Editor: Mimi Lozano,

          Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues
          Publication of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research © 2000-3      714-894-8161


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Galvez 29
Orange CO 36
Los Angeles
California 45 

Black 61
Indigenous 62
Sephardic 65 
Texas 65 
East Mississippi
East Coast
Family Research 
2003 Index
Community Calendars
Meetings Sept 27th


El Paso, Texas Circa 1900, Matachines Performers

This never  published before family photo was sent by Sergio Hernandez, (cartoonist in last month's issue) It is a picture of his wife Diane's maternal grandfather, Genaro Camacho, who danced with the Matachines.  Genaro on the right side, between two boys with Indian headdress. He is wearing a cowboy hat and white scarf. This photo was taken about the turn of the century in old El Paso.  

Sergio writes: "What is interesting is that Diane's maternal grandmother, Aurelia (Martinez) Camacho was born in Ranchos de Taos (New Mexico),  but was raised in "Vadito" one of the towns that is tried culturally to Picuris Pueblo and Los Matachines. When we were first  married we went to the funeral of an uncle who was honored by the Indios of Picuris pueblo. They asked the family if they could bury him in the pueblo cemetery. I believe he was a Matachine dancer as well......However, the photo is of her grandfather who was from El Paso and did not dance in New Mexico....So we have to find out if there is a connection somewhere? .....look at this site as well."
Click to an article on the Matachines. 

A man's feet should be planted in his country, 
but his eyes should survey the world.
George Santayana (1863 - 1952)  
Sent by Salena Ashton

Somos Primos Staff: 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
Associate Editors
John P. Schmal, 
Johanna de Soto, 
Howard Shorr
Armando Montes
Michael Stevens Perez
Rina Dichoso-Dungao, Ph.D.
Salena Ashton
Yolanda Alvarez
Salena B. Ashton
Jerry Benavides
Bruce Buonauro
Salvador Cabral Valdés
Ellen Calomiris
Norma E. Cantú
Bill Carmena
Ricardo Castanon
Gus Chavez
Raul Damas
Joan De Soto
Rina D. Dungao, Ph.D.
Megh Duwadi
Darryl Fears
Ken Flynn
Lorri Frain
Anthony Garcia
Arnold Garcia
Armando Garza
George Gause
Mauricio Javier Gonzalez
Patrisia Gonzales
J. Guthrie
George F. Haskins
Michael Hardwick
Elsa Pena Herbeck
Walter Herbeck
Lorraine Hernandez
Sergio Hernandez - - wife
Zeke Hernandez
Granville Hough, Ph.D
Bernadette Inclan
John D. Inclan
David Lewis
Cindy LoBuglio
Luis Lopez Elizondo
Gregorio Luke
Juan Mayans
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D.
Ana Maria McGuan
Roxanne Molina
Armando Montes
Paul Newfield
Daniel A. Olivas
Maria Angeles Olson
Quentin Olson
Guillermo Padilla Origel
Juan Pardell
Alejandro Pelayo Rangel
Michael Perez
Peter Phillips, Ph.D.
Susan Goodman Novick
Lorraine Quiroga
Marguerite Rivera Houze
Andres Rivero
Roberto Rodriguez
Viola Sadler
Jack Scanlan
Braulia Schipper
John Schmal
Albert Seguin
Howard Shorr
Mira Smithwick
Ellen Sweet
Mark Vallen
Carlos Villanueva
M. Ian West
Carlos Yturralde
SHHAR Board:  Laura Arechabala Shane, Bea Armenta Dever, Diane Burton Godinez, Steven Hernandez,  Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Henry Marquez, Carlos Olvera, Crispin Rendon, Viola Rodriguez Sadler, John P. Schmal


Si...!  Ours is a fast-transmuting culture!
Hispanic Unity, Like Unicorns, is Mythical
Largest Minority Remains Diverse, Scattered 
Latinos or Hispanics? A Debate About Identity
Editor's comment on self-identity
Positive Social Changes
Characteristics of a warrior-healer:
Paso al Norte Museum
More Money Flowing Back to Mexico
Immigrants Organizing Across Borders
Top 10 U.S. Cities for Hispanics

National Hispanic Heritage Month, 2001
Hispanic Heritage Clip Art 
"Soldados: Chicanos in Viet Nam" on PBS
Commentary: Hispanic 'race' categories odd
Book: "My Grandfather’s Grandfather"
Book: "
Assumption and Other Stories"
U.S. Elites Celebrate Racism and Class Privilege
Advancing Women, Hispanic Women 
Public Support for the Matricula Consular
Raising Bilingual Children
Si...!  Ours is a fast-transmuting culture!

By Ricardo Castanon
August 18, 2003

Summary: Hispanic Think-Tank: Hispanic Culture today is the sum of all the good and the bad from everyone of us in this country. Consequently, today's Hispanic Heritage is the product thereof.

Our present "Hispanic" culture is the product of all the traditional mores and customs of the original
immigrants influenced by today's environment. The members of our community who represent the numerous countries in Central, South America and the Caribbean have each contributed an important amount of their own peculiar folklore, but it is the mutual exchange and interaction among us, as well as with the existing ways and means of the land, that has caused our culture has evolved beyond that of our respective individual ancestors. This "original and individual" local folklore remains the national culture of each of those countries, while ours today is woven into a common Hispanic-American blanket.

Consequently, our "Hispanic Heritage" has also transmuted. While it is still rooted in old historic
events of national and even regional nature, it is now being fine-tuned by the no less significant happenings in this country and in this era. Our grandchildren will be able to tell theirs, that a Hispanic General was the commanding officer of all the allied forces in occupied Iraq; that a Hispanic bureaucrat was a candidate for California's highest office; that a Hispanic lawyer was appointed to the Supreme Court of the nation; that a Hispanic woman's signature was on the paper-money we work so hard for.

Today's Hispanic culture is producing a whole new breed of bright and talented people. They are in the work-force front lines, in the graduating classes of major universities and renown colleges throughout the land. Hispanic surnames are common in specialized professions, in hospitals and in government offices. We can proudly say that the crops transplanted and cultivated in this fertile soil, are blooming to yield a superb fruit.

Understanding today's Hispanic Culture as our way of life in this country, and not necessarily as
Mexican-culture, or Colombian-culture, or Salvadorian-culture, or anyone's past roots, will be
THE KEY for present and future generations of  US-born Hispanic men and women TO DEFINE their own personal identity and move-on looking straight into the future without the baggage of inherited past suffering and rancor.

Not only should they be free from the negative part of our old heritage, but we (the original immigrating parents) should also rid ourselves from the bad habits commonly tolerated back in our respective societies (see my previous few columns). All negatives should be filtered-out before passing-on our ancestor's heritage into this new edifice. It would be in the best interest of this modern Hispanic culture of ours, if those already here with US-born descendants reaching
the penthouse level of this metaphorical edifice, were to accelerate the new comers Americanization  process.

The very foundation of today's Hispanic culture, rests on the original immigrants. Because immigration is a constant flow, we need to take immediate action in screening these bad habits. Newly arrived blood is predisposed to change. As eager as they are to find work and shelter, they will also be willing to leave behind all the negative aspects of their/our respective idiosyncrasies if constructively asked to. Perhaps an informal "frequently asked questions" (FAQ) sheet should be included as part of the instructions package immigrants are given by the private and religious organizations that work with them. As informal as this carefully designed questionnaire may be, it will "pin on" a note in their subconscious for their desired and expected conduct in this country. 

While many of us (me included) are still struggling with this purification process, I feel promoting the
idea will have a positive side-effect on us as well, but it would primarily be an attempt to safeguard and further the progress our present Hispanic way of life has already reached.

What do you think?   Verdad que ...Si?
Ricardo Castanon is an essayist contributing weekly columns to the virtual magazine Hispanic Vista He is the author of the trilogy "SIMPLE SIMON'S ODYSSEY ...facing the big questions" a Latin perspective on practical philosophy. Book information is at Ricardo is based in El Paso, TX.. Contact Ricardo at

Ikaros Press Inc. 
R.V.Castanon, Pres.
El Paso, TX USA

Hispanic Unity, Like Unicorns, is Mythical

by Arnold Garcia

AUSTIN, Texas - Hector P. Garcia confirmed for me long ago what I had suspected for years: That talk of Hispanic unity was like talk of the Unicorn. Those horned horses are romantic legend, but you'll never see one on the hoof.

The founder of the American GI Forum, a civil rights organization composed mostly of World War II veterans, noted that Latinos are black and white and rich and poor and everything in between. His point was that Latinos live at every level of society, so their interests are multiple and sometimes contradictory.

Back in Dr. Garcia's heyday of the 1950s and '60s, unity was an unrealized dream for precisely the reason the feisty physician identified. There were just too many divergent interests to be accommodated by one-size-fits-all political thinking. The more the Hispanic population grew, the more divergent those interests became.

As we've noted before here, what didn't change much was the one-size-fits-all approach to those interests. I mention this again because the National Council of La Raza just closed a four-day conference in Austin. There was a lot of talk coming from the convention center on Hispanic issues. There was disagreement, of course, on what the agenda ought to be and arguments about what topics were either minimized or ignored altogether.

Those arguments may be signs of disunity to some, but the healthy discourse and disagreement is music to my ears.

Whether it's salsa, norteno, bolero, Tejano, vocal or instrumental, it's all music. Just as musical tastes vary, so do political opinions. So who says Latinos have to be united, and why?

I don't really expect the owner of a big or even small business to share a viewpoint with someone who punches a clock. Doctors and lawyers are going to have different, sometimes conflicting interests and points of view. That's only common sense.

Nonetheless, I have heard the Unicorn myth of Hispanic unity practically all my life, mostly in a political context. Chicanos who love both dark political humor and mimicking Texas drawls get a laugh with this line: "Now, y'all people git together and decide what you want and get back tuh me."

Like all humor, there is an element of truth there. All that gittin' together is a fool's errand, but it'll keep enough people busy and out of the way for as long as they look for the Unicorn. The unity rhetoric has largely been abandoned and Latinos are coming to grips with political differences as the population expands. Hispanics numbered 22 million in 1990 to 37 million counted in the 2000 census, and the number has grown since then. It's tough to get members of one family to agree on a television program they can all watch. Multiply that by 37 million when it comes to ideas of caring for old people, reversing dropout numbers or economic development and you've got the ingredients for some knock-down, drag out arguments about strategy. Anyone who claims to be speaking for the "Hispanic community" should be greeted skeptically.

Anyone who was looking for this four-day conference to come up with silver bullet solutions might as well go Unicorn hunting.

Because the Latino population is a racial, cultural and economic panorama, visions, viewpoints, needs and opportunities are going to be different. We should expect this conference, or others like it to produce an honest - but not dispassionate - examination of the issues that are important to us all.

Latino dropout rates, for example, are appalling. If the only action taken is clucking tongues, the consequences are going to be dire.

At the very tops of their games, dropouts don't contribute much to the tax base. At the bottoms, they gobble up as much expensive prison space as taxpayers can afford to build. That's just my opinion, though.

Other people may pinpoint Hispanic health care needs as a top priority. Others may say it's something else.

The old expression "en cada cabeza un mundo" (in each head a different world) is just another way of saying, "Isn't America wonderful?"

Nothing personal. In last week's column, I misidentified Elia Kazan as portraying the Hyman Roth character in "Godfather II." The Roth character, patterned after Meyer Lansky, was played by Lee Strasberg.

Arnold Garcia Jr. is the editorial page editor of the Austin American-Statesman. E-mail:

Sent by Carlos Villanueva. MBA. CEO. C&V International PR, Marketing, Promotion & Business Development

Largest Minority Remains Diverse, Scattered
Byline: By Megh Duwadi, The Dartmouth,
9. University Wire, July 21, 2003, Monday
Source: Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.
Sent by
Carlos Villanueva

They are young, urban and diverse. And as of this summer, Hispanics are also the most populous minority group in the country.

Edging past the nation's African-Americans, Latinos have reached a total of 38.8 million, or 13 percent of the total population, the United States Census Bureau recently revealed.

Still, within this group little uniformity exists, making it difficult to draw broad conclusions on what exactly it means to be Hispanic in America.

Two-thirds are of Mexican origin, but the remaining percentage comes from a variety of backgrounds. More than one-half live in the suburbs, but sizeable populations remain in urban areas throughout the country. While more than 60 percent were born in the United States, immigration -- both documented and illegal -- is a large contributor to the population boom. And although many non-Hispanics perceive Latinos as lacking schooling, high-school graduates range from a high of 71 percent among Cubans to a low of 51 percent among Mexicans.

"It's a very diverse population and becoming more so rather than less, in terms of differences between those who are native and foreign-born, national origin and regional differences," Pew Hispanic Center director Roberto Suro said.

A high birthrate, especially compared to other ethnic groups, has also played a role in the surge in the nation's Hispanic population, which has more than doubled since 1980. Initially, Hispanics were not predicted to surpass blacks until 2014, although they were labeled as the majority among minority groups in 23 states as early as 2000. In the past three years, their numbers have increased by nearly 10 percent.

"This is an important event in this country an event that we know is the result of the growth of a vibrant and diverse population that is vital to America's future," Census Bureau director Louis Kincannon said.

Indeed, mainstream American society has felt the influence of this steady and significant growth, from the continually increasing popularity of Spanish language classes to changes in teen-age fashion styles and popular culture. Salsa, not ketchup, now ranks as the country's favorite condiment, according to industry reports. In every region of the nation, fast-food chain McDonald's offers its Tex-Mex-inspired breakfast burrito. And Latino performers, from the Venezuelan Shakira to Puerto Rico's Ricky Martin to the Bronx's Jennifer Lopez, are now top 40 staples.

Missing from the scene has been political power. One in three Hispanics in the United States is under 18; many others cannot vote because they are not citizens.

For these reasons, "it's important to remember that for Latinos, numbers will not for quite some time transfer into political clout," Suro said. "The important factor is that there are more than twice as many African-American voters than they are Hispanics -- the political power is going to follow very gradually."

For the meantime, in town halls and on Capitol Hill, large numbers of Hispanics are politically voiceless. The situation affects all sectors of the population, but especially those immigrants who work menial jobs many Americans avoid, such as painting homes, washing cars and cleaning dishes.

Education, above all, remains an issue of particular concern for this growing group. The Hispanic population is dependent on public schools, Suro said, especially since it is so disproportionately young.

"The children of immigrants are fully absorbing English" they learn in the classroom, he added. "The vast majority of them are full English speakers by the time they're adults."


Hispanics, though they comprise the nation's largest minority group, make up only 7 percent of the College's student body -- a number dramatically and disproportionately lower than the nationwide figure of 13 percent would suggest, but significantly higher than the 35-to-40 student-per-class era of the mid-1990s.

"We still don't feel they are represented enough at colleges, especially at elite ones," said Latino/Latina student advisor Alexander Hernandez-Siegel. Among Dartmouth's peer Ivy League institutions, the proportion of Hispanic students is comparable among undergraduate populations.

A large part of the lag in numbers has to do with name recognition among Latinos, Hernandez-Siegel said, although he noted that under the leadership of College President James Wright, however, the atmosphere of inclusiveness at Dartmouth has significantly improved.

A Latino recruitment committee exists to aid admissions efforts by strategizing on how to attract a more diverse population and to answer students' and parents' questions, he added.

"We're very family-oriented," Hernandez-Siegel said. "Parents don't want their kids to go away."


Once here, however, only a fraction of Latino students establish strong ethnic community bonds, joining groups with largely overlapping memberships to explore their cultures -- oftentimes recreating familiar, Spanish-centered environments in the process. Others choose not to emphasize their ethnic identity, participating in lesser degrees or not at all in campus cultural organizations.

"I feel that the great majority of Latinos here on campus are not creating a real Latino community," Mexico-born Leandro Gonzalez '05 said. "Around 70 students per class are Latino, and honestly, when I look around, I don't see even half of that."

Now active in M.E.Ch.A., an organization for Chicano students to promote cultural heritage, Gonzalez said that upon arriving at college, he felt that he had lost a sense of his ethnic identity, a phenomenon he attributed to an assimilationist tendency that exists at Dartmouth.

"There are a lot of different cultures within the Latino community, but I don't see that being promoted as much as it needs to be," Gonzalez said. "Being a Latino means that you should try and attempt to help create a bigger and broader Dartmouth community and also to promote Latino culture."

Through programs put on by the medley of Hispanic student organizations at the College, Latinos can make other students aware of their presence, he added. While participation has generally been anemic, signs of improvement have been made with time.


When two Latina students in the Class of 2003 didn't find a social outlet that fit their needs, they decided along with two underclassmen to transplant one from the outside.

After two years of research, the women -- now numbering only two after Commencement -- formed a Dartmouth chapter of Sigma Lambda Upsilon, Inc., or Senoritas Latinas Unidas, a national ethnically-affiliated sorority.

"The Latino community here isn't very united," President Betty Baez-Melo '05 said. "This was something that would empower Latinas, while at the same time helping out the entire community."

When such community-outreach efforts are made, however, expected turnout remains consistently low, a factor Baez-Melo attributes to many of Dartmouth's Hispanic students feeling only a sense of racial -- not cultural -- links to their backgrounds.

But for those who seek them out, an abundance of resources exist, she added. The Latin American, Latino and Caribbean Studies House, for example, is a place that mimics the Spanish-speaking households many students left behind when coming to Dartmouth.

"It can make you feel at home," said Baez-Melo, who grew up speaking Spanish to her family while having a group of friends from a multitude of heritages. "When you meet someone with a similar cultural background, it's like an instant connection, or at least a conversation starter."


"I've never been around large groups of Hispanics except when I'm with my family," Rosie Rodriguez '05 said. "I'm just used to that -- I've always had a mix of friends, and I didn't want to be the token Spanish person."

Rodriguez, who is not affiliated with any ethnically oriented groups on campus or elsewhere, added that the diversity of Hispanic origins makes it impossible for her to adequately instruct others about Latino roots. Also, such organizations don't add to general understanding, she said.

"I know about my own Cuban culture, but Spanish cultures are so varied that you can't generalize everything," Rodriguez said.

In Census figures, 1.1 million Americans considered themselves black and Hispanic; 34.5 million white and Hispanic; and the rest as other groups and Hispanic. (C) 2002 The Dartmouth via U-WIRE
Latinos or Hispanics? A Debate About Identity
By Darryl Fears, Washington Post, August 25, 2003 
Sent by Howard Shorr,

On a recent summer's day, Sandra Cisneros walked into Valenzuela's Latino Bookstore and thought she had discovered a treasure. It was one of the few independent book sellers in her home town of San Antonio, and on top of that, she said, its name appealed directly to her.

But within minutes, her mood changed. A clerk innocently used a word to describe a section of books that made Cisneros's skin crawl. "She used the word Hispanic," Cisneros said, her voice dripping with indignation. "I wanted to ask her, 'Why are you using that word?'

"People who use that word don't know why they're using it," said Cisneros, a Mexican American poet and novelist. "To me, it's like a slave name. I'm a Latina."

That declaration -- "I'm a Latina" -- is resounding more and more through the vast and diverse Spanish-speaking population that dethroned African Americans as the nation's largest ethnic group a few months ago. 

It is also deepening a somewhat hidden but contentious debate over how the group should identify itself -- as Hispanics or Latinos. The debate is increasingly popping up wherever Spanish speakers gather.

It was raised last month at the National Council of La Raza's convention in Austin. The Internet is littered with articles and position papers on the issue. Civic organizations with Hispanic in their titles have withstood revolts by activist members seeking to replace it with the word Latino.

Cisneros refused to appear on the cover of Hispanic magazine earlier this year because of its name. She relented only after editors allowed her to wear a huge faux tattoo on her biceps that read "Pura Latina," or Pure Latina. 

Another Mexican American writer, Luis J. Rodriguez, only reluctantly accepted an award from a Hispanic organization "because I'm not Hispanic," he said. 

Some have called the argument an insignificant disagreement over words that is being blown out of proportion. But others believe such labels can change the course of a people, as advocates of "black power" showed when they cast aside the term Negro during their crusade for self-determination amid the 1960s civil rights movement. 

"I think the debate reflects the flux this community is in right now," said Angelo Falcon, a senior policy executive for the Puerto Rican Legal and Education Fund. "It's almost like a story where you ask, 'Where might this community be going?' "

Although the terms Latino and Hispanic have been used interchangeably for decades, experts who have studied their meanings say the words trace the original bloodlines of Spanish speakers to different populations in opposite parts of the world. 

Hispanics derive from the mostly white Iberian peninsula that includes Spain and Portugal, while Latinos are descended from the brown indigenous Indians of the Americas south of the United States and in the Caribbean, conquered by Spain centuries ago.

Latino-Hispanic is an ethnic category in which people can be of any race. They are white, like the Mexican American boxer Oscar de la Hoya, and black, like the Dominican baseball slugger Sammy Sosa. 

They can also be Ameri-Indian and Asian. A great many are mixtures of several races. More than 90 percent of those who said they are of "some other race" on the 2000 Census identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino. 

"As a poet, I'm especially sensitive to the power a word has," said Cisneros, who wrote the books "Caramelo" and "The House on Mango Street." "It's not a word. It's a way of looking at the world. It's a way of looking at meaning."

Duard Bradshaw has a different opinion. "I'll tell you why I like the word Hispanic," said the Panamanian president of the Hispanic National Bar Association. "If we use the word Latino, it excludes the Iberian peninsula and the Spaniards. The Iberian peninsula is where we came from. We all have that little thread that's from Spain."

A survey of the community conducted last year by the Pew Hispanic Center of Washington found that nearly all people from Spanish-speaking backgrounds identify themselves primarily by their place of national origin. 

When asked to describe the wider community, more than half, 53 percent, said both Hispanic and Latino define them. A substantial but smaller group, 34 percent, favored the term Hispanic. The smallest group, 13 percent, said they preferred Latino. A survey by Hispanic Trends magazine produced a similar finding.

But advocates for the term Latino were unfazed. 

"The very fact that it's called the Pew Hispanic Center tells you something," said Fernando Guerra, the Mexican American director of the Center for the Study of Los Angeles at Loyola Marymount University. "The fact that Hispanic is in the name of the organization . . . biased the question." 

The term Hispanic was given prominence by the Nixon administration more than 30 years ago when it was added to the census questionnaire in 1970. Although that year's count of the large Mexican American, Puerto Rican and Cuban American populations was a disappointment, a seed had been planted.

By the 1980 Census, Hispanic had become fixed as the official government term. It appeared not only on census forms, but also on all other federal, state and municipal applications for employment, general assistance and school enrollment.

"It's a great gift that the government of the United States gave us," said Vincent Pinzon, the Colombian president and founder of the Americas Foundation. "If you want to acquire political muscle in this country, and you say you're just Argentinian or Colombian, then you have none."

But Mexican American activists in California and Puerto Rican activists in New York were not pleased. They favored a term that included the brown indigenous Indians who they believe are the source of their bloodline.

"Hispanic doesn't work for me because it's about people from Spain," said Rodriguez, author of the book "The Republic of East L.A." "I'm Mexican, and we were conquered by people from Spain, so it's kind of an insult." 

Rodriguez's views are typical of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles, the epicenter of immigrants from that country, and the Chicano rights movement.

The term Chicano is thought to have originated as slang that described immigrants and refugees from the Mexican revolution. The term later evolved to define the uprising of Mexican American reformers and rights activists as well as farm laborers and other workers who lived in squalor while toiling for low pay. 

As activists from other Latin countries joined the movement, Latino was adopted as an umbrella term for all groups. 

"In L.A., if someone says he's Hispanic, and he's not from the East Coast, you begin to question this guy," said Guerra, the Loyola Marymount professor. "It means he didn't grow up in a Latino neighborhood."

In Washington, where the Pew Center is located, Salvadorans who dominate the area's large Central American population say "somos Latinos" -- we are Latinos -- according to José Ramos, director of the United Salvadoran American Civic Committee. 

"Hispanic is a category for the U.S. Census," he said. "It's a formality. For me, the correct term is Latino. It identifies people who speak the same language, people who share a vision of the historical meaning of our community. I am Salvadoran, and I am Latino."

But Cuban immigrants in Miami, conservative Mexican Americans in Texas and a group of Spanish descendants in New Mexico are among the groups that strongly identify themselves as Hispanic. 

The word Latin dates to an 18th century spat between England and France, according to a historical resource guide written by journalist Frank del Olmo for the National Association of Hispanic Journalists. 

Latin was used to distinguish Italy, France, Spain and their conquered territories in the Americas from the British empire and its colonies. Latino was popularized during the social movements of the 1960s, Guerra and other historians said.

The disagreement over the pair of ancient terms is an annoyance to some. When the subject came up at the National Council of La Raza's annual meeting, Lisa Navarette, the group's Cuban American spokeswoman, dismissed it. "We've got so many real important issues to work on, we can't be bothered with this nit-picking." 

The community indeed faces daunting challenges: high unemployment, a skyrocketing high school dropout rate, widespread opposition to immigration reform and crowded communities.

But the issue isn't apt to disappear. A few years ago, Bradshaw's group, the Hispanic National Bar Association in Washington, had to fight off a resolution by a group of members to remove the word Hispanic from its name and replace it with Latino. 

Last semester, students at Southern Methodist University in Dallas talked about changing the name Hispanic Student Services. And earlier this year, Cisneros, the author who abhors the word Hispanic, refused to accept an award from a Hispanic organization.

At the Latino bookstore Cisneros visited, owner Richard Martinez didn't know what to think. "I don't know which is correct," he said. "I'm a Mexican, a Latino, a Hispanic, whatever. Be who you are. Be proud, like everyone else."

  Editor's comment on the terms Latino or Hispanic 

The earliest reference to the term Hispanic was in a book on Latin American.  The copyright was early 1930s.  The textbook was among the library collection of a retiring UCLA history professor. 
The text itself explained that the use of the term was as a result of the growing interest in studying the history of the European migration into countries of South American.  

Acknowledging that the northern Europeans countries of Spain, Italy, France, Portugal all shared Latin as the foundation of their language, Latin American was coined by history professors to unite for study all the countries in South America populated by descendants of those that came from Europe with Latin heritage.   Latin was used to denotes the non-indigeous European. 

Since most of the people in Latin America came under Spanish authority, (except for Brazil)  and the official language was Spanish, historians decided to use the term Hispanic (from its base Hispaña, ancient name of Spain.)  The concept was simply that Spain was the land of origination for the majority of those that had emigrated into Latin America, Mexico, Caribbean, Philippines, and the U.S.. Using the term Hispanic was to look at the collective global presence of a people who migrated into all parts of the world and intermarried with natives all over the world.  

Positive Social Changes Touching on Hispanic Issues

[[Editor: We received so many comments concerning the summary of positive social changes in the July letter of notification, that we decided to publish the list.]] 

The recognition that Hispanics are now living throughout the U.S., not just concentrated in the Southwest, and now are the largest U.S minority - with the youngest population - has resulted in an awareness that is bringing about positive changes.  

· Instead of arguing pro-or-anti bilingual programs, educators are successfully implementing programs for Spanish dominant speakers.

· The high dropout rate of Hispanics on all levels of education is being recognized as a social problem, affecting the well being of the entire nation.

·Political activists are shifting towards building and promoting economic inclusion and business possibilities for Hispanics.

· The Hispanics middle class is growing and moving into diverse leadership roles.

· Hispanics leadership is actively seeking cooperative program with other ethnic groups in all aspects of social involvement. 

· More and more individual researchers are sharing personal information to the benefit of all, just look at the increasing numbers of personal websites.

·Cross-cultural, cross-racial, and successful assimilation is beginning to be understood as part of the invisible aspect of the Hispanic presence.

·Family clans are promoting their family's historical connections in specific locations, bringing historical awareness to their community.

· A more accurate history of the Hispanic presence, and other minorities in the U.S. is beginning to come forth through programs for gathering oral histories. Sharing results in empathy and compassion.

·The complexity of Hispanic research in Americas spans 700 years, but the Internet has served to bring Hispanic researchers together, promoting the understanding of a common root and connection to Spain.

·Historical articles such as those written in this issue by Granville Hough, Robert Thonhoff, are bringing awareness of the historical part that Hispanic have played in the development of the United States.

·Respect for Hispanics and the Latino culture is clearly growing.

Extract: COLUMN OF THE AMERICAS By Patrisia Gonzales and Roberto Rodriguez
Universal Press Syndicate, August 22, 2003
[[Editor: The writers point out the need for warriors to protect a nation (a people) and warriors to heal. The following list suggests what kind of leadership is required.]] 

Characteristics of a warrior-healer:
-- Respects elders, treats men and women with equal respect, and always values the opinions of the young.
-- Does not subscribe to beliefs in racial, cultural or ideological extremism or purity. Believes all human beings were created equal and treats them accordingly.
-- Upholds the belief in the sacredness and connectedness of all life, even (and especially) when fighting. 
-- Never acts pompously. Does not act as though he or she knows more than everyone else. Is a good listener and always learns from others.
-- Does not buckle under pressure in the face of threats, always accepts the consequences for stepping forward and never puts others in harm's way.
-- Questions everything, does not act mindlessly and always has a dialogue with his or her heart.
-- Believes in something. Does not simply fight against something, and believes that every heart and mind is winnable.
-- Is not motivated by hate. Understands his or her role in relationship to creation. Creates. Does not simply react.
-- Does not succumb to or engage in the tactics of divide and conquer, or scapegoating, nor resorts to the use of guilt to win over allies.
-- Does not subscribe to extremist ideologies. Does not hold intransigent views and does not treat friends like enemies because of mere disagreements. -- Fights always for what's in the best interest of humanity, ahead of any blind loyalty.
-- Fights to rehumanize society. Points people in that direction, but ultimately knows that everyone must find his or her own path.

As Gandhi noted, warrior-healers cannot become that which they're fighting against: They need to become that which they desire now. Peace, respect, truth, justice and equality begin today, not after a recall, an election, an impeachment or the building of a new world. 

Paso al Norte Museum
, August 2003 Update  

[[ Editor: Many have asked about the status of the Paso al Norte Museum. As a member of the international Advisory Council, I received the following report  from Marguerite Rivera Houze, Executive Director.]] 

Business Plan/Prospectus
The business plan for the Paso al Norte Museum has been prepared and a limited number of copies printed for dissemination.  The document, which builds on the studies done by Threshold Studio and Herndon, Stauch and Associates, outlines the mission and vision of the museum, activities to date, and proposed plan to fully develop the museum by 2008.  Council members will be sent a copy of the prospectus later this month.

The substance of the document will provide the content for the Paso al Norte Museum’s new web site, which we plan to launch on September 1.

Washington, D.C. Meetings
Thirty copies of the business plan were printed in time for meetings in Washington, D.C., in late July.  The document was extremely well-received by Congressional staff who appreciated the business-like approach to our planning.  I was able to meet with staff at the offices of Senators Hutchison and Cornyn and Representatives Ciro Rodriguez, Rubén Hinojosa, Henry Bonilla, and Silvestre Reyes.  

You may be aware that Congressman Reyes has introduced H.R. 2496, a bill “to authorize a national museum, including a research center and related visitor facilities, in the city of El Paso, Texas, to commemorate migration at the United States southern border.”  The bill has been referred to the House Committee on Education and the Workforce and to the Committee on the Judiciary.  Although it is highly unlikely that any action will be taken on the bill during the 2004 federal budget cycle, the prospects for securing an appropriation in FY 2005 are good.  Briefings and Hill visits early next year will be critical to keeping the museum on the budget radar.

I was also able to meet with Council members Refugio Rochin, Bill Parsons, and Ignacio Duran, each of whom provided good advice and additional contacts to increase our visibility.

Meetings with El Paso City Officials
The month of August has been dedicated to briefing the mayor and city council about museum plans.  City Council representatives with whom I’ve met have been consistently supportive of our plans.  Three city council members plan to introduce a resolution endorsing the museum; this expression of support will be extremely useful as we seek funding from corporations and other funding sources.
Meetings with county officials are scheduled for later this month.  

Local Steering Committee
Belen Robles met with El Paso’s new mayor to discuss, among other issues, the Paso al Norte Museum.  Mayor Wardy expressed his support and offered the names of local El Pasoans who may be willing to participate in a local steering committee.  I will be meeting this week with the mayor’s staff to discuss museum plans in greater detail.

A local steering committee is being assembled to help build local community support and assist us in site selection.  The committee will include Miguel Fernandez, Maria Socorro Tabuenca, Adair Margo, and Belen Robles as representatives of the International Advisory Council.  Ms. Robles has graciously agreed to chair the initial meeting of the local steering committee to be held later this month.

As expected, the Texas State Legislature reduced UTEP funding, which forced the University to lay off staff members for the first time in memory.  Many positions were eliminated through attrition; the Paso al Norte Museum lost one position in this manner.

Despite having a smaller staff and budget beginning in September, we are confident that our fundraising efforts will be successful.  Several corporations have been identified as potential major underwriters during the next stage of the museum development. We first plan to seek support from Dell Corporation and we have made connections that will permit us to brief Michael Dell directly.  We will make similar appeals for support to other corporations.

We are planning several new projects and building on projects already underway, such as the Bracero Oral History Project.  We have identified foundations that are likely to support these projects and we are preparing grant proposals accordingly.

We are also developing a strategy to seek individual contributions from the general public through the museum newsletter and web site.  The local steering committee may have additional ideas about how to target the El Paso-Cd. Juárez metropolitan area.  I will be in contact with members of the International Advisory Council for other ideas when the planning is more fully developed.  

Support from International Advisory Council members continues to be an important facet of our fundraising.  We especially thank Demetri Papademetriou for his generous contribution, and Mimi Lozano, who has added information about the museum on her web site,
Casasola Project Update
The Paso al Norte Museum and the Special Collections Department of the UTEP Library sponsored a reception on July 30 to mark the opening of an exhibit of Casasola Photo Studio photographs at the UTEP library and at area shopping malls.  Among the large crowd were several community members whose photographs have been identified, the individual who sold the collection of negatives to UTEP, and a photographer who worked as an apprentice to Alfonso Casasola in the 1940s.  Reporters from the El Paso Times and El Diario of Ciudad Juárez, also attended.  The local ABC affiliate covered the event and produced a segment that ran during various news broadcasts over the next two days.  The segment included interviews with some of the people whose pictures were identified through the newspaper, and an interview with Susan Novick who has managed the project from its inception.

The traveling exhibit has been well received at Sunland Park Mall and Bassett Center.  The last mall exhibit will take place at Cielo Vista Mall on August 23 and 24.  This outreach into the El Paso community has been very well received and is generating interest about museum activities.
The next newsletter will focus on the Bracero Oral History Project which is nearing completion under the Ford Foundation grant.  We plan to secure additional funds to complete the transcription and digitization of interviews collected over the past year.  Look for the newsletter in early September.  

Susan Goodman Novick
Director of Collections, Paso al Norte Museum
University of Texas at El Paso
El Paso, TX  79968
915-747-5206  915-747-5032 - fax

More Money Flowing Back to Mexico

Top Headlines of HispanicOnline Briefcase, August 14, 2003
Mexican immigrants sent $6.1 billion back to their homeland in the first six months of 2003, a figure that is on track to equal or even surpass the amount that corporations invest in the country for the entire year. 

"The Sixth Section" Immigrants Organizing Across Borders"
Sent by Zeke Hernandez

When we think of globalization, we usually think of corporations moving factories around the world in search of lower wages. But over the past few decades, there's been a second, parallel globalization occurring - this one driven by uprooted people from around the globe. Immigrants in the twenty
first century are organizing across national borders, and forming "hometown associations."

These immigrant-run organizations raise funds in the "First World" where the immigrants now live and work, but they use the money to rebuild their hometowns in the "Third World." There are at least a thousand of these roups around the United States, and collectively they send millions of dollars back to the hometowns they've left behind. Their stories shatter our assumptions about national identity, globalization, and the "American Dream."

Award-winning filmmakers Alex Rivera and Co-Producer Bernardo Ruiz explore this complex phenomenon in THE SIXTH SECTION, which is scheduled to broadcast nationally on the critically acclaimed PBS series P.O.V. on September 2nd (check local listings).

THE SIXTH SECTION blends digital animation with documentary to tell the story of Grupo Uni'n, an extraordinary transnational organization created by a community of Mexican immigrants living and working in upstate New York.

Following its members over the course of 3 years, the film documents how they raised tens of thousands of American dollars to bring electricity, an ambulance and, most dramatically, a 2,000-seat baseball stadium to their Mexican hometown of Boqueron, Puebla. The group's remarkable ability
to organize has transformed them into a political force to be reckoned with in southern Mexico. This revealing documentary makes it clear that immigrants are not only changing the face of America - they are radically altering the places they leave behind as well.

Visit  and find out more about Hometown Associations, immigration policy, remittances, and U.S.-Latin American relations.  Also on the website are ways you can work with advocacy organizations on the issues found in the documentary

For a schedule of P.O.V. programs on your local PBS station, visit
Top 10 U.S. Cities for Hispanics
According to the 2003 ranking by Hispanic magazine:
Latino Clips, August 4, 2003

1. Miami
2. San Diego
3. Austin, Texas
4. San Antonio
5. (tie) El Paso, Texas and Las Cruces, N.M.
6. Albuquerque,
7. Tucson, Ariz.
8. Los Angeles
9. Chicago
10. Las Vega

National Hispanic Heritage Month, 2001
[[ Sent by Michael Perez.  Please note reference to Bernardo de Galvez.]]

President Bush signed a proclamation this week designating September 15 through October 15, 2001 as "National Hispanic Heritage Month." Here is the announcement from the White House:


For more than 30 years, the United States has annually celebrated the rich history and cultural traditions of our Nation's Hispanic American people. National Hispanic Heritage Month provides us an opportunity to express deep appreciation to Hispanic Americans for their countless contributions to our society and to pay tribute again to America's distinctive diversity.

Since our Nation's founding, Hispanic Americans have played an integral role in our country's exceptional story of success. Hispanic Americans served with heroism in every major American military conflict. The Continental Army benefited from the valor of Bernardo de Galvez, who led his frequently outnumbered troops to numerous victories against the British. Luis Esteves organized the first Puerto Rico National Guard and rose through the ranks of the U.S. Army to become a distinguished Brigadier General. And 38 Hispanics have earned our Nation's highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor. The United States academic and scientific communities benefited from the contributions of Hispanic Americans like physicist Luis Walter Alvarez, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. Business leaders like Roberto Goizueta have had a positive effect on our Nation's economy; and many Hispanics have greatly influenced America's artistic, legal, and political communities.

Today, Hispanic culture continues to shape the American experience. More than 30 million Americans, about 1 in 8 people in the United States, claim Hispanic origin. They contribute to every walk of contemporary American life, while simultaneously preserving the unique customs and traditions of their ancestors.

All Americans, regardless of national origin, celebrate the vibrant Hispanic American spirit that influences our Nation's art, music, food, and faiths. We also celebrate the practices of commitment to family, love of country, and respect for others, virtues that transcend ethnicity, reflect the American spirit, and are nobly exemplified in the Hispanic American community.

The strong ties that Hispanic Americans maintain with their ancestral homeland remind us that the United States must pursue robust relations with its trading partners in Latin America and the Caribbean. The future of our hemisphere is closely tied to these relationships, and improving trade will play a vital role in building important links with our Hispanic neighbors. Maintaining open and free trade creates job opportunities and promotes economic growth, improving the welfare of every citizen in every land it touches. Thus, we will negotiate for freer markets, which will allow us the opportunity to obtain better protections for our hemisphere's environment and will promote political freedom throughout the region.

We have a great opportunity before us. By working together, we can achieve a fully democratic hemisphere, bound together by good will, cultural understanding, and free trade. The many contributions of Hispanic Americans to our Nation will help us reach this important goal by helping connect our country with the Hispanic nations to our south. This month, we celebrate the talents, culture, and spirit of Hispanic Americans, which deeply enrich our country and bless our people.

The Congress, by Public Law 100-402, has authorized and requested the President to issue annually a proclamation designating September 15 through October 15, as "National Hispanic Heritage Month." I am proud to do so.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 15 through October 15, 2001, as National Hispanic Heritage Month. I call upon all the people of the United States to observe this month with appropriate ceremonies and activities.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-eighth day of September, in the year of our Lord two thousand one, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-sixth.


Hispanic Heritage Clip Art

Hispanic clip art for use by librarians, teachers, non-profits and government agencies. Images from throughout the Americas and Caribbean depicting the diversity of Hispanic culture.
Contact: George F. Haskins, Alegre Advertising, Lancaster, PA, 1-877-528-4666 OR 1-877-Latino6.   MSRP $23.95  Wholesale price (25 or more) $14.00.

*** "Soldados: Chicanos in Viet Nam" on PBS ***
by Charley Trujillo and Sonya Rhee.  (26 minutes) 
Broadcast Date: Tuesday, September 2, 2003 (Check local listings

Sent by

Author Charley Trujillo is our guide to the war and post-war experiences of five Chicano soldados from Corcoran, California. Larry Holguin, Miguel Gastelo, Frank Delgado, Jose Barrera and Charley himself all grew up working in the fields alongside their parents and siblings, and shared a life and values not much different from that of their forebears. This meant fighting for their country, as their fathers had done in World War II and the Korean War. The five boys from Corcoran could hardly guess just how profoundly the insulated life they knew in Corcoran would be changed by their experience in Southeast Asia.

Article by Meredith Sadin, 
Periscope, Newsweek August 4, 2003

StoryCorps is a nation-wide oral-history project.  the effort is throwback to the Works Progress Administration's project that recorded stories from ordinary Americans from 1936 to 1940.  StoryCorps will open soundproof studios across the country - the first opens on October 18 in New York's Grand Central Terminal - where people can interview friends and family members about their lives with the help of a train facilitator.  

You may just learn something new about Grandma: "A microphone allows you to talk about things you wouldn't ordinarily say," ways the creator of StoryCorps, David Isay.  The project, financed by a $50,000 grant from the Rockefeller foundation, will also make oral-history recoding kits available at library for those who can't make it to the StoryBooths.  At the end of each 40-minute interview session, participants will receive a CD with their story; another copy will go to the StoryCorps archive.  

The StoryBooth in Grand Central has paired up with its local public-radio station, WNYC, and Isay is hoping other locations will follow suite.  WNYC will choose interview excerpts to play on "The Brian Lehrer Show," while the best of the best will make it to National Public Radio's All Things Considered."  Potential historians will be able to schedule their interview at, which will also have tips on how to record and edit oral histories.  "I dream of the day that kids will trade these things as MP3s" Isay says.  But while you may not want to groove to Grandma's sound bite, it will sure get you to listen up.

Commentary: Hispanic 'race' categories odd
By Gregory Tejeda United Press International

It was a bizarre experience when a Census Bureau worker showed up at my doorstep recently -- one that illustrated perfectly the difficulty many experience in trying to comprehend Hispanic people.

The Chicago suburb in which I live is trying to revise its head count in hopes of qualifying for more state funding. Since many people were ignoring the mailed-in forms asking for information, census workers were doing a canvass of the neighborhoods to learn how many people live in each home 

This confusion over Hispanic racial perception is not unique. The statistic that still stands out in my mind from the 2000 census results is the racial breakdown for people who identified their ethnicity as some sort of Hispanic.

Forty-eight percent of self-identified Hispanics went with "white," while 42 percent were like me in choosing "other" back in 2000. Another 8 percent went with American Indian, while 2 percent chose African-American. 
  8%/American Indian
  2% African-American

[[ Editor note: Interesting, most people think of Hispanics/Latinos as those that look indigenous, yet 48% self-identified as "white".]]

Extract: Article about book:
"My Grandfather’s Grandfather" by Mauricio Javier Gonzalez
Article by Emilio Rabago III  Laredo Morning Times, Page 8D, 3-14-03
728-2543 or by e-mail at  
Sent by George Gause
“My Grandfather’s Grandfather” or “El abuelo de mi abuelo,” focuses on a family legend. This is Gonzalez' third book and  follows his grandfather’s (Juan de Dios Rodriguez) memories of his grandfather (Tomas Rodriguez-Benavides) through a combination of history and genealogy.

Gonzalez, a 10-year English teacher at Memorial Middle School who has roots in San Ygnacio, said his imagination was captured when his grandfather spoke. “The story is that my great grandfather was in a dispute over a land purchase and ended up killing a Texas Ranger,” he said. “My grandfather told me the story, and I wanted to know how much truth was in the legend. I wanted to see what I could prove.”

To explore different parts of the legend, Gonzalez looked at many components, including old vital records, such as marriage documents, old books and people‘s personal files. The whole process took about two years to accomplish, he said.  

“If you know where to look, you can trace your family some generations back,” he said. “But you have to have a foundation, know your great-great-grandparents’ names and so on.”   Gonzalez provides San Ygnacio-area families vital information about their ancestors.  “I found out that families who don’t think they’re related are actually related from five or six generations back,” he said. “I never expected to find all this.”

One particular family he traced was the Zapata County Rodriguez family, which originated in Saltillo, Coahuila. That Rodriguez family moved to Guerrero Viejo, Mexico and eventually made its way to Zapata, he said. Another significant event Gonzalez discovered was an attack by a Mexican revolutionary.

“Catarino Garza had started a revolution because he was upset with Porfirio Diaz’ administration.
He was a self-proclaimed revolutionary who wanted to (overthrow) the government in Mexico,” he said. “Catarino attacked the Zapata area in Mexico with some men from the San Ygnacio area.”
Gonzalez said some of the area’s families were traced back to Spain and the 1400s. Although Gonzalez said his grandfather was falsely accused, some people said it was in self defense.

“So story has it that he had to leave San Ygnacio, the Zapata area, and the country for that matter,” he said. “He supposedly lived along the border in Mexico and came back only at night to visit his family.”

A major discovery was that many of the aspects of the story are true – most of the people were real, most of the locales his grandfather described existed, and events were documented. “I’m happy to say that I’ve proved the majority of the things mentioned in the legend,” Gonzalez said.

Mauricio Javier Gonzalez has published two other books, the first one in Spanish “Un encuentro con el pasado en San Ygnacio, Texas” published in 1994 and “The Herreras of San Ygnacio, Texas” in 1998. In his latest book.  His latest, “My Grandfather’s Grandfather” has an extensive history of Zapata County families with illustrations and family lineages.

To purchase a copy of the book for $25, contact Gonzalez at home at 718-2577, or by e-mail at

Assumption and Other Stories
(Bilingual Press, July 2003)
By Daniel A. Olivas
ISBN: 1931010196, Format: Paper; $11.00; 157 pp
[[ Dan sent the following press release for his new book. Good reviews.]]   

Assumption is a collection of 18 short stories that revolve around Latinos in Southern California.  The characters are so varied, that they defy easy stereotypes: converted Jews, lesbians, lawyers, newscasters, Catholic schoolchildren - just to name a few.  In the suspenseful "Summertime," the parents of nine-year-old Jonathan Cohen-Ramírez are confronted with their greatest fears when a deranged white supremacist opens fire on people at the Jewish children's day camp that Jonathan attends.  "Weatherman" tells the amusing tale of José Castro, a Los Angeles media personality who builds his fame by using the correct Spanish pronunciation of California city names during weather broadcasts.  When a ruthless competitor attempts to beat Castro at his own game, the results are startling-and hilarious.  Shifting effortlessly between pathos and wry comedy, Olivas is able through his character-driven stories to explore how a married couple deals with infertility, how a lawyer reconciles her lesbian sexuality with the expectations of her traditional-minded parents, and how the students of a Catholic grammar school come to terms with the suicide of a popular young priest amid swirling rumors of his sexual improprieties.

"These stories are filled with such gusto and skill that they left me wanting more.  Daniel Olivas charges the page with a Mexican American sensibility that is refined and earthy, a rare combination of intelligence and corazón.  He joins the front ranks of our writers."  --Stephen D. Gutiérrez, author of Chato's Day (2003)

"Daniel Olivas asks us to walk with the outcast, the dispossessed, the hopelessly 'other' among us.  These empathetic vignettes and stories show us people we know, if we are not these people ourselves."  --Kathleen Alcalá, author of Treasures in Heaven (2000)

Daniel A. Olivas is the author of The Courtship of María Rivera Peña (Silver Lake Publishing, 2000).  His second collection, Devil Talk: Stories, has just been accepted by Bilingual Press.  His stories and poems have appeared in many publications including the Los Angeles Times, The MacGuffin, Exquisite Corpse, THEMA, The Pacific Review, and Web del Sol.  His first children's book, Benjamin and the Word, will be published next year by the University of Houston's Arte Público Press.  He received his BA in English literature from Stanford University and law degree from the University of California at Los Angeles.  The author practices law with the California Department of Justice specializing in land use and environmental enforcement.  He makes his home with his wife and son in the San Fernando Valley.  Web page:

Bilingual Review/Press has been publishing the works of Hispanic writers since 1974. We have more than 150 titles in our backlist and publish eight to ten titles a year. Most of our books are by or about U.S. Hispanics and most are written in English, though we do feature bilingual and Spanish-only titles as well. Since its founding thirty years ago, the Press has pledged to forego the world of purely commercial entertainment and to focus instead on works of weight and significance. We are committed to publishing high-quality writing by both established and emerging writers, and a glance at but a few of the Press's titles reveals books that will not fall out of fashion or print any time soon. In addition to new works, classics of Chicana and Chicano fiction are being kept alive and available through the Press's Clásicos Chicanos/Chicano Classics imprint. As the Bilingual Review/Press begins its fourth decade, it solidifies its mission to make available the wealth that is to be mined from Hispanic writing. All signs indicate the next decades will be as rich as the previous ones.

U.S. Elites Celebrate Patriarchy, Racism and Class Privilege

By Peter Phillips. Ph.D. peter.phillips@SONOMA.EDU
[[ Editor: This bit of social-class history is totally new to me. Ir was sent by  Dr. Peter Phillips, a synopsis of his 1994 Ph.D. research on this fascinating topic.]]

San Francisco Bohemian Club members and guests from around the world recently completed two weeks of celebration, self entertainment and partying at their private 2,700 acre redwood retreat on the Russian River in Sonoma County, California. Described as the "Greatest Men's Party on Earth," the members of the Club and international elites have been gathering in their redwoods for over 100 years.

Private men's clubs have existed in the U.S. for over two and half centuries. U.S. clubs were modeled after British gentlemen's clubs, which date back 400 years. Gentlemen's clubs followed the English around the world and were a sanctum of racial, sexual and class homogeneity for English aristocrats throughout the British Empire.

American men's clubs have served a similar function as did their British models. In most major American cities there are one or two distinguished metropolitan men's clubs whose members dominate the social and economic life of the community. Club activities are a blending of arts, business, and socio-political discussions. Men's clubs are private places where elites can mingle in an atmosphere of gentlemanly civility away from the common everyday world.

The San Francisco Bohemian Club is unique among private men's clubs in that it holds an annual 16-day summer encampment where the 2,400 members are free to invite several hundred distinguished business associates and guests from around the world. Long days of glad-handing, off-the-record political discussions, government policy reviews, and the building of business
friendships serve to facilitate consensus and ease of interaction among some of the top governmental and business leaders in the world. The collective corporate stock ownership by members and guests conservatively exceeds $100 billion.

The Bohemian Grove summer gathering brings together the top business elite of California along with hundreds of men from leadership positions in government, education, business, military, and the arts from throughout the United States and the world. Foremost among attendees are former Republican
presidents, numerous current and past U.S. cabinet members; military generals, famous actors; members of national policy councils, and CEOs and directors of hundreds of the largest corporations in the world. It is safe to say that the Bohemian Grove is one of the few locations in the world where such a large high level gathering of elites occurs without press coverage or public scrutiny.

During the summer of 2003 the men at the Bohemian Grove heard off-the-record presentations -no media is allowed - from William F. Buckley Jr., William Safire, Charles Murray, George Shultz, Michael York and Charlie Rose. Additionally, there were daily lectures from world-class experts on global warming, war policy, school vouchers, mad deer disease, horse racing, stem cell research, terrorism, American-Russian relations, and marine ecosystem. Concerts, plays, and daily parties rounded out the two-week session for 2003.

On June 4, 1994 a presentation at the Grove from a University of California Berkeley professor stressed that, elites are important and must set the values for society that are translated into "standards of authority," and that elites cannot allow the "unqualified masses" to carry out policy. The
speech was given an enthusiastic standing ovation by the over 1,000 men present and seemed to represent the feelings of many club members.

Like the British Empire's gentlemen's clubs, the American Empire elite gather annually in Sonoma County for an all-male 99%-white private party to find homogeneous comradeship and celebrate themselves through poetry, music, discussions and plays. And like the British before them they employ a cadre of servants, waiters, waitresses, grounds people, on-site medical personnel, and security officers to meet their every need, -women are prohibited from 90% of the Grove and can only work in the main dining area, the skeet range, and the parking lots.

The Bohemian Club's summer encampment is the institutionalized embodiment of elite class privilege, a de facto celebration of race and gender exclusiveness, and a slap in the face to democratic process in the United States. Institutions of elite privilege like the San Francisco Bohemian Club run counter to the core American values of equality, due process and political openness. Americans deserve a public apology from the Bohemian Club for their celebration of eliteness, ongoing full disclosures of their lectures and presentations, and the transformation of the club to one of public service and gender and racial inclusiveness.

Peter Phillips is a Professor of Sociology and Department Chair at Sonoma State University: Email His 1994 dissertation on the San Francisco Bohemian Club is available at:

Peter Phillips Ph.D.
Sociology Department/Project Censored
Sonoma State University
1801 East Cotati Ave.
Rohnert Park, CA 94928

Hispanics in U.S. Report Optimism
By Simon Romero and Janet Elder, August 6, 2003
Sent by Cindy LoBuglio  and John Inclan
A new survey of the nation's Hispanics finds they are far more optimistic about life in the United States and their children's prospects than are non-Latinos, despite the fact that many are much poorer and many do not intend to gain the full benefits of citizenship. 

The New York Times/CBS News poll found that nearly 70 percent of foreign-born Hispanics say they identify more with the United States than with their country of origin. Still, many continue to send money to family members even though they rarely visit their home countries. 

Sixty-four percent of Latinos said there was no specific instance when they felt discriminated against because of their ethnicity. Those who said they had had such an experience said it involved employment or a general sense of exclusion. 

The finding was in sharp contrast to that of the poll's non-Hispanic blacks. Seventy-three percent of them said they had experienced discrimination, while 25 percent said they had not. 

Much of the optimism expressed by Latinos appears to be related to the fact that most, 57 percent, said they were immigrants. Just 39 percent said they were born in the United States, making it clear that the expectation of better economic circumstances for themselves and their children was inherent in their decision to uproot their lives and come to the United States. 

Follow-up interviews with some respondents revealed the extent to which economic opportunities had fueled their decision to immigrate. Sixty-six percent of foreign-born Hispanics said they moved north looking for jobs and other opportunities, while only 9 percent said freedoms were an
incentive and 6 percent said a search for a different culture or lifestyle encouraged them to come to the United States. 

"In Mexico one can study and study but there's no good work when you finish school," said Sylvia González, 39, a custodian in Denver who moved to Colorado from the Mexican state of Morelos. "Here we do the jobs that no one wants to do because we know the value of work. Here we understand that the person without a job is the person who does not have the will to work." 

Only 9 percent of Latinos said they thought immigrants coming to the United States took jobs away from American citizens, compared with 33 percent of non-Hispanics and 34 percent of non-Hispanic blacks. Eighty-two percent of Hispanics said immigrants took jobs Americans did not want.

Online Portal for Hispanic News divided into
U.S. Hispanic | Latin America | Mexico | Spain | Cuba | Carribean 
Sent by Joan De Soto
Advancing Women, Hispanic Women
Sent by Joan De Soto

Subscribe to AdvancingWomen Network - A free Ezine from

In the U.S. and many areas abroad, we are now approaching the era of the Latina. Americans with ancestral roots in Mexico, Spain, Cuba, Peru, Portugal, the Dominican Republic-- indeed, all the Hispanic cultures... have taken what's best and most vibrant in those traditions and married them to the energy and innovation of the United States, to create new styles and rythms for a wide variety of careers and professions. As the Latin population has grown in all of the U.S.'s major cities, new identities, forged by the challenge of equal rights and labor struggles, education, immigration, bi-lingualism and other daunting issues have created new power for Latinos who are seizing success in virtually every arena of life in the U.S. From cinema to restaurants, singing to salsa, Latinas are no longer on the fringes of power, but in the white hot center. Business and particularly advertisers, whose livelihood depends on keeping a sharp eye on such seismic shifts in population, buying power and increased affluence and success, have not failed to notice the next big trend: Latinas in the forefront. 
Press Release, 8-11-03: Overwhelming Public Support for the Matricula Consular
Treasury Department Receives Confirmation from the Public
Sent by JV Martinez
Source: Lorraine Quiroga , (202) 833-6130

The U.S. Department of Treasury learned that 76 percent of those who submitted comments on the matrícula consular issue approve of this form of identification for Mexican immigrants.  Recently a group of anti-immigrant members of Congress pressured the Treasury Department to reopen the issue of whether the Mexican consular ID cards are valid for financial transactions. Last month the Treasury Department responded to the request and asked for additional public comments on the final rule.  The public response was overwhelming supportive of this form of identification.

After the passage of the Patriot Act, the U.S. Department of Treasury issued a report that ruled that the matrícula consular is a valid form of identification for Mexican nationals.  In light of this decision, sixty-six banks across the country -including Citibank, Bank of America, and the Wells Fargo Bank-accept the card, providing Mexican nationals with the means to open bank accounts.     

"LULAC was very pleased to learn that so many people support this vital form of identification.  Without the matrícula consular immigrants are unable to open bank accounts and manage their money," said LULAC National President Hector Flores. "We hope this will put an end to those who question the value of this measure once and for all," added Flores.

More Parents Want Their Children to Learn Second Language 
By Marilyn Gardner | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, August 29, 2003

[[Editor's note: Excellent article, with specific examples of strategies used by families trying to raise bilingual children in the United States.]]

As the United States grows more culturally mixed,more parents share the Simões's desire to raise bilingual children.

According to the US Census, 11 percent of the population was born in another country. That marks the highest percentage since 1930 and the largest number of immigrants in the nation's history. At least 10 million school-aged children live in homes where family members speak a language other than English, the Department of Education reports.

When some family members speak little or no English, teaching children a second language is a necessity. In other cases, parents simply want to pass along their family heritage.

"There is a growing appreciation of retaining one's home culture," says Carey Myles, author of "Raising Bilingual Children" (Parent's Guide Press). 
"There's a recognition that you can be an American and still have associations with another culture." That represents a sea change in attitudes from earlier generations, when the goal was assimilation and Americanization as quickly as possible.

Whatever the motive for maintaining a bilingual household, linguists emphasize that parents must understand the long-term commitment it requires. That includes having clear goals. "You must have specific ideas about what you want your child to be able to do in both languages," says Ms. Myles.

Most common other languages spoken at home in the United States. Source:  U.S. Census Bureau
Spanish: 28,101,052
Chinese: 2,022,143
French: 1,643,838
German: 1,383,442
Tagalog: 1,224,241
Vietnamese: 1,009,627
Italian: 1,008,370 

Bernardo de Galvez

August 5, Long Beach City Council Presentation
City of Long Beach, California Proclamation presented for Galvez Gala, October 12, 2003
September 3, Presentation to KCET
September 8, Press Conference. . .  Everyone welcome
October 11, Long Beach hosting special reception for Galvez family members
For Prospective DAR Members, Some Donativo Commissioners
Macharaviaya, Spain, Bernardo de Galvez Hometown

Presentation of the Galvez Project to the Long Beach City Council
 August 5th, 2003

Front Row: Juan Pardell, Puerto Rican/Cuban Liaison, Bruce Buonauro, also known as Father Serra.  Maria Angeles Olson, Honorary Consul of Spain in San Diego, Mimi Lozano,  Alejandro Pelayo Rangel, Cultural Attaché for the Consul of Mexico  Back Row:  Jack Scanlan, Film Chair, Juan Mayans, Liaison with Spain, Hispanic and Latin America, and Quentin Olson.

City of Long Beach, California Proclamation
presented for the
Galvez Gala,
October 12, 2003

Whereas, From 1776-1781, the colonial ancestors of Hispanic/Latinos throughout the Americas played a crucial role in the creation of the United States through Spain's contributions critical to the success of the American Revolution; and

Whereas, Hispanic/Latino colonists in the Southwest and the Americas assisted the American Revolution with arms, supplies, food, horses, money, and military expertise coming from and through present day Mexico; and

Whereas, General Bernardo de Galvez was appointed commander over Spain's military forces in what is now American soil as allies of the American colonists in our war of independence from Great Britain; and

Whereas, General Galvez quickly raised a 5,000 man army which took the British-held forts at Baton Rouge, Natchez, Fort Joseph, Michigan, Mobile and Pensacola, and which closed British access to New Orleans and the Mississippi River; and

Whereas, The descendants of those patriots, Hispanic/Latinos from throughout the Americas and Spain, are now citizens in our community.

Now Therefore, I Beverly O'Neill, Mayor of the City of Long Beach, on behalf of the Long Beach City Council, support the Galvez Gala on October 12 and endorse the Hispanic American Heroes Series Project Series Project that will produce film documentaries to promote accurate historical understanding of the Hispanic contributions to our nation.

Bevery O'Neill,

Dated: August 5, 2003

Through the efforts of Luis Larios, we are pleased to announce that family members of Galvez descendants in Spain will be with us, celebrating a Long Beach Galvez Weekend. 

As noted in last month's issue, the Long Beach Museum of Art will hold an open house from 2 to 4 p.m. on October 11th for their Sueños y Encuentros exhibit which features works from their own collection of Latin American masters.  This is the first time that many of the pieces will be on display.

We are delighted to say that as part of the October 11th day's event, an 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. reception will be hosted by the Long Beach Museum of Art to honor the Galvez Family.  

In the afternoon, we have been invited by the Museum of Latin American Art to a private tour of their facility.  http://www.molaa

We are hopeful that a Friday mass honoring Bernardo de Galvez will be held.

On September 3rd, Jack Scanlan, Bruce Buonauro and Chair Mimi, representing the Galvez Project, attended the KCET's Hispanic Heritage Month Celebration.
September 8th, 10 a.m. a press conference is scheduled at the Long Beach Performing Arts Center. 
Everyone is welcomed to attend the press conference, and it is a good opportunity to see the site.

For Prospective DAR Members, 
Some Donativo Commissioners
by Granville Hough

The National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, accepts descendants of soldiers who served under General Bernardo de Gálvez in his campaigns in Louisiana and West Florida, but it does not accept Spanish soldiers who served with him in Guarico (St Domingue).  Nor does
it accept descendants of Spanish soldiers who served in other parts of New Spain under other leaders.

The NSDAR does accept descendants of those who made voluntary contributions to defray expenses of the War with Britain.  King Carlos III signed the request for this “donativo” on 17 Aug 1780, and he suggested two pesos from each Spanish male over 18, and 1 peso from from each male over 18 from mixed or Indian ancestry.

The Viceroy of New Spain, Mayorga, developed a list of 13 instructions to assure the contributions were voluntary, and sent them out to each jurisdiction.  They reached the Comandante General Cabellero de Croix of the Provincias Internas in August 1781, and he transmitted them to each
Governor of the Northern Frontier.  Communications had just been cut with Alta California by the Yuma Massacre, so that the request for the donativo probably reached Alta California during the latter part of 1781.

However, collections were soon underway in each jurisdiction and continued until news came in 1784 that the war was over.  After that time, the only collections were for pledges made earlier.  The final
tabulations for 10 Jul 1786 showed the military personnel and settlers at the Tucson Presidio of Alta Pimeria (AZ) had contributed 459 pesos, more than enough to cover every male over 18, settlers, soldiers, and Indians.  The total for Sonora (including Sinaloa) was 22,420 pesos, 4 reales.  The 1787 tabulation for New Spain showed that almost one million pesos had been collected.  That amount would have purchased about 150,000 excellent riding horses or 400,000 beeves for the Spanish

Theoretically, this should give the NSDAR a recruiting base of about 500,000 patriots; however, there were problems.  First, in nearly all jurisdictions, there were wartime shortages of paper, which was a
monopoly.  This limited the way the Viceroy’s instructions could be carried out.  Second, in many jurisdictions, the collectors did not read nor write, and the issue of paper made no difference.  Thirdly, who would keep that scrap of paper receipt, if provided, over 225 years?

So, the NSDAR has limited its acceptance to those at upper levels, typically the Commisioners for different jurisdictions whose names are known, or other public figures.  It is conceivable that a few lists exist in some archive, but they have not been identified thus far. Still, the lists of Commissioners will be helpful to a few prospective DAR candidates.  Following is a partial list for Sonora (and Sinaloa):

Andrés Arias Caballero, Capt of the Altar Presidio, 332 pesos.
Manuel de la Azuela, Captain of the Fronteras Presidio, 100 pesos.
Diego de Barcona, Commissioner of Copala province, 1,217 pesos,
Juan María Bojórquez, Commisioner of Alta Pimería, 641 pesos.
Cabellero de Croix, the Comandante General, and his household, 24 pesos.

Francisco Dorronsoro, Commissioner of the mining town of La Cieneguilla, 506 pesos.
Francisco Xavier Figueroa, Commissioner of Villa, Fuerte de Montesclaros, 2,480 pesos.
Patricio Gómez de Cossío, Commissioner of Ostimura province, 2,415 pesos.
Migual de Hugues y San Martín, Commissioner of Sonora valley, 306 pesos.
Juan Agustín de Iriarte, Commissioner of the town of Alamos, 1,943 pesos.
Manuel Agustín Mascaró, the Royal Engineer, 20 pesos.
Pedro de Mata Viñolas, Lt of the Santa Cruz Presidio, 174 pesos.
Juan Mazón, Commissioner for Santa María Baserac mission district, 141 pesos.
Juan Mazón, also shown as Commissioner for Oposura valley, 375 pesos, possibly same person.
José Antonio de Mesa.  Commissioner for the town of El Rosario, 652 pesos.
Agustín Antonio de Norsagaray, Commissioner for Villa of Sinaloa, 2,085 pesos.
Mateo Ortega, Commissioner for Mazatlán village, 200 pesos.
Gregorio Ortiz Cortés, Commissioner of Tepachi valley, 353 pesos.
Juan Francisco Rendón, Commissioner for Maloya province, 277 pesos.
Juan Honorato de Rivera, Commissioner of the town of San Antonio de la Huerta, 583 pesos.
Miguel Saenz de Escabosa, Commissioner of Opodepe valley, 234 pesos.
José Antonio Serrano, Commissioner for Chinapa village, 212 pesos.
Francisco Velásquez de la Cadena, Commissioner for Culiacán province, 2,381 pesos.
Juan Ventura Batiz, Commissioner for town of Cosalá, 1,040 pesos.
Others whose names can possibly be determined through additional research:
Administrator of the tobacco tax at El Rosario and his dependents, 114 pesos.
Administrators of sales tax and liquor tax at El Rosario, 86 pesos.
Commissioners for San Miguel de Horcasitas, 908 pesos.
Intendent-Governor, Capital at Arispe, 201 pesos.
Secretary of the Comandancy-General and his dependents, 19 pesos.
Treasury officials at El Rosario, their dependents, and administrators of salt beds, 84 pesos.

Others who would be on donativo lists not yet found:
Dragoons of Spain, at Villa of Pictic, 175 pesos.
Military personnel and settlers at the Santa Cruz Presidio, 134 pesos.
Military personnel at Altar Presidio, 1,211 pesos.
Settlers at Altar Presidio, 131 pesos.
Military personnel and settlers at the Presidio of San Carlos de Buenavista, 205 pesos.
Military personnel and settlers at the Tucson Presidio, 459 pesos.  The
list of soldiers and settlers are known, but not the amount of individual contributions.
Military personnel at Fronteras Presidio and settlers of the village of Cuquiárachi, 369 pesos pledged but not yet collected at the time of accounting.

References:  Kieran McCarty, pp 51-56, Chapter 12, “Arizona’s
Contribution,” Desert Documentary: The Spanish Years, 1767-1821, Arizona
Historical Society, Historical Monograph, No. 4, Tucson, AZ, 1976.  A
footnote on page 56 states: “An unsigned early copy of the Sonora
tabulation is in drawer 1 of file cabinet 3 of the Archivo Histórico del
Estado in the library of the University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora.”

Granville W. and N. C. Hough, Spain’s Arizona Patriots in its 1779-1783 War with England during the American Revolution: Third Study of the Spanish Borderlands, 1999.  In this study we listed all known males over 18, military, settlers, and Indians, and we feel sure we found most of those who contributed; however, this would not be acceptable proof that any one specific individual contributed.  The military personnel would be suitable ancestors for those joining the Sons of the American Revolution, based solely on their military service during the war period.

 Macharaviaya, Spain    
          Bernardo de Galvez Hometown
               Sent by Michael Stevens Perez
                         Galvez Project Manager 


The village is situated at 235 metres above sea level and is reached by road from the coastal town of Rincon de la Victoria or in about ten minutes by car from the new motorway. The population is approximately 350 inhabitants and as is typical of most villages in the region the principal source of income comes from the cultivation of almond and olive groves as well as vineyards. The village was founded in the sixteenth century on what had originally been an Arab settlement. The tranquil lifestyle of the villagers, indeed the entire rural population of the Axarquia was seriously affected by a blight, Phylloxera, which practically obliterated the vineyards in the year 1870.

Macharaviaya, however, is particularly distinguished by a single name, Galvez. A family of this name rose to prominence not only in the town but in the political life of Spain at the time and members of this distinguished family were selected by King Carlos the third ( 1759-1788 ) for positions of importance in his reformist administration.  The Galvez family which lived mainly in Madrid never forget their native town and in spite of the then vast distance in terms of transport between the capital and this small village, important schemes were financed by the family and carried out to improve the economical and spiritual life of the villagers. Roads were built, streets were paved, a church was built, a public laundry and schools were constructed and most importantly a playing card factory was established in 1776 which supplied Spain and the American possessions. The political prominence of the family also extended to America and the town of Galveston in Texas bears testimony to the name of Don Bernardo de Galvez who was a general and viceroy at the time of the American War of Independence and played a part in the conflict.

As with most dynasties and empires and periods of great bounty, time took its toll and little by little the village reverted to its simple agricultural roots. The family is still remembered and the visitor can admire the magnificent facade of the church of San Jacinto in whose interior lie the mortal remains of Don Jose de Galvez, marquis of Sonoro. The main facade of the church bears the coat of arms of King Carlos the third of Spain.  In the adjoining hamlet of Benaque the poet Salvador Rueda was born (1857-1933). Poet, novelist and dramatist his work,of great range and diversity on mainly Andalusian themes, influenced many writers of the time, particularly the early works of another significent writer, Juan Ramon Jumenez. 


Este apellido del género taponímico, tuvo tres casas salares en la villa de Elizondo, enclavada en el histórico Valle navarro del Baztán, que se denominaron de Sastrearena, Errazurena y Errotazarrena.

Hubo también importantes asentamientos en la ciudad de Estella, Burguete y Aranaz. Desde Navarra pasaron a Guipúzcoa, radicándose en el Valle de Oyarzun, Guetaria, Irún y Asteasu.  



Para los principales fi1ó1ogos, esta voz vascona significa junto a la iglesia.

Las armas más antiguas y difundidas de este linaje, utilizadas en el Valle del Baztan son:


Más tarde usaron: Cuartelado: 1º. y 4º., jaquelado de plata y sable, y bordura de gules con las cadenas de Navarra; 2º. y 3º., en oro, una faja de azur.


El hábito de la Orden Militar de Santiago, fue vestido por las siguientes personas, previas las correspondientes probanzas de sus calidades:

Don Juan de Elizondo y de Echenique. Elizondo, 1683; el Capitán don Gabriel Matias de Elizondo y Rada, Los Arcos, Navarra, 1695; don Ignacio de Elizondo y Segordia, Aranaz, Navarra, 1692, y don Francisco Javier de Elizondo y Salamanca, Echenique y Zabala, natural de Madrid, Paje de S.M., en 1715, oriundo del lugar de Elizondo.

En la Real y Distinguida Orden Española de Carlos III, fueron admitidos don Francisco Antonio de Elizondo y Alvarez, García de Trujillo y Cenzano, natural de Lucena, Córdoba, Fiscal de la Real Chancillería de Granada, y don Joaquín de Arrieta y Martínez, Ayerdi y Elizondo, natural de San Sebastián, ex-Director de la Empresa de Correos Marítimos,originario de Aróstegui por su último apellido.

Don Pedro Ignacio de Elizondo, vecino de Asteasu, en Guipúzcoa, hizo patente en 1773 su noble ascendecia ante las autoridades municipales de dicha villa.

Ante la .Sala de los Hijosdalgo de la Real Chancillería de Valladolid, siguió pleito para que le fuese reconocida su calidad, don Francisco Antonio de Elizondo, morador en la villa de Llamas de Ribera, León, en 1786.

Don Sebastián de Elizondo, fue designado Racionero de la Catedral de Durango, en 1728 y don Domingo de Elizondo, Gobernador de Acapulco, en 1774.

En 1663, le fue otorgada una Encomienda en la ciudad argentina de Tucumán, a don Miguel de Elizondo.

Los Elizondo, se encuentran en en territorio novoleonés, al menos desde muy principios del siglo XVIII. En Mazapil, Zacatecas, y quizás derivada del aquel asentamiento, se conoce la siguiente genealogia:

Don Francisco Elizondo, vecino de Mazapil, que en su esposa doña Magdalena de Aguilar, tuvo al Capitán don Francisco Elizondo y Aguilar, cónyuge de doña Beatriz Gonzalez Camacho, ambos padres del General don Pedro Elizondo González, que se desposó en MonterRey con doña Mariana de la Garza Gonzalez. De esta unión nació don Bartolomé Elizondo de la Garza, casado en la capital de Nuevo León el 14 de enero de 1720 con doña Francisca Javiera González Treviño, siendo fruto de ambos don Marcos de Elizondo González, que vió la primera luz en Salinas el año 1724, que a su vez se unió en matrimonio en marzo de 1751, con doña Josefa Villarreal González.

Entre otros hijos de la anterior coyunda, nació por 1780 don Francisco Ignacio Elizondo y Villarreal, Capitán de Milicias en 1809 y propietario de la hacienda de San Juan de Sabinas, quien después de su retiro, en 1811 acaudilló a un importante número de fuerzas realistas, mismas que aprehendieron al Cura Hidalgo en Acatita de Baján, Coahuila, el 21 de marzo de 1811.

Después de este hecho, participó en diferentes acciones de armas, caracterizándose por su crueldad con los insurgentes, siendo nombrado por el Virrey Calleja Comandante General de las Provincias Internas de Oriente, y más tarde ascendido a Teniente Coronel efectivo graduado de Coronel, dejando de existir a mediados de septiembre de 1812.Sus restos fueron  sepultados en “las orillas del río San Marcos.

Extract from BLASONES Y APELLIDOS, 828-page book by Fernando Muñoz Altea
In its second edition, the book can be ordered from
or at P.O. Box 11232, El Paso, Texas   79995  
or by contacting
Armando Montes


Gran Reunión Genealogica del Apellido ELIZONDO 
 12 – 14 Septiembre de 2003,  Saltillo, Coahuila 

For further information, go to and click on... 
Gran Reunión Genealogica del Apellido ELIZONDO 
Sent by  and George Gause,

New Book:
Pobladores del Septentrión Novohispano by Elizondo Urdiñola. 
The English Title is
Early settlers of Northeastern New Spain.

Written by Luis López Elizondo Luis writes that it should be ready in about six weeks.  The book is about 120 or 140 pages in length.  Included are de la Garzas, Maderos, Urdiñolas, Zuaznavar, Olidens, and others.   It will be available from Borderland Books in San Antonio. 


September 6, Fire in the Morning Reception
September 6, Riverside Digital Library Open House
September 13, Agua Luna Dance Company 

September 27
SHHAR Quarterly Meeting
Start your own family history

“Fire in the Morning"
Historic Photographs of Mexican Americans in Orange County

You are invited to attend the OPENING RECEPTION:
Saturday, September 6, 2003, 6:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. in Santa Ana at Cal State University Fullerton Grand Central Art Center, 125 N. Broadway, Santa Ana.

This exhibit of 100 historic photographs and stories, circa 1910 - WWII, of Mexican American history in Orange County, runs September 5 through October 3 at Cal State University Fullerton Grand Central Art Center 125 N. Broadway, Santa Ana. Exhibit hours are 11:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. Monday through Saturday and by appointment.

For information call 714-538-8380, (949) 858-0052.

The reception for “Fire in the Morning” will introduce Orange County Mexican American Heritage Foundation (OCMAHF).

Inquiries from the Smithsonian Institution, various research groups and several graduate students regarding: the era of segregation and the Mendez v Westminster Civil Rights Case, the deportation/repatriation during the Depression, women's and men's athletic teams - the baseball
and softball teams, and the Strike of 1936 demonstrate the need for a source of such information.

What these inquiries say clearly is that this information is significant.

Orange County Mexican American Historical Foundation is the new organization that will continue collecting photos, stories and artifacts that will illustrate our history. Committees are being formed and we are on our way. The reception at the California State University Fullerton Grand Central will introduce the goals of the Foundation.

Please join us and the Orange County residents who lent us their historic photos and stories for this exhibit. We extend this invitation especially to the thousands of people who lived in the historic
neighborhoods of La Conga, La Paloma, Delhi, Logan, Colonia Juarez, Alta Vista, Little Hollywood, La Paz, La Jolla and the other 32 colonias and barrios of Orange County, L.A., Riverside as we celebrate our history. Bring your cameras, you might see some old friends.

The New RCC Digital Library and Learning Resource Center

Where 21st century technology and education meet
Sent by Anthony Garcia
Source: Riverside Latino Calendar

Saturday, September 6, 2003, 9:30 am. - 11:30 am.
Complimentary library cards for first 50 guests.
Light Refreshments & Library Tours
Tour Times 9:30, 10:00, 10:30  Information: (909) 222-8628

The mission of the Riverside Latino Calendar is to disseminate information on Latino political, cultura, social and educational activities in the Inland Empire area of Southern California.

You have received this email because you are active in civic or educational organizations in the Riverside-San Bernardino areas. The Riverside Latino Calendar is published by the

RIVERSIDE LATINO VOTER PROJECT, A voter registration and education project.
Advancing the political empowerment of the Riverside Latinos. Su Voto es Poder!

Francisco Solá, Chair
Dámaris Pérez, Coordinator
Alfredo Figueroa, Treasurer

Agua Luna Dance Company 
Saturday September 13, 2003 in Santa Ana, CA, 8pm
Sent by Anthony Garcia

Celebrating Mexican traditions, Artistic Director Gustavo Gonzales presents a nostalgic journey through Mexico's historical landscapes of movement, sound and emotional storytelling.
Guest of Honor: State Attorney General Bill Lockyer

Santa Ana High School Auditorium
520 W. Walnut Street
Santa Ana, CA 92701

Your $15 tax-deductible donation benefits the Orange County Young Marines. The Orange County Young Marines is a non-profit organization that educates and inspires youth within our communities by promoting a healthy and drug-free lifestyle through instructional and adventurous activities.

Enjoy a magical evening of dance and music and help this worthy organization.
To purchase tickets please call: 714-558-8181 or via e-mail at:

More about the OC Young Marines can be found at:
OC Young Marines 501(c)(3) Fed ID # 38-2346425

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research Quarterly Meeting is
Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month

by offering a 
Three-hour Workshop on Beginning Hispanic Family History Research
Taught by JOHN SCHMAL, author, historian, family history instructor
September 27th
The class will include all the basics. 
(Note John's L.A. Workshop below.)
If you've been thinking of starting a family tree, now is the time.

Family History Center
674 S. Yorba, Orange

 Galvez Concert and Gala committee final arrangements and assignments.  
If you would like to help celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month 
in a very special way,  
please volunteer to help on October 12th. 



September 5th and 6th Taller Coreográfico
September 6, Genealogy Classes offered 
September 2, Artino Arts Group
September 11,  Misa Criolla
Historical Background for August 29 
The Legacy of Affirmative Action
Los Angeles County City directories 
An evening of Contemporary Mexican Ballet with acclaimed Mexican choreographer, Gloria Contreras and the principal dancer of the Taller Coreográfico de la UNAM. Taller fuses universal ballet with historical Mexican dances for a new aesthetic definition of modern Mexico.  To date, the company has presented 197 ballets, with musical scores ranging from the 12th century to contemporary works. 

Taller Coreográfico de la UNAM, Saturday September 5th and Sunday 6th at 8:00 p.m.
Museum of Latin American Art 
628 Alamitos Avenue, Long Beach  562-437-1689
General seating, $20. Members * $25. Non-members * $15. Students and Seniors 

Scheduled for September 6, 2003 at
10741 Santa Monica Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025

All persons are welcome to attend all the classes offered during this day free of charge.  You do not have to belong to a particular religion and you can join us regardless of how much or how little you may know about Mexican genealogy or Indigenous and Immigration History.

The Classes to be held on Sept 6 are as follows:
9:30 AM - 11:00 AM  
Title: "Indigenous Mexico: Past and Present"
John Schmal, Author, Historian and indexer

The class will discuss the numerous indigenous groups living in Mexico at the time of Spanish contact, and about their subsequent assimilation mestizaje, and - in some cases - devastation and extinction.  25 overhead transparencies are used in order to give an accurate portrayal of
pre-Hispanic Mexico.  But we also inform the listener about the status of the many Mexicans who still speak indigenous languages (some of whom can't speak Spanish at all).

Questions are encouraged.
11:15 am TO 12:15 AM - Hispanic Research Methods  -- John Schmal This will involve lecture and discussion about the availability of Mexican records (church and civil).  Suggestions for how to trace a Mexican-American ancestor from several generations ago to his birthplace in Mexico are discussed.  Latin American researchers are equally welcome to attend and ask questions.

Next Class: "Indians of North America" ( 1 PM - 3 PM), by Daniel Bartosz.  This class is a very informative class, offered by a person who has excelled in the research of Native American lineages and has great familiarity with Indian record keeping in the U.S.

Next Class: "Mexican Immigration: Causes and Effects" by John Schmal (3:15 PM to 4:15 PM).  This class points out the causes of Mexican immigration to American from 1890 to about 1950.  Statistics about border crossings will e shown and there will be a discussion of the railroads that left northern
Mexican cities for the United States.

All are welcome to attend this all-day seminar.  If you wish to contact the library for more questions, please check their website:   You may also call 310-474-2202 or contact
Director Ross Birdsall and Barbara Birdsall at the following Email:

For questions about class room materials, contact me, John Schmal at
The ARTINO Arts Group of Los Angeles will hold a month long exhibit titled El Grito - ¡Liberacion del Espiritu! (The Cry - Liberation of the Spirit!). The group exhibition celebrates Mexican Independence Day and focuses on the impact the historic Mexican anti-colonial struggle has had on the peoples of the Americas. In particular the show will explore the interplay between Mexico and the U.S., past and present struggles for liberty and democracy, cultural identity - immigration, and the celebration of heritage... all through the eyes of Latino Artists living in L.A. 

LANKERSHIM ART GALLERy . . Original Paintings, Prints, Drawings, and Sculpture
September 2nd - 30th 2003
OPEN TO THE PRESS & PUBLIC: Tuesday, Sept. 2nd - 6th.
ARTIST'S RECEPTION: Saturday, Sept. 6th. 7 - 10 pm.
The Artists will be on hand to greet you and answer questions concerning their latest artworks, and new Print works will be made available for the first time. Refreshments and musical entertainment. 
CLOSING PARTY: Saturday, Sept. 27th. 3 - 6 pm.

MARK VALLEN (Creator of contemporary Social Realism and political graphics). FRANK MARTINEZ (One of L.A.'s original 1970's Muralists). LALO GARCIA (Designer of the "Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe" for L.A.'s Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels). AGUSTIN BRAVO (Traditional Painter and founder of the ARTINO group). SERGIO HERNANDEZ (Illustrator and Cartoonist for the legendary late 60's Chicano Magazine, "Con Safos"). JOE BRAVO (Painter & Muralist). RICARDO ORTEGA (Painter of Chicano iconography and indigenous spiritual themes). LIX MARIO RAMIREZ (Creates traditional and nontraditional sculpture). XAVIER MONTES (Paints with acrylics, musician, and founder of the De Colores Art Show in Santa Paula). FELIX PEREZ (Painter of the urban apocalypse and Chicano iconography).

5108 Lankershim Blvd., NoHo Arts District. North Hollywood, CA 91601  Phone: 1-818-760-1278
Web:  E-mail: or
After the Artist's Reception, various artworks from the show along with photos of the opening night's festivities, will be uploaded to the ARTINO and Art For A Change websites. 
 Misa Criolla 
Hollywood Bowl - Calendar, Thursday. Sep 11, 2003  8:00 PM
Sent by Ana Maria McGuan 
Program: Ramírez: Misa Criolla  BeethovenSymphony No. 9, "Choral"   Beethoven's "Ode to Joy" 
Los Angeles Philharmonic; Esa-Pekka Salonenconductor; Alexandra DesShorties, soprano; Joyce DiDonato, mezzo-soprano; Stuart Skelton, tenor; Kyle Ketelsen, bass-baritone

Live Community Theater in Boyle Heights to perform "August 29th"  

Historical Background for August 29

Las Cuatro, in conjunction with Courage and Hermosa Productions brings you "August 29", the story of Lucero Treviño, a young Chicano Studies Professor who must choose between pursuing a safe route toward obtaining  tenure or speaking out against continuing police oppression. 

The spirit of slain Mexican-American journalist Ruben Salazar acts as her conscience as Treviño revisits her involvement in the Chicano movement of the 1970's. She struggles to make sense of her brother's death in Vietnam and must confront how the Vietnam War has impacted her past 
familial and romantic relationships as well as her current professional obligations. 

August 29 was originally written and brought to the stage in 1990 by the Latino Theater Company. A group of writers and actors, Evelina Fernandez, Enrique Castillo, Sal Lopez and Lupe Ontiveros collaborated on the creation of the play which was directed by Jose Luis Valenzuela.

The 2003 production of August 29 is being sponsored by Courage Productions, a nonprofit arts and education organization whose mission is to nurture the development of writers in Los Angeles. Courage Productions was initiated by Josefina Lopez the writer of the play and independent film, Real Women Have Curves.

August 29 is directed by Omar Gomez and stars: Ciro Suarez, Maricella Ibarra, Jacqueline Calderon-Guido, Zeke Ruelas, Maria G. Martinez,Teresa-Michelle Ruiz, Ricardo Molina, Sergio Villareal, Rob Macie, Toneey Acevedo, Silvia Curiel and Peter N. Schmeekle. 

Historical Background for August 29 ---

August 29, 1970 was the day of the Chicano Moratorium. Over thirty thousand people attended the Chicano Moratorium to speak out against police brutality, demand better educational resources in the barrios of Los Angeles, and challenge the disproportionate rate at which Chicanos were being drafted to fight in the Vietnam War.

The Chicano Moratorium was not only a march and rally but also a festive event attended by students, parents with their children, elderly and young people. Music played, ballet folklorico dancers performed for the large audience, and diverse speakers addressed the social and political concerns of the era. Everybody united to demand that our sons, brothers, and friends be brought back home. 

Call and response chants filled the air: "Chicano! .... Power!" "Viva La Raza! .... Que Viva!" The peaceful event turned deadly when police arrived dressed in riot gear. Tear gas soon filled the air and police began to indiscriminately beat up those attending the Moratorium, including parents who were trying to take their young children to safety. 

Among those killed by police were Ruben Salazar, a Los Angeles Times and KMEX reporter. Salazar had served as a voice for disenfranchised Chicanos and covered the Vietnam War in such a manner as to represent the concerns of this community. 

For those of us that were present, the Chicano Moratorium was an experience that changed our life. On that day Ruben Salazar was killed but not silenced. Since then, anniversary marches and events have been held in commemoration of the Chicano Moratorium and the park that served as the site of the 1970 event has been renamed Salazar Park.

In 1990 the Latino Theater Company brought the Chicano Moratorium to stage through the play, August 29. Evelina Fernandez, writer of Luminarias (Golden Eagle Award - Outstanding Writer) and Dementia (2002 GLAAD Award - Outstanding Theater Production in Los Angeles), actors Enrique Castillo, Sal Lopez and Lupe Ontiveros wrote August 29 as a collaborative project. 

Jose Luis Valenzuela, Artistic Director of the Latino Theater Company and UCLA Theater Professor, directed the play. 

Evelina Fernandez describes the play as being "about a Chicano Studies professor and the spirit of Ruben Salazar." The producers of the 2003 production of August 29 believe that it is of utmost importance to once again present the spirit of Ruben Salazar during our current period of 
violence and war. The four female producers, known as "Las Cuatro," include: Jacqueline Calderon-Guido, Maricella Ibarra, Maria G. Martinez, and Teresa-Michelle Ruiz (Hermosa Productions). Las Cuatro will premiere the 2003 production of August 29 at the Boyle Heights arts space, CASA 0101, on Friday August 29.

The production of August 29 is being sponsored by Courage Productions, a nonprofit arts and education organization which was initiated by Josefina Lopez to nurture and provide resources for future writers of Los Angeles.

Lopez is the writer of Real Women Have Curves, recipient of the 2002 Sundance Audience Award in the dramatic competition. On July 24, 2003, Lopez was awarded the Nosotros Golden Eagle Award for her outstanding achievements and contributions in the entertainment industry and her work in nurturing young writers in Boyle Heights and its surrounding communities. The producers are honored to have the opportunity to invoke the spirit of Ruben Salazar, commemorate the Chicano Moratorium, and return to the site of the 1970 event by presenting the Latino Theater Company's play, August 29, within the neighborhood of Boyle Heights.

Opens: August 29, 2003 Runs through September 21, 2003
(Fridays & Saturdays at 8 pm / Sundays at 7 pm
CASA 0101, 2009 East First St., Boyle Heights, Los Angeles 90033
Tickets: $12 general admission; $10 students, seniors and Boyle Heights residents (with ID). 
Reservations suggested: (213) 810-9097 INFO:
Maria G. Martinez, (213) 810-9097 /

  The Legacy of Affirmative Action 

Supreme Court decisions reverberate in the community
By Howard Shorr, (July 31, 2003)

The University of Michigan affirmative action Supreme Court cases has been decided and there appears to be excitement and discontentment among different groups about the rulings.

In articles that have appeared since the decisions, there has been scant mention of the experiences of students of color who attended college in the post-Bakke era in the 1980's. This is the 25th anniversary of that case and their experiences need to be explored so the present Supreme Court decisions can be placed in an historical context. Furthermore it is important to explain how affirmative action mirrors society. In 1981, historian Nell Painter of Princeton University wrote in the New York Times, "To hear people talk, affirmative action exists only to employ and promote the otherwise unqualified, but I don't see it that way." What Painter wrote twenty-two years ago is still an issue today.

There is a lot written about the many struggles that occurred over the creation of Ethnic and Women Studies programs nationwide in the late 1960's and 1970's. I remember as a student at the time that school officials, some professors and a few students dismissed these programs as unimportant.

I started teaching at Theodore Roosevelt High School in the Boyle Heights section of East Los Angeles a few months after the Bakke decision in 1978. Boyle Heights became a Chicano majority in the 1960 census with a mixture of immigrants and native-born people. Of the estimated 90,000 residents, most were renters, and the community included three housing projects with five freeways.

Theodore Roosevelt High School was 98% Latino and overcrowded with about 3,500 students. I taught U.S. History, Government and the History of Boyle Heights classes during the 1970's and 1980's. A high percentage of my students were children of immigrants and many became the first in their family to attend college. Most of them had the historical memories of the East Los Angeles "Blow Out's" in 1968, the Chicano Moratorium in 1970 and the Vietnam War. There existed a strong sense of community in East Los Angeles, reinforced by a common ethnicity and history, but also by the dark side of the INS sweeps in the 1970s and 1980s.

Some universities nationwide started in the late 1970's/1980's to recruit a small percentage of students of color. College admissions officers came to Roosevelt and other high schools looking for potential students. Some students now had a chance to attend a university that just a few years earlier wouldn't have sought them out. Some admissions officers did not discuss the problems that students of color would later face in college. Instead there was a feeling that students of color were used to fill unspoken quotas. But there were wonderful admissions officials like James Montoya (Director of Admissions at Occidential College, Vassar College and Stanford University) who were very supportive to the students.

My students' lives were forever changed when they entered college. I had a tradition in my class that former students would come to Roosevelt and speak about their college experiences. Many of their stories were very uplifting, but some of the students also discussed the discrimination that they encountered in college.

The percentage of students of color was even smaller then now. They felt a backlash that emerged after the Bakke case. Some of the other students wouldn't live in the same dorm room with my former students because they might be gang members who carried weapons. Also certain professors questioned their ability on assigned work, accusing them of plagiarism. One former student who attended a U.C. school wrote, "For the first time I knew what being a "minority" was like, and it wasn't pleasant. I was still very much an outsider and I needed to connect with other Chicanos." Despite these stories, my former students also revealed their networks of support among their peers and encouragement and mentorship from faculty and staff.

Though in their forties, my former students understand their place in history and some have passed on their experiences to their children. A former student wrote, "Until the playing field is even, we need affirmative action and we are not there yet."

The legacy of affirmative action still divides people not only at schools but in society. Today we live in a different world and can only understand the issues of affirmative action today, if we it look at it in an historical context.

Howard Shorr created the first History of Boyle Heights course at Roosevelt High School in 1981 and previously published "A Multicultural Core Curriculum" in in May, 2003. He can be reached at

1927 & 1931 Culver City (Los Angeles County), California city directories released. View at


Mexican Cultural Institute Seeks Artwork 
San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park
Conference on the Bay Miwok Peoples
Hispanic Heritage Project, BERNAL 
Phelipe de Neve, Governor of Calif, 1777-1782
Mexican Heritage Corporation
UCSB Pioneers Chicano doctoral program 
Computer Basics
HACU Conference in Anaheim
California Ranchos 
Litigation Saga
Calvary Cemetery, Established 1870 
Familia Olivo 





Program at Rancho Los Cerritos, September 21, 1:30 to 4:30 p.m.
Free for all ages
4600 Virginia Road, Long Beach, CA
For information: Ellen Calomiris,  562-570-1755

A Glance Back . . . A Multi-National Workforce
Source: Rancho Review, Rancho Los Cerritos, Summer 2003
Under the Bixby family, cattle gave way to sheep and the Bixbys hired many Basque herders to tend their flocks.  An enterprising people from the mountainous border between Spain and France, they used their experience with livestock in their homeland to find employment in California.  Mostly single men willing to put up with the lonely life of a herder they often saved enough in a few years time to buy their own land and sheep.

Like many other nationalities that settled in California after the gold rush, the Chinese initially came as miners.  They then helped build the railroads and eventually migrated to domestic work as cooks and launderers.  Ying and Fan, the Bixby's valued cook and assistant, learned to make American and Mexican dishes for the family and workers.

Mexican Cultural Institute Seeks Artwork 
LatinoLA Newsletter + Calendar is published weekly by, 10811 Washington Blvd., Ste. 400, Culver City, CA 90232. 213 688-7695 (phone). 213 688-7791 (fax).  Excellent information on media related subjects in L.A., jobs and events.  Source: LatinoLA E-newsletter and Calendar  Sent by Anthony Garcia

The Mexican Cultural Institute is seeking artwork to use as a cover for a new book by Professor David Hayes-Bautista, Director for the UCLA Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture, called: La Nueva California: Latinos in the Golden State. The Artist will be given credit in the book and all related publicity, and will be paid a fee of $1,000 to use the image on the book cover, with an option to sell original artwork to the Center. Please submit all artwork to the Mexican Cultural Institute no later than September 5th, 2003 to: Mexican Cultural Institute, 125 Paseo de la Plaza, Suite 300, Los Angeles, CA 90012 or Via email: For any questions or concerns call (213) 624-3660.

Los Californianos Alert

Sent by  
Dear friends of
San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park and SPBVA members:

As some of you may already know, our state park system is facing possible closure of many parks (as many as 100 or even more of our 277 state parks) that bring in less than $100,000 per year.  You can probably guess that this targets many of our cultural/historic parks.  In the San Diego area that means San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park and possibly others. The board members of the volunteer association for San Pasqual want to be advocates for their park.  We have worked too hard trying to acquire the school property adjacent to the park (not quite finished), to find that the visitor center and park will be closed.  Our park is small yet unique because it represents three different cultures--Indian, Californio, and American--that took part in the Dec. 6, 1846 Mexican War battle, the most significant one in California.  Our organization presents monthly living history programs (first Sundays January-June and October, November), reenacts the Battle of San Pasqual in December (this year on Dec. 7), holds monthly history discussions, presents programs to school groups, presents military programs for the Marines, and gives special docent tours on request.  Our park does not charge admission fees and thus we are dependent on donations. 

Action by all of us is needed now.  E-mail, fax, write, and/or call your legislator to support San Pasqual Battlefield State Historic Park and to keep the park open.  Please emphasize the services we perform to the community and that we commemorate three cultures.  You can find a sample
letter and updates on the status of the park system itself at the website for the California State Parks Foundation     Or a short personalized email may be more compelling. 

You can find an email listing for both your own state assemblyman and senator by inputting your home address in:  or   will give you access to senator emails

The park itself is represented by
    Assemblyman 75th George Plescia

    Senator 36th Dennis Hollingsworth

Help with the acquisition of the adjacent school property for the park and use by the Archaeological Center has been given by Sen. Dede Alpert.  She is working on this project now and has helped with Old Town in the past. Please thank her for her efforts on our behalf.
    Senator 39th Dede Alpert

Key legislators are:
John Burton, Speaker pro Tempore California Senate
    (916) 445-1412  or fax (916) 445-4722 or

Herb Wesson, Speaker California Assembly
    (916) 319-2047  or fax (916) 319-2147 or

Dave Cox, Assemblymember R-Fair Oaks
    (916) 319-2005 or fax (916) 319-2105  or

Jim Brulte, Senator R-Rancho Cucamonga
    (916) 445-3688  or fax (916) 327-2272  or

Please use your influence to ensure that our state parks remain open and available to the public.  All of us at San Pasqual Battlefield Volunteer Association thank you for your help.
Ellen Sweet
Editor, Battlelines
SPBVA board member

Bay Miwok: Past, Present and Future

The First Peoples of Contra Costa County

Los Californianos Alert
  Sent by (Los Californianos)
Conference on the Bay Miwok Peoples: Chupcan, Julpun, Ompin, Saclan, Tatcan, Volvon
On September 20, 2003 the Contra Costa County Historical Society, in conjunction with Diablo Valley College and the Easy Bay Regional Park District will present a one-day conference. 
Participants will gain an understanding and appreciation of the people who thrived for thousands of years in present-day Contra Costa County.

WHEN: September 20, 2003, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Registration and coffee 8:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. 
WHERE: Diablo Valley College, Performing Arts Center
321 Golf Club Road, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523 
COST: $25 general admission, $20 for students, seniors and members of the CCCHS 
For registration and program information, click here or contact the Contra Costa County Historical Society at a special number set up for this seminar: 925-228-2379. Please do not call the regular History Center phone number. You may also click here to get an Adobe Acrobat copy of the
registration form which you may fill out and mail to the History Center   (address on the form).

Hispanic Heritage Project, BERNAL 

Sent by Mira Smithwick
and Carlos Yturralde

Hispanic Heritage Project, a nonprofit corporation, cordially invites you to the grand opening of BERNAL, our bookstore, gallery and research center, on the 29th of August from 4:00PM to 8:00PM.  BERNAL is located at 136 North Kalmia in downtown Escondido, California.  

The bookstore specializes in Spanish books for children, Spanish general interest books, and English and Spanish books on the Spanish colonial period.  It also has rare and out of print books on the latter subject.  The bookstore also has an outstanding collection of books on the codices of Mesoamerica.

Presently the gallery has on display the Gilis Sculptures in steel by Gilberto Valdadez; and a display of photography art by the Latin Click, two Hispanic artists: Waldo Nilo and Victor Aleman.

Available for reference is a modest collection of Spanish colonial reference materials, the unpublished Nueva Guia to the Hidalgo del Parral Archive, as well a work in progress list of the testamentos found in that archive.

For additional information, please call the center between the hours of 2:00PM and 5:30PM, Tuesday through Saturday:  (760) 233-1656

Phelipe de Neve, Governor of California, 1777-1782

Sent by Mike Hardwick

When Phelipe de Neve arrived at Monterey in 1777, the Spanish held only 8 toeholds along a 600-mile coast.  Most buildings in California were mere basketwork frames of interlaced poles plastered with clay.  These and the few adobe structures were roofed with thatch, easily set on fire. Settlements were not walled and almost defenseless.  Nowhere else in the northern frontier did New Spain face such a concentrated Indian population, and these Indians were far from submissive. San Diego and San Luis Obispo missions had recently been burned, and San Juan Capistrano abandoned.  There were only 146 soldiers in California lacking in horses, arms, and equipment.  Soldiers were resentful of the conditions of service, the shortness of rations, and the exorbitant prices in the commissary.  Evasion of duty and desertion were serious problems.

In five years, 1777-1782, Colonel Neve transformed Alta California.  He rewrote the fundamental law under which California was governed with his Reglamento of 1781.  He founded the pueblos of San José and Los Angeles, and brought experienced farmers from Mexico, thereby relieving the dependence upon food ships from San Blas in Baja California.  Neve reformed finances, introducing order in the commissaries, bringing down prices, and at the same time increasing real pay of the military.  He walled in the presidios, built up the army both in numbers and efficiency.  Colonel Neve personally directed the construction of a new presidio at Santa Bárbara in 1782, and planned a string of 3 new missions along the Channel Coast. New missions were to be San Buenavetura (1782), Santa Bárbara (1786), and La Purísima Concepción (1787).

Phelipe de Neve was awarded the Cross of Carlos III in 1783 for meritorious service and advanced to the rank of brigadier. In 1783 he was also named Captain General of the Interior Provinces, a position second only to the viceroy of Mexico.  Neve died in 1784 at the age of 57. 

 Mexican Heritage Corporation 
Smithsonian Affiliations
San Jose, California

Sent by Joan De Soto

The Mexican Heritage Corporation opened its Mexican Heritage Plaza in September 1999. Its mission is to nurture pride and to promote appreciation, interest and awareness of California's Latino cultural heritage. The complex includes a 500-seat state-of-the-art theater, classrooms, an art gallery and exhibition space, three distinct thematic gardens, and a centralized plaza

UC Santa Barbara pioneers Chicano doctoral program 
Department to be first in U.S., results from decade-old student, faculty demands, strike 
By Tanya Schevitz,

San Francisco Chronicle Staff Writer

Wednesday, August 6, UC Santa Barbara is starting the nation's first doctoral program in Chicano studies, part of a growing interest at colleges and universities in understanding Latinos' heritage and their role in the contemporary United States. 

UC Santa Barbara established its department in 1969 and is one of only 19 four-year universities -- and the only one in the UC system -- to have full department status for Chicano studies. UCLA is also considering proposals to establish a department and to add doctorate and master's degrees. 

The Latino population is growing around the country, not just in California -- where Latinos make up a third of the population and are expected to become the state's largest ethnic group by 2014. UC Santa Barbara's creation of a doctoral program "verifies the emergence and is really symbolic of the education and politics of the Hispanic community in this country," said Sheldon Steinbach, vice president and general counsel with the American Council on Education in Washington, D.C. 

The new doctoral program will focus on five areas, from pre-Columbian cultures to contemporary American society, and deal with politics, education, literature, the arts, sciences and religion, Sandoval said. 

"Computer Basics," the Genealogical Society of Santa Cruz County will host a meeting conducted by Bob Boscarella on Thursday, October 2. On Thursday, November 6, Karen Roberts will speak on "Southern Research," and on Thursday, December 4 the GSSCC will hold its annual holiday lunch. The regular meetings of GSSCC start at 1:00 p.m. in the Meeting Room of the Central Branch of the Santa Cruz Public Library, 224 Church St.The time and location of the Holiday Lunch are to be arranged. The Computer Users Group meets prior to the general meetings at 12:00 noon. 

 Hispanic Association of Colleges & Universities Conference in Anaheim 
Sent by: Emily Robinson

HACU represents more than 300 colleges and universities  including 93 California institutions  serving the largest concentrations of Hispanic higher education students in the United States. HACU will hold its 17th Annual Conference in Anaheim in October. Higher education institutions reeling from state budget cutbacks and an uncertain national economy also are turning to HACU to help win record new federal investments in cash-strapped colleges and universities, especially those serving large concentrations of Hispanic and other emerging majority populations. Latest legislative strategies, and potential impact for California colleges and universities regarding bills now being voted on by Congress, also will be addressed.

For more information, contact Daniel Casillas at (210) 692-3805. Ext. 3249 or (210) 264-9327"

Borgo Press/Sidewinder Press,  1988 ¨ 144 pages
LC 87-11696 ¨ ISBN 0-89370-935-2
Paperbound $15 Postpaid

Millefleurs Information Services
Post Office Box 2845
San Bernardino, CA 92406-2845
Sent by Joan De Soto  


California Ranchos
is a thorough reworking and resetting of the 1942 WPA publication of the same name, compiled by Burgess McK. Shumway in 1940 and 1941. A typical entry includes: the rancho name, record number, present-day county or counties, area of grant, date of grant, name of the governor who ceded the grant, the recipient or recipients, the repatented acreage, date of new patent, names of its recipients, and specific location. The entries are arranged alphabetically by county name, and then by rancho.

California Ranchos also includes a chronological listing of the governors appointed by Spain and Mexico during California's colonial period (1769-1847), an index of governors and other grantors, an index of rancho names (including alternative versions), and an index of grantees. This will be a valuable addition to the collections of researchers and libraries interested in the history of early California and its land.

Litigation Saga 

Sent by Lorri Frain

Perched on a hill overlooking Palo Alto stands an historic house - a house that was once the home of an extraordinary Hispanic woman, Juana Briones. And it is under threat.  A decision in February has delayed the demolition. 
On February 20, 2003, Santa Clara Superior Court Judge John Herlihy filed a 26-page decision requiring the property owners to repair and maintain the Briones House and may not demolish it at least through 2007. He ordered them to repair the earthquake damage, and remove the illegal alterations made by the previous owner, in addition to performing the basic maintenance to protect the home from further deterioration from the elements. Although the owners have chosen to appeal the decision, this ruling is an important step forward in the efforts to protect the house.

For a history of the litigation go to

Calvary Cemetery, Established 1870 

Home to Pioneers of the Salinas Valley
Research your family name on our website: http://www.cemeteriesdom
Sent by
A Bit of History : Old Calvary Cemetery was established in 1870 on two acres of land belonging to George Graves. Mr. Graves was a farmer who settled in the Salinas Valley in 1855. He had set aside a place for private burial ground on his ranch, when some of his young children died. He soon saw the need for a community cemetery, and deeded the site to the Catholic Church and Calvary Cemetery was born! 

If you would like to join our restoration committee, or sponsor an improvement at Old Calvary Cemetery in honor of a relative, please call Leticia at Queen of Heaven Cemetery 1-831-449-5890 or e-mail
Contributions can be made to: Old Calvary Cemetery Restoration Fund 
P.O. Box 2048, Monterey, CA 93942 
Familia Olivo

Sent by Texan Jerry Benavides  who writes our California Olivo "primos" 
were featured in a San Diego State University write-up--web site:

Octubre 14, 1997
Contacto: José A. Álvarez (619) 594-2585

Familia Olivo: Un ejemplo de superación Cuatro de los hermanos Olivo se graduaron de la SDSU; otro de un colegio local, y el último aún estudia en ella 

Cuando pequeños, Vicenta y Librado Olivo, residentes de San Jacinto, California, llevaban a sus hijos a sus respectivos lugares de trabajo; Vicenta a los campos de pizca; Librado a los sitios de construcción donde laboraba. Los llevaban allí para que vieran dónde y cómo se ganaban la vida. Su objetivo no era enseñarles a desempeñar el tipo de labores que ellos realizaban, sino todo lo contrario. Querían mostrarles lo duro que puede ser la vida cuando no se cuenta con una educación universitaria.

"Los llevaba a que me vieran a mí y a mi jefe", cuenta Librado, ahora jubilado de la construcción. "Les mostraba como vestía yo y como mi jefe siempre llevaba camisa y corbata. Les decía: ‘Yo quiero ser aquel, el que cuenta con un título universitario’".

La importancia de la educación

Según Librado fue de esta manera que inculcó en sus hijos, tres varones y tres hembras, lo importante que es conseguir una educación universitaria y una profesión. Sus seis hijos -Irasema, Edalia, Estella, René, Rolando y Ricardo-aprendieron bien la lección. Cuatro se graduaron de la Universidad Estatal de San Diego; uno prefirió quedarse en casa y asistir a un colegio local y el menor aún estudia en la SDSU. 

"La meta siempre fue que todos obtuviéramos títulos (más) universitarios", recuerda Edalia Olivo-Gómez que en 1982, acompañada por Irasema, su hermana mayor, salieron de casa en busca de un mejor porvenir y del sueño que sus padres anhelaban para sus hijos. Irasema tuvo que estudiar en un colegio local durante dos años mientras Edalia terminaba la secundaria para poder asistir a la universidad juntas.

"Fue difícil para ellas porque no estaban impuestas a estar fuera de casa. Pero, gracias a Dios siguieron el ejemplo que les dimos", dice Vicenta, madre de los Olivo. "Ya que nosotros no pudimos, por lo menos ellos van a poder tener un mejor porvenir", agrega la madre explicando que tanto ella como su esposo sólo tuvieron estudios equivalentes a tercer año de primaria.

Cinco asisten a la SDSU

La entrada de Irasema e Edalia pavimento el camino para que sus otros hermanos asistieran a la universidad, principalmente a la Universidad Estatal de San Diego. 

En 1986, a la SDSU llegaron Estella y René. Cinco años después Estella se graduaría con un título en educación. Ahora trabaja como maestra para el Distrito Escolar de San Diego. 

"Quise seguir el mismo camino que mis hermanas", dice René, quien llegó a la SDSU, al igual que el resto de los Olivo, gracias al Programa de Oportunidades Educativas, diseñado para proporcionar ayuda financiera a estudiantes de bajos recursos y con desventajas educativas. El hecho de que la SDSU tiene un excelente programa de ingeniería civil fue otra de las cosas que lo atrajo a la universidad. "Mi estancia en la SDSU fue una de las mejores épocas de mi vida", agrega René indicando que fue en la SDSU donde conoció a la que se sería su futura esposa. Irasema e Edalia también se casaron con graduados de la SDSU. En 1992, René se graduó con un título en ingeniería civil y ahora trabaja para Rudolph & Sletten, una compañía contratista del área de San Francisco con sucursales en La Jolla. 

Cuatro años después de la graduación de René, al recinto universitario de SDSU llegó Ricardo, el menor de los Olivo. Ricardo planea ser médico y cursa su segundo año en la SDSU.

La tarea termina

Para Librado, quien siempre vigiló el desenvolvimiento académico y comunitario de sus hijos -siempre asistió a las conferencias con los maestros y jugo un papel muy importante en la implementación del programa bilingüe en su distrito escolar local, la incursión de su hijo menor a la universidad significaba que su trabajo como promotor de la educación estaba por terminar. Todos sus hijos se habían graduado o asistían a un colegio o universidad. 

"Siempre los insté a superarse. Lograr que asistieran a la universidad fue la tarea más grande que he tenido", asegura Librado explicando que quiso que sus hijos asistieran a la SDSU porque "tenía un poco más que ofrecerles" y estaba convencido de que allí "apoyaban a los estudiantes latinos". También, prefirió que algunos lo hicieran a la misma vez para que se respaldaran los unos a los otros en lo moral y en aspectos económicos.

"Creía que si estábamos juntos, teníamos mejores probabilidades de salir adelante", dice Edalia indicando que tanto ella como sus hermanos trabajaron durante su estancia en la universidad para ayudar a su padre a costear sus estudios. Al principio, concuerda con su madre, a ella y a su hermana Irasema les fue difícil adaptarse a la vida universitaria y "pasábamos todos los fines de semana en casa". Pero, tan pronto empezaron a involucrarse en actividades educativas y recreativas lograron cortar el cordón umbilical de la familia. La llegada de Estella y René hizo más placentera su estancia en la SDSU ya que no sólo contaban con más apoyo moral sino con dos personas más con quien compartir los gastos. En un tiempo los cuatro llegaron a vivir juntos.

"La SDSU se convirtió en parte de la familia. Visitar la universidad era como visitar mi segunda casa", afirma Librado quien con frecuencia visitaba a sus hijos y reitera que desde temprano empezó a planear su futuro y los preparó para que "tomaran sus propias decisiones".

Una experiencia "agridulce"

No obstante, Edalia considera que la ida de ella y sus hermanos ha sido una experiencia "agridulce" para sus padres. "Están felices porque todos asistimos a la universidad. Pero, también todos -excepto Rolando- nos fuimos de casa", afirma Edalia que al igual que Irasema se graduó con una maestría en Administración Pública. Ambas trabajan para la ciudad de Chula Vista; Edalia en el Departamento de Planificación e Irasema en el de Policía. Los cinco hermanos Olivo viven en esta ciudad.

No obstante, Librado dice estar satisfecho con las decisiones que han tomado y el camino que han seguido sus hijos. 

"Desde temprano comprendí que era lo único que podía dejarles de herencia, mi apoyo para que sigan adelante con su educación", asegura Librado quien a pesar de que la mayoría de sus hijos viven un poco lejos de él y su esposa dice estar orgulloso de todos por haber seguido su buen ejemplo. "Todo lo que uno quiere y lo que vale la pena cuesta trabajo".



Big Congratulations to Juan Mayans, 
Galvez Executive Committee member, in
Seattle, Washington and his new magazine. 

New magazine to showcase Latino culture 
By Maria Gonzalez, 
Seattle Times Eastside bureau
Tuesday, September 02, 2003 

When the first issue of Persona magazine hits stores in King County this week, the cover will show Seattle Mariners pitcher Joél Piñeiro dressed as though he's stepping out on a date instead of stepping out of the dugout. 
Juan Mayans, publisher of the Latino magazine 
Persona,  holds a reproduction of the debut issue.

Creators of the new lifestyle magazine wanted to capture Piñeiro the regular guy, not the baseball star. In the issue, Piñeiro — who turns 25 this month — talks about his path to being famous, his approach to life and his hobbies outside of baseball. 

Besides the Piñeiro interview, Persona's first issue covers a variety of topics, from recipes for cooking Paraguayan food to a look at unemployment in the Northwest. 

Persona is filled with a mix of stories on celebrities, financial advice, recipes and film reviews — with a Latino focus. But it's not just for Latinos. Persona is written in English so it appeals to anyone with an affinity for Latino culture. 

"It is really a connection of cultures that we're trying to make," said Juan Mayans, owner and publisher of the magazine. 

Mayans is also giving businesses interested in the Latino market a deeper interpretation of Latino culture — and offering them the advertisement space to reach the public. 

For John Camargo of Bellevue, Persona is one way for businesses eager for a piece of the Latino market to connect with the community. 

"We need this in our area," said Camargo, a financial adviser contributing as a business columnist for Persona. 

Latinos living in the United States make up the country's largest minority group. 

The number of Latinos living in King County has doubled in the past decade, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. 

King County is home to about 95,000 Latino residents of various backgrounds. In South King County, Latinos make up more than 10 percent of the population. 

In Bellevue, the number of Mexican immigrants rose from 156 to 2,364 between 1990 and 2000. In the past few years Bellevue's entire Latino community has grown by more than 40 percent. 

Camargo said large businesses are still figuring out how to tap into that population. 

"There's different ways to approach us," said Camargo, who also is president of the Eastside Latino Leadership Forum. "We're trying to build bridges to these companies." 

The economic downturn after the attacks on Sept. 11 two years ago meant difficult times for businesses and individuals. Mayans saw the low cost of overhead as an opportunity to begin plans for his magazine. 

Mayans had already run his own company, Pi Factor, for years. He first came to the Seattle area about nine years ago from Spain, where he founded Pi Factor with his younger brother in 1998. The marketing and design agency now has additional offices in Bellevue and Copenhagen, Denmark. Persona will be published and distributed out of Mayans' Bellevue office, where he works full time. 

He also serves on the board of directors of the Washington State Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. 

While the new magazine is funded through his business and investments, and with the help of his younger brother, Mayans is also seeking investors to expand Persona's circulation beyond the Northwest. 

The first issue of Persona is actually the fourth magazine published. Three original issues, published under another name, Discovering Latinos, were used as a tool to test the market and see if the investment would pay off. 

Mayans placed the magazine in various Spanish-goods stores three months ago and waited. 

"People loved it," Mayans said. "They wanted more — more content and better content." 

After an original investor pulled out of the deal, expressing a difference in interests, Mayans went to work repackaging the magazine. That meant scrapping the original name, which hinted at Latino culture as something to be discovered in the Seattle area, even though the community has had a presence here for a long time. 

Mayans thinks Persona's title, which means "person" in Spanish, is inclusive of both Latino and American cultures since it can be understood in English or Spanish. 

The magazine will be distributed to about 500 Latin-goods stores from Everett to Tacoma as well as the Wenatchee area. 

The monthly magazine costs $3.25 an issue and also can be picked up at various grocers, such as Top Food and Drug in Bellevue's Crossroads Shopping Center and Azteca restaurants. Mayans is working out deals with a few downtown Seattle bookshops and is in talks with a national bookstore chain, where he hopes Persona will stand out. 

"There's an intent in the community to work toward that goal of full integration," he said. 

"But there's nothing that's trying to bridge the gap." 

Maria Gonzalez: 206-464-2449 or 

Copyright © 2003 The Seattle Times Company 


Berroteran Family  
Descendants of the Conquistadors
Presidio of San Agustin del Tucson
New Mexico
Matricula Consular

Yasmin A. Aboytes / El Paso Times

Photo courtesy of Sal Berroteran, January 1932 
The Berroteran family  Standing, from left, Enrique Berroteran and Alfred Berroteran. Front row, from left, son Jose Berroteran  seated on windowsill; Carlos Berroteran, seated; Sal Berroteran, standing; parents Carolina and Jose Berroteran; and Robert Berroteran. The parents and son Alfred are deceased.
The Berroteran brothers, Robert, left, and Sal, recently celebrated the family's history during a weekend reunion. Sal Berroteran served as city alderman from 1964-1972.  Closer look: Brief history: Joaquin and Trinidad Berroteran, Jose and Carolina Berroteran came to El Paso from Chihuahua City during the Mexican Revolution in 1914 and settled in the South Side.  Jose Berroteran opened a successful photo finishing business. The family grew and many of them moved from El Paso to as far north as Alaska and Canada and from coast to coast.

Extract: Reunion brings history back to life for South Side Icons
by Ken Flynn, El Paso Times, Neighborhoods, July 11, 2003
Article sent by author, who can be reached at:

Members of the Berroteran family of El Paso's South Side have always been known as good talkers. When they met at Gerardo's Restaurant at Montana and Geronimo this past weekend, the younger generations found out where that trait comes from. 

The fifth-generation Berroterans learned how their ancestor Jose Berroteran talked himself out of the firing squad during the Mexican Revolution and was able to secure safe passage for his family from Chihuahua City to El Paso. 

Henry Morales of St. Louis, Mo., 70, son of Soledad Berroteran Morales and official family historian, came to Gerardo's at the Quality Inn loaded with charts, photos and records that trace the family's history from Chihuahua to the Segundo Barrio of El Paso and as far north as Alaska and Canada. 

And the family's stories and legends flowed as members of the family checked in from Chihuahua, California, Florida, Washington, Arizona, Missouri, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, Alaska and Canada. 

One of the family's most celebrated members is Sal Berroteran, 78, former El Paso city alderman in charge of parks and recreation during the Judson Williams administration, and alderman and mayor pro-tem during the Peter de Wetter and Bert Williams administrations. He told the younger family members the story of his father, Jose, who was a regidor or city councilman in Chihuahua City during the Mexican Revolution. 

"My father and mother were fleeing from Pancho Villa," Sal Berroteran said. "When the train was stopped by revolutionaries, he knew he was in trouble because he was a government official." 

The soldiers took Jose Berroteran outside, but he recognized the soldiers' squad leader and was able to talk his way out of the firing squad and secure safe passage for his family. The year was 1914. 

"That's what I call a fast talker," Sal Berroteran said. "His family was a wreck because the soldiers set up a firing squad and killed all those that had been taken off the train. My father had to walk from Chihuahua City to El Paso." 

Morales said most of the family, including the patriarchs, Joaquin and Trinidad Berroteran, were on the train. 

Included in the group was his mother, Soledad Morales, who was 12 years old at the time and said she vividly remembered the incident. 

Sal Berroteran said he and the surviving members of the family visited their old neighborhoods on the South Side and reminisced about good times at Bowie High. 

"We're all scattered now, but our roots in the South Side are deep," Sal Berroteran said. 

Morales said he recalls being "wild" as a young man growing up in El Paso. 

"We used to hang out in the Chamizal area, when it was a no-man's land," he recalled. "We'd get to one place, in about where the park is now, and whistle; and an old man, Don Francisco, would show up and sell us rot-gut whiskey from Mexico." 

Morales said his brothers and cousins were never gang members but had to put up with them. 

"We lived in the territory of the 7-11s (Seventh and 11th Avenues), so we had to be careful of the OK Nines (Oregon, Kansas and Ninth Avenue)," he said, recalling getting hit with rocks and bricks for being in the wrong neighborhood at the wrong time. 

Sal Berroteran, still active as a photographer, served as city alderman from 1964-1972. He is past president of Council 132 of the League of United Latin American Citizens and a lifelong LULAC member. 

"We had it better than most during the Depression," he said. "My dad had a photo processing business so everyone looked at us as being rich." 

One of the favorite stories circulating at the reunion was that of Tia Juanita from the Mexican Revolution days. Morales said Juanita was betrothed to a young revolutionary before the war. He promised to return to her. When the war was over he returned to Chihuahua, but with a wife and two children. Juanita reportedly died of a broken heart. 

Morales said he has records showing Joaquin Berroteran was born in 1852 and died in El Paso in 1924. Trinidad was born in 1856 and died in 1947. 

Most of the clan, ranging in age from Enrique Berroteran, 93, of Las Cruces, to Isabel Marta Ruacho, 6 months, of Whittier, Calif., were quartered at the Quality Inn, Montana and Geronimo, with Gerardo's Restaurant as unofficial family reunion headquarters. 

 Descendants of the Conquistadors

Sent by Paul Newfield

Just released “Descendants of the Conquistadors” 26 volumes containing over 30,000 pages on the genealogy of the descendant of Juan Onate’s conquistadors who settled New Mexico in 1598 and 1600. One volume on each of the 26 conquistadors who left descendents in New Mexico. Contained on one CD in Adobe “pdf” format. Each volume includes a genealogy report listed their descendant and if known their wives names and giving dates of birth, marriage and death; a kinship report listing alphabetically all descendants with their relationship and, if know, their date of birth; and a descendant family tree. Individuals listed lived between 1598 and the mid to late 1800s in the Rio Grande valley of New Mexico between Taos and Socorro counties. If you can trace you Hispanic genealogy in New Mexico to the mid 1800s there is a high probability that you will have Conquistadors in your family tree. For more details download the attached Adobe “pdf” file and open it in Adobe Acrobat Reader. If you have any questions e-mail  with “Conquistadors” in the subject line.
 Presidio of San Agustin del Tucson 
Hispanic Tucson: A History by Gus Chavez

[[ Gus Chavez has created an informative website linking to other websites with Arizona family connections, good strategy.]]

Introduction to the website. 
From 1775 to 1821 Tucson was under Spanish rule and was part of the region known as Pimería Alta which included the area that is now known as southern Arizona and northern Sonora. On August 20th, 1775 Lieutenant Colonel Hugo O' Conner of the Royal Spanish army selected and surveyed the site for the building of the Presidio of San Agustín del Tucsón and laid the foundation for the beginning of the modern day City of Tucson. The Presidio site located on the east side of the Santa Cruz River was selected because it had access to water, pastures, and woodlands; all the resources necessary for the settlers to survive in the rugged desert. In addition the site was an excellent location to protect the surrounding settlements and the overland route from Mexico to California which led to the founding of San Francisco by Juan Bautista de Anza. In 1776 the Presidio soldiers along with their families moved from the Presidio of Tubac founded in 1752 to the new Tucson Presidio site. These first soldiers were a true representation of the ethnic diversity that existed on the Sonoran frontier. Spaniards, Mestizos, Coyotes, Mulatto and Moriscos were all represented in the 27 soldiers of the Presidio of Tucson. While there was friction between the Indian inhabitants and the Hispanic settlers, a spirit of cooperation developed for the mutual protection from Apache raids and for economic survival. Both Pima Indians and Hispanic settlers worked side by side in cultivating and irrigating the fields and protecting the settlements from Western Apache raids. The Soldiers known as soldados de cuero wore protective leather jackets when fighting Apaches. When the soldiers were not fighting they served as mail couriers, escorts for missionaries, settlers and supply trains. By 1804 the population of Tucson and the surrounding area was over 1,000 and was composed of Mestizos, Indians and Spaniards. These settlers grew corn, wheat, beans and vegetables and were successful in stockraising claiming more than 7300 head of cattle, sheep and horses. By the end of the Spanish period Tucson was prospering as more Mestizos settlers and retired soldiers moved near and around the Presidio displacing the Pima Indians. 

Some of the family names which have been researched are: Soza, Moraga, Zepeda, Pentland-Salcido, Ronstadt.
New Mexico
has moved and is divided into TWO new sites. These sites are quite large with databases, marriages, surnames, history, cemeteries and much more.
ew Mexico Ancestors (NMA) at and
New Mexico Genealogy (NMG) at 

Matricula Consular
Abstract by Raul Damas, Director of OperationLatino Opinions
(703) 299-6255

Las Vegas Sun – Hispanic Chamber Supports Matricula Consular
The state's largest Hispanic organization told the federal government it supports the use of the controversial Mexican consular identification cards in the nation's banks. The Latin Chamber of Commerce statement responded to a Treasury Department request for comments on what types of identification banks should accept. The chamber -- third largest in the Southwest, at 1,200 members -- filed its comments right before the federal agency's deadline Thursday. "This is one of -- if not the most -- significant business issues in the Hispanic community today," Tony Sanchez, president of the chamber, said.


4th Annual African village Weekend
Memorial Park, Upland, California
September 5th-7th, 2003

Featuring musical performances, 
food, activities for all ages, 
black film festival, 
Sunday worship service 
and much more.


Handbook of Texas Online: Matachines 
Moctezuma II descendants Seek Pensions
The Mighty Mesquite 

Handbook of Texas Online: Matachines 

Extract of article by Norma E. Cantú

MATACHINES. Los matachines denotes a traditional religious dance and the dancers, musicians, and elders who participate in it. Its roots go back to a type of widespread medieval sword dance called a morisca. Originally, the dances acted out the battle between Christianity and paganism. The Spanish brought the ritual with them to the New World, where over time it incorporated Mexican, Indian, and American religious and social symbols. Most modern versions rely heavily on representations of the Virgin Mary and the Holy Cross. The dance is usually performed in connection with major liturgical feast days 

The costumes vary from group to group but usually represent a mixture of Spanish, Mexican, and Indian dress. Brilliant colors and elaborate masks are common to most performances. 

The syncretism of pre-Columbian and Christian symbols found on the matachín costumes crops up in various other elements of the celebration, which typically lasts from three to five days. Los Matachines de la Santa Cruz de la Ladrillera is the oldest of the three groups that still do matachín dances in Laredo. In 1987 the group was invited to the American Folklife Festival at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. It has also received a Texas Folklife Resources apprenticeship grant. The troupe performed at the Texas Folklife Festivalqv in San Antonio in 1988 as well as the Dance Performance program in Houston. 

Matachines are also performed in other Texas towns and as far west as California, as well as in northern Mexico; some performances occur in Yaqui, Mayo, and Opata pueblos, but others, as in Laredo and El Paso, in Mexican-American communities. Some groups such as the Yaquis prohibit women from participating, but for the most part the dance is performed by both

Extract: Moctezuma II descendants Seek Pensions
Moctezuma II descendants try to recover pension granted them in 1550 suspended in 1934.

MEXICO CITY (AFP) – August 22, 2003- The descendants of Moctezuma II, the last Aztec emperor of Mexico, are trying to recover the pensions granted them in 1550 and suspended in 1934.

The pensions, paid in gold, are now worth 90,000 dollars per person a year. Moctezuma's descendents are demanding the Mexican government resume the payments, claiming they were illegally suspended. 

"We intend to rescue this inheritance, so that first and foremost we are recognized as direct descendents of the last Aztec emperor and his daughter, independent of the monetary amounts," said Guillermo Acosta, a 14th generation descendent of Moctezuma through his daughter, Princess Isabel Moctezuma. 

The pensions were granted in perpetuity to Isabel Moctezuma and her descendents by Spain's King Carlos V shortly before she died in 1550, as rent for the use of her holdings. 

"After the Spanish crown, the governments of independent Mexico, even the revolutionary ones, all recognized the pensions, until in 1934 they bid us goodbye," Acosta said. 

Acosta's paternal grandmother was the last person in the family to receive the pension, and still has the stubs from the payments, he said. 

Historian Alexander Gonzalez, citing historical documents, said the descendents of Moctezuma -- the Acostas and the Spanish counts of Miravalle -- were each receiving 5,258,090 gold pesos a year at the time the pensions were cut off. 

That was the equivalent of 1,480 grams (250.28 ounces) of gold, which at current value is worth more than 90,000 dollars. 

Acosta said he and his relatives were considering taking the case to court to recover their birthright, which they claim regardless of the passage of time or the amount of money concerned. "Whether two pesos or 10,000, we are investigating with lawyers what can be done, including using the money for social work in Mexico," Acosta said. 

It's unlikely however that the families will find a legal ground to get the pensions reinstated, because the current Mexican government is not obligated to pay a pension granted by the Spanish colonial administration, even if past governments honored the deal, constitutional scholar Ignacio Burgoa said. "If a president in 1934 cancelled these payments, their rights have already been proscribed," Burgoa said. "Those pensions, those privileges, were only valid in colonial times. They have no value now," Burgoa said. 

(In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.)

The Mighty Mesquite - - Tree has long history of relationship with humans 
By Travis M. Whitehead, The McAllen Monitor Staff Writer  travis@themonitor  8-18-03
(956) 683-4452. 

Alberto Barrera, 73, of Rio Grande City, Texas said his mother once used dried mesquite beans in a flour, mesquitamal. “She would get the clusters, we called them macoyas, and she would get these clusters and pound on them,” Barrera said. “She would put them in a piece of cloth and as she twisted the piece of cloth she would make them into little balls. We’d get a glass of goat’s milk and put three to four balls. It was sweet. It contains a lot of sugar.”

Mesquite beans also contain vitamins A, C, and D, said Benito Treviño, owner of Rancho Lomitas Nursery and the 177-acre Rancho Lomitas Native Vegetation and Wildlife Refuge in Starr County.

“You can grind the mesquite beans and make mesquite flour,” Treviño said. “And the flour, in almost any recipe that uses whole wheat flour, you can use a smaller amount of flour than what the recipe calls for.”

Barrera said his mother told him local Indians made mesquitamal in a slightly different way. 
“She said the Indians used the trunk of the tree and they carved out a little bowl,” Barrera said. “They would use it to dump the mesquite beans in and pound them and leave the pulp at the bottom. Then they would put it in a piece of cloth and make it into little balls. Some people here in Rio
Grande have some trees that were used that way.”

The beans can also be eaten right off the tree. One bite into a red pod of beans yields a refreshing, sugary sweet that you suck on for a few minutes until you have drawn out all the juices, then you spit out the pulp and pick another bean. “I used to love them, right off the tree, when they are plump and red,” said Joe Garza of Mercedes.

The mesquite beans has medicinal qualities. “The leaf can be crushed and placed in just a little bit of water, and it can be used in place of eye drops to reduce redness of eyes,” Treviño said. “The leaf also can be crushed real good in a molcajete and mixed in two or three tablespoons of water and used for severe acid indigestion. It’s many times better than Alka-Seltzer.”

Tea made of mesquite leaves also has been used to treat fevers and kidney ailments, Barrera said.
Smoke from smoldering, green mesquite leaves will keep away mosquitoes.

In Mexico, people sometimes still use the mesquite bean to lift the spirits, said Juanita Garza, a history professor at the University of Texas- Pan American in Edinburg.  “They use it in an alcoholic beverage,” Garza said. “The natives used to use it as well. They would boil and ferment the whole bean,” turning it into a beer that some people still brew today.


JUDAISMO PARA HOY     Sent by Joan De Soto

FESTIVALS: Desde Elul Hasta Yom Kipur 
10 de Tevet 
Tu Bishvat 
Purim y el Mes de Adar 
Los Días del Omer 
Lag Baomer 
Los Ayunos, las 3 Semanas y Tishá Beav 


The Latino Cultural Center, Dallas Arts and Culture
Tejano R.O.O.T.S. Hall of Fame
With All Arms . . .second edition
Movie: The Alamo
HOGAR's 2003 Journal Is Now Ready  
Robert Runyon Photo Collection: 1900-1920 
Cano Family webpage 
Affidavit Don Manuel Muñoz, 14 August 1794
The Hispanic Women's Network of Texas 
Table of Trees 
War of Words Divides Residents of Texas Town, Cemetery Transcription Library 
Captain José de Urrutia
Microfilm Records - New
Atkinson Brothers 
Houston Chronicle Obituaries, 1901-1905
Béxar Archives, 1717-1836:  Microfilmed Set
King Ranch Is Facing Texas-Tall Challenges  

The Latino Cultural Center, Dallas Arts and Culture
Opening Events, September 16-20
Free activities included a parade, tour of the facility, visual arts exhibition, readings, book signings and concert,  Sent by A. Garza

Tejano R.O.O.T.S. Hall of Fame
Sent by George Gause

With All Arms  . . . second edition
Sent by George Gause,
and Manuel Quinones,

To the self-conscious seeker of identity and the clinical examiner of historical lore alike: 
Between its covers, With All Arms brings a unique offering. It is at once a historical account, a sociological survey and a genealogical goldmine - all bearing on the heritage of the modern New World Hispanic. 

The result of forty years digging, it combines the research of civil documents, extensive site surveys, bi-lingual networking, and the cultural immersion of a lifetime among its subjects, including, but not only consisting of, the author’s own people.  In his colorful narrative, Carl Duaine addresses several questions familiar to us all:
· who are we?
· who were our people?
· where have we come from?
· how have we become as we are? 
· why should we care about any of it?

In no other single source is there to be found so much to do with the specific identity of those citizens of today who have emerged from this amazing past.

Beginning with Cortes at Veracruz, Duaine carries on through to all the way north of the Rio Grande, and the triumph of the mestizo. Through nearly five centuries along the way runs a tale of drama and derring-do second to none.

To absorb this large volume of narrative, geography, topography, social commentary and genealogical documentation is to grasp at last the real significance of Hispanic Culture in North America, past and present. 

At present, this second edition is undergoing conversion to a new format, including upsized type, editing for clarity and enhanced illustration. Printing is scheduled in time for the work to be available by Christmas 2003. Pricing target is below $50 the copy. Watch this page for periodic updates on the schedule. 
Extract: San Antonio embraces 'Alamo' all over again
San Antonio Express-News SAN ANTONIO, August 28, 2003

-- Disney's upcoming film about the legendary Alamo will premiere in the home of the real thing. The entertainment company says The Alamo will air at the Majestic Theatre in San Antonio December 12, 2003. 

The film features Quaid as Sam Houston, Thornton (Davy Crockett), Patric (Jim Bowie), Patrick Wilson (William Travis), Emilio Echevarria (Santa Anna) and Marc Blucas (James Bonham). 

The movie, which wrapped up filming in Dripping Springs in June, cost about $90 million. 

"Copy and paste the following link!!!

Although Juan Seguin does not get major billing, it has been our understanding that he plays a crucial part in this movie and is well represented by Jordi Molla."   Cousin Albert

HOGAR's 2003 Journal Is Now Ready  

Greetings to all HOGAR members, "primas", "primos" and friends:
We are proud to announce the completion of our 325-page HOGAR 2003 Journal and it looks great. With pride, our special thanks go to the many 'primos' and friends, who graciously submitted and unselfishly shared their family histories, stories, trees, photos and their research and extraction work with HOGAR members and friends.

The HOGAR 2003 Journal includes works contributed by: Angelita Hernández, Esther Arredondo Herold, Irma Saldívar Vela, Dorina Alaniz Thomas, Gloria H. Benavides, Mickey García, Alicia Peña Solis, Patricia Savidge, Lesley Tellez, Mary Castilla, Martha Cuéllar, David Castro, José María Peña, Jesse Thomas, Roberto Vela, Charlie Tamayo, René Reyna, Arturo Garza, Fred Alaniz, Raúl Ruiz, Arturo Romero, Adalberto Sánchez, Martín Solis, Raúl Mitre Valle, and Jerry Benavides. You will find these individuals in Virginia, Colorado, Houston, El Paso, McAllen, San Antonio, Laredo, and the Dallas area.

Gloria Benavides created a BUSCAPALABRAS BILINGÜE, on the History of San Antonio, for the San Antonio Genealogical conference. So be sure to visit the HOGAR table to receive your free copy.

HOGAR members who pay their dues will receive their journals shortly or at the September San Antonio conference. Nonmembers will be able to obtain their copy for a $25.00 donation.

Cariñosamente, Jerry Benavides, HOGAR Publicity, Co-Chair

Robert Runyon Photo Collection: South Texas Border, 1900-1920
Sent by and George Gause
Source: Roberto R. Calderón
The Robert Runyon Photograph Collection, housed at the Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin, is especially strong for South Texas between the years 1900-1920.  A special presentation within the collection documents the Mexican Revolution in Matamoros, Tamaulipas.  

From the introduction to the web site: "The Robert Runyon Photograph Collection of the South Texas Border Area, a collection of over 8,000 items, is a unique visual resource documenting the 
Lower Rio Grande Valley during the early 1900s.  Donated by the Runyon family to the Center for American History in 1986, it includes glass negatives, lantern slides, nitrate negatives, prints, and postcards, representing the life's work of commercial photographer Robert Runyon (1881-1968), a longtime resident of South Texas. His photographs document the history and development of South Texas and the border, including the Mexican Revolution, the U.S. military presence at Fort Brown and along the border prior to and during World War I, and the growth and development of the Rio Grande Valley."
Cano Family webpage
SOURCE:  Danny Cano    Victoria, Texas
Sent by George Gause

Affidavit from Don Manuel Muñoz, Dated 14 August 1794

Don Manuel Muñoz, Lieutenant Colonel of the Cavalry of the Royal Army and, by order of His Majesty, Political and Military Governor of the province of Texas which is divided into two Ministries, the Royal Treasury and that of War.

I certify:

        The doctor, Don Agustin Guillermo de Espangemberg, during the time he was in this Villa (San Fernando de Bexar), treated and cured me from an accident caused by "cargazon de humores" and that he also bled the Assistant Inspector, Don Juan Gutierrez de la Cueva, who failed to inquire if any medicine was used (not having the curiosity to ask); he had done the same with the otehr persons listed here which are: DonBlas Gil, who has given certification because of the cures to both himself and his wife; Don Joaquin Flores; JOsefa de Abila; Don Vicente Flores; Jose Antonio Quiñones; Don Manuel de la Concha; Jose Areola; a daughter of Mariano Ureña; Rita de Luna; Francisco de los Santos; Jose Reymundo Diaz; Don Xavier Galan; Carmen Guerra; Antonio Leal; Don Lucas de "Agula (or Aguilar); the driver of the Assistant Inspector: the Cadet, Don Jose Maria Guadiana; Don Vicente de la Cueva: a daughter of the Cavalry Corporal, Patricio Rodriguez, all of whom I have received declarations from and they state that they were helped and treated for their ailments and they were cured, not having suffered recurrences, even to this day.

        It is also true that he treated and applied medication to Don Miguel Yañez, (who served briefly as a notary to the Governor who writes this), but he did not appear to give a declaration.  He did state, however, that his illness was due to other causes.

      And so that it may be recorded wherever it may be convenient, I present this referral to Don Agustin Guillermo de Espangemberg, dated in San Antonio de Bexar on the fourteenth day of August, 1794.                                                           Don Manuel Muñoz   (Rubric)

From the Spanish Archives at the Bexar County Courthouse, microfilm roll #24 Los Bexarenos, 1986

Sent by George Gause

The Hispanic Women's Network of Texas
Sent by Joan De Soto

The Hispanic Women's Network of Texas seeks to advance the educational, cultural, social, legal and economic well-being of all Hispanic women through a broad awareness of their role in society, business, and family.
Table of Trees 

Webmaster: Erasmo Eduardo (Eddie) Pulido
SOURCE: Art Garza  via Lupita Ramirez (2002)
Sent by: George Gause

[[Editor: If any of these individuals below are your ancestors, stop now and look at the work that Erasmos Pulido has done. Each listed below has a have a pedigree with names and marriage dates. King Ferdinand is back 20 generations. Excellent resource.  Thank you to Eddie for his dedication and sacrifice of time.]]

Descendants of Juan Ignacio Barrera 
Descendants of Jose Canales 
Descendants of Vicente Canales 
Descendants of Bartolome Shapparia (Chapa) 
Descendants of Pedro Elizondo 
Descendants of Antonio Escobar 
Descendants of Juan Farias 
Ancestors of Ferdinand - King of Spain 
Descendants of Ferdinand - King of Spain 
Descendants of Gaspar Garcia 
Descendants of Marcos Alonso Garza y Arcon 
Ancestors of Ingeniero Jorge de la Garza - this research submitted by Jorge de la Garza 
Descendants of Ramon de la Garza - second husband of Estanislada Navarro 
Descendants of Bartolome Olivares Gonzalez 
Descendants of Ramon Gonzalez 
Descendants of Lorenzo Guajardo 
Descendants of Antonio Guerra Canamar 
Descendants of Alonso Nuñez de Hinojosa 
Descendants of Antonio Goraz - Leal 
Descendants of Lorenzo Perez - Leal 
Descendants of Alonzo de la Fontigua Longoria 
Descendants of Cayetano O. Lopez - first husband of Estanislada Navarro 
Descendants of Juan Guajardo Martinez 
Descendants of Juan Montemayor 
Descendants of Pedro Navarro 
Descendants of Aparicio Pena 
Descendants of Pedro Perez 
Ancestors of Erasmo Eduardo (Eddie) Pulido - 20 generations to King Ferdinand 
Descendants of Narciso Pulido 
Descendants of Juliana Quintanilla 
Descendants of Sebastian Rojo 
Descendants of Juan Saens de Pontecilla 
Descendants of Asencio de los Santos 
Descendants of Bernardo de los Santos Coy 
Descendants of Baltasar de Sosa 
Descendants of Diego Treviño de Velasco 

Descendants of Juan Ignacio Vera 
Descendants of Francisco Tomas de Villarreal 

War of Words Divides Residents of Texas Town
By SIMON ROMERO, New York Times, July 16, 2003
Sent by George Gause 

[[Editor's note: The complete text of this article is included. At issue is the vocabulary used in describing the past, the choice of words shapes the attitudes in the present. In this case the words massacre versus execution certainly does provoke a different response. I have long questioned why the Spanish soldiers/colonizers are referred to as Conquistadors and the English soldiers/colonizers as Pilgrims and Puritans. The article should alert all to the emotional response that vocabuary can provoke.]]

GOLIAD, Tex., July 16 — In history books, the killing of more than 300 Texan rebels by Mexican troops here has long been known as the Goliad Massacre. But to many residents of Goliad, with its 18th-century Spanish fort and towering monument to the dead, that brutal episode in its history
is still open to interpretation. 

At the heart of the dispute, largely between Anglos and Mexican-Americans, is the porous definition of who is a Texan and what is Texas history at a time when Hispanics are growing in number and influence. 

Some of Goliad's Mexican-American residents prefer "execution" to "massacre" in describing what happened here in 1836 because of Mexican law at the time, which was explicit in meting out de facto death sentences for foreigners taking up arms against the government. 

"For so long in Texas history classes it's been drilled into us that Mexicans were the demons and Anglos the enlightened heroes," said Emilio Vargas III, an assistant principal at the Goliad elementary school and a descendant of Canary Islanders who settled here in the 18th century. "On this point we're no longer going to accept it without a fight." 

Such talk has shaken Goliad, where the population of 2,000 is almost equally divided between Hispanics and Anglos, with a small black minority. The dispute has included the Roman Catholic Church, which owns the Presidio de la Bahía, the site of the killings 167 years ago, when American and European settlers were engaged in a war to pry Texas from Mexico. 

Responding to letters and protests from parishioners and residents in Goliad, the Diocese of Victoria two years ago stuck with the long-used interpretation of events and refused to describe the killings as an execution. The church has owned the Presidio, a fort that operates as a tourist site and includes a chapel, since 1853. 

"I'm aware of the sensitivity of the issue, but it's historically been called a massacre, and we don't feel qualified to change the name," Bishop David Fellhauer said. 

The bishop's view might have signaled the end of the dispute, but tempers have continued to flare around Goliad, with many residents refusing to accept the church's position. 

Benny Martinez, president of Goliad's chapter of the League of United Latin American Citizens, said that many Anglos "still hate Mexicans and using `massacre' is a subtle way for them to express it." Mr. Martinez said he ruffled feathers at a meeting of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas in April when he said that the 1836 killings should be described as an execution. 

Bishop Fellhauer and Newton M. Warzecha, director of the Presidio de la Bahía, consulted historians when a group of residents from the General Zaragoza Society, a Latino rights organization, sought to change the fort's description of events. 

Few experts dispute the brutality of the killings: Mexican forces shot hundreds of Texans on river roads near the Presidio, burned their bodies and left the remains to vultures. Documents from the time show that even among high-ranking Mexican officers there was ambivalence over carrying out
the orders from Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna to kill the Texans, who had surrendered after a battle. 

"Those men might have fought to the death if they thought their lives would not have been spared," said Ron Tyler, a history professor at the University of Texas and director of the Texas State Historical Association. 

The different views illustrate a rift between old-school historians and a newer group who assert that Hispanics were marginalized — sometimes brutally — after Texas gained independence from Mexico. 

"The cliché that victors write the history is too simple for Goliad," said Andres Tijerina, the author of several works on 19th-century Texas. "Would we be surprised today if the U.S. government executed a group of pirates, or terrorists, as they're known in modern language, who were found
operating on American soil?" 

Mr. Tijerina and other historians who say "massacre" is too clumsy and insensitive a term call attention to the methods Anglos used to suppress Mexican-Americans in Goliad in the decades that followed Texas independence and statehood. 

Near the courthouse here is a large oak, called the Hanging Tree. A plaque describes the Cart War of 1857, when Anglos attacked competing Mexican-American ox cart drivers, stole their freight and hanged 70 Mexican-American drivers on the tree. 

"There's no mention of that violence when the fort does its re-enactments," said William Zermeno, a retired postal worker who lives a few hundred yards from the Presidio, where hundreds of people gather each March for re-enactments of the 1836 killings. 

Many people in Goliad find history hard to ignore. The town was founded in 1749 as a missionary outpost and was later known as La Bahía del Espiritu Santo. In 1829, its leaders changed the name to Goliad, a phonetic anagram of the surname of Miguel Hidalgo, the Roman Catholic priest who is known as the father of Mexican independence. Texans of Anglo and Mexican descent gathered here in 1835 to sign a declaration of independence. 

Some people here think it folly to dwell so much on the past. "No wonder our town is not growing," said Rajesh Bhakta, an immigrant from India and manager of the Antlers Inn on Goliad's outskirts. "Who wants to invest in a place with all this unseemly fighting over long-ago affairs?" 

Some friction is unavoidable in a place where it is almost impossible not to cross paths. Mr. Zermeno and his wife, Estella, also an outspoken "execution" proponent, attend the same church as Mr. Warzecha, the administrator of the Presidio and a staunch member of the "massacre" camp.
They often avoid one another. 

"I don't know if it's bad conscience on their part, if they feel guilty," said Mr. Warzecha, who grew up in the nearby ranching town of Cuero. "My best advice to them would be to just go on to better things." 

There are few signs of appeasement from either side on the matter of the past. But divisions are not insurmountable. Anglos and Hispanics mingle freely in Goliad and intermarriage is becoming common. Robert Parvin, a photographer who had an ancestor killed at Goliad, came to the aid of the
Zermenos this week after Hurricane Claudette damaged their home. 

" `Massacre' is so engraved in people's minds that we don't realize this is not a semantic issue but a moral one," Mr. Parvin said. "When you boil this thing down, it's about power, one group having more than the other. How long is that supposed to last?", Cemetery Transcription Library
Browse 3,493,388 cemetery records across 7,327 cemeteries from around the world 
Sent by John Inclan

Wharton Hispanic Cemetery, Wharton County, Texas
Alabama Street, Wharton TX
Lat: 29°19'02"N, Lon: 96°02'56"W

A listing of the interned contributed by Christina Robles Nov 20, 2001
    Total records = 271. 

If you are traveling from Houston, travel US 59 South towards Victoria. Take the Wharton exit. (52.9 miles). Make a left after you exit and go into Wharton. Make a left onto Boling Highway (3.7 miles). When you get to Alabama Road, make a right, then make another right on Alabama Street. Hispanic cemetery is the first cemetery immediately to your left.

Wharton Hispanic Cemetery was the first, and only, cemetery for Hispanics in Wharton, Texas, with burials dating back from the early 1920's. The last burial is dated 1973. After 1973, most people were buried in the new cemetery, which is called Evergreen. 

If you do not see your ancestor’s name listed here and you know he/she lived in Wharton, Texas, bear in mind that there are many lost burial sites between the years 1920's and 1930's. As such, there are many sites with no headstones during this time period. In addition, there were many headstones that we could not identify because the headstones was unreadable.

This information was compiled on Oct 27, 2001, by Andrew Robles, a descendent of Ramon Alcorta, and Christina Robles, who descends from Ramon Alcorta, Pedro Aguilar, and Jesus Cisneros. This census was compiled by transcribing the information off of the tombstones. 

To all those Hispanics who worked many hours in the cotton fields of Wharton County, and to all those Hispanics who lived in Wharton, Texas between the years 1880 through 1973, this census is dedicated to you. May you rest in peace.  Christina Robles

Adults - This section starts in rows from the back (right) of the cemetery and ends at the front entrance gate. This is the older section. The deceased are buried in rows, according to the year of their death. ** 
Infants - Back left. Buried in rows according to the year of their death. ** 
A&C sect. - This section begins in the front left with burials (adults and children) beginning in the 1950's. ** 
                                           Christina Robles


Commander of the Royal Presidio of San Antonio de Bexar
Our GGGGGGG Grandfather 

By John D. Inclan

Edited by Bernadette Inclan   

Mexico became a country when it gained independence from Spain in 1821.  However, for almost three hundred years it is New Spain and its citizen’s Spanish subjects.  In 1835, the Mexican State of Tejas declares independence from the new nation of Mexico. Nonetheless, to this day, Spanish roots are deeply entrenched in the histories and composition of both Mexico and Texas. The political, military and powerful elite families from New Spain begin this history and this story. 

Much data and legends exist on the Oil tycoons and the cattle barons of Texas. Nevertheless, these men are mere latecomers in Texas history. Under the leadership of the Silver Magnate, Governor Juan de Oñate, Spanish Colonization of what is now the United States began in 1598.  Nine years before the English established the first settlement at Jamestown and twenty-two years before the pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, this early trailblazer used his immense wealth to finance an entire entrada into New Mexico. This expedition included his son, Cristóbal de Oñate, then eight-years old and a commissioned lieutenant governor and captain general, the two Zaldivar brothers, Juan and Vicente, and Oñate’s nephews. Ten Franciscan priests carrying crosses fronted 400 men, many with their families. The encumbered cortege entered New Mexico, via El Paso, with two luxury coaches, belonging to Oñate, eighty-three wagons and seven thousand heads of livestock. Dressed in full armor plate, these first Europeans that settle New Mexico shape the destiny of what is now the American Southwest. Eighty-two years later, the descendents of these colonies flee the Albuquerque area in what history calls the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. The refugees settle in El Paso and Monterrey, Mexico. The families of Duran y Chavez of El Paso, and, generations later, San Antonio, Texas, and the De Las Casas of Monterrey, New Spain, are portrayals in this flight. Of these two families, later generation ally by marriage to the Urrutia family. In addition, through the intricate web of allied families of Monterrey one finds numerous descendents of the Onate-Zaldivar family in the genealogy of the Captain’s descendents of the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. 

By the late 1600’s, Florida, Texas and the Southwest belonged to the vast empire of Spain. José de Urrutia and Diego Ramón, governor of Coahulia, New Spain from 1691 to 1698, exemplify the “movers and shakers” of this new land. These two influential men and their families settled in the region of Coahulia.  

Captain José de Urrutia was born in the province of Guipúzcoa, Spain, on or about 1678. He and his brother Toribio came to the Americas before 1691. Little information exists on their early years in and about New Spain, but by 1691, Jose, a mere youth, accompanies Dón Domingo Terán de los Ríos, into an expedition into Texas.  Terán had been in the Spanish service in Peru for twenty years.  In 1681, he came to Mexico as a deputy of the consulate of Seville.  Because of his successes in quelling Indian disturbances, his instructions included establishing seven missions among the Tejas Indians.  At this time the Spanish military established a garrison near the Neches River, a boundary stream forming the county lines in what is now East Texas and the Louisiana border.

 In the winter of 1693, the Tejas Indians turned hostile which forced the garrison into a tortuous withdrawal from Texas.  It was on this fateful date that José de Urrutia met with an accident on the San Marcos River, (but which scholars now believe to have been either the Colorado River or the Navidad River). The San Marcos River flows southeast for seventy-five miles, forming the boundary between Gonzales and Caldwell counties, before reaching its mouth on the Guadalupe River, two miles west of Gonzales.   Forced to remain among the friendly Kanohatinos, Tohos, and Xarames Indians that inhabited this area, Captain Jose and four soldiers remained for an extended period. He soon gained the respect of these tribes by quickly learning their languages and becoming intimately acquainted with their customs. This earned him the title of "captain general" and soon afterwards, he oversaw the activities of all the nations hostile to the Apaches Indians. Under his leadership, he conducted several extensive campaigns against the fierce and hostile Apache.  

By the early 1700’s a band of  “nomadic hunter and gatherers”, the Comanche, began migrating south and they showed up in the Texas panhandle and in New Mexico. It was this migration that would drive the Apaches out of the High Plains. Only after their arrival on the Plains did the tribe come to be known as Comanche, a name derived from the Ute word Komántcia, meaning "enemy". This fact alone tells the reader a great deal about these warriors. Like the Spaniards, the Comanche were a new addition to Texas. They came from Wyoming and had once been part of the Shoshone Indians. (The Comanche and the Shoshone share a common language). Historical data says that the Comanche acquired their first horses around 1680. It is interesting to note that in an ironic twist of fate, the Spaniards, in an earlier century, introduced the horse into the Americas. Once the Comanche had horses they learned to use them, thereby enabling this nomadic tribe to be more mobile in hunting and in warfare. As their migration continued, the Comanche used their skill with horses to strike swiftly and overcome their opponents. The numerous accounts of the depredations and murders inflicted by the Comanche on the local Indian population as well as on the Spanish featured prominently in the every day life of the settlers of San Antonio and its missions. The Comanche have distinguished themselves as the finest light cavalry in the world with the exception of the Cheyenne Indians, which out classed them. Even today, one can well imagine the Indian war cries that terrified my early ancestors.

 By his own statement, Captain Jose claims to have lived amongst the Indians for seven years. When Captain José rejoined his countrymen remains unknown, but by 1696, he had returned to New Spain.  There he held a prominent military position with the Spanish government.

 To promote trade with the local Indians and the Spanish of New Spain, in 1714  a French cavalier, Lieutenant Louis Juchereau de Saint Denis, established a trading post that grew into the town of  Natchitoches, Louisiana. It was a short time later that several overland highways met at Natchitoches, including the Natchez Trace from the east and the Camino Real (The King’s Highway) from New Spain. Natchitoches, recognized as the oldest permanent settlement in Louisiana, plays a major role in the histories of both Texas and Louisiana, and given notoriety by the filming of the movie “Steel Magnolias”. St. Denis presented himself to the Indians of East Texas and revealed his plan to go into Mexico. The Indians asked St. Denis if he would seek their beloved “captain general”. This illustrates how completely Captain Jose endeared himself to the Indians.  St. Denis did go to Mexico and found himself under a “pleasant house arrest” while Spanish officials awaited instructions from Mexico City on what to do with “a foreigner bearing goods banned by Spanish mercantile restrictions.”  The Spanish Crown enacted an order prohibiting entry of foreign traders or their merchandise into any Spanish territory.  St. Denis, however, used this occasion to court and wins a promise of marriage to the Doña Maria Manuela de Sanchez Navarro.  The beautiful Manuela, as referenced in numerous accounts, is the granddaughter of  Dona Feliciana Camacho y Botello, and the step granddaughter of Major Diego Ramon. The union guaranteed St. Denis a successful outcome with the Spanish Viceroy, who later appointed him conductor of supplies for the planned Ramon expedition to Texas.   In 1721, St. Denis became the commander of Fort St. Jean Baptiste, located near the mouth of Bayou Amulet. When Manuela died, April 16, 1758, the annals of Natchitoches record that she was the wealthiest woman in Louisiana.  Northwestern State University of Louisiana now occupies the property of her estate. Throughout the parishes of Louisiana, the genealogist can find the descendants of the union between St. Denis and Sanchez.

 Captain José married twice. The first occurred on January 7, 1697 to Doña Antonia Ramón. Doña Antonia was the daughter of  Governor Dón Diego Ramón and the Doña Feliciana Camacho y Botello. The marriage ceremony performed at the parish church, Santiago Apostol, in the silver mining town of Monclova, in the state of  Coahulia in Mexico.  Captain José and Antonia had one daughter, Antonia, who later married Dón Luis Antonio Menchaca.  The Menchacas settled in San Antonio, and in 1753, Don Luis earned the appointment and title of the commander of San Antonio de Bexar. They left their own unique mark in Texas history.

 After the death of his first wife during childbirth, Dón José married the Doña Rosa Flores y Valdez; the daughter of Dón Juan Flores y Valdez and Doña Josefa de Hoyos y de la Garza Falcon.  Dona Rosa’s families are descendents of the original Conquistadors of Coahulia and Nuevo Leon in New Spain. This marriage most likely took place in Saltillo. From the union they had four daughters and six sons, including a son named Turbico de Urrutia, who would later succeed him as captain of the presidio de Bexar. Their children, Rosa Micaela, married Dón Pedro Jose de Godoy; Cathalina, married Dón Jose de Plaza; Juana married Dón Ignacio Gonzalez de Inclán.  When widowed, her second marriage was to Dón Pedro Mariano de Ocón y Trillo; Ana Gertrudis Josefina, married Dón Antonio Nicolas de Treviño Gutierrez; Captain Toribio de Urrutia, married Doña Ana Maria de Farias y Flores de Abrego  and Doña Maria Josefa Flores de Valdez; Joaquin married Doña Maria Josefa Hernández Longoria; Pedro married Doña Gertrudis Flores y Valdez; Manuel died young and never married; Ignacio Cayetano married Doña Rosa Sánchez Navarro y Gomez; Miguel married Doña Clara Cantu.

 On March 1, 1700, the new Governor of Coahulia was Dón Francisco Cuervo de Valdez a knight of the Order of Santiago. (He would later serve as the Governor of New Mexico). To help establish the Mission San Francisco Solano, Cuervo de Valdez commissioned Dón Jose’s father-in-law, Major Diego Ramón, now the former Governor, the commander of the presidio de San Juan Bautista del Rio Grande.  Major Ramón commissioned other frontiersmen and together they enter the regions of Texas. This mission, the predecessor of the Alamo, was later relocated and renamed.

 On July 23, 1733, Dón José now had forty years experience with the Indians of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Texas.  He earned the commission as the Captain and commander of the presidio of San Antonio de Bexar.  This post suited him well, for Dón José was the most knowledgeable on Indian affairs of all the New World Spaniards. His new residence was the old Comandancia that today is known as the Spanish Governors’ Palace in San Antonio, Texas. Of note: The Governor never resided there. This building always served as an administrative office or for official ceremonies.

 From 1734 to 1738, a succession of Apache raids resulted in a great loss of lives and livestock. Situated in a volatile area, the inhabitants of Bexar lived in constant fear and some families moved into the boundaries of the city. The situation worsen to the point that in the winter of 1739 Captain Jose led a campaign against the Apache Indians in the San Saba region (now known as located in the Texas “Hill Country” and boasts the title “Pecan Capital of the World”).  He reached in this campaign the same point that years earlier another Spaniard by the name of Dón Juan Antonio Bustillo y Ceballos had reached in 1732. This campaign momentarily defeated the Apache and brought a short period of peace and stability to the area. It would not be long after that the Apache and the Spanish would find themselves warring with the Comanche. In 1743, the first report of the Comanche was sent to the viceroy.

Captain Jose’s many connections in Coahulia, Nuevo Leon, and New Spain’s capital city Mexico (Mexico City) are acknowledged by the fact that he  was a friend and confidant to the powerful Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo, Dón Joseph Ramón de Azlor y Virto de Vera and that he had a business venture with the merchant, Dón Juan de Angulo of Mexico City. On September 25, 1735, Captain Jose and Juan drafted a contract or a power of attorney (POA) where Jose had the authority to collect 350 pesos a year from 40 of his men’s salaries. Juan in turn would supply them with their necessary needs. This POA document, of particular interest to a genealogist, contains the roster of the soldiers that were garrison in San Antonio. An enthusiast can find housed in the Spanish Archives Collection at the Bexar County Courthouse a copy of the POA.

 The San Fernando Catholic Church records of February 18, 1738 note that Captain José gave 100 pesos towards the construction of San Fernando Church. This church was named after the thirteenth century Spanish monarch, Ferdinand III. At eighteen years of age, the young king led his army to defeat the Moors and reestablished Christianity worship in Castile, Spain. In 1671, Pope Clement X canonized King Ferdinand III a saint. When founded in 1731, San Fernando church was the first Christian church west of the Mississippi River.  The secular clergy administered the sacred rites under the jurisdiction of the diocese of Guadalajara, in New Spain. The monastic Franciscans administered prior spiritual care from the local mission, San Antonio de Valero. This new parish served the religious and civic events for the civilian and military populations.  It became known as San Fernando Cathedral in later times.

 Captain Jose’s property included holdings in Coahulia as well as in Texas. In San Antonio, Texas, Captain Jose and his family received a Royal Land Grant from the King of Spain. The land grants included water rights that went with the land and was measured by the number of days in which water could be used. The water was derived from the San Antonio River and one day of water was equivalent to 117 acres. (Even by today’s standards, this is quite a track of land). This grant was near what is now Military Plaza, between Houston and Commerce Street in San Antonio. A son-in-law, Dón Ignacio Gonzalez de Inclán, a native of Milan, Italy, (a duchy under Spanish domain) a soldier and cashier under the Captain’s command owned the property across the street from the Comandancia. On June 10, 1739, Dón Ignacio received his land grant (Spanish Deed #704 Bexar County Courthouse) located on the northwest corner of West Commerce and Flores streets. His widow, Doña Juana de Urrutia would later sell this property to Dón Diego Ramón Jr. This land with its adobe house would later pass to a kinsmen, Dón Luis Mariano Menchaca. Upon his death, the property passed to his widow, Doña Maria Concepcion de Estrada, and on her will of  March 21, 1815, she bequest the property to her son, Dón José Maria Rodríguez. On her will was a clause which provided “one day of water” to be sold to defray her burial expense and the balance to be applied for masses to be said for her and her deceased husbands souls. This one story adobe landmark stood for two centuries before giving way for a commercial building that stands there today. The site remains as an abandoned five and dime store.

 The Captain’s last will and testament is dated July 4, 1740, San Antonio, Texas. His will was witness by the Notary Public and Secretary, Dón Francisco Joseph de Arocha, and father-in-law to his granddaughter, Doña Maria Ignacia de Urrutia.  He died in San Antonio on July 16, 1741. As mentioned previously, his son, Turbico de Urrutia succeeded him as commander.

The sons and daughters of the Urrutia and Ramon clans married and settled in Coahulia and Nuevo Leon, Mexico, Texas and Louisiana. Later Generations also contributed in shaping the new Republic of Texas. 

 The flags from Spain, Mexico, the Republic of Texas and the Unites States have flown successively over Texas.  Likewise, the intricate web of allied families of Coahulia and Nuevo Leon, found in Texas, comprise an interwoven community that irrefutably credits the Spanish conquests in providing the Hispanic origins.


Barnes, Thomas C, Nayor,Thomas H.,  and Polzae, Charles W.  Northern New Spain A Research Guide. Tucson, Arizona The University of Arizona Press, 1981.

Chabot, Frederick C.   With the Makers of San Antonio. San Antonio, Texas  Artes Graficas Publishers 1970  

Chipman, Donald E.  Spanish Texas, 1519-1821.  Austin, Texas, University of Texas Press, 1992.

 De Zavala, Adina.  History and Legends of the Alamo and other Missions. Houston, Texas Arte Publico Press, University of Houston . 1996

Foster, William C.  Spanish Expeditions into Texas 1689-1768. Austin, Texas, University of Texas Press, 1995

Gonzalez de la Garza, Rodolfo.  Mil Familias III. 1998

Hogan, Paul.  Great River The Rio Grande in North American History. New York, Rinehart & Company, Inc. 1954

Simmons, Mark. The Last Conquistador Juan de Onate and the Settling of the Far Southwest. University of Oklahoma Press, 1991

 Weddle,  Robert S.  San Juan Bautista Gateway to Spanish Texas. Austin, Texas, University of Texas Press, 1968.

 Ximenez, Ben Cuellar. Gallant Outcast - Texas Turmoil 1519-1734. San Antonio, Texas, The Naylor Company, 1963.  

Microfilm Records - New
The following microfilm records, from the US National Archives, have just been cataloged and added to the The University of Texas - Pan American Library holdings.
1201 West University Drive
Edinburg, TX 78541-2999
Telephone: (956) 381-3304

NOTE: These reels of microfilm are located on the 3rd floor of the Library in Microforms. Additional microform collections are also currently being processed.

Alphabetical manifests of non-Mexican aliens granted temporary admission at Laredo, Texas, December 1, 1929 through April 8, 1955 [microfilm] / 5 reels]

Indexes and manifests of alien arrivals at Zapata, Texas, August 1923 through September 1953 [microfilm / 2 reels]

United States.  Consulate (Nuevo Laredo, Mexico).  Dispatches from United States consular officials in Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, 1871 through 1906 [microfilm / 4 reels plus index

World War I Selective Service System draft registration cards, 1917 and 1918.  Covering: Brooks, Cameron, Duval, Hidalgo, Jim Hogg, Jim Wells, Kleberg, Nueces, Starr, Webb Willacy, and
Zapata Counties, Texas.  [microfilm / 15 reels]

Atkinson Brothers 

[[ Editor's Note: Although Somos Primos does not usually include queries, this information points out common historical patterns.  Three brothers immigrate from England, but  each goes off in a different direction. Please direct replies directly to Braulia Schipper. ]]

Looking for info on these three Atkinson brothers.   Would like their parents names, or any other info you might have.

From Lancaster, England George, Thomas and James Atkinson came to the U.S. on the ship
"The Morgan."  (or was it a Morgan class ship???)

James went to Boston then on to Canada.
Thomas stayed in Virginia and
George went on to the Gulf of Mexico, Mexican port of Bagdad.

George Atkinson immigrated from England, 1836 married 1939 Maria Hinojosa, Brownsville, Cameron, TX

Note, there is a story that George had a second wife  with the name of Dolores Aguilar in about 1860.  Their son was Thomas.

Children of George Atkinson and Maria Hinojosa, LDS records except where noted as census.

1.  (*) Anthony Atkinson b. 1840 (would be about 1847-8 according to 1860 census, shows Anthony age 12) Brownsville, Cameron, TX m.1860 (possible if arranged marraige? my guess would be 1865) in Texas, Elena Cisneros Chapa b. about 1850,

2.  Francisco Atkinson  (LDS records show as Fernando, but descendant shows as Francisco)
b. 1842 Matamoros, Mexico

3.  Delphina Atkinson b. 1844 Matamoros, Mexico m. Baltazar Cisniros, 8 Nov 1870

George Atkinson married Dolores Aguilar about 1860 had 4 children, 3 died in 1867 hurricane.  (source,  1860 census shows George at 43, Dolores at 22 and Antionio at 12 years of age.  Dolores
born about 1838?)

1.  Thomas Atkinson b. 1867 Brownsville, Cameron, TX  m. 21 Jul 1883 Paula Cantu 1910 census: Tomas Atkinson age 46, Pabla wife age 46, Cecilio son age 28, Dolores daughter age 23, Dauise (?) son age 21, Alberto son age 19, Tomas son age 15, George son age 8, Enrique son age 8

(see * above) Anthony Atkinson m. 1860, Texas  m. Elena Cisneros Chapa (b. 1839, Texas, father Jose Maria Chapa)  1910 census shows Elena Chapa age

1.   Jorge Atkinson b. 1866 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx m.Cecilia GALVES Abt. 1886    Rio Hondo, Cameron, Texas

2    Mariana Atkinson b. 1869 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx (on July 17, 1870 census Mariana age 1 year)
m.    Santiago FLORES Abt. 1887  Rio Hondo,  Cameron, Texas 1910 census: Mariana  age 41, widowed, Santiago, son age 9, Rosa daughter age 6, Rogerio son age 4, Maria daughter age 3, Margarita daughter age 1

3    Eduardo Atkinson b. 1870 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx  (on July 17, 1870 census Edward was 1 month old) m. Isabel CISNEROS Abt. 1889 Rio Hondo, Cameron,   Texas 1910 census: Eduardo age 41, widowed, Elvira daughter age 15, Liabel daughter age 13, Eduardo son age 12, Felipa daughter age 9, Jose son age 7, Norberto son age 4

4    Isabel Atkinson b. 1871 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx m. Ramon PIZNANA Abt. 1891  Rio Hondo, Cameron,  Texas 1910 census:  Ramon Pizana age 41, Isabel wife age 38, Jose son 14, Ramon son 12, Helicitas (?) daughter age 10, Enrique son age 6, Isabel daughter age 3

5    Elena Atkinson b. 1873 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx m.  Ricardo FLORES Abt. 1893 Rio Hondo, Cameron,  Texas 1910 census

6    Antonio Atkinson b. 1875 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx m. Refugina CISNEROS Abt. 1895 Rio Hondo, Cameron,  Texas

7    Porfirio Atkinson b. 1876 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx m. Paula RAMOS  Abt. 1896  Rio Hondo, Cameron,   Texas

8    Alberto Atkinson b. 1877 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx m. Amalia TREVINO Abt. 1897  Rio Hondo, Cameron, Texas 1910 census: Alberto Atkinson age 32, Amalia wife age 24, Alberto son age 9, Manuel son age 7, Miguel son age 5, Amalia daughter age 2

9. Alfonso Atkinson b. about 1879 1910 census: Alfonso Atkinson age 31, Rosaria wife age 22, Alfonso age 6 months

10    Victoria Atkinson b. 25 Dec. 1880 La Tulsa Ranch, Cameron, Tx m. Juan Jose JUAREZ 28 Oct 1899   Rio Hondo, Cameron, Texas

11   Alfredo Atkinson (**) b. 1881 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx   m. 1900 m. Braulia Cavazos 1910 Census: Alfredo census age 28, Braulia wife age 22, Alfredo son age 7, Federico son age 6, Josefina daughter age 11 months

12   Carlos Atkinson b. 1883 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx

13   Antonia Atkinson b. 1884 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx m.  Silverio RAMIREZ Abt. 1904  Rio Hondo, Cameron, Texas

14   Jose Atkinson b. 1887 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx m. Josefina ARMENDARIZ Abt. 1907  Rio Hondo, Cameron, Texas

15   Josefina Atkinson b. 1890 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx m. Mariano SALDIVAR Abt. 1910 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Texas

16   Rogerio Atkinson b. 1893 Rio Hondo, Cameron, Tx m. Manuela GALVES Abt. 1913
Rio Hondo, Cameron, Texas

Note: 1910 census Mary 20:   Elena Ch Atkinson widow age 60, Carlos son age 26, Jorge son age 23, Jose son age 22, Rogerio son age 16

This database is an index to obituaries from 1901 to 1905 found in
the "Houston Chronicle" newspaper in Houston, Texas. The "Houston
Chronicle" was first published on 15 October 1901 and is still in
publication today. This index provides not only the name of the
deceased, but also the date of death, age at time of death, obituary
date, and section and page number the obituary is found on. Dates are
given in the month/day/year format.

NOTE: Please do not make the mistake of assuming that all individuals found in this index died in Houston. Sometimes obituary notices were given for individuals who at one time had lived in Houston, who had relatives that lived in Houston, or who died elsewhere but were going to be buried in Houston. Also, be aware that occasionally notices were printed on multiple days and that even between these days the spellings of the names changed. Be sure to search for relatives in this index using variant name spellings. The gender of an individual is indicated if it cannot be determined simply by their name.

Occasionally you may find the words "mortuary report," "article," or "picture" following an individual's name. The "mortuary report" refers to the City of Houston Health Department's mortuary report, which was occasionally printed in the newspaper. "Article" refers to articles that reported deaths that were found on the same page as the obituary notices or mortuary reports. The word "picture" is listed when a picture was also printed along with the article.

Source Information: Bennett, Linda, comp. "Houston Chronicle Obituaries, 1901-1905" [database online]. Provo, Utah:, Inc., 2003. Original data:  Bennett, Linda, comp. "Index to Obituary Notices in the Houston Chronicle (Houston, Texas)." Volume 1: 1901-1905. n.p., 1993. subscribers can search this database at:

Béxar Archives, 1717-1836: Available in  Microfilmed Set
Source:  Roberto R. Calderon
Sent by George Gause
To access the description for this multi-volume microfilmed set to the Béxar Archives go to:

The website address below contains ordering information for University Publications of America's microfilmed multi-volume set of the Béxar Archives.  The set as a whole is being sold under the title, _The Bexar Archives, 1717-1836: Colonial Archives of Texas during the Spanish and Mexican Periods._  In addition, UPA has translated to Enlgish "over 200 volumes...of _The Bexar Archives_ covering the periods 1717-1789, 1804-1808, and (printed access only) 1803-1812.  These translations are now available on microfilm from UPA, and future translations will be
made available as they are completed."

If your university or city library does not own a full microfilmed set of the Béxar Archives, now is the time to go through the proper channels and make the request or organize a fundraising campaign
for this acquisition.

King Ranch Is Facing Texas-Tall Challenges  
By SIMON ROMERO, New York Times, August 17, 2003

Sent by Walter Herbeck

 "There's no good explanation for why we do this work," said Joey Salazar, 34, a leathery fifth-generation kineqo, as the residents and employees born on the legendary 825,000-acre ranch call themselves. "I was born on this ranch, and I expect to die on it," Mr. Salazar, sweat-drenched and clad in chaps and boots with spurs, added in Spanish while taking a break from castrating a
group of young calves. 
Watching Mr. Salazar and other kineqos, one might think that little has changed since Richard King, a New York-born steamboat pilot, recruited vaqueros, as cowboys are still called in South Texas, and their families from northern Mexico 150 years ago to form the backbone of what is now about a $300 million-a-year business empire. Kineqos, in fact, translates as king's men. 
The King heirs branched out over time into racehorse breeding and oil and gas exploration and acquired large ranching interests overseas.King Ranch Inc., the privately held company that controls the ranch, is run by a Harvard M.B.A. from outside the Kleberg clan who conducts business from a
corporate suite in a Houston high-rise. 
And now the King Ranch is betting its future on areas that have nothing to do with cattle, from leasing land to quail hunters to lending the ranch's name to a line of luxurious Ford pickup trucks. The King Ranch, like some of the nation's other large ranching empires, is confronting a whirlwind of change.

Chief among the challenges, perhaps, is a lawsuit that threatens to tear asunder a chunk of land at the heart of the ranch. Another pressing issue is how to keep cattle relevant in an age of skepticism over the benefits of eating beef. 
Already, the legal assault by descendants of Maj. William W. Chapman has frayed the King Ranch's iconic status by raising questions about its legitimacy. William Chapman, a veteran of the Mexican War, was a business partner of Richard King when the ranch was formed in the 1850's. 
The lawsuit, which appellate decisions have upheld in favor of the Chapman descendants, is under review by the Texas Supreme Court. Reduced to its essentials, it contends that Robert Justus Kleberg, the lawyer who took over the King Ranch after marrying Richard King's favorite daughter in
the 1880's, may have swindled William Chapman's widow of half of a roughly 15,000-acre holding at the ranch's core, known as the Rincon de Santa Gertrudis, after an old Spanish land grant. 
According to the Chapman descendants, Robert Kleberg had represented William Chapman's widow, Helen, while secretly working on retainer for Richard King, an accusation that the King Ranch contests. Thus, they argue, a conflict of interest clouded a settlement in the 1880's granting the
King Ranch full control of the Rincon de Santa Gertrudis. 
Edward Caleb Coker, a descendant of William Chapman and a lawyer and amateur historian in Charlotte, N.C., said he accidentally stumbled upon Robert Kleberg's dual role in the legal challenge while working on a book a decade ago about Helen Chapman, his great-great grandmother. 
Since then, Mr. Coker said, he and other family members have spent $300,000 in legal fees to advance their claim. The lawsuit has ensnarled not only the King Ranch but also Exxon Mobil, which has leased the mineral rights on the ranch since the early 1930's, when it was known as Humble
Just half the original Santa Gertrudis land parcel is at stake, about 7,500 acres, or less than 1 percent of the King Ranch's total in South Texas. But losing that land could weaken the ranch, because it includes areas where the Kleberg family has collected payments for decades from Exxon Mobil for energy exploration leases; parts of downtown Kingsville, the Victorian-style town of 26,000 founded on the edge of the ranch a century ago; and the Kingsville Naval Air Station, a top center for pilot
It is unclear what damages the Chapman descendants could receive if they win or whether the lawsuit is even valid more than a century after the events in dispute. Mr. Coker said in an interview that he believed a statute of limitations did not apply to the lawsuit because statutes could relate to the time of the discovery of fraud, not the date of the event. 
If Mr. Coker and the other Chapman heirs prevail and the lawsuit is allowed to go to trial, the ruling could set an important precedent for questioning the legitimacy of land titles secured in Texas in the 19th century, especially for Hispanic families who contend that land grants dating to the Spanish empire were taken over by white settlers through fraudulent methods. 
King Ranch executives bristle at the mention of the lawsuit. At different times in recent years, the ranch and other parties named in the suit, including Exxon Mobil, have had a combined team of more than 20 lawyers employed to defend their interests from the Chapman heirs' claim. 
"We think their claim has no merit whatsoever," said Jack Hunt, the Harvard-trained chief executive of King Ranch Inc., who came to the company after running the large Tejon Ranch in Southern California. "This is a matter that the King Ranch settled more than 100 years ago." 
Whatever the outcome of the legal battle, the King Ranch faces challenges on the business front as well, most notably the sluggish demand for beef. 
Although per-capita consumption of American beef has recently flattened out, and perhaps even risen in the last year or two as some people switched to meat because of the popular Atkins diet, it remains more than 10 percent lower than it was in 1980. 
ALTOGETHER, the King Ranch has a herd of more than 60,000 cattle, preserving its place among the nation's largest active cattle ranches. And some Texas-size superlatives still apply to the ranch, parts of which are near Corpus Christi: it is about the size of Rhode Island, and its fences, if put in a straight line, would stretch from New York City to Fargo, N.D. 
As King Ranch veers into new directions, some elements of its culture are bound to come under pressure. Nowhere are the changes more apparent than among the kineqos. 
The patron system that allowed Richard King and the Klebergs to rule the ranch in an almost cradle-to-grave fashion is slowly being replaced by contemporary management practices. Gone, for instance, are the days when ranch employees were each given 60 pounds of beef and 10 gallons of milk a month as part of their salary. 
Salaries remain relatively low, with cowboys earning as little as $20,000 a year, but nearly all the ranch's employees have health insurance and are enrolled in retirement plans. About 300 families continue to live on the ranch and receive free housing, though some employees prefer to live in Kingsville. 
A few college-educated kineqos have also risen to management positions, overseeing areas like human resources and financial audits. That is different from the days a century ago when Hispanics were not allowed to become foremen in charge of cowboys and other employees. 
Some things will never change, however, as long as vaqueros are needed to work among the cattle herd under the South Texas sun. Robert J. Cavazos, a retired cowboy foreman and kineqo who recently completed a book on the King Ranch, compared working on the ranch to "feeling like a



El Corazon de Espana- The Heart of Spain 
History of the Spanish Treasure Fleet System
"La Nouvelle Frontiere"  
Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana
Des Moines Schools/Spanish-Language Web Site



Alexandria Museum of Art
933 Main Street
P.O. Box 1028
Alexandria, LA 71309-1028

The Heart of Spain

    September 1- November 30, 2003
In honor of the 200th Anniversary of the  
                       Louisiana Purchase
                           1803 to 2003

The history of Louisiana is intertwined with that of Spain's, and the influences of Spanish culture can still be seen in Louisiana today. In cooperation with Spain's Ministry of Culture, Education this once-in-a-lifetime 61 million-dollar exhibit, featuring 103 masterpieces by el Greco, Goya Velasquez, Zurbaran, and Murillo,  among others will be housed at the Alexandria Museum of Art in Alexandria, Louisiana for only this short period of time. 

The Heart of Spain allows us to behold a thousand years of Spanish artistic genius in a single, historic event.  So come to the heart of Louisiana for a few days to celebrate our Spanish beginnings, and to experience The Heart of Spain.  These paintings, tapestries, sculptures, jewelry and ancient symbols of faith will touch your heart and perhaps, change your very soul.

Sent by M. Ian West, Sales Associate. (318)443-0032

The History of the Spanish Treasure Fleet System
Sent by John Inclan

Florida is famous for its fabled Spanish treasure galleons. Florida's coastline is dotted with more colonial Spanish wrecks than any other state in the nation, primarily because of three treasure fleet disasters. In 1622, 1715, and again in 1733, Spain suffered horrible economic blows when the treasure fleets or flotas entered Florida waters and were destroyed by hurricanes. The 1622 fleet was scattered across the lower Florida Keys and the Dry Tortugas. The 1715 fleet wrecked along the Atlantic coast of southern Florida, on what is now known as the Treasure Coast. And finally, the 1733 fleet met its fate along the upper Florida Keys, from modern Grassy Key to upper Key Largo. 

The 1622, 1715, and 1733 flotas were an integral part of an economic system that had developed early in the three centuries of Spanish rule in the New World. A pattern of trade, controlled strictly by the Spanish crown, had evolved based on the mercantilistic policies of the day. Spain's policy was to establish a monopoly, keeping her colonies dependent on her. This monopoly was eventually challenged successfully by English and Dutch traders, but by law Spanish colonials could trade only with the authorized Spanish merchant flotas. As early as the 16th century a law was passed by the Casa de Contratacion, or "House of Trade," which called for the periodic sailing of fleets from Spain to the Caribbean twice a year (though they hardly ever sailed on schedule). The fleets carried manufactured goods for sale to the citizens of the New World, and were then filled with the rich treasures of the Americas for transport back to Spain. 

[[Editor: Go to the site for more information and select bibliography.]] 

"La Nouvelle Frontiere"

Theme of 2003 Society for the History of Discoveries Meeting
Source: Fronteras, Spring 2003, Vol. 12, No. 1

2003 marks the bicentennial of the Louisiana Purchase.  When the U.S. purchased this huge area from the French in 1803, it rapidly expanded the size of the young nation and helped precipitate migration westward.  The 2003 Society for the History of Discoveries meeting in New Orleans (October 23 to 26) will feature the theme "La Nouvelle Frontiere: Exploration and Discovery of the Louisiana Purchase," but papers will also be presented on other subjects.  For more information, visit the SHD website:

 Canary Islanders Heritage Society 
 of Louisiana 

Founded 1996
Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Front Row (L-R): Linda Landy, Janelle Hickey, Catherine Prokop, Jean Nauman  Back Row (L-R): Malcolm Domingue, Paul Newfield, John Hickey, William Carmena, Joseph Broussard.

Historical Background:

In 1777 the Spanish Crown ordered a recruitment of seven hundred men from the Canary Islands to serve as militiamen and settlers in the Province of Louisiana. The recruitment included both single and married men.  Married recruits were allowed to take their families with them.  Their military duties were to occupy and defend Spanish territory in Lower Louisiana, especially those lands located near waterways having outlets to the Gulf of Mexico.

From 1778 to 1783 more than two thousand Canary Islanders were sent to Louisiana. The majority of the Canary Islanders were placed in settlements at Galveztown, Valenzuela, St. Bernard, and Barataria.  Although they suffered many hardships, many of the Canarian settlers survived and eventually adapted to the low, flat topography and hot, humid weather of their new homeland. Today their descendants are scattered throughout the state and far beyond, and many Hispanic surnames remain to recall the legacy of the Canary Islander settlers in Louisiana.

Background of the Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana:

In 1996 a group of persons met in Baton Rouge to form a Society that would promote and preserve the heritage of their Canarian ancestors.  This Society eventually would become known as the Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana (CIHSL). The Canarian ancestors of that group had lived in Galveztown, located about twenty-five miles south of Baton Rouge at the confluence of the Amite River and Bayou Manchac, and in Valenzuela, located nearby on the west side of the Mississippi River along Bayou Lafourche.

CIHSL maintains interest in the history of all of the Canarian settlements in the state, but places special emphasis on the history of Galveztown and Valenzuela. The Society has headquarters in Baton Rouge and most of its members are from Louisiana. However, some members live elsewhere in the United States and communicate with the Society by e-mail and by telephone.  Persons interested in CIHSL are invited to join the organization.  Canarian kinship is not a prerequisite. One needs only to express an interest in the objectives of the society.  For more details, visit the Society’s Web Site.

P.O. Box 80726 
Baton Rouge, LA  70898-0716    U.S.A. E-Mail:

Des Moines Schools Start Spanish-Language Web Site

Associated Press, July 22, 2003

Last year, students representing 44 language groups were enrolled in Des Moines, Iowa schools.  Spanish was the first language of 57 percent of the 3,167 students enrolled in the English-language program. Nearly all the information now found on the Des Moines school district's English-language web site is now available at a Spanish-language site. 


Hispanic Treasures, Awaiting Discovery Illegal Immigrants Buy Into Homeowning Dream
Extract: Hispanic Treasures, Awaiting Discovery
Source: HISPANIC, April 20, 2003
Sent by John Inclan
[[Editor: The founder Archer M. Huntington. Huntington (1870-1955) collected rare books and manuscripts as well. Please, go to the article.]],_awaiting_discovery.htm

Velázquez's "Portrait of a Little Girl," above left, and his portrait "Camillo Astalli."

Goya's "Duchess of Alba" (1797) 

The Hispanic Society of America, lonely up at 155th Street and Broadway in Washington Heights and tired of having a world-class art collection that almost nobody sees, has found one solution: send the work where the audience is. So in March the museum is lending seven prize paintings, including two El Grecos and a Velázquez, to the Metropolitan Museum of Art for a show examining the effect of Spanish painting on French artists. In September the society plans to exhibit prints and drawings based on the Don Quixote story at the Prado in Madrid.

That's all fine but is no substitute for the strange delight of visiting the museum itself. The Hispanic Society provides the pleasure of being a tourist abroad, stumbling into an arcane treasure, less than a half-hour subway ride from Times Square. "It's one of the great well-kept secrets of New York," said Samuel Sachs II, director of the Frick Collection.  

Mr. Codding, the society's director since 1995, said the society had considered moving the museum, as well as other possibilities for expanding at its current location. Nothing is likely to happen soon. "I would expect within the next 10 years," he said of the anticipated changes, whatever form they take.

Since Mr. Codding took over, however, the Hispanic Society has taken steps to raise its profile. The institution hired a fund-raising consultant and established, for the first time, a Friends of the Hispanic Society. In 1996, the society bought the building that housed the National Museum of the American Indian for $2.1 million, with hopes of using it for expansion. Meanwhile, it is being used for storage.

The museum began creating a computerized record of its collection five years ago. Most of its 15,000 rare books and manuscripts — those dating before 1700 — have been installed on a database. "Our problem is that we have an awful lot of books," said Mr. Codding — about 250,000. "It's a slow process." This year, to encourage school groups, the society began training teachers to lead their own tours, since there isn't a big enough staff to do it — 24 full time workers, including guards, and 36 altogether. The budget is small, about $2.5 million on an endowment of $50 million, most of it from Huntington's largesse. The Frick's annual budget, by comparison, is $12 million on a $200 million endowment.

So far, then, the most successful step toward putting Huntington's dream on wider display has been to ship it out. After decades of hoarding its valuables, in part because of Huntington's own wishes, the society began organizing exhibitions in Spain a few years ago. These worked so well that when the Frick asked to borrow three Velázquez paintings in 1999, the society agreed to spread the wealth closer to home, making its first loan of those pictures to a New York institution.

Mr. Codding hopes that this outreach will change the refrain he often hears about the society. "People who are interested in things Hispanic know about it, but not the general population," he said. "We constantly get visitors who say, `I've lived in Manhattan all my life and I didn't know this museum was here.' "

El Greco, Uptown

The Hispanic Society of America is at Audubon Terrace, Broadway at 155th Street, Washington Heights. Hours: Tuesdays through Saturdays, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; Sundays, 1 to 4 p.m. Free. Information: (212) 926-2234. It can be reached by taking the No. 1 train to Broadway and 157th Street. The 19th-century painting "Fishing" by Emilio Sánchez-Perrier is on view this month in the museum's "Piece of the Month" series; a free lecture about the painting by Marcus Burke, the museum's curator, is planned for Jan. 18 at noon.

Illegal Immigrants Buy Into Homeowning Dream
By Nurith C. Aizenman, Washington Post, August 17, 2003
Howard Shorr
  Gerardo Cabrera fell in love with the house immediately. And so the auto mechanic and his wife, a secretary, decided to pay $200,000 for their own piece of suburban Gaithersburg, a classic tale of immigrants achieving the American dream.   Except for one detail: At the time, they were in the United States illegally.

 Undaunted, Cabrera went to three lenders until he found one who was willing to accept identification in place of a Social Security card. "I believe in thinking positively," said Cabrera, 38, who became a permanent legal resident about a year after buying the house in July 1999. "It doesn't matter how many times you're told no, because you only need one person to say yes."
 Real estate agents and mortgage brokers say a substantial number of illegal immigrants across the Washington region appear to be finding similar ways to buy their first homes -- their purchases just one more example of the extent to which the nation's estimated 9 million undocumented immigrants have become integrated in American society even as they remain outside the legal system.
 "They are undocumented, but they are also working, paying taxes and planting roots," said Michael A. Stegman, a professor at the University of North Carolina who studies housing and immigration. Though statistics are not available to pinpoint the numbers, it stands to reason, he said, that "undocumented immigrants are potentially a very significant portion of the homeownership market."
 That is not to say buying a home is a simple proposition for people without valid immigration papers. For one thing, while no law prohibits them from buying property, many are deterred by the same unfamiliarity or distrust of the banking system that often stymies legal immigrants. Raised in countries where banks may be seen as unstable, such immigrants often operate in a cash economy -- getting their wages in hard currency, storing their savings in boxes and jars at home, and paying for their purchases upfront rather than with credit cards.
 When the time comes to apply for a loan, they have a hard time documenting their incomes and proving their creditworthiness. This is one reason that less than 50 percent of all immigrants  own homes, compared with nearly 70 percent of native-born citizens, according to a study by the Fannie Mae Foundation.
 In addition, illegal immigrants are barred from obtaining loans that are federally insured or eligible for repurchase by government-established corporations such as Fannie Mae. These loans usually offer the lowest down payments and interest rates.
 Instead, home buyers without visas must apply for loans that the lender generally carries on its own books rather than reselling -- and these loans are not easy to find at favorable rates.
 Cabrera, who was admitted to the country on a tourist visa and stayed on to work months after it expired, was having no luck until a friend recommended that he contact Alma Preciado, a mortgage broker with Metropolitan Financial Services in Silver Spring. Preciado found Cabrera a lender that would accept an "individual taxpayer identification number." 

 Issued by the Internal Revenue Service since the mid-1990s, these numbers are intended for people who are not eligible for a Social Security number but need to report income for tax purposes. They are easy to obtain, and many illegal immigrants who do not want to compound their violation of immigration law by failing to pay taxes use their individual ID numbers to file tax returns each year.  Preciado said -- about 10 percent of her mainly Latino clientele -- qualify using an taxpayer ID number rather than a Social Security number.
 Although Cabrera's loan was legal, Preciado declined to identify the lender. However, she said it was one of two institutions she works with that accept the taxpayer ID numbers without also requiring proof of legal immigration status. In exchange, they do not necessarily require a larger down payment, Preciado said, but they may charge up to two points higher than the prevailing interest rate. 
 Cabrera didn't have to pay that much. He said he put down 15 percent of the sale price of his home -- about $30,000 that he had earned by selling his apartment in Mexico City -- and got a rate of 7 percent, roughly the average rate at the time.
 However, other area mortgage brokers said they were not aware of lenders that could offer such attractive loans to borrowers without Social Security numbers. Instead, they require such clients to put down 20 percent to 30 percent of a home's sale price, often an insurmountable obstacle for people who tend to work low-wage jobs, said Patricia Castellanos, a mortgage broker with Weststar Mortgage in Woodbridge.
 Yet, she said, there are those who manage to scrape together the difference. "I had a customer who came to me a year ago, and I told him he didn't have enough," she recalled. "So he and his wife took three or four jobs each and saved everything they could. Last month, they bought a house."
 Another option is to ask a family member or friend who does have legal status to apply for the loan. The illegal immigrant then gives the stand-in money each month to pay the mortgage.
 Luis Chiliquinga , an Ecuadorean construction worker who was in Maryland on an expired tourist visa in January 2001, resisted that idea at first.
 "I'm here working because this country needs us immigrants to do these jobs, but I can't put my own name on the loan? It just seemed unfair," said Chiliquinga, who has since obtained a green card.
 But unable to afford more than a 5 percent down payment on the $150,000 town house he wanted to buy in Germantown, he decided his only choice was to ask his daughter, who had become a U.S. citizen through marriage, to apply on his behalf.
   "I think it reveals that undocumented immigrants have an extraordinary commitment to their local communities," she said, "and we're just waiting for immigration law to catch up to that reality."


17 million Mexicans have emigrated from Mexico 
"Libros Genealogicos"
Ranchos Guadalajara Censuses 1792-1930
Botello vs Buentello
Por Fin Estuve en Jerez


Heráldica y Genealogía 
Useful links for digital libraries
Ministerio de Educacion Cultura y Deporte 
Archivo Histórico de Notarias del DF
Ciudades Importantes  
Click for Gran Reunion de Elizondo in Mexico

Seventeen million Mexicans have emigrated from Mexico in 40 years
by Miroslava Flores
La Voz de Aztlan, 8/11/2003

Los Angeles, Alta California - August 11, 2003 - (ACN)
A prestigious Mexican national advisory board on the census, the "Consejo Nacional de Población", has just released a study that says that 17 million Mexicans have emigrated out of Mexico in 40 years. The study says that the majority of the those emigrating did so to the USA where 9.5 million of these now reside. The study says that if it was not for those emigrating, the total population of Mexico would be 120 million.

The study says that there are now 8.2 million Mexicans who are sons and daughters of these
emigrated Mexicans in the USA and that 7.8 million are second generation descendents.

In addition, the study states that the percentage of Mexican families that have relatives in the USA or
receive monies from Mexican workers in the USA now exceeds 18% of all Mexican households representing 3.8 million total Mexican households.

Mexico is divided into 2,350 municipalities or "townships" and the study says that 96% of these have some sort of connection with the USA or receive monies from Mexican immigrants in the USA.

The study provided the following breakdown concerning the 2,350 townships and their connection to the USA:  
1. 492 townships have a "high" connection 
2. 392 townships have a "medium" connection 
3. 466 townships have a "low" connection 4. 93 townships have no connection

The study concluded that the "world" received the "New Millennium" with mass global migrations. It
stated that in January 1, 2000, approximately 150 million people resided outside their countries of

"Libros Genealogicos"
Sent by Armando Montes 
Doctor Enrique Ruiz Tayabas (1)
Elizabeth Alanís Cavazos de García (1)
Héctor Javier Barbosa Alanís (1)
Jose F. Gonzalez Sanchez & Eduardo J. Hinojosa Gon (1)
Libaneses en Mexico (AGN) (1)
Luz Montejano Hilton (5)
Milagro Lloréns Casani (22)
Ph. D. Sergio Corona Paez (11)
Sociedad Genealogica del Norte de Mexico (2)
Spanish American Genealogical Association

Ranchos Guadalajara Censuses Project 1792-1930
Sent by A.Garza

Who writes that he received the site from a group (Ranchos) that he belongs to.
The overall history of all the censuses in Guadalajara giving the name of the census taker, estimate of the population,  who was being counted, and what kind of census, i.e.  Ecclesiastical visita, Royal Census, Military census, Ayuntamiento estimates, and others.  Lots of information.

Botello vs Buentello
by John D. Inclan
Edited by Bernadette Inclan

Alguacil Mayor, Captain Juan Buentello Guerrero holds the distinction for possessing one of the most ancient surnames in the archives of the city of Monterrey, in the state of Nuevo Leon. 

In 1620 Captain Juan and his nephew, Pedro, had accompanied the conquistadors, Don Francisco de Sosa and Don Miguel de Escorimela. Among others who had received a license to enter the jurisdiction of the new province of Leon, they began the expedition at San Luis Potosi. While in Nuevo Leon they discovered silver and founded the village town of San Gregorio de Cerralvo. It was not long after their discovery that their family would join them. Captain Juan Buentello Guerrero died in 1637at this silver mining village of San Gregorio de Cerralvo.

Captain Juan was the father of Don Ignacio Botello. In his last will and testament of 1660, Don Ignacio stated that he was a native of San Luis Potosi and had married Dona Isabel Martinez, the legitimate daughter of Captain Marcos Alonso de la Garza y Arcon and his second wife, Dona Catalina Martinez Guajardo. Their children included Bernabe, Maria, and Agustina Botello.

Captain Bernabe Botello settled in the town of Santa Teresa del Alamo, a jurisdiction of Cerralvo. On March 6, 1665, at the age of 20, he was married to Dona Catarina Juarez Barbosa, the legitimate daughter of Alferez Jose Barbosa. (Note: The Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara, by Raul J. Guerra. Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. page 163, list Dona Catarina as the natural daughter of Captain Jose Barbosa. It is not noted if Dona Maria or Dona Agustina ever married or perhaps they died at an early age).

Captain Pedro Botello de Morales was born in 1581 in the Villa de Val Verde, Extremadura, Spain. As mentioned above, he entered Nuevo Leon with his uncle. Accompanying him was his wife, Dona Ana Maria de Avila, a native of Cordova Spain. Of note, in the early part of the Seventeenth century, Captain Pedro had several children. Dona Ana Maria, however, had only given birth to the following. Their children included Dona Mariona de la Cruz, also known as Dona Mariana Botello, who, by 1637, was the widow of Don Francisco Martinez Guajardo. This marriage yielded two daughters, Dona Felipa Martinez, born in 1625, and married to Don Lucas de Ibarra, the legitimate son of Don Antonio de Ibarra and Dona Maria de Escobal, natives of Teocaltiche, Nueva Galicia. Dona Francisca de Morales, born in 1631 and married in Cerralvo in 1647 to Don Antonio Calderon, a native of Puebla, the legitimate son of Don Jose Calderon and Dona Maria de Zumaya. The groom mentions that both his parents reside at Puebla and that they were born in Spain.

A second child, Dona Juana, married February 1644, to Don Andres Camacho, the fourth son of the original Conquistador of New Spain, Don Pedro Camacho, a native of Lepe, Castile, Spain and his first wife, Dona Maria de Olea. Their marriage had taken place in Saltillo, Coahuila. Records also note that Don Pedro is the legitimate son of Don Christobal Fernandez y Mencia Camacho, also of Lepe, Castile, Spain. A daughter from this marriage, Dona Feliciana Camacho y Botello married the future Governor of Coahuila, Diego Ramon. He was the natural born son of Don Joseph de Morales y Ramon and Dona Catarina Martinez Guajardo. The Ramon family would ally by marriage to the Flores de Valdes and Urrutia family of Monclova and Saltillo, Coahuila. 

A third child, Dona Elvira de Morales, married Don Diego de Castro Guerrero, the Alcalde and Procurator General of Cerralvo. He was the son of the Conquistador, Francisco de Castro. In 1650, Don Diego states that he served his majesty as notary for the Captain General of Nuevo Leon, Don Martin de Zavala. For sixteen years, he worked to maintain the manifest of the realm. In this day, especially during times of danger, he also served in military campaigns.

Another daughter, Dona Maria Melchora Botello de Morales, was married to the Alferez Lorenzo Diaz, one of the original Conquistador of Nuevo Leon. In 1620, during the conquest and pacification of the Indians, he had entered the realm of Nuevo Leon with Governor Martin de Zavala. In 1647, he served his majesty as Alcalde Ordinaro of Cerralvo. From this marriage is born Dona Laureana Diaz Botello who would later marry Don Melchor de Tremino. (Note: The Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara, by Raul J. Guerra., Nadine M. Vasquez, Baldomero Vela, Jr. page 30, list Dona Maria Melchora as the daughter of Don Francisco Botello de Morales and Dona Juana de la Garza Martinez Guajardo. This same person, Dona Melchora would marry Andres Gonzalez de Ochoa).

Diego Botello, a deaf mute, was not the birth son of Dona Ana. However, acknowledged by his father, he was a mestizo and on several occasions participated on expeditions with Diego de Castro. Records indicate that his wife accompanied him although same records show no proof of their marriage.

Juan Botello, was born about 1617. He would use several variations of signatures for his name, Ju Botello Guerrero, Juan Buentello, Juan Buentello Guerrero, and Juan Botello Guerrero, el Mozo, and his parental surname. He was generally known as Juan Buentello, el Mozo.

Captain Francisco Botello de Morales was born about 1615. In 1651, he provides testimony that he held the title of Regidor Ayuntamiente of Cerralvo in 1645 and served his Majesty during times of war against the Indians. He was married to Dona Juana de la Garza Martinez Guajardo, the legitimate daughter of Captain Marcos Alonso de la Garza y Arcon and his second wife, Dona Catalina Martinez Guajardo. Captain Marcos Alonso was a native of Lepe, Spain. On his last will and testament, he declares that he was married to Dona Juana, and from this marriage they had Sebastian, Maria, Diego, Melchora, Pedro, Petronila, Juan and Francisco. He died in Monterrey on April 17, 1696. His wife, Dona Juana preceded him in death on January 27, 1694. The archives of the Ayuntamiente, Volume 5, years 1691–1694 exhibit a copy of the Will. (Note: The De La Garza surname originates from this early pioneer of New Spain and is prominent throughout Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Tamaulipas and Texas).

Their son, Don Sebastian was married to Dona Micaela Fernandez de Tijerina, the legitimate daughter of Don Gregorio Fernandez de Tijerina and Dona Beatriz Gonzalez Hidalgo. (Note: The Tijerina surname originates from this early pioneer).

Dona Maria married Don Joseph de la Serna y de la Garza, a native of Mexico City, and the legitimate son of Captain Nicolas de la Serna y Alarcon and Dona Leonor de la Garza Falcon. His paternal grandparents are Don Francisco de la Serna y Alarcon and Dona Catalina de Alarcon of Mexico City. Dona Leonor was the daughter of Captain Blas Maria de la Garza Falcon and Dona Beatriz Gonzalez Hidalgo y Navarro. From this union, they had one son, Alferez Joseph Antonio de la Serna y Alarcon. On January 28, 1680, he was baptized at the parish church, Sagrario Metropolitano of Monterry. In 1717, an election established him as Procurador General del Ayuntamiento of Nuevo Leon. He married Dona Antonia Francisca de Villarreal y de la Garza, the legitimate daughter of Don Juan Antonio de Villarreal and Dona Andrea de la Garza Falcon y de Sepulveda. Dona Maria Botello died in Monterrey on July 25, 1725.

Don Diego Botello de Morales married Dona Antonia Robles, They settled in Saltillo, Coahuila. 

Dona Melchora married Don Andres Gonzales de Ochoa on December 27, 1679. He was the legitimate son of Captain Andres Gonzalez Quintanilla, a native of Tepetillan, and Dona Juana de Ochoa, a native of Cuencame, Nueva Viscaya. Records have a Melchora Botello married to Don Alferez Lorenzo Diaz, (listed above). There is no mention of her as widowed and married for a second time to Don Andres. It is not clear if they are the same.

Captain Pedro Botello de Morales married on July 11, 1689 at the parish church, Sagrario Metropolitano, to Dona Josefa Gonzalez de Ochoa, and sister to Don Andres, listed above. From this union, they had Catharina Javiera, Pedro Regalado, Maria Josefa, Maria Josefa Margarita, Isabel, Juana Javiera, and Francisco Javier Botello. Dona Catharina Javiera, on May 12, 1726, married Don Joseph Sepriano Zambrano Rendon, the legitimate son of Don Nicolas Zambrano and Dona Maria de Rendon. Don Pedro Regalado baptized October 06, 1691, in Monterrey. Dona Maria Josefa married Don Cristobal Garcia de la Garza, the legitimate son of Don Tomas Garcia de Quintanilla and Dona Maria de la Garza Falcon y Montemayor. Dona Maria Josefa Margarita Buentello de Morales, married El Escribano Real Publico & the Cabildo of Monterrey, Don Francisco de Mier Noriega, from a Noble family of Castile, Spain. He also held the title, Secretario de Gobernacion y Guerra. This marriage took place at the Chapel San Francisco Xavier, in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon on December 03, 1713. 

Of noteworthy, they are the grandparents of the celebrated Fray Servando Teresa de Mier Noriega. Fray Servando, born in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, on October 28, 1763, revolutionary, writer, orator, and politician become one of the principal figures of Mexico’s independence from Spain. In 1780, he entered the Dominican order where he received his bachelor's degree from the Dominican College of Mexico City. By 1790 Mier had his doctorate in theology and had been ordained.

On December 12, 1794, Mier gave a controversial sermon. He argues that the original religious relic of Our Lady of Guadalupe appeared on the cloak belonging to Saint Thomas the Apostle, and that the Apostle had preached in the Americas long before Spanish conquest. He was stripped of his doctoral degree. He was then sentenced to ten years in exile with reclusion in Spain and forbidden never to preach nor hear confessions again. Between 1795 and 1800 Mier was imprisoned in Veracruz, Cadiz, Las Caldas, Burgos, and Salamanca. He escaped, and at least twice, recaptured. 

In 1801, he escaped to France where he met Simón Rodríguez, a radical political thinker and the future teacher of the revolutionary hero of Venezuela, Simón Bolívar. Together they opened a Spanish language academy. Mier returned to Spain in 1803 and imprisoned. However, by 1804, he had escaped. In 1805, he held employment as secretary to Spanish consul in Lisbon. Between 1808 and 1811 Mier was involved in military struggles against Napoleon. Again he was imprisoned and, again, he escaped.

In 1811 Mier went to London where he wrote and published his “Cartas de un americano al español” and “Historia de la revolución de la Nueva España”, using the pseudonym José Guerra (1813). With Francisco Javier Mina, he planned and participated in military expeditions to assist revolutionaries in New Spain. In 1817 the Mina expedition arrived in Soto la Marina in Tamaulipus, Mexico and constructed a fortress. Left in charge of the fortress, military commandant Joaquín de Arredondo defeated Mier and overran Mier's defenses at the village of Soto la Marina on October 1817. Once again, Mier found himself imprisoned in Mexico City. This time the Inquisition tried him. While in prison he wrote his Apología and Memorias.

In 1820, he was deported to Spain, via Havana, Cuba, but escaped from jailers. In 1821, while living in Philadelphia, Mier wrote his “Memoria político-instructiva”. In 1822, he returned to Mexico, imprisoned by Royalists, and released by the First Constituent Congress. Later, he was elected as deputy for Monterrey serving this same congress. Once again, he would find himself jailed for his criticisms of the ruler of Mexico, Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. In 1823 Mier escaped prison, recaptured, and later freed by an infantry uprising against Iturbide. The same year Mier became representative of Nuevo Leon, serving the Second Constituent Congress. In 1824, he signed the Federal Constitution of the United States of Mexico. He died on December 3, 1827. In 1842, his body was exhumed and later sold for exhibiting. To this day, the location of his remains are unknown. 

Dona Josefa and Don Francisco had two children, Maria Ignacia, married to Don Pedro Macamio Fernandez, and Joseph Joaquin, married to Dona Antonia Francisca de Guerra Iglesia, the parents of Fray Servando Teresa de Mier Noriega, mention above. Fray Servando brother, Don Froilan, married Dona Maria Teresa Leal de Leon. Don Francisco died on August 03, 1719. He is the originator of the Mier surname. 

Dona Isabel Botello was baptized on December 03, 1699 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.

Dona Juana Javiera Botello de Morales married on December 08, 1722, to Don Joseph Antonio Trevino Martinez, the legitimate son of Don Diego de Trevino Diaz and Dona Maria Rosa Martinez de la Garza. Don Diego was the legitimate son of Don Melchor de Tremino and Dona Laureana Diaz Botello (mention above). 

Don Francisco Javier Botello de Morales married on October 26, 1735, to Dona Petra Rosalia Martinez Benavides, a native of Vallecillo, Nuevo Leon, the legitimate daughter of Don Andres Martinez de la Garza and Dona Maria Lugarda de Benavides.

Dona Petronila Botello de la Garza, on March 04, 1672, married Don Diego Galvan y Lara. He died on August 12, 1719. Three daughters are recorded, Andrea, Antonia, and Maria Magdalena.

Don Juan Botello de Morales married on November 15, 1700, to Dona Maria Garcia de Quintanilla, the legitimate daughter of Don Lucas Garcia de Quintanilla and Dona Josefa de Ayala y Benavides. Their only child, Don Francisco Javier Botello would marry on May 20, 1730, to Dona Maria Jacinta de Sepulveda, the legitimate daughter of Don Jacinto Garcia de Sepulveda and Dona Juana de Arredondo.

Dona Francisca Botello de Morales married on April 09, 1684, to Captain Juan Bautista de Saldua Maguregui, the legitimate son of Captain Domingo de Saldua and Dona Maria de Laconte. A daughter, Maria de Saldua Maguregui was baptized on November 13, 1685. In 1697, Captain Juan served as Procado General of Monterrey and later served as Alcalde Mayor and the Captain of War at Boca de Leones, (Villaldama, Nuevo Leon).

This surname includes other notables listed below. 

Fray Cristobal Botello, served his majesty as a missionary priest in the jurisdiction of Monterrey. 
Pedro Botello, an Indian born in 1676, made his own mark in the History of Nuevo Leon. 
Nicolas Botello de Morales, married on November 05, 1710, to Maria Josefa de Ayala.
Jose Antonio Botello married to Maria Rosa de Guzman. Their children would marry at the parish church, Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, in Salinas Victoria, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. They settled at the silver mining town of San Pedro de Boca de Leones. (Villaldama N.L.).
Salvador Botello married Quitina Soto. This line settled in the silver mining town of San Pedro de Boca de Leones (Villaldama).
Their parents have not been established.

My father, Encarnacion, and his brother, Juan Manuel Inclan affirm the testimony given by their grandmother, Dona Maria Febronia Botello, that all of the early Botellos are buried at the family cemetery located at Los Botellos, Tamaulipus, Mexico. 

The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints microfilm collection # 605,179
Guerra, Raul J., Vasquez .Nadine M., Vela, Baldomero, Jr., Index to the Marriage Investigations of the Diocese of Guadalajara, 
Gonzalez de La Garza, Rodolfo. Mil Familias III
Mendirichaga y Cueva, Tomas. Apellidos de Nuevo Leon. Translation by John D. Inclan
Mier, Fray Servando, The Memoirs of Fray Servando Teresa de Mier:

The book “Apellidos de Nuevo Leon, Los Botello y Buentello” by Tomas Mendirichaga y Cueva, details the beginning of the Botello family tree and is limited to three generations. This article contains additional information from my own research. 

 Por Fin estuve en Jerez 

Salvador Cabral Valdés

Mi pagina Persona es:

La investigación de la heráldica, es una aventura puesto que se empieza 
con nulos conocimientos de heráldica y de genealogía.

Hemos empezado con la tradición oral y pasmarlo en escritos poca información, investigación, en periódicos, monografías, revistas especializadas de heráldica, información que se encuentran en los archivos parroquiales, los archivos de los registros civiles, en los archivos familiares. Aunque estos archivos familiares casi no existen mas que en la memoria, de los mas viejos, y es aquí donde se empieza a realizar la investigación de los apellidos, cuyas líneas seria empezar por los parientes más directos, como padres, abuelos, tatarabuelos, posteriormente las líneas colaterales, tíos, abuelos, tíos bisabuelos, y los parientes no reconocidos por la familia.

Desde Pequeño se despertó en mí el conocer quienes eran nuestros ancestros, posteriormente por mas de 20 años solo tenia el 8 nombres con sus apellidos, y seguía preguntando, y no tenia ninguna respuestas, Escuchaba hablar de Jerez Zacateca, Tepetongo, Zacatecas, y seguía naciendo un profundo cariño por Jerez, el Primer Contacto que tuve con Jerez fue a los 6 años, 25 años mas tarde regreso y pude recordar algunas cosas que tenia grabadas desde mi niñez, y no es hasta e laño 2000 que empecé a investigar un poco en Internet sobre Jerez y cual es mi sorpresa que me encuentro un articulo publicado por las fiestas de Jerez , "La Desconocida Prole Y Sus Ancestros" del Sr. Leonardo Delathorre y Berumen.

Con los nombres Encontrados en ese artículo y la Página de y con la orientación de mi Tía Celina Landeros Cabral, que no conocía mas que por teléfono, en menos de un año logre tener ceca de 100 ancestros y en algunos casos sus respectivos hijos, también con el apoyo de gente para mi antes desconocida como, Mercy Bautista, Susana Frías, y Gabriel Gutiérrez, que me han proporcionado información importante para mi, además de tener en algunos caso ancestros en común, y la investigación de los apellidos sigue y uno seda cuenta que esta emparentado con mucha gente, algunos conocidos y otros que concia.

Y desde que empecé a desarrollar la búsqueda de mis ancestros por fin, Hace algunos días Fui a Jerez, muy poco tiempo día y medio, en el cual obtuve una documentación de mi tía muy interesante, y relaciona parentesco con los Caldera, Pinedo, fundadores unos de Jerez y otro del a Estancia de los Rodarte, me sentí a gusto en lo que fue la casa de los bisabuelos Cabral, además del recibimiento de un agradable Lluvia por algunos minutos, que para mi fue el recibimiento de mis ancestros. 

Heráldica  y Genealogía

by Cabral Valdés
Sent by Salvador Cabral Valdes, Pagina Personal
Colaborador en:

La investigación de la heráldica, es una aventura puesto que se empieza con nulos conocimientos de heráldica y de genealogía. 

Hemos empezado con la tradición oral y pasmarlo en escritos poca información, investigación, en periódicos, monografías, revistas especializadas de heráldica, información que se encuentran en los archivos parroquiales, los archivos de los registros civiles, en los archivos familiares. 

Aunque estos archivos familiares casi no existen mas que en la memoria, de los mas viejos, y es aquí donde se empieza a realizar la investigación de los apellidos, cuyas líneas seria empezar por los parientes más directos, como padres, abuelos, tatarabuelos, posteriormente las líneas colaterales, tíos, abuelos, tíos bisabuelos, y los parientes no reconocidos por la familia. 

Por lo general todos los apellidos vienen de España para lo cual empezaremos con la recopilación de los escudos de armas de los distintos apellidos que se relacionan, en el transcurso de los tiempos, esperando que nuestros apellidos sean parte de los originales escudos de armas que fueron dados por los reyes de España y de Portugal.. 

Diremos que la mayoría de los apellidos, que a continuación buscaremos su origen proceden del estado de Zacatecas, que es lo ultimo que se tienen y somos específicamente de los municipios de: 
Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco; Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes; Jerecuaro, Guanajuato; 
Jerez de García Salinas, Tepetongo,  Villanueva; Monte Escobedo; Tlaltenago de Sanchez Roman; Pinos, Panuco; todos de Zacatecas.

Surnames: Valdes
Gonzalez: De Espana en Asturias
Camargo: De Espana en Trujillo
Cabral: Tien Cuatro lineas de Portugal, los de Francia, los de Italia y Los de Espana en Galicia, y en Castilla, en Mexico ques es nuestro punto de estudio.

Useful links for digital libraries  
Sent from the Internet To: 
Source: Martha E. Galindo  Galindo Publicidad, Inc.

En esta sección usted podrá vincularse con algunas de las principales bibliotecas digitales de México, así como de otros países, en las que le será posible consultar los textos completos de sus publicaciones electrónicas.  

Bibliotecas Digitales de México 
Colegio de México. Biblioteca Digital
UNAM .Revistas electrónicas
Biblioteca Digital del Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey

Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos naturales. Biblioteca Digital Geográfica
Consejo Nacional de Población

Ministerio de Educación Cultura y Deporte 
Archivo General de Indias,
Sent by Joan De Soto          

Archivo Histórico de Notarias del DF en La Web, Infomes Acervo
Réplicas con:
Sent by Armando Montes

Organización y Servicios

De acuerdo a lo dispuesto en la Ley del Notariado, es el Archivo el que se encarga de custodiar y conservar todos los protocolos notariales de la Ciudad de México que comprende desde el año de 1525 hasta 1994, de acuerdo a lo señalado en el Art. 148, que dice "Que el Archivo General de  Notarias es público, respecto a todos los documentos que lo integran con más de setenta años de antigüedad y de ellos se expedirán copias certificadas a las personas que así lo soliciten, exceptuando aquellos documentos sobre los que la ley imponga limitación o prohibición.

En relación con los documentos que no tengan esa antigüedad, sólo podrán mostrarse y expedir copias certificadas a las personas que acrediten tener interés jurídico en el acto o hecho; a los notarios o a la autoridad judicial".

De acuerdo a lo expresado en el artículo citado, el Archivo ha sido delimitado cronológicamente, formando dos partes: Una la del Archivo reciente cuya documentación es considerada privada de 70 años a la fecha, y la otra al Archivo Histórico, cuya documentación es la más antigua y
corresponde de 1525 hasta la que tenga más de 70 años, siendo ésta de carácter público.

El Archivo está constituido orgánicamente como una Unidad Departamental, con línea de dependencia directa de la Dirección General Jurídica y de Estudios Legislativos y estructurado internamente por trece áreas que desempeñan funciones tanto técnicas como operativas, siendo las siguientes:

Archivo Histórico.
Oficialía de Partes.
Calificación de Escrituras.
Certificación de Escrituras.
Testamento Ológrafo.
Registro de Tarjetas de Testamento.
Regularización de Escrituras.
Revisión de Libros.
Acervos "A" y "B". Acervo Especial.
Entrega de Documentos.

A través de estas áreas el Archivo General de Notarías, cumple con la prestación de los siguientes servicios a usuarios, notarios o juzgados: Expedición de copias certificadas, testimonios, aviso e informe de testamentos, cierre y apertura de protocolos, validación del testamento ológrafo, regularización de escrituras.

El Archivo y sus acervos tiene en custodia aproximadamente cuatro millones de libros y apéndices, que se encuentran ordenados en los acervos A, B y el especial. En los acervos A y B se encuentran todos los libros y apéndices de 202 notarías de las 239 que existen en la Ciudad, ordenadas originalmente por número de notaría y por volumen.

En el Acervo Especial se encuentran todos los libros y apéndices, de las Embajadas de México en el Extranjero, las del Departamento del Distrito Federal, las del Patrimonio del Inmueble Federal, las de los Juzgados de 1a Instancia y los del Protocolo Abierto Especial.

Los Fondos del Archivo Histórico
El Archivo Histórico de Notarías del Distrito Federal está integrado básicamente por dos grandes fondos, además de otros cuatro más pequeños que no constituyen protocolos notariales, sino documentación cuyo principio de procedencia es diverso y que debió haber llegado al archivo con fines probatorios, o quizá confundida con la documentación notarial suelta, la cual llegó al recién fundado Archivo de Notarías en 1902, procedente en parte, de las notarías existentes quienes conservaban algunos protocolos antiguos en su poder; otros, procedieron del Archivo General de la Nación y otros más del Archivo del Ayuntamiento de la Ciudad de México. 

Los dos fondos básicos del Archivo Histórico, con documentación estrictamente notarial son los siguientes:
1. Fondo Antiguo (1525-1903).
2. Fondo Contemporáneo (1878-1929).
El Fondo Antiguo comprende la documentación existente hasta antes de la
promulgación de la Ley del Notariado de 1901 y ha sido subdividido en 6
partes o secciones, de acuerdo a su antigüedad y estado de conservación, así
como a la institución de procedencia.
El Fondo Contemporáneo contiene una estructura homogénea y no se dan en él
otras subdivisiones. Esta documentación fue generada a partir de la
promulgación de la Ley del Notariado.
Los otros 4 fondos son más pequeños y no contienen documentación notarial.


por Guillermo Padilla Origel





PARRAS COAH. STA, MARIA 1653 1683 1693



TACUBA D.F. SN. GABRIEL 1605 1623 1619


SAGRARIO MET. D.F. ASUNCIÓN 1537 1575 1671

S.CATARINA M. D.F. IDEM 1568 1589 1664

S. VERACRUZ D.F. IDEM 1560 1568 1622


DURANGO DUR. SAGRARIO 1642 1624 -------

NOMBRE DE DIOS DUR. S. PEDRO 1634 1660 --------


TOLUCA E, MEX. SAGRARIO 1626 1655 1696


CELAYA GTO. SAGRARIO 1682 1658 1635


GUANAJUATO GTO. STA, FE 1605 1605 1643

IRAPUATO GTO. SOLEDAD 1660 1701 1664

LEON GTO. SAGRARIO 1636 1636 1717

CD. M, DOBLADO GTO. PARROQUIA 1672 1679 1674



SILAO GTO. SANTIAGO 1594 1665 1631


SAN FCO. DEL R. GTO. SN. FCO.. 1659 1641 1680



TAXCO GRO. S. PRISCA 1641 1675 1687


MIN. DEL CHICO HGO. P. CONCEP. 1574 1615 1615


PACHUCA HGO. ASUNCIÓN 1568 1668 1685



ARANDAS JAL. S.M. GPE. 1768 1802 1798



AUTLAN JAL. SAGRARIO 1636 1692 1706

LA BARCA JAL. SAGRARIO 1684 1681 1694


CD.GUZMÁN JAL. SAGRARIO 1648 1666 1692

COLOTLÁN JAL. SAN LUIS 1703 1720 1718

CUQUÍO JAL. PARROQUIA 1666 1711 1714




SAYULA JAL. PARROQUIA 1651 1708 1711

SAN JUAN DE LOS L. JAL. SAN JUAN B. 1710 1722 1710







CD. HIDALGO MICH. SAN JOSE 1611 1647 1673








ZAMORA MICH. SAGRARIO 1612 1637 1688


CUERNAVACA MOR. SAGRARIO 1598 ------- 1610




MONTERREY N.L. SAGRARIO 1688 1667 1668


OAXACA OAX. SAGRARIO 1653 1681 1643


ATLIXCO PUE. S. FCO. 1613 1736 1605

LIBRES PUE. S. JUAN 1616 1624 1567

PUEBLA PUE. SAGRARIO 1545 1661 1693


CADEREYTA QRO. PEDRO Y PAB. 1660 1660 1693


S. JUAN DEL RIO QRO. SAN JUAN 1637 1637 1639

S. ROSA DE JAU. QRO. STA. ROSA 1762 1753 1883


CHARCAS S.L.P. S. FCO. 1677 1688 1659









JALAPA VER. SAGRARIO 1666 1647 1607



MERIDA YUC. SAGRARIO 1543 1567 1639


JERÉZ ZAC. SAGRARIO 1648 1712 1650


SOMBRERETE ZAC. S. JUAN 1679 1695 1678

TLALTENÁNGO ZAC. S.M.GPE. 1630 1626 1686

ZACATECAS ZAC. S. DOMINGO 1634 1634 1634




Although this site is dedicated to Cuban culture and history, lots of information is included in other parts of the Caribbean as well, such as: 

Caribeñas Sitio oficial de la isla de Anguila. Sitio oficial de la isla de Antigua. Sitio oficial de Aruba. Sitio oficial de Las Bahamas. Sitio oficial de Barbados. Sitio turístico de Belize. Sitio turístico de Bonaire. Sitio turistico de las Islas Vírgenes Británicas. Sitio oficial de Gran Caimán. Sitio oficial de Cuba. Sitio turístico de Curazao. Sitio oficial de la República Dominicana. Sitio oficial de Granada. Sitio de Guyana. Sitio turístico de Haití. Sitio turístico de Jamaica. Sitio oficial de Martinica. Sitio turístico de la isla de Monserrate. Sitio turístico de Puerto Rico. Sitio turístico de Saba. Sitio oficial de St. Barts. Sitio turístico de St. Eustatius. Sitio turístico de St. Kitts y Nevis. Sitio oficial de la isla de St. Lucia. Sitio oficial de St. Marteen. Sitio oficial de St. Martin. Sitio turístico de St. Vincent y The Grenadines. Sitio oficial de Suriname. Sitio turístico de Trinidad & Tobago. Sitio turístico de Turks & Caicos. Sitio turístico de las Islas Vírgenes de EUA. Sitio turístico de Venezuela.


Guatemalan youth who asked, received
Brazil considers Spanish as its 2nd language 
Guia para a Historia e investigacao
Central American Research  
Spanish "Enconmienda" in the Philippines

Welcome to Iberoamericana
Vatican Museums Online
University of Wales Swansea
Genealogy of Chilean People

Guatemalan youth who asked, received
Contra Costa Times,  8-1-03

Editor's note: Danville residents Joan and Jacob Hamblin are in Central America on an 18-month humanitarian services mission for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

GUATEMALA CITY, Guatemala: July 14 -- It was a circuitous journey for a letter -- all the way from Cuyotenango, Guatemala, written in Spanish by an 11-year-old boy, to Salt Lake City, Utah, and translated for the benefit of the Prophet, President Gordon B. Hinckley, to whom it was addressed. It was sent back to Guatemala to us, the area welfare agents for the church in Central America. 

Johny Eduardo Perez Valladares, had long been troubled by the warped desks, overcrowded classrooms, leaky roofs and lack of textbooks and supplies at his school, Nacional Rural Mixta in Canton Chacalte Aparicio. He was in the last year at his school and worried about the younger students.It seemed each year the school got worse. Teachers complained, but that achieved nothing. 

In fact, at the beginning of this school year Guatemalan public school teachers staged a two-month strike before the government met some of their demands. They received a small salary increase but nothing for school supplies or equipment.

Then Johny, a devout Mormon, had a plan. He would write to President Hinckley. It was a powerful, beautiful letter from such a young child. His parents and teacher assured me he wrote it himself."We don't have places to sit, nor do we have enough supplies to get an education because everyone who attends here is poor," he wrote. "Our parents don't have the means to provide us with these necessities in my school. 

Here in Guatemala, we don't have wars or a need to kill one another, but the war we are fighting is a lack of education and the means to get it. Our request consists of 500 school desks, 14 chalkboards and some materials to finish a wall to surround the school."If you help us, we will be eternally grateful to you ... "When my husband and I received the letter, we had a folder of projects we had not yet had time to consider. But this one, having come via President Hinckley's office, jumped to the top of the pile.We received it on a Wednesday, made a call to the bishop of the ward Johny attends, and that Friday we drove 21/2 hours to Cuyotenango.

We arrived earlier than expected; the children were on the playground, a small asphalt courtyard surrounded by eight classrooms. We asked a few questions and suddenly, the word spread. Someone from Johny's church was here.Children, about 50, surrounded my husband. Then we looked up and saw the other 450 children, whose teachers had managed to control them, standing in front of their classrooms and waving white balloons. 

The playground was filled with oscillating balloons!I was overwhelmed. Then we met Johny, and his mother and baby brother who had arrived for the occasion.Johny was a little shy, but he still had a smile for us. He was definitely the hero of the day as friends elbowed around him, trying to get closer to us. Recess was over and the children reluctantly returned to class, but we visited each room in turn. 

They showed us their warped desks, similar to others we have seen in Guatemala -- each a long board, attached to a bench, on which five children sit together!Three classrooms met only in a covered overhead, with a six-foot bamboo fence offering slight protection from the rain. During the rainy season (now) it rains in torrents here, not far from the Pacific Ocean. We walked behind the school where there is a broken down concrete block wall, a space where thieves can break through and steal from the school.

The bathrooms were typical -- two toilets without lids or seats. Flushing water comes from a bucket dipped into a barrel of water a few feet away. There was no toilet paper and no hand-washing facilities. The waste drains into a field behind the school.

Before we left, I spoke again to Johnny's mother. She said he had written the letter May 10, and by the second week in June, he had heard nothing. He was discouraged, but she told him to pray. A week later, on June 18, we phoned. To Johnny it was an answer to prayer. Now, a month later, we have finally seen the project through.

Sometimes headquarters sends everything by ship or we purchase things here. In this case, the only things we are asking for are the school kits that contain rulers, pencils, color crayons, scissors, paper, etc.

Everything else -- desks, concrete blocks, cement and rebar, fluorescent lights, toilets, the ink for the marking pens, the whiteboards -- we purchase locally to help the local economy 

But this little boy soon learned the power of the pen and of prayer. 

Surprise! Brazil considers Spanish as its 2nd language 
by Andres Oppenheimer, posted 8-7-03

When historians in the future are asked what was the most important development of the early 21st century in Latin America, they may cite something that is not making headlines anywhere nowadays: the gradual steps by Portuguese-speaking Brazil to adopt Spanish as a second language.

It sounds trivial, but Brazil -- which accounts for more than 50 percent of South America's economy, territory and population -- has always lived in relative isolation from its Spanish-speaking neighbors.

In part because of language, Brazilians have always read different books, watched different movies and seen different TV shows than most of their fellow Latin Americans. 

But things are beginning to change. This week, while the region's attention focused on the Brazilian Congress' preliminary approval of a crucial pension reform bill, Brazilian legislators were debating another measure that could prove even more important in the long term: the adoption of Spanish as a required language for Brazil's 43.5 million students in elementary and high schools. 
The proposal to make Spanish courses mandatory nationwide ''is key to the formation of a real Latin American community,'' the main bill says. It notes that Brazil is the only member of Mercosur -- the South American common market made up of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay -- where Spanish is not spoken.
Among the categories is ARQUIVOS
  1. Archivo Historico Insular de Fuerteventura
  2. Archivo Histórico Provincial Joaquin Blanco
  3. Archivo Histórico Provincial de Santa Cruz de Tenerife
  4. Archivo Histórico del Museo Canario
  5. Arquivo Regional da Madeira Outros arquivos madeirenses
  6. Biblioteca Publica e Arquivo de Angra do Heroismo
  7. Biblioteca Publica e Arquivo da Horta
  8. Biblioteca Publica e Arquivo de Ponta Delgada
  9. Serviços de Documentação da Universidade dos Açores
  10. Arquivo de Cabo Verde
  11. Arquivo de São Tomé
  12. Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino

Sent by Paul Newfield

Central American Research  

 Leonel Reyes, is the coordinator for Family History (genealogy) for Central America.  His office is in Guatemala.  He speaks some English, but has people available who are fluent.  If you will write him in English, he will help you get information that you seek.

Leonel Reyes 
Family History coordinator Central America (In Guatemala)

Sent by Lorraine Hernandez, Murrieta Sake Family History Consultant

Rina D. Dungao, Ph.D

As promised, here is the second part of a two-part series I had planned to do for both my August and September articles. Again, it is my wish to share with the readers interesting notes and facts about our Philippine history, upon which I am very grateful to a well-known Filipina educator, Dr. Preciosa Soliven, (a fellow Sigma Deltan sorority sister), whose book I used as a reference.


With the establishment of one central government in the Philippines initiated by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi and continued by his grandson, Juan de Salcedo, neighborhood battles between "datus" (chieftains) and the "rajahs" (kings) became a thing of the past. The Philippine islands were now governed by an appointed "Governor-General" who was responsible for making, implementing and suspending any law. He too was president of the highest court in the country-the "Audiencia"  or the "Supreme Court". It was the "Audencia" that stepped in to decide cases in the absence of the Governor-General. Once in a while though, the king of Spain would issue royal decrees for the developing government.

Indeed, a complete legal system was established by Spain. The "Laws of the Indies" was a body of laws enacted protecting the Philippine people from abusers or other aspiring conquerors.  


"At first, there were no provinces. The whole country was divided into grants of land. These grants of land were known as "enconmiendas" and the one to whom they were granted was called the "encomiendero". The grant included the right to the tributes of the people who lived on the land." (Soliven, 1999)

The "encomienda" was to be treated like a public office and not as a personal property. Duties of the "encomiendero" included giving military protection to the people of the "enconmienda", educating them and converting them to the Catholic faith. Rules and regulations were created to prevent an "encomiendero" from abusing the people living in the "encomienda".


In spite of the many laws enacted to prevent abuse from the "encomienderos", some people in the "encomiendas" were mistreated, not properly educated and ended up not being converted to the Christian faith. Some of the "encomienderos" were not properly supervised and were especially rigid in collecting tributes from the people. As a result, many people in the "encomiendas" started to revolt.

Enter the missionaries especially Father Martin de Rada, one of the Augustinian fathers who traveled with Miguel Lopez de Legaspi and Bishop Domingo de Salazar, who became the first bishop of the Philippines. Both missionaries are remembered for their tireless efforts for petitioning against the cruel "encomienderos".

Finally, towards the end of the 16th century, all the encomienda systems" were abolished. "Provinces" took the place of the "encomiendas" and were headed by the "alcaldes", "mayors", "corregidores" and lieutenants.


The development of the "barangays" immediately followed, led by a "cabeza de barangay" who formed "towns". A town head or a "gobernadorcillo" was elected and Filipinos aged 16-60 years old had to pay a tribute of P1.50 pesos or twelve (12) "reales".

Filipinos were also required to do "polos y servicios" or "personal service" for the development of public works like the building of  "calles" (roads), bridges and other public buildings. Most of them also went out as sailors and some as soldiers.

In 1600, there were about 400 religious Spaniards who were left to minister in the provinces. Most Spanish political officials, businessmen, and soldiers chose to move to the city of Manila where they concentrated on the success of the galleon trade.

Thus is the origin of the well-known "barangays", which are still found in the Philippines today. It is the smallest political unit headed by a "capitan" or a "capitana" and whose annual election(s) is still surrounded by much controversy and political gossip.


Soliven, Preciosa. Half a Millennium of Philippine History", The Philippines Star Daily, 1999.
Welcome to Iberoamericana  and Vervuert publishing

Iberoamericana / Vervuert, academic bookseller and publisher, was founded in Frankfurt in 1975 and has, since 1996, a subsidiary in Madrid. We publish books and journals dealing with Latin America, Spain and Portugal. 

More about us: Kleinpenning, J.M.G.
Paraguay 1515-1870. A Thematic Geography of its Development. 2 vols. 2003, 128.00 €
Bibliotheca Ibero-Americana, 92 ISBN: 3893545921

This two-part study presents a systematic and detailed overview of the settlement pattern, the use of labor and other economic activities as well as of the size and composition of the population. 

Published just recently: Castro-Klarén, S.(ed.)
Latin American Women's Narrative: Practices and Theoretical Perspectives.2003, 29.80 €
Teoría y Crítica de la Cultura y la Literatura, 24 ISBN: 8484890708

Estudia la narrativa de las más importantes escritoras de América Latina, principalmente su novela, testimonio y cuento, en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, aunque analiza también autoras coloniales como sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.
  • View the collections Online
  • Read about the artworks
  • Zoom into the details of paintings, frescoes and artworks
  • Virtual Online Tour of the Vatican Museums
  • 3 online collections of selected works in the Vatican Museums

Sent by Bill Carmena 

Department of Hispanic Studies at the University of Wales Swansea.
Sent by Joan De Soto

One of the divisions is History:  La Guerra Civil Española 1936-1939
"La guerra española fue uno de los acontecimientos decisivos de nuestra época; todos lo decían mientras se luchaba, y todos tenían razón" (Lionel Trilling, en Homage to Catalonia de G. Orwell)

La Guerra Civil Española no es solo una página capital de la historia moderna sino una de las claves históricas del presente y del futuro de España. España es hoy un pais democrático y las heridas, aunque tal vez todavía duelan, estan (o deberían estar ya) cicatrizadas. Pero la actual democracia debe mucho al dolor de estas heridas; sin ellas, sin su recuerdo, correríamos el riesgo de volver a repetir los errores del pasado. Este Web es un punto de encuentro de todos aquellos que desean recordar esta historia, profundizar en ella y colaborar a su difusión.

Genealogy of Chilean People

Webmaster: Tomás Pino Aldunate
Sent by Paul Newfield

Among the resources is a listing of genealogists, with their email, and the family surnames that they have researched. In some cases photos accompany the pedigree information. 

A bulletin board for pasting messages, and a alphabetical listing which can be searched.


A Birthday for Our Diversity
Civil War Fought by Boys: 
"Prayer for Arthur"
Generation Gap

A Birthday for Our Diversity
By Thomas Fleming, The Philadelphia Inquirer
Thomas Fleming is senior scholar for the National Center for American Revolution at Valley Forge.
Sent by Michael Stevens Perez, Project Manager

Tomorrow the National Center for the American Revolution and the National Park Service will commemorate a forgotten anniversary at Valley Forge: the first public celebration of George Washington's birthday. It is also a celebration of American diversity, though too few Americans realize it.

It was a modest observance. Twenty-one members of the Continental Artillery Band marched to Washington's headquarters and serenaded the general as he was getting ready for bed. Afterward, Martha Washington came out to thank the soldiers and gave them 15 shillings - perhaps $100 in today's money - for a tip.

Few realize the diversity of Washington's army at Valley Forge. In the ranks were black soldiers, such as New Jersey's Oliver Cromwell, who crossed the Delaware with Washington on Christmas night 1776 to rescue the sinking revolution with stunning victories at Trenton and Princeton.

Cromwell served six years in the New Jersey brigade (or "line," as the soldiers called it). He received an honorable discharge in 1783, signed by Washington. By 1780, two years after Valley Forge, one out of every six soldiers in the Continental Army was black. It was the most integrated army America would field until the Vietnam War.

Historian Christopher Brown notes that blacks in the Continental Army were among the first to sign petitions protesting slavery in America. Washington and other leaders expressed a hope that Americans would find a way to eliminate the institution. Brown calls the Revolution "a defining moment in the world history of slavery."

Blacks are by no means the only forgotten participants in the revolution. Too many Americans have the impression that the war was fought between two groups of Englishmen. But by 1776 America was already a melting pot.

Sixty percent of the population was English. But more than 300,000 Irish-Americans were in the colonies when war broke out, and they were eager to settle old scores with an England that had been oppressing their country for centuries. Some historians have estimated a third of Washington's army was Irish born or of Irish descent. At Valley Forge, there were so many Irish in the Pennsylvania brigade, it was often called "the line of Ireland."

Many members of the small American Jewish community served in the army. Solomon Bush of Pennsylvania, who became a lieutenant colonel, told his friend Henry Lazarus he was "determined to revenge the wrongs of my injured country."

German Americans were equally ardent defenders of their new country. One German officer hired by George III to suppress the rebellion told of meeting an old woman in Maryland. "You have come over here to ruin us," she said in perfect German. Another German officer complained that Pennsylvania's Germans "were steeped in the American idea of liberty and are... unbearable."

In the closing years of the war, the Spanish governor of Louisiana, dynamic 30-year-old Bernardo de Galvez, shipped tons of arms and ammunition up the Mississippi to help Americans fighting in the West. Galvez also raised an army of French and Spanish Louisianians and free blacks that captured more than 1,000 redcoats and tied down three times that number - men the British badly needed elsewhere.

Women also played a part. Several saw combat. Hundreds more belonged to Washington's army as nurses and cooks, enduring the hardships of Valley Forge and other encampments. Many exhibited daring worthy of any man. Sixteen-year-old Sybil Ludington galloped 40 midnight miles around Danbury in 1777, turning out militia to repel British raiders. Betty Zane risked a hail of bullets to bring desperately needed gunpowder to a Kentucky fort.

Abigail Adams, wife of Continental Congressman John Adams, has won fame with her letter to John urging him to "remember the ladies" in the new government he was helping to create in Philadelphia. She helped launch a crusade to win better education for women. She raised four children and ran the family farm while her husband was away for years at a stretch. Tens of thousands of other women endured similar loneliness and hardship while the men fought the battles.

It was and is everybody's revolution. That's what's being celebrated tomorrow.

Civil War Fought by Boys: 

Figures from Government records indicate that 78% of the civil War was fought by 15-18 year olds.  Specific age categories are as follows:
10 yrs old = 25
11 yrs old = 34
12 yrs old = 225
13 yrs old = 380
14 yrs old = 1,602
15 yrs old = 104,987
16 yrs old = 231,051
17 yrs old = 884,981
18 yrs old = 1,158,434
19  to 22  = 617,511
22 to 44   = 52,696
Above 44 =  none

Nuggets from Paradise, Vol. 11, No. 5, via The Family Tree, August/September 2003

"Prayer for Arthur"

Revista Inter-Forum
La mejor fuente de información en Iberoamérica y el Caribe"
By General Douglas McArthur (1880-1964)
From the book American Caesar  By: William Manchester
Little, Brown & Co. Boston-Toronto

While in the Philippines, after Arthur had gone to sleep he looked down silently on the sleeping child. One night after supper he wrote a............ 

Build me a son, O Lord, who will be strong enough to know when he is weak, and brave enough to face himself when he is afraid; one who will be proud and unbending in honest defeat, and humble and gentle in victory.

Build me a son whose wishes will not take the place of deeds; a son who will know Thee -- and that to know himself is the foundation stone of knowledge.

Lead him, I pray, not in the path of ease and comfort, but under the stress and spur of difficulties and challenge.  Here let him learn to stand up in the storm; here let him learn compassion for those who fail.

Build me a son whose heart will be clear,  whose goal will be high; a son who will master himself before he seeks to master other men;  one who will reach into the future, yet never forget the past.

And after all these things are his, add, I pray, enough of a sense of humor, so that he may always be serious, yet never take himself too seriously.  Give him humility, so that he may always remember the simplicity of true greatness, the open mind of true wisdom, and the weakness of true strength.

Then I, his father, will dare to whisper, 

"I have not lived in vain"  

Generation Gap 
Sent by Roxanne Molina ROXANNEMOLINA@AOL.COM

One evening a grandson was talking to his grandmother about current events. The grandson asked his grandmother what she thought about the shootings at schools, the computer age, and just things in general.

The Grandma replied, "Well, let me think a minute, I was born before television, penicillin, polio shots, frozen foods, Xerox, contact lenses, Frisbees and the pill.

There was no radar, credit cards, laser beams or ball-point pens.

Man had not invented pantyhose, air conditioners, dishwashers, clothes dryers, and the clothes were hung out to dry in the fresh air and man hadn't yet walked on the moon.

Your Grandfather and I got married first-and then lived together. 

Every family had a father and a mother.

Until I was 25, I called every man older than I, 'Sir'- and after I turned 25, I still called policemen and every man with a title, 'Sir'.

We were before gay-rights, computer-dating, dual careers, daycare centers, and group therapy.

Our lives were governed by the Ten Commandments, good judgment, and common sense.

We were taught to know the difference between right and wrong and to stand up and take responsibility for our actions Serving your country was a privilege; living in this country was a bigger privilege.

We thought fast food was what people ate during Lent.

Having a meaningful relationship meant getting along with your cousins.

Draft dodgers were people who closed their front doors when the evening breeze started.

Time-sharing meant time the family spent together in the evenings and weekends-not purchasing condominiums.

We never heard of FM radios, tape decks, CDs, electric typewriters, yogurt, or guys wearing earrings.

We listened to the Big Bands, Jack Benny, and the President's speeches on our radios.

And I don't ever remember any kid blowing his brains out listening to Tommy Dorsey.

If you saw anything with 'Made in Japan' on it, it was junk.

The term 'making out' referred to how you did on your school exam. 

Pizza Hut, McDonald's, and instant coffee were unheard of.

We had 5 &10-cent stores where you could actually buy things for 5 and 10 cents.

Ice-cream cones, phone calls, rides on a streetcar, and a Pepsi were all a nickel.

And if you didn't want to splurge, you could spend your nickel on enough stamps to mail 1 letter and 2 postcards.

You could buy a new Chevy Coupe for $600 but who could afford one... to bad, because gas was 11 cents a gallon.

In my day, "grass" was mowed, "coke" was a cold drink, "pot" was something your mother cooked in, and "rock music" was your grandmother's lullaby.

"Aids" were helpers in the Principal's office, "chip" meant a piece of wood, "hardware" was found in a hardware store, and "software" wasn't even a word.

We were the last generation to actually believe that a lady needed a husband to have a baby.

No wonder people call us "old and confused" and say there is a generation gap..... 

and how old do you think I am ???"

Scroll down to see the answer...

"I am only 58 years old!"


You, the Researcher                     

Beginning Research in Spanish

The Most Important Detail of Genealogical Research

By Salena B. Ashton

Copyright 2003 Mission, Texas


In our world of "hurry up—get up—gotta go—where’s my stuff?" we, as genealogists sometimes find ourselves thinking, "Well, I am not like that. After all, I am spending my time reviewing my past, the past of our ancestors, of our cultures," and then dash from one side of the country to the other side of a different country, searching for the right cemetary, the court house that didn’t burn down, and scramble for a decently priced hotel room in a safe part of the city. We have organized folders, some bring crates, highlighters and pens of all colors. Some of us have detailed research plans. We make our hotel reservations and travel plans precisely, and we even knew how early to arrive at the library so we can be at the front of the waiting line that forms before the library is open. Hours disappear as we research film after film, stopping only to answer the pestering call of Mother Nature.

However, these same people toward the end of the day burn out—not from information overload, but from failing to take care of the most important detail of genealogical research—they forgot to take care of themselves. Because researchers spend so much time and energy in travel plans, research plans, and pouring through microfilms, they often justify poor eating and sleeping habits. Once, while I was in the lunch room, a pale skinned older woman sat down on the bench, fished for some change and bought a soda and chocolate bar. She sat down next to me and simply replied, "I can eat right when I get home." I am sure she didn’t sleep much until she got home either. Meanwhile, I wondered about the productivity of her research hours.

Many experts, from many fields, have talked about getting plenty of exercise while working at a sedentary job, so I won’t be too repetitive in this article. But how many of us apply this information to ourselves? The sedentary aspect of a genealogists’ life—sitting hour after hour at the microfilm reader, in the map section, and shuffling papers from pile to a file, adds up day after day and year after year. We may not live off of vending machine foods and caffeine pills (though I know a few researchers who do), but instead energy bars, bottles of water, and the rush which awakens us each time we find an ancestor.

Why does our research suffer when we don’t take care of our physical bodies?

Sleep. I cannot overestimate the power of a good night’s sleep. When we receive between seven and nine hours of sleep regularly each night, even on a research trip, we are more prepared for the next day’s challenges. Our brains are able to take a break while our bodies rest and repair themselves. When we skip on sleep or have erratic sleeping patterns, our arcadian rhythms get out of sync. We experience many degrees of mental slurring, from strained eye sight and constant yawning up to missing names while we scan records, and some fall asleep at microfilm readers. Mental slurring can also include not being able to effectively create and follow through with a research plan, analyze records correctly, or piece together clues. Sometimes irritability will set in, we lose patience with ourselves and with the librarians (always a danger to our resources and contact potentials). With enough sleep under our belts, our minds will be invigorated during the afternoon hours, when our arcadian rhythems often put us on ‘slug mode.’ We will feel refreshed, our minds will pick up details quicker, and our ability to analyze lasts longer. For the sake of brevity, I would love to refer you to a detailed, yet easy read of how vital our sleep is to our health, our relationships, our jobs, and overall quality of our lives. Please read The Promise of Sleep: A Pioneer in Sleep Medicine Explores the Vital Connection Between Health, Happiness, and a Good Night's Sleep by William C. Dement.

Eating Properly. I know that you all have heard countless reports, read countless articles, and have heard countless lectures about the importance of a good breakfast. I am a healthy young woman who runs road races and practices yoga. However, I have noticed that without proper fuel for my body I do not perform well, whether I’m running a five mile race or hot on the trail of my third great grandmother. Sometimes we believe that we should not eat so much because we’re worried about our weight, because of time lost eating instead of researching, or other reasons. Sometimes we even use the excuse that we can’t eat in the library. Well, that is a valid reason, so go to the cafeteria or step outside (fresh air does wonders to invigorate the mind). We find it easy to schedule smoke breaks, so why not fuel breaks?

  • Try to balance your meals with fresh fruits and vegetables (50% per meal), starchy carbohydrates (one serving is the size of your fist), and proteins (one serving is the size of your palm). Remember the effects of certain foods:
    • "Carbs Calm." They will bring up your glucose level, but if you eat refined sugars or refined flour products, such as most things sold in vending machines, your mental ability will crash right down with your glucose level within an hour. You then feel hungier and more tired. However, don’t cut out the carbs or you will find yourself without any energy. Try eating fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grain breads, baked potatoes and legumes. Avoid sugars, candies, cookies, and bagels.
    • "Fats Dull." This applies to ‘bad’ fats, cookies, candies, chocolates, chips—vending machine food! However, don’t avoid the good fats—peanuts, peanut butter, olive oil, avocadoes, and flax seeds (sprinkle on salads).
    • "Proteins Pep." Proteins pep up the mind—something researchers are always in need of. Convenient proteins include sandwhiches made of unprocessed turkey, chicken, tuna, eggs, peanut butter, tofu, or hummus. It can also include beans, peanuts, and dairy products.
  • Do not eat at the microfilm readers as a means to save time. In these efforts, you disrespect the archive materials, the library and librarians, and set a bad example to others. However, if you are diabetic, make arrangements with the librarian, preferably away from the microfilm readers, so as to avoid others assuming that snacking is acceptable.

When you eat properly balanced meals, your mind stays invigorated, your body freshened, and your strength fortified. This is why researchers who eat vending machine foods tend to ‘run out of gas’ faster than those who take the time to take care of themselves. It would be beneficial to spend an hour or two reading about how blood sugar levels effects the mental concentration abilities, whether or not you suffer from diabetes or hypoglycemia. The information about how blood sugar is used in our body still applies to each of us.

Dress comfortably. Cooler temperatures help preserve library and archive materials. Simply dress in layers. If you are a professional and you need to dress in a suit or dress, you can still dress in layers and keep your professional appearance. Wear comfortable shoes that don’t easily slip off. If you wear contact lenses bring extra solution and lenses, or glasses. If you need reading glasses, double check your bags to make sure that you brought them. Dangling jewelry, bulky bracelets and wrist watches may not seem like a problem, but think of the seconds and energy you spend getting them out of the way, especially if you suffer from arthritis or Carpal Tunnel Syndrome—and need to wheel through fifteen microfilms in less than four hours!

Wheelchairs, walkers, canes, and baby strollers: Please be courteous to those who use these devices. Those who use these devices, please don’t take advantage of special treatment. We should all feel comfortable while working on our genealogy.

If you travel for a few days at a time, it might be wiser to return to your hotel room around dinner time, rather than stay until ten pm. Use this time to eat properly, review your day’s research and plan your next strategy, stretch out your legs, give your mind a well-deserved break, and call your family on the phone. Don’t watch TV or use your computer just before bed. Stay away from alcohol and sleeping pills. Often it is hard falling asleep because we mull over the events of the day. Simply accept what you have been able to do and take comfort that you are taking care of yourself. You will then fall asleep faster, earlier, and soon it will be six the next morning—ready for another day of high quality, productive research.


Por, Salena B. Ashton

© 2003, Mission, Texas

Este artículo es una compilación del reglamento más pequeño previamente escrito 
por Salena B. Ashton ©2001 y ©2002, Provo, Utah.


Para comenzar a investigar a sus antepasados Hispanos, utilice el proceso de buscar (explicada en seguin articulo). Cuando usted reúne sus fuentes preliminares, o, los trabajo que los otros han hecho (las fuentes de la familia, el Internet y otras bases de datos, las fuentes de LDS (la Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los Ultimos Dias), las materiales impresas y no impresas, las biografías, etc), usted debe guardar unos pocos pensamientos adelante de su mente.

No muchas personas que investigan su genealogía tienen la ascendencia Hispana y, desgraciadamente, los Hispanos no investigan bastante. De los que hace, sólo hay una porción que contribuye su trabajo a bases de datos y otros fuentes, que podrían ayudar a los otros investigadores. Cuándo usted investiga el Internet, los libros, y otras bases de datos, usted no podria encontrar tanta información como su Angla contraparte. Usted podría llegar a ser fácilmente frustrado, cuando hice yo cuando comencé a investigar a mis antepasados Hispanos, y muchos deciden que la genealogía es demasiado duro. Eso no es verdad. No sea desalentó si usted no encuentra nombres en estas fuentes secundarias. No significa que sus antepasados no existieron—sólo significa que nadie ha contribuido estos nombres a ese recurso particular.

Porque no hay mucho secundario materiales disponible, las fuentes de la familia viviente son su llave a un ivestigacion afortunado. Haga las mas preguntas posible a tocante a su familia. Haga preguntas específicas—ellos serán más fáciles para su familia para contestar y usted obtiene detalle más grande. Si usted pregunta a su madre, "Como era su niñez?" ella acaba de mirar en usted. Si usted la pregunta, "Qué era aprecia cuando usted aprendió a cabalgar una bicicleta?" Usted entonces será dicho un cuento detallado. Tome notas, o mejor, recuerda la entrevista con una grabadora. La gente habla más rápido que escribimos. La prueba para no pedir que ellos escribir sus memorias hacia abajo—hace el trabajo usted mismo. Cuándo usted permite que gente hable simplemente, ellos utilizan más detalles y dilatan menos, y gozan tranquilo mientras usted hace todo el trabajo.

Sus padres, abuelos, los tíos, y los primos tendrán las cantidades vastas de información para obtenerle comenzó en su investigación. Esta información entrará la forma del nacimiento, del casamiento, y de los certificados de defunción, las tarjetas y las cartas, los retratos, las memorias que se escriben, las memorias que necesitarán a ser extraídas de la cabeza de abuelito Jose, y quizás allí hacen es aún alguna genealogía compilada. Utilice la lista siguente:

Cuándo usted empieza a hablar a la gente acerca de la historia de la familia que usted hace primero necesidad a comenzar con usted mismo, entonces sus padres y hermanos. Luego, hablar a los tíos, a los primos, y a los abuelos. Usted querrá hacer preguntas específicas. Cuándo gente dice usted lo que ellos saben, es bueno ser preparado:

  1. El papel y el lápiz. Tome notas en lo que usted quiera aprender. Anote las preguntas específicas que usted quiere preguntar. Muy pocos de nosotros seremos capaces de mantener todos los hechos rectos en cabezas.
  2. La grabadora, las cintas, baterías extras y una cuerda de extensión. A menos que usted sea super humano, usted no tiene capaz de escribir tan rapidamente como hablan la gente, ni lo hace es capaz de recordar a gente de que todo lo dice. Utilizar una grabadora permite que usted goce hablar con gente sin preocupar por bajando todos los hechos. Permite también que la persona hable sin preocupar por su escrito.
  3. Haga preguntas específicas. ¿Cuál pregunta la voluntad es más fácil de contestar? "Abuelita, me dice acerca de su niñez." o el segundo, "Abuelita, me dice cómo usted llego a escuela cada dia."

Algo que la familia presta a usted, sea segur que vuevelo a su propio dueno. Obtenga una copia de Xerox de lo que ellos lo entregan. Tome notas de quien le dieron qué. La última cosa que usted quiere hacer es crea una enemistad entre familia, dando a Tía Juanita los retratos de Tío George.

Con las enemistades de familia, muy pocos de nosotros venimos de una familia perfecta. A veces, haya las situaciones duras que usted tenga con que trabaja. Si las partes de su familia no hablan uno al otro, usted tendrá que vencer eso. A menos que los problemas lo impliquen usted directamente, vencer estos obstáculos serán más fáciles. Con regla general, la pelea de gente tiena que hacer con otras generaciones; usted, el niño de sus padres, es agarrado indirectamente en ello. Por restablecer simplemente el contacto con un abuelo o la tía, usted puede asegurar ellos que quiere todavía hablar con ellos y obtener para saberlos.

Si su familia no le ayudará con información y recursos, entonces, eso es lo que pasa. Siga tratando. Quizás tome dos o tres contactos. Quizás requiera que usted paga por todos gastos. Quizás requiera dos semanas o seis años de la paciencia. Pero hace todo lo que puede. La mayoría de las veces, cuándo parientes ven que usted es serio, ellos aligerarán generalmente arriba. Por ejemplo, la familia de mi papa se aparece mas como una una colección de astillas de familia que un árbol genealógico. Nadie habla a cualquiera. Después que yo me mudé para el colegio, yo podría empezar a hablar a ellos sin mis padres quein me prohiben antes. ¡Imagínese cuán duro que era para una de dieciocho años de edad! Bien, la familia no es agradable y mis padres tenian bien razón del cortar todo contacto. Sin embargo, ellos son todavía mi familia y, mas importante, ellos tienen información. Ellos tienen a los mismos antepasados que tengo, y esos antepasados tienen tanta necesidad para la genealogía y para se recordar como que hacemos.

Pues, aconteció que la familia no cooperaría conmigo. Tuve que comenzar del rasguño. Hace cinco años, yo presenté a una tía mi trabajo genealogicoque había hecho (mantener en el contacto con ella del tiempo de investigar). Ella vio cuánto trabajo yo había sido capaz de hacer y tres semanas despues, ella me dio algunos fechas, los hechos, los cuentos, y algunos se imaginan para ser Xeroxed. Tuve que mantener constantemente el contacto con gente que tuvo antipatía a mis padres, que evitó mis llamadas, y que podría cuidar menos acerca de genealogía. Tomó mucho trabajo (a menudo pienso que trabajar con el vivir es más duro que el difunto), pero aprendí que el nombre de mi tatara abuelita Rosa May Wolfe. ¿Ahora dígame, todo ese tenia valor del trabajo? Pida a Rosa Wolfe. ¿No piensa usted que ella se siente mejor habia sido recordado? Sí, este trabajo lo vale bien.

Para más información acerca de cómo hacer entrevistas de historia de familia y qué clase de preguntas hacer a su familia, averigüe William G. Hartley’s The Everything Family Tree Book. (Ingles) Y especialmente el libro estrito por Don Ray, Make Anyone Want to Talk, No Questions Asked: An Investigative Reporter’s Guide to Perfect Interviews. (Ingles). Si ustedes conozcan libros de eso en espanol, por favor, escribeme los nombres.



Después que cinco años de investigar para su antepasado perdido que tomará usted apoya el conexcion ocho más generaciones, su tía dice, "Bien, yo lo podría haber dicho eso!"

Cuándo usted no sabe sus parientes muy bien, mejor los deberán escribir primero antes de llamar. Mande su árbol genealógico y alguna historia de la familia de su rama de la familia (hace un cebo maravilloso). Mande por una hoja del grupo de la familia para ellos llenar, si ellos desean.

No los pide inmediatamente artículos originales a menos que usted quiera espantarlos lejos. Construya una relación sincera de la confianza antes pedir a otra gente’s cosas personales, si toma de dos días o dos años.

Pida las fotocopias de los artículos apropiados de esta lista (hay mas que lo que esta abajo):

Entradas en la Biblia familiar



Papeles de negocios

Papeles de naturalizacion e immigracion

Cuardos de los antepasados

Hojas de familia

Historias de la familia

Papeles y historias militares


Papeles de bautismos, matrimonios, entierros

Usted puede querer también a, después que establecer una relación de la confianza, la oferta para escudriñar documentos originales. A menudo he encontrado que cuando ofrezco esto, y menciono ellos obtendrán la original y ‘gratis’copias, yo obtengo generalmente el acceso a los retratos. La promesa para compartir con ellos la historia de la familia que usted reúne. La oferta para pagar por su es copiar y costos que envían. Encierre un SASE.

"Lo que anda alrededor, se recupera aplica tiempo realmente grande a la genealogía." - Leland Meitzler

Las preguntas

Estas preguntas se significan para darle ideas en lo que preguntar. Ellos ciertamente no son las únicas preguntas para preguntar, y no deben limitar la conversación. Permita estas guía de preguntas—no dicta—su entrevista.

¿Dónde estaban ellos nacido?

¿Cuándo nacían ellos?

¿Quizás fue bautizados ellos o quizás fueron bautizado?

¿Dónde y cuándo ellos asistieron escuela?

¿Dónde y cuándo ellos casaron?

¿Dónde y cuándo ellos murieron?

¿Qué tal entierro?

¿Tuvieron ellos a niños?

¿Dónde y cuándo ellos tuvieron a niños?

¿De dónde vinieron ellos?

¿El país, el condado, el área, el pueblo, la parroquia?

¿Cómo obtuvieron ellos aquí?

¿Cuándo y por qué ellos vinieron aquí?

¿Por qué salieron ellos su país de madre?

¿Vinieron ellos sólo?

¿Era él o ella indentured?

¿Vinieron ellos como parte de un grupo?

¿Vinieron ellos directamente o hicieron ellos paran en tránsito en su manera aquí?

¿Cómo se ganaron la vida ellos en su país de madre?

¿Qué tal aquí? ¿Qué adquirieron ellos en su vive?

¿Habrían poseído ellos, la casa de la tierra, o el negocio?

¿Dónde podrían haber aparecido sus nombres?

¿Para qué razón podrían haber aparecido sus nombres?

¿Cuándo podrían haber aparecido sus nombres?

¿Habrían listado los cuentos periodísticos o las columnas estadísticas sus nombres?

¿Habrían aparecido sus nombres en guías de pueblo o ciudad?

¿Qué tal guías telefónicas (1890 y en)?

¿Habrían pertenecido ellos a cierta religión?

¿Asistieron ellos la iglesia?

¿Dónde y cuándo ellos asistieron la iglesia?

¿Podría haber servido él en el ejército?

¿Cuándo y dónde él sirvió en el ejército?

¿Qué era los conflictos militares de ese tiempo?

¿Pudieran haber sido ellos miembros de una organización fraternal?

¿Dónde estaban ellos en cada enumeración del censo?

¿Fueron registrados sus movimientos por alguna autoridad?

La nota a lectores: trabajo actualmente en un artículo diferente tocante a las técnicas afortunadas y lastimosas que he utilizado personalmente al investigar mi familia y la familia de otros.


Esté enterado de los apellidos dobles utilizados en países Hispanos y entre gente Hispana. Porque Anglo no utiliza un apellido doble, los recursos de Estados Unidos los archivarán diferentemente que hace recursos Hispano. A veces el apellido del padre apellido se errará para un segundo nombre, o para apellido de la madre podría ser cortado completamente. Sea creativa cuándo buscar nombres en bases de datos de computadora. Las mujeres casadas fueron encontradas con el apellido de sus esposos, usualmente.

  1. Anglos Americanos utilizan un apellido. Por ejemplo, mi nombre es Salena LuWeez Ball. Soy la hija de Laurence Gene Ball y Gloria May Torres.
  2. La cultura hispana combina los apellidos del padre y la madre: Así, mi nombre es Salena LuWeez Ball y Torres.
  3. Las mujeres hispanas mantuvieron sus apellidos de soltera. Salena Ball, en vez de Salena Ashton.


Porque ustedes estan leyendo este articulo en espanol, es facil a decir que no tiene problemas con espanol. Pero, hay otras problemas con espanol, como abrevaturas, y el escrito viejo (se llama paleografia).


Después de buscar los EE.UU. El Censo federal de la Población (si aplicable) esto es el segundo tipo del registro que usted debe buscar, después que reunió todo el trabajo que otros han hecho (la familia, las publicaciones, el Internet, etc..) La mayoría de lOS español y países parlantes de portugués eran Católicas; de ahí, estos países llevaron registros de bautismos, los casamientos, los entierros, y de otros acontecimientos. Ellos son los registros más comunes que esenciales (matrícula civil), y ellos pueden contener más información.

Bautismos (bautismos) contiene generalmente lo Siguiente:

  1. Parroquial de Lugar
  2. Fecha de bautismo
  3. Niño/a de del de Nombre:
  4. Fecha de nacimiento:
  5. Legitimidad de niño/a
    1. Hijo/a legitimo:
    2. Hijo/a natural: Esto no significa que el niño es especificado como un niño biológico en comparación con un niño adoptivo. Hijos naturales significa que el niño era ilegítimo.
  6. Padre
  7. Madre
  8. Abuelos Paternos
  9. Abuelos Maternos
  10. Padrinos

Las mujeres fueron registradas generalmente con sus apellidos de soltera. Los nombres, las frases comunes, y los lugares se abreviaron a veces. El siguiente es algunos ejemplos:

  1. Maria = Ma Jose = Je Juan = Jn Xavier = Xr Francisco = Franco
  2. Rodriguez = Rodz Martinez = Martz Jaramillo = Jaro
  3. Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe = Nstra Seña de Guad.
  4. Ha La = Hija Legitima Ho Nat. = Hijo Natural
  5. dho/dha = dicho/dicha = dijo (Ex. "Madre de dicho parroquia. ..")
  6. Y. D. = ya difunto /difunta


En la parr. de S. J. Bautista de Inde a los veintecuatro dias del mes de junio de milnovecientos doce, yo el pbra. Maurico Beatriz cura bautice solemmente y puse los Santos obras a un niño que nacio en Tres Vados el veinte de dho a quien puse por nombre Juan Pedro hijo legitimo de Marcial Rivas, dif. y Ma Rodz. Abuelos paternos Tomas Rivas y Andrea Alcantar. Abuelos maternos. Jesus Rodz y Evanista Reyes. Pad. Benigno Aldrete, Perforia Aldrete a quienes el parantesco espiritual y obligaciones de un cargo.


En la parroquia de San Juan Bautista de Inde a los veintecuatro dias del mes de junio de milnovecientos doce, yo el Maurico Beatriz cura bautice solemmente y puse los Santos obras a un niño que nacio en Tres Vados el veinte de dho a quien puse por nombre Juan Pedro hijo legitimo de Marcial Rivas, difunto, y Maria Rodriguez. Abuelos paternos Tomas Rivas y Andrea Alcantar. Abuelos maternos. Jesus Rodriguez y Evanista Reyes. Padrinos Benigno Aldrete, Perforia Aldrete a quienes el parantesco espiritual y obligaciones de un cargo.

Algunas entradas tendrán más o menos abreviaciones, información, o notas marginales.


Los registros del casamiento tendrián los conceptos: los nombres repletos, los apellidos de soltera, las fechas, y los lugares. Ellos incluirán también la residencia de la novia y el novio (vec = vecinos). Los siguientes dos ejemplos muestran información cuánta o cuán pequeña que pueden contener en una entrada de la iglesia. Cuando usted mira cada uno de ellos, favor de notar que cuándo investigarlo usted debe extraer información, no es necesario de hacer una traducción perfecta. Busque los nombres, los lugares, y las fechas. Busque palabras de relación tal como madre, hijo y de abuelos.


La Entrada verdadera: En dies y nuebe de Junio de set.y sesnta y seis as. Casé y belé in facis eclecis a Maria d los Stos Reyes hija l de no conosidos: con Juan Martin: ves.o de Chimayo hijo de Fra.o Martin.


En trece de Junio de este ano de mil set.y nobenta: yo fr. Gabriel de Lago Por.l y mano de esta miss.on De S. Lorenso de Pecuris; Case pr palabra deprerense y bele in facie eclecio a Ju.o Jose Mrtn de edad de 22 a. hijo legmo de Ju.o Martin y de M.a de los Reyes Lujan ya diftos: fueron vs de su libertad y soltero y libre conocmto Ramon Cordoba, de edad de 52 a y Franca Villapando de 30 a q de durado hicieron. con Manuela Estefana Gonzz de edad de 18 a hija legma de Franco Gonzz ya difes y de Ma Zamora; fureron ns de su libertad y soltera y libre de… (sic) Jose Leyba de edad de 47 a y Juan Bapta Venabides de 32 a quienes han declamado decir verdad bajo el firamto q hicieron: fueron Manuel Torres, y su cuñada, Ma Natividad Lujan, nos de la celebrados de dho Matrim.o Assencio Zamora, Pedro Assencio Mrn, y Juan de Arguello, todos vesinos de esta en todo el rito y forma de Ntra Sta Madre Ygla y qe doy fe lo firmo r supra=

Fr Gabriel de Lago

Por ahora usted habrá advertido las variaciones del deletreo y la abreviación. Recuerde, nuestros antepasados no tuvieron interés en el deletreo, ellos deletrearon palabras según cómo ellos sonaron. Pensaron fonéticamente. Para aprender palabras y frases claves adicionales, vaya al el clic en el "SEARCH" , y luego, clic en el "Research Tips." el Clic en la letra del país del interés, por ejemplo, M para México. Desplace hacia abajo hasta que usted encuentre los documentos para México, y para la búsqueda para el "Genealogical Word List."

Después que usted ha obtenido una lista de palabras y ha comenzado a familiarizarse con algunos de las palabras, el comienzo trabajando con los registros. Si usted trata de memorizar todas las palabras antes usted investiga (en cualquier idioma), usted frustrará y se confundirá. Entre los registros con su lista de palabras en la mano, y lentamente trabajo a reconocer los nombres, a las frases, y a las fechas. Continúe trabajar con los documentos y la lista de palabras. No trabaja con solo uno o el otro, trabaja con los dos en mismo tiempo.

Para información con más detallada a trabajar con documentos españoles y genealogica hispana, hay muchos libros, (la mayoria son in ingles, unafortunado si no leya en ingles). Después que revisar muchos libros que cubren específicamente comenzando la Genealogía Hispana, yo recomiendo fuertemente "Finding Your Hispanic Roots" por George R. Ryskamp. Es completo y fácil a entender, por el principiante e investigador avanzado.

Ademas, busca los sitios del Internet, incluyendo este sitio y

Se puede buscar, la guía del Internet para sitios de genealogía



1880 Census Index Available for Research
Hispanic Genealogy Books

AOL Keyword ROOTS Now Gone
El Cacique
Children’s DNA Self-Portraits

We Are the Chosen

1880 Census Index Available for Ancestry Research

Sent by David Lewis
The LDS Church has announced that a fully searchable 1880 U.S. Census index is now linked with digital images of the original census documents to enable researchers to more easily search for ancestors living in the United States in 1880. 

    According to a church news release, the service is the result of an agreement between Inc., the largest collection of genealogical records online, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which through FamilySearch manages the largest repository of genealogical records from around the world. 

    The 1880 U.S. Census index and images, which include more than 50 million names, can be accessed at both   and

    "Integrating the online index with the actual images online allows users to search the census and go right to an image of the original source online for viewing or printing," the release quoted Glade I. Nelson, director of the Church's Family History Library in Salt Lake City, as saying. 

Hispanic Genealogy Books
Sent by Joan De Soto

This website is a wonderful resource for Hispanic family historians and includes information from all over the world. It includes a synopsis of new books, with links to purchase both used and new books. Also included are articles by well-known Hispanic genealogists.

AOL Keyword ROOTS Now gone
Source: DearMYRTLE Family History Hour

AOL's Golden Gates Genealogy Forum no longer exists at AOL Keyword: ROOTS. 
If you visit the Genealogy Forum's web site, you will find the link to the BRAND SPANKING NEW chat rooms, out on the web! You can get there directly by going to
 .org is the NEW area created to host the 100+genealogy chats you've known and loved on Q-LINK, then PC-LINK & APPLE-LINK, then AOL -- and NOW out on the web so ALL can attend! 

Chat rooms are expected to grow beyond the 100 existing chats, to include NEW chat hosts from ALL over the world, volunteering 24/7 in these rooms to help YOU make progress with your family history research. We don't have restraints of AOL US, AOL Germany, etc. Its GOOD to be thinking globally in the 21st century!

BranchesNRoots - public
Skeleton Closet - public
GenRoots - public
Brick Walls - public
Cousin Connections - public
TwigsNTrees - public
Maple Leaf - public

Classroom - requires a password for the class you decide to take
Auditorium - for BIG special events with guest speakers
Squirrels' Den - private staff lounge


Sent by Armando Montes

 Un Viejo Cacique de una tribu estaba teniendo una charla acerca de la vida con sus nietos.

 Les dijo: Una gran pelea está ocurriendo en mi interior y es entre dos lobos.

 Uno de los lobos representa la maldad, el temor, la ira, la envidia, el dolor, el rencor, la avaricia, la arrogancia, la culpa, el resentimiento, la inferioridad, la mentira, el orgullo, la competencia, la superioridad y la egolatría.

 El otro la bondad, la alegría, la paz, el amor, la esperanza, la serenidad, la humildad, la dulzura, la generosidad, la benevolencia, la amistad, la empatía, la verdad, la compasión y la fe.

 Esta misma pelea está ocurriendo dentro de ustedes, y dentro de todos los seres de la tierra.

 Lo pensaron por un minuto y uno de los niños le preguntó a su abuelo:

 Abuelo, dime: "cuál de los lobos ganará?"

 Y el viejo cacique respondió simplemente...


Introduction to article:
Children’s DNA Self-Portraits, August 7, 2003
Sent by Robert Smith

School children in Britain have created sculptures of DNA using mainly natural materials like wood gathered at a nature reserve. The sculptures are “self-portraits” because the young artists designed them using personal information such as their heights and the sizes of their hands. 

The teacher behind the sculpture program is Paul Goodrick, an environmental artist based in Kent, England. The program is called “Exploring Science through Art.”  “I thought that if each child made a DNA self-portrait sculpture using their own height, hand span and favorite colors, it would give a startling exhibition of many sculptures that were similar in design but individually different,” says the British sculptor. 

"DNA and Nature," School/Community Art, Pfizer, ltd, Sandwich, Kent, U.K., 2002. 
All images courtesy Paul Goodrick 

We Are the Chosen

Sent by Viola Sadler

My feelings are in each family we are called to find the ancestors.
To put flesh on their bones and make them live again,
To tell the family story and to feel that somehow they know and approve.
To me, doing genealogy is not a cold gathering of facts but, instead,
Breathing life into all who have gone before.

We are the story tellers of the tribe.
We have been called as it were by our genes.
Those who have gone before cry out to us: Tell our story. So, we do.
In finding them, we somehow find ourselves.
How many graves have I stood before now and cried? I have lost count.

How many times have I told the ancestors you have a wonderful family, you
would  be proud of us?
How many times have I walked up to a grave and felt somehow there was love
there  for me?   I cannot say.
It goes beyond just documenting facts. It goes to who I am and why I do
the  things I do?
It goes to seeing a cemetery about to be lost forever to weeds and
And saying I can't let this happen.

The bones here are bones of my bone and flesh of my flesh.
It goes to doing something about it.
It goes to pride in what our ancestors were able to accomplish.
How they contributed to what we are today.
It goes to respecting their hardships and losses, their never giving in or giving up,

Their resoluteness to go on and build a life for their family.
It goes to deep pride that they fought to make and keep us a Nation.
It goes to a deep and immense understanding that they were doing it for us.
That we might be born who we are.
That we might remember them. So we do.
With love and caring and scribing each fact of their existence,
Because we are them and they are us.

So, as a scribe called, I tell the story of my family.
It is up to that one called in the next generation,
To answer the call and take their place in the long line of family storytellers.
That is why I do my family genealogy,
And that is what calls those young and old to step up
And put flesh on the bones.

[Author Unknown]



                12/30/2009 04:48 PM