano family that confirms what other historians have said (but not buttressed with this kind of detail) about Mexican Americans in history: that they are resilient in the face of adversity, that they adjusted to an Anglo American political environment after 1836 with a degree of success, and that their absence in Texas history books is explained by a neglect of the primary sources . . This is a superb work . . .  The story of the de León family is the stuff from which movies are made."   
 - Arnoldo De Leon, C.J. "Red" Davidson, Professor of History, Angelo State University
La familia de León was one of the foundation stones on which Texas was built.  Martin de León and his wife Patricia de la Garza left a comfortable life in Mexico for the hardships and uncertainties of the Texas frontier in 1801.  Together, they established family ranches in South Texas and, in 1824, the town of Victoria and the de León colony on the Guadalupe River (along with Stephen f. Austin's colony, the only completely successful colonization effort in Texas).  They and their descendants survived and prospered under four governments (Spanish, Mexican, Republic of Texas, and United States), as the society in which they lived evolved from autocratic to republican and the economy from which they drew their livelihood changed from one of the mercantile control to one characterized by capitalistic investments.

Combining the storytelling flair of a novelist with a scholar's concern for the facts, Ana Carolina Castillo Crimm here recounts the history of three generations of the de León. family  She follows Martin and Patricia from their beginning in Mexico through the establishment of the family ranches in Texas ad the founding of the de Leon colony and the town of Victoria.  Then she details how, after Martin's death in 1834, Patricia and her children endured the Texas revolution, exile in New Orleans and Mexico expropriation of their lands, and after returning to Texas, years of legal battles to regain their property.  Representative of the experience3s of many Tejanos  whose stories has yet to be written, the history of the de León family is, in a very real way, the story of the Tejano settlers of Texas.

Maps, extensive notes, archival sources and an outline for each chapter, makes this easy reading, organized to help the researcher retain the abundant information.

Chapter 1   Settling New Spain's Northern Frontier, 1750-1800
Chapter 2   The de León. Ranches in Texas, 1800-1813
Chapter 3   Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe Victoria, 1813-1828
Chapter 4   Problems, 1828-1834
Chapter 5   Tejanos and the Texas Revolution, 1834-1835
Chapter 6   Revolution and Exile, 1835-1845
Chapter 7  Fighting for the Land, 1845-1853
Chapter 8  Tejanos in Texas, 1853-1880

Ana Carolina Castillo Crimm is Associate Professor of History at Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, Texas.  she is known throughout Texas for her presentations on borderland issues and her writing on the Wild Horse Desert, "Bones" Hooks, and Martin and Patricia de León.

Vaquero, Genesis of the Texas Cowboy
By Bill Wittliff, Introduction by John Graves
Sent by George Gause

"It would almost certainly be impossible to find such a group of traditional vaqueros [now] . . . doing their beautiful, strenuous work with horses and cattle in the old, old ways. But at least they can be found here, in Billy's lovely and meaningful photographs. We are most fortunate to have them."

-John Graves, from the Introduction

In the early 1970s, noted Texas historian Joe Frantz offered Bill Wittliff a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity-to visit a ranch in northern Mexico where the vaqueros still worked cattle in the traditional ways. Drawn to this land-out-of-time again and again, Wittliff photographed the vaqueros as they went about daily chores that had changed little since the first Mexican cowherders learned to work cattle from a horse's back. In the tradition of the great cowboy photographer Erwin Smith, Wittliff captured a way of life that now exists only in memory and in the pages of this book. Here you'll find photographs that reveal the muscle, sweat, and drama that went into roping a calf in thick brush or breaking a wild horse to the saddle. Wittliff's evocative text recalls the humility and pride of men who knew their place in the world and filled it with quiet competence. John Graves brings his own memories of the vaqueros to the text, writing about the kinship between the vaquero and the cowboy and about how "the old, old ways," which Wittliff preserves in these "lovely and meaningful photographs," still tug at the modern imagination.

12 1/4 x 8 1/4 in. 176 pp., ca. 100 color photos ISBN 0-292-70557-3 $39.95, hardcover

The Serna Family Tree website:
Sent by John Inclan 

Bexareños explore descendants' links to Texas revolution 
Scott Huddleston 
Express-News Staff Writer 

A local group wants to lend a hand to South Texans who might have had ancestors in the Texas Revolution. The Los Bexareños Genealogy Society hopes to uncover new stories of Tejanos, Hispanic Texians who fought for independence from Mexico from 1835-36, only to become forgotten footnotes in history. 

Recent computer upgrades in Austin now allow Internet access to pension claims filed by those who aided the revolution, or their families. 

Since Texas didn't create a pension until 1874, not all families filed claims. But anyone today who makes an initial link to a pension claim can find enough records in state and county offices, libraries and churches to weave a family history, said Robert Garcia, a society member and past president who is leading the research. 

The society hopes to compile a book this year on Tejanos in the revolution. Though historians have suggested many Latino families in Texas were split, with some loyal to Mexico, Garcia said he's seen little proof.  "If that was something that actually occurred, we'd like to know," he said. 

History books often credit Tejano political figures such as José Antonio Navarro, without mentioning Tejanos who fought in militias, Garcia said. "They're role models who we still don't know about," he said. 

Of some 1,000 claims filed with the Texas State Library and Archives Commission, nearly 200 bear Hispanic surnames of people who sought pensions for defending the Texas Republic. Some of their descendants now have names such as Smith or Jones, said Garcia, 57, a retired school district financial manager. 

Annette Losoya-Mahl and her family have always known of their connection to José Toribio Losoya, one of seven known Tejanos among about 200 Alamo defenders who died March 6, 1836. The family had owned land and lived on the southwest corner of the Alamo compound. 

"My children have probably told every history teacher they had" of the family's roots, she said. "We were brought up not to boast about it. Lately, I've kind of changed. I want the Tejanos to get their due respect." 

Although she supports the research project, Losoya-Mahl said some who find a link to history may be confronted by skeptics, or learn that their ancestors were treated harshly. "Nobody wants to hear the sad parts," she said. "I'm often met with disbelief. It hurts, sometimes, when I can't get the recognition that I think they (ancestors) deserve." 

George Farias, another past president of Los Bexareños, said the project could change history. 
"The revolution was started by Tejanos," Farias said. "We're going to look at what the facts were, even if we may not like what we find sometimes." 

Farias is a descendant of José Andreas Farias, who fought at the Battle of Medina, an 1813 clash in Atascosa County during an early rebellion under Spanish rule. By passing on stories of his ancestors, Farias hopes to set an example for his children.  "It gives you a sense of belonging," he said. "If you plant some of those seeds in young minds, it has a healthy effect." 

If you would like to receive news of heritage happenings in Texas, Los Bexareños president Elsa Herbeck has offered to include Somos Primos readers in her online news distribution.  Please contact her directly.    
To post a message to Los Bexarenos, sent it to:

Texas Marriage Records and Certificates

Links to: 
Texas State: Heritage Quest, 1870s Federal Census
Texas State: Marriage Index 1851-1900
Texas State: Heritage Quest, 1910 U.S. 

The Texas Marriages database is comprised of over 6 million groom/bride entries from 1967-2002 displayed in straight text form (using robust-SQL). First time viewers should visit the About This Database section below before continuing.  You will need a free GuestPass

Submit Your Ancestor's Marriage . . . . Make the Hispanic presence known.

~ AROCHA, Captain Don Simon Francisco de
~ BOWIE, Colonel James
~ CLARK, Washington
~ HERBERT, Kessler O.
~ JOHNSON, Angelina
~ LOCKWOOD, William
~ LOGWOOD, Elizabeth (Lizzie)
~ SMITH, Henry C.
~ SYBIL, Kelley J.
~ TRILLO, Don Pedro Mariano Ocon y
~ URRUTIA, Dona Juana de
~ URRUTIA, Dona Maria Ignacia de
~ VERAMENDI, Dona Maria Ursula Fructuosa


New Book: Marriages 1854 to 1916 of the Graytown Churches: 
La Capilla de Santiago (1854-1877) and Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe (1877-1916)
Located at Graytown (present-day Wilson County, TX). 
By Doris Fischer & Larry Kirkpatrick. 

This book has 1118 extracted and translated marriage entries with all the information in the original record except for dispensations. The entries usually give the names of the parents and witnesses. The entry sometimes gives ages and places of birth of the individuals getting married. The book has a bride and groom index. The book contains an historical description of Graytown, the church, and the surrounding area. Many descendants of Canary Islanders settled in this area. 

Paperbound, illustrated, 250 pages including index. $30.00 $ 2.25
Mail your order for this book to: Los Bexarenos, Post Office Box 1935, San Antonio, TX 78297 For questions or faster service, send your e-mail to

Remembering that day 
168th Anniversary of the fall of the Alamo
Amy Dorsett 
Express-News Staff Writer Web Posted: 03/07/2004 
Sent by Elsa Herbeck,

With the Shrine of Texas Liberty bathed in the bright glow of a full moon, an estimated 1,000 people turned out early Saturday, March 6th to mark the 168th anniversary of the fall of the Alamo. 

David Crockett V, the third great-grandson of one of the Alamo's most admired heroes read the Peace Prayer of St. Francis, along with David Esparza, whose great, great-grandfather was Gregorio Esparza, a Texian who died in the March 6 battle. 

The men took turns reading the poem — Crockett in English and Esparza in Spanish — which signified an act of historic reconciliation. 

"It was very much an honor," said Crockett, 61. "I show a lot of people my driver's license because they don't believe I'm Davy Crockett." 

Esparza, who lives in Schertz and works at Randolph AFB, said participating in the solemn ceremony connected him with his ancestors. 

Gregorio Esparza was the only Texian allowed a Christian burial by the Mexicans, who burned soldiers' bodies in giant funeral pyres. Gregorio Esparza was granted the favor because his brother was loyal to Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna. "I'm extremely proud to be here," Esparza, 60. "My roots are here." 

Sponsored by the San Antonio Living History Association, the 30-minute ceremony, which was slightly delayed because of audio problems, also featured a wreath-laying ceremony, candle lighting and bagpipes. 

Men dressed as soldiers represented both sides of the battle. They stood in a straight line and offered a glimpse into the stark contrast of that early March day. The Texians were outfitted in humble clothes straight from their personal wardrobes, while the Mexican soldiers stood in crisp, official uniforms. 

The March 6 battle capped the end of a 13-day siege by Santa Anna's troops. By 7 a.m. that morning, 189 Texas defenders and an estimated 600 to 1,600 Mexican soldiers lay dead. 

Santa Anna left the Alamo victorious but was defeated April 21 at the Battle of San Jacinto. That led to his capture and secured Texas' independence. The republic lasted nine years, until it joined the United States. 

Note from Elsa Herbeck: 
Members of Los Bexareños are also members of the San Antonio Living History Association..

Brownsville Historic City Cemetery website
Sent by George Gause
Announcing… We've been hard at work to get the word out…And now we are heard worldwide !
You can see and hear all about us at
Communicate with us at  
Nos Unimos - An online, interactive exhibit of families who lived and are living in San Antonio’s Westside.

Volunteers from UNIMOS, an online interactive exhibit of West side families, look through photos from the past at the Benavides Learning Center on the West Side. A new project chronicles the history of the community beginning in the 1920s through modern times.

Photo from article Searching for Lost History in San Antonio Express News,  Oct 15, 2003

This cross-generational project is a direct attempt to foster senior citizen access to the tools of our ever-increasing technological society.

With its Internet debut on December 1, 2003, UNIMOS is functioning as an on-line, interactive collection of photographs uniting the families of San Antonio’s Westside neighborhoods. Based on the fact that bricks and mortar projects consume vital community dollars and time, this virtual exhibit allows for greater audience participation for contributing materials and developing content that can be update as acquired.

This project is funded and supported by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the University of Texas-San Antonio, The URBAN-15 Group, the Youth Opportunities Program of the City of San Antonio’s Department of Community Initiatives, Alamo Community College District and private funds.


The UNIMOS-SA Project is fully operational. Over 2,700 images have been acquired and reside on the server. These images were obtained from the participating seniors with the help of volunteers and students from Fox Tech High School, Lanier High School and San Antonio College. The City of San Antonio’s Community Initiatives Program has been helpful by allowing the UNIMOS-SA teams to work in the Senior Nutrition Centers. Over eighty individuals from these nutrition centers have provided family images. The centers include: The Madonna Center, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Holy Family and Christ the King Nutrition Programs. In addition, social services providers such as the Guadalupe Community Center and the Edgewood Family Network have hosted scanning events to include their members.

Over the next six months, the UNIMOS-SA Project will continue to develop its eMuseum site to reach its goal of 6,000 images. The text descriptions of these images are being collected and edited. The next level of content will be the oral histories and video interviews that are being recorded. Much attention is being directed toward extended family members to help archive and identify pictures.

For more information, contact UNIMOS at 210-533-2912 or
Vuture Arts P.O.Box 906 San Antonio, TX 78294

San Jacinto Day, Battle Re-enactment and Festival, Saturday, April 24, 2004
La Porte, Texas

We commemorate this day to honor the memory and the spirit of those who achieved independence for Texas on the battlefield of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836. It is not for the aggrandizement of living persons or any specific organization. But rather, it is a time to reflect on past deeds and those who were willing to make the ultimate sacrifice for the principles they cherished. A Memorial Service for Combatants on both sides will be held at 4:30 p.m. Festival opens at 10:00 a.m.  

San Jacinto Battleground State Historical Park and San Jacinto Monument Museum of History


Florida Tribe Could Still Survive in Cuba  The Church in Louisiana & Florida,    1513-1815

Florida Tribe Could Still Survive in Cuba 

Mar 14, 2004, AP to My Yahoo
Sent by John Inclan
PINELAND, Fla. - Old church records show that the once-dominant Calusa tribe that vanished from Florida three centuries ago might not have been wiped out, a researcher says. 

Several dozen members of the tribe, nicknamed "The Fierce Ones," escaped to Cuba in the early 1700s after Spanish soldiers and other tribes overran their region, said John Worth, an anthropologist and director of the Randell Research Center, part of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Most died of typhus or smallpox within three months of reaching Cuba, but archives of a church in Guanabacoa, near Havana, show at least one Calusa woman survived and gave birth to two daughters in 1729 and 1731, said Worth. 

He is trying to trace the girls to determine if any Calusa descendants survive. "The chances are probably fairly slim, but hope springs eternal," Worth said. The Calusas built large settlements on mounds of seashells, most of which were torn down in the 20th century to be used as road fill or to make room for development. 

The Church in Louisiana and Florida, 1513-1815
Sent by Bill Carmena
[[There is much information on this site which clarifies somewhat the relationship between the French and the Spanish. Copies of the actual documents and their translations can be accessed. An alphabetical listing of authors makes is easy to find possible writing by ancestors.]] 

Although the Diocese of Louisiana and the Floridas, later to be known as the Diocese of New Orleans, was formally erected only on April 25, 1793, by Pope Pius VI, the area embraced within its confines had had a long ecclesiastical history prior to that time. Following the discovery of Florida by Ponce de Leon in 1513, Spain made several attempts to explore and tame the wild lands of southeastern North America. Acting by virtue of the Patronato Real de Indias or Royal Patronage of the Indies -- a recognition accorded to the Spanish sovereigns by the Roman Pontiffs of extensive control over and responsibility for the ecclesiastical administration of the Indies -- King Charles I, pending approval from the Holy See, provided for the erection of a Diocese of Florida which was to embrace the whole territory along the Gulf coast from the Cape of Florida to the Rio Grande.The proposed See, however, never actually materialized, and the Fransiscan, Juan Suarez, who had been chosen to be its bishop, perished while accompanying the ill-fated de Narvaez expedition to the area. Following the failure of De Soto's expedition (1539-1543), Spain made no further effort to conquer and colonize the lands bordering the Mississippi. Instead, she confined her efforts to Florida and the southwest.

The French, solidly established in Canada by the mid-seventeenth century, soon began to encroach upon the territory to the south which had been claimed initially by Spain. After La Salle and his party reached the mouth of the Mississippi in 1682, Louisiana became definitely French territory. Here, as in the Spanish domains, Church and State were bound closely together with the French monarch exercising considerable control over and bearing considerable responsibility for ecclesiastical affairs. After an initial attempt to establish an independent Viciariate Apostolic for the area failed because of the opposition of Bishop St. Vallier of Quebec, Louisiana in 1688 was recognized formally as belonging within the Diocese of Quebec. 

In 1699 the priests of the Seminary of Quebec, an outgrowth of the Seminary of Foreign Missions at Paris, began their priestly labors in the area. They were soon joined by the Jesuits. In 1712 Louisiana became a proprietary colony under the wealthy Antoine Crozat who had obtained a fifteen-year lease from the French crown. Finding the venture to be unprofitable, Crozat relinquished his lease in 1717. The colony then reverted to the French crown which turned it over to John Law's Company of the West. The obligation of providing for the religious needs of the territory, which included the nomination and maintenance of priests as well as the building of churches, devolved upon Law's Company. 

Actual ecclesiastical supervision over the territory continued to be exercised by remote control through a local vicar general. Although a Frech Capuchin, Louis-Francois Duplessis de Mornay, was chosen coadjutor to Bishop St. Vallier of Quebec in 1713 and, as such, entrusted with the care of Louisiana, he never visted the colony. In 1717 Spain showed a renewed interest in the westen part of the territory and a mission, staffed by Spanish Franciscans, was established at Los Adayes, twenty-one miles from Natchitoches. In 1720 French Carmelites were introduced into the territory but they were soon replaced by French Capuchins from the Province of Champagne under an agreement between the Company of the West, the Capuchins, and Bishop de Mornay. The Capuchins were to serve the French posts in the territory while the Jesuits were to continue serving the Indian missions

Alphabetical List

This list contains the names of the authors of the various items to be found in the collection, as well as the names of particular persons and places under which various dossiers in the collection have been calendared. Dates have been given in the same chronological sequence in which the items themselves have been microfilmed. Where the item is dated only by month and year, it will be found at the beginning of that month. Where it is dated only by year, it will be found at the beginning of that year. In a few instances, namely in the case of enclosures and certain items which were filed and consequently have been calendared and filmed with other items, two dates have been given: first, the date of the item itself, and second, in parentheses, the date of the item with which it has been filmed. 

For example, Saturnino Domine's letter of March 12, 1796 is listed thus: 1796 March (encl'd in 1796 March 22, Archbishop Despuig y Dameto to Bishop Penalver y Cardenas). On the microfilm the letter will be found by referring to the date of the item in parentheses. Where the particular item is a simple letter or document, not part of a larger dossier, the date given is that of the letter or document itself. However, where the item -- in many cases merely a copy of the original -- is to be found in a larger dossier, the date given is that under which the dossier has been calendared and, consequently, filmed. In most cases this is actually the date of the last item in the particular dossier. In order to avoid any confusion that this might cause, targets bearing the date of the calendar have been filmed before each item or group of items which is the subject of a specific calendar. To locate the various items within particular dossiers more specifically, reference should be made to the calendars which have been filmed on the first roll of microfilm in the same chronological order in which the documents themselves have been filmed. By using this list in conjunction with the calendars and the date targets, the researcher should be able to locate quickly any particular items of interest.

1799 (Sep. 14) Pena, Clara Lopez de 
Proceedings to prove that Clara is of Indian descent and to have her daughter Luisa's baptismal record transferred from the book of Negroes to that of the whites. ... (See original for calendar of 12 cards). 



Un Milagro
States of Mexico
Archivo Historico de Monterrey
Cultural Tour to Mexico City 
"Los mitos de la Historia de España" 
La Sociedad Sonorense de Historia
Certificaciones de matrimonio, Jerez
Matrimonios, Pátzcuaro, Michoacán

Hecha por mis esposa Marilupe, la hizo en arte plumaria, ganó el segundo premio estatal, es sobre la Virgen de La Luz, patrona de Salvatierra.  Armando M Escobar Olmedo

Manuel Robles de la Torre

Viajando quimeramente por los pueblos de antaño, buscando a nuestros antepasados, encontré este relato entre las partidas de bautismo del pueblo de San Felipe Cuquio en el reino de Nueva Galicia, hoy día el estado de Jalisco en Mexico.

El señor cura del pueblo había ido en julio de 1673 a la hacienda del Capitán Juan Arias de Baldés, como acostumbraba, a visitar y ministrar a la gente de la hacienda.

Cuando llego a la hacienda llamada La Hacienda de Nuestra Señora La Virgen Santísima de Moya, fue testigo de algo tan misterioso que ocurrió, que lo creyó ser un milagro, y como tal, lo memorialisó en el libro de bautismos. La hacienda era parte de la feligresía de Los Lagos, hoy día Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco.

Sigue el relato tal como lo escribió entre las partidas de bautismo. Estas partidas de bautismo fueron filmadas por La Sociedad Genealógica de Utah. Ortografía mantenida fiel al documento original. Algunas abreviaturas fueron desarrolladas para facilitar su lectura.


En la Hazienda del Capitan Juan Arias Baldez en ocho dias del mes de Julio de 1673 años aviendo llegado a la tal Hazienda (de) Nuestra Señora La Virgen Sanctissima de Moya de la Phelligresia de los Lagos susedio el milagro siguiente:

Saliendo una manquerna de Cavallos, misterio el Uno, arrevataron por delante un niño de edad de siete a ocho años y a gran distansia le arrojaron y de el golpe tan sumamente grande le levantaron sin sentido echando muchissima sangre por la voca narises y oydos quedando muerto del todo; pues sertificaron muchas personas que se hallaron presentes no tener pulsos.

Desconsolados sus padres le llevaron delante de la Ymagen Santissima de Nuestra Señora de Moya, sin esperansas de su vida y solo ofresieron con largrimas de padres y de alli a un gran rato volvio abriendo los ojos y esta oy vibo en este pueblo de tacotlan y para que conste a todos lo firme y firmaron algunos de los que saven escrivir == (Br.) Joseph de Sevilla.


Buscando mas información sobre la dicha Hacienda de Nuestra Señora La Virgen Santísima de Moya, me encontré con un sitio internet del gobierno de la ciudad de Lagos de Moreno en donde describen un actual pueblo indígena llamado El Pueblo Tlaxcalteca de Nuestra Señora de Moya.

Dice en el sitio que: en el siglo XVII, un grupo de indígenas tlaxcaltecas viajaron desde Apaseo a la hacienda de Santa Cruz de Moya, donde trabajaron como jornaleros, trayendo consigo una antigua imagen de la virgen de la Limpia Concepción que establecieron en la capilla de la hacienda de Santa Cruz de Moya. Actualmente esa imagen es venerada en un santuario edificado en el siglo XIX en el pueblo de Moya.

El altar mayor de dicho santuario tiene al centro un nicho de madera con su respectivo cristal donde se guarda una pequeña y devota imagen de Nuestra Señora y es una de las imágenes marianas mas antiguas de la Madre de Dios que se conservan en Lagos de Moreno.

Tiene esta milagrosa imagen 50 cms. de altura y está la virgen de pie y representada la Inmaculada Concepción. Como una excepción tiene piernas y sus desnudos pies calzados con unas sandalias de plata. Los brazos son movibles y de lienzo de lino como todas las imágenes antiguas. El rostro es ovalado e imperfecto y muestra ojos de vidrio.

Según la describen, parese ser la misma imagen delante cual los padres del niño con lagrimas en los ojos ofrecieron su cuerpo sin esperanzas de su vida en aquel trágico día 8 de julio de 1673 en la hacienda del capitán Juan Arias de Valdes hace mas de 330 años.

De las fiestas que celebran, una tradicionalmente se celebra el día 8 de diciembre, festividad de la Inmaculada Concepción, de cada año.

OTRA FIESTA solemne tiene lugar el día 8 de junio de cada año en que los vecinos de dicho pueblo le festejan para implorar de la Señora un buen temporal.

¿Sera que la fiesta que le hacen para el día 8 de junio, se dio principio en conmemoración del milagro ocurrido el día 8 de julio de 1673?



Traveling vicariously through the towns of long ago, searching for our ancestors, I came across a memorandum inserted between the baptismal entries of the town of San Felipe Cuquio in the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, presently the state of Jalisco in Mexico. 

The town curate had gone in July of 1673 to visit the Hacienda of Captain Juan Arias de Baldes, as was accustomed, to minister to the people at the hacienda. 

When he arrived at the hacienda, named the Hacienda of Our Lady of the Most Holy Virgin of Moya, he witnessed something so mysterious happen that he believed it to be a miracle and, as such, memorialized it in the book of baptisms. The hacienda was part of the parish of Los Lagos, nowadays Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco. 

Following is a translation of the memorandum, such as he wrote it in the book of baptisms. These baptism records were microfilmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah.


At the Hacienda of Captain Juan Arias de Baldez on the eighth day of the month of July of 1673 years, having arrived at the aforesaid Hacienda of Our Lady the Most Holy Virgin of Moya in the parish of Los Lagos, the following miracle occurred.

A team of horses suddenly came about, that itself a mystery, and ahead of them they ran down and caught up a young boy of about seven to eight years of age, and after a great distance, he was hurled to the ground. 

And because of the extremely great blow, the boy was lifeless and bleeding profusely from the mouth, nose and ears and was dead from all indications. Well then, many persons that were present, certified that he was without any pulse. 

Inconsolable, his parents, carried him before the Most Holy Image of Our Lady of Moya without any hope for his life and only offered him up, sobbing with fatherly and motherly tears. 

And there, after a great while, the boy regained consciousness opening his eyes, and he is, to this day, alive in this town of Tacotlan, and for the record for all to see, I signed it, and it was signed by some of the persons who know how to write. (Br.) Joseph de Sevilla.


Looking for additional information on the Hacienda of Our Lady the Most Holy Virgin of Moya, I came across a website for the city government of Lagos de Moreno where they describe an indigenous town named El Pueblo Tlaxcalteca de Nuestra Señora de Moya.

It says, that in the XVII century, an indigenous group of Tlaxcaltecas traveled from Apaseo to the hacienda Santa Cruz de Moya (Holy Cross of Moya), where they worked as day laborers, bringing with them an ancient image of the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception which they placed in the chapel of the hacienda Santa Cruz de Moya. Presently, that image is venerated in a sanctuary that was built in the nineteenth century in the the town of Moya.

The main altar of the sanctuary has, at its center, a wooden niche with a crystal cover where is kept a small and devout image of Our Lady and it is one of the most ancient Marian images conserved in the city of Lagos de Moreno.

This miraculous image measures 50 cm tall and the virgin is standing and represents the Immaculate Conception. As an exception, the image has legs and bare feet with silver sandals. The arms are movable, made of linen as all ancient images. The face is oval shaped and imperfect and the eyes are made of glass.

According to the description, it appears to be the same image, in front of which the inconsolable father and mother of the boy, sobbing with tears in their eyes and without any hope for his life, offered him up on that tragic day July 8, 1673 at the hacienda of Captain Juan Arias de Valdes more than 330 years ago.

Of the feasts that are celebrated annually, one is traditionally celebrated on the 8th of December, feast of the Immaculate Conception. However, ANOTHER feast is celebrated on the 8th of June where the townspeople implore of Our Lady a good rainy season for their crops.

Could it be that the annual feast celebrated on June 8 could have started in commemoration of the miracle that occurred on July 8, 1673? 

States of Mexico
Sent by Johanna de Soto

Includes a List of Governors for each state and time period they served
Party abbreviations: 
PAN = Partido Acción Nacional (National Action Party, conservative);
PRD = Partido de la Revolución Democrática (Party of the Democratic Revolution, social-democratic); PRI = Partido Revolucionario Institucional (Institutional Revolutionary Party, socialist, 1929-38 National Revolutionary Party; 1938-46 Party of the Mexican Revolution)

Note: Mexican states do not have official flags, in fact some state constitutions forbid the adoption of flags. The unofficial local flags that do exist are mainly used for tourism purposes.

Aguascalientes:  23 May 1835, State of Aguascalientes, previously part of Zacatecas.

Governors for Aguascalientes

23 May 1835 - Jun 1836  
25 Jun 1837 - 1841         
 3 Nov 1841 - Apr 1842     
Apr 1842 - Aug 1843        
31 Aug 1843 - Nov 1845    
Pedro José García Rojas
Pedro José López de Nava Mayorga (interim)
Francisco Flores Alatorre Terán
José María López de Nava Castañeda  (1st time interim)
Nicolás Condelle Soya
Mariano Chicho Navarro     (b. 1796 - d. 1846)


Archivo Historico de la Arzobispado de la Arquidiocesis de Monterrey
Calle Arista No. 230 Sur
Monterrey, Nuevo Leon
Mexico C.P.    64000

Sisters:  Maria del Consuelo (Consuelo) Villa Salinas and Maria (Maria) Rosario Urzua Lopez

Available Tuesday through Saturday at 10:00 a.m.
Telephone Number:    011-52-81-1158-2575
Telephone Number:    011-52-81-1158-2576  Fax

Information on Nuevo Leon births (baptisms), marriages, and deaths.  Provide name, location and approximate dates. Arrange for a call back time (generally a week later). If information is found, fee for service will be provided. The generally charge a $50.00 peso fee. Include a tip and you will get extra good service. Make a duplicate copies of materials received on acid free paper.

General information provided by Santiago (Jimmy) Vallejo / Austin, Texas
Hints and other information provided by Lupe Ramirez / Laredo

Cultural Tour to Mexico City and the MACO Art Fair

Join for a unique and exciting trip to Mexico City and the MACO Art Fair May 12-16th 2004.

Join internationally recognized curator Victor Zamudio-Taylor as he leads this unique five-day trip that will include visiting prominent artists in their homes and studios, touring private collections not open to the viewing public, and attending the MACO Fair and its events. 

Guests will be visiting sites throughout Mexico City while staying 5 days and 4 nights at the luxurious Camino Real. This beautiful hotel is located near Polanco, Chapultepec Park, and all the major museums. 

We have a limited number of places available to the general public. This tour package is being organized by and Adventure Tours and Travel of Los Angeles. The price of this tour will include round trip airfare, hotel stay, transportation in and around Mexico City, museum and fair entrance fees. If you would like to learn more about this unique opportunity please contact at: 310.247.8885 or you can email us at:


"Los mitos de la Historia de España" de Fernando García CortázarPortal de Historia
Sent by Armando Montes

Features reviews of new books and Diccionario de Historia en Linea "Miles de definiciones

Fernando García Cortázar, con el estilo que le ha convertido en uno de los historiadores más prestigiosos y leídos de nuestro país, emprende ahora la tarea de discernir qué hay de cierto y qué de falso en los mitos so e España y los españoles. ¿Es fiel a la verdad histórica la imagen de España como país de gran religiosidad? ¿Es cierta la imagen de una Castilla atrasada y clerical frente a una Cataluña abierta y progresista? ¿Es cierto el mito de la decadencia española? García de Cortázar nos conducirá en un emocionante viaje histórico con el objetivo de conocer mejor, y so e todo comprender mejor, nuestro pasado. 

La Sociedad Sonorense de Historia, A.C.
Rosales No. 123, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 158
Tel./Fax: (662) 217-1064, C.P. 83000
Hermosillo, Sonora, México
Sent by Johnna De Soto 

Topics:  Libros, Eventos,  Objectivos, Boletines, Convocatoria, Temas de Interes, Paginas de interes, Historia de los Simposios

La Sociedad Sonorense de Historia A.C., la Secretaria de Educación y Cultura, la Secretaria de Infraestructura Urbana y Ecología, la Universidad de Sonora, el Instituto Sonorense de Cultura, Instituto Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Centro INAH Sonora, El Colegio de Sonora, el Centro de Investigación de Alimentos y Desarrollo, el H. Ayuntamiento de Hermosillo, el Colegio de Arquitectos de Hermosillo y El Colegio de Ingenieros de Hermosillo,

C O N V O C A N: 
A los arquitectos, ingenieros, constructores prácticos, historiadores, investigadores y estudiosos de nuestro pasado histórico, así como al público en general a participar en el XVI SIMPOSIO DE LA SOCIEDAD SONORENSE DE HISTORIA, A.C., que se llevará a cabo del 24 al 29 de noviembre de 2003, con la siguiente temática:

Estudio Histórico de la Construcción en Sonora
Las ponencias podrán versar sobre el tema del Simposio comprendido en alguno de los siguientes capítulos generales:
I Construcciones tradicionales
II. Construcciones de Pueblos Indígenas
III. Construcciones Prehispánicas
IV. Construcciones de la Época Virreinal
V. Construcciones del Siglo XIX
VI. Construcciones del Siglo XX. 
VII. Anécdotas, Aconteceres y Vida Cotidiana

Se hace la aclaración que las construcciones a las que se refiere la convocatoria, incluye tanto las civiles como las religiosas que involucren aspectos arquitectónicos o de ingeniería, y que por su uso y representatividad, han quedado como testimonio del sitio en que se edificaron.

Libro de Partidas y certificaciones de matrimonio, 
número 3 de 6. Años: 1731 - 1745.
Jerez, Zacatecas 

Por Lic. Leonardo de la Torre y Berumen


Al paso de los años me he dado a la tarea de paleografíar los dos más antiguos libros de partidas de matrimonio existentes en el Archivo de la parroquia La Inmaculada de Jerez, Zac. Y ahora presentó la primera de varias partes que he realizado, abarcando los años de 1731 a 1732, esperando sirva de algo esto que en mi tiempo libre he capturado para ti.... 


ESTEBAN BERMUDEZ, español, originario de la jurisdicción de Jerez, hijo legítimo de Pedro Bermúdez, difunto y de Antonia González. Casado y velado por el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega en Jerez el 1 de agosto de 1731 con Simona Tadea, española, originaria de la jurisdicción de Jerez, hija legítima de Francisco de Ayala y de Teresa Carrillo. Padrinos: José Guerrero y María Bermúdez. Testigos: Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 2.

, mestizo, originario de la jurisdicción de Jerez, hijo legítimo de Nicolás Dorado y de Inés Fernández. Casado y velado por el Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 4 de septiembre de 1731 con María Josefa Morquecho, española, originaria de la villa de Aguascalientes y residente desde hace 4 meses en la villa de Jerez, hija legítima de don Vicente Morquecho y de María de San Juan, difunta. Padrinos: Ignacio Cayetano y Antonia Jerónima. Testigos: Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 2 vuelta.

ANTONIO FERRER GARAY, mestizo, originario y vecino de la jurisdicción de Jerez, hijo legítimo de Pedro Garay y de María de Valenzuela. Casado y velado por Juan Antonio de Alderete en Jerez el 6 de septiembre de 1731 con María Magdalena, mulata libre, originaria de la hacienda de Buenavista, hija legítima de Nicolás Alvarez y de Ana de Santiago. Padrinos: Antonio Garay y María Efigenia. Testigos: Pedro de Medrano y Juan de Medrano. Foja: 2 vuelta.

VALENTIN DE SANTIAGO, indio, originario del Barrio de San Miguel, hijo legítimo de Baltazar de los Reyes y de Inés de San Diego. Casado y velado por el Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 25 de septiembre de 1731 con María Teresa Gómez, mestiza, originaria de la jurisdicción de Jerez, hija legítima de Miguel Gómez y de Juana Rosales. Padrinos: Alonso Romero y Dominga Rodríguez. Testigos: Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 2 vuelta.

, originario y vecino de la villa de Jerez, hijo natural de María de la Rosa. Casado y velado en Jerez el 8 de octubre de 1731 con Ignacia Susana Tello de Orozco, española, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, hija legítima de Juan Bautista Tello de Orozco y de María Pasillas. Padrinos: Juan de Acuña y doña Isabel Sánchez Castellanos. Testigos: Bernardo Carrillo y Juan de la Vega. Foja: 3.

JOSE FELIX, español, vecino de la villa de jerez, hijo legítimo de José Félix y de María Clemencia Cordero, difunta. Casado y velado por Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 22 de octubre de 1731 con Felipa Neri Pérez de Saucedo, mestiza, originaria de la villa de Jerez, hija legítima de José Pérez y de María de la Rosa y Casas. Padrinos: Pedro Carlos de Godoy y Juana Pérez. Testigos: don Alonso Mateo Ruíz y José Valdés. Foja: 4.

EUGENIO SANCHEZ, español, originario del puesto de Jimulco, hijo natural de María de Olague. Casado y velado por Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 11 de noviembre de 1731 con Ana de Santiago Sánchez, española, originaria de la villa de Jerez y vecina del puesto de Jimulco, hija legítima de Simón Sánchez y de Catalina Espinola, difuntos. Padrinos: Juan José y María Pinedo. Testigos: José Carlos de Godoy, Diego de Medrano y Juan de Medrano. Foja: 4.

, español, originario del Real y Minas de Sombrerete y residente desde hace 8 años en la ciudad de Zacatecas, hijo legítimo de Antonio González, difunto y de María de la Rosa Bernal. Casado y velado por el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega en Jerez el 15 de noviembre de 1731 con María Florencia Vázquez, española, origianria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, hija legítima de Baltazar Vázquez, difunto y de Sebastiana Flores. Padrinos: Nicolás Lujan y María de Medina. Testigos: Juan de Medrano y don Alonso Ruíz. Foja: 4 vuelta.

GABRIEL DEL RIO, español, originario y vecino de la jurisdicción de Jerez, hijo natural de Miguel del Río. Casado y velado por Salvador de la Vega en Jerez el 29 de noviembre de 1731 con Josefa Gallegos, española, originaria del puesto del Niño Jesús, hija legítima de Cristóbal Gallegos y de María Gómez, difuntos. Padrinos: Juan Cayetano Barajas y Pascuala de San Juan. Testigos: Juan de Medrano y Pedro de Medrano. Foja: 5.


y CLEMENTE DE NAVA testigos de matrimonio en Jerez el 3 de enero de 1732. Foja: 5 vuelta.

NICOLAS DE TINAJERO y su esposa LUCIA BARBARA PACHECO, padrinos de matrimonio en Jerez el 3 de enero de 1732. Foja: 5 vuelta.

VICENTE DE ESCOBEDO, español, originario y vecino de la villa de Jerez, hijo natural de Antonio de Escobedo. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Salvador de la Vega en Jerez el 8 de enero de 1732 con Bernardina de Trejo, española, originaria de la Estancia de Tepetongo, hija legítima de Jerónimo de Trejo y de María de Arroyo. Padrinos: Agustín de Orozco y Gertrudis Dávila. Testigos: Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 6.

BLAS RODRIGUEZ, español, originario de la villa de Lagos y vecino desde hace 9 años de la villa de Jerez, hijo natural del Capitán don Miguel Rodríguez y de doña María Gómez. Casado por el Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 3 de enero de 1732 y velado el día 8 por el Bachiller don Salvador de la Vega con María Andrea Muñoz, española originaria y vecina del puesto de Jimulco, hija legítima de Domingo Muñoz, ya difunto y de Brigida de Miranda. Padrinos: Juan Cayetano de Villegas y Juana Moreno. Testigos: Mateo del Río y Juan de Silva. Foja: 6.

, español, originario y vecino de la villa de Jerez, hijo legítimo de Felipe Flores, difunto y de Nicolasa de Ureña. Casado y velado en jerez el 15 de enero de 1732 con María de la Encarnación, española, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, hija legítima de Juan de Silva y de María Gómez. Padrinos: Pedro de Nava y Mariana Ureño. Testigos: Juan de Medrano y Francisco Salinas. Fojas: 6 – 6 vuelta.

EUSEBIO LOPEZ, español, originario de Apaseo y vecino desde hace 7 meses de la jurisdicción de Jerez, hijo legítimo de Florencio López, difunto y de María de Larrea, y viudo por muerte de Lorenza de Campos. Casado y velado por el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega en Jerez el 22 de enero de 1732 con María Magdalena Dávila, española, originaria de la jurisdicción de Jerez, hija legítima de Onofre Dávila, difunto y de Francisca de Lerma, y viuda de Juan Caldera. Padrinos: José Carrillo y María Josefa Borrego. Testigos: Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 6 vuelta.

, español, originario de la jurisdicción de Jerez, hijo legítimo de Ignacio Rodarte y de Clara de Angón, difuntos. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Salvador de la Vega en Jerez el 22 de enero de 1732 con Francisca Javiera de Albertis, española, originaria del a jurisdicción hija legítima de Antonia de Albertis, difunta. Padrinos: Ventura de la O y Micaela Félix. Testigos: Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 7.

LAZARO LOPEZ, morisco, originario de Querétaro y residente desde hace 5 años de la villa de Jerez, hijo legítimo de Pedro López y de María Josefa, difunta. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 24 de enero de 1732 con Francisca Antonia de Lares, morisca, originaria de la ciudad de Zacatecas, y residente desde hace 3 años de la villa de Jerez, hija legítima de Félix Lares y de Melchora de los Reyes. Padrinos: Francisco Martínez y Isabel de la Cruz. Testigos: Juan de Medrano y Pedro de Medrano. Foja: 7.

JOSE DEL CARMEN GARCIA, mestizo, originario de la jurisdicción de Jerez, hijo legítimo de Juan García y de Isabel Gutiérrez, difunta. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 26 de enero de 1732 con María de San Juan, española, originaria del valle de Valparaíso, hija legítima de Felipe de Ruedas y de Ignacia Flores. Padrinos: José Lares y María García. Testigos: Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Fojas: 7 vuelta.

JOAQUIN RON DE REVELES, indio, originario de la villa de Jerez, expuesto a las puertas de doña Inés Reveles, difunta. Casado y velado en Jerez el 27 de enero de 1732 con María Estefanía de la Rosa, mulata libre, originaria de la villa de Jerez, hija legítima de Simón Romero y de María Teresa de la Torre. Padrinos: José Romero y Ángela de la Cruz. Testigos: Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 7 vuelta.

ANTONIO PINEDO, español, originario y vecino del a villa de Jerez, hija legítima de Nicolás Pinedo y de Magdalena Flores. Casado y velado por el Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 27 de enero de 1732 con Melchora Félix, española, originaria y vecina de la villa de Jerez, hija legítima de Pedro Félix difunto y de Josefa de Nava. Padrinos: Juan José Pinedo y María Pinedo. Testigos: Francisco Salinas y Juan de Medrano. Foja: 7.

JUAN CARRILLO, español, originario y vecino del puesto de Jimulco, hijo legítimo de José Carrillo y de Leonor de Avila. Casado y velado por el Bachiller Salvador de la Vega en Jerez el 11 de febrero de 1732 con Juana Inés de Espinola, española, originaria y vecina del puesto de Jimulco, hija legítima de Domingo Cid y de Beatriz de Casas. Padrinos: José Bañuelos y Brigida Bañuelos. Testigos: Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 7.

, español, originario de la ciudad de Valladolid y vecino desde hace 30 años de la villa de Jerez, hijo legítimo de Sebastián de Torres y de Isabel de Aguilar, y viudo de María de la Rosa. Casado y velado en por el Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete Jerez el 14 de febrero de 1732 con Catalina de Cid Trejo, española, originaria de la villa de Jerez, hija legítima de Juan Cid de Trejo y de Agustina de Maldonado, y viuda de Luis Carrillo. Padrinos: Lucas Carrillo y María Anastasia Carrillo. Testigos: Luis Muñoz, Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 7 vuelta.

JUAN CARRILLO, español, originario de la villa de Jerez, viudo de Juana Robles, hijo legítimo de Juan Carrillo y de Juana Félix. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Salvador de la Vega en Jerez el 18 de febrero de 1732 con Juana Lugarda de Casas, española, hija legítima de Bernardo de Casas y de Francisca Cid, vecinos del puesto de Jimulco, jurisdicción de Jerez. Testigos: Lucas Carrillo y Juan Muñoz. Foja: 8.

JUAN DE DIOS CARLOS, español, originario de las Cañas, jurisdicción de Colotlán y vecino desde hace 6 meses de la villa de jerez, expuesto a las puertas de Felipe Carlos. Casado y velado por el Bachiller don Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 18 de febrero de 1732 con María Isabel, española, originaria de la villa de Jerez, expuesta a las puertas de Tomás de la Torre. Padrinos: Tomás de la Torre y María Rosales. Testigos: Roque de la Torre. Juan Medrano y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 8.

JOSE ANTONIO DE LA TORRE, español, originaria de la hacienda de Las Salinas, y residente desde hace 17 años de la villa de Jerez ,hija legítima de Nicolás de la Torre y de Juana de la Rosa, difuntos. Casado y velado por el Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 19 de febrero de 1732 con María Florencia Gallegos, española, originaria del puesto de La Cañada, hija legítima de José Gallegos y de Sebastiana Carrillo, difunta. Padrinos: Francisco Neri de Castro y Micaela Jerónima Pacheco. Testigos: Diego de Acevedo, Juan Medran y Pedro Medrano. Foja: 8.

CRISTOBAL FLORES, mestizo, originario de la villa de jerez, hijo legítimo de Salvador Flores, difunto y de Nicolasa de Luna. Casado y velado por el Bachiller Juan Antonio de Aldrete en Jerez el 19 de febrero de 1732 con Josefa de Castro, española, originaria de Tlaltenango y vecina desde hace 3 años de la villa de Jerez, hija legítima de Rodrigo de Castro y de María Tello de Orozco, y viuda de Agustín de Castañeda. Padrinos: Diego de Barrios y María Rodarte. Testigos: Cayetano Rodarte, Francisco de Castro. Foja: 8 vuelta.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA: Archivo de la Parroquia La Inmaculada de Jerez, Zac. Area: Sacramental. Sección: Matrimonios. Serie: Partidas y certificaciones. Subserie: general. Caja: 139. Libro: 3/6. Expediente 1. Fojas: 196. Fechas: 1° agosto 1731 - 3 mayo de 1745.



Primera parte.

Lic. Guillermo Padilla Origel

11 de agosto de 1596
Pedro Ramírez con María de Iliesares.

28 de agosto de 1596
Gonzalo de Borja y Juana de Vargas

29 de septiembre de 1596
Andrés de Morales y Ana Gómez, mestizos

16 de febrero de 1597
Don Gonzalo de Villaseñor y Mariana de Zúñiga, hija de Don Alonso de Zúñiga

21 de octubre de 1598
Gonzalo de Antúnez y María Martínez de Borja

18 de noviembre de 1598
Juan de Sarriá y Catalina de Ávila, hija legítima de Diego de Castañeda e Inés de Ávila.

30 de diciembre de 1598
Lorenzo de Vitoria y Mariana de Mendoza, del pueblo de Taretan.

3 de febrero de 1599
Fernando de Oyna, hijo legítimo de Francisco de Oyna y de Juana de Saghaún ; con Ana de Carvajal, hija legítima de Fernando de Alexandre y Leonor de Carvajal.

10 de octubre de 1599
Bernardino de Saavedra e Isabel Pérez

12 de diciembre de 1599
Bartolomé de Arévalo, hijo legítimo de Juan Hidalgo y Catalina de Arévalo, naturales de Osuna en los reinos de Castilla ; con Luisa de Mendoza, hija legítima de Francisco Gutiérrez y Juana de Mendoza, vecinos de esta ciudad.

6 de agosto de 1600
Fernando Velásquez Coronado y María de Olmedo.

8 de agosto de 1600
Francisco Alexandre y Marina de Cueva

29 de enero de 1601
Luis Méndez de Villegas y Ana Pérez

29 de enero de 1601
Alonso Carrillo de Guzmán y Luisa de Carvajal

I de junio de 1601
Antonio Rodríguez y Catalina de Vitoria, hija legítima de Fernando Díaz Infante y Juliana de Vitoria.

9 de mayo de 1602
Germán Ponce de León y Petronila Infante

25 de agosto de 1602
Juan de Medina y María de Borja

27 de abril de 1603
Pedro de Ábrego y Juana de Torres, vecinos de esta ciudad.

28 de mayo de 1604
Nicolás de Yánez y Beatriz de Liedma

1 de julio de 1604
Roque de Olivera y Juliana de Vitoria

13 de agosto de 1604
Roque de Santa María y María de Guido

29 de septiembre de 1604
Martín Rodríguez, natural del puerto de Santa María ; con Juana de Soto, hija legítima 
de Pedro de Soto y Beatriz de Borja.

20 de octubre de 1604
Juan de Vitoria Bacorin y María Velásquez

19 de diciembre de 1604
Lorenzo Pérez y Jerónima de Guido.

30 de octubre de 1605
Miguel Ruíz, hijo legítimo de Miguel Ruíz y Catalina Venegas ; con Mariana de Jaso, hija de Francisca de Rivera.

16 de junio de 1606
Juan Velásquez Origel, hijo legítimo de Don Francisco de Origel y Juana de Velásquez ; con Catalina Velásquez, hija de Don Diego Velásquez Coronado y María de Ocaña.

15 de enero de 1607
Diego Zárate, vecino de esta ciudad, natural de Jeréz de la Frontera ; con Teresa Gómez Vizcarra, vecina de esta ciudad.

2 de septiembre de 1607
Francisco de Secadura, y Mariana de Guido, hija legítima de Juan Gómez de Tagle y Ana de Guido.

15 de diciembre de 1607
Lope de Cobián, natural de Girón del principado de Asturias ; con Estefanía de Castañeda,
 hija legítima de Juan de Castañeda e Isabel Galindo.

20 de diciembre de 1607
Marcos de Carrión y Magdalena Gutiérrez.

24 de diciembre de 1607
Juan Sedeño y Catalina de Ábrego.

10 de marzo de 1608
Juan Bautista Carrión, hijo legitimo de Joseph Carrión ; con Mariana Monjaráz, hija legitima 
de Juan de Monjaráz y Francisca de Saucedo.

17 de enero de 1609
Francisco de León y Francisca Burgueño.

24 de agosto de 1609
Hernán Sánchez y Francisca de Guido.

2 de agosto de 1612
Juan Pérez y Juana de Guido.

8 de junio de 1613
Cristóbal Martínez de Vargas, hijo legítimo de Cristóbal Maldonado y Catalina Díaz , originarios de Jerez de la frontera ; con Juana de Cáceres, hija legítima de Agustín de Cáceres y Francisca Pulido.

14 de octubre de 1613
Lucas de Viluan, hijo de Lucas de Viluan e Inés Gutiérrez de Cabia, vecinos de Zinapécuaro ; con Antonia de Vitoria, hija legítima de Hernando Díaz Infante y Juliana de Vitoria.

16 de mayo de 1613
Álvaro de Frausto, vecino de la villa de León ; con Luisa de Guzmán, hija legítima del Licenciado Melchor de Guzmán y Leonor de Aviña.

12 de octubre de 1614
Luis Moreno y Agustina Velásquez.
17 de febrero de 1615
Toribio Blanco y María de Vitoria, hija legítima de Hernando Díaz Infante y Juliana de Vitoria.

7 de julio de 1615
Rodrigo de Mendoza y María de Ludeña.

10 de septiembre de 1616
Juan de Liébana y Antonia de Villarroel.

21 de noviembre de 1616
Alonso Pérez del Rivero e Isabel Núñez.

20 de septiembre de 1617
Francisco Morales Coronado y Catalina Cárdenas, hija legitima de Diego de Meza y Leonor de Cárdenas.

3 de enero de 1618
Diego Gómez Calvillo, hijo de Antonio Calvillo Altamirano y Juana de Ayala ; con Magdalena de Mendoza.

8 de octubre de 1618
Jacinto Navarro, hijo legitimo de Baltasar Navarro y María Herrera ; con María Infante Samaniego, hija legitima de Alonso Morán y Catalina Infante Samaniego.

15 de marzo de 1619
Juan de Berganza, hijo legitimo de Juan de Berganza y Ana de Medrano ; con Catalina de Arévalo , hija legitima de Bartolomé de Arévalo y Luisa de Mendoza.

17 de abril de 1622
Hernando de Castañeda y Margarita Velásquez.

16 de marzo de 1623
Agustín Pérez de Villavicencio y María de Ávila.

10 de mayo de 1623
Melchor González, hijo de Juan González Navarro y Melchora de la Cerda ; con Andrea de Vitoria, hija legitima de Juan de Vitoria y María Velásquez.


Cuban GenWeb A Cultural Exchange Between Puerto Rico and the United States 


Cuban GenWeb
This is an incredible website, not only for Cuban researchers. 
PLEASE look at it.  You will put it in your favorite places.  
Sent by Paul Newfield

A Cultural Exchange Between Puerto Rico and the United States 

Latin Beat Magazine, in association with the Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration Office of California is hosting a Latin Jazz Symposium for four days between Puerto Rico and the United States in April 2004, which will include seminars, live music, and an art exhibit.

The main purpose of the event is to analyze and discuss the current state of Latin jazz music in Puerto Rico and in the United States and the future outlook of the genre. The event is scheduled to take place in two of the Western Hemisphere’s leading educational institutions; Universidad del Sagrado Corazon in Santurce, Puerto Rico, and California State University, Long Beach (CSULB). 

April 13 & 14, 2004 at Universidad del Sagrado Corazon in Santurce, Puerto Rico. 
The event, hosted by Universidad del Sagrado Corazon, will open with a multi-media art exhibit on April 13, curated by Yvette Mangual, art director of Latin Beat Magazine. The same afternoon, the conference segment of the event will take place, headed by a panel of music historians, musicologists, music professors, musicians and journalists. Confirmed speakers include historian/musicologist/author Cristobal Díaz Ayala; Sacred Heart University professor/author/radio DJ Elmer González; Latin jazz bandleader/trumpeter Humberto Ramírez, and Latin Beat Magazine publisher/editor/musician Rudolph Mangual. The following day, April 14, 2004, a concert/jam session will take place under the musical direction of Humberto Ramírez and an all-star ensemble of local musicians as well as guest musicians from the United States. 

April 19 & 20, 2004 at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB)
The event at CSULB is hosted by the Department of Chicano and Latino Studies and will open with a multi-media art exhibit on April 19, 2004, curated by Yvette Mangual co-publisher/art director of Latin Beat Magazine, followed by the conference segment of the event that same afternoon. Confirmed speakers for the conference are University of California at Irvine (professor and curator of the Smithsonian traveling Latin Jazz exhibition, "La Combinación Perfecta") Raúl Fernández; University of Northridge music professor/bandleader Danilo Lozano; actor/poet/writer

Ismael Carlo; Grammy nominee/bandleader/educator John Santos; bandleader/musical director Oscar Cartaya; radio DJ/bandleader/educator José Rizo; writer/music analyst/promoter Nelson Rodríguez, and writer/music analyst Luis Tamargo. The following day, April 20, 2004 a concert/jam session will conclude the event at the same location.

Musical director Oscar Cartaya will lead an all-star ensemble of local and international musicians with guest musicians from Puerto Rico. The events in each city will be free of charge and open to the general public. All ages welcome.

The Latin Jazz multimedia art exhibit will include photographs, paintings and sculptures in both cities. For consideration, call Yvette Mangual at (310) 516-6767 or e-mail samples to Sponsorship opportunities for both events are still available. For more information call Rudy Mangual at (310) 516-6767 or e-mail to




Genealogia familia
Carolina G. Tomkinson







Ten Commandments Washington, D.C.
The Constitutions of U.S. States
The First Real Submarine

There are Bible verses etched in stone all over the Federal Buildings and Monuments in Washington, DC. James Madison, the fourth president, known as "The Father of Our Constitution" made the following statement: "We have staked the whole of all our political institutions upon the capacity of mankind for self-government, upon the capacity of each and all of us to govern ourselves, to control ourselves, to sustain ourselves according to the Ten Commandments of God.." 
As you walk up the steps to the Capitol Building which houses the Supreme Court
you can see near the top of the building a row of the world's law givers and each one is facing one in the middle who is facing forward with a full frontal view - 
it is Moses and the Ten Commandments! 

Moses and Ten Commandments, 
U.S. Supreme Court facade, 
Sent by Odell Harwell 

As you enter the Supreme Court courtroom, the two huge oak doors have the 
Ten Commandments engraved on each lower portion of each door. 
As you sit inside the courtroom, you can see the wall, right above where the Supreme Court judges sit... a display of the Ten Commandments! 

Copy of Carving of Ten Commandments on doors of the U.S. Supreme Court

Patrick Henry, that patriot and Founding Father of our country said, "It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great nation was founded not by religionists but by Christians, not on religions but on the Gospel of Jesus Christ." 

Every session of Congress begins with a prayer by a paid preacher, whose salary has been paid by the taxpayer since 1777. 

Fifty-two of the 55 founders of the Constitution were members of the established orthodox churches in the colonies. 

Thomas Jefferson worried that the Courts would overstep their authority and instead of interpreting the law, would begin making law ... an oligarchy--- THE RULE OF FEW OVER MANY. 

The very first Supreme Court Justice, John Jay, said: "Americans should select AND prefer Christians as their rulers." 

Sent by Bill Carmena

     The Constitutions of U.S. States

      America's founders did not intend for there to be a separation of God and state, as shown by the fact that all 50 states acknowledge God in their state constitutions:

"Those people who will not be governed by God will be ruled by tyrants."  William Penn 
Alabama 1901, Preamble. We the people of the State of Alabama, invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish the following Constitution ...
      Alaska 1956, Preamble. We, the people of Alaska, grateful to God and to those who founded our nation and pioneered this great land ...

      Arizona 1911, Preamble. We, the people of the State of Arizona, grateful to Almighty God for our liberties, do ordain this Constitution... 

      Arkansas 1874, Preamble. We, the people of the State of Arkansas, grateful to Almighty God for the privilege of choosing our own form of government...

      California 1879, Preamble. We, the People of the State of California, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom .

      Colorado 1876, Preamble. We, the people of Colorado, with profound reverence for the Supreme Ruler of Universe.

      Connecticut 1818, Preamble. The People of Connecticut, acknowledging with gratitude the good Providence of God in permitting them to enjoy ...

      Delaware 1897, Preamble. Through Divine Goodness all men have, by nature, the rights of worshipping and serving their Creator according to the dictates of their consciences ...

      Florida 1885, Preamble. We, the people of the State of Florida, grateful to Almighty God for our constitutional liberty ... establish this Constitution...

      Georgia 1777, Preamble. We, the people of Georgia, relying upon protection and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish this Constitution...

      Hawaii 1959, Preamble. We, the people of Hawaii, Grateful for Divine Guidance ... establish this Constitution.

      Idaho 1889, Preamble. We, the people of the State of Idaho, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings ...

      Illinois 1870, Preamble. We, the people of the State of Illinois, grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy and looking to Him for a blessing on our endeavors.

      Indiana 1851, Preamble. We, the People of the State of Indiana, grateful to Almighty God for the free exercise of the right to chose our form of government.

      Iowa 1857, Preamble. We, the People of the State of Iowa, grateful to the Supreme Being for the blessings hitherto enjoyed, and feeling our dependence on Him for a continuation of these blessings ... establish this Constitution

      Kansas 1859, Preamble. We, the people of Kansas, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious privileges ... establish this Constitution.

      Kentucky 1891, Preamble. We, the people of the Commonwealth of grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberties...

      Louisiana 1921, Preamble. We, the people of the State of Louisiana, grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberties we enjoy.

      Maine 1820, Preamble. We the People of Maine .. acknowledging with grateful hearts the goodness of_the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe in affording us an opportunity ... and imploring His aid and direction. 

      Maryland 1776, Preamble. We, the people of the state of Maryland, grateful to Almighty God or our civil and religious liberty...

      Massachusetts 1780, Preamble. We...the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging with grateful hearts, the goodness of the Great Legislator of the Universe ... in the course of His Providence, an opportunity ..and devoutly imploring His direction ... 

      Michigan 1908, Preamble. We, the people of the State of Michigan, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of freedom ... establish this Constitution

      Minnesota, 1857, Preamble. We, the people of the State of Minnesota, grateful to God for our civil and religious liberty, and desiring to perpetuate its blessings 

      Mississippi 1890, Preamble. We, the people of Mississippi in convention assembled, grateful to Almighty God, and invoking His blessing on our work.

      Missouri 1845, Preamble. We, the people of Missouri, with profound reverence for the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, and grateful for His goodness ... establish this Constitution ...

      Montana 1889, Preamble. We, the people of Montana, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty. establish this Constitution ...

      Nebraska 1875, Preamble. We, the people, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom .. establish this Constitution ..

      Nevada 1864, Preamble. We the people of the State of Nevada, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom establish this Constitution ...

      New Hampshire 1792, Part I. Art. I. Sec. V. Every individual has a 
natural and unalienable right to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience.

      New Jersey 1844, Preamble. We, the people of the State of New Jersey, grateful to Almighty God for civil and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing on our endeavors ..

      New Mexico 1911, Preamble. We, the People of New Mexico, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty .. 

      New York 1846, Preamble. We, the people of the State of New York, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure its blessings.

      North Carolina 1868, Preamble. We the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for our civil, political, and religious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him for the continuance of those ..

      North Dakota 1889, Preamble. We, the people of North Dakota, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, do ordain... 

      Ohio 1852, Preamble. We the people of the state of Ohio, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings and to promote our common 

      Oklahoma 1907, Preamble. Invoking the guidance of Almighty God, in order to secure and perpetuate the blessings of liberty ... establish this ..

      Oregon 1857, Bill of Rights, Article I. Section 2. All men shall be secure in the Natural right, to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their consciences..

      Pennsylvania 1776, Preamble. We, the people of Pennsylvania, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, and humbly invoking His guidance 

      Rhode Island 1842, Preamble. We the People of the State of Rhode Island grateful to Almighty God for the civil and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing 

      South Carolina, 1778, Preamble. We, the people of he State of South Carolina. grateful to God for our liberties, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

      South Dakota 1889, Preamble. We, the people of South Dakota, grateful to Almighty God for our civil! and religious liberties ... establish this 

      Tennessee 1796, Art. XI.III. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their conscience...

      Texas 1845, Preamble. We the People of the Republic of Texas, acknowledging, with gratitude, the grace and beneficence of God.

      Utah 1896, Preamble. Grateful to Almighty God for life and liberty, we establish this Constitution 

      Vermont 1777, Preamble. Whereas all government ought to ... enable the individuals who compose it to enjoy their natural rights, and other blessings which the Author of Existence has bestowed on man ...

      Virginia 1776, Bill of Rights, XVI ... Religion, or the Duty which we owe our Creator ... can be directed only by Reason ... and that it is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian Forbearance, Love and Charity towards each other ...

      Washington 1889, Preamble. We the People of the State of Washington, grateful! to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe for our liberties, do ordain this Constitution ...

      West Virginia 1872, Preamble. Since through Divine Providence we enjoy the blessings of civil, political and religious liberty, we, the people of West Virginia .. reaffirm our faith in and constant reliance upon God ....

      Wisconsin 1848, Preamble. We, the people of Wisconsin, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, domestic tranquility ... 

      Wyoming 1890, Preamble. We, the people of the State of Wyoming, grateful to God for our civil, political, and religious liberties ... establish this Constitution ...

      After reviewing acknowledgments of God from all 50 state constitutions, one is faced with the prospect that maybe, just maybe, the ACLU and the out-of-control federal courts are wrong!

The First Real Submarine was Built by a Spaniard

Monturiol's Dream by Stewart Matthew
Published by Profile Books and distributed in Australia by Allen and Unwin
ISBN: 1 86147 470 1. Hardback 404 pages
Recommended Retail Price in Australia A$39.95

The extraordinary story of the submarine inventor who wanted to save the world.

In Barcelona, if you go to the end of Las Ramblas, cross the road by the statue of Christopher Columbus and walk along to the new harbour, you will come to a strange wooden structure. And if you are curious enough to stop to read the nearby commentary you discover that you are looking at a full sized model of Ictineo II, the first real submarine to be built. Sure, others had built and trailed
submersible vessels but here is a replica of the first real submarine that dived, surfaced and proceeded underwater, on its own, at depths of up to 20 metres; an event in 1867 as astounding as the landing of men on the moon some 100 years later. And it was invented and built by an idealist with no formal engineering training who had spent the first 37 years of his life publishing left wing journals (always banned by the authorities) or organizing a radical political party, most of whose members were jailed or exiled. He was himself wanted by the police. His name was Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol.

This book is his biography. Born in 1819, he was the second son of an artisan family, and was destined from childhood for the priesthood. At the age of eleven he was sent to university in Cervera
to study Latin, Greek and other subjects that would qualify him for the church. However, he found science more to his liking and studied medicine instead. Not that he ever practiced as a doctor, for at that time the first Spanish civil war broke out and Monturiol had no difficulty in deciding which side to support. In a burst of revolutionary fervour he switched from medicine to law and moved to
Barcelona. Not that he ever practiced law either. In Barcelona he put aside his law books and fell in with student demonstrators, revolutionary journalists and communists all of whom coming his close
friends for the rest of his life. He was sixteen and for the next 20 years he was part of the left wing movement seeking a better life for the workers. 

Suddenly at the age of 37, Monturiol, ignoring his day-to-day involvement with the left wing, concentrated all of his energies into designing and building a submarine. And it was not to be any old
submarine. Monturiol made it clear in his first writings on the subject that he imagined a craft that would take humankind to the very bottom of the ocean (at least eventually) and would propel
itself in all directions, without any link to the land or surface and remain underwater indefinitely.

Why did he design and build such a vessel? Not for the usual reasons, such as a delivery system of weapons of war. No, he had been motivated to find an easier way for the coral divers who worked off the coast of Spain to harvest the coral after he had helped to save the life of one such diver who had apparently drowned. Also he reasoned that by making a better life for the workers a new civil
(ideal) society would naturally develop.

He overcame many problems, raised finance and found a dockyard to build the vessel. He became a master in the sciences such as they existed at the time. He conducted his own experiments to test his hypotheses about hydrodynamics, respiration, and so forth, that would underpin the submarine's construction. In three years he designed, had built and then, in 1859, launched his first submarine. Ictineo I performed admirably as a prototype and was shown off to all until it was crushed in dockside encounter with a freighter.

The story now takes on a familiar theme known to many inventors.  Few in the establishment were keen to adopt the submarine concept or to provide funding for the next, larger, version. However, new funding did materialize and in 1867 a new larger submarine, Ictineo II, was built and launched. It even had a steam engine (fired by a revolutionary concept) that ran underwater. In the end the project ran out of money and ran up huge debts. Ictineo II was seized by the major creditor, parts sold off, and the rest broken up for scrap.

The rest of Monturiol's life was a struggle for existence. He had no official position and no income. He scraped together a living by taking odd jobs as a writer and editor. He lectured, translated works from French and copy edited manuscripts. At the age of 59 he took a job in a brokerage house and a year later worked his way up to cashier – a trade for which he had also trained 35 years previously as a student.

In his lifetime, Monturiol invented many things. A cigarette rolling machine, a method of preserving meat for export, a cheap food for rabbits being raised for meat and a mechanism for copying letters as they were written, are just a few mentioned in the book. None, though, enriched the inventor. As Monturiol wrote about himself: 'I do not know how to market anything. I do not know how to conquer the hearts and minds of men so that they come to my aid …'

Had he had this ability who knows what other inventions he would have developed. He had flying machines in mind once he had solved the submarine problem.

The book is illustrated. However, as the illustrations are all printed in black and white on the same paper as the text, the quality of the reproductions is less than satisfactory, which is a pity. I found the book well worth reading and would have liked to examine the drawings of the submarine more closely.

Submarines are always called "Boats" and not ships. The name came from the Germans calling their submarines in WW-1 "Under Sea Bootes", or "Under Sea Boats".  Paul Trejo



Searching for Cemetery Records 
Enlaces, Hispanic Research Tool
Note of Caution
Random Acts of Kindness
Notes from FHCNet list.

Searching for Cemetery Records  

by Salena Ashton

When researching cemetery records, there are many things to keep in mind. Sometimes people think that if the information is given in a cemetery record or headstone, then the information is correct. As with all records and sources, the information is only as good as the information provider.

The following are three examples of searching for cemetery records. Each situation I struggled with in order to find the correct information. In two of the situations, I succeeded.

1. My third great grandfather's name was Lauritz Larsen. (I know this is a Hispanic genealogy website, but my Danish grandfather's situation is a good example of bad information). He was born in Denmark, immigrated to Kansas with his family, and died in Kansas. However, I could not find his burial information. I had already searched through all the cemetery records of Rawlins County, Kansas. There was no Lauritz Larsen, nor anyone of a similar sounding name for the time period needed. I searched the surrounding counties' cemeteries. Nothing. In the first phase of searching for the cemetery records, it is best to talk to family members, if living. If they are alive, and then most likely they'll know which cemetery it is, where it's located, or they would have a general idea of where the ancestor was buried. In this situation, all members of the family who were able to attend his funeral have long since passed away, as Laurits died in 1911. The second step would be, if the first step is unproductive, to search cemetery records. One can call up all the cemeteries and mortuaries, and ask the clerk to help locate persons buried in the cemetery. This is how I located my great grandmother Efren Torres.

The second way to research cemetery records is to do it yourself, by either going to the genealogy section of your library (or calling the library if you live too far away to do so yourself). The Family History Centers of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have collections of millions of burial records from around the world, ready to be researched by you as soon as you go there.

I had searched the records at the library, called the libarian in the Atwood, Rawlins, Kansas public library, and researched other cemetery records filmed by the LDS Church. I found nothing. At this point, I decided to call up the Rawlins County Genealogy Society. I explained my situation to the lady, and asked for suggestions. (Yes, even if you are a professional, it is still okay to ask for help. We are all in a learning process!). She had mentioned that all members of the Larsen family were buried in the same cemetery in Rawlins County. I mentioned to her that Laurits was not. A few seconds of silence passed, and she asked me if my Laurits Larsen really was a member of the Larsen family who helped found the small city. In this town, the 'famous' Larsen was Hans Larsen. I mentioned to her that Hans was his brother. To this she replied, "Some researcher mentioned to me that Hans had a brother who died early from a stomach injury, and was buried in some place called "Caller's Lawn."

After this, I immediately searched for any place with the words: Caller's Caller, Calls, Callers, Lawn, etc." Nothing. At this point, I must emphasize that I had just made a very big, very common mistake that we all make from time to time: we took what information we had and searched according to how it was spelled. With genealogy, we must always think phonetically. I had to switch gears: Kaller, Koller, Lone, Cailler, etc. One must also remember that when thinking phonetically, sometimes we must take the language in mind. For example, if an American told you that your grandfather's name was Xavier, you would think of the following variations: Zavier, Savier, etc. Now think phonetically according to how the Spanish language works: Javier, Gavier, Xavier, etc.

I had to think phonetically, according to the Danish language: Kahler, Koller, Kaeller, Kohler. etc. After a few searches on the Internet I found "Kohler's Lawn Cemetery." However it was in Nampa, Idaho. Laurits never lived in Nampa. I felt frustrated and was about to give up, until I remembered that Laurits' granddaughter was born in Nampa. I then looked through my own files and saw that Laurits' daughter had married in Nampa, and gave birth to two of her children there. I then saw in my grandmother's handwritten note, (from the small amount of genealogy she had done when she was alive), that her Grandma Emma, (Laurits' wife), was buried somewhere in Nampa.

I called Kohler's Lawn Cemetery in Nampa, asked a few questions, and within minutes, they were able to provide the biographical information of Laurits Larsen, which matched my information.

Practical implications of the story:

a. When searching for cemeteries, first ask living relatives. Second, search the cemetery records by calling the cemetery or by collections found in libraries.

b. If you know the name of the cemetery, think phonetically. If the ancestor spoke another language, consider phonetic variations according to that language.

c. If you can't find the cemetery in your locality, consider other localities. But make sure that before you start jumping all around the map, that you have other data that will justify your efforts in searching that area. Nampa did not seem worth my time, until I realized other family members had ties there. Had there been no ties, I would not have spent another second in Nampa records.

Example 2: Antonio Roybal, my fourth great grandfather. There are no living relatives who could give me information about his burial. I knew he died in San Miguel County, New Mexico. He married there and he was born there. Luckily, I knew the city where he spent most of his life: San Ignacio, which is really more of a small village than a city. Having been so small, there was only one cemetery. The cemetery records had not been collected by the LDS Church, and at the time, by anyone else either. I called the New Mexico Genealogy Society but they were not able to help me. As fortune would have it, my aunt was planning a trip to Las Vegas, New Mexico, a city about twenty minutes from San Ignacio. I went with her and later we visited the cemetery. After thirty minutes of searching the headstones, we found Antonio's resting place. (The cemetery is old and no one works there, as it there is no office. It's just fields and headstones).

Practical implications from example: If information has not been collected, you won't find it in record collections. Sometimes researchers don't make this connection. They think, "If it's not in the records, then he didn't die in San Ignacio." No, it means no one extracted the information from San Ignacio Cemetery at the time. It means that you may be the first one to have noticed the need for such extraction work. If you can, go to the cemetery yourself to locate the information you need. May I also add that this example shows the need to support others who are working on extraction projects.

Example Three: Estevan Gutierrez was an illegal immigrant who came to McAllen, Texas sometime in the 1960s. He was married and divorced somewhere between McAllen and Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico (the city just across the border). His son, Estevan, doesn't know for sure because he didn't see his father much after that. A few years ago, his father died. The family attended the funeral, but not a single one of them can tell me where he was buried. None of them seem to remember if it was in McAllen or Reynosa.

Not often, but sometimes these situations do come up. Because he was illegal, there will not be as many records to consult as there would be had he been legal. And of the paperwork that is available, it is either unavailable for privacy reasons (as is the case with 20th and 21st century research), and the information on the records may not be correct (Falsified birth information, names, residence history, etc.) This does seem like a no-win situation, but looking deeper, it might be something else:

1. It is very unlikely that all family members who attended a funeral less than five years ago don't remember where it took place. This makes me wonder if there is something they are trying to hide.

2. I checked all the cemeteries in the McAllen area; meaning, I checked the records, I called the cemeteries and spoke to each clerk who answered. There is no record of Estevan Gutierrez in any cemetery this side of the border within this vicinity.

Practical implications of this example: Sometimes clients will not share the entire truth with you. Sometimes clients do have things to hide, whether it be because they worked under a false name (as this case turned out to be), because they are ashamed of some family secret, or because they choose not to remember a family member who has hurt them while still living. When working with clients, (our your own sticky family situations), remember to question everything. We are good at questioning records, but we must also question the people who are still living. In genealogy, all information must be evaluated and analyzed. To assume that something is correct could lead to an entire pedigree of someone else's family history.

Cemetery work is not as hard as these three examples show. Most often, if you have the name of the cemetery, you can easily locate the information you want by looking at library records or calling the cemetery. The majority of librarians and cemetery workers are happy to help others, which leads to one final tip: always thank people who have helped you out. Not only is it polite, but it paves the way for the next researcher who calls that person up for help.

Salena B. Ashton

Enlaces, New Tool for Hispanic Genealogy Researchers
Sent by Chuck Bobo 

There Are Many Ways To get In Touch With Us.  You probably have some questions about your ancestors, surnames, or perhaps a question or two about geography, history or some other related topic.  We've made this easy for you by establishing the Hispanic Genealogy Forum.  This is an online community of genealogists, historians, beginners, intermediate and advanced researchers.   All sharing information and helping one another to find our Hispanic ancestors.

Membership is FREE It costs nothing to join our online community and everyone is welcome.  You should be able to get most of your questions answered there or get leads to where the answers can be found.  The Hispanic Genealogy Forum now has its own newsletter.  Read Enlaces, the new tool for Hispanic Genealogy researchers

Note of Caution given by Rose Valdez
I know research is exhausting and takes many months, years, etc.  There are many conclusions made by researchers, which are taken by many people, new to genealogy, as facts, such as I did when I started to do my genealogy.  What a person finds in their own personal research is that some of these researcher that have websites may be wrong in their conclusions.  And a few of these so-called objective researchers seem to always try to connect their family tree with important events in southwestern history.  

I feel that people should  use any information they find in researching their family history, but they also should be aware that some researchers that claim to be objective may have their own agenda in mind when presenting information.

Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness
 Sent by Lorraine Hernandez,
 Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness. Originally begun by two researchers who saw the need for such a service in their region. This small site grew very rapidly from just a statewide service to an international one.

Many Internet researchers give of themselves unselfishly in aiding others in their research. This project expands on this premise by going one step further:

The 4476 volunteers are located all around the world.  The volunteers participating in this  movement have agreed at least once per month to do a research task in their local area as an act of kindness. The cost to you would be reimbursing the volunteer for his expenses in fulfilling your request (video tape, copy fees, etc.). This is not a FREE service.

Successful genealogical research is based upon people helping people. Our volunteers unselfishly provide information available in their area to those who live far away.


Notes from FHCNet list.

Taken and shared by Lorraine Hernandez

(1)  This year they did a printed syllabus ($30) and the syllabus on CD in pdf format ($20).  Look on  for details.

(2)  Steve Olsen of the Church History Dept talked about the new Mormon Overland Travels (1847-1868) web site on  under Church History.  They have just added a bunch of stuff to it and will be adding more every day.  Some of this is coming from the "Nauvoo Database".  There 
are no plans to post what's on the 74 DVD set that the Church Historian's Office released last year.

(3)   Heritage Quest Online just added PERSI (Periodical Source Index) to their site last Friday.  Curt Wicher, Director of the Allen County Library in Fort Wayne, IN, and whose library does PERSI, told me that on 1 May there is to be another major update and that eventually they will be posting all the articles online, as well as the index.  That will be a major help.  Ancestry will move PERSI from their Ancestry Plus site to somewhere else and it wasn't clear whether they will have the full articles like HQO will have.  It was mentioned in one of the clases that the FH Dept is negotiating to have HQO available at FHC's.  HQO is only available now to patrons through subscribing libraries.  Examples are a few counties in Utah have it available with library card bar codes, e.g. Washington County 
(St. George), Utah, and someone said that everyone in the state of Texas can get to it with their library cards.  Anyone can subscribe to the Godfrey Memorial Library in Connecticut ($35/year) and have it accessible.  It was mentioned in one class that many county histories with FH data were published in small local genealogy journals and that these will be available on PERSI now.

(4)   The BYU Computer Science Dept has a program online at
 that you can download and use to pdf a GEDCOM that will show many generations of FH on one page.  You use the program to make a pdf of your data, upload it to their website, and they print you a pedigree and/or descendant chart that is up to 4' by 6' in color and mail it to you in a mailing tube.  The details of the pricing have not been determined yet.  You can use the program for free to pdf your data and look at it in Adobe Acobat Reader on your own computer.  They will be updating the 
program regularly.

(5)  The BYU's Harold B. Lee Library  has a great collection of online databases accessible to faculty, students, and some others.  Not all Route Y accounts have the "role" to get it, but there is some place at BYU you can call to see if your Route Y account has the right "role" so you can access it off campus.  Among other things they have many old periodicals with FH info.  For example, they are posting the entire Deseret News archives from the 1800's.  Many of their databases are available to anyone for free.

(6)  The Church databases such as the Mormon Immigration Index and the Vital Records sets are in Folio database format and can be searched using the power of the Folio search engines, for example, the Folio 3 search engine that is on the LDS Family History Suite CD's.  And there is a web 
site that lists what's on the LDS FH Suite CD's and what parts are posted online.  (To get to it, see my LDS&Utah Records outline posted on  under Class Descriptions.)

(7)  The Mormon Immigration Index is being extended past 1890 and will be posted online at on the Church History page.

(8)  There is a new meta search engine http://www.zapmeta  that shows snapshots of the web pages it finds so it may help you in finding something you saw before.

(9)  There is a new site  that helps in Google searches for genealogy stuff.

(10)  Alan Mann's course notes for the Conference are posted in updated form on   Lecture What's New in FH on the Internet, English Research on the Internet ,  Strategies for Using Family Search Internet


Ancient Inca Mummies Discovered
Work Unearths 2 Mummies in Peru 
Corpus Christi Archaeological Study
Guatemala's Ancient  Kingdom 


Archaeologists in Peru have uncovered an Inca burial site intact outside Lima containing adult and child mummies dating back to the 15th Century. A team working on the site on a barren hill outside the capital located 26 tombs containing an unknown number of mummies and funereal artifacts.

Extract: Ancient Inca mummies discovered
Source: BBC News Americas
Sent by John Inclan

It was allowed to search the area, part of a known ancient cemetery, ahead of the construction of a new road. One archaeologist described the graves as being "middle class... Inca". "These are local inhabitants... belonging to the period of the Inca Empire, between 1472 and 1532," Guillermo Cock told Reuters news agency. Mr Cock said he had begun the dig in part of the Puruchuco-Huaquerones cemetery at the invitation of Lima city authorities.

Inca graves are often found by accident during building work. He said Puruchuco-Huaquerones was the largest Inca cemetery in Peru and the largest excavated cemetery in the Western Hemisphere. But observers say the new find is a rare piece of luck for archaeologists. "The important thing about this discovery is that it is intact," Mr Cock said, pointing out that the area showed evidence of funereal rituals such as corn, beans, coca leaves and pots.

Lima plans to move the find to a museum before pressing ahead with work on a busy new highway. Another archaeologist, Federico Kauffmann, suggested it would be better to dig a road tunnel instead, given the site's importance.

Workmen Unearth Two Mummies in Peru 

By DREW BENSON, Associated Press Writer Feb 24, 2004 
Sent by John Inclan

LIMA, Peru - Construction workers dug up two well-preserved mummies from the pre-Columbian era in a town on Peru's Pacific coast, archaeologists said Tuesday. 

The workers were laying pipes when they discovered the remains of a 4-year-old boy and a 35-year-old man two weeks ago. One of the man's eyes was still intact. Based on textiles and ceramics buried with them, the remains date to the Chiribaya culture, which flourished in the area between 1100 and 1300, Lopez said. 

Two years ago, archaeologists found 2,200 Inca mummies under a Lima shantytown — one of some 30 archaeological sites beneath the sprawling capital city of 8 million people. 

Scores of mummies belonging to the Chachapoyas culture, which was absorbed by the Incas, have also been discovered on jungle-covered mountain ledges in Peru's northern Leymebamba region. The oldest Peruvian mummies, from the coastal Paracas culture, date back about 1000 years, Lopez said. 


Corpus Christi Museum Archaeological Field School  

Fifth Annual Archaeological Field School sponsored by Texas A&M
Sent by George Gause
University-Kingsville and the Corpus Christi Museum is scheduled for
this summer.  This exciting and rewarding course will be taught by Dr. Robert
Drolet from the Corpus Christi Museum of Science and History.  

Please contact me if you have questions or contact Dr. Robert Drolet at  Thank you!

 Cecilia C. Rhoades, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Southwest Borderlands Studies
Psychology and Sociology Department
Texas A&M University-Kingsville
MSC 177
Kingsville, TX  78363

Guatemala's Ancient 'Survivor' Kingdom Explored
By Frank Jack Daniel
Sent by John Inclan

GUATEMALA CITY (Reuters, Feb 19, 8:38 AM ET) - Archeologists are exploring a ruined kingdom in Guatemala to work out how it survived centuries of conflict in the ancient Mayan Indian world before being abandoned to the jungle more than 1,200 years ago. Known as Naachtun, the city-state played a strategic and possibly unique diplomatic role in the turbulent politics of the Mayan civilization. 

In early February, a 32-person expedition team led by Canadian archeologist Kathryn Reese-Taylor left Guatemala City for the remote Peten jungle area near the border with Mexico to excavate at Naachtun, a Mayan name meaning "distant stone." 

The team will try to explain how Naachtun survived the collapse of the great pre-classic Mirador civilization and then went on to blossom during centuries of conflict that followed. 

It appears to have flourished between around 500 and 800 A.D., believed to be a time of almost constant warfare in the Mayan area, with Tikal and Calakmul, the two regional superpowers locked in a frequently vicious internecine fight for supremacy. 

Studded with pyramids, numerous stone carvings and a sprawling 10-acre palace complex, Naachtun was founded around 400 BC and is believed to have been home to up to 20,000 people at the peak of its powers. The site today is 80 miles north of the city of Flores. 

Hieroglyphic records shows that the heavily fortified city shifted allegiances repeatedly, unusual in the highly polarized classic era of Mayan civilization. 

One explanation is that the rival powers recognized the importance of the site as a frontier between them and wanted to control it to use it as a kind of early warning system. Tikal finally won the upper hand over Calakmul, but after centuries of fighting the two great civilizations began to unravel at the end of the eighth century. 

This time Naachtun didn't survive either, and the kingdom was abandoned from around 800 AD. It was rediscovered by gum tappers at the start of the 20th century. 


The Handybook for Genealogists
DNA Heritage/Ybase newsletter  
Inspirational Flash Movies
English "transliterations"

Requesting Your Input on Updating
The Handybook for Genealogists

It is time to begin the process of updating the information in the Handybook for Genealogists. Our 10th Edition came out nearly two years ago and, taking into consideration the amount of time it takes to verify and confirm all the material within the book as well as update it and get it printed, it is
necessary to begin updating it now. I am asking for your help in making this the most accurate and useful Handybook yet. 

We are looking for feedback from those who are currently using the Handybook. What do you like about the 10th Edition and what don't you like? Have you come across any inaccurate information that you could pass along? Are the maps readable and easy to use? Have you noticed any inaccuracies in the maps? Are the index and the table of contents useful? Do you like the addition of the Web site URLs? Do you know of any changes to the contact information we listed for societies, libraries or counties? Do you know of any that we missed? Were there any abbreviations that were difficult to decipher? Was the Abbreviation Key at the front of the book helpful? What did you think of the paper, the quality, the binding, or the cover? What do you think of the option of owning the book on CD?

I look forward to hearing your suggestions and concerns.  We hope this new edition of The Handybook for Genealogists will be a great benefit and useful tool for you and the many others who are pursuing their family history.

Tamara Pluth, Editor-In-Chief
Family History Magazine 435-753-8610
Sent by Kristy Campbell
Family History Magazine 435.753.6019

DNA Heritage/Ybase newsletter
Tom Asnsio

DNA Heritage will be back up and running this Saturday (3rd of April) with a much larger panel of Y-chromosome markers. To re-launch, we will firstly be offering a full 43-marker test for just US$199.
This promotional price is the same to all our customers whether you order as an individual or as a group member. Our full 43-marker test allows you to compare yourself with existing Relative Genetics, FTDNA and Oxford Ancestors customers.

We have 250 tests available at this price which we shall be selling on an individual basis.  Compare prices with others at

Additionally, we are giving away 43-marker tests to 5 lucky winners EVERY MONTH in our prize draw.  And if you do win and have already purchased a promotional test, we'll even refund you!  See our website at  for more details.

Inspirational Flash Movies

[[Editor's note: This website was sent to me by Armando Montes. There is listing of brief, uplifting flash movies based on Bible verses. It is lovely. I encourage you to go to it and spend a few moments reflecting on the good in your life.]]

Purpose: is to remind and energize people of the timeless truths of living; to encourage and support them; their family and friends with Inspirational Flash movies. That they may use these Flash movies to discover their compass of life and find happiness. That they may spread this joy around, everyone in a small way to make our world a better one. To this end, I hope to produce hundreds, even thousands of Inspiring Flash movies to meet the needs of people in any circumstance or situation, and deploy my NaviMapTM technology to fulfill this mission.

English "transliterations"
Sent by Carlos Villanueva
Source: Eric Rojo

English language signs throughout the world
(collected by Foreign Service

Cocktail lounge, Norway :

At the Budapest Zoo :

Doctors office, Rome :

Hotel, Acapulco :

Information booklet about using a hotel air conditioner, Japan :

Car rental brochure, Tokyo :

Sign in men's rest room in Japan :

In a Nairobi restaurant :

On the grounds of a private school :

O n a highway, Canada:

On a poster at Kencom :

In a City restaurant :

On a mental institution building :

A sign seen on an automatic restroom hand dryer :

In a maternity ward :

In a cemetery :

Tokyo hotel's rules and regulations :

On the menu of a Swiss restaurant :

In a Tokyo bar :

In a Bangkok temple :

Hotel room notice, Chiang-Mai, Thailand :

Hotel brochure, Italy :

Hotel lobby, Bucharest :

Hotel elevator, Paris :

Hotel, Yugoslavia :

Hotel, Japan :

In the lobby of a Moscow hotel across from a Russian Orthodox monastery :

Hotel catering to skiers, Austria :

Supermarket, Hong Kong :

From the "Soviet Weekly" :

In an East African newspaper :

Hotel, Vienna :

A sign posted in Germany's Black Forest :

Hotel, Zurich :

An advertisement by a Hong Kong dentist :

A laundry in Rome :

Tourist agency, Czechoslovakia :

Advertisement for donkey rides, Thailand :

The box of a clockwork toy made in Hong Kong :

In a Swiss mountain inn :

Airline ticket office, Copenhagen :

On the door of a Moscow hotel room :


Sent by Eva Booher
A little house with three bedrooms and one car on the street,

A mower that you had to push to make the grass look neat.

In the kitchen on the wall we only had one phone,
And no need for recording things, someone was always home.

We only had a living room where we would congregate,
Unless it was at mealtime in the kitchen where we ate.

We had no need for family rooms or extra rooms to dine,
When meeting as a family those two rooms would work out fine.

We only had one TV set, and channels maybe two,
But always there was one of them with something worth the view.

For snacks we had potato chips that tasted like a chip,
And if you wanted flavor there was Lipton's® onion dip.

Store-bought snacks were rare because my mother liked to cook,
And nothing can compare to snacks in Betty Crocker's® book.

The snacks were even healthy with the best ingredients,
No labels with a hundred things that make not a bit of sense.

Weekends were for family trips or staying home to play,
We all did things together -- even go to church to pray.

When we did our weekend trips depending on the weather,
No one stayed at home because we liked to be together.

Sometimes we would separate to do things on our own,
But we knew where the others were without our own cell phone.

Then there were the movies with your favorite movie star,
And nothing can compare to watching movies in your car.

Then there were the picnics at the peak of summer season,
Pack a lunch and find some trees and never need a reason.

Get a baseball game together with all the friends you know,
Have real action playing ball -- and no game video.

Remember when the doctor used to be the family friend,
And didn't need insurance or a lawyer to defend?

The way that he took care of you or what he had to do,
Because he took an oath and strived to do the best for you.

Remember going to the store and shopping casually,
And when you went to pay for it you used your own money?

Nothing that you had to swipe or punch in some amount,
Remember when the cashier person had to really count?

Remember when we breathed the air; it smelled so fresh and clean,
And chemicals were not used on the grass to keep it green.

The milkman and the bread man used to go from door to door,
And it was just a few cents more than going to the store.

There was a time when mailed letters came right to your door,
Without a lot of junk mail ads sent out by every store.

The mailman knew each house by name and knew where it was sent;
There were not loads of mail addressed to "present occupant."

Remember when the words "I do" meant that you really did,
And not just temporarily 'til someone blows their lid.

T'was no such thing as "no one's fault; we just made a mistake,"
There was a time when married life was built on give and take.

There was a time when just one glance was all that it would take,
And you would know the kind of car, the model and the make.

They didn't look like turtles trying to squeeze out every mile;
They were streamlined, white walls, fins, and really had some style.

One time the music that you played whenever you would jive,
Was from a vinyl, big-holed record called a forty-five.

The record player had a post to keep them all in line,
And then the records would drop down and play one at a time.

Oh sure, we had our problems then, just like we do today,
And always we were striving, trying for a better way.

And every year that passed us by brought new and greater things,
We now can even program phones with music or with rings.

Oh, the simple life we lived still seems like so much fun,
How can you explain a game, just kick the can and run?

And why would boys put baseball cards between bicycle spokes,
And for a nickel red machines had little bottled Cokes?

This life seemed so much easier and slower in some ways,
I love the new technology but I sure miss those days.

So time moves on and so do we, and nothing stays the same,
But I sure love to reminisce and walk down memory lane.


                12/30/2009 04:48 PM