May  2002
Editor: Mimi Lozano, mimilozano@aol.cOM

Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage & Diversity Issues
Publication of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research © 2000-2      714-894-8161


Content Areas
United States 3
Surname Demara  
Orange County
Los Angeles  15

California  17
Northwest US
Southwest US  52
Black  58
Indigenous 61
Texas  72
East Mississippi
East Coast
Miscellaneous 110
2002 Index
Meetings May 25

Thor Heyerdahl, Norwegian Adventurer 

Between 1988 and 1994 Thor Heyerdahl led the archaeological excavations in Tucume in Northern Peru.  Perhaps the most important find was a temple mound where the walls were adorned with sea going reed boats. Source: 
Kon-Tiki Museum:
Photo: Kon-Tiki

Thor Heyerdahl died April 18, 2002 at 87, having proved during his life time the validity of his immigration theories. His wide-ranging archaeological studies were often controversial and challenged accepted views.   In 1995, he claimed to have found evidence that Christopher Columbus reached America in 1477, rather than 1492, as a teen-age crewman on a Danish-Portuguese expedition. 
His Kon-Tiki 101-days trip on a balsa raft in 1947 was intended to support his theory that the South Sea Islands were settled by explorers from pre-Inca South America. Robson Bonnichsen, director of the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Oregon State University said, "Our perception of the peopling of the Americas is changing" and encompasses more than one colonization. . .  

Among the multiple-colonization theories is the that of Dennis Stanford.  Stanford, an anthropologist at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, has even suggested some American ancestors could have come from Spain [the Iberian peninsula] during the Ice Age, arriving in Maine after skirting the ice of the North Atlantic in boats.  

Heyerdahl's 1947 voyage on the Kon-Tiki brought him worldwide fame.  His book about that trip sold tens of millions of copies and his 1951 movie about the voyage won an Academy Award for best documentary.  Following the Kon-Tiki, Heyerdahl sailed on several other reed rafts seeking to show that ancient people could have sailed from the Old World to the New on these small rafts.

Source: Two articles: Associated Press, Doug Mellgren via Orange County Register, 4-19-02
Editor: On a personal note. I have always felt a special tenderness towards Thor Heyerdahl.  In the 5th grade my daughter wrote to Mr. Heyerdahl.  He kindly responded with a hand-written postcard which has remained a family treasure.  A response from the Mr. Heyerdahl opened a world-view to our daughter, who is now an attorney. 

 Somos Primos Staff: 
Mimi Lozano, Editor
John P. Schmal, 
Historian & Genealogist
Johanna de Soto, 
Internet  Surfer & Genealogist
Rick Aguirre
Tony Arroyo
Rita Avila
Mary Triplett Ayers
Michah Ben-Yehudah
Greg Bloom
Judge Edward F. Butler
Roberto Camp
Bill Carmena
Lynette Chapa
Peter Carr
Harry Crosby
Steve Demara
Maria Estorino
Anthony Garcia
LeRoy L. Garcia
Art Garza
George Gause
J.G. Gomez, M.D.
Lorraine Hernandez
Zeke Hernandez
Dr. Granville Hough
N.C. Hough
Valentine Hughes
Dara Jones
Ruby A. Licona
Cindy LoBuglio
Eduardo Morga
Emanuel Anthony Martinez
Patricia Mathewson
Mary Lou Montagna
Luz Montejano Hilton
Sheila Munian
Patrick Osio, Jr.
Guillermo Padilla Origel
Ruth Plummer
Jacinto (Jay) Romo
Barbara Sheehan
Howard Shorr
 SHHAR Board Members:  Laura Arechabala Shane, Bea Armenta Dever, Diane Burton Godinez,
Peter Carr, Gloria Cortinas Oliver, Mimi Lozano Holtzman, Carlos Olvera
Wanted Vietnam Veterans
"Remember Me?"
Judge Fredrick Aguirre
Louis Calderon
1930 U.S. Census
1883 Pensioners Online 
U.S. Advertisers
Hispanic journalists
Judge Edward F. Butler 
Book: "How Latinos Learn English"
Increase High School/ College Success
Where were you born?
U.S. Symbol, Latino Muscle
Changes in "Ethnic" Media  
Midwest Consortium for Latino Research
Smithsonian to collect farm workers' Statue of Liberty 
Back Pay For 'Braceros' Passed First Hurdle
History of the Cinco de Mayo
Gvtirreiz-Soyde family
Dr. Lea Ybarra of Johns Hopkins University and Professor George Mariscal of the University of California, San Diego are currently collecting letters written by YOU from Vietnam to your families and friends in the U.S. as well as letters from your families to YOU. If you are in possession of such letters and photos or have knowledge of such material please contact: George Mariscal, Associate Professor of Spanish, Department of Literature, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0410. The time is long overdue for the American public to learn about the military participation of Mexican-Americans in the Vietnam conflict. The purpose of the current project is to set history straight.   Sent by Anthony Garcia, Source:
Louis Caldera, the first Latino to serve as Secretary of the Army, was honored for his three-year tenure at that post with an official portrait to recognize his distinguished efforts as the civilian leader of the nation's largest military force. 
"Remember Me?" 
     Much has been said, many tears have been shed, many medals have been pinned and great monuments have been constructed all in the honor of the patriots that have fought America's Wars. But for many of us the battle did not end when the last shot was fired. Many of us returned home maimed, crippled, mentally handicapped, blind or just a mere shell of our former self's and thus begun the great struggle to regain as much normalcy as possible.

Enter the unsung hero's of all these tragic events, the beautiful Angels of mercy, those who act as guides for the blind or crutches for the crippled and care takers, as they wheel masses of humanity in wheel chairs to meet their appointments with medical professionals. All the while they sit next to their afflicted loved ones for hours on end with soothing words and assurances that all will be well and hiding whatever else their bleeding hearts may harbor. These Angels are the epitome of dignity. 
These are every day occurrences at any VA medical facilities.

Not much has been said, not many tears have been shed no medals have been awarded, and no monuments have been constructed to honor these beautiful Angels of Mercy, the spouses or a loved one of the afflicted veteran. 

It has been said, "Behind every great man there is a great Woman".  So many of us are so blessed that it is incumbent upon us to recognize that fact and work towards paying homage and honoring our spouses or a loved one in such a manner that it remains an every day reminder of their great sacrifices, devotion and contribution to the well being of their loved one and America. 
                                                         Sincerely, Jacinto (JAY) Romo
The National Archives Releases 1930 Census was released April 1, 2002  
It is available for research at all of the National Archives facilities. For a complete listing, go to:     Sent by Johanna de Soto
What's so great about the 1930 U.S. Census?  That's easy-it's an essential piece of U.S. history containing important details on more than 137 million individuals. As of 1 April, it's available for the first time ever, from is pleased to bring you the first public offering of the 1930 Census, now part of our 1790-1930 Census Subscription. Our U.S. Census free trial includes access to new 1930 records containing:   Source:
--Name/age of every person in each household surveyed, and relationship to the head of household
--Gender, age, and race
--Birthplace of individuals and their parents
--Marital status and age at first marriage
--Occupation, industry, and current employment status  Sent by Lorraine Hernandez

1883 Pensioners Online: The U.S. Congress directed the Pension Office to prepare a listing of individuals receiving pensions for war service. The Pension Office produced a list called "Pensioners on the Roll" as of January 1, 1883. The Roll apparently contained all pensioners, although only a small portion is presently online.
Alabama*  Arizona*  California  Colorado  Florida*  Illinois  Indiana  Iowa  Kansas*  Kentucky  Maine  Massachusetts Michigan*  Minnesota*  Missouri*  Nebraska  Nevada* New York  North Carolina  North Dakota*  Ohio  Oregon Pennsylvania  South Dakota*  Tennessee  Texas  Washington West Virginia  Wisconsin  Wyoming*     *=Entire state   More than 600 counties

The pensioners were primarily Union veterans from the Civil War and survivors of the War of 1812 but also included other service as well. In addition to the veterans themselves, family members receiving pensions based on said service were also included. Pensioners on the Roll was prepared from the official government records of the time, so this listing is likely to be one of the most complete and accurate records of the time. Rights reserved, 1999, 2000, 2001. Gordon Byers 
Sent by Johanna de Soto

U.S. Advertisers:  Leading advertisers have nearly doubled the amount they spend trying to reach Hispanics over the past few years, but a study released Friday shows that 42% are still under spending relative to the size and strength of the booming U.S. Hispanic market. The study showed that last year 3.2 % of their advertising resources to the Hispanic market.  Hispanics, whose numbers approach 40 million account for more than 13 percent of the U.S. population.  
Extract from article by Mimi Whitefield via OC Register, 4-20-02
Hispanic journalists . . . the percentage of Hispanic journalists working in the nation's newsrooms has increased only 2.66 percent between 1982 and 2001. Meanwhile, Census figures show the U.S. Hispanic population, excluding Puerto Rico, has increased from 6.4 percent in 1982 (14.6 million) to 13.0 percent (35.3 million) in 2000. By 2025, Hispanics are projected to make up 18.2 percent of the U.S. population. Extract from article in American Latino Magazine - V5-13, 4/16/02   Sent by Zeke Hernandez 
Judge Edward F. Butler :    Sons of the American Revolution and their Spanish Patriots efforts:

Judge Edwards writes: My article "Spain's Involvement in the American Revolutionary War" was printed in the National Genealogical Society Newsmagazine, Vol. 28, No. 2, March/April 2002, pp. 122-125. This magazine goes to all members of the National Genealogical Society.

The Mexico Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, MXSSAR, was chartered on Feb. 17, 2002. I was elected as the charter president and national trustee. We now have 79 members. We are seeking descendants of the following, who are eligible for membership in the SAR:
1) Carlos, III King of Spain (the current king, Juan Carlos, is a member of SAR)
2) General Bernardo de Galvez, and all members of the Spanish Army and Navy during the period 1776-1783.
3) Members of the militia in New Spain from 1776-1783, who lived in what is now Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispanola, South America, Louisiana, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and California.
4) Ranchers along the San Antonio River and other nearby rivers, who provided cattle, mules and horses to the army of Gen. Galvez; and the vaqueros who drove the cattle from Texas to Louisiana.

The MXSSAR First Board of Managers meeting will be held at the Neuvo Posada Hotel in Ajijic, Jalisco, Mexico on May 10-12, 2002. Information contact: Judge Edward F. Butler

New Book:  "How Latinos Learn English"
SAN FRANCISCO,CA -April 15, 2002- The number of people of Hispanic origin married to non-Hispanics has grown at a staggering pace, from 1,647,000 in March 1999, to close to 2 million, according to an undisclosed US Census Bureau Statistics projection. This means that by now some 2 million English speakers could help their relatives learn English, while at the same time they improve their Spanish. Writing for a specific niche has been always a challenge, but the sheer number of interracial marriages is evidence that English or Spanish as a second language are here to stay, says Peruvian linguist Fortunato Brown, author of "How Latinos Learn English." 

Brown has over 40 years' experience as a teacher, and is author or coauthor of books on several languages He emphatically  states that Latinos who learn to speak and read English will continue to progress regardless of social barriers. "How Latinos Learn English" Estimated U.S.  price, $8.95.

About Bibliolatin:  Small publishing house located in the heart of San Francisco populous Mission district, a point of community encounter for generations of Latino immigrants. Bibliolatin publishes versatile adult education books that address the linguistic needs of the Hispanic community.    Source: Jaime Arcila   415 680 2489

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation - Strategy to Increase High School Graduation and College

NEW YORK – To dramatically increase high school graduation and college attendance rates for the most disadvantaged youth, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation today committed more than $40 million to create 70 small high schools.  These high schools will enable students to earn both a high
school diploma and an associate's degree or two years of college credit.  The effort is a partnership of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, The Ford Foundation, and W. K. Kellogg Foundation.

According to recent studies, college graduates earn 70 percent more than high school graduates.  Moreover, high school dropouts are four times more likely to be unemployed than are college graduates.  While three-fourths of high school graduates now go to college, over half fail to complete a degree, and one-third never make it to sophomore year.

he National Council of La Raza (receiving $7.2 million) will create 14 early college high schools—eight new schools and six redesigned schools—most, if not all, of which will be charter schools —most, if not all, of which will be charter schools.  All La Raza early college high schools will enroll large percentages of low-income Latino youth and challenge them with a rigorous and accelerated academic program that bridges the traditional gaps between high school and college.
The Foundation has free subscription for an online calendar.   Sent by Johanna de Soto

UNITY:   SAN FRANCISCO, CA  (HISPANIC PR WIRE) April 15, 2002--UNITY:  Journalists of Color, a coalition consisting of the nation's leading Black, Hispanic, Asian American and Native American journalism associations, entered into a strategic media alliance with Business Wire, Hispanic PR Wire [HPRW] and Black PR Wire [BPRW].  The agreement will provide UNITY with access to the expansive media networks of these leading news distribution services, while providing UNITY members with direct access to a comprehensive suite of media products that will assist them in their newsgathering efforts. 

"We are delighted that Business Wire, Hispanic PR Wire and Black PR Wire have joined forces to assist UNITY in the quest to promote diversity in the news media," said Smith. "Thanks to this generous support, UNITY's message will now be spread to every corner of the U.S. as well as to locations throughout the world." Cathy Baron Tamraz, Business Wire's chief operating officer, added: 
"We're very proud to have formed this partnership with UNITY: Journalists of Color, Inc. This alliance highlights our dedication to working with UNITY and other organizations that promote excellence and 
diversity in this fast-changing news environment."

For more information please visit UNITY's website at  or call 703-469-2100.
CONTACTS: Benfred Clement Smith, UNITY: Journalists of Color, Inc., 703-469-2100, 
Leslie Yngojo-Bowes, Business Wire, 212-752-9600, 
Manny Ruiz, Hispanic PR Wire, 305-971-2622, 
Bernadette Morris, Black PR Wire, 1-877-BlackPR,
Where were you born?  If you're like the majority of Hispanics in the United States, you were born here. According to 1997 data, nearly three-fifths (55.8%) of Hispanics living in the U.S. were native-born, while fewer than  two-fifths (38.4%) were born elsewhere.  Learn more about our Latino community:
U.S. Symbol, Latino Muscle:   Extract from article by Mary Beth Sheridan, Washington Post Staff Writer,  4-2-02; Page B01 Many Workers Restoring Pentagon Are Immigrants, Proud of Efforts 

About 40 percent of the workers rebuilding the Pentagon are Hispanic, most of them immigrants, according to Defense Department and construction officials. They are a vivid illustration of how immigrants are transforming certain industries, especially in Washington.

In providing the muscle for one of the nation's most patriotism-infused building projects, immigrants at the Pentagon say they are demonstrating their contributions to the United States. But they don't miss the irony: The site has become a symbol of why many Americans have hardened their attitude toward immigrants since the attacks of Sept. 11. 

The Latin influence is obvious at the Pentagon site. Many signs are bilingual. Some meetings are translated into Spanish. And at lunchtime, a truck rolls onto the dirt construction area offering piping-hot tamales and Salvadoran pupusas.

"Most of them [workers] are Salvadoran," said Carlos Lizama, a jeans-clad Bethesda resident who was born in El Salvador and is the superintendent of concrete work for the Pentagon reconstruction, known as the Phoenix Project. "You can find people from Nicaragua, Mexico, you name it. I mean, there are all the Latin American countries."

The high number of immigrants reflects the sweeping change in many areas of Washington's workforce in recent years. Nationally, about 15 percent of construction workers are legal immigrants, according to the Labor Research Organization, a New York-based nonprofit group. Locally, the figure is much higher, although no one has exact data. There also is a large number of illegal immigrants in the industry.

Immigrants are especially numerous in the lower-skilled end of the building trades. For example, about half the members of Laborers International Union locals in the Washington area are Latino, union officials say. At the biggest general contractor in the area, Clark Construction Group, three-quarters of the laborers are of Latin American origin.

"It's an amazing demographic transformation that's happened in the metro Washington area in the last 20 years," said Dennis Desmond, secretary of Local 11 of the Laborers International in Alexandria. The change, experts said, was driven by a growing construction industry hungry for relatively cheap labor. Construction "tends to be work, not unlike cleaning work or domestic work, that immigrants will take," Desmond said. Sent by Brent Wilkes
Changes in "Ethnic" Media (San Francisco Chronicle) 4/24/02 Extract 
A survey of 2000 Latino, African American and Asian American Californians shows that the state's ethnic media has deep penetration into minority communities -- which now comprise the majority in the state -- and that marketers would be prudent to pursue those markets. The study, conducted for New California Media of San Francisco, a nonprofit group that encourages the ethnic media, found that ethnic television, radio and newspapers reach 84 percent of the nearly 17 million Californians who identify themselves as Latino, African American or Asian American. 

The study found that Spanish-language media reach 89 percent of California Latinos; media outlets that focus on African American themes or music reach 79 percent of blacks in California; and Asian American ethnic media reach 75 percent of the Asian population. The challenge, said Jose del Castillo, editor and publisher of El Mensajero, a bilingual weekly newspaper published in San Francisco, is to realize the potential of advertising sales. Liam McGee, president of the California operations of Bank of America and head of the bank's branch network in 21 states, said the bank spent $10 million for advertising directed toward minority markets in 2001 and plans to spend $40 million this year. 

MIDWEST CONSORTIUM FOR LATINO RESEARCH   Editor: This is an amazing web site.  
This information could form the foundation of resources for schools starting Chicano Studies.  

Smithsonian to collect farm workers' version of Statue of Liberty  by Mireidy Fernandez    3/28/02  
When Immokalee farm workers created their own version of the Statue of Liberty, they never imagined Lady Liberty would one day become a permanent symbol of American history. Two years after Collier County farm workers used fabric and plaster and painted the statue brown to symbolize a new generation of immigrants, officials from the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., have decided to collect the image as an artifact. 

"It's wonderful and it's evocative. It's a democratic movement for a political voice and it's great because it reminds us of some of the core values we think of as Americans and the freedom to participate," said Barbara Clark Smith, museum curator of social history. 

The statue was first used during a 230-mile march from Fort Myers to Orlando in 2000. Draped in green garb, in one hand the 9-foot, 200-pound statue holds a tomato and in the other she embraces a red bucket, what laborers use when picking vegetables. Coalition of  Immokalee Workers came up with the concept. 

"It combines a kind of patriotism and a reference of American values with an element of protest," Clark Smith said. "It's popular art and I see it as sort of the latest in artifacts about political protests and participation." 

"It represents the new immigrants here who are working in agriculture," he said. "The statue isn't white; she's dark like many of the people who are coming over and making contributions." Benitez said it's an honor for him and the coalition that the Smithsonian chose this piece of artwork to
add to other important collections — but said the workers will miss the statue. 

"What we're doing is documenting what (farm workers) are doing. This isn't about whether we agree or disagree with anyone's point of view. It's whether they're influential; we're committed to all points of view," Clark Smith said. Sent by Zeke Hernandez  

Bill To Allow Back Pay For 'Braceros' Passed First Hurdle  PR Newswire - April 23, 2002 
Mexican workers recruited to work in the United States in the 1940s moved one step closer today in their quest to receive pay that was deducted from their paychecks and never paid back. 

In a unanimous vote, members of the California State Assembly's Judiciary Committee moved to the floor a bill (AB2913) that would amend the state statute of limitations to allow the Mexican workers, known as braceros, to seek the back pay.

The funds in question are millions of dollars taken from the paychecks of the 300,000 Mexicans who were recruited to work in America's fields and railroads in the 1940s to replace men who had gone to war. As part of the international agreement between Mexico and the U.S. for the "bracero program," 10 percent of each worker's paycheck was deducted with the promise of the return of the "savings" upon their return to Mexico. The U.S. government extracted 10 percent of their wages from each check and Wells Fargo banked the garnished wages for transfer to Mexican banks yet few braceros ever received the forced savings.

"The time that has passed is hardly a reason to deny braceros justice, rather it is an indictment of those who counted on a conspiracy of silence to hide this crime against this most vulnerable group," said California Assembly Majority Floor Leader Marco Firebaugh, who introduced the legislation. "The legislation," he explained, "is based on previously passed legislation that extended the statute of limitations for Holocaust victims and Korean slave- workers."  Howard Shorr 

History of the Cinco de Mayo by Patrick Osio, Jr.    
Cinco de Mayo - a great Mexican feast day, but not Independence Day.  Mexico's war of Independence began on September 16, 1810, the cry to war was  heralded on the night of the 15th the rebellion started the following day.  Thus September 16th is Mexico's Day of Independence. On May 5, 1862, Mexican troops defeated invading French troops in the out-skirts of Puebla, a city around 60 miles east of Mexico City. How did events come to this point in time, what were French troops doing in  Mexico and why?

As most Americans know, the U.S. went to war with Mexico over coveted territory. Mexico was defeated, and surrendered around 50% of its territory.  Needless to say, Mexicans weren't happy with this circumstance and blamed  their leader, Santa Anna, accusing him of great treason. This led to a  rebellion to oust him from office.
Once this done, Mexico entered into one of its most important historical periods, the formation of its Constitution of 1857.  There were two political forces at work, the Liberals who wanted to create a  country not unlike the US: A representative republic, democratic, federal, religiously tolerant, free market economy, and an educational system  independent of religion, and, most importantly - separation between the State  and religion. This instrument would provide Mexican citizens with vast  constitutional protections rivaling those in the U.S..

The other political force was the Conservatives who wanted strong ties to Spain, only the Catholic religion would be allowed, national industrial  protectionism (limited imports), regulated freedom of expression, no opposing  political parties. They also believed Mexico should be tied to a European  monarchy with the head of Mexico having absolute power, and to distance the 
country as much as possible from the US. 

This terrible schism led to the civil war known as "La Guerra de Reforma" (The War of Reform). In 1861, the Conservatives were defeated, and their  leaders executed. But the combination of so many years of fighting, and loss  of territory had placed Mexico in heavy international debt with England,  Spain and France.

Meantime in the French court of Emperor Napoleon III, a wealthy Mexican land owner and Conservative, who had access to, and meetings with the Emperor's  wife, the Spaniard Eugenia de Montijo, planted the idea of establishing a  monarchy in Mexico as a way of stopping the further territorial expansion  ambitions of the U.S..  The U.S. was tied up in its Civil War, so France convinced Spain and England  to join in sending troops to collect monies owed them by the new Liberal  Mexican government presided over by Benito Juarez. 

Troops from the three countries landed in Veracruz in late 1861. The English and Spaniards were able to negotiate a repayment schedule that was acceptable  to all. The parties, including the French, signed the agreement. The  Spaniard and English troops left Mexico without incident.
The French commander, Dubois de Saligny, declared, "My signature is worth as much as the paper it is written on." The French justified their action by  declaring they were there at the invitation of the Conservative government  (in exile) to establish a Monarchy, and of course, to save Mexico from its  evil leaders. With this he ordered his troops to start the hostilities, and 
the march to Mexico City began.

And so it was that on May 5, 1862, the most potent army of Europe of its day, met the Mexican army outside of Puebla. Mexican General Ignacio Zaragoza,  addressed his troops, "…. Your enemies are the first-rate soldiers of the  world; but you are the first sons of Mexico, and they are here to take your  country."

The battle began at noon, the French stormed the Mexican defensive position once and were repelled. A second charge brought the same results. It was  then that the Mexican troops attacked, driving the French back in disarray.  The French had been so sure of victory that the their field commander had  sent a message back to Napoleon III declaring the Emperor owner of Mexico.  Hostilities came at the end of the day due to heavy rainfall making any more 
action impossible.

It took the French three months to capture Puebla, and eventually all of Mexico. The Intervention lasted until 1867.  Having captured the country, the French were never able to appease the 
population. Widespread resistance finally led to their defeat and departure from Mexico. So as history goes, Cinco de Mayo was one day in which the soldiers of Mexico  fought bravely for their country, and bathed themselves in honor. So raise  your glass to them, and to all, who have bravely fought in defense of their  country.
Gvtirreiz-Soyde and a Special Family Rug
Hello, my name is Barbara Sheehan and several years ago I bought at a yard sale in Virginia a 8 X 12 or so woven rug or coverlet with the names woven into it: Rosa Maria, (or Maria Rosa) Soyde and Martin Gvtirreiz. It was probably a wedding gift for the couple. The rug appears to be at least 75 years old woven of mostly red, white and blue wool.  I have figured out that the name Gvtirreiz is probably Gutierrez and there are many Martin Gutierrez on I cannot figure out the woman's last name although a lot of Soledad comes up who married Gutierrez. I would like to try and find this family to return this rug to the proper ancestors. Any help you can give me as far as the woman's last name , or any other information would be helpful.  Sincerely, Barbara Sheehan

STEVE DEMARA of Orange, California traces a direct line back to JUAN MAXIMINO DEMARA, a soldier serving in the Spanish military but of Italian ancestry, born in Pescadia, Italy. In the early 1700, Juan Maximo married Locenza Queodicame a Pima Indian in Sonora, Mexico and started a direct line of ancestry which Mr. Demara has been able to trace.

Maximo and Locenza's son Lorenzo Demara married Juana Sabati, a Pima. Grandson, Juan Lorenzo Demara married Agustina Narrufo, a Pima. Great grandson, Jose Francisco married Josefa Escalante. Son Francisco Demara came as a soldier to California and married Luisana Arriola.

Francisco Demara, Steve Demara's great grandfather retired from the military and settled in San Gabriel, California. Francisco's son, Antonio Demara,  was Steve Demara's grandfather.  Antonio was born in 1849 in Los Coyotes, close to Buena Park, California. Antonio married Alta Gracia Martinez, a Gabrieleno Indian. 

The Demara's skill with horses facilitated cowboy life for Antonio as a ranch hand. Antonio and Alta Gracia's son Juan Jose, also worked as a ranch hand. Juan Jose married Ysidora Jacome, Steve's mother, a San Pasqual Indian.

In the 1870s Orange County real estate was being promoted vigorously. Town lots were selling for twenty to forty dollars. Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana was laid out as the city of Orange, a town of 40 acres of town lots surrounded by 60 10-acre farm lots. Soon the city of Orange fulfilled its name. In 1872 a different kind of orange tree was found among the Florida navel oranges planted by Albert B. Chapman. These, named Valencia by an Spanish employee, were sweeter, juicer, and more desirable than the navel which had been grown since the 1850 in Los Angeles.

Soon friends and relatives of the Demaras were migrating to Orange from Sonora and Jalisco, Mexico, buying lots and houses close to one another and picking oranges for employment.

Steve Demara was born in Orange County in 26th December 1917. He attended school, married Concha Poblano, 3 August, and 1940 settled in the city of Orange. After serving in World War II, Steve became a government postal worker, retired after 30 years of faithful service. Steve and Concha have three daughters, all educated, married and still living in Orange county.

A life long goal was completed in April of 1993. "I wanted to prove my Native American heritage. It took me nearly 40 years, but I did it." He was formally accepted into the Cahuilla Band of Juaneno of San Juan Capistrano.

Other surnames: Poblano, Jacome, Martinez, Arriola, Escalante, Narrufo, Sabati, and Queodicame.
member of the Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research.

Judge Fredrick P. Aguirre May 25, SHHAR Quarterly Meeting
John P. Baca Park Named

Congratulations to Fredrick P. Aguirre  - Newly Appointed to Orange County Superior Court     

In 1965, James Perez was the first Hispanic appointed to the Orange County Superior Court.

Orange County has a population of about three million,  30% is Latino; but only represent 4% of the judiciary system. 

There are 120 Orange County Judges, of that number, only six are Hispanics. Unfortunately in spite of the increased Latino population that ratio has held.

Mr. Aguirre's professional and community activities are extensive.  He is a co-founder, past president member of the Orange County Hispanic Bar Association.  He served on the boards of the Orange County Trial Association and Legal Aid Society of Orange County.  Mr. Aguirre is the President of Latino Advocates for Education, Inc. a non-profit organization benefiting Latino students, and a trustee of the Fullerton foundation and the KOCE TV Foundation.  He is a former President of the League of United Latin Citizens, and a former President of the Placentia Linda Hospital Community Advisory Board.  Mr. Aguirre chairs the annual patriotic tribute in honor of  Mexican-American veterans of WWII and the Korean War.

Mr. Aguirre and his wife Linda  are interviewing World War II  Mexican-America Veterans to be compiled into a book.  Their goal is to document  the contributions of Mexican-American Veterans and give positive visibility.

 If you have friends or relatives who served in the U.S. military at that time, please contact Judge Aguirre:

Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research Quarterly Meeting
Saturday, May 25, 9 a.m. to 12 noon 
Open to the Public, FREE
Orange Multi-Regional Family History Center
674 S. Yorba
Orange, California

9-10 a.m.: Networking, Tour of Library, 
10-12 noon - Three outstanding speakers:
John J. Schmal: Mexican Border-Crossing Records
Teresa Maldonado Parker: Gathering family information through personal travels
Irma Cantu: Strategies that Work for Documenting Data 
Read below for details on the Speakers

If you are a beginner or advanced family history researcher, don't miss the opportunity of attending this meeting, networking with other researchers and learning what other researchers are doing. 

John Schmal, genealogist and Staff Historian for , will give a lecture about Mexican border-crossing records. This presentation will include several handouts, showing the various kinds of border-crossing documents that people will find relating to their ancestors. John will also show people the websites that provide information about published resources available through the National Archives. (These websites will be included in an outline that will be passed out to the audience.)

The second part of the presentation will be a description of border-crossing statistics from the 1930s to the present. John has compiled yearly statistics from at least 1943 to the present for all the border ports of entry and will discuss relevant trends.

John is the coauthor of "Mexican-American Genealogical Research: Following the Paper Trail to Mexico," which will be introduced to readers in Heritage Book's July catalog. We hope that you will be able to attend.

In December Teresa Maldonado Parker took a trip to Romita, Mexico on a personal guest to meet with distant family members.  Accompanying her on this adventure was Jennifer Mena a reporter with the  L.A. Times and also a photographer.  Teresa's story appeared on December 26th.  The full text could be read in the February 2002  issue of Somos PrimosTheresa will share episodes and feelings of this life-changing experence.

Irma Cantu is the co-author of "Baptisms of Our Lady of Montserrat Catholic Church, 1767-1792" (Cruillas, Tamaulipas), published by Los Bexareños Genealogical Society, P. O. Box 1935, 
San Antonio, Texas. Extractions by Irma Garza Cantú Jones and María de la Garza Dellinger.
Price: $28. You may order from the above address or from Lupe Martinez at

The introduction to this book of extractions consists of a brief history of Cruillas. Northeast Mexico was settled later than most of Mexico, largely because of the depredations of the Indians determined to drive out the intruders. José de Escandón was charged with exploring and subjugating the region, congregating the Indians into missions and bringing in Spanish settlers to found towns. Cruillas, which was founded in 1765, was among the last villages founded by Escandón. Its site was selected as a strategic location to control the Indians. A census taken a few months later lists settlers who went to Cruillas from Cadereyta, Valle del Pilón (now Montemorelos), Guajuco (now Santiago), San Fernando, Santa Catarina, Burgos, Salinas, Saltillo and a real de minas in Guadalajara. If you have ancestors from Northeast Mexico, there is a good chance that you had either direct ancestors or cousins in Cruillas.

John P. Baca Park at Gothard & Promenade Parkway in Huntington Beach
On Saturday, April 27, the John P. Baca Park was dedicated  to a former Huntington Beach resident, John P. Baca. Baca was a Congressional Medal of Honor recipient , a Vietnam war hero who threw himself on a grenade saving many lives, very similar to the exploits of another Medal of Honor recipient, Alfredo Rascon. 

Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company D, 
1st Battalion, 12th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. 
Place and date: Phuoc Long Province,Republic of Vietnam, 10 February 1970. 
Entered service at: Fort Ord, Calif. Born: 10 January 1949, Providence, R.l. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 

Specialist 4th Class Baca, Company D, distinguished himself while serving on a recoilless rifle team during a night ambush mission, a platoon from his company was sent to investigate the detonation 
of an automatic ambush device forward of his unit's main position and soon came under intense enemy fire from concealed positions along the trail. 

Hearing the heavy firing from the platoon position and realizing that his recoilless rifle team could assist the members of the besieged patrol, Sp4c. Baca led his team through the hail of enemy 
fire to a firing position within the patrol's defensive perimeter. As they prepared to engage the enemy, a fragmentation grenade was thrown into the midst of the patrol. Fully aware of the danger 
to his comrades. 

Sp4c. Baca unhesitatingly, and with complete disregard for his own safety, covered the grenade with his steel helmet and fell on it as the grenade exploded, thereby absorbing the lethal fragments and 
concussion with his body. His gallant action and total disregard for his personal well-being directly saved 8 men from certain serious injury or death. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by Sp4c. Baca, at the risk of his life, are in the highest traditions of the military  service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army. 

Source: Eduardo Morga, Past National LULAC President
Sent by Zeke Hernandez  Information:  714-374-5397
Cinco de Mayo Celebration 
Latino Immigrant Bike safety Survey 
Seaver Center  
Cinco de Mayo Celebration  - Impacto Films invites you to a preview screening/fundraising reception for the documentary MAID IN AMERICA. Director/Producer Anayansi Prado and Producer Kevin Leadingham will present clips from their documentary. Attending the event will be subjects/women from the film; as well as Latino community activists and scholars who work with domestic workers. Come celebrate 'Cinco de Mayo' and show your support towards this meaningful and inspiring film. Sponsorship packages will be available at the event, ranging from $100 to $10,000. All contributions are TAX-DEDUCTIBLE. Admission is free but a donation/sponsorship is suggested. Bar Marmont (on the Sunset Strip), 8171 Sunset Blvd., Hollywood. Valet Parking available for $5.50. TO RSVP PLEASE CALL: 323.355.5919 OR E-MAIL:
Sent by, Source:
Latino Immigrant Bike safety Survey   Los Angeles suffers from an alarmingly high number of bicyclist deaths and injuries on its roads. In 1999 alone there were 3,878 bicycle collisions involving motor vehicles in Los Angeles County; of these collisions, 1,072 resulted in severe injuries that required hospitalization. Almost half of those hospitalized were Latino bicyclists. The number of hospitalized Latino bicyclists has been steadily increasing in the County with 438 hospitalizations in 1997, 463 hospitalizations in 1998, and 496 hospitalizations in 1999.   
Sent by, Source:
Seaver Center for Western History Research
The purpose of the Seaver Center for Western History Research is to collect, preserve, and make available to the general public research materials documenting the history of the trans-Mississippi West with special emphasis on Southern California and Los Angeles.  Historic records include- but not necessarily limited to manuscript materials, books, serials, pamphlets, broadsides, maps, posters, prints, and photographs.

Also individuals with historical connections in the development of Southern California are included. 
This is an example:
1001 * Antonio F. Coronel (1817-1894) Papers, 1770-1912.
10 linear feet (Boxes: 28 legal, 2 ov; 2 mc drawers). Physician, Mayor of Los Angeles, and California State Treasurer. Correspondence, documents relating to Coronel's appointments to office; Los Angeles city ordinances, political handbills, posters and related materials, largely 1858-80; deeds, papers connected with lawsuits and similar documents; telegrams; real estate maps, almanacs, lithographs, photos, and memorabilia. Includes material on the Los Angeles City Council, Los Angeles Board of Education, California State Board of Horticulture, and the Democratic Club of California. Persons prominently mentioned include Manuel Coronel, Jose G. Estudillo, Pablo de la Guerra, J.M. Guinne, Helen Hunt Jackson, Augustine Olvera, Andres Pico, Pio Pico, Manuel Rodriguez de Poli, Jose L. Sepulveda, Ygnacio Sepulveda, Mariano G. Vallejo, and Benjamin D. Wilson. There are unpublished finding aids in the repository. The collection is also described in "The Antonio F. Coronel Collection" (1906) and in the Los Angeles County Museum quarterly, vol. 14, n. 4 (1958), pgs. 4-7. Arranged by accession number. The material is related to the repository's Del Valle Family Papers (Gen. Col 1002) Sent by Johanna de Soto

France A. Córdova New UC Riverside Chancellor
Bracero Bill 
Mexican Americans in California
Seeking Signatures
Tulare County Library 
California Newspaper Project 
The Founders of Santa Barbara
San Diego Historic Adobe Structures
Ruiz Reunion Tamale Story
Monterey County Researchers
Old Mission San Juan Bautista
International Tall Ships Return to West Coast
St. Monica's Baptism Records
The First Teachers in California
France A. Córdova New UC Riverside Chancellor
France A. Córdova, a nationally recognized astrophysicist who had served as vice chancellor for research at UC Santa Barbara, today was named chancellor of the University of California's Riverside campus April 9th.  Córdova, 54, served as chief scientist at NASA before coming to UC Santa Barbara in 1996. She previously headed the department of astronomy and astrophysics at Pennsylvania State University and served as deputy group leader of the Space Astronomy and Astrophysics Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. 

UC Riverside, a center of research and learning in the rapidly growing Inland Empire region of southern California, is also the fastest-growing campus in the UC system. In fall 2001, UCR enrolled 14,429 students - 10 percent more than the year before - and employed 6,143 faculty and staff. The 1,200-acre campus has an annual budget of more than $312 million.
Sent by Zeke Hernandez
Bracero Bill Clears First Hurdle in the California State Legislature 
In a unanimous vote, members of the California State Assembly's Judiciary Committee moved to the floor a bill that would amend the state statute of limitations to allow Mexican workers to seek back pay.
  PR Newswire, April 23, 2002

A History of Mexican Americans in California: 1846, the United States invaded and conquered California, then part of the Republic of Mexico. This event, one aspect of the 1846-1848 U.S.-Mexican War, led to U.S. annexation of California through the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexican American history in California had begun.  The information starts with the Mexican War and projects into the future.  Sent by Johanna de Soto

Do you have Signatures of any of the following Men?   Historian, author Harry Crosby would like to hear from you. He is in the final draft of his book, Men of the 1769 Overland Expeditions, Velicatá to San Diego soon to be published in hardback.  He is anxious to gather more information or make corrections on these men. To facilitate an exchange of data, SHHAR has added his draft information to the SHHAR  homepage.  If you have Early California roots, you may be fortunate to find familiar surnames and family connections. If you have information to share, please contact Harry Crosby directly.
Joseph Marcelino Bravo
Juan Joseph Dominguez
Joseph Ygnacio de la Higuera
Joseph Ygnacio de Olivera
Juan Maria de Olivera
Joseph Gabriel de Oxeda [Ojeda]
Joseph Carlos Rubio
Antonio Trasviña
Anastasio Verduzco [or Berduzco]

Tulare County Library is expanding its collection of historical books, documents and photographs relating to the history of the county. It held five separate photo days at which digital cameras and scanners were used to make copies.  If you have roots in that area,  contact the President of the Sequoia Genealogical Society for more information, Patricia Mathewson, Pres. (559) 688-8749

California Newspaper Project 
California's newspapers, beginning with the Californian published in Monterey in 1846, express the state's rich heritage, from mining towns now long gone, to farming communities which have become bedroom suburbs, to the growth of California's major cities. The state's newspapers, published in 39 languages, reflect culturally and ethnically diverse populations - Oakland's Portuguese, San Francisco's Greek and Chinese, Fresno's Armenian, Cambodian and Hmong, and California's many Spanish-speaking communities.

For the sheer volume of information they contain, newspapers are the single most important printed records of human activity, relied upon by historians, genealogists, and other scholars to provide a first-hand, and sometimes the only, account of local news. Tracing California's newspapers shows how ethnic communities moved and settled. The daily lives of the state's residents are documented in the newspapers, which often serve as the sole source of such information.

So far, the CNP has identified and described, 11,000 of an estimated total of 20,000 California newspapers published since 1846, representing 954 California cities and towns. 2,513 libraries, historical societies and museums and 526 publishers have been surveyed. OCLC, a bibliographic database available to libraries around the world, carries information on the location of current newspapers subscriptions and back issues posted by the CNP.  Sent by Johanna de Soto

The California Cooperative Latin American Collection Development Group is a consortium of California libraries. CALAFIA enjoys the support and strength of the libraries at Stanford University, the University of California System, and the University of Southern California. The combined Latin American holdings of the CALAFIA group number more than one million volumes and are surpassed only by the Library of Congress’ Latin American Studies Collection.                             Sent by Johanna de Soto

The Founders of Santa Barbara: 
Who They Were and Whence They Came
by Mary Triplett Ayers

The fourth expedition for the settlement of Alta California was that led by Capitán Don Fernando Xavier de Rivera y Moncada in 1781. Most of the founders of Santa Bárbara were members of the Rivera y Moncada Expedition.

The Rivera y Moncada Expedition was sent to Alta California with a four-fold purpose: (1) the founding of the pueblo at Los Angeles, (2) the founding of the ninth mission at San Buenaventura at the southern end of the Santa Barbara Channel, and (3) the founding of the fifth Presidio in the middle of the Santa Bárbara Channel. Santa Barbara is the fifth presidio, because Loreto is the first before San Diego. And, (4) the expedition was also supposed to found two other missions in the Santa Barbara Channel, Mission Santa Barbara near the Presidio in the middle of the Channel and Mission La Purísima Concepción at the northern end of the Santa Barbara Channel.

The members of the expedition were recruited in Sonora and Sinaloa by Capitán Don Fernando Xavier de Rivera y Moncada from December 1779 to November 1780. Actually, Rivera went from Loreto, Baja California to Guaymas, Arispe, San Miguel de Horcasitas, and Real de Los Álamos in Sonora and La Villa del Fuerte, La Villa de Sinaloa, Culiacán, Matzatlán, and Rosario in Sinaloa. He was authorized to recruit as far south as Guadalajara. He was able to recruit almost as many as he needed in Sonora and Sinaloa.

The expedition members reassembled at the Real de los Álamos, Sonora on February 2, 1781. The expedition split into two groups. In one group were the settlers and their families accompanied by seventeen soldiers and their wives and children. It was required that all the soldiers and most of the pobladores were married. Some of my ancestors that were members of this expedition were married in the Álamos parish of La Purísima eleven days before the expedition left. Rivera y Moncada had a relatively easy time recruiting the soldiers. People were more reluctant to enlist as pobladores. Soldiers were paid more than pobladores.

This group was under the leadership of Lieutenant José Zúñiga. They crossed the Sea of Cortez or Gulf of California to Loreto, Baja California. They traveled by lancha, small boats with two sails, north to the Bahía de San Luis Gonzaga. There, they left their little ships and walked up the Baja California peninsula and arrived at Mission San Gabriel August 18, 1781.

In the First Book of Baptisms of Mission San Gabriel (SG Bats I), it is written, "On 18 August 1781, Lieutenant José de Zuñiga and Ramón Lasso de la Vega arrived here with eleven pobladores with their families and seventeen soldados de cuera from Lower California via San Diego."

The other group was the 37 officers and soldiers and their families who accompanied Rivera y Moncada and brought the livestock -- 931 head of horses and mules. This group traveled the Anza trail from Álamos to Guymas, Pitic (now called Hermosillo), San Miguel de Horcasitas, Tubac, Yuma, San Pablo, and arrived at San Gabriel July 14, 1781.

In the First Book of Baptisms of Mission San Gabriel (SG Bats I), it is written, "On 14 July 1781, Alférez Cayetano Limón and Alférez José Dario Argüello under the command of Teniente Diego Gonzalez arrived at the mission with a troop of thirty married soldiers with their families and five unmarried soldiers from Sonora via Yuma for the Santa Barbara Presidio.

On September 4, 1781, the pobladores accompanied by priests from Mission San Gabriel and an escolta from Mission San Gabriel walked eight miles for the founding of the second pueblo in Alta California, El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río Porciúncula. The pobladores were given land for houses and fields to farm, and the mighty City of the Angels was begun by eleven families from Sonora and Sinaloa.

Rivera y Moncada had remained behind with the ailing livestock who ate and trampled the Indians’ food crops. Rivera y Moncada and the six men who stayed behind with him were massacred at the Colorado River by the Yuma, now called Quechan Indians. The Quechans also killed most of the inhabitants of the two pueblos on the Colorado. The effect of this massacre was that Anza’s route to Alta California was closed.

The following spring, Fr. Serra and Governor Felipe de Neve accompanied by soldiers of the Rivera y Moncada expedition left San Gabriel to accomplish the second and third purposes of the expedition, the founding of Mission San Buenaventura and the Presidio of Santa Barbara. Capitán José Francisco Ortega had been called from the San Diego Presidio to be Comandante of the new Presidio at Santa Barbara.

Governor Neve asked Fr. Serra for two friars for San Buenaventura and Santa Barbara. There being no supernumerary friars in Alta California, Fr. Serra himself came to San Gabriel from Monterey, and he summoned Fray Pedro Benito Cambón, O.F.M. from San Diego. They did not wish to delay the founding of the new missions, and they agreed to serve the spiritual needs of the new establishments until six new missionary recruits arrived.

The day before the group left for San Buenaventura, March 25, 1782, pobladores José Fernando Velasco y Lara, Antonio Mesa, and Luis Quintero, who had been declared unfit for farming in August of 1781 on their arrival at San Gabriel, were expelled. Lara and Quintero joined the expedition to found the Presidio at Santa Barbara. Mesa disappeared. There are no records of him in the California mission registers.

Fr. Serra confirmed more than 100 people at Mission San Gabriel on 22 March 1782, ages two months to fifty years.

In the First Book of Marriages for Mission San Gabriel (SG Mats I), it is written, "The expedition to found the new Mission of San Buenaventura and the Presidio of Santa Barbara left San Gabriel 26 March 1782."

They traveled north of San Gabriel and undoubtedly turned west through the Santa Clara River Valley and not over the Conejo Grade as the El Camino Real bells along Highway 101 would lead you to believe. On March 21, 1782, Mission San Buenaventura the ninth mission was founded by Fr. Junípero Serra. This was to be the last mission founded by Fr. Serra. He died in August of 1784, and the tenth mission, Mission Santa Barbara, was not founded until 1786 by Fr. Fermín Francisco de Lasuén.

The first mission register record for Mission San Buenaventura is the burial of a 3 day old infant on April 15, 1782. He was José León Rodríguez, the son of Joaquín Rodríguez, soldier of the escolta of the mission. The baby had been baptized privately by his grandfather, Luís Quintero. The priest who wrote the burial record was Fr. Benito Cambón.

Neve was recalled to San Gabriel with his escort. He returned to San Buenaventura about the middle of April. He was satisfied with the progress made at San Buenaventura.

Leaving Fr. Cambón and a sergeant and fourteen men as an escolta or guard for the new mission of San Buenaventura, Governor Felipe de Neve, Capitán José Francisco Ortega, Fr. Junípero Serra, and thirty-six soldiers and their wives and children walked on to Santa Barbara to found the Presidio of Santa Barbara.

On April 21, 1782, the cross was raised, the flag was raised, and the Presidio of Santa Barbara was founded. Mass was celebrated under a ramada, and Fr. Serra sang the Alabado. The ceremonies of blessing dirt, water, and pulling grass were performed. The natives were friendlier than expected. Yanonali, their chief, was willing to exchange presents.

There was much strife and dissension between Fr. Serra and Governor Felipe de Neve. Serra thought he was founding a mission. Neve intended to found a presidio. Neve won. In the original registers, you can read Serra’s writing, "this mission de Santa Bárbara", and the word "mission" is crossed out and the word "presidio" written above. It is very clear.

Building of the presidio began at once. Oak was felled for the shelters and enclosing palisade. The Chumash were hired to work and were paid in articles of food and clothing.

When it became apparent to Fr. Serra that there was no immediate prospect of founding Mission Santa Barbara or the third mission on the Santa Barbara Channel (La Purísima), he wrote to Fr. Fuster at San Juan Capistrano to replace him at Santa Barbara, and Fr. Serra returned to Monterey, arriving May 13, 1782. It is not certain that Fr. Fuster ever came to Santa Barbara and probable that there was no priest at the presidio after Fr. Serra returned to Monterey.

The first record of baptism in the Santa Barbara Presidio Book of Baptisms was signed by Fray Benito Cambón. Numbers 2 to 13 in 1783 were signed by Fray Vicente Dumetz, O.F.M. who was at Mission San Buenaventura after Cambón returned to San Diego.

The following is a list of the Santa Barbara Presidio Company which was written July 1, 1782, just three months after its founding. There were seven officers and fifty soldiers:

Lieutenant José Francisco Ortega
Alférez José Darío Argüello
Sergeant Pablo Antonio Cota
Sergeant Ignacio Olivera
Sergeant Hermengildo Sal
Corporal Alejandro Sotomayor
Corporal José María Ortega

Luis Lugo
Alejo Ruiz
Luis Peña
José Gonzáles
Martín Reyes
Anastacio María Féliz
Francisco Lugo
Joaquín Higuera
Ignacio Olivera
Francisco Paula García
José Lobo
Melecio Váldez 
Ignacio Lugo
José Manuel Valenzuela
Manuel Orchaga
José Esteban Romero
Francisco Xavier Mejia
Juan Andrés Montiel
Loreto Salazar
José Miguel Flores


Ildefonso Domínguez
Francisco Calvo
Victorino Patiño
José Carmen Arana
Ignacio María Ortega
Mariano Cota
Tomás Gonzales
Victorino Féliz
Agustín Leyva
José Velarde
José Ontiveros
Francisco María Ruiz
Juan Olivas
Julián Guerrero
Felipe Gonzáles
Justo Hernández
José Parra
José Polanco
Eugenio Váldez
Guillermo Soto
José María Samaniego
Fructuoso Ruiz
Joaquín Rodríguez
Juan Ignacio Valencia
Ignacio Rodríguez
Rosalino Fernández
Vicente Quijada
Juan Ignacio Martínez
Efigenio Ruiz
José Villa

Remember, that a sergeant and fourteen men were left with Fr. Cambón at the new Mission San Buenaventura. Those men were members of the Santa Barbara Company but did not come to Santa Barbara on April 21, 1782 for the founding of the presidio.

I can tell you the names of the soldiers whose names appear in the Mission registers of San Buenaventura during the years 1782 and 1783. These probably are the sergeant and fourteen soldiers who were left at San Buenaventura in April 1782 with Fray Benito Cambón.

 In 1782 the names in the San Buenaventura records are: Sergeant Pablo Antonio Cota, Josef Manuel Valenzuela, and Concepción Quintero wife of José Miguel Flores. In 1783: María Petra Rubio, wife of Luis Quintero, Pablo Antonio Cota, José Ignacio Valencia, Justo Lorenzo Hernández, Ciriaca de León wife of Justo Hernández, María Rita Zamora wife of Cabo Juan Ygnacio Valencia, Francisco Lugo, Cabo Alejo Soto, María Rosa Monreal wife of Efigenio Ruiz, José Polanco and his wife María de Jesús León, Joaquín Rodríguez, Cabo Alejandro de Sotomayor and his wife María de Concepción Montiel, José Polanco, María Nicolasa Beltrán wife of José Lobo, Juana Delgado wife of Esteban Romero, María Norberta de Jesús León wife of José Polanco, María Rosa Lugo wife of Sargento Pablo Antonio Cota, and Loreto Salazar. If I have repeated any of the names, it is because they appear two or three times. I will not say that the above named people were not at the founding of the Real Presidio de Santa Bárbara, but it appears that they may not have, because their names appear in the 1782 and 1783 Mission San Buenaventura registers.

I have told you who the founders of Santa Barbara were. Now, I must tell you from whence they came.

I used to think that just as all the pobladores of the Pueblo of Los Angeles came with the Rivera y Moncada Expedition, so did the entire Company for the founding garrison of the Santa Barbara Presidio. This is not true.

Five of the officers and seven of the soldiers on the July 1, 1782 list for the garrison of the Santa Barbara Presidio came in 1769 with Portolá. They were: Lieutenant José Francisco Ortega, Sargento Pablo Antonio Cota, Sargento Ignacio Olivera, Cabo José María Ortega, son of the Lieutenant, Cabo Alejandro Sotomayor, and soldiers Luis Lugo, Ignacio Olivera, Ignacio María Ortega son of the Lieutenant, Luis Peña, Martín Reyes, Alejo Ruiz, and Francisco María Ruiz.

There was one officer recruited by Rivera y Moncada in 1781. He was Alférez José Darío Argüello. Thirty-nine soldiers of the July 1, 1782 list came with Rivera y Moncada in 1781. They were: José Carmen Arana, Francisco Calvo, Ildefonso Domínguez, Anastacio María Féliz, Victorino Féliz, Rosalino Fernández, Felipe Gonzales and his sons José Gonzales and Tomás Gonzales, Julián Guerrero, Justo Hernández, Agustín Leyva, José Lobo, Ignacio Lugo, Juan Ignacio Martínez, Francisco Xavier Mejia, Juan Andrés Montiel, Juan Olivas, José Ontiveros, Manuel Orchaga, José Parra, Victorino Patiño, José Polanco, Vicente Quijada, Ignacio Rodríguez, Joaquín Rodríguez, José Esteban Romero, Efigenio Ruiz, Fructuoso Ruiz, Loreto Salazar, José María Samaniego, Guillermo Soto, Eugenio Váldez, Melecio Váldez, Juan Ignacio Valencia, José Manuel Valenzuela, José Velarde, and José Villa.

I cannot find out when Sargento Hermengildo Sal came to Santa Barbara. He was born in Valdemora, Toledo, Spain. He appears in the Monterey records as early as 1775 and later at San Francisco. I haven’t found his name in the early Santa Barbara records.

Most of these people came from Sonora and Sinaloa--about fifteen from Sonora and thirty from Sinaloa. The town that furnished the most soldiers for the new Presidio of Santa Barbara was Real de los Álamos, Sonora. Eleven soldiers were recruited there, and many of them were born there: Anastacio María Féliz, Juan Ignacio Martínez, Juan Andrés Montiel, Manuel Orchaga, Victorino Patiño, Vicente Quijada, Joaquín Rodríguez, Joaquín Rodríguez, Loreto Salazar, José María Samaniego, Eugenio Váldez, Ignacio Rodriguez, and the expelled poblador, Luis Quintero was recruited there.

Ten came from the Villa de Sinaloa, Sinaloa: Ildefonso Domínguez, Felipe Gonzáles, José Gonzáles, Martín Reyes, Joaquín Higuera, José Lobo, Francisco Lugo, Ignacio Lugo, Francisco Xavier Mejia, and José Manuel Valenzuela.

Six were from the Villa del Fuerte, Sinaloa: Rosalino Fernández, Efigenio Ruiz, Fructuoso Ruiz, Melecio Váldez, Alejo Ruiz and Cabo Alejandro Sotomayor. (Alejo, Alejandro, and Alex Sotomayor or Soto are one in the same person.)

Four were from Real de Cosalá: Guillermo Soto, José Carmen Arana, Francisco Calvo, and Victorino Féliz.

Four were from Loreto, Baja California: Sargento Pablo Antonio Cota, Cabo José María Ortega, Mariano Cota, and Francisco María Ruiz.

Two were from Rosario, Sinaloa: Tomás Gonzales and Juan Olivas

Two were from San José del Cabo, B.C.: Sargento Ignacio Olivera and Luis Peña.

Two came from Spain: Sargento Hermengildo Sal from Valdemoro, Toledo and Francisco Paula García from Puerto Real Obispado de Cádiz, Andalucia.

Lieutenant José Francisco Ortega was born in Celaya, Guanajuato. 
He enlisted in Loreto, and his sons were born there.
José Darío Argüello was born in Querétaro; 
Luis Lugo in Palo Blanco, Jurisdiction of Culiacán, Sinaloa;
José Miguel Flores in Juchipila, Zacatecas; 
José Velarde on the Piaxtla River, Sinaloa; 
Ignacio Olivera in San Antonio, Baja California; 
José Esteban Romero in Real de San Antonio de la Huerta, Sonora; 
Agustín Leyva in Tepic, Nayarit; 
Juan Ignacio Valencia in Real Presidio de Santa Rosa Corodeguachi, Sonora; 
José Ontiveros in Chametla, Sinaloa; Justo Hernández in Culiacán, Sinaloa; 
José Parra in Amatlán de las Canas , Nayarit; José Villa in Horcasitas, Sonora, 
Julián Guerrero in Pueblo del Nombre de Dios; 
José Polanco in Cocula near Guadalajara, Jalisco; 
Ignacio María Ortega in Real de Santa Ana, Baja California.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of California, Wallace Hebbard, Santa Barbara, 1963 Historical Society of Southern California, Annual, 1931
Baptismal, Confirmation, Marriage, and Burial registers of Missions San Gabriel, San Buenaventura, and Santa Barbara
Baptismal, Marriage, and Burial registers of El Real Presidio de Santa Bárbara
Mason, William Marvin, The Census of 1790: A Demographic History of Colonial California, Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA, 1998; 
Files of Rudecinda Lo Buglio List of Compañía de Santa Bárbara July 1, 1782

San Diego Historic Adobe Structures
Mandeville Special Collections Library Geisel Library University of California, San Diego
Papers of Lewis Geddes, San Diego photographer and historical researcher. The bulk of the materials relate to historic adobe structures in San Diego County, Baja California, and Arizona. Included are notes and photographs created in the 1930s relating to the historic buildings. Also included are typescripts of works by others, concerning pioneer experiences in San Diego County in the 19th century, and genealogical information on early San Diego County residents.

OX Folder
1 1 San Diego County - Adobes [A-J], Volume I - pp. 1-60.
1 2 San Diego County - Adobes [A-J], Volume I - pp. 61-134.
1 3 San Diego County - Adobes [L-R], Volume II - pp. 1-61.
1 4 San Diego County - Adobes [L-R], Volume II - pp. 62-97.
1 5 San Diego County - Adobes [L-R], Volume II - pp. 98-128.
1 6 San Diego County - Adobes [S-W], Volume III - pp. 1-47.
1 7 San Diego County - Adobes [S-W], Volume III - pp. 48-91.
2 1 San Diego -Missions, Indian Reservations, Old Town San Diego. Vol. IV, pp. 1-38
2 2 San Diego -Missions, Indian Reservations, Old Town San Diego. Vol. IV, pp. 39-67
2 3 San Diego-Missions,Indian Reservations, Old Town San Diego.Vol. IV, pp. 68-107     Sent by Johanna de Soto

Ruiz Reunion Tamale story..
.  Hi, I just wanted to tell you about my weekend, my Ruiz Reunion, and my birthday...all were  incredible!  Last year at this same time I met a bunch of my cousins for the first time. My mother's half brother had 3 children, who had children, and some of them now have children. Before just two years ago I had not seen my 3 half cousins in over 30 years. My mom and I met with them after I found them again, through all my constant research on my every growing family...and after our first meeting we all thought it would be fun to get together again in about a year. We did, last year partially at my house and mostly at a rented hall after it turned out that 43 of them would be showing up! We all had such fun that the vote was taken and they all asked me to do it again this year...and you know me...I say YES!!

This year we had a few who couldn't make it, and some who weren't there last year. All total, there were 38 of us this year. Rather than just sit around waiting for dinner I thought it would be fun to have a more educational we made tamales!

To understand this more you have to know that this entire family was raised in very traditional Anglo families. We had enchiladas or tamales for festive times, such as Christmas Eve, and we each knew we had some sort of Hispanic background, but before I began all my research we all believed the story we had been told by our grandfather or someone else in the family...that our Great Grandfather had come from Barcelona Spain to help Fr Serra build the missions. Yeah...that same old story that floats around in many families!! Nice story, but in our case this Great Grandfather, Julian Ruiz, was born in Montecito, and Baptized at Our Lady of Sorrows Church, Santa 1851! Just a tad bit after he would have been any help to Fr Serra. Actually, Julian's father, AND his grandfather, Nicolas Ruiz[Ortega] were also born in the Santa Barbara area, Nicolas in 1796. Our ties into Spain are still a ways back there!!

My mom's half brother carried the Ruiz name, as did his two sons, and between them 4 more sons. Each of these men have in some way faced discrimination due to the name. They are all very light complextion, mostly with blue or green eyes, although they all have very dark hair. In one case one was accused of being ashamed of his background because he wouldn't accept the fact that he was Mexican. In another case one was denied a rental home because of his name. None of us speaks
Spanish...many in my Uncle's side of the family were told not to learn it...he didn't want them to be further discriminated against. 

Then I found them all again and began telling them how unique they/we really are! My mother, and their father/grandfather were from two people with enormous Hispanic backgrounds. My Grandfather's entire background seems to be from Santa Barbara and Grandmother's ancestors are settlers of San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, and Monterey
areas...both sides arriving with Portola, Anza, and Rivera.

As I learned more and more about my ancestors and my own heritage I passed this on to my newly found cousins. They're thrilled with the knowledge, now that they've gotten over the somewhat shock of finding just who and what our ancestors were. You know that old theory of the pure Spanish was blown away with the information I was giving them. Now, after two years of updates they're asking for more...sooo I thought it would be fun to make tamales, hopefully in some of the same ways that our ancestors did.  I'm sure that many, if not all of our ancestors turned over in their graves on Saturday!!!

On Friday I began cooking the meat around 7:30 am...24 lbs of it! We were making 12 dozen tamales, hey, if we're gonna do this big project we might as well make enough to take home too. By mid morning my brother Mike showed up to help out. He had arrived on Thurs afternoon from Minnesota for the weekend festivities. By noon Mike's daughter, Michelle, arrived to help...she and her husband had extended a trip home to include our weekend too...they live in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. While Mike fixed the dried chili, washing, and cooking for the sauce, Michelle shredded all that cooked meat. Her arms and hands were plenty tired by the end of it! Mike wondered about taking out his contacts later...

By evening all the meat was prepared, the sauce had been made and tasted, and tasted...and finally declared the best ever. We had almost everything ready for Saturday. I fixed a big pot of soup and a few of the arriving cousins had dinner and we all chatted until after 10pm. 

Saturday morning just arrived way too soon...but by 8:30am I had the car loaded with almost everything except the kitchen sink, and than might be questionable too...some of the pots I was taking to the hall could double for a sink! My van was crammed with stuff...and off I went to set up the hall. A quick stop in the great little grocery store I found...where I buy the dried peppers in bulk, the dry masa mix and the corn husks...and the clerks smile as I'm sure they're giggling about my purchases. They mostly speak in Spanish, and I understand only a little.

The enchilada team arrived and the kitchen was getting crowded. Oh, yeah...we were also having enchiladas, made the way my grandfather's sisters did when we all went to Watsonville to visit them. They never volunteered the recipe, but by watching and writing it down, my aunt was able to duplicate it almost exactly. 

By early afternoon two huge bowls of masa were mixed...we all decided not to think about the lard that went into it! There was a major discussion over whether or not to put raisins in the tamales (we did) and how many olives should go in (that varied). When the time came to begin, after the
soaking husks had been patted dry enough...and I figured only about 4-5 people would be interested...I was totally amazed when almost EVERYONE was crowded around and hearing instructions from both my son and my Uncle Bob (who has hands on experience). For the next hour or so they made tamales...while one group smeared on the masa another group put the meat,
olives, and controversial raisins inside, then rolled them and handed them on down the tables to the cousin, his wife, and 3 kids who were tying the ends...and not with string, but strips of corn husk. One child loaded the huge tamale pot, then we found we needed a second pot. After a quick scramble we found a very large pot, placed empty, rinsed, soda cans on their sides all over the bottom of the pot, placed the tamales on top of them, and ta da...another steamer pot! Lifting each of these pots onto the stove took two guys and then the waiting began...two hours stretched
to almost 4...we had to keep checking the water by listening, but it was not a very scientific method...we listened to the pennies in the bottom of one pot and listened for the cans at the bottom of the other. Thank goodness the stove was just barely big enough for these two large pots to
sit up there and cook.

While all these tamales were being prepared the enchilada team was busily building trays of those goodies. We had about 8 dozen enchiladas...along with close to 12 dozen tamales. Oh, did I say we had about 38 of us there?? I don't think there was any chance of going hungry! 

I had set up my laptop computer so anyone who wished to look at the family history stuff could do so...along with some large charts and a few books that have our own family history in them. Good thing I did...many of them used all of this stuff.

Finally the dinner was cooked, tables were set, hands were washed...again, and everyone was more than ready to dig in. First we all said Grace, and thought of those who were not with us this year,
privately thinking mostly of one of the 3 cousins I had only found a couple of years ago. Douglas died just 3 months ago. His widow and their two adult children were the enchilada team, one of Douglas' favorites. He had been planning to do these at our reunion this year.

Seems like only minutes...maybe a few more than that...and the food was eaten. Boy, were we all stuffed!! The enchiladas of course were great, and we all decided that the tamales were the best we had ever eaten...ya think it had something to do with the effort we all put into building them??

Now for the speeches and introductions, and laughter, and fun. (They all sang Happy Birthday to me) We talked about doing this again next year, but maybe down near Santa Maria, and going out to Sisquoc to see where our Grandpa was born, to San Ramon Chapel Cemetery where his 8 siblings are buried, along with many other family members...and visiting Mission Santa Inez where they were all baptized. 

About 10:30pm I turned out some of the lights and said the party was over...the cleaning crew was almost finished while the rowdy game of keep-away was in progress in all over the hall...and no, these were not the little kids playing! Some of the rest of us had actually done some Country Western dancing too, thanks to the music and boom box provided by another cousin.

Everyone was invited to my house for breakfast, but NOT before 10am!!  Sunday morning was bright and sunny and I was again in the kitchen cooking...sausage, scrambled eggs, and my mom & brother Mike made quesadillas. We fed 26 and had more fun chatting and catching up on what's happened in the past year, in addition to more education for those who asked questions about our ancestors. More talk about next year in Santa Maria...I think that will probably happen. 

Somewhere around 4pm the last of the cousins drove away from my house...and hurried over to my Mom's house for a short bit of visiting with my wonderful brother Mike. That guy washed more dishes, and helped more than anyone else, probably combined of all the other people! My husband Bob was sent East in our big rig truck on Friday morning and couldn't be here. Michael was just everywhere all the time, picking up all the slack and doing anything/everything that needed to be done. He had I had taken a short break and walk on Sat afternoon while the tamales cooked... walking over to the fun grocery store. He bought dried pepper and tortillas to take back to MN with him to make more of this great sauce, etc.

Somewhere around 8pm I packed to drive back to Mountain View for a much needed night of sleep!
This was one of the very best birthdays I've ever had...all my family having a great time and eating food that we had prepared a family. Not all the money in the world could ever buy what I had this weekend.

Thirty people learned more about their Hispanic heritage this weekend...and I'm sure they'll pass this on down to the 8 children who also attended. In this small way I am determined to preserve my heritage that I'm just barely getting to know...and I'm just as determined to promote our Hispanic person (or 30!) at a time. Our ancestors worked too long and way too hard to be forgotten.  
                   Thanks for taking the time to read about my family, Chat soon, Sheila Munian 
Volunteers offer Support to Researchers in Monterey County
Volunteers will look on census records for specific names.                       Sent by Johanna de Soto
 Old Mission San Juan Bautista  
This portion of the Artifact Database will permit you to view the image database and descriptions associated with the collections recovered by Professor Mendoza and his crews at Old Mission San Juan Bautista. You may also “Search” the database for specific types of materials that interest you.  Non-registered students and site visitors will be offered “Preview Only” access. Project participants and registered students will be permitted “Add Records” access, as well as “Preview” and “Search” privileges.  [Some of this information is free and some requires a membership.  Do Look.]
                                                                                                              Sent by Johanna de Soto
International Tall Ships Return to the West Coast and San Francisco Summer 2002!
To find out more about these magnificent vessels and their visit to the West Coast, 
log onto the Sail San Francisco web site!  Sent by Johanna de Soto

Compiled by John P. Schmal © 2002

Acknowledgments: Many thanks for the permission, cooperation and assistance of Monsignor Lloyd Torgerson, Jim Tuverson and Parish Administrator Mike Mottola in the extraction of Saint Monica's Parish records.

St. Monica was established on June 28, 1886 by Bishop Francis Mora of the Diocese of Monterey and Los Angeles. Father Patrick Hawe became the first resident pastor of the new parish which was then located at Arizona and 3rd Streets in Santa Monica. At this time, Santa Monica was still an unincorporated part of Los Angeles County and part of Ballona Township. Saint Monica's Church moved to its present location at the corner of California and 7th Streets in 1924. 

The baptism registers were recorded in Spanish until 1902, when the parish priest started to use English. While the recording of baptisms commenced in 1886, Saint Monica did not begin recording marriage records until 1924. Before that date, most people were married at mission churches in the area.

Information and history about Saint Monica's Catholic Church Parish Community can be accessed at Luther Ingersoll's "Century History of the Santa Monica Bay Cities" discusses a detailed history of the church, starting with page 292.

The following baptisms are extracts from the baptism book of Saint Monica's from 1886 to 1889. Only baptisms in which one or more parent carried a Spanish surname were recorded. In these early days of Saint Monica's Parish, Spanish surname baptisms outnumbered non-Hispanic baptisms by about 10 to 1.  The legitimacy of each child in relation to his or her parents' marital status at the time of baptism is not being made public at the request of the parish authorities.

Child: Hermengildo Sanchez
Date of baptism: May 30, 1886 Date of birth: April 13, 1886
Parents: Francisco Sanchez and Cristiana Gusman
Godparents: Ignacio Baldes and Prudencio Oliverez

Child: Roque Marquez 
Date of baptism: June 24, 1886 Date of birth: March 25, 1886
Parents: Manuel Marquez and Dolores Urquidez
Godparents: Teofilo Leva and Sacramento Dolores

Child: Cecilia Aurelia Olivera
Date of baptism: June 27, 1886 Date of birth: Feb. 1, 1886
Parents: Andres Olivera and Ynes Bojurkes
Godparents: Agustin Cota and Ulalio Bojurkes

Child: Juana Maria Baldez
Date of baptism: July 3, 1886 Date of birth: July 3, 1886
Parents: Santos Baldez and Concepcion Barillas
Godparents: Miguel Higuero and Carmen Rodriguez

Child: Juana Josefa Baldez
Date of baptism: July 3, 1886 Date of birth: July 3, 1886
Parents: Santos Baldez and Concepcion Barillas
Godparents: Miguel Higuero and Celedonia Farias

Child: Maria Valenzuela
Date of baptism: July 20, 1886 Date of birth: July 20, 1888
Parents: Francisco Valenzuela and Gerarda Rios
Godparents: William Flores and Maria Garcia 

Child: Clara Feliciana Silva
Date of baptism: July 22, 1886 Date of birth: June 11, 1888
Parents: Berges Silva and Nana Rivera
Godparents: Luis Echardis and Clara Rivera

Child: Maria Gracia Bejar
Date of baptism: July 24, 1886 Date of birth: Feb. 11, 1886
Parents: Dolores Bejar and Maria Jose
Godparents: Francisco Reyes and Maria Antonia de Marquez

Child: Isabel Gladys Rhodes
Date of baptism: July 15, 1886 Date of birth: June 10, 1886
Parents: Thomas Rhodes and Josefa Bandini
Godparents: Juan Bandini and Jennie Winston

Child: Guillermo Farias
Date of baptism: July 24, 1886 Date of birth: November 8, 1885
Parents: Andronico Farias and Flores de Maria Apelete
Godparents: Francisco Farias and Carmen Bilmar

Child: Maria Antonia Tapia

Date of baptism: Aug. 21, 1886 Date of birth: April 9, 1886
Parents: Francisco Tapia and Petra Herman
Godparents: Tomas Olivares and Maria Machado Olivarez

Child: Jose Antonio Olivera
Date of baptism: Aug. 29, 1886 Date of birth: May 10, 1886
Parents: Manuel Olivera and Cypriana Herman de Olivera
Godparents: Luis Olivares and Prudencia Olivares

Child: Manuel de Jesus Murre
Date of baptism: Sept. 1, 1886 Date of birth: July 26, 1886
Parents: Jose Murre and Eduviges Peña
Godparents: Hilaria Piña and Manuel Valenzuela

Child: Monica Alta Gracia Valenzuela
Date of baptism: Sept. 10, 1886 Date of birth: Oct. 4, 1885
Parents: Manuel Valenzuela and Modesta Bojorkes
Godparents: Valerio Bojorkes and Alta Gracia Piña

Child: Jose Alberto Cariado 
Date of baptism: Sept. 6, 1886 Date of birth: June 6, 1886
Parents: Manuel Cariado and Merced Bejorina
Godparents: Bonifacio Marquez and Maria Antonia Marquez

Child: Francisco Olivera
Date of baptism: Sept. 10, 1886 Date of birth: Aug. 1886
Parents: Pedro Olivera and Trinidad Olivera
Godparents: Jose Juan Machado and Francisca Reyes

Child: Florencio Valenzuela

Date of baptism: Sept. 20, 1886 Date of birth: Aug. 22, 1886
Parents: Juan Valenzuela and Francisca Gomez
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Michaela Reyes
Notes: Married to Luz Maria Hernandez on Sept. 7, 1951 at St.
Anne's Church, Santa Monica

Child: Martina Crisanta
Date of baptism: Oct. 11, 1886 Date of birth: June 8, 1886
Parents: Esperanza Cota and Jose Lopez
Godparents: Luis Lopez and Ascencion Machado

Child: Felipe Vicente Manriquez
Date of baptism: Nov. 13, 1886 Date of birth: Oct. 27, 1886
Parents: Felipe Manriquez and Atoche de Manriquez
Godparents: Jose J. Carillo and Francesca de Carillo

Child: Martina Crisanta Cota
Date of baptism: Oct. 11, 1886 Date of birth: June 8, 1886
Parents: Esperanza Cota and Jose Lopez
Godparents: Luis Lopez and Ascencion Machado

Child: Felipe Vicente Manriquez
Date of baptism: Nov. 13, 1886 Date of birth: Oct. 27, 1886
Parents: Felipe Manriquez and Atoche de Manriquez
Godparents: Jose J. Carillo and Francesca de Carillo

Child: Mateo Roberto Tapio
Date of baptism: Nov. 28, 1886 Date of birth: Sept. 11, 1886
Parents: Francisco Tapio and Petra Hernandez Tapio
Godparents: Ignacio Valdez and Fredelinda Chavez

Child: Florentina Dominguez
Date of baptism: Nov. 30, 1886 Date of birth: Sept. 14, 1886
Parents: Federico Dominguez and Paula Higuera
Godparents: Francisco Ranjel and Margarita Ranjel

Child: Nicolas Maria Pilar Marquez
Date of baptism: Dec. 20, 1886 Date of birth: Dec. 6, 1886
Parents: Bonifacio Marquez and Maria Antonia Olivares
Godparents: Tomas Olivares and Maria Machado

Child: Vicente Francisco Valenzuela
Date of baptism: Mar. 3, 1887 Date of birth: Jan. 20, 1886
Parents: Manuel Valenzuela and Modesta Bojorques
Godparents: Francisco Ranjel and Nicolasa Bojorques

Child: Angelita Valenzuela
Date of baptism: May 1, 1887 Date of birth: Oct. 12, 1886
Parents: Francisco Bonifacio Valenzuela and Francesca Reyes
Godparents: Jose Donougue and Geralda Rios

Child: Maria Dolores Amada Salido y Saenz

Date of baptism: May 2, 1887 Date of birth: April 10, 1887
Parents: Jesus Salido y Saenz and Amada Garcia
Godparents: Diego Alcala Machado and Angela Bojorquez

Child: Matilda Talamantes
Date of baptism: May 20, 1887 Date of birth: May 14, 1887
Parents: Felipe Talamantes and Carmen Lugo
Godparents: Manuel Machado and Felicitas Machado

Child: Virginia Rios
Date of baptism: May 21, 1887 Date of birth: Jan. 30, 1887
Parents: Roman Rios and Auriola Carillo
Godparents: Federico Peña and Matea Peña

Child: Maria Celestiana Chapman
Date of baptism: May 28, 1887 Date of birth: May 19, 1887
Parents: Juan Chapman and Maria Higuera
Godparents: Elpidio Higuera and Claudina Olivera de Higuera

Child: Jennie Louisa Eschardias
Date of baptism: May 31, 1887 Date of birth: Nov. 13, 1886
Parents: Louis Eschardias and Clara Ribeal
Godparents: Peter Eschardias and Mary Eschardias

Child: Juan Molino 
Date of baptism: June 31, 1887 Date of birth: May 13, 1887
Parents: Evaristo Molino and Crialda Reyes
Godparents: Longa Machado and Rita Reyes

Child: Alfred Herren Aguirre

Date of baptism: July 5, 1887 Date of birth: April 27, 1887
Parents: Jose Antonio Aguirre and Leonarda Cardwell
Godparents: Jose de la Cruz Machado and Francesca Ferrer.

Child: Ramona Perez
Date of baptism: July 3, 1887 Date of birth: Dec. 25, 1885
Parents: Manuel Perez and Crispina Garcia.
Godparents: Barnabe Lelong and Juliana Ruiz
Notes: Married on Nov. 25, 1909 to Ysidro Ortiz, a native of Spain, resident of Los Angeles, at St. Monica's Church, Santa Monica

Child: Audelia Lisado 

Date of baptism: Aug. 7, 1887 Date of birth: May 23, 1887
Parents: Vicente Lisado y Pilar Blanco
Godparents: Pascual Marquez and Michaela Reyes de Marquez

Child: Perfecto Amando Marquez
Date of baptism: Aug. 7, 1887 Date of birth: April 17, 1887
Parents: Pascual Marquez and Miguela Reyes
Godparents: Francisco Aniceto Reyes and Margarita Silai

Child: Eusebio Chiros
Date of baptism: Aug. 21, 1887 Date of birth: Aug. 14, 1887
Parents: Angel Chiros and Francisca Garcia
Godparents: Vicente Lisado and Pilar Blanco

Child: Joaquin Angel Valdez 
Date of baptism: Sept. 17, 1887 Date of birth: Aug. 2, 1887
Parents: Joaquin Valdez and Arcadia Sepulveda
Godparents: Santos Valdez and Concepcion Sepulveda

Child: Francisca Soledad Cruz
Date of baptism: Sept. 25, 1887 Date of birth: June 4, 1887
Parents: Juan Cruz and Maria Antonia Farias.
Godparents: Jose Farias and Leonidas Machado

Child: Maria de la Luz Castro
Date of baptism: Oct. 3, 1887 Date of birth: May 1, 1887
Parents: Miguel Castro and Refugio Yorba
Godparents: Jose Antonio Manriquez and Guadalupe Manriquez

Child: John Joseph Carrillo
Date of baptism: Oct. 5, 1887 Date of birth: Feb. 16, 1887
Parents: John Joseph Carillo and Francisca Roldan
Godparents: Peter R. Brady7 and Mary Ellen Brady

Child: Juan Machado
Date of baptism: Oct. 19, 1887 Date of birth: July 11, 1886
Parents: Federico Machado and Maria Hind
Godparents: Ricardo Machado and Manuela de Machado

Child: Jose Andronico Farias
Date of baptism: Nov. 27, 1887 Date of birth: Nov. 22, 1886
Parents: Adronico Farias and Maria Palateo 
Godparents: Farias and Elvira Farias

Child: Alberto Garcia
Date of baptism: Nov. 27, 1887 Date of birth: Nov. 24, 1886
Parents: Nicolas Garcia and Juana Martinez
Godparents: George Claybrook and Susanna Claybrook

Child: Matoa Vicente Baldes

Date of baptism: Dec. 5, 1887 Date of birth: Sept. 20, 1887
Parents: Vicente Baldez and Dionisia de Valdez
Godparents: Manuel F. Corriel and Clemente de Coronel

Child: Maria de Jesus Donahue
Date of baptism: Dec. 18, 1887 Date of birth: Nov. 4, 1887
Parents: Joseph Donahue and Roberta Gomes
Godparents: Manuel Gomez and Maria Garcia

Child: Alberto Candido Delamantis
Date of baptism: Dec. 24, 1887 Date of birth: Oct. 3, 1887
Parents: Oligario Delamantes and Maria Ochoa
Godparents: Tranquilina Delamantes and Antonio Lisaldo

Child: Modesta Maud Flores
Date of baptism: Dec. 25, 1887 Date of birth: Feb. 6, 1887
Parents: William Flores and Mary Catherine Flores
Godparents: Juan Bautista Bandini and Arcadia Gaffey

Child: Margarita Maybell Flores

Date of baptism: Dec. 25, 1887 Date of birth: May 13, 1889
Parents: William Flores and Mary Catherine Flores
Godparents: Joseph Donahue and Roberta Gomez

Child: Pio de Jesus Olivera
Date of baptism: Jan. 12, 1888 Date of birth: July 11, 1887
Parents: Jesus Olivera and Ramona Cota 
Godparents: Juan Lugo and Vicenta Machado de Lugo

Child: Manuel Cañonis
Date of baptism: Jan. 25, 1888 Date of birth: Dec. 23, 1887
Parents: Juan Cañonis and Maria Antonia Silva
Godparents: Ignacio Manriquez and Manuela Rangel

Child: George Washington Marcadio Contrerez
Date of baptism: Feb. 5, 1888 Date of birth: Jan. 2, 1888
Parents: Francisco Contrerez and Jennie Kennedy
Godparents: Vicente Lugo and Magdalena Machado

Child: Clara Arcadia Dowling 
Date of baptism: Feb. 5, 1888 Date of birth: Jan. 10, 1888
Parents: James Dowling and Estela Carrillo
Godparents: John Joseph Carrillo and Arcadia Carillo de Smeur

Child: Ygnacio Floguencio Machado
Date of baptism: Feb. 7, 1888 Date of birth: Jan. 16, 1888
Parents: Antonio Machado and Manuela Valenzuela
Godparents: Andres Machado and Gracia Machado

Child: Maria Lugarda Delfina Baldez
Date of baptism: Feb. 17, 1888 Date of birth: Dec. 24, 1887
Parents: Santos Baldez and Concepcion Farias
Godparents: Ricardo Machado and Tomasa Talamantes

Child: Ezechial Manriquez
Date of baptism: Feb. 28, 1888 Date of birth: Feb. 20, 1888
Parents: Ygnacio Manriquez and Manuela Ranjel
Godparents: Juan Bejar and Encarnacion Urquera

Child: Manuel Pedro Valencia
Date of baptism: March 11, 1888 Date of birth: Jan. 31, 1888
Parents: Dolores Valencia and Juana Marquez
Godparents: Manuel Marquez and Dolores Horquirez

Child: William Francis Marquez
Date of baptism: April 4, 1888 Date of birth: Feb. 29, 1888
Parents: Bonifacio Marquez and Maria Antonia Olivarez
Godparents: William Francis Nordholl and Juana Marquez

Child: Uluccio Tranquelino Olivera

Date of baptism: April 7, 1888 Date of birth: Dec. 21, 1887
Parents: Andres Olivera and Ynes Bokorkes
Godparents: Agustin Cota and Ulalia Bokorkes

Child: Jose de Jesus Garcia
Date of baptism: April 8, 1888 Date of birth: April 5, 1888
Parents: Francisco Garcia and Isabel Garcia
Godparents: Guadalupe Reyes and Ramona Marquez

Child: Dataniel Ulalio Marquez
Date of baptism: April 8, 1888 Date of birth: Feb. 12, 1888
Parents: Rafael Marquez and Gloria Piña
Godparents: Angel Quiroz and Porfiria Garcia

Child: Jose del Carmen Valenzuela
Date of baptism: April 17, 1888 Date of birth: May 15, 1888
Parents: Jose Valenzuela and Rita Lugo
Godparents: Felipe Neri Valenzuela and Pilar Lugo

Child: Dolores Hilario Deotivis
Date of baptism: April 17, 1888 Date of birth: June 14, 1887
Parents: Leonivis Deotivis and Maria Salas
Godparents: Roman Horquirez and Maria Horquirez

Child: Manuel Duron
Date of baptism: April 29, 1888 Date of birth: Jan. 14, 1888
Parents: Manuel Duron and Maria Salazar
Godparents: Manuel Marquez and Raquela Marquez

Child: Maria Lugardo Delfina Valdez
Date of baptism: May 1, 1888 Date of birth: Dec. 24, 1887
Parents: Santos Valdez and Concepcion Farias
Godparents: Ricardo Machado and Tomasa Talamantes

Child: Alturo Tomaso Baldez
Date of baptism: May 2, 1888 Date of birth: Sept. 18, 1886
Parents: Teofilo Baldez and Maria Antonia Cota
Godparents: Francis Cota and Magdalena Cota

Child: Juliana Lelong 
Date of baptism: May 12, 1888 Date of birth: Feb. 12, 1888
Parents: Barnabe Lelong and Juliana Ruiz
Godparents: Fermin Castillo and Florentina Botillier

Child: Martina Mason
Date of baptism: May 20, 1888 Date of birth: Jan. 31, 1887
Parents: Abel Mason and Flore Rubio
Godparents: Juan Bautista Decazau and Hermingilda Rubio

Child: Miguel Romero
Date of baptism: June 5, 1888 Date of birth: April 23, 1888
Parents: Diego Romero and Rosa Acuna de Romero
Godparents: Hilario Reyes and Rosa Piña

Child: Jose Martin Ruiz
Date of baptism: June 10, 1888 Date of birth: May 26, 1888
Parents: Martin Ruiz and Manuela Espinoza
Godparents: Guillermo Bokorkes and Jesus Velarde

Child: Francisco Chalmer
Date of baptism: June 10, 1888 Date of birth: Sept. 17, 1887
Parents: Vicente Chalmer and Laureana Machado
Godparents: Maria de Chalmer

Child: Alejandro Francisco Marques
Date of baptism: June 10, 1888 Date of birth: Apr. 24, 1888
Parents: Manuel Marques and Dolores Heijuires de Marques
Godparents: Guadalupe Reyes and Soila Reis
Notes: Married to Carmen Rios on December 1, 1909.

Child: Maria Julia Tapio
Date of baptism: June 23, 1888 Date of birth: Apr. 8, 1888
Parents: Antonio Tapio and Juana Belmal 
Godparents: Jose Belmal and Carmen Belmal

Child: Pastor Garcia
Date of baptism: June 23, 1888 Date of birth: Apr. 15, 1888
Parents: Francisco Garcia and Refugio Flores
Godparents: Ramon Sepulveda and Delfina Henriquez

Child: Jose Dolores Valdez

Date of baptism: June 23, 1888 Date of birth: March 27, 1888
Parents: Joaquin Valdez and Arcadia Sepulveda
Godparents: Dolores Machado and Gregoria Leon

Child: Angel Venancio Ranjel
Date of baptism: July 22, 1888 Date of birth: May 18, 1888
Parents: Angel Ranjel and Edolinda Manriquez
Godparents: Emidio Manriquez and Guadalupe Manriquez

Child: Patricio Luis Tapio
Date of baptism: August 7, 1888 Date of birth: March 7, 1888
Parents: Francisco Tapio and Petra Fermen
Godparents: Francisco Figueroa and Manuela Cota

Child: Eliberto Pearson Armas
Date of baptism: August 11, 1888 Date of birth: August 1, 1888
Parents: Jose de Arnas and Maria Camarillo de Armas
Godparents: Juan Camarillo and Maria Dominguez de Pearson

Child: Tomasa Feliciana Olivera
Date of baptism: August 20, 1888 Date of birth: August 1, 1888
Parents: Adolfo Olivera and Dolores Herman
Godparents: Ignacio Baldez and Prudencia Olivera

Child: Ramon Valenzuela
Date of baptism: September 21, 1888 Date of birth: September 20, 1888
Parents: Juan Valenzuela and Trauista Gomes
Godparents: Guadalupe Reyes and Ramona Marquez de Reyes

Child: Joaquin Ciriaco Dominguez
Date of baptism: September 28, 1888 Date of birth: August 8, 1888
Parents: Jose Dominguez and Maria Lobo
Godparents: Pascuala Marquez and Dolores Hurquidez

Child: Pablo Marquez
Date of baptism: September 30, 1888 Date of birth: August 30, 1888
Parents: Felipe Marquez and Atoche Bokorkes
Godparents: Juan Farias and Elvira Farias

Child: Marcario Martin Olivera
Date of baptism: October 13, 1888 Date of birth: February 9, 1888
Parents: Manual Olivera and Cipriana Herman de Olivera
Godparents: Ignacio Valdez and Leonides Machado

Child: Juan Serafine Aralta
Date of baptism: October 16, 1888 Date of birth: Nov. 14, 1886
Parents: Luis Aralta and Teresa Donderez
Godparents: Juan Bejar and Encarnacion Higuera

Child: Joachin Antonio Lugo
Date of baptism: October 28, 1888 Date of birth: August 19, 1888
Parents: Mercurial Lugo and Rita Reyes
Godparents: Bernardino Machado and Erlinda Lugo

Child: Graciela Josefina Sepulvleda
Date of baptism: October 28, 1888 Date of birth: Aug. 27, 1888
Parents: Alejandro Sepulveda and Amada Arnas
Godparents: Jose Arnas and Maria Carmen de Arnas

Child: Emedio Francisco Higuera

Date of baptism: Nov. 24, 1888 Date of birth: August 5, 1888
Parents: Elpidio F. Higuera and Claudina Olivera
Godparents: Francisco Higuera and Josefa Materin

Child: Candida Francisca Marquez
Date of baptism: December 30, 1888 Date of birth: Oct. 3, 1888
Parents: Pascual Marquez and Michaela Reyes
Godparents: Juan Francisco Figueroa and Manuela Cota de Figueroa

Child: Maria Panfila Rios

Date of baptism: Feb. 20, 1889 Date of birth: June 10, 1888
Parents: Hilario Rios and Pesitana Piña 
Godparents: Escalastico Barrerus and Josefa Lugo

Child: Alberto Lisaldo
Date of baptism: March 1, 1889 Date of birth: December 27, 1888
Parents: Vicente Lisaldo and Pilar Blanco
Godparents: Henry Katz and Ulalia Bohorkes

Child: Juan Salgado
Date of baptism: March 2, 1889 Date of birth: October 14, 1888
Parents: Juan Salgado and Francisca Ramirez
Godparents: Juan Batista Bandini and Atala Carrillo

Child: Manuela Marina Manriquez
Date of baptism: March 20, 1889 Date of birth: January 14, 1889
Parents: Ignacio Manrieuz and Manuela Ranjel
Godparents: Tranquilina Talamantes and Delfina Talamantes

Child: Jose de Jesus Lopez
Date of baptism: March 23, 1889 Date of birth: January 29, 1889
Parents: Jose de Jesus Lopez and Guadalupe Dominguez
Godparents: William Flores and Margarito Flores

Child: Magin Alfred Farias

Date of baptism: March 30, 1889 Date of birth: August 19, 1888
Parents: Andronico Farias and Flora Apalate
Godparents: Francisco Bokorkes and Rosanna Farias

Child: Elizar Molina
Date of baptism: April 7, 1889 Date of birth: February 5, 1889
Parents: Evaristo Molino and Eliza Reyes
Godparents: Vicente Lugo and Francisco Reyes

Child: Eulogio Leonardo Stuart
Date of baptism: April 14, 1889 Date of birth: March 9, 1889
Parents: Juan Stuart and Venderanda Lugo
Godmother: Josefa Lugo

Child: Domingo Olivares
Date of baptism: April 25, 1889 Date of birth: December 20, 1888
Parents: Adolfo Olivarez and Dolores Herman
Godparents: Tomas Olivarez and Mariana Chavez

Child: Francisco Emidio Dominguez
Date of baptism: May 12, 1889 Date of birth: April 23, 1889
Parents: Federico Dominguez and Paula Higuera
Godparents: Mirabel Machado and Salome Machado

Child: Dominga de Alcanzar Donahue
Date of baptism: May 15, 1889 Date of birth: May 12, 1889
Parents: Jose Donahue and Roberta Gomes
Godparents: Bonifacio Marquez and Maria Gracio Gomes

Child: Federico Casimiro Racamante
Date of baptism: June 9, 1889 Date of birth: March 4, 1889
Parents: Felipe Racamonte and Guadalupe Guerrero
Godparents: Alejandro Racamante and Margarita Sarez

Child: Octavius Carillo
Date of baptism: Sept. 18, 1889 Date of birth: July 3, 1889
Parents: John J. Carillo and Francisca Boldan
Godparents: Estanislao de Urquiza and Consuelo Celis Urquiza

Child: Alfonso Machado
Date of baptism: October 5, 1889
Parents: Ricardo Machado and Erlinda Romero
Godparents: John Carillo and Manuela Alta Mirano de Machado

Child: Maura Martha Talamantes
Date of baptism: October 21, 1889 Date of birth: July 29, 1889
Parents: Ologario Talamantes and Maria Ochoa
Godparents: Pedro Manriquez and Ascencion Machado

Child: Juan Francisco Antonio Chapman
Date of baptism: October 26, 1889 Date of birth: June 12, 1889
Parents: John P. Chapman and Maria Higuera
Godparents: Bernardo J. Higuera and Rosario Higuera

Child: Juan de Mato Abril
Date of baptism: October 31, 1889 Date of birth: Feb. 8, 1889
Parents: Manuel Abril and Refugio Yorban
Godparents: Miguel Higuero and Seladonia Farias

Child: Candida Modesta
Date of baptism: November 10, 1889 Date of birth: Sept. 3, 1889
Parents: Rafael Marquez and Hilaria Pina
Godparents: David Valenzuela and Modesta Bojorquez

Child: Felipe Bernardino Cota
Date of baptism: December 16, 1889 Date of birth: May 26, 1888
Parents: Jose Lopez and Esperanza Cota
Godparents: Francisca Figueroa and Manuela Cota de Figueroa

Supplementary Information: Many of the Spanish-speaking families living in Saint Monica's parish during these early days were descended from the early California pioneers who had settled in California during the Eighteenth Century. Below are factual notes assembled from the 1900 census, the 1899 Santa Monica Directory and Ingersoll's Century History of the Santa Monica Bay Cities.

In the 1900 Federal Census schedules, 64-year-old Manuel Marquez and his 34-year-old wife Delores were listed as residents of Santa Monica Township. Living in Enumeration District 130 (Sheet 4), Manual stated that he had been born in June 1835 in the state of California, while Delores gave September 1865 as her date of birth. Fourteen-year-old Roque Marquez was listed as a daughter who had been born in March 1886 in California. Manuel's other children were Francisco (born April 1888 - 12 years old), Louis (born August 1890 - 9 years old), Miguel (born July 1892 - 7 years old), Manuela (born December 1894 - 5 years old) and Marlina (3 years old).

In the 1900 census, the 35-year-old farmer Ricardo A. Machado lived in the Ballona Township. According to the census schedules, Ricardo was born in June 1865 in California. His 32-year-old wife Erlinda gave February 1868 as her date of birth. They had apparently been married for 14 years and by this time, Erlinda had given birth to seven children, of which six were still living. 

Although Erlinda was herself a native of California, she told the census taker that both her parents had been born in Mexico. Their six children were listed with the following information: Alfonso (born Aug. 1889), Ricardo F. (born march 1892), Porfirio (born April 1894), Frederico (born January 1896), Alberto (born Nov. 1897) and recently-born Juan (born June 1900).

Andres Rangel was listed as A. Rangel in the 1899 directory as a laborer who lived at South 34d Street. Frank Rangel was also mentioned as a laborer who lived at the corner of Fourth Street and Railroad Avenue.

Andres Olivera was listed in the 1899 Santa Monica Directory as living at South 2nd Street. A year later, he was tallied in the 1900 census schedules as living at Strand Street in Enumeration District 132 (Sheet 8) in Santa Monica. Andres' 53-year-old wife, Marie, gave April 1847 as her month of birth. Five daughters and four sons lived with the couple. Also living in this household was the wife of their son Jose, Josefa Olivera, who had been born in October 1877 and was 22 years old. One grandson, Francisco probably the child of Josefa, had been born in August 1897 and was also living in the home.

Six Vallenzuella's were listed in the 1899 Santa Monica Directory, all of them spelled with two double l's. Angel Valenzuela was listed as a laborer living on Pacific Street east of 2nd Street. In the 1900 census, Jose M. Valenzuela was listed as living on Pacific Street in Santa Monica. Tallied in Enumeration District 132 (Sheet 12), Jose stated that he had been born in January 1827 and was a 73-year-old native of California. His wife, 45-year-old Marguerita gave her date of birth as April 1844.

Jose's son from a previous marriage, Manual (born October 1863, 36 years old) was also living with the family. Jose and Marguerita's daughter, Francisca Marquez, who was born in June 1875 and was 24 years old, also lived in the house on Pacific Street. Jose's grandson, Manuela Marquez, born in July 1896, was also listed as part of this extended household. Two more sons, Jose (born March 1878) and Frank (born May 1887) were also residents of this household.

The Santa Monica Directory of 1899 also listed E. Valenzuela as a laborer, living at 10th Street near Nevada Avenue. In the same directory, Frank Valenzuela was listed as a laborer living at 8th Street at the corner of Utah Avenue. 

But 50-year-old Frank Valenzuela, was tallied in the 1900 census as living at 918 South 2nd Street in Santa Monica Township. Listed in Enumeration District 132 (Sheet 8), Frank lived with his 46-year-old wife, Frances (born in January 1854). Their children were listed in the census as follows: Manual (born December 1878, 21 years old), Frank, Jr. (born December 1878, 19 years old), Marcus (born April 1885, 15 years old), Mary (born April 1886, 14 years old), Ramona (born November 1889, 10 years old), Leona (born October 1891, 8 years old), and Marguerita (born January 1896, 4 years old).

The 1899 Directory lists a George Valenzuela as a printer living at Pacific Street east of 2nd Street. It is possible that this George was the son of Juan Valenzuela, who was tallied in the 1900 census at Pacific Street in Santa Monica. Juan - who gave his age as 50 - was tallied in Enumeration District 132 (Sheet 11), along with his wife Marguerita (42 years old) and nine children: Juan (21 years old), Alfonsa (18), George (16), Emma (14), Robert (12), Arthur (10), Louis (9), Nettie (6), and Carrie (4).

Fifty-one-year-old Juan Valenzuela was recorded in the 1900 census as living at South 8th Street in Enumeration District 132 (Sheet 9) of the Santa Monica Township. Living with Juan were his 46-year-old wife, Felippa (born February 1854) and four sons: Thomas (born January 1884, 16 years old), Florenzo (born November 1885, 13 years old), Ramon (born August 1889, 10 years old) and Antonio (born July 1890, 9 years old). Living in the household with the Valenzuela family was Juan's 78-year-old mother-in-law, Francesca Marquez (who was born on April 1822 in California).

The Jean Valenzuela who is listed as a laborer at 21 South 8th Street in the 1899 directory may actually be Juan.

John J. Carrillo was probably one of the best known figures both in Saint Monica's parish and in the entire city. A son of California pioneers, John was descended from Captain Jose Raymundo Carrillo, a native of Loreto, Baja California, who had come to California in 1769. An extensive biography of John J. Carrillo and a short family history can be found in Ingersoll's Century History on pages 180 to 183.

John J. was born as Juan J. Carrillo on September 8, 1842 in Santa Barbara as the son of Pedro C. Carrillo and his wife, Josefa Bandini. In 1881, John moved to Santa Monica, where he made a name for himself. At first he was an agent, but in 1888, he was elected as city trustee, a post that he held for twelve years in all. But from 1890 to 1897, as President of the City Board, he was essentially the acting Mayor of the City of Santa Monica.

Mr. Carrillo married Miss Francisca Roldan on October 7, 1869 and together, they had 13 children. In the 1899 Santa Monica Directory, two years after the death of his wife, J. J. Carrillo is listed as a "city trustee" living at 250 2nd Street. By this time, his son Ygnacio had developed a respectable practice as a dentist in Los Angeles. His son, Leo Carrillo was listed as an "ass't engineer" living at the same address in 1899. Leo soon gained fame as caricaturist and monologist. John's daughter Eliza R. was also listed in the directory as living at the same address.

E. R. Carrillo was listed in the 1899 directory as a "civil engineer" living at 543 3rd Street, while Ramon Carrillo was listed as laborer who lived on Lake Street. John's son Octavio - by this time - had found employment with the Southern Pacific Railroad. 

Jim Tuverson.
Saint Monica Church, The Centennial Chronicle (1986).
Saint Monica Church, Parish Baptism Book 1886-1889.
Saint Monica Church website:
Luther A. Ingersoll, Ingersoll's Century History of Santa Monica Bay Cities, 1542-1908 (Los Angeles, 1908).

The First Teachers in California 
Sent by Rita AVILA - OLD SPANISH CA. FAMILY >>  GoElRio2

Source: Treasures of LAUSD Homepage:
The following list was compiled by H.H. Bancroft for his book, California Pastoral. The list covers the time from 1794 through 1846, and it provides the names of the teachers of California public schools, the places they taught, their terms of service and in some cases their salaries.
Name  Place  Salary  Terms of Service
Manual de Vargas 
Ramon Lasso 
Manuel de Vargas
Jose' Manuel Toca
Manuel Boronda
Jose' Rodriquez
Jose' Medina
Jose' Alvarez
Manuel de Vargas
Rafael Villavicencio
Miguel Archuleta
Antonio Buelna
Rafael del Valle
Joaquin Buelna
Jose' Berreyesa
Jose' Antonio Romero
Luciano Valdes 
Antonio Menendez 
Jose' Tiburcio Castro
Joaquin Botiller 
Vincente Moraga
Pablo de la Ossa
Cristoval Aguilar
Francisco Pantoja 
Petronilo Rios
Jose' Maria Aguila
Juan Iguera
Jose de los Santos 
Victor Pradon 
Ignacio Coronel
Miguel Avila
Domingo Amador
Marcos Bonilla
Jose Maria Silva
Jose Fernandez
Jose Mariano Romero
Jose Zenon Fernandez
Juan Padilla
Florencio Serrano
Ignacio Coronel Miera y Morena
Enrique Cambuston
Jose Maria Campina
Agustin Davila 
Jose Pena
W.E.P. Hartnell
Guadalupe Medina
Francisca Gomez
Laisa Arguello
Guadalupe Medina
Jorge Allen
Manuel Gutierres 
Florencio Serrano 

San Jose
San Jose
San Diego
Santa Barbara
San Francisco
Santa Barbara
San Francisco
Santa Barbara 
San Jose
San Jose
San Jose
San Jose
San Jose
San Francisco
San Jose
Los Angeles 
San Diego
Los Angeles
Los Angeles 
Sta Gertrudis
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Avila Branciforte (?)
San Gabriel 
San Luis Obispo
Santa Barbara 
Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz
San Jose
San Antonio
Los Angeles
San Jose
Santa Cruz 
Santa Clara
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
San Jose
2.5 reales per child
$250 per annum
$125 per annum
Taught gratuitously

$2 extra pay monthly 
extra pay
extra pay 
$10 per month
$15 per month

 $15 per month 
Taught gratuitously
$15 per month
$20 per month
$20 per month
$10 per month 
$1000 per annum  
$1000 per annum
$15 per month
$1000 per annum
$1000 per annum
$1200 per annum
$1000 per annum
Each child $2.50/month
$20 per month
$1200 per annum
$500 per annum 
$40 per month
$40 per month
$500 per annum 
$40 per month 
$1000 per annum 
$500 per annum 
Dec. 1794-June 1795 
July 1795-May 1796 
July 1795-Dec. 1798
Oct. 1795-June 1797
May 1796-June 1797
May 1796 
June 1797-Dec 1798
Jan. 1799 
Oct. 1811 
Jan. 1818-1822 
Mar. 1820 
Apr. 1820-Dec. 1820
Jan. 1821-Jun 1822 
July 1822 
Mar. 1823-Oct. 1823 
Jan. 1828-Nov. 1830 
Aug. 1828-Dec. 1829 
Jan. 1829
Dec. 1830-Dec. 1831 
Jan. 1832
Jan. 1833
Jan. 1833 
Feb. 1833
March 1834
June 1834 
July 1834  
Nov. 1834
Nov. 1834 
Jan. 1835 
Jan 1835-Aug. 1835 Nov 1834 
Oct. 1835
Nov 1835
Nov. 1835-Nov. 1836  
Feb. 1836
Apr. 1836  
Dec. 1836 
July 1838-Sept 1840 
Apr. 1840-Dec. 1841 
Aug. 1840-Jan. 1846 
July 1841-May 1843
Dec. 1841
May 1842 
June 1843-Feb. 1844
Aug. 1843-July 1844 
June 1844-Apr. 1846
June 1844
Jan. 1845
Jan. 1845  
March 1845
Nov. 1845-July 1846 
Jan. 1846-July 1846   


Weber State Collecting Latino Oral Histories
Family History Radio


Weber State Collecting Latino Oral Histories 
I've recently started collecting Latino oral histories for my library (in English and in Spanish) and we are planning to collect excerpts for a self-published booklet. We are also planning a public issues forum for the fall at which we will have some of the interviewees as speakers. So far, I have been interviewing people who have attained positions of note, but also plan to interview business owners, church volunteers, etc. I'm recording the interviews, having them transcribed, and giving the interviewees an opportunity to review the transcripts, which will later be kept in our Special Collections. All of this is being done in an effort to build a picture of the diverse groups that make up our communities in northern Utah. 
Source: Ruby A. Licona, Community Projects Librarian Stewart Library, Weber State University
Family History Radio:  24-hours a day, seven days a week.
This is a new service from Splitrock Communication of Draper, Utah.  It will carry several different segments: Headlines; Tech Talk, Tips and Tricks; In the Field; Society Section; Ask A Pro; Grandpa Tucket's Stories and My Side of the World.  Eastman Online Genealogy Newsletter via Sequoia Genealogical Society, Inc., Newsletter, Volume 29, # 2, April 02
AHORA  In 1983 Miguel Sepulveda established the Spanish-English newspaper Ahora in Reno, Nevada. He  died in 2000 and last year was honored by the Hispanic community of Reno.  A mural created by the youth were dedicated to Miguel Sepulveda as the man, who with his contributions as a newspaper publisher and supporter of youth,  helped start a "a new beginning of culture diversity" in Reno, Nevada.  Sent by Cindy LoBuglio, Reno Gazette-Journal, 3-22-01.   


The following series was written by Valentine Hughes, volunteer archivist for the Alberni District Historical Society and published in Alberni Valley Times. The first article appeared January 25, 2002 

On March 7th, the Alberni District Historical Society was delighted to participate in the recognition of Pedro de Alberni. The City of Port Alberni, the Alberni Valley Museum, the Maritime Heritage Society and the Historical Society joined together with a number of representatives from Vancouver, Ottawa and Spain to recognize the accomplishments of this very Special man.

There was an afternoon of discussion and discovery sharing what knowledge each representative has. There was a special reception in the Museum to Celebrate Alberni’s Life. About time! It was the 200th anniversary of his death.

Over the years, the Historical Society has been able to gather some information about this man. It would seem that Cook, Vancouver, Quadra and many others were more colorful. It is time the determination, creative skills, and humanity of Pedro de Alberni be recognized. What follows is a very brief look at a small part of the life of a very special person. This is the first of a series of articles so you too will have a chance to get to know this dedicated soldier and humanitarian.

Special thanks go to the volunteer archivists of the Alberni District Historical Society who have continued the search for the story of this man for so many years. Copies of theses, letters, reports and newspaper articles are available to any researcher who is interested. If you have any information to add, please bring it along to the archives located in the Museum any Tuesday or Thursday between 10AM and 3PM.  Alberni District Historical Society
P.O.Box 284  Port Alberni, BC, V9Y 7M7 Phone 1-250-723-2181

ALBERNI WAS A SOLDIER: Don Pedro de Alberni was a career soldier. At the time of his death, at the age of 59, he had been in Military Service for 47 years. He became a cadet in the Second Regiment of Light Infantry of Catalonia in 1757, at the age of 12. In 1762, still as a cadet, he participated in the campaign against Portugal.

At the age of twenty two, in 1767, he volunteered for service in the Americas. Alberni was promoted to sub-lieutenant under the command of Augustin Calis, captain of the newly organized Company of Catalonian Volunteers. He was listed as 4th in command. He saw action in the Sonora Indian Wars from 1767 to 71. Still listed as a sub-lieutenant, he is now listed as 2nd in command and sent to Mexico City for reassignment. About 1780 a Second company of Catalonian Volunreers was formed. These two companies were used much the way today’s Peacekeepers are used: mainly policing, keeping order, transporting prisoners etc. in the small communities that were developing as immigration, mainly from Spain, increased. This of course also meant skirmishes with various Indian bands. In 1782, when the current captain of the First Company of Catalonian Volunteers died, Alberni, though still only a lieutenant, applied for and got the position of Commander of the Catalonians, overseeing both Companies of Volunteers with Royal Approval.

Somewhere in this time period, he married Juana Velez of Tepic. They had one daughter who sadly died at an early age.

In 1789 we find Alberni and his troops in Guadalajara. They were keeping order, transporting prisoners and other duties. The men had not received their pay for July and August so Alberni protested and demanded immediate restitution. After numerous letters and visits to the paymaster, he presumably got a trifle exuberant and his actions were considered a threat. He was reported to the Regent, the King’s representative in Mexico and ordered to place himself under house arrest. He refused to do so. The men were paid in late September. Then came orders to prepare for reassignment to Nootka, Spain’s northernmost outpost in the Pacific Northwest. Alberni then demanded new rifles for all his men. The ones they were using were at least 10 years old. They also needed to be re-outfitted for the conditions of a long sea voyage and much colder and wetter conditions than northern Mexico. Soldiers usually had to pay for their uniforms and equipment. In this case they only paid a portion. Then came the march to San Blas, in January of 1790. It would have taken over a week.

San Blas, Mexico, at that time was the major seaport on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The ships for exploration were built there and sailed throughout the area from there. Quadra, a Naval officer, was the Commandant of the port at this time. Preparation for the trip North continued. When it came time to depart, Quadra was ordered to place Alberni "under arrest for insubordination" for the 60 days of the voyage because of that earlier dispute. A total of 80 Volunteers sailed in 3 ships. Presumably the trip was uneventful and upon arrival Alberni did write a rather tongue in cheek letter of apology and took up his official duties as Commandant of Arms and Governor of the Fort of Nootka. The mission was to guard Spanish vessels and reestablish fortifications. After two and a half very eventful but peaceful years he went back to San Blas. He is remembered mainly for his diplomatic dealings with the local Natives, his gardens of fresh produce for the locals and visiting ship crews, his daily weather records, and the buildings his men built under his direction.

At this stage, Alberni is promoted to lieutenant colonel in the Spanish Army, although still Captain of the Companies of Catalonian Volunteers. The next two years are spent in Guadalajara.

In 1795, back in San Blas, Alberni and 72 Catalonian Volunteers were sent to California. By this time Spain is at war with France and invasion of the coast was feared. In 1796 Alberni was appointed Commandant of the San Francisco Presidio. He was the Overall Commander of the four garrisons in California. He was the highest ranked soldier in the Californian Territories..

In 1800 he was assigned to the defenses at Monterey and again became Commandant. When Pedro de Alberni died in March 1802 it brought an end to the amazing career of a dedicated, compassionate soldier.  But, this is only part of the story. The Man is even more fascinating than the Soldier.

PEDRO ALBERNI THE MAN: I am now going to attempt to develop the man from what I have been able to find out from the files in the Community Archives. Over the years the Alberni District Historical Society has been able to gather quite a lot of information from different sources. Most of it came in its original Spanish. Thanks to Mark Fernandez, a Society member, J. Rodriguez, a translator, and J. Forsyth, the Librarian of the Provincial Library in 1922, we have some pretty good translations of letters and other documents from New Spain of the period including 1780 to 1802. We also have the 
scholarly dissertations of Professor Thomas Bartroli when he was teaching at the University of British Columbia about 1975 to 85 and the Thesis of Joseph Patrick Sanchez "The Catalonian Volunteers and the Defense of Northern New Spain.

Now to continue the story of Don Pedro de Alberni. On January 30th 1747, a son was born to Jaime de Alberni in the City of  Tortosa, in the Kingdom of Catalonia in the country of Spain. He was given the name of Pedro. He had three brothers and two sisters. His oldest brother became a Notary, or Lawyer. The rest of the boys entered military service. One sister became a nun. We have no information about the other one. The family was prominent enough to have its own Coat of Arms. This would have been inherited by the oldest son. On it, at the top there is a helmet with the visor down. The shield is divided into four pictures: top left appears to be waves (navy?), top right are two hands clasped (friendship? diplomacy?) lower right are the two hemispheres of the world (a lot of travel, exploration?), lower left is a sword with a coronet at the base of the blade, hilt, and two small crowns placed on either side of the blade tip (service to the King?). One day we will be able to learn more.

Looking ahead to the type of man Pedro de Alberni became, I think it is safe to say he had a happy and compassionate childhood. He was a good student. In the area he was born the language was Catalonian which was quite distinct from the Castile spoken as the official tongue of Spain. Alberni was obviously fluent in both as his letters and official reports show. His handwriting is a joy to look at. His concern for his troops and their well being to the extent of putting his own career in jeopardy show a tremendous strength and sense of justice. His preference of signing himself "Pedro Alberni" rather than using the various titles he could have , show a certain humbleness. The only title he used was "Captain of the Catalonian Volunteers", something he remained very proud of until his death even though he went on to be the Officer in Charge of both the First and Second Companies of the Catalonian Volunteers and a Lieutenant Colonel in the Spanish Malitia and Overall Commander in Charge of all four garrisons in the California Territory. His interest in horticulture, construction, 
meteorology, languages and native customs all point to some grounding in these skills far beyond casual curiosity. Not bad for someone who became a cadet at the age of twelve and saw action on the Portuguese front at seventeen! Appearance, we know nothing about. We have sketches of the uniform worn by the Volunteers. Did he wear a beard? I came across one reference to all the 
Spaniards in the New World having hairy faces! I like to think he was quite a dashing figure with a strong personality that people responded to, mostly with favor.

We do know that he married a lady from Tepic, one Juana Velez, and that they had one daughter who sadly died at an early age. He wrote a will leaving everything to his wife when he died in 1802.
Was he in contact with any of his family back in Spain? did he ever see any of them again after he left in 1767 for Mexico? There are so many questions. Maybe someday .....The next article will be about some of the incidents leading up to the journey to Nootka and what happened there. You will become acquainted with that part of Canadian coastal history and why our inlet has the name it does.

PEDRO ALBERNI GOES TO NOOTKA: In these articles about Alberni the place names I have used are the ones most familiar to us. To locate Nootka, if you are interested in looking at maps, find one that shows the West coast of Canada. It should show Vancouver Island in some detail. About 2/3 of the way up the outside of the island, you will see a long inlet. At the entrance is a rather large island called Nootka. Near the Southwest tip is a tiny place called Friendly Cove. This was the name given to Nootka by Captain Vancouver to commemorate the "friendly" negotiations between himself and Quadra in 1892 and 93 at this site. 

The first official name of Vancouver Island was Vancouver's and Quadra's Island. Neither England nor Spain would approve it so when the hand-over took place, it became Vancouver Island.
To begin this part of the story, it is necessary to go to Guadalajara where Captain Alberni and some of the Catalonian Volunteers were garrisoned to keep the peace and assist the government. The men had not received their wages for July or August of 1789. Alberni protested on a number of 
occasions, first by letter, then vigorously in person. The paymaster reported this action to the Viceroy, and ordered Alberni to place himself under house arrest. He refused.

In the meantime, at Nootka, the man in charge, one Esteban Jose Martinez, had accused one of Chief Maquinna's under chiefs of stealing and had him shot. Also he had two visiting British ships put under arrest and taken to San Blas in Mexico. Both these moves were extremely dangerous and could have caused the end of the Spanish settlement either by Maquinna and his warriors, or the British navy that was busy not only exploring but protecting the established trade routes in the North Pacific.

Alberni had a reputation for being able to work peacefully with Native populations and for being a diplomat. He was the logical choice. He was ordered to assemble his men and leave for Nootka. This was decided in September around the time of his altercation with the paymaster. That had 
to be settled and his men had to be clothed and equipped for their assignment in a much colder climate. Eventually that was all taken care of and off they went to San Blas to board three ships destined for Nootka. 

Quadra, who was the Naval Commandant of San Blas, was ordered to place Alberni under arrest for the duration of the journey, a total of more than 60 days. There is no further mention of what happened except a letter that Alberni wrote, upon his arrival in Nootka, saying that he respected his 
superiors despite his arrest and that he would defend Nootka "to my death". Captain Francisco Eliza was the Naval Commandant and Captain Pedro Alberni was the Commandant of Arms and Governor of the Fort of Nootka. 

Eliza supervised the exploration and coastal defence. Alberni was responsible for the rebuilding of the fort and construction of whatever other buildings were required, and the defense of the land base. These two men worked extremely well together and things thrived. Alberni was in charge of 80 Catalonian Volunteers. He assigned those who were good at construction to build the fort, houses and storage sheds. 

Those who were interested in gardening were assigned the job of preparing and developing a series of gardens to feed the garrison and to provide fresh produce for visiting ships. The rest were assigned guard duties and some sailed with the ships on their explorations of the coast.

Alberni kept amazingly detailed records. As a horticulturist, he recorded the planting date of all seeds, how they grew in local conditions, what seasons were best for each type of vegetable, and what would not grow successfully. Remember, he was using seeds from Spain and Mexico. There was also some small livestock to supplement the fish and wild game. As a meteorologist, he recorded the daily weather conditions for the whole period he was there.

This man was also a diplomat and a linguist. He made a point of rebuilding a good relationship with Chief Maquinna and the First Nations People of the area. He learned their language sufficiently well to participate in ceremonies and even to compose a song praising Maquinna. It went something 
like this:
Maquinna, Maquinna, Maquinna Is a great prince and our friend
Spain, Spain, Spain Is a friend of Maquinna and Nootka

Even after Alberni and his men had left Nootka, there is a report by botanist Mozino to Spain referring to an interview he had with Maquinna where he was asked that Alberni be given "many, many hugs" as a greeting "from his friend".

In 1791, while Alberni and his men were still in Nootka, Captains Eliza and Navaro set sail to explore the area now called the Straight of Juan de Fuca. En route some exploration of Barkley Sound took place. A large inlet was noted. It was named Canal de Alberni to honor this man of great abilities. Check that map again and to the South, on the outside coast, you will find Barkley Sound and a long narrow inlet that almost cuts the island in half. The Alberni Inlet and the city which grew at its headwaters are the only places in the world to bear this name. How proud we Port Alberniites are to live in a place that recognizes a soldier dedicated to  peace and honor.
PEDRO ALBERNI: NOOTKA AND BEYOND: During his stay in Nootka, Don Pedro de Alberni was the Commandant of Arms and Governor of the Fort of Nootka. His Naval counterpart was Captain Francisco Eliza. Alberni was in charge of 80 Catalonian Volunteers. He assigned those who were good at construction to build the fort, house, barracks and storage sheds. Those who were interested in gardening were assigned the job of preparing and developing four gardens to feed the garrison of Nootka and supply fresh produce to visiting ships. The rest were assigned guard duties and some sailed with the ships exploring the coast.

Alberni, the Horticulturist, had brought seeds with him. He kept detailed records of not only what was planted, but how it fared, when was the best time to plant each species, type of storage and what worked and what did not. Alberni, the Meteorologist, kept daily records of weather conditions and temperatures for the more than teo years of his stay.

Alberni, the Linguist and Diplomat, befriended Chief Maquinna and the First Nations People of the area. He learned the language sufficiently well to participate in ceremonies, start a dictionary and even compose the song referred to earlier praising Maquinna. Friendly relations continued even 
after Alberni left Nootka.

When Pedro Alberni and his men returned to Mexico in 1792, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in the Spanish Army although he was still Captain of the First Company of Volunteers of Catalonia. Obviously his superiors were pleased with his successes in Nootka.

For the next two years, Alberni was posted to Guadalajara where he was able to spend some time with his wife and daughter.

In 1795 he was posted to California, first to the Presidio of San Francisco and then Monterey. He became responsible for all the Catalonian Volunteers posted to the four garrisons and small outposts throughout the territory. He was the highest ranked Spanish soldier in the California Territory at this time.again, he seems to have been able to keep the peace. He placed a lot of emphasis on having men who were married and had families, particularly in the larger centers.

Don Pedro de Alberni, Captain of the first Company of Volunteers of Catalonia, Lieutenant Colonel in the Spanish Army, died in Monterey after a short illness. He was buried on March 11th 1802. He had been a soldier for 47 of his 59 years. He was survived by his wife, Juana Velez. His daughter 
had predeceased him.

A SUMMARY OF PEDRO ALBERNI: Pedro Alberni was a soldier, first and foremost. He was part of a well educated family who lived in Tortosa, Catalonia, Spain. He was a founding member of the Company of Volunteers of Catalonia and served most of his career in the New World, in what is now Mexico, Friendly Cove on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada and in California.

Alberni was a natural leader. He knew and understood the men who served under him and did his utmost to keep them well equipped and serving in ways that were satisfying to them. He was a keen observer and kept meticulous records. These show up particularly in the horticultural and meteorological records from Nootka.Pedro Alberni was NOT a sailor. He was a Captain in the Army, not the Navy. He never commanded a ship.

Alberni never saw the inlet named in his honor. He may have still been in Nootka, but he was never on any of the exploratory trips along the coast, so he also did NOT sail up the inlet that still bears his name.

The search continues for information about the Alberni family in Spain, a proper explanation of the symbols on the family Coat of Arms, and Alberni's wife Juana Velez of Tepic. If you have any information to add to our collection we would certainly appreciate hearing from you. The address and 
email are at the beginning of this collection of articles.  Check out the website of the Alberni Valley Times:
Juan Matias Sanchez
First bookless library opens Tucson
Trees planted to fight odors in Méxicali Trees 
Arzobispado de Durango
Paso al Norte Migration History Museum 
Juan Matias Sanchez  There are 92 individuals and 34 families representing 29 surnames in this database.  Southern California and New Mexico history are covered in the migration of these families.  The web mistress is Dara Jones at
Juan Matias Sanchez This is an excellent site. Lots of information and links to the history and genealogical data for any descendant of Juan Matias Sanchez. 
If you are connected, you are LUCKY!
First bookless library opens Tucson Extract from article in Tucson Citizen, April 16, 2002
The Tucson-Pima Public Library is opening its first bookless branch. The Santa Rosa Learning Center Library will have no books. It features 34 new computers with LCD flat screens for Internet access, research, writing and classes. Many classes at the 8,400 sq.-foot Santa Rosa library will be taught in English and Spanish, said Martin Rivera, librarian and instructor at the library. The Santa Rosa community has received $70 million from local, state and federal funds in its community improvement effort.   Source: Tony Arroyo > 
Trees planted to fight odors in Méxicali 
Extract from La Crónica (Méxicali), April 4, 2002. Tree article by José Manuel Yépiz Ruiz.
In an attempt to mitigate odors coming from a waste-water treatment facility in Méxicali's Zaragoza neighborhood, Méxicali's Dirección de Ecología (Office of Ecology) has begun planting 6,000 trees on the banks of a waste treatment pond. Another 9,000 trees will be planted in future phases of the project. According to Alejandra León Gastélum, head of the Dirección de Ecología, the trees are all from species that absorb odors and should reduce odors around the treatment plant by 60%. Her office is also in the midst of testing some chemical products to see if they could help mitigate the problem.

Frontera NorteSur: On-line news coverage of the US-Mexico border:
FNS is an outreach program of the Center for Latin American and BorderStudies
New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico
Greg Bloom, Editor, Email address: (505) 646-6817
From the Archivos Históricos del Arzobispado de Durango, 1800-1893
Rick Hendricks, Editor, John Colligan, Compiler
his volume consists of two hundred and fifty-six diligencias matrimoniales, or prenuptial investigations, from the microfilm collection of the Archivos  Históricos del Arzobispado de Durango at the Rio Grande Historical Collections, New Mexico State University Library. newbook.html  For more information call: (505) 646-3839 

Paso al Norte Migration History Museum  Update
First half of the article written
by Emanuel Anthony Martinez:
Segundo Barrio
Sent by Roberto Camp

Generations have traveled across this river -- sometimes as quiet dust, sometimes as a violent rainstorm. This river has been called the Rio Bravo, the Rio Grande, and more often today, “The Border.”

Whether these travelers were the Jumano and Manso people who farmed the El Paso region before history, Missouri traders following the Santa Fe-Chihuahua Trail in the 1800s, or Mormon and Mexican refugees fleeing the Mexican Revolution in the early 1900s  ------

my great-grandmother, lupe rodriguez, and her children - 1930's

These human experiences weave together the fabric that makes the story of U.S.-Mexico migration.
For the descendants of these travelers, the narrative fabric of these journeys has been held almost as a secret, kept as a worn brown photograph in a dusty album, a family legend passed over the dinner table, or una cosita cherished as an artifact from a mysterious past.

Now the University of Texas at El Paso is leading the charge to create the Paso al Norte Immigration History Museum and Research Center in El Paso, a place to share, record, and explore these stories. The project, like the history it seeks to tell, is an epic idea that is difficult to track in the moment and only becomes clear over time. It is an often-frustrating process that is years in the making, and, some say, a closed circle that does not include the community in which it resides.

“To me, ‘Paso al Norte’ has the promise of highlighting many stories, both the famous and the unrecognized, recording the dignity of the human spirit and the quiet courage of those who ventured north,” said Vicki L. Ruiz, historian and author of “Cannery Women-Cannery Lives: Mexican Women, Unionization, and the California Food Processing Industry, 1930-1950” (University of New Mexico Press, 1987).

Another prominent historian and author, Mario T. García, favored the idea of El Paso as the proposed site for a U.S.-Mexico immigration museum. “I’ve always felt that El Paso is the logical location for something like this. Historically, it has been the gateway for immigration from Mexico,” he said. In his book, “Desert Immigrants: the Mexicans of El Paso, 1880-1920” (Yale University Press, 1982), García wrote, “Between 1880 and the beginning of the Great Depression almost 1 million Mexicans entered the United States, thousands first arriving in El Paso.”

In July, 2001, the Smithsonian Institute co-hosted with UTEP and the Congressional Hispanic Caucus a reception in Washington, D.C. honoring the proposed museum. At the event, UTEP President Diana Natalicio shared her own vision of the impact the museum may have on preserving the stories of El Paso del Norte’s travelers. Taken from a transcript of the event, she said:

“For centuries, the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez in Chihuahua have served as the ‘Southwest Ellis Island’ for hundreds of thousands of immigrants,” she said. “These ‘New Americans’ started their journey from different points of origin, from Mexico and Latin America, from Asia and the Middle East ... (and) the stories of their experience reveal a common thread: the sense of pride that accompanies the telling of these stories by their descendants. I have heard many such stories—and with them, the wish that this history could, in some way, be preserved and commemorated.”

Natalicio said the idea for the proposed museum came from a Christmas gift she received several years ago—the novel “Rain of Gold,” by Victor Villaseñor. “Rain of Gold” tells the epic story of Villaseñor’s family migration from Mexico through El Paso to California. “I was suddenly struck by the fact that there was no place where immigration across the southern border was commemorated, as immigration from Europe is celebrated — and honored — at Ellis Island,” she said.

Oscar Martinez, an historian and author of the recently published book, “Mexican-Origin People of The United States” (University of Arizona Press, 2001), said community leaders and activists had been dreaming of a U.S.-Mexico immigration history museum for years.

“Involvement goes back to the 1970s with LULAC. People talked about it and it has been discussed for decades in other southwestern cities,” he said. Martinez recently has raised questions about the project, citing lack of community involvement in the decision-making process.

In 1972, UTEP established a program that may be considered, in retrospect, a seed for the museum — the Institute of Oral History. The Institute was created to “preserve the history of the region” and currently claims a collection of more than 1,000 interviews ranging in topic from immigration and labor to politics and business. The Institute is included as part of the Paso al Norte museum effort, is made part of museum promotional materials, and has been referred to by Natalicio as a possible “intellectual base” for the proposed museum.

The revived and current interest in establishing the Paso al Norte museum came after a $50,000 Andrew Mellon Foundation grant to UTEP in 1998. The grant was aimed at supporting assessment and planning for an immigration center in El Paso. Natalicio said the response from this initial work was encouraging and that soon, “we had a large and enthusiastic base of support.”

The Mellon Foundation grant was followed by a pair of Ford Foundation grants — $260,000 to UTEP in 2000, and $260,000 to the University of Texas Board of Regents the following year.

Also, in July 2001, the National Endowment for the Humanities contributed $10,000 to assist with consultation fees and planning. The 77th Texas State Legislature additionally provided UTEP with an appropriation of $100,000 for the 2002-2003 biennium.

U.S. Rep. Silvestre Reyes (D-El Paso) also has expressed his support for the museum. Reyes filed the Paso al Norte National Museum of Immigration History Act (H.R. 2162) — a $15 million appropriations request — in the last Congressional session. However, the funding request was not successful. Karl McElhaney, grants coordinator for Reyes’ office, cited a tight fiscal-year budget as the reason. “We will be resubmitting another request for the next Congress,” McElhaney said.

The same Congress, however, chose to pass a bill establishing another comparable museum project — the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, D.C. Created by Public Law 107-106, the 23-member commission was appropriated $2 million and has nine months to come up with a plan for establishing the national museum.

For the Paso al Norte museum, financial support from grants and appropriations has totaled $680,000 to date. “A fund of this size is good seed money,” said Adrián Bustamante, interim director for the National Hispanic Cultural Center of New Mexico in Albuquerque. “It’s enough for planning and architectural work.”

Marguerite Rivera Houze, Executive Director of the Paso al Norte Immigration History Museum and Research Center, said she is also looking to the Rockefeller Foundation and the Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives for additional funding.


Administrators at the University of Texas at El Paso began the development and planning process for the museum in early 2001. In January 2001, a group of local historians, community activists, professors, and students met in a small room in an administrative building at the corner of Stanton and Arizona. Michael Topp, professor of history at UTEP, stood before the group and asked them to brainstorm a few general questions: What should be the scope of the museum? What should be its mission? Whom should it represent?

These same questions have remained central throughout the museum development process and would soon create controversy over its direction. 

“We can romanticize and glorify that immigrant experience without asking very critical questions,” Garcia said in a later conversation. “It needs to be a museum that looks critically at this experience, particularly because these experiences are still going on today,” he added.

Ruiz, the author of “Cannery Women,” said the histories of Spanish-speaking peoples in the United States have often been ignored or overlooked, both in academic writing and museum exhibits.

“In U.S. history textbooks, for examples, Mexican Americans are mentioned only here and there, with predominant focus on Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers,” she said. “Indeed, though Chavez is a significant historical figure, his legacy is not the only Latino story.”  Added Martinez: “The immigration museum goes to the core of Mexican American history and identity.”

n March 2001, participants in a three-day planning forum organized by UTEP at the Camino Real Hotel tackled similar questions as those from the previous January. National and international scholars, museum directors, and other notable leaders in the field of immigration and museum planning attended.

With the assistance of James E. Sims, principal of Virginia-based Threshold Studio, UTEP and the group developed a draft conceptual plan for the museum.

“We’ve worked for a year and a half basically to conceptualize, to bring together the content and the vision for the audience. We’ve been listening to consultants from El Paso, Juárez, and around the United States,” said Sims, formerly the senior designer of the National Museum of American History and Acting Director of the Museum Studies office of the Smithsonian Institution.

The conceptual plan includes four broad exhibit themes to guide the continued work:

  • The Crossing — What is the story of the crossing? What happens when two cultures meet at the border?
  • Places on the Journey: Border, Town, and Path — What is the story of migration? How are villages linked and changed as a result of people leaving one village and creating a community in the United States? What is the path physically and metaphorically?
  • Being Mexican in the U.S. — What does it mean to be Mexican in the United States?
  • Policy and Politics: A Global Landscape — What are the politics and policies of border migration?

The plan also includes a proposed timeline for the museum. According to Sims, the success of meeting that timeline depends on three essential factors: vision, authority, and resources. “Vision” refers to establishing a mission for the museum. “Authority” refers to establishing who decides. And “resources” refers to having adequate research and funding for the project. “Part of developing a museum is an intellectual question,” said Sims. “It depends on the questions you want to ask and how you want to tell the stories. That may fall into place very quickly or it may take some years.”

It took four years after state approved its funding for Albuquerque to build the first phase of the National Hispanic Cultural Center of New Mexico, said Bustamante. “It will take another 18 months to complete our new performing arts center,” he added.  “A major exhibit will take two to five years to develop,” said Sims.

According to the proposed timeline, the Paso al Norte museum will display its first exhibit in two years. “We’re hoping to be on our feet by 2004,” said Houze.

As an organization, UTEP ultimately envisions a Paso al Norte museum as an independent non-profit with its own board of directors and it own independent funding sources. “UTEP does not plan to make the museum part of its administrative structure,” Sims reiterated.

Currently, the museum project is in its second phase of development. The proposed timeline for the Paso al Norte museum states that this phase, “begins with planning interpretive strategies that will shape the audience’s experience of the museum. The phase ends with a review of sketches and maquettes, a narrative walk-through of the visitor experience, and an outline of the artifacts, key images, and text to be presented in each section of the permanent exhibitions.”

Guiding this process is the Paso al Norte Immigration Museum International Advisory Council. The Advisory Council was established late last year and is comprised of nearly 30 scholars and museum professionals from throughout the United States and Mexico. Advisory Council members were selected because of the particular expertise, knowledge, or skills they brought to the table, said Houze.

The Advisory Council held its most recent meeting in El Paso on Jan. 11, 2002, and plans to meet again in New York in June.  

Houze is also working on holding focus groups throughout the country to gather ideas, information, and stories to support the museum. “Developing this museum isn’t strictly an academic exercise,” she said. “It’s a personal story telling.”

She emphasized that the project is in a planning stage and the final museum concept has not yet been developed. “There are other voices and experts that will help define the museum,” she said. “This is the idea of the focus groups.”   

Christine's Genealogy Website
New Museums to Honor African-Americans
A Tale of Two Identities: The Lives of Some Black Latinos Reflect a Unique Blend of African Roots And Hispanic Culture
Christine's Genealogy Website
A comprehensive site for African American genealogy. Not searchable. Original content includes the Freedmen's Bureau Records pages (organized geographically), mostly from around the time of the Civil War. There are also subject collections devoted to African American, Native American, and Hispanic Genealogy Resources, Genealogy Societies, Historical Societies, State Archives, Census Info, and even Obituaries on the 'Net. Other pages contain: a Partial Listing of African Americans Lynched in the U.S. Since 1859; Historic African American Settlements; and more.
New Museums to Honor African-Americans
South Carolina:  The principal port of entry into British North America was Charleston, South Carolina.  In that city, the mayor is working on two projects that will tell the story of slavery.  Da Downtown building was once the site of slave auctions i being renovated to become a museum.
Virginia: Governor L. Douglas wilder, the nation's first elected black governor and the grandson of slaves, is planning a museum that would cost $100 - $200 million and attract millions yearly visitors. 
California: In San Francisco, the African American Museum of San Francisco is in the planning stages.  It is planned to honor black artists and history.  The Family Tree, April/May 2002, pg 13  
Revenge on the Ku Klux Klan 
Many of you are aware that a few weeks ago, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the state of Missouri cannot discriminate against the Ku Klux Klan when it comes to groups that want to participate in the adopt-a-highway program. While seeing the name of the Klan on a highway sign is aesthetically disgusting, most realized that this decision was a victory for free speech and equal protection under the law. 

Well, the Department of Transportation in Missouri has gotten its legal revenge, and boy is it sweet. True, they can't remove the KKK's adopt-a-highway sign, but no one would dispute the state's right to name the highway itself. The KKK is now regularly cleaning up a stretch of the newly christened "Rosa Parks Freeway".    Email sent by Lynette Chapa

A Tale of Two Identities: 
The Lives of Some Black Latinos Reflect a Unique Blend of African Roots And Hispanic Culture

By Edgar Sandoval, Allentown, PA Morning Call, February 26, 2002
Sent by Howard Shorr

Elsa Vazquez remembers being 8 and running to her mother, excited about buying her first headband, a yellow one.  Why did you buy such a bright color, her mother asked? The yellow will contrast with your skin color and more people will notice you are black, her mother said.
Vazquez, who was living in the Dominican Republic at the time, looked at her skin. 

She was black indeed. She headed back to the store to return the headband and buy a black one, to match her skin color.  That was the day Vazquez, 47, who now lives in Allentown, became conscious of her identity. And ever since, she has learned to live with a dual identity, that of being black and Latino.  "I feel comfortable in a room with people of color," she said.

Some black Latinos say the dual identities present challenges because they do not feel part of any particular group. They struggle to honor their African roots, but also try to display their loyalty to countries such as the Dominican Republic, Colombia and Puerto Rico.

"A lot of people don't understand the mixture of Latinos, African, Indian, Spaniard," Allentown resident Juan Orta said. "There is no one Latino look. I look black, and I am black. But I am also a proud Puerto Rican."

Some say there are Latinos who see them as black and not part of their ethnic circle. There are also some African-Americans who see them as Latinos and do not consider skin color to be enough to welcome them into the black community.

About 4 percent of the Hispanics in Allentown consider themselves black, according to the 2000 Census. In Bethlehem, 3 percent of Latinos consider themselves black, and in Easton, 5 percent.

The numbers simply reflect the diversity among the Latino community, black Latinos say. Many of the Latinos from the Caribbean islands can trace their ancestors to Africa. Beginning in the 1500s, the slave trade took Africans to several parts of Latin America.  Over the centuries they assimilated to different countries and others mixed with Europeans and natives.

Vazquez inherited her black skin from her father, who traces his ethnicity to Haiti. She was raised by her mother, a fair-skinned Dominican, and her relatives.  "I was the only black one in the family," she said.

Today, Vazquez keeps a collection of eight black dolls by her desk at St. Luke's Hospital in Fountain Hill, where she is a social worker, to remind her of her roots.  "I like them," she said. "As a child, I only played with black dolls, because they looked like me."

Orta, a native of Puerto Rico, shares similar values. He and his family embrace both cultures, the Latino side of his Puerto Rican roots and his African side.  At reunions, family members play African-like drums with a combination of Latin salsa and soul lyrics.

"A lot of people are surprised to learn that I am Puerto Rican because of my features," Orta said. "I don't have a double personality. I just accept where I come from."

Orta traces his African roots to his father's side of the family. His father, who still lives in Puerto Rico, and his aunt have always worn African-style clothing, he said. His father usually wears long white shirts and pants and his aunt always preferred bright-colored dresses, wraps on her head and big earrings, he said.

His father gave him a "pango," an African drum made out of hollow wood and rabbit skin. He plays it at home and at events to showcase part of his culture, he said. "If you try to be who you are not, you are confusing your children," he said of the importance of teaching youth about mixed racial identity.

Kevin Castro, 30, of Bethlehem, said that over the years he has developed a "thick" skin. When he speaks in English, people assume he is African-American. When he speaks Spanish, some people are surprised. Well, of course, he says. He is a native of Colombia.

"I am 100 percent Hispanic, and African-American by adoption," he said. "I am of African descent, but I am Latino."

Castro noticed he was different from other Latinos -- his skin was darker -- when he was about 5 years old and living in Colombia. When he moved to Miami a few years later, his African-American friends noticed he did not share a similar taste in music and clothes and thought he acted "too white," he said.

Among Latinos, he often felt conscious about his skin color. When a friend invited him to a religious event at her house, he asked if "they would welcome black people."  Sure, his friend replied, explaining that the church had a lot of black members.

But most of that was in the past, he said. Today, like Orta and Vazquez, he is proud to be a black Latino. The combination makes him a more interesting person, he says.

Yet every now and then, he faces a sense of separation, that he is not fully Latino. "Sometimes I hear some Latinos talking bad about black people and then they look at me and say "Oh, not you, the other black people,"' he said. "That aggravates me."

Some black Latinos say that sharing more than one race or culture often leads them to learn more about their ancestry. They appreciate the history and culture of Africa and at the same time display their Latinhood.   "We are more exotic," Vazquez said.
On This Date In North American Indian History
National head count
Trivia on  Iroquois
Christianity Among the Indians of the Americas
Cheyenne Coming Home
The Indigenous Languages of Mexico

On This Date In North American Indian History
Wonderful website of important 3000 historical date concerning tribes though-out North America. The site can be searched by month and date. it is a monumental effort and a work in progress. This site is undergoing some VERY major renovations. Please bear with me. Recommended by Brittanica.
by Phil Konstantin  (copyright 1996-2002)

Following are two examples:
May 4th, 490: Palenque Maya Lord Kan - Xul I is born according to the museum at Palenque 

May 4th, 1863: After the Minnesota uprising of the Santee Sioux, and their subsequent defeat, their lands are forfeited. The surviving Indians, including those who opposed the uprising and helped the whites, are ordered to be shipped to a reservation in Dakota Territory. 770 Santee Sioux board a steamboat in St. Paul for the journey west. Eventually 1,300 Santee Sioux are transported to an area which can hardly support life. During the first year, 300 Santee die. 

May 5th, 1763: Near Fort Detroit, Ottawa Chief Pontiac addresses a group of Huron, Ottawa, and Potawatomi warriors. He asks them to join him in his fight against the British. 

May 5th, 1800: William Augusta Bowles is an adventurer in the southeastern part of the United States. With Creek and Cherokee supporters, he proclaims a new nation, Muscogee, out of lands claimed by Spain along the Gulf coast, with himself as "Director-General". Bowles declares war on Spain, and begins a campaign against their outposts in his "nation." Some sources list this as happening on April 5, 1800.  Digest Number 657

National head count: Multiracial tag forces hard choices.
Curtis Zunigha applauds those Americans who, for the first time, officially acknowledged their diverse racial backgrounds on their census forms. But don't count him as one of the 6.8 million people that did just that, even though Zunigha considers himself half-white and half-American Indian.  he feared that marking two or more categories could undermine the population total and federal funding for his tribe.

"In my efforts preceding the census, I kept telling people to put down "American Indian," even if you are mixed race like I am," said Zunigha, director of the Delaware Tribe Housing Authority in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. "I just wanted the Indian count to be as high as possible to have numbers to substantiate federal funding," Zunigha said.

The issue has especially been a concern with the American Indian population, which demographers had forecast may have higher proportions of people identifying with more than one race because Native Americans, historically, have married outside their race more than other groups.
Sent by Cindy Lo Buglio, Reno Gazette-Journal, 3-14-01 

L.M. Boyd, Trivia column in the OC Register, 3-18-02 writes of the Iroquois. Conquest was as important to the American Indians as it was to the ancient Romans, evidently.  Take the Iroquois.  They controlled land from Hudson Bay south to North Carolina west to the Mississippi - more territory than ever was conquered by all the Roman legions.

Cheyenne Coming Home Denver Post Article, Sunday, April 14, 2002 
Coming home: Driven from their Colorado land more than a century ago, 
Cheyenne Indians are returning to the state of Colorado  By Bill Briggs, Denver Post Staff Writer,,1002,171%257E519144,00.html

Over the blur of several generations, the Cheyenne nation has nearly evaporated from Colorado, an area many still consider a sacred home. That dark equation, Cheyenne people say, seems to sum up the blood and tears of their history: Roughly 3,000 men, women and children thrived in these parts a century and a half ago. Today, according to U.S. Census, 328 full-blooded Cheyenne live in the state.  Editor: Note the underlined sentence which seems to indicate that the Cheyenne were apparently not affected by the 350 years that the Spanish were on the continent.  

Christianity Among the Indians of the Americas

The Marquette University Archives is committed to documenting the ongoing story of Christianity in Native North America. Since 1977, the department has acquired the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions records and 16 other collections. This material documents the histories of urban and rural missions and parishes; the values and attitudes of clergy, religious, and laity; the history and customs of Indian tribes; and the cultural interaction between Native Americans, church leaders, and U.S. government officials. Documentation is significant for tribes within Alberta and Ontario, Canada; Chiapas, Mexico; and 17 states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Idaho, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. In addition, the library's general collection holds over 30,000 related titles.

John P. Schmal

Across the 756,066 square miles that comprise Mexico you can find a great variety of landscapes and climate. While mountains and plateaus cover more than two-thirds of her landmass, the rest of Mexico's environment is made up of deserts, tropical forests, and fertile valleys. Mexico's many mountain ranges tend to split the country into countless smaller valleys, each forming a world of its own. 

Mexico's "fragmentation into countless mountain valleys, each with its own mini-ecology," according to the historian Nigel Davies, led the Indians within each geographical unit to develop their own language and culture. This is a key to understanding Mexico's unique and fascinating diversity. Although Spanish is the official language of Mexico today, the indigenous people of this nation - almost five centuries after The Conquest - still speak approximately 288 Amerindian languages.

There is a very wide divergence among language experts on the actual number of linguistic families and dialects among the Mexican Indians, primarily because the definitions of dialect, language group, and language vary from one linguistic specialist to another. What one specialist may deem to be a language, another linguist may describe as a dialect. But dialects themselves are sometimes mutually unintelligible among people of similar ethnic groups. I believe that the best source of information can be obtained from the Instituto Lingüístico de Verano (the Summer Institute of Linguistics), who acquire their statistical information from several sources, including the official Mexican Census. 

Although a large part of Mexico's indigenous people came under Spanish control by the end of the Sixteenth Century, the Indian cultures and languages have been remarkably resilient in some parts of the country. Even today, fifty-six ethnic groups - making up at least 10% of Mexico's 95 million inhabitants - speak some 288 indigenous languages.

At the time of independence - 1821 to 1825 - the total population of Mexico is believed to have been 6,800,000. Estimates by Rosenblat tell us that 54.4% of this population was classified as indigenous. By the time of the first national census in 1885, the indigenous population was classified by linguistic criterion. This indicator was somewhat misleading because many of the indigenous people were afraid to acknowledge their use of indigenous languages for fear of some sort of discrimination or retaliation.

The 1921 census, however, asked more direct questions relating to racial origin. As such, 59% percent of the population (8,504,561 people) classified themselves as mestizo, while another 29% (4,179,449) of the national population described themselves as being of indigenous origin. Another 10% referred to themselves as "white," while 2% were classified as foreigners. By 1950, the indigenous population of Mexico amounted to 27.91% of Mexico's total national population of 19,653,522. 

According to the National Institute of Statistics in Mexico, the 1990 census tallied a total population of 81,249,645. Of this total, 8,701,688 Mexicans (or 10.7%) were classified as indigenous. However, only 5,181,038 (or 6.3%) were actually speakers of an indigenous language 5 years of age or older. Of this total, approximately 79 percent also knew or spoke the Spanish language. Ninety-three percent of indigenous speakers lived primarily in the 13 states located in south and central Mexico, primarily Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Campeche, Guerrero, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz and Yucatan. 

Recent census statistics indicate very few native speakers live in the eight contiguous states stretching from Coahuila in the northeast to Jalisco and Colima along the north central Pacific coastal area. In the northwest from Sonora and Sinaloa to Michoacán and Tlaxcala, speakers of indigenous languages make up less than 5% of the population.

In the central and eastern states, indigenous languages are spoken by more people and in the southern states, the percent of native speakers rises dramatically. At least 39% of the population of Oaxaca speak Amerindian languages, with corresponding numbers of 32, 39 and 44% in Quintana Roo Chiapas, Yucatán, respectively. In the strongly indigenous state of Chiapas, only 63 percent of users of indigenous languages in Chiapas also knew Spanish.

In 1995, Mexico had a total population of 91,158,290. Of this total, 10,040,290 people, or 11.0%, claimed to be of indigenous origin. However, only 6,755,585, or 7.4% of the total population, were tallied as speakers of an indigenous language five years of age or older.

It is important to note that some of the indigenous people of Mexico have migrated from their ancestral homelands in other parts of Mexico or Central American nations to their present homes. In 1980, there were 548,000 indigenous people (10.6 percent of the total indigenous population), settled in areas other than their place of origin within the country. 

Chihuahua, the Federal District, Durango, Mexico, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Sonora, and Tabasco all boast small indigenous populations. Aguascalientes, Baja California South, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and Zacatecas have significant populations of indigenous migrants. The large cities, especially Mexico City, are the points of attraction of the indigenous migrants. Mexico City has the largest concentration of indigenous peoples in the entire country. In 1980 Mexico City registered 323,000 indigenous language speakers of 39 different languages.

The Uto-Aztecan Family. According to the Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, the Uto-Aztecan Family consists of 62 individual languages. Thirteen of these languages make up the Northern Uto-Aztecan sub-group, while 49 are spoken by the Southern Uto-Aztecan subgroup. The primary Uto-Aztecan language is Náhuatl, the language of the Aztec people. Náhuatl is the only indigenous language found in fifteen states. Today, almost 1,700,000 people speak the Náhuatl-group of languages, accounting for almost 23 percent of all native speakers

The Uto-Aztecan linguistic group is divided into four main branches: 

1) the Corachol family (consisting of the Cora and Huichol Indians of Nayarit and Zacatecas); 
2) the Náhuatl family (of the Aztecs); 
3) the Tepiman Family (spoken by the Papago, Pima Bajo, and Tepehuán of Sonora, Chihuahua and Durango); and 
4) the Taracahitic family (spoken by the Mayo, Yaqui and Tarahumara of northwestern Mexico). As you might expect, a family is a group of languages that are genetically and culturally related to one another.

The Taracahitian languages continue to be used in some isolated areas of northwestern Mexico. The Tarahumara of southwestern Chihuahua number at least 50,000 and have been the subject of histories. Three of the many titles written about the Tarahumara include:

1. The Tarahumara: Where Night is the Day of the Moon, by Bernard L. Fontana (Tucson: University of Arizona, 1997).
2. William Dirk Raat and George R. Janecek, Mexico's Sierra Tarahumara: A Photohistory of the People of the Edge (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996). 
3. Dick and Mary Lutz (ed.), The Running Indians: The Tarahumara of Mexico (Salem, Oregon: DIMI Press, 1989). 

The Taracahitian tongue is also spoken by the Huarijo, a small indigenous group which numbers 5,000 and lives in the Western Sierra Madre Mountains of West Central Chihuahua. The Huarijo are very closely related to them. 
Pre-Hispanic northwestern Mexico was the home to a large number of indigenous groups. Most of these Amerindian tribes of present-day Sinaloa and Sonora, however, were closely related, speaking eighteen closely related dialects of the Taracahitian tongue, and numbered about 115,000 at the time of contact with Spain and were the most numerous of any single language group in northern Mexico. 

Most of the Tarachitian peoples inhabited the coastal area of northwestern Mexico along the lower courses of the Sinaloa, Fuerte, Mayo, and Yaqui Rivers. The Yaqui Indians of Sonora are the most well known tribe of this family. Numbering 16,000 people living in scattered locations throughout Sonora, the Yaquis continued to resist the Spanish Empire and the Mexican Republic well into the Twentieth Century. Although the Yaquis have been subject of many works, one of the informative and well-written works is that of Professor Edward H. Spicer's The Yaquis: A Cultural History (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1980).

The Mayo Indians, closely related to the Yaquis, continued to resist central authority well into the Nineteenth Century and today number some 40,000 citizens, inhabiting the border regions of northern Sinaloa and southern Sonora. The Mayos have also been a subject of great interest to historians and linguists. One of the most poignant works was written by N. Ross Crumrine, The Mayo Indians of Sonora: A People Who Refuse to Die, (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1977).

Within the Tepiman Family, the Pima Bajo of the Sierra Madre border region of Sonora and Chihuahua probably do not number more than 2,000 individuals. The Tepehuán live in two small enclaves, one of which is located in southern Chihuahua and another in the mountains of southern Durango and Nayarit. In all, the Tepehuán may number as many as 25,000 in all their locations.

The modern-day states of Jalisco, Zacatecas, Nayarit and Aguascalientes made up a large part of the Spanish colony of Nueva Galicia. Most of this region was subdued by the Spaniards and their Indian allies in the Sixteenth Century. But the population of this colonial administration - made up of 180,000 square kilometers -was very diverse in both culture and language. Peter Gerhard, In The North Frontier of New Spain, writes that "the political geography [of this area] at contact was complex." Gerhard observes that "the people were divided into a great many small autonomous and independent communities each occupying a fixed territory."

Domingo Lázaro de Arregui, in his Descripción de la Nueva Galicia - published in 1621 - observed that 72 languages were spoken throughout Nueva Galicia. However, only the Cora, Huichol, and Tepecano languages survive in present-day Jalisco and Nayarit. While the Huichol inhabit the mountainous regions between Jalisco and Nayarit, the Cora live in north central Nayarit.

The Maya. Nearly 1,700,000 people - or approximately 14% of all Mexican Indians and 1.1% of the national population - speak the Mayan group of languages in Mexico. There are approximately 69 Mayan languages. Mayan is primarily spoken in the southeast section of the country from the Yucatan Peninsula to Chiapas. Almost 60% of Mayan speakers inhabit the state of Chiapas. If you include Guatemala and other Central American countries, Mayan is the largest native group in all of Mesoamerica. 

The Maya can be divided into several sub-areas: the Yucatec Maya of the Yucatan Peninsula; the Mopán Maya of the Belize hills; the Tzeltal, Tzotzil, Chol, Lacandon, and Tojolabal of Chiapas; and the Quiché, Kakchikel, Mam, Ixil and other highland Maya in Guatemala. The Tzeltal languages is spoken by nearly 5% of all Mexican Indians and is the primarily language of Chiapas.

The Languages of Oaxaca. As the fifth largest state of Mexico, Oaxaca is characterized by extreme geographic fragmentation. With extensive mountain ranges throughout the state, Oaxaca has an average altitude of 1,500 meters (5,085 feet) above sea level. With such a large area and rough terrain, Oaxaca is divided into 571 municipios (almost one-quarter of the national total). Oaxaca's rugged topography has played a significant role in giving rise to its amazing cultural diversity. 

The mountain ranges and valleys of this southern state have caused individual towns and tribal groups to live in isolation from each other for long periods of time. This segregation allowed sixteen ethnolinguistic groups to evolve and to maintain their individual languages, customs and ancestral traditions intact well into the colonial era and to the present day. However, the historian María de Los Angeles Romero Frizzi suggests that "the linguistic categorization is somewhat misleading" partly because "the majority of indigenous peoples in Oaxaca identify more closely with their village or their community than with their ethnolinguistic group." In addition, Ms. Romero writes, some of the language families - including Zapotec, Mixtec, and Mazatec - "encompass a variety of regional languages, making for a more diverse picture than the number sixteen would suggest." 

With such a large collection of indigenous groups, Oaxaca has the nation's most diverse linguistic pattern. Even today, with a total population of 3.3 million people, Oaxaca's indigenous population numbers more than two million. According to the 1990 census, 19.3 percent of the national total of Indian-language speakers lived in Oaxaca. By 1993, 39.1% of the state's population over five years of age spoke at least one of Oaxaca's 200-plus indigenous dialects, making Oaxaca the most ethnically complex of Mexico's thirty-one states.

Oaxaca's two largest indigenous groups are the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs. The roots of these two indigenous groups stretch very deeply into the early Mesoamerican era of Oaxaca. The single largest language group of Oaxaca is the Otomanguean Family, which includes a total of 172 languages, ranging as far north as the states of Hidalgo and Querétaro (the Otomi) and as far south as Nicaragua. The Otomanguean group includes the Amuzgoan, the Chinantec, the Mixtec and Zapotec families. 

There is a large body of literature that discusses the indigenous people of Oaxaca and their history both before and after the Spanish conquest. Of special interest to the reader may be John K. Chance's Conquest of the Sierra: Spaniards and Indians in Colonial Oaxaca (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989).

The Zapotecs, occupying 67 municipios of Oaxaca, are the largest ethnic group in the state. Of the 172 living Oto-Manguean tongues, sixty-four are Zapotecan. They have always lived in the central valleys of Oaxaca and are the most well-known of Oaxaca's indigenous groups. Zapotec is spoken by more than 420,000 people, or 7 percent of all Indians and largely used in the eastern part of Oaxaca. 

The Zapotecs have been studied extensively by historians, archaeologists and linguists. The remnants of their ancient culture are regarded as some of the most fascinating and enduring cultural elements of all Mexico. The life, culture and language of the pre-Hispanic Zapotecs were discussed in Joseph W. Whitecotton's The Zapotecs: Princes, Priests, and Peasants (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977). Joyce Marcus also studied the development of the Zapotecs through time in her work, Zapotec Civilization: How Urban Society Evolved in Mexico's Oaxaca Valley (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1996).

The Mixtecs have the second largest ethnic population with approximately 300,000 descendents encompassing a geographic region of more than 40,000 square kilometers. Like the Zapotecs, they were conquered by the Aztecs in Fifteenth Century and submitted to Spanish rule early in the Sixteenth Century. Mixtec, consisting of as many as fifty-five dialects, is spoken by approximately 7 percent of all Indians and primarily found in Oaxaca, Puebla and Guerrero.
Literary interest in the Mixtec Indians almost parallels that of the Zapotec Indians. Ronald Spores, in The Mixtecs In Ancient and Colonial Times (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984), describes the history, culture and language of the Mixtecs. Kevin Terraciano, in The Mixtecs of Colonial Oaxaca: Nudzahui History, Sixteenth Through Eighteenth Centuries (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2001), has produced a work with a detailed study of the Mixtec language.

The Chatino nation, boasting an area of 3,071 square miles (7,677 square kilometers) is located in southwestern Oaxaca. The Chatinos belong to the Oto-Manguean language group and speak seven main dialects. Today, Mazatecos is spoken by approximately 200,000 people in northern Oaxaca, Veracruz and Puebla. This population speaks some five major dialects of the Oto-Manguean language group. 

Mixes. Although they represent the third-largest of Oaxaca's ethnic groups, the Mixes, numbering around 90,000, are an isolated ethnic group that inhabits the northeastern part of Oaxaca, close to the border with Veracruz. This region consists of 19 municipios and 108 communities. Some historians believe that the Mixes may have migrated from present-day Peru, which may explain their isolated language group.

The Purépecha Indians of Michoacan - also called Tarascans, Tarscos, and Porhé, boasted a flourishing empire from 1100 A.D. to 1530. In 1990, the Tarascans numbered 120,000 speakers. This language is classified as an isolated language. In fact, several varieties of this language have no functional intelligibility with each other. Dictionary. 

Several isolated indigenous groups -most notably the Cocopa, Digueño, Kiliwa, and Pai Pai - continue to survive in parts of Baja California. Each of these groups consist of no more than a few hundred individuals, except the Kiliwa who number 24 to 32 people in a few households.

The study of Mexico and its numerous languages is a continuing effort among scholars. Several of the sources below may help the reader to develop a better understanding of the diverse histories, languages and cultures of the Mexican Indians.


Nigel Davies, The Ancient Kingdoms of Mexico (London: Penguin Books, 1990).

Lyle Campbell, American Indian languages: the Historical Linguistics of Native America (Oxford University Press: Nueva York, 1997).

Lyle Campbell and Marianne Mithun (eds.), The Languages of Native America: Historical and Comparative Assessment (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979).

Barbara F. Grimes (ed.) Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 14th ed. Summer Institute of Linguistics: Dallas. 

Barbara F. Grimes (ed.), "Languages of Mexico,"Online, December 2001.
Last modified: January 2002 (Dallas, Texas: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C.).

Manning Nash (ed.) "Social Anthropology," in the Handbook of Middle American Indians, Volume 6 (Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1968)

"National Profile of the Indigenous Peoples of Mexico: Causes of Indigenous Migration: Chapter 6. Migration," Online:   April 10, 2002.

"National Profile of the Indigenous Peoples of Mexico: Chapter 2. Location of Indigenous Peoples in Mexico," Online:   April 10, 2002.

"National Profile of the Indigenous Peoples of Mexico: Chapter 5: Demography" Online:   April 10, 2002.

Summer Institute of Linguistics, "El Instituto Lingüístico de Verano: The Summer Institute of Linguistics in Mexico," Online:
. 2002

"Who are the Zapotecs?"Online. . March 20, 2002.

Juan Antonio Ruiz Zwollo. "Oaxaca"s Tourist Guide: Indigenous Villages," 1995-2002. Online: . March 20, 2002.

Copyright © 2002 by John P. Schmal. All Rights under applicable law are hereby reserved. Material from this article may be reproduced for educational purposes and personal, non- commercial home use only.  Reproduction of this article for commercial purposes is strictly prohibited without the express permission of John P. Schmal.
Ani Ivri - I am Hebrew Medievil Sourcebook
                                                ANI IVRI – I AM HEBREW
                                                          Michah Ben-Yehudah
I always felt as if I were an outsider to my family – not Spanish and not Anglo. Growing up we rarely visited my parent’s families during summer vacations or holidays. My mother was a “gringa”, 
a “judia” and my Dad was Spanish, of Roman Catholic faith. As a Catholic, he was taught to hate Jews because they were the “Christ Killers.” My mom’s family was of mixed origins. Her mother was a typical WASP, while her father was born in Russia to an Orthodox Jewish family, one with a long line of rabbis. Mom and dad’s marriage caused excommunication for him and shunning for her. Knowing all that just added to my feeling of exclusion, so to find some kind of connection became paramount for me. I had to prove I could be worthy to be a Gallegos and also accepted by mom’s family. Unfortunately, both sets of grandparents died before I was ever able to show them my accomplishment.

In 1976, I was at one of the local libraries searching for anything on ghost towns or mining towns in New Mexico. I came across a copy of Fray Angelico Chavez’s work, Origins of New Mexico Families, and was dumb struck when I went through the Appendix of Additional Names. There was my great-grandmother’s name, Beneranda Lopez, married to Lamberto Ribera. She was still alive when I was growing up. I called her Gramita, all four foot nine of her.

That find was the beginning of my search for connectivity and a hobby that would stretch connections I later found back centuries. Initially, thanks to just this one book, I was able to take my paternal grandmother’s family back to the early 1500’s, making links with the major families of Nuevo Mexico and the Southwest, names like Alari, Armijo, Baca, Palomino-Rendon, De Vera and others, others who conquered and settled the New World. I was related to the founders of great Southwest traditions, to ancestors who were the stock of what made the Southwest and Nuevo Mexico what they have become.

Yes, thanks to Fray Chavez, I had made some connections; but I still didn’t feel like I belonged. I tried to trace the Gallegos line further but could never seem find any ancestors beyond my great-grandfather, Juan Antonio. I had this underlying feeling of belonging and a desire to return, but I couldn’t connect it with what I knew and I didn’t know what I was to return to.

Then, in the early 1990’s, my sense of belonging would change. At that same time, the Internet started to get really popular. Who knew it would be the resource that it is? The Internet has become the genealogist’s gold mine. I started making little discoveries here and there. About that same time, I received a call from my dad. He was sending me an article from an Albuquerque newspaper about “Crypto” Jews and “Conversos” [maranos]. The article made him think back to visits to Gramita’s house. He remembered her lighting candles on Friday evenings, not eating pork, and celebrating holy days he had never heard of. He thought Gramita was just being eccentric, until he read that those same eccentricities were Jewish in origin, he was shocked. He was from the old school having been taught that Jews were evil. This changed his whole world. He had grown old hating Jews from his days at the seminary, not realizing for the first few years of his marriage that he had married a Jew. Dad started asking me questions about my genealogy searches; and, since mom’s dad was Jewish, he, like I, wanted to know more, especially after it became obvious he was descended from Conversos.

Though I was making progress, I was still having trouble connecting to the two Gallegos brothers from the Origins… book, Antonio and Jose. I suspected they too, were “maranos” escaping from the authorities of the Inquisition. They were Galician, and that gave me reason to believe they had changed their names to Gallego to avoid prosecution during the Inquisition. Little was I to know that the name Gallegos probably stemmed from something else – their Galician origins. These new revelations gave me new energy to look further. I contacted every Gallegos on every genealogical site I belonged, finally finding a cousin, a “primo”, in Albuquerque’s south valley. After providing me with a few additions to the Gallegos line, and coupling with those revelations I had on the Ribera line, I was able to start connecting the dots. I was connecting with Spanish Jews – Sephardim, like Dominguez, Gallego de Terraza, Pino and Romero. I was now part of a greater family and that feeling of belonging I needed for so many years was now beginning to emerge. 

Now, I can’t help but feel connected. I do belong, so much so that now, these many years later, I have become Judio myself. Though at the beginning of this search, I was an outsider, I have now made those connections, not just through my maternal Jewish line, but also through those Conversos of so long ago. They would be proud of what I have found, as was my dad before his death a few years ago. The shame of centuries past has been erased. I am now an Orthodox Jew preparing to make “aliyah” [passage of return] with my family to what has now become my homeland – Israel. I feel a proverbial coming full circle – I am Hebrew, ANI IVRI.

Medievil Sourcebook:

Foundation of the Colony of Nuevo Santander
The De Zavala and Seguin Texas Flags
Remember the First Republic of Texas
Borderlands Encyclopedia
San José and the Fresnillo Ranchos
Bexar County Courthouse 
FRIO Co, TX Naturalization Applications
Arrival Records at the Port of Galveston, Texas
The Index to Texas Probate Records 
General State of the Foundation of the Colony of Nuevo Santander

translated by Edna G. Brown © 1994
, Volume 1

This is the introduction to both the history of the town of Hoyos and some of the residents.

It was founded on the 19th of May of 1752; its captain is Don Domingo de Unzaga Ibarrola, who established it without any cost to the Royal Treasury at a time in which the apostates of the Nuevo Reino de León, in possession of that land, had forced out the residents who had remained in the nearby town called San Antonio de los Llanos which they had almost completely destroyed. It has 58 families of settlers with 272 persons, and 11 civilized Indians who also serve in whatever is needed in the campaign, which compose 66 families with 298 persons; it has a large flowing irrigation canal from the San Antonio River and a few other smaller ones from nine springs with which they water and fertilize their lovely valley which is very fruitful, and this past year the settlers reaped from it much more corn than they needed for their use and some sugar cane and beans. A church of stone and mortar and part of it of adobe is being built at the cost of said captain with the help of the settlers for the well adorned statues and good jewels which he has brought from Mexico. 
Sent by Johanna de Soto

The De Zavala and Seguin Texas Flags:

Lorenzo De Zavala's Flag 1836
Lorenzo De Zavala, The First Vice President of the Republic of Texas.

The De Zavala Flag has a white star in the center of a blue field with one point straight up. The letters T-E-X-A-S are between each star point. Lorenzo De Zavala, "a Texan by adoption and by choice" is credited with designing this "Lone Star Flag of the Republic of Texas" and is often called the "First Republic of Texas Flag".

A statesman, Manuel Lorenzo Justiniano de Zavala was one of the most talented and capable of the many native Mexican citizens involved in the struggle for Texas independence from Mexico. Born in the villiage of Tecoh in Yucatan, Mexico, on October 3, 1789.

In Texas, de Zavala settled his family on Buffalo Bayou across from what would become the site of the Battle of San Jacinto. He represented Harrisburg Municipality at both the Consultation of 1835 and the Convention of 1836, where he signed the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico.

De Zavala resigned as vice-president in October. The following month, on 15 November 1836, he died and was buried in the family cemetery on property which is now part of San Jacinto State Park.

De Zavala county was formed in 1858 and named in his honor.In 1931, the state of Texas erected a monument at his gravesite.                                                                      Sent by Johanna de Soto

Remember the First Republic of Texas, April 6 
Robert Thonhoff whose article appeared in in the National Daughters of the American Revolution  and was the lead article in last month's Somos Primos writes that on April 6th he flies both the THE GREEN FLAG and THE BURGUNDIAN CROSS FLAG in front of our home in Texas, on this day of April 6, 2002. Few Texans would recognize either or know their significance.

"I fly the flags every April 6 and August 18 to commemorate the short-lived First Republic of Texas that began on April 6 and ended at the Battle of Medina on August 18 in the year 1813. A historically- minded friend of mine in St. Paul, Minnesota, also flies THE GREEN FLAG on these days. As far as I know, we are the only ones anywhere who commemorate the First Republic of Texas, which was a Texas counterpart to the First Mexican Revolution. So, you see, we still have a lot to learn about our Hispanic heritage."  Robert Thonhoff 

Editor:  I hope you Tejanos will do some research on the Green Flag and Burgundian Cross Flag and share the history of that time period and the First Republic of Texas. 

The Borderlands Encyclopedia
A digital encyclopedia of current happenings.  Educational Resource On Contemporary United States-Mexico Borderland Issues. University of Texas, El Paso.             Sent by Johanna de Soto

The Family History of San José and the Fresnillo Ranchos
Website of Andres Sáenz and Andrés Tijerina
Genealogical data             Sent by Johanna de Soto

This is a wonderful index with some information even  back to 1517. An informal Catalogue of the Red Numbered Miscellaneous Folders located in the Spanish Archives of the Bexar County Court House.  Compiled by Robert L. Tarín, Jr. 1991 
Sent by Johanna de Soto

FRIO Co, TX Naturalization Applications
Registrations August 1877 through 1906 plus one registration from 1909 and two from 1916.  In addition to a window  for a specific search, an alphabetical  listing includes the name and location This listing was made by John Hawley in 2000 from information compiled from Mormon microfilms.  Information includes Point of arrival and Place of birth.              Sent by Johanna de Soto

Finding Passenger Arrival Records at the Port of Galveston, Texas
Compiled by Joe Beine, German Roots Webmaster
This page contains a list of all the available passenger lists and indexes for Galveston, Texas from 1846-1948 (with partial coverage to 1954). Included are books, microfilm, a CD-Rom and links to online data. The microfilm rolls listed here can be ordered from the Family History Library (FHL) in Salt Lake City for viewing at any local Family History Center for a small fee. They can also be obtained from the National Archives (NARA).                                          
Sent by Johanna de Soto
The Index to Texas Probate Records  
A W.P.A. project of the 1940's generated indexes for probate records housed in at least 30 Texas counties. The purpose of this project is to bring the data from all 30 county indexes together into one alphabetical listing. Over 26,000 probate cases from eleven Texas counties are now available at this web site; these records represent about 45% of the total project. I expect the entire project to be online by May 2002.                                                                               
Sent by Johanna de Soto
Hispanic Presence in Louisiana, June 17- July 12
Passports used to travel within the States
Research in Orleans Parish Civil Court Records
Louisiana Roots - a free publication
The Hispanic Presence in Louisiana, June 17 - July 12,  Louisiana State University
Sorry, the deadline to attend this institute was April 15th; however, the fact that it is happening is exciting enough to share.  The institute is intended  for current teachers, administrators, or librarians in middle or high school in Louisiana to prepare for the upcoming 2003 celebration associated with the Louisiana Purchase. 

The Hispanic influence in the northwest region of Louisiana was felt earlier with the establishment in in 1721 of a presidio and a mission Los Adaes, near the French fort in Natchitoches.  In 1729, Los Adaes was made the capital of the Spanish province of Texas and remained the administrative seat of government for 44 years.  The Louisiana connection with Texas by way of El Camino Real paved the way for exploration commerce, religious activity, and colonial settlements.

Dr. Arnulfo G. Ramirez, professor of Spanish and linguistics at Louisiana State University, will direct the Institute and serve as the principal resource.  He supported by a prestigious staff.  For more information e-mail at  or 225-578-6616 (work) or 225-767-8785 (home)
Sent by Bill Carmena 

Passports were once used to travel within the States
Passports are not only documents that are used to travel from one country to another, but in the early days of our country, passports were permits to authorize travel through Indian and foreign-held lands.  The southern states east of the Mississippi were for a long time held by the French or Spanish, and by law, only those persons issued passports were allowed to enter these territories.

These passport records have the largest body of data relating to the pioneers in the Southeastern United States.  Prior to 1824, the Secretary of War was responsible for the conduct of the Government's relations with the Indian tribes and for issuing passports for travel through their land.  Passports were supposed to be issued only to those giving assurance of good conduct; it was essential that troublemakers be kept out.

Applicants seeking passports were expected to furnish references of good character.  Some persons arriving at the embarking point without the necessary papers were bitter toward Indian agents who tried to detain them until the proper documents were obtained.  Some of the reasons passports were necessary were for trade, travel, debt collection, recovery of stolen horses or slaves, and removal of property of white intruders.

Bu the early 1800s so many people arrived in Louisiana from the American states that the Spanish governor complained about lack of passports.

From 1824 until 1849 passport issuance was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior.  The issuance of passports (or passes) dwindled quickly in the face of rapidly diminishing boundaries.  Passports became just a footnote in history, but can still provide valuable information about the movements of individuals of time.

The Genie, Vol. 35 #3, (3rd Quarter, 2001), Ark-La-Tex Genealogical Association, Shereveport, Louisiana via The Family Tree April/May 2002

Research in the Orleans Parish Civil Court Records
These are examples of the kind of information that is available on this site:

Louisiana. First Judicial District Court (Orleans Parish)
Records of First Judicial District Court, 1813-1846.
Index to suit records, 1813-1846
Lousiana. Court of Probates (Orleans Parish)
Index to Suit Records, Numbered Series, 1823-1845

Digging Up Roots in the Mud Files:  The presentation included here, "Digging Up Roots in the Mud Files," sprang from our recognition that many researchers are sometimes confused and perhaps intimidated by the complexity of the civil court systems that existed in Orleans Parish from the territorial period to the present. As a result of this confusion, we feared that researchers might be missing valuable information. We make the presentation available in NUTRIAS in hope that it will reach a much wider audience than the eager folks who crowded into our auditorium early in May of 1998. We hope that it will help to cure the "court phobia" of genealogists looking for wills, successions, divorces and other "genealogically-significant" court records. We hope also that historians and researchers using the Orleans Parish civil court records for their own purposes will find these pages helpful. The civil court records are an incredibly rich source, and their historical significance is virtually limitless.

Free Louisiana Publication
Louisiana Roots is a free bi-monthly newspaper for genealogy and history lovers with ties to Louisiana.  If you would like to receive this free newspaper, send your name, address and a Postage Contribution to Louisiana Roots Subscription Department, PO Box 383, Marksville, LA, 71351.

Maryland's Growing Hispanic Population Shows Signs of Becoming Organized Force in the State

Extract from article Latinos find political Voice Influence by Sarah Koenig
Baltimore Sun Staff, originally published March 3, 2002

Maryland's Spanish-speaking Latino population is stirring as never before. With recent U.S. Census numbers bolstering their causes, Latinos are finding their collective political voice and directing it -- sometimes with vigor and sophistication, sometimes in fits and starts -- toward the State House.

This legislative session, Latino activists are pushing an ambitious agenda and using it to educate their ranks about the political process. They are meeting with lawmakers to seek support for bills that would require state agencies to translate information into Spanish and allow children of immigrants to pay in-state tuition.

Last week, Latino business owners, who have abandoned loose coalitions and united into chambers of commerce, threw their first State House reception, an effort to befriend lawmakers and lobbyists over mussels and paella.

"Right now I think the legislature needs to understand that there are groups other than women and African-Americans that need attention," said Baltimore Del. Clarence Davis, who has been helping Latino businessmen make their case in Annapolis this session. "I think they all know it, but the attitude is, 'Let's not wake up any more problems.'"

Ana S. Gutierrez, who is running for the House of Delegates from Montgomery County, credits much of the change to sheer numbers, which she says will soon make Latinos an impossible force to ignore. "The census brought it home, and all of a sudden it's, 'Oh, we have to pay attention,'" she said. The 2000 Census shows that Maryland's Hispanic population grew by 82 percent during the 1990s . . , with the majority moving to the Washington suburbs. While Latinos make up just 4.3 percent of the state population, in Montgomery County they account for 11.5 percent.

Sen. Alex X. Mooney of Frederick put in a bill this session to require the state to award 2 percent of its contracts to Hispanic-owned businesses, a proposal that is unlikely to pass. "It's a complete outrage that they would leave us out," he said of the governor's minority business initiative last year, which established procurement set-asides for women and African-Americans.

"It's a big mistake to ignore them," he said of Latinos, "because 20 years from now their kids will be citizens, will speak English and will vote."

Sent by Howard Shorr   Howardshor@aol

The Indigenous Languages of Jalisco
Book: Sagrada Mitra de Guadalajara Antiguo Obispado de la Nueva Galicia
Tamaulipas Economic Development News
Tijuana's Casa del Migrante
Los Duque de Estrada
Gender Inequality Persist in Mexico
Archivo General de la Nación, Guia General
Viceregal and Ecclesiastical Mexican Collection
Mexican Notorial, Mining & Colonial documents
 Agustin de Iturbide Collection 

John P. Schmal

Jalisco is La Madre Patria (the Mother Country) for millions of Mexican Americans. Given this fact, it makes sense that many sons and daughters of Jalisco are curious about the cultural and linguistic roots of their indigenous ancestors. Jalisco made up almost one-half of the Spanish colony of Nueva Galicia (New Galicia) and was an important cultural and economic force in the evolution of Mexico from a Spanish colony to a new nation. Even today, some say Jalisco - whose capital city Guadalajara is the second largest city in all of Mexico - is the heart and soul of Mexico. 

The Jalisco of pre-Hispanic times was the home to many indigenous peoples. Domingo Lázaro de Arregui, in his Descripción de la Nueva Galicia - published in 1621 - wrote that 72 languages were spoken in the Spanish colonial province of Nueva Galicia. But, according to the author Eric Van Young, "the extensive and deep-running mestizaje of the area has meant that at any time much beyond the close of the colonial period the history of the native peoples has been progressively interwoven with (or submerged in) that of non-native groups."

The author José Ramirez Flores, in his work, Lenguas Indígenas de Jalisco, has gone to great lengths in reconstructing the linguistic map of the Jalisco of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. It must be remembered that, although Jalisco first came under Spanish control in the 1520s, certain sections of the state remained isolated and under Amerindian control until late in the Sixteenth Century.

According to Señor Flores, the languages of the Caxcanes Indians were widely spoken in the northcentral portion of Jalisco along the "Three-Fingers Border Zone" with Zacatecas. It is believed that the Caxcanes language was spoken at Teocaltiche, Ameca, Huejúcar, and across the border in Nochistlán, now in the state of Zacatecas. 

The Coras inhabited what is most of present-day Nayarit as well as the northwestern fringes of Jalisco. The word "mariachi" is believed to have originated in their language. Today, the Coras, numbering up to 15,000 people, continue to survive, primarily in Nayarit and Jalisco. The Cora Indians have been studied by several historians and archaeologists. One of the most interesting works about the Cora is Catherine Palmer Finerty's In a Village Far From Home: My Life Among the Cora Indians of the Sierra Madre (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2000).

The Coca Indians inhabited portions of central Jalisco, in the vicinity of Guadalajara and Lake Chapala. The Guachichile Indians - so well known for their fierce resistance towards the Spaniards in the Chichimeca War (1550-1590) - inhabited the areas near Lagos de Moreno, Arandas, Ayo el Chico, and Tepatitlán in the Los Altos region of northeastern Jalisco. The Guachichiles, however, also occupied a large swatch of territory through most of present-day eastern Zacatecas. The Guachichile Indians received their name from the Náhuatl language. The name is derived from the combination of quaítl (head) and chichiltic (red), thanks to their custom of painting their bodies with red dye. 

The Cuyutecos - speaking the Nahua language of the Aztecs - settled in southwestern Jalisco, inhabiting Talpa, Mascota, Mixtlán, Atengo, and Tecolotlán. The population of this area - largely depleted by the epidemics of the Sixteenth Century - was partially repopulated by Spaniards and Indian settlers from Guadalajara and other parts of Mexico. Other Nahua languages were spoken in such southern Jalisco towns as Tuxpan and Zapotlán.

Some historians believe that the Huichol Indians are descended from the nomadic Guachichiles, having moved westward and settled down to an agrarian lifestyle.  They inhabited a small area in northwestern Jalisco, adjacent to the border with Nayarit. The Huichol, seeking to avoid confrontation with the Spaniards, became very isolated and thus we able to survive. Today, the Huichols number approximately 20,000 in both northeastern Nayarit and northwestern Jalisco. 

The survival of the Huichol has intrigued historians and archaeologists alike. The art, history, culture, language and religion of the Huichol have been the subject of at least a dozen books. Carl Lumholtz, in Symbolism of the Huichol Indians: A Nation of Shamans (Oakland, California: B.I. Finson, 1988), made observations about the religion of the Huichol. Stacy B. Schaefer and Peter T. Furst edited People of the Peyote: Huichol Indian History, Religion and Survival (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996), discussing the history, culture and language of these fascinating people in great detail.

The Purépecha Indians - also referred to as the Tarascans, Tarscos, and Porhé - inhabited most of present-day Michoacán and boasted a powerful empire that rivaled the Aztec Empire during the Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Centuries. As recently as 1990, the Purápecha numbered 120,000 speakers. This language, classified as an isolated language, was spoken along the southern fringes of southern Jalisco, adjacent to the border with Colima. 

The Tecuexes Indians occupied a considerable area of Jalisco north of Guadalajara and western Los Altos, including Mexticacan. The Tecuexes also occupied the central region near Tequila, Amatltán, Cuquio, and Epatan. The Tzaulteca language was spoken in several towns southwest of Lake Chapala, including Ataceo and Sayula.

In pre-Hispanic times, the Tepehuán Indians inhabited a wide swath of territory that stretched through sections of present-day Jalisco, Nayarit, Durango and Chihuahua. However, their territory was gradually encroached upon by the Spaniards and indigenous migrants from central Mexico. After they were crushed in their rebellion of 1616-1619, the Tepehuán moved to hiding places in the Sierra Madre to avoid Spanish vengeance. Today, the Tepehuán retain elements of their old culture.

At the time of the Spanish contact, the Tepehuanes language was spoken in "Three Fingers Region" of northwestern Jalisco in such towns as Tepec, Mezquitic and Colotlán. The Tepehuanes language and culture are no longer found in Jalisco, but more than 25,000 Tepehuanes still reside in southern Chihuahua and southeastern Durango.

The revolt of 1616 was described in great detail by Charlotte M. Gradie's The Tepehuán Revolt of 1616: Militarism, Evangelism and Colonialism in Seventeenth Century Nueva Vizcaya (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2000). The author Campbell W. Pennington also wrote about the Tepehuán in The Tepehuán of Chihuahua (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1969).

The history of Jalisco from the beginning of the Spanish administration to the present has been a subject of many studies over the decades. This emphasis on the more recent history has, for the most part, ignored or bypassed the indigenous aspects of Jalisco's colorful and fascinating history. Part of the reason for this is that it is simply impossible to reconstruct the cultures and histories of an area so devastated by the epidemics and military upheaval of the Sixteenth Century. Another reason is that the history of Jalisco from the time of independence to the present has been a dynamic force in the story of the Mexico. Nevertheless, the sources listed in the bibliography below may be able to provide the reader with a new window to the indigenous peoples of Jalisco.

Peter Gerhard, The North Frontier of New Spain (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1982).

Shirley S. Gorenstein, "Western and Northwestern Mexico," in Richard E. W. Adams and Murdo J. MacLeod, The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Volume II: Mesoamerica, Part 1 (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 318-357.

José Ramírez Flores, Lenguas Indígenas de Jalisco, of "Colección: Historia: Serie: Documentos e Invetigación No. 1," Guadalajara, Jalisco: Gobierno del Estado de Jalisco, Secretaria General de Gobierno, 1980.

Stacy B. Schaefer and Peter T. Furst, People of the Peyote: Huichol Indian History, Religion, and Survival (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1996).

Eric Van Young, "The Indigenous Peoples of Western Mexico from the Spanish Invasion to the Present: The Center-West as Cultural Region and Natural Environment," in Richard E. W. Adams and Murdo J. MacLeod, The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Volume II: Mesoamerica, Part 2 (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 136-186.

Copyright © 2002 by John P. Schmal. All Rights under applicable law are hereby reserved. Material from this article may be reproduced for educational purposes and personal, non- commercial home use only. Reproduction of this article for commercial purposes is strictly prohibited without the express permission of John P. Schmal.

 New Books:  Sagrada Mitra de Guadalajara Antiguo Obispado de la Nueva Galicia
ARE YOU LOOKING FOR YOUR ANCESTORS? There is good news for you if you are researching your ancestors in 17th and 18th century Nueva Galicia. Luz Montejano Hilton’s tremendously detailed book is now available at a reduced price.

If you haven’t seen her book, Sagrada Mitra de Guadalajara Antiguo Obispado de la Nueva Galicia, you are in for a treat. Luz Montejano Hilton has patiently spent many months extracting data from the films of the church archives in Guadalajara. She has compiled the results of 45 films into a large telephone-directory-size book, chock full of data primarily regarding marriages and relationships. Most of the documents concern marriage dispensation requests from couples who are related. There are also some who are not necessarily related, but still needed the dispensation because they came from other church jurisdictions, or perhaps were widows or widowers wishing to remarry. The documents are from the areas of Jalisco, Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon, and some from Texas, For genealogists the value of these dispensations is that the relationships are defined with the majority of the couples naming their common ancestry. This can cover multi-generations, going back over 100 years in some instances, with the names of each generation provided.

So, you have two choices. You can order the 45 films which Luz covers in her book. Then you can go through each film, decipher the handwriting of each scribe, and extract the information, and hope that you haven’t missed an ancestor. Or….you can buy her book, with the approximately 3000 typed extractions and 800-page index. Here is a sample of some of the surnames you can find:

Abrego, Aceves, Acosta, Abela, Acuña, Aguado, Aguayo, Aguiar, Aguilar, Aguilar y Solórzano, Aguirre, Aguilera, Agundiz, Alanís, Alcalá y Mendoza, Alderete, Almandos, Alonso, Anda Altamirano, Alva, Alvarez Tostado, Andrada, Aréchiga, Avalos, Ballin, Báez, Barragán, Barreda, Becerra, Beltrán, Benavides, Bernal, Bocanegra, Botello, Bracamonte, Buentello, Bugueiro, Bustamante, Bustos, Caballero, Cadena, Calderón, Calvillo, Camacho, Campa, Campos, Cantú, Carbajal, Cárdenas, Carrillo, Carlos de Godoy, Casillas y Cabrera, Castro, Cabazos, Cervantes, Chávez, Covarrubias, Díaz, Delgadillo, Dávila, Díaz de Sandi, Domínguez, Durán Elizondo, Enríquez del Castillo, Escoto, Esparza, Estrada, Espinosa, Fernández de Castro, Fernández de Tijerina, Fernández Vallejo, Flores, Flores de la Torre, Flores Alatorre, Flores de Valdés, Ferrer, Flores de Abrego, Figueroa, Franco, De la Fuente, Galindo, Gallardo, Gallegos, Gamboa, García de Alba, García Dávila, García de León, García de Sepúlveda, Garza, Gil de Leiba, Gómez, Gómez de Castro, Gómez de Mendoza, González de Hermosillo, González de Ruvalcaba, Gonzaález Hidalgo, González Rubio, Gradilla, Guajardo, Guerra, Guerrero, Gumendio, Gutiérrez, Guzmán, Haro, Heredia, Hermosillo, Hernández Gamiño, Herrera, Híjar, Hinojosa, Huerta, Ibarra, Inda, Infante, Iñiguez, Irigoyen, Islas, Ismerio, Jaimes, Jáuregui, Jiménez, Jiménez de Castro, Juárez, Landín, Leal de León, Ledesma, León, Lima, Lizarrarás, Llamas, Lobo Guerrero, Lomelín, López, Longoria, Lozano, Loza, Luévana, Luna, Macías, Macías Valadés, Magallanes, Maldonado, Manzo, Marín, Marmolejo, Márquez, Martel, Martín del Campo, Martínez, Mascorro, Mata, Mayorga, Medina, Mejía, Mendoza, Meza, Mercado, Miramontes, Montalvo, Montemayor, De la Mora, Morales, Moreno, Moscoso y Sandoval, Mota y Padilla, Morillo, Muñoz, Muñoz de laBarba, Muñoz de Nava, Mavarrete, Nava, Navarro, Negrete, Noriega, Núñez, Ochoa, Olivares, Olague, Ordoñez, Orendáin, Ornelas, Orozco, Ortega, Ortiz, Osuna, Oviedo, Oceguera, Ovalle, Oyarvides, Padilla, Pacheco, Palacios, Palomino, Páez, Pantoja, Parra, Palazuelos, Partida, Patiño, Pedraza, Pedroza, De la Peña, Peralta, Pérez, Pérez de Paredes, Pérez Franco, Picavea, Pineda, Pinto, Piña, Pizarro, Placencia, Plazaola, De la Plata, Ponce de León, Ponate, Porras, Portilla, Prado, Prieto, De la Puebla, Puga, Quesada, Quijas Escalante, Quintanilla, Quintero, Rábano, Raigosa, Ramírez, Ramos de Arriola, Ramos Jiménez, Rangel, Redondo, Reinoso, Rentería, Respuela, Reyes, Reyna, Rincón, Del Río, De los Ríos, Rivera, Riquelme, Robledo, Robles, Rocha, Rodarte, Rodríguez, Rodríguez de Carbajal, Rodríguez de Frías, Rodríguez de Montemayor, Rodríguez de Portugal, Rodríguez de Santa Ana, Rojas, Román, Rolón, Romero de Chávez, Romo, Romo de Vivar, De la Rosa, Rosales, Rosas, Rubio, Ruiz, Ruelas, Ruiz de Esparza, Ruiz de Escamilla, Ruvalcaba, Saavedra, Salas, Salaíses, Salazar, Salcedo, Saldívar, Saldaña, Salinas, Salvatierra, San Martín, San Román, Sánchez, Sánchez Bañales, Sánchez Castellanos, Sánchez de Porras, Sánchez de la Barrera, Sandoval, Santa Cruz, Santiago, Santa Ana, Santillán, Santos, Santos Coy, Saucedo, Sauza, Sepúlveda, Sendeja, De la Serna, Serrano, Silva, Sid Caldera, Siordia, Solano, Solís, Solórzano, Soria, Sorribas, Sosa, Sotomayor, Suárez, Suero, Tagle, Talamantes, Tapia, Tamez, Tavera, Tejeda, Téllez, Tello, Tijerina, Tiscareño, Toro, De la Torre, Torres, Tortolero, Tovar, Toscano, Treviño, Troncoso, Trujillo, Ubiedo, Ulibarri, Ucarranza, Ulloa, Uró y Campa, Urquiza, Urruchua, Urrutia, Urzúa, Valdés, Uzeta, Utrera, Valdivia, Valenzuela, Valle, Vanegas, Vara, Vargas, Vasconcelos, Vázquez, Vega, Vela, Velasco, Velázquez, Venegas, Vélez, Velloso, Ventura, Vera, Vergara, Vidal, Vidarte, Vidaurre, Villa, Vidrio, Villabazo, Villagran, Villalobos, Villalón, Villalpando, Villanueva, Villar, Villarreal, Villaseñor, Villavicencio, Villegas, Vizcarra, Vivar, Virgen, Yabarrera, Yáñez, Yépez, Zamora, Zamudio, Zaragoza, Zárate, Zavala, Zavalza, Zea, Zeballos, Zepeda, Zermeño, Zerezero, Zevallos, Zumalde, Zumelzu, Zúñiga, Zurita, Zurrain, Zuvillaga….and many, many more.

For information and orders in the US, please contact
Those of you in Mexico can contact the author directly at
Here is a more detailed description of this indispensable research tool.

Título: Sagrada Mitra de Guadalajara Antiguo Obispado de la Nueva Galicia Expediente de la Serie de Matrimonios. Extractos Siglos XVII – XVIII.
Autor: María de la Luz Montejano Hilton.
Especificaciones: Tamaño carta, 800 paginas, contiene índice onomástico, peso: 2 kilos.

Pedidos o informes desde México:
Pedidos o informes desde U.S.A.:
Borderlands Book Store
, Inc. P.O. Box 28497, San Antonio, Texas 78228

Special thank you to Mary Lou Montagna and Ophelia Marquez for preparing  this release in English and the following in Spanish.  I surely support the importance and merit of this outstanding research and book. 


Este libro te puede ayudar:

Trata particularmente sobre el Obispado de Guadalajara, también conocido como Mitra de Guadalajara en el hoy Estado de Jalisco. Antiguamente se le conoció como el Obispado de la Nueva Galicia que comprendió en alguna época entre otros lugares los hoy Estados de Jalisco, Nayarit, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, Coahuila y Nuevo León en México y Texas en E.U.A. En este acervo se encuentran muy variados documentos, menciono aquí solo algunos como ejemplo: solicitudes para ingresar a las ordenes sacerdotales ya sean menores o mayores, litigios sobre la sucesión o nombramiento de capellanes y patronos de una capellanía, concursos de oposición para obtener un beneficio o curato, testamentos con legados o fundaciones de capellanías y obras pías, juicios o demandas inquisitoriales, cofradías y expedientes matrimoniales; estos últimos expedientes, objeto de este libro se encuentran catalogados desde hace muchos años simplemente como "Matrimonios".

Los rollos microfilmados catalogados como Matrimonios son mas de 700 que abarcan los siglos XVII a XIX, este libro contiene 2975 expedientes extractados y con índice onomástico, sacados únicamente de 45 rollos de los mas de 700 ya mencionados, estos tienen las fechas mas antiguas del ramo de Matrimonios, siglos XVII y XVIII, pero aun hay rollos de microfilmación que no se trabajaron por causas ajenas a mi voluntad y es necesario en el futuro, se den a conocer, ya que también muchos de ellos a pesar de estar catalogados con fechas posteriores, en su contenido tienen documentos del siglo XVII o XVIII. Estos expedientes fueron extractados en lo esencial, respetando el estilo y lenguaje de redacción de los mismos, por lo que al lector le extrañará el lenguaje repetitivo, pero es un lenguaje y formula totalmente de época que sin embargo se puede disfrutar, como en lo particular lo disfruté al extractarlo.

El contenido de estos rollos es muy variado dentro de la serie de matrimonios, ya que algunas veces se encuentran expedientes de solicitudes para el ingreso a ordenes sacerdotales o de tipo administrativo, que no tienen que ver con el tema, pero se microfilmaron así; los siguientes si son relacionados con el matrimonio, como los expedientes sobre demandas de reuniones matrimoniales, es decir, cuando dos cónyuges no hacen vida maritable y por denuncia de un tercero o de uno de los cónyuges llega a oídos del Obispo, curiosamente este tipo de demandas algunas veces terminaban con la solicitud de la anulación del matrimonio o el divorcio; también se encuentran las demandas de nulidad de matrimonio; demandas de divorcio; exhortos para amonestar a los pretendientes; matrimonios secretos; revalidación de matrimonios; demandas de promesa de casamiento; siendo de mayor volumen las informaciones matrimoniales que se remitían al Obispado por razón de algún impedimento y que solo el Obispo podía dispensar o dar la licencia para que se pudiera efectuar el matrimonio, tales casos eran cuando los pretendientes tenían alguno de los impedimentos dirimentes mas comunes, como de consanguinidad, de afinidad, de crimen, de publica honestidad, de voto simple de castidad, de religión, de cognación espiritual, de cultus disparitas, es decir, cuando los pretendientes tenían diferentes religiones o simplemente las solicitudes de dispensa de banas o amonestaciones, de ultramarinos, de vaguedad, etc.

El material anterior, como se podrá apreciar, contiene grandes riquezas en información genealógica e histórica. En México, por desgracia, a diferencia de otros países, todavía no van de la mano los genealogistas y los historiadores, pocos ejemplos se pueden dar al respecto, es por eso, que me es de especial interés proporcionar algo de este valioso material, darlo a conocer y así, poder demostrar que la genealogía y la historia deben ir de la mano, con esto pretendo tal vez de manera ambiciosa, que cese el desprecio que hay por parte de algunos investigadores hacia la genealogía, disciplina, que en definitiva, es auxiliar de la historia.

Para demostrar lo anterior, de los mencionados archivos de los Obispados se pueden sacar datos que para la historia de la fundación y población de un pueblo o ciudad son de gran interés. Como primer ejemplo doy a conocer este caso que se extrajo de un documento que esta en el archivo del Obispado de Guadalajara, el expediente en cuestión es una simple solicitud de dispensa consanguínea para contraer matrimonio; este se originó en la Parroquia de Monterrey en el hoy estado de Nuevo León, con la información matrimonial que se levantó de los pretendientes el día 21 de enero de 1653. Los interesados Diego de Ayala y doña Margarita de Sosa y Saldívar, por tener el impedimento de consanguinidad de segundo con cuarto grado, tuvieron que justificar porque se querían casar siendo parientes y solicitar la dispensa al Obispo de la Nueva Galicia con sede en la Ciudad de Guadalajara. Muchos investigadores se preguntarán: -¿por qué este expediente puede ser importante para la historia de Monterrey?- Si lo único que se podría demostrar en el es que hubo endogamia en esa región; con esta conclusión, tienden a desechar automáticamente estas fuentes, pero con la información matrimonial de Diego de Ayala el lector se dará cuenta que muchas veces el genealogista buscando los enlaces familiares, encontrará en algunas ocasiones datos que pueden ser de gran interés para nuestra historia. En la mencionada información Diego de Ayala declaró ser vecino de la Ciudad de Monterrey, labrador y encomendero del Reino de León, hijo legítimo del Capitán Joseph de Treviño y de Leonor de Ayala y quiere repetir matrimonio con doña Margarita de Sosa y Saldívar, hija legitima del Capitán don Vicente de Saldívar y Reza y de doña María de Sosa, vecinos de la misma ciudad; posteriormente el pretendiente Diego de Ayala según el extracto de su declaración dijo:

"Que el Capitán Joseph de Treviño, mi padre, estando en la mayor pujanza de su caudal que fue mucho, sin ser llevado de otros intereses, entro a la población y pacificación de este Reino por el año de 1603, como consta del testimonio que de su entrada y vecindad se le dio, y para su población trajo la cantidad de ganados mayores y menores, caballada, bueyes, carretas, esclavos y aperos para fundar Haciendas de Labor, y con todo ello; A Leonor de Ayala su mujer, mi madre, y a mi abuela Beatriz de Quintanilla, madre del dicho mi padre, y a sus hermanas y sobrinos y sobrinas que todos se avecindaron en esta ciudad y reino y casaron en el. De cuyo tronco hemos venido a ser tantos que es muy difícil tomar estado sino es unos con otros".

La declaración anterior, nos da un testimonio realmente interesante de como entro la familia Treviño a poblar esta zona de nuestro país y nos marca incluso el año de su llegada en 1603; es común, que en los libros de historia sobre Monterrey se encuentren como protagonistas de ella a los miembros de esta familia. Muchos historiadores no han podido comprobar realmente de donde venían, quienes llegaron y cual fue la posible ruta que siguieron, incluso, muchos han teorizado sobre si es o no el bautizo del Capitán Joseph de Treviño el que esta asentado en el libro sacramental de bautizos de la Parroquia del Sagrario Metropolitano de la Catedral de la Ciudad de México, sin poder asegurarlo por falta del documento que permita su afirmación. Como se podrá ver en la información anterior, desde el momento en que el pretendiente Diego de Ayala menciona a su abuela dona Beatriz de Quintanilla como madre del Capitán Joseph de Treviño, nos da la oportunidad de confirmar de manera rotunda y sin temor a equivocarnos, que el bautizo asentado en la Ciudad de México el día 22 de marzo de 1565 de Joseph, hijo de Diego de Treviño y doña Beatriz de Quintanilla, es definitivamente, el del Capitán Joseph de Treviño, uno de los primeros pobladores de la Ciudad de Monterrey, esto para sorpresa de muchos, nos indica que el Capitán Treviño no fue peninsular como algunos pensaban, sino nacido en la Ciudad de México. Mas datos históricos se pueden sacar de este expediente por las declaraciones de los testigos que comparecieron para justificar las razones que dio el pretendiente, esta vez, tomaremos lo dicho por el Capitán Pablo Sánchez quien en 1653 fecha de la información declaro tener 83 años de edad y ser también vecino de la Ciudad de Monterrey, su declaración del extracto dice:

"Que conoció al Capitán Joseph de Treviño y María de Treviño y fueron hermanos legítimos, y el dicho Cap. Joseph de Treviño casado con Leonor de Ayala, tuvieron por su hijo a Diego de Ayala, y la dicha María de Treviño, su hermana, del matrimonio que repitió con el Cap. Juan de Farias, vecinos que fueron de este reino y de las Minas del Mazapil, donde los conoció este testigo, entre otros, tuvieron por su hijo legitimo al Alférez Alonso de Farias, de donde viene a ser Diego de Ayala y el Alférez Alonso de Farias, primos hermanos, y que el dicho Alférez Alonso de Farias, casado con Doña Ana de Sosa, tuvo por su hija a Doña María de Sosa, madre de la contrayente, y viene a ser sobrina en tercer grado del dicho Diego de Ayala. Y sabe que el Cap. Don Vicente de Saldívar y Reza, fue hijo legitimo de Juan Guerra de Reza y de Doña Magdalena de Mendoza, hija legitima del General Vicente de Saldívar y de Doña Magdalena de Mendoza, vecinos que fueron de la Ciudad de Zacatecas, y que doña Ana de Sosa, casada con el Alférez Alonso de Farias, fue hija del Cap. Alonso de Sosa y de Doña Beatriz Navarro, vecinos que fueron del Nuevo México".

La información que antecede, no solo nos confirma que doña María de Treviño nacida y bautizada en la Ciudad de México el día 3 de abril de 1558, fue hermana del Capitán Joseph de Treviño, sino que también se caso dos veces y que seguramente antes de poblar la Ciudad de Monterrey junto con su hermano, era vecina de Mazapil en el hoy Estado de Zacatecas con su segundo esposo el Cap. Juan de Farias; también este documento nos muestra como se movilizaron algunas familias a diferentes regiones de nuestro país, siendo que todos los personajes mencionados anteriormente tienen mucho que ver con la historia no solo de la Ciudad de Monterrey sino también de la región de Zacatecas, Coahuila y Nuevo México.

La investigación genealógica puede, y de hecho, en algunas ocasiones modifica la historia, ya sea familiar o de alguna localidad, sobre todo al descubrir orígenes mestizos en sus personajes. Por eso, debemos recordar que con la llegada de los Conquistadores Españoles a México, también llegaron las famosas "castas", nombre con que se "etiquetó" a todas las personas nacidas de padres de diversas razas como negros y blancos, indios y negros, etc., estas castas fueron conocidas como mestizos, mulatos, coyotes, castizos, moriscos, chino y hasta la nombrada casta de español, por dar algunos ejemplos. Con la llegada de estas, también se dio la oportunidad de "limpiar el mestizaje" de las castas mas comunes que existieron en el siglo XVI, como son:

"Mestizos", nacidos de la unión de una persona de raza blanca o de casta nombrada español con otra persona de raza indígena o casta nombrada india.

"Castizos", nacidos de la unión de una persona de casta mestiza con una persona de raza blanca o de casta español.

"Español", casta nombrada indistintamente para indicar que una persona era de raza blanca o que era nacida de la unión de una persona "castiza" con una persona de "raza blanca o de casta español".

Esta ultima casta nos muestra como los hijos de esta unión retomaban la casta de "español", formula relativamente sencilla que provocó aparentemente en la descendencia la desaparición o limpieza de cualquier rastro de mestizaje. Para ilustrar lo anterior, se escogió intencionalmente el caso de la Familia Ochoa Garibay establecida en la región del actual Estado de Michoacán desde el siglo XVI, por ser considerado el Capitán Diego de Ochoa Garibay su genearca o cabeza de familia, conquistador y uno de los fundadores de la hoy Ciudad de Zamora en el mismo estado. Aunque no es tema de este trabajo el archivo del Obispado de Michoacán, se da el caso por ser el mejor ejemplo para corregir un poco la historia local y familiar de este genearca que ha sido objeto de muchas teorías erróneas que incluso han traspasado nuestras fronteras...Esta ultima casta nos muestra como los hijos de esta unión retomaban la casta de "español", formula relativamente sencilla que provocó aparentemente en la descendencia la desaparición o limpieza de cualquier rastro de mestizaje. Para ilustrar lo anterior, se escogió intencionalmente el caso de la Familia Ochoa Garibay establecida en la región del actual Estado de Michoacán desde el siglo XVI, por ser considerado el Capitán Diego de Ochoa Garibay su genearca o cabeza de familia, conquistador y uno de los fundadores de la hoy Ciudad de Zamora en el mismo estado. Aunque no es tema de este trabajo el archivo del Obispado de Michoacán, se da el caso por ser el mejor ejemplo para corregir un poco la historia local y familiar de este genearca que ha sido objeto de muchas teorías erróneas que incluso han traspasado nuestras fronteras...

Para finalizar, solo me resta decir que los ejemplos anteriores, son prueba contundente de que la investigación genealógica va a la par con la historia y que el trabajo realizado aquí, seguramente ayudará tanto a genealogistas como a historiadores.

Mexican Communities Abroad

The Mexican government in 1990 created the Mexican Communities Abroad program to announce and center a dramatic shift in policy from a traditional indifference to Mexican migrants to the United States to a warm embrace and attempt to define and recruit those migrants as members of a Mexican diaspora.  The picture gallery is composed of snapshots taken of the program's activities in action. They give a rich sense of the new transnational scope of one nation-state as it tries to define and present itself to people on both sides of the border. 

 The reasons for creating the program, along with accounts of its operation, are described in articles by its third administrator, Rodulfo Figueroa-Aramoni, and by the "bureaucrat with a weakness for social science," Carlos González Gutiérrez, who developed programs in Mexico's largest American consulate, that of Los Angeles.

Through this program the Mexican government sponsors:

6,000 soccer leagues in the US and provides exchanges of athletes between the two countries
250 Mexican teachers to augment bilingual education
north of the border
The presentation of Mexican culture in American schools
The development of Spanish-language soap operas for broadcast on U.S. radio stations to strengthen migrants' allegiance to the country they left behind

Trips to reacquaint Mexican American children
with their heritage
Rodeos                                                                                             Sent by Johanna de Soto

Tamaulipas Economic Development News, April 15, 2002
The Tamaulipas government will continue supporting businesses that want to locate in the state as long they pay good wages, are competitive in their fields and do not pollute, said Jorge Alberto Reyes Moreno, the state secretary of Desarrollo Económico y del Empleo (Economic
Development and Employment).

Reyes also told the Reynosa newspaper El Mañana that Tamaulipas is beginning a slow economic recovery in step with that of the US. Last year, Tamaulipas lost 16,000 jobs according to the employment records of the Seguro Social (Social Security), says Reyes.

Reyes sees that the state has a favorable investment climate since there are no severe labor disputes. The state also has the resources necessary to attract of new companies.

Although Tamaulipas is in danger of losing 150 jobs at two companies that may soon go out of business, two new plants have opened in Matamoros. The new plants each employ 100 people but this number could increase to 300 or more by the end of the year, according to two
articles in Matamoros' El Bravo newspaper.

Source: El Mañana (Reynosa), April 15, 2002. El Bravo, April 5, 2002.
Frontera NorteSur subscribe for free daily news service,
Sent by Peter Carr

Director of Tijuana House for Stranded Migrants Says Emigration is Reviving
Luis Kandersky, the director of Tijuana's Casa del Migrante, said that the number of men arriving daily at the migrant-support center has nearly come back to pre-September 11 levels.

Prior to September 11, 2001, the Casa would help approximately 100 men per day that had run out of food and/or funds while seeking to cross to the US. In the two months following 9-11, the number of people trying to enter the US dropped and Casa del Migrante saw only about 30 people per day, according to Kandersky.

Kandersky also stated that 40% of people that arrive to Casa del Migrante are men that had been deported from the US, some after years of working there. "These cases are very sad because families are divided," he said.

Other people that arrive at Casa del Migrante are going to try and enter the US for the first time, while others have tried several times to cross to the US but have never made it, says Kandersky.

Casa registries show that most of the people that arrive at the facility are from Guerrero, Chiapas, Jalisco, Oaxaca and Michoacán which are all central or southern Mexican states.

Casa del Migrante is open to men, eighteen years of age or older, who can sleep and eat there for up to fifteen days.

Frontera NorteSur On-line news coverage of the US-Mexico border To see our site or subscribe for free to our daily news service go to:
FNS is an outreach program of the Center for Latin American and Border Studies
New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico    Greg Bloom, Editor (505) 646-6817

Los Duque de Estrada
Guillermo Padilla Origel
La Torre de Estrada, en la comunidad de Cantabria en Santander, España.


Los apellidos Estrada y Duque fueron distintos en su origen y tuvieron solares independientes, dimanando de ellos muchas ramas sin relación de vínculo ni parentesco; ahora bien en tiempos antiguos entroncó una linea del apellido Duque con otra linea del apellido Estrada ( que era propietaria del solar) y este entronque dio motivo para la formación de la poderosa familia " Duque de Estrada "

Los Duque proceden de los Duques de Cantabria y de Borgoña, y su solar mas antiguo es junto la villa de Castañeda del partido de Torre la Vega, (Cantabria ) y de ahí otras ramas dimanaron en Castilla la Vieja.

Entre los mas Antiguos Varones del este Apellido son Caballeros que intervinieron en la Toma de Baeza y se pueden citar entre otos a Don Juan Garcia Duque comendador de Santiago en 1338, y Don Juan Duque señor de las villas de Pedraza de Campos en Palencia, que murió en la batalla de Aljubarrota.

Otros formaron su apellido compuesto como Duque de Castañeda y Duque de Oviedo, siendo ambos del mismo solar de los Duque de Estrada.

Posteriormente se tienen noticias de un matrimonio en 1587 de Don Alonso Duque con Doña Beatriz Emelga, en Santa María y Santiago Bercero, Valladolid. España.

No tengo el dato del emigrante a Nueva España , pero tuvo que ser a fines del siglo XVI o principios del XVII, ya que en el sagrario metropolitano de la ciudad de México, se encuentra una partida de bautismo del 26 de Julio de 1640, de Don Ventura Alonso Duque de Estrada, hijo Lexitimo de Don Lorenzo Duque de Estrada y Doña Isabel Duran Castellanos, quedándose varias generaciones en esta bella capital del Virreynato de la Nueva España, otra rama se trasladó a la región minera del Estado de San Luis Potosí, inicialmente en la capital , mencionadose en un padrón de 1681 a Don Pedro Duque y Doña Josefa del Castillo, con varios hijos, de ahí se subdividieron hacia otras zonas mineras como " Charcas", " Armadillo de los Infantes ", " Villa de Reyes ", " Guadalcázar ", Ciudad del Maíz ", " Moctezuma ", " Real de Catorce ", " Venado", etc. y Sierra de Pinos, Zac.".

Una rama establecida actualmente en la Ciudad de león, e Irapuato del estado de Gto., y la ciudad de México, cuya Genealogía detallamosl, de la Villa de Reyes, S..L.P. , que eran dueños de las haciendas de " Bledos", " Gogorrón", "Piotillos" y " San Juan de Banegas", adquirió la casa Continua a la Iglesia de San Pedro de Ibarra, en el actual Municipio de Ocampo, del estado de Guanajuato.

Hacienda de san Pedro de Ibarra

De esta hacienda tenemos noticias que su dueño inicial fue Don Francisco de Marmolejo, vecino y fundador de la villa de San Felipe, Gto, por merced otorgada por real cedula el 27 de enero de 1595

En un censo de 1620 se dice qué La Estancia de Don Antonio Marmolexo, esposo de doña Ana Gomez de Portugal y Arrona, que llaman el rio de Ibarra dueño por Merced del sitio llamado Juan Alvarez el 15 de Febrero de 1618, junto a San Pedro de Ibarra

Según padrón de la Villa de san felipe de 1681, se menciona la Hacienda de Ibarra, dueños Don Juan Gómez Marmolejo y su hermano Don Diego Marmolejo, casados, con 86 vecinos, entre ellos a las familias de Don Nicolas Ramírez y Juan Bautista de Urbina, que incluye una capilla, y después vendió dicha hacienda la viuda deDon Juan Gómez Marmolejo , Doña Juana de Bribiesca e Isassi , al Marqués de las Torres de Rada, Don Francisco Lorenz de Rada y Arenaza, que se casó con Doña Gertrudis de la Peña, viuda del Marques de Villapuente, Don Jose de la Puentey Peña Castrejón y Salzines no dejando sucesión con este ultimo, y los hijos de la Puente litigaron varios años la sucecion,

Ibarra en 1772 era dueña el Rey de España, adquiriéndola después el Marques de Moncada y Berrio, dejando en sucesión a su nieto Don Gregorio de Mocada, quien vendio en 1896 en $-60,000 pesos oro la casa contigua a la iglesia a Don Ignacio Jacobo Duque y Sámano y a la fecha son los dueños sus nietas Doña Maria Elena y Doña Maria Eugenia Duque Gómez


I.-Don Antonio Duque de Estrada, nace por 1740, se caso con Doña María de la Concepción......

II.-Don Jose de los Santos Duque de Estrada
, bau. El 11 de marzo de 1771, en Venado San luis Potosí. Se casó el 27 de Agosto de 1789, ahí mismo con Doña Maria Irinea Reséndiz

III.-Don Joseph Félix de la Trinidad Duque de Estrada y Reséndiz, bau. El 21 de Julio de 1796, en la villa de Moctezuma , S.L.P., se casó con Ma Gervacia Rodríguez

IV.-Don Joseph Ignacio Rito Duque de Estrada y Rodríguez, nace por 1810, y se casa por 1840 con Doña Mariana de Pruneda , originaria de Real de catorce S.L.P.

V.-Don Román Duque y Pruneda
, nace por 1841 en la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, viudo de Refugio Marquez y se casa en segundas nupcias el 28 de mayo de 1862, en La hacienda de Calderón, de Villa de Reyes, S.L.P., con Doña Carmen Sámano y de la Gándara, originaria del Jaral, hija legitima de Don Pedro Sámano y de Doña Maria Guadalupe de la Gándara, hermana de la Virreina Doña Francisca de la Gándara, esposa del Virrey Don Felix Maria Calleja. Y fueron sus hijos de Don Román y Doña Carmen:

Don Ignacio Jacobo Duque y Sámano, que sigue.

Don Francisco Duque y Sámano
, se casó con Doña Maria de la Luz Diaz Infante y Márquez, vda. De Gregorio Moncada, nieto del Marqués de Moncada y Berrio y fueron sus hijos Don Francisco y Don Oscar Duque Diaz Infante, este ultimo casado con Maria Nieves y fueron sus hijos Carlos y Concepción Duque etc. Residentes en Irapuato, Gto.

Don Primitivo Duque y Sámano
, se casó con Maria Josefa Diaz Infante y Márquez, y fueron sus hijos:

Elvira, Soledad, Aurora, Amelia casada con José Medina, y Juan José Duque y Diaz Infante casado con Berta N.

Don José Ramon Duque y Sámano, se casó con Doña María Diaz Infante y Aranda, nacida en 1865, en León, Gto. Hija lsegitima de Don Felix Diaz Infante y Martín del Campo y de Doña Mariana Aranda y Pérez Castro, y fueron sus hijos Jose Ramon y Carmen Duque y Diaz Infante

Don Alonso Duque y Sámano, soltero

Doña Carmen Duque y Sámano, religiosa.

VI.-Don Ignacio Jacobo Duque y Sámano, originario de Villa de Reyes, S.L.P. nace por 1865, compró la casa de Ibarra en 1896, y se casó el 21 de Agosto de 1899, en la capilla del Salto del Ahogado, Mpio. De Ocampo, Gto., con Doña Francisca de Jesús Adelaida Diaz Infante y Márquez, hija legitima de Don Cirilo Diaz Infante y de Doña Jovita Márquez, quien nació el 16 de Diciembre de 1876, en San Felipe, Gto., y fueron sus hijos todos nacidos en la casa de Ibarra, Gto.:

VII.-Doña Otilia Duque Diaz Infante

VII.-Don Guillermo Duque Diaz Infante

VII.-Don Reynaldo Duque Diaz Infante, casado en primeras nupcias con Sra. Muñoz Orozco, sin suceción. Y en segundas nupcias con Doña Ana Maria López de la Vega y a la vez fueron sus hijos, nacidos en León, Gto.:

Ana Maria , casada con sr. Muñoz, con dos hijos, Adela casada con José López con dos hijos , Ignacio casado con Agustina López, siendo a su vez sus hijos: Reynaldo, Ignacio y Gabriela DuqueLópez, y Maria de Lourdes Duque López , Soltera.

VII.-Don Rafael Duque Diaz Infante, se casó con Maria del Carmen Mojica García, hija de Don Francisco Mojica y de Doña Dolores Garcia Murffin., y fueron sus hijos :

Rafael, casado con Jacqueline Martínez y fue sus hija Carolina Duque Martínez
Luis Ignacio, casado con Angélica Gutierrez Hernández, y su hija Rosa Angélica Duque Gutierrez.

Humberto de Jesús, casado con Patricia Rodríguez y sus hijos : 
Humberto y Carlos Duque Rodríguez.

Sergio, soltero

Gema de los Dolores, casada con Ricardo Reyna, con dos hijos

Guillermo, casado con Lourdes Barrios, y sus hijos: Guillermo y Mauricio Duque Barrios.

Eduardo, soltero

Oscar, soltero

VII.-Don Felipe Duque Diaz Infante, casado con Doña Maria Elena Gómez Hernández, hija legitima de Don Everardo Gómez Mena y de Doña Maria Elena Hernández Torres, y fuerosn sus hijas:

Doña Maria Elena (paloma) , casada con el arq. Victor Padilla Olivares y sus hijos: Victor Felipe y María Paloma Padilla Duque

Maria Eugenia , casada con Arturo López Padilla, y a vez sus hijos: Sofia y Erika López Duque.

VII.-Doña María Luisa Duque Diaz Infante., soltera.

Estudio efectuado por el sr. Guillermo Padilla Origel, León, Gto.

8 de abril de 2002

Notas.-Informacion verbal de Paloma ,Guillermo y Luis Ignacio Duque
Libros de San Felipe Tores Mochas del padre Ibarra
Padrón de San Felipe, Gto. 1681
Los Duque de Estrada , pagina de Internet
Archivo Genealógico de los Duque registros parroquias , bautismos y marimonios

Government Report: Gender Inequality Persist in Mexico, EFE - 4/9/2002
Today, the average Mexican woman has 2.4 children, down from the average three children per woman six years ago, according to a report from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information INEGI) released on Monday. Women with little or no education have more children - an average of 4.7-compared with those with at least a high school education, who have half that number, according to the study.

Women in the poorest states with high Indian populations such as Chiapas, Puebla and Oaxaca, surpass the national average with an average of three children each. The report also expresses concern over the high rate of teen pregnancies: 214 for every 1,000 teenage girls.

The study indicates discrimination towards women persists in terms of salaries, political participation and social benefits. According to the report, men on average receive 11 percent more pay than women for the same job.  In higher level jobs, the difference is more marked. The salaries of male industrial supervisors, for example, are 40 percent higher than those of women who hold the same position, according to INEGI.

An estimated 40 percent of all Mexican women receive social welfare benefits. More than 12 million Mexican women combine work with their domestic responsibilities, for which they labor six to 10 hours per week more than their male counterparts, the document said.

According to the report, one out of every nine women is illiterate, whereas only one out of every 13 men is illiterate.

Despite the progress made to achieve equal opportunities for both men and women, public offices have just recently been opened up to women in Mexico. For example, over the last 35 years, the Senate has had 758 different senators, but only 11.1 percent of those legislators have been women.

"However, the participation of women in both houses has definitely increased from 3.4 percent participation in 1970 to 15.6 percent in 2002," according to the report. 
Sent by Howard Shorr

Archivo General de la Nación, Guia General
307 Academia Mexicana de Genealogía y Heráldica 
Procedencia institucional
La Sociedad Genealógica de Utah ha realizado, desde hace varias décadas, un programa de microfilmación de registros parroquiales y libros del Registro Civil en México, junto con los microfilmes de muchos otros países.  Los correspondientes a México están concentrados en Salt Lake City, Utah. Una copia de los registros microfilmados ha sido conservada por la Academia Mexicana de Genealogía y Heráldica, y depositada en el Archivo General de la Nación, para su custodia y consulta pública.

Período  1536-1979    Editor's note: This is a bonanza!      Sent by Johanna de Soto

Viceregal and Ecclesiastical Mexican Collection, 1534 - (1770-1820) - 1919
COLLECTION GUIDE, 3,020 dossiers  Prepared by Ruth Olivera, December 1980.

The Viceregal and Ecclesiastical Mexican Collection consists of manuscripts relating to the colonial or viceregal period, with emphasis on the years 1770-1820. It is composed of documents of the Catholic Church and records of government which apparently had their origin in the archives of the viceroys, archbishops, and bishops of the New Spain. Types of documents include church records, petitions, litigation records, notarial files, letters, reports, investigations, maps, illustrations, architectural plans, and printed edicts and proclamations.       Sent by Johanna de Soto

Records of El Potosí Mining Company
Benson Latin American Collection, Rare Books and Manuscripts Inventory
Prepared by the Mexican Archives Project, April 1995
Introduction: The Records of El Potosí Mining Company were purchased by the Benson Latin American Collection on April 11, 1985, from Maggie Lambeth Books of San Antonio, Texas. The records were described by the Benson's Mexican Archives Project in April 1995.The collection's physical extent is ten inches. Its materials are in English; their bulk dates are 1931-1939. The suggested citation is "Records of El Potosí Mining Company, 1929-1952, Benson Latin American  

Register of Pablo Macedo, Collection of Mexican notorial, mining and colonial documents
Time Period: 1600 -- 1908,             MSS 0035                Extent: 0.40 linear feet (1 archives box)
Mandeville Special Collections Library, 
Geisel Library University of California, San DiegoPapers probably collected by the family of Pablo Macedo, Mexican lawyer and professor of political economy, mostly relating to his father Mariano's claim to the Hacienda de Nuestra Senora de las Rosarios (a.k.a. "Los Reyes"). The materials, written in Spanish, include colonial documents, called "mercedes," relating to land tenure in the Itzmiquilpa region of Mexico, dated from the seventeenth century and signed by Spanish viceroys. Also included are inspection reports from Mexican mines, dating from the late 18th and early 19th centuries; two papal bulls, dated 1711 and 1806; a handwritten supplement to a manual of Mexican agriculture, 1869; and an autograph letter signed by Pablo Macedo, 1908.                                                                              Sent by Johanna de Soto

The Agustin de Iturbide Collection
The Agustin de Iturbide Collection consists of financial and military documents, printed ephemera, correspondence and an oil portrait. The materials are arranged in 23 folders held in one box, except for the oil portrait, which is hanging on the walls of a Special Collections office.

Agustin de Iturbide was born in Valladolid (now Morelia), Mexico, September 27 1783, and executed in Padilla, Mexico, July 19, 1824. He was the child of Spanish parents who had come to Mexico shortly before his birth. After the death of his father in 1798, Iturbide entered the military as a sub-lieutenant. He saw service in suppressing a minor revolutionary movement in 1809, and in 1810, after declining an offer from Hidalgo to serve with the insurgents in their uprising, he again took the field for the Spanish cause.

During this insurgency, Iturbide rose to the rank of colonel, and in 1813 forces under his command dealt a crushing blow to the revolution by defeating Hidalgo's successor Morelos at the battle of Valladolid. In reward for his services, in 1816 Iturbide was named commander-in-chief of Guanajuato and Michoacan. However, charges of ruthless violence against non-combatants and misuse of official funds, combined with Spanish officials' distrust of Mexican-born officers, led to his dismissal.

Pioneros puertorriqueños en Nueva York
Cuban Memories
Batallones del Instituto de Voluntarios de Puerto Rico
San Juan 

Pioneros puertorriqueños en Nueva York,
by Joaquín Colón. The history of the first large wave of Puerto Rican immigrants making a life for themselves in New York City.  The original Spanish-language manuscript is published for the first time.  125 pages, $12.95
Published by the University of Houston, Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage Project,         Sent by Johanna de Soto

"Cuban Memories" available online .

Coral Gables, FL - The Cuban Heritage Digital Collection this month publishes it's fifth issue of "Cuban Memories: Primary Sources from the Cuban Heritage Collection, University of Miami Libraries." This newsletter each month features an item from the Cuban Heritage Collection and uses it to tell part of the narrative of Cuban history and culture. The April issue presents a "Drawing of Enrique Labrador Ruiz by Juan David" and can be viewed online at 
Previous issues can be accessed at
and include: "Tomás Estrada Palma Rides to Havana to Become Cuba's First President" "José Lezama Lima's Shoes" 
"A Prisoner of War's Last Letter to His Wife" 
"Havana's Lyceum and Lawn Tennis Club" 
Sent by María R. Estorino, Project Director  at 305-284-5854 or .
Batallones del Instituto de Voluntarios de Puerto Rico
Following the listing is an example of the kind of information that can found for each of the locations..

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 1 - San Juan

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 2 - Bayamón - Toa Baja - Vega Baja - Corozal

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 3 - Rio Piedras - Buena Vista - Carolina - Rio Grande - Luquillo

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 4 - Arecibo - Hatillo - Manatí - Camuy - Barceloneta

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 5 - San Sebastián - Aguadilla - Isabela

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 6 - Mayagüez - ¿Naranjito? - Hormigueros

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 7 - Maricao - Las Marías - San Germán - Añasco

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 8 - Sabana Grande - Yauco - Peñuelas

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 9 - Ponce

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 10 - Juana Díaz - Coamo - Aibonito - Barranquitas

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 11 - Guayama - Arroyo - Cayey - Cidra

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 12 - Hato Grande (San Lorenzo)

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 13 - Humacao - Naguabo - Yabucoa

Batallón de Voluntarios, Número 14 - Utuado - Adjuntas - Ciales

San Juan  Plana Mayor

Teniente Coronel, 1er Jefe: Excmo. Sr. Don Pedro Arzuaga Beraza


Don Pablo Ubarri
Don Fermín Martínez Villamil

Don Benigno Trueba Gutiérrez
Don David González Sobrino
Don Manuel Egózcue Cintrón
Don Ricardo Alonzo Baquero
Don José Montesino Escalona
Don José Ledesma Saldaña
1eros Tenientes

Don José Ma. Fontanals Domínguez
Don Enrique Delgado Ortega
Don José Mendin Periera
Don José Murguil González
Don Benito Zalduondo Echevarria
Don Juan B. Arzuaga Gallarde (Garallarde o Garayarde?)
Don Jose Garallarde Ayestarán
Don Joaquin Jarque Lasso
Don Francisco Armengol Heras
2dos Tenientes

Don Pedro Bolivar Alvarez
Don Miguel L. Arzuaga Garallarde (Garayarde?)
Don Manuel Quintana Aguirre
Don Deogracias Fabián Diaz
Don Endosio Cuétara Alvarez
Don Francisco Trigo Marcos
Don Ernesto Méndez García
Don Joaquín Matienzo Carrasco
Don Pedro Pinacho
Músico Mayor

Don Casimiro Duchesne Figueroa

Don Esteban García Cabrera


Don Miguel Herrera Rubio 

Sent by Johanna de Soto


Medical History Researcher
Latino American History: A Guide to Resources
Inca Mummies
Spanish Patriots of Guatamala 
Medical History Researcher:  wonder if you can help me: I am writing in Spanish, minibiographies of outstanding physicians from Hispanic America at  of Buenos Aires. 
I have great difficulties in finding information from Mexico and Central America. As an example I have been trying to find biographical information and references about Dr Sebastian Barcelo, a physician from Queretaro and Dr Emilio Zertuche from Puebla (Late 18th and early 19th centuries). Also Dr Miguel Ugarte from Honduras, but I have not been successful so far. 
Sincerely, J G Gomez, M.D., 19031 SE Outrigger Lane, Jupiter, Fl, USA 33458-1087
Latino American History: A Guide to Resources & Research on the Web by University of Colorado  
Lots of good information. . . .  Do Look.
Inca Mummies
Archaeologists say the discovery of thousands of Inca mummies could help solve some of the mysteries surrounding the ancient civilization.  Some 2,200 individuals have been found. The bodies were not embalmed, but were mummified by placing them in dry soil packed with textiles that helped them dry out more quickly.  The burials are thought to have occurred between 1480 and 1535, with the site serving as a central cemetery for the Inca.  More than 50,000 artifacts have been retrieved.
"The huge number of mummies from one period of time provides an unparalleled opportunity for new information about the Incas," said Johan Reinhard, explorer-in-residence at the National Geographic Society.  OC Register, 4-18-02

(Second Part, the Taxpayers and Merchants)

Researched and Submitted © 2002 Granville W. and N. C. Hough

Part of the Bourbon Reforms introduced by King Carlos III was the requirement that each jurisdiction collect its own taxes and that tax collectors be accountable for their work. Captain-General Matias de Gálvez of Guatemala (Chiapas and all of Central America except Panama) was a very good administrator who carried out the edicts of King Carlos III very effectively. Those who were wealthy enough to pay taxes and those appointed to collect them were generally the same people who held appointments in the militias and who made contributions (donativos) when called upon to do so. For this reason the taxpayer lists for Central America are important for the war period. Other records may eventually be found connecting these persons to war service.

These records were found in LDS Roll 0741892, covering a few locations in present day Honduras (Comayagua) and Guatemala. They are mostly for 1781 and 1782 and frequently list products which the person grew or traded, or for which the person was taxed.  Cultural historians will be interested to note that the products mentioned included: 

alguna ventas; 
arrovas de asúcar; bacas; 
balcones de fierro; bestias; 
caña fiztola; 
carne; carne marrano; carne de murrcino;
carne de puerco; 
carne salada; 
cavalleras de tierra; 
cavezas de ganada         bacuna; 
caxetas de vapadura; caxones de loza echiza;
colchas ordinarias de       algadon; 
corazas ordinarias de           baqueta; 
fiero de la tierra;
fierro de Vizcaya;
foxas; frutos; 
generos de Castilla y de   la tierra;
mitlas zerreras; 
panelas; papel; 
petacas de pasas; pezcados cuyameles; plantanos;
peroles de cobra; 
pimta de bacala; pollinos; 
sombreros de palma; 
sombreros de vicuña;
res propria; 
por una res
deventa y reventa; reses bendidas en tajo;
ropa de Castilla; 
ropa de la tierra; 
ropa de la tierra segonta; 
tinta corte;
zera negra; 
and zora prieta.

The taxpayers and merchants included: 

Pedro Acosta of Chiquimula;
Mariano Agirre/Aguirre of Tocoi; 
Manuel Agilar of Orica, Comayagua;
Gregorio Aguirre of San Agustín; 
Manuel Aguirre of San Agustín; 
Lorenzo de Ahumada of Comayagua; 
Manuel Alarcon of Chiquimula; 
Visente Alarcon of Chiquimula; 
Pedro Alcantar Varillas of Acasaguastran; 
Antonio Aldana of Gualan; 
Pedro Aldana of Chiquimula; 
Josef Antonio Alfaro of Jalapan;
Josef María Allala of Tocoi; 
Juan Allala of Tocoi; 
Lorenzo Alonzo of San Agustín; 
Juan Pazqual Altamirano of Olanchito,              Comayagua;
Agustín Alvallero of Jocotan; 
Francisco Albarado of Xalapa; 
Francisco Alvarado of Comayagua; 
Juan Alvarado of Caridao, Comayagua; 
Pablo Alvarado of Caridao, Comayagua; 
Antonio Albares of Xalapa; 
Juan Alvarez of Choluteca, Comayagua; 
Thomas Alvarez, citizen of Guatemala, alcavala payment in Chiquimula; 
Josef Amasa of Chiquimula, apparently died intestate, alcavala payment in 1781, los              Almonedas de los rematados; 
??? Amendaño of Mita; 
Manuel Antunes of Silca, Comayagua; 
Francisco Aragon of Acasaguastran;
Josef Vicente de Aragon prepared census for Pueblo de Santo Domingo Nancinta and       Pueblo de Santa Isabel Sinacanthan in 1816;
Manuel Antonio Aranivar of Zopilotepe, Comayagua; 
Marcelino Arasila of Zacapa; 
Marcelino Archila of San Agustín; 
Domingo Argueta of Ycpala;
Pedro Arias of Nicaragua, Comayagua; 
Gabriel de Ariasa of Tocoi;
Assensio Aristondo of Tocoi; 
Isidro Aristondo of Tocoi; 
Josef Arizti of Comayagua: 
Silverio Arqueta/Argueta of Chiquimula; 
Juan Ignacio Arraurrenechea/ Arrsuirrerrechea of  Arohiaga, Comayagua; 
Isidro Arriaza of San Agustín; 
Josef Antonio Arrue of Chiquimula, Interventor and Receptoria of alcavalas, 1780; 
Pedro Artica of Ovineral del Corpus,              Comayagua; 
Leon Asaytuno of Acasaguastran; 
Manuel Asencis of Chiquimula;
Juan Josef Aseyre of Zacapa; 
Lorenso Asseytuno of Zacapa; 
Lorenza Azayturo of Zacapa (may be a       widow); 
Gaspar de Àvila of Nicaragua, Comayagua; 
Manuel de Ayala of Tocoi; 
Manuel Ayala of San Agustín; 
Julian Ayestas of Comayagua; 
Josef Azeytuno of Acasaguastran;
Juan Ramón Balcazar of San Agustín; 
Juan Baptista Baldes of Chiquimula;
Juan Josef Baldes of Chiquimula; 
Ignacio Baldonado of Chiquimula;
Francisto Balladares of Leon, Nicaragua, and Comayagua; 
Josef Banegas of los Valles, Comayagua; Paulino Banegas of Ycpala; 
Vasilio Banegas of Olancho, Comayagua; Bernardo/Bernardino Baquero of San Agustín; Juan Francisco Barama of Sulaco, Comayagua; 
Juan Antonio de las Barcenas of 
Manuel Bardales of Zacapa; 
Florentin Bardona of Juticalpa,
Manuel Bardona/Baraona of San Agustín and Gualan; 
Miguel Bargas of Pinula; 
Isidro Barreda of Tocoi; 
Josefe Barrientos of San Agustín; 
Francisco dela Barzena of Chiquimula; 
Antonio Basques of Jocotan; 
Manuel Basques of Jocotan; 
Juan Belarde of Sansaria; 
Miguel Belis of Chiquimula, witness for Micaela Rodríguez in alcavala payment regarding un hizo de un esclavo; 
Domingo Beltran of Jalapan;
Luís Beltran of Chiquimula, apparently died     intestate, alcavala payment in 1781, los        Almonedas de los rematados;
Roberto Benero of pueblo el Viejo, 
Luíz Beza of Esquipulas; 
Damian Bisai of Chiquimula; 
Paulino Bojorques of Chiquimula; 
Francisco Borjas of Comayagua; 
Juan Antonio Borjas of Sitio, Comayagua; Manuel Joseph Brenes of Chiquimula; 
Benito Bueso of Jocotan; 
Manuel Bustamente of Mita;
Gabriel Cabrera of Comayagua;
Juan/Juana Cabrera of Gualan (likely a widow);
Josef Calderon of Ycpala; 
Luís Calderon of Ycpala;
*Francisco del Campo of Chiquimula, Capt,   Infantry, also shown at Corregidor,      Quesaltepeque in 1781; 
Josef Campos of Jalapan, vecino de la Nueva Guatemala;
 Manuel Campos of Gualan; 
Lucas Canelas of Agaltas,Gualaco, Comayagua; 
Gregorio Canjura of Acasaguastran; 
Ambrocio Carcache, sender of cacao cargo to Pedro Martín of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Sebastian de Cardenas of Chiquimula; 
Antonio Cardona of Gualaco, Comayagua; 
Antonio Cardosa of Chiquimula; 
Antonio Cardoza of Chiquimula;
Lucas Carrascal, Administrador proprietario, 
Renta de Alcavalas y Varlov’to, Provincias de Comayagua Theguzigalpa, Puerto de Omoa, y
Chiquimula de la Sierra, 1780; 
Antonio Joseph Carrillo of Gualan, signing official for alcavalas, 1781; 
Juan Carrillo of Chiquimula;
Miguel Ignacio Carrillo of Queguesgue y          Tempisque, Mataterainte; 
Josef Antonio Carrion of Nicargua Comayagua; Sebastián de Carsena of Chiquimula, witness for Micaela Rodríguez in alcavala document involving
one Hizo de un esclavo; 
Juan Casasola of Jocotan; 
Juan Cascarte of Nicaragua, Comayagua; 
*Bentura Casco, Captain, Olancho el Viego,
Juan Castañeda of Zacapa; 
Miguel Castañeda of Gualan, Chiquimula and    Zacapa; 
Silbestre Castañeda of Sansaria;
Simón de Castañeda of Zacapa;
Antonio Castillo of Chiquimula; 
Bartolomé Castro of Olanchito, Comayagua; 
Francisco Castro of Tocoi;
Josephine Castro of Jocotan ( likely widow); 
José Castro of Jocotan; 
Juan de Díos y Castro of Pueblo de Santa María Xalapan, signing official for alcavalas, 1782;
Juan Josef Castro of Granada, Comayagua; 
Benito Cavallero of Villa de Yoro,  Comayagua; 
Antonio Chacon of Chiquimula; 
Christoval Chacon of Acasaguastran; 
Nicolás Chacon of Gualan; 
Thomas Chacon of Acasaguastran;
Francisco Chavarria of Zacapa; 
Juan Chávez, age 73 in 1816, with his fourth   wife, Cayetana Vasquez, widow of Pablo         Vasques, with two young sons and two daus was at Pueblo Santa Isabel; 
Patricio Chavez, vecino of Managua,               Nicaragua, Comayagua; 
Santiago Chiapa of Mita; 
Nicolás Chileño of Jalapan; 
Mariano Chinta of Chiquimula;
Juan Chrisostomo of Olancho el Viejo, Comayagua; 
Hilario Cisneros of Sansaria; 
Vicente Colindres of Quequesque; 
Antonio Contreras of Xalapa; 
Silvestre Contreras of Jalapan;
Mariano Cordero of Tocoi, signing official for alcavalas, 1782; 
Nicolás Cordero of Jocotan; 
Antonio Cordon of Jocotan; 
Juan Cordon of Zacapa;
Manuel Cordon of Zacapa; 
Matías Cordon of Chiquimula; 
Norverto Cordon of Acasaguastran; 
Patricio Cordon of Acasaguastran; 
Thomas Cordon of Zacapa; 
Luís Coronado of Quequesque; 
Benito de la Cruz of Minerals de Zedros,       Comayagua; 
Christoval de la Cruz of Jalapan; 
Ignacio Cruz of Tapale, Comayagua; 
Julián de la Cruz of San Agustín; 
Manuel de la Cruz of San Agustín; 
Thomas de la Cruz of San Agustín; 
Juan Miguel Cruzado of Chiquimula;
Josef Dardon of Sansaria;
Josef Antonio Dardon of Sansaria; 
*Juan Tomás Dardon, Captain of Acasaguastran; 
Vicente Dardon of Sansaria; 
Matheo Dàvila Llugo, signing official for alcavalas at Jocotan in 1782; 
Pedro Delem of Nicaragua, Comayagua; 
Antonio Dias of Chiquimula; 
Nicolás Dias of Chiquimula; 
Juan Diego of Mita; 
??? Dionicia of San Agustín;
Ildefonso Ignacio Domezayn of Comayagua; Guillermo Duarte of Chiquimula;
Joseph María Duarte of Gualan pueblo; 
Pedro Duarde Cruz of Zedros, Comayaga;
Juan Agustín Ecoto of Tapale, Comayagua; 
Josef Elias of Sansaria;
Antonio Enrriguez/Henrriguez of Chiquimula; Manuel Enrriguez Pais of Acasaguastran; 
Miguel Enrriguez/Henrriguez, cura of  Chiquimula; 
Paulino Ercoles of Chiquimula; 
Antonio Errera of Ycpala; 
Juan Errera of Mita;
Justo Errera of Mita; 
Juan Escalon of Mita; 
Gregorio Escobar of Comayagua, relacion     jurada, 1782; Antonio Escudero of Chiquimula;
Juan de España of Mita; 
Victorino España of Chiquimula; 
Anastacio Espina of Chiquimula; 
Manuel Espino of Chiquimula; 
Andrés Estrada of Moramulca and Valle de   San Juan, Comayagua; 
Joseph Estrada of Acasaguastran; 
Juan de Estrada of Chiquimula;
Luíz Antonio Estrada of Leon, Comayagua;.
Antonio Fernández Vixil of Sacatecoluca,        Comayagua; 
Josef’c María Fernándes of San Agustín; Antonio Ferrera of Valle de Tapale, Comayagua;
Alexandro Fiallos of Amarateca, relación jurada,  Comayagua;
Mariano Figueroa of Quequesque; 
Bernardo Flóres of Juticalca, Comayagua; 
Juan Antonio Flóres of partido de Ofojona,   Comayagua; 
Santiago Flóres of Jalapan: 
Antonio Franco of Zacapa; 
Clemente Franco of Zacapa; 
Miguel Franco of Zacapa; 
Alexandro Funes of Olancho, Comayagua;
Manuel Funes of Pesipiere, Comayagua;
Juan Bentura Galindo of Choluteca, Comayagua; Francos Gallegos of Comayagua;
Pedro Galvan of Jocotan;
Manuel Garaycoa of Juticalpa, Comayagua; 
Josef García of Ycpala; 
*Pedro Garmendia, fray and cura of Comayagua; 
Pedro Vicente Garmendia of Cuscateca, relación  jurada, of Comayagua, cargo via Joaquín Ximénez in 1782; 
Blas Gascon of San Agustín;
Joseph Manuel Giron of Ycpala;
Juan Giron/Xiron of Chiquimula;
Juan Goday of Chiquimula; 
Alonso Gomez of Sansaria; 
Anastacio Gonzales of San Agustín; 
Facundo Gonzales of Zacapa;
 Josef Gonzales of Chiquimula; 
Josef Gonzales Aguero of Comayagua; 
Josef Miguel Gonzales of Jocotan; 
Juan José Gonzales Zerayn prepared census for Coatepeque in Feb 1813; 
Juan Miguel Gonzales of Jocotan; 
Leon Gonzales of Chiquimula;/
Martin Gonzales of San Agustín;
Pedro Gonzales of Olancho, Comayagua;
Seferino Gonzales of Zacapa; 
Thomas Gonzales of Zacapa; 
Silvestre Guera of Chiquimula; 
Antonio Guerra of Jocotan; 
Francisco Guerra of Jocotan;
Jophe Guerra of Jocotan (likely a widow); 
Silbestre Guerra of Chiquimula; 
Mateo Guevara of Acasaguastran; 
Teodoro Guevara of Acasaguastran; 
Blas Guillen of Corpus, Comayagua; 
Matías Guillen of Chiquimula; 
Manuel Gutieres of Acasaguastran; 
Francisco Gutierrez of Sansaria, signing official for alcavalas in 1782; 
Antonio Gusman of Quesaltepeque; 
*Bartolomé Guzman, padre of Nicaragua,             Comayagua;
Bitoriano Gusman of Tocoi; 
Bonifacio Guzman of Chiquimula; 
Thomas Guzman of Chiquimula;
Antonio Henrriquez, Comisario, Renta de          Alcavalas, Pueblo de Julotopeque, 1782, and signing officer for alcavalas at Ycpala, 1782;
Deciderio Hernandez of Juticalpa, Comayagua; Pedro Hernandez of San Agustín; 
Pedro Hernandez of Gualaco, Comayagua;
 Timoteo Hernández of Nicaragua, Comayagua; 
Juan Francisco de Herrara of Juticalpa, Comayagua;
Juan Josef Herrera of Juticalpa, Comayagua; Santiago Herrera of Olancha, Comayagua; ??? el Herrero of Mita;
Josef’e el Ingles of San Agustín (likely widow); 
Pedro de Iribarren of Comayagua, Administrador de Tobacos in 1781; 
Juan Antonio Irungaray of Comayagua, cargo contract with Juan Ignacio Arraurrenechea in 1782;
Manuel de Jesús of Yoro, Comayagua; 
Miguel de Jesús of Nandayme, Comayagua;
Baltazar Jovel of Chiquimula; 
Juan Jovel of Chiquimula;
Manuel Jovel of Chiquimula; 
Pedro Miguel Jovel of Jocotan; 
Pablo de la Juana of San Agustín; 
Bentura Juares of Acasaguastran; 
Feliciano Juares of San Agustín; 
Leonardo Juares of San Agustín;
Pedro de Landa of San Miguel, Comayagua; Pedro Buenaventura Landa of Leon, Comayagua, Masaya, and at Pueble el Viejo; 
Manuel de Lara of Tocoi; 
Seberino Lemuz of Quequesque; 
Antolino León of Acasaguastran;
Francisco León of Chiquimula; 
Gerónimo de León of Tocoi; 
Josef León of Acasaguastran; 
Josef de León of San Agustín; 
Josef Antonio de León of Nacaome, Comayagua; 
Mathías León of Acasaguastran; 
Matías de León of Chiquimula; 
Antonio Leste Chanzele of Quesaltepeque, mentioned in certificate of alcavalas in 1781; Damaso Lima of Jalapan; 
Domingo López of Jocotan; 
Felipe López of Chiquimula; 
Gabriel López of Mita; 
Josef Manuel Lópes of Chiquimula;
Juan López of San Agustín; 
Juan Lópes of Jocotan; 
Manuel López of San Agustín; 
Martín López of Zacapa; with Simón de Castañeda in 1781, then he was Receptor of Alcavalas for Zacapa in 1782. 
Matheo López of San Agustín;
Manuel Loyo of Zacapa; 
Josef Antonio Lozano of Comayagua; 
Juan de Dios Lugo of Jocotan; 
Mateo Lugo of Chiquimula; 
Miguel Lugo of Chiquimula; 
*Pablo Lugo, Captain in Nicaragua, Comayagua; 
Manuel Luteris of Chiquimula;
Juan Machuca of San Agustín; 
Baltazar de Madariaga of Comayagua,
relation jurada in 1782; 
Bernardo Madrid of Chiquimula, Administrator of Alcavalas, 1781; 
Pedro Madrid of Comisario Medina, Comayagua;
Benito Magarola of Sansaria;
??? el Magueño
of Chiquimula, apparently died intestate, alcavala payment in 1781, los Almonedas de los rematados;
Bernardo Manchame of Jocotan;
Juan Ambrocio Manchame of Chiquimula;
Julián Manchame of Jocotan; 
Manuel Manchame of Jocotan; 
Pedro Manchame of Jocotan; 
Joseph Manuel of Gualan; 
Josef’e María of San Agustín (likely a widow); 
Antonio María Marroquin of Sansaria; 
Josef Antonio Marroquin of Jalapan;
Juan Marroquin of Chiquimula; 
Marcos Marroquin of Sansaria; 
Phelipe Marroquin of Sansaria; 
Simón Marroquin of Chiquimula;
Vicente Marroquin of Sansaria, also at Queguesque y Tempisque, Mataterainte; 
Juan Martín of Pinula; 
Estébin Martínez of Gualaco, Comayagua; 
Felipe Martínez of Acasaguastran and Chiquimula; 
Gregorio Martínez of Chiquimula; 
Ignacio Martínez of Yoro, Comayagua, 
cargo in 1781; 
Inginio/Eugenio Martínez of Chiquimula; 
Josef Lorenzo Martínez of Chiquimula, witness to alcavala summary in 1782; 
Juan Martínez of Pinula; 
Manuel Martínez of Chiquimula; 
Patricio Martínez of Chiquimula;
Pedro Antonio Martínez of Guatemala, Guarda Mayor, Rentas de Alcavalas y Tabacos, 1800; Thomas Martínez of Gualan; 
Pedro Martín de Zelaya of Comayagua; 
Juan de Marulanda of Chiquimula, apparently died intestate, alcavala payment in 1781, los Almonedas de los rematados; 
Diego Masariegos of Quequesque; 
Jucon de Mata of Zacapa; 
Phelipe/Felipe Mayorga, vecino of Chiquimula dela Sierra, Guatemala, served as Alcavalas Reseptor Principal in 1781 and 1782, prepared cargo lists in 1782;
Manuel Antonio Mayorgas
of Acasaguastran; Pasqual Maziv of Nicaragua, Comayagua; Antonio Benito Medrano of Nicaragua, Comayagua; 
Estében Melgar of Tocoi; 
Josef Diego Melgar of Tocoi; 
Francisco Melo of Cilca, Comayagua; 
Manuel Mendes of Mita; 
Ysidro Mendez of Mita;
Juan Antonio Mendoza of Comayagua; 
Rafael Antonio Mendoza of Nicaragua, Comayagua;
Marcelo Menendez of Mita, signing official for alcavalas, 1782; 
Benancio Mexia of Ycpala; 
Jacovo Mexia of Gualaco, Comayagua;
Josef Mexia of Gualaco, Comayagua; 
Josef Estéban Mexia of Comayagua; 
Juan Marcos Mexia of Olanchico, Comayagua; 
Manuel Mexia of Sansaria; 
Antonio Midence of Comayagua, cargo contract with Joaquín Ximénez of Potrero for novillos in 1782, relación jurada for San Josef del Potrero, Comayagua in 1782;
Joseph Miguel of Gualan; 
Josef Antonio Miralda of Silca, Comayagua;
Martín Miranda of Chiquimula; 
Pablo Miranda of Chiquimula; 
Juan Antonio Molina y Bran of Chiquimula; 
Basilio Monrroy of Chiquimula; Mariano
Monroy of Chiquimula; 
Pedro Josef Monrroy of Ycpala; 
Sebastién Monroy of Chiquimula; 
Juan Montecino of Jocotan; 
Mauricio Montero/Monteros of Chiquimula; Antonio Morales of Acasaguastran; 
Diego Morales of Tocoi;
Francisco Morales of Acasaguastran; 
Gregorio Morales of Tocoi; 
Josef Morales of Tocoil; 
Josef Nicolás Morales of Sansaria; 
Josef Trinadad Morales of Sansaria; 
Juan Morales of Acasaguastran; 
Lucas Morales
of Acasaguastran;
Manuel Morales of Gualan; 
Manuel Antonio Morales of Sansaria; 
Mariano Morales of San Agustín; 
Mauricio Morales of Chiquimula; 
Balentin Moran of Pinula; 
Clemente Moran of Jalapan;
Francisco Morga of San Agustín, signing official for alcavalas, 1782;
Josef’e Morga/Mozga of San Agustín (this may be a widow); 
Pedro Morales
of Nicaragua, Comayagua; 
Antonio Morillo of Silca Comayagua; 
Juan Josef Motiño of Juticalpa, Comayagua; Marcos Motiño of Juticalpa, Comayagua;
Mateo Murcia of Acasaguastran;
Mariano Navas of Mita; 
Josef Naxera of Chiquimula; 
Romualda Nufio of
Jocotan (this may be a widow);
Pedro Obando of Quequesque; 
Raphael Ochoa of Jocotan; 
Juan Oliva of San Agustín; 
Juan Antonio Ordoñes of Acasaguastran and Chiquimula; 
Manuel Orego of Chiquimula; 
Isidro Orellana of San Agustín; 
Miguel Oreyane/Ozeyana of Chiquimula; 
Faustino Orrego of Chiquimula;

Jphe/Josephine Orrego of Chiquimula; a widow 
Manuel Orrego of Chiquimula; 
Juan Ortega of Tocoi; 
Antonio Ortis of Zedros, Comayagua;
Matías Ortis of Acasaguastran; 
Nicolás Ortis of Jalapan; Rumualdo Ortis
of San Juan, Comayagua; 
Vizente Oseguera Mexia of Comayagua; 
Josef Osorio of Chiquimula;
Ferman Pacheco of San Agustín; 
Patricio Pacheco of Puerto San Fernando
de Omoa, Comayagua; 
Miguel Padilla of Gualaco, Comayagua; 
Manuel Paens of Quequesque; 
Cilverio Pais of Acasaguastran; 
*Capt. Francisco Pais of Acasaguastran; 
Juan Carlos de Paiz of Acasaguastran, Receptor of Alcavalas in 1782; 
*Lt Juan Manuel Pais of Acasaguastran; 
Lorenzo Pais of Acasaguastran; 
Manuel Estévan de Pais of Acasaguastran; Marzelo Pays/Pais of Acasaguastran; 
Miguel Pais y Oliva of Acasaguastran; 
Pedro Pais of Acasaguastran; 
Antonio Palacios of Chiquimula, signing official
for Valle de Quequesque y Tempisque, Mataterainte, in 1782; 
Pablo Palle of Jocotan; 
Anastacio Palma of Quequesque; 
Juan Palma of San Agustín;
Juan Josef Palma of Quequesque; 
Mateo Palma of Chiquimula; 
Josef Palomo, Mayordomo at Jalapan; 
Pedro Pantaleon of Acasaguastran; 
Ubalde de Pasos of Nicaragua, Comayagua; 
Juan Pays of Zacapa; 
Antonio Juan de Paz of Chiquimula;
 Ildefonso de Paz of Zacapa; 
Alexandro Peña, vecino de la Benta &  Jocotan; 
Tomás de la Peña of Chiquimula; 
Bernardo de Perdomo, Ministro (of the government); 
Juan Perdomo of Tocoi; 
Felisiano Peres of Tocoi; 
Lorenzo Péres of Jocotan; 
Antonio Pesquera of Chiquimula; 
Juan Pineda of Chiquimula;
Juan Domingo Pineda of Comayagua; 
Luís de Pineda of Jalapan; 
??? Pioquinto of Zacapa; 
Felipe Pinto of Chiquimula; 
Joseph Pinto/Pintto of Gualan;
Manuel Pinto of Chiquimula; 
Manuel Antonio Pinto of Chiquimula; 
Ramón Pinto/Pintto of Jocotan; 
Pedro Pinula y Mallo of Pinula; 
Miguel Platero of Zacapa; 
Rafael Pontasa of Jalapan; 
Carlos Portela of Jocotan; 
Antonio Portillo of Chiquimula; 
Juan Portillo of Zacapa and Chiquimula; 
Juan Estéban Portillo of San Agustín; 
Juan Josef Portillo of Chiquimula;
Mathías Portillo of Acasaguastran; 
Pedro Portillo of Zacapa; 
Joseph Portio of Acasaguastran; 
Rofas Possadas of San Agustín;
Josef de Prada of Zacapa and Chiquimula;
Ber’l Quintania of Olancho, Comayagua;
Rafael Raban’l of Quesaltepeque, relación jurada; 
Joseph Rada of Chiquimula; 
Josef’e Rafael (possibly widow) of San Agustin; 
Juan Ramires of Mita; 
Juan Antonio Ramirez of Olancho, Comayagua; 
Lucas Ramires of Mita; 
??? Regalado of Mita; 
Francisco Remigio of Jalapan;
Juan Rexon of Gualan;
Baltazar Reyes of Chiquimula; 
Josef’e Reyes of San Agustín;
Josef Manuel Reyes of Chiquimula; 
Manuel Reyes of Chiquimula; 
Pablo Reyes of San Agustín; 
Josef Rios of Quequesque; 
Enrique Rivera of Nacaome, Comayagua; 
Juan Rodriges of Tocoi; 
Manuel Rodriques of Chiquimula; 
Pablo Rodríguez of Juticalpa, Comayagua; 
Cristóbal Rojas of Tocoi; 
Juan Rojas of Tocoi; 
Juan Roman of Mita; 
Ignacio Romero of San Agustín; 
Juan Romero of Silca, Comayagua; 
Lucas Romero of San Salvador, San Miguel, Comayagua; 
Gregorio de la Rosa of Comayagua; 
Bernardo Roxas of San Josef de Topale, Comayagua; 
Enrriquez Roxas of Leon, Comayagua;
Francisco Roxas of Sansaria; 
Diego Ruano of Jalapan; 
Francisco Ruano of Acasaguastran; 
Eldifonzo Ruis of Acasaguastran; 
Eustacio Ruíz of Chiquimula; 
Joseph Ruís of Acasaguastran; 
Josef Ruíz of Juticalpa, Comayagua;
Andrés Saavedra of Antigua Guatemala prepared a list of pueblos in Oct 1806 and found 48 at that time; 
Marcos Saabedra of Zacapa and Chiquimula; 
Josef Antonio Sagastime of Chiquimula; 
Domingo Sagastume of Quequesque; 
Francisco Sagastume of Acasaguastran; 
Matías Sagastume of Chiquimula; 
Rafael Sagastume of Quequesque; 
Santiago Sagastume of Chiquimula; 
Josef’e de Salama (probable widow) of San Agustín; 
Thomas Salas of Nicaragua, Comayagua; Martín Salbatierra of San Agustin;
Mauricio Salbatierra of San Agustín; 
Joseph Salgero of Acasaguastran;
Carlos Salguero of Mita; 
Felis Salguero of Acasaguastran; 
Josef Salguero of Zacapa; 
Juan Salguero of Zacapa and Acasaguastran; Manuel Salguero of Zacapa and Chiquimula; Pedro Salguero of Zacapa; 
Francisco Sanabria of Quequesque y Tempisque, Mataterainte; 
Bernardo Sánchez of San Agustín;
Gaspar Sánchez of San Agustín; 
Jossef’e Sánchez (probable widow) of San
Juan Pablo Sánchez of Chiquimula, public scribe who made alcavala document involving slave María dela Natividad
Manuel Sánchez of San Agustín; 
Matheo Sánchez of San Agustín; 
Francisco Antonio Sanchinel/Sanchinello of Chiquimula; 
Cayetano Sandobal of Jalapan pueblo, signing official for alcavalas in 1782; 
Cecilio Sandoval of Pinula; 
Faustino Sandobal of Chiquimula; 
Gregorio Sandoval of Pinula, signing official for alcavalas in 1782; 
Antonio de Santa Cruz of Comayagua, countersigning official for alcavalas in 1782; Juan Santaneco of Jalapan; 
Clemente Savala of Valle de Tapale, Comayagua; 
Santiago Savino of Jalapan; 
Tomás Savino of Sansaria; 
Agustín Serna of Gualan;
Manuel Serna of Chiquimula; 
Pedro Serzano of Chiquimula; 
*Fray ??? Severino of Chiquimula; 
Miguel Solorzano of Leon, Comayagua; 
Josef Somosa of Zacapa; 
Andrés Sosa/Zoza of Acasaguastran; 
Felis Sosa of Acasaguastran; 
Eugenio Soto of Chiquimula;
Martín Tabuada of Nicaragua, Comayagua, shipper of cargo carried by Padre Bartolomé Guzman;
Joseph’e Tapia (probable widow)of San Agustín;
Antonio Tercero of Corpus, Comayagua;
Juan Thorres of Chiquimula; 
Tomís Torre of Managua, Comayagua; 
Manuel Tobel/Jovel of Chiquimula; 
Pedro Tovel/Jovel of Jocotan; 
Balentin Indio Tratante of San Agustín;
Francisco Indio Tratante of San Agustín; 
Andrés Travino/Travinis of Chiquimula;
Muz’s de Ulloa of Comayagua; 
Juan Antonio Urbina of Yoro, Comayagua;
Manuel Ursina of Silca, Comayagua; 
Antonio Useda of Chiquimula; 
Juan Useno/Vseno of San Agustín;
Juan Joseph Valdez of Chiquimula; 
Alexandro Varillas of Acasaguastran;
Christóval Varillas of Acasaguastran; 
Gregorio Varillas of Acasaguastran; 
Manuel Varillas of Acasaguastran; 
Marcello Varillas of Acasaguastran;
Balerio Vasques of Pueblo Santa Isabel, age 71 in 1816, widower of Casilda Hernández, and three daughters; 
Francisco Vasquez of San Agustín;
Manuel Vasquez of San Agustín; 
Pasqual Vasquez of San Agustín; 
Juan Velarde of San Agustín; 
Andrés Velasquez of Olancho, Comayagua; 
Ignacio Velasquez of San Agustín; 
Antonio Vidal of Quesaltepeque, Reseptor de Alcavalas, 1781; 
Antonio Vidal of Chiquimula;
Eugenio Vidal of Quesaltepeque, mentioned in certificate of alcavalas;
Matías Villafranca of Juticalpa, Comayagua; Francisco Villela of Acasaguastran; 
Josef Vinar of Chiquimula; Josef Vivas of Chiquimula; 
Manuel Vivas of Chiquimula; Francisco Viviano of Jalapan; 
Manuel Vizente of Chiquimula;
Cayetano Ximénez Bejarano of Comayagua; Francisco Ximénes of Jocotan;
Joaquín Ximémez of Cuscateca, Comayagua, relación jurada and he had contracts with Juan Ignacio Arraurrenechea; 
Pablo Ximénes of San Agustín; 
Juan Xiron of Chiquimula;
Joph’e Yaguin (probable widow) of Jocotan; Graviel Ydalgo of Jalapan;
Manuel Ydalgo of Jalapan; 
Miguel Ydalgo of Jalapan; 
Juan Antonio Ysasi of Comayagua, cargo relación jurada in 1782;
Francisco Zales of Pinula; 
Juan Zapata of Pinula; 
Josef de Zelaya of Zuyapa, Comayagua, relacion jurada for frutos y esquilmos in 1782; 
Josef Antonio Zelaya of Comayagua, shipper of goods carried by Pedro Martir de Zelaya, in 1781; 
Pedro Martir de Zelaya of Choluteca,  Comayagua, and relación jurada, 1782 for mulas;  
Andréz Zepeda of Guadaquibir,Comayagua, relación jurada in 1782 for frutas y esquilmos;
Bernave Zepeda of Juticalpa, Comayagua; Miguel Zolorzano of Nicaragua, Comayagua; Manuel Zoza of Chiquimula; 
Joaquín Zoto of Yoro, Comayagua;
And group payments of Los Justicias de Jilote, alcavala payment in 1781 at Ycpala, en ?dho? Pueblos cobraron de alcavala; Los Justicias of Jpala, alcavala payment in 1781 at Ycpala, en ?dho? Pueblos cobraron de alcavala; Los Justicias de Ycpala, alcavala payment in 1781 at Ycpala,
por lo q’e recaudaron; Pueblo de Santa María Magdalena, alcavala payment at San Agustín in 1781, dieron los Justicias; Pueblo de Santa María  Magdalena (visita de este Curato), alcavala payment at San Agustín in 1781, justzo’s de dbo. Pueblo; and Las tropas, relación jurada, 4
pueblos, Comayagua, 1781, carniceria.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Family Lineage 
US Standard railroad gauge
Making of America
SAR Revolutionary War Graves Register 2000
Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Family Lineage 
In the January 2002 issue of Somos Primos we carried an article with the question: Did Franklin Delano Roosevelt have Early California Hispanic Roots?  The article was an abstract of an article  in the Los Angeles Times, 3-12-01 written by Cecilia Rasmussen, "A Love that Even the Governor Couldn't Crush." Mr. Wayne King, in attempting to answer the question, contacted the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library in New York. In a letter dated March 25, 2002,  Mr. Raymond Teichman, Supervisory Archivist sent the following information:

This is in response to your letter of March 18 concerning the relationship between Franklin D. Roosevelt and Henry Delano Fitch.  

Franklin D. Roosevelt was not the great-great grandson of Maria Antonia Natalia Elija Carrillo.  FDR and Henry Fitch were second cousins twice removed, both descended from Thomas Delano (1704-1727) as follows: 

Thomas Delano

Capt. Ephraim Delano


Capt. Thomas Delano

Capt. Warren Delano First Cousins Sally Delano
Warren Delano Second Cousins Henry Delano Fitch
Sara Delano Roosevelt Second Cousins once removed
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Second Cousins twice removed

Editor's note: This was all the information given.  

US Standard railroad gauge
Author Unknown or Lost in Cyberspace
The US Standard railroad gauge (distance between the rails) is 4 feet, 8.5 inches. That's an exceedingly odd number. Why was that gauge used? Because that's the way they built them in England, and the US railroads were built by English expatriates. Why did the English people build them like that? Because the first rail lines were built by the same people who built the pre-railroad tramways, and that's the gauge they used. Why did "they" use that gauge then? Because the people who built the tramways used the same jigs and tools that they used for building wagons, which used that wheel spacing. Why did the wagons use that odd wheel spacing? Well, if they tried to use
any other spacing the wagons would break on some of the old, long distance roads, because that's the spacing of the old wheel ruts. So who built these old rutted roads? The first long distance roads in Europe were built by Imperial Rome for the benefit of their legions. The roads have been used ever since.

And the ruts? The initial ruts, which everyone else had to match for fear of destroying their wagons, were first made by Roman war chariots. Since the chariots were made for or by Imperial Rome they were all alike in the matter of wheel spacing. Thus, we have the answer to the original question. The United States standard railroad gauge of 4 feet, 8.5 inches derives from the original specification for an Imperial Roman army war chariot. Specs and Bureaucracies live forever. So, the next time you are handed a specification and wonder what horse's ass came up with it, you may be exactly right. Because the Imperial Roman chariots were made to be just wide enough to accommodate the back ends of two war horses.

Now the twist to the story....
There's an interesting extension of the story about railroad gauge and horses' behinds. When we see a Space Shuttle sitting on the launch pad, there are two big booster rockets attached to the sides of the main fuel tank. These are the solid rocket boosters, or SRBs. The SRBs are made by Thiokol at a factory in Utah. The engineers who designed the SRBs might have preferred to make them a bit fatter, but the SRBs had to be shipped by train from the factory to the launch site.

The railroad line to the factory runs through a tunnel in the mountains. The SRBs had fit through that tunnel. The tunnel is slightly wider than a railroad track, and the railroad track is about as wide as two horses' behinds. So a major design feature of what is arguably the world's most
advanced transportation system was determined by the width of a horse's ass!

Sent by Ruthelyn Plummer  
Making of America (MOA) is a digital library of primary sources in American social history from the antebellum period through reconstruction.
Sent by Johanna de Soto

SAR Revolutionary War Graves Register 2000
By Steve Paul Johnson, August 6, 2000
The SAR Revolutionary War Graves Register 2000 is a database containing burial records of those who participated in the American Revolution.  Nearly 140,000 records in all of soldiers, sailors, civilians, and in some cases their spouses, is provided on a single CD-ROM.  The information was compiled by the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR) and licensed for distribution to Progeny Software.  Sent by Johanna de Soto

Preserve Your Paper Records
Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection
Online Maps of Special Interest
Genealogical Search Site
Preserve Your Paper Records
There is now a spray called "Archival Mist" made by Collage which can be sprayed on paper to make it acid-free.  It will not affect the ink, colors or adhesives and even works on newspaper clippings and scrapbooks.  It has been  proven by libraries and archives to prolong paper at least five times it normal life.  You can get further information by call 1-800-926-5524
Polk G.S. Newsletter via Sequoia Genealogical Society, Inc., Newsletter, Volume 29, # 2, April 02
Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin
Sent by Johanna de Soto

Online Maps of Special Interest  

Online Maps of General Interest

PCL Map Collection: Guide to the PCL Map Collection (Printed M
PCL Electronic Map Collection: Electronic Map Collection - Frequently Asked Questions
Sent by Johanna de Soto

Genealogical Search Site
Search several sites at one time, depending on the sites you have selected. 
Read the notation at the bottom of the web site first.
Art Garza, HOGAR de Dallas, P. O. Box 497891, Dallas, Texas 75049-7891
Sent by George Gause

                       12/30/2009 04:48 PM