of Don Gutierre Vasquez de la Cueva
and Dona Francisca de Carvajal
Compiled by John D. Inclan
was born in Tierra de Sayago, Portugal. He married FRANCISCA
She was born in Tierra de Sayago, Portugal.
Children of GUTIERRE
i. GASPAR2 DE CARVAJAL, b. Tierra de Sayago, Portugal; d. 1550, Benavente,
ii. JUAN DE CARVAJAL.
iii. MELCHOR VASQUEZ, d. Mirandaela, Portugal.
3. iv. ISABEL NUNEZ-Y-CARVAJAL.
4. v. LEONOR DE CARVAJAL, b. Medina del Campo, Spain.
was born in Tierra de Sayago, Portugal, and died 1550 in Benavente, Spain. He
in Carvajales de Alba, Portugal, daughter of ANTONIO
She was born in Mogadouro, Portugal, and died 1550 in Benavente, Spain.
Children of GASPAR
DOMINGO3 DE CARVAJAL, b. Carvajales de Alba, Portugal; d. Abt. 1563, Medina
del Campo, Spain.
5. ii. CONQUISTADOR ANTONIO DE CARVAJAL, b. Carvajales de Alba, Portugal; d.
6. iii. CAPTAIN LUIS CARVAJAL-Y-DE-LA-CUEVA, b. 1539, Mogadouro,
Traz-os-Montes province, Portugal; d. 1591, In prison, Mexico City, F.D.,
7. iv. FRANCISCA NUNEZ-DE-CARVAJAL-Y-DE-LA-CUEVA, b. 1540, Benavente, Spain;
d. 08 Dec 1596, Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico).
She married ENRIQUE
Child of ISABEL
LUIS3 PIMENTEL, d. Killed by indians in Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
was born in Medina del Campo, Spain. She married FERNAN
in Benavente, Spain. He was born in Medina del Campo, Spain.
Children of LEONOR
i. CATALINA3 LOPEZ, b. Medina del Campo, Spain.
9. ii. LEONOR RODRIGUEZ, d. Burdeos, Portugal.
was born in Carvajales de Alba, Portugal, and died in Chontalpa, Guatemala. He
married (1) MARIA-CATALINA
in Mexico City, D.F., Mexico, daughter of ANDRES
She was born in Mexico City, F.D., Mexico. He married (2) CATALINA
daughter of BERNALDINO
Notes for MARIA-CATALINA
A.K.A. Catalina de Tapia. Source:Who's Who of the Conquistadors by Hugh
Marriage Notes for ANTONIO
Conquistador of New Spain. Source:From the book, Fundadores de Nueva Galicia,
Guadalajara Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 49.
Child of ANTONIO
CATALINA4 DE TAPIA-CARVAJAL, b. Mexico City, F.D., Mexico; m. GONZALO
Marriage Notes for CATALINA DE TAPIA-CARVAJAL and GONZALO GOMEZ-DE-CERVANTES:
Marriage source:From the book, Fundadores de Nueva Galicia - Guadalajara -
Tomo I, by Guillermo Garmendia Leal. Page 49.
was born 1539 in Mogadouro, Traz-os-Montes province, Portugal, and died 1591
in In prison, Mexico City, F.D., Mexico. He married GUIOMAR NUNEZ-DE-RIVERA
1564 in Seville, Spain, daughter of MIGUEL
She was born in Lisbon, Portugal, and died 1582 in Seville, Spain.
Notes for CAPTAIN
Conquistador. Between 1582 and 1584, he served as Governor of Nuevo Leon. His
desire for power was his down fall.
Source:From the book's,
The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen
Gallant Outcasts - Texas Turmoil 1519-1734 by Ben Cuellar Ximenes.
Northern New Spain, A Research Guide by Thomas C. Barnes, Thomas H. Naylor,
and Charles W. Polzer.
Notes for GUIOMAR
A.K.A. Dona Guiomas de Rivera.
Children of LUIS
FRANCISCA4 CARVAJAL-DE-LA-CUEVA-Y-RIVERA, b. Carvajales de Alba, Portugal.
ii. ANDRES NUNEZ, b. 1558, Mogadouro, Portugal.
was born 1540 in Benavente, Spain, and died 08 Dec 1596 in Mexico City, D. F.,
New Spain (Mexico). She married FRANCISCO
1549 in Mogodouro, Portugal. He was born in Balderas, Spain, and died Dec 1584
in Mexico City, D.F., New Spain (Mexico).
Notes for FRANCISCA
MEXICO CITY - SUNDAY DECEMBER 8, 1596
By Richard G. Santos
A carnival air has overtaken Mexico's Tenochtitlan, (Mexico City) capital of
the Vice Regency of New Spain. It started Friday night as some Native
Americans of Aztec descent began to set up concession stands. The vendors
could be seen throughout the Plaza Mayor known as El Zocalo in front of the
National Palace and Cathedral. A private Auto de Fe was held within the
Cathedral yesterday during High Mass. It is customary for government
officials, wealthy people with political connections and members of the church
to be penanced in private away from public view. This usually includes
sexually active priests and nuns, pedophiles, secretly married priests and
other members of the Church. As a rule, punishment for members of the Church
is to be transferred from the churches or convents where they have committed
their offenses. They are also sentenced to recite a certain number of prayers
The main event of this Auto de Fe by the Tribunal of the Holy Office of the
Inquisition occurred today, December 8, Second Sunday of Advent. Six men were
punished for minor offenses such as being habitual liars and blasphemers. Two
of them were punished for having said that sex between consenting adults was
not a sin or crime. Their tongues were ripped from their mouths to the cheers
of the Native Americans witnessing Europeans being punished. The Aztecs who
rightfully have many grudges against the Spaniards, also cheered when some of
the men were castrated. The cheers drowned the screams and cries of pain.
Seven women were found guilty of practicing witchcraft. Two men and one woman
were found guilty of bigamy. They were stripped to the waist and given 200
lashes each. Jeronimo Rodriguez (age 50) and Francisco Rodriguez (age 21) were
found guilty of not reporting their relatives to the Inquisition for being
Crypto Jews who practice their religion in secret. Both have been sentenced to
serve on the Manila Galleons as unpaid oarsmen. Treated as slaves, poorly fed
and constantly whipped, the life expectancy of oarsmen is seven years. Ana
Baez, 28 year old wife of Jorge Alvarez was accused of being a Crypto Jewess.
She was physically tortured but never admitted or confessed anything against
herself or anyone else. Her personal property and that of her family was
confiscated by the Inquisition which is not convinced of her innocence.
Twenty-five men and women were accused, tried, tortured and found guilty of
being Crypto Jews. They have converted to Catholicism and accepted baptism.
Their property, businesses and estates have been confiscated. They have been
sentenced to life in prison and must wear a sanbenito which is a sleeveless
poncho-like yellow garment with a large red cross on the chest. They will live
at the jail of the Inquisition but during the day will join the many beggars
wearing sanbentios seen throughout the city. The bones of two Crypto Jews who
had passed away were placed in boxes and carried under straw filled effigies
to be burned at the end of the day. Eight Crypto Jews managed to escape so
they will also be burned in effigy. Among the escapees are Miguel Rodriguez de
Matos, also known as Miguel de Carvajal and his brother Baltazar Rodriguez de
Matos, aka de Carvajal. They are nephews of conquistador Luis de Carvajal y de
la Cueva, the founder of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon. It has been reported they
are now living in Rome where they are protected by the Vatican and have
changed their last name to Lumbroso or Lumbrano in honor of their brother Luis
Rodriguez de Matos, aka Luis de Carvajal, aka Iosef Lumbroso (the
Burned at the stake were Crypto Jews Manuel Diaz (36 years of age from Fondon,
Portugal), Portuguese born Beatriz Enriquez de la Paiva, said to be "over
50 years of age" and the widow of Simon Rodriguez de Paiva who had died
in Nuevo Leon, their son 22 year old son Diego Enriquez de Paiva and 35 year
old Manuel de Lucena born in Guarda, Portugal. These men and women were given
the option of a last minute conversion to Catholicism. Those who chose to
become Catholic were strangled with a wire before being set afire. Not all
were dead when the flames were ignited.
Last to be burned at the stake, and the main attraction at this Auto de Fe,
was the Rodriguez de Matos - Carvajal y de la Cueva family. The head of the
family is Francisca Nunez de Carvajal y de la Cueva, widow of Francisco
Rodriguez de Matos. She is the sister of Nuevo Leon founder-conquistador Luis
de Carvajal y de la Cueva. Her children to be burned are Leonor, wife of
fugitive Jorge de Almeida (Nunez-Rodriguez de Rivera-Castellanos-Fonseca-Hernandez),
Isabel (widow of Gabriel de Herrera), Catalina (wife of fugitive Antonio Diaz
de Casarez) and Luis Rodriguez de Matos, also known as Luis de Carvajal el
mozo (the younger). Because he claims to have experienced apparitions by God
while in jail, as well as before, during and after torture, Luis has changed
his name to Iosef Lumbroso (the enlightened). One of the Inquisitors stated he
had never met such a learned religious person and that if Luis had lived in
the days of the Old Testament he would have surely been one of the Prophets in
the Bible. As reported above, sons Miguel and Baltazar managed to escape
arrest and are appearing in effigy. Meanwhile, 16 year old Anica and 22 year
old Mariana, who suffered a nervous breakdown and has been declared mentally
unstable, will be present to witness the burning of their mother, brother and
sisters. Mariana keeps repeating an interesting question. That is, "Which
is better? To believe and say you do not believe, or not to believe and say
The Native Americans and some mestizos started lining the parade route
overnight. The desfile de la verguenza (parade of shame) started at the Palace
of the Inquisition some four blocks from El Zocalo. All prisoners had their
hands tied in front of them. Tied securely to their hands were a large green
candle, a rosary and a prayer book. All prisoners, men and women alike, were
stripped to the waist and lashed as they marched toward El Zocalo. Those
prisoners whose legs had been broken or dislocated under torture and could not
walk, rode burros. They were also topless and being lashed. The women tried
their best to cover their nudity but to no avail.
Two large stages were constructed at the main square where the Aztec Templo
Mayor used to stand and now features the Cathedral and National Palace. The
largest and most decorative stage was for the Inquisitors and dignitaries.
Among the latter was the Bishop of Manila who read the sermon. The personal
representatives of the Viceroy and Audiencia de Mexico (the Mexico City based
Supreme Court) also attended. The Inquisitors have complained to the King that
the highest ranking government officials have been boycotting the Autos de Fe
and have not fully cooperated with the Inquisition.
The second stage was in the shape of a half circular pyramid. The people to be
punished for lesser sins and crimes occupied the base. Those to be burned
alive were at the top of the half moon pyramid. Minor stages serving as
punishing areas were placed throughout El Zocalo as prisoners were lashed,
tongues ripped, eyes gouged, hands severed and men castrated depending on
their crime and punishment. There was also a section for family members not
being punished but forced to observe the punishment of their relatives. They
were brought to witness the event and learn what can happen to sinners,
criminals, non-Catholic Christians and Jews.
The nine Crypto Jews, all members of the Rodriguez de Matos - Carvajal y de la
Cueva family, were taken to the Plaza de San Hipolito towards late afternoon.
As one final insult, or perhaps to encourage a last minute conversion, all men
and women about to be burned were stripped to a loin cloth as they were tied
to the post, surrounded with lumber and covered with oil. They were given one
last chance to accept baptism and die as "good Catholics". That
meant being strangled with a wire instead of being burned alive. It did not
matter what they chose because Grand Inquisitor Alonso de Peralta had already
ordered the soldiers and priests to make sure they were all strangled. He did
not want any Jew, and especially this family, to die as martyrs to their
Faith. He also did not want the Native Americans or any other person to admire
their devotion and commitment to the Law of Moses. Therefore, the women were
strangled then set on fire. Luis the younger, or Iosef the Enlightened as he
chose to call himself, refused all pretenses and was burned alive. Peralta
issued a statement saying he had converted but those present know better.
Their ashes were collected and scattered in the wilderness surrounding Mexico
City "so that no trace or memory would remain of the family and their
Faith". Only time will tell how history will deal with Don Luis de
Carvajal y de la Cueva, founder of Nuevo Leon, his sister Francisca, her
children and especially Luis de Carvajal el mozo (he younger), aka Iosef
"The Enlightened". There has been talk of dispersing the colonists
brought from Spain and Portugal in 1580 for the founding of the Nuevo Reyno de
Leon. Time will tell.
Mariana Rodriguez de Matos, aka Mariana Nunez de Carvajal y de la Cueva, was
burned at the stake on March 25, 1601. She had become a sincere and devout
Catholic so it was recorded "she died well". Anica Rodriguez de
Matos, aka Anica de Leon Carvajal y de la Cueva, was burned at the stake at 69
years of age on April 25, 1649. She was considered a "Jewish sainte"
by those who knew her. One of Anica's great grandsons was denied permission to
enter a seminary to become a priest due to his Jewish ancestors and especially
Anica. Dominican Fray Gaspar Rodriguez de Matos, aka de Carvajal brother of
Anica had been penanced in 1590 and lived the rest of his life as a cloistered
low ranking Dominican Friar. The in-laws of the Rodriguez de Matos - Carvajal
y de la Cueva family survived. None of the descendants thereafter and today
carry Carvajal or Carvajal y de la Cueva as their last name. The flames of
ignorance and intolerance killed the name at the stake. The 1580 Nuevo Reyno
de Leon in time gave birth to Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Tamaulipas and colonial
(Ramo de la Inquisicion, Archivo General de la Nacion de Mexico; Mexico City)
This (or a slightly abridged version) will be my December 8, 2004 column in
the Zavala County Sentinel
Children of FRANCISCA
DOMINICAN FRAY GASPAR4 DE CARVAJAL, b. 1556, Benavente, Spain; d. Abt. 1600,
Oaxaca, New Spain (Mexico).
Notes for DOMINICAN FRAY GASPAR DE CARVAJAL:
A Dominican priest, serving in Mexico City. Source: The Martyr by Martin A.
ii. ISABEL RODRIGUEZ-DE-ANDRADA, b. 1560, Benavente, Spain; d. 08 Dec 1596,
Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico); m. GABRIEL DE HERRERA1, 1578,
Astorga, Spain; d. 1578.
Notes for ISABEL RODRIGUEZ-DE-ANDRADA:
Om March 13th, 1589, in the City of Mexico (Mexico City), she was arrested by
Source: The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen.
Notes for GABRIEL DE HERRERA:
A merchant, he had studied for the priesthood at the University of Salamanca.
iii. BALTASAR RODRIGUEZ, b. 1563, Benavente, Spain; d. Pisa, Italy; m. ANA.
Notes for BALTASAR RODRIGUEZ:
He used the alias name of Francisco Ramirez.
iv. CAPTAIN LUIS DE CARVAJAL, THE YOUNGER, b. 1566, Benavente, Spain; d. 08
Dec 1596, Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico); m. JUSTA MENDEZ-ENRIQUEZ; b.
Abt. 1572, Seville, Spain.
Notes for CAPTAIN LUIS DE CARVAJAL, THE YOUNGER:
A.K.A. Luis Rodriguez de Matos, Luis Rodriguez Cavajal, and Josef Lumbroso.
He meet Justa Mendez, but never married her.
v. CATALINA DE LEON-Y-LA-CUEVA, b. Abt. 1567, Benavente, Spain; d. Aft. 1594,
New Spain (Mexico); m. ANTONIO DIAZ-DE-CACERES1, Mar 1585/86, Panuco,
Vera Cruz, New Spain (Mexico)1; b. Abt. 1541, Santa Comba Dao,
Portugal; d. Aft. 1593, New Spain (Mexico).
Notes for ANTONIO DIAZ-DE-CACERES:
In Lisbon, he served as a page for the Count of Vimioso.
Source: The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen.
vi. LEONOR DE CARVAJAL-Y-ANDRADA, b. 1568, Benavente, Spain; d. 08 Dec 1596,
Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico); m. JORGE DE ALMEIDA, Mar 1585/86,
Panuco, Vera Cruz, New Spain (Mexico)1; b. 1555, Bisseo, Portugal; d.
vii. MARIANA NUNEZ-DE-CARVAJAL, b. 1572, Benavente, Spain; d. 25 Mar 1601,
Mexico City, D. F., New Spain (Mexico); m. (1) JORGE DE LEON; m. (2) HECTOR DE
FONSECA; d. New Spain (Mexico).
Notes for MARIANA NUNEZ-DE-CARVAJAL:
At 14 years of age, she was engaged to her mother's cousin, Jorge de Leon.
The marriage was destine not to take place.
Her 2nd engagemet was to Hector de Fonseca.
Source: The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen.
viii. MIGUEL DE CARVAJAL, b. 1577, Medina del Campo, Spain; d. Pisa, Italy.
Notes for MIGUEL DE CARVAJAL:
He used the alias name of Diego Jimenez.
ix. ANICA DE CARVAJAL, b. 1579, Medina del Campo, Spain; d. 25 Apr 1649,
Mexico City, D.F., New Spain (Mexico); m. CRISTOBAL MIGUEL, Abt. 16011.
Notes for ANICA DE CARVAJAL:
She is known as Dona Ana de Leon. She died of breast cancer.
was born in Medina del Campo, Spain. She married FULANO
in Benavente, Spain.
Children of CATALINA
LUIS4 LOPEZ, d. Benavente, Spain.
ii. MARIA DE LEON-Y-LOPEZ, m. FERNAN LOPEZ, Benavente, Spain.
died in Burdeos, Portugal. She married NAME
He died 1596.
Child of LEONOR
The Martyr by Martin A. Cohen.
12/30/2009 04:49 PM