January  2003
Editor: Mimi Lozano, mimilozano@aol.com

  Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage & Diversity Issues
          Publication of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research © 2000-3
http://members.aol.com/shhar   714-894-8161


Content Areas
United States 
. . . 2
Surname Galvez . 20
Galvez Project . .  21
Orange Co, CA
. . 23
Los Angeles, CA
California . . . . . .  27
Southwestern . . . 37
Black  . . . . . . . .  43
Indigenous . . . . . 44
. . . . .  46
Texas . . . . . . . .  50
East Mississippi
. 56
East Coast
. . . . . 60
. . . . . . . .63
. 73
. . . .  75
. . . . . . . . 79
 . . . . .84
. . . 86

2003 Index


January 25th - - - 
SHHAR Quarterly


Mexico Pavilion Disney World’s EPCOT Center
Eddie Martinez, California artist

The attention now paid to Latin arts appears to be more than just a passing fad. There is a new broader attitude toward art and attracting audiences, observers say, with eyes on changing demographics and the bottom line.  Recognizing the dramatic rise in the number of Latino residents, art organizations are adjusting their programming and outreach accordingly.  
        Arts organizations can't rely on simply presenting the old European standards to an ever-shrinking audience.  Diversity is a matter of survival, especially in these difficult economic times. 
For generations, Mexico and other Latin American countries have fostered a tradition of institutional support for the fine arts.  That tradition hasn't always been recognized by U.S. art czars until recently.  
        Some say the increase in Latin American offerings is part of a larger, growing internationalism and trans-nationalism in the art word, not just a look down south.  Latin American artists are now operating on a global scale; their talent - and their cachet [importance/prestige]- cannot be denied.
Extract: Latin American arts all the age in Orange Co. by Richard Chang, O.C. Register, 12-8-02)

Eddie Martinez is an example of an artist-illustrator-writer that is sharing his heritage through his art.  For the past thirty-five years Eddie Martinez has established an illustrious career as an artist and designer in the field of entertainment including motion pictures, television, theater, and theme parks.

His extensive abilities as an artist and his passion for research are demonstrated in his work with the Walt Disney Company as the Chief Designer for the Mexico Pavilion Show Ride in Disney World’s EPCOT Center, The Forum Shops at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, and numerous themed parks and resorts throughout the world.

His work on an international scale also includes cultural, educational, and town planning projects. At the heart of Mr. Martinez’s work is his drive to explore history through research. Currently he is deeply committed to his own projects revolving around the study of ancient civilizations in North America and Latin American history.  

Mr. Martinez will be speaking in Orange County, California, January 25. Click for meeting Information.

"The past is a source of knowledge, 
and the future is a source of hope."

Stephen Ambrose in Fast Company

Somos Primos Staff: 

Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal: Historian 
Johanna de Soto: Genealogy
Armando Montes: Surnames
Howard Shorr: Education/Social

Paul Apodaca, Ph.D.
Ambassador Juan José Bremer 
Andrea Cabello
Dennis V. Carter
Peter Cole
Elena L. Garcia Diaz
Lee Everton
George Farías
Lorraine Frain
Anthony Garcia
George Gause
Eddie Grijalva
Joe Guerra
J. Guthrie
Michael R. Hardwick
Elsa Pena Herbeck
Zeke Hernandez
Granville Hough, Ph.D.
Patti Navarrette-Larson
Jeanie Low
Ana Maria McGuan
Armando Montes
Lou Madrid
Eddie Martinez
J.V. Martinez, Ph.D.
John Palacio
Paul Newfield
Gloria Oliver
Tracey Oz
John Palacio
Lic. Guillermo Padilla Origel
Michael Stevens Perez
Alejandro Sanz 
D.A. Sears
Howard Shorr
Ryan Skousen
Tawn Skousen
Greg P. Smestad, Ph.D.
Benfred Clement Smith
Robert Thonhoff
Herbert Villarreal
Jennifer Vo
SHHAR Board Members:  Laura Arechabala Shane, Bea Armenta Dever, Diane Burton Godinez,
Peter Carr, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Carlos Olvera
INS alien registration case-files, aka A-Files
Immigrants Critical to Economy
Time 75th Anniversary Celebration 

Census Misses 1 million Children
More Immigrants Filling the Ranks of U.S. Military
Campaigns spending more on ads in Spanish
Immigrants factor in growth of U.S. labor force
No plans for Spanish as Olympic language
Hollywood-style Historical Depiction
Latinas In Science
Business Magazine Influentials follow-up
School plan seeks 2nd language for all 
Latino Immigrants Becoming Better Educated
Cervical cancer double in Latinos 
Latinos May Face Higher Dementia Risks
 Search Is on for Hispanic Teachers 
UNITY: Journalists of Color, Inc.
Men as Nurturers and Caregivers
In  Search of  Fatherhood
Blockbuster Expands its Spanish Offerings
Drop Anti-American Stance  
Urban Latino TV to Debut
Regions of La Raza
The Hispanic Achievers Website
Record amount of remittances U.S. to Mexico
Study Shows Latinos Marginalized on Networks 
Majority of Latinos, Discrimination Is a Problem
PEW Major Study - Assimilation of Hispanics
INS alien registration case-files, aka A-Files
December 12, 2002

Hi Mimi: 
Sorry to finally touch bases with you. I received the Cross Roads newsletter from Paso al Norte Immigration Museum and thought of you. I've attached the information on INS alien registration case-files, aka A-Files that have only a temporary status and a Petition to Urge the Preservation
of the A-Files. I've been working with several organizations on the West Coast (Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation, Chinese Historical Society of America, Museum of Chinese in America in NY, California State Genealogical Alliance and National Japanese American Historical Society)  that are concerned about the future of the A-Files as they are vitally important original documents that haven't been researched in depth for genealogists and other researchers. Together, we can all make a difference.
Jeanie Low, SF  wongyen@juno.com  China Connection

Petition Urging Preservation for the "A-Files"  Opening Statement:
        This document represents a unified statement in support of the preservation of the Alien Registration Case-files, aka "A-Files." You and/or your organization have expressed an interest in the fate of the "A-Files," thus, we are asking you and your contacts to join us in signing the enclosed petition. You are encouraged to formulate your own statement to urge the permanent status and designation for the "A-Files", but the following petition has been provided for your convenience as a
summary of the issues and a clear request for action on the part of both the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS).
        Your support of this important matter is vital to seeing that the "A-Files" remain intact as a complete collection and are not ever destroyed. If you sign this petition or formulate your own statement regarding this issue, please send your correspondence to the U.S. Archivist at 8601 Adelphi Road, Rm 4100, College Park, MD 20740-6001, forward a copy to: the Immigration and Naturalization Service Commissioner at 425 I Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20536 and a copy to
your local state legislators. (For contact information for Congress members, see http://congress:org/congressorg/dbq/officials/?lvl=L, select state, then congressional delegation). Together, we can all make a difference. 

                       [[Editor's note:  The contributions and migration stories of late-arriving primos to the U.S. will be supported through research in these documents.  The destruction of these records will remove the evidence of their existence. I hope you will all take the time to make a statement on behalf of preservation of these records. It will make a difference.]]  

                                  Petition URGING PRESERVATION for THE "A-FILES"

        The history of America is the story of immigrants, whether from Europe, Asia, Latin America or Africa. Since the Alien Registration Act of 1940, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) has maintained "Alien Registration Case-files, or "A-Files" as they are commonly known. This
collection of documents reflects the rich ethnic diversity of America’s immigrants from the 20th century onwards. Some "A-Files" include the documentation for immigrants who entered the U.S. prior to 1940 and came under INS jurisdiction later. The "A-Files" are the evidentiary documents
vital to the research of family history, essential to understanding American immigration policy and its influences on global migration patterns. 
        There is an estimated one million cubic feet of "A-Files" classified as "temporary" under INS's jurisdiction. As temporary records, the "A-Files" are kept for 75 years from the last INS action and then become eligible to be destroyed after that period. Of those one million cubic feet of "A-Files", 650,000 cubic feet are relatively current files in INS’s storage, the remaining 350,000 cubic feet are relatively non-current files. Currently, INS contracts the National Archives and Records
Administration (NARA) to store a majority of its non-current files at Lee's Summit, Missouri, with approximately 35,000 cubic feet stored at NARA’s San Bruno, California Federal Records Center.
        Each "A-File" contains unique and primary source materials documenting each immigrant who entered the United States. Sample documents may include: family photographs and personal artifacts; birth and marriage certificates; family genealogies; and government immigration records (INS investigations, copies of naturalization certificates, interview transcripts, deportation hearings). Sample files include those of Holocaust survivors; the Enemy Alien Parolee Files for German, Italian,
and Japanese alien residents and their families who were placed in internment camps during WWII; Filipino Freedom Fighters; WWII War Brides; Chinese subject to the Chinese Exclusion legislation and Chinese Americans in the "confession and amnesty" program; migrant workers from Mexico; and refugees of political turmoil, spanning from World War II to the Vietnam War. The National Archives and Records Administration has the authority to designate any inactive federal agency records older than thirty years for its permanent historical collection. [Code of Federal Regulations, 36 CFR Ch XII (7-1-97) Sec.1228.28-32; Sec.1228.164;Sec.1228.180-183.]
        Those interested in the fate of the "A-Files" include genealogists, historians, educators, legislators, museum administrators, park specialists, immigration experts, authors, and documentarians. Tremendous interest continues to focus on those American immigrants who entered
through the Ellis Island Immigration Station in New York and the Angel Island Immigration Station in California. Since 1999, the Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation (AIISF), California State Parks and the National Park Service have worked together to preserve and rehabilitate the Angel Island Immigration Station. Currently, those three organizations are working with NARA to explore the creation of a family history and genealogy center at the restored hospital at the Angel Island
Immigration Station. In addition, the National Park Service is planning the Pacific Coast Immigration Museum in San Francisco, California.  We, the undersigned, urge the National Archives and Records Administration to designate original "A-Files" thirty years or older for its permanent historical collection. We also urge our local congressional representatives to support appropriate federal funding for NARA to preserve, enhance public use, and provide access to those older "A-Files" (30 years old and older) by making them part of the National Archives'
permanent historical collection.





Extract: Immigrants critical to economy, census study finds
Washington Post  Monday, December 2, 2002 2 San Francisco Chronicle.

A new study of census data by  the Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University. concludes that recent immigrants were critical to the nation's economic growth over the past decade, accounting for half the new wage-earners who joined the labor force in those years. The effect was particularly large among men: Eight of 10 new male workers in the previous decade were immigrants who arrived during that time. The newly analyzed workforce numbers show immigration is redrawing the profile of the U.S. workforce, in some cases transforming entire industries.
        More than 13 million legal and illegal immigrants came to the United States from 1990 to 2001, drawn by the healthy economy and family ties. The report said 8 million immigrants joined the labor force, which means they were either working or looking for work, over a period when the total number of new workers was 16 million. 
        Even so, 86 percent of the total workforce is American-born.  One of the authors of the Northeastern study argues that: The U.S. economy would have stumbled in the past decade without the new arrivals, and most immigrants contribute more in taxes than they use in services.
        "The American economy absolutely needs immigrants," said Andrew Sum, director of the labor market center. "I realize some workers have been hurt by this, and some people get very angry when I say this, but our economy has become more dependent on immigrant labor than at any time in the last 100 years."

The center's report was commissioned by the Business Roundtable, group of corporate chief executives.                                                                      
Sent by John Palacio Jpalacio@pacbell.net 
Time 75th Anniversary Celebration 
In 75 years of covering the world, "Time" magazine has put us face-to-face with some of the most dramatic moments in human history. Time photographers let us fly with Charles Lindbergh, see Jackie Robinson's long-line drive to left field, and cheer as the Berlin Wall tumbled. This special anniversary celebration captures some of those compelling stories and photographs to create a lasting chronicle of passing decades, and a tribute to our times. Buy it now for only $10! 
Extract: Census estimates show nearly half of 1 million kids missed were black and Hispanic 
by Genaro C. Armas, Associated Press, 12/6/2002 

 WASHINGTON (AP) More than 1.1 million children were not tallied in the 2000 census.   The bureau released the data only after a federal court ordered it to do so.          Nearly 29 percent of the children missed were black, though they made up nearly 15 percent of the total population kids under 18. Hispanics were about 20 percent of the child undercount, and 17 percent of the total child population. 
        About 45 percent of those children missed were white, less than their 60 percent share of the total population of children. The Census Bureau data adjusted using statistical sampling also showed a slight over-count of Asian children. Civil rights groups  contend that the state-by-state breakdown of the undercount would show that minorities and children were more likely to be missed. The bureau in March 2001 said there was a net undercount of about 1.2 percent of the population roughly 3.2 million people, with one-third of them children. 
        More than 30,000 black children younger than 18 were undercounted in New York, while more than 72,000 Hispanic kids were missed in California, the figures show. About 42,000 Hispanic children were undercounted in Texas. 
        Of all states, California the most populous state in the nation had the largest undercount regardless of age or race, more than a half-million people, or 1.5 percent of its population. Alaska had the largest percentage of people missed at 2.4 percent, an undercount of more than 15,000. 

Census Bureau: http://www.census.gov                        
Sent by Howard Shorr   howardshorr@msn.com

More Immigrants Filling the Ranks of U.S. Military
Fort Worth Star-Telegram, Texas - December 21, 2002   Knight Ridder Newspapers

        In April, 2002  the Department of Defense tallied 31,044 non-citizens on active duty in the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marines.  In fiscal 2002, 2,435 foreign-born military personnel were naturalized, up from 1,146 in fiscal 2001, the Immigration and Naturalization Service said.
        Typically, anyone who has served three years in the military and who meets INS citizenship requirements can seek naturalization. But an executive order signed by President Bush in July is speeding up the naturalization of non-citizens on active duty.
        Under the order, any non-citizen who has served since Sept. 11 is eligible for naturalization.  "They are not trying to say `Join the military and become a citizen,'" said Sgt. 1st Class Richard Barnum, a naturalization specialist at Fort Hood. "They still have to stand on their own merit. They can't violate the good-moral-character criteria."
        Any immigrant who enlists must now be a legal permanent resident, a status typically described as having a green card. Undocumented immigrants and people with student visas, temporary visas or temporary work permits can't serve in the military. However, male undocumented immigrants ages 18 to 25, like all men in the United States, must register with the Selective Service System.
        "If there were ever a draft, then the military decides suitability for service," said Alyce Burton, spokeswoman for the Selective Service System in Washington, D.C. The agency is separate from the Defense Department. "We don't know their residency status when they register," she said.  Nothing on the registration form indicates a man's status. Non-citizens, who include a variety of statuses, simply leave the spaces for the Social Security number blank. Failure to register could hurt a person's immigration case in the future. "You could be denied citizenship," Burton said.

        Legal permanent residents can serve no longer than eight years in the military. So those who want a career in the military see citizenship as a means to get better assignments, some involving security clearances unavailable to non-citizens. .
        Rep. Martin Frost, D-Texas, is working on legislation that would make naturalization easier for military personnel. One way is to waive all the fees, which can top $1,000. He also wants to allow the INS to conduct citizenship interviews and hold oath-of-citizenship ceremonies for those deployed at U.S embassies, consulates and overseas bases. Now, the INS tries to schedule them during the  person's leave or around assignments.

Extract: Campaigns spending more on ads in Spanish
by Suzanne Gamboa, The Associated Press, 11-22-02

WASHINGTON * Candidates for Congress and governor aired more than 16,000 Spanish-language televiiosn sports during the 2002 campaign, and politicans seeking federal, statewide or legislative office spent at least $16 million on such advertisements.  
        Many of the aids this year stood apart because they over-whelmingly were more positive and were made to appeal to cultural pride, consultants said.  for instance, an ad for Republican Texas Gov., rick Perry showed children playing soccer, a sport popular among Hispanics.  Perry's rival, Democrat Tony Sanchez, was featured in his own ad with Hispanic friends and using Spanish colloquialisms.

Extract: Immigrants key factor in growth of U.S. labor force
by Genaro C. Armas, the Associated Press, 12-3-02

WASHINGTON * From 1990 to 2001, the civilian labor force grew by nearly 16 million, to 141.8 million.  Half of that growth was because of immigrants who entered during the period of soaring economic growth for the nation.  New immigrants made up 79% of the increase in the male civilian labor force, vs 30% of the increase among women.
     The Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University reported that the immigrant influx was felt throughout the country, but was especially vital in the Northeast, where the new U.S. residents accounted for nearly all of the net increase in the labor force.  "What immigration has really done is expand the base at the bottom and to a lesser extent help" fill openings near the top end of the scale, said one of the study's authors, Northeastern University economist Paul Harrrrington.
                                                                                      Sent by John Palacio 

Extract: International Olympic Committee: No plans to make Spanish official language

       MEXICO CITY – (AP) – Nov. 28, 2002 - The International Olympic Committee (news - web sites) has no plans to make Spanish an official language, the president of the world sports body said Thursday. "Introducing Spanish would be unfair for other languages of the same size and universality," Jacques Rogge told a meeting of the 126-member IOC in Mexico City .
        Rogge said it would cost Olympic organizers an additional US$5-20 million per year to add an extra language to the IOC's existing two, French and English, because of translation costs. Rogge was responding to comments by Spain 's Juan Antonio Samaranch Jr., son of former IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch. Samaranch complained that when he had raised the issue of the dominance of English and French, IOC officials "proposed to offer us classes in these languages."
        Spanish should be made an official language, he said, noting that more than 50 IOC members were Spanish-speakers, representing 400 million people around the world. But Rogge said that if the IOC changed its policy it would need to add two more languages "that have the same range." He did not elaborate. 
        The United Nations (news - web sites) uses seven official languages: English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Russian and Chinese.  http://www.hispanicvista.com  12-2-02

Business Magazine Influentials follow-up

Thanks for sending all the great information. I did find my surname on the list of the 100 Most influential Business persons. It belongs to my son, Mike Madrid, and I will certainly be ordering a reprint of the article.  
                                      Once again, thanks!  Lou Madrid   LouMdrd@aol.com
Hollywood Depicts History with its Own Vision

Dear Mimi:
        I was looking thru your December "Somos Primos" and something caught my eye.  I wholeheartedly agree with your efforts to depict historical figures accurately, not just "politically correct". My father's mother, Flora Chavez, was a first cousin to Sheriff Elfego Baca in Arizona, known for his expert shooting skills. He became famous after holding off all night, single-handedly, a large number of men who were unjustly trying to take over a small town. I have a photograph of him, with one of his deputies, holding the newspaper with the headlines of his accomplishments. This man was tall, kinda dumpy and very big around and appears to be in his late 40's or early 50's. 
        Walt Disney studios made a movie about him around the early 60's, but showed him to be a very youthful, handsome and dashing "zorro" type of character. I recall the disappointment when my dad showed me Elfego's photograph a few years after seeing the movie, expecting him to look like the movie character portrayed. It's nice to see that Hollywood is more interested now in a turn for the more accurate physical portrayal of historical figures, though they still have a long way to go in the telling of their tales. Interesting how things come the full circle, huh?!
        Thank you for all your dedication and hard work on the newsletter and everything else; you make it possible for us to find our ancestors when other doors remained closed.  Excellent work!!

Sincerely,  Elena L. Garcia Diaz             
stanleydiaz@earthlink.net   Columbia, Missouri
Latinas In Science
I surf and surf an find so very little on Chicanas in Science. I would like to continue to build my page as I seem to have very little competition. http://members.attcanada.ca/~ecade/hispanic-women.html
Please share with teachers and mentors that work with our girls! I like to sing, dance and talk Spanish too but that not all we can do. Please email me if you have some other women that I can add to my page.  From: Elsa Salazar at ecade@telusplanet.net   Source:  LatinoLA.com, 
Extract: School plan seeks 2nd language for all - sets bilingual proficiency as a statewide goal  by Jim Sanders,   Sacramento Bee, December 1, 2002

         In rapidly changing California, where minority students are the majority, a new master plan for education would change academic standards to signal that learning to speak and read only English isn't good enough anymore. Every child would take extensive instruction in a foreign language -- and be expected to speak it fluently -- under a proposal supported by an 18-member committee of lawmakers and scheduled to be introduced as legislation early next year.
For years, California immigrants have been required to learn English, but the new plan proposes the reverse as well: Let's all speak two languages.
        "To function in California 's multicultural setting, as well as in a global society, children need not only fluency in English but also proficiency in at least one other language," reads an explanation from education experts who developed the proposal.  Supporters tout bilingualism as a way to promote cultural understanding and job readiness, but critics call the idea a costly pipe dream that could reduce time spent on reading, mathematics and other educational basics.
        The proposal is part of the new California Master Plan for Education, a three-year effort designed as a blueprint for future school legislation. Students would be required to begin studying a foreign language in early elementary grades and master it -- along with English -- before graduating from high school. 
        Legislators will be asked in coming months to approve the concept. Implementation would occur in phases, perhaps over 10 years or more. With the state facing a projected budget shortfall of up to $30 billion, nobody expects any allocation of funds to expand foreign language instruction for several years.
        Bill Hauck, president of the California Business Roundtable, called the dual-language proposal "desirable and do-able." "It's important enough that it ought to be an objective, and we ought to find a way to do it," he said. "Perhaps start on a small scale. ... From a business standpoint, it will be increasingly important for young people to speak a second language."
        Less than half of California 's 6 million students are white. Latinos make up the largest chunk, 45 percent; followed by whites, 34 percent; and Asians and African Americans, 8 percent apiece, state records show. Roughly one of every four California students -- 1.5 million statewide -- do not speak English as their primary language.

The Bee's Jim Sanders can be reached at (916) 326-5538 or jsanders@sacbee.com.  12-2-02

Extract: Study: Latino Immigrants Becoming Better Educated
article by Minerva Canto, O.C. Register, 12-5-02

The percentage of Latino immigrants with a high school education has doubled since 1970. Adult Latinos are taking advantage of the community resources available to increase English language skills.  Educational achievements are reflected in comparative educational levels obtained. These statistics released by the Pew Hispanic Center indicate that Latino immigrants are twice as educated as they were 30 years ago. 

Primary education or less, 1970       2000 High school graduates     1970       2000 College educated           1970         2000
Latino Immigrants



Latino Immigrants



Latino Immigrants



Extract: Cervical cancer double in Latinos
by Daniel Yee, The Associated Press

ATLANTA * Hispanic women contract cervical cancer almost twice as often as other women, indicating that not enough of them are having Pap tests, federal official stated.  The disease was found at a rate of 16.9 per 100,000 Hispanic women age 30 and older, compared with 8.9 per 100,000 non-Hispanic women.  Cervical cancer is virtually always caused by the human papiloma virus, which is transmitted sexually.
Latinos May Face Higher Dementia Risks
Older Mexican Americans have a higher prevalence of dementia than older people of European ancestry. The five-year study was unveiled at the fist Latino Healthy Aging Summit sponsored by AARP, California. "The good news is that diabetes and hypertension were the major contributors to about 45% of those found to have dementia.. . We know how to control and prevent these conditions." said Mary Haan, principal investigator.  AARP Bulletin, November 2002


Extract: The Search Is on for Hispanic Teachers And Role Models 
Districts Look Near And Far for People to Guide Rising Hispanic Student Population

Chicago Daily Herald - November 26, 2002

        Just 3.4 percent of teachers in District 300 schools are Hispanic. Yet, the district's Hispanic student population is 20.6 percent, according to school report card data released last week by state school officials. The data shows the state average for school districts is 3.7 percent Hispanic teachers, while the Hispanic student population averages 16.2 percent across the state.
        A general teacher shortage in Illinois and across the nation is well-documented. But administrators and experts alike say you can't overlook the value of having a familiar role model for students who find themselves immersed in a different culture, surrounded by a foreign language, and headed for an uncertain future.
        In fact, many think having Hispanic teachers in schools with Hispanic students is so important that they're recruiting from as far away as Mexico, Puerto Rico and Spain as a way to help ensure students are served in the best manner possible. "We're just not growing our own teachers."
        The Illinois Resource Center has a program called "Transitions to Teaching. "The grant-funded program offers scholarships for bilingual people to take classes to become certified to teach, she said. So far, about 100 people have received scholarships and have started down that path.  
12-03-02  HispanicOnline.com  Chicago Daily Herald. via ProQuest Information and Learning Co. 

UNITY: Journalists of Color, Inc.

        UNITY: Journalists of Color, Inc., which represents 7,000 media professionals of color, is a strategic, national alliance comprised of the Asian American Journalists Association (AAJA), National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ), National Association of Hispanic Journalists (NAHJ), and Native American Journalists Association (NAJA). UNITY's goals are twofold: developing programs and institutional relationships that promote year-round journalism advocacy and education, with a focus on fairness and accuracy in news coverage as well as diversity in America's newsrooms, and planning the largest regular gathering of journalists in the nation (the UNITY 2004 Convention to be held August 4 - 8 in Washington, D.C.). For additional information, visit UNITY Online at http://www.unityjournalists.org.
        On December 4,  Ernest R. Sotomayor,  Editor of the Newsday.com Long Island 
was elected by The UNITY:  Journalists of Color Board of Directors as Unity President.  His two-year term commences on January 1, 2003, is currently the organization's vice president 
and has served on the UNITY Board of Directors since 2001. 
        Mr. Sotomayor has served as a vice president of the National Association of Hispanic Journalists (NAHJ), was a member of the program committee for the UNITY '99 convention in Seattle and was a managing editor for the UNITY '94 student newspaper project in Atlanta. In 1997, the National Association of Hispanic Journalists awarded Ernest its President's Award for his work with the association and other diversity issues.

Contact:  Benfred Clement Smith, Executive Director  703-469-2100
Source:  hprw@hispanicprwire.com  (HPRW - Business & Finance / Marketing News 
  newsroom@hispanicprwire.com  Distributed on : 12-04-2002

                                          Men as Nurturers and Caregivers
       Rise in Number of Men Raising Children Slowly Chips Away at Stereotypical Male Roles

        Philadelphia, PA. - Men are perceived by society and characterized by the media as being breadwinners and warriors. But the increasing number of Men who are Fathers who are raising their children alone - without a mother present in the household - is helping to slowly erode the stereotypical perception of Men as being only Breadwinners and Warriors. It is not only changing how Men perceive themselves, but is slowly changing the way the rest of society perceives Men. 
        "The rise in the number of men who are raising their children alone is slowly chipping away at the stereotypical male roles. Men who are Fathers see themselves as nurturers and caregivers. The letters and articles that I have received from Men who are Fathers from all walks of life over the past three years support this perception," stated D.A. Sears, Managing Editor of IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(R) FORUM FOR AND ABOUT THE FATHERS OF THE WORLD, a quarterly international male parenting publication which is exclusively published and distributed by BSI International, Inc., a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-based independent publishing company, literary agency and media relations company. 
        "For the past three years, IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(r) FORUM FOR AND ABOUT THE FATHERS OF THE WORLD has provided Men who are Fathers from all walks of life throughout our global village with a 'safe place' to discuss their dreams, fears and hopes. IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(r) FORUM FOR AND ABOUT THE FATHERS OF THE WORLD is a quarterly international male parenting publication published and distributed by BSI International, Inc. ("BSI") in Philadelphia. Married Dads, Single Dads, Incarcerated Dads, Custodial Dads, Non-custodial Dads, lawyers, psychiatrists, family therapists, musicians, scholars, authors of fatherhood books, senior, middle and junior-level executives of national male parenting organizations in the United States, Europe and Australia, and members of "think tanks" are Contributing Editors, subscribers and readers of IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(r) FORUM FOR AND ABOUT THE FATHERS OF THE WORLD," Sears stated.
        IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(r) FORUM FOR AND ABOUT THE FATHERS OF THE WORLD is dedicated to providing fatherhood education to Men who are Fathers from all walks of life throughout our global village while simultaneously serving as an "uncut" and "uncensored" forum within which to explore and exchange information, views and questions about issues directly and indirectly related to Fatherhood which they care deeply about. The quarterly international male parenting publication is also a resource for "father friendly" support services throughout the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. 
Sent by D.A. Sears  BSI International, Inc. P.O. 3885  Philadelphia, PA 19146-0185 
http://www.bsi-international.com  bsi@netreach.net    (215) 878-0848; (215) 292-8522 

In  Search of  Fatherhood
An International Conversation Conversation on Fatherhood Facilitated by Woman!

        Philadelphia, PA. -- There is a conversation going on. A conversation about Fatherhood - an International Conversation about Fatherhood. For nearly three years, Men who are Fathers from all walks of life throughout our global village have exchanged and explored information and opinions about issues directly and indirectly related to Fatherhood. Through IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(r) FORUM FOR AND ABOUT THE FATHERS OF THE WORLD, Men who are Fathers from all walks of life throughout our global village come together and explore issues directly and indirectly related to Fatherhood (e.g., raising children, child support, visitation rights, custody rights, single parenting, health, work/career, etc.) from a male perspective on a quarterly basis. Articles by Ken R. Canfield, Ph.D., the Founder and President of the National Center for Fathering; Mr. Almas Jamil Sami', Founder and Principal of Sohaja Publishing Company and author of "The Unshackled Mind"; Joep Zander of The Netherlands, a co-founder/ co-signer of The Langeac Declaration, an international parenting document which has been signed by such countries as Holland, Chile, Spain, Ireland, the United Kingdom and France and which advocates, among other things, that fathers and mothers should be accorded equal status in a child's life; Warren Farrell, Ph.D.; and Stephen Baskerville, Ph.D., a Political Science Professor at Howard University have  been featured in past issues. 
        Interviews of such notables as Dr. Alvin F. Poussaint, Professor of Psychiatry and Faculty Associate Dean of Student Affairs at Harvard Medical School; Dr. Michael Gurian, a nationally recognized psychotherapist, educator and author of three books on raising young males which have skyrocketed up the national best sellers' list; Matthew D. Munyon, M.S., the Executive Director of Florida's Commission on Responsible Fatherhood; and Mr. Ajuma Muhammad, the Executive Director of the Association for African American Role Models have also appeared in IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(r) . Men who are Fathers throughout our global village learn about the resources and support services which are offered to them by international organizations such as Families Need Fathers in the United Kingdom; L'Enfant et Son Droit (A Child and His Right) in Paris, France; and the Toronto Men's Health Network in Toronto, Ontario, Canada along with American organizations such as Florida's Commission on Responsible Fatherhood; National Center for Fathering; the National Center on Fathers and Families at the University of Pennsylvania; National Men's Resource CenterTM; African American Male Empowerment SummitSM; and The Single and Custodial Father's Network. 

        IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(r) conducts and publishes reviews of books which explore issues directly and indirectly related to Fatherhood. Past issues have included reviews of Father and Child Reunion authored by DR. WARREN FARRELL; The Ultimate Survival Guide for the Single Father written by THOMAS HOERNER, THE EXECUTIVE LIAISON FOR FATHERS FOR EQUAL RIGHTS, INC. IN DALLAS, TEXAS, and Swallowed By A Snake: The Masculine Gift of Healing created by THOMAS R. GOLDEN, LCSW, A PYSCHOTHERAPIST AND GRIEF COUNSELOR. IN SEARCH OF FATHERHOOD(r) is exclusively published and distributed by BSI International, Inc., a small Philadelphia-based independent publishing company, literary agency and media relations company. 

BSI International, Inc. P.O. 3885  Philadelphia, PA 19146-0185 
http://www.bsi-international.com  bsi@netreach.net    (215) 878-0848; (215) 292-8522
Blockbuster Expands its Spanish Video Offerings
the nation's largest video chain has begun revamping about one-quarter of its U.S. stores to better appeal to Latino customers.  It has added hundreds of Spanish-language movies in those stores, including more than three dozen in San Diego County. The movies are either recorded, dubbed or subtitled in Spanish.
        Blockbuster has also added bilingual and Spanish-language signage to 1,000 of its 4,412 stores.  it has begun to carry candy and movie snacks popular with Latinos in cities where they account for 15% or more of the population, such as chicharrones and peanuts con chile y limón.
        "We learned that Hispanics spend 7 out of 10 hours watching Spanish-language TV," said Stephanie Leichnam, marketing manager for the Dallas-based company.  It has plans to epand to other places where the Latino population is growing.  "Hispanics are every where now, " said Leichnam. "They are migrating from the Southwest, and now you'll see them in places like North Carolina and Detroit."                      Sent by Tawn Skousen, San Diego Union-Tribune, November 2002         

Extract: Drop anti-American stance, Mexico's foreign minister says  
by Andres Oppenheimer The Miami Herald   Nov. 21, 2002        

     MEXICO CITY - Something very unusual happened this week in this country long known for its fiery nationalistic demagoguery: Foreign Minister Jorge G. Castañeda said it's time for this nation to stop being anti-American.
        Speaking at a book presentation before Wednesday's celebration of the 92nd anniversary of the 1910-17 Mexican Revolution, Castañeda -- a former leftist intellectual who has become one of President Vicente Fox's most trusted Cabinet members -- said Mexico's current clash between pro-American sentiment and anti-American rhetoric is creating a bad case of ``political schizophrenia.''
     Mexico 's nationalism and anti-Americanism made sense in the 19th and 20th centuries, Castañeda said. The country had lost half of its territory to the United States , and it was only logical that its leaders would try to build a national identity based on nationalism and anti-Americanism.
     'But what's happening today?'' Castañeda asked. ``These two theses should not only be considered outdated, and be phased out, but are unsustainable in today's world. One can't continue defining Mexico 's national identity, or any other country's national identity, primarily through nationalism.'' 
     Why? Not only because we live in a globalized world, in which countries depend more on exchanges of goods, services and people than at any time in recent history, but because Mexico in particular depends more than most countries on good relations with the United States.
     Consider: About 90 percent of Mexico 's trade, nearly 90 percent of Mexico 's foreign tourism, more than 75 percent of foreign investment and more than 95 percent of the remittances of Mexican workers living overseas -- which have become the country's third-largest source of income -- come from the United States . In addition, 25 percent of Mexico 's economically active labor force works in the United States .

Hispanicvista.com, 11-25-02

Extract: Internet Cafes Give Mexican Youths Access to Information
The Dallas Morning News - December 6, 2002

        Many Mexican families can barely afford a telephone line, let alone an Internet-equipped computer, and few schools are wired. So millions of youngsters are flocking online, thanks to an army of small-time entrepreneurs who have set up thousands of Internet cafes.
        The trend represents the triumph of what theorists might someday dub the "one-peso-at-a-time" business model. The arrangement plays a crucial role in spreading new technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet to Mexico's 100 million people, especially its 43 million citizens below the age of 20. 
        Mexican teens know cyberskills will help determine their job prospects. According to surveys by Mund Americas, a market research firm in Mexico City, they view such "cyberliteracy" as a key to social mobility, right up there with owning a car.
        But in a nation of low wages, a local-telephone monopoly and a dysfunctional banking system, the ranks of would-be Web surfers far exceed those who can afford a computer and a phone line. As a result, the number of Internet cafes has exploded from almost nothing a few years ago to thousands now. 
        Students, with their huge computer needs and empty pockets, rank among the steadiest customers.  "The student base is more than half of the total customers of cybercafes," says Daniel Lund, the president of Mund Americas. He estimates the number of such establishments at 5,000 to 10,000 nationwide."
        For them, it's key," he says. "In the absence of having schools wired, and in the absence of having a laptop, this is the connecting point."  As the big-city market for Internet cafes becomes saturated, cybersites are beginning to dot rural towns and small cities. In Amecameca, a colonial town near Chalco, Mexico, a pool hall retired two of its five billiard tables and replaced them with PCs, Lund reports. 
        Something similar is going on in Chalco, where thousands of working-class kids hope to join the global economy.  Lying 25 miles southeast of Mexico City, Chalco is home to 220,000. Many came from the countryside in hopes of landing work in Mexico City, finding an education for their children and building a home of their own brick by brick.
        The city remains a work in progress. Few streets are paved, and dozens of mongrels scavenge for scraps. Public buses belch diesel fumes as they dodge potholes on the main thoroughfare. Flash floods two years ago caused a sewage canal to overflow, flooding homes under six feet of stinking sludge.
        But hope springs eternal, and local youngsters view computer skills as a ticket to material comfort. They rely on Internet cafes to learn them.  "I spend an hour a day here, sometimes two," says Erick Caballero, 18, a high school student doing his history homework at an Internet cafe. "You really can't get by without a computer in school, so this is my computer."
        Internet cafes might struggle to survive as tycoons tap the one-peso-at-a-time business model to sell personal computers and telephone lines. As more consumers acquire such goods, fewer will presumably need Internet cafes.
        Telecommunications mogul Carlos Slim Helu aims to unveil prepaid phone service in poor rural villages, allowing consumers to avoid fixed monthly rent and pay only for the calls they make. Such phones could establish a telecom beachhead for isolated, tech-starved customers.
        "Eventually, those lines could be used for other services as well, such as Internet access," says Slim, the chairman of Telefonos de Mexico SA, or Telmex. "In these communities, people's familiarity with technology is going to increase sharply."

The Dallas Morning News. Distributed by Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service. 12-6-02

Urban Latino TV to Debut "Urban Latino Live" in January 2003
One of the first syndicated programs targeting the U.S. Latino market in English, announced that beginning in January of 2003, viewers will begin seeing a new segment on the lifestyle magazine show titled "Urban Latino Live". The weekly segments will be sponsored by Anheuser-Busch brands Budweiser, Bud Light and Bacardi Silver Malt Beverage. The weekly segment will inform ULTV viewers of upcoming concert tours by Latin musicians and recording artist as well as major events including film premieres & festivals, comedy tours, theatre and noteworthy happenings at clubs and venues all across the country.                                  
Sent by Anthony Garcia  agarcia@wahoo.sjsu.edu
Regions of La Raza: 
Changing Interpretations of Mexican American Regional History and Culture
by Antonio Ríos-Bustamante, 

This book presents a comprehensive study of regional Mexican American history and culture including important aspects of the history of Nuevo México, Alta California, Arizona, Tejas and Colorado during the eighteenth through the twentieth century. These contributions attempt to
present a clearer understanding of regional history of the Mexican people and their various communities throughout the Southwest. This represents the maturation and an important step for reflective and interpretive Mexican American regional historiography. 
450 pgs. Includes maps, photos, illus, biblio., $35.00 Price for class use $26.00 

For More Information Contact:  info@floricantopress.com
Floricanto Press, 650 Castro Street, Suite 120-331
Mountain View, California 94041-2055   (415) 552 1879 Fax (702) 995 1410
Sent by Andrea Alessandra Cabello, UC Berkeley  rcabello@floricantopress.com 
The Hispanic Achievers Website

A Portal  to access various services from one site that can help you and/ or your business. On the Hispanic Achievers site you can now:

1. Easily Access Ebay, Amazon.com, Car Fax, Ancestry.com, Half.com
2. Quickly email any elected government official in the U.S. Senate, House of Representatives, and White House.
3. Read the news as it happens on CNN, MSNBC, USA Today, New York Times, etc
4. Learn what's happening in the Spanish speaking countries from their point of view. Access all major Spanish language newspapers in every Spanish speaking country in the world. 
5. List your company and service as a promotional mechanism on our website free of charge.
6. Learn and meet top Hispanic Executives from Fortune 500 Companies.
7. Become a member of the National Hispanic Achievers and attend all of our events.
Log on and register with the Hispanic Achievers at  http://www.hispanicachievers.org
Sent by Bill Carmena JCarm1724@aol.com

Extract: Record amount of remittances sent from U.S. to Mexico  Efe 12-15-02

        El Paso, Texas, Dec 15 (EFE).- Despite the effects of a sluggish U.S. economy, Mexican immigrants who work north of the border have continued sending remittances home at a record pace.  According to a Pew Hispanic Center and Inter-American Development Bank report, Mexicans in the United States are expected to send a record $13 billion this year to relatives back home.
        Total remittances by all Latin American immigrants, meanwhile, are expected to exceed $18 billion by the end of 2005.  "The figures are evidence of a kind of economic activity that is resistant to the U.S. business cycle," the report read. The skyrocketing figures are also the result of economic crises in Latin America, the report said.
        Remittances benefit the border region because some of the money sent to families in border cities - such as Ciudad Juarez and Brownsville - is collected in Western Union outlets north of the border, Ernesto Portillo, president of Melek Corp. in El Paso, said. By collecting the wire transfer at a U.S. outlet, Mexicans can receive dollars and obtain a better exchange rate than they can at outlets in Mexico, which pay in pesos.  "They receive the money here and spend it here," said Claudia Hernandez Burciaga, an elementary school teacher in Ciudad Juarez.  
HispanicOnline  12-16-02 

Extract: NAHL Study Shows That Latinos Still Marginalized on Network News

WASHINGTON – Despite the spectacular growth of the Latino population over the  past decade, Latinos continued to be marginalized on the evening newscasts of  ABC, CBS, NBC and CNN in 2001, according to the National Association of  Hispanic Journalists seventh annual Network Brownout Report released today.   The report found that:  
In 2000, out of approximately 16,000 stories aired,  only 84 (0.53 percent) were about Latinos.    
In 2001, out of approximately 16,000 stories aired, only 99 (0.62 percent) were about Latinos.

        "The network’s dismal record of covering the nation’s fastest-growing minority group undermines the information needs of all U.S. residents and distorts the public discourse so necessary for any democratic society," said NAHJ President Juan Gonzalez, a columnist with the New York Daily News. For the second consecutive year, the protests over the military bombings in Vieques Island in Puerto Rico was the largest story topic, with 25 stories. After Vieques, the largest story topics were government (15), migration (11) and sports (11). 
        The report found significant improvement in the percentage of Latinos interviewed in Latino-related stories. Of the 99 stories about Latinos that aired, 67 (67.6 percent) featured interviews with Latinos. In 2001, out of 84 stories, 31 (24.4 percent) featured interviews with Latinos.
        For the second consecutive year, the Network Brownout Report included a qualitative analysis of Latino-related news stories. It found that stories about Latinos frequently used the image of the border to suggest a divide between the Latino and non-Latino populations and to define Latinos as 
illegal immigrants.

        Latino are the fastest-growing ethnic or racial group in the country and currently make up 12.5 percent of the U.S. population. The Latino population grew by 57.9 percent since1990 to 35.3 million. 
        NAHJ believes that the lack of newsroom diversity is a major reason why there continues to be a brownout of Latinos on the evening news. But NAHJ has no idea how many Latinos work at the networks. "Network jobs are among the most important and coveted positions in television, yet we have no regular public survey similar to those from the Radio-Television News Directors Association or from the American Society of Newspaper Editors that monitors how well the networks are doing when it comes to diversity," said Gonzalez. "We urge the network news chiefs to adopt the same openness about their employment record that the majority of local television and radio stations have been practicing for years."

Other significant quantitative analysis findings: 
1) Latino-related stories accounted for just 3.98 hours (0.55 percent) of the approximate 728 hours of news broadcasted by the networks. 
Latino-related stories increased in length from an average of one minute and fifty seconds in 2000 to two minutes and 25 seconds in 2001.
3) Cities with large Latino populations continued to be underrepresented as locations where Latino-related stories originated. The greatest number of stories originated in Washington, D.C. (22). 

Other significant qualitative study findings:
1) There was a disproportionate number of stories that portrayed Latinos living in "ghettos." 
2) News stories on Latinos frequently used the image of the border to suggest a divide between the Latino and non-Latino populations and to define Latinos as illegal immigrants.
3) The stereotypical use of cultural artifacts and forms, such as music and food, continued to be a key device used by the networks to con-textualize Latinos.

The report was prepared by Serafín Méndez-Méndez, an associate professor and chair of the Department of Communication at Central Connecticut State University in New Britain, Conn., and Diane Alverio, a communication consultant and co-owner of Baldwin/Alverio Media Marketing, a media research, marketing and public relations firm. Alverio is also a past president of NAHJ.

With 1,700 members, NAHJ is dedicated to the recognition and professional advancement of Hispanics in the newsroom. Please visit NAHJ’s Web site at www.nahj.org  to print out a copy of the report or call NAHJ at 202-662-7143 if you like it faxed.  

                                                                                                              Sent by Howard Shorr   howardshorr@msn.com

Extract: Poll: Vast Majority of Latinos Believe Discrimination Is Still A Problem
By Genaro C. Armas, Associated Press, 12/17/2002 

WASHINGTON (AP) The vast majority of Hispanics in the United States thinks discrimination is a problem and nearly a third say they or someone they know have experienced discrimination within the past five years, according to a survey released Tuesday. 
        The survey also found nearly nine in 10 Hispanics say the United States offers better economic opportunity for them than the country from which they or their family came, and a similar percentage said immigrants had to learn English to succeed. 
        An overwhelming majority of Hispanics considered Latino discrimination against other Latinos to be a problem, though views varied according to a person's background. For instance, Colombians and Dominicans were more likely to consider such discrimination a problem than Puerto Ricans. Among Hispanics, Colombians and Dominicans are relatively newer groups in the United States and may tend to live and work more in Latino neighborhoods, suggested researcher Mollyann Brodie of the Kaiser Family Foundation. As a result, their experiences with discrimination may be limited to occurrences with other Hispanics.  Also, Hispanics who experience such discrimination may tend to live in areas where other Latinos hold management positions such as landlords or shopkeepers, Pew Hispanic Center director Roberto Suro said at a news conference Tuesday. 
        The federal government considers Hispanic to be an ethnicity, not a race; people of Hispanic ethnicity can be of any race. Blacks and whites surveyed were not of Hispanic ethnicity. The wide-ranging poll measured views on racial, economic and social issues. And while blacks and whites were polled, the survey primarily focused on Hispanic viewpoints. 
        ''Overall, the findings suggest the need for new ways of thinking about the Hispanic population in this country,'' Suro and four other authors wrote in a 100-page report. ''It is neither monolithic nor a hodgepodge of distinct national origin groups.'' 
         More than 82 percent of Latinos surveyed said discrimination is a problem that prevents them from succeeding in America, compared with 62 percent of blacks and 59 percent of whites. Meanwhile, 14 percent of Latinos surveyed said they had not been hired or promoted for a job because of their background, compared with 31 percent of blacks and 8 percent of whites. Steven Camarota, a researcher with the Center for Immigration Studies, called the findings significant, though he cautioned that many responses also may have captured perceptions of discrimination rather than actual occurrences. 
        The poll found 38 percent of Latinos born in the United States said they have personally experienced discrimination or know someone who has, compared to 28 percent of Latinos who immigrated to America. Those who speak English as a first language also were more apt to report discrimination than those who primarily speak Spanish. That may be because those who are U.S.-educated or speak better English can better decipher instances of discrimination, said Camarota, whose group advocates limits on immigration. 
        Among Latinos surveyed, 89 percent said the United States offered better economic opportunities than the country from which they or their ancestors arrived, and 80 percent said they were confident U.S. Hispanic children would receive a better education than they did. The poll also found Hispanics tend to be more socially conservative than whites, with immigrants more so than Latinos born in the United States. 
On the Net: Pew Hispanic Center: http://www.pewhispanic.org/index.jsp
                                                                                       Sent by Howard Shorr Howardshor@aol.com



The Pew Hispanic Center's mission is to improve understanding of the diverse Hispanic population in the United States and to chronicle Latinos' growing impact on the nation. The Center strives to inform debate on critical issues through dissemination of its research to policymakers, business leaders, academic institutions and the media.

2002 National Survey of Latinos

Pew Hispanic Center/Kaiser Family Foundation

With a sample of nearly 300,000 Latinos, and with a questionnaire of about a hundred questions, this is the largest and most comprehensive national survey of the Hispanic population taken in a very long time.  A hundred page report was prepared. .

Roberto Suro, Director of the Pew Hispanic Center spoke to the press on December 17th. He addressed the broad themes of assimilation and identity. 

"Taken as a whole, the Latino population is undergoing a process of rapid  change. The children of immigrants are absorbing  English and American ways at a very quick pace, so  quickly indeed there's a generation gap in  immigrant households between foreign-born parents and their very Americanized children. That is a sign that the melting pot is at work. Second, despite a significant degree of assimilation, there are several beliefs and attitudes that almost all Latinos share in common that are different from non-Hispanic whites and Afro-Americans. Thirdly, Latinos do not see themselves as forming a single culture. They do not see themselves pursuing common political goals. There is simply not much cohesion here that binds Latinos of different nationalities and different levels of assimilation together. As a  minority group, they are very different from African-Americans in that they do not share a sense of common bond, common purpose, common grievance to the same extent."

The Pew Hispanic Center and Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation released the most comprehensive portrait ever of U.S. Latinos, a statistically representative national survey of the Latino population that examines how well Latinos are assimilating into American society, at the National Press Club in Washington, DC. The 2002 National Survey of Latinos explores issues related to assimilation, self-identification, and perceived discrimination, as well as economic, health and cultural issues. Please visit our Newsroom for a transcript or press coverage of the press briefing. For the webcast of the press briefing visit the Kaiser Network.

 The following is an edited version of the 100-page report posted on HispanicOnline.com

A comprehensive new survey of Latinos in the United States reveals an array of attitudes, values and experiences that is distinct from non-Hispanics. Latinos take different views than non-Hispanics on what it takes to be successful in a U.S. workplace, and Hispanics overall show a strong attachment to the Latin American nations where they or their ancestors were born. While Latinos generally take a positive view of life in the United States, many express concerns about the moral values Latino children are acquiring here.

Significant differences on a range of attitudes are apparent depending on whether Latinos were born in the United States or abroad and whether they are primarily Spanish or English speaking. Although large-scale ongoing immigration keeps Spanish a vibrant presence in the Latino population, English is rapidly gaining ground, even in immigrant households. Among native-born Latinos and those who are fully fluent in English, views on a range of issues are often closer to those of non-Hispanics than to those who are foreign born or Spanish speakers, according to the survey released December 17, 2002, by the Pew Hispanic Center and the Kaiser Family Foundation.

The 2002 National Survey of Latinos, a nationally representative survey conducted between April and June 2002, examines how members of the Hispanic community identify themselves, their views of the United States, their experiences with discrimination both within the Latino community itself and from non-Hispanic groups, their language abilities and preferences, their economic and financial situations and their experiences within the health care system.

The survey report also includes analysis of the sometimes substantial and sometimes more subtle differences in the attitudes and experiences among Latinos from various places of origin including Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Dominicans, Salvadorans, and Colombians.

“The melting pot is at work as the survey shows that the children of Latino immigrants are English-speakers and express views closer to the American mainstream than the immigrant generation,” said Roberto Suro, Director of the Pew Hispanic Center. “Assimilation is not a simple, all-encompassing process, and even Latinos whose families have been in the United States for several generations express some attitudes distinct from whites and African Americans.”

"A Cuban in Miami, a Salvadoran immigrant in Washington D.C., and a third generation Mexican in Los Angeles may all have roots in Spanish speaking countries,” said Mollyann Brodie, Ph.D., Vice President, Director, Public Opinion and Media Research at the Kaiser Family Foundation, “but their diversity in views and experiences in the United States suggests that people should be wary of generalizing too much about Latinos."


Latinos overwhelmingly say that discrimination is a problem that keeps Hispanics from succeeding in general (82%) and is a problem in the workplace (78%) and at schools (75%).

  • · When asked about personal experiences, one in three (31%) Latinos report that they or someone close to them has suffered discrimination in the past five years because of their racial or ethnic background.
  • · Many Hispanics report experiencing more subtle forms of unfair treatment because of their racial or ethnic background, including being treated with less respect than others (45%), receiving poorer service than others (41%), and being insulted or called names (30%).
  • · When asked to explain why they believe they were treated unfairly, they are most likely to say it is due to the language they speak (35%), though many attribute it to their physical appearance (24%), or feel it is a combination of the language they speak and their physical appearance (20%).
  • · Latinos also identify discrimination within the Latino community as a problem. Eight in ten (83%) report that Hispanics discriminating against other Latinos is a problem, including almost half (47%) who say it is a major problem.
  • · Views about Latinos discriminating against other Latinos is one example of the sometimes substantial differences across places of origin. Colombians (61%) and Dominicans (57%) are more likely than Mexicans (48%), Cubans (42%), and Puerto Ricans (39%) to feel that this type of discrimination is a major problem. Salvadorans (54%) and all Central (53%) and South Americans (52%) are more evenly divided on this issue.


The survey shows that immigration has a strong influence on Latinos’ social identity. However, social identity is more complex than simply a connection to an ancestral homeland.

  • · More than half of Latinos (54%) say their country of origin is the first or only choice for identifying themselves, compared to one-fourth of Latinos (24%) who say that “Latino” or “Hispanic” is their first choice, and one-fifth (21%) who say “American” is their preference.
  • · More than two-thirds (68%) of foreign-born Latinos primarily choose their country of origin.
  • · Those born in the United States of immigrant parents are about equally likely to identify themselves by their parents’ country of origin (38%) or as American (35%).
  • · Over half (57%) of Latinos with U.S.-born parents are more likely to identify first as Americans.


The survey suggests that Latinos who are native-born or speak English tend to have social values and hold beliefs that are more characteristic of mainstream American views than are the views of recent Latino immigrants – with the exception of such issues as importance of family and size of government, where they express a more distinct Latino perspective.

  • · Three in ten Hispanics (29%) believe that you can be more successful in an American workplace if you are willing to work long hours at the expense of your personal life compared to nearly half of whites (46%). However, less than a fifth of Latinos who predominantly speak Spanish (17%) voice that view, compared to 45% of those who predominantly speak English. Similar gaps exist between the foreign and the native born.
  • · A larger majority of Hispanics (72%) than whites (59%) feel that sex between two adults of the same sex is unacceptable. Again, differences are considerably more pronounced between Spanish and English dominant Latinos – 81% versus 60%, respectively – and the foreign versus native born – 77% versus 64%, respectively say unacceptable.
  • · More Latinos (89%) than whites (67%) agree that relatives are more important than friends. However, on this issue, foreign born (92%) and native born (82%) are more likely to agree with each other than with their non-Hispanic counterparts.

Latinos report positive views on living in the United States compared to their countries of origin. They feel strongly that the United States offers more opportunities to get ahead for themselves and their children in terms of employment and education. They do, however, express concern about the state of moral values and strength of family ties in this country.

  • · More than three-quarters of Hispanics think Latino children growing up in the United States will get a better education than they did (80%) and will have better jobs and make more money than they do (76%).
  • · Fewer, but still about half (56%), have confidence that Latino children growing up in the United States will have the same moral values as they do.

An overwhelming majority (89%) of Hispanics believe that immigrants need to learn English in order to succeed.

  • · This is one instance where Latinos from different places of origin agree. For example, an overwhelming majority of Mexicans (89%), Puerto Ricans (86%), Cubans (89%), Central Americans (94%), South Americans (89%), Salvadorans (94%), Dominicans (92%), and Colombians (88%) all agree that immigrants need to learn to speak English.
  • · Almost three-quarters (72%) of foreign-born Hispanics predominantly speak Spanish and nearly a quarter are bilingual (24%). Six in ten (61%) native-born Latinos predominately speak English and a third (35%) are bilingual.
  • · In the second generation – the U.S.-born children of Latino immigrants – 47% are bilingual, 46% are English dominant, and 7% are Spanish dominant.

Other key findings from the 2002 National Survey of Latinos include:

  • · Latinos (35%) are more likely to report being without health insurance than whites (14%) or African Americans (21%).
  • · About three in ten (29%) Latinos report having problems communicating with their health care providers because of language barriers.

About three in ten Latinos have had problems paying their rent or mortgage in the past year (28%), report being laid off or having lost their job in the past year (30%), and two-thirds report not having been able to save money for the future (66%).

To download the full report in PDF format, click here.


BLASONES Y APELLIDOS by Fernando Muñoz Altea

Apellido extendido por la Peninsula, procedente de Guernica, Vizcaya con casas en Aragón, Cataluña y Andalucia. Una rama pasó a Indias. Probo su nobleza en las Ordenes de Santiago (1719), Calatrava (1695, 1785 y 1797) y Carlos III (1783, 1794 y 1815) y en la Real Compañia de Guardias Marinas (1752), Don Bernardo de Galvéz fue creado Conde de Galvéz en 28 de mayo de 1783, y don José de Galvéz Márques de Sonora en 9 de octubre de 1785 Procedente de Teruel, una rama se estableció en Coín y de ella perteneció don Francisco Galvéz Carmona, esposo de doña Ana Bejarano, a la que hizo madre don Garcia Galvéz  Carmona, llegado al mundo en Cártama y Regidor Perpetuo de Málaga, que contrajo matriomonio con doña Leonor López Corral, naciendo de este enclace don Bartolomé Galvéz y López Corral, malagueño, Comisario General de la Caballeria, Contador Mayor de Cruzada y Caballero de la 
Orden de Santiago en 1692.  Pasó a Guatemala y se desposó allí con doña Francisca Barón de Berrieza, procreando a don José Tomás Galvéz  y Barón, también santiaguista en 1719.
        En la villa malagueña de Macharaviaya hubo un ilustre asentamiento ye de él proceden los Galvéz, padre e hijo que fueron Virreyes de la Nueva España.
        Don Antonio Galvéz, religioso franciscano a quién se le instruyó sumaria en Zacatecas (1812), fue acusado de insurgencia, pero debido a que las autoridades realistas mantenían su regor en contra de Galvéz, el Prior del convento de su orden en la ciudad mencioada, mandó  al Virrey (1814), testimonio de la causa a fin de demostrar que Galvéz había sido plenamente indemnizado y conseguir ahí que se le restituyeran los honores y preeminencias de que antes disfrutaba.  En Oaxaxa en 1811 don Bernardo Galvéz fue preso por "indicios de extranjero" y por expresar opiniones favorables a la Insurgencia.
        Sus armas son:  En campo de plata un arbol de sinople y dos lobos de sable atravesados a su tronco y cebados de sendos corderos.
        En 20 de mayo de 1783 se autorizó al Teniente General don Bernardo de Galvéz para que añadiese a sus armas un cuartel azur con una flor de lis de oro.  Los de Aragón traen: en campo de oro, un léon rampante de púrpura, acompañado de cuatro cabezas de sierpe de sinope, una en cada  ángulo del escudo.  Cabe señalar que el escudo más antiguo dentro de la heráldica, es el de mayor validez.

Extract from BLASONES Y APELLIDOS, 828-page book by Fernando Muñoz Altea
In its second edition, the book can be ordered from blasones@mail.com or at 
P.O. Box 11232, El Paso, Texas   79995  or by contacting
Armando Montes   AMontes@Mail.com 



An extensive survey was conducted by the following researchers to locate media projects on Bernardo de Galvez:  Dr. J.V. Martinez, Dr. Paul Apodaca, Col. Ernest Montemajor, Joan de Soto, George Gause, Bill Carmena, Robert Thonhoff and your editor.  Our findings certainly indicate a need for a documentary on Galvez.:   

Robert Thonhoff said a 6 hour documentary series on the historical development of U.S. was produced in 1997,  called Liberty American. There was no mention of Galvez in the series.  Because Galvez was excluded, Antonio Burden, on staff  Houston PBS produced a 30-minute documentary called Liberty Texas that was to be a companion to the 6-hour series. Robert was interviewed for a  10 minute segment which Robert dedicated to Galvez.

J.V. Martinez made contact with the Corporation for Public Broadcasting in Washington, D.C.and was referred to Liberty Kids.  Col. Montemayor, Paul Apodaca, Joan de Soto all came across Liberty Kids in their searches for media on Galvez.  Thirty-six (36) historical figures make up the Liberty Kids animation series which was completed by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting this year.  This is a major project with includes games, activities, teacher materials, etc. for each half-hour segment.

The primary goal of the Liberty's Kids TV series is to provide 7-12 year olds with a fresh and exciting experience of the extraordinary period of 1773 to 1789 in American history.  Bernardo de Galvez is one of the figures, and the only Hispanic considered important in the development of the United States.. However, the actual time dedicated to Galvez within his segment is about  6-8 minutes http://pbskids.org/libertyskids/arch_who.html
George Gause,  librarian and special collection archivists at the University of Texas, Pan-American did a search on OCLC WorldCat.  This is a database of over 45,000,000 bibliographic records. George found 162 items, but only two were media items.

Title: Hispanic stories : Steck-Vaughn classroom library. 
1993 English Visual Material : Kit 1 kit (16 v. : col. ill. ; 24 cm.
  + 2 teacher's guides) ; in container 20 x 27 x 7 cm.
 Bernardo de Galvez is one of the 15 Hispanics included
Ownership: Libraries that Own Item: 0

Title: Gálvez:  Louisiana's participation in the Revolution.
Louisiana Council for the Vieux Carré.
1976 English Visual Material : Motion picture : Film 1 reel, 28
min. : sd., col. ; 16 mm. New Orleans : The Dept.,
Traces the role of the Spanish colony of Louisiana in the American  Revolution. Describes how Bernardo Gálvez, the Governor, joined with Oliver Pollock, a representative of the Continental Congress, to supply  munitions and money to the Americans in the Battles of Baton Rouge and
Pensacola. Ownership: Libraries that Own Item: 0

Paul Newfield will be making contact with the University of New Orleans in an attempt to get a copy of their Galvez documentary produced 25 years ago.  

The project welcomes the following to the Bernardo de Galvez Somos Primos project :

To the Executive committee: 
Clarence Lucas
, formerly served as President and is currently Executive Secretary of the California Sons of the American Revolution.  

Co-Chairs for the Communication Committee:
Margarita Velez
, El Paso Regional Director for Senator Phil Gramm 
Concepcion C. Vasquez
, U.S. State Department Language Special, Spanish and English

Regional Consultants 
Alejandro Sanz, Trade & Investment Office of the Government of the Canary Islands, EU Spain, will serve as consultant concerning the Canary Islands and Spain. 
Charles Fourquet Batiz
, Vice-president, co-founder and webmaster for the Hispanic Genealogical Society of New York, will be serving as consultant on the Puerto Rican soldiers serving under Galvez during the American Revolution. 

If you are aware of any documentaries with Galvez as the subject, or any Galvez descendants 
please contact Project Manager, Michael Stevens Perez at  msphistory@aol.com  Thank you.

"Search for Aztlan"  January 25, 9 am to noon
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research quarterly meeting 
MASKS: The Spirit of Micoacan"  Anaheim 
Join a Discussion Group
Rosie's Garage Documentary
Orange County Archives

Quarterly meeting 
Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research
January 25, 2003  9 am to noon 
free beginning workshops, research networking and special presentation
Orange Family History Center
674 S. Yorba  Orange, California
More information, go to SHHAR Community Calendars,or call 714-894-8161

"Search for Aztlan"

The Ancestral Homeland of the Mexican

 By Eddie Martinez


 A workshop type presentation of Illustrated maps representing the Greater Southwest area of the United States and the Valley of Mexico.

The story is about The Gran Chichimeca, Nahuatl, or Uto-Aztecan, from their origin place in the Southwest to arriving at Lake Texcoco in the valley of Mexio.  Learn history through a visual representation of our earliest Southwest ancestors.

January 25th Schedule:
9-10    Beginners tour of library facilities and computer hands-on
9:30     View and Critique PBS Liberty Kids, Bernardo de Galvez
9-11    Drop-in throughout  for research networking
11-12  Presentation by Eddie Martinez
12-      Meeting formally closes 
12-1    Social networking, View and Critique PBS Veteranos

MASKS: The Spirit of Michoacan" at Anaheim Museum
Runs through April 13, 2003
Anaheim Museum, 241 South Anaheim Blvd., Anaheim (CA) 92805 
Free Parking / No Admission; Donations requested 
Hours: Wednesday thru Friday-10 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Saturday 12:00 Noon to 4:00 p.m.

The exhibit features the works of artist, Juan Horta Castillo, His masks encompass the ancient forms and traditions of mask making, yet he has found the room for innovation and elaboration which distinguishes his work in significant ways. The masks are both ancient & contemporary, they are Mexican & international, they are personal accomplishments but embrace our shared experience. They are art & history-from Horta's hands and our collective imagination. 
                                                                                                      Zeke Hernandez  zekeher@juno.com

JOIN A DISCUSSION GROUP! All opinions are valid and welcomed.
        Please be aware that we are not seeking to gain support nor to discredit any view point--this is not a debate; but rather, an exercise in self expression, in being open, candid and honest about your viewpoint and opinions. All comments will be heard and respected. Everyone will have an opportunity to express their opinions but  not to monopolize the discussion. Come ready to speak and to listen in a safe environment among friends.
        First up for discussion will be, "EL CRIMEN DEL PADRE AMARO", a Mexican film with English subtitles, playing at the Century Theater in Orange. To participate, view the film first and if you wish to share your viewpoints, then join the follow-up Discussion Group, meeting in a private phone. Call Genevieve Southgate at (714) 997-0943.  
Proposed Discussion Meeting Date: Sunday, January 5, 2002, Time: 5-7 p.m.
Rosie's Garage Documentary 
Got some good news and wanted to send this information while fresh in my mind.  Received a call today from Marlene Mathis of Imagine Production and producer of our documentary Rosie's Garage. KCET will be airing the documentary of highly successful tutoring program.
Thursday, January 24 at 10:30 P.M.                         Sent by Anthony Garcia   agarcia@wahoo.sjsu.edu
Orange County Archives
A treasure trove of government records dating to the county's birth in 1889 soon could be reopened to the public. The records have been closed since the county's bankruptcy  in 1995.  The current records caretaker Chris Hall says the records are kept in rooms set to maintain temperatures between 68-70 degrees with 50% humidity, and shielded from sunlight's deteriorating effects.
        Among the holdings is a large volume, known as "the Great Register" kept to record the arrival of newcomers.  The information included name, age, place of birth, place of residence and occupation.  One entry column is labeled "Visible marks or scars, and their location."
                                                                                                                      O.C. Register, 12-27-02
  Grijalva Community Park

Eddie Grijalva is keeping us up to date on the progress of the Grijalva Community Park at Santiago Creek. 

This is evidence that one person can make a difference in promoting inclusion of the historical Hispanic presence.  Contact Eddie for some ideas for pro-action strategies at:

Woodbury University
LatinoLA Seeks Good Writers! 
Autry and Southwest Museums Merge
Howard Shorr, Promotes Understanding 
Woodbury University
In a cooperative arrangement with Los Angeles Valley College, Woodbury University will receive $3 million from the U.S. Department of Education during the next five years to help Hispanic students succeed in earning bachelor's degrees.
     The Cooperative Collegiate Connections projects is designed to increase the number of Hispanic students transferring from Los Angeles Valley College, a public, two-year institution, to Woodbury University, a private, four-year institution.
     "Many students mistakenly think they cannot afford the tuition of a private university," says Dr. Nielsen, Ed.D. President.  "This Title V grant will give Woodbury new opportunities to reach out to these students so that they can attain their educational and professional goals."  Approximately 30% of Woodbury's students are Hispanic.

Sent by Gloria Oliver,  oliverglo@msn.com
Source: Inside Woodbury, Vol. 4, Issue 2, October 2002
Click to Woodbury University collaborate program with a Salvadoran university.
LatinoLA Seeks Good Writers! 
All our original feature stories, articles, short stories and poetry are contributed by readers like you. Feel free to share your words, talents and points of view with an appreciative audience. We are proud to present the best writers in LatinoLA and beyond. Submit your story at
Autry and Southwest Museums Merge 
The Southwest Museum and the Autry Museum of Western Heritage have signed a definitive memorandum of understanding, unanimously approved by both boards of directors, to merge through the establishment of the Autry National Center of the American West. The new Center will consist of the Southwest Museum, the Autry Museum, and the Institute for the Study of the American West. The merger will be based on a six-month due-diligence and planning process, which will include community input, to develop a long-term master plan integrating the functions of both institutions. During this period both museums will remain open to the public during their regular business hours.
THE FIRST ANGELINOS (1781)     shared by John Schmal

A list of the first settlers of the Pueblo of Los Angeles, as indicated by a padrón (census) taken on November 19, 1781, is shown below. This listing – which groups together people of the same surname – can also be found on the Pobladores' plaque on the south side of Pueblo Plaza in Downtown Los Angeles. The heads of household are classified by race and all individuals are listed by sex and age:
José Fernanco de, Español, Hombre, 50
María Antonio, India, Mujer, 23
María Juan, Niña, 6
José Julian, Niño, 4
María Faustina, Niña, 2

José Antonio, Mestizo, Hombre, 42
María Regina, Mulata, Mujer, 47
José Eduardo, Niño, 10
José Clemente, Niño, 9
Mariana, Niña, 4

Basilio, Indio, Hombre, 67
María Manuela, Mulata, Mujer, 43
José Maxímo, Niño, 15
José Carlos, Niño, 12
María Josefa, Niña, 8
Antonio Rosalino, Niño, 7
José Marcelino, Niño, 4
José Esteban, Niño, 2

Antonio, Negro, Hombre, 38
María Ana, Mulata, Mujer, 27
María Paula, Niña, 10
Antonio María, Niño, 8

Antonio Clemente, Español, Hombre, 30
María Seferina, India, Mujer, 26
María Antonia, Niña, 8

José, Indio, Hombre, 28
María Bonifacia, India, Mujer, 20
Cosme Damien, Niño, 1

Alejandro, Indio, Hombre, 19
Juana María, India, Mujer, 20

Pablo, Indio, Hombre, 25
María Rosalía, India, 26
María Antonia, Niña, 1

Manuel, Mulato, Hombre, 30
María Tomasa, Mulata, Mujer, 24

Luis, Negro, Hombre, 55
María Petra, Mulata, Mujer, 40
María Gertrudis, Niña, 16
María Concepcíon, Niña, 9
María Tomasa, Niña, 7
María Rafaela, Niña, 6
José Clemente, Niño, 3

José, Mulato, Hombre, 22
María Guadalupe, Mulata, Mujer, 19
The Spanish racial classifications used to describe the settlers were used throughout the Spanish Empire. Español indicated a person of Spanish/European descent, while the term indio/india simply implied the male and female genders for Indian. A mestizo usually indicated a person of half Spanish and half Indian blood, while a mulato or mulata indicated a person of mixed African and Spanish origins. The Negro classification generally indicates a person of African heritage. These classifications were generally used with imprecision, and one authority's classification of a settler may differ from the classification of another authority.    
Editor's note:  Of the 44 colonizers, there were 22 adults and 22 children.  Racial categories of the children  adds two other racial categories:  
negro Fino,
Thus according to the Spanish racial categories of the time, the pobladores consisted of: 

Negro Fino


Howard Shorr, Somos Primos staff,  was a history and government teacher at Roosevelt High School in the Boyle Heights area of East Los Angeles. There, he created the first History of Boyle Heights course in 1981. Shorr has delivered lectures and workshops about Latinos, diversity and community history at such universities as Stanford, UCLA, the University of Minnesota and school districts nationwide. He has published articles about Boyle Heights/East Los Angeles and Race/Gender in 20th Century Southern California. Shorr was awarded a Certificate of Recognition by the Los Angeles Unified School District School Board in 1993. It read: "You almost single-handedly helped an entire generation of young East Los Angeles residents learn about and take pride in their neighborhood and in their heritage by creating--especially for them--a unique course on the History of Boyle Heights." He now teaches at Clackamas Community College History Instructor and he continues to deliver lectures on a variety of topics.                                      E-mail him at Howardshor@msn.com
Los Californianos, 35th Year anniversary
Did the Californios Mine Gold?
Scholars Debated Vizcaino's Landing
Los Californios in Monterey: A Forgotten History
Notaries Public Records
Sinaloa, Mexico Annual Conference
San Francisco Street Names (A-G)
Rancho Los Cerritos 
A Founding Family of California
Foreign-Born Voters of California in 1872
Somos Primos sends Congratulations to 
Los Californianos, Celebrating their 35th Year anniversary. 

Los Californianos Quarterly Meeting, January 17-18-19 
Held at Casa Munras, 700 Munras Ave., Monterey, CA 93941-1351 800-222-2558 
Meeting information, contact Gary Carlsen garyc188@attbi.com  831-373-3515 

Did the Californios Mine Gold?
The following article appeared in one of the early publications of the society.
Governor Alvarado believed the Russians knew of gold in the Sacramento Valley as early as 1814, as a Russian jailed at Monterey was found to have gold in his possessions.
        The double wedding rings of Maria Martina Castro and Governor Alvarado, married at Mission Santa Clara in 1834, were made of California gold.
     Ship manifest provide clues.  Our member Alonso Dana has a manifest which shows shipment of gold on an early Dana ship.  Bishop Garcia Diego, first bishop of the Roman Catholic church in California, sent the Pope in Rome a silk purse containing gold valued at $6,000 to $7,000, according to William Heath Davis.
        Gold was discovered in San Fernando Valley in 1840, and Abel Stearns sent ore to the Philadelphia mint to be assayed in 1842."
Source: Noticias para Los Californianos, Vol 35,  No.1, January 2003, originally published in October 1970,  Vol.II, No. 4.           
Distinguished Scholars Debated Vizcaino's Landing

As part of the Monterey Quadricentennial celebration, a weekend History Symposium was held
on December 13-15, 2002 at the Maritime Museum in Monterey  Four distinguished scholars  presented informal lectures around the theme of early Spanish exploration in California. The symposium was entitled: Vizcaíno - 400 Years- The Impact on California and Monterey: A Symposium. The speakers were:

Dr. W. Michael Mathes is a historian specializing in the history of New World discovery and colonial Mexico including Baja and Alta California. He has written extensively on Spanish colonial ventures, and published one of the definitive studies on Sebastián Vizcaino and Spanish expansion in the Pacific Ocean. Among his more recent books is the teasingly titled Fakes, Frauds and Fabricators: Ferrer Maldonado, de Fuca and de Fonte: The Strait of Anian, 1542-1792. Was Vizcaíno another
fraud, especially in his remarkable descriptions of Monterey Bay, or simply an early enthusiastic promoter of California as the golden land? 

Linda Yamane traces her ancestry to the Rumsien Ohlone, the native people of the Monterey area, and has dedicated many years to researching and retrieving the Rumsien language, songs, folklore and basketry traditions that were once thought lost. Ms Yamane is the author of Weaving a California Tradition and co-author of In Full View ? Three Ways of Seeing California Plants. She has also researched, compiled and illustrated two collections of Ohlone stories, When the World Ended, How
Hummingbird Got Fire & How People Were Made and The Snake That Lived in the Santa Cruz Mountains & Other Ohlone Stories.

Two speakers will be presenting jointly: Dr. Robert Senkewicz and Dr. Rose Marie Beebe, both of Santa Clara University. Dr. Beebe, an Associate Professor of Spanish, is President of the California Mission Studies Association and teaches courses in Peninsular Spanish Literature and Translation of Historical Documents. 

Dr. Senkewicz, a Professor of History, specializes in American colonial history and the history of
California in particular; he is the author of Vigilantes in Gold Rush San Francisco. Dr. Senkewicz and Dr. Beebe collaborated on two volumes: The History of Alta California: A Memoir of Mexican California and Lands of Promise and Despair: Chronicles of Early California, 1535-1846. While Vizcaíno's landing in Monterey Bay ? close to the foot of today's Fisherman's Wharf ? is undisputed, much else in his documentation of the visit is perhaps open to criticism. His glowing description of the bay as "very secure against all winds" led later exploratory parties, including that of De Anza, seriously astray. 
Contact: Laura Cameron for 2002 Quad events Laura@mccvb.org   http://www.montereyinfo.org   
Sent by  j.guthrie@worldnet.att.net 
Los Californios in Monterey: A Forgotten History
Californio Documentary Film Premiere & Panel Discussion
Contributed by Greg P. Smestad, Ph.D.

        Before John Steinbeck's Cannery Row, before the Gold Rush, California was a distant Spanish and Mexican province, and Monterey was its Capital. This was the advertisement for the premiere of a new documentary video, "Los Californios in Monterey: A forgotten history" that successfully attempts to highlight the history of early Hispanic California through the perspective of the Monterey region. The event took place on Wednesday, December 4th at 7:30 p.m. at the CSU Monterey Bay campus University Center Ballroom, a converted military building complete with a large mural depicting a Fandango in early California.
       The event opened with a reception, complete with music from the Rancho Period, information tables, and performances from the Alta California dancers of Monterey. Everyone who attended (about 100) enjoyed the video once it started. There was a delay in the showing of the approximately 60 minute video, during which the Alta California Dancers taught people how to do the old dances. Fortunately, there were many books on early California history displayed for people to look through, and many experts on hand to talk about the subject.
        Despite these difficulties, the feedback on the video was very positive. All agree that the technical, artistic and historical quality of the video was quite good and that they'd like the producers to move forward towards their goal of distributing this work to California schools and communities.
After the video, a panel discussion was held whose members included Californio descendants: Boyd Ellis de Larios, Sheila Prader, Greg P. Smestad, Ph.D, scholars of Californio history: Edna E. Kimbro, Ruben G. Mendoza, Ph.D. and Phil Laverty, Ph.D. The session was moderated by Tomas Sandoval, Ph.D., Professor Of Chicano Studies in the Department of Humanities at CSU Monterey
Bay. During the panel discussion, there were multiple concerns voiced by the local Native American community that they were not portrayed enough, but all (including the producer) acknowledged that this could be addressed in a subsequent video. The project was a student project funded on a shoestring budget by a local weekly newspaper.

Those interested can contact the producer/director to obtain a summary of the project and a video via cell phone (831) 915 3793, and Email: d_anaya@csumb.edu
Funding to continue the project is currently being sought.
Contact: Greg Smestad  gsmestad@solideas.com  (831) 655-3722 Home
Sent also by Lorraine Frain lfrain@iopener.net

Notaries Public Records

From California Blue Books & Governmental Rosters, 1886-1909

Golden Nugget Library 
This library is established to furnish California databases for genealogical research. It is a work in progress, so please check-in periodically. Currently the Golden Nugget Library has online; Social Registries, Articles, Government Rosters, Organization's Members lists, Church lists, 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Photos, 1870 Petitions and Links to Biographies that I placed on Joyce Gregory's website (another work in progress).                                Sent by Johanna de Soto

Early California Descendants
Greg P. Smestad
, Ph.D. Like his mother, grandmother, and great-grandmother, Dr. Greg P. Smestad was born and raised in San José de Guadalupe, known today as San José/Silicon Valley. On his mother’s side, he is an  eighth generation Californio, whose ancestors (Apolonario Bernal, Manuel Higuera, Ygnacio Soto, Luis Maria Peralta and Juan Salvio  the founders of the cities of San José and San Francisco in the years 1776 and 1777. Dr. Smestad received his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. His teaching experience includes one year as a founding ESSP faculty member at the California State University, Monterey Bay and four years at the Monterey Institute of International Studies.  His current project involves an Audio CD and Trail Guide on the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail for the National Parks Service. He brings with him his interests in renewable energy,  materials science and engineering, optics, policy, education and California history. Resides in Monterey, California.

Boyd Ellis de Larios  is a descendant of the Larios, Pacheco, and Linares families. The first Larios in California is recorded in the 1790 padron as a soldier in Monterey. He died there in 1818. Resides in South San Francisco. 

Sheila Preder.  Her fifth great-grandparents were Domingo Alviso and Maria Angela Trejo, and Pedro Antonio Bojorques and Maria Francisca de Lara. Their great-granddaughter Viviana Avila married an Azorean, Antone Prader (probably originally Perreira). Descendants married later
arriving Mexicans from Los Altos de Jalisco, of Basque and Mexican Indian heritage as well as Hispanic. Masters work in Psychology and Cultural Anthropology. As a genealogist, researching Hispanic parish record research for 17 years.  Avid interest in local history of  the Monterey, Santa Cruz, San Benito and southern Santa Clara County areas. Currently working with a class at Anzar High School in San Juan Bautista, helping to teach students research skills and local history through a project in which we are reconstructing who is buried in the San Juan Bautista District Cemetery.

Scholars of California History:
Edna E. Kimbro: State Historian II working in the Monterey district. Degree in Architectural history. She is a UN certified architectural conservator. Current resident of Watsonville.
Dr Ruben Mendoza, Ph.D. Director Institute for Archaeological Science, Technology and Visualization, Social and Behavioral Sciences at CSUMB.
Phil Laverty: Ph.D. candidate in the department of anthropology at the University of New Mexico and tribal historian for the Esselen Nation.
Documentary Filmmakers: 
David Anaya, Post graduate student in producing and directing, CSUMB.
Gerardo Gaspar,  double major of Computer Science and Cinematography, CSUMB.
David Abraham, Producer/Director
Contact:David A. Anaya  d_anaya@csumb.edu (831)333-8585-pager > (831) 915 3793 cell
Sinaloa, Mexico Annual Conference

December 14, 2002

Dear Mimi:

As you may know most (slightly over 50% as I recall) of the early Spanish/Mexican families who came to California before 1790 were residents of Villa de Sinaloa or the sounding area. Our research show that the town was founded formally on May 4, 1585 as San Felipe y Santiago by among others Tomas de Soberanes and Antonio Ruiz both from whom I descend. 

For the past two years on May 4th we have held small conferences at the Casa de Cultura in Villa de Sinaloa (today the town is called Sinaloa de Leyva but I am pressing the locals to revert to the founding name, that is San Felipe y Santiago). We have had local and state historians present papers and we have progressed to the point that the state or federal government is doing some serious work to relocate the foundations of the original Jesuit College, which was the Jesuit headquarters in the new world as I understand.

In 2001 we built a marble plaque to honor the founders and placed it next to the remains of the original mission tower, which now is all but in ruins. Rina received a photograph of the tower taken 100 years ago and we have digitized it. My plan is to publish a small brochure regarding the past conferences and include pictures but my own time and technical limitations have precluded that from becoming a reality. I hope to have something by May 4, 2003. Unfortunately for me everything is in Spanish. By the way last year I took my 90 year old mother. 

As another research project we have managed to develop a report on the land records of Sinaloa starting in 1730s as nothing was recorded prior to that time. We hope to publish that when I have both the time and money to proceed.

I was asked to develop an article regarding the dedication of the Watsonville Castro Adobe that took place in October. Did I mention the state will spend $963,000 to rebuild the Adobe and operate it as a state park. We Castro descendants are busy developing the genealogy while other historians and Adobe fans are busy doing research into the property, the people and their times. 

My research in Spain is on hold until my contact there is ready to do some work.
You've done a great job. Keep up the good work.

Peter      PDeCastro@aol.com

San Francisco Street Names (A-G) 
Ever wonder where that street name came from? http://www.geocities.com/jdcjr/SFStreets.html.

The web master writes: As I frequently point out, when I was growing up I had lots of cultural resources. The best was my grandparents. They always knew the answer! From time to time my questions would deal with how strets got their names, or how something came to be called what it is. Mike Casey, who had worked for both the Market Street Railway, and the Muni, knew all about this stuff. Unfortunately, I failed to record most of what he told me. As a result, I had to go out and dig up all of this stuff. It was worth it.
        I have put up about 200 names in this format,and have information on a few more. Many of these folks have had numerous articels and books written about them and their exploits. The largest task facing me has been to edit all of this material. There are now three pages.
        As you will see, the names of streets are as diverse as The City itself. There are businessmen and labor leaders. There are priests and publicans. There are politicans and pacafists. All have left a mark on this place. It is impossible to track down every name, and there is still much to be done in this arena. Again, comments and suggestions are always welcome.
        One more point, in 1909 a commission was appointed to review street names and make recommendations for changes. This was during the height oif the rebuilding. More than 400 changes were suggested, but less than 200 were adopted. Clearly, there is a need for unique street names to assist in delivery of mail and other services, but just as clearly, no one wants to give up a name that has been in use for several years.
        Since this page has been up several people have contacted me with suggestions for additions. (There were even a dfew folks who suggested corrections!) In any case, I have now put up a page of San Francisco History Links. Please give it a look.

 Alvarado Street- Named for Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican Governor of California from 1836 to 1842. Joined Castro and Pico in Mexican opposition to occupation by United States.

 Anza Street was named for Captain Juan Bautista de Anza who led a party to establish the Presido of San Francisco in 1776. He made another trip in 1779.

Arguello Street is named for Don Luis Antonio Arguello who was the second goivernor of California under Mexican rule in 1825. (Bret Harte's poem, Concepcion, was written about his daughter.)

Grijalva Street was named for Juan Pablo Grijalva. He came with the Anza party as a Sergeant. There is some interesting history on his family here.

Gurrero Street was named for Francisco Gurrero, a popular Mexican landowner who held several local offices before and after American occupation. 
Sent by Eddie Grijalva  Grijalvaet1@aol.com

Rancho Los Cerritos

[[ Editor's note: Ana Maria McGuan, a native Peruvian, and current resident in Long Beach contacted me concerning a potential exclusion of the Spanish Mexican period in the designated interpretative plan for Rancho Los Cerritos. I forwarded her information and Concerns to Los Californianos and Dr. Luis Arroyo, Professor and Chair Chicano and Latino Studies Department, California State University, Long Beach.  I am happy to report that both Los Californianos and Dr. Arroyo will be supporting Ana Maria in her effort  for historical inclusion with the Rancho Board/Staff and Long Beach City Council.  Dr. Arroyo writes that he will include students in the procedural experience of making political changes on a city level. Please contact Ana Maria McGuan for further information.  Below is the statement for support of inclusion, based on action previously taken in 1979. amdoland@aol.com ]]


That the Rancho Los Cerritos Interpretative Plan is mandated, in the form of a Council resolution, to include the 1784-1840 early Spanish and Mexican period, which conforms to the Long Beach City ordinance of February of 1979 that designated Rancho Los Cerritos as a historical site.


That the Rancho Los Cerritos Interpretative Plan is mandated -- in the form of a Council resolution -- to include not just the years of 1840-1940 as originally stated in the 1993 Council resolution which was in close conformance to their early National Historical Landmark (NHL) status acquired in July of 1970 and which only encompasses the two-story adobe built in 1844, but the 1784-1930 period which conforms to the later Long Beach City ordinance of February of 1979 that designated Rancho Los Cerritos as a historical site and encompasses not only the adobe built in 1844 by John Temple but also the 4.7 acres of grounds, which originally extended 27,000 acres and were part of the Spanish land grant given to Manuel Nieto in 1874, and reflects the history of the region over more than two hundred years; since the 1979 City ordinance is more inclusive.


1979 - City of Long Beach Historical Landmarks:

RANCHO LOS CERRITOS, 4600 Virginia Rd.  (1784 - 1930)
A City-owned historic site consisting of a historic adobe structure and landscaping, this 4.7 acres is all that remains of a 27,000 acre rancho which was part of a Spanish land grant given to Manual Nieto in 1784.  The structure, built by John Temple in 1844, consists of a two-story adobe house with Monterey wood balconies and one-story wings framing a central yard.  The property was purchased by Flint, Bixby and Company in 1866, and it continued in use for farming, cattle and sheep ranching. It became a rental property after 1881, and most of the city was built on Rancho Los Cerritos lands. The house was preserved and remodeled into a single family home by Llewellyn Bixby in 1930. The site reflects the history of the region over more than two hundred years. It was purchased by the City in 1956.  It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and as a California Historical Landmark.  1970 - National Historical Landmark Programs (National Park Service)

Los Cerritos Ranch House,
Long Beach, California

Statement of Significance (as of designation - April 15, 1970):
Erected in 1844, this two story, adobe ranch house is an excellent example of the application of Monterey Colonial Style to the traditional Spanish-Mexican hacienda plan. The house is built on the usual U-shaped plan around a large patio, enclosed on the fourth side by an adobe wall. The foundations are of baked red brick brought around the Horn by sailing ships; the hand-hewn beams in the house came from forests near Monterey; and the walls in the center section are 3' thick. The house is used as a museum and houses the City's historical collections. The City has completed a master plan and repair from earthquake damage. Additional stabilization is also being undertaken. NPS will provide technical assistance.


1784 – Governor Fages grants the largest Spanish land grant in California to Manuel Nieto. It originally consisted of 300,000 acres of land and extended from the San Gabriel River to the west and the Santa Ana River on the east. The road from San Gabriel to San Diego formed the northern boundary (about where Whittier Boulevard is now), and the ocean was the boundary on the south. Today, Long Beach, Lakewood, Downey, Norwalk, Santa Fe Springs, part of Whittier, Huntington Beach, Buena Park, Garden Grove, and many smaller cities including Cerritos are located on what was the enormous Nieto Rancho.

1804 – Manuel Nieto dies and leaves his ranch to his wife and five children. His son Juan Jose Nieto is the general manager. The Nieto Ranch is divided into what is later known as Santa Gertrudes, Las Bolsas, Los Alamitos, Los Cerritos, and Los Coyotes. His oldest daughter Manuela Nieto, married to Guillermo Cota, inherits and lives in Rancho Los Cerritos.

1810 – Mexico’s Independence from Spain, September 16.

1820 – An earlier Cota Adobe is built on the 27,000 acre Rancho los Cerritos where Manuela Nieto and Guillermo Cota live with their 12 children. (There is no confirmed date of the earlier Cota adobe, could also be 1833.)

1834 - On May 17, 1834, Governor Figueroa (Mexico) signed a document that confirmed the land to the Nieto heirs, but divided into five ranchos. These were called Santa Gertrudes, Las Bolsas, Los Alamitos, Los Cerritos, and Los Coyotes.

1835 – The Guillermo Cota Adobe, Virginia Country Club (11th fairway), Long Beach, is built.). Guillermo Cota and Manuela Nieto are the original grantees of Rancho Los Cerritos. Also in this year President Andrew Jackson offered to buy the California territory but was turned down by the Mexican government.

1843 – Rancho Los Cerritos, 27,000 acres, is sold to John Temple.

1844 – John Temple builds the two-story adobe that is known as Los Cerritos Ranch House.

1845 – On July 7, Commodore John D. Sloat put up the American flag in Monterey and declared California a possession of the United States.

1862 - Cinco de Mayo, victory of the Mexican army over the occupying army of France at Puebla.

1866 – Flyint, Bixby & Co purchased Rancho Los Cerritos for $20,000.

1869 – Jotham Bixby accepts an invitation to manage Rancho Los Cerritos and exercise and option to acquire half an interest in the Rancho.

1880s - The town of Long Beach was established on ranch lands; the ranch size was reduced further in successive sales.

1902 – Jotham Bixby and Co. assumes ownership of the remaining ranch land.

1929 – Lewellyn Bixby, son of the first Lewellyn, purchases the two-story adobe built in 1844 by Temple and the surrounding five acres of land from the Jotham Bixby heirs.

1930 – Lewellyn Bixby completely restores the two-story adobe and lives in it with his family until 1942.

1955 – The City of Long Beach buys Rancho Los Cerritos from the Lewellyn Bixby heirs.

1956 – The Rancho Los Cerritos is open to the public as a museum and library of Western history.

1970 – The two-story adobe, built in 1844, is designated as a Historical National Landmark.

1979 – The City of Long Beach designates Rancho Los Cerritos as a historical site.


        The eleventh-generation Californian Jennifer Vo and the historian John Schmal have discussed with Heritage Books the publication of a multigenerational epic describing the origins and the lives of a 12-generation California family. This book – entitled "A Mexican-American Family of California: In the Service of Three Flags" will hopefully be published in the summer and will discuss the many cultural influences on the early California family. 
        Ten of Jennifer's ancestors rode from Alamos, Sonora (Northwestern Mexico) in the Expedition of 1781, a journey that was put together with the specific intention of founding the small pueblo of Los Angeles. The 960-mile journey through Indian territory was fraught with many dangers, including a surprise Indian attack and an outbreak of smallpox. 
        When the Pueblo was founded in Sept. 1781, a mere forty-four people were counted among the settlers. These forty-four souls – including Jennifer's ancestors – formed a nucleus of settlers around which a great metropolis of almost 10 million would eventually develop. Few great cities of the world have had such humble origins. 
        The entire book is a discussion of the Spanish, Mexican, and Indigenous influences on Jennifer's family as well as her family's ongoing military service to three flags (Spain, Mexico, and the United States), with ancestors who served California from the Eighteenth Century all the way up to the Korean and Vietnam Wars.

                   One extract from this soon-to-be-published book is presented below:

                                              THE RELUCTANT SETTLERS
                                                      (as told by Jennifer Vo)

        Luis Quintero and his wife María Petra Rubio represent one of the twelve original couples to settle with their families at El Pueblo de Los Angeles in 1781. They are also my great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandparents (also referred to as eighth-generation grandparents). 
        There is some dispute about the origins of Luis Quintero. Luis Quintero was born sometime around 1725. According to his death record, he was born in Guadalajara, Jalisco. But some researchers believe that he may actually have been born in Álamos, the town in which he raised his family and from which he departed in the Expedition of 1781. And some historians believe that he was the son of a black slave and an Indian woman. Luis' wife, María Petra Rubio, was born in 1741 at Los Álamos, Sonora. It is believed that they were married in Álamos around 1760. Although the baptism and marriage records for the Catholic Church in Álamos extend back to the Seventeenth Century, there are numerous gaps in the documentary record. This lack of continuity prevents us from having a clear understanding of my Quintero and Rubio ancestors.
        The surname Quintero is said to be derived from quinto (one-fifth). Quinto refers to the tenant who delivers one-fifth of his crop to the landlord. The surname Rubio is believed to refer to one with red hair or a ruddy complexion. Derived from the Latin robeus, referring to the color of ruby, in earlier centuries it may have referred to one who had a light complexion or came from Rubio in Spain. 
        When Captain Rivera assembled his crew of soldiers and settlers in Álamos in January of 1781, Luis Quintero's destiny was already tied to the historic expedition about to take place. On January 21, his 16-year-old daughter Catharina was married at Purísima Concepción Church in Álamos to one of Rivera's soldiers, Joaquin Rodríquez. His 15-year-old daughter, Fabiana Sebastiana, was married to another soldier of the expedition, Eugenio Valdés, on the same day. And, on the following day, Luis's eldest daughter, 18-year-old María Juana Josefa, was united in marriage with still another soldado de cuera, José Rosalino Fernández. 
        The prospect of never seeing his daughters again may have played a role in the decision-making process, for it is believed that Luis Quintero was the last poblador to sign on the dotted line. When the settlers left Álamos on February 2, 1781, Luis, María Petra, and their eight children were among them. In addition to the three married daughters, María Concepcíon (9 years old), María Tomasa (7), María Rafaela (6), and José Clemente (3) made the 950-mile journey. Sixteen-year-old María Gertrudis Castelo came along as an adopted daughter. On August 18, 1781, Luis Quintero and the other pobladores arrived at the San Gabriel Mission after a journey of six-and-a-half months. 
        On September 4, 1781, when the pueblo of Los Angeles was first dedicated, Luis Quintero was tallied as a 55-year-old Negro. His wife, María Petra Rubio, was classified as a 40-year-old mulata. Very little is known about Luis Quintero's activities in the first half year at the pueblo. But, on March 22 and 25, 1782, Luis served as padrino (God-father) for the Indians confirmed by Father Serra at the San Gabriel Mission. However, a day later, on March 26, 1782, Luis and two other settlers were expelled from Los Angeles by order of Governor de Neve and "sent away as useless to the pueblo and themselves." Their properties confiscated by the authorities, Luis and his family joined the Santa Barbara Company on their journey to the northwest.
        In analyzing the causes of Luis Quintero's expulsion from Los Angeles in 1782, it should be noted that the tailor Luis Quintero was probably not well suited for the rigors of frontier life. He was not a farmer and, at the age of 55, it was not likely that he could have adjusted effortlessly to the profession of farmer. It should also be noted that three of Luis' daughters had married soldiers who were attached to the Expedition of 1781. All three of these soldiers (José Rosalino Fernández, Joaquin Rodríguez, and Eugenio Valdés) were destined to be stationed at the Santa Barbara Presidio in the Spring of 1782, and it is possible that the Quintero family hoped to be closer to those daughters. Whatever the case may be, it is known that Luis Quintero lived out the remaining 28 years of his life as a respectable member of the budding Santa Barbara community.
        In the years following his departure from Los Angeles, Luis Quintero worked as a maestro sastre (master tailor) for the soldiers at the presidio. In the December 31, 1785 census of the Real Presidio de Santa Barbara, Luis Quintero was listed as a 62-year-old mulato. His wife, M. Petra, was listed as a 45-year-old mulata. They had one child living with them (a son). In the Santa Barbara census of 1790, Luis Quintero was listed as a 65-year-old tailor from Guadalajara. His wife, Petra Rubio, was 48 years old. Their son, José Clemente, aged 13, still lived with them. 
        María Petra Rubio died on November 3, 1802 at the approximate age of 61. Luis Quintero died eight years later on January 17, 1810 and was buried at the Mission. By the time of his death, Luis had watched as the Santa Barbara Presidio expanded beyond the confines of the presidio walls. During the time of his residence (from 1782 to 1810), Luis saw the population of Santa Barbara increase from 150 to 370. This number represented 19 percent of the total California Hispanic population of 1,926 in 1810. 
         Although Luis Quintero never returned to Los Angeles, many of his descendants did make their home in the small pueblo. His daughter, Sebastiana Quintero and her husband Eugenio Valdés, had nine children between 1782 and 1799, during which time, Eugenio had served at the Santa Barbara Presidio and in the escolta at San Buenaventura. After Eugenio retired from the military in 1800, he moved with his wife and family to Los Angeles where he was given lands, which he cultivated until his death. The couple had one more child in 1801 and were registered in the 1804 census at Los Angeles with three of their children: Antonio María, Basilio, and María. 
        Eugenio and Sebastiana's fifth child, María Rita Quiteria Valdés, was married to a soldier named Vicente Ferrer Villa. This graunddaughter of Luis Quintero was eventually widowed with a large family to support. In 1852, María Rita Valdés de Villa petitioned for confirmation of patent granted in 1838 for the 4,539-acre ranch, Rodeo de las Aguas (Meeting of the Waters). The house María built stood near the present corner of Sunset Boulevard and Alpine Drive. In 1854, María Rita decided to sell Rancho de las Aguas for about $4,000 to Major Henry Hancock, a New Hampshire attorney, and Benjamin Wilson, a native of Nashville, Tennessee. This property eventually became what we now call Beverly Hills.

Copyright © 1999, Jennifer Vo and John P. Schmal, extracted from the original book "A Pioneer Family of California: In the Service of Three Flags."

The Foreign-Born Voters of California in 1872  http://feefhs.org/fbvca/fbvcagri.html
61,691 Foreign-Born Voters of California - in 1872 - The Great Registry

Introduction: California became a territory of the United States of America on February 2, 1848 by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It was news of the discovery of gold later that same year, however, that resulted in the explosion of California's population. Prior to the discovery of gold, the population was estimated at 15,000 persons. The news of the gold discovery quickly circled the globe and hopeful miners of every nationality migrated to the California gold fields in hopes of finding their share of riches in the precious metal. By the end of 1849 the population had reached 100,000. In 1852 it was 224,000, in 1860 the official census showed 380,000, in 1870 the population had reached 650,000, and by 1880, 865,000.
        The administration of government with this quick growth required that formal voting procedures be implemented to create voter districts and avoid fraud. Voter registration became necessary and the "Great Registers of Voters" were created. The earliest Great Registers were produced in 1866 as a result of the enactment of Chapter CCLXV, Laws of the 16th Session of the California State Legislature; 1865-66. This legislation, approved 19 March 1866, and known as the Registration Act provided "for the registration of the citizens of the State, and for the enrollment in the several election districts of all the legal voters thereof, and for the prevention and punishment of frauds affecting the elective franchise."
        Section 3 of the Act required that "The manner of registration shall be as follows: Clear and distinct entries shall be made in said books, setting forth in separate columns the name at full length (without the use of initials) of the person registered; his age, omitting fractions of years; the country of his nativity; his occupation; the particular city, town, township, ward, or district of his residence; if a naturalized foreigner, when where, and by what Court he was admitted to become a citizen of the United Sates; also the date of registry, and a number affixed to each name, which numbers shall run successively in the order of registration; and to the truth of the facts stated in such entries the person registered shall be duly sworn, which shall also be noted and verified by the word "sworn", to be entered in a separate column opposite his name.
        Each county government was directed to establish a Great Register for population of their county. The various county's Great Register of Voters resulting from this legislation contain a wealth of information concerning the citizens, especially the naturalized citizens of California. 
                                                                                                               Sent by Johanna de Soto

Man is Fined $2.5 Million for Looting   
Oral History Sites
Unorganized Territories
Martinez-Vergara Family Reunion
Ancestry free maps
Western State Marriage Record Index
Man is Fined $2.5 Million for Looting   
Reno, Nevada * More than 2,000 artifacts, including 10,000-year-old sandals, were taken from an American Indian cave.  Jack Lee Harelson destroyed what could have been one of the most important archeological cave sites in the Great Basin, Bureau of Land Management officials said.  
        Before Elephant Mountain Cave was looted over several years in the early 1980s, it contained a 10,000-year record of human life in northern Nevada, including artifacts from the Paiute tribe.  The site is in the Black Rock Desert, 140 miles north of Reno. Ultimately 2,000 artifacts were recovered, including the 10,000 year-old sandals that possibly were the oldest footwear found on Earth, said Pat Barker, a state archeologist for the Bureau of Land Management.  
Associated Press, 12-15-02      
Oral History Sites

The Oral History Institute of the University of Texas at el Paso has the largest number of Spanish-language interviews.  These include interviews Latino Combat Veterans and various other subjects.  their webpage may be accessed at:  http://www.utep.edu  or contact Victor Macias-Gonzalez, Ph.D., Program Coordinator, The Institute for Oral History, University of Texas at El Paso, 915-747-5238.
        If you are looking for oral history sites, try an internet search.  Using the advanced page at Google and the following terms (project OR collection "oral history" site:.edu ) resulted in over 63,000 hits ranging from civil rights documentation, Chicago architects, Viet Nam vets, to women's lives. . . and these were just college and university sites! 
CSGA Newsletter, Vol. 20, No. 12  (December 2002)

Historical and Political Data  NOTE: a lot of info on these sites.


The great trek of the Mormon people to the fertile Salt Lake Valley in 1847 was the beginning of non-Indian settlement in the Great Basin of North America, most of which was then a part of the department of Alta California, Republic of Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, concluded February 2, 1848, and ratifications exchanged at Queretaro May 30, 1848, and proclaimed on July 4, 1848, resulted in formal acquisition by the United States of a vast tract of land from Mexico. It included what is now California, Nevada, Utah, and most of Arizona, and parts of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming, and corresponded by general agreement to the Mexican administrative divisions of Alta California and New Mexico. In 1853 the Gadsden Purchase resulted in the final acquisition of Mexican territory and eliminated a dispute over the latitude line cited in the Mexican Cession of 1848, running west from the Rio Grande. This latter territory was obtained from the Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua (see Map 3).

Sent by Johanna de Soto

Martinez-Vergara Family Reunion  
Martinez-Vergara Family Reunion: Genesis of a Genealogy Project  

(Editor’s note: One of the pleasures of community involvement in promoting Hispanic family history research are the wonderful people that you become friends with. I met Dr. J.V. Martinez about six years ago as members of the U.S. Senate Task Force on Hispanic Affairs. Through the bi-yearly meetings, JV has continued to share his concerns about promoting Hispanic heritage and history. I was delighted to receive his family information about their recent family reunion, including the steps taken to achieve a successful reunion. A summary of his biography reads:

"Dr. Joseph V. Martinez (‘J.V.’) is currently science advisor in the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy in Washington, D.C. Before accepting his current position in November, 1999, he served as a research program manager for over two decades, initially for the chemical physics program and then for the atomic, molecular and optical physics program, both programs of the Office of Science in the Department of Energy. Prior to joining the federal service with the Atomic Energy Commission, Dr. Martinez taught college physics for ten years in Rochester, NY. 

A native of Arizona and son of immigrant parents, Dr. Martinez received his Ph.D. in Chemistry from Oregon State University and with support of a Sloan Fellowship a Master's of Management Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is among the first U.S.-born Mexican-Americans to receive a Ph. D. degree in the physical sciences and is a founder of two groups both of which aspire to increase the participation of minorities and women in science, the Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science, SACNAS, and the Committee of Minorities in Physics of the American Physical Society. He was elected a Fellow of the latter Society which in 2000 presented him with an Outstanding Service Award upon ending his tenure as program manager. At various times in the past, Dr. Martinez held short-term appointments as a research scientist in the laboratories of Du Pont Chemical Company, Eastman Kodak Company and the Xerox Corporation. He continues to serve as a non-paid consultant to foundations, academe and other government agencies." 

In expressing my compliments for his accomplishments, Dr. Martinez responded by citing: ‘Presently, my greatest wish is that my experience and effort will serve as am example to other members of our community-who through no fault of their own-lack the information, guidance and mentoring to achieve an independence their parents, such as mine, never achieved, but who by their industry deserved well. I myself did not receive any of those benefits easily and in the process had to expend unusual effort in creating opportunities. This waste of energy and time should be avoided by the succeeding generations. Those individuals, who are being or have been exposed to a similar unhealthy environment, should learn from accounts, such as mine, to understand that even if denied open arms to opportunities, they must persist to seek them out. The belief that denied opportunities make for a better person, is bogus. I read that if there isn't a door to knock on, one should make one. Accounts of Hispanics who have succeeded in spite of having faced unusual odds should be more completely documented, made readily available, and recounted over and over again, particularly targeted to young community members, that they be inspired to succeed and ensure the proper development of our country.’)

The reunion, the first ever for the family, became useful in initiating a genealogy record for the family. The novelty of this event was that it allowed family memers currently alive to record key historical events from the recollections of those members no longer living. As a second stage, the intent is to extend this record by conducting research into the family history. This research will include a search to document the circumstances that Dr. Martinez’ father was born with last name Ante and was changed to Martinez well before the father immigrated to the U.S.

A Web site was developed for the reunion by Dr. Martinez’ nephew, Rod Liebe, and the URL is http://www.infomagic.net/~wliebe. The Web site is one example of how the Internet can be used to support and organize similar events. The reunion was held in Flagstaff, Arizona, where Dr. Martinez was raised and where his 95 year-old mother resides along with four of her five surviving daughters. A report of the event was the subject of a local newspaper article that appeared the following day. It is reproduced below:

"Party of Five (generations)" 

by Gary Ghioto Arizona Daily Sun Staff 11/29/2002

(Available at: http://www.azdailysun.com/non_sec/nav_includes/story.cfm?storyID=54268

The proud and resilient Southwest heritage of the Martinez-Vergara family was on display Thanksgiving Day as Spanish and English flowed easily around a Flagstaff banquet room, well -behaved children played and young people paid respects to their elders.  "Say, 'Hola, Gramma,' " said a young woman to her child as 95-year-old Procora Martinez, the matriarch of the family, arrived in a wheelchair and was greeted by five generations of smiles.  

Thanksgiving Day was a perfect time to hold a reunion for the East Coast and Southwest members of a family that traces its roots back to Michoacan and Durango, Mexico, and played an active role in Flagstaff's early years.  The pioneers of the family came to northern Arizona during the volatile years of the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920.

Some 80 members of the family -- ranging in-state from Flagstaff, Tucson, Cottonwood and Phoenix to those from Washington, D.C., California and Texas -- met at The Kilted Cat for a home-cooked Thanksgiving dinner. Many would meet cousins, aunts and uncles for the first time, and name tags were a must. Hugs, handshakes and a few tears greeted a steady rush of arrivals at the banquet hall Thursday. 

"We have two sets of five generations coming here today. It's pretty amazing," said Capri Martinez. "We're going to have a buffet Thanksgiving dinner cooked by all kinds of family members with Mexican specialties, too.


Northern Arizona old-timers may remember the late Vicente Martinez and his wife, Procora, who taught their seven children the value of education and hard work at a home on O'Leary Street. Vicente, born in 1892, was a lumberjack who hauled timber with teams of huge workhorses in the days following Arizona statehood. Eventually he used trucks to haul saw logs from Happy Jack to Flagstaff mills and the railroad.

When there was no work in the woods, he cut native rock that decorates the walls and hearths of many homes in Flagstaff today. Vicente was a self-taught man who loved to read and was a fan of history, said his children, who are now in their 70s. 

Procora, nicknamed Coya, is just five years shy of the century mark and lives in Flagstaff. Her sister, the late Maria "Nina" Vergara, owned the Flagstaff Cafe during the 1930s and later opened Flor de Mexico cafe on O'Leary Street after World War II. 

"They both had minimal education. So they always wanted us to make sure we were in school and we got our education. He didn't want me to work the way he did. So we were all educated," said Eddie Vergara, a college professor who lives in Phoenix with his wife, Rikki.FOOD FOR ALL

Now grown and in some cases, with children and grandchildren of their own, many men and women at the reunion Thursday told stories about Vicente and good times at the restaurant run by Coya and Aunt Nina. One was Victor Liebe, an Arizona Department of Public Safety officer, who remembered not being allowed in the cafe's dining room but having the run of the kitchen. The cafe was a local favorite with a clientele that ranged from Basque sheepherders to university professors.

"They would cook all morning and when the food was gone, they would close. Now the back door of the restaurant was a soup kitchen. There were no soup kitchens in town for people down and out. So the poor people and actually a lot of college kids would come around to the back door and get food," Liebe recalled. 

"It was kind of neat. The paying customers would come in through the front door and the poor people would come around the back. They had an honor system. If you didn't have money, you could pay some other time. There were a lot of college kids who didn't have money at the time, but years after they closed the door, a check would come in the mail from people who remembered and wanted to pay them back," Liebe said.  

Maria, who passed away in 1973 was an energetic and colorful lady. "She was always singing and dancing," Liebe said. Her nieces and nephews remembered her unusual pets. At various times, the menagerie at the Flor de Mexico featured a parrot, a mynah bird, a skunk and a monkey.

Coya and Maria also had a boarding house and restaurant in Happy Jack, Liebe said. It all made for good business for the Martinez family. "My Nina and grandmother Procora had those businesses and my grandfather had the logging. So it was one big family deal," Liebe said.AN AMERICAN DREAM Carrying his granddaughter Brynna Scout, Eddie Vergara, a college professor and son of Coya and Vicente, said the Thanksgiving reunion is a time for reflection for the family. "We're thankful for the good life we have had.

We've been fortunate that for the most part everybody has been in good health ... and good relationship with one another," he said. Joe Martinez, a senior advisor at the Department of Energy, who lives with his wife, Jayme, in Bethesda, Md., said visiting Flagstaff and his mother, Coya, has brought back a flood of memories. Growing up, Flagstaff had a population of less than 10,000, he recalled. "It's very exciting. There's over 82 descendants of my mother alive, and just getting to know what everybody's doing is fun," Martinez said. This holiday has been especially tough for the nation and the Washington, D.C., area, given the tragedy of Sept. 11 and the sniper attacks, Martinez said.

"Obviously people there are not in a celebratory mood. Being back in Flagstaff reminds me that there is a lot we should be thankful for," Martinez said. His son, Ancel, said the Thanksgiving family reunion is a vivid illustration of the American dream at work.  "Our descendants represent an important lineage of Mexican immigration into northern Arizona after the revolution. They worked hard, they established themselves and their children, and prospered in a manner that permitted them to create careers and go on," Ancel Martinez said. "I'm a second-generation Mexican-American who lives in San Francisco and whose children go to a bilingual Spanish school. So the goal is to thrive in America but also to retain one's culture in a meaningful way," he said. 


The following is a Letter to the Editor that Dr. Martinez prepared in response to the newspaper article.

December 10, 2002 

Mr. Randy Wilson, Editor 
Arizona Daily Sun 
P.O. Box 1849 
Flagstaff, AZ 86002

Dear Mr. Wilson, 

As a senior member among the group that gathered in Flagstaff on Thanksgiving Day for a family reunion, ["Party of Five (Generations)," Arizona Daily Sun, November 29, 2002 by Gary Ghioto] I wish to extend my compliments on behalf of the family to Mr. Gary Ghioto and Mr. Greg Bryan for a well thought out and composed report of the event. In particular, it was gracious of the two to sacrifice a significant portion of the holiday to provide the report. The family members enjoyed their presence which was unobtrusive and their interactions with us very professional.

A principal message that the article should convey is that the opportunities available in the U.S., and available to immigrants in particular, remain very much alive today and as well known, an innumerable
number of immigrants have done well since the founding of our country by these opportunities just as was the case of our family pioneers. Without objection, but rather with praise for this country, our family pioneers provided part of that unskilled labor that was such an important factor in Flagstaff's early evolution. Their industry and dedication provided for their offspring's education and allowed family members to take advantage of the opportunities available in the U.S. Admittedly, an over subscription of demand for education by immigrants remains a challenge to the nation. 

Thus, as was the case in our family, it is not a question of desire for education among immigrants. These views are underpinned by noting that so far among the current well over 90 descendants of the three family pioneers (Procora and Vicente Martinez and Maria Vergara), several are school teachers, another significant fraction of them are information technology professionals, a few are on college faculties, a few are medical support staff members and three have doctorate degrees in science and engineering. In addition, most of the adults are bilingual. 

Not to be overlooked is that as a whole, family members can provide a favorable account of the quality education received at Northern Arizona University and the Flagstaff school system. Hopefully, more Flagstaff residents will take advantage of these valuable resources and eventually make their own contributions to ensure the continued health and security of our nation's future just as we are attempting to do.

Sincerely, J. V. Martinez, Ph.D.

Ancestry posts a free access featured map:  TUCSON, ARIZONA TERRITORY, 1862
This may not be available, but check it out.
To view this map, go to: http://www.ancestry.com/rd/map.asp?ImageID=734
For best results viewing Ancestry.com maps, download the free MrSID  image viewer at  http://www.ancestry.com/search/io/plugin.htm                            
Johanna de Soto
Western State Marriage Record Index http://abish.byui.edu/specialCollections/fhc/ListOfStates.htm#arizona

Search the records by state counties.  The time frames for each state is included 
and the number of marriages are are listed as of 08 April 2002.

Arizona] [California] [Idaho] [Nevada] [Oregon][ Utah] [Washington][Wyoming]
For example:

Number of Marriages

Apache 1879-1900   626
Cochise 1870-1912   5,636
Coconino 1891-1900   273
Gila 1881-1900   399
Graham 1871-1900's   1,029
  Maricopa 1871-1901   2,563


** 159
Navajo 1895-1900   287
Pima 1864-1900 ** 1,911
Pinal 1874-1900   605
Santa Cruz 1899-1900   72
Yavapai 1864-1912   2,622
Yuma 1864-1894 ** 697
 ** Several date gaps  Johanna de Soto    
Racial Label Surprises Many Latino Immigrants
Finding your African American Ancestors
Black Entertainment Television
Kwanzaa is spreading beyond black community 
Go to Look Alike contest - - -  Win a trip
Question: If  Thomas Jefferson never bought any slaves, how come he owned about 150 of them?
Answer:    Inheritance.  His and his wife's.       L.M. Boyd, Trivia, O.C. Register, 12-23-02
     There has never been a better time to research your African American ancestors. The same advances in technology that have created a boom in the exchange of information have made it possible for a family historian to cover great distances and conduct in-depth investigation for a fraction of the cost of a traditional research trip. Census schedules, plantation records, and military records, among other resources, are at your fingertips in the form of online databases, CD-ROMs, and individual websites.
        Included in this work are David Thackery's chapters in "The Source" and "Guide to African American Research" at The Newberry Library. Together with case studies, a thorough bibliography of sources and a guide to African American Internet sources make an indispensable guide to connecting and directing your search into an oft-times difficult area of family history research.
     Normally, the "Finding Your African American Ancestors" retails for $12.95, but today you can buy it in The Shops @ Ancestry for only $9.95.
Black Entertainment Television
The network which targets black viewers, is canceling two of its three news programs and ending an issues program geared for teens as part of an overall restructuring.  The changes will put 40 people of work.  Debra Lee, chief operating officer said that BET has done market research, focus groups and audience analysis, and that led to the programming changes.  the goal is to reach a larger audience including more women.                                                               O.C. Register, 12-11-02
Extract: Kwanzaa is spreading beyond black community by Khalid Moss
Cox news service via O.C. Register, 12-17-02
Kwanzaa, was created in 1966 by Maulana Ron Karenga. Orange County's black community is only 2%.  The Beatrice Jones, a member of the Orange County chapter of National Council of Negro Women, said the gorups' mission is to get more African-Americans in the county to understand and embrace Kwanzaa as a way to celebrate their toots and culture.
        The prevailing notion is that the week of Kwanzaa, which ends January 1 is a holiday observance reserved strictly for black families.  But Kwanzaa is being observed in a growing number of white, Hispanic and Asian households.  They do this not to revisit African roots, which most obviously don't have, but as  a means of upholding the core values of Kwanzaa, which can apply to folks across ethnic backgrounds or modes of worship.
*Umoja: Asks for unity in the family, community and nation.
*Kujichagulia: Encourages people to define themselves, create for themselves and speak for themselves.
*Ujima: Talks about collective work and responsibility.
*Ujamaa: Stresses the importance of collective economics.
*Nia: Purpose.
*Kuumba: Creativity
Imani: Faith.  Imani challenges individuals to ". . believe with all your hearts in your parents, teachers, leaders and the righteous people in the community.
        Each day focuses on one of the seven principles.  After a ceremonial candle-lighting, people discuss what the principle means to them and gifts are exchanged. The special candleholder for the seven candles is called a Kinara.  The three red candles represent, struggle; the three green candles represent the future, and the black candle, the people..       
Stand for Sobriety
1st American Indian Astronaut
GI Joe: Navajo Code Talker
How to Trace your Native American Heritage - Video
Index of Native American Resources on the Internet 
Go to Archeology for more - Olmec and Maya
Extract: Stand for Sobriety  by Julie Watson 
Associated Press 12-20-02

Women in 10 remote Mexican villages have banished alcohol because of their husbands' overindulgence. Fed up with their men stumbling home drunk or falling over in a stupor in their cornfields, the women remote Huastecos Indian villages in central Mexico. The women took matters into their own hands, got their leaders to ban alcohol and helped turn back trucks carrying alcohol into their communities.
        Social and political changes have converged to assist the women in their effort.  As more men leave to find work, often in the United States, Huastecos women are taking a leadership role within their family and in the community.  President Vicente Fox  has cracked down on moonshine, diminishing the power of moonshine traffickers and reducing the ready availability of liquor in these poor villages. 
        Liquor is an integral part of Indian ceremonies in Mexico.  Like many tribes, Huastecos pour alcohol on the ground as an offering to Mother Earth before planting. Since alcohol is recognized an important part of their tradition, most dry towns lift their bands during celebrations, religious, birthdays, and weddings.                                                                                          OC Register, 12-20-02       
1st American Indian Astronaut
CAPE CANAVERAL, FLORIDA *  John Herrington, the 44-year old Navy commander and  member of the Chickasaw Nation, helped install a $390 million girder on the International Space Station during a space-walk November 26th.   He became the first American Indian in space. AP
GI Joe: Navajo Code Talker 
        It was one of the best kept secrets of World War II.  For 23 years; their special mission retained a "top secret" classification.  They are the Navajo Code Talkers.  The Navajo made an invaluable contribution to the war through the development of the Navajo language as a secret code that proved indecipherable to the enemy.  Major Howard M. Connor, communications officer for the Fifth Marine Division commented, "Without the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima.".
        Now available is a 11" Tall GI Joe talking figure that can be purchased for $39. through South West Indian, at http://www.southwestindian.com  #8322.  The figure speaks seven different phrases - in both Navajo and English.  The equipment that comes with the figure includes a laminated list of over 200 authentic Code Words actually used by the Navajo Code Talkers. 
How to Trace your Native American Heritage - Video
This highly informative Video helps you efficiently trace your Native American heritage including:  How and where to research the Dawes Rolls; How to obtain your Tribal Membership; Internet sites to assist your search; How to obtain a CDIB Card (Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood) and more.  This comprehensive Video also lists over 500 federally recognized American Tribes.
South West Indian, at http://www.southwestindian.com

Index of Native American Resources on the Internet  http://www.hanksville.org/NAresources/

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                                                                                                    Sent by Johanna de Soto
Jews and the American Revolution
Controversy Clouds study of American Jews
The Other Ellis Island Site
Acts of Faith: Jewish Civilization in Spain
Christians, Jews, and Moslems in Medieval Spain
Sephardic Jews' Hanukkah treats
Go to  
Cárdenas, México y los refugiados: 1938-1940
Jews and the American Revolution

"These Jews both fought in and helped finance 
the Revolutionary War. 
The war was right in their front yard!"


Legend has it that George Washington appealed for funds to financier Haym Salomon on Yom Kippur. Salomon, it is said, suspended services in the synagogue upon learning of the desperate request, secured pledges from congregants and then proceeded with observances. Salomon was later imprisoned by the British in New York, he secured his release by translating German documents, but later was again arrested for spying and fortunately succeeded in escaping to Philadelphia. He was not Sephardic, but married into a Sephardic family. Born in Lissa, Poland, in 1740, Salomon spent several years moving around western Europe and England, developing fluency in several languages that served him well for the remainder of his life. Reaching New York City in 1772, he swiftly established himself as a successful merchant and dealer in foreign securities. Striking up an acquaintance with Alexander MacDougall, leader of the New York Sons of Liberty, Salomon became active in the patriot cause. When war broke out in 1776, Salomon got a contract to supply American troops in central New York. In 1777, he married Rachel Franks, whose brother Isaac was a lieutenant colonel on George Washington's staff. Their ketubah resides at the American Jewish Historical Society at the Center for Jewish History in New York. He later served as a member of he governing council of Philadelphia's Congregation Mikveh Israel, a synagogue of the Spanish-Portuguese rite.

In 1975 the United States Postal Department issued a commemorative stamp honoring a Jewish man named Haym Saloman for his contribution to the cause of the American Revolution. This stamp was uniquely printed on the front and the back. On the glue side of the stamp, the following words were printed in pale, green ink:

"Financial Hero - Businessman and broker Haym Salomon was responsible for raising most of the money needed to finance the American Revolution and later to save the new nation from collapse."

Many Historians have said that without his contribution to the cause there would be no America today.

There, with the help of friends, he became active in a security house and made a considerable fortune. He was highly patriotic and helped Robert Morris, who was in charge of the government's financing, to raise money to conduct the war. He loaned much money of his own and, probably due to his imprisonment and active participation in the war, he died at an early age, before the government had made restitution on his loans. He was a martyr to the cause of liberty and American independence.

Most of the New York Jews were Patriots during the Revolutionary War. The few Loyalists were the Nathans, Hendrickses, and a part of the Gomez family. Col. Isaac Franks and Maj. David Franks served in the Continental Army with honor and distinction from New York. Among other Jewish officers of distinction in the Revolutionary War were Major Benjamin Nones, Capt. Jacob de la Motta, and Capt. Jacob de Leon, who were attached to Baron de Kalb's staff at the battle of Camden, South Carolina. When the huge and brave general of German origin was wounded mortally from a half a dozen wounds and deserted by most of his troops, it was these three Jewish officers who, at the risk of their own lives, carried him off the battlefield.

Collectable coin dedicated to Benjamin Nones, Sephardic Jew & American Revolutionary War Hero

Editor Note: the caption refers to Benjamin Nones as a Frenchman, President of the Sephardic congregation.]]


The three Pinto brothers of New Haven left Connecticut to fight for American independence, among  some of the families involved with the American Revolution.             Sent by Johanna de Soto

Controversy Clouds study of American Jews
by Rachel Zoll, the Associated Press, 11-29-02

PHILADELPHIA * The results of a $6 million, years-long study of U.S. Jews was withheld.  The findings could be critical, shaping how tens of millions of dollars will be spent to keep Judaism alive in the United States at a time when many Jews are marrying outside the faith.  Then just before the release, the report was withheld.  
       The agency, United Jewish Communities, insists  its National Jewish Population Survey is on track and will be made public - although, it won't say when.                 
Sent by Johanna de Soto
The Other Ellis Island Site
Stephen Morse is a database detective.  he know how to wring every shred of information from the Ellis Island database, and his Short Form Web site has been popular with genealogists from the beginning.  Gary Mokotoff, in Nu? What's New? says "This Short Form virtually obsoletes the Statue of Liberty/Ellis Island foundation search site at http://www.ellisisland.org. "
Source: UGANews, November-December, 2002
Acts of Faith: Jewish Civilization in Spain. Films for the Humanities. 1VHS cassette (50 mins.):color 1995, Documentary. "Many Latinos in he American Southwest wear amulets and perform certain practices different from their fellow Latino Catholics -- and are discovering only now, to their great amazement, that they are descended from Jews who chose conversion rather than death at the time of the great expulsion from Spain in 1492. This program looks at remnants of what was once the great Jewish civilization in Spain: the artifacts, which were Christianized or destroyed, and the people, many of whom continued to practice elements of the religion and folklore of Judaism and for most of whom the memory of Jewishness has long since been extinguished." (from the video jacket)  

Source: University of Tennessee, but does not circulate.  Language Resource Center
Sent by Johanna de Soto

Christians, Jews, and Moslems in Medieval Spain. Films for the Humanities. 1 VHS cassette (52 mins.):color. 1989, Documentary, English. "Due partly to the weakness of its Visigothic rulers, partly to the proximity of Africa, the Iberian peninsula was conquered by Berbers and by Arabs belonging to the Ommeyad Dynasty of Damascus. This program describes the history of Spain from the time of the first landing, in 711, through the nearly 800-year-long war that ended in the expulsion of both Morrs and Jews in 1492; the development of a culture whose people spoke various Spanish dialects while the official language was Arabic; the role of the School of Toledo in preserving, translating, and making known the ancient Greek scientific texts as well as Arabic treatises on philosophy and science; the rabbinic center in Toledo; and the history of the Jews in Spain." (from the video jacket)
Source: University of Tennessee, but does not circulate.   Language Resource Center
Sent by Johanna de Soto

Extract: Sephardic Jews' Hanukkah treats have a rich history, too
Seattle Post Intelligencer Reporter November 27, 2002  
Source: Hispanic magazine lifestyles

[[ This article caught my attention by the description of burmeuelos. It sounds so like what my Mom used to make, buñuelos. She also would make them during the Christmas season.  Except Mom usually cut out rectangular shapes, run a slit down the middle and twisted one end through it before deep frying the goodies.  They were crisp, sweetened with cinnamon and sugar, and delicious. The article explained the popularity of deep flying during the Hanukkah season.]]

        A band of Jews led by Judah Maccabee managed to overthrow the muscular Syrian force that occupied Jerusalem in the second century B.C. The second miracle, of a spiritual sort, was the miraculous renewal of sacred oil. When the Jews rededicated the temple after the occupation, they found just one day's worth of oil for the temple's menorah, but it burned for eight days, long enough to obtain and bless more oil.
        Unofficially, in honor of that oil, Hanukkah has become a celebration of a third, culinary miracle: frying. It's the one time of year fatty food can be enjoyed with abandon. Jews and non-Jews alike crave steaming latkes, or potato pancakes. But extending the search beyond these familiar Ashkenazic, or Germanic Jewish treats, reveals a new range of crispy treats for Hanukkah, which begins at sundown Friday.
        "You have your latkes and we have our burmuelos. They are both good, but if I had to have one, which one do you think I'd choose?" 81-year-old Leni Lamarche asks rhetorically.
        Steaming hot and bathed in honey, the puffy fritters called burmuelos are the Mercer Island woman's supreme Hanukkah treat. Although she cooks less now than she did before her husband died, her hands work nimbly as she lays the sticky dough in hot oil. The fritters puff wildly in the oil, bulging out into different shapes. "This one looks like a chicken, this one looks like a pig, this one looks like a duck," she says pointing at the growing stack. 
        Lamarche, whose maiden name is Peha, comes from a Jewish cooking tradition totally unlike the wintry pot roasts, smoky fish and root vegetables typically associated with Jewish cooking. She is Sephardic. And while her parents came from the island of Rhodes, near Greece, her family's roots are more deeply embedded in Spain. In fact, when she first started dating her future husband in 1944, he didn't know she was Jewish. He'd assumed that the "muchas gracias" he received after lighting her cigarette meant that she was Spanish or Mexican. But the language Leni Peha spoke -- old Spanish leavened with bits of Turkish, Greek and Hebrew, was Ladino -- the language of the Sephardic Jews.
        Although many are not aware of this subsection of the Jewish community, Seattle has one of the largest Sephardic populations in the country. Many families came here from Greece and Rhodes early in the 20th century on the advice of a few pioneering immigrants who wrote back to their families that Seattle reminded them of home.
        Few would describe Seattle's climate as Mediterranean, but the settlers were drawn to "Alki Beach, the smell of the sea, and the trees," says Lamarche. "It was probably summertime when they wrote," she adds. In any case, the propaganda worked. More and more families came to settle in the Northwest, including Lamarche's parents, who arrived individually in the years preceding World War I. Near Seward Park, the Bikur Holim and Ezra Bessaroth synagogues (Lamarche's own) were established, providing a foundation for the community where Ladino was spoken and no Hanukkah was complete without burmuelos.
        In culture as well as language, the Sephardic Jews are quite distinct from the majority of the Jewish population. In the first few centuries of the Christian era, many Jews settled on the Iberian Peninsula, in what is now Spain and Portugal. For centuries, Jews there lived in relative peace under Visigoth, Muslim and Christian rulers. But as Christian kings struggled to wrest back Spain from Muslim rulers, the Jews suffered greatly. When King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella's forces conquered the last Muslim holdout in Granada, they wanted the triumph of Christianity to seem complete. In 1492, they issued the Edict of Expulsion, which ordered Jews to leave Spain, convert (and face constant testing by the Spanish Inquisition) or die. An estimated 250,000 people were exiled. Some joined existing pockets of Jews in Italy, North Africa and the Middle East. The majority headed to the Ottoman Empire, where Sultan Beyazit II welcomed them.
        Lamarche's cooking reflects both her forebears' years in Spain and the cuisine of the former Ottoman Empire, with its lemony-tart palate and use of ingredients such as lamb, nuts, eggplant and leeks. In addition to burmuelos, Sephardic Jews from that region might fry keftes, or leek patties, for Hanukkah. Traditionally served at Passover, keftes are tender inside with a crisp breaded crust; they are delicious plain or with a tart smear of yogurt and an olive chaser.
        Sephardic food in other parts of the Mediterranean is quite different, because Jews tended to adapt the cuisine of their non-Jewish neighbors to Jewish dietary laws. "By and large, Italian Jewish food is Italian food, Jewish food from what was the Ottoman empire is very close to Greek and Turkish food, and Jewish Moroccan food is Moroccan food," says chef and cookbook author Joyce Goldstein.
        Goldstein, who visited Seattle last month, grew up in a household where uninspiring Ashkenazic food was served. "Our house was a disaster area for food," she says. No wonder then, that the discovery of the bright flavors of the Mediterranean was a revelation for her. After serving many Sephardic dishes at her former restaurant, Square One, in San Francisco, she spent the past several years researching and writing books about Sephardic cuisine. For Hanukkah, she suggests preparing briks a l'oeuf, crunchy pastry pockets filled with brightly seasoned tuna and a surprising egg: Its slightly cooked yolk bursts when bitten. 
        Some of the Sephardic exiles made their way to Syria after leaving Spain. Jennifer Felicia Abadi's "A Fistful of Lentils" is a love poem in recipes to her late Grandma Fritzie, a Syrian Sephardic Jew and masterful home cook. For Hanukkah, Abadi recommends fried turnips to be gobbled up in pita pockets. The vegetables are fried slowly in oil until they turn mahogany brown at the edges. The process condenses their sweetness while maintaining the radish like pungency that makes the turnip such an appealing, if overlooked, vegetable.

New Retail Shop, for Borderlands Book Store 
TexMex Genealogy Website
San Agustin Catholic Church CD
Unskilled immigrants Swell Texas Population  
Valuable Coins Found - - Whose are they? 
History of the Lone Star State
Canary Island Descendent Association
San Antonio was a Lively Place Back In 1804 
Texas Marriages, 1851-1900 
Confederate Indigent Families Index 
Gutierrez family tree

Sincere congratulations and best wishes to 
George Farias and Col. Ernest Montemayor 
in the opening of their new Borderlands Book retail store.
"We have been planning for some years to open a retail shop to adequately display, and to facilitate access for our customers, the every-increasing number of books becoming available in Hispanic history and genealogy.  Business success is predicated on growth and expansion.  Additionally the economics of operating a store dictate and expansion to other categories of books as well.  Our first category of expansion will be Other Early Americana, dealing not only with the discovery and settlement of the new World by Spain and Portugal, but the establishment of the United States, Canada and Latin American.  Other categories will be added in accordance with demand by the general public. "

George Farías, President In Association with Col. Ernest A. Montemayor, USAF-Retired
New location:  Wurzbach Shopping Center, 6307 Wurzbach Rd (at Evers Rd.)
Tel: 210-432-6043   Fax: 210-432-0482    E-mail: gfarias@borderlandsbooks.com
Website:  http://www.borderlandsbook.com
Postal address:  Borderlands Book Store, P.O. Box 28497, San Antonio, TX 78228

TexMex Genealogy    http://hometown.aol.com/texmexgenealogy/myhomepage/business.html 
Listing of thousands of family surnames of 20th Century families who lived in the Rio Grande Valley. Dennis V Carter, the Genealogist who owns this web page, is available to begin immediate research on any of the thousands of names listed on this site. Additional surnames will be added on a weekly basis. United States research from 1620 to present; Texas research 1835 to present of all nationalities; Mexico research of 1750 to 1900 of Roman Catholic Church records, Mexico Civil Records 1860-1900, and 1930 Mexico Census.    
Source: Dennis V Carter, TexMexGenealogy@aol.com
San Agustin Catholic Church CD

Dear Friends, 
        We have bought the San Agustin Catholic Church CD and it is worth  every penny. I found very good information about my family and  relatives.
        Father Florencio Andres undertook exhaustive genealogical research  on Laredo area families. This research was done approximately  seventy-five years ago over a period of 14 years while he worked at St.  Agustine Catholic Cathedral in Laredo. Father Andres went from  door-to-door collecting family information. Having ill health he was not  obligated to do usual priestly duties and turned his free time and energy  toward his love of Laredo history as well as its people. His research  resulted in a genealogical manuscript containing over 60,000 names!
        Additional names from St. Peters, Guadalupe Church and other old records  consulted by Father Andres are also part of this project - a bonus!
        The project of compiling these invaluable records into computer readable format was undertaken by Annie Rice Ramos and others between 1999 and 2001 as a fundraising project to benefit St. Agustin Cathedral.  And through her efforts Father Andres' work has both been preserved and  is now made widely available for researchers for the first time.. 
        Two sets of names are included, although it is not known why Father Andres had a separate grouping of 20,000 names. The integrity of his work has been maintained and has been retained exactly the way he compiled it. It is the theory of Annie Ramos, who undertook this massive project, that one set is different from the rest because one set of names is arranged by land title / land grants.

Example of entry: Vicente Barrera 1804 Mier hd. Manuel and Jovita Flores [note: hd = child of]

I have looked for information on my grandmother's family since I started my ancestor chart about 8 years ago. I finally found new clues to work with in the San Augustine Church Genealogical Records CD that we just purchased in Laredo at the Cathedral. Mateo Garza is my great- great grandfather, supposedly from Monterry, N.L. My great grandfather is Pedro Garza married to Gertrudis Belen Benavides de Benavides from Revilla aka Cuidad Guerrero Viejo. My grandmother was Elvira Garza born in San Diego, Tx. The family moved to Laredo, Tx. around the late 1890's or early 1900's. Elvira Garza married Cleofas Centeno. They lived at Las Minas where my grandfather
was a night watchman. My mother Maria Cleofas Centeno was born in Las minas de Dolores, Tx. The Centeno family moved to Laredo abt. 1920.

This CD has provided me with lots of good information about my family and records about other relatives as well. I highly recommend that you  purchase this CD if you have ancestors in the Laredo area. We found church records from Encinal, Las Minas, Webb County Cd. Mier and other parts of South Texas.  Hoping you find your missing links as I did, 

One CD-ROM (PC and Mac compatible) has been produced and is $75.00  and a $2.00 shipping and handling fee is added if you want the CD mailed  to you.  Checks should be made to St. Agustine Cathedral and mailed to CD  Order, Minnie Farias, 201 San Agustin Avenue, Laredo, Texas 78040.

Caution:  The information that you find in this CD should be further  research before you make a final conclusion. I have for the longest  time being looking for my grandparent parents and family and I finally  found them in this CD. I found information on Las Minas, other Catholic Churches and town 
in the Laredo area. To buy this CD locally in San Antonio call George Farias at his new  book store BORDERLANDS BOOKSTORE, 210-432-6043 . His e-mail:Farias@boderlandsbooks.com
Sent by Walter L Herbeck epherbeck@juno.com
Extract: Unskilled immigrants Swell Texas Population  
by Diana Washington Valdez , El Paso Times, Nov. 27, 2002  

Immigration is fueling the population growth of Texas, and many of the newcomers from Mexico and Central America are doomed to poverty because they arrive with limited education and low job skills, according to the Center for Immigration Studies report released today.  
        About 293,000 immigrants came to Texas between 2000 and 2002, and 172,000 children were born in that time to immigrants, according to the study, "Immigrants in the United States -- 2002: A Snapshot of America's Foreign-Born Population."  
        The report said immigrants represented 44.4 percent of the state's population growth. In the Southwest, this percentage was exceeded by California (68.7 percent) and Arizona (46.8 percent). No breakdown by state was available on source countries for the immigrants. But most immigrants to Southwestern states are from Mexico .  
        The pattern outlined by the center's study does not hold true for El Paso County , said Tom Fullerton, an economics professor at the University of Texas at El Paso .  While census figures are not available for the same years, he said, "most of the growth in El Paso is projected to come from natural causes -- more births than deaths." Fullerton said his studies showed that the net flow of immigrants to El Paso reached a high of 7,109 in 1994, and then fell to 3,394 in 1998. He projected a further decline to 2,664 in 2001.  
        "El Paso is seen like the Ellis Island of the desert ... some of the immigrants come here long enough to get whatever documents they need, and then they move on to other places with larger immigrant communities, such as Dallas," he said. However, previous census figures suggest that many El Paso natives have the same problems as the immigrants cited by the Center for Immigration Studies report: low per capita incomes, high dropout rates, a lack of medical insurance and limited job skills.  
        Steven Camarota, who wrote the center's study, said the number of foreign-born residents -- with or without documents -- climbed to a record high 33 million this year, up from 31 million in 2000. He said immigrants were crowding the nation's schools and depressing wages of low-income workers. He said too many were living in poverty. He also said stepped-up enforcement since the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks has not curtailed immigration.  
        Roberto Suro, executive director of the nonpartisan Pew Hispanic Center in Washington , blasted the report. He said it did not include data showing that immigrants' earnings rise and poverty rates decrease over time. "It's a highly selective use of data," he said, contending that no conclusive data exist to measure the impact of the slow economy or the crackdown on terrorism and immigration during the past two years.  
        Representatives of the private Center for Immigration Studies of Washington, D.C., have testified before Congress in the past, often advocating that the U.S. government curb immigration.

Get more information at:   www.urbaninstitute.org   www.cis.org   www.pewhispanic.org

Diana Washington Valdez may be reached at dvaldez@elpasotimes.com
Bureau writer Sergio Bustos contributed to this story.

HispanicVista Online,  12-2-02

Extract:  Valuable Coins Found - - Three parties now claim coins

By Quincy C. Collins Caller-Times  December 11, 2002

SAN DIEGO, Texas - For Gloria Garcia Lopez, the recent discovery of more than 400 gold and silver coins, with an estimated value of as much as $500,000, at her father's former home in San Diego puts an end to family speculation and stories about the coins that dated back to the early 1900s.
        But claiming the valuable coins has turned into a legal dispute that has rocked the small community of San Diego.  Three different parties are now laying claim to the coins - a man and a woman who discovered them under a pipe they were repairing, the family that owns the home where the coins were discovered and Gloria Garcia Lopez, who says the coins belonged to her father, a doctor who built the home in 1912.
         The coins are now in the hands of a court-appointed receiver or guardian.  But in October, according to court documents, they were immersed in dirt under a sewer pipe. That's when Serafin Trevino, a San Diego plumber, and Connie Moseley, his girlfriend, discovered some gold coins loose in the soil after removing an old sewer pipe on Alejandro and Angelica Lopez's property at 300 E. St. Joseph St.  Alejandro and Angelica Lopez hired Trevino to repair the pipe.

Striking gold
Trevino slid through a trap door in the kitchen and began digging in a dark, damp enclosed 24-inch-crawl space under the home, he said. As he attempted to replace the old cast-iron pipe with a plastic pipe, he dug 6 inches below.  He thought he hit another piece of pipe or scrap metal when he heard the echo of clinking metal hit the concrete wall behind him. But when he looked closer into the hole he was digging, he found eight rolls of gold coins aligned almost perfectly, he said.

Tale of the coins
According to Gloria Garcia Lopez's plea, the doctor remodeled the house in 1929 and constructed an additional kitchen and an enclosed area under Garcia's office floor and kitchen. The enclosed area could only be reached by a trap door in the floor of one of the kitchens. She says that her father stored his gold coins in an enclosed area. After his marriage in 1924, Garcia left the house to his two unmarried sisters Sanjuana G. Garcia and Rita G. Garcia.
         The house remained in the sisters' care until 1952 when the remaining sister, Rita Garcia, died. After the death of the last sister, the house was occupied by Gloria Garcia Lopez's brother Raul and sister Amada.  "Nobody outside of the family knew about the coins," said Hector Lopez.  With her unmarried aunts, mother, brother and sister dead, Gloria Garcia Lopez is Dr. Garcia's closest heir and keeper of her father's history.
        After his medical training in Mexico City, Garcia moved to San Diego at the turn of the century with his unmarried sisters to open a medical practice. He made house calls to the area ranches in his horse and buggy, and he often insisted that he be paid for his services in hard currency, Gloria Garcia Lopez said.  Gloria Garcia Lopez remembers her father not just as a dedicated family man but a meticulous man who did not trust South Texas banks during the Depression.  H
e remodeled the house and moved the coins from the safe to the secret compartment in his office floor after banks began accumulating gold in exchange for paper money.

No court date has been set.
Contact Quincy C. Collins at_886-3792 or collinsq@caller.com
Copyright 2002, Caller.com. All Rights Reserved
Sent by Joe Guerra  joguerra@hispanicgs.com 

History of the Lone State State - TEXAS

This is the most complete website that I have seen on Texas.  Created by a teacher, the web mistress writes:  Hi! My name is Tracey  I have created this page to assist students, teachers, and all history lovers locate information on the web.

I am the mother of two super children and have been married to my High School sweetheart for 23 years. I am a violinist with the Mesquite Symphony Orchestra and teach 10th grade World History for a large suburban school district outside of Dallas, Texas.

Canary Island Descendent Association San Antonio, Texas

Association Name and Addresses:
Canary Island Descendent Association
Gene Arocha Chapa, President
P.O. Box 117
Austin, Texas 78767
E-mail: GeneC117@swbel.com

Alicia Burger, Membership Vice President
E-mail: mburger@trinity.edu

President – Gene Arocha Chapa
1st Vice President – Estella Quintero
2nd Vice President in charge of membership – Alicia Burger
3rd Vice President – Angela Fernandez
Secretary – Rosalinda H. Mini
Treasure – Eleanor Foreman
                                                                         Sent by Alejandro Sanz   alex@canaryislands-usa.com

Old Records Show San Antonio was a Lively Place Back In 1804.

San Antonio Express newspaper, Feb. 25, 1934, Sunday.

By Dorothy Esther Wright.

Texas, whose history has long been the pride of her people, to at last to be supplied with those many and positively accurate details so long absent from her historical accounts.  With the translating of each additional page of the documents contained in the Bexar archives, which are deposited in the archives of the University of Texas, these details are rapidly being supplied. These records, which were accumulated at San Antonio de Bexar during the Spanish and Mexican regime, form one of the greatest historical treasures on the North American Continent. The documents are filled, not only with incidents of absorbing interest, but with accounts which are of international importance.                                                                                         Sent by Johanna de Soto

Texas Marriages, 1851-1900 
(Update adding data from Nacogdoches, Ward, Crosby, Armstrong, Scurry, Chambers, DeWitt, and Robertson Counties. [NOTE: It appears that you need to be an Ancestry member to view the results of your search after searching this datebase.]

Because they establish an important family relationship, marriage records can be among the most informative type of records available to family historians. This database is a collection of marriage 
records from several counties in Texas in the latter half of the nineteenth century. This update adds marriage records from Nacogdoches, Ward, Crosby, Armstrong, Scurry, Chambers, DeWitt, and 
Robertson Counties to those from Atascosa, Comanche, Denton, Erath, Frio, Glasscock, Hunt, Kendall, Lipscomb, Llano, Newton, Pecos, Rains, Runnels, Rusk, Somervell, Bowie, Cooke, Crockett, Deaf Smith, Hopkins, Irion, Nolan, Van Zandt, Red River, Hartley, Ochiltree, 
Hall, Howard, Kerr, Panola, Jefferson, and Wheeler counties. Taken from microfilm copies of original county documents, each record provides spouses' names, marriage date, and county of residence.

Source Information: Dodd, Jordan, Liahona Research, comp. "Texas Marriages, 1856-1900." [database online] Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, 2001. Original data: See the extended description at the URL below for original data sources listed by county.

To search this database, go to: http://www.ancestry.com/search/rectype/inddbs/4325.htm
Sent by George Gause ggause@panam.edu

Confederate Indigent Families Index 
Texas State Library Archives and Manuscripts http://www.tsl.state.tx.us/arc/cif/acname.html

Related Links
Surnames A - C | Surnames D - G | Surnames H - L
Surnames M - P
| Surnames Q - Z

Please be aware that only an index of names appears at this site. Linda Mearse has transcribed the records on file in the State Archives in her book, Confederate Indigent Families Lists of Texas 1863-1865. In order to help preserve the original records, please request the Mearse transcription through interlibrary loan. Please contact your local library for further details. 
[[Please note, there are Hispanic surnames, but not too many.]]      Sent by Johanna de Soto

Intercommunication on the Gutierrez family tree between Jose Trevino and Mira Smithwick. losbexarenos@yahoogroups.com

On the Gutierrez family tree, there is much out there and I know many who connect to Nicolas Gutierrez de Lara and Clara Renteria. Is the Gutierrez de Lara your line?

Also found a wealth of information by clicking the Ancestry World Tree (at no charge). The address is: http://pedigree.ancestry.com  Do a search; after you get the Search Results, you can view the Pedigree in chart form. The Pedigree Chart will give you the spouse and children of the person you searched; as well as siblings; plus the parents and grandparents if they are available. Any name that is underlined, if you double click on it, will take you to that person's pedigree. It is a great site. One thing to remember is that the info has been submitted by other researchers. The site has helped me tremendously. Hope you try it.

Also found some info on Gutierrez that I have included below. On the Gutierrez line mentioned above, it is believed that the line goes back to Agustin Abrego and Leonor Gutierrez. 
This family has roots in Nieves, Zacatecas and Saltillo, Coahuila before appearing in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.   Mira Smithwick

Gutierrez in Mexico City 1521 - 1594
Hi folks, The following is information taken from a report published in "Historia Gráfica de la Nueva España", By Jose R. Benitez.

Urbanization Parcels Distributed in Mexico City, 1521 - 1594. It begins with a parcel number then the name of the Grantee followed by the date.
#498 Alonso de Gutierrez 4/10/1537
#319 Andres Gutierrez 1/19/1565
#382 Alonso Badajos 7/27/1530
#214 Antonio Gutierrez 9/13/1563
#925 Leonor Bilva Gutierrez 1/14/1525
#79 Hernando Salamanca de Guitierrez 7/11/25
#510 Diego Gutierrez 4/20/1531
#45 Francisca Gutierrez 8/27/1554
#72 Hernan Gutierrez 5/27/1523
#213 Juan Gutierrez 9/13/1563
#380 Francisco Naranjo Gutierrez 9/4/1542
#117 Pedro Gutierrez 11/15/1525

As you can see Hernan Gutierrez was the first Gutierrez to receive a parcel of land and that was in 1523. I thought that the Gutierrez's of Texas were the first to settle in New Spain in November of 1528, I stand corrected after seeing this new information. I hope this information is of help to some one.

Sincerely, Rodolfo José Villalba y Gutierrez Aguirre Garcia Escobar Palacios
Sent by Elsa Pena Herbeck epherbeck@juno.com
Wisconsin Prima Shares her Joys
Genealogical Research Society of New Orleans
The Los Islenos Heritage and Cultural Society 
Georgia Teachers Guaranteed 

Patti Navarrette-Larson
Wisconsin Prima Shares her Joys
in family history contacts 

        Patti Navarrette-Larson lives in Wisconsin and expresses her great love for the expanded family that she has discovered  in her research.  Patti  has traveled to Ixtapa, Mexico, Phoenix, Arizona and Fresno, California, enjoying the emotional reunions of mutual love that finding kin has brought her.
        Picture with Patti and her Tía Maria Sotera Belamonte at Maria's 50th wedding anniversary festivities. Patti outfit was made by Tía Maria.  The Virgen de Guadalupe figure was made by her son Jesus Anaya

December 10, 2002

        My dear friend. It has been ages since we chatted! Have been enjoying  Somos Primos, as always, and look forward to the first of each month to do  some serious reading. I especially took note in the November issue about  the tribute to Mexican American Vets of the Korean War. I did contact Rogelio Roriguez to see what I could do to get my father recognized. Dad  came home with a Purple Heart! I did submit his photo and a short story to  be shown at the November Recognition Event. More than anything, I wanted  to see what Rogelio could do for me as far as getting him the medal they  were handing out to those in attendance. Unfortunately, Wisconsin is a far  way from CA and he could not make the event. Still have to check in with  Rogelio to see if anything has happened. And, may I add, he was such a joy  to chat with via email.
        My heart is breaking a bit right now. EVERYBODY is going to El Valle this  year for the Fiesta. Everybody but Patti! YES, I am feeling sorry for  myself. My husband told me to go, but this year is just not good. I have  4 weeks of vacation from work, but last year I used almost two weeks for El Valle and it was difficult then to do anything with my kids the rest of the  year. We are going back to Ixtapa for X-mas of 2003, so I must save some  days for that. Instead of the Fiesta, I will be taking a long weekend next  month and going to Phoenix to visit one of the primas I found 3 years  ago. We are now like sisters!
        You may recall my emails to you about my Tia Maria Sotera (my late Gramma's  younger sister). I had the chance to see Tia again this past August. She  and her husband celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary and their 12,  yes, 12, children threw them a wonderful party. The church service was  beautiful and the party was great. Just imagine ALL the new primos I meet  on this trip to Fresno! I have added family galore to my family tree! I  even talked my mother into going, along with my Tia Maria. Even though  these are Mom's in-laws, she had a wonderful time. My Tia Sotera has a  heart of gold and having to leave was SO emotional for me. I thought you  would get a charge out of the attached photo. Tia had SO much fun dressing  me up on this day.
        If I do not chat with you soon, I want to send many Holiday wishes your  way. Have a Christmas filled with love and cheer.  Until later, Patti
December 17, 2002

        Dearest Mimi, I found out a little more about the statue of the Virgen de Guadulupe. First and foremost my Tia Sotera Belmontes has faith that cannot  be measured in any way, her religion and belief runs very deep. The Virgen  was made by her son Jesus Anaya. He is a man of many talents and I am sure  this gift brought her to tears. It was on August 27, 2002, that I was able  to meet so many of the extended family members in Sanger, CA, for the  special occasion of my Tio and Tia's 50th wedding anniversary. It was a  highlight to meet the 12 children of my great-aunt and uncle. They opened  up their homes and their hearts and showed me what "Familia" was all  about. I was only able to spend 4 short days with them and leaving brought  heartache and tears. I have to keep telling myself, it was not goodbye, it  was just "hasta luego".
        The outfit I am wearing was hand made by Tia Sotera. She showed me all of  the beautiful dresses she has designed over the years that all her children  and grandchildren wear during the holiday. Believe me, I tried on more  than one and it was so much fun, I felt like we were playing "Barbie Dolls"! With each outfit I tried on, her smiled seemed to get bigger.
        Tia was first married in 1940 to Jesus Anaya. They had 4 children and  while pregnant with her fifth, her husband passed away. So, here you have  a young woman of 28 years old with no husband and many children to  feed. While pregnant in 1951, this courageous woman left El Valle and  headed to California for a better life for her children. She worked long  hard days and nights, and sleeping did not fit into her schedule. In 1952  she met a wonderful man and married, my Tio, Jesus Elisarraraz, a man with  a heart of gold. Together, they had 7 beautiful children and now a family  of 12! She taught each child good morals and the strong rules of working  hard for a living. Each of my 12 primos have grown into beautiful and  caring human beings and may I add, very successful in their choice of an occupation. Not only am I proud of my Tia, but each and every primo!
        As always, I have a moral to each story I write you about.....FIND YOUR FAMILY. Hold them close and share as much as you can with them. With each new extended family member I find in the USA or in Mexico, I measure my wealth with love.
        Thank you for letting me share yet another family story with you. Keep up the wonderful work at Somos Primos. Have a wonderful and blessed holidays season. Patti

                                                                              Patricia A. Navarrette-Larson  tido@execpc.com
Genealogical Research Society of New Orleans  LINKS

Individual links for repositories of records for New Orleans and other areas of research of the Genealogical and Research Society of New Orleans are listed under comprehensive link sites, such as Archival Research Repositories in New Orleans, Cyndi's List of Louisiana Genealogy Sites, Roots Web, U.S. Gen Web, and Louisiana Gen Web. If you know of a site that should be added, please contact the Webmaster.

                                                                                                              Sent by Bill Carmena  JCarmena1724@aol.com

The Los Islenos Heritage and Cultural Society http://www.canaryislands-usa.com/heritage/default.asp

[[This site has an excellent history of the various migrations of Canary Islanders to the U.S. it clarifies the relationship that existed between the Spanish and French.]]

The Los Islenos Heritage and Cultural Society is dedicated to preserving the Spanish language, legends, crafts, customs, folklore, rituals, music and history of our Spanish Isleno heritage by: maintaining an Isleno museum and multi-cultural village; promoting an annual student of Isleno heritage; and promoting annual Museum Days, a three-day event, to give students hands-on knowledge of the early Islenos and their way of life.

Los Isleños Heritage and Cultural Society was organized in 1976 in an effort to preserve the culture and history of the Canary Islanders who settled in Louisiana between the years 1778 and 1783. The Isleños, or Islanders, were a hearty group of pioneers who braved the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean and the marshes of Louisiana to mold St. Bernard Parish and other areas of the state into livable and productive communities.

The Society has made much progress in spreading the Isleño word over the years. In addition to establishing a museum, annual Isleño Fiestas are held with attendance increasing each year. Museum Days are held annually to give area student hands-on knowledge of the Isleños and their way of life, complete with palmetto huts depicting the first homes the settlers occupied. Three monographs and a cookbook have been published and three videos have been produced. Nunez Community College houses the Society’s collection of over 100 oral history tapes.

Officers 2002

President - William de Marigny Hyland
Vice-President - Alice Deogracias Gifford
Treasurer - Cecil J. Rabin
Secretary - Joan Nunez Phillips
Historian - Jerry G. Estopinal

Plan to visit Los Isleños Museum and experience the Isleños of St. Bernard who constitute the last vestige of Spanish Colonial Louisiana. Meanwhile, you can contact us for more information:

Telephone/Fax: (504)-682-0862
E-Mail: info@losislenos.org
Mailing Address: Los Islenos Heritage & Cultural Society
1357 Bayou Road
St. Bernard, LA 70085                                                   Sent by Bill Carmena  JCarmena1724@aol.com

Extract: Georgia Teachers Guaranteed 
Atlanta Journal-Constitution Staff Writer 

        Georgia teachers now come with a two-year warranty.  School district officials who decide a teacher isn't performing up to standards can send the ineffective teacher back to college for additional training during the first two years on the job. Neither the school system nor the teacher will be charged for the extra courses.
        The guarantee, which applies to graduates of the University System's 15 teacher education programs, kicked in with teachers who graduated last spring. So far, university officials say they haven't gotten any requests to take a teacher back. The program appears to be the nation's first large-scale effort to stand by the quality of teachers coming out of college programs.
        Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond began guaranteeing its teachers two years ago. So far none has returned for more training. After five years of guaranteeing its graduating teachers, the University of North Texas in Denton ended the program because no one ever returned to beef up his or her classroom skills.
        In Georgia, any teacher needing more instruction will work with the school district and university to design a plan. The teacher may take a course in the summer, at night, on weekends or even online, depending on the weaknesses that need correction. 
        Over the past few years, the 15 public institutions in Georgia with education programs have changed and focused their courses of study to produce better-prepared teachers.  The regents raised entry requirements for teacher education programs. They require more math and reading courses for K-5 teachers, and the equivalent of a major in a content area for high school teachers. Prospective teachers are getting practical experience in schools earlier than before. And the regents set up extensive mentoring programs for graduates once they begin teaching.

Sent by Odell Harwell  hirider@wt.net

Face to Face With History  Look-Alike Contest 
VACO NEWS: The Civil War 
Mexican migrants pass Cubans in their rate of relocation to Florida

Contest: Face to Face With History, Spanish American artist's project mirrors both history and contemporary society

Do you look like this man? If you do, you may be the critical link in an art project by Spanish artist Paco Cao—and win a two-week, all expenses trip for two to Spain to boot.

Cao, a New York resident since 1995, is promoting Celebrity, a multidimensional project at El Museo del Barrio's biennial exhibition, through a look-alike contest to find the face of "JP," the name given to this photographic digital image—a composite of hundreds of different portraits taken by Cao over the summer, primarily in New York's Washington Heights neighborhood—made to look like Diego Velázquez's 1650 portrait of Juan de Pareja.


"The art is not only the work of the artist—the audience finishes the work," Cao said in a recent interview. A native of Asturias who holds a Ph.D in art history from the University of Oviedo in northern Spain, the 37-year-old former curator constantly challenges traditional assumptions and the formal constraints of plastic arts.

The project is both tongue-in-cheek commentary and a serious exploration of such concepts as identity, social class, travel, and communication, as Cao plays with the history and image of the original painting in the contemporary construction of and search for JP.

Juan de Pareja was Velázquez's assistant and former servant, the son of Moorish slaves. Although he later gained his freedom and became a recognized master in his own right, at the time Velázquez executed his portrait Pareja was still his slave.

Sent by the Spanish king to Italy to paint the Pope's portrait, Velázquez, used to prominent stature in Madrid—he was, after all, the court painter, the king's friend, and a recognized genius—found himself a relative unknown. He needed an introduction to Roman circles that would focus attention on himself and leave no doubt as to his talent.

He decided on a singular portrait, that of his slave in the velvet and lace finery of a nobleman. Before exhibiting his painting, Velázquez reportedly had Pareja himself carry it around to some influential Roman acquaintances, calculating the shock produced by having a slave show up bearing his own likeness—a theatrical gesture meant to challenge the upper class' assumptions about who was a fit subject for a portrait, as well as dazzle the viewer with the artistry of the painter.

Some 350 years later, in a project co-sponsored by the Spanish consulate in New York, the principality of Asturias and Hoy newspaper, Cao takes up the challenge of his long-ago countryman, revising the concept of "the portrait" by constructing an image and then seeking the subject.

The search will culminate on Saturday, February 1, 2003, when a look-alike contest will be staged at El Museo del Barrio's Teatro Heckster. A celebrity panel of judges (yet to be determined) will then select the contestant who looks most like JP, and, the contest brochure explains, "the contestants, the digitally created image and a reproduction of the original painting will come together in a moment of multiple confrontations."

The contest targets not only New York Latinos, but anyone who is interested and thinks they look like JP. The only requirements are to fill out an entry form, be present at El Museo del Barrio on February 1, and bear the face of JP. Contestants, who must be at least 18, can alter their appearance in any way. "Make-up, implants, wigs, or surgery are all acceptable," the rules read. "Please note the jury will pay special attention to 'natural likeness.'"

The project's crowning touch? The winner—the modern incarnation of JP, a contemporary image of a former slave—will receive the "royal treatment," winning an all-expenses-paid trip for two to Spain, two weeks accommodations at a luxury hotel, and a starring role in a documentary about the project's evolution. 

For more information, visit www.lookalikecontest.com.
- Through February 16, 2003
El Museo del Barrio
, 1230 Fifth Avenue at 104th Street
New York, New York
  (212) 831-7272  http://www.elmuseo.org

VACO NEWS:  Hispanic Contributors and Contributions - The Civil War 
http://vaww.vairm.vaco.va.gov/haveyouheard  10/03/02 10:18  12/17/02

When the Civil War broke out, the Mexican-American community was divided in loyalty. Approximately 1,000 joined the Union Army and another 2,550, the Confederate Force. By the end of the war, as many as 9,900 Mexican-Americans had fought. 
        Most served in the regular army or volunteer units which were integrated. Some, however, served in predominately Mexican-American units with their own officers. Of the 40,000 volumes written about the Civil War, only one, Vaqueros in Blue and Gray, has been written about their
        In 1863, the U.S. government established four military companies of Mexican-American Californians (the First Battalion of Native Cavalry) to utilize their "extraordinary horsemanship." At least 469 Mexican-Americans served under Major Salvador Vallejo, helping to defeat a Confederate invasion of New Mexico. Colonel Miguel E. Pino established the Second Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers. 
        In Texas, the Union established 12 Mexican-American companies (the First Regiment of Texas Cavalry). By and large, the officers were non-Hispanic, although there were some Mexican Texans serving as captains and lieutenants. At least six independent militia companies commanded by Mexican-Americans were raised in New Mexico. Approximately 4,000 Mexican-Americans volunteered in these companies. 
        David G. Farragut was the most famous Union Hispanic. When he was nine years old he was appointed as a midshipman in the U.S. Navy. At 13 he served aboard the U.S.S. Essex during the War of 1812.In 1862, he successfully commanded Union forces and captured the city of New Orleans. After orchestrating the capture of Mobile, Alabama, Farragut was commissioned
Admiral of the Navy on July 26, 1866.He took the command of the European Squadron and while in the Mediterranean, he visited the birthplace of his father in Ciuddela, Minorca, where he received a hero's welcome.   

Sent by J.V. Martinez, Ph.D. Joe.Martinez@science.doe.gov  "The following message was circulated among concerned Hispanic federal government employees by the Virginia Association of Counties." VACO news is maintained by Ruth Richey and hosted by Virginia Institute of Government.  http://www.vaco.org/whatsnew.htm
1001 E. Broad St., Suite LL 20   Richmond, VA 23219-1928 
(804) 788-6652  fax (804) 788-0083  e-mail address: Mail@vaco.org

Extract: Mexican migrants pass Cubans in their rate of relocation to Florida by Andrea Elliott   The Miami Herald November 27, 2002

Florida 's immigrant population has boomed since 2000, led by an influx of Mexicans who for the first time surpassed Cubans in the rate of arrivals, bumping Florida up to the nation's second most popular destination for immigrants, Census data suggest.  
       The state is now home to 3.1 million immigrants -- 357,000 more than two years ago. That increase is second only to California 's and displaces New York , which previously ranked second among states in arrivals.  
      Florida 's proximity to Latin America and a steady supply of low-wage jobs are factors in the migration, which continued despite the nation's slowed economy. For many immigrants, the United States ' sagging economy and terrorist attacks posed less of a threat than the turmoil of their home countries.          
        'The center's study examined a sample survey conducted by the Census Bureau in March, which included 23,000 foreign-born immigrants, both legal and undocumented.  
        Florida 's immigrants accounted for at least half of the state's population growth in the last two years, according to the study. The state's immigrant population jumped 81 percent between 1990 and 2002, to its current total of nearly 3.1 million.  
        Eduardo Gamarra, an FIU political scientist leading a study on the state's Mexican population believes Mexicans will surpass Cubans in five years.   Florida 's Mexican community has grown by 125 percent to its current Census-estimated total of 395,000. There are an estimated 800,000 Cubans in Florida ''There are 22.5 million Mexicans in the United States . Florida was the last bastion to succumb to Mexican immigrants,'' Gamarra said. ``It is an invisible immigrant population. Why are they invisible? Because they are primarily migrant workers.''  
        One major concern is whether the school system can accommodate the growth, when more than 100,000 Florida immigrants have had children since 2000. The growth of Florida 's immigrant population speeded up after new laws were passed in 1965 to admit more migrants from non-European nations, said Thomas Boswell, a University of Miami immigration specialist.  
Source: Hispanicvista.com  12-2-02

Mexico's Ambassador, Juan José Bremer
Cárdenas, México y los refugiados: 1938-1940
1st International Conference Mexicans Overseas 
Mexico City Tries Cowboy Cops 
New Owner for Mexico's Excelsior Supplier Caters to immigrants' home projects
U.S. Social Security May Reach To Mexico

Somos Primos staff was honored 
to receive a holiday greeting from the 
Ambassador of Mexico to the United States, 
and his wife. . . . Juan José Bremer


Cárdenas, México y los refugiados: 1938-1940


Universidad Hebrea de Jerusalén

[[Editor: The first couple of pages of an extensive study available online.  Full article has 48 footnotes and is a real eye-opener concerning the moral and lonely position that Mexico took. ]] 

Sent by Armando Montes  AMontes@Mail.com

El año 1938 marca, sin lugar a dudas, una etapa decisiva en la historia del pueblo judío durante la Era del Nazismo. Ese es también un año crucial dentro del sexenio presidencial de Lázaro Cárdenas en México, así como en la triste historia de la República española. En este artículo analizamos la actitud que México adoptó a partir de aquel año hacia los refugiados judíos, comparándola con la que tuvo frente a los refugiados españoles.

El presente estudio forma parte de un amplio proyecto de investigación sobre el papel de América Latina en el salvamento de judíos durante el Holocausto, que viene realizándose en la División para América Latina, España y Portugal del Instituto de Judaísmo Contemporáneo de la Universidad Hebrea de Jerusalén.

Un régimen benevolente

Durante la segunda mitad de marzo de 1938, Cárdenas tomó tres decisiones importantes. En primer lugar, en una dramática alocución radiada a todo el país, el 18 de marzo de 1938, anunció la expropiación de las empresas petroleras extranjeras que operaban en México. Esa decisión, tomada a raíz de un prolongado conflicto laboral con las empresas petroleras sobre salarios y condiciones de trabajo, provocó una inmediata ola de protestas de parte de los Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña. Esta última incluso rompió sus relaciones diplomáticas con México. En los Estados Unidos, Roosevelt fue muy criticado por quienes opinaban que su política de "buen vecino" para con América Latina había alentado a México a adoptar una actitud intolerable de independencia. En segundo lugar, México, por intermedio de Isidro Fabela, su representante ante la Sociedad de Naciones en Ginebra, protestó contra la anexión de Austria por Alemania. Esa protesta solitaria implicaba el riesgo de una pérdida financiera enorme para México, por los anticipos pagados a Austria para la compra de armas. México también se arriesgaba a perder un cliente importante para su petróleo nacionalizado, como podría haberlo sido el Reich ampliado1.

Una semana más tarde, Cárdenas adoptó una tercera decisión, indirectamente relacionada con las otras dos. El 26 de marzo aceptó la invitación de Roosevelt a participar en Evian en la conferencia sobre refugiados. La invitación tenía por objeto demostrar a la opinión pública de Estados Unidos y del mundo entero que la administración norteamericana estaba haciendo algo en pro de las víctimas alemanas y austríacas del nazismo. La respuesta favorable de Cárdenas seguía la tónica de sus esfuerzos por mantener relaciones amistosas con el gobierno de Roosevelt pese a la crisis del petróleo2.

Esas decisiones presentaron al México de Cárdenas bajo una fisionomía de país progresista, abocado en el interior a una revolución social y afrontando el expansionismo fascista en el exterior. Esta identidad quedó demostrada durante los primeros años del mandato de Cárdenas por su actitud hacia la invasión de Etiopía por Italia, pero sobre todo por el apoyo que brindó al gobierno republicano español. Desde el comienzo mismo de la Guerra Civil, en julio de 1936, México fue el único país de América Latina que condenó la intervención de Alemania e Italia, instando a la Sociedad de Naciones y a las potencias a poner término a la misma. México desafió también el embargo a la venta de armas a ambos bandos, impuesto por Inglaterra y Francia, vendiéndole armas al gobierno republicano3.

Empezó entonces a quedar claro que México era un punto de destino importante para los refugiados. Después del asilo temporal otorgado a 460 niños españoles en 1937, se formuló a fines del mismo año la propuesta de dar a intelectuales republicanos españoles la posibilidad de proseguir su labor creadora en México. Cárdenas, por recomendación del embajador en Portugal, Daniel Cosío Villegas, y otros intelectuales mexicanos, no sólo accedió a recibirlos, sino que incluso asignó fondos para proporcionarles unas instalaciones adecuadas. Así nació la "Casa de España" (hoy Colegio de México), que sirvió de centro académico para la élite intelectual española. Otra forma de apoyo del gobierno de Cárdenas a esos exiliados fue nombrarlos catedráticos o investigadores en las universidades4.

En plena ola de fervor nacionalista arrollador, encaminado a afianzar el control del Estado sobre las empresas petroleras extranjeras que operaban en el país, México reitera el 10 de abril de 1938 su disposición a aceptar refugiados de España y otros países5. La inclusión presumida de refugiados de Austria en esta medida dio pie para esperar una contribución considerable por parte de México a la solución del problema. Llegó esto realmente a materializarse?

Los refugiados judíos

Las declaraciones de Cárdenas despertaron considerable interés en Europa  y atrajeron solicitudes de inmigración. Dos jóvenes profesores de historia y geografía, Otto Langbein y un amigo suyo, que habían logrado huir de Austria, presentaron sus solicitudes en Rotterdam; Karl Binder, un alemán antinazi, la sometió en Suiza; y Max Tockus y Franz MÜller sometieron en Praga solicitudes en nombre de cincuenta activistas antinazis escapados de Alemania. Todos éstos eran no judíos que pedían asilo en México. Sus solicitudes fueron transmitidas al Secretario de Gobernación, quien contestó a todos en idénticos términos, diciendo que "La Ley General de Población vigente prohibe la inmigración de trabajadores extranjeros en su Artículo 84"6.

El Secretario de Gobernación, Ignacio García Téllez, instruyó al delegado mexicano a la conferencia de Evian indicándole que, en último extremo, ofreciera aumentar las cuotas y enmendar la legislación vigente, con miras a mejorar las posibilidades de inmigración de los refugiados. Ello debía hacerse sólo si el Presidente Roosevelt presionaba a América Latina para ayudar con el problema de los refugiados. Después de la conferencia, el delegado mexicano, Primo Villa Michel, informó deleitado al Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores que no le había sido necesario hacer tal oferta7. Así, pues, a México no se le pidió aumentar su asistencia a los refugiados alemanes y austríacos. Es más, las resoluciones vagas adoptadas en Evian, en particular las relacionadas con el establecimiento del Comité Intergubernamental pro Refugiados, proporcionaron una excusa al Secretario para darle largas al asunto, afirmando que para poder elaborar su propio programa, México debía recibir del Comité instrucciones claras acerca de los refugiados de Alemania y Austria. Tales instrucciones no se habían recibido8.

Entretanto, Adolfo Eichmann, encargado de la "solución final del problema judío", seguía dedicado a "limpiar" a Austria de judíos en el menor tiempo posible. Usando violencia y amenazas sistemáticas de detención en campos de concentración, los nazis obligaron a la mayoría de los 185.000 judíos y a muchos no judíos antinazis a huir del país. Solicitantes deseosos de emigrar inundaron los consulados, entre ellos el de México.

La comunidad judía de Viena, abrumada por las solicitudes de asistencia y orientación, preguntó en 1938 a la oficina parisina de la HICEM (la organización internacional judía para la emigración) si existía en México algún grupo judío eficaz, capaz de dar trabajo a los inmigrantes y conseguir que se les eximiera del pago de la fianza de 750 pesos por persona y de la obligación de establecerse fuera de la capital. La HICEM contestó que existía una organización de esa clase, pero no podía decir en qué medida era effcaz9. Esa respuesta vacilante atestiguaba la debilidad organizativa de las organizaciones judías internacionales.

Sin embargo, contrariamente a la información dada, la pequeña comunidad judía de México estaba bien organizada y se mostraba activa, aun en asuntos internacionales de interés para los judíos. Cuando algunas organizaciones judías internacionales decretaron un boicot de productos alemanes en 1935, la respuesta de los judíos de México fue tal que la embajada de Alemania sometió una protesta formal al Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores. En 1937, los judíos de México, pese a sus problemas, recibieron una respuesta positiva a su solicitud, dirigida al Presidente Cárdenas, de votar en la Sociedad de Naciones a favor del Movimiento Sionista10.


  1. Friedrich Katz, "Mexico und der Anscliluss Ústerreichs", Zeitschrift fÜr Lateinamerika, Vol. 10-11, 1976, pp. 113-120. 
  2. Citado en Archivo Yivo, Nueva York, materiales de HIAS-HICEM, (en adelante: YNY-HH), Mexico File 3, Refugee Committee to HICEM, 5/6/ 1938.
  3. Acerca de la relación especial de México con la República Española, ver T.G. Powell, México and the Spanish Civil War, Albuquerque 1981 y también un trabajo menos detallado del mismo autor en: Mark Falcoff, and Frederick Pike (ed.), The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939, American Hemisphere Perspectives, Lincoln and London 1982, pp.48-49; una antología de documentos ha sido publicada por José-Antonio Matesanz, México y la República Española, 1931-1977, México 1978. 
  4. Patricia Fagen, Exiles and Citizens, Spanish Republicans in México, Austin and London, 1973, pp. 28-30. 
  5. Archivo Histórico Relaciones Exteriores, México (en adelante: AHRE) III-1246-9 (18), nota del Secretario de Gobernación, Ignacio García Téllez, al Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores, Eduardo Hay, 20/6/ 1938.
  6. Archivo General de la Nación (México), Presidencia Lázaro Cárdenas (en adelante: AG PLC), 546.6/148, 546.6/178, 546.6/ 149, cartas del 12, 14 y 29/41940. 
  7. Haim Avni, "Latin America and the Jewish Refugees, Two Encounters, 1935 and 1938", Judith Laikin Elkin, Gilbert W. Merkx (eds.), The Jewish Presence in Latin America, Boston, 1987, pp. 58-66.
  8. AGN PLC, 549.2/ 18, memorándum al Presidente, 3/1/1939; Der Weg, 20/12/1938, p. 1, su discurso inaugural ante el Congreso de Población. 

  9. YNY, HH, Mexico 3, Israelitische Kultusgemeinde, Wien, Auswanderungsabteilung, 6/7/1938; HICEM, 15/7/1938.
  10. ARRE III-134-20 memorándum del 2/9/1935; sobre consultas en la Secr. de RR.EE., AGN PLC, 546.6116, cable del 27/7/1937 y contestación del Secretario de RR.EE. 

Editor: Raanan Rein
School of History, Universidad de Tel Aviv, Ramat Aviv,
P.O.B, 39040 (69978), Israel.
Correo electrónico: raanan@post.tau.ac.ilinstitut@post.tau.ac.il
Fax: 972-3-6406229

1st International Conference of Mexicans Overseas 
to be held 
January 17-19, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2003

Unity & Development of  Mexicans Abroad 

        This the first conference of Mexicans Abroad will bring together a community of 601 organizations, among which are Federations, Associations, Network Groups and Clubs in the United States of America. There are also Mexican communities in Spain, Italy, France and Holland, and many more that are expect to attend.
        The three-day program is divided into concerns with developing strategies for improved interaction with  Mexico, the United States, and International contacts. Información A.M.M.E. 1-(626)359-7156, 1-(626)926-1685  http://www.mexicanosenelexterior.com
Hotel Sahara Casino Las Vegas, 2353 Las Vegas Blvd. Las Vegas Nevada. 89109.
Extract: Mexico City Tries Cowboy Cops by Jose Antonio Jimenez, Associated Press
Mexico City *  Forty men brandishing pistols and wearing sombreros trotted on horseback into this city's historic center December 9th to launch the latest in a series of novel measures aimed at fighting crime.   Dressed like charros, the mounted police represent an attempt to both entertain and protect tourists. 
        The program is one of the string of unusual measures taken by officials desperate to fight the high level of robberies, kidnappings and assaults in Mexico city with its population of 8 million people.  Officials say the program could be expanded to as many as 120 officers by the beginning of next year if it proves successful.  The 30 mounted officers will patrol in groups of 10.
        "To be a charro police officer is a source of pride for us because we know that the tourists are going to feel protected, and they are going to like that we represent pure Mexican culture," one of the officers, Ernesto Cervantes, boasted from atop his chestnut-colored mount. O.C. Register, 12-10-02

Extract: New Owner for Mexico's Excelsior  
by Eloy O. Aguilar, Associated Press Writer, 12-5-02

MEXICO CITY - A former student spy, law enforcement agent, drug suspect and son of a Mexican general who fought with Pancho Villa has taken over what was once Mexico's most influential daily newspaper.  Miguel Aldana Ibarra, a 57-year-old businessman, struck a $150 million deal for the troubled Excelsior newspaper and most of its assets. The paper owes $70 million in taxes and other debts.
        Aldana, whose father fought in Villa's army during the Mexican revolution at the beginning of the 20th Century, retired from law enforcement in 1984 as head of Interpol in Mexico and set up a law firm and an industrial promotion office. He also became president of the national bar association. Six years later he was arrested on drug charges — an incident he termed "revenge" for some of his large drug busts. He spent four years in prison before being cleared. He said he has filed a lawsuit against the people who had filed charges against him.
        Aldana's corporation includes other businesses, including real estate and construction. Regarding the newspaper sale, Aldana denied earlier reports — including ones Excelsior published — that he had Canadian and U.S. partners in the venture. "They are my partners in other business of the corporation," he said. The money for the purchase is coming from bank loans and other investors, he said. Aldana told The Associated Press he intends to revive the failing newspaper by paying its debts and investing in its expansion and recovery.
        "We want to unify the Excelsior family," he said. Excelsior started as a private newspaper, but in 1932 it became an employee-owned cooperative. Like Mexican papers of its time, Excelsior followed the political line of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, or PRI, which ruled the country for 71 years until its defeat in 2000 by President Vicente Fox (news - web sites). In the 1970s, when Excelsior tried to become independent, President Luis Echeverria sponsored a group that stopped the movement. 
       According to the purchase plan now being finalized, Aldana will pay $20 million late this month, $90 million in January and $40 million in late February. Jaime Contreras, president of the co-op's board of directors, said the newspaper will maintain its editorial policies and called the sale "an operation that will preserve and strengthen Excelsior as a journalistic institution."

                                                                                                             Sent by Gloria Oliver  oliverglo@msn.com

Extract: Supplier Caters to immigrants' home projects by Lisa Muñoz, O.C. Register 12-4-02
Building materials are sold in O.C. for work in Mexico

    Building a dream house just got easier for Mexican immigrants living in Orange County.  This is the goal of Construmex, a Mexican construction consulting company that recently opened an office in Santa ana, its third location in California.  Construmex, owned by Mexico's largest cement company, Cemex, sells Mexico-based construction companies' materials to Mexican immigrants who want to build in their homeland.
        The company, which opened its first location in downtown Kos Angeles in July 2001, has found a niche marked in California's large Mexican immigrant population, many of whose earnings pay for construction projects in Mexico.  About 15% of Mexican remittances go toward construction projects in Mexico. InterAmerican Bank expects money transfers to Mexico in 202 to surpass $10 billion.
        Customers pay Construmex a $1 commission regardless of the size of the order.  The company makes money selling Cemex cement and other construction materials from its network of more than 1,400 Mexican distributors.  
Extract: U.S. Social Security May Reach To Mexico (Washington Post)--PART ONE
By Jonathan Weisman, Washington Post Staff Writer
Thursday, December 19, 2002; Page A01 

        Pushed by the Mexican government, the Bush administration is working on a Social Security accord that would put tens of thousands of Mexicans onto the Social Security roster and send hundreds of millions of dollars in benefits south of the border. 
        White House and Mexican government officials say discussions on an agreement to align the Social Security systems of the two countries are informal and preliminary. But excerpts from an internal Social Security Administration memo obtained this month say the agreement "is expected to move forward at an accelerated pace," with the support of both governments, and could be in force by next October. 
       The pact would be the latest, but by far the largest, of a series of treaties designed to ensure that people from one country working in another aren't taxed by both nations' social security systems. In its first year, the agreement is projected to trigger 37,000 new claims from Mexicans who worked in the United States legally and paid Social Security taxes but have been unable to claim their checks, according to a memo prepared by Ted Girdner, the Social Security Administration's assistant associate commissioner for international operations. 
        Extrapolating from U.S. and Mexican government statistics, the accord could cost $720 million a year within five years of implementation. One independent estimate put the total at $1 billion a year -- a large sum, but a trifle compared with the $372 billion in Social Security benefits currently being 
paid to 46.4 million recipients. 
        Mexican President Vicente Fox has been pushing President Bush to sign a Social Security agreement with Mexico as something of a consolation prize to make up for Bush's failure to pursue promised immigration reforms, according to Latino lobbyists close to the Fox administration. Mexican officials began pressing the White House hard at meetings that preceded the Asia-Pacific 
Economic Cooperation forum in Los Cabos, Mexico, in October. 
        "When the legalization talks began going nowhere, the Mexicans began focusing on this," said Maria Blanco, national senior counsel for the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund. "They really bore in at Los Cabos." 
        Arturo Sarukhan, a top official in Mexico's foreign ministry, said that after Mexico's failure to win a comprehensive package of immigration reforms from Bush, it is lobbying in Washington for important incremental steps. "How do you eat an elephant? One bite at a time," he said. 
        Concern is rising on Capitol Hill -- "We are concerned about the sheer magnitude of the agreement," said a House Republican aide who is an expert on Social Security. About 94,000 beneficiaries living abroad have been brought into the system by the 20 existing international agreements. A Mexican agreement alone could bring in 162,000 in the first five years. 
        A . . .Social Security memo indicates that work may be further along than both governments are saying. According to the memo, "the application workloads generated by an agreement with Mexico will be much larger than those resulting from any of the 20 existing agreements" with other countries. 
        In addition to the flurry of new claims, an additional 13,000 Mexicans entitled to benefits but cut off by provisions in recent immigration laws could also begin receiving their checks. In a 1996 immigration reform law, Congress decreed that foreigners not legally residing in the United States 
could no longer claim benefits, unless their home countries were subject to a treaty. Those beneficiaries alone were owed nearly $50 million in 1998, according to a Mexican government document. 
U.S. Social Security May Reach To Mexico (PART TWO)

        The team of negotiators from the Social Security Administration and State Department working on the agreement already anticipate that the U.S. government will have to erect a new building in the embassy complex in Mexico City just to deal with the crush, according to a source familiar with the 
        If the new beneficiaries in Mexico received payments roughly equal to the average $8,100 benefit that Mexican-born retirees in the United States now receive, the total would easily surpass $1 billion a year, said Steven A. Camarota, director of research at the Center for Immigration Studies, a nonpartisan research organization. And even that number could seriously underestimate the number of Mexicans who would seek Social Security benefits, if not qualify for them, he said. 
        Such talk has caused growing concern at the State Department and on Capitol Hill. A memo from the State Department's assistant secretary for consular affairs, Maura Harty, to Secretary of State Colin L. Powell even indicated the White House National Economic Council has raised objections. As one State Department official put it, "the staffing and budget implications haven't been fully worked out, but we're thinking about it." 
        To the Mexican government and immigrant advocates, such concerns are beside the point. "How can [the U.S. government] say this is too costly?" Blanco asked. "This is money these workers paid into the Social Security system. This is their money." 
        The United States has been negotiating Social Security "totalization" agreements with other governments since the late 1970s. They allow workers to "totalize" the number of years they have worked in both countries to meet the minimum years required to qualify for benefits in one of the systems. 
        Until now, the cost of such agreements has been relatively small, since they have been almost exclusively with European countries. According to the Social Security Administration, the annual cost of all 20 existing accords equals about $183 million. 
        "All of the deals before this have been non-controversial and low-cost," said a House Republican expert on Social Security. "This could be dramatically different in all kinds of ways." 
        The GOP aide said Mexican officials would also like benefits to be adjusted upward for a legal Mexican worker who worked in the United States for some time illegally and paid into the Social Security system using a false Social Security number. Gabriela Lemus, director of policy and legislation for the League of United Latin American Citizens, said as much as $21 billion in 
Social Security payments have not been tracked to potential beneficiaries, most likely because they were paid under a false Social Security number.

Sent by Howard Shorr  Howardshor@aol.com






I.-Don Francisco de Sauto
, nace por 1667, en Bilbao, Vizcaya, región Vasca en España y se casó con Doña Damiana de Urrutia.

II.-Don Baltasar de Sauto y Urrutia, nace por 1682 en Oquendo Vizcaya, y se casó con Doña Maria de Villachica

III.-Don Baltasar de Sauto y Villachica
, bautizado el 18 de marzo de 1710, en la parroquia de nuestra señora de Onza, en Oquendo Vizcaya y se traslada a la Nueva España en la Villa de San Miguel el Grande (hoy San Miguel de Allende , estado de Guanajuato) y se casó con Doña Petra de Jáuregui y Urtusuastegui, bautizada en 1717 en Chamacuero, Gto.; Don Baltasar, fue Capitan de Caballos y Corazas y fundó un Mayorazgo el 30 de Julio de 1751 en la Villa de San Miguel el Grande, y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Don Francisco de Sales de Sauto y Jáuregui, se casó el 13 de abril de 1760 en Juventino Rosas, Gto. con Doña Petrona de Alcántara

2,.Don Domingo de Sauto y Jáuregui
, casado con Maria Isabel Olero, y fue a su vez su hijo: Don Juan de Dios de Sauto, casado el 27 de julio de 1788 en México, D.F., con Doña Andrea Mendoza

3.-Doña Maria Antonia Petra de Sauto y Jáuregui
, casada con Don Manuel Ibarrola, y fue su hija Doña Ana Maria Ibarrola y Sauto, bautizada en san Miguel en 1767

IV.-Don Blas Baltasar María de Sauto y Jáuregui, dueño del Mayorazgo , nace por 1730 y se casó con Doña Mariana de la Gándara y Andrade el 6 de agosto de 1761, en la ciudad de Nuestra señora de la Concepción de Celaya, y fueron sus hijos :

1.-Doña Mariana de Sauto y Gándara
, se casó con Don Miguel Mendíburo Salmerona, y fue su hijo Don José María Mendíburo y Sauto, bautizado el 12 de Febrero de 1793 en San Miguel.

V.-Don José Manuel de Sauto y Gándara, nace por 1770 en san Miguel y se casó con Doña Mariana Lazarín de la Cabadilla Ruíz, originaria de Apaseo, Gto., hija legítima de Don Don Alberto de la Canadilla Bolado y de Doña Dolores Ruíz Quiróz, y fueron sus hijos:

1.-Don Jesús Luis de Sauto y de la Cabadilla
, nace por 1795, y se casó con Maria Luisa Lazarín de la Cabadilla y Allende, y fueron sus hijos :

a.-Doña Dolores de Sauto y Lazarín de la Cabadilla, bautizada en 1846

b.-Don Jesús Alberto Sauto y Lazarín de la Cabadilla
, bautizado en 1849 y se casó con Doña Carmen Atalo.

c.-Don Blas Mariano José de Sauto y Lazarín de la Cabadilla
, bautizado en 1842, y se casó con Doña Maria del Refugio Sauto

d.-Don Jesús Salvador de Sauto y Lazarín de la Cabadilla, bautizado en 1845

e.-Don Pedro José Hilario de Sauto Lazarín de la Cabadilla, bautizado en 1843, y se casó en 1872 con Doña Soledad Cervantes y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

Doña Maria del Carmen Sauto y Cervantes, casada con Don Jose Maria Loreto Luis de la Canal y Vélez, y a su vez fue su hijo : Don José Luis Salvador de la Canal y Sauto , bautizado el 8 de mayo de 1898 en México, D.F.

f.-Don José Agustín Mariano de Sauto y Lazarín de la Cabadilla, bautizado en 1852, y se casó en 1879 con Doña Micaela Malo

g.-Doña Manuela de Sauto Lazarín y de la Cabadilla, casada con Don Alejandro Lambarri Garcia Malabear y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

Don Alejandro Victoriano Luis Lambarri Sauto, bautizado en 1863 en san Miguel y

Don Francisco Lambarri y Sauto, Bautizado en 1873 y se casó el 27 de febrero de 1897, con Doña Concepción de la Canal y Vélez

2.-Don Francisco de Sauto y de la Cabadilla
, nace por 1792, y se casó con Doña Guadalupe López Durán, y fue su hija entre otros:

Doña Maria Dolores Sauto y López, nace en 1838, y se casó con Don Miguel José Malo y Herrera, baut. en 1835 en san Miguel y fueron sus hijos:

Doña Carmen Malo y Sauto, bautizada en 1870

Doña Mercedes Malo y Sauto, bautizada en 1868

Doña Concepción Malo y Sauto, bautizada en 1862

Don Pedro José Malo y Sauto, bautizado en 1878, y se casó en 1906, con Doña Consuelo Zosaya y Carraza y fue su hijo entre otros el Gran Escritor Don Miguel J. De Malo y Zosaya, quien nació en San Miguel el 22 de Diciembre de 1906, y se casó con Doña Magdalena Luna Polo

Doña Dolores Malo y Sauto, bautizada en 1872

Don Miguel José, Malo y Sauto,bautizado en 1861

Don Loreto Malo y Sauto, bautizado en 1865

Don Francisco Malo y Sauto , bautizado en 1874

3.-Don Baltasar María de Sauto y de la Cabadilla,
nace por 1788 y se casó con Doña Ignacia Aguilar, y fueron sus hijos:

Don José Luis Sauto y Aguilar, bautizado en 1854

Doña Maria Soledad Sauto y Aguilar, bautizada en 1853, y se casó con su primo hermano Don Manuel Sauto y Sein

Doña María Micaela Sauto y Aguilar, bautizada en 1855

Don Francisco de Paula Sauto y Aguilar, bautizado en 1858

4.-Don Jesús Manuel Sauto y Aguilar, nace por 1790 y se casó con Doña Victoria Cadena y fueron sus hijos :

Doña Maria Asunción Sauto y Cadena, bautizada en 1853

Don Jesús Francisco, bautizado en 1851

Doña María Guadalupe Josefa, bautizada en 1857

5.-Don José Luis Sauto y de la Cabadilla, casado con Doña Dolores Lejarza

6.-Don Pedro José Luis de Sauto y de la Cabadilla , bautizado el 22 de octubre de 1786, en Dolores Hidalgo, y se casó con Doña María Ignacia Sein, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

Doña María Concepción de Sauto y Sein, casada con Don Jose María de Sauto y Lejarza y fueron sus hijos a su vez:

Don José Maria de Sauto y Sauto, bautizado en 1859 y se casó en 1880 con Doña Elena Tornel de la ciudad de México y

Don Francisco de Paula de Sauto y Sauto, bautizado en 1855

Don José Manuel de Sauto y Sein,
casado con Doña María Soledad de Sauto y Aguilar, bautizada en 1853, y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

Doña María Mercedes Sauto y Sauto, casada con Francisco García González y fue a su vez su hijo: Don Blas García Sauto, bautizado en 1893 y se casó en 1910 con Natalia Díaz

Don Blas Sauto y Sauto, bautizado en 1888

Doña Consuelo Sauto y Sauto, bautizada en 1880 y se casó el 12 de junio de 1901 con Don Julian Malo y Juvera

Doña Dolores Sauto y Sauto , bautizada en 1878, y se casó en 1890 con José María Hernández

Don Francisco Sauto y Sauto, bautizado en 1883, y se casó en 1904 con Margarita Herrera Malo

Don José de Jesús Sauto y Sauto, bautizado en 1875 y se casó en 1900 con Maria del Rosario Sauto y Sauto

Don Baltasar María Sauto y Sauto, nació en 1873, y se casó con Doña María del Carmen Aguilar Torres, el 24 de octubre de 1894 y fue su hijo entre otros:

Don Manuel de Sauto y Aguilar
, nació el 2 de diciembre de 1894 en san Miguel , y se casó por 1926 con Doña Maria del Carmen Gutiérrez Albo, originaria de San José Iturbide, Gto. y fueron sus hijos entre otros:

El rvdo. Padre Don Baltasar María de Sauto y Gutiérrez
, nacido por 1927 en san Miguel , canciller de la diócesis de León, varios años y director espiritual de la tercera orden de San Francisco, asi como fundador del asilo "Martín del Campo" en León, Gto. murió en León, Gto.

Archivo particular autor
Fichas genealógicas Sauto san Miguel de Allende
Libro Los Malo de Miguel J. Malo y Sosaya

Cuban Cigars and Rum
Dominican Republic Support for Chesapeake  Bay/Yorktown 
Genealogia       [[This is an outstanding site.  Please look.]]

Among the files on this site is a listing of Cuban Prisoners of Spain during the Spanish-American War

Este libro pertenecía a Don. Arturo Casanova y es en su memoria que damos a conocer estas listas que forman parte del mismo. 

Editado en Enero 1908 y fue dedicado al Mayor General Emilio NuñezEl Sr. Pablo de la Concepción Sargento del 5to Cuerpo del Ejército Libertador ha escrito un Interesante libro que titula


DEDICATORIA A la sagrada memoria de los que murieron en los campos de batalla y en las prisiones o fueron fusilados dando sus vidas por la Libertad



                                                                                                                           Sent by Paul Newfield pcn01@webdsi.com

Cuban Cigars and Rum
In 1985, Fidel Castro gave up cigars and reduced his drinking significantly.  Castro's position has been increasingly clear, "It's not that there is going to be a dry law. No. Those who want to buy will pay a lot.  If there is one thing I can assure you, it's that neither cigarettes nor rum will ever be sold cheaply in this country."  A bottle of rum that once cost 35 cents, now costs about $2.20.
        Castro's speech came before one of his favorite audiences: thousands of students from throughout the Americans, most from poor families, who attend Havana's Latin American Medical School on full government scholarships.                                          O.C. Register, November 2002

                   Dominican Republic Support for Chesapeake Bay/Yorktown                  
                                                      by Granville Hough, Ph.D.

        Santo Domingo (now the Dominican Republic) was actively involved in financing, providing troop support, and protecting itself during the Chesapeake Bay/Yorktown Campaign in which America’s independence was assured. Here is how it came about.
        After General Bernardo de Gálvez’ captured Pensacola, his working partner, the King’s Representative, Francisco de Saavedra, went in July to Cap Français (capital of what is now Haiti) to coordinate Spanish-French activities. Saavedra, as representative of King Carlos III, and de Grass, as representative of the French government, developed the de Grass-Saavedra accord, which their governments later ratified, for conduct of the war against Britain in the Western Hemisphere. First in their agreement was to strike a blow in America which would assure
American independence. Second was to recover bases and sugar islands in the Caribbean. Third was to eliminate the British from the West Indies by taking Jamaica. De Grasse had a plan for the first objective, which was to use his fleet in the Chesapeake Bay to work with Rochambeau’s
French Expeditionary Force and with Washington’s American forces to corner and defeat Cornwallis in Southeastern Virginia. Saavedra approved this plan, but de Grasse had a problem. Before he could sail, he needed 2 million livres for his fleet and for Rochambeau’s army. He
could not raise the money in Haiti.
        Saavedra, recognizing that immediate action was required, transferred 100,000 pesos, which happened to be stored at Cap Français, half the funds allocated for Santo Domingo’s governance, to de Grasse; then went to Havana to secure the additional money. It is well known how the
citizens of Havana, in six hours, provided 500,000 pesos, and were able to get the money to the de Grasse fleet. (Five days later, 1,000,000 pesos from the mint of Mexico was dispatched from Havana on another French vessel to de Grasse.) But the Santo Domingo money was first and
very encouraging to de Grasse.
        By terms of the de Grasse-Saavedra accord, de Grasse took his whole fleet and all the armed forces and militia in Haiti. Then, the regular garrison of Santo Domingo, the Enghien Regiment, moved from Santo Domingo to Haiti to cover for the absent troops. Within Santo Domingo,
the local militia was alerted to defend their land and shores in case of any British attacks.
        So the Dominican Republic, not really in the center of events, became truly committed to the Chesapeake Bay/Yorktown operation. Everyone must have been aware they were contributing to truly significant events.

Money Wiring Draws Scrutiny
Bush Praises Spain
Race has no Meaning Genetically.
Woodbury University Collaborates 
Modern Language Association
Virreyes de la Nueva España (1519-1821)
 Extract: Money Wiring Draws Scrutiny, article by Minerva Canto, O.C. Register, 11-23-02

        Of the $23 billion in remittances, almost none of that is going through U.S. banks," said Donald Terry, Multilateral Investment fund manager. . . That means if takes about  $3 billion for immigrants to be able to send that money, because these aren't people like you and I who use an ATM.
        Most of the immigrants interviewed in both Miami and Los Angeles revealed that most of them remain fearful of opening a bank account because are in the country illegally.
El Salvador
Dominican Rep

$9.3 billion
$2.6 billion
$1.8 billion
$1.4 billion
$959 million
$930 million
$905 million
$810 million
$670 million
$610 million
$584 million
$460 million
$12 billion

% of GDP

     47% of foreign-born Hispanics regularly send
                money to their native countries.
     57% make less than $30.000 a year.
     47% have arrived in the United States over
                 the past decade.
     45% say they plan to move back to their   
                  native countries.
     55% do not have credit cards.
     72% rent their homes.
     63% are younger than 40.

Immigrant dollars sent overseas amount to less than 0.3% of the total U.S. gross domestic product.  Jeff Collins, O.C. Register, 11-23-02

2002 estimate Source: Inter-American Dialogue and Viet Nam Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Bush Praises Spain
Washington * December 18, President George w. Bush and Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar of Spain met and focused on the strong ties between the two countries.  Bush lavished praise on Aznar - calling him "one of the world's strongest leaders when it comes to our mutual concerns about keeping the peace and fighting terror."
        Among the stickier items between the allies right now is Spain's displeasure over being involved by the Untied States in an embarrassing high-seas takeover of a legal missile shipment to Yemen.  Spanish ships boarded the vessel, only to see Washington send it on its way two later. 
Associated Press
Race has no Meaning Genetically

CNN.com Science and Space,  12-17- 02

WASHINGTON (Reuters) -- The idea of race is not reflected in a person's genes, Brazilian researchers said, confirming what scientists have long said -- that race has no meaning genetically.

        The Brazilian researchers looked at one of the most racially mixed populations in the world for their study, which found there is no way to look at someone's genes and determine his or her race. Brazilians include people of European, African and Indian, or Amerindian, descent.
        "There is wide agreement among anthropologists and human geneticists that, from a biological standpoint, human races do not exist," Sergio Pena and colleagues at the Universida de Federal de Minas Gerais in Brazil and the University of Porto in Portugal wrote in their report, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
        "Yet races do exist as social constructs," they said. They found 10 gene variations that could reliably tell apart, genetically, 20 men from northern Portugal and 20 men from Sao Tome island on the west coast of Africa. But the genetic differences did not have anything to do with physical characteristics such as skin or hair color, the researchers found.
        They next tested two groups -- 173 Brazilians classified as white, black, or intermediate based on arm skin color, hair color, and nose and lip shape, and 200 men living in major metropolitan areas who classified themselves as white. They used the 10 genetic markers that differed between people from Portugal and Africa, but found little difference among anyone in their study.
        To their surprise, they found maternal DNA suggested that even the "white" people had, on average, 33 percent of genes that were of Amerindian ancestry and 28 percent African. This suggested European men often fathered children with black and Indian women. "It is interesting to note that the group of individuals classified as blacks had a very high proportion of non-African ancestry (48 percent)," they wrote.  
        "In essence our data indicate that, in Brazil as a whole, color is a weak predictor of African ancestry," they concluded.  "Our study makes clear the hazards of equating color or race with geographical ancestry and using interchangeably terms such as white, Caucasian and European on one hand, and black, Negro or African on the other, as is often done in scientific and medical literature."
Source: HispanicOnline's Newsletter   12-18-02

Woodbury University Collaborates with Salvadoran University.

Woodbury University has launched an innovative partnership with Universidad Francisco Gavidia (UFG) to bring an MBA program to Central America that emphasizes the e-commerce fundamentals necessary to compete in an information-driven, global economy.
        The first classes at UFG, a leading Salvadoran university, are expected to begin in 2003.  Woodbury faculty, who assisted their UFG counterparts to develop e-commerce curriculum, will travel to San Salvador next summer toe teach classes such as e-business fundamentals, Internet marketing and e-business auditing and control.  Woodbury has been offering an e-commerce concentration for its graduate and undergraduate students for nearly two years.
       The launch of the cooperative partnership was marked by a reception at Woodbury that included university, government and Latino business leaders.  Among the dignitaries participating in the event were: Mario Antonio Ruiz Ramirez, president of UFG; Manuel Garcia, international advisor to UFG; and Baltazar Montes, president of Prima Ingenieros S.A. de C.V., the construction company building the high-tech "Edificio Inteligente" that will house the new e-commerce MBA program.  A contingent of Woodbury official traveled to El Salvador this summer to work on the program.

Source:  Inside Woodbury, Vol. 4, Issue 2, October 2002        Sent by Gloria Oliver  oliverglo@msn.com

Latin Americana: Mexican and Central American Collections

The Latin Americana materials of the Bancroft Collection evolved from Hubert Howe Bancroft's collecting and publishing enterprises. Beginning with California and the North American West, his vision grew to include Mexico and Central America, through the Isthmus of Panama.
                                                                                                                 Sent by Johanna de Soto

Modern Language Association, New York, 27 - 30.12.200

        Estimado/a señor o señora:  Deseamos invitarle muy cordialmente a visitar nuestra exposición de libros que se celebrará durante el próximo congreso de la MLA. La exposición tendrá lugar en el hotel Hilton, y nuestro "Booth" será el # 1205 A.
        Le presentaremos libros del COLEGIO DE MÉXICO y de nuestra editorial, IBEROAMERICANA EDITORIAL VERVUERT. Queremos resaltar especialmente la nueva colección "Nexos y diferencias. Estudios culturales latinoamericanos", dirigida por Mary Louise Pratt, Jesús Martín-Barbero, Beatriz González Stephan y otros. En el archivo adjuntado le presentamos los cuatro tomos publicados hasta el momento. 
        Destacamos también nuestras revistas "RILI. Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana" e "IBEROAMERICANA. América Latina - España - Portugal", esta última una revista internacional e interdisciplinaria (literatura, historia, cultura) de la que estamos convencidos es la más importante de su género publicada en Europa. Más información sobre RILI encontrará en http://ibero-americana.net/es/rili1.htm    Pero vea Ud. mismo.
        Si Ud. no viaja a Nueva York, pero lo hace otro miembro de su departamento, le rogamos le facilite esta información.  Deseándole unas felices fiestas, le enviamos un cordial y atento saludo,

Klaus D. Vervuert
C/ Amor de Dios, 1 Wielandstr. 40
E-28014 Madrid D-60318 Frankfurt
Tel.: +34 91 429 35 21 +49 69 597 46 17   Fax: +34 91 429 5397 ó +49 69 597 8743
info@iberoamericanalibros.com      http://www.ibero-americana.net

Virreyes de la Nueva España (1519-1821)

 http://www.arts-history.mx/virreyes/ Links and information on each of these men.

Hernán Cortés 1519-1524
Antonio de Mendoza 1535-1550
Luis de Velasco 1550-1564
Gastón de Peralta 1566-1568
Martín Enríquez de Almanza 1568-1580
Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza 1580-1583
Pedro Moya de Contreras 1584-1585
Alvaro Manrique de Zúñiga 1585-1590
Luis de Velasco 1590-1595
Gaspar Zúñiga y Acevedo 1595-1603
Juan de Mendoza y Luna 1603-1607
Luis de Velasco(hijo) 1607-1611
Fray García Guerra 1611-1612
Diego Fernández de Córdoba 1612-1621
Diego Carrillo de Mendoza 1621-1624
Rodrigo Pacheco Osorio 1624-1635
Lope Díaz de Armendáriz 1635-1640
Diego Lopez Pacheco 1640-1642
Juan de Palafox y Mendoza 1642
García Sarmiento de Sotomayor 1642-1648
Marco de Torres y Rueda 1648-1649
Luis Enríquez Guzmán 1650-1653
Francisco Fernández de la Cueva 1653-1660
Juan de Leyva de la Cerda 1660-1664
Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas 1664
Sebastián de Toledo Molina 1664-1672
Pedro Nuño Colón de Portugal 1672
Fray Payo Enríquez de Rivera 1672-1680
Tomas Antonio de la Cerda y Aragón 1680-1686
Melchor Portocarrero Lazo de la Vega 1686-1688
Gaspar de Sandoval Silva y Mendoza 1688-1696
Juan de Ortega Montañéz 1696
José Sarmiento y Valladares 1696-1701
Juan de Ortega Montañéz 1701-1702
Francisco Fernández de la Cueva 1701-1711
Fernando de Alencastre Noroña y Silva 1711-1716
Baltasar de Zúñiga y Guzmán 1716-1722
Juan de Acuña y Manrique 1722-1734
Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta 1734-1740
Pedro de Castro y Figueroa 1740-1741
Pedro Cebrián y Agustín 1742-1746
Francisco Güemes y Horcasitas 1746-1755
Agustín de Ahumada y Villalón 1755-1760
Francisco Caxigal de la Vega 1760
Joaquín de Monserrat 1760-1766
Carlos Francisco de la Croix 1766-1771
Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa 1771-1779
Martín de Mayorga 1779-1783
Matías de Gálvez 1783-1784
Bernardo de Gálvez 1785-1786
Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta 1787
Manuel Antonio Flores 1787-1789
Juan Vicente de Güemes Pacheco 1789-1794
Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca 1794-1798
Miguel José de Azanza 1798-1800
Félix Berenguer de Marquina 1800-1803
José de Iturrigaray 1803-1808
Pedro Garibay 1808-1809
Francisco Javier Venegas 1810-1813
Felix María Calleja del Rey 1813-1816
Juan Ruiz de Apodaca 1816-1821
Juan O'Donojú 1821

Concepto: Manuel Zavala Texto: Angélica Barrientos
Bibliografía: "Enciclopedia de México" Impresora y Editora de México, 1978, tomo 5
"Gobernantes de México" Fernando Orozco Linares, Panorama, México, 1986, 2a edición
"Historia en figuras y colores, Códices mesoamericanos" Cecilia Rossell y otros, México, INAH, 1993
Foto: Códice Osuna, lamina 1.

Sitio producido por Artes e Historia© Foro Virtual de Cultura Mexicana
editor y director:
Manuel Zavala y Alonso coonación y webmaster: masterartes@spin.com.mx
                                                                                                               Sent Johanna de Soto

Soldados de Cuera
Ignatius Loyola 
 (Hiram) Ulysses S. Grant   

Soldados de Cuera  
18th Century 
Spanish Colonial Frontier 
Soldiers of New Spain

Visit Los Soldados on the internet  http://www.Soldados.org/StBarbara/index.htm 
Check presidios and soldiers bibliography
Sent by  Michael R. Hardwick
205 Vernal, Santa Barbara, CA 93105

Soldados de cuera manned presidios on the Spanish frontier. Most of them were born in the frontier provinces of New Spain and were adapted to harsh living conditions. They came from a variety of backgrounds. 
Many were mestizos, or mixed European and Indian. Some were mulato. Others were criollos, or Españoles born in America, and some were peninsulares or gachupines or Spanish from the Iberian Peninsula. (See article about Pobladores de Los Angeles.)
        The soldado de cuera was named for his leather cuera armor. The cuera was a heavy leather, knee-length, sleeveless coat. A soldado carried a shield or an adarga and had 6 horses and 1 mule at his disposal. Soldados were armed with a musket called an escopeta , 2 pistols of the same caliber, a short sword, called an espada ancha, and a lance or lanza. The uniform of cuera dragoons consisted of a short blue coat or chupa with red collar, cuffs, and lapels. Blue breeches or calzones were worn with buttons of brass. The Soldado used a black Texcuco hat that was wide brimmed, turned up, and held by a loop on the left side to handle the musket with ease. A black scarf or mascada negra de Barcelona and a blue cloth cape or capa were also issued.
        Officers wore a blue coat with scarlet collar, cuffs and lapels. The collar was edged with gold lace. A buff or red waistcoat was also worn with blue knee breeches. The hat was a gold-laced tricorn. The field uniform was much like the enlisted uniform only of better quality.
Presidios on the Spanish Frontier were Caballarías or mounted soldier companies. They consisted of a Captain or Capitán, a Lieutenant or Teniente, an Ensign or Alférez, a Chaplain or Capellán, 1 or 2 Sergeants or Sargentos, 2 Corporals or Cabos, some 40 or so soldiers or soldados, and a number of Indian scouts.
        It would have been a rare occurrence to see a full presidial company in formation. The strength of a company was usually dispersed in small detachments on various assignments. In addition to garrisoning the presidio, soldados de cuera were detached to explore, to help establish new
missions, to garrison existing missions as an escolta (escort or guard) to protect missions from hostile Indians, protect supply caravans, carry dispatches, and perform any number of other duties as assigned to them by the provincial governors. In response to a question about the number of
duties assigned to presidial soldiers posed by an inspecting Spanish official, one soldado responded, "I have more duties than the Devil has Fallen Angels!"
        Presidial soldiers could advance themselves in a number of ways. They were paid a salary (which might not be collected for as many as 5 years at a time). They could also be given land grants or promoted in the military based on their ability to read and write.
Question:  How long did the first U.S. secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, pay blackmail to the husband of his mistress? How did the scandal come to light.

For about a year he paid, until the husband was jailed for another swindle.  Five years later, Hamilton revealed it all in a pamphlet written to draw a distinction between public trust and private morals.  His wife the people generally bought his argument, evidently.  He wound up with an honorable place in U.S. history.  L.M. Boyd, Trivia, O.C. Register, 12-27-02
Portrait of Saint Ignatius Loyola

Ignatius of Loyola  

(1491-1556)  Founder of the Society of Jesus 

Its members are popularly known as the Jesuits
The order grew out of the activities of its founder and six companions who bound themselves by vows of poverty, chastity, and apostolic labors in the Holy Land or, if this latter plan did not prove feasible, to any apostolic endeavor enjoined by the Pope. 

Internet links to the Jesuits and their works:
Sent by Johanna de Soto

                                                   (Hiram) Ulysses S. Grant
Written by Ryan Skousen 

I was born on April 27, 1822 in Point Pleasant, Ohio, and the eldest son of Jesse Root Grant Hannah Simpson Grant. However, in 1823, my father moved us to Georgetown, Ohio where I spent my childhood. I attended three different elementary schools, all three proved that I was no scholar, but I was the best hose rider, and known for my self- reliance, which would eventually help me in the future. When I was 17, my father was able to send me to the U.S. Military Academy, however through certain complications my name was messed up, and became Ulysses S. Grant, instead of my given name. However, instead of complaining, I just excepted it. I never wanted to be a soldier, just using it as a way to become a professor, as seen by my graduating 21st in a class of 39. In 1843, I graduated, and was commissioned a 2nd lieutenant. My first assignment was to St. Louis, Missouri , where I was introduced to army life, and continued my relationship with the sister of a west point classmate. However, in 1844, I was sent to the southwest frontier.

I served with distinction in the Mexican War (1846-1848);  I participated in the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, and Monterrey. Although I didn’t approve of the war, and thought the conflict as an unjust war to extend slavery, because of my bravery I was promoted to full 2nd lieutenant on Sept. 20, 1845. I fought in the battles of Veracruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, and Chapultepec, eventually earning the rank of captain before the war was through. The Mexican conflict gave me a personal acquaintance with most of the men who would soon command the rebel armies, as well as giving me my first lessons in warfare.

After the Mexicans surrendered, I was assigned to routine garrison duty. My first four years were pleasant, because my wife Julia, whom I married on Aug. 22, 1848, was with me. However, in 1852, I was transferred to Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River and my wife and young family could not travel with me. My next two years however, were extremely difficult spent in barracks on the West Coast, and soon found comfort from my problems in the bottle. Even though I was promoted to a captaincy, on April 11, 1854, I resigned my commission.
Returning to Missouri, I settled on 80 acres of land with my family and tried to farm. I called the place "Hard Scrabble," because I had to bear all the work of clearing the land, hauling wood, plowing, and cultivating my crops. After four years I abandoned farming and set up an unsuccessful real-estate business in St. Louis. Finally, in 1860 I moved to Galena, Ill., to work in my father's leather shop. And then the war came.
When the South seceded, I helped organize the first company of Union volunteers in Galena and accompanied the men to Springfield. However, because my experience as quartermaster, commissary, and adjutant in the field made him invaluable, I stayed behind and help organize other regiments. I longed for active duty, and sent in my papers to the U. S. Army, suggesting modestly that I was "competent to command a regiment." Failing to secure an appointment, I accepted from Governor Yates the command of the 21st Illinois Regiment, brought it under excellent discipline, and did well against the guerrillas in Missouri.
On Aug. 7, 1861, President Lincoln appointed Grant brigadier general of volunteers, and I took up headquarters at Cairo, Ill. In February 1862, after much persuasion by myself, Gen. Henry W. Halleck, My superior officer, authorized me to move against Forts Donelson and Henry. With 17,000 men and a flotilla of gunboats under the command of Commodore Andrew Hull Foote, I captured Fort Henry on February 6 and promptly moved against Donelson 12 miles (19 km) away. When the Confederate commander there, Brig. Gen. Simon B. Buckner, asked for terms of capitulation, I replied: "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. I propose to move immediately upon your works." On February 16, Buckner surrendered with over 14,000 men. The capture of Forts Henry and Donelson, the first major Union victories in the war, opened up Tennessee to the Federal armies. For my victories, Lincoln soon made Grant major general of volunteers.
My next battle was at Shiloh, or Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., on April 6-7, 1862. Early in the morning of April 6, Gen. Albert S. Johnston's Confederate army burst through the unfortified Union lines near Shiloh meeting house and threatened to drive my men back into the Tennessee River. However, the arrival of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's army, and the rebels loss of Albert Sidney Johnston, saved the day for the Union.
When the news reached the North, a storm of abuse broke out against me, I was blamed for this bloodiest battle yet to occur on the American continent. However, I also had defenders, among them was President Lincoln, who simply said, "I can't spare this man--he fights."
When General Halleck was called to Washington in July, I was left in command of the District of West Tennessee, holding a wide territory with few troops. On Oct. 25, 1862, I was made commander of the Department of Tennessee and was charged with taking Vicksburg, Mississippi. After conventional strategy failed, I now faced the most important decision of his career. Abandoning the overland approach, I moved my army to the position Sherman occupied across the Mississippi from Vicksburg. I cut myself off from communications and supplies from the North; my troops had to subsist on the country until victory. I drove inland to Jackson, Mississippi, and pushed Lieut. Gen. John C. Pemberton's troops on the west into the defenses of Vicksburg. After a regular siege, and without food for months, on July 4, 1863, Pemberton was obliged to surrender his 30,000 men.
The victory cut off the Trans-Mississippi states from the rest of the Confederacy; and it brought the attention of the Northern government and people, towards me. In fact, President Lincoln wrote me a personal letter of congratulations and nominated me major general in the Regular Army.
My next major engagements saw him in a different field of operations. In September the Confederate general, Braxton Bragg defeated Rosecrans at Chickamauga and placed the Union army in Chattanooga under virtual siege. I rescued the army, and on Bragg retired, demoralized, to Dalton, Ga.
My new victory made me the man of the hour, and I was brought to Washington to receive the personal thanks of the President, a gold medal voted by Congress, and the newly created rank of lieutenant general commanding all the armies of the United States. I now gave the Union Army a concerted plan of action. I ordered simultaneous movements (commencing May 4, 1864) of all the Union armies--Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's Army of the Potomac, which I personally accompanied; Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler's Army of the James; Sherman's Army of the Tennessee; and Banks' troops in Louisiana. Throwing enormous concentrated force against the enemy, I planned to batter the Confederates constantly and, if only through attrition, to compel their surrender. The advance of Meade's army into the Virginia Wilderness was skillfully parried by Gen. Robert E. Lee's strategy, but undeterred by the appalling loss of 17,666 men; I gave Lee no rest. Ane through the battles of Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor and Petersburg I pushed, until finally on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Court House, Lee capitulated. Grant's terms were magnanimous, and Lee accepted them without question. Seventeen days later Johnston surrendered his army to Sherman, and the Civil War was over.
I was then given the grade of full general (newly created) in 1866, and oversaw the sale of wartime surpluses, had the Indian frontier policed, and protected the gangs constructing the transcontinental railroad. The most ticklish part of his postwar duties related to the reconstruction of the Southern states. At first I was inclined to be easygoing with the ex-Confederates; and when President Andrew Johnson, Lincoln's successor, sent him on a fact-finding tour of the South in 1865, I reported that the "mass of thinking men of the south" were willing to accept their defeat. But Johnson's Pro-Southern policy and the outbreak of renewed violence and rioting in the former Confederacy disturbed me.
After many disputes I joined the Radical Republican camp, supported the impeachment of Johnson, and became the obvious Republican candidate for the presidency in 1868. I easily defeated the Democratic candidate, Horatio Seymour, and won 214 out of the 294 Electoral votes.
I was not a politician, and entered the presidency with no real comprehension of the powers and duties of my office. As such, I chose personal friends for positions rather than the strong leaders of his. My famous motto, "Let us have peace," was a slogan, not a program of executive action. I explicitly denied any intent to exert leadership over Congress and my party; I had no policy "to enforce against the will of the people," I declared. For the eight years that I occupied the White House, therefore, one is obliged to speak of the events of my administration, not of the actions of the president. After many scandals, I finally stepped down as President.
The last years of my life were sad ones. After losing most of my money, Admirers collected a fund of $250,000, which they placed in trust for me; when the securities in which the fund was invested became worthless; however, I was so hard up for money that I had to sell his wartime swords and souvenirs. I became a partner in the brokerage firm of Grant & Ward, but like all my previous business ventures, it failed (May 6, 1884) and I went into bankruptcy. A move to have me restored to the rank of general, which I had resigned to run for the presidency, met political opposition and was not approved until the last day of Chester A. Arthur's administration (March 3, 1885). I had only a few months to enjoy the salary that Congress thus voted me.
Afflicted with a cancer of the throat, I was heroically trying to provide for my family during these last years. The success of an article on the Battle of Shiloh, which I wrote for the Century Magazine in 1884, led me to plan writing my own account of the war in which I had played so large a part. In my sickroom at Mount McGregor near Saratoga, N. Y., I composed two volumes of personal recollections that remain one of the great war commentaries of all times. Published by Mark Twain, the Personal Memoirs ultimately brought my family nearly $450,000 in royalties. I myself did not live to reap the reward. Exhausted from my heroic battle with cancer, I died quietly at Mount McGregor on July 23, 1885, and my body eventually found its last resting place in the great mausoleum (dedicated 1897) in New York City overlooking the Hudson River.


Man is Fined $2.5 Million for Looting   
Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey
Language Developed 100,000 Years Ago
Earliest writing traced to Olmecs in 650 B.C.
Ancient skull clue to earliest New World arrivals
Stones may hold Americas' earliest writing
Man is Fined $2.5 Million for Looting   
Reno, Nevada * More than 2,000 artifacts, including 10,000-year-old sandals, were taken from an American Indian cave.  Jack Lee Harelson destroyed what could have been one of the most important archeological cave sites in the Great Basin, Bureau of Land Management officials said.  
        Before Elephant Mountain Cave was looted over several years in the early 1980s, it contained a 10,000-year record of human life in northern Nevada, including artifacts from the Paiute tribe.  The site is in the Black Rock Desert, 140 miles north of Reno. Ultimately 2,000 artifacts were recovered, including the 10,000 year-old sandals that possibly were the oldest footwear found on Earth, said Pat Barker, a state archeologist for the Bureau of Land Management.  
Associated Press, 12-15-02      
Book:  Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey by Spencer Wells

In Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey, Spencer Wells traces human evolution from Africa through Asia to the Navajo people of North America.  The book was published in the United Kingdom in October 2002. It will be released in the United States by Princeton University Press in January 2003.  Journey of Man premiered internationally Sunday, December 15, on the National Geographic Channel. It will air on January 21, 2003, in the United States on PBS. Consult your local TV listings.

Extract of Review by Hillary Mayell for National Geographic News December 13, 2002

        By analyzing DNA from people in all regions of the world, geneticist Spencer Wells has concluded that all humans alive today are descended from a single man who lived in Africa around 60,000 years ago.  Modern humans, he contends, didn't start their spread across the globe until after that time. Most archaeologists would say the exodus began 100,000 years ago—a 40,000-year discrepancy. 
        Wells's take on the origins of modern humans and how they came to populate the rest of the planet is bound to be controversial. His work adds to an already crowded field of opposing hypotheses proposed by those who seek answers in "stones and bones"—archaeologists and paleoanthropologists—and those who seek them in our blood—population geneticists and molecular biologists. 

Language developed 100,000 years ago

Evolution: Gene that controls it reportedly showed up after split from chimps.

By Nicholas Wade, The New York Times

        A study of the genomes of people and chimpanzees has yielded a deep insight into the origin of language, one of the most distinctive human attributes and a critical step in human evolution.The analysis indicates that language, on the evolutionary time scale, is a very recent development, having evolved only in the past 100,000 years.
        The finding supports a novel theory advanced by Dr. Richard Klein, an archaeologist at Stanford University, who argues that the emergence of behaviorally modern humans about 50,000 years ago was set off by a major genetic change, most probably the acquisition of language. The new study, by Dr. Svante Paabo and colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, is based on last year’s discovery of a human gene involved specifically in language.
        The gene came to light through studies of a large London family, 14 of whose 29 members are incapable of articulate speech. A team of molecular biologists led by Dr. Anthony P. Monaco of the University of Oxford last year identified the defective gene that was causing the family’s problems. Known as FOXP2, the gene is known to switch on other genes during development of the brain.
        In a report published online Thursday by the journal Nature, Paabo says the FOXP2 gene has remained largely unaltered during the evolution of mammals but suddenly changed in humans after the hominid line split from the chimpanzee line.
         The human form of the gene seems to have become universal in the human population, suggesting that it conferred some overwhelming benefit. Paabo contends that humans must already have possessed some rudimentary form of language before the FOXP2 gene gained its two mutations. By conferring the ability for rapid articulation, the improved gene may have swept through the population, providing the finishing touch to the acquisition of language.

Earliest writing traced to Olmecs in 650 B.C.
Work of New World scribes unearthed By Thomas H. Maugh II, Los Angeles Times  Dec. 6, 2002

     Archaeologists digging near Mexico's Gulf Coast have discovered the earliest-known example of writing in the New World, pushing the date for the appearance of this crucial cultural implement back by at least 350 years to about 650 B.C.  
     More important, the discovery of an inscribed seal and fragments from a plaque suggests that writing was developed by the Olmec civilization and not by the Zapotec, source of the earliest previously known writing, or the Maya, who brought it to its greatest level of sophistication.
     The discovery is triggering a debate among Mesoamerican researchers about the origins of civilization in the region. The most commonly accepted idea is that writing, kingship, the development of a calendar and other marks of civilization arose independently among cultures in the area, a concept variously known as "equal partners" or "sister" cultures.
     The new find provides support for the controversial idea of a "mother culture," that the Olmec developed most of the concepts and passed them on to succeeding civilizations in much the same way that the Greeks developed European culture.
     "The Olmec were the first to have large urban centers," according to archaeologist Mary E. D. Pohl of Florida State University. "There is tangible evidence of the emergence of kings (in their culture), people who had much more centralized control. Since the Olmec were the first to put together a political state, and writing is closely connected with rulers in terms of publicizing their power, it makes sense that they would be the first to use a system of writing."
Ancient skull may be clue to earliest New World arrivals

Mexico City:  A 13,000-year-old skull found in Mexico may help prove theories that some of the New World's first settlers arrived along a Pacific Coast route from Japan and not just across the Bering Strait.
     The skull is believed to be the oldest ever discovered in the Americas and is among 150 mostly undated specimens being studied by Silvia Gonzalez, a leading world authority on prehistoric man and mammoths.
     The skull has the long, narrow cranial features common to the native peoples of Central and South America, as opposed to the short, broad skull type characteristic of North American Indians.  Gonzalez, with the help of a laboratory in Britain, has determined it is 13,000 years old.
     Prevailing theory has it that migrations to the New World came in successive waves across the Bering Strait land bridge that joined northeast Asia and Modern Alaska, although recent evidence has emerged that migrations may also have come along the Pacific coast from Japan.
O.C. Register, 12-6-02

Stones may hold Americas' earliest writing

Paul Recer, 
The Associated Press, 12-6-02

Symbols carved on stones 2,600 years ago in Mexico suggest that the Olmecs, an early North American people invented the first writing system in the Americas and that the symbols were adopted by later native cultures such as the Mayas.
     The symbols were found on chips from a stone plaque and on a cylinder stone used for printing that were unearthed in an archaeological dig at the site of an ancient Olmec city near La Venta on the Gulf of Mexico. Age dating of the artifacts suggests they were deposited on the site in about 650 B.C. about 350 before the date of specimens previously thought to be the earliest examples of meso-american writing.
     The Olmecs are thought to have established a large and complex culture starting in about 13,000 B.C. They built massive pyramids, carved intricate and detailed sculptures and built large cities with thousands of people.  The Olmec culture collapsed by about 400 B.C. not long after the Mayan culture began to rise farther south.


Genealogy Library Now Open to Public
Vital Search Portal
Genealogy Vocabulary
If you lived as a child in 40's, 50's, 60's or 70's
General Online Biography Sites
Gedcom Strategies 
Here's Help for Illegible Handwriting.
International Sports
Wow. .  Hard to Imagine
Common Mistakes in Genealogical Research Older than Dirt
Those of us who are old enough
A Time For Being Thankful 
Genealogy Library Now Open to Public
        With nearly 80,000 titles onsite, the Genealogy Library is one of the largest genealogy collections in North America. Hours of operation are from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday (Closed holidays) and it is open to the public for research. The collection includes thousands of books that are not available in any other library. Available to the public are: family histories, county histories, military compendiums, periodicals, microfilm and microfiche, some private collections and personal help from friendly staff.
        Everton’s Genealogy Library is now open to groups of 2 to 50. Groups that are traveling to Salt Lake City can plan a day of research at Everton’s Genealogy Library, which is only 90 minutes away. Day-trippers are welcome and researchers who wish to stay for a few days have excellent lodging close by.
        Nibley, Utah – (26 December 2002) – Everton’s Family History Network has relocated to the site of Everton’s Genealogy Library in Nibley, Utah. Everton’s Genealogy Library, 3223 South Main, Nibley, Utah 84321, 800.443.6325, 435.752.6022 http://www.everton.com
Everton’s Family History Network  Voice - 435.752.6022  Fax - 435.713.7066
Sent by Lee Everton  leverton@everton.com   

Vital Search Portal

As a friend and former visitor to our Universal Search Portal http://www.vitalsearch-worldwide.com   we would like to keep you abreast monthly of on-going database completions and developments.

MONTH in REVIEW:  November 27, 2002 from The Vitalsearch Company Worldwide, Inc.

*** Work has begun in rescanning the 1905-29 & 1930-39 CA Deaths from the original source documents. Expected completion time is second quarter 2003.
 Sent by Johanna de Soto

 Genealogy Vocabulary     (This Page updated: 7/7/98)

ABSTRACT: a brief statement of the main parts of a document. 
ABSTRACT OF TITLE: a condensed history of the title of a piece of real property, including
any liabilities to which it may be subject. 
ADMINISTRATOR: one legally authorized by the court to manage and settle an estate when
the deceased has not left a will and named and executor. (female, ADMINISTRIX) 
AFFINITY: a relationship by marriage, rather than by blood. 
ANNO DOMINI: a Latin term meaning "in the year of our Lord". 
APPRENTICE: a person, often a minor, bound (sometimes by law) to a master for the purpose of learning a trade. 
APPURTENANCE: something that belongs to something else. Example: the buildings on a
piece of real property would be appurtenances. 
ARCHIVES: a place where records are kept. 
ASSIGNEE: Person #1 received a land warrant from the government, Person #1 couldassign the warrant to someone else (Person #2). Person #2 now is called the Assignee, this term is used in the land deeds so the chain of ownership back to the original land warrant can be traced. The deed would usually say "Person #2 assignee of Person #1. 
ATTEST: to bear witness to something and affirm formally with your signature that it is true. 
BANNS: public announcement, especially in church, of intention to be married. 
BENEFICIARY: a person for whose benefit a trust is created. 
BEQUEATH: to give personal property by a will. 
BEQUEST: a gift of personal property by a will. 
CENSUS: a count of population which includes various kinds of statistics. 
CERTIFIED COPY: a copy of a document signed and certified as a true copy by the officer
to whose custody the original was entrusted. 
CHILD OF TENDER YEARS: a child under age 14. 
CHRISTEN: to baptize an infant. 
CODICIL: a P. S. to a will. 
COLLATERAL: belonging to the same ancestral stock, but not in the direct line of descent. (i.e. aunts, cousins, etc.) 
CONSANGUINITY: a relationship by blood. 
CONSORT: wife or husband of a living spouse. 
CONVEYANCE: the granting of real property to another party. 
CURSETOR: Vagabond or vagrant 
DAUGHTERED OUT:  a lineage that has no male heirs to carry on the surname 
DE VENTRE INSPICIENDO: writ which was sometimes issued by a presumptive heir-at-law which required the sheriff to summon a jury of matrons and a jury of 12 men to inquire if the widow was pregnant. The matrons examined her and reported to the male jury who returned the decision to the court of chancery 
DECEDENT: deceased person. 
DECESSIT SINE PAROLE (DSP): Latin for "died without issue" 
DEED: a legal document that contains the record of transfer of real property, or some other bargain or contract concerning the property. 
DEPONENT: person who gives evidence, especially in writing. 
DESCENDANT: offspring to the furthest generation. 
DEVISE: a gift of real property by will. 
DEVISEE: a person to whom real property is given by will. 
DOWER: the property to which a widow has claim upon the death of her husband.  (There is no dower in community property states.) 
ESTATE: the total of a person's property, both real and personal. 
ET AL: a Latin term meaning "and others". 
ET UXOR: a Latin term meaning "and his wife". 
EXECUTOR: a person appointed by a testator (person writing will) to carry out directions and bequests in the will. (EXECUTRIX: a woman named in a will to distribute the estate) 
EXHERES: disinherited 
GAZETTEER: a geographical dictionary. 
GENEALOGY: an enumeration of the history of the descent of a family. 
GRANT: a general term applicable to all transfers of real property. 
GRANTEE: the person to whom a grant is made. 
GRANTOR: the person by whom the grant is made. 
GRASS WIDOW: a woman whose husband deserted her, who had illegitimate children or a
discarded common-law wife 
HEIR: the person(s) who succeeds, by rules of law, to an estate upon the death
of his ancestor by right of relationship. 
INDENTURE: a deed to which two or more persons are parties, and in which these enter
into reciprocal and corresponding grants or obligations towards each other. 
INFANT: a minor, a person not of full legal age. (Legal term does not apply only to babes in arms.) 
INTESTATE: a person dies without a will. 
ISSUE: all lineal descendants of a common ancestor are his issue--not just his children. 
LEGACY: a bequest or gift of personal property by last will and testament. 
LETTERS OF ADMINISTRATION: often known as ADMON. The instrument whereby the probate court appoints  someone to administer an estate of a person who died without leaving a will. 
LINEAL: being in direct line of ancestry. 
MANTUA MAKER: one who practices the art of fashionable dressmaking which required an
MARRIAGE LICENSE: a license whereby permission is granted by a public authority for persons to be married. 
MATRILINEAL RESEARCH: The tracing of your maternal line: i.e. daughter, mother, grandmother, gr-grandmother, etc 
MORTGAGE: conditional transfer of title to property, as security for payment of debt. 
NON COMPOS MENTIS: not of sound mind or in a state of lunacy 
NUNCUPATIVE WILL: a will which depends merely upon oral evidence, having been dictated or
declared by the testator in his last sickness before a sufficient number of witnesses, and afterward written down. 
PEDIGREE: recorded ancestry or line of descent...often in chart form. 
POSTERITY: descendants. 
POWER OF ATTORNEY: When a person isn't able to act for himself and appoints another to act
for him, the document by which he does so is call a "power of attorney" or "letter of attorney". The person appointed becomes "attorney in fact".
PRESENTS: means literally "this document or instrument". The phrase "by these presents" is used to refer to the document or instrument in which the phrase occurs. 
PROBATE: the act or process of proving a will. Also used as an inclusive term referring to all matters under the jurisdiction of the probate court. 
PROGENITOR: an ancestor in the direct line. 
QUITCLAIM DEED: an instrument by which a person releases all title, interest, or claim
which he may possess in real property without making a warrants thereto. 
RELICT: a widow or widower, the surviving spouse. 
SURETY: (i) A Godparent (ii) A person pledged to give security for the performance of a bond, or for the proper carrying out of duties. 
TENANT: a person who possesses the lands by any right or title. 
TESTABLE: capable of making a will. 
TESTAMENTORY: pertaining to a will. 
TESTATE: one who dies leaving a valid will. 
TESTATOR: one who makes a will. 
TO WIT: namely. 
TRACT: a piece of land of any size. 
TRANSCRIBE:  to write a copy of. 
TRUST DEED: This is a type of mortgage. 
VITAL RECORDS: statistics relating to birth, death, marriage, etc. 
WARRANTY DEED: a deed whereby the grantor warrants the title and should the title become faulty for any reason, the grantor (or his heirs) can be sued on the warranty. 
WILL: a legal expression of a person's wishes as to the disposition of his property after his death. 
YOUNGER CHILDREN: all children not entitled by rights of the eldest son--this includes daughters even though they may be older than the eldest son. 

This page started from a vocabulary list supplied by Bettie Dall 
Links to Other Useful Sites Oran's Dictionary of the Law 
If you know of other definitions that should be listed here please e:mail me with the info to be added to this page. Thank you!  © 1997  http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Acres/7241/
                                                                  Sent by Elsa Peña Herbeck  epherbeck@juno.com  210-684-9741
General Online Biography Sites 

Biographical Dictionary: http://www.s9.com/biography/

A Million Lives:  http://amillionlives.com/

Online Reference Shelf-Biographical References
Reference Shelf--Finding Biographical Information

The library sites listed here are representative and are intended as a starting point to locating biographical information. These institutions do not loan out the references listed on their sites, 
but are intended as finding aids to indicate what printed biographical references may be available.

Biographical References in the Western Connecticut University Library

Biographical Resources at the University of Illinois

Biographical References at the Newberry Library

Biographical References at the University of Tennessee at Martin

Ancestry.com also has several important reference tools for locating 
biographical materials available to subscribers. They include:

American Genealogical-Biographical Index (AGBI)

Biography & Genealogy Master Index (BGMI)
http://www.ancestry.com/search/rectype/biohist/bgmi/main.htm                   Sent by Johanna de Soto
Downloading GEDCOM files
A GEDCOM (an acronym for GEnealogical Data COMmunications) is a plain text file, nothing more; but it is formatted in such a way that attempting to read it in a text editor or word-processing program can prove to be a daunting task for most of us.
        The best way to handle a GEDCOM is not to open it like a regular text file, but instead carefully note what you named the file and where you save it on your computer.  Then launch (start) the genealogy program you normally use, create a new file.  The data will appear exactly like it woulf for any file you created directly within your genealogy program.
        Be sure to create a new file, giving it a unique name.  You do not want to merge others' unverified GEDOCM date into you genealogy files.   
                                                  Source:Orange Co. California Newsletter, Vol. 36, Issue 12, December 2002 
Here’s help for illegible handwriting!
        Lydia Kearney, of Mesa, Arizona, writes, "After waiting months for copy of my great grandmother’s death certificate, I was disappointed when I opened it. It was a poor quality photocopy of the original. The handwriting was illegible."  She continued, "I used a magnifying glass and stared at it for hours. I showed it to every family member in hopes someone could read it."
        She said, "We had no luck."  "The next day, while calling in a refill on my prescriptions, I had a wonderful thought: Who reads chicken-scratch better than a pharmacist?" Kearney grabbed the death certificate and hurried to the drug store for her prescription…and to see if the pharmacist could read the terrible handwriting.  The pharmacist was able to read every bit of the death certificate. Mrs. Kearney wrote, "I gained considerable information, especially regarding the medical references."  
                                                                                             The Family Tree, August/September 2002
International Sports 
An emphasis on sports of interest in Latin American countries. http://www.segundosfuera.com
Wow!! Hard to Imagine!

One evening a grandson was talking to his grandmother about current events. The grandson asked his grandmother what she thought about the shootings at schools, the computer age, and just things in general.
         The Grandma replied, "Well, let me think a minute, I was born, before television, penicillin, polio shots, frozen foods, Xerox, contact lenses, Frisbees and the pill. There was no radar, credit cards, laser beams or ballpoint pens.
         Man had not invented pantyhose, air conditioners, dishwashers, clothes dryers, and the clothes were hung out to dry in the fresh air and man hadn't yet walked on the moon.        Your Grandfather and I got married first-and then lived together. Every family had a father and a mother. Until I was 25, I called every man older than I, 'Sir'- and after I turned 25, I still called policemen and every man with a title, "Sir.'" 
        We were before gay-rights, computer dating, dual careers, daycare centers, and group therapy. Our lives were governed by the Ten Commandments, good judgment, and common sense. We were taught to know the difference between right and wrong and to stand up and take responsibility for our actions.
        Serving your country was a privilege; living in this country was a bigger privilege. We thought fast food was what people ate during Lent. Having a meaningful relationship meant getting along with your cousins. Draft dodgers were people who closed their front doors when the evening breeze started. Time-sharing meant time the family spent together in the evenings and weekends-not purchasing condominiums.
        We never heard of FM radios, tape decks, CDs, electric typewriters, yogurt, or guys wearing earrings. We listened to the Big Bands, Jack Benny, and the President's speeches on our radios. And I don't ever remember any kid blowing his brains out listening to Tommy Dorsey.
        If you saw anything with 'Made in Japan' on it, it was junk. The term 'making out' referred to how you did on your school exam. Pizza Hut, McDonald's, and instant coffee were unheard of. We had 5 & 10-cent stores where you could actually buy things for 5 and 10 cents. Ice-cream cones, phone calls, rides on a streetcar, and a Pepsi were all a nickel. And if you didn't want to splurge, you could spend your nickel on enough stamps to mail 1 letter and 2 postcards.
       You could buy a new Chevy Coupe for $600 but who could afford one? Too bad, because gas was 11 cents a gallon!
        In my day, "grass" was mowed, "coke" was a cold drink, "pot" was something your mother cooked in, and "rock music" was your grandmother's lullaby. "
        "Aids" were helpers in the Principal's office, "chip" meant a piece of wood, "hardware" was found in a hardware store, and "software" wasn't even a word.
        And we were the last generation to actually believe that a lady needed a husband to have a baby. No wonder people call us "old and confused" and say there is a generation gap...
        And how old do you think this grandmother is? Read on to see -- pretty scary if you think about it and pretty sad at the same time.
                                                 This Woman would be only 58 years old!  
Sent by Bill Carmena   JCarm1724@aol.com

The most common mistakes in genealogical research are…

  • Not using family group sheets and pedigree charts.
  • Not contacting living relatives for assistance.
  • Assuming that "nobody else" is working on my line.
  • Not using maps of the area at the time your ancestors were living there.
  • Not knowing the history of the area in which you are conducting research.
  • Not using common sense when reading family histories. If a source for information is not listed, be cautious about accepting it. Much of the information may be hearsay.
  • Gathering information on everyone with "that" surname, unless it is an uncommon name.
  • Not using primary sources-original land, probate, church, county records-but relying on printed histories.
  • Not making a master copy for your information so you may leave the master at home when you travel and take the duplicate with you.
  • Not organizing your records.
  • Giving up.
  • Not paying attention to any clues your ancestors may have left.
Older Than Dirt

My Dad was cleaning out my grandmother's house and he brought me an old Royal Crown Cola bottle. In the bottle top was a stopper with a bunch of holes in it. I knew immediately what it was, but my daughter had no idea. She thought they had tried to make it a salt shaker or something.
I knew it as the bottle that sat on the end of the ironing board to "sprinkle" clothes with because we didn't have steam irons. Man, I am old.  I am older than dirt.

How Many Do You Remember??
Head lights dimmer switches on the floor
Ignition switches on the dashboard
Heaters mounted on the inside of the fire wall
Real ice boxes [Ask your Mom about that]
Pant leg clips for bicycles without chain guards.
Soldering irons you heat on a gas burner.
Using hand signals for cars without turn signals.

Older Than Dirt Quiz
Count all the ones that you remember- not the ones you were told about!  Ratings at the bottom.
1. Blackjack chewing gum
2. Wax Coke-shaped bottles with colored sugar water
3. Candy cigarettes
4. Soda pop machines that dispensed bottle
5. Coffee shops with tableside jukeboxes
6. Home milk delivery in glass bottles with cardboard stoppers
7. Party lines
8. Newsreels before the movie
9. P. F. Flyers
10. Butch wax
11. Telephone numbers with a word prefix (Olive - 6933)
12. Peashooters
13. Howdy Doody
14. 45 RPM records
15. S & H Green Stamps
16. Hi-fi's
17. Metal ice trays with lever
18. Mimeograph paper
19. Blue flashbulb
20. Packards
21. Roller skate keys
22. Cork popguns
23. Drive-ins
24. Studebakers
25. Wash tub wringers

If you remembered 0-5 = You're still young
If you remembered 6-10 = You are getting older
If you remembered 11-15 = Don't tell your age,
If you remembered 16-25 = You're older than dirt!

Source: Angelo Sparacino coolgreen1@directvinternet.com
                                                                                           Sent by Bill Carmena  JCarm1724@aol.com
Those of us who are old enough ---will really appreciate the following:

        Looking back, it's hard to believe that we have lived as long as we have. As children we would ride in cars with no seat belts or air bags. Riding in the back of a pickup truck on a warm day was always a special treat.
        Our baby cribs were painted with bright colored lead based paint. We often chewed on the crib, ingesting the paint.
        We had no child proof lids on medicine bottles, doors, or cabinets, and when we rode our bikes we had no helmets.
        We drank water from the garden hose and not from a bottle.
        We would leave home in the morning and play all day, as long as we were back when the streetlights came on. No one was able to reach us all day.
        We played dodge ball and sometimes the ball would really hurt. We played with toy guns, cowboys and Indians, army, cops and robbers, and used our fingers to simulate guns when the toy ones or the BB gun was not available.
        We ate cupcakes, bread and butter, and drank sugar soda, but we were never overweight; we were always outside playing.
        Little League had tryouts and not everyone made the team. Those who didn't, had to learn to deal with disappointment.
        Some students weren't as smart as others or didn't work hard so they failed a grade and were held back to repeat the same grade. That generation produced some of the greatest risk-takers and problem solvers. We had the freedom, failure, success and responsibility, and we learned how to deal with it all.
        Almost all of us would have rather gone swimming in the lake instead of a pristine pool (talk about boring), the term cell phone would have conjured up a phone in a jail cell, and a pager was the school PA system.
        We all took gym, not PE... and risked permanent injury with a pair of high top Ked's (only worn in gym) instead of having cross-training athletic shoes with air cushion soles and built in light reflectors. I can't recall any injuries but they must have happened because they tell us how much safer we are now. Flunking gym was not an option... even for stupid kids! I guess PE must be much harder than gym.
        Every year, someone taught the whole school a lesson by running in the halls with leather soles on linoleum tile and hitting the wet spot. How much better off would we be today if we only knew we could have sued the school system.
        Speaking of school, we all said prayers and the pledge (amazing we aren't all brain dead from that), and staying in detention after school caught all sorts of negative attention for about the next two weeks. We must have had horribly damaged psyches.
        Schools didn't offer 14 year olds an abortion or condoms (we wouldn't have known what either was anyway) but they did give us a couple of baby aspirin and cough syrup if we started getting the sniffles. What an archaic health system we had then. Remember school nurses? Ours wore a hat and everything.
        I thought that I was supposed to accomplish something before I was allowed to be proud of myself.
        I just can't recall how bored we were without computers, PlayStation, Nintendo, X-box or 270 digital cable stations.
        I must be repressing that memory as I try to rationalize through the denial of the dangers could have befallen us as we trekked off each day about a mile down the road to some guy's vacant 20, built forts out of branches and pieces of plywood, made trails, and fought over who got to be the Lone Ranger.
        What was that property owner thinking, letting us play on that lot. He should have been locked up for not putting up a fence around the property, complete with a self-closing gate and an infrared intruder alarm. Oh yeah... and where was the Benadryl and sterilization kit when I got that bee
sting? I could have been killed!
        We played king of the hill on piles of gravel left on vacant construction sites and when we got hurt, mom pulled out the 48 cent bottle of mercurochrome and then we got butt-whooped. Now it's a trip to the emergency room, followed by a 10-day dose of a $49 bottle of antibiotics and then mom calls the attorney to sue the contractor for leaving a horribly vicious pile of gravel where it was such a threat.
        We didn't act up at the neighbor's house either because if we did, we got butt-whooped (physical abuse) there too... and then we got butt-whooped again when we got home.
        Mom invited the door to door salesman inside for coffee, kids choked down the dust from the gravel driveway while playing with Tonka trucks (remember why Tonka trucks were made tough... it wasn't so that they could take the rough berber in the family room), and Dad drove a car with leaded gas.
        Our music had to be left inside when we went out to play and I am sure that I nearly exhausted my imagination a couple of times when we went on two week vacations. I should probably sue the folks now for the danger they put us in when we all slept in campgrounds in the family tent.
        Summers were spent behind the push lawnmower and I didn't even know that mowers came with motors until I was 13 and we got one without an automatic blade-stop or an auto-drive. How sick were my parents?
        Of course my parents weren't the only psychos. I recall Donny Reynolds from next door coming over and doing his tricks on the front stoop just before he fell off. Little did his mom know that she could have owned our house. Instead she pick him up and swatted him for being such a goof. It was a neighborhood run amuck.
        To top it off, not a single person I knew had ever been told that they were from a dysfunctional family. How could we possibly have known that we needed to get into group therapy and anger management classes? We were obviously so duped by so many societal ills, that we didn't even notice that the entire country wasn't taking Prozac!

HOW DID WE SURVIVE ??                                                    Sent by Bill Carmena  JCarm1724@aol.com
A Time For Being Thankful 

The partner who hogs the covers every night, because he is not out with someone else.|
The child who is not cleaning his room, but is watching TV because that means he is at home and not on the streets.
For the taxes that I pay, because it means that I am employed.
For the mess to clean after a party, because it means that I have been surrounded by friends.
For the clothes that fit a little too snug because it means I have enough to eat.
For my shadow that watches me work, because it means I am in the sunshine.
For a lawn that needs mowing windows that that need cleaning and gutters because it means I have a home.
For all the complaints I hear about the government, because it means that we have freedom of speech.
For the parking spot I find at the far end of the parking lot, because it means I am capable of walking and that I have been blessed with transportation.
For my huge heating bill, because it means I am warm.
For the lady behind me in church that sings off key, because it means that I can hear.
For the pile of laundry and ironing, because it means I have clothes to wear.
For the weariness and aching muscles at the end of the day, because it means I have been capable of working hard.
For the alarm that goes off in the early morning  hours, because it means that I am alive.
And finally . . . for too much e-mail, because it means I have family and friends who are thinking of me.
Sent by Herbert Villarreal   hgilvillarreal@hotmail.com

       12/30/2009 04:48 PM